Science.gov

Sample records for animals altered organisms

  1. Transgenic plants and animals: Altered organisms from recombinant DNA technology. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the development and use of transgenic plants and animals. Transgenic plants and animals are organisms with foreign genes inserted into their cells. Topics include methods of induction of new genes and transgenetic expression in the organism, development of animal models of human diseases, and design of insect tolerant plants. Examples of transgenic organisms include mice, fish, chickens, pigs, rye, maize, tobacco, tomatoes, lettuce, and cotton. This information is of value for the increased production of food from animals by producing animal carcasses with reduced fat content. The information is also valuable for production of herbicide tolerant, virus resistant, and insect resistant crop plants, as well as the rapid production of transgenic plants with flowers and seeds. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Transgenic plants and animals: Altered organisms from recombinant DNA technology. July 1982-July 1989 (Citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for July 1982-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the development and use of transgenic plants and animals. Topics include methods of induction of new genes and transgenetic expression in the organism, development of animal models of human diseases, and design of insect tolerant plants. Examples of transgenic organisms include mice, fish, chicken, pigs, rye, maize, tobacco, tomatoes, lettuce, and cotton. This information is of value for the increased production of food from animals by producing animal carcasses with reduced fat content. The information is also valuable for production of herbicide tolerant, virus resistant, and insect resistant crop plants, as well as the rapid production of transgenic plants with flowers and seeds. (Contains 383 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  3. Effect of altered 'weight' upon animal tolerance to restraint.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.; Beljan, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    The effect of altered weight upon animal tolerance to restraint was determined by simulating various accelerative forces with directed lead weights using restrained and nonrestrained domestic fowl (chickens). Weighting (increased weight) and conterweighting (reduced weight) produced a stressed condition - reduced relative lymphocyte counts, loss of body mass, and/or the development of a disorientation syndrome - in both restrained and nonrestrained (caged only) birds. The animal's tolerance to altered weight appeared to be a function of its body weight. Unrestrained birds were stressed by counterweighting (mean plus or minus standard error) 58.3 plus or minus 41% of their body weight, whereas restrained birds tolerated only 32.2 plus or minus 2.6% reduction in body weight. A training regimen for restrained birds was not effective in improving their tolerance to a reduced weight environment. It was concluded that domestic fowl living in a weightless (space) environment should be restrained minimally and supported by ventrally directed tension equivalent to approximately 50% of their body mass (their weight in a 1 G environment).

  4. Alienation, recovered animism and altered states of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    Alienation is the feeling that life is 'meaningless', that we do not belong in the world. But alienation is not an inevitable part of the human condition: some people do feel at one with the world as a consequence of the animistic way of thinking which is shared by children and hunter-gatherers. Animism considers all significant entities to have 'minds', to be 'alive', to be sentient agents. The animistic thinker inhabits a world populated by personal powers including not just other human beings, but also important animals and plants, and significant aspects of physical landscape. Humans belong in this world because it is a web of social relationships. Animism is therefore spontaneous, the 'natural' way of thinking for humans: all humans began as animistic children and for most of human evolutionary history would have grown into animistic adults. It requires sustained, prolonged and pervasive formal education to 'overwrite' animistic thinking with the rationalistic objectivity typical of the modern world. It is this learned abstraction that creates alienation--humans are no longer embedded in a world of social relations but become estranged, adrift in a world of indifferent things. Methods used to cure alienation and recover animistic modes of thinking involve detachment from the social systems that tend to maintain objectivity and rationality: for example, solitude, leisure, unstructured time and direct contact with nature. Many people also achieve similar results by deliberately inducing altered states of consciousness. Animistic thinking may emerge in meditation or contemplation, lucid dreaming, from self-hypnosis, when drowsy, in 'trance states' induced by repetitious rhythm or light, or when delirious due to illness, brain injury, psychoses, or intoxication with 'entheogenic' drugs--which is probably one reason for the perennial popularity of inducing intoxicated states. However, intoxication will typically damage memory processes making it harder to learn

  5. The Use of Animal Models to Decipher Physiological and Neurobiological Alterations of Anorexia Nervosa Patients

    PubMed Central

    Méquinion, Mathieu; Chauveau, Christophe; Viltart, Odile

    2015-01-01

    Extensive studies were performed to decipher the mechanisms regulating feeding due to the worldwide obesity pandemy and its complications. The data obtained might be adapted to another disorder related to alteration of food intake, the restrictive anorexia nervosa. This multifactorial disease with a complex and unknown etiology is considered as an awful eating disorder since the chronic refusal to eat leads to severe, and sometimes, irreversible complications for the whole organism, until death. There is an urgent need to better understand the different aspects of the disease to develop novel approaches complementary to the usual psychological therapies. For this purpose, the use of pertinent animal models becomes a necessity. We present here the various rodent models described in the literature that might be used to dissect central and peripheral mechanisms involved in the adaptation to deficient energy supplies and/or the maintenance of physiological alterations on the long term. Data obtained from the spontaneous or engineered genetic models permit to better apprehend the implication of one signaling system (hormone, neuropeptide, neurotransmitter) in the development of several symptoms observed in anorexia nervosa. As example, mutations in the ghrelin, serotonin, dopamine pathways lead to alterations that mimic the phenotype, but compensatory mechanisms often occur rendering necessary the use of more selective gene strategies. Until now, environmental animal models based on one or several inducing factors like diet restriction, stress, or physical activity mimicked more extensively central and peripheral alterations decribed in anorexia nervosa. They bring significant data on feeding behavior, energy expenditure, and central circuit alterations. Animal models are described and criticized on the basis of the criteria of validity for anorexia nervosa. PMID:26042085

  6. Pyrogenic organic matter can alter microbial communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiello, Caroline; Gao, Xiaodong; Cheng, Hsiao-Ying; Silberg, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Soil microbes communicate with each other to manage a large range of processes that occur more efficiently when microbes are able to act simultaneously. This coordination occurs through the continuous production of signaling compounds that are easily diffused into and out of cells. As the number of microbes in a localized environment increases, the internal cellular concentration of these signaling compounds increases, and when a threshold concentration is reached, gene expression shifts, leading to altered (and coordinated) microbial behaviors. Many of these coordinated behaviors have biogeochemically important outcomes. For example, methanogenesis, denitrification, biofilm formation, and the development of plant-rhizobial symbioses are all regulated by a simple class of cell-cell signaling molecules known as acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). Pyrogenic organic matter in soils can act to disrupt microbial communication through multiple pathways. In the case of AHLs, charcoal's very high surface area can sorb these signaling compounds, preventing microbes from detecting each others' presence (Masiello et al., 2014). In addition, the lactone ring in AHLs is vulnerable to pH increases accompanying PyOM inputs, with soil pH values higher than 7-8 leading to ring opening and compound destabilization. Different microbes use different classes of signaling compounds, and not all microbial signaling compounds are pH-vulnerable. This implies that PyOM-driven pH increases may trigger differential outcomes for Gram negative bacteria vs fungi, for example. A charcoal-driven reduction in microbes' ability to detect cell-cell communication compounds may lead to a shift in the ability of microbes to participate in key steps of C and N cycling. For example, an increase in an archaeon-specific AHL has been shown to lead to a cascade of metabolic processes that eventually results in the upregulation of CH4 production (Zhang et al., 2012). Alterations in similar AHL compounds leads to

  7. A novel animal model linking adiposity to altered circadian rhythms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers have provided evidence for a link between obesity and altered circadian rhythms (e.g., shift work, disrupted sleep), but the mechanism for this association is still unknown. Adipocytes possess an intrinsic circadian clock, and circadian rhythms in adipocytokines and adipose tissue metab...

  8. Altered egos: antibiotic effects on food animal microbiomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The human food chain begins with upwards of 1000 species of bacteria that inhabit the intestinal tracts of poultry and livestock. These intestinal denizens are responsible for the health and safety of a major protein source for humans. The use of antibiotics to treat animal diseases was followed b...

  9. Liver autofluorescence properties in animal model under altered nutritional conditions.

    PubMed

    Croce, Anna Cleta; De Simone, Uliana; Vairetti, Mariapia; Ferrigno, Andrea; Boncompagni, Eleonora; Freitas, Isabel; Bottiroli, Giovanni

    2008-09-01

    Autofluorescence spectroscopy is a promising and powerful approach for an in vivo, real time characterization of liver functional properties. In this work, preliminary results on the dependence of liver autofluorescence parameters on the nutritional status are reported, with particular attention to vitamin A and lipid accumulation in liver tissue. Normally fed and 24 h starving rats were used as animal models. Histochemical and autofluorescence analysis showed that lipids and vitamin A colocalize in the liver parenchyma. Fasting condition results in a parallel increase in both lipids and vitamin A. Autofluorescence imaging and microspectrofluorometric analysis carried out on unfixed, unstained tissue sections under 366 nm excitation, evidenced differences in both spectral shape and response to continuous irradiation between liver biopsies from fed and starving rats. As to photobleaching, in particular, fitting analysis evidenced a reduction of about 85% of the signal attributable solely to vitamin A during the first 10 s of irradiation. The tissue whole emission measured in fed and starving rat livers exhibited reductions of about 35% and 52%, respectively, that are closely related to vitamin A contents. The findings open interesting perspectives for the set up of an in situ, real time diagnostic procedure for the assessment of liver lipid accumulation, exploiting the photophysical properties of vitamin A. PMID:18754051

  10. Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals 2012: another increase in experimentation - genetically-altered animals dominate again.

    PubMed

    Hudson-Shore, Michelle

    2013-09-01

    The Annual Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals Great Britain 2012 reveal that the level of animal experimentation in Great Britain continues to rise, with just over 4.1 million procedures being started in that year. Despite the previous year's indication that the dominance of the production and use of genetically-altered (GA, i.e. genetically-modified animals plus animals with harmful genetic defects) animal might be abating, it returned with a vengeance in 2012. Breeding increased from 43% to 48% of all procedures, and GA animals were involved in 59% of all the procedures. Indeed, if the breeding of these animals were removed from the statistics, the total number of procedures would actually decline by 2%. In order to honour their pledge to reduce animal use in science, the Coalition Government will have to address this issue. The general trends in the species used, and the numbers and types of procedures, are also reviewed. Finally, forthcoming changes to the statistics are discussed.

  11. Learning about Skeletons and Other Organ Systems of Vertebrate Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes students' (n=175) understandings of the structure of animal (including human) skeletons and the internal organs found in them. Finds that older students have a better knowledge of animals' internal anatomies, although knowledge of human internal structure is significantly better than knowledge of rat, bird, and fish internal structure.…

  12. Animal organs for human transplantation: how close are we?

    PubMed Central

    2000-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation has been, by most measures, a phenomenal success. Nonetheless, the field is plagued by extreme shortages of available organs from a very limited number of donors. One potential solution to this organ availability crisis is the use of animals as organ donors for humans (xenotransplantation). Though the concept remains theoretical, significant advances are being made in the field of genetics and in our understanding of the immunological barriers to xenotransplantation. With these advances also comes increased knowledge about the potential risks of xenotransplants, especially disease transmission. The eventual clinical application of animal-to-human transplants will require a careful, balanced appraisal of these issues. PMID:16389317

  13. Genetically modified animal models recapitulating molecular events altered in human hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Aránzazu; Fabregat, Isabel

    2009-04-01

    New advancements have been made in recent years in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern human liver tumorigenesis. Experimental animal models have been widely used, especially mouse models. In this review we highlight some of the genetically engineered mouse models that have proved to be excellent tools to study the intracellular signalling pathways altered in hepatocarcinogenesis and establish potential correlations with data from humans, with special focus on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of primary liver cancer. Information obtained from these animal models will help to design future therapeutic approaches to HCC, particularly those that explore drugs that specifically target the altered molecular pathways.

  14. Metabolism and effects of organic compounds in animals

    SciTech Connect

    Eisele, G.R.

    1985-10-01

    The knowledge of the metabolism and effects of organic compounds in animals, specifically food-producing animals, are of paramount importance in assessing potential human health hazards. An intensive effort has been directed at detection of chemicals in the environment, determination of their physiological insult and cellular interaction; in particular their carcinogenic and mutagenic induction capability. The chemical exposure of food-producing animals can be extremely difficult to evaluate and quite devastating. The exposure of food-producing animals to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) emphasizes the seriousness of the problem. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), capable of inducing cancer in experimental animals, have been studied extensively in laboratory animals. Current studies deal with the mechanism of metabolism of PAHs and the ultimate carcinogenic form. Although our knowledge concerning the health hazards of organic chemicals is continually increasing, its impact on food-producing animals and man's food chain is poorly understood. Awareness of the problem by practicing veterinarians and toxicologists, environmental toxicologists and public health officials is required to evaluate the impact of organic chemicals on the human food chain. 6 references.

  15. [Animal health in organic agriculture: new guidelines and perspectives for food animal practitioners].

    PubMed

    Hertzberg, H; Walkenhorst, M; Klocke, P

    2003-11-01

    In the last decade, the organic agriculture in Switzerland has been substantially increased due to the interest of consumer and financial incentives of the federation. Ruminants take directly or indirectly the largest part from grassland used within the organic managed surfaces. As the contacts between veterinary practice and organic agriculture has increased, the potential for veterinary activity in this area has developed considerably. The organic agriculture guidelines stipulate that all the preventive measures should be taken in feeding, keeping and breeding to insure animal health safety. This requires veterinary services for herd management. The organic status of a farm affects veterinary practice also in the form of alternative therapy/drugs administration and measures like dehorning and tail-docking. An important point in organic managed herds requests that treatment of animals should depend on alternative medical preparations or procedures based on veterinarian's experience and also on the therapeutic effect on the animal species concerned as well as on the disease. However, there are no restrictions on the veterinarian to use registered drugs as long as no alternative therapy, according to experience and possible success, is available to treat the animals. The prophylactic administration of allopathic veterinary drugs is not permissible. Further features in organic farms regarding the use of drugs are the keeping of withholding/withdrawal time, the documentation and the treatment frequency tolerated by organic marketing. Despite the above measures, the animal health has a priority regardless of its organic status. Although management of organic farms represent a unique responsibility, there are still obvious deficits in the education of veterinary practitioners for this new situation. However, in the future the extension of veterinary activity to include the alternative medical therapy should be regarded for the practitioner as a challenge and an

  16. Arsenic-induced Histological Alterations in Various Organs of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Noman, Abu Shadat Mohammod; Dilruba, Sayada; Mohanto, Nayan Chandra; Rahman, Lutfur; Khatun, Zohora; Riad, Wahiduzzaman; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Alam, Shahnur; Aktar, Sharmin; Chowdhury, Srikanta; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Rahman, Zillur; Hossain, Khaled; Haque, Azizul

    2015-01-01

    Deposition of arsenic in mice through groundwater is well documented but little is known about the histological changes of organs by the metalloid. Present study was designed to evaluate arsenic-induced histological alterations in kidney, liver, thoracic artery and brain of mice which are not well documented yet. Swiss albino male mice were divided into 2 groups and treated as follows: Group 1: control, 2: arsenic (sodium arsenite at 10 mg/kg b.w. orally for 8 wks). Group 2 showed marked degenerative changes in kidney, liver, thoracic artery, and brain whereas Group 1 did not reveal any abnormalities on histopathology. We therefore concluded that arsenic induces histological alterations in the tested organs. PMID:26740907

  17. Thermodynamics of Organic Compound Alteration in Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shock, E. L.

    2005-12-01

    Organic compounds enter hydrothermal systems through infiltrating surface waters, zones of microbial productivity in the subsurface, extracts of organic matter in surrounding host rocks, and abiotic synthesis. Owing to variations in pH, oxidation state, composition, temperature, and pressure throughout the changing pathways of fluid migration over the duration of the system, organic compounds from all of these sources are introduced to conditions where their relative stabilities and reactivities can be dramatically transformed. If those transformations were predictable, then the extent to which organic alteration reactions have occurred could be used to reveal flowpaths and histories of hydrothermal systems. Speciation and mass transfer calculations permit some insight into the underlying thermodynamic driving forces that result in organic compound alteration. As an example, the speciation of many geochemist's canonical organic matter: CH2O depends strongly on oxidation state, temperature, and total concentration of dissolved organic matter. Calculations show that at oxidation states buffered by iron-bearing mineral assemblages, organic acids dominate the speciation of CH2O throughout hydrothermal systems, with acetic acid (itself equivalent to 2 CH2O by bulk composition) and propanoic acid generally the most abundant compounds. However, at more reduced conditions, which may prevail in organic-rich iron-poor sediments, the drive is to form ketones and especially alcohols at the expense of organic acids. The distribution of organic carbon among the various members of these compound classes is strongly dependent on the total concentration of dissolved organic matter. As an example, at a bulk concentration equivalent to average dissolved organic matter in seawater (45μm), the dominant alcohols at 100°C are small compounds like ethanol and 1-propanol. In contrast, at a higher bulk concentration of 500μm, there is a drive to shift large percentages of dissolved

  18. Immunosenescence is associated with altered gene expression and epigenetic regulation in primary and secondary immune organs

    PubMed Central

    Sidler, Corinne; Wóycicki, Rafał; Ilnytskyy, Yaroslav; Metz, Gerlinde; Kovalchuk, Igor; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Deterioration of the immune system (immunosenescence) with age is associated with an increased susceptibility to infection, autoimmune disease and cancer, and reduced responsiveness to vaccination. Immunosenescence entails a reduced supply of naïve T cells from the thymus and increased specialization of peripheral T cell clones. Both thymic involution and peripheral T cell homeostasis are thought to involve cellular senescence. In order to analyze this at the molecular level, we studied gene expression profiles, epigenetic status, and genome stability in the thymus and spleen of 1-, 4-, and 18-month-old Long Evans rats. In the thymus, altered gene expression, DNA and histone H3K9 hypomethylation, increased genome instability, and apoptosis were observed in 18-month-old animals compared to 1- and 4-month-old animals. In the spleen, alterations in gene expression and epigenetic regulation occurred already by the age of 4 months compared to 1 month and persisted in 18-month-old compared to 1-month-old rats. In both organs, these changes were accompanied by the altered composition of resident T cell populations. Our study suggests that both senescence and apoptosis may be involved in altered organ function. PMID:24151501

  19. Human-animal chimeras: ethical issues about farming chimeric animals bearing human organs.

    PubMed

    Bourret, Rodolphe; Martinez, Eric; Vialla, François; Giquel, Chloé; Thonnat-Marin, Aurélie; De Vos, John

    2016-06-29

    Recent advances in stem cells and gene engineering have paved the way for the generation of interspecies chimeras, such as animals bearing an organ from another species. The production of a rat pancreas by a mouse has demonstrated the feasibility of this approach. The next step will be the generation of larger chimeric animals, such as pigs bearing human organs. Because of the dramatic organ shortage for transplantation, the medical needs for such a transgressive practice are indisputable. However, there are serious technical barriers and complex ethical issues that must be discussed and solved before producing human organs in animals. The main ethical issues are the risks of consciousness and of human features in the chimeric animal due to a too high contribution of human cells to the brain, in the first case, or for instance to limbs, in the second. Another critical point concerns the production of human gametes by such chimeric animals. These worst-case scenarios are obviously unacceptable and must be strictly monitored by careful risk assessment, and, if necessary, technically prevented. The public must be associated with this ethical debate. Scientists and physicians have a critical role in explaining the medical needs, the advantages and limits of this potential medical procedure, and the ethical boundaries that must not be trespassed. If these prerequisites are met, acceptance of such a new, borderline medical procedure may prevail, as happened before for in-vitro fertilization or preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

  20. Human-animal chimeras: ethical issues about farming chimeric animals bearing human organs.

    PubMed

    Bourret, Rodolphe; Martinez, Eric; Vialla, François; Giquel, Chloé; Thonnat-Marin, Aurélie; De Vos, John

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in stem cells and gene engineering have paved the way for the generation of interspecies chimeras, such as animals bearing an organ from another species. The production of a rat pancreas by a mouse has demonstrated the feasibility of this approach. The next step will be the generation of larger chimeric animals, such as pigs bearing human organs. Because of the dramatic organ shortage for transplantation, the medical needs for such a transgressive practice are indisputable. However, there are serious technical barriers and complex ethical issues that must be discussed and solved before producing human organs in animals. The main ethical issues are the risks of consciousness and of human features in the chimeric animal due to a too high contribution of human cells to the brain, in the first case, or for instance to limbs, in the second. Another critical point concerns the production of human gametes by such chimeric animals. These worst-case scenarios are obviously unacceptable and must be strictly monitored by careful risk assessment, and, if necessary, technically prevented. The public must be associated with this ethical debate. Scientists and physicians have a critical role in explaining the medical needs, the advantages and limits of this potential medical procedure, and the ethical boundaries that must not be trespassed. If these prerequisites are met, acceptance of such a new, borderline medical procedure may prevail, as happened before for in-vitro fertilization or preimplantation genetic diagnosis. PMID:27356872

  1. Detection of alterations in testicular and epididymal function in laboratory animals.

    PubMed Central

    Amann, R P

    1986-01-01

    The potential impact of an agent altering male reproductive function is greater for humans than for animals. Consequently, it is essential that sensitive criteria be used to look for effects on a multiplicity of target sites when an agent is evaluated using an animal model. No animal model has reproductive characteristics similar to those of humans, but this does not negate the validity of using animal models. Classic methodologies for reproductive toxicology are limited by the approaches used for subjective evaluation of testicular histology and use of natural mating for fertility tests. After dosing for an interval at least equal to six times the duration of one cycle of the seminiferous epithelium, sperm from ejaculated semen or the cauda epididymidis can be evaluated for normalcy of morphology or function and should be used for artificial insemination of females to critically evaluate fertility. Normal males of animal models ejaculate a great excess of sperm. A 50 or 90% reduction in the number of fertile sperm deposited during mating probably will not markedly reduce fertility. Artificial insemination of a critical number of sperm, selected to result in slightly less than maximal fertility for control animals, will maximize the probability of detecting a decrease in fertility if the same critical number of sperm is inseminated for treated animals as for control animals. Testicular function should be evaluated by objective, rather than subjective, criteria. For each male, a piece of testicular tissue should be appropriately fixed and an aliquot of parenchyma should be homogenized to allow enumeration of homogenization-resistant spermatids. Among the more sensitive criteria of testicular function are the minor diameter of essentially round seminiferous tubules, the ratio of leptotene spermatocytes to Sertoli cells, the corrected numbers of germ cells per seminiferous tubule cross section, and the number of homogenization-resistant spermatids per testis. PMID

  2. Alterations in cognitive and psychological functioning after organic solvent exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, L.A.; Ryan, C.M.; Hodgson, M.J.; Robin, N. )

    1990-05-01

    Exposure to organic solvents has been linked repeatedly to alterations in both personality and cognitive functioning. To assess the nature and extent of these changes more thoroughly, 32 workers with a history of exposure to mixtures of organic solvents and 32 age- and education-matched blue-collar workers with no history of exposure were assessed with a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Although both groups were comparable on measures of general intelligence, significant differences were found in virtually all other cognitive domains tested (Learning and Memory, Visuospatial, Attention and Mental Flexibility, Psychomotor Speed). In addition, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventories of exposed workers indicated clinically significant levels of depression, anxiety, somatic concerns and disturbances in thinking. The reported psychological distress was unrelated to degree of cognitive deficit. Finally, several exposure-related variables were associated with poorer performance on tests of memory and visuospatial ability.

  3. Can orchards help connect Mediterranean ecosystems? Animal movement data alter conservation priorities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nogeire, Theresa M.; Davis, Frank W.; Crooks, Kevin R.; McRae, Brad H.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Boydston, Erin E.

    2015-01-01

    As natural habitats become fragmented by human activities, animals must increasingly move through human-dominated systems, particularly agricultural landscapes. Mapping areas important for animal movement has therefore become a key part of conservation planning. Models of landscape connectivity are often parameterized using expert opinion and seldom distinguish between the risks and barriers presented by different crop types. Recent research, however, suggests different crop types, such as row crops and orchards, differ in the degree to which they facilitate or impede species movements. Like many mammalian carnivores, bobcats (Lynx rufus) are sensitive to fragmentation and loss of connectivity between habitat patches. We investigated how distinguishing between different agricultural land covers might change conclusions about the relative conservation importance of different land uses in a Mediterranean ecosystem. Bobcats moved relatively quickly in row crops but relatively slowly in orchards, at rates similar to those in natural habitats of woodlands and scrub. We found that parameterizing a connectivity model using empirical data on bobcat movements in agricultural lands and other land covers, instead of parameterizing the model using habitat suitability indices based on expert opinion, altered locations of predicted animal movement routes. These results emphasize that differentiating between types of agriculture can alter conservation planning outcomes.

  4. Social disruption alters pain and cognition in an animal model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Linsenbardt, H R; Cook, J L; Young, E E; Vichaya, E G; Young, C R; Reusser, N M; Storts, R; Welsh, C J; Meagher, M W

    2015-11-15

    Although pain and cognitive deficits are widespread and debilitating symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS), they remain poorly understood. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection is an animal model of MS where disease course is exacerbated by prior stressors. Here chronic infection coupled with prior social stress increased pain behavior and impaired hippocampal-dependent memory consolidation during the demyelinating phase of disease in SJL mice. These results suggest that the TMEV model may be useful in investigating pain and cognitive impairments in MS. However, in contrast to prior Balb/cJ studies, stress failed to consistently alter behavioral and physiological indicators of disease course.

  5. Pak2 restrains endomitosis during megakaryopoiesis and alters cytoskeleton organization

    PubMed Central

    Kosoff, Rachelle E.; Aslan, Joseph E.; Kostyak, John C.; Dulaimi, Essel; Chow, Hoi Yee; Prudnikova, Tatiana Y.; Radu, Maria; Kunapuli, Satya P.; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2015-01-01

    Megakaryocyte maturation and polyploidization are critical for platelet production; abnormalities in these processes are associated with myeloproliferative disorders, including thrombocytopenia. Megakaryocyte maturation signals through cascades that involve p21-activated kinase (Pak) function; however, the specific role for Pak kinases in megakaryocyte biology remains elusive. Here, we identify Pak2 as an essential effector of megakaryocyte maturation, polyploidization, and proplatelet formation. Genetic deletion of Pak2 in murine bone marrow is associated with macrothrombocytopenia, altered megakaryocyte ultrastructure, increased bone marrow megakaryocyte precursors, and an elevation of mature CD41+ megakaryocytes, as well as an increased number of polyploid cells. In Pak2−/− mice, platelet clearance rate was increased, as was production of newly synthesized, reticulated platelets. In vitro, Pak2−/− megakaryocytes demonstrate increased polyploidization associated with alterations in β1-tubulin expression and organization, decreased proplatelet extensions, and reduced phosphorylation of the endomitosis regulators LIM domain kinase 1, cofilin, and Aurora A/B/C. Together, these data establish a novel role for Pak2 as an important regulator of megakaryopoiesis, polyploidization, and cytoskeletal dynamics in developing megakaryocytes. PMID:25824689

  6. [Psychosocial stress induces molecular and structural alterations in the brain - How animal experiments help to understand pathomechanisms of depressive illnesses].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, E; Flügge, G

    2001-01-01

    Affective disorders are accompanied by central nervous changes that may lead to diseases of brain and peripheral organs. To gain an insight into neurobiological mechanisms that underlie such diseases we are studying tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri). This animal model is based on the fact that male tree shrews are very territorial and that under laboratory conditions, two males establish a clear social rank order with a dominant and a subordinate animal. In the visual presence of the dominant, the subordinate shows all typical signs of stress with pronounced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and of the sympathetic nervous system. If there are daily confrontations with the dominant during a time period of several weeks, the subordinate experiences chronic psychosocial stress. Tree shrews can be regarded as a suitable animal model to investigate the neurobiological basis of affective disorders since (1) behavioral and endocrine symptoms of subordinates resemble those of depressive patients, (2) antidepressant treatments lead to an improvement of symptoms, and (3) also in humans chronic stress can lead to depression. Using this model we showed that chronic stress induces changes in the morphology of hippocampal pyramidal neurons, affects neurogenesis in the hippocampal formation, and changes the expression of glucocorticoid, serotonergic and noradrenergic receptors in the brain. These changes depend on the duration of the stress period with some of the alterations being reversible whereas others persist during a longer time period. Since the above receptors modulate neuronal activity, the stress induced alterations lead to an impairment of neuronal activity in distinct brain regions.

  7. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND...

  8. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND...

  9. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND...

  10. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND...

  11. Development of Gravity-Sensing Organs in Altered Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiederhold, M. L.; Gao, W. Y.; Harrison, J. L.; Hejl, R.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments are described in which the development of the gravity-sensing organs was studied in newt larvae reared in micro-g on the IML-2 mission and in Aplysia embryos and larvae reared on a centrifuge at 1 to 5 g. In Aplysia embryos, the statolith (single dense mass on which gravity and linear acceleration act) was reduced in size in a graded fashion at increasing g. In early post-metamorphic Aplysia or even in isolated statocysts from such animals, the number of statoconia produced is reduced at high gravity Newt larvae launched before any of the otoconia were formed and reared for 15 days in micro-gravity had nearly adult labyrinths at the end of the IML-2 mission. The otoliths of the saccule and utricle were the same size in flight and ground-reared larvae. However, the system of aragonitic otoconia produced in the endolymphatic sac in amphibians was much larger and developed earlier in the flight-reared larvae. At later developmental stages, the aragonitic otoconia enter and fill the saccule. One flight-reared larva was maintained for nine months post-flight and the size of the saccular otolith, as well as the volume of otoconia within the endolymphatic sac, were considerably larger than in age-matched, ground-reared newts. This suggests that rearing in micro-gravity initiates a process that continues for several months after introduction to 1-g, which greatly increases the volume of otoconia. The flight-reared animal had abnormal posture, pointing its head upward, whereas normal ground-reared newts always keep their head horizontal. This suggests that rearing for even a short period in micro-gravity can have lasting functional consequences in an animal subsequently reared in 1-g conditions on Earth.

  12. Development of gravity-sensing organs in altered gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiederhold, M. L.; Gao, W. Y.; Harrison, J. L.; Hejl, R.

    1997-01-01

    Experiments are described in which the development of the gravity-sensing organs was studied in newt larvae reared in microgravity on the IML-2 mission and in Aplysia embryos and larvae reared on a centrifuge at 1 to 5 g. In Aplysia embryos, the statolith (single dense mass on which gravity and linear acceleration act) was reduced in size in a graded fashion at increasing g. In early post-metamorphic Aplysia or even in isolated statocysts from such animals, the number of statoconia produced is reduced at high g. Newt larvae launched before any of the otoconia were formed and reared for 15 days in microgravity had nearly adult labyrinths at the end of the IML-2 mission. The otoliths of the saccule and utricle were the same size in flight and ground-reared larvae. However, the system of aragonitic otoconia produced in the endolymphatic sac in amphibians was much larger and developed earlier in the flight-reared larvae. At later developmental stages, the aragonitic otoconia enter and fill the saccule. One flight-reared larva was maintained for nine months post-flight and the size of the saccular otolith, as well as the volume of otoconia within the endolymphatic sac, were considerably larger than in age-matched, ground-reared newts. This suggests that rearing in microgravity initiates a process that continues for several months after introduction to 1-g, which greatly increases the volume of otoconia. The flight-reared animal had abnormal posture, pointing its head upward, whereas normal ground-reared newts always keep their head horizontal. This suggests that rearing for even a short period in microgravity can have lasting functional consequences in an animal subsequently reared in 1-g conditions on Earth.

  13. [Animals (Animalia) in system of organisms. 2. Phylogenetic understanding of animals].

    PubMed

    Shatalkin, A I

    2005-01-01

    The development of systematics in last decade has shown that typological classifications of five-six Kingdoms is not adequate for describing the diversity of organisms. Information from the sequences of small subunit rRNA is not sufficient to reconstruct the position of eukaryotes on the phylogenetic tree due to the effect of long branches. Totally new reconstruction of eukaryotic phylogeny was built upon the analysis of many new molecular markers. Evolution of eukaryotes had two mainstreams. One has been connected with diversification of ancestral biciliate forms (Bikonta). Sister-group of Bikonta (Unikonta) includes some originally uniciliate amoebae and moulds (Amoebozoa), and uniciliate eukaryotes with posterior cilium (Opisthokonta). The taxon Opisthokonta unites Fungi, Nuclearimorpha, Mesomycetozoa, Choanozoa and Metazoa. The latter three groups or only Metazoa are attributes to animals. The following differentiation of the groups used in systematic for the description of diversity of organisms is proposed. (1) Taxon is a group which is defined on the basis of ancestry: taxon includes all species descended from one ancestor. Taxon differs from logic classes of typology at an ontologic level. Taxon arises and exists, and its composition and occupied niches can constantly change; taxon can flourish or, on the contrary, fade up to full disappearance. Thus, the predicative characteristic of taxon, including characters which are considered significant, are not absolute. It is significant only at the moment of consideration. But characters (synapomorphies) are important as the practical tool for discerning taxa at given time period. Taxa unite species into unique classification. This understanding of taxon corresponds to monophyletic group sensu Willi Hennig. (2) Class of organisms is a group which is defined on the basis of characters: class includes all species having the given character. The class is only a logic object. Unlike taxa grouping species into classes

  14. [Animals (Animalia) in system of organisms. 2. Phylogenetic understanding of animals].

    PubMed

    Shatalkin, A I

    2005-01-01

    The development of systematics in last decade has shown that typological classifications of five-six Kingdoms is not adequate for describing the diversity of organisms. Information from the sequences of small subunit rRNA is not sufficient to reconstruct the position of eukaryotes on the phylogenetic tree due to the effect of long branches. Totally new reconstruction of eukaryotic phylogeny was built upon the analysis of many new molecular markers. Evolution of eukaryotes had two mainstreams. One has been connected with diversification of ancestral biciliate forms (Bikonta). Sister-group of Bikonta (Unikonta) includes some originally uniciliate amoebae and moulds (Amoebozoa), and uniciliate eukaryotes with posterior cilium (Opisthokonta). The taxon Opisthokonta unites Fungi, Nuclearimorpha, Mesomycetozoa, Choanozoa and Metazoa. The latter three groups or only Metazoa are attributes to animals. The following differentiation of the groups used in systematic for the description of diversity of organisms is proposed. (1) Taxon is a group which is defined on the basis of ancestry: taxon includes all species descended from one ancestor. Taxon differs from logic classes of typology at an ontologic level. Taxon arises and exists, and its composition and occupied niches can constantly change; taxon can flourish or, on the contrary, fade up to full disappearance. Thus, the predicative characteristic of taxon, including characters which are considered significant, are not absolute. It is significant only at the moment of consideration. But characters (synapomorphies) are important as the practical tool for discerning taxa at given time period. Taxa unite species into unique classification. This understanding of taxon corresponds to monophyletic group sensu Willi Hennig. (2) Class of organisms is a group which is defined on the basis of characters: class includes all species having the given character. The class is only a logic object. Unlike taxa grouping species into classes

  15. Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals 2013: Experimentation continues to rise--the reliance on genetically-altered animals must be addressed.

    PubMed

    Hudson-Shore, Michelle

    2014-09-01

    The 2013 Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals reveal that the level of animal experimentation in Great Britain continues to rise, with 4.12 million procedures being conducted. The figures indicate that this is almost exclusively a result of the breeding and use of genetically-altered (GA) animals (i.e. genetically-modified animals, plus those with harmful genetic defects). The breeding of GA animals increased to over half (51%) of all the procedures, and GA animals were involved in 61% of all the procedures. Indeed, if these animals were removed from the statistics, the number of procedures would actually have declined by 4%. It is argued that the Coalition Government has failed to address this issue, and, as a consequence, will not be able to deliver its pledge to reduce animal use in science. Recent publications supporting the need to reassess the dominance of genetic alteration are also discussed, as well as the need to move away from the use of dogs as the default second species in safety testing. The general trends in the species used, and the numbers and types of procedures, are also reviewed. Finally, forthcoming changes to the statistics are discussed.

  16. New animal model to study epigenetic mechanisms mediating altered gravity effects upon cell growth and morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, Eleonora N.; Dvorochkin, Natasha; Radugina, Elena A.; Poplinskaya, Valentina; Novikova, Julia; Almeida, Eduardo

    The gravitational field and its variations act as a major environmental factor that can impact morphogenesis developing through epigenetic molecular mechanisms. The mechanisms can be thoroughly investigated by using adequate animal models that reveal changes in the morpho-genesis of a growing organ as a function of gravitational effects. Two cooperative US/Russian experiments on Foton-M2 (2005) and Foton-M3 (2007) were the first to demonstrate differences in the shape of regenerating tails of space-flown and ground control newts. The space-flown and aquarium (simulated microgravity) animals developed lancet-shaped tails whereas 1 g con-trols (kept in space-type habitats) showed hook-like regenerates. These visual observations were supported by computer-aided processing of the images and statistical analysis of the results. Morphological examinations and cell proliferation measurements using BrdU demon-strated dorsal-ventral asymmetry as well as enhanced epithelial growth on the dorsal area of regenerating tails in 1 g newts. These findings were reproduced in laboratory tests on newts kept at 1 g and in large water tanks at cut g. The 1 g animals showed statistically significant deviations of the lancet-like tail shape typically seen in aquarium animals. Such modifications were found as early as regeneration stages III-IV and proved irreversible. The authors believe that the above phenomenon detected in newts used in many space experiments can serve as an adequate model for studying molecular mechanisms underlying gravitational effects upon animal morphogenesis.

  17. Climate impacts on bird and plant communities from altered animal-plant interactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Thomas E.; Maron, John L.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of climate change to declining populations of organisms remains a question of outstanding concern. Much attention to declining populations has focused on how changing climate drives phenological mismatches between animals and their food. Effects of climate on plant communities may provide an alternative, but particularly powerful, influence on animal populations because plants provide their habitats. Here, we show that abundances of deciduous trees and associated songbirds have declined with decreasing snowfall over 22 years of study in montane Arizona, USA. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that declining snowfall indirectly influences plants and associated birds by allowing greater over-winter herbivory by elk (Cervus canadensis). We excluded elk from one of two paired snowmelt drainages (10 ha per drainage), and replicated this paired experiment across three distant canyons. Over six years, we reversed multi-decade declines in plant and bird populations by experimentally inhibiting heavy winter herbivory associated with declining snowfall. Moreover, predation rates on songbird nests decreased in exclosures, despite higher abundances of nest predators, demonstrating the over-riding importance of habitat quality to avian recruitment. Thus, our results suggest that climate impacts on plant–animal interactions can have forceful ramifying effects on plants, birds, and ecological interactions.

  18. Climate impacts on bird and plant communities from altered animal-plant interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Maron, John L.

    2012-03-01

    The contribution of climate change to declining populations of organisms remains a question of outstanding concern. Much attention to declining populations has focused on how changing climate drives phenological mismatches between animals and their food. Effects of climate on plant communities may provide an alternative, but particularly powerful, influence on animal populations because plants provide their habitats. Here, we show that abundances of deciduous trees and associated songbirds have declined with decreasing snowfall over 22 years of study in montane Arizona, USA. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that declining snowfall indirectly influences plants and associated birds by allowing greater over-winter herbivory by elk (Cervus canadensis). We excluded elk from one of two paired snowmelt drainages (10 ha per drainage), and replicated this paired experiment across three distant canyons. Over six years, we reversed multi-decade declines in plant and bird populations by experimentally inhibiting heavy winter herbivory associated with declining snowfall. Moreover, predation rates on songbird nests decreased in exclosures, despite higher abundances of nest predators, demonstrating the over-riding importance of habitat quality to avian recruitment. Thus, our results suggest that climate impacts on plant-animal interactions can have forceful ramifying effects on plants, birds, and ecological interactions.

  19. Processing of Primordial Organic Compounds in Carbonaceous Chondrites by mild Aqueous Alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-Rodriguez, J. M.; Martins, Z.; Rimola, A.

    2016-08-01

    New evidence suggests a synthesis of complex organic species in water-rich undifferentiated bodies. Quantum mechanical methods are compared with experimental data to see if organic matter was processed by clay formation during aqueous alteration.

  20. Role of neuroinflammation in the emotional and cognitive alterations displayed by animal models of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Castanon, Nathalie; Luheshi, Giamal; Layé, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a high prevalence of mood disorders and cognitive dysfunctions in addition to being a significant risk factor for important health complications such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Identifying the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these health issues is a major public health challenge. Based on recent findings, from studies conducted on animal models of obesity, it has been proposed that inflammatory processes may participate in both the peripheral and brain disorders associated with the obesity condition including the development of emotional and cognitive alterations. This is supported by the fact that obesity is characterized by peripheral low-grade inflammation, originating from increased adipose tissue mass and/or dysbiosis (changes in gut microbiota environment), both of which contribute to increased susceptibility to immune-mediated diseases. In this review, we provide converging evidence showing that obesity is associated with exacerbated neuroinflammation leading to dysfunction in vulnerable brain regions associated with mood regulation, learning, and memory such as the hippocampus. These findings give new insights to the pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to the development of brain disorders in the context of obesity and provide valuable data for introducing new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of neuropsychiatric complications often reported in obese patients. PMID:26190966

  1. Animal model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproate: altered glutamate metabolism in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Bristot Silvestrin, Roberta; Bambini-Junior, Victorio; Galland, Fabiana; Daniele Bobermim, Larissa; Quincozes-Santos, André; Torres Abib, Renata; Zanotto, Caroline; Batassini, Cristiane; Brolese, Giovana; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto; Riesgo, Rudimar; Gottfried, Carmem

    2013-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by deficits in social interaction, language and communication impairments and repetitive and stereotyped behaviors, with involvement of several areas of the central nervous system (CNS), including hippocampus. Although neurons have been the target of most studies reported in the literature, recently, considerable attention has been centered upon the functionality and plasticity of glial cells, particularly astrocytes. These cells participate in normal brain development and also in neuropathological processes. The present work investigated hippocampi from 15 (P15) and 120 (P120) days old male rats prenatally exposed to valproic acid (VPA) as an animal model of autism. Herein, we analyzed astrocytic parameters such as glutamate transporters and glutamate uptake, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity and glutathione (GSH) content. In the VPA group glutamate uptake was unchanged at P15 and increased 160% at P120; the protein expression of GLAST did not change neither in P15 nor in P120, while GLT1 decreased 40% at P15 and increased 92% at P120; GS activity increased 43% at P15 and decreased 28% at P120; GSH content was unaltered at P15 and had a 27% increase at P120. These data highlight that the astrocytic clearance and destination of glutamate in the synaptic cleft might be altered in autism, pointing out important aspects to be considered from both pathophysiologic and pharmacological approaches in ASD.

  2. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND EVALUATION OF...

  3. AN ENVIRONMENTAL ANTIANDROGEN, VINCLOZOLIN, ALTERS THE ORGANIZATION OF PLAY BEHAVIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    During mammalian sexual differentiation, the androgens, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone are critical for the organization of the male phenotype. In rats, play behavior is sexually dimorphic. Administration of exogenous androgens during the perinatal period r...

  4. 14 CFR 135.423 - Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization. 135.423 Section 135.423 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.423...

  5. Early blindness alters the spatial organization of verbal working memory.

    PubMed

    Bottini, Roberto; Mattioni, Stefania; Collignon, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    Several studies suggest that serial order in working memory (WM) is grounded on space. For a list of ordered items held in WM, items at the beginning of the list are associated with the left side of space and items at the end of the list with the right side. This suggests that maintaining items in verbal WM is performed in strong analogy to writing these items down on a physical whiteboard for later consultation (The Mental Whiteboard Hypothesis). What drives this spatial mapping of ordered series in WM remains poorly understood. In the present study we tested whether visual experience is instrumental in establishing the link between serial order in WM and spatial processing. We tested early blind (EB), late blind (LB) and sighted individuals in an auditory WM task. Replicating previous studies, left-key responses were faster for early items in the list whereas later items facilitated right-key responses in the sighted group. The same effect was observed in LB individuals. In contrast, EB participants did not show any association between space and serial position in WM. These results suggest that early visual experience plays a critical role in linking ordered items in WM and spatial representations. The analogical spatial structure of WM may depend in part on the actual experience of using spatially organized devices (e.g., notes, whiteboards) to offload WM. These practices are largely precluded to EB individuals, who instead rely to mnemonic devices that are less spatially organized (e.g., recordings, vocal notes). The way we habitually organize information in the external world may bias the way we organize information in our WM.

  6. Early blindness alters the spatial organization of verbal working memory.

    PubMed

    Bottini, Roberto; Mattioni, Stefania; Collignon, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    Several studies suggest that serial order in working memory (WM) is grounded on space. For a list of ordered items held in WM, items at the beginning of the list are associated with the left side of space and items at the end of the list with the right side. This suggests that maintaining items in verbal WM is performed in strong analogy to writing these items down on a physical whiteboard for later consultation (The Mental Whiteboard Hypothesis). What drives this spatial mapping of ordered series in WM remains poorly understood. In the present study we tested whether visual experience is instrumental in establishing the link between serial order in WM and spatial processing. We tested early blind (EB), late blind (LB) and sighted individuals in an auditory WM task. Replicating previous studies, left-key responses were faster for early items in the list whereas later items facilitated right-key responses in the sighted group. The same effect was observed in LB individuals. In contrast, EB participants did not show any association between space and serial position in WM. These results suggest that early visual experience plays a critical role in linking ordered items in WM and spatial representations. The analogical spatial structure of WM may depend in part on the actual experience of using spatially organized devices (e.g., notes, whiteboards) to offload WM. These practices are largely precluded to EB individuals, who instead rely to mnemonic devices that are less spatially organized (e.g., recordings, vocal notes). The way we habitually organize information in the external world may bias the way we organize information in our WM. PMID:27622641

  7. Sources, Ages, and Alteration of Organic Matter in Estuaries.

    PubMed

    Canuel, Elizabeth A; Hardison, Amber K

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes influencing the sources and fate of organic matter (OM) in estuaries is important for quantifying the contributions of carbon from land and rivers to the global carbon budget of the coastal ocean. Estuaries are sites of high OM production and processing, and understanding biogeochemical processes within these regions is key to quantifying organic carbon (Corg) budgets at the land-ocean margin. These regions provide vital ecological services, including nutrient filtration and protection from floods and storm surge, and provide habitat and nursery areas for numerous commercially important species. Human activities have modified estuarine systems over time, resulting in changes in the production, respiration, burial, and export of Corg. Corg in estuaries is derived from aquatic, terrigenous, and anthropogenic sources, with each source exhibiting a spectrum of ages and lability. The complex source and age characteristics of Corg in estuaries complicate our ability to trace OM along the river-estuary-coastal ocean continuum. This review focuses on the application of organic biomarkers and compound-specific isotope analyses to estuarine environments and on how these tools have enhanced our ability to discern natural sources of OM, trace their incorporation into food webs, and enhance understanding of the fate of Corg within estuaries and their adjacent waters. PMID:26407145

  8. Sources, Ages, and Alteration of Organic Matter in Estuaries.

    PubMed

    Canuel, Elizabeth A; Hardison, Amber K

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes influencing the sources and fate of organic matter (OM) in estuaries is important for quantifying the contributions of carbon from land and rivers to the global carbon budget of the coastal ocean. Estuaries are sites of high OM production and processing, and understanding biogeochemical processes within these regions is key to quantifying organic carbon (Corg) budgets at the land-ocean margin. These regions provide vital ecological services, including nutrient filtration and protection from floods and storm surge, and provide habitat and nursery areas for numerous commercially important species. Human activities have modified estuarine systems over time, resulting in changes in the production, respiration, burial, and export of Corg. Corg in estuaries is derived from aquatic, terrigenous, and anthropogenic sources, with each source exhibiting a spectrum of ages and lability. The complex source and age characteristics of Corg in estuaries complicate our ability to trace OM along the river-estuary-coastal ocean continuum. This review focuses on the application of organic biomarkers and compound-specific isotope analyses to estuarine environments and on how these tools have enhanced our ability to discern natural sources of OM, trace their incorporation into food webs, and enhance understanding of the fate of Corg within estuaries and their adjacent waters.

  9. Sources, Ages, and Alteration of Organic Matter in Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canuel, Elizabeth A.; Hardison, Amber K.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes influencing the sources and fate of organic matter (OM) in estuaries is important for quantifying the contributions of carbon from land and rivers to the global carbon budget of the coastal ocean. Estuaries are sites of high OM production and processing, and understanding biogeochemical processes within these regions is key to quantifying organic carbon (Corg) budgets at the land-ocean margin. These regions provide vital ecological services, including nutrient filtration and protection from floods and storm surge, and provide habitat and nursery areas for numerous commercially important species. Human activities have modified estuarine systems over time, resulting in changes in the production, respiration, burial, and export of Corg. Corg in estuaries is derived from aquatic, terrigenous, and anthropogenic sources, with each source exhibiting a spectrum of ages and lability. The complex source and age characteristics of Corg in estuaries complicate our ability to trace OM along the river-estuary-coastal ocean continuum. This review focuses on the application of organic biomarkers and compound-specific isotope analyses to estuarine environments and on how these tools have enhanced our ability to discern natural sources of OM, trace their incorporation into food webs, and enhance understanding of the fate of Corg within estuaries and their adjacent waters.

  10. Furosemide fails to alter plasma active or inactive renin in conscious sheep but does so in anaesthetized animals.

    PubMed Central

    Lush, D J; Munday, K A; Noble, A R

    1983-01-01

    Regulation of plasma levels of active and inactive renin was investigated using sheep with indwelling artery, vein and bladder catheters. Control and experimental studies were carried out in the same animals on different days. Volume depletion during any single experiment was limited to a maximum of 50 ml. Despite large changes in sodium and water excretion, the diuretic furosemide at two dose levels, 1 and 10 mg/kg, failed to alter plasma levels of either active or inactive renin in conscious sheep. Induction of pentobarbitone anaesthesia in the sheep did not, per se, alter either plasma active or inactive renin. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) in anaesthetized animals produced a similar diuresis and natriuresis response to conscious sheep, but plasma active renin increased by 270% and inactive renin decreased to zero. In conscious sheep given an infusion of papaverine, furosemide also produced an increase in plasma active renin and a concurrent decrease in the inactive form. In both anaesthetized animals and in conscious sheep infused with papaverine, furosemide-induced intrarenal vasodilation, as evidenced by changes in clearance of p-aminohippuric acid, was much reduced in comparison to the conscious animals. This may be significant in relation to the control of renin secretion. It appears that the macula densa sodium receptor, which is considered to regulate renin release, will only function after it has been primed by other intra- or extrarenal factors. This is discussed, particularly in relation to the possible role played by the prostaglandin system. PMID:6350561

  11. Gold nanoparticles alter parameters of oxidative stress and energy metabolism in organs of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gabriela Kozuchovski; Cardoso, Eria; Vuolo, Francieli Silva; Michels, Monique; Zanoni, Elton Torres; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Gomes, Lara Mezari; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Rezin, Gislaine Tezza; Streck, Emilio L; Paula, Marcos Marques da Silva

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the parameters of oxidative stress and energy metabolism after the acute and long-term administration of gold nanoparticles (GNPs, 10 and 30 nm in diameter) in different organs of rats. Adult male Wistar rats received a single intraperitoneal injection or repeated injections (once daily for 28 days) of saline solution, GNPs-10 or GNPs-30. Twenty-four hours after the last administration, the animals were killed, and the liver, kidney, and heart were isolated for biochemical analysis. We demonstrated that acute administration of GNPs-30 increased the TBARS levels, and that GNPs-10 increased the carbonyl protein levels. The long-term administration of GNPs-10 increased the TBARS levels, and the carbonyl protein levels were increased by GNPs-30. Acute administration of GNPs-10 and GNPs-30 increased SOD activity. Long-term administration of GNPs-30 increased SOD activity. Acute administration of GNPs-10 decreased the activity of CAT, whereas long-term administration of GNP-10 and GNP-30 altered CAT activity randomly. Our results also demonstrated that acute GNPs-30 administration decreased energy metabolism, especially in the liver and heart. Long-term GNPs-10 administration increased energy metabolism in the liver and decreased energy metabolism in the kidney and heart, whereas long-term GNPs-30 administration increased energy metabolism in the heart. The results of our study are consistent with other studies conducted in our research group and reinforce the fact that GNPs can lead to oxidative damage, which is responsible for DNA damage and alterations in energy metabolism. PMID:26583437

  12. Gold nanoparticles alter parameters of oxidative stress and energy metabolism in organs of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gabriela Kozuchovski; Cardoso, Eria; Vuolo, Francieli Silva; Michels, Monique; Zanoni, Elton Torres; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Gomes, Lara Mezari; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Rezin, Gislaine Tezza; Streck, Emilio L; Paula, Marcos Marques da Silva

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the parameters of oxidative stress and energy metabolism after the acute and long-term administration of gold nanoparticles (GNPs, 10 and 30 nm in diameter) in different organs of rats. Adult male Wistar rats received a single intraperitoneal injection or repeated injections (once daily for 28 days) of saline solution, GNPs-10 or GNPs-30. Twenty-four hours after the last administration, the animals were killed, and the liver, kidney, and heart were isolated for biochemical analysis. We demonstrated that acute administration of GNPs-30 increased the TBARS levels, and that GNPs-10 increased the carbonyl protein levels. The long-term administration of GNPs-10 increased the TBARS levels, and the carbonyl protein levels were increased by GNPs-30. Acute administration of GNPs-10 and GNPs-30 increased SOD activity. Long-term administration of GNPs-30 increased SOD activity. Acute administration of GNPs-10 decreased the activity of CAT, whereas long-term administration of GNP-10 and GNP-30 altered CAT activity randomly. Our results also demonstrated that acute GNPs-30 administration decreased energy metabolism, especially in the liver and heart. Long-term GNPs-10 administration increased energy metabolism in the liver and decreased energy metabolism in the kidney and heart, whereas long-term GNPs-30 administration increased energy metabolism in the heart. The results of our study are consistent with other studies conducted in our research group and reinforce the fact that GNPs can lead to oxidative damage, which is responsible for DNA damage and alterations in energy metabolism.

  13. Growing Algae Alter Spectroscopic Characteristics and Chlorine Reactivity of Dissolved Organic Matter from Thermally-Altered Forest Litters.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kuo-Pei; Chow, Alex T

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that wildfires alter spectroscopic characteristics of terrestrial dissolved organic matter (DOM) and increase specific disinfection byproduct formation potential (SDBP-FP). However, it is unclear whether characteristics of thermally altered DOM (TA-DOM) are altered by biogeochemical processes (e.g., transformed by growing algae) before entering water treatment facilities. The freshwater green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and blue-green algae Microcystis aeruginosa were separately incubated in the mixture of cultural medium and pine (Pinus palustris) litter-derived TA-DOMs (50 °C, 250 °C, and 400 °C) over 7 days to demonstrate the effects of algal growth on alterations in SDBP-FP. TA-DOM optical characteristics and SDBP-FP were quantified by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and chlorination-based DBP-FP experiments. After the inoculation with P. subcapitata, TA-DOM aromaticity (indicated by SUVA254) increased from 1.19 to 1.90 L/mg/m for 50 °C-extract but decreased from 4.95 to 3.75 L/mg/m for 400 °C-extract. The fraction of tyrosine-like components decreased from 25.9 to 9.3% for 50 °C-extract but increased from 0.9 to 1.3% for 400 °C-extract. Same patterns were also observed for M. aeruginosa. Growing algae generally increased chlorine reactivities and formations of trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, chloral hydrate, and haloketones. Our data suggest that the biodegradable dissolved organic carbon in TA-DOM decreases as fire intensity (i.e., temperature) increases. Postfire algal blooms can increase chlorine reactivity of fire-affected terrestrial DOM for DBP formation. PMID:27366813

  14. Growing Algae Alter Spectroscopic Characteristics and Chlorine Reactivity of Dissolved Organic Matter from Thermally-Altered Forest Litters.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kuo-Pei; Chow, Alex T

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that wildfires alter spectroscopic characteristics of terrestrial dissolved organic matter (DOM) and increase specific disinfection byproduct formation potential (SDBP-FP). However, it is unclear whether characteristics of thermally altered DOM (TA-DOM) are altered by biogeochemical processes (e.g., transformed by growing algae) before entering water treatment facilities. The freshwater green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and blue-green algae Microcystis aeruginosa were separately incubated in the mixture of cultural medium and pine (Pinus palustris) litter-derived TA-DOMs (50 °C, 250 °C, and 400 °C) over 7 days to demonstrate the effects of algal growth on alterations in SDBP-FP. TA-DOM optical characteristics and SDBP-FP were quantified by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and chlorination-based DBP-FP experiments. After the inoculation with P. subcapitata, TA-DOM aromaticity (indicated by SUVA254) increased from 1.19 to 1.90 L/mg/m for 50 °C-extract but decreased from 4.95 to 3.75 L/mg/m for 400 °C-extract. The fraction of tyrosine-like components decreased from 25.9 to 9.3% for 50 °C-extract but increased from 0.9 to 1.3% for 400 °C-extract. Same patterns were also observed for M. aeruginosa. Growing algae generally increased chlorine reactivities and formations of trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, chloral hydrate, and haloketones. Our data suggest that the biodegradable dissolved organic carbon in TA-DOM decreases as fire intensity (i.e., temperature) increases. Postfire algal blooms can increase chlorine reactivity of fire-affected terrestrial DOM for DBP formation.

  15. Animal health organizations: roles to mitigate the impact of ecologic change on animal health in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Acord, Bobby R; Walton, Thomas E

    2004-10-01

    Production of livestock across North and South America is extensive. The opportunities for production, commerce, and thriving economies related to animal agriculture are balanced against the devastating threats of disease. Commitment by livestock and poultry producers in exporting countries to production methods, herd health management, and biosecurity in their operations must be coupled with an animal health and marketing infrastructure that allows the industries to thrive and offers assurances to trading partners that their livestock industries will not be jeopardized. National and international animal health organizations play a key role in providing this infrastructure to the industries that they serve. The incentive for the successful World agricultural production economies to provide direction and support for improving animal health and conveying principles for competitive and safe production to lesser developed nations is the assurance that the expanding economies of these nations offer an eager and hungry market for the products of the other industries of an export-dependent economy. The World Trade Organization (WTO) was established after the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The WTO provides the permanent international multilateral institutional framework for implementing dispute resolution agreements and the agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures. The SPS agreements allow for the protection of animal and plant health.

  16. Effects of lectin ingestion on animal growth and internal organs.

    PubMed

    Pusztai, A

    1998-01-01

    Lectins are essential and omnipresent plant constituents. As many foods are of plant origin, the daily ingestion of lectins by both humans and animals is appreciable. For example, in an ad hoc survey, 53 edible plants were shown to contain lectins and approx 30% of fresh and processed food regularly consumed by humans had significant hemagglutinating activity (1). The situation is potentially even more acute in animal nutrition because animal diet is less diverse than that of humans, and in most instances foodstuffs are not thoroughly heat-treated. This is particularly significant in the light of our finding a correlation between lectin activity and antinutritional effects (2). As in evolution, the mammalian gut has been regularly exposed to lectins, they must have played an important part in the development of the digestive system. Although based on experience, most overtly toxic plants have been eliminated from the diet, many plants with appreciable lectin content are still consumed because it has not been easy to relate growth retardation and antinutritional, mild allergic or other subclinical symptoms to the food consumed or a particular component of it. As some lectins are at least partially heat stable and most survive the passage through the gut in functionally and immunologically intact form, their interaction with the gut surface epithelium (3) can damage the gut at high dietary intakes and this may lead to digestive disorders/diseases in some instances. However, it is not generally appreciated that not all lectins are antinutrients and indeed some may have beneficial effects and be of potential value in nutritional practice. Accordingly, it is of considerable importance to establish whether a lectin has deleterious or potentially beneficial effects for mammals. Unfortunately at present there are no adequate in vitro methods to do this reliably and it is usually necessary to carry out in vivo animal feeding studies, despite their relatively cumbersome

  17. 14 CFR 125.245 - Organization required to perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Organization required to perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration. 125.245 Section 125.245 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Maintenance § 125.245 Organization required to perform...

  18. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  19. Revisiting the flight of Icarus: making human organs from PSCs with large animal chimeras.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Tamir; Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

    2014-10-01

    While cell therapies hold great potential for treating many conditions, their utility for treating patients that require whole organ replacement is unclear. To address this challenge, we propose using genetically engineered "organ niches" in large animals to generate human organs from pluripotent stem cells and discuss the hurdles facing such strategies.

  20. Hydrothermal alteration experiments: tracking the path from interstellar to chondrites organics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradoff, V.; Bernard, S.; Le Guillou, C.; Jaber, M.; Remusat, L.

    2015-10-01

    Organic molecules are detected in primitive carbonaceous chondrites. The origin of these organics, whether formed prior the accretion phase, or in-situ on the parent body, is still a matter of debate. We have investigated experimentally the chemical evolution of interstellar organic molecules submitted to hydrothermal conditions, mimicking asteroidal alteration (T<200°C). In particular, we want to assess the potential catalytic role of clays minerals in the polymerization/degradation of organics. Hexamethylenetetramine (HMT, compound of C-N bonds) is used as a plausible interstellar precursors from icy grains. Experimental products reveal a large diversity of molecules, including nitrogen organic molecules similar to those found in chondrites.

  1. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Organics and Alteration in Carbonaceous Chondrites: Goop and Crud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Organics and Alteration in Carbonaceous Chondrites: Goop and Crud" included the following reports:Organics on Fe-Silicate Grains: Potential Mimicry of Meteoritic Processes?; Molecular and Compound-Specific Isotopic Study of Monocarboxylic Acids in Murchison and Antarctic Meteorites; Nanoglobules, Macromolecular Materials, and Carbon Sulfides in Carbonaceous Chondrites; Evidence for Terrestrial Organic Contamination of the Tagish Lake Meteorite; Nitrogen Isotopic Imaging of Tagish Lake Carbon Globules; Microscale Distribution of Hydrogen Isotopes in Two Carbonaceous Chondrites; The Nature and Origin of Aromatic Organic Matter in the Tagish Lake Meteorite; Terrestrial Alteration of CM Chondritic Carbonate; Serpentine Nanotubes in CM Chondrites; Experimental Study of Serpentinization Reactions; Chondrule Glass Alteration in Type IIA Chondrules in the CR2 Chondrites EET 87770 and EET 92105: Insights into Elemental Exchange Between Chondrules and Matrices; Aqueous Alteration of Carbonaceous Chondrites: New Insights from Comparative Studies of Two Unbrecciated CM2 Chondrites, Y 791198 and ALH 81002 ;and A Unique Style of Alteration of Iron-Nickel Metal in WIS91600, an Unusual C2 Carbonaceous Chondrite.

  2. Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA): Student Performance, Student Perceptions, and Instructor Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunersel, Adalet Baris; Fleming, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that computer animations are especially helpful in fields such as chemistry and in this mixed-methods study, we investigate the educational effectiveness of Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA), a 3-D software, in four undergraduate biochemistry classes at different universities. Statistically significant findings indicate that…

  3. Qualitative Assessment of a 3D Simulation Program: Faculty, Students, and Bio-Organic Reaction Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Günersel, Adalet B.; Fleming, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that computer-based simulations and animations are especially helpful in fields such as chemistry where concepts are abstract and cannot be directly observed. Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA) is a freely available 3D visualization software program developed to help students understand the chemistry of biomolecular events.…

  4. Conserved versus innovative features in animal body organization.

    PubMed

    Minelli, Alessandro; Fusco, Giuseppe

    2005-11-15

    The origin of evolutionary novelties is a central topic in evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) studies. In any new feature, there is a conserved component that is either structural or related to the underlying genetic control, but it is not always obvious what is really new and what is conserved. Nevertheless, disentangling this blending of old and new features is basic to understanding mechanisms of evolutionary change. The origin of arthropod appendages illustrates the complexity in tracing the origin of evolutionary novelties. At the base of the lineage, the main body axis was already segmented and antero-posteriorly patterned, and the genetic tool kit required to form lateral outgrowths was already available. The novelty was possibly the developmental decision to "read" the available axial information and to exploit it for differentiating segmentally patterned and axially segmented appendages. Some important novelties bridge the gap between what have been traditionally distinguished as systemic and local changes. For example, the origin of the body cavities evolved by several animal groups may have been initiated by simple changes in cell-to-cell adhesive properties. Any possible change in an existing ontogenetic pathway has the potential to generate novelties.

  5. Transformation of organic matters in animal wastes during composting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; He, Chao; You, Shijie; Liu, Weijie; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Ruijun; Qi, Huanhuan; Ren, Nanqi

    2015-12-30

    The transformation of organic matters in swine, cow and chicken manures was compared and evaluated using elemental analysis, FTIR, (13)C NMR, pyrolysis/GC/MS, Biolog and multiple fluorochrome over 60 days composting. The results revealed that cow manure exhibited the greatest C/N and aromaticity, whereas chicken manure exhibited the highest nitrogen and sulfur contents. O-alkyl-C was predominant carbon structure in the three manures. Alkyl-C and carboxyl-C were decomposed dramatically in initial 10 days, and mineralization of O-alkyl-C dominated the curing stage. During pyrolysis of chicken, cow, and swine manures, the majority products were fatty acids, phenols and cholestene derivatives, respectively, however, phenols and cholestene derivatives were strongly reduced in the mature manures. Furthermore, microorganisms in the raw cow, chicken and swine manure demonstrated the highest degradation capabilities for carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids, respectively. Spatial differences in the contents of solid organics in the manure particles were negligible through detection by multiple staining methods during composting.

  6. Transformation of organic matters in animal wastes during composting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; He, Chao; You, Shijie; Liu, Weijie; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Ruijun; Qi, Huanhuan; Ren, Nanqi

    2015-12-30

    The transformation of organic matters in swine, cow and chicken manures was compared and evaluated using elemental analysis, FTIR, (13)C NMR, pyrolysis/GC/MS, Biolog and multiple fluorochrome over 60 days composting. The results revealed that cow manure exhibited the greatest C/N and aromaticity, whereas chicken manure exhibited the highest nitrogen and sulfur contents. O-alkyl-C was predominant carbon structure in the three manures. Alkyl-C and carboxyl-C were decomposed dramatically in initial 10 days, and mineralization of O-alkyl-C dominated the curing stage. During pyrolysis of chicken, cow, and swine manures, the majority products were fatty acids, phenols and cholestene derivatives, respectively, however, phenols and cholestene derivatives were strongly reduced in the mature manures. Furthermore, microorganisms in the raw cow, chicken and swine manure demonstrated the highest degradation capabilities for carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids, respectively. Spatial differences in the contents of solid organics in the manure particles were negligible through detection by multiple staining methods during composting. PMID:26311195

  7. Alteration of protein profile in rat liver of animals exposed to subacute diazinon: a proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Lari, Parisa; Rashedinia, Marzieh; Abnous, Khalil; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-05-01

    Diazinon, an organophosphorus insecticide, is employed to control pests in agriculture. Diazinon may contaminate the environment during the manufacturing process or agricultural application. Previous studies have revealed that diazinon may induce alteration in the protein profile of the liver. Here, a proteomics approach was used to investigate the effects on the protein profile in the liver of rats of subacute oral exposures at 15 mg/kg of diazinon. Liver proteins were separated using 2D-PAGE, and stained by MS-compatible silver staining and/or the fluorescent SYPRO® Ruby protein gel stain. Gels were scanned and analyzed using the Image Master software. Differentially displayed protein species were identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF and MASCOT software. Significantly altered protein species were identified to be involved in apoptosis, cell metabolism, transport, and antioxidant systems. Exposure to diazinon decreased levels of some species of catalase, peroxiredoxin-6, 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, and glucose regulated protein78, whereas the level of protein disulfide-isomerase A3 increased. Our results suggested that diazinon may induce hepatotoxicity through oxidative stress, apoptosis, and metabolic disorders in rat liver.

  8. An altered spinal serotonergic system contributes to increased thermal nociception in an animal model of depression.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gaztelumendi, Antonio; Rojo, María Luisa; Pazos, Angel; Díaz, Alvaro

    2014-06-01

    The olfactory bulbectomized (OB) rat, an animal model of chronic depression with comorbid anxiety, exhibits a profound dysregulation of the brain serotonergic signalling, a neurotransmission system involved in pain transmission and modulation. We here report an increased nociceptive response of OB rats in the tail flick test which is reverted after chronic, but not acute, administration of fluoxetine. Autoradiographic studies demonstrated down-regulation of 5-HT transporters ([(3)H]citalopram binding) and decreased functionality of 5-HT1A receptors (8-OH-DPAT-stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS binding) in the dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord in OB rats. Acute administration of fluoxetine (5-40 mg/kg i.p.) did not modify tail flick latencies in OB rats. However, chronic fluoxetine (10 mg/kg/day s.c., 14 days; osmotic minipumps) progressively attenuated OB-associated thermal hyperalgesia, and a total normalization of the nociceptive response was achieved at the end of the treatment with the antidepressant. In these animals, autoradiographic studies revealed further down-regulation of 5-HT transporters and normalization in the functionality of 5-HT1A receptors on the spinal cord. On the other hand, acute morphine (0.5-10 mg/kg s.c.) produced a similar analgesic effect in OB and sham and OB rats, and no changes were detected in the density ([(3)H]DAMGO binding) and functionality (DAMGO-stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS binding) of spinal μ-opioid receptors in OB rats before and after chronic fluoxetine. Our findings demonstrate the participation of the spinal serotonergic system in the increased thermal nociception exhibited by the OB rat and the antinociceptive effect of chronic fluoxetine in this animal model of depression.

  9. An altered spinal serotonergic system contributes to increased thermal nociception in an animal model of depression.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gaztelumendi, Antonio; Rojo, María Luisa; Pazos, Angel; Díaz, Alvaro

    2014-06-01

    The olfactory bulbectomized (OB) rat, an animal model of chronic depression with comorbid anxiety, exhibits a profound dysregulation of the brain serotonergic signalling, a neurotransmission system involved in pain transmission and modulation. We here report an increased nociceptive response of OB rats in the tail flick test which is reverted after chronic, but not acute, administration of fluoxetine. Autoradiographic studies demonstrated down-regulation of 5-HT transporters ([(3)H]citalopram binding) and decreased functionality of 5-HT1A receptors (8-OH-DPAT-stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS binding) in the dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord in OB rats. Acute administration of fluoxetine (5-40 mg/kg i.p.) did not modify tail flick latencies in OB rats. However, chronic fluoxetine (10 mg/kg/day s.c., 14 days; osmotic minipumps) progressively attenuated OB-associated thermal hyperalgesia, and a total normalization of the nociceptive response was achieved at the end of the treatment with the antidepressant. In these animals, autoradiographic studies revealed further down-regulation of 5-HT transporters and normalization in the functionality of 5-HT1A receptors on the spinal cord. On the other hand, acute morphine (0.5-10 mg/kg s.c.) produced a similar analgesic effect in OB and sham and OB rats, and no changes were detected in the density ([(3)H]DAMGO binding) and functionality (DAMGO-stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS binding) of spinal μ-opioid receptors in OB rats before and after chronic fluoxetine. Our findings demonstrate the participation of the spinal serotonergic system in the increased thermal nociception exhibited by the OB rat and the antinociceptive effect of chronic fluoxetine in this animal model of depression. PMID:24584836

  10. Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from Common Mobile Phone Jammers Alters the Pattern of Muscle Contractions: an Animal Model Study

    PubMed Central

    Rafati, A.; Rahimi, S.; Talebi, A.; Soleimani, A.; Haghani, M.; Mortazavi, S. M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The rapid growth of wireless communication technologies has caused public concerns regarding the biological effects of electromagnetic radiations on human health. Some early reports indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians such as the alterations of the pattern of muscle extractions. This study is aimed at investigating the effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitted from mobile phone jammers on the pulse height of contractions, the time interval between two subsequent contractions and the latency period of frog’s isolated gastrocnemius muscle after stimulation with single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz). Materials and Methods Frogs were kept in plastic containers in a room. Animals in the jammer group were exposed to radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitted from a common Jammer at a distance of 1m from the jammer’s antenna for 2 hours while the control frogs were only sham exposed. Then animals were sacrificed and isolated gastrocnemius muscles were exposed to on/off jammer radiation for 3 subsequent 10 minute intervals. Isolated gastrocnemius muscles were attached to the force transducer with a string. Using a PowerLab device (26-T), the pattern of muscular contractions was monitored after applying single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz) as stimuli. Results The findings of this study showed that the pulse height of muscle contractions could not be affected by the exposure to electromagnetic fields. However, the latency period was effectively altered in RF-exposed samples. However, none of the experiments could show an alteration in the time interval between two subsequent contractions after exposure to electromagnetic fields. Conclusion These findings support early reports which indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians including the effects on the pattern of muscle extractions. PMID:26396969

  11. Soil-foraging animals alter the composition and co-occurrence of microbial communities in a desert shrubland.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, David J; Woodhouse, Jason N; Curlevski, Nathalie J A; Hayward, Matthew; Brown, Mark V; Neilan, Brett A

    2015-12-01

    Animals that modify their physical environment by foraging in the soil can have dramatic effects on ecosystem functions and processes. We compared bacterial and fungal communities in the foraging pits created by bilbies and burrowing bettongs with undisturbed surface soils dominated by biocrusts. Bacterial communities were characterized by Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria, and fungal communities by Lecanoromycetes and Archaeosporomycetes. The composition of bacterial or fungal communities was not observed to vary between loamy or sandy soils. There were no differences in richness of either bacterial or fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the soil of young or old foraging pits, or undisturbed soils. Although the bacterial assemblage did not vary among the three microsites, the composition of fungi in undisturbed soils was significantly different from that in old or young foraging pits. Network analysis indicated that a greater number of correlations between bacterial OTUs occurred in undisturbed soils and old pits, whereas a greater number of correlations between fungal OTUs occurred in undisturbed soils. Our study suggests that digging by soil-disturbing animals is likely to create successional shifts in soil microbial and fungal communities, leading to functional shifts associated with the decomposition of organic matter and the fixation of nitrogen. Given the primacy of organic matter decomposition in arid and semi-arid environments, the loss of native soil-foraging animals is likely to impair the ability of these systems to maintain key ecosystem processes such as the mineralization of nitrogen and the breakdown of organic matter, and to recover from disturbance.

  12. Animal toxins can alter the function of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, John; Bosmans, Frank

    2012-08-01

    Human voltage-activated sodium (Nav) channels are adept at rapidly transmitting electrical signals across long distances in various excitable tissues. As such, they are amongst the most widely targeted ion channels by drugs and animal toxins. Of the nine isoforms, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 are preferentially expressed in DRG neurons where they are thought to play an important role in pain signaling. Although the functional properties of Nav1.8 have been relatively well characterized, difficulties with expressing Nav1.9 in established heterologous systems limit our understanding of the gating properties and toxin pharmacology of this particular isoform. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the role of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 in pain perception and elaborates on the approaches used to identify molecules capable of influencing their function. PMID:23012651

  13. 14 CFR 121.365 - Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization. 121.365 Section 121.365 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS...

  14. Altered CB receptor-signaling in prefrontal cortex from an animal model of depression is reversed by chronic fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gaztelumendi, Antonio; Rojo, M Luisa; Pazos, Angel; Díaz, Alvaro

    2009-03-01

    Bilateral olfactory bulbectomy in the rat (OBX) induces behavioral, neurochemical, and structural abnormalities similar to those observed in human depression that are normalized after chronic, but not acute, treatment with antidepressants. In our study, OBX animals exhibited significant increases in both CB(1) receptor density ([(3)H]CP55490 binding) and functionality (stimulation of [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding by the cannabinoid (CB) agonist WIN 55212-2) at the prefrontal cortex (PFC). After chronic treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg/day, 14 days, s.c.), OBX-induced hyperactivity in the open-field test was fully abolished. Interestingly, chronic fluoxetine fully reversed the enhanced CB(1)-receptor signaling in PFC observed following OBX. The CB agonist Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (5 mg/kg, i.p., 1 day) did not produce any behavioral effect in sham-operated animals but returned locomotor activity to control values in OBX rats. As both acute administration of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and chronic fluoxetine elicited a similar behavioral effect in the OBX rat, it is not unlikely that the regionally selective enhancement of CB(1) receptor-signaling in the PFC could be related with the altered OBX behavior. Our findings reinforce the utility of this animal model to further investigating the implication of the endocannabinoid system in the modulation of emotional processes and its potential role in the adaptive responses to chronic antidepressants.

  15. Lymphatic Territories (Lymphosomes) in a Canine: An Animal Model for Investigation of Postoperative Lymphatic Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Suami, Hiroo; Yamashita, Shuji; Soto-Miranda, Miguel A.; Chang, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Lymph node dissection is often performed as a part of surgical treatment for breast cancer and malignant melanoma to prevent malignant cells from traveling via the lymphatic system. Currently little is known about postoperative lymphatic drainage pattern alterations. This knowledge may be useful for management of recurrent cancer and prevention of breast cancer related lymphedema. We mapped the complete superficial lymphatic system of a dog and used this canine model to perform preliminary studies of lymphatic architectural changes in postoperative condition. Methods Lymphatic territories (lymphosomes) were mapped with 4 female mongrel carcasses using an indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent lymphography and a radiographic microinjection technique. Two live dogs were then subjected to unilateral lymph node dissection of lymph basins of the forelimb, and ICG lymphography and lymphangiogram were performed 6 months after the surgery to investigate lymphatic changes. Lymphatic patterns in the carcass were then compared with postoperative lymphatic patterns in the live dogs. Results Ten lymphosomes were identified, corresponding with ten lymphatic basins. Postoperative fluorescent lymphographic images and lymphangiograms in the live dogs revealed small caliber lymphatic network fulfilling gaps in the surgical area and collateral lymphatic vessels arising from the network connecting to lymph nodes in the contralateral and ipsilateral neck in one dog and the ipsilateral subclavicular vein in another dog. Conclusion Our canine lymphosome map allowed us to observe lymphatic collateral formations after lymph node dissection in live dogs. This canine model may help clarify our understanding of postoperative lymphatic changes in humans in future studies. PMID:23894435

  16. Alterations in glucose and protein metabolism in animals subjected to simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondon, C. E.; Rodnick, K. J.; Dolkas, C. B.; Azhar, S.; Reaven, G. M.

    1992-09-01

    Reduction of physical activity due to disease or environmental restraints, such as total bed rest or exposure to spaceflight, leads to atrophy of skeletal muscle and is frequently accompanied by alterations in food intake and the concentration of metabolic regulatory hormones such as insulin. Hindlimb suspension of laboratory rats, as a model for microgravity, also shows marked atrophy of gravity dependent muscles along with a reduced gain in body weight. Suspended rats exhibit enhanced sensitivity to insulin-induced glucose uptake when compared with normal control rats and resistance to insulin action when compared with control rats matched similarly for reduced body weight gain. These changes are accompanied by decreased insulin binding and tyrosine kinase activity in soleus but not plantaris muscle, unchanged glucose uptake by perfused hindlimb and decreased sensitivity but not responsiveness to insulin-induced suppression of net proteolysis in hindlimb skeletal muscle. These findings suggest that loss of insulin sensitivity during muscle atrophy is associated with decreased insulin binding and tyrosine kinase activity in atrophied soleus muscle along with decreased sensitivity to the effects of insulin on suppressing net protein breakdown but not on enhancing glucose uptake by perfused hindlimb.

  17. Alterations in glucose and protein metabolism in animals subjected to simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondon, C. E.; Rodnick, K. J.; Azhar, S.; Reaven, G. M.; Dolkas, C. B.

    1992-01-01

    Reduction of physical activity due to disease or environmental restraints, such as total bed rest or exposure to spaceflight, leads to atrophy of skeletal muscle and is frequently accompanied by alterations in food intake and the concentration of metabolic regulatory hormones such as insulin. Hindlimb suspension of laboratory rats, as a model for microgravity, also shows marked atrophy of gravity-dependent muscles along with a reduced gain in body weight. Suspended rats exhibit enhanced sensitivity to insulin-induced glucose uptake when compared with normal control rats and resistance to insulin action when compared with control rats matched similarly for reduced body weight gain. These changes are accompanied by decreased insulin binding and tyrosine kinase activity in soleus but not plantaris muscle, unchanged glucose uptake by perfused hindlimb and decreased sensitivity but not responsiveness to insulin-induced suppression of net proteolysis in hindlimb skeletal muscle. These findings suggest that loss of insulin sensitivity during muscle atrophy is associated with decreased insulin binding and tyrosine kinase activity in atrophied soleus muscle along with decreased sensitivity to the effects of insulin on suppressing net protein breakdown but not on enhancing glucose uptake by perfused hindlimb.

  18. Molecular alterations in areas generating fast ripples in an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Winden, Kellen D; Bragin, Anatol; Engel, Jerome; Geschwind, Dan H

    2015-06-01

    The molecular basis of epileptogenesis is poorly characterized. Studies in humans and animal models have identified an electrophysiological signature that precedes the onset of epilepsy, which has been termed fast ripples (FRs) based on its frequency. Multiple lines of evidence implicate regions generating FRs in epileptogenesis, and FRs appear to demarcate the seizure onset zone, suggesting a role in ictogenesis as well. We performed gene expression analysis comparing areas of the dentate gyrus that generate FRs to those that do not generate FRs in a well-characterized rat model of epilepsy. We identified a small cohort of genes that are differentially expressed in FR versus non-FR brain tissue and used quantitative PCR to validate some of those that modulate neuronal excitability. Gene expression network analysis demonstrated conservation of gene co-expression between non-FR and FR samples, but examination of gene connectivity revealed changes that were most pronounced in the cm-40 module, which contains several genes associated with synaptic function and the differentially expressed genes Kcna4, Kcnv1, and Npy1r that are down-regulated in FRs. We then demonstrate that the genes within the cm-40 module are regulated by seizure activity and enriched for the targets of the RNA binding protein Elavl4. Our data suggest that seizure activity induces co-expression of genes associated with synaptic transmission and that this pattern is attenuated in areas displaying FRs, implicating the failure of this mechanism in the generation of FRs. PMID:25818007

  19. Proteome alterations in response to aristolochic acids in experimental animal model.

    PubMed

    Rucevic, Marijana; Rosenquist, Thomas; Breen, Lucas; Cao, Lulu; Clifton, James; Hixson, Douglas; Josic, Djuro

    2012-12-01

    Strong indications have been presented that dietary poisoning with aristolochic acids (AA) is responsible for Endemic Nephropathy (EN) and AA associated cancer of the upper urinary tract (UUTC). Our recent investigation showed drastic urinary proteome changes in AA treated mice. This study was designed to identify proteome changes associated with AA nephrotoxicity in experimental animal model. The DBA and C57BL mice, which differ in AA sensitivity, were exposed to AA for 4 days. The strategy for urinary, plasma and kidney tissue proteome study of AA exposed and control mice integrated gel-based and in-solution tryptic digestion combined with LC-ESI-MS/MS. To maximize proteome coverage, plasma fractionation scheme was developed and MS compatible sequential tissue extraction procedure was established. Proteomic analyses of urinary, plasma and kidney tissue tryptic digests resulted in identification of several cytoskeletal proteins, as well as proteins involved in kidney development and inflammatory response, that are differentially expressed in both AA exposed and control mice. These proteins are consistent with renal pathogenesis of endotoxicity and cancer. This proteomic strategy could be effectively translated for unbiased discovery of potential biomarkers for EN and associated UUTC in humans. At the same time, these results highlight the significance of AA exposure with EN. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Integrated omics.

  20. Plasticity in animal personality traits: does prior experience alter the degree of boldness?

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Ashley J; Winrow-Giffen, Alexandria; Ashley, Paul J; Sneddon, Lynne U

    2006-01-01

    Theoreticians predict that animal ‘personality’ traits may be maladaptive if fixed throughout different contexts, so the present study aimed to test whether these traits are fixed or plastic. Rainbow trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss) were given emboldening or negative experiences in the forms of watching bold or shy individuals responding to novelty or winning or losing fights to examine whether prior experience affected boldness. Bold individuals that lost fights or watched shy demonstrators became more shy by increasing their latency to approach a novel object, whereas shy observers that watched bold demonstrators remained cautious and did not modify their responses to novelty. Shy winners became bolder and decreased their latency to approach a novel object, but shy losers also displayed this shift. In comparison, control groups showed no change in behaviour. Bold fishes given negative experiences reduced their boldness which may be an adaptive response; however, shy fishes may base their strategic decisions upon self-assessment of their relative competitive ability and increase their boldness in situations where getting to resources more quickly ensures they outcompete better competitors. PMID:17164196

  1. Ethical issues of transplanting organs from transgenic animals into human beings.

    PubMed

    Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human's body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal's organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven.

  2. Ethical issues of transplanting organs from transgenic animals into human beings.

    PubMed

    Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human's body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal's organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven. PMID:25383334

  3. Omega-3 fatty acids alter behavioral and oxidative stress parameters in animals subjected to fenproporex administration.

    PubMed

    Model, Camila S; Gomes, Lara M; Scaini, Giselli; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Rezin, Gislaine T; Steckert, Amanda V; Valvassori, Samira S; Varela, Roger B; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L

    2014-03-01

    Studies have consistently reported the participation of oxidative stress in bipolar disorder (BD). Evidences indicate that omega-3 (ω3) fatty acids play several important roles in brain development and functioning. Moreover, preclinical and clinical evidence suggests roles for ω3 fatty acids in BD. Considering these evidences, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of ω3 fatty acids on locomotor behavior and oxidative stress parameters (TBARS and protein carbonyl content) in brain of rats subjected to an animal model of mania induced by fenproporex. The fenproporex treatment increased locomotor behavior in saline-treated rats under reversion and prevention model, and ω3 fatty acids prevented fenproporex-related hyperactivity. Moreover, fenproporex increased protein carbonyls in the prefrontal cortex and cerebral cortex, and the administration of ω3 fatty acids reversed this effect. Lipid peroxidation products also are increased in prefrontal cortex, striatum, hippocampus and cerebral after fenproporex administration, but ω3 fatty acids reversed this damage only in the hippocampus. On the other hand, in the prevention model, fenproporex increased carbonyl content only in the cerebral cortex, and administration of ω3 fatty acids prevented this damage. Additionally, the administration of fenproporex resulted in a marked increased of TBARS in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex, and prevent this damage in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. In conclusion, we are able to demonstrate that fenproporex-induced hyperlocomotion and damage through oxidative stress were prevented by ω3 fatty acids. Thus, the ω3 fatty acids may be important adjuvant therapy of bipolar disorder. PMID:24385143

  4. Farm Animal Models of Organic Dust Exposure and Toxicity: Insights and Implications for Respiratory Health

    PubMed Central

    McClendon, Chakia J.; Gerald, Carresse L.; Waterman, Jenora T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Modern food animal production is a major contributor to the global economy, owing to advanced intensive indoor production facilities aimed at increasing market readiness and profit. Consequences of these advances are accumulation of dusts, gases and microbial products that diminish air quality within production facilities. Chronic inhalation exposure contributes to onset and exacerbation of respiratory symptoms and diseases in animals and workers. This article reviews literature regarding constituents of farm animal production facility dusts; animal responses to production building and organic dust exposure, and the effect of chronic inhalation exposure on pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammation. Recent findings –Porcine models of production facility and organic dust exposures reveal striking similarities to observations of human cells, tissues and clinical data. Oxidative stress plays a key role in mediating respiratory diseases in animals and humans, and enhancement of antioxidant levels through nutritional supplements can improve respiratory health. Summary – Pigs are well adapted to the exposures common to swine production buildings and thus serve as excellent models for facility workers. Insight for understanding mechanisms governing organic dust associated respiratory diseases may come from parallel comparisons between farmers and the animals they raise. PMID:25636160

  5. Sex-specific alterations in behavioral and cognitive functions in a "three hit" animal model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kekesi, G; Petrovszki, Z; Benedek, G; Horvath, G

    2015-05-01

    Whereas schizophrenia affects both human sexes, there are known sex-dependent disparities. We developed a chronic animal model that shows some schizophrenia-related deficits in rats by applying selective breeding after subchronic ketamine administration connected with postweaning social isolation (complex treatment). Our aim was to determine the sex-specific effects of these interventions on several processes. Sensory gating to acoustic stimulation, pain sensitivity, motor behavior, spatial learning and memory deficits on the hole-board test were assessed in the 17th generation of selectively bred Wistar rats compared to their naive counterparts with or without complex treatment. We found differences between the sexes: selectively bred males with complex treatment showed the lowest pain sensitivity; however, the results of the prepulse inhibition test indicated that female rats showed enhanced impairment of sensory gating and increased acoustic startle reaction. The cognitive performance, working and reference memory ratios were significantly decreased by selective breeding and showed sex-specific alterations, with the smallest value in male rats of the new substrain. Based on these results, the animals of the new substrain could be classified into the high-risk for schizophreniform phenotype with the highest sensitivity of males with complex treatment. Decreased cognitive performance highlighted spatial learning deficits in the selectively bred and treated rats that escalate the validity of our new and complex rat model of schizophrenia. The results indicate the same sex selectivity as observed in humans, with increased incidence of risk ratios for men to develop schizophrenia relative to women. PMID:25698594

  6. Sex-specific alterations in behavioral and cognitive functions in a "three hit" animal model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kekesi, G; Petrovszki, Z; Benedek, G; Horvath, G

    2015-05-01

    Whereas schizophrenia affects both human sexes, there are known sex-dependent disparities. We developed a chronic animal model that shows some schizophrenia-related deficits in rats by applying selective breeding after subchronic ketamine administration connected with postweaning social isolation (complex treatment). Our aim was to determine the sex-specific effects of these interventions on several processes. Sensory gating to acoustic stimulation, pain sensitivity, motor behavior, spatial learning and memory deficits on the hole-board test were assessed in the 17th generation of selectively bred Wistar rats compared to their naive counterparts with or without complex treatment. We found differences between the sexes: selectively bred males with complex treatment showed the lowest pain sensitivity; however, the results of the prepulse inhibition test indicated that female rats showed enhanced impairment of sensory gating and increased acoustic startle reaction. The cognitive performance, working and reference memory ratios were significantly decreased by selective breeding and showed sex-specific alterations, with the smallest value in male rats of the new substrain. Based on these results, the animals of the new substrain could be classified into the high-risk for schizophreniform phenotype with the highest sensitivity of males with complex treatment. Decreased cognitive performance highlighted spatial learning deficits in the selectively bred and treated rats that escalate the validity of our new and complex rat model of schizophrenia. The results indicate the same sex selectivity as observed in humans, with increased incidence of risk ratios for men to develop schizophrenia relative to women.

  7. Ethical Issues of Transplanting Organs from Transgenic Animals into Human Beings

    PubMed Central

    Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human’s body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal’s organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven. PMID:25383334

  8. Does glimepiride alter the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil citrate in diabetic nephropathy animals: investigating mechanism of interaction by molecular modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Alok Shiomurti; Timiri, Ajay Kumar; Mazumder, Papiya Mitra; Chandewar, Anil

    2015-10-01

    The present study evaluates possible drug interactions between glimepiride (GLIM) and sildenafil citrate (SIL) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathic (DN) animals and also postulates the possible mechanism of interaction based on molecular modeling studies. Diabetic nephropathy was induced by single dose of STZ (60 mg kg(-1), i.p.) and was confirmed by assessing blood and urine biochemical parameters 28 days after induction. Selected DN animals were used to explore the drug interaction between GLIM (0.5 mg kg(-1), p.o.) and SIL (2.5 mg kg(-1), p.o.) on the 29th and 70th day of the protocol. Possible drug interaction was assessed by evaluating the plasma drug concentration using HPLC-UV and changes in biochemical parameters in blood and urine were also determined. The mechanism of the interaction was postulated from the results of a molecular modeling study using the Maestro module of Schrodinger software. DN was confirmed as there was significant alteration in blood and urine biochemical parameters in STZ-treated groups. The concentration of SIL increased significantly (P < 0.001) in rat plasma when co-administered with GLIM on the 70th day of the protocol. Molecular modeling revealed important interactions with rat serum albumin and CYP2C9. GLIM has a strong hydrophobic interaction with binding site residues of rat serum albumin compared to SIL, whereas for CYP2C9, GLIM forms a stronger hydrogen bond than SIL with polar contacts and hydrophobic interactions. The present study concludes that bioavailability of SIL increases when co-administered chronically with GLIM in the management of DN animals, and the mechanism is supported by molecular modeling studies. PMID:26428531

  9. Roles of the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) and International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) in the Global Organization and Support of 3Rs Advances in Laboratory Animal Science.

    PubMed

    Turner, Patricia V; Pekow, Cynthia; Clark, Judy MacArthur; Vergara, Patri; Bayne, Kathryn; White, William J; Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Baneux, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    Practical implementation of the 3Rs at national and regional levels around the world requires long-term commitment, backing, and coordinated efforts by international associations for laboratory animal medicine and science, including the International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) and the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS). Together these organizations support the efforts of regional organization and communities of laboratory animal science professionals as well as the development of local associations and professional colleges that promote the training and continuing education of research facility personnel and veterinary specialists. The recent formation of a World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) Collaborating Center for Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare emphasizes the need for research into initiatives promoting laboratory animal welfare, particularly in emerging economies and regions with nascent associations of laboratory animal science.

  10. Development of Gravity-Sensing Organs in Altered Gravity Conditions: Opposite Conclusions From an Amphibian and a Molluscan Preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiederhold, Michael L.; Pedrozo, Hugo A.; Harrison, Jeffrey L.; Hejl, Robert; Gao, Wenyuan

    1997-01-01

    Several components of the systems animals use to orient to gravity might develop differently in micrograms. If the growth of the "test masses" on which gravity acts (otoliths, in vertebrates, statoliths or statoconia in most invertebrates) is controlled on the basis of their weight, larger otoliths (or their analogs) would be expected to develop in micrograms. The vestibular systems in animals reared in altered gravity have been studied in several species, with varied results being reported. Early Russian reports of Xenopus larvae reared in space indicated no qualitative differences in the vestibular organs, compared to ground-reared controls. A similar lack of differences in Xenopus were reported. The ultricular otolith was 30% larger in space-reared Xenopus. No differences in saccular otolith volume between centrifuged and control adult rats were found. A delay in otoconial development in chick embryos reared at 2 grams on a centrifuge was reported but in a later report, no differences in otolith weight between 2 grams and control chicks were found. Increased optokinetic responses in flight-reared Xenopus tadpoles, suggesting that the animals reared in the absence of gravity made greater relative use of their visual system, rather than the vestibular system, in orienting to a moving stimulus was reported. To test early Japanese newt, CYnops pyrrhogaster, were maintained in orbit for 15 days on the IML-2 mission in 1994. All specimens reached orbit before any otoconia were formed and all major components of the inner ear were formed by the end of the flight. In ground-based studies of he Aplysia statocyst, the volume of the statolith in embryos and the number statoconia in post-metamorphic animals were compared between 1-gram controls and specimens reared at 2 to 5.7 grams.

  11. Endoderm induction by the organizer-secreted factors chordin and noggin in Xenopus animal caps.

    PubMed Central

    Sasai, Y; Lu, B; Piccolo, S; De Robertis, E M

    1996-01-01

    Spemann's organizer has potent neural inducing and mesoderm dorsalizing activities in the Xenopus gastrula. A third activity, the organizer's ability to induce a secondary gut, has been difficult to analyze experimentally due to the lack of early gene markers. Here we introduce endodermin, a pan-endodermal gene marker, and use it to demonstrate that chordin (Chd), a protein secreted by the organizer region, is able to induce endodermal differentiation in Xenopus. The ability of chd, as well as that of noggin, to induce endoderm in animal cap explants is repressed by the ventralizing factor BMP-4. When FGF signaling is blocked by a dominant-negative FGF receptor in chd-injected animal caps, neural induction is inhibited and most of the explant is induced to become endoderm. The results suggest that proteins secreted by the organizer, acting together with known peptide growth factors, regulate differentiation of the endodermal germ layer. Images PMID:8887546

  12. Short Animation Movies as Advance Organizers in Physics Teaching: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koscianski, Andre; Ribeiro, Rafael Joao; da Silva, Sani Carvalho Rutz

    2012-01-01

    Background: Advance organizers are instructional materials that help students use previous knowledge to make links with new information. Short animation movies are a possible format and are well suited for physics, as they can portray dynamic phenomena and represent abstract concepts. Purpose: The study aimed to determine guidelines for the…

  13. What's Inside Bodies? Learning about Skeletons and Other Organ Systems of Vertebrate Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael

    This paper describes a study of young children's understanding of what is on the inside of animals--skeletons and other organ systems. The study uses 2-D drawings based on the idea that a drawing is the representational model and is the outward expression of the mental model. The 617 drawings made by participants in the study were awarded one of…

  14. Short animation movies as advance organizers in physics teaching: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koscianski, André; João Ribeiro, Rafael; Carvalho Rutz da Silva, Sani

    2012-11-01

    Background : Advance organizers are instructional materials that help students use previous knowledge to make links with new information. Short animation movies are a possible format and are well suited for physics, as they can portray dynamic phenomena and represent abstract concepts. Purpose : The study aimed to determine guidelines for the construction of an instructional short animation movie, with the role of an advance organizer. A film was created in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach, making part of a physics lesson and concerning the subject 'moment of a force'. Sample : The study took place in a Brazilian school in the city of Arapoti, in the south region of the country. Thirty-eight students participated, having an average age of 16 and following the third year of high school. Design and methods : Criteria drawn from a literature review directed the construction of the movie and the lesson. Data were collected using pre- and post-tests; registers of oral comments were also done during the class. The post-test included open-ended questions, allowing students to write remarks concerning the lesson and the animation. Conclusions : The article describes steps and guidelines to orient the process of designing an animation movie with the role of advance organizer. Data indicated that the movie facilitated the construction of links between pre-existent knowledge and the new information presented in the lesson. The proposed methodology can be considered a valid framework to derive similar approaches.

  15. Enhancement of organ regeneration in animal models by a stem cell-stimulating plant mixture.

    PubMed

    Kiss, István; Tibold, Antal; Halmosi, Róbert; Bartha, Eva; Koltai, Katalin; Orsós, Zsuzsanna; Bujdosó, László; Ember, István

    2010-06-01

    Adult stem cells play an important role in the regeneration of damaged organs. Attempts have already been made to enhance stem cell production by cytokines, in order to increase the improvement of cardiac functions after myocardial infarction. In our present study we investigated the possibility whether instead of cytokine injection dietary stimulation of stem cell production accelerates the organ regeneration in animals. A dietary supplement, Olimpiq StemXCell (Crystal Institute Ltd., Eger, Hungary), containing plant extracts (previously proved to increase the number of circulating CD34(+) cells) was consumed in human equivalent doses by the experimental animals. In the first experiment carbon tetrachloride was applied to CBA/Ca mice, to induce liver damage, and liver weights between StemXCell-fed and control animals were compared 10 days after the treatment. In the second model experimental diabetes was induced in F344 rats by alloxan. Blood sugar levels were measured for 5 weeks in the control and StemXCell-fed groups. The third part of the study investigated the effect of StemXCell on cardiac functions. Eight weeks after causing a myocardial infarction in Wistar rats by isoproterenol, left ventricular ejection fraction was determined as a functional parameter of myocardial regeneration. In all three animal models StemXCell consumption statistically significantly improved the organ regeneration (relative liver weights, 4.78 +/-0.06 g/100 g vs. 4.97 +/- 0.07 g/100 g; blood sugar levels at week 5, 16 +/- 1.30 mmol/L vs. 10.2 +/- 0.92 mmol/L; ejection fraction, 57.5 +/- 2.23 vs. 68.2 +/- 4.94; controls vs. treated animals, respectively). Our study confirms the hypothesis that dietary enhancement of stem cell production may protect against organ injuries and helps in the regeneration.

  16. Altering Intracellular pH Disrupts Development and Cellular Organization in Preimplantation Hamster Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Squirrell, Jayne M.; Lane, Michelle; Bavister, Barry D.

    2016-01-01

    In early cleavage stage hamster embryos, the inability to regulate intracellular pH (pHi) properly is associated with reduced developmental competence in vitro. The disruption of mitochondrial organization is also correlated with reduced development in vitro. To determine the relationship between pHi and the disruption of cytoplasmic organization, we examined the effects of altering pHi on hamster embryo development, mitochondrial distribution, and cytoskeletal organization. The weak base trimethylamine was used to increase pHi and was found to reduce embryo development and disrupt the perinuclear organization of mitochondria. The weak acid 5,5-dimethyl-2,4-oxazolinedione was used to decrease pHi and was also found to reduce development and disrupt the perinuclear organization of mitochondria. With either treatment, the microfilament organization was perturbed, but the microtubule cytoskeleton was not. However, the temporal progression of the disruption of mitochondrial distribution was more rapid in alkalinized embryos than acidified embryos, as revealed by two-photon imaging of living embryos. Additionally, the disruption of the microfilament network by the two treatments was not identical. The cytoplasmic disruptions observed were not due to acute toxicity of the compounds because embryos recovered developmentally when the treatment compounds were removed. These observations link ionic homeostasis, structural integrity and developmental competence in preimplantation hamster embryos. PMID:11369617

  17. Molecular alteration of marine dissolved organic matter under experimental hydrothermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkes, Jeffrey A.; Hansen, Christian T.; Goldhammer, Tobias; Bach, Wolfgang; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2016-02-01

    Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a large (660 Pg) pool of reduced carbon that is subject to thermal alteration in hydrothermal systems and sedimentary basins. In natural high-temperature hydrothermal systems, DOM is almost completely removed, but the mechanism and temperature dependence of this removal have not been studied to date. We investigated molecular-level changes to DOM that was solid-phase extracted (SPE-DOM) from the deep ocean of the North Pacific Ocean. This complex molecular mixture was experimentally exposed to temperatures between 100 and 380 °C over the course of two weeks in artificial seawater, and was then characterised on a molecular level via ultrahigh-resolution Fourier-transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). Almost 93% of SPE-DOM was removed by the treatment at 380 °C, and this removal was accompanied by a consistent pattern of SPE-DOM alteration across the temperatures studied. Higher molecular weight and more oxygen rich compounds were preferentially removed, suggesting that decarboxylation and dehydration of carboxylic acid and alcohol groups are the most rapid degradation mechanisms. Nitrogen containing compounds followed the same overall trends as those containing just C, H and O up to 300 °C. Above this temperature, the most highly altered samples contained very little of the original character of marine DOM, instead being mainly composed of very low intensity N- and S- containing molecules with a high H/C ratio (>1.5). Our results suggest that abiotic hydrothermal alteration of SPE-DOM may already occur at temperatures above 68 °C. Our experiments were conducted without a sedimentary or mineral phase, and demonstrate that profound molecular alteration and almost complete removal of marine SPE-DOM requires nothing more than heating in a seawater matrix.

  18. Immunologic alterations and the pathogenesis of organ failure in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Opal, Steven M

    2011-10-01

    Rapid and marked alterations of innate and adaptive immunity typify the host response to systemic infection and acute inflammatory states. Immune dysfunction contributes to the development of organ failure in most patients with critical illness. The molecular mechanisms by which microbial pathogens and tissue injury activate myeloid cells and prime cellular and humoral immunity are increasingly understood. An early and effective immune response to microbial invasion is essential to mount an effective antimicrobial response. However, unchecked and nonresolving inflammation can induce diffuse vasodilation, increased capillary permeability, microvascular damage, coagulation activation, and organ dysfunction. Control of the inflammatory response to limit tissue damage, yet retain the antimicrobial responses in critically ill patients with severe infection, has been sought for decades. Anti-inflammatory approaches might be beneficial in some patients but detrimental in others. It is now clear that a state of sepsis-induced immune suppression can follow the immune activation phase of sepsis. In carefully selected patients, a better therapeutic strategy might be to provide immunoadjuvants to reconstitute immune function in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Proresolving agents are also in development to terminate acute inflammatory reactions without immune suppression. This brief review summarizes the current understanding of the fundamental immune alterations in critical illness that lead to organ failure in critical illness.

  19. Phytoestrogens alter the reproductive organ development in the mink (Mustela vison)

    SciTech Connect

    Ryoekkynen, Ari . E-mail: ryokkyne@cc.joensuu.fi; Nieminen, Petteri; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Pyykoenen, Teija; Asikainen, Juha; Haenninen, Sari; Mononen, Jaakko; Kukkonen, Jussi V.K.

    2005-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the reproductive effects of two perorally applied phytoestrogens, genistein (8 mg/kg/day) and {beta}-sitosterol (50 mg/kg/day), on the mink (Mustela vison) at human dietary exposure levels. Parental generations were exposed over 9 months to these phytoestrogens and their offspring were exposed via gestation and lactation. Parents and their offspring were sampled 21 days after the birth of the kits. Sex hormone levels, sperm quality, organ weights, and development of the kits were examined. The exposed females were heavier than the control females at the 1st postnatal day (PND). The control kits were heavier than the exposed kits from the 1st to the 21st PND. Phytoestrogens did not affect the organ weights of the adult minks, but the relative testicular weight of the exposed kits was higher than in the control kits. The relative prostate weight was higher and the relative uterine weight lower in the {beta}-sitosterol-exposed kits than in the control kits. Moreover, the plasma dihydrotestosterone levels were lower in the genistein-exposed male kits compared to the control male kits. This study could not explain the mechanisms behind these alterations. The results indicate that perinatal phytoestrogen exposures cause alterations in the weight of the reproductive organs of the mink kits.

  20. Ineffective delivery of diet-derived microRNAs to recipient animal organisms.

    PubMed

    Snow, Jonathan W; Hale, Andrew E; Isaacs, Stephanie K; Baggish, Aaron L; Chan, Stephen Y

    2013-07-01

    Cross-kingdom delivery of specific microRNAs to recipient organisms via food ingestion has been reported recently. However, it is unclear if such delivery of microRNAs occurs frequently in animal organisms after typical dietary intake. We found substantial levels of specific microRNAs in diets commonly consumed orally by humans, mice, and honey bees. Yet, after ingestion of fruit replete with plant microRNAs (MIR156a, MIR159a, and MIR169a), a cohort of healthy athletes did not carry detectable plasma levels of those molecules. Similarly, despite consumption of a diet with animal fat replete in endogenous miR-21, negligible expression of miR-21 in plasma or organ tissue was observed in miR-21 -/- recipient mice. Correspondingly, when fed vegetarian diets containing the above plant microRNAs, wild-type recipient mice expressed insignificant levels of these microRNAs. Finally, despite oral uptake of pollen containing these plant microRNAs, negligible delivery of these molecules was observed in recipient honeybees. Therefore, we conclude that horizontal delivery of microRNAs via typical dietary ingestion is neither a robust nor a frequent mechanism to maintain steady-state microRNA levels in a variety of model animal organisms, thus defining the biological limits of these molecules in vivo. PMID:23669076

  1. The soil organic carbon content of anthropogenically altered organic soils effects the dissolved organic matter quality, but not the dissolved organic carbon concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Stefan; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Bechtold, Michel; Lücke, Andreas; Bol, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important link between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This is especially true for peatlands which usually show high concentrations of DOC due to the high stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC). Most previous studies found that DOC concentrations in the soil solution depend on the SOC content. Thus, one would expect low DOC concentrations in peatlands which have anthropogenically been altered by mixing with sand. Here, we want to show the effect of SOC and groundwater level on the quantity and quality of the dissolved organic matter (DOM). Three sampling sites were installed in a strongly disturbed bog. Two sites differ in SOC (Site A: 48%, Site B: 9%) but show the same mean annual groundwater level of 15 and 18 cm below ground, respectively. The SOC content of site C (11%) is similar to Site B, but the groundwater level is much lower (-31 cm) than at the other two sites. All sites have a similar depth of the organic horizon (30 cm) and the same land-use (low-intensity sheep grazing). Over two years, the soil solution was sampled bi-weekly in three depths (15, 30 and 60 cm) and three replicates. All samples were analyzed for DOC and selected samples for dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and delta-13C and delta-15N. Despite differences in SOC and groundwater level, DOC concentrations did not differ significantly (A: 192 ± 62 mg/L, B: 163 ± 55 mg/L and C: 191 ± 97 mg/L). At all sites, DOC concentrations exceed typical values for peatlands by far and emphasize the relevance even of strongly disturbed organic soils for DOC losses. Individual DOC concentrations were controlled by the temperature and the groundwater level over the preceding weeks. Differences in DOM quality were clearer. At site B with a low SOC content, the DOC:DON ratio of the soil solution equals the soil's C:N ratio, but the DOC:DON ratio is much higher than the C:N ratio at site A. In all cases, the DOC:DON ratio strongly correlates with delta-13C. There is no

  2. Varying responses of insect herbivores to altered plant chemistry under organic and conventional treatments

    PubMed Central

    Staley, Joanna T.; Stewart-Jones, Alex; Pope, Tom W.; Wright, Denis J.; Leather, Simon R.; Hadley, Paul; Rossiter, John T.; van Emden, Helmut F.; Poppy, Guy M.

    2010-01-01

    The hypothesis that plants supplied with organic fertilizers are better defended against insect herbivores than those supplied with synthetic fertilizers was tested over two field seasons. Organic and synthetic fertilizer treatments at two nitrogen concentrations were supplied to Brassica plants, and their effects on the abundance of herbivore species and plant chemistry were assessed. The organic treatments also differed in fertilizer type: a green manure was used for the low-nitrogen treatment, while the high-nitrogen treatment contained green and animal manures. Two aphid species showed different responses to fertilizers: the Brassica specialist Brevicoryne brassicae was more abundant on organically fertilized plants, while the generalist Myzus persicae had higher populations on synthetically fertilized plants. The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (a crucifer specialist) was more abundant on synthetically fertilized plants and preferred to oviposit on these plants. Glucosinolate concentrations were up to three times greater on plants grown in the organic treatments, while foliar nitrogen was maximized on plants under the higher of the synthetic fertilizer treatments. The varying response of herbivore species to these strong differences in plant chemistry demonstrates that hypotheses on defence in organically grown crops have over-simplified the response of phytophagous insects. PMID:19906673

  3. Molecular organization of the nodal region is not altered in spontaneously diabetic BB-Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Brown, A A; Xu, T; Arroyo, E J; Levinson, S R; Brophy, P J; Peles, E; Scherer, S S

    2001-07-15

    We examined the organization of the molecular components of the nodal region in spontaneously diabetic BB-Wistar rats. Frozen sections and teased fibers from the sciatic nerves were immunostained for nodal (voltage-gated Na(+) channels, ankyrin(G), and ezrin), paranodal (contactin, Caspr, and neurofascin 155 kDa), and juxtaparanodal (Caspr2, the Shaker-type K(+) channels Kv1.1 and Kv1.2, and their associated subunit Kvbeta2) proteins. All of these proteins were properly localized in myelinated fibers from rats that had been diabetic for 15-44 days, compared to age-matched, nondiabetic animals. These results demonstrate that the axonal membrane is not reorganized, so nodal reorganization is not likely to be the cause of nerve conduction slowing in this animal model of acute diabetes. PMID:11438983

  4. Type IV kerogens as analogues for organic macromolecular materials in aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites.

    PubMed

    Matthewman, Richard; Martins, Zita; Sephton, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the processes involved in the evolution of organic matter in the early Solar System requires extensive experimental work. The scientifically valuable carbonaceous chondrites are principal targets for organic analyses, but these meteorites are rare. Meteoritic analog materials available in larger quantities, on which experiments can be performed, would be highly beneficial. The bulk of the organic inventory of carbonaceous chondrites is made up of solvent-insoluble macromolecular material. This high-molecular-weight entity provides a record of thermal and aqueous parent-body alteration of precursor organic structures present at the birth of the Solar System. To identify an effective analogue for this macromolecular material, we analyzed a series of terrestrial kerogens by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Type I and II kerogens are unsuitable analogues owing to their highly aliphatic nature. Type III kerogens show some similarities to meteoritic macromolecular materials but display a substantial biological heritage. Type IV kerogens, in this study derived from Mesozoic paleosols and produced by the reworking and oxidation of organic matter, represent an effective analogue. Some isomeric differences exist between meteoritic macromolecular materials and type IV kerogens, and stepped pyrolysis indicates variations in thermal stability. In addition to being a suitable material for novel experimentation, type IV kerogens also have the potential to aid in the optimization of instruments for deployment on Mars. PMID:23551239

  5. European organic dairy farmers' preference for animal health management within the farm management system.

    PubMed

    van Soest, F J S; Mourits, M C M; Hogeveen, H

    2015-11-01

    The expertise and knowledge of veterinary advisors on improving animal health management is key towards a better herd health status. However, veterinary advisors are not always aware of the goals and priorities of dairy farmers. To dairy farmers animal health is only one aspect of farm management and resources may be allocated to other more preferred areas. Veterinary advisors may experience this as non-compliant with their advice. To explore the preferences of European Union (EU) organic dairy farmers for improved animal health management relative to other farm management areas an adaptive conjoint analysis (ACA) was performed. A total of 215 farmers participated originating from organic dairy farms in France (n = 70), Germany (n = 60), Spain (n = 28) and Sweden (n = 57). The management areas udder health and claw health represented animal health management whereas barn, calf and pasture management represented potential conflicting management areas. Results indicate that EU organic dairy farmers differ in their preferences for improved animal health management within the farming system. In general, improved calf management was the most preferred area and improved claw health management was found to be least preferred, the remaining areas were of intermediate interest. Cluster analyses on claw health measures and udder health measures resulted in respectively seven and nine distinct preference profiles. The results indicate a high degree of variation in farmers' preference, which cannot be explained by the typical herd characteristics. With the individual preferences revealed by ACA, a veterinary advisor can now find out whether his intended advice is directed at a favourable or unfavourable management area of the farmer. If the latter is the case the veterinarian should first create awareness of the problem to the farmer. Insights in individual farmers preferences will allow veterinary advisors to better understand why farmers were incompliant with their advice

  6. Impact of Isolated Burns on Major Organs: A Large Animal Model Characterized.

    PubMed

    Burmeister, David M; McIntyre, Matthew K; Baker, Bryan A; Rizzo, Julie A; Brown, Ammon; Natesan, Shanmugasundaram; Chung, Kevin K; Christy, Robert J

    2016-09-01

    Severe burn results in systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ dysfunction (MOD). Currently, large-animal models of burn-induced SIRS/MOD mostly use secondary insults resulting in a paucity of knowledge on the effect of burn alone on different organ systems. The objective of the current study was to develop and characterize a large animal model of burn-induced SIRS over the course of 2 weeks. Yorkshire swine (n = 16) were randomized to sham controls (n = 4) or 40% total body surface area contact burns (n = 6 at 2 and 14 days post-burn). Blood chemistry and complete blood count analyses were performed at baseline and post-burn days 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, and 14. Upon euthanasia, tissue samples were taken for histopathology. Burns were found to be full thickness and did not re-epithelialize. SIRS was evidenced by increased body temperature, respiration rate, pulse, and white blood cell count for the duration of the experiment. Both acute liver injury and acute kidney injury were induced as determined biochemically and histologically. Histology also revealed atelectasis of the lungs which was associated with increased myeloperoxidase activity. Intestinal structure as well as enterocyte homeostasis was also disrupted. All of these organ abnormalities recovered to varying degrees by 14 days post-burn. We report a unique reproducible large animal model of burn-induced SIRS that can be tailored to specific organ systems for investigation into potential immunomodulatory interventions that prevent organ failure or promote organ recovery after burn injury. PMID:27380531

  7. Thermal alteration experiments on organic matter from recent marine sediments in relation to petroleum genesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishiwatari, R.; Ishiwatari, M.; Rohrback, B. G.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1977-01-01

    Three fractions of organic matter: lipid (benzene:methanol-extractable), humic acid (alkali-extractable) and kerogen (residue) were extracted from a young marine sediment (Tanner Basin, offshore southern California) and heated for different times (5-116 hr) and temperatures (150-410 C). The volatile (gases) and liquid products, as well as residual material, were then analyzed. On a weight basis, the lipid fraction produced 58% of the total identified n-alkanes, the kerogen fraction 41%, and the humic acid less than 1%. The volatiles produced by heating the lipid and humic acid fractions were largely CO2 and water, whereas those produced from heated kerogen also included methane, hydrogen gas and small amounts of C2-C4 hydrocarbons. A mechanism for hydrocarbon production due to the thermal alteration of organic constituents of marine sediment is discussed.

  8. PHOTOCHEMICALLY-INDUCED ALTERATION OF STABLE CARBON ISOTOPE RATIOS (DELTA C-13) IN TERRIGENOUS DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure of riverine waters to natural sunlight initiated alterations in stable carbon isotope ratios (delta C-13) of the associated dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Water samples were collected from two compositionally distinct coastal river systems in the southeastern United Sta...

  9. A comparative study of production performance and animal health practices in organic and conventional dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jenevaldo B; Fagundes, Gisele M; Soares, João P G; Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Muir, James P

    2014-10-01

    Health and production management strategies influence environmental impacts of dairies. The objective of this paper was to measure risk factors on health and production parameters on six organic and conventional bovine, caprine, and ovine dairy herds in southeastern Brazil over six consecutive years (2006-2011). The organic operations had lower milk production per animal (P ≤ 0.05), lower calf mortality (P ≤ 0.05), less incidence of mastitis (P ≤ 0.05), fewer rates of spontaneous abortions (P ≤ 0.05), and reduced ectoparasite loads (P ≤ 0.05) compared to conventional herds and flocks. Organic herds, however, had greater prevalence of internal parasitism (P ≤ 0.05) than conventional herds. In all management systems, calves, kids, and lambs had greater oocyte counts than adults. However, calves in the organic group showed lower prevalence of coccidiosis. In addition, animals in the organic system exhibited lower parasitic resistance to anthelmintics. Herd genetic potential, nutritive value of forage, feed intake, and pasture parasite loads, however, may have influenced productive and health parameters. Thus, although conventional herds showed greater milk production and less disease prevalence, future research might quantify the potential implications of these unreported factors. PMID:25015183

  10. A comparative study of production performance and animal health practices in organic and conventional dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jenevaldo B; Fagundes, Gisele M; Soares, João P G; Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Muir, James P

    2014-10-01

    Health and production management strategies influence environmental impacts of dairies. The objective of this paper was to measure risk factors on health and production parameters on six organic and conventional bovine, caprine, and ovine dairy herds in southeastern Brazil over six consecutive years (2006-2011). The organic operations had lower milk production per animal (P ≤ 0.05), lower calf mortality (P ≤ 0.05), less incidence of mastitis (P ≤ 0.05), fewer rates of spontaneous abortions (P ≤ 0.05), and reduced ectoparasite loads (P ≤ 0.05) compared to conventional herds and flocks. Organic herds, however, had greater prevalence of internal parasitism (P ≤ 0.05) than conventional herds. In all management systems, calves, kids, and lambs had greater oocyte counts than adults. However, calves in the organic group showed lower prevalence of coccidiosis. In addition, animals in the organic system exhibited lower parasitic resistance to anthelmintics. Herd genetic potential, nutritive value of forage, feed intake, and pasture parasite loads, however, may have influenced productive and health parameters. Thus, although conventional herds showed greater milk production and less disease prevalence, future research might quantify the potential implications of these unreported factors.

  11. Saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) invasion alters organic matter dynamics in a desert stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, T.A.; Hobbie, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    1. We investigated the impacts of saltcedar invasion on organic matter dynamics in a spring-fed stream (Jackrabbit Spring) in the Mojave Desert of southern Nevada, U.S.A., by experimentally manipulating saltcedar abundance. 2. Saltcedar heavily shaded Jackrabbit Spring and shifted the dominant organic matter inputs from autochthonous production that was available throughout the year to allochthonous saltcedar leaf litter that was strongly pulsed in the autumn. Specifically, reaches dominated by saltcedar had allochthonous litter inputs of 299 g ash free dry mass (AFDM) m-2 year-1, macrophyte production of 15 g AFDM m-2 year-1 and algal production of 400 g AFDM m-2 year-1, while reaches dominated by native riparian vegetation or where saltcedar had been experimentally removed had allochthonous litter inputs of 7-34 g AFDM m -2 year-1, macrophyte production of 118-425 g AFDM m -2 year-1 and algal production of 640-900 g AFDM m -2 year-1. 3. A leaf litter breakdown study indicated that saltcedar also altered decomposition in Jackrabbit Spring, mainly through its influence on litter quality rather than by altering the environment for decomposition. Decomposition rates for saltcedar were lower than for ash (Fraxinus velutina), the dominant native allochthonous litter type, but faster than for bulrush (Scirpus americanus), the dominant macrophyte in this system.

  12. Microcystin-LR and Cylindrospermopsin Induced Alterations in Chromatin Organization of Plant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Máthé, Csaba; M-Hamvas, Márta; Vasas, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria produce metabolites with diverse bioactivities, structures and pharmacological properties. The effects of microcystins (MCYs), a family of peptide type protein-phosphatase inhibitors and cylindrospermopsin (CYN), an alkaloid type of protein synthesis blocker will be discussed in this review. We are focusing mainly on cyanotoxin-induced changes of chromatin organization and their possible cellular mechanisms. The particularities of plant cells explain the importance of such studies. Preprophase bands (PPBs) are premitotic cytoskeletal structures important in the determination of plant cell division plane. Phragmoplasts are cytoskeletal structures involved in plant cytokinesis. Both cyanotoxins induce the formation of multipolar spindles and disrupted phragmoplasts, leading to abnormal sister chromatid segregation during mitosis. Thus, MCY and CYN are probably inducing alterations of chromosome number. MCY induces programmed cell death: chromatin condensation, nucleus fragmentation, necrosis, alterations of nuclease and protease enzyme activities and patterns. The above effects may be related to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or disfunctioning of microtubule associated proteins. Specific effects: MCY-LR induces histone H3 hyperphosphorylation leading to incomplete chromatid segregation and the formation of micronuclei. CYN induces the formation of split or double PPB directly related to protein synthesis inhibition. Cyanotoxins are powerful tools in the study of plant cell organization. PMID:24084787

  13. Alteration of organic matter during infaunal polychaete gut passage and links to sediment organic geochemistry. Part II: Fatty acids and aldoses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woulds, Clare; Middelburg, Jack J.; Cowie, Greg L.

    2014-07-01

    The activities of sediment-dwelling fauna are known to influence the rates of and pathways through which organic matter is cycled in marine sediments, and thus to influence eventual organic carbon burial or decay. However, due to methodological constraints, the role of faunal gut passage in determining the subsequent composition and thus degradability of organic matter is relatively little studied. Previous studies of organic matter digestion by benthic fauna have been unable to detect uptake and retention of specific biochemicals in faunal tissues, and have been of durations too short to fit digestion into the context of longer-term sedimentary degradation processes. Therefore this study aimed to investigate the aldose and fatty acid compositional alterations occurring to organic matter during gut passage by the abundant and ubiquitous polychaetes Hediste diversicolor and Arenicola marina, and to link these to longer-term changes typically observed during organic matter decay. This aim was approached through microcosm experiments in which selected polychaetes were fed with 13C-labelled algal detritus, and organisms, sediments, and faecal pellets were sampled at three timepoints over ∼6 weeks. Samples were analysed for their 13C-labelled aldose and fatty acid contents using GC-MS and GC-IRMS. Compound-selective net accumulation of biochemicals in polychaete tissues was observed for both aldoses and fatty acids, and the patterns of this were taxon-specific. The dominant patterns included an overall loss of glucose and polyunsaturated fatty acids; and preferential preservation or production of arabinose, microbial compounds (rhamnose, fucose and microbial fatty acids), and animal-synthesised fatty acids. These patterns may have been driven by fatty acid essentiality, preferential metabolism of glucose, and A. marina grazing on bacteria. Fatty acid suites in sediments from faunated microcosms showed greater proportions of saturated fatty acids and bacterial markers

  14. Alterations in the metabolism of hamster tracheas in organ culture after infection by virulent Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Hu, P C; Collier, A M; Baseman, J B

    1975-04-01

    Exposure of hamster tracheal rings in organ culture to virulent Mycoplasma pneumoniae organisms leads to alterations in macromolecular biosynthesis and metabolic activity of the respiratory epithelial cells. Avirulent organisms derived from the same parent strain do not produce these effects. During the course of infection by virulent mycoplasmas, tracheal rings show an initial increase in [14C]galactose uptake followed by a significant decline as infection progresses which is also accompanied by abnormal processing of galactose as evidenced by amounts of 14CO2 released. Parallel decreases in the rate of [3H]orotic acid and [3H]amino acid uptake are observed. Within 24 h after infection of tracheal rings by virulent mycoplasmas, inhibition of host cell ribonucleic acid and protien synthesis is evident. Ribonucleic acid synthesis in infected cells, analyzed by gel electrophoresis, is reduced by 80% at 48 h and is negligible by 96 h. The course of mycoplasma infection can be interrupted or reversed by erythromycin after the initial mycoplasma-host cell interaction since addition of erythromycin 24 h or earlier after infection prevents the onset of abnormal orotic acid uptake. However, 48 h after infection, rescue of host cells by erythromycin cannot occur and cytopathology becomes evident. These data suggest that mediation of host cell injury requires continued protein synthesis by attached mycoplasmas, and the primary effect of mycoplasma infection on tracheal organ culture may be at a transcriptional or translational level.

  15. Morphology Alters Fluid Transport and the Ability of Organisms to Mix Oceanic Waters.

    PubMed

    Katija, Kakani

    2015-10-01

    Mixing in the ocean is opposed by the stratification of fluid, such that density of seawater increases with greater depth. The mechanisms by which mixing occurs have been attributed largely to physical processes that include atmospheric forcing, tides, and internal waves. Biogenic mixing, another potential source of mixing in the ocean, may generate significant transport of fluid during diel vertical migrations of organisms. Biogenic mixing is not limited to the near-surface or to regions of rough bottom topography, as are other physical mixing processes, and may contribute significantly to the energy budget of mixing in mid-ocean. "Fluid drift", a mechanism first described by Charles Galton Darwin, has been identified as a mechanism that allows for long-distance, vertical transport of fluid by the smallest of swimming organisms. However, little is known about how fluid drift varies with morphology and behavior of swimming organisms. We conducted numerical simulations of theoretical and experimentally measured flows of swimming medusae (Phyllorhiza sp.), and compared the volume of the drift induced by these flows. Our numerical simulations of fluid drift showed that morphology coupled with swimming behavior alters the transport of fluid both spatially and temporally. Given empirical velocity field data, the methods presented here allow us to systematically compare fluid transport across taxa, and enable us to deduce the potential of swimming organisms to influence fluid transport.

  16. Morphology Alters Fluid Transport and the Ability of Organisms to Mix Oceanic Waters.

    PubMed

    Katija, Kakani

    2015-10-01

    Mixing in the ocean is opposed by the stratification of fluid, such that density of seawater increases with greater depth. The mechanisms by which mixing occurs have been attributed largely to physical processes that include atmospheric forcing, tides, and internal waves. Biogenic mixing, another potential source of mixing in the ocean, may generate significant transport of fluid during diel vertical migrations of organisms. Biogenic mixing is not limited to the near-surface or to regions of rough bottom topography, as are other physical mixing processes, and may contribute significantly to the energy budget of mixing in mid-ocean. "Fluid drift", a mechanism first described by Charles Galton Darwin, has been identified as a mechanism that allows for long-distance, vertical transport of fluid by the smallest of swimming organisms. However, little is known about how fluid drift varies with morphology and behavior of swimming organisms. We conducted numerical simulations of theoretical and experimentally measured flows of swimming medusae (Phyllorhiza sp.), and compared the volume of the drift induced by these flows. Our numerical simulations of fluid drift showed that morphology coupled with swimming behavior alters the transport of fluid both spatially and temporally. Given empirical velocity field data, the methods presented here allow us to systematically compare fluid transport across taxa, and enable us to deduce the potential of swimming organisms to influence fluid transport. PMID:26117832

  17. The concept of animal welfare at the interface between producers and scientists: the example of organic pig farming.

    PubMed

    Leeb, Christine

    2011-06-01

    In organic farming animal welfare is one important aspect included in the internationally agreed organic principles of health, ecology, fairness and care (IFOAM 2006), reflecting expectation of consumers and farmers. The definition of organic animal welfare includes-besides traditional terms of animal welfare-'regeneration' and 'naturalness'. Organic animal welfare assessment needs to reflect this and use complex parameters, include natural behaviour and a systemic view. Furthermore, various parties with seemingly conflicting interests are involved, causing ethical dilemmas, such as the use of nose rings for outdoor sows (impaired animal welfare vs. destruction of humus). Solutions can only be found when foundational concepts are translated and applied to practical situations. On-farm animal welfare assessment and implementation of improvement strategies are increasingly relevant scientific areas. They combine on-farm welfare assessment, identification of key problem areas and connected risk factors. Constant communication between all parties is crucial for success. Animal health and welfare planning is one application of this approach, which was carried out on Austrian organic pig farms as well as organic dairy farms in seven European countries. The projects included welfare assessment, feedback and benchmarking as a tool for communication between farmers, advisors and scientists. Finally goals were set by the farmer and improvement strategies applicable to organic farming were implemented. This included prevention of disease by management strategies instead of routine treatment with pharmaceutical products. It appeared that next to problem structuring, multidisciplinary problem solving demands good communications skills to relate animal welfare science to value reflections.

  18. Recent advances in the analysis of behavioural organization and interpretation as indicators of animal welfare

    PubMed Central

    Asher, Lucy; Collins, Lisa M.; Ortiz-Pelaez, Angel; Drewe, Julian A.; Nicol, Christine J.; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.

    2009-01-01

    While the incorporation of mathematical and engineering methods has greatly advanced in other areas of the life sciences, they have been under-utilized in the field of animal welfare. Exceptions are beginning to emerge and share a common motivation to quantify ‘hidden’ aspects in the structure of the behaviour of an individual, or group of animals. Such analyses have the potential to quantify behavioural markers of pain and stress and quantify abnormal behaviour objectively. This review seeks to explore the scope of such analytical methods as behavioural indicators of welfare. We outline four classes of analyses that can be used to quantify aspects of behavioural organization. The underlying principles, possible applications and limitations are described for: fractal analysis, temporal methods, social network analysis, and agent-based modelling and simulation. We hope to encourage further application of analyses of behavioural organization by highlighting potential applications in the assessment of animal welfare, and increasing awareness of the scope for the development of new mathematical methods in this area. PMID:19740922

  19. Associations between membership of farm assurance and organic certification schemes and compliance with animal welfare legislation.

    PubMed

    KilBride, A L; Mason, S A; Honeyman, P C; Pritchard, D G; Hepple, S; Green, L E

    2012-02-11

    Animal health (AH) defines the outcome of their inspections of livestock holdings as full compliance with the legislation and welfare code (A), compliance with the legislation but not the code (B), non-compliance with legislation but no pain, distress or suffering obvious in the animals (C) or evidence of unnecessary pain or unnecessary distress (D). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether membership of farm assurance or organic certification schemes was associated with compliance with animal welfare legislation as inspected by AH. Participating schemes provided details of their members, past and present, and these records were matched against inspection data from AH. Multivariable multilevel logistic binomial models were built to investigate the association between compliance with legislation and membership of a farm assurance/organic scheme. The percentage of inspections coded A, B, C or D was 37.1, 35.6, 20.2 and 7.1 per cent, respectively. Once adjusted for year, country, enterprise, herd size and reason for inspection, there was a pattern of significantly reduced risk of codes C and D compared with A and B, in certified enterprises compared with the enterprises that were not known to be certified in all species.

  20. Associations between membership of farm assurance and organic certification schemes and compliance with animal welfare legislation.

    PubMed

    KilBride, A L; Mason, S A; Honeyman, P C; Pritchard, D G; Hepple, S; Green, L E

    2012-02-11

    Animal health (AH) defines the outcome of their inspections of livestock holdings as full compliance with the legislation and welfare code (A), compliance with the legislation but not the code (B), non-compliance with legislation but no pain, distress or suffering obvious in the animals (C) or evidence of unnecessary pain or unnecessary distress (D). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether membership of farm assurance or organic certification schemes was associated with compliance with animal welfare legislation as inspected by AH. Participating schemes provided details of their members, past and present, and these records were matched against inspection data from AH. Multivariable multilevel logistic binomial models were built to investigate the association between compliance with legislation and membership of a farm assurance/organic scheme. The percentage of inspections coded A, B, C or D was 37.1, 35.6, 20.2 and 7.1 per cent, respectively. Once adjusted for year, country, enterprise, herd size and reason for inspection, there was a pattern of significantly reduced risk of codes C and D compared with A and B, in certified enterprises compared with the enterprises that were not known to be certified in all species. PMID:22331783

  1. Recent advances in the analysis of behavioural organization and interpretation as indicators of animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Asher, Lucy; Collins, Lisa M; Ortiz-Pelaez, Angel; Drewe, Julian A; Nicol, Christine J; Pfeiffer, Dirk U

    2009-12-01

    While the incorporation of mathematical and engineering methods has greatly advanced in other areas of the life sciences, they have been under-utilized in the field of animal welfare. Exceptions are beginning to emerge and share a common motivation to quantify 'hidden' aspects in the structure of the behaviour of an individual, or group of animals. Such analyses have the potential to quantify behavioural markers of pain and stress and quantify abnormal behaviour objectively. This review seeks to explore the scope of such analytical methods as behavioural indicators of welfare. We outline four classes of analyses that can be used to quantify aspects of behavioural organization. The underlying principles, possible applications and limitations are described for: fractal analysis, temporal methods, social network analysis, and agent-based modelling and simulation. We hope to encourage further application of analyses of behavioural organization by highlighting potential applications in the assessment of animal welfare, and increasing awareness of the scope for the development of new mathematical methods in this area.

  2. Evaluation of organic, conventional and intensive beef farm systems: health, management and animal production.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Penedo, I; López-Alonso, M; Shore, R F; Miranda, M; Castillo, C; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L

    2012-09-01

    The overall aim of the present study was to analyse and compare organic beef cattle farming in Spain with intensive and conventional systems. An on-farm study comparing farm management practices and animal health was carried out. The study also focussed on a slaughterhouse analysis by comparing impacts on the safety and quality of the cattle products. Twenty-four organic and 26 conventional farms were inspected, and farmers responded to a questionnaire that covered all basic data on their husbandry practices, farm management, veterinary treatments and reproductive performance during 2007. Furthermore, data on the hygiene and quality of 244, 2596 and 3021 carcasses of calves from organic, intensive and conventional farms, respectively, were retrieved from the official yearbook (2007) of a slaughterhouse. Differences found between organic and conventional farms across the farm analysis did not substantially reflect differences between both farm types in the predominant diseases that usually occur on beef cattle farms. However, calves reared organically presented fewer condemnations at slaughter compared with intensive and to a lesser extent with conventionally reared calves. Carcass performance also reflected differences between farm type and breed and was not necessarily better in organic farms.

  3. Single amino acid change alters the ability to specify male or female organ identity

    PubMed Central

    Airoldi, Chiara A.; Bergonzi, Sara; Davies, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the developmental processes that shape living organisms provide a basis to understand the evolution of biological complexity. Gene duplication allows biological functions to become separated, leading to increased complexity through subfunctionalization. Recently, the relative contributions to morphological evolution of changes to the regulatory and/or coding regions of duplicated genes have been the subject of debate. Duplication generated multiple copies of the MADS-box transcription factor genes that play essential roles in specifying organ identity in the flower, making this evolutionary novelty a good model to investigate the nature of the changes necessary to drive subfunctionalization. Here, we show that naturally occurring variation at a single amino acid in a MADS-box transcription factor switches its ability to specify male and female reproductive organs by altering its repertoire of protein–protein interactions. However, these different developmental fates are only manifest because of an underlying variation in the expression pattern of interacting proteins. This shows that the morphological outcomes of changes to protein sequence and gene expression must be interpreted in the context of the wider regulatory network. It also suggests an explanation for the surprisingly widespread duplications of some of the floral transcription factors. PMID:20956314

  4. Carbofuran alters centrosome and spindle organization, and delays cell division in oocytes and mitotic cells.

    PubMed

    Cinar, Ozgur; Semiz, Olcay; Can, Alp

    2015-04-01

    Although many countries banned of its usage, carbofuran (CF) is still one of the most commonly used carbamate derivative insecticides against insects and nematodes in agriculture and household, threatening the human and animal health by contaminating air, water, and food. Our goal was to evaluate the potential toxic effects of CF on mammalian oocytes besides mitotic cells. Caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway was assessed by immunofluorescence and western blot techniques. Alterations in the meiotic spindle formation after CF exposure throughout the in vitro maturation of mice oocyte-cumulus complexes (COCs) were analyzed by using a 3D confocal laser microscope. Maturation efficiency and kinetics were assessed by direct observation of the COCs. Results indicated that the number of TUNEL-positive cells increased in CF-exposed groups, particularly higher doses (>250 µM) in a dose-dependent fashion. The ratio of anticleaved caspase-3 labeled cells in those groups positively correlated with TUNEL-positivity. Western blot analysis confirmed a significant increase in active caspase-3 activity. CF caused a dose-dependent accumulation of oocytes at prometaphase-I (PM-I) of meiosis. Partial loss of spindle microtubules (MTs) was noted, which consequently gave rise to a diamond shape spindle. Aberrant pericentrin foci were noted particularly in PM-I and metaphase-I (M-I) stages. Conclusively, CF (1) induces programmed cell death in a dose-dependent manner, and (2) alters spindle morphology most likely through a mechanism that interacts with MT assembly and/or disorientation of pericentriolar proteins. Overall, data suggest that CF could give rise to aneuploidy or cell death in higher doses, therefore reduce fertilization and implantation rates.

  5. Red blood cells in Rett syndrome: oxidative stress, morphological changes and altered membrane organization.

    PubMed

    Ciccoli, Lucia; De Felice, Claudio; Leoncini, Silvia; Signorini, Cinzia; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Zollo, Gloria; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Rossi, Marcello; Hayek, Joussef

    2015-11-01

    In this review, we summarize the current evidence on the erythrocyte as a previously unrecognized target cell in Rett syndrome, a rare (1:10 000 females) and devastating neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in a single gene (i.e. MeCP2, CDKL5, or rarely FOXG1). In particular, we focus on morphological changes, membrane oxidative damage, altered membrane fatty acid profile, and aberrant skeletal organization in erythrocytes from patients with typical Rett syndrome and MeCP2 gene mutations. The beneficial effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are also summarized for this condition to be considered as a 'model' condition for autism spectrum disorders.

  6. Microbial response to the effect of quantity and quality soil organic matter alteration after laboratory heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bárcenas-Moreno, G.; Escalante, E.; Pérez-Bejarano, A.; Zavala, L. M.; Jordán, A.

    2012-04-01

    Fire-induced soil changes influence indirectly on soil microbial response, mainly due to pH increases and organic matter alterations. Partial carbon combustion can originate both, an increase in microbial activity due to dissolved organic carbon increases (Bárcenas-Moreno and Bååth, 2099, Bárcenas-Moreno et al., 2011), as well as limitation of microbial growth, either due to diminution of some fractions of organic matter (Fernández et al., 1997) or due to the formation of toxic compounds (Widden and Parkinson, 1975; Diaz-Raviña et al., 1996). The magnitude or direction of these changes is conditioned mainly by fire intensity and plant species, so forest with different vegetation could promote different quantity and quality alterations of soil organic matter after fire which leads to different soil microbial response. The objective of this work was to differentiate between the effect of reduction of carbon content and the presence of substances with inhibitory effect on soil microorganisms, inoculating microorganisms from an unaltered forest area on heated soil extract-based culture media. Soil collected from two different vegetation forest, pine (P) and oak (O) forests, with similar soil characteristics was sieved and heated at 450 °C in a muffle furnace. Heated and unheated soil was used to prepare culture media resulting in different treatments: pine unheated (PUH), pine heated at 450 °C (P450), Oak unheated (OUH) and oak heated at 450 °C (O450). To isolate inhibition of microbial proliferation and nutrient limitation, different nutritive supplements were added to the media, obtaining two levels of nutrient status for each media described above: no nutrients added (-) and nutrients added (+). Colony forming units (CFU) were enumerated as estimation of viable and cultivable microbial abundance and soil parameters characterization was also realized. Significant differences were found between CFU isolated using heated and unheated soil extract-based media

  7. Larval body patterning and apical organs are conserved in animal evolution

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Planktonic ciliated larvae are characteristic for the life cycle of marine invertebrates. Their most prominent feature is the apical organ harboring sensory cells and neurons of largely undetermined function. An elucidation of the relationships between various forms of primary larvae and apical organs is key to understanding the evolution of animal life cycles. These relationships have remained enigmatic due to the scarcity of comparative molecular data. Results To compare apical organs and larval body patterning, we have studied regionalization of the episphere, the upper hemisphere of the trochophore larva of the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii. We examined the spatial distribution of transcription factors and of Wnt signaling components previously implicated in anterior neural development. Pharmacological activation of Wnt signaling with Gsk3β antagonists abolishes expression of apical markers, consistent with a repressive role of Wnt signaling in the specification of apical tissue. We refer to this Wnt-sensitive, six3- and foxq2-expressing part of the episphere as the ‘apical plate’. We also unraveled a molecular signature of the apical organ - devoid of six3 but expressing foxj, irx, nkx3 and hox - that is shared with other marine phyla including cnidarians. Finally, we characterized the cell types that form part of the apical organ by profiling by image registration, which allows parallel expression profiling of multiple cells. Besides the hox-expressing apical tuft cells, this revealed the presence of putative light- and mechanosensory as well as multiple peptidergic cell types that we compared to apical organ cell types of other animal phyla. Conclusions The similar formation of a six3+, foxq2+ apical plate, sensitive to Wnt activity and with an apical tuft in its six3-free center, is most parsimoniously explained by evolutionary conservation. We propose that a simple apical organ - comprising an apical tuft and a basal plexus

  8. Development of immune organs and functioning in humans and test animals: Implications for immune intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Kuper, C Frieke; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Cnossen, Hilde; Houben, Geert; Garthoff, Jossie; Wolterbeek, Andre

    2016-09-01

    A healthy immune status is mostly determined during early life stages and many immune-related diseases may find their origin in utero and the first years of life. Therefore, immune health optimization may be most effective during early life. This review is an inventory of immune organ maturation events in relation to developmental timeframes in minipig, rat, mouse and human. It is concluded that time windows of immune organ development in rodents can be translated to human, but minipig reflects the human timeframes better; however the lack of prenatal maternal-fetal immune interaction in minipig may cause less responsiveness to prenatal intervention. It is too early to conclude which immune parameters are most appropriate, because there are not enough comparative immune parameters. Filling these gaps will increase the predictability of results observed in experimental animals, and guide future intervention studies by assessing relevant parameters in the right corresponding developmental time frames.

  9. Iron deficiency anemia in infancy is associated with altered temporal organization of sleep states in childhood.

    PubMed

    Peirano, Patricio D; Algarín, Cecilia R; Garrido, Marcelo I; Lozoff, Betsy

    2007-12-01

    The highest prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in infancy coincides with a time of rapid changes in sleep organization. Since IDA in infancy is associated with long-lasting neurofunctional effects despite iron treatment, the normal development of sleep patterns might be affected. Night polysomnographic recordings were performed in 55 healthy 4-y-old children (former IDA = 27, nonanemic controls = 28). Both groups were followed from infancy and were similar in background characteristics. The duration of each waking episode was measured, as was the duration of each episode of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep stages 1 (NREM1), 2 (NREM2), and 3-4 (SWS), and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The data were analyzed according to the successive thirds of the total sleep time (TST). Relative to controls, former IDA children showed: a) longer duration of REM sleep episodes in the first third and shorter in the last third; b) more REM sleep episodes in the first third and fewer in the second third; and c) shorter latency to the first REM sleep episode and shorter NREM stage 2 and SWS episodes within the first sleep cycle. The results show that early IDA is associated with long-lasting alterations in the temporal organization of sleep patterns. PMID:17957147

  10. Altered systemic bioavailability and organ distribution of azathioprine in methotrexate-induced intestinal mucositis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Karbelkar, Sadaf A.; Majumdar, Anuradha S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Intestinal mucositis is a significant problem haunting clinicians for decades. One of the major reasons for its occurrence is high-dose chemotherapy. The study is aimed at investigating effect of intestinal mucositis on pharmacokinetics, organ distribution, and bioavailability of azathioprine (AZA) (6-mercaptopurine). Materials and Methods: Intestinal mucositis was induced with methotrexate (MTX) (2.5 mg/kg). The oral absorption of AZA and 6-mercaptopurine (metabolite) levels were determined in control and MTX-treated rats: ex vivo (noneverted sac technique) and in vivo (pharmacokinetics and organ-distribution) using high-performance liquid chromatography. Immunohistochemistry was conducted to evaluate peptide transporter expression on luminal membrane of small intestine. Results: Intestinal permeation of AZA into systemic circulation of rats was lower after MTX administration, widely found in intestinal segments of mucositis-induced rats leading to decline in systemic bioavailability of AZA. Immunohistochemistry findings indicated diminution of peptide transporter expression representing hampered absorption of drugs absorbed via this transporter. Conclusion: Study outcome has thrown light on altered fate of AZA when administered to individuals with mucositis which suggests modified drug therapy. These findings can further be investigated in different drug classes which might be administered concomitantly in mucositis and study outcome can be further confirmed in mucositis patients in clinical practice also. PMID:27298491

  11. Effective behavioral treatment of focal hand dystonia in musicians alters somatosensory cortical organization.

    PubMed

    Candia, Victor; Wienbruch, Christian; Elbert, Thomas; Rockstroh, Brigitte; Ray, William

    2003-06-24

    New perspectives in neurorehabilitation suggest that behavioral treatments of movement disorders may modify the functional organization of central somatosensory neural networks. On the basis of the assumption that use-dependent reorganization in these networks contributes to the fundamental abnormalities seen in focal dystonia, we treated 10 affected musicians and measured the concomitant somatosensory changes by using whole-head magnetoencephalography. We found that effective treatment, using the method of sensory motor retuning, leads to alterations in the functional organization of the somatosensory cortex. Specifically, before treatment, somatosensory relationships of the individual fingers differ between the affected and unaffected hands, whereas after treatment, finger representations contralateral to the dystonic side become more similar to the less-affected side. Further, somatosensory finger representations are ordered more according to homuncular principles after treatment. In addition, the observed physiologic changes correlated with behavioral data. These results confirm that plastic changes in parallel with emergent neurological dysfunction may be reversed by context-specific, intensive training-based remediation.

  12. Abnormal intermediate filament organization alters mitochondrial motility in giant axonal neuropathy fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lowery, Jason; Jain, Nikhil; Kuczmarski, Edward R; Mahammad, Saleemulla; Goldman, Anne; Gelfand, Vladimir I; Opal, Puneet; Goldman, Robert D

    2016-02-15

    Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is a rare disease caused by mutations in the GAN gene, which encodes gigaxonin, an E3 ligase adapter that targets intermediate filament (IF) proteins for degradation in numerous cell types, including neurons and fibroblasts. The cellular hallmark of GAN pathology is the formation of large aggregates and bundles of IFs. In this study, we show that both the distribution and motility of mitochondria are altered in GAN fibroblasts and this is attributable to their association with vimentin IF aggregates and bundles. Transient expression of wild-type gigaxonin in GAN fibroblasts reduces the number of IF aggregates and bundles, restoring mitochondrial motility. Conversely, silencing the expression of gigaxonin in control fibroblasts leads to changes in IF organization similar to that of GAN patient fibroblasts and a coincident loss of mitochondrial motility. The inhibition of mitochondrial motility in GAN fibroblasts is not due to a global inhibition of organelle translocation, as lysosome motility is normal. Our findings demonstrate that it is the pathological changes in IF organization that cause the loss of mitochondrial motility. PMID:26700320

  13. Effective behavioral treatment of focal hand dystonia in musicians alters somatosensory cortical organization

    PubMed Central

    Candia, Victor; Wienbruch, Christian; Elbert, Thomas; Rockstroh, Brigitte; Ray, William

    2003-01-01

    New perspectives in neurorehabilitation suggest that behavioral treatments of movement disorders may modify the functional organization of central somatosensory neural networks. On the basis of the assumption that use-dependent reorganization in these networks contributes to the fundamental abnormalities seen in focal dystonia, we treated 10 affected musicians and measured the concomitant somatosensory changes by using whole-head magnetoencephalography. We found that effective treatment, using the method of sensory motor retuning, leads to alterations in the functional organization of the somatosensory cortex. Specifically, before treatment, somatosensory relationships of the individual fingers differ between the affected and unaffected hands, whereas after treatment, finger representations contralateral to the dystonic side become more similar to the less-affected side. Further, somatosensory finger representations are ordered more according to homuncular principles after treatment. In addition, the observed physiologic changes correlated with behavioral data. These results confirm that plastic changes in parallel with emergent neurological dysfunction may be reversed by context-specific, intensive training-based remediation. PMID:12771383

  14. Photocurrent enhancements of organic solar cells by altering dewetting of plasmonic Ag nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Fleetham, Tyler; Choi, Jea-Young; Choi, Hyung Woo; Alford, Terry; Jeong, Doo Seok; Lee, Taek Sung; Lee, Wook Seong; Lee, Kyeong-Seok; Li, Jian; Kim, Inho

    2015-01-01

    Incorporation of metal nanoparticles into active layers of organic solar cells is one of the promising light trapping approaches. The size of metal nanoparticles is one of key factors to strong light trapping, and the size of thermally evaporated metal nanoparticles can be tuned by either post heat treatment or surface modification of substrates. We deposited Ag nanoparticles on ITO by varying nominal thicknesses, and post annealing was carried out to increase their size in radius. PEDOT:PSS was employed onto the ITO substrates as a buffer layer to alter the dewetting behavior of Ag nanoparticles. The size of Ag nanoparticles on PEDOT:PSS were dramatically increased by more than three times compared to those on the ITO substrates. Organic solar cells were fabricated on the ITO and PEDOT:PSS coated ITO substrates with incorporation of those Ag nanoparticles, and their performances were compared. The photocurrents of the cells with the active layers on PEDOT:PSS with an optimal choice of the Ag nanoparticles were greatly enhanced whereas the Ag nanoparticles on the ITO substrates did not lead to the photocurrent enhancements. The origin of the photocurrent enhancements with introducing the Ag nanoparticles on PEDOT:PSS are discussed. PMID:26388104

  15. Abnormal intermediate filament organization alters mitochondrial motility in giant axonal neuropathy fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lowery, Jason; Jain, Nikhil; Kuczmarski, Edward R; Mahammad, Saleemulla; Goldman, Anne; Gelfand, Vladimir I; Opal, Puneet; Goldman, Robert D

    2016-02-15

    Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is a rare disease caused by mutations in the GAN gene, which encodes gigaxonin, an E3 ligase adapter that targets intermediate filament (IF) proteins for degradation in numerous cell types, including neurons and fibroblasts. The cellular hallmark of GAN pathology is the formation of large aggregates and bundles of IFs. In this study, we show that both the distribution and motility of mitochondria are altered in GAN fibroblasts and this is attributable to their association with vimentin IF aggregates and bundles. Transient expression of wild-type gigaxonin in GAN fibroblasts reduces the number of IF aggregates and bundles, restoring mitochondrial motility. Conversely, silencing the expression of gigaxonin in control fibroblasts leads to changes in IF organization similar to that of GAN patient fibroblasts and a coincident loss of mitochondrial motility. The inhibition of mitochondrial motility in GAN fibroblasts is not due to a global inhibition of organelle translocation, as lysosome motility is normal. Our findings demonstrate that it is the pathological changes in IF organization that cause the loss of mitochondrial motility.

  16. Evolution of organic matter in Orgueil, Murchison and Renazzo during parent body aqueous alteration: In situ investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Guillou, Corentin; Bernard, Sylvain; Brearley, Adrian J.; Remusat, Laurent

    2014-04-01

    Chondrites accreted the oldest solid materials in the solar system including dust processed in the protoplanetary disk and diverse organic compounds. After accretion, asteroidal alteration may have impacted organic particles in various ways. To constrain these processes, we conducted a comprehensive study of organics disseminated within the matrices of the three carbonaceous chondrite falls, Renazzo (CR2), Murchison (CM2) and Orgueil (CI). By combining synchrotron-based STXM and TEM analyses on FIB sections of samples previously characterized by NanoSIMS, we investigated the influence of aqueous alteration on the morphology, isotopic signature, molecular structure, spatial distribution, and mineralogical environment of the organic matter within the matrices. Two different populations of materials are distinguishable: sub-micrometric individual grains, likely dominated by insoluble compounds and diffuse organic matter, finely interspersed within phyllosilicates and/or (amorphous) nanocarbonates at the nanometer scale. We suggest that this latter component, which is depleted in aromatics and enriched in carboxylic functional groups, may be dominated by soluble compounds. Organic matter in Renazzo (CR) mainly consists of chemically-homogeneous individual grains surrounded by amorphous and nanocrystalline phyllosilicates. Evidence of connectivity between organic grains and fractures indicates that redistribution has occurred: some areas containing diffuse organic matter can be observed. This diffuse organic component is more abundant in Murchison (CM) and Orgueil (CI). This is interpreted as resulting from fluid transport at the micrometer scale and encapsulation within recrystallized alteration phases. In contrast to Renazzo, organic grains in Murchison and Orgueil display strong chemical heterogeneities, likely related to chemical evolution during aqueous alteration. The observations suggest that the altering fluid was a brine with elevated concentrations of both

  17. Alteration of organic matter during infaunal polychaete gut passage and links to sediment organic geochemistry. Part I: Amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woulds, Clare; Middelburg, Jack J.; Cowie, Greg L.

    2012-01-01

    Of the factors which control the quantity and composition of organic matter (OM) buried in marine sediments, the links between infaunal ingestion and gut passage and sediment geochemistry have received relatively little attention. This study aimed to use feeding experiments and novel isotope tracing techniques to quantify amino acid net accumulation and loss during polychaete gut passage, and to link this to patterns of selective preservation and decay in sediments. Microcosms containing either Arenicolamarina or Hediste (formerly Nereis) diversicolor were constructed from defaunated sediment and filtered estuarine water, and maintained under natural temperature and light conditions. They were fed with 13C-labelled diatoms daily for 8 days, and animals were transferred into fresh, un-labelled sediment after ∼20 days. Samples of fauna, microcosm sediment and faecal matter were collected after 8, ∼20 and ∼40 days, and analysed for their bulk isotopic signatures and 13C-labelled amino acid compositions. Bulk isotopic data showed that, consistent with their feeding modes, Hediste assimilated added 13C more quickly, and attained a higher labelling level than Arenicola. Both species retained the added 13C in their biomass even after removal from the food. A principal component analysis of 13C-labelled amino acid mole percentages showed clear differences in composition between the algae, faunal tissues, and sediment plus faecal matter. Further, the two species of polychaete showed different compositions in their tissues. The amino acids phenylalanine, valine, leucine, iso-leucine, threonine and proline showed net accumulation in polychaete tissues. Serine, methionine, lysine, aspartic and glutamic acids and tyrosine were rapidly lost through metabolism, consistent with their presence in easily digestible cell components (as opposed to cell walls which offer physical protection). All sample types (polychaete tissues, sediments and faecal matter) were enriched in

  18. Evolution of an ancient protein function involved in organized multicellularity in animals

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Douglas P; Whitney, Dustin S; Hanson-Smith, Victor; Woznica, Arielle; Campodonico-Burnett, William; Volkman, Brian F; King, Nicole; Thornton, Joseph W; Prehoda, Kenneth E

    2016-01-01

    To form and maintain organized tissues, multicellular organisms orient their mitotic spindles relative to neighboring cells. A molecular complex scaffolded by the GK protein-interaction domain (GKPID) mediates spindle orientation in diverse animal taxa by linking microtubule motor proteins to a marker protein on the cell cortex localized by external cues. Here we illuminate how this complex evolved and commandeered control of spindle orientation from a more ancient mechanism. The complex was assembled through a series of molecular exploitation events, one of which – the evolution of GKPID’s capacity to bind the cortical marker protein – can be recapitulated by reintroducing a single historical substitution into the reconstructed ancestral GKPID. This change revealed and repurposed an ancient molecular surface that previously had a radically different function. We show how the physical simplicity of this binding interface enabled the evolution of a new protein function now essential to the biological complexity of many animals. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10147.001 PMID:26740169

  19. Ethanol alters gene expression and cell organization during optic vesicle evagination.

    PubMed

    Santos-Ledo, A; Cavodeassi, F; Carreño, H; Aijón, J; Arévalo, R

    2013-10-10

    Ethanol has been described as a teratogen in vertebrate development. During early stages of brain formation, ethanol affects the evagination of the optic vesicles, resulting in synophthalmia or cyclopia, phenotypes where the optic vesicles partially or totally fuse. The mechanisms by which ethanol affects the morphogenesis of the optic vesicles are however largely unknown. In this study we make use of in situ hybridization, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry to show that ethanol has profound effects on cell organization and gene expression during the evagination of the optic vesicles. Exposure to ethanol during early eye development alters the expression patterns of some genes known to be important for eye morphogenesis, such as rx3/1 and six3a. Furthermore, exposure to ethanol interferes with the acquisition of neuroepithelial features by the eye field cells, which is clear at ultrastructual level. Indeed, ethanol disrupts the acquisition of fusiform cellular shapes within the eye field. In addition, tight junctions do not form and retinal progenitors do not properly polarize, as suggested by the mis-localization and down-regulation of zo1. We also show that the ethanol-induced cyclopic phenotype is significantly different to that observed in cyclopic mutants, suggesting a complex effect of ethanol on a variety of targets. Our results show that ethanol not only disrupts the expression pattern of genes involved in retinal morphogenesis, such as rx3 and rx1, but also disrupts the changes in cell polarity that normally occur during eye field splitting. Thus, ethylic teratology seems to be related not only to modifications in gene expression and cell death but also to alterations in cell morphology.

  20. Amino Acids Hydrolyzed from Animal Carcasses Are a Good Additive for the Production of Bio-organic Fertilizer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongjun; Chen, Dandan; Zhang, Ruifu; Hang, Xinnan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    High-quality bio-organic fertilizers (BIOs) cannot be produced without the addition of some proteins. In this study, compound liquid amino acids (CLAA) from animal carcasses were utilized as additives into matured composts to create novel BIOs containing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The results showed that adding CLAA and inoculating bacteria meanwhile resulted in failed solid-state fermentation (SSF) due to the higher H+ contents. While after pre-compost for 4 days before PGPR inoculation, treatments of matured chicken or pig manure added with 0.2 ml g-1 of CLAA resulted in a maximum biomass of functional strains. Illumine-MiSeq sequencing and Real-Time PCR results showed that the CLAA addition decreased the bacterial abundance and richness, altered the bacterial community structure and changed the relative abundance of some microbial groups. This study offers a high value-added utilization of waste protein resources for producing economical, high-quality BIO. PMID:27574521

  1. Amino Acids Hydrolyzed from Animal Carcasses Are a Good Additive for the Production of Bio-organic Fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongjun; Chen, Dandan; Zhang, Ruifu; Hang, Xinnan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    High-quality bio-organic fertilizers (BIOs) cannot be produced without the addition of some proteins. In this study, compound liquid amino acids (CLAA) from animal carcasses were utilized as additives into matured composts to create novel BIOs containing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The results showed that adding CLAA and inoculating bacteria meanwhile resulted in failed solid-state fermentation (SSF) due to the higher H(+) contents. While after pre-compost for 4 days before PGPR inoculation, treatments of matured chicken or pig manure added with 0.2 ml g(-1) of CLAA resulted in a maximum biomass of functional strains. Illumine-MiSeq sequencing and Real-Time PCR results showed that the CLAA addition decreased the bacterial abundance and richness, altered the bacterial community structure and changed the relative abundance of some microbial groups. This study offers a high value-added utilization of waste protein resources for producing economical, high-quality BIO. PMID:27574521

  2. Pollution going multimodal: the complex impact of the human-altered sensory environment on animal perception and performance

    PubMed Central

    Halfwerk, Wouter; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic sensory pollution is affecting ecosystems worldwide. Human actions generate acoustic noise, emanate artificial light and emit chemical substances. All of these pollutants are known to affect animals. Most studies on anthropogenic pollution address the impact of pollutants in unimodal sensory domains. High levels of anthropogenic noise, for example, have been shown to interfere with acoustic signals and cues. However, animals rely on multiple senses, and pollutants often co-occur. Thus, a full ecological assessment of the impact of anthropogenic activities requires a multimodal approach. We describe how sensory pollutants can co-occur and how covariance among pollutants may differ from natural situations. We review how animals combine information that arrives at their sensory systems through different modalities and outline how sensory conditions can interfere with multimodal perception. Finally, we describe how sensory pollutants can affect the perception, behaviour and endocrinology of animals within and across sensory modalities. We conclude that sensory pollution can affect animals in complex ways due to interactions among sensory stimuli, neural processing and behavioural and endocrinal feedback. We call for more empirical data on covariance among sensory conditions, for instance, data on correlated levels in noise and light pollution. Furthermore, we encourage researchers to test animal responses to a full-factorial set of sensory pollutants in the presence or the absence of ecologically important signals and cues. We realize that such approach is often time and energy consuming, but we think this is the only way to fully understand the multimodal impact of sensory pollution on animal performance and perception. PMID:25904319

  3. Pollution going multimodal: the complex impact of the human-altered sensory environment on animal perception and performance.

    PubMed

    Halfwerk, Wouter; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic sensory pollution is affecting ecosystems worldwide. Human actions generate acoustic noise, emanate artificial light and emit chemical substances. All of these pollutants are known to affect animals. Most studies on anthropogenic pollution address the impact of pollutants in unimodal sensory domains. High levels of anthropogenic noise, for example, have been shown to interfere with acoustic signals and cues. However, animals rely on multiple senses, and pollutants often co-occur. Thus, a full ecological assessment of the impact of anthropogenic activities requires a multimodal approach. We describe how sensory pollutants can co-occur and how covariance among pollutants may differ from natural situations. We review how animals combine information that arrives at their sensory systems through different modalities and outline how sensory conditions can interfere with multimodal perception. Finally, we describe how sensory pollutants can affect the perception, behaviour and endocrinology of animals within and across sensory modalities. We conclude that sensory pollution can affect animals in complex ways due to interactions among sensory stimuli, neural processing and behavioural and endocrinal feedback. We call for more empirical data on covariance among sensory conditions, for instance, data on correlated levels in noise and light pollution. Furthermore, we encourage researchers to test animal responses to a full-factorial set of sensory pollutants in the presence or the absence of ecologically important signals and cues. We realize that such approach is often time and energy consuming, but we think this is the only way to fully understand the multimodal impact of sensory pollution on animal performance and perception.

  4. Mechanisms in Motion-Organic Chemistry Animations v 1.5 (by Bruce H. Lipshutz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosan, Alan M.

    1998-08-01

    Exeter Multimedia; Jones and Bartlett: Sudbury, MA, 1996 (Macintosh), 1997 (Windows). $395. This single CD-ROM presents 17 short (2-3-minute) Quicktime, full-color movie animations of selected organic reaction mechanisms, most of which are discussed at the sophomore level. It is an ambitious and timely project that seeks to move beyond the static, snapshot formalism of the curved arrow to a seamless portrayal of electron flow in three dimensions. Each movie, accompanied by text and voice, is shown twice and includes at least one view or rotation of an intermediate or transition state. The entire series can be examined in an hour. The animations are interactive as controlled by a QT slide bar. They vary in scope, quality, and clarity. Quite effectively presented are alkene bromination, hydrogenation and hydrohalogenation, carbonyl enolization-alkylation, carbocation rearrangement, and E2 elimination. A few other, more advanced, topics such as the SN2', kinetic aldol, and Baeyer-Villiger reactions are also included. Carbonyl addition and acyl substitution are exemplified by imine formation and ester saponification. Reactions of aromatics are not presented. In this package, the reaction pathways are primarily based on changes in overall geometry and bonding so the emphasis is on highlighting those bonds being broken and those being formed. Transition states are identified by the appearance of a uniform color over all atoms, orbitals, and bonds. Changes in hybridization and attendant stereochemistry are nicely depicted but these animations are not meant to illustrate or model the molecular orbital basis for reactivity. As an example, the Diels-Alder reaction is shown proceeding with endo specificity via a disrotatory motion of the diene and subsequent rotation of the cycloadduct to a half chair conformation but it is not presented as a HOMO-LUMO interaction. In many of the mechanisms the reacting centers and relevant interacting orbitals appear in vividly contrasting

  5. Congenital foot deformation alters the topographic organization in the primate somatosensory system.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chia-Chi; Qi, Hui-Xin; Reed, Jamie L; Miller, Daniel J; Kaas, Jon H

    2016-01-01

    Limbs may fail to grow properly during fetal development, but the extent to which such growth alters the nervous system has not been extensively explored. Here we describe the organization of the somatosensory system in a 6-year-old monkey (Macaca radiata) born with a deformed left foot in comparison to the results from a normal monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Toes 1, 3, and 5 were missing, but the proximal parts of toes 2 and 4 were present. We used anatomical tracers to characterize the patterns of peripheral input to the spinal cord and brainstem, as well as between thalamus and cortex. We also determined the somatotopic organization of primary somatosensory area 3b of both hemispheres using multiunit electrophysiological recording. Tracers were subcutaneously injected into matching locations of each foot to reveal their representations within the lumbar spinal cord, and the gracile nucleus (GrN) of the brainstem. Tracers injected into the representations of the toes and plantar pads of cortical area 3b labeled neurons in the ventroposterior lateral nucleus (VPL) of the thalamus. Contrary to the orderly arrangement of the foot representation throughout the lemniscal pathway in the normal monkey, the plantar representation of the deformed foot was significantly expanded and intruded into the expected representations of toes in the spinal cord, GrN, VPL, and area 3b. We also observed abnormal representation of the intact foot in the ipsilateral spinal cord and contralateral area 3b. Thus, congenital malformation influences the somatotopic representation of the deformed as well as the intact foot.

  6. Plant roots alter microbial potential for mediation of soil organic carbon decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, M.; Shi, S.; Herman, D.; He, Z.; Zhou, J.

    2014-12-01

    Plant root regulation of soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition is a key controller of terrestrial C-cycling. Although many studies have tested possible mechanisms underlying plant "priming" of decomposition, few have investigated the microbial mediators of decomposition, which can be greatly influenced by plant activities. Here we examined effects of Avena fatua roots on decomposition of 13C-labeled root litter in a California grassland soil over two simulated growing-seasons. The presence of plant roots consistently suppressed rates of litter decomposition. Reduction of inorganic nitrogen (N) concentration in soil reduced but did not completely relieve this suppressive effect. The presence of plants significantly altered the abundance, composition and functional potential of microbial communities. Significantly higher signal intensities of genes capable of degrading low molecular weight organic compounds (e.g., glucose, formate and malate) were observed in microbial communities from planted soils, while microorganisms in unplanted soils had higher relative abundances of genes involved in degradation of some macromolecules (e.g., hemicellulose and lignin). Additionally, compared to unplanted soils, microbial communities from planted soils had higher signal intensities of proV and proW, suggesting microbial osmotic stress in planted soils. Possible mechanisms for the observed inhibition of decomposition are 1) microbes preferentially using simple substrates from root exudates and 2) soil drying by plant evapotranspiration impairing microbial activity. We propose a simple data-based model suggesting that the impacts of roots, the soil environment, and microbial community composition on decomposition processes result from impacts of these factors on the soil microbial functional gene potential.

  7. Pelvic Organ Support in Animals with Partial Loss of Fibulin-5 in the Vaginal Wall

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Haolin; Balgobin, Sunil; Montoya, T. Ignacio; Yanagisawa, Hiromi; Word, R. Ann

    2016-01-01

    Compromise of elastic fiber integrity in connective tissues of the pelvic floor is most likely acquired through aging, childbirth-associated injury, and genetic susceptibility. Mouse models of pelvic organ prolapse demonstrate systemic deficiencies in proteins that affect elastogenesis. Prolapse, however, does not occur until several months after birth and is thereby acquired with age or after parturition. To determine the impact of compromised levels of fibulin-5 (Fbln5) during adulthood on pelvic organ support after parturition and elastase-induced injury, tissue-specific conditional knockout (cKO) mice were generated in which doxycycline (dox) treatment results in deletion of Fbln5 in cells that utilize the smooth muscle α actin promoter-driven reverse tetracycline transactivator and tetracycline responsive element-Cre recombinase (i.e., Fbln5f/f/SMA++-rtTA/Cre+, cKO). Fbln5 was decreased significantly in the vagina of cKO mice compared with dox-treated wild type or controls (Fbln5f/f/SMA++-rtTA/Cre-/-). In controls, perineal body length (PBL) and bulge increased significantly after delivery but declined to baseline values within 6–8 weeks. Although overt prolapse did not occur in cKO animals, these transient increases in PBL postpartum were amplified and, unlike controls, parturition-induced increases in PBL (and bulge) did not recover to baseline but remained significantly increased for 12 wks. This lack of recovery from parturition was associated with increased MMP-9 and nondetectable levels of Fbln5 in the postpartum vagina. This predisposition to prolapse was accentuated by injection of elastase into the vaginal wall in which overt prolapse occurred in cKO animals, but rarely in controls. Taken together, our model system in which Fbln5 is conditionally knock-downed in stromal cells of the pelvic floor results in animals that undergo normal elastogenesis during development but lose Fbln5 as adults. The results indicate that vaginal fibulin-5 during

  8. Bioturbating animals control the mobility of redox-sensitive trace elements in organic-rich mudstone

    SciTech Connect

    Harazim, Dario; McIlroy, Duncan; Edwards, Nicholas P.; Wogelius, Roy A.; Manning, Phillip L.; Poduska, Kristin M.; Layne, Graham D.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Bergmann, Uwe

    2015-10-07

    Bioturbating animals modify the original mineralogy, porosity, organic content, and fabric of mud, thus affecting the burial diagenetic pathways of potential hydrocarbon source, seal, and reservoir rocks. High-sensitivity, synchrotron rapid scanning X-ray fluorescence elemental mapping reveals that producers of phycosiphoniform burrows systematically partition redox-sensitive trace elements (i.e., Fe, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and As) in fine-grained siliciclastic rocks. Systematic differences in organic carbon content (total organic carbon >1.5 wt%) and quality (Δ13Corg~0.6‰) are measured between the burrow core and host sediment. The relative enrichment of redox-sensitive elements in the burrow core does not correlate with significant neo-formation of early diagenetic pyrite (via trace metal pyritization), but is best explained by physical concentration of clay- and silt-sized components. A measured loss (~–15%) of the large-ionic-radius elements Sr and Ba from both burrow halo and core is most likely associated with the release of Sr and Ba to pore waters during biological (in vivo) weathering of silt- to clay-sized lithic components and feldspar. In conclusion, this newly documented effect has significant potential to inform the interpretation of geochemical proxy and rock property data, particularly from shales, where elemental analyses are commonly employed to predict reservoir quality and support paleoenvironmental analysis.

  9. Bioturbating animals control the mobility of redox-sensitive trace elements in organic-rich mudstone

    DOE PAGES

    Harazim, Dario; McIlroy, Duncan; Edwards, Nicholas P.; Wogelius, Roy A.; Manning, Phillip L.; Poduska, Kristin M.; Layne, Graham D.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Bergmann, Uwe

    2015-10-07

    Bioturbating animals modify the original mineralogy, porosity, organic content, and fabric of mud, thus affecting the burial diagenetic pathways of potential hydrocarbon source, seal, and reservoir rocks. High-sensitivity, synchrotron rapid scanning X-ray fluorescence elemental mapping reveals that producers of phycosiphoniform burrows systematically partition redox-sensitive trace elements (i.e., Fe, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and As) in fine-grained siliciclastic rocks. Systematic differences in organic carbon content (total organic carbon >1.5 wt%) and quality (Δ13Corg~0.6‰) are measured between the burrow core and host sediment. The relative enrichment of redox-sensitive elements in the burrow core does not correlate with significant neo-formation ofmore » early diagenetic pyrite (via trace metal pyritization), but is best explained by physical concentration of clay- and silt-sized components. A measured loss (~–15%) of the large-ionic-radius elements Sr and Ba from both burrow halo and core is most likely associated with the release of Sr and Ba to pore waters during biological (in vivo) weathering of silt- to clay-sized lithic components and feldspar. In conclusion, this newly documented effect has significant potential to inform the interpretation of geochemical proxy and rock property data, particularly from shales, where elemental analyses are commonly employed to predict reservoir quality and support paleoenvironmental analysis.« less

  10. Investigation of the inorganic and organic phosphorus forms in animal manure.

    PubMed

    Pagliari, Paulo H; Laboski, Carrie A M

    2012-01-01

    The most viable way to beneficially use animal manure on most farms is land application. Over the past few decades, repeated manure application has shown adverse effects on environmental quality due to phosphorus (P) runoff with rainwater, leading to eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. Improved understanding of manure P chemistry may reduce this risk. In this research, 42 manure samples from seven animal species (beef and dairy cattle, swine, chicken, turkey, dairy goat, horse, and sheep) were sequentially fractionated with water, NaHCO₃, NaOH, and HCl. Inorganic (P(i)), organic (P(o)), enzymatic hydrolyzable (P(e); monoester-, DNA-, and phytate-like P), and nonhydrolyzable P were measured in each fraction. Total dry ash P (P(t)) was measured in all manures. Total fractionated P (P(ft)) and total P(i) (P(it)) showed a strong linear relationship with P(t). However, the ratios between P(ft)/P(t) and P(it)/P(t) varied from 59 to 117% and from 28 to 96%, respectively. Water and NaHCO₃ extracted most of the P(i) in manure from ruminant+horse, whereas in nonruminant species a large fraction of manure P was extracted in the HCl fraction. Manure P(e) summed over all fractions (P(et)) accounted for 41 to 69% of total P(0) and 4 to 29% of P(t). The hydrolyzable pool in the majority of the manures was dominated by phytate- and DNA-like P in water, monoester- and DNA-like P in NaHCO₃, and monoester- and phytate-like P in NaOH and HCl fractions. In conclusion, if one assumes that the P(et) and P(it) from the fractionation can become bioavailable, then from 34 to 100% of P(t) in animal manure would be bioavailable. This suggests the need for frequent monitoring of manure P for better manure management practices.

  11. Reversible alteration of CO2 adsorption upon photochemical or thermal treatment in a metal-organic framework.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinhee; Yuan, Daqiang; Pham, Khanh T; Li, Jian-Rong; Yakovenko, Andrey; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2012-01-11

    A metal-organic framework (MOF) for reversible alteration of guest molecule adsorption, here carbon dioxide, upon photochemical or thermal treatment has been discovered. An azobenzene functional group, which can switch its conformation upon light irradiation or heat treatment, has been introduced to the organic linker of a MOF. The resulting MOF adsorbs different amount of CO(2) after UV or heat treatment. This remarkable stimuli-responsive adsorption effect has been demonstrated through experiments.

  12. Assessment of tissue concentrations of metals and volatile organic chemicals in farm animal products

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, P.R. III; Shortelle, A.B.; Charna, R.; Maxwell, J.

    1995-12-31

    An Army site in Pennsylvania is included on the National Priorities List. Site-related chemicals such as volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) and metals have been released to the groundwater from the industrial sewer which have now been repaired. VOCs are also present in groundwater in off post residential wells. The purpose of this study was to address the possible effects of groundwater and surface water chemicals to livestock and humans via the food chain pathway in the off post areas. Sampling of off post farm animal tissues was performed to confirm or revise the conclusion (based on modeled results) that this exposure pathway does not pose significant risk to human or animal health. Objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the potential presence of study constituents in the components of the food chain, and (2) develop data for use in the future risk assessment. Samples collected from the study area and reference (background) areas include beef (4 cuts), poultry, eggs, pork (5 cuts), and cow`s milk. The analyses were performed using published EPA methodologies modified as appropriate for sample (tissue) preparation. VOCs were analyzed using the EPA GC/MS purge and trap method SW846-8240. Metals were analyzed using the EPA inductively coupled/mass spectrometer (ICP/MS) method SW846-6020. Metals were found ubiquitously in samples from both areas. VOCs were only sporadically found. Statistical analyses were performed to identify chemicals in specific tissues where concentrations differed significantly between study area and reference areas.

  13. Effect of Composting on Dissolved Organic Matter in Animal Manure and Its Binding with Cu

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengsong; Li, Yanxia; Xiong, Xiong; Yang, Ming; Li, Wei

    2012-01-01

    The agricultural application of raw animal manure introduces large amounts of dissolved organic matter (DOM) into soil and would increase transport of heavy metals such as Cu which are widely present in animal manure. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the evolution of DOM from pig and cattle manures during composting through excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and the binding ability of DOM toward copper (Cu) ions with the aid of fluorescence quenching titration. The excitation-emission matrix spectra indicated that tyrosine-like, tryptophan-like, and soluble microbial byproduct-like fluorescence decreased significantly, while humic-like and fulvic-like fluorescence increased and became the main peaks in composted manure DOM. Fluorescence quenching titration showed that the complexing capacities of pig and cattle manure DOM decreased after composting. Correlation analysis confirmed that complexing capacity of DOM positively and significantly correlates with tyrosine-like and soluble microbial byproduct-like materials which mostly degraded after composting. These results would suggest that the ability of manure DOM to complex with Cu is inhibited as a result of reduced protein-like materials after composting. PMID:23125554

  14. The gut microbiome as a virtual endocrine organ with implications for farm and domestic animal endocrinology.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, T F; Ross, R P; Stanton, C; Clarke, G

    2016-07-01

    The gut microbiome exerts a marked influence on host physiology, and manipulation of its composition has repeatedly been shown to influence host metabolism and body composition. This virtual endocrine organ also has a role in the regulation of the plasma concentrations of tryptophan, an essential amino acid and precursor to serotonin, a key neurotransmitter within both the enteric and central nervous systems. Control over the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis also appears to be under the influence of the gut microbiota. This is clear from studies in microbiota-deficient germ-free animals with exaggerated responses to psychological stress that can be normalized by monocolonization with certain bacterial species including Bifidobacterium infantis. Therapeutic targeting of the gut microbiota may thus be useful in treating or preventing stress-related microbiome-gut-brain axis disorders and metabolic diseases, much the same way as redirections of metabolopathies can be achieved through more traditional endocrine hormone-based interventions. Moreover, the implications of these findings need to be considered in the context of farm and domestic animal physiology, behavior, and food safety. PMID:27345323

  15. Cardiovascular and organ responses and adaptation responses to hypogravity in an experimental animal model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondi, R.; Capodicasa, E.; Tassi, C.; Mezzasomal, L.; Benedetti, C.; Valiani, M.; Marconi, P.; Rossi, R.

    1995-10-01

    The head-down suspension (i.e antiorthostatic hypokinesia) rat is used to simulate weightlessness. However, little is known about cardiovascular and organ adaptation responses which, over a long time, can become pathologically significant. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate regional changes in the hematology parameters, Endotheline-1 (ET-1) concentration and urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.30) (NAG) in an experimental antiorthostatic rat model. The data indicate significant variations in the plasma ET-1 level in time, in the superior and inferior cava vessel blood of animals maintained for 10 days in hypogravity with respect to controls. These changes do not seem to be due to hemoconcentration. The increase in urinary NAG was observed during the first 24h of experiment, indicating renal stress, probably due to adverse blood flow variations within the organ. We conclude that the plasma ET-1 level changes could be responsible, overall for the blood flow variations in the kidney and renal stress could be the consequence of extended antiorthostatic hypokinesia. The ET-1 behaviour and urinary NAG excretion in rats exposed to antiorthostatic hypokjnetic hydynamia offer possibilities for understanding if these changes might be reversible or when they become pathological. This could give some relevant information about the effects of prolonged hypogravity during the space voyage.

  16. Diet modification and its influence on metabolic and related pathological alterations in the SHR/NDmcr-cp rat, an animal model of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Kouji; Sakairi, Tetsuya; Harada, Shuichi; Shinozuka, Junko; Ide, Mika; Sato, Hiroko; Tanaka, Masaharu; Toriumi, Wataru; Kume, Eisuke

    2012-05-01

    SHR/NDmcr-cp (SHR/NDcp) rats, which carry a nonsense mutation of the leptin receptor gene, are known to spontaneously develop hypertension, obesity and hyperlipidemia, and have therefore found use as an animal model of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. However, some recent studies on SHR/NDcp rats revealed only mild elevation of blood glucose levels. To investigate whether metabolic factors including blood glucose and histopathological alterations of SHR/NDcp rats deteriorate with a diabetogenic diet, biochemical and histopathological examinations were conducted with animals fed normal or diabetogenic diets for 20 weeks. SHR/NDcp rats receiving the normal diet displayed obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and mild elevation of blood glucose and HbA1c levels. Urinary glucose excretion was noted in only 1 out of 6 animals. Histologically, macro- and micro-vesicular steatosis in the liver, glomerular and tubular damages in the kidney and islet hyperplasia mainly of beta cells in the pancreas were characteristically noted. In SHR/NDcp rats fed the diabetogenic diet, obesity was more severe, with higher blood glucose and HbA1c levels, increased numbers of animals with urinary glucose excretion, and more pronounced hepatic steatosis and renal tubular changes. However, elevation of blood glucose levels and urinary glucose excretion proved transient. These observations indicate that the diabetic state and associated histopathological alterations in SHR/NDcp rats are exacerbated by feeding a diabetogenic diet, but the effects are limited. Elevated islet function with compensative insulin secretion might be related to amelioration of the hyperglycemic state. Further diet modification could be needed to induce a more prominent and persistent diabetic state in SHR/NDcp rats.

  17. Predators alter community organization of coral reef cryptofauna and reduce abundance of coral mutualists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stier, A. C.; Leray, M.

    2014-03-01

    Coral reefs are the most diverse marine systems in the world, yet our understanding of the processes that maintain such extraordinary diversity remains limited and taxonomically biased toward the most conspicuous species. Cryptofauna that live deeply embedded within the interstitial spaces of coral reefs make up the majority of reef diversity, and many of these species provide important protective services to their coral hosts. However, we know very little about the processes governing the diversity and composition of these less conspicuous but functionally important species. Here, we experimentally quantify the role of predation in driving the community organization of small fishes and decapods that live embedded within Pocillopora eydouxi, a structurally complex, reef-building coral found widely across the Indo-Pacific. We use surveys to describe the natural distribution of predators, and then, factorially manipulate two focal predator species to quantify the independent and combined effects of predator density and identity on P. eydouxi-dwelling cryptofauna. Predators reduced abundance (34 %), species richness (20 %), and modified species composition. Rarefaction revealed that observed reductions in species richness were primarily driven by changes in abundance. Additionally, the two predator species uniquely affected the beta diversity and composition of the prey assemblage. Predators reduced the abundance and modified the composition of a number of mutualist fishes and decapods, whose benefit to the coral is known to be both diversity- and density-dependent. We predict that the density and identity of predators present within P. eydouxi may substantially alter coral performance in the face of an increased frequency and intensity of natural and anthropogenic stressors.

  18. Photoinhibition of photosystem I in a pea mutant with altered LHCII organization.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A G; Morgan-Kiss, R M; Krol, M; Allakhverdiev, S I; Zanev, Yu; Sane, P V; Huner, N P A

    2015-11-01

    Comparative analysis of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence imaging revealed that photosystem II (PSII) photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) of leaves of the Costata 2/133 pea mutant with altered pigment composition and decreased level of oligomerization of the light harvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein complexes (LHCII) of PSII (Dobrikova et al., 2000; Ivanov et al., 2005) did not differ from that of WT. In contrast, photosystem I (PSI) activity of the Costata 2/133 mutant measured by the far-red (FR) light inducible P700 (P700(+)) signal exhibited 39% lower steady state level of P700(+), a 2.2-fold higher intersystem electron pool size (e(-)/P700) and higher rate of P700(+) re-reduction, which indicate an increased capacity for PSI cyclic electron transfer (CET) in the Costata 2/133 mutant than WT. The mutant also exhibited a limited capacity for state transitions. The lower level of oxidizable P700 (P700(+)) is consistent with a lower amount of PSI related chlorophyll protein complexes and lower abundance of the PsaA/PsaB heterodimer, PsaD and Lhca1 polypeptides in Costata 2/133 mutant. Exposure of WT and the Costata 2/133 mutant to high light stress resulted in a comparable photoinhibition of PSII measured in vivo, although the decrease of Fv/Fm was modestly higher in the mutant plants. However, under the same photoinhibitory conditions PSI photochemistry (P700(+)) measured as ΔA820-860 was inhibited to a greater extent (50%) in the Costata 2/133 mutant than in the WT (22%). This was accompanied by a 50% faster re-reduction rate of P700(+) in the dark indicating a higher capacity for CET around PSI in high light treated mutant leaves. The role of chloroplast thylakoid organization on the stability of the PSI complex and its susceptibility to high light stress is discussed.

  19. The purified and recombinant Legionella pneumophila chaperonin alters mitochondrial trafficking and microfilament organization.

    PubMed

    Chong, Audrey; Lima, Celia A; Allan, David S; Nasrallah, Gheyath K; Garduño, Rafael A

    2009-11-01

    A portion of the total cellular pool of the Legionella pneumophila chaperonin, HtpB, is found on the bacterial cell surface, where it can mediate invasion of nonphagocytic cells. HtpB continues to be abundantly produced and released by internalized L. pneumophila and may thus have postinvasion functions. We used here two functional models (protein-coated beads and expression of recombinant proteins in CHO cells) to investigate the competence of HtpB in mimicking early intracellular trafficking events of L. pneumophila, including the recruitment of mitochondria, cytoskeletal alterations, the inhibition of phagosome-lysosome fusion, and association with the endoplasmic reticulum. Microscopy and flow cytometry studies indicated that HtpB-coated beads recruited mitochondria in CHO cells and U937-derived macrophages and induced transient changes in the organization of actin microfilaments in CHO cells. Ectopic expression of HtpB in the cytoplasm of transfected CHO cells also led to modifications in actin microfilaments similar to those produced by HtpB-coated beads but did not change the distribution of mitochondria. Association of phagosomes containing HtpB-coated beads with the endoplasmic reticulum was not consistently detected by either fluorescence or electron microscopy studies, and only a modest delay in the fusion of TrOv-labeled lysosomes with phagosomes containing HtpB-coated beads was observed. HtpB is the first Legionella protein and the first chaperonin shown to, by means of our functional models, induce mitochondrial recruitment and microfilament rearrangements, two postinternalization events that typify the early trafficking of virulent L. pneumophila. PMID:19687203

  20. Photoinhibition of photosystem I in a pea mutant with altered LHCII organization.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A G; Morgan-Kiss, R M; Krol, M; Allakhverdiev, S I; Zanev, Yu; Sane, P V; Huner, N P A

    2015-11-01

    Comparative analysis of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence imaging revealed that photosystem II (PSII) photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) of leaves of the Costata 2/133 pea mutant with altered pigment composition and decreased level of oligomerization of the light harvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein complexes (LHCII) of PSII (Dobrikova et al., 2000; Ivanov et al., 2005) did not differ from that of WT. In contrast, photosystem I (PSI) activity of the Costata 2/133 mutant measured by the far-red (FR) light inducible P700 (P700(+)) signal exhibited 39% lower steady state level of P700(+), a 2.2-fold higher intersystem electron pool size (e(-)/P700) and higher rate of P700(+) re-reduction, which indicate an increased capacity for PSI cyclic electron transfer (CET) in the Costata 2/133 mutant than WT. The mutant also exhibited a limited capacity for state transitions. The lower level of oxidizable P700 (P700(+)) is consistent with a lower amount of PSI related chlorophyll protein complexes and lower abundance of the PsaA/PsaB heterodimer, PsaD and Lhca1 polypeptides in Costata 2/133 mutant. Exposure of WT and the Costata 2/133 mutant to high light stress resulted in a comparable photoinhibition of PSII measured in vivo, although the decrease of Fv/Fm was modestly higher in the mutant plants. However, under the same photoinhibitory conditions PSI photochemistry (P700(+)) measured as ΔA820-860 was inhibited to a greater extent (50%) in the Costata 2/133 mutant than in the WT (22%). This was accompanied by a 50% faster re-reduction rate of P700(+) in the dark indicating a higher capacity for CET around PSI in high light treated mutant leaves. The role of chloroplast thylakoid organization on the stability of the PSI complex and its susceptibility to high light stress is discussed. PMID:26321219

  1. Shear Stress-Induced Alteration of Epithelial Organization in Human Renal Tubular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Belloy, Marcy; Saulnier-Blache, Jean-Sébastien; Casemayou, Audrey; Ducasse, Laure; Grès, Sandra; Bellière, Julie; Caubet, Cécile; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Schanstra, Joost P.; Buffin-Meyer, Bénédicte

    2015-01-01

    Tubular epithelial cells in the kidney are continuously exposed to urinary fluid shear stress (FSS) generated by urine movement and recent in vitro studies suggest that changes of FSS could contribute to kidney injury. However it is unclear whether FSS alters the epithelial characteristics of the renal tubule. Here, we evaluated in vitro and in vivo the influence of FSS on epithelial characteristics of renal proximal tubular cells taking the organization of junctional complexes and the presence of the primary cilium as markers of epithelial phenotype. Human tubular cells (HK-2) were subjected to FSS (0.5 Pa) for 48h. Control cells were maintained under static conditions. Markers of tight junctions (Claudin-2, ZO-1), Par polarity complex (Pard6), adherens junctions (E-Cadherin, β-Catenin) and the primary cilium (α-acetylated Tubulin) were analysed by quantitative PCR, Western blot or immunocytochemistry. In response to FSS, Claudin-2 disappeared and ZO-1 displayed punctuated and discontinuous staining in the plasma membrane. Expression of Pard6 was also decreased. Moreover, E-Cadherin abundance was decreased, while its major repressors Snail1 and Snail2 were overexpressed, and β-Catenin staining was disrupted along the cell periphery. Finally, FSS subjected-cells exhibited disappeared primary cilium. Results were confirmed in vivo in a uninephrectomy (8 months) mouse model where increased FSS induced by adaptive hyperfiltration in remnant kidney was accompanied by both decreased epithelial gene expression including ZO-1, E-cadherin and β-Catenin and disappearance of tubular cilia. In conclusion, these results show that proximal tubular cells lose an important number of their epithelial characteristics after long term exposure to FSS both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, the changes in urinary FSS associated with nephropathies should be considered as potential insults for tubular cells leading to disorganization of the tubular epithelium. PMID:26146837

  2. [Coenzyme Q10: its biosynthesis and biological significance in animal organisms and in humans].

    PubMed

    Siemieniuk, Ewa; Skrzydlewska, Elzbieta

    2005-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone) is a naturally occurring compound widely distributed in animal organisms and in humans. The primary compounds involved in the biosynthesis of ubiquinone are 4-hydroxybenzoate and the polyprenyl chain. An essential role of coenzyme Q10 is as an electron carrier in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Moreover, coenzyme Q10 is one of the most important lipophilic antioxidants, preventing the generation of free radicals as well as oxidative modifications of proteins, lipids, and DNA, it and can also regenerate the other powerful lipophilic antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol. Antioxidant action is a property of the reduced form of coenzyme Q10, ubiquinol (CoQ10H2), and the ubisemiquinone radical (CoQ10H*). Paradoxically, independently of the known antioxidant properties of coenzyme Q10, the ubisemiquinone radical anion (CoQ10-) possesses prooxidative properties. Decreased levels of coenzyme Q10 in humans are observed in many pathologies (e.g. cardiac disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, AIDS, cancer) associated with intensive generation of free radicals and their action on cells and tissues. In these cases, treatment involves pharmaceutical supplementation or increased consumption of coenzyme Q10 with meals as well as treatment with suitable chemical compounds (i.e. folic acid or B-group vitamins) which significantly increase ubiquinone biosynthesis in the organism. Estimation of coenzyme Q10 deficiency and efficiency of its supplementation requires a determination of ubiquinone levels in the organism. Therefore, highly selective and sensitive methods must be applied, such as HPLC with UV or coulometric detection.

  3. Global trade requirements and compliance with World Trade Organization agreements: the role of tracing animals and animal products.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D W; Beers, P T

    2001-08-01

    The use of a measure incorporating traceability that directly or indirectly affects international trade is permitted under the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, provided that the measure is applied in accordance with the provisions of the Agreement. These provisions state that the measure must be necessary, scientifically justified, no more trade restrictive than required and consistent with the appropriate level of protection of the importing country. If requested, importing countries are required to assess claims by exporting countries regarding an alternative measure(s) providing an equivalent level of protection or with regard to regionalisation. PMID:11548514

  4. Animal manure application and soil organic carbon stocks: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Maillard, Émilie; Angers, Denis A

    2014-02-01

    The impact of animal manure application on soil organic carbon (SOC) stock changes is of interest for both agronomic and environmental purposes. There is a specific need to quantify SOC change for use in national greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventories. We quantified the response of SOC stocks to manure application from a large worldwide pool of individual studies and determined the impact of explanatory factors such as climate, soil properties, land use and manure characteristics. Our study is based on a meta-analysis of 42 research articles totaling 49 sites and 130 observations in the world. A dominant effect of cumulative manure-C input on SOC response was observed as this factor explained at least 53% of the variability in SOC stock differences compared to mineral fertilized or unfertilized reference treatments. However, the effects of other determining factors were not evident from our data set. From the linear regression relating cumulative C inputs and SOC stock difference, a global manure-C retention coefficient of 12% ± 4 (95% Confidence Interval, CI) could be estimated for an average study duration of 18 years. Following an approach comparable to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, we estimated a relative SOC change factor of 1.26 ± 0.14 (95% CI) which was also related to cumulative manure-C input. Our results offer some scope for the refinement of manure retention coefficients used in crop management guidelines and for the improvement of SOC change factors for national GHG inventories by taking into account manure-C input. Finally, this study emphasizes the need to further document the long-term impact of manure characteristics such as animal species, especially pig and poultry, and manure management systems, in particular liquid vs. solid storage.

  5. Alterations of Amino Acids and Monoamine Metabolism in Male Fmr1 Knockout Mice: A Putative Animal Model of the Human Fragile X Mental Retardation Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gruss, Michael; Braun, Katharina

    2001-01-01

    The Fragile X syndrome, a common form of mental retardation in humans, is caused by silencing the fragile X mental retardation (FMR1) geneleading to the absence of the encoded fragile X mental retardation protein 1 (FMRP). We describe morphological and behavioral abnormalities for both affected humans and Fmr1 knockout mice, a putative animal model for the human Fragile X syndrome. The aim of the present study was to identify possible neurochemical abnormalities in Fmr1 knockout mice, with particular focus on neurotransmission. Significant region-specific differences: of basal neurotransmitter and metabolite levels were found between wildtype and Fmr1 knockout animals, predominantly in juveniles (post-natal days 28 to 31). Adults (postnatal days 209 to 221) showed only few abnormalities as compared with the wildtype. In juvenile knockout mice, aspartate and taurine were especially increased in cortical regions, striatum, hippocampus, cerebellum, and brainstem. In addition, juveniles showed an altered balance between excitatory and inhibitory amino acids in the caudal cortex, hippocampus, and brainstem. We detected very few differences in monoamine turnover in both age stages. The results presented here provide the first evidence that lack of FMRP expression in FMRP knockout mice is accompanied by age-dependent, region-specific alterations in neurotransmission. PMID:12018775

  6. NMR studies on the chemical alteration of soil organic matter precursors during controlled charring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knicker, Heike

    2010-05-01

    Beside the production of volatiles, vegetation fire transforms various amounts of labile organic components into recalcitrant dark colored and highly aromatic structures. They are incorporated into soils and are assumed to represent an important sink within the global carbon cycle. In order to elucidate the real importance of PyOM as a C-sink, a good understanding of its chemistry is crucial. Although several 'Black Carbon' (BC) models are reported, a commonly accepted view of the chemistry involved in its formation is still missing. Its biogeochemical recalcitrance is commonly associated with a highly condensed aromatic structure. However, recent studies indicated that this view may be oversimplified for PyOM derived from vegetation fire. In order to bring some more light on the structural properties of PyOM produced during vegetation fire, charred plant residues and model chars derived from typical plant macromolecules (casein, cellulose, lignin and condensed tannins) were subjected to controlled charring under oxic conditions (350°C and 450°C) and then characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Subsequently, the chemical features of the PyOM were related to its chemical recalcitrance as determined by chemical oxidation with acid potassium dichromate. Charring cellulose (350°C, 8 min) yielded in a low C-recovery (11%). Treating casein in the same way resulted in a survival of 62% of its C and 46% of its N. Comparable high C-recoveries are reported for lignin. After charring Lolium perenne, 34% of its N and C were recovered. NMR-spectroscopic studies revealed that for this sample most of the charred N and C occurred in pyrrole-type structures. Our studies further indicate that the aromatic skeleton of char accumulating after a vegetation fire must contain remains of the lignin backbone and considerable contributions of furans and anhydrosugars from thermally altered cellulose. Enhancing the temperature during the

  7. [The organization of veterinary services in African animal husbandry systems: chances for the exchange of interdisciplinary learning processes].

    PubMed

    Kirk, M

    1995-12-01

    The structure of the veterinary services to date hinders--together with massive intervention in the land tenure systems and the animal keepers' rights in arid and semi-arid areas--the future organization of productive animal-keeping systems adapted to the ecological conditions. The consensus of the findings of research in the social as well as in the natural sciences, is that state (agrarian) policies and international development cooperation have led to centralism and authoritarian administrations which formalize formerly informal, locally specific rules for securing the health of the animals and the maintenance of grazing and water resources. As a result, the animal-keeping groups have lost their rights, social conflicts arose and the environment suffered. Thus, decentralization, subsidarity and--above all--comprehensive participation on the part of the animal keepers are regarded as the guidelines for the future organization of state and/or private services for maintaining the health of the animals. Thereby, the planning at the various administrative levels is faced by great challenges in view of the progressing differentiation in the animal-keeping systems (e.g. peri-urban systems; urban absentee herd owners; marginalized, subsistence-oriented households). PMID:8651895

  8. [The organization of veterinary services in African animal husbandry systems: chances for the exchange of interdisciplinary learning processes].

    PubMed

    Kirk, M

    1995-12-01

    The structure of the veterinary services to date hinders--together with massive intervention in the land tenure systems and the animal keepers' rights in arid and semi-arid areas--the future organization of productive animal-keeping systems adapted to the ecological conditions. The consensus of the findings of research in the social as well as in the natural sciences, is that state (agrarian) policies and international development cooperation have led to centralism and authoritarian administrations which formalize formerly informal, locally specific rules for securing the health of the animals and the maintenance of grazing and water resources. As a result, the animal-keeping groups have lost their rights, social conflicts arose and the environment suffered. Thus, decentralization, subsidarity and--above all--comprehensive participation on the part of the animal keepers are regarded as the guidelines for the future organization of state and/or private services for maintaining the health of the animals. Thereby, the planning at the various administrative levels is faced by great challenges in view of the progressing differentiation in the animal-keeping systems (e.g. peri-urban systems; urban absentee herd owners; marginalized, subsistence-oriented households).

  9. Altered Mechanical Environment of Bone Cells in an Animal Model of Short- and Long-Term Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Verbruggen, Stefaan W.; Mc Garrigle, Myles J.; Haugh, Matthew G.; Voisin, Muriel C.; McNamara, Laoise M.

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in bone tissue composition during osteoporosis likely disrupt the mechanical environment of bone cells and may thereby initiate a mechanobiological response. It has proved challenging to characterize the mechanical environment of bone cells in vivo, and the mechanical environment of osteoporotic bone cells is not known. The objective of this research is to characterize the local mechanical environment of osteocytes and osteoblasts from healthy and osteoporotic bone in a rat model of osteoporosis. Using a custom-designed micromechanical loading device, we apply strains representative of a range of physical activity (up to 3000 με) to fluorescently stained femur samples from normal and ovariectomized rats. Confocal imaging was simultaneously performed, and digital image correlation techniques were applied to characterize cellular strains. In healthy bone tissue, osteocytes experience higher maximum strains (31,028 ± 4213 με) than osteoblasts (24,921 ± 3,832 με), whereas a larger proportion of the osteoblast experiences strains >10,000 με. Most interestingly, we show that osteoporotic bone cells experience similar or higher maximum strains than healthy bone cells after short durations of estrogen deficiency (5 weeks), and exceeded the osteogenic strain threshold (10,000 με) in a similar or significantly larger proportion of the cell (osteoblast, 12.68% vs. 13.68%; osteocyte, 15.74% vs. 5.37%). However, in long-term estrogen deficiency (34 weeks), there was no significant difference between bone cells in healthy and osteoporotic bone. These results suggest that the mechanical environment of bone cells is altered during early-stage osteoporosis, and that mechanobiological responses act to restore the mechanical environment of the bone tissue after it has been perturbed by ovariectomy. PMID:25863050

  10. Age-related alterations in the modular organization of structural cortical network by using cortical thickness from MRI.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhang J; He, Yong; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Gong, Gaolang; Evans, Alan C

    2011-05-01

    Normal aging is accompanied by various cognitive functional declines. Recent studies have revealed disruptions in the coordination of large-scale functional brain networks such as the default mode network in advanced aging. However, organizational alterations of the structural brain network at the system level in aging are still poorly understood. Here, using cortical thickness, we investigated the modular organization of the cortical structural networks in 102 young and 97 normal aging adults. Brain networks for both cohorts displayed a modular organization overlapping with functional domains such as executive and auditory/language processing. However, compared with the modular organization of young adults, the aging group demonstrated a significantly reduced modularity that might be indicative of reduced functional segregation in the aging brain. More importantly, the aging brain network exhibited reduced intra-/inter-module connectivity in modules corresponding to the executive function and the default mode network of young adults, which might be associated with the decline of cognitive functions in aging. Finally, we observed age-associated alterations in the regional characterization in terms of their intra/inter-module connectivity. Our results indicate that aging is associated with an altered modular organization in the structural brain networks and provide new evidence for disrupted integrity in the large-scale brain networks that underlie cognition.

  11. A strategy for trade monitoring and substitution of the organs of threatened animals

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jiao-yang; Yan, Dan; Song, Jing-yuan; Zhang, Da; Xing, Xiao-yan; Han, Yu-mei; Yang, Mei-hua; Dong, Xiao-ping; Peng, Cheng; Chen, Shi-lin; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2013-01-01

    The use of threatened animals as a source of traditional medicines is accelerating the extinction of such species and imposes great challenges to animal conservation. In this study, we propose a feasible strategy for the conservation of threatened medicinal animals that combines trade monitoring and the search for substitutes. First, DNA barcoding provides a powerful technique for monitoring the trade of animal species, which helps in restricting the excessive use and illegal trade of such species. Second, pharmacological tests have been adopted to evaluate the biological equivalence of threatened and domestic animals; based on such testing, potential substitutes are recommended. Based on a review of threatened animal species and their substitutes, we find that the search for substitutes deserves special attention; however, this work is far from complete. These results may be of great value for the conservation of threatened animals and maintaining the heritage of traditional medicine. PMID:24173429

  12. A strategy for trade monitoring and substitution of the organs of threatened animals.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiao-yang; Yan, Dan; Song, Jing-yuan; Zhang, Da; Xing, Xiao-yan; Han, Yu-mei; Yang, Mei-hua; Dong, Xiao-ping; Peng, Cheng; Chen, Shi-lin; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2013-10-31

    The use of threatened animals as a source of traditional medicines is accelerating the extinction of such species and imposes great challenges to animal conservation. In this study, we propose a feasible strategy for the conservation of threatened medicinal animals that combines trade monitoring and the search for substitutes. First, DNA barcoding provides a powerful technique for monitoring the trade of animal species, which helps in restricting the excessive use and illegal trade of such species. Second, pharmacological tests have been adopted to evaluate the biological equivalence of threatened and domestic animals; based on such testing, potential substitutes are recommended. Based on a review of threatened animal species and their substitutes, we find that the search for substitutes deserves special attention; however, this work is far from complete. These results may be of great value for the conservation of threatened animals and maintaining the heritage of traditional medicine.

  13. Sodium cyanide induced alteration in the whole animal oxygen consumption and behavioural pattern of freshwater fish Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    David, Muniswamy; Sangeetha, Jeyabalan; Harish, Etigemane R

    2015-03-01

    Sodium cyanide is a common environmental pollutant which is mainly used in many industries such as mining, electroplating, steel manufacturing, pharmaceutical production and other specialized applications including dyes and agricultural products. It enters aquatic environment through effluents from these industries. Static renewal bioassay test has been conducted to determine LC, of sodium cyanide on indigenous freshwater carp, Labeo rohita. The behavioural pattern and oxygen consumption were observed in fish at both lethal and sub lethal concentrations. Labeo rohita in toxic media exhibited irregular and erratic swimming movements, hyper excitability, loss of equilibrium and shrinking to the bottom, which may be due to inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase activity and decreased blood pH. The combination of cytotoxic hypoxia with lactate acidosis depresses the central nervous system resulting in respiratory arrest and death. Decrease in oxygen consumption was observed at both lethal and sub lethal concentrations of sodium cyanide. Mortality was insignificant at sub lethal concentration test when fishes were found under stress. Consequence of impaired oxidative metabolism and elevated physiological response by fish against sodium cyanide stress showed alteration in respiratory rate. PMID:25895263

  14. Dogs on the Move: Factors Impacting Animal Shelter and Rescue Organizations' Decisions to Accept Dogs from Distant Locations.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Kaitlyn E; Hoffman, Christy L

    2016-01-01

    Long-distance dog transfer programs are a topic of burgeoning interest in the animal welfare community, but little research has focused on such programs. This exploratory study, which surveyed 193 individuals associated with animal shelter and rescue organizations in the United States, evaluated factors that impacted organizations' decisions to transfer in dogs over long distances (>100 miles) and assessed what criteria were commonly valued by destination organizations. Specifically, we examined the following aspects of long-distance transfer programs: (1) logistics of long-distance dog transfers; (2) factors impacting dog selection; (3) medical requirements; (4) partnerships formed between source and destination organizations; and (5) perceptions of long-distance dog transfer programs by individuals affiliated with the destination organizations. This study revealed that many logistical considerations factor into transfer decisions and the formation of healthy partnerships between source and destination organizations. Participants indicated their organization's willingness to receive dogs of various sizes, coat colors and ages, but organizations often had restrictions regarding the breeds they would accept. Study findings indicate some organizations have strict quarantine policies and pre-transfer medical requirements, while others have no such requirements. PMID:26848694

  15. Laboratory simulated hydrothermal alteration of sedimentary organic matter from Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leif, Roald N.

    1993-01-01

    High temperature alteration of sedimentary organic matter associated with marine hydrothermal systems involves complex physical and chemical processes that are not easily measured in most natural systems. Many of these processes can be evaluated indirectly by examining the geochemistry of the hydrothermal system in the laboratory. In this investigation, an experimental organic geochemical approach to studying pyrolysis of sedimentary organic matter is applied to the hydrothermal system in the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. A general survey of hydrothermal oils and extractable organic matter (bitumen) in hydrothermally altered sediments identified several homologous series of alkanones associated with a high temperature hydrothermal origin. The alkanones range in carbon number from C11 to C30 with no carbon number preference. Alkan-2-ones are in highest concentrations, with lower amounts of 3-, 4-, 5- (and higher) homologs. The alkanones appear to be pyrolysis products synthesized under extreme hydrothermal conditions. Hydrous pyrolysis and confinement pyrolysis experiments were performed to simulate thermally enhanced diagenetic and catagenetic changes in the immature sedimentary organic matter. The extent of alteration was measured by monitoring the n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, steroid and triterpenoid biomarkers, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkanones. The results were compared to bitumen extracts from sediments which have been naturally altered by a sill intrusion and accompanied hydrothermal fluid flow. These pyrolysis experiments duplicated many of the organic matter transformations observed in the natural system. Full hopane and sterane maturation occurred after 48 hr in experiments at 330 deg C with low water/rock mass ratios (0.29). A variety of radical and ionic reactions are responsible for the organic compound conversions which occur under extreme hydrothermal conditions. Short duration pyrolysis experiments revealed that a portion of the

  16. Altered Network Topologies and Hub Organization in Adults with Autism: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Itahashi, Takashi; Yamada, Takashi; Watanabe, Hiromi; Nakamura, Motoaki; Jimbo, Daiki; Shioda, Seiji; Toriizuka, Kazuo; Kato, Nobumasa; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on autism spectrum condition (ASC) have identified dysfunctions in specific brain networks involved in social and non-social cognition that persist into adulthood. Although increasing numbers of fMRI studies have revealed atypical functional connectivity in the adult ASC brain, such functional alterations at the network level have not yet been fully characterized within the recently developed graph-theoretical framework. Here, we applied a graph-theoretical analysis to resting-state fMRI data acquired from 46 adults with ASC and 46 age- and gender-matched controls, to investigate the topological properties and organization of autistic brain network. Analyses of global metrics revealed that, relative to the controls, participants with ASC exhibited significant decreases in clustering coefficient and characteristic path length, indicating a shift towards randomized organization. Furthermore, analyses of local metrics revealed a significantly altered organization of the hub nodes in ASC, as shown by analyses of hub disruption indices using multiple local metrics and by a loss of “hubness” in several nodes (e.g., the bilateral superior temporal sulcus, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and precuneus) that are critical for social and non-social cognitive functions. In particular, local metrics of the anterior cingulate cortex consistently showed significant negative correlations with the Autism-Spectrum Quotient score. Our results demonstrate altered patterns of global and local topological properties that may underlie impaired social and non-social cognition in ASC. PMID:24714805

  17. Animal welfare versus food quality: factors influencing organic consumers' preferences for alternatives to piglet castration without anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Heid, Astrid; Hamm, Ulrich

    2013-10-01

    Surgical piglet castration without pain relief has been banned in organic farming in the EU since the beginning of 2012. Alternative methods therefore need to be implemented that improve animal welfare and solve the underlying problem of boar taint. This paper explores German organic consumers' preferences for piglet castration without pain relief and three alternative methods. In an innovative approach using a multi-criteria decision making procedure, qualitative data from focus group discussions were compared with quantitative results from Vickrey auctions. Overall, participants preferred all alternatives to castration without pain relief. Different aspects influenced willingness-to-pay for the methods. Animal welfare was important for the evaluation of castration without pain relief and castration with anaesthesia. Food safety played a major role for willingness-to-pay for immunocastration, while taste and, to some extent, animal welfare were dominant factors for fattening of boars. These differences should be considered when communicating the alternatives.

  18. Animal welfare versus food quality: factors influencing organic consumers' preferences for alternatives to piglet castration without anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Heid, Astrid; Hamm, Ulrich

    2013-10-01

    Surgical piglet castration without pain relief has been banned in organic farming in the EU since the beginning of 2012. Alternative methods therefore need to be implemented that improve animal welfare and solve the underlying problem of boar taint. This paper explores German organic consumers' preferences for piglet castration without pain relief and three alternative methods. In an innovative approach using a multi-criteria decision making procedure, qualitative data from focus group discussions were compared with quantitative results from Vickrey auctions. Overall, participants preferred all alternatives to castration without pain relief. Different aspects influenced willingness-to-pay for the methods. Animal welfare was important for the evaluation of castration without pain relief and castration with anaesthesia. Food safety played a major role for willingness-to-pay for immunocastration, while taste and, to some extent, animal welfare were dominant factors for fattening of boars. These differences should be considered when communicating the alternatives. PMID:23743030

  19. Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cell Phenotypic Alterations in a Large Animal Model of Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations Following the Glenn Shunt

    PubMed Central

    Kavarana, Minoo N.; Mukherjee, Rupak; Eckhouse, Shaina R.; Rawls, William F.; Logdon, Christina; Stroud, Robert E.; Patel, Risha K.; Nadeau, Elizabeth K.; Spinale, Francis G.; Graham, Eric M.; Forbus, Geoffrey A.; Bradley, Scott M.; Ikonomidis, John S.; Jones, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Longevity of the superior cavopulmonary connection (SCPC) is limited by the development of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM). The goal of this study was to determine whether phenotypic changes in pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC) that favor angiogenesis occur with PAVM formation. Methods: A superior vena cava to right pulmonary artery connection was constructed in 5 pigs. Pulmonary arteries were harvested at 6-8 weeks following surgery to establish cultures of PAEC and smooth muscle cells, to determine cell proliferation, gene expression, and tubule formation. Abundance of proteins related to angiogenesis was measured in lung tissue. Results: Contrast echocardiography revealed right-to-left shunting, consistent with PAVM formation. While the proliferation of smooth muscle cells from the right pulmonary artery (RPA) (shunted side) and left pulmonary artery (LPA) (non- shunted side) were similar, right PAEC proliferation was significantly higher. Expression profiles of genes encoding cellular signaling proteins were higher in PAECs from the RPA vs. LPA. Protein abundance of angiopoietin-1, and Tie-2 (angiopoietin receptor) were increased in the right lung (both p<0.05). Tubule formation was increased in endothelial cells from the RPA compared to the LPA (404±16 vs. 199±71 tubules/mm2, respectively p<0.05). Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that PAVMs developed in a clinically relevant animal model of SCPC. This study found that PAVM development occurred concomitantly with differential changes in PAEC proliferative ability and phenotype. Moreover, there was a significant increase in the angiopoietin/Tie-2 complex in the right lung, which may provide novel therapeutic targets to attenuate PAVM formation following a SCPC. PMID:23968766

  20. Characterizing non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumsey, Ian C.; Aneja, Viney P.; Lonneman, William A.

    2012-02-01

    Emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) were determined from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) in North Carolina. NMVOCs were measured in air samples collected in SUMMA and fused-silica lined (FSL) canisters and were analyzed using a gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID) system. Measurements were made from both an anaerobic lagoon and barn in each of the four seasonal sampling periods during the period June 2007 through April 2008. In each sampling period, nine to eleven canister samples were taken from both the anaerobic lagoon and barn over a minimum of four different days during a period of ˜1 week. Measurements of meteorological and physiochemical parameters were also made during the sampling period. In lagoon samples, six NMVOCs were identified that had significantly larger emissions in comparison to other NMVOCs. This included three alcohols (ethanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, and methanol), two ketones (acetone and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)) and an aldehyde (acetaldehyde). The overall average fluxes for these NMVOCs, ranged from 0.18 μg m -2 min -1 for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol to 2.11 μg m -2 min -1 for acetone, with seasonal fluxes highest in the summer for four (acetone, acetaldehyde, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and MEK) of the six compounds In barn samples, there were six NMVOCs that had significantly larger concentrations and emissions in comparison to other NMVOCs. These consisted of two alcohols (methanol and ethanol), an aldehyde (acetaldehyde), two ketones (acetone and 2,3-butanedione), and a phenol (4-methylphenol). Overall average barn concentration ranged from 2.87 ppb for 4-methylphenol to 16.12 ppb for ethanol. Overall average normalized barn emission rates ranged from 0.10 g day -1 AU -1 (1 AU (animal unit) = 500 kg of live animal weight) for acetaldehyde to 0.45 g day -1 AU -1 for ethanol. The NMVOCs, 4-methylphenol and 2,3-butanedione, which have low odor thresholds (odor thresholds = 1.86 ppb and 0

  1. Organic solvent alteration of hydraulic properties of sedimentary rocks of low permeability: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Sklarew, D.S.

    1985-05-01

    A review of the current literature on hydrophysical interactions of organic solutes with sedimentary rocks of low permeability is presented. The motivation was the premise that low permeability rocks may act as secondary (aquifer) barriers for the containment of hazardous organic wastes, thus preventing these wastes from contaminating the groundwater. However, this premise may be incorrect if organic wastes can affect the hydraulic conductivity of these rocks. The results indicate that very little work has been done concerning interactions of organics with consolidated subsurface materials. Available information on three related topics was summarized: the effect of organic compounds on the hydrophysical properties of clays, case studies concerning the interactions of organic compounds with clays and sedimentary rocks, and the effect of shales on inorganic transport. These studies give an indication of some research areas that need to be explored with regard to the effect of organic compounds on the hydrophysical properties of sedimentary rocks; these research needs are briefly summarized. 42 refs.

  2. Alteration of cancer pain-related signals by radiation: Proteomic analysis in an animal model with cancer bone invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hee Chul; Seong, Jinsil . E-mail: jsseong@yumc.yonsei.ac.kr; An, Jung Hee; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Un Jung; Lee, Bae Whan

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: Although radiotherapy is highly effective in relieving bone pain due to cancer invasion, its mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore this mechanism in an animal model system. Methods and Materials: A hind paw model of cancer pain was developed by transplanting a murine hepatocarcinoma, HCa-1, into the periosteal membrane of the foot dorsum of C3H/HeJ mice. Bone invasion from HCa-1 was histopathologically confirmed from sequential tumor sampling. For three experimental groups, a control (N), tumor without radiation (T), and tumor with radiation (TR), the development and level of pain were objectively examined in mice with a growing tumor by assessing pain-associated behavior. The differential expression of pain-related signals in the spinal cord was analyzed by proteomic analysis using high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry, and those of proteins by Western blotting. The pain-mediating neurotransmitters in the spinal cord were also examined by immunohistochemical staining for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P. Results: In the histopathologic examinations, bone invasion from HCa-1 was seen from Day 7 and was evident at Day 14 after transplantation, and measurable pain-associated behaviors were developed from Day 7. After 25 Gy of radiation to the tumors, the objective level of pain in the TR group decreased, with higher thresholds to mechanical and thermal stimulation than in the T group. From the 2-DE of spinal cord, 107 spots were identified; 12 proteins were changed more than fivefold because of tumor formation but then reversed after radiation in the tumor-bearing mice. The proteins involved included secretagogin, syntenin, P2X purinoreceptor 6 (P2X6), and Ca{sup 2+}/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1 (CaM kinase 1), the functions of which have been known to be involved in the Ca{sup 2+}-signaling cascade, ATP-mediated fast synaptic transmission, or control of

  3. Morphology of the internal organs in the adaptation of animals to high-altitude conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakhimov, Y. A.; Belkin, V. S.; Usmanov, M. U.

    1975-01-01

    Disruption of metabolic processes in the walls of the blood vessels as well as changes in the functional activity of the endocrine glands play an important role in the process of an animal's accommodation to a combination of stress factors. Preliminary training of animals for stays at high-altitude markedly reduces the severity of the morphological picture.

  4. Impact Metamorphism of Subsurface Organic Matter on Mars: A Potential Source for Methane and Surface Alteration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, D. Z.; Allen, C. C.; McKay, D. S.

    2005-01-01

    Reports of methane in the Martian atmosphere have spurred speculation about sources for that methane [1-3]. Discussion has centered on cometary/ meteoritic delivery, magmatic/mantle processes, UV-breakdown of organics, serpentinization of basalts, and generation of methane by living organisms. This paper describes an additional possibility: that buried organic remains from past life on Mars may have been generating methane throughout Martian history as a result of heating associated with impact metamorphism.

  5. Non-Invasive in vivo Mapping and Long-Term Monitoring of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Different Organs of Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, Maxim; Yuriev, Mikhail; Brusentsov, Nikolai; Vetoshko, Petr; Nikitin, Petr

    2010-12-01

    Quantitative detection of magnetic nanoparticles (MP) in vivo is very important for various biomedical applications. Our original detection method based on non-linear MP magnetization has been modified for non-invasive in vivo mapping of the MP distribution among different organs of rats. A novel highly sensitive room-temperature device equipped with an external probe has been designed and tested for quantification of MP within 20-mm depth from the animal skin. Results obtained by external in vivo scanning of rats by the probe and ex vivo MP quantification in different organs of rats well correlated. The method allows long-term in vivo study of MP evolution, clearance and redistribution among different organs of the animal. Experiments showed that dynamics in vivo strongly depend on MP characteristics (size, material, coatings, etc.), site of injection and dose. The developed detection method combined with the magnetic nanolabels can substitute the radioactive labeling in many applications.

  6. Sodium Butyrate, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Reverses Behavioral and Mitochondrial Alterations in Animal Models of Depression Induced by Early- or Late-life Stress.

    PubMed

    Valvassori, Samira S; Resende, Wilson R; Budni, Josiane; Dal-Pont, Gustavo C; Bavaresco, Daniela V; Réus, Gislaine Z; Carvalho, André F; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Furlanetto, Camila B; Streck, Emilio L; Quevedo, João

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sodium butyrate on depressive-like behavior and mitochondrial alteration parameters in animal models of depression induced by maternal deprivation or chronic mild stress in Wistar rats. maternal deprivation was established by separating pups from their mothers for 3 h daily from postnatal day 1 to day 10. Chronic mild stress was established by water deprivation, food deprivation, restraint stress, isolation and flashing lights. Sodium butyrate or saline was administered twice a day for 7 days before the behavioral tests. Depressive behavior was evaluated using the forced swim test. The activity of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes (succinate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase) and of mitochondrial chain complexes (I, II, II-III and IV) was measured in the striatum of rats. From these analyses it can be observed that sodium butyrate reversed the depressive-like behavior observed in both animal models of depression. Additionally, maternal deprivation and chronic mild stress inhibited mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and increased the activity of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes. Sodium butyrate treatment reversed -maternal deprivation and chronic mild stress- induced dysfunction in the striatum of rats. In conclusion, sodium butyrate showed antidepressant effects in maternal deprivation and chronic mild stress-treated rats, and this effect can be attributed to its action on the neurochemical pathways related to depression.

  7. Renal and hepatotoxic alterations in adult mice on inhalation of specific mixture of organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Ketan, Vaghasia K; Bhavyata, Kalariya; Linzbuoy, George; Hyacinth, Highland N

    2015-12-01

    This study was aimed at investigating alterations in renal and hepatic toxicity induced by exposing to a combination of three solvents, namely, benzene, toluene and xylene in adult mice. The mice were divided into three groups (control, low-dose-treated (450 ppm) and high-dose (675 ppm) groups) using randomization methods. The treated groups were exposed to vapours of a mixture of benzene, toluene and xylene at doses of 450 and 675 ppm, for 6 h day(-1) for a short-term of 7-day exposure period. The study revealed that the solvent exposure resulted in an increase in the weight of liver and kidney as compared to the control. Biochemical analyses indicated a significant decline in the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in both the treated groups, with concomitant increase in lipid peroxidation. Liver aminotransferases (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase) were elevated with significant alterations in the levels of protein, creatinine and cholesterol in these tissues upon solvent exposure. Correlated with these changes, serum thyroid hormones T3 and T4 were also significantly altered. This study, therefore, demonstrates that inhalation of vapours from the solvent mixture resulted in significant dose-dependent biochemical and functional changes in the vital tissues (liver and kidney) studied. The study has specific relevance since humans are increasingly being exposed to such solvents due to increased industrial use in such combinations.

  8. Approaches to extrapolating animal toxicity data on organic solvents to public health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developing predictive relationships between exposure and toxicity in humans is difficult because 1) available data are usually derived from experimental animals whose sensitivity to the chemical relative to humans is unknown; 2) the specific neurotoxic endpoints measured in labor...

  9. Long-term variation in above and belowground plant inputs alters soil organic matter biogeochemistry at the molecular-level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, M. J.; Pisani, O.; Lin, L.; Lun, O.; Simpson, A.; Lajtha, K.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    The long-term fate of soil carbon reserves with global environmental change remains uncertain. Shifts in moisture, altered nutrient cycles, species composition, or rising temperatures may alter the proportions of above and belowground biomass entering soil. However, it is unclear how long-term changes in plant inputs may alter the composition of soil organic matter (SOM) and soil carbon storage. Advanced molecular techniques were used to assess SOM composition in mineral soil horizons (0-10 cm) after 20 years of Detrital Input and Removal Treatment (DIRT) at the Harvard Forest. SOM biomarkers (solvent extraction, base hydrolysis and cupric (II) oxide oxidation) and both solid-state and solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to identify changes in SOM composition and stage of degradation. Microbial activity and community composition were assessed using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Doubling aboveground litter inputs decreased soil carbon content, increased the degradation of labile SOM and enhanced the sequestration of aliphatic compounds in soil. The exclusion of belowground inputs (No roots and No inputs) resulted in a decrease in root-derived components and enhanced the degradation of leaf-derived aliphatic structures (cutin). Cutin-derived SOM has been hypothesized to be recalcitrant but our results show that even this complex biopolymer is susceptible to degradation when inputs entering soil are altered. The PLFA data indicate that changes in soil microbial community structure favored the accelerated processing of specific SOM components with littler manipulation. These results collectively reveal that the quantity and quality of plant litter inputs alters the molecular-level composition of SOM and in some cases, enhances the degradation of recalcitrant SOM. Our study also suggests that increased litterfall is unlikely to enhance soil carbon storage over the long-term in temperate forests.

  10. Organic matter heterogeneities in 2.72 Ga stromatolites: Alteration versus preservation by sulfur incorporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepot, Kevin; Benzerara, Karim; Rividi, Nicolas; Cotte, Marine; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.; Philippot, Pascal

    2009-11-01

    The stromatolites of the weakly metamorphosed 2.72 Ga Tumbiana Formation present abundant organic globules that resemble in size, shape and distribution the microorganisms observed in modern stromatolites. In order to evaluate the significance of these cell-like organic materials, we characterized organic matter in-situ down to the nanoscale using a combination of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman microspectroscopy, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These analyses revealed the occurrence of two distinct types of organic matter forming μm-scale textural and chemical heterogeneities distributed in distinct mineralogical laminae of the stromatolites. Type A organic matter, which is by far the most abundant, consists of sulfur-poor organic matter that is located in mud-type laminae at grain boundaries, mostly in association with silicate minerals. In contrast, Type B organic matter is rare and preserved as inclusions in the core of calcite grains forming laminates. It occurs as micrometer-sized cell-like globules containing variable amounts of organic sulfur likely in the form of thiophenes. Different scenarios may account for these compositional heterogeneities in the kerogen. Based on textural and compositional analogies with modern stromatolites, it is argued that Type B sulfur-rich globules may represent microbial cells protected by mineral encapsulation and selectively preserved through polymerization by early diagenetic sulfurization. In modern sediments, this reaction is fuelled by bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR). This metabolism has been widely considered as a major driver in modern stromatolites calcification and could thus have played an important role in the formation of the Tumbiana Formation stromatolites. In contrast, Type A sulfur-poor organic matter corresponds to either fossil extracellular polymer substances (EPS) or recondensed kerogen

  11. Electron-beam-induced alteration of the dielectric properties of sandwiched self-assembled organic monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaur, Eugeniu; Peele, Andrew G.

    2010-04-01

    Electrical transport through octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayers sandwiched between a silicon substrate and an aluminum film was altered using electron-beams (e-beams) with different energies and doses. Under certain e-beam conditions, improvement of the dielectric performance was observed compared with the unmodified monolayers. This was ascribed to partial "healing" of the gauche defects within the alkyl chains under the electron flux. It was also possible to vary the barrier height between 2 and 2.35 eV, an effect attributed to the creation of amorphous carbon under prolonged exposure times. Factors that influenced these effects were identified and discussed.

  12. Characterization of the volatile organic compounds present in the headspace of decomposing animal remains, and compared with human remains.

    PubMed

    Cablk, Mary E; Szelagowski, Erin E; Sagebiel, John C

    2012-07-10

    Human Remains Detection (HRD) dogs can be a useful tool to locate buried human remains because they rely on olfactory rather than visual cues. Trained specifically to locate deceased humans, it is widely believed that HRD dogs can differentiate animal remains from human remains. This study analyzed the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in the headspace above partially decomposed animal tissue samples and directly compared them with results published from human tissues using established solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. Volatile organic compounds present in the headspace of four different animal tissue samples (bone, muscle, fat and skin) from each of cow, pig and chicken were identified and compared to published results from human samples. Although there were compounds common to both animal and human remains, the VOC signatures of each of the animal remains differed from those of humans. Of particular interest was the difference between pigs and humans, because in some countries HRD dogs are trained on pig remains rather than human remains. Pig VOC signatures were not found to be a subset of human; in addition to sharing only seven of thirty human-specific compounds, an additional nine unique VOCs were recorded from pig samples which were not present in human samples. The VOC signatures from chicken and human samples were most similar sharing the most compounds of the animals studied. Identifying VOCs that are unique to humans may be useful to develop human-specific training aids for HRD canines, and may eventually lead to an instrument that can detect clandestine human burial sites.

  13. Programmed pyrolysis of organic matter from thermally altered Cretaceous black shales

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, K.E.; Hunt, J.M.; Tarafa, M.E.; Whelan, J.K.

    1983-11-01

    Organic-rich Cretaceous black shales from the Cape Verde Rise in the eastern Atlantic were penetrated by hot diabase sills during the Miocene. Programmed pyrolysis and pyrolysis-gas chromatography of organic matter from core samples taken at various distances from a major sill were used to show: the type of kerogen, its relative level of thermal maturity, the fraction of pyrolyzable organic compounds which are free, and the compositions of the bitumen and kerogen. The dominant factor affecting these sediments appears to be thermal maturity rather than differences in the quality of the organic matter. Systematic changes in the pyrolyzate resulted from thermal cracking of volatile organics from the oil-prone Type II kerogen. Generation of these products caused progressive aromatization of the residual kerogen closer to the sill. These conclusions are supported by changes in kerogen elemental compositions, quantity of bitumen extract, and vitrinite reflectance. Although the major sill is 15 m (about 50 ft) thick, solvent extraction and pyrolysis results show that hydrocarbon generation was restricted to within about 10 m (about 33 ft) of the shale/sill contacts. At equal distances, the maximum temperature reached by the shales was higher above than below the sill. The reflectance of vitrinite responds more rapidly than bitumen composition to high temperatures imposed over a short time.

  14. Pyrolysis of organic compounds in the presence of ammonia The Viking Mars lander site alteration experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzer, G.; Oro, J.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of ammonia on the pyrolysis pattern of selected organic substances sorbed on an inorganic phase was investigated. The thermal degradation products were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The feasibility of this technique was tested on a meteoritic sample. All substances examined react with ammonia at the pyrolysis temperature of 500 C, the major products being nitriles and heterocyclic compounds in which nitrogen was incorporated. Based on these results, a model for the non-equilibrium production of organic compounds on Jupiter is discussed. The investigation was performed in connection with the Viking lander molecular analysis. The results obtained indicate that the concentrations of ammonia in the retrorocket fuel exhaust would have been probably too small to produce significant changes in the Martian soil organic compounds if any were found.

  15. An altered antioxidant balance occurs in Down syndrome fetal organs: implications for the "gene dosage effect" hypothesis.

    PubMed

    de Haan, J B; Susil, B; Pritchard, M; Kola, I

    2003-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the congenital birth defect responsible for the greatest number of individuals with mental retardation. It arises due to trisomy of human chromosome 21 (HSA21) or part thereof. To date there have been limited studies of HSA21 gene expression in trisomy 21 conceptuses. In this study we investigate the expression of the HSA21 antioxidant gene, Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) in various organs of control and DS aborted conceptuses. We show that SOD1 mRNA levels are elevated in DS brain, lung, heart and thymus. DS livers show decreased SOD1 mRNA expression compared with controls. Since non-HSA21 antioxidant genes are reported to be concomitantly upregulated in certain DS tissues, we examined the expression of glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1) in control and DS fetal organs. Interestingly, GPX1 expression was unchanged in the majority of DS organs and decreased in DS livers. We examined the SOD1 to GPX1 mRNA ratio in individual organs, as both enzymes form part of the body's defense against oxidative stress, and because a disproportionate increase of SOD1 to GPX1 results in noxious hydroxyl radical damage. All organs investigated show an approximately 2-fold increase in the SOD1 to GPX1 mRNA ratio. We propose that it is the altered antioxidant ratio that contributes to certain aspects of the DS phenotype.

  16. Comparative characteristic of mitochondria ultrastructural organization in Chlorella cells under altered gravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, A. F.

    2003-05-01

    Results from experiments that used cells from the unicellular alga Chlorella vulgaris (strain Larg-1) grown on a clinostat, demonstrated the occurrence of rearrangements in cellular organelles, including changes in the mitochondrial ultrastructure compared to controls. Changes in mitochondrial structure were observed in auto- and heterotrophic regimes of cells grown in altered gravity conditions, especially in long-term experiments. The mitochondrial rearrangements become apparent during cell proliferation, which resulted in an increase in the relative volume of mitochondria per cell: up to 2.7±0.3% in short-term clino-rotation (2.2±0.1% in the control) and up to 5.3±0.4% and 5.1±0.4% in long-term clino-rotation (2.3±0.2% in the control). The size of the mitochondria and their cristae increased in cells grown under long-time clino-rotation. In addition, hypertrophied organelles, not typical for this strain, were observed. These changes in the cells were accompanied by increased electron density of the matrix and a well-ordered topography of the cristae. To examine the separation of oxidative phosphorylation and respiration, an inhibitory agent 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) was applied to cells which resulted in insignificant volume changes of the mitochondria (2.5±0.4% versus 2.1±0.2% in the control). The increase of mitochondrial size with regularly arranged cristae, with more condensed matrix and extension of cristae areas of clino-rotated cells, may demonstrate higher functional activity of the mitochondria under altered gravity conditions. Changes observed early in clino-rotated cells, in particular the increased level of respiration, adenylate content (especially ATP) and more intensive electron-cytochemical reactions of Mg 2+-ATPase and succinat dehydrogenase (SDH) in mitochondria (including hypertrophic organelles), also suggest increased activity of mitochondria from cells grown under altered gravity conditions compared to controls.

  17. Effects of Short-Term Thermal Alteration on Organic Matter in Experimentally-Heated Tagish Lake Observed by Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Nakato, A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Nakamura, T.; Kebukawa, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites exhibit a wide range of aqueous and thermal alteration characteristics. Examples of the thermally metamorphosed carbonaceous chondrites (TMCCs) include the C2-ung/CM2TIVs Belgica (B)-7904 and Yamato (Y) 86720. The alteration extent is the most complete in these meteorites and thus they are considered typical end-members of TMCCs exhibiting complete dehydration of matrix phyllosilicates [1, 2]. The estimated heating conditions are 10 to 10(sup 3) days at 700 C to 1 to 100 hours at 890 C, i.e. short-term heating induced by impact and/or solar radiation [3]. The chemical and bulk oxygen isotopic compositions of the matrix of the carbonate (CO3)-poor lithology of the Tagish Lake (hereafter Tag) meteorite bears similarities to these TMCCs [4]. We investigated the experimentally-heated Tag with the use of Raman spectroscopy to understand how short-term heating affects the maturity of insoluble organic matter (IOM) in aqueously altered meteorites.

  18. Mathematical forecasting methods for predicting lead contents in animal organs on the basis of the environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Czech, Tomasz; Gambuś, Florian; Wieczorek, Jerzy

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine and describe the lead transfer in the soil-plant-animal system in areas polluted with this metal at varying degrees, with the use of mathematical forecasting methods and data mining tools contained in the Statistica 9.0 software programme. The starting point for the forecasting models comprised results derived from an analysis of different features of soil and plants, collected from 139 locations in an area covering 100km(2) around a lead-zinc ore mining and processing plant ('Boleslaw'), at Bukowno in southern Poland. In addition, the lead content was determined in the tissues and organs of 110 small rodents (mainly mice) caught in the same area. The prediction models, elaborated with the use of classification algorithms, forecasted with high probability the class (range) of pollution in animal tissues and organs with lead, based on various soil and plant properties of the study area. However, prediction models which use multilayer neural networks made it possible to calculate the content of lead (predicted versus measured) in animal tissues and organs with an excellent correlation coefficient.

  19. Grazer exclusion alters plant spatial organization at multiple scales, increasing diversity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Gilbert, Benjamin; Wang, Wenbin; Liu, Junjie; Zhou, Shurong

    2013-01-01

    Grazing is one of the most important factors influencing community structure and productivity in natural grasslands. Understanding why and how grazing pressure changes species diversity is essential for the preservation and restoration of biodiversity in grasslands. We use heavily grazed subalpine meadows in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau to test the hypothesis that grazer exclusion alters plant diversity by changing inter- and intraspecific species distributions. Using recently developed spatial analyses combined with detailed ramet mapping of entire plant communities (91 species), we show striking differences between grazed and fenced areas that emerged at scales of just one meter. Species richness was similar at very small scales (0.0625 m2), but at larger scales diversity in grazed areas fell below 75% of corresponding fenced areas. These differences were explained by differences in spatial distributions; intra- and interspecific associations changed from aggregated at small scales to overdispersed in the fenced plots, but were consistently aggregated in the grazed ones. We conclude that grazing enhanced inter- and intraspecific aggregations and maintained high diversity at small scales, but caused decreased turnover in species at larger scales, resulting in lower species richness. Our study provides strong support to the theoretical prediction that inter- and intraspecific aggregation produces local spatial patterns that scale-up to affect species diversity in a community. It also demonstrates that the impacts of grazing can manifest through this mechanism, lowering diversity by reducing spatial turnover in species. Finally, it highlights the ecological and physiological plant processes that are likely responding to grazing and thereby altering aggregation patterns, providing new insights for monitoring, and mediating the impacts of grazing. PMID:24223294

  20. Redistribution and Evolution of Organics During Aqueous Alteration: NanoSIMS-STXM-TEM Analyses of FIB Sections from Renazzo, Murchison and Orgueil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Guillou, C.; Remusat, L.; Bernard, S.; Brearley, A. J.

    2011-03-01

    What is the in situ spatial distribution and environment of organic grains in carbonaceous chondrites matrices? They seem to evolve physically and chemically during aqueous alteration and show relationship with phyllosilicates and carbonates.

  1. Cover crops alter phosphorus soil fractions and organic matter accumulation in a Peruvian cacao agroforestry system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many tropical soils, excessive weathering of primary minerals confounded by intense agricultural production has resulted in the depletion of organic matter and plant available forms of phosphorus (P). Long-term growth of cover crops in tropical agroforestry systems have been shown to influence nu...

  2. Saltwater intrusion into tidal freshwater marshes alters the biogeochemical processing of organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, S. C.; Franklin, R. B.; Berrier, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental perturbations in wetlands affect the integrated plant-microbial-soil system, causing biogeochemical responses that can manifest at local to global scales. The objective of this study was to determine how saltwater intrusion affects carbon mineralization and greenhouse gas production in coastal wetlands. Working with tidal freshwater marsh soils that had experienced ~ 3.5 yr of in situ saltwater additions, we quantified changes in soil properties, measured extracellular enzyme activity associated with organic matter breakdown, and determined potential rates of anaerobic carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) production. Soils from the field plots treated with brackish water had lower carbon content and higher C : N ratios than soils from freshwater plots, indicating that saltwater intrusion reduced carbon availability and increased organic matter recalcitrance. This was reflected in reduced activities of enzymes associated with the hydrolysis of cellulose and the oxidation of lignin, leading to reduced rates of soil CO2 and CH4 production. The effects of long-term saltwater additions contrasted with the effects of short-term exposure to brackish water during three-day laboratory incubations, which increased rates of CO2 production but lowered rates of CH4 production. Collectively, our data suggest that the long-term effect of saltwater intrusion on soil CO2 production is indirect, mediated through the effects of elevated salinity on the quantity and quality of autochthonous organic matter inputs to the soil. In contrast, salinity, organic matter content, and enzyme activities directly influence CH4 production. Our analyses demonstrate that saltwater intrusion into tidal freshwater marshes affects the entire process of carbon mineralization, from the availability of organic carbon through its terminal metabolism to CO2 and/or CH4, and illustrate that long-term shifts in biogeochemical functioning are not necessarily consistent with short

  3. Saltwater intrusion into tidal freshwater marshes alters the biogeochemical processing of organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, S. C.; Franklin, R. B.; Berrier, D. J.

    2013-07-01

    Environmental perturbations in wetlands affect the integrated plant-microbial-soil system, causing biogeochemical responses that can manifest at local to global scales. The objective of this study was to determine how saltwater intrusion affects carbon mineralization and greenhouse gas production in coastal wetlands. Working with tidal freshwater marsh soils that had experienced roughly 3.5 yr of in situ saltwater additions, we quantified changes in soil properties, measured extracellular enzyme activity associated with organic matter breakdown, and determined potential rates of anaerobic carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) production. Soils from the field plots treated with brackish water had lower carbon content and higher C : N ratios than soils from freshwater plots, indicating that saltwater intrusion reduced carbon availability and increased organic matter recalcitrance. This was reflected in reduced activities of enzymes associated with the hydrolysis of cellulose and the oxidation of lignin, leading to reduced rates of soil CO2 and CH4 production. The effects of long-term saltwater additions contrasted with the effects of short-term exposure to brackish water during three-day laboratory incubations, which increased rates of CO2 production but lowered rates of CH4 production. Collectively, our data suggest that the long-term effect of saltwater intrusion on soil CO2 production is indirect, mediated through the effects of elevated salinity on the quantity and quality of autochthonous organic matter inputs to the soil. In contrast, salinity, organic matter content, and enzyme activities directly influence CH4 production. Our analyses demonstrate that saltwater intrusion into tidal freshwater marshes affects the entire process of carbon mineralization, from the availability of organic carbon through its terminal metabolism to CO2 and/or CH4, and illustrate that long-term shifts in biogeochemical functioning are not necessarily consistent with short

  4. Tunicamycin-Induced Alterations in the Vasorelaxant Response in Organ-Cultured Superior Mesenteric Arteries of Rats.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takayuki; Ando, Makoto; Watanabe, Shun; Iguchi, Maika; Nagata, Mako; Kobayashi, Shota; Taguchi, Kumiko; Kobayashi, Tsuneo

    2016-01-01

    In cellular events, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has an important role in the development of various diseases including cardiovascular diseases. Tunicamycin, an inhibitor of N-linked glycosylation, is known to be an inducer of ER stress. However, the extent to which tunicamycin affects the vasorelaxant function is not completely understood. Thus, we investigated the effect of tunicamycin on relaxations induced by various vasorelaxant agents, including acetylcholine (ACh; endothelium-dependent vasodilator), sodium nitroprusside (SNP; endothelium-independent vasodilator), isoprenaline (ISO; beta-adrenoceptor agonist), forskolin (FSK; adenylyl cyclase activator), and cromakalim [ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channel activator] in organ-cultured superior mesenteric arteries of rats, which are treated with either a vehicle [dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)] or tunicamycin (20 µg/mL for 22-24 h). Protein levels of the ER stress marker binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) were determined by Western blotting. Tunicamycin increased the expression of BiP in organ-cultured arteries. Tunicamycin impaired ACh-induced relaxation, but did not alter SNP-induced relaxation. Tunicamycin also impaired vasorelaxation induced by ISO, FSK, and cromakalim; moreover, it reduced basal nitric oxide (NO) formation. In conclusion, short-term treatment with tunicamycin not only caused endothelial dysfunction but also impaired cAMP- and KATP-mediated responses in the superior mesenteric arteries of rats. These alterations in tunicamycin-treated arteries may be due to reduced basal NO formation. This work provides new insight into ER stress in vascular dysfunction. PMID:27582328

  5. Exogenous phosphorus inputs alter complexity of soil-dissolved organic carbon in agricultural riparian wetlands.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng; Zhang, Zhijian; He, Qiang; Wang, Hang; Li, Xia; Schoer, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    High-strengthened farmland fertilization leads to mass inputs of nutrients and elements to agricultural riparian wetlands. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of such wetland sediments is an important intermediate in global carbon (C) cycling due to its role in connecting soil C pools with atmospheric CO2. But the impact of phosphorus (P) on sediment DOC is still largely unknown, despite increasing investigations to emphasize P interception by riparian wetlands. Here, we simulated the temporal influences of exogenous P on sediment DOC of riparian wetlands by integrating gradient P loading at rates of 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 60% relative to the initial total phosphorus content of the sediment with the purpose of illustrating the role of external P on the complexity of soil DOC in terms of its amount and composition. After incubating for nine months, a dramatic linear correlation between Olsen-P and fluorescent and ultraviolet spectral indices considered DOC skeleton was observed. Together with a more microbial-derived origin of DOC and a reduction of DOC aromaticity or humicity, the excitation-emission matrix had shown a blue shift reflecting a trend towards a simpler molecular structure of sediment DOC after P addition. Meanwhile, the content of soil DOC and its ratio with total organic carbon (TOC) were also increased by P loading, coupled with enhanced values of highly labile organic carbon and two C-related enzymes. While TOC and recalcitrant organic carbon decreased significantly. Such implications of DOC amounts and composition stimulated by external P loading may enhance its bioavailability, thereby inducing an accelerated effect on soil C cycling and a potential C loss in response to global climate change.

  6. Butenolide inhibits marine fouling by altering the primary metabolism of three target organisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Huoming; He, Lisheng; Liu, Changdong; Xu, Ying; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-06-15

    Butenolide is a very promising antifouling compound that inhibits ship hull fouling by a variety of marine organisms, but its antifouling mechanism was previously unknown. Here we report the first study of butenolide's molecular targets in three representative fouling organisms. In the barnacle Balanus (=Amphibalanus) amphitrite, butenolide bound to acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1), which is involved in ketone body metabolism. Both the substrate and the product of ACAT1 increased larval settlement under butenolide treatment, suggesting its functional involvement. In the bryozoan Bugula neritina, butenolide bound to very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADVL), actin, and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). ACADVL is the first enzyme in the very long chain fatty acid β-oxidation pathway. The inhibition of this primary pathway for energy production in larvae by butenolide was supported by the finding that alternative energy sources (acetoacetate and pyruvate) increased larval attachment under butenolide treatment. In marine bacterium Vibrio sp. UST020129-010, butenolide bound to succinyl-CoA synthetase β subunit (SCSβ) and inhibited bacterial growth. ACAT1, ACADVL, and SCSβ are all involved in primary metabolism for energy production. These findings suggest that butenolide inhibits fouling by influencing the primary metabolism of target organisms.

  7. Super-resolution microscopy reveals altered desmosomal protein organization in pemphigus vulgaris patient tissue

    PubMed Central

    Stahley, Sara N.; Warren, Maxine F.; Feldman, Ron J.; Swerlick, Robert A.; Mattheyses, Alexa L.; Kowalczyk, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune epidermal blistering disease in which autoantibodies (IgG) are directed against the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein 3 (Dsg3). In order to better understand how PV IgG alters desmosome morphology and function in vivo, PV patient biopsies were analyzed by structured illumination microscopy (SIM), a form of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy. In patient tissue, desmosomal proteins were aberrantly clustered and localized to PV IgG-containing endocytic linear arrays. Patient IgG also colocalized with markers for lipid rafts and endosomes. Additionally, steady-state levels of Dsg3 were decreased and desmosomes were reduced in size in patient tissue. Desmosomes at blister sites were occasionally split, with PV IgG decorating the extracellular faces of split desmosomes. Desmosome splitting was recapitulated in vitro by exposing cultured keratinocytes both to PV IgG and to mechanical stress, demonstrating that splitting at the blister interface in patient tissue is due to compromised desmosomal adhesive function. These findings indicate that Dsg3 clustering and endocytosis are associated with reduced desmosome size and adhesion defects in PV patient tissue. Further, this study reveals that super-resolution optical imaging is powerful approach for studying epidermal adhesion structures in normal and diseased skin. PMID:26763424

  8. Transport and Breakdown of Organic Matter in Urban and Forested Streams: The Effects of Altered Hydrology and Landscape Position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belt, K. T.; Swan, C. M.; Pouyat, R. V.; Kaushal, S.; Groffman, P. M.; Stack, W. P.; Fisher, G. T.

    2006-05-01

    A better understanding of how urbanization and trees interact to alter organic matter transport and cycling is needed to assess retention in catchments and streams, as well as to estimate the magnitude of carbon fluxes to the atmosphere and to downstream aquatic ecosystems. The influx of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM/DOC) to headwater streams normally originates within or near riparian areas, and is important to aquatic food webs in stream ecosystems. Urban catchments, however, have huge effective drainage densities (due to storm drainage infrastructure), which facilitate a POM/DOC "gutter subsidy" to streams that dwarfs riparian inputs and alters benthic litter quality (and represents a major short-circuit in the carbon vegetation-soil cycle.) We measured in-situ leaf litter breakdown rates, flows, DOC, BOD and nutrients in forested, suburban and urban streams of the BES LTER and Baltimore City DPW sampling networks, which encompassed a variety of urban and rural landscapes. Sycamore and Planetree leaf litter in-situ experiments revealed faster breakdown rates for suburban and urban landscape litter than for riparian litter, with rates being much faster than literature values for forested catchments. DOC, BOD and nutrient data (storm and dry weather) from BES/DPW stream sites showed much higher concentrations and loads in the more urbanized catchments and indicate the streams are likely heterotrophic and experience transient but high dissolved oxygen demands. High nutrient concentrations, faster litter breakdown rates, and substantially higher upland urban fluxes of organic matter (particulate and dissolved) in urban streams suggest that export rates are likely substantially higher than in forested systems and that carbon loads to both downstream aquatic systems and to the atmosphere (as CO2) are substantial.

  9. Fabrication and operation of GRIN probes for in vivo fluorescence cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Ki; Lee, Woei Ming; Kim, Pilhan; Choi, Myunghwan; Jung, Keehoon; Kim, Seonghoon; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Intravital fluorescence microscopy has emerged as a powerful technique to visualize cellular processes in vivo. However, the size of the objective lenses has limited physical accessibility to various tissue sites in the internal organs of small animals. The use of small-diameter probes using graded-index (GRIN) lenses expands the capabilities of conventional intravital microscopes into minimally invasive internal organs imaging. In this protocol, we describe the detailed steps for the fabrication of front- and side-view GRIN probes and the integration and operation of the probes in a confocal microscope for visualizing fluorescent cells and microvasculature in various murine organs. We further present longitudinal imaging of immune cells in renal allografts and the tumor development in the colon. The fabrication and integration can be completed in 5–7 hours, and a typical in vivo imaging session takes 1–2 hours. PMID:22767088

  10. Hydrothermal alteration of organic matter in uranium ores, Elliot Lake, Canada: Implications for selected organic-rich deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Mossman, D.J.; Nagy, B.; Davis, D.W.

    1993-07-01

    Organic matter in the uraniferous Matinenda Formation, Elliot Lake, is preserved in the forms of syngenetic kerogen and solid bitumen as it is in many of the Oklo uranium deposits and in the Witwatersrand gold-uranium ores. The Elliot Lake kerogen is a vitrinite-like material considered to be remnants of the Precambrian cyanobacterial mats. The kerogen at Elliot Lake has reflectances (in oil) ranging from 2.63-7.31% RO{sub max}, high aromaticity, relatively low (0.41-0.60) atomic H/C ratios, and it contains cryptocrystalline graphite. Bitumen, present primarily as dispersed globules (up to 0.5 mm dia.), has reflectances from 0.72-1.32% RO{sub max}, atomic H/C ratios of 0.71-0.81, and is somewhat less aromatic than the kerogen. Overall similarity in molecular compositions indicates that liquid bitumen was derived from kerogen by processes similar to hydrous pyrolysis. The carbon isotopic composition of kerogen ({minus}15.62 to {minus}24.72%), and the now solid bitumen ({minus}25.91 to {minus}33.00%) are compatible with these processes. Despite having been subjected to several thermal episodes, ca. 2.45 Ga old kerogen of microbiological origin here survived as testimony of the antiquity of life on Earth. U-Pb isotopic data from discrete kerogen grains at Elliot Lake form a scattered array intersecting concordia at 2130 {+-} 100 Ma, correspond to the Nipissing event. U-Pb systems were totally reset by this event. Uranium and lead show subsequently partial mobility, the average of which is indicated by the lower concordia intersect of 550 {+-} 260 Ma. The migrated bitumen contains virtually no uranium and thorium but has a large excess of {sup 206}Pb, which indicates that the once liquid bitumen must have acted as a sink for mobile intermediate decay products of {sup 238}U. Emplacement of the Nipissing diabase may have been responsible for producing the bitumen and, indirectly, for its enrichment in {sup 206}Pb as a result of outgassing of {sup 222}Rn.

  11. Longgu (Fossilia Ossis Mastodi) alters the profiles of organic and inorganic components in Keishikaryukotsuboreito.

    PubMed

    Oguri, Kazuki; Kawase, Masaya; Harada, Kazuo; Shimada-Takaura, Kayoko; Takahashi, Toshiharu; Takahashi, Kyoko

    2016-07-01

    Longgu (Fossilia Ossis Mastodi) is a non-botanical crude drug, defined as "the ossified bone of large mammal" in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia sixteenth edition (JP16). It is a non-reproducible drug and is now facing the threat of exhaustion. To solve this problem, we aimed to clarify the role of longgu in Kampo prescriptions, which has not yet been scientifically ascertained. In this study, we focused on decoction of Keishikaryukotsuboreito (KRB). The profile of inorganic and organic components in the extract was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC/FID), respectively. Twenty-five elements were detected by ICP-MS in KRB and longgu-free KRB (KB) decoctions. However, 23 elements were detected in unadultrated longgu (R) decoctions, and their total amount was 30 times lower than those of the KRB and KB decoctions were. No organic compounds were detected in R decoctions by GC/FID, though many were detected in KRB and KB decoctions. KRB decoctions were distinguished from KB decoctions by multivariate analysis. The only difference in the crude drugs was the presence of longgu, and therefore the difference in the profiles was attributed to the effect of longgu. Longgu was submitted to terahertz (THz) wave spectrometry after the decocting process. The THz spectra indicated that longgu adsorbed compounds during the KRB decoction. These results suggested that longgu not only releases its components, but also adsorbs ingredients from other crude drugs during decoction. PMID:26841944

  12. Metal levels in organically and conventionally produced animal and vegetable products in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Arslanbaş, Emre; Baydan, Emine

    2013-01-01

    Lead, cadmium, copper, zinc and iron levels were determined in organically and conventionally produced wheat, green lentils, flower honey and eggs that are supplied on different markets in Ankara, Turkey. Their toxicological and nutritional values were compared with national and international limits and literature data. The levels of cadmium and lead in conventionally and organically produced wheat, green lentils, honey and egg were below the limit of detection (LOD), whereas the level of copper was only below LOD in honey and eggs. The levels of Zn and Cu were found to be higher in conventionally produced wheat samples than organically produced ones; whereas the level of Fe in organic products was found to be higher than the conventional products.

  13. Microfabricated Mammalian Organ Systems and Their Integration into Models of Whole Animals and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jong H; Esch, Mandy B; Prot, Jean-Matthieu; Long, Christopher J; Smith, Alec; Hickman, James; Shuler, Michael L

    2013-01-01

    While in vitro cell based systems have been an invaluable tool in biology, they often suffer from a lack of physiological relevance. The discrepancy between the in vitro and in vivo systems has been a bottleneck in drug development process and biological sciences. The recent progress in microtechnology has enabled manipulation of cellular environment at a physiologically relevant length scale, which has led to the development of novel in vitro organ systems, often termed ‘organ-on-a-chip’ systems. By mimicking the cellular environment of in vivo tissues, various organ-on-a-chip systems have been reported to reproduce target organ functions better than conventional in vitro model systems. Ultimately, these organ-on-a-chip systems will converge into multi-organ ‘body-on-a-chip’ systems composed of functional tissues that reproduce the dynamics of the whole-body response. Such microscale in vitro systems will open up new possibilities in medical science and in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:23388858

  14. Permissive hypotension does not reduce regional organ perfusion compared to normotensive resuscitation: animal study with fluorescent microspheres

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to investigate regional organ perfusion acutely following uncontrolled hemorrhage in an animal model that simulates a penetrating vascular injury and accounts for prehospital times in urban trauma. We set forth to determine if hypotensive resuscitation (permissive hypotension) would result in equivalent organ perfusion compared to normotensive resuscitation. Methods Twenty four (n=24) male rats randomized to 4 groups: Sham, No Fluid (NF), Permissive Hypotension (PH) (60% of baseline mean arterial pressure - MAP), Normotensive Resuscitation (NBP). Uncontrolled hemorrhage caused by a standardised injury to the abdominal aorta; MAP was monitored continuously and lactated Ringer’s was infused. Fluorimeter readings of regional blood flow of the brain, heart, lung, kidney, liver, and bowel were obtained at baseline and 85 minutes after hemorrhage, as well as, cardiac output, lactic acid, and laboratory tests; intra-abdominal blood loss was assessed. Analysis of variance was used for comparison. Results Intra-abdominal blood loss was higher in NBP group, as well as, lower hematocrit and hemoglobin levels. No statistical differences in perfusion of any organ between PH and NBP groups. No statistical difference in cardiac output between PH and NBP groups, as well as, in lactic acid levels between PH and NBP. NF group had significantly higher lactic acidosis and had significantly lower organ perfusion. Conclusions Hypotensive resuscitation causes less intra-abdominal bleeding than normotensive resuscitation and concurrently maintains equivalent organ perfusion. No fluid resuscitation reduces intra-abdominal bleeding but also significantly reduces organ perfusion. PMID:23531188

  15. How reservoirs alter drinking water quality: Organic matter sources, sinks, and transformations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraus, Tamara E.C.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Hernes, Peter J.; Doctor, Daniel H.; Kendall, Carol; Downing, Bryan D.; Losee, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Within reservoirs, production, transformation, and loss of dissolved organic matter (DOM) occur simultaneously. While the balance between production and loss determines whether a reservoir is a net sink or source of DOM, changes in chemical composition are also important because they affect DOM reactivity with respect to disinfection by-product (DBP) formation. The composition of the DOM pool also provides insight into DOM sources and processing, which can inform reservoir management. We examined the concentration and composition of DOM in San Luis Reservoir, a large off-stream impoundment of the California State Water Project. We used a wide array of DOM chemical tracers including dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, trihalomethane and haloacetic acid formation potentials (THMFP and HAAFP, respectively), absorbance properties, isotopic composition, lignin phenol content, and structural groupings determined by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). There were periods when the reservoir was a net source of DOC due to the predominance of algal production (summer), a net sink due to the predominance of degradation (fall–winter), and balanced between production and consumption (spring). Despite only moderate variation in bulk DOC concentration (3.0–3.6 mg C/L), changes in DOM composition indicated that terrestrial-derived material entering the reservoir was being degraded and replaced by aquatic-derived DOM produced within the reservoir. Substantial changes in the propensity of the DOM pool to form THMs and HAAs illustrate that the DBP precursor pool was not directly coupled to bulk DOC concentration and indicate that algal production is an important source of DBP precursors. Results suggest reservoirs have the potential to attenuate DOM amount and reactivity with respect to DBP precursors via degradative processes; however, these benefits can be decreased or even negated by the production of algal-derived DOM.

  16. Measurement of Contractile Activity in Small Animal's Digestive Organ by Carbon Nanotube-Based Force Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Takamichi; Takeda, Naoki; Tsutsui, Chihiro; Koike, Kanako; Shimatani, Yuichi; Sakai, Takafumi; Akiya, Masahiro; Taguchi, Akira

    2011-03-01

    A carbon nanotube (CNT)-based force transducer designed to be embedded in the body of a live animal was fabricated and implanted into the stomach of a rat omit to measure contractile movement. The transducer comprised dispersed poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted multiwalled CNTs applied to a comb-like Au-electrode formed on a poly(dimethylsiloxane) sheet. The implanted rat was injected with acetylcholine to induce muscular contractions and changes in the resistance of the transducer were measured. Such changes arise owing to strain in the CNT network upon distortion. The measured resistance change was found to be proportional to the concentration of injected acetylcholine.

  17. Thermal alteration experiments on organic matter in recent marine sediments as a model for petroleum genesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baedecker, M. J.; Ikan, R.; Ishiwatari, R.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1977-01-01

    The fate of naturally occurring lipids and pigments in a marine sediment exposed to elevated temperatures was studied. Samples of a young marine sediment from Tanner Basin, California, were heated to a series of temperatures (65-200 C) for varying periods of time (7-64 days). The sediment was analyzed prior to and after heating for pigments, isoprenoid compounds, alcohols, fatty acids, and hydrocarbons. Structural changes caused by heating unextractable organic material (kerogen) were also studied, and the significance of the results for understanding petroleum genesis is considered. Among other results, fatty acids and hydrocarbons increased in abundance although there appeared to be no obvious precursor-to-product relationship via simple decarboxylation reactions. Chlorins were partially converted into porphyrins. The phytyl side chain of pheophytin was initially preserved intact by reduction of the phytyl double bond, but later converted to a variety of isoprenoid compounds including alkanes. Thermal grafting of components onto kerogen occurred as well as structural changes caused by heat.

  18. Photochemical alteration of dissolved organic matter and the subsequent effects on bacterial carbon cycling and diversity.

    PubMed

    Lønborg, Christian; Nieto-Cid, Mar; Hernando-Morales, Victor; Hernández-Ruiz, Marta; Teira, Eva; Álvarez-Salgado, Xosé Antón

    2016-05-01

    The impact of solar radiation on dissolved organic matter (DOM) derived from 3 different sources (seawater, eelgrass leaves and river water) and the effect on the bacterial carbon cycling and diversity were investigated. Seawater with DOM from the sources was first either kept in the dark or exposed to sunlight (4 days), after which a bacterial inoculum was added and incubated for 4 additional days. Sunlight exposure reduced the coloured DOM and carbon signals, which was followed by a production of inorganic nutrients. Bacterial carbon cycling was higher in the dark compared with the light treatment in seawater and river samples, while higher levels were found in the sunlight-exposed eelgrass experiment. Sunlight pre-exposure stimulated the bacterial growth efficiency in the seawater experiments, while no impact was found in the other experiments. We suggest that these responses are connected to differences in substrate composition and the production of free radicals. The bacterial community that developed in the dark and sunlight pre-treated samples differed in the seawater and river experiments. Our findings suggest that impact of sunlight exposure on the bacterial carbon transfer and diversity depends on the DOM source and on the sunlight-induced production of inorganic nutrients. PMID:26940087

  19. Hormonal Studies of fass, an Arabidopsis Mutant That Is Altered in Organ Elongation.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, R. H.; Barton, M. K.; Cohen, J. D.; Cooke, T. J.

    1996-01-01

    We have isolated an allele of fass, an Arabidopsis thaliana mutation that separates plant development and organ differentiation from plant elongation, and studied its hormonal regulation. Micro-surgically isolated fass roots elongate 2.5 times as much as the roots on intact mutant plants. Wild-type heart embryos, when cultured with a strong auxin, naphthaleneacetic acid, phenocopy fass embryos. fass seedlings contain variable levels of free auxin, which average 2.5 times higher than wild-type seedling levels, and fass seedlings evolve 3 times as much ethylene as wild-type seedlings on a per-plant basis over a 24-h period. The length-to-width ratios of fass seedlings can be changed by several compounds that affect their endogenous ethylene levels, but fass is epistatic to etr1, an ethylene-insensitive mutant. fass's high levels of free auxin may be inducing its high levels of ethylene, which may, in turn, result in the fass phenotype. We postulate that FASS may be acting as a negative regulator to maintain wild-type auxin levels and that the mutation may be in an auxin-conjugating enzyme. PMID:12226245

  20. A variant of Rubus yellow net virus with altered genomic organization.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Lara, Alfredo; Mosier, Nola J; Keller, Karen E; Martin, Robert R

    2015-02-01

    Rubus yellow net virus (RYNV) is a member of the genus Badnavirus (family: Caulimoviridae). RYNV infects Rubus species causing chlorosis of the tissue along the leaf veins, giving an unevenly distributed netted symptom in some cultivars of red and black raspberry. Recently, a strain of RYNV was sequenced from a Rubus idaeus plant in Alberta, Canada, exhibiting such symptoms. The viral genome contained seven open reading frames (ORFs) with five of them in the sense-strand, including a large polyprotein. Here we describe a graft-transmissible strain of RYNV from Europe infecting cultivar 'Baumforth's Seedling A' (named RYNV-BS), which was sequenced using rolling circle amplification, enzymatic digestion, cloning and primer walking, and it was resequenced at a 5X coverage. This sequence was then compared with the RYNV-Ca genome and significant differences were observed. Genomic analysis identified differences in the arrangement of coding regions, promoter elements, and presence of motifs. The genomic organization of RYNV-BS consisted of five ORFs (four ORFs in the sense-strand and one ORF in the antisense-strand). ORFs 1, 2, and 3 showed a high degree of homology to RYNV-Ca, while ORFs 4 and 6 of RYNV-BS were quite distinct. Also, the predicted ORFs 5 and 7 in the RYNV-Ca were absent in the RYNV-BS sequence. These differences may account for the lack of aphid transmissibility of RYNV-BS.

  1. [Soil organic carbon variation of de-farming and wasteland during alteration of ecosystem in Billabong].

    PubMed

    Tu, Cheng-long; Liu, Cong-qiang; Wu, Yong-feng

    2007-09-01

    Four soil profile samples were collected in the middle of de-farming and wasteland billabong and around slopes, located at typical karst district of Guizhou province. Soil organic matter (SOC) content and delta Corg, were determined. SOC content ranged from 6.0 mg x kg(-1) to 92.3 mg x kg(-1), and decreased with depth at slope soil profiles. The range of value was bigger than that at billabong soil profile (6.3-26.7 mg x kg(-1)). The value of detla13 Corg, at slope profiles was between - 25.103% per hundred and - 23.666% per hundred, but variation direction of three slope soil profiles was different. The value of delta 13Corg, in billabong soil profile was between - 23.495% per hundred and - 20.809% per hundred, and increased with depth. The correlation between delta13 Csoc and C4-C,C3-C was significant (R = 0.884, n=7), influenced by new C3-C.

  2. Photochemical alteration of dissolved organic matter and the subsequent effects on bacterial carbon cycling and diversity.

    PubMed

    Lønborg, Christian; Nieto-Cid, Mar; Hernando-Morales, Victor; Hernández-Ruiz, Marta; Teira, Eva; Álvarez-Salgado, Xosé Antón

    2016-05-01

    The impact of solar radiation on dissolved organic matter (DOM) derived from 3 different sources (seawater, eelgrass leaves and river water) and the effect on the bacterial carbon cycling and diversity were investigated. Seawater with DOM from the sources was first either kept in the dark or exposed to sunlight (4 days), after which a bacterial inoculum was added and incubated for 4 additional days. Sunlight exposure reduced the coloured DOM and carbon signals, which was followed by a production of inorganic nutrients. Bacterial carbon cycling was higher in the dark compared with the light treatment in seawater and river samples, while higher levels were found in the sunlight-exposed eelgrass experiment. Sunlight pre-exposure stimulated the bacterial growth efficiency in the seawater experiments, while no impact was found in the other experiments. We suggest that these responses are connected to differences in substrate composition and the production of free radicals. The bacterial community that developed in the dark and sunlight pre-treated samples differed in the seawater and river experiments. Our findings suggest that impact of sunlight exposure on the bacterial carbon transfer and diversity depends on the DOM source and on the sunlight-induced production of inorganic nutrients.

  3. A variant of Rubus yellow net virus with altered genomic organization.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Lara, Alfredo; Mosier, Nola J; Keller, Karen E; Martin, Robert R

    2015-02-01

    Rubus yellow net virus (RYNV) is a member of the genus Badnavirus (family: Caulimoviridae). RYNV infects Rubus species causing chlorosis of the tissue along the leaf veins, giving an unevenly distributed netted symptom in some cultivars of red and black raspberry. Recently, a strain of RYNV was sequenced from a Rubus idaeus plant in Alberta, Canada, exhibiting such symptoms. The viral genome contained seven open reading frames (ORFs) with five of them in the sense-strand, including a large polyprotein. Here we describe a graft-transmissible strain of RYNV from Europe infecting cultivar 'Baumforth's Seedling A' (named RYNV-BS), which was sequenced using rolling circle amplification, enzymatic digestion, cloning and primer walking, and it was resequenced at a 5X coverage. This sequence was then compared with the RYNV-Ca genome and significant differences were observed. Genomic analysis identified differences in the arrangement of coding regions, promoter elements, and presence of motifs. The genomic organization of RYNV-BS consisted of five ORFs (four ORFs in the sense-strand and one ORF in the antisense-strand). ORFs 1, 2, and 3 showed a high degree of homology to RYNV-Ca, while ORFs 4 and 6 of RYNV-BS were quite distinct. Also, the predicted ORFs 5 and 7 in the RYNV-Ca were absent in the RYNV-BS sequence. These differences may account for the lack of aphid transmissibility of RYNV-BS. PMID:25480633

  4. Origin and alteration of organic matter in termite mounds from different feeding guilds of the Amazon rainforests.

    PubMed

    Siebers, Nina; Martius, Christopher; Eckhardt, Kai-Uwe; Garcia, Marcos V B; Leinweber, Peter; Amelung, Wulf

    2015-01-01

    The impact of termites on nutrient cycling and tropical soil formation depends on their feeding habits and related material transformation. The identification of food sources, however, is difficult, because they are variable and changed by termite activity and nest construction. Here, we related the sources and alteration of organic matter in nests from seven different termite genera and feeding habits in the Terra Firme rainforests to the properties of potential food sources soil, wood, and microepiphytes. Chemical analyses comprised isotopic composition of C and N, cellulosic (CPS), non-cellulosic (NCPS), and N-containing saccharides, and molecular composition screening using pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS). The isotopic analysis revealed higher soil δ13C (-27.4‰) and δ15N (6.6‰) values in nests of wood feeding Nasutitermes and Cornitermes than in wood samples (δ13C = -29.1‰, δ15N = 3.4‰), reflecting stable-isotope enrichment with organic matter alterations during or after nest construction. This result was confirmed by elevated NCPS:CPS ratios, indicating a preferential cellulose decomposition in the nests. High portions of muramic acid (MurAc) pointed to the participation of bacteria in the transformation processes. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) revealed increasing geophagy in the sequence Termes < Embiratermes < Anoplotermes and increasing xylophagy for Cornitermes < Nasutitermes., and that the nest material of Constrictotermes was similar to the microepiphytes sample, confirming the report that Constrictotermes belongs to the microepiphyte-feeders. We therewith document that nest chemistry of rainforest termites shows variations and evidence of modification by microbial processes, but nevertheless it primarily reflects the trophic niches of the constructors. PMID:25909987

  5. Origin and Alteration of Organic Matter in Termite Mounds from Different Feeding Guilds of the Amazon Rainforests

    PubMed Central

    Siebers, Nina; Martius, Christopher; Eckhardt, Kai-Uwe; Garcia, Marcos V. B.; Leinweber, Peter; Amelung, Wulf

    2015-01-01

    The impact of termites on nutrient cycling and tropical soil formation depends on their feeding habits and related material transformation. The identification of food sources, however, is difficult, because they are variable and changed by termite activity and nest construction. Here, we related the sources and alteration of organic matter in nests from seven different termite genera and feeding habits in the Terra Firme rainforests to the properties of potential food sources soil, wood, and microepiphytes. Chemical analyses comprised isotopic composition of C and N, cellulosic (CPS), non-cellulosic (NCPS), and N-containing saccharides, and molecular composition screening using pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS). The isotopic analysis revealed higher soil δ13C (-27.4‰) and δ15N (6.6‰) values in nests of wood feeding Nasutitermes and Cornitermes than in wood samples (δ13C = -29.1‰, δ15N = 3.4‰), reflecting stable-isotope enrichment with organic matter alterations during or after nest construction. This result was confirmed by elevated NCPS:CPS ratios, indicating a preferential cellulose decomposition in the nests. High portions of muramic acid (MurAc) pointed to the participation of bacteria in the transformation processes. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) revealed increasing geophagy in the sequence Termes < Embiratermes < Anoplotermes and increasing xylophagy for Cornitermes < Nasutitermes, and that the nest material of Constrictotermes was similar to the microepiphytes sample, confirming the report that Constrictotermes belongs to the microepiphyte-feeders. We therewith document that nest chemistry of rainforest termites shows variations and evidence of modification by microbial processes, but nevertheless it primarily reflects the trophic niches of the constructors. PMID:25909987

  6. Origin and alteration of organic matter in termite mounds from different feeding guilds of the Amazon rainforests.

    PubMed

    Siebers, Nina; Martius, Christopher; Eckhardt, Kai-Uwe; Garcia, Marcos V B; Leinweber, Peter; Amelung, Wulf

    2015-01-01

    The impact of termites on nutrient cycling and tropical soil formation depends on their feeding habits and related material transformation. The identification of food sources, however, is difficult, because they are variable and changed by termite activity and nest construction. Here, we related the sources and alteration of organic matter in nests from seven different termite genera and feeding habits in the Terra Firme rainforests to the properties of potential food sources soil, wood, and microepiphytes. Chemical analyses comprised isotopic composition of C and N, cellulosic (CPS), non-cellulosic (NCPS), and N-containing saccharides, and molecular composition screening using pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS). The isotopic analysis revealed higher soil δ13C (-27.4‰) and δ15N (6.6‰) values in nests of wood feeding Nasutitermes and Cornitermes than in wood samples (δ13C = -29.1‰, δ15N = 3.4‰), reflecting stable-isotope enrichment with organic matter alterations during or after nest construction. This result was confirmed by elevated NCPS:CPS ratios, indicating a preferential cellulose decomposition in the nests. High portions of muramic acid (MurAc) pointed to the participation of bacteria in the transformation processes. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) revealed increasing geophagy in the sequence Termes < Embiratermes < Anoplotermes and increasing xylophagy for Cornitermes < Nasutitermes., and that the nest material of Constrictotermes was similar to the microepiphytes sample, confirming the report that Constrictotermes belongs to the microepiphyte-feeders. We therewith document that nest chemistry of rainforest termites shows variations and evidence of modification by microbial processes, but nevertheless it primarily reflects the trophic niches of the constructors.

  7. Substrate quality alters the microbial mineralization of added substrate and soil organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadamma, S.; Mayes, M. A.; Steinweg, J. M.; Schaeffer, S. M.

    2014-09-01

    The rate and extent of decomposition of soil organic carbon (SOC) is dependent, among other factors, on substrate chemistry and microbial dynamics. Our objectives were to understand the influence of substrate chemistry on microbial decomposition of carbon (C), and to use model fitting to quantify differences in pool sizes and mineralization rates. We conducted an incubation experiment for 270 days using four uniformly labeled 14C substrates (glucose, starch, cinnamic acid and stearic acid) on four different soils (a temperate Mollisol, a tropical Ultisol, a sub-arctic Andisol, and an arctic Gelisol). The 14C labeling enabled us to separate CO2 respired from added substrates and from native SOC. Microbial gene copy numbers were quantified at days 4, 30 and 270 using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Substrate C respiration was always higher for glucose than other substrates. Soils with cinnamic and stearic acid lost more native SOC than glucose- and starch-amended soils. Cinnamic and stearic acid amendments also exhibited higher fungal gene copy numbers at the end of incubation compared to unamended soils. We found that 270 days were sufficient to model the decomposition of simple substrates (glucose and starch) with three pools, but were insufficient for more complex substrates (cinnamic and stearic acid) and native SOC. This study reveals that substrate quality exerts considerable control on the microbial decomposition of newly added and native SOC, and demonstrates the need for multi-year incubation experiments to constrain decomposition parameters for the most recalcitrant fractions of SOC and complex substrates.

  8. Substrate quality alters microbial mineralization of added substrate and soil organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadamma, S.; Mayes, M. A.; Steinweg, J. M.; Schaeffer, S. M.

    2014-03-01

    The rate and extent of decomposition of soil organic carbon (SOC) is dependent on substrate chemistry and microbial dynamics. Our objectives were to understand the influence of substrate chemistry on microbial processing of carbon (C), and to use model fitting to quantify differences in pool sizes and mineralization rates. We conducted an incubation experiment for 270 days using four uniformly-labeled 14C substrates (glucose, starch, cinnamic acid and stearic acid) on four different soils (a temperate Mollisol, a tropical Ultisol, a sub-arctic Andisol, and an arctic Gelisol). The 14C labeling enabled us to separate CO2 respired from added substrates and from native SOC. Microbial gene copy numbers were quantified at days 4, 30 and 270 using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Substrate C respiration was always higher for glucose than other substrates. Soils with cinnamic and stearic acid lost more native SOC than glucose- and starch-amended soils, despite an initial delay in respiration. Cinnamic and stearic acid amendments also exhibited higher fungal gene copy numbers at the end of incubation compared to unamended soils. We found that 270 days was sufficient to model decomposition of simple substrates (glucose and starch) with three pools, but was insufficient for more complex substrates (cinnamic and stearic acid) and native SOC. This study reveals that substrate quality imparts considerable control on microbial decomposition of newly added and native SOC, and demonstrates the need for multi-year incubation experiments to constrain decomposition parameters for the most recalcitrant fractions of SOC and added substrates.

  9. Altered interhemispheric and temporal lobe white matter microstructural organization in severe chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Holleran, Laurena; Ahmed, Mohamed; Anderson-Schmidt, Heike; McFarland, John; Emsell, Louise; Leemans, Alexander; Scanlon, Cathy; Dockery, Peter; McCarthy, Peter; Barker, Gareth J; McDonald, Colm; Cannon, Dara M

    2014-03-01

    Diffusion MRI investigations in schizophrenia provide evidence of abnormal white matter (WM) microstructural organization as indicated by reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) primarily in interhemispheric, left frontal and temporal WM. Using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), we examined diffusion parameters in a sample of patients with severe chronic schizophrenia. Diffusion MRI data were acquired on 19 patients with chronic severe schizophrenia and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using a 64 gradient direction sequence, (b=1300 s/mm(2)) collected on a Siemens 1.5T MRI scanner. Diagnosis of schizophrenia was determined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders 4th Edition (DSM-IV) Structured Clinical Interview for DSM disorder (SCID). Patients were treatment resistance, having failed to respond to at least two antipsychotic medications, and had prolonged periods of moderate to severe positive or negative symptoms. Analysis of diffusion parameters was carried out using TBSS. Individuals with chronic severe schizophrenia had significantly reduced FA with corresponding increased radial diffusivity in the genu, body, and splenium of the corpus callosum, the right posterior limb of the internal capsule, right external capsule, and the right temporal inferior longitudinal fasciculus. There were no voxels of significantly increased FA in patients compared with controls. A decrease in splenium FA was shown to be related to a longer illness duration. We detected widespread abnormal diffusivity properties in the callosal and temporal lobe WM regions in individuals with severe chronic schizophrenia who have not previously been exposed to clozapine. These deficits can be driven by a number of factors that are indistinguishable using in vivo diffusion-weighted imaging, but may be related to reduced axonal number or packing density, abnormal glial cell arrangement or function, and reduced myelin. PMID:24150571

  10. Genetic variants of human organic anion transporter 4 demonstrate altered transport of endogenous substrates

    PubMed Central

    Shima, James E.; Komori, Takafumi; Taylor, Travis R.; Stryke, Doug; Kawamoto, Michiko; Johns, Susan J.; Carlson, Elaine J.; Ferrin, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Apical reabsorption from the urine has been shown to be important for such processes as the maintenance of critical metabolites in the blood and the excretion of nephrotoxic compounds. The solute carrier (SLC) transporter OAT4 (SLC22A11) is expressed on the apical membrane of renal proximal tubule cells and is known to mediate the transport of a variety of xenobiotic and endogenous organic anions. Functional characterization of genetic variants of apical transporters thought to mediate reabsorption, such as OAT4, may provide insight into the genetic factors influencing the complex pathways involved in drug elimination and metabolite reclamation occurring in the kidney. Naturally occurring genetic variants of OAT4 were identified in public databases and by resequencing DNA samples from 272 individuals comprising 4 distinct ethnic groups. Nine total nonsynonymous variants were identified and functionally assessed using uptake of three radiolabeled substrates. A nonsense variant, R48Stop, and three other variants (R121C, V155G, and V155M) were found at frequencies of at least 2% in an ethnic group specific fashion. The L29P, R48Stop, and H469R variants displayed a complete loss of function, and kinetic analysis identified a reduced Vmax in the common nonsynonymous variants. Plasma membrane levels of OAT4 protein were absent or reduced in the nonfunctional variants, providing a mechanistic reason for the observed loss of function. Characterization of the genetic variants of reabsorptive transporters such as OAT4 is an important step in understanding variability in tubular reabsorption with important implications in innate homeostatic processes and drug disposition. PMID:20668102

  11. Animal-to-human organ transplants--a solution or a new problem?

    PubMed Central

    Daar, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    Xenotransplantation is seen by some mainly as an opportunity and by others mainly as a danger. It could help overcome the shortage of organs from human donors, but it raises a number of questions, particularly about safety, ethics and human nature. This article reviews the progress of research, debate and decision-making in this area. PMID:10063663

  12. [Introduction of dinitrosyl iron complexes with thiol-containing ligands into animal organism by inhalation method].

    PubMed

    Vanin, A F; Mozhokina, G N; Tkachev, N A; Mikoian, V D; Borodulin, R R; Elistratova, N A

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of water-soluble dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC) with thiol-containing ligands introduction into lungs and other tissues of mice by free inhalation of little drops (2-3 microns diameter) of the solutions of these complexes was investigated. Little drops of 2-20 mM solutions of the complexes were obtained by using an inhalation apparatus (compressor nebulizer). A cloud of these little drops was then inhaled by animals in a closed chamber. A maximal amount of protein-bound DNICs formed in mouse lungs was 0.6 micromoles per kilogram of tissue weight. The amount of DNIC in lungs, liver and blood decreased to the undetected level within 2-3 hours after inhalation. No cytotoxic effect of DNIC formed in lungs on Mycobacterium tuberculosis was found in mice infected with these mycobacteria.

  13. [Introduction of dinitrosyl iron complexes with thiol-containing ligands into animal organism by inhalation method].

    PubMed

    Vanin, A F; Mozhokina, G N; Tkachev, N A; Mikoian, V D; Borodulin, R R; Elistratova, N A

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of water-soluble dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC) with thiol-containing ligands introduction into lungs and other tissues of mice by free inhalation of little drops (2-3 microns diameter) of the solutions of these complexes was investigated. Little drops of 2-20 mM solutions of the complexes were obtained by using an inhalation apparatus (compressor nebulizer). A cloud of these little drops was then inhaled by animals in a closed chamber. A maximal amount of protein-bound DNICs formed in mouse lungs was 0.6 micromoles per kilogram of tissue weight. The amount of DNIC in lungs, liver and blood decreased to the undetected level within 2-3 hours after inhalation. No cytotoxic effect of DNIC formed in lungs on Mycobacterium tuberculosis was found in mice infected with these mycobacteria. PMID:23755557

  14. The effect of dynamic factors of space flight on animal organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genin, A. M. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Physiological, biochemical and morphological studies made on the Cosmos-782 biosatellite are presented. Rats, which were exposed on the biosatellite for 19.5 days, were examined immediately after completion of the flight and also during the 25 day period of readaptation to earth's conditions. The effect of factors of space flight, primarily weightlessness, on the organism was investigated for all systems of the body.

  15. Spatial Organization in Protein Kinase A Signaling Emerged at the Base of Animal Evolution.

    PubMed

    Peng, Mao; Aye, Thin Thin; Snel, Berend; van Breukelen, Bas; Scholten, Arjen; Heck, Albert J R

    2015-07-01

    In phosphorylation-directed signaling, spatial and temporal control is organized by complex interaction networks that diligently direct kinases toward distinct substrates to fine-tune specificity. How these protein networks originate and evolve into complex regulatory machineries are among the most fascinating research questions in biology. Here, spatiotemporal signaling is investigated by tracing the evolutionary dynamics of each functional domain of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and its diverse set of A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). Homologues of the catalytic (PKA-C) and regulatory (PKA-R) domains of the (PKA-R)2-(PKA-C)2 holoenzyme were found throughout evolution. Most variation was observed in the RIIa of PKA-R, crucial for dimerization and docking to AKAPs. The RIIa domain was not observed in all PKA-R homologues. In the fungi and distinct protist lineages, the RIIa domain emerges within PKA-R, but it displays large sequence variation. These organisms do not harbor homologues of AKAPs, suggesting that efficient docking to direct spatiotemporal PKA activity evolved in multicellular eukaryotes. To test this in silico hypothesis, we experimentally screened organisms with increasing complexity by cAMP-based chemical proteomics to reveal that the occurrence of PKA-AKAP interactions indeed coincided and expanded within vertebrates, suggesting a crucial role for AKAPs in the advent of metazoan multicellularity. PMID:26066639

  16. The organization structure and regulatory elements of Chlamydomonas histone genes reveal features linking plant and animal genes.

    PubMed

    Fabry, S; Müller, K; Lindauer, A; Park, P B; Cornelius, T; Schmitt, R

    1995-09-01

    The genome of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains approximately 15 gene clusters of the nucleosomal (or core) histone H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 genes and at least one histone H1 gene. Seven non-allelic histone gene loci were isolated from a genomic library, physically mapped, and the nucleotide sequences of three isotypes of each core histone gene species and one linked H1 gene determined. The core histone genes are organized in clusters of H2A-H2B and H3-H4 pairs, in which each gene pair shows outwardly divergent transcription from a short (< 300 bp) intercistronic region. These intercistronic regions contain typically conserved promoter elements, namely a TATA-box and the three motifs TGGCCAG-G(G/C)-CGAG, CGTTGACC and CGGTTG. Different from the genes of higher plants, but like those of animals and the related alga Volvox, the 3' untranslated regions contain no poly A signal, but a palindromic sequence (3' palindrome) essential for mRNA processing is present. One single H1 gene was found in close linkage to a H2A-H2B pair. The H1 upstream region contains the octameric promoter element GGTTGACC (also found upstream of the core histone genes) and two specific sequence motifs that are shared only with the Volvox H1 promoters. This suggests differential transcription of the H1 and the core histone genes. The H1 gene is interrupted by two introns. Unlike Volvox H3 genes, the three sequenced H3 isoforms are intron-free. Primer-directed PCR of genomic DNA demonstrated, however, that at least 8 of the about 15 H3 genes do contain one intron at a conserved position. In synchronized C. reinhardtii cells, H4 mRNA levels (representative of all core histone mRNAs) peak during cell division, suggesting strict replication-dependent gene control. The derived peptide sequences place C. reinhardtii core histones closer to plants than to animals, except that the H2A histones are more animal-like. The peptide sequence of histone H1 is closely related to the V. carteri VH1-II

  17. The organization structure and regulatory elements of Chlamydomonas histone genes reveal features linking plant and animal genes.

    PubMed

    Fabry, S; Müller, K; Lindauer, A; Park, P B; Cornelius, T; Schmitt, R

    1995-09-01

    The genome of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains approximately 15 gene clusters of the nucleosomal (or core) histone H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 genes and at least one histone H1 gene. Seven non-allelic histone gene loci were isolated from a genomic library, physically mapped, and the nucleotide sequences of three isotypes of each core histone gene species and one linked H1 gene determined. The core histone genes are organized in clusters of H2A-H2B and H3-H4 pairs, in which each gene pair shows outwardly divergent transcription from a short (< 300 bp) intercistronic region. These intercistronic regions contain typically conserved promoter elements, namely a TATA-box and the three motifs TGGCCAG-G(G/C)-CGAG, CGTTGACC and CGGTTG. Different from the genes of higher plants, but like those of animals and the related alga Volvox, the 3' untranslated regions contain no poly A signal, but a palindromic sequence (3' palindrome) essential for mRNA processing is present. One single H1 gene was found in close linkage to a H2A-H2B pair. The H1 upstream region contains the octameric promoter element GGTTGACC (also found upstream of the core histone genes) and two specific sequence motifs that are shared only with the Volvox H1 promoters. This suggests differential transcription of the H1 and the core histone genes. The H1 gene is interrupted by two introns. Unlike Volvox H3 genes, the three sequenced H3 isoforms are intron-free. Primer-directed PCR of genomic DNA demonstrated, however, that at least 8 of the about 15 H3 genes do contain one intron at a conserved position. In synchronized C. reinhardtii cells, H4 mRNA levels (representative of all core histone mRNAs) peak during cell division, suggesting strict replication-dependent gene control. The derived peptide sequences place C. reinhardtii core histones closer to plants than to animals, except that the H2A histones are more animal-like. The peptide sequence of histone H1 is closely related to the V. carteri VH1-II

  18. Characterizing Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions from a Swine Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aneja, V. P.; Rumsey, I. C.; Lonneman, W. A.

    2011-12-01

    The emission of NMVOCs from swine concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in North Carolina is of concern, due to their contribution to odor. In addition, of the 188 listed hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), 162 are classified as NMVOCs. NMVOCs emissions were determined over four seasonal sampling periods from an anaerobic lagoon and barn at a swine CAFO in North Carolina. Sampling was conducted during the period June 2007 through April 2008. Air samples were collected using SUMMA and fused-silca lined (FSL) canisters and were analyzed for NMVOCs using a gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID) system. Nine to eleven canister samples were collected from both the anaerobic lagoon and the barn over a ~1 week sampling period, with samples collected on a minimum of four different days. Measurements of meteorological and physiochemical parameters were made during the lagoon and barn sampling. Six NMVOCs (acetone, acetaldehyde, ethanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, methanol and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)) were identified in lagoon samples, that were classified as having significantly larger emissions in comparison to other NMVOCs. Overall average lagoon fluxes of these NMVOCs ranged from 0.18 ug m-2 min-1 for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol to 2.11 ug m-2 min-1 for acetone. In barn samples there were also six NMVOCs (acetaldehyde, acetone, 2,3-butanedione, ethanol, methanol and 4-methylphenol) that were classified as having significantly larger emissions in comparison to other compounds. Overall average concentrations for these six compounds ranged from 2.87 ppb for 4-methylphenol to 16.12 ppb for ethanol. The overall average normalized emissions ranged from 0.10 g day-1 AU-1 (AU = one animal unit, representing 500 kg of live animal weight) for acetaldehyde to 0.45 g day-1 AU-1 for ethanol. Eight odorous compounds were identified in lagoon and barn samples. These were 2,3-butanedione, decanal, ethylbenzene, heptanal, hexanal, 4-methylphenol, nonanal, and octanal. Of the eight

  19. [Molecular-kinetic parameters of thiamine enzymes and the mechanism of antivitamin action of hydroxythiamine in animal organisms].

    PubMed

    Ostrovskiĭ KuM; Voskoboev, A I; Gorenshtenĭn, B I; Dosta, G A

    1979-09-01

    The molecula-kinetic parameters (Km, Ki) of three thiamine enzymes, e. g. thiamine pyrophosphokinase (EC 2.7.6.2), pyruvate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.4.1) and transketolase (EC 2.2.1.1) with respect to the effects of the thiamine antimetabolite hydroxythiamine in the whole animal organism have been compared. It has been shown that only the first two enzymes, which interact competitively with the vitamin, antivitamin or their pyrophosphate ethers, obey the kinetic parameters obtained for the purified enzymes in vitro. The anticoenzymic effect of hydroxythiamine pyrophosphate with respect to transketolase is not observed in vivo at maximal concentration of the anticoenzyme in tissues due to the absence of competitive interactions with thiamine pyrophosphate. The incorporation of the true and false coenzymes into transketolase occurs only during de novo transketolase synthesis (the apoform is absent in tissues, with the exception of erythrocytes) and proceeds slowly with a half-life time equal to 24--30 hrs. After a single injection of hydroxythiamine at a large dose (70--400 mg/kg) the maximal inhibition of the transketolase activity in tissues (liver, heart, kidney, muscle, spleen, lungs adrenal grands) manifests itself by the 48th--72nd hour, when the concentration of free hydroxythiamine and its pyrophosphate is minimal and the whole anticoenzyme is tightly bound to the protein, forming the false holoenzyme. The use of hydroxythiamine for inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase or transketolase in animal organism is discussed.

  20. Biochar affects soil organic matter cycling and microbial functions but does not alter microbial community structure in a paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Wang, Jingyuan; Dippold, Michaela; Gao, Yang; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-06-15

    The application of biochar (BC) in conjunction with mineral fertilizers is one of the most promising management practices recommended to improve soil quality. However, the interactive mechanisms of BC and mineral fertilizer addition affecting microbial communities and functions associated with soil organic matter (SOM) cycling are poorly understood. We investigated the SOM in physical and chemical fractions, microbial community structure (using phospholipid fatty acid analysis, PLFA) and functions (by analyzing enzymes involved in C and N cycling and Biolog) in a 6-year field experiment with BC and NPK amendment. BC application increased total soil C and particulate organic C for 47.4-50.4% and 63.7-74.6%, respectively. The effects of BC on the microbial community and C-cycling enzymes were dependent on fertilization. Addition of BC alone did not change the microbial community compared with the control, but altered the microbial community structure in conjunction with NPK fertilization. SOM fractions accounted for 55% of the variance in the PLFA-related microbial community structure. The particulate organic N explained the largest variation in the microbial community structure. Microbial metabolic activity strongly increased after BC addition, particularly the utilization of amino acids and amines due to an increase in the activity of proteolytic (l-leucine aminopeptidase) enzymes. These results indicate that microorganisms start to mine N from the SOM to compensate for high C:N ratios after BC application, which consequently accelerate cycling of stable N. Concluding, BC in combination with NPK fertilizer application strongly affected microbial community composition and functions, which consequently influenced SOM cycling. PMID:26974565

  1. Interactions between seagrass complexity, hydrodynamic flow and biomixing alter food availability for associated filter-feeding organisms.

    PubMed

    González-Ortiz, Vanessa; Egea, Luis G; Jiménez-Ramos, Rocio; Moreno-Marín, Francisco; Pérez-Lloréns, José L; Bouma, Tjeed J; Brun, Fernando G

    2014-01-01

    Seagrass shoots interact with hydrodynamic forces and thereby a positively or negatively influence the survival of associated species. The modification of these forces indirectly alters the physical transport and flux of edible particles within seagrass meadows, which will influence the growth and survivorship of associated filter-feeding organisms. The present work contributes to gaining insight into the mechanisms controlling the availability of resources for filter feeders inhabiting seagrass canopies, both from physical (influenced by seagrass density and patchiness) and biological (regulated by filter feeder density) perspectives. A factorial experiment was conducted in a large racetrack flume, which combined changes in hydrodynamic conditions, chlorophyll a concentration in the water and food intake rate (FIR) in a model active filter-feeding organism (the cockle). Results showed that seagrass density and patchiness modified both hydrodynamic forces and availability of resources for filter feeders. Chlorophyll a water content decreased to 50% of the initial value when densities of both seagrass shoots and cockles were high. Also, filter feeder density controlled resource availability within seagrass patches, depending on its spatial position within the racetrack flume. Under high density of filter-feeding organisms, chlorophyll a levels were lower between patches. This suggests that the pumping activity of cockles (i.e. biomixing) is an emergent key factor affecting both resource availability and FIR for filter feeders in dense canopies. Applying our results to natural conditions, we suggest the existence of a direct correlation between habitat complexity (i.e. shoot density and degree of patchiness) and filter feeders density. Fragmented and low-density patches seem to offer both greater protection from hydrodynamic forces and higher resource availability. In denser patches, however, resources are allocated mostly within the canopy, which would benefit

  2. Interactions between Seagrass Complexity, Hydrodynamic Flow and Biomixing Alter Food Availability for Associated Filter-Feeding Organisms

    PubMed Central

    González-Ortiz, Vanessa; Egea, Luis G.; Jiménez-Ramos, Rocio; Moreno-Marín, Francisco; Pérez-Lloréns, José L.; Bouma, Tjeed J.; Brun, Fernando G.

    2014-01-01

    Seagrass shoots interact with hydrodynamic forces and thereby a positively or negatively influence the survival of associated species. The modification of these forces indirectly alters the physical transport and flux of edible particles within seagrass meadows, which will influence the growth and survivorship of associated filter-feeding organisms. The present work contributes to gaining insight into the mechanisms controlling the availability of resources for filter feeders inhabiting seagrass canopies, both from physical (influenced by seagrass density and patchiness) and biological (regulated by filter feeder density) perspectives. A factorial experiment was conducted in a large racetrack flume, which combined changes in hydrodynamic conditions, chlorophyll a concentration in the water and food intake rate (FIR) in a model active filter-feeding organism (the cockle). Results showed that seagrass density and patchiness modified both hydrodynamic forces and availability of resources for filter feeders. Chlorophyll a water content decreased to 50% of the initial value when densities of both seagrass shoots and cockles were high. Also, filter feeder density controlled resource availability within seagrass patches, depending on its spatial position within the racetrack flume. Under high density of filter-feeding organisms, chlorophyll a levels were lower between patches. This suggests that the pumping activity of cockles (i.e. biomixing) is an emergent key factor affecting both resource availability and FIR for filter feeders in dense canopies. Applying our results to natural conditions, we suggest the existence of a direct correlation between habitat complexity (i.e. shoot density and degree of patchiness) and filter feeders density. Fragmented and low-density patches seem to offer both greater protection from hydrodynamic forces and higher resource availability. In denser patches, however, resources are allocated mostly within the canopy, which would benefit

  3. Biochar affects soil organic matter cycling and microbial functions but does not alter microbial community structure in a paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Wang, Jingyuan; Dippold, Michaela; Gao, Yang; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-06-15

    The application of biochar (BC) in conjunction with mineral fertilizers is one of the most promising management practices recommended to improve soil quality. However, the interactive mechanisms of BC and mineral fertilizer addition affecting microbial communities and functions associated with soil organic matter (SOM) cycling are poorly understood. We investigated the SOM in physical and chemical fractions, microbial community structure (using phospholipid fatty acid analysis, PLFA) and functions (by analyzing enzymes involved in C and N cycling and Biolog) in a 6-year field experiment with BC and NPK amendment. BC application increased total soil C and particulate organic C for 47.4-50.4% and 63.7-74.6%, respectively. The effects of BC on the microbial community and C-cycling enzymes were dependent on fertilization. Addition of BC alone did not change the microbial community compared with the control, but altered the microbial community structure in conjunction with NPK fertilization. SOM fractions accounted for 55% of the variance in the PLFA-related microbial community structure. The particulate organic N explained the largest variation in the microbial community structure. Microbial metabolic activity strongly increased after BC addition, particularly the utilization of amino acids and amines due to an increase in the activity of proteolytic (l-leucine aminopeptidase) enzymes. These results indicate that microorganisms start to mine N from the SOM to compensate for high C:N ratios after BC application, which consequently accelerate cycling of stable N. Concluding, BC in combination with NPK fertilizer application strongly affected microbial community composition and functions, which consequently influenced SOM cycling.

  4. Interactions between seagrass complexity, hydrodynamic flow and biomixing alter food availability for associated filter-feeding organisms.

    PubMed

    González-Ortiz, Vanessa; Egea, Luis G; Jiménez-Ramos, Rocio; Moreno-Marín, Francisco; Pérez-Lloréns, José L; Bouma, Tjeed J; Brun, Fernando G

    2014-01-01

    Seagrass shoots interact with hydrodynamic forces and thereby a positively or negatively influence the survival of associated species. The modification of these forces indirectly alters the physical transport and flux of edible particles within seagrass meadows, which will influence the growth and survivorship of associated filter-feeding organisms. The present work contributes to gaining insight into the mechanisms controlling the availability of resources for filter feeders inhabiting seagrass canopies, both from physical (influenced by seagrass density and patchiness) and biological (regulated by filter feeder density) perspectives. A factorial experiment was conducted in a large racetrack flume, which combined changes in hydrodynamic conditions, chlorophyll a concentration in the water and food intake rate (FIR) in a model active filter-feeding organism (the cockle). Results showed that seagrass density and patchiness modified both hydrodynamic forces and availability of resources for filter feeders. Chlorophyll a water content decreased to 50% of the initial value when densities of both seagrass shoots and cockles were high. Also, filter feeder density controlled resource availability within seagrass patches, depending on its spatial position within the racetrack flume. Under high density of filter-feeding organisms, chlorophyll a levels were lower between patches. This suggests that the pumping activity of cockles (i.e. biomixing) is an emergent key factor affecting both resource availability and FIR for filter feeders in dense canopies. Applying our results to natural conditions, we suggest the existence of a direct correlation between habitat complexity (i.e. shoot density and degree of patchiness) and filter feeders density. Fragmented and low-density patches seem to offer both greater protection from hydrodynamic forces and higher resource availability. In denser patches, however, resources are allocated mostly within the canopy, which would benefit

  5. Mitochondrial Dysfunction Contributes to Hypertensive Target Organ Damage: Lessons from an Animal Model of Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stanzione, Rosita; Volpe, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying hypertensive target organ damage (TOD) are not completely understood. The pathophysiological role of mitochondrial oxidative stress, resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction, in development of TOD is unclear. The stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP) is a suitable model of human hypertension and of its vascular consequences. Pathogenesis of TOD in SHRSP is multifactorial, being determined by high blood pressure levels, high salt/low potassium diet, and genetic factors. Accumulating evidence points to a key role of mitochondrial dysfunction in increased susceptibility to TOD development of SHRSP. Mitochondrial abnormalities were described in both heart and brain of SHRSP. Pharmacological compounds able to protect mitochondrial function exerted a significant protective effect on TOD development, independently of blood pressure levels. Through our research efforts, we discovered that two genes encoding mitochondrial proteins, one (Ndufc2) involved in OXPHOS complex I assembly and activity and the second one (UCP2) involved in clearance of mitochondrial ROS, are responsible, when dysregulated, for vascular damage in SHRSP. The suitability of SHRSP as a model of human disease represents a promising background for future translation of the experimental findings to human hypertension. Novel therapeutic strategies toward mitochondrial molecular targets may become a valuable tool for prevention and treatment of TOD in human hypertension. PMID:27594970

  6. Mitochondrial Dysfunction Contributes to Hypertensive Target Organ Damage: Lessons from an Animal Model of Human Disease.

    PubMed

    Rubattu, Speranza; Stanzione, Rosita; Volpe, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying hypertensive target organ damage (TOD) are not completely understood. The pathophysiological role of mitochondrial oxidative stress, resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction, in development of TOD is unclear. The stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP) is a suitable model of human hypertension and of its vascular consequences. Pathogenesis of TOD in SHRSP is multifactorial, being determined by high blood pressure levels, high salt/low potassium diet, and genetic factors. Accumulating evidence points to a key role of mitochondrial dysfunction in increased susceptibility to TOD development of SHRSP. Mitochondrial abnormalities were described in both heart and brain of SHRSP. Pharmacological compounds able to protect mitochondrial function exerted a significant protective effect on TOD development, independently of blood pressure levels. Through our research efforts, we discovered that two genes encoding mitochondrial proteins, one (Ndufc2) involved in OXPHOS complex I assembly and activity and the second one (UCP2) involved in clearance of mitochondrial ROS, are responsible, when dysregulated, for vascular damage in SHRSP. The suitability of SHRSP as a model of human disease represents a promising background for future translation of the experimental findings to human hypertension. Novel therapeutic strategies toward mitochondrial molecular targets may become a valuable tool for prevention and treatment of TOD in human hypertension. PMID:27594970

  7. Mitochondrial Dysfunction Contributes to Hypertensive Target Organ Damage: Lessons from an Animal Model of Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stanzione, Rosita; Volpe, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying hypertensive target organ damage (TOD) are not completely understood. The pathophysiological role of mitochondrial oxidative stress, resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction, in development of TOD is unclear. The stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP) is a suitable model of human hypertension and of its vascular consequences. Pathogenesis of TOD in SHRSP is multifactorial, being determined by high blood pressure levels, high salt/low potassium diet, and genetic factors. Accumulating evidence points to a key role of mitochondrial dysfunction in increased susceptibility to TOD development of SHRSP. Mitochondrial abnormalities were described in both heart and brain of SHRSP. Pharmacological compounds able to protect mitochondrial function exerted a significant protective effect on TOD development, independently of blood pressure levels. Through our research efforts, we discovered that two genes encoding mitochondrial proteins, one (Ndufc2) involved in OXPHOS complex I assembly and activity and the second one (UCP2) involved in clearance of mitochondrial ROS, are responsible, when dysregulated, for vascular damage in SHRSP. The suitability of SHRSP as a model of human disease represents a promising background for future translation of the experimental findings to human hypertension. Novel therapeutic strategies toward mitochondrial molecular targets may become a valuable tool for prevention and treatment of TOD in human hypertension.

  8. Intron-exon organization of the gene for the multifunctional animal fatty acid synthase.

    PubMed Central

    Amy, C M; Williams-Ahlf, B; Naggert, J; Smith, S

    1992-01-01

    The complete intron-exon organization of the gene encoding a multifunctional mammalian fatty acid synthase has been elucidated, and specific exons have been assigned to coding sequences for the component domains of the protein. The rat gene is interrupted by 42 introns and the sequences bordering the splice-site junctions universally follow the GT/AG rule. However, of the 41 introns that interrupt the coding region of the gene, 23 split the reading frame in phase I, 14 split the reading frame in phase 0, and only 4 split the reading frame in phase II. Remarkably, 46% of the introns interrupt codons for glycine. With only one exception, boundaries between the constituent enzymes of the multifunctional polypeptide coincide with the location of introns in the gene. The significance of the predominance of phase I introns, the almost uniformly short length of the 42 introns and the overall small size of the gene, is discussed in relation to the evolution of multifunctional proteins. Images PMID:1736293

  9. Morphofunctional Merits of an In Vivo Cryotechnique for Living Animal Organs: Challenges of Clinical Applications from Basic Medical Research.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Shinichi

    2016-02-27

    Recent advances in molecular and genetic techniques have led to establishment of new biomedical fields; however, morphological techniques are still required for a more precise understanding of functioning cells and tissues. Conventional preparation procedures involve a series of chemical fixation, alcohol dehydration, paraffin or epoxy resin embedding, sectioning, and staining steps. In these steps, technical artifacts modify original morphologies of the cells being examined. Furthermore, difficulties are associated with capturing dynamic images in vivo using conventional chemical fixation. Therefore, a quick-freezing (QF) method was introduced for biological specimens in the 20th century. However, specimens have to be resected from living animal organs with blood supply, and their dynamical morphologies have not been investigated in detail using the QF method. In order to overcome these issues, the tissue resection step of organs had to be avoided and samples needed to be frozen under blood circulation. Our in vivo cryotechnique (IVCT) was an original technique to cryofix samples without resecting their tissues. The most significant merit of IVCT is that blood circulation into organs is preserved at the exact moment of freezing, which has been useful for arresting transient physiological processes of cells and tissues and maintaining their components in situ.

  10. Morphofunctional Merits of an In Vivo Cryotechnique for Living Animal Organs: Challenges of Clinical Applications from Basic Medical Research

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular and genetic techniques have led to establishment of new biomedical fields; however, morphological techniques are still required for a more precise understanding of functioning cells and tissues. Conventional preparation procedures involve a series of chemical fixation, alcohol dehydration, paraffin or epoxy resin embedding, sectioning, and staining steps. In these steps, technical artifacts modify original morphologies of the cells being examined. Furthermore, difficulties are associated with capturing dynamic images in vivo using conventional chemical fixation. Therefore, a quick-freezing (QF) method was introduced for biological specimens in the 20th century. However, specimens have to be resected from living animal organs with blood supply, and their dynamical morphologies have not been investigated in detail using the QF method. In order to overcome these issues, the tissue resection step of organs had to be avoided and samples needed to be frozen under blood circulation. Our in vivo cryotechnique (IVCT) was an original technique to cryofix samples without resecting their tissues. The most significant merit of IVCT is that blood circulation into organs is preserved at the exact moment of freezing, which has been useful for arresting transient physiological processes of cells and tissues and maintaining their components in situ. PMID:27006516

  11. Differential effects of conifer and broadleaf litter inputs on soil organic carbon chemical composition through altered soil microbial community composition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Shi-Rong; Wang, Jing-Xin; Shi, Zuo-Min; Xu, Jia; Hong, Pi-Zheng; Ming, An-Gang; Yu, Hao-Long; Chen, Lin; Lu, Li-Hua; Cai, Dao-Xiong

    2016-01-01

    A strategic selection of tree species will shift the type and quality of litter input, and subsequently magnitude and composition of the soil organic carbon (SOC) through soil microbial community. We conducted a manipulative experiment in randomized block design with leaf litter inputs of four native subtropical tree species in a Pinus massoniana plantation in southern China and found that the chemical composition of SOC did not differ significantly among treatments until after 28 months of the experiment. Contrasting leaf litter inputs had significant impacts on the amounts of total microbial, Gram-positive bacterial, and actinomycic PLFAs, but not on the amounts of total bacterial, Gram-negative bacterial, and fungal PLFAs. There were significant differences in alkyl/O-alkyl C in soils among the leaf litter input treatments, but no apparent differences in the proportions of chemical compositions (alkyl, O-alkyl, aromatic, and carbonyl C) in SOC. Soil alkyl/O-alkyl C was significantly related to the amounts of total microbial, and Gram-positive bacterial PLFAs, but not to the chemical compositions of leaf litter. Our findings suggest that changes in forest leaf litter inputs could result in changes in chemical stability of SOC through the altered microbial community composition. PMID:27256545

  12. Differential effects of conifer and broadleaf litter inputs on soil organic carbon chemical composition through altered soil microbial community composition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Shi-Rong; Wang, Jing-Xin; Shi, Zuo-Min; Xu, Jia; Hong, Pi-Zheng; Ming, An-Gang; Yu, Hao-Long; Chen, Lin; Lu, Li-Hua; Cai, Dao-Xiong

    2016-01-01

    A strategic selection of tree species will shift the type and quality of litter input, and subsequently magnitude and composition of the soil organic carbon (SOC) through soil microbial community. We conducted a manipulative experiment in randomized block design with leaf litter inputs of four native subtropical tree species in a Pinus massoniana plantation in southern China and found that the chemical composition of SOC did not differ significantly among treatments until after 28 months of the experiment. Contrasting leaf litter inputs had significant impacts on the amounts of total microbial, Gram-positive bacterial, and actinomycic PLFAs, but not on the amounts of total bacterial, Gram-negative bacterial, and fungal PLFAs. There were significant differences in alkyl/O-alkyl C in soils among the leaf litter input treatments, but no apparent differences in the proportions of chemical compositions (alkyl, O-alkyl, aromatic, and carbonyl C) in SOC. Soil alkyl/O-alkyl C was significantly related to the amounts of total microbial, and Gram-positive bacterial PLFAs, but not to the chemical compositions of leaf litter. Our findings suggest that changes in forest leaf litter inputs could result in changes in chemical stability of SOC through the altered microbial community composition. PMID:27256545

  13. AMP Kinase Activation Alters Oxidant-Induced Stress Granule Assembly by Modulating Cell Signaling and Microtubule Organization.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, Hicham; Koromilas, Antonis E; Stochaj, Ursula

    2016-10-01

    Eukaryotic cells assemble stress granules (SGs) when translation initiation is inhibited. Different cell signaling pathways regulate SG production. Particularly relevant to this process is 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which functions as a stress sensor and is transiently activated by adverse physiologic conditions. Here, we dissected the role of AMPK for oxidant-induced SG formation. Our studies identified multiple steps of de novo SG assembly that are controlled by the kinase. Single-cell analyses demonstrated that pharmacological AMPK activation prior to stress exposure changed SG properties, because the granules became more abundant and smaller in size. These altered SG characteristics correlated with specific changes in cell survival, cell signaling, cytoskeletal organization, and the abundance of translation initiation factors. Specifically, AMPK activation increased stress-induced eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 2α phosphorylation and reduced the concentration of eIF4F complex subunits eIF4G and eIF4E. At the same time, the abundance of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) was diminished. This loss of HDAC6 was accompanied by increased acetylation of α-tubulin on Lys40. Pharmacological studies further confirmed this novel AMPK-HDAC6 interplay and its importance for SG biology. Taken together, we provide mechanistic insights into the regulation of SG formation. We propose that AMPK activation stimulates oxidant-induced SG formation but limits their fusion into larger granules. PMID:27430620

  14. Altered calmodulin activity in fluphenazine-resistant mutant strains. Pleiotropic effect on development and cellular organization in Volvox carteri.

    PubMed

    Kurn, N; Sela, B A

    1981-12-01

    Genetically altered calmodulin activity in spontaneously derived mutant strains, which were selected for resistance to the toxic effect of a specific inhibitor, the phenothiazine drug fluphenazine, is demonstrated. Partially purified calmodulin preparations from wild-type and fluphenazine-resistant strains of the multicellular alga Volvox carteri, were tested for the ability to activate Ca2+-ATPase of the erythrocyte membranes, and the inhibition of this stimulatory activity by fluphenazine. Unlike the preparation obtained from wild-type cells, mutant calmodulin is shown to be insensitive to fluphenazine inhibition, in one case, and calmodulin from another strain was found to be inactive in vitro, i.e. it did not activate Ca2+-ATPase. The pleiotropic phenotype of the spontaneously derived mutant strains involved aberrant multicellular organization and hormone-independent commitment of the multipotent asexual reproductive cells, gonodia, to sexual development. These results clearly implicate calmodulin in the control of development and morphogenesis in this simple multicellular eukaryote. In addition, intracellular inhibition of calmodulin in wild-type cells is shown to block the morphogenic process of embryo inversion and to arrest motility. The availability of mutant calmodulin will facilitate further investigation of the role of this ubiquitous regulatory protein in the control of development and differentiation in multicellular eukarytes, as well as the fine structure/function relationship with regard to calmodulin modulation of a wide variety of cellular processes. PMID:6459931

  15. Chloral hydrate alters the organization of the ciliary basal apparatus and cell organelles in sea urchin embryos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, A.; Schatten, H.; Mitchell, K. D.; Crosser, M.; Taylor, M.

    1998-01-01

    The mitotic inhibitor, chloral hydrate, induces ciliary loss in the early embryo phase of Lytechinus pictus. It causes a breakdown of cilia at the junction of the cilium and the basal body known as the basal plate. This leaves the plasma membrane temporarily unsealed. The basal apparatus accessory structures, consisting of the basal body, basal foot, basal foot cap, striated side arm, and striated rootlet, are either misaligned or disintegrated by treatment with chloral hydrate. Furthermore, microtubules which are associated with the basal apparatus are disassembled. Mitochondria accumulate at the base of cilia - underneath the plasma membrane - and show alterations in their structural organization. The accumulation of mitochondria is observed in 40% of all electron micrograph sections while 60% show the areas mostly devoid of mitochondria. The microvilli surrounding a cilium and striated rootlet remain intact in the presence of chloral hydrate. These results suggest that deciliation in early sea urchin embryos by chloral hydrate is caused by combined effects on the ciliary membrane and on microtubules in the cilia. Furthermore, it is suggested that chloral hydrate can serve as a tool to explore the cytoskeletal mechanisms that are involved in cilia motility in the developing sea urchin embryo.

  16. Selective Induced Altered Coccidians to Immunize and Prevent Enteritis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Microbiomic flora in digestive tract is pivotal to the state of our health and disease. Antibiotics affect GI, control composition of microbiome, and shift equilibrium from health into disease status. Coccidiosis causes gastrointestinal inflammation. Antibiotic additives contaminate animal products and enter food chain, consumed by humans with possible allergic, antibiotic resistance and enigmatic side effects. Purposed study induced nonpathogenic, immunogenic organisms to protect against disease and abolish antibiotics' use in food animals and side effects in man. Diverse species of Coccidia were used as model. Immature organisms were treated with serial purification procedure prior to developmental stages to obtain altered strains. Chicks received oral gavage immunized with serial low doses of normal or altered organisms or sham treatment and were challenged with high infective normal organisms to compare pathogenicity and immunogenicity. Mature induced altered forms of E. tenella and E. necatrix lacked developmental stage of “sporocysts” and contained free sporozoites. In contrast, E. maxima progressed to normal forms or did not mature at all. Animals that received altered forms were considerably protected with higher weight gain and antibody titers against challenge infection compared to those that received normal organisms (p < 0.05). This is the first report to induce selected protective altered organisms for possible preventive measures to minimize antibiotic use in food animals. PMID:27721824

  17. Animal-to-Animal Variability in Neuromodulation and Circuit Function.

    PubMed

    Hamood, Albert W; Marder, Eve

    2014-01-01

    Each animal alive in the world is different from all other individuals, while sharing most attributes of form and function with others of the same species. Still other attributes are shared within a phylum, and still others are common to most eukaryotic organisms. All animals have mechanisms that modulate the strength of their synapses or alter the intrinsic excitability of component neurons. What animal-to-animal variability in behavior arises from differences in neuronal structure, ion channel expression, or connectivity, and what variability arises from neuromodulation of brain states? Conversely, can robust behavior be maintained despite variability in circuit components by the action of neuromodulatory inputs? These are fundamental issues relevant to all nervous systems that have been illuminated by many years of study of the small, rhythmic motor circuits found in the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system.

  18. Animal-to-animal variability in neuromodulation and circuit function

    PubMed Central

    Hamood, Albert W.; Marder, Eve

    2015-01-01

    Each animal alive in the world is different from all other individuals, while sharing most attributes of form and function with others of the same species. Still other attributes are shared within a phylum, and still others are common to most eukaryotic organisms. All animals have mechanisms that modulate the strength of their synapses or alter the intrinsic excitability of component neurons. What animal-to-animal variability in behavior arises from differences in neuronal structure, ion channel expression, or connectivity, and what variability arises from neuromodulation of brain states? Conversely, can robust behavior be maintained despite variability in circuit components by the action of neuromodulatory inputs? These are fundamental issues relevant to all nervous systems that have been illuminated by many years of study of the small, rhythmic motor circuits found in the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system. PMID:25876630

  19. Forest management, litter dynamics and the altered energetic properties of soil organic matter (SOM) - Quantifying anthropogenic change with thermal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liles, G. C.; Horwath, W. R.

    2012-12-01

    Soils are an open thermodynamic system, far from equilibrium, sustained by primary productivity and the interaction between mineralogy and soil organic matter (SOM). Quantifying the effect of anthropogenic alteration of inputs (litter/roots and fertilizer) on SOM energetic properties is a valuable missing piece of C and energy cycles in all terrestrial ecosystems. Thermal analysis (TA) applied to the study of SOM has received limited attention but provides a thermodynamic framework to quantify mass and energy dynamics in soils and unify the assessment of resource flux, attenuation and use in natural and managed systems across temporal scales. Managed forests are a critical and extensive land-use across the globe and in many cases provide model conditions to develop quantitative linkage between direct anthropogenic 'disturbance' - i.e. treatment - and soil change. Our research investigated the effects of litter and fertilizer inputs on SOM energetic properties in two experimental forest plantations in Northern California. Thermogravimetry-Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TG-DSC) was used to quantify soils across the upper profiles of these two forested Ultisols (0-30 cm) and assess energy density in three primary thermal 'fractions', corresponding to the oxidation of carbohydrates and lipids (150-350 C - Exo-1), aromatic and condensed polymers (400-460 C - Exo-2) and refractory/mineral associated C (500-550 C - Exo-3). We developed model distributions of SOM thermal stability, with replicate soil samples (n=6), representing three depths (0-10, 10-20, & 20-30 cm) that received simple (pine - S) and diverse (pine+shrub - D) litter inputs with and without fertilization (F) to assess if contrasting inputs qualities and mineral properties alter SOM energetics. In surface soils (0-10 cm), SOM energetic properties are consistent across sites and treatments displaying relative thermal symmetry with proportional energy densities (percent of total energy) of Exo-1 ~ 26

  20. Genetic deletion of ABP-120 alters the three-dimensional organization of actin filaments in Dictyostelium pseudopods

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    This study extends the observations on the defects in pseudopod formation of ABP-120+ and ABP-120- cells by a detailed morphological and biochemical analysis of the actin based cytoskeleton. Both ABP-120+ and ABP-120- cells polymerize the same amount of F-actin in response to stimulation with cAMP. However, unlike ABP-120+ cells, ABP-120- cells do not incorporate actin into the Triton X-100-insoluble cytoskeleton at 30-50 s, the time when ABP-120 is incorporated into the cytoskeleton and when pseudopods are extended after cAMP stimulation in wild-type cells. By confocal and electron microscopy, pseudopods extended by ABP- 120- cells are not as large or thick as those produced by ABP-120+ cells and in the electron microscope, an altered filament network is found in pseudopods of ABP-120- cells when compared to pseudopods of ABP-120+ cells. The actin filaments found in areas of pseudopods in ABP- 120+ cells either before or after stimulation were long, straight, and arranged into space filling orthogonal networks. Protrusions of ABP-120- cells are less three-dimensional, denser, and filled with multiple foci of aggregated filaments consistent with collapse of the filament network due to the absence of ABP-120-mediated cross-linking activity. The different organization of actin filaments may account for the diminished size of protrusions observed in living and fixed ABP-120- cells compared to ABP-120+ cells and is consistent with the role of ABP- 120 in regulating pseudopod extension through its cross-linking of actin filaments. PMID:7876307

  1. Altered cytoskeletal organization characterized lethal but not surviving Brtl+/- mice: insight on phenotypic variability in osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Laura; Gagliardi, Assunta; Maruelli, Silvia; Besio, Roberta; Landi, Claudia; Gioia, Roberta; Kozloff, Kenneth M; Khoury, Basma M; Coucke, Paul J; Symoens, Sofie; Marini, Joan C; Rossi, Antonio; Bini, Luca; Forlino, Antonella

    2015-11-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable bone disease with dominant and recessive transmission. It is characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical outcomes ranging from very mild to lethal in the perinatal period. The intra- and inter-familiar OI phenotypic variability in the presence of an identical molecular defect is still puzzling to the research field. We used the OI murine model Brtl(+/-) to investigate the molecular basis of OI phenotypic variability. Brtl(+/-) resembles classical dominant OI and shows either a moderately severe or a lethal outcome associated with the same Gly349Cys substitution in the α1 chain of type I collagen. A systems biology approach was used. We took advantage of proteomic pathway analysis to functionally link proteins differentially expressed in bone and skin of Brtl(+/-) mice with different outcomes to define possible phenotype modulators. The skin/bone and bone/skin hybrid networks highlighted three focal proteins: vimentin, stathmin and cofilin-1, belonging to or involved in cytoskeletal organization. Abnormal cytoskeleton was indeed demonstrated by immunohistochemistry to occur only in tissues from Brtl(+/-) lethal mice. The aberrant cytoskeleton affected osteoblast proliferation, collagen deposition, integrin and TGF-β signaling with impairment of bone structural properties. Finally, aberrant cytoskeletal assembly was detected in fibroblasts obtained from lethal, but not from non-lethal, OI patients carrying an identical glycine substitution. Our data demonstrated that compromised cytoskeletal assembly impaired both cell signaling and cellular trafficking in mutant lethal mice, altering bone properties. These results point to the cytoskeleton as a phenotypic modulator and potential novel target for OI treatment.

  2. Performance assessment of the single photon emission microscope: high spatial resolution SPECT imaging of small animal organs.

    PubMed

    Mejia, J; Reis, M A; Miranda, A C C; Batista, I R; Barboza, M R F; Shih, M C; Fu, G; Chen, C T; Meng, L J; Bressan, R A; Amaro, E

    2013-11-01

    The single photon emission microscope (SPEM) is an instrument developed to obtain high spatial resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images of small structures inside the mouse brain. SPEM consists of two independent imaging devices, which combine a multipinhole collimator, a high-resolution, thallium-doped cesium iodide [CsI(Tl)] columnar scintillator, a demagnifying/intensifier tube, and an electron-multiplying charge-coupling device (CCD). Collimators have 300- and 450-µm diameter pinholes on tungsten slabs, in hexagonal arrays of 19 and 7 holes. Projection data are acquired in a photon-counting strategy, where CCD frames are stored at 50 frames per second, with a radius of rotation of 35 mm and magnification factor of one. The image reconstruction software tool is based on the maximum likelihood algorithm. Our aim was to evaluate the spatial resolution and sensitivity attainable with the seven-pinhole imaging device, together with the linearity for quantification on the tomographic images, and to test the instrument in obtaining tomographic images of different mouse organs. A spatial resolution better than 500 µm and a sensitivity of 21.6 counts·s-1·MBq-1 were reached, as well as a correlation coefficient between activity and intensity better than 0.99, when imaging 99mTc sources. Images of the thyroid, heart, lungs, and bones of mice were registered using 99mTc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals in times appropriate for routine preclinical experimentation of <1 h per projection data set. Detailed experimental protocols and images of the aforementioned organs are shown. We plan to extend the instrument's field of view to fix larger animals and to combine data from both detectors to reduce the acquisition time or applied activity. PMID:24270908

  3. Global and gene-specific DNA methylation alterations in the adolescent amygdala and hippocampus in an animal model of caregiver maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Tiffany S; Forster, Amy; Roth, Tania L

    2016-02-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are part of an emerging story on how early-life experiences can alter behavioral trajectories and lead to the development of disease and psychological disorders. Previous work from our laboratory has demonstrated alterations in methylation of DNA associated with the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf) gene within the amygdala and hippocampus of infant and adult rats that were repeatedly exposed to caregiver maltreatment outside the home cage during their first week of life. In the current study we examine changes in global levels of DNA methylation (5-mC) and hydroxymethylation (5-hmC), as well as gene-specific changes in methylation patterns of the candidate gene bdnf (at exons I and IV) within the adolescent amygdala and hippocampus resulting from exposure to maltreatment. While adolescent females exposed to maltreatment showed no significant alterations in global 5-mC or 5-hmC levels, examination of bdnf DNA methylation revealed that maltreated females had greater methylation of exon IV DNA in the amygdala and ventral hippocampus. While adolescent males exposed to maltreatment showed no significant alterations in bdnf DNA methylation, maltreated males had significantly higher 5-mC levels in the dorsal hippocampus and lower 5-hmC levels in the amygdala. These findings demonstrate that the effects of the early caregiving environment are detectable in the adolescent brain at the level of the epigenome, with brain-region specific and sexually-dimorphic epigenetic consequences that could have relevance to adolescent mental health and behavior.

  4. Molecular multiproxy analysis of ancient root systems suggests strong alteration of deep subsoil organic matter by rhizomicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gocke, Martina; Huguet, Arnaud; Derenne, Sylvie; Kolb, Steffen; Wiesenberg, Guido L. B.

    2013-04-01

    decreasing contents of archeal GDGTs from rhizolith via rhizosphere towards root-free loess. Furthermore, the bacterial fingerprint revealed - similar to modern root systems - higher taxonomic diversity in rhizosphere compared to rhizoliths and reference loess. This argues for microorganisms benefiting from root deposits and exudates. Highest concentrations of branched GDGTs in rhizoliths suggest that their source organisms feed on root remains. Incorporation of rhizomicrobial remains as represented by RNA and GDGTs usually affected the sediment at maximum to a distance of 2-3 cm from the former root. FA contents in rhizosphere showed strong scatter and were in part depleted compared to reference loess or, especially in deeper transects, enriched. This indicates the presence of degradation products originating from former rhizosphere processes. Especially at larger depth not affected by modern pedogenic processes, portions of mainly microbial derived C16 homologues were higher in rhizosphere loess up to distances of 10 cm, revealing that the possible extension of the rhizosphere was underestimated so far. In Corg poor subsoil, the occurence of diverse rhizosphere microorganisms and degradation processes even in several centimeters distant from roots point to a strong alteration of OM, possibly contributing to carbon mineralisation.

  5. [Determination of trace element silver in animal serum, tissues and organs by microwave digestion-ICP-MS].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jun-Jie; Xie, You-Zhuan; Han, Chen; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Jie; Lu, Xiao; Lu, Jian-Xi; Ren, Wei

    2014-09-01

    Nowadays, the silver is widely used in the biological field and its biological safety catches great attention. It is important to know the distribution of silver ions within the biological organism and the toxic threshold concentration in the tissue. Therefore, a highly sensitive method for measurement of trace amount of silver ion in the medical biological samples is needed. With its high sensitivity for detection of metal ions, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method is well suited for quantification of trace amount of silver ion in such samples, but method development is still in its infancy. Consequently, a simple and convenient method for determination of trace amount of silver in the animal serum, tissues or organs was developed, in which the samples were subjected to the microwave digestion, followed by the ICP-MS analysis. To begin with, the samples of serum, muscle, bone marrow, bone, heart, liver, spleen, and kidney were sequently processed in 5 mL of HNO3 and 2 mL of H2O2 solution. Then the samples were completely digested by microwave with the power of 2 000 watts. The temperature was raised gradually by 3-step program. Moreover, the data achieved were reproducible and the method was time saving and especially for large amounts of sample processing. Then the digested solutions were diluted to constant volume. Finally, the concentration of 107Ag in the samples was analyzed by the method of ICP-MS under the optimized conditions. Element yttrium (Y) was used as the internal standard to compensate for matrix suppression effect and improve the accuracy of measurement. For one thing, the analytical results showed that the detection limit of the trace element 107Ag was 0.98 μg · kg(-1), and furthermore, the correlation coefficient of standard curve was 0.999 9. For another thing, the recovery rate of the silver element ranged from 98% to 107%, which was calculated according to measured quantity before adding standard, adding standard and

  6. Fenproporex increases locomotor activity and alters energy metabolism, and mood stabilizers reverse these changes: a proposal for a new animal model of mania.

    PubMed

    Rezin, Gislaine T; Furlanetto, Camila B; Scaini, Giselli; Valvassori, Samira S; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Jeremias, Isabela C; Resende, Wilson R; Cardoso, Mariane R; Varela, Roger B; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L

    2014-04-01

    Fenproporex (Fen) is converted in vivo into amphetamine, which is used to induce mania-like behaviors in animals. In the present study, we intend to present a new animal model of mania. In order to prove through face, construct, and predictive validities, we evaluated behavioral parameters (locomotor activity, stereotypy activity, and fecal boli amount) and brain energy metabolism (enzymes citrate synthase; malate dehydrogenase; succinate dehydrogenase; complexes I, II, II-III, and IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain; and creatine kinase) in rats submitted to acute and chronic administration of fenproporex, treated with lithium (Li) and valproate (VPA). The administration of Fen increased locomotor activity and decreased the activity of Krebs cycle enzymes, mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, and creatine kinase, in most brain structures evaluated. In addition, treatment with mood stabilizers prevented and reversed this effect. Our results are consistent with the literature that demonstrates behavioral changes and mitochondrial dysfunction caused by psychostimulants. These findings suggest that chronic administration of Fen may be a potential animal model of mania. PMID:24126971

  7. Methods for study of cardiovascular adaptation of small laboratory animals during exposure to altered gravity. [hypothermia for cardiovascular control and cancer therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popovic, V.

    1973-01-01

    Several new techniques are reported for studying cardiovascular circulation in small laboratory animals kept in metabolic chambers. Chronical cannulation, miniaturized membrane type heart-lung machines, a prototype walking chamber, and a fluorocarbon immersion method to simulate weightlessness are outlined. Differential hypothermia work on rat cancers provides localized embedding of radionuclides and other chemotherapeutical agents in tumors and increases at the same time blood circulation through the warmed tumor as compared to the rest of the cold body. Some successful clinical applications of combined chemotherapy and differential hypothermia in skin cancer, mammary tumors, and brain gliomas are described.

  8. Increased anxiety-like behaviour and altered GABAergic system in the amygdala and cerebellum of VPA rats - An animal model of autism.

    PubMed

    Olexová, Lucia; Štefánik, Peter; Kršková, Lucia

    2016-08-26

    Anxiety is one of the associated symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. According to the literature, increases in anxiety are accompanied by GABAergic system deregulation. The aim of our study, performed using an animal model of autism in the form of rats prenatally treated with valproic acid (VPA rats), was to investigate changes in anxiety-like behaviour and the gene expression of molecules that control levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain. Anxiety-like behaviours were investigated using zone preferences in the open field test. The levels of the 65 and 67kDa enzymes of l-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) mRNAs and type 1 GABA transporter (GAT1) were evaluated in the amygdala, as well as GABA producing enzymes in the cortex layer of the cerebellum. Our research showed that adult VPA rats spent less time in the inner zone of the testing chamber and more time in the outer zone of the testing chamber in the open field test. We also found that adult VPA rats had increased expression of GAT1 in the amygdala, as well as decreased levels of GAD65 and GAD67 mRNA in the cerebellum compared to control animals. These findings support the existence of a relationship between increased anxiety-like behaviour and changes in the regulation of the GABAergic system in VPA rats.

  9. Developmental exposure to lead (Pb) alters the expression of the human tau gene and its products in a transgenic animal model.

    PubMed

    Dash, M; Eid, A; Subaiea, G; Chang, J; Deeb, R; Masoud, A; Renehan, W E; Adem, A; Zawia, N H

    2016-07-01

    Tauopathies are a class of neurodegenerative diseases associated with the pathological aggregation of the tau protein in the human brain. The best known of these illnesses is Alzheimer's disease (AD); a disease where the microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT) becomes hyperphosphorylated (lowering its binding affinity to microtubules) and aggregates within neurons in the form of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). In this paper we examine whether environmental factors play a significant role in tau pathogenesis. Our studies were conducted in a double mutant mouse model that expressed the human tau gene and lacked the gene for murine tau. The human tau mouse model was tested for the transgene's ability to respond to an environmental toxicant. Pups were developmentally exposed to lead (Pb) from postnatal day (PND) 1-20 with 0.2% Pb acetate. Mice were then sacrificed at PND 20, 30, 40 and 60. Protein and mRNA levels for tau and CDK5 as well as tau phosphorylation at Ser396 were determined. In addition, the potential role of miRNA in tau expression was investigated by measuring levels of miR-34c, a miRNA that targets the mRNA for human tau, at PND20 and 50. The expression of the human tau transgene was altered by developmental exposure to Pb. This exposure also altered the expression of miR-34c. Our findings are the first of their kind to test the responsiveness of the human tau gene to an environmental toxicant and to examine an epigenetic mechanism that may be involved in the regulation of this gene's expression. PMID:27293183

  10. Characterizing reduced sulfur compounds and non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumsey, Ian Cooper

    Reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have become a potential environmental and human health concern. Both RSCs and NMVOCs contribute to odor. In addition, RSCs also have the potential to form fine particulate matter (PMfine) and NMVOCs the potential to form ozone. Measurements of RSCs and NMVOCs emissions were made from both an anaerobic lagoon and barn at a swine CAFO in North Carolina. Emission measurements were made over all four seasonal periods. In each seasonal period, measurements were made from both the anaerobic lagoon and barn for ˜1 week. RSC and NMVOCs samples were collected using passivated canisters. Nine to eleven canister samples were taken from both the lagoon and barn over each sampling period. The canisters were analyzed ex-situ using gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) measurements were made in-situ using a pulsed fluorescence H2S/SO2 analyzer. During sampling, measurements of meteorological and physiochemical parameters were made. H2S had the largest RSC flux, with an overall average lagoon flux of 1.33 mug m-2 min-1. The two main RSCs identified by the GC-FID, dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), had overall average lagoon fluxes an order of magnitude lower, 0.12 and 0.09 mug m-2 min-1, respectively. Twelve significant NMVOCs were identified in lagoon samples (ethanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, methanol, acetaldehyde, decanal, heptanal, hexanal, nonanal, octanal, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and 4-methylphenol). The overall average fluxes for these NMVOCs, ranged from 0.08 mug m-2 min-1 (4-methylphenol) to 2.11 mug m-2 min-1 (acetone). Seasonal H2S barn concentrations ranged from 72-631 ppb. DMS and DMDS seasonal concentrations were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower. There were six significant NMVOCs identified in barn samples (methanol, ethanol, acetone 2-3 butanedione, acetaldehyde

  11. Microcystin-LR, a protein phosphatase inhibitor, induces alterations in mitotic chromatin and microtubule organization leading to the formation of micronuclei in Vicia faba

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Dániel; Tándor, Ildikó; Kónya, Zoltán; Bátori, Róbert; Roszik, Janos; Vereb, György; Erdődi, Ferenc; Vasas, Gábor; M-Hamvas, Márta; Jambrovics, Károly; Máthé, Csaba

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Microcystin-LR (MCY-LR) is a cyanobacterial toxin, a specific inhibitor of type 1 and 2A protein phosphatases (PP1 and PP2A) with significant impact on aquatic ecosystems. It has the potential to alter regulation of the plant cell cycle. The aim of this study was improved understanding of the mitotic alterations induced by cyanotoxin in Vicia faba, a model organism for plant cell biology studies. Methods Vicia faba seedlings were treated over the long and short term with MCY-LR purified in our laboratory. Short-term treatments were performed on root meristems synchronized with hydroxylurea. Sections of lateral root tips were labelled for chromatin, phosphorylated histone H3 and β-tubulin via histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Mitotic activity and the occurrence of mitotic alterations were detected and analysed by fluorescence microscopy. The phosphorylation state of histone H3 was studied by Western blotting. Key Results Long-term MCY-LR exposure of lateral root tip meristems increased the percentage of either early or late mitosis in a concentration-dependent manner. We observed hypercondensed chromosomes and altered sister chromatid segregation (lagging chromosomes) leading to the formation of micronuclei, accompanied by the formation of disrupted, multipolar and monopolar spindles, disrupted phragmoplasts and the hyperphosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser10. Short-term MCY-LR treatment of synchronized cells showed that PP1 and PP2A inhibition delayed the onset of anaphase at 1 µg mL−1 MCY-LR, accelerated cell cycle at 10 µg mL−1 MCY-LR and induced the formation of lagging chromosomes. In this case mitotic microtubule alterations were not detected, but histone H3 was hyperphosphorylated. Conclusions MCY-LR delayed metaphase–anaphase transition. Consequently, it induced aberrant chromatid segregation and micronucleus formation that could be associated with both H3 hyperphosphorylation and altered microtubule organization

  12. Fostering Kinship with Animals: Animal Portraiture in Humane Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalof, Linda; Zammit-Lucia, Joe; Bell, Jessica; Granter, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Visual depictions of animals can alter human perceptions of, emotional responses to, and attitudes toward animals. Our study addressed the potential of a slideshow designed to activate emotional responses to animals to foster feelings of kinship with them. The personal meaning map measured changes in perceptions of animals. The participants were…

  13. More bilateral, more anterior: Alterations of brain organization in the large-scale structural network in Chinese dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ting; Gu, Bin; Ding, Guosheng; Gong, Gaolang; Lu, Chunming; Peng, Danling; Malins, Jeff G; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in large-scale brain networks have been recently reported in dyslexia; however, it remains unclear whether these abnormalities are congenital (due to dyslexia per se) or arise later in development. Here, structural magnetic resonance imaging data of 17 Chinese reading disabled (RD) and 17 age-matched typically developing (TD) children were used to construct cortical thickness (sensitive to postnatal development) and surface area (sensitive to prenatal development) networks. In the thickness network, compared to TD, RD showed reduced nodal network properties (e.g., degree and betweenness) in the left hemisphere along with enhanced nodal properties mainly in the right hemisphere. As for the surface area network, compared to TD, RD demonstrated lower nodal properties in the posterior brain regions and higher nodal properties in the anterior brain regions. Furthermore, hubs in both the thickness and surface area networks in RD were more distributed in frontal areas and less distributed in parietal areas, whereas TD showed the opposite pattern. Altogether, these findings indicate that the aberrant structural connectivity in the dyslexic individuals was not only due to a late developmental effect reflected in the altered thickness network, but may also be a congenital effect during prenatal development, reflected in the altered surface network.

  14. BRG1/SMARCA4 inactivation promotes non-small cell lung cancer aggressiveness by altering chromatin organization.

    PubMed

    Orvis, Tess; Hepperla, Austin; Walter, Vonn; Song, Shujie; Simon, Jeremy; Parker, Joel; Wilkerson, Matthew D; Desai, Nisarg; Major, Michael B; Hayes, D Neil; Davis, Ian J; Weissman, Bernard

    2014-11-15

    SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes regulate critical cellular processes, including cell-cycle control, programmed cell death, differentiation, genomic instability, and DNA repair. Inactivation of this class of chromatin remodeling complex has been associated with a variety of malignancies, including lung, ovarian, renal, liver, and pediatric cancers. In particular, approximately 10% of primary human lung non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) display attenuations in the BRG1 ATPase, a core factor in SWI/SNF complexes. To evaluate the role of BRG1 attenuation in NSCLC development, we examined the effect of BRG1 silencing in primary and established human NSCLC cells. BRG1 loss altered cellular morphology and increased tumorigenic potential. Gene expression analyses showed reduced expression of genes known to be associated with progression of human NSCLC. We demonstrated that BRG1 losses in NSCLC cells were associated with variations in chromatin structure, including differences in nucleosome positioning and occupancy surrounding transcriptional start sites of disease-relevant genes. Our results offer direct evidence that BRG1 attenuation contributes to NSCLC aggressiveness by altering nucleosome positioning at a wide range of genes, including key cancer-associated genes.

  15. [The specific features of the distribution of 4-metoxyhydroxybenzene in the organism of the warm-blooded animals suffering lethal intoxication].

    PubMed

    Shormanov, V K; Astashkina, A P; Ostanin, M A; Grishechko, O I; Tsatsua, E P

    2016-01-01

    This work was designed to study the distribution of 4-metoxyhydroxybenzene in the organism of the omnivorous warm-blooded animals (rats) after the intragastric administration of this poisonous compound at a dose three-fold greater than the LD50 value. The administered 4-metoxyhydroxybenzene was isolated from the organs and blood of the experimental animals by exposing the biological tissues to acetone with subsequent purification on a silica gel L 40/100 mcm using a hexane:dioxane:propanol-2 (20:5:1) as the mobile phase. The identification and quantitation of 4-metoxyhydroxybenzene were carried out with the use of TLC, GC-MS, and UF-spectrophotometry. It was shown that the administered 4-metoxyhydroxybenzene remained unmetabolized in the internal organs and blood of the poisoned experimental animals. The largest amounts of 4-metoxyhydroxybenzene were found in the stomach contents (2584,92±117,47), brain (59.49±6.05), contents of small intestines (28.21±3.77), and kidneys (26.13±1.64). PMID:27500483

  16. What can we learn from the toughest animals of the Earth? Water bears (tardigrades) as multicellular model organisms in order to perform scientific preparations for lunar exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidetti, Roberto; Rizzo, Angela Maria; Altiero, Tiziana; Rebecchi, Lorena

    2012-12-01

    Space missions of long duration required a series of preliminary experiments on living organisms, validated by a substantial phase of ground simulation experiments, in the field of micro- and inter-mediate gravities, radiobiology, and, for planetary explorations, related to risks deriving from regolith and dust exposure. In this review, we present the tardigrades, whose characteristics that recommend them as an emerging model for space biology. They are microscopic animals but are characterized by a complex structural organization similar to that of larger animals; they can be cultured in lab in small facilities, having small size; they are able to produce clonal lineages by means of parthenogenesis; they can completely suspend their metabolism when entering in dormant states (anhydrobiosis induced by dehydration and cryobiosis induced by freezing); desiccated anhydrobiotic tardigrades are able to withstand chemical and physical extremes, but a large tolerance is showed also by active animals; they can be stored in dry state for many years without loss of viability. Tardigrades have already been exposed to space stressors on Low Earth Orbit several times. The relevance of ground-based and space studies on tardigrades rests on the presumption that results could suggest strategies to protect organisms, also humans, when exposed to the space and lunar environments.

  17. Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants Expressing a Fungal Cutinase Show Alterations in the Structure and Properties of the Cuticle and Postgenital Organ Fusions

    PubMed Central

    Sieber, Patrick; Schorderet, Martine; Ryser, Ulrich; Buchala, Antony; Kolattukudy, Pappachan; Métraux, Jean-Pierre; Nawrath, Christiane

    2000-01-01

    A major structural component of the cuticle of plants is cutin. Analysis of the function of cutin in vivo has been limited because no mutants with specific defects in cutin have been characterized. Therefore, transgenic Arabidopsis plants were generated that express and secrete a cutinase from Fusarium solani f sp pisi. Arabidopsis plants expressing the cutinase in the extracellular space showed an altered ultrastructure of the cuticle and an enhanced permeability of the cuticle to solutes. In addition, pollen could germinate on fully differentiated leaves of cutinase-expressing plants but not on control leaves. These differences coincided with strong postgenital organ fusions. The junctions of the fusions contained pectic polysaccharides. As fused organs grew apart from each other, organ deformations and protrusions of epidermal cells developed at positions with high mechanical stress. These results demonstrate that an intact cutin layer not only is important for plant–environment interactions but also prevents fusions between different plant organs and is therefore necessary for normal epidermal differentiation and organ formation. PMID:10810146

  18. Slowed muscle force production and sensory organization deficits contribute to altered postural control strategies in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Ng, Shamay S M; Yiu, Beverley P H L

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to (1) compare the postural control strategies, sensory organization of balance control, and lower limb muscle performance of children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and (2) determine the association between postural control strategies, sensory organization parameters and knee muscle performance indices among children with DCD. Fifty-eight DCD-affected children and 46 typically developing children participated in the study. Postural control strategies and sensory organization were evaluated with the sensory organization test (SOT). Knee muscle strength and time to produce maximum muscle torque (at 180°/s) were assessed using an isokinetic machine. Analysis of variance was used to compare the outcome variables between groups, and multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between postural control strategies, sensory organization parameters, and isokinetic indices in children with DCD. The DCD group had significantly lower strategy scores (SOT conditions 5 and 6), lower visual and vestibular ratios, and took a longer time to reach peak torque in the knee flexor muscles than the control group (p>0.05). After accounting for age, sex, and body mass index, the vestibular ratio explained 35.8% of the variance in the strategy score of SOT condition 5 (p<0.05). Moreover, the visual ratio, vestibular ratio, and time to peak torque of the knee flexors were all significant predictors (p<0.05) of the strategy score during SOT condition 6, accounting for 14, 19.7, and 19.8% of its variance, respectively. The children with DCD demonstrated deficits in postural control strategy, sensory organization and prolonged duration of muscle force development. Slowed knee muscle force production combined with poor visual and vestibular functioning may result in greater use of hip strategy by children with DCD in sensory challenging environments.

  19. Gravity as a factor in the animal environment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Review of current knowledge, research, and research planning on the influence of gravity upon living organisms. Discussed factors affecting the adaptability of animals to increased acceleration fields include age, sex, posture, and body size. Affected functions and aspects reviewed cover growth and mature body size, body composition, maintenance feed requirements, and feed utilization efficiency. It is expected that research involving the exposure of animals to altered gravity states will lead to new biological concepts of very broad importance.

  20. Controlled Burning of Forest Detritus Altering Spectroscopic Characteristics and Chlorine Reactivity of Dissolved Organic Matter: Effects of Temperature and Oxygen Availability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Jian; Dahlgren, Randy A; Chow, Alex T

    2015-12-15

    Forest fires occur with increasing frequency and severity in the western United States, potentially altering the chemistry and quantity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors exported from forested watersheds. However, little is known concerning effects of the fire triangle (heat, oxygen, and fuel) on DOM alteration. Using detritus from Pinus ponderosa and Abies concolor (dominant species in forests in the western United States), we prepared DOM from unburned and burned detritus under hypoxic (pyrolysis) and oxic conditions (thermal oxidation) at 250 and 400 °C. DOM characteristics and chlorine reactivity were evaluated by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and chlorination-based DBP formation potential tests. Spectroscopic results suggest that burned-detritus extracts had lower molecular weight (reflected by increased E2:E3 and fluorescence index) and divergent aromaticity (reflected by SUVA254) depending on oxygen availability. Temperature and oxygen availability interacted to alter the chlorine reactivity of fire-affected DOM. Increasing temperature from 50 to 400 °C resulted in decreased reactivities for trihalomethane and chloral hydrate formation and divergent reactivities for haloacetonitrile formation (unchanged for pyrolysis and increased for oxidation) and haloketone formation (increased for pyrolysis and decreased for oxidation). We demonstrate that DBP precursors in fire-affected forest detritus are highly dependent on temperature and oxygen availability.

  1. Controlled Burning of Forest Detritus Altering Spectroscopic Characteristics and Chlorine Reactivity of Dissolved Organic Matter: Effects of Temperature and Oxygen Availability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Jian; Dahlgren, Randy A; Chow, Alex T

    2015-12-15

    Forest fires occur with increasing frequency and severity in the western United States, potentially altering the chemistry and quantity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors exported from forested watersheds. However, little is known concerning effects of the fire triangle (heat, oxygen, and fuel) on DOM alteration. Using detritus from Pinus ponderosa and Abies concolor (dominant species in forests in the western United States), we prepared DOM from unburned and burned detritus under hypoxic (pyrolysis) and oxic conditions (thermal oxidation) at 250 and 400 °C. DOM characteristics and chlorine reactivity were evaluated by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and chlorination-based DBP formation potential tests. Spectroscopic results suggest that burned-detritus extracts had lower molecular weight (reflected by increased E2:E3 and fluorescence index) and divergent aromaticity (reflected by SUVA254) depending on oxygen availability. Temperature and oxygen availability interacted to alter the chlorine reactivity of fire-affected DOM. Increasing temperature from 50 to 400 °C resulted in decreased reactivities for trihalomethane and chloral hydrate formation and divergent reactivities for haloacetonitrile formation (unchanged for pyrolysis and increased for oxidation) and haloketone formation (increased for pyrolysis and decreased for oxidation). We demonstrate that DBP precursors in fire-affected forest detritus are highly dependent on temperature and oxygen availability. PMID:26496434

  2. Elevated temperature altered photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizopshere soil under cadmium stress

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, YongHua; Wang, WenKe; He, Yunhua

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated temperature was associated with increased soluble sugars, reducing sugars, starch, and total sugars, and with decreased amino acids in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. Elevated temperature improved total soluble sugars, free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress. The activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, invertase, β-glucosidase, and l-asparaginase in rhizosphere soil was significantly improved by elevated temperature under Cd stress; while cellulase, neutral phosphatase, and urease activity significantly decreased. Elevated temperature significantly improved bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and total microorganisms abundance and fluorescein diacetate activity under Cd stress. In conclusion, slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring improved the carbohydrate levels in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress in the short term. In addition, elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring stimulated available Cd by affecting pH, DOC, phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil, which resulted in the improvement of the Cd uptake by wheat seedlings. PMID:26395070

  3. Elevated temperature altered photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizopshere soil under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, YongHua; Wang, WenKe; He, Yunhua

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated temperature was associated with increased soluble sugars, reducing sugars, starch, and total sugars, and with decreased amino acids in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. Elevated temperature improved total soluble sugars, free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress. The activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, invertase, β-glucosidase, and l-asparaginase in rhizosphere soil was significantly improved by elevated temperature under Cd stress; while cellulase, neutral phosphatase, and urease activity significantly decreased. Elevated temperature significantly improved bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and total microorganisms abundance and fluorescein diacetate activity under Cd stress. In conclusion, slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring improved the carbohydrate levels in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress in the short term. In addition, elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring stimulated available Cd by affecting pH, DOC, phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil, which resulted in the improvement of the Cd uptake by wheat seedlings.

  4. Elevated temperature altered photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizopshere soil under cadmium stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, Yonghua; Wang, Wenke; He, Yunhua

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated temperature was associated with increased soluble sugars, reducing sugars, starch, and total sugars, and with decreased amino acids in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. Elevated temperature improved total soluble sugars, free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress. The activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, invertase, β-glucosidase, and L-asparaginase in rhizosphere soil was significantly improved by elevated temperature under Cd stress; while cellulase, neutral phosphatase, and urease activity significantly decreased. Elevated temperature significantly improved bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and total microorganisms abundance and fluorescein diacetate activity under Cd stress. In conclusion, slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring improved the carbohydrate levels in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress in the short term. In addition, elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring stimulated available Cd by affecting pH, DOC, phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil, which resulted in the improvement of the Cd uptake by wheat seedlings.

  5. Elevated temperature altered photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizopshere soil under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, YongHua; Wang, WenKe; He, Yunhua

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated temperature was associated with increased soluble sugars, reducing sugars, starch, and total sugars, and with decreased amino acids in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. Elevated temperature improved total soluble sugars, free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress. The activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, invertase, β-glucosidase, and l-asparaginase in rhizosphere soil was significantly improved by elevated temperature under Cd stress; while cellulase, neutral phosphatase, and urease activity significantly decreased. Elevated temperature significantly improved bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and total microorganisms abundance and fluorescein diacetate activity under Cd stress. In conclusion, slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring improved the carbohydrate levels in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress in the short term. In addition, elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring stimulated available Cd by affecting pH, DOC, phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil, which resulted in the improvement of the Cd uptake by wheat seedlings. PMID:26395070

  6. Cardiovascular Physiology Teaching: Computer Simulations vs. Animal Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samsel, Richard W.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    At the introductory level, the computer provides an effective alternative to using animals for laboratory teaching. Computer software can simulate the operation of multiple organ systems. Advantages of software include alteration of variables that are not easily changed in vivo, repeated interventions, and cost-effective hands-on student access.…

  7. Earthworm Effects without Earthworms: Inoculation of Raw Organic Matter with Worm-Worked Substrates Alters Microbial Community Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Aira, Manuel; Domínguez, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Background Earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with soil microorganisms. They enhance decomposition rates through the joint action of direct effects (i.e. effects due to direct earthworm activity such as digestion, burrowing, etc) and indirect effects (i.e. effects derived from earthworm activities such as cast ageing). Here we test whether indirect earthworm effects affect microbial community functioning in the substrate, as when earthworms are present (i. e., direct effects). Methodology/Principal Findings To address these questions we inoculated fresh organic matter (pig manure) with worm-worked substrates (vermicompost) produced by three different earthworm species. Two doses of each vermicompost were used (2.5 and 10%). We hypothesized that the presence of worm-worked material in the fresh organic matter will result in an inoculum of different microorganisms and nutrients. This inoculum should interact with microbial communities in fresh organic matter, thus promoting modifications similar to those found when earthworms are present. Inoculation of worm-worked substrates provoked significant increases in microbial biomass and enzyme activities (β-glucosidase, cellulase, phosphatase and protease). These indirect effects were similar to, although lower than, those obtained in pig manure with earthworms (direct and indirect earthworm effects). In general, the effects were not dose-dependent, suggesting the existence of a threshold at which they were triggered. Conclusion/Significance Our data reveal that the relationships between earthworms and microorganisms are far from being understood, and suggest the existence of several positive feedbacks during earthworm activity as a result of the interactions between direct and indirect effects, since their combination produces stronger modifications to microbial biomass and enzyme activity. PMID:21298016

  8. Thermally-induced structural and chemical alteration of organic-walled microfossils: an experimental approach to understanding fossil preservation in metasediments.

    PubMed

    Schiffbauer, J D; Wallace, A F; Hunter, J L; Kowalewski, M; Bodnar, R J; Xiao, S

    2012-09-01

    The identification and confirmation of bona fide Archean-Paleoproterozoic microfossils can prove to be a challenging task, further compounded by diagenetic and metamorphic histories. While structures of likely biological origin are not uncommon in Precambrian rocks, the search for early fossil life has been disproportionately focused on lesser thermally altered rocks, typically greenschist or lower-grade metamorphism. Recently, however, an increasing number of inferred micro- and macrofossils have been reported from higher-grade metasediments, prompting us to experimentally test and quantify the preservability of organic-walled microfossils over varying durations of controlled heating and under two differing redox conditions. Because of their relatively low-intensity natural thermal alteration, acritarchs from the Mesoproterozoic Ruyang Group were chosen as subjects for experimental heating at approximately 500°C, with durations ranging from 1 to 250 days and in both oxic (normal present day conditions) and anoxic conditions. Upon extraction, the opacity, reflectivity, color, microchemistry, and microstructures of the heated acritarchs were characterized using optic microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results differ for acritarchs prepared under oxic vs. anoxic conditions, with the anoxic replicates surviving experimental heating longer and retaining biological morphologies better, despite an increasing degree of carbonization with continuous heating. Conversely, the oxic replicates show aggressive degradation. In conjunction with fossils from high-grade metasediments, our data illustrate the preservational potential of organic-walled microfossils subjected to metamorphism in reducing conditions, offer insights into the search for microfossils in metasediments, and help to elucidate the influence of time on the carbonization/graphitization processes during thermal alteration.

  9. Thermally-induced structural and chemical alteration of organic-walled microfossils: an experimental approach to understanding fossil preservation in metasediments.

    PubMed

    Schiffbauer, J D; Wallace, A F; Hunter, J L; Kowalewski, M; Bodnar, R J; Xiao, S

    2012-09-01

    The identification and confirmation of bona fide Archean-Paleoproterozoic microfossils can prove to be a challenging task, further compounded by diagenetic and metamorphic histories. While structures of likely biological origin are not uncommon in Precambrian rocks, the search for early fossil life has been disproportionately focused on lesser thermally altered rocks, typically greenschist or lower-grade metamorphism. Recently, however, an increasing number of inferred micro- and macrofossils have been reported from higher-grade metasediments, prompting us to experimentally test and quantify the preservability of organic-walled microfossils over varying durations of controlled heating and under two differing redox conditions. Because of their relatively low-intensity natural thermal alteration, acritarchs from the Mesoproterozoic Ruyang Group were chosen as subjects for experimental heating at approximately 500°C, with durations ranging from 1 to 250 days and in both oxic (normal present day conditions) and anoxic conditions. Upon extraction, the opacity, reflectivity, color, microchemistry, and microstructures of the heated acritarchs were characterized using optic microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results differ for acritarchs prepared under oxic vs. anoxic conditions, with the anoxic replicates surviving experimental heating longer and retaining biological morphologies better, despite an increasing degree of carbonization with continuous heating. Conversely, the oxic replicates show aggressive degradation. In conjunction with fossils from high-grade metasediments, our data illustrate the preservational potential of organic-walled microfossils subjected to metamorphism in reducing conditions, offer insights into the search for microfossils in metasediments, and help to elucidate the influence of time on the carbonization/graphitization processes during thermal alteration. PMID:22607551

  10. PHOTOCHEMICAL ALTERATION OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER: EFFECTS ON THE CONCENTRATION AND ACIDITIES OF IONIZABLE SITES IN DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN THE SATILLA RIVER OF GEORGIA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The acid-base properties of humic substances, the major component of dissolved organic matter (DOM), area major control on the alkalinity, or acid neutralizing capacity of freshwater systems. Alkalinity is one of the fundamental parameters measured in aquatic sciences, and is an ...

  11. Zearalenone Altered the Serum Hormones, Morphologic and Apoptotic Measurements of Genital Organs in Post-weaning Gilts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X. X.; Yang, C. W.; Huang, L. B.; Niu, Q. S.; Jiang, S. Z.; Chi, F.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the adverse effects of dietary zearalenone (ZEA) (1.1 to 3.2 mg/kg diet) on serum hormones, morphologic and apoptotic measurements of genital organs in post-weaning gilts. A total of twenty gilts (Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc) weaned at 21 d with an average body weight of 10.36±1.21 kg were used in the study. Gilts were fed a basal diet with an addition of 0, 1.1, 2.0, or 3.2 mg/kg purified ZEA for 18 d ad libitum. Results showed that 3.2 mg/kg ZEA challenged gilts decreased (p<0.05) the serum levels of luteinizing hormone, however, serum levels of prolactin in gilts fed the diet containing 2.0 mg/kg ZEA or more were increased (p<0.05) compared to those in the control. Linear effects on all tested serum hormones except progesterone were observed as dietary ZEA levels increased (p<0.05). Gilts fed ZEA-contaminated diet showed increase (p<0.05) in genital organs size, hyperplasia of submucosal smooth muscles in the corpus uteri in a dose-dependent manner. However, the decreased numbers of follicles in the cortex and apoptotic cells in the ovarian were observed in gilts treated with ZEA in a dose-dependent manner. Degeneration and structural abnormalities of genital organs tissues were also observed in the gilts fed diet containing 1.1 mg/kg ZEA or more. Results suggested that dietary ZEA at 1.1 to 3.2 mg/kg can induce endocrine disturbance and damage genital organs in post-weaning gilts. PMID:25557812

  12. Has man altered the cycling of nutrients and organic C on the Washington continental shelf and slope?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Roy

    1987-06-01

    Several sets of water column and sediment data from the Washington coastal zone reveal that man has not detectably increased fluxes of planktonic C to continental slow sediments in recent decades by either increasing nutrient fertilization of the waters or by overharvesting higher tropic level organisms. Washington slope sediments are not as important depocenters for storage of anthropogenic CO 2 as the model of WALSHet al. (1985, Deep-Sea Research, 32, 853-883) predicts for slope sediments.

  13. Alterations in the mantle epithelium during transition from hatching gland to adhesive organ of Idiosepius pygmaeus (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Cyran, Norbert; Klepal, Waltraud; Städler, Yannick; Schönenberger, Jürg; von Byern, Janek

    2015-02-01

    Epithelial gland systems play an important role in marine molluscs in fabricating lubricants, repellents, fragrances, adhesives or enzymes. In cephalopods the typically single layered epithelium provides a highly dynamic variability and affords a rapid rebuilding of gland cells. While the digestive hatching gland (also named Hoyle organ) is obligatory for most cephalopods, only four genera (Nautilus, Sepia, Euprymna and Idiosepius) produce adhesive secretions by means of glandular cells in an adhesive area on the mantle or tentacles. In Idiosepius this adhesive organ is restricted to the posterior part of the fin region on the dorsal mantle side and well developed in the adult stage. Two gland cell types could be distinguished, which produce different contents of the adhesive. During the embryonic development the same body area is occupied by the temporary hatching gland. The question arises, in which way the hatching gland degrades and is replaced by the adhesive gland. Ultrastructural analyses as well as computer tomography scans were performed to monitor the successive post hatching transformation in the mantle epithelium from hatching gland degradation to the formation of the adhesive organ. According to our investigations the hatching gland cells degrade within about 1 day after hatching by a type of programmed cell death and leave behind a temporary cellular gap in this area. First glandular cells of the adhesive gland arise 7 days after hatching and proceed evenly over the posterior mantle epithelium. In contrast, the accompanying reduction of a part of the dorsal mantle musculature is already established before hatching. The results demonstrate a distinct independence between the two gland systems and illustrate the early development of the adhesive organ as well as the corresponding modifications within the mantle.

  14. Influence of sill intrusions on the hydrology and thermal maturity of sediments - Modelling heat flow and organic geochemical alterations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, Ulrich; Delisle, Georg

    2010-05-01

    In a variaty of continetal margins worldwide, sill intrusions had a significant influence on the fluid flow and on the thermal alteration of the sediments. We present concepts of fluid and/or gas flow within the contact aureole of sills. Water exposed to the high temperatures at the contact will inadvertently be converted into the steam phase. This process is of explosive nature due to the enormous expansion of the specific density of the fluid. High temperatures in combination with the available fluid will build up high pressures around the aureole and lead to fluid or gas flow according to the pressure gradient. From the thermal point of view, the major effect of the steam formation is a drastic reduction of the contact temperature at the sill to near the steam point of the fluid. The temperature value depends primarily on the local hydraulic pressure, which is closely related to the depth of the contact below surface. One consequence of the high pressure regime will be the escape of the steam through fractures wherever available. Geologic evidence from known locations points to the creation of so-called pipes. Through such pipes, the fluids and gases will be carried away from the contact, and with it the thermal energy. Our concept is compatible with observations on hydrothermal vents in sedimentary basins, which are known to be associated with sill intrusions. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the above concept, we employ a derivate of BGR's heat flow model which has been used and proven as a robust analytic tool in a variety of published studies. Our calculations demonstrate the massive temperature depression caused by the steam production in comparison to the case of pure heat transfer by conduction. After sill emplacement steam generation will ensue until the latent heat for steam formation for the given water volume has been supplied by heat flow out of the sill. During this process, the contact temperature will be kept at the steam point of water for the

  15. Increase in short-chain ceramides correlates with an altered lipid organization and decreased barrier function in atopic eczema patients.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Michelle; van Smeden, Jeroen; Gooris, Gert S; Bras, Wim; Portale, Guiseppe; Caspers, Peter J; Vreeken, Rob J; Hankemeier, Thomas; Kezic, Sanja; Wolterbeek, Ron; Lavrijsen, Adriana P; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2012-12-01

    A hallmark of atopic eczema (AE) is skin barrier dysfunction. Lipids in the stratum corneum (SC), primarily ceramides, fatty acids, and cholesterol, are crucial for the barrier function, but their role in relation to AE is indistinct. Filaggrin is an epithelial barrier protein with a central role in the pathogenesis of AE. Nevertheless, the precise causes of AE-associated barrier dysfunction are largely unknown. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of ceramide composition and lipid organization in nonlesional SC of AE patients and control subjects was performed by means of mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. In addition, the skin barrier and clinical state of the disease were examined. The level of ceramides with an extreme short chain length is drastically increased in SC of AE patients, which leads to an aberrant lipid organization and a decreased skin barrier function. Changes in SC lipid properties correlate with disease severity but are independent of filaggrin mutations. We demonstrate for the first time that changes in ceramide chain length and lipid organization are directly correlated with the skin barrier defects in nonlesional skin of AE patients. We envisage that these insights will provide a new therapeutic entry in therapy and prevention of AE.

  16. Protein deficiency alters impact of intestinal nematode infection on intestinal, visceral and lymphoid organ histopathology in lactating mice.

    PubMed

    Starr, Lisa M; Odiere, Maurice R; Koski, Kristine G; Scott, Marilyn E

    2014-05-01

    Protein deficiency impairs local and systemic immune responses to Heligmosomoides bakeri infection but little is known about their individual and interactive impacts on tissue architecture of maternal lymphoid (thymus, spleen) and visceral (small intestine, kidney, liver, pancreas) organs during the demanding period of lactation. Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, pregnant CD1 mice were fed a 24% protein sufficient (PS) or a 6% protein deficient (PD) isoenergetic diet beginning on day 14 of pregnancy and were infected with 100 H. bakeri larvae four times or exposed to four sham infections. On day 20 of lactation, maternal organs were examined histologically and serum analytes were assayed as indicators of organ function. The absence of villus atrophy in response to infection was associated with increased crypt depth and infiltration of mast cells and eosinophils but only in lactating dams fed adequate protein. Infection-induced lobular liver inflammation was reduced in PD dams, however, abnormalities in the kidney caused by protein deficiency were absent in infected dams. Bilirubin and creatinine were highest in PD infected mice. Infection-induced splenomegaly was not due to an increase in the lymphoid compartment of the spleen. During lactation, infection and protein deficiency have interactive effects on extra-intestinal pathologies.

  17. Determination of benzenic and halogenated volatile organic compounds in animal-derived food products by one-dimensional and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ratel, Jérémy; Engel, Erwan

    2009-11-01

    Animal-derived products are particularly vulnerable to contamination by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These lipophilic substances, which are generated by an increasing number of sources, are easily transferred to the atmosphere, water, soil, and plants. They are ingested by livestock and become trapped in the fat fraction of edible animal tissues. The aim of this work was to determine the occurrence, risk for human health and entryways of benzenic and halogenated VOCs (BHVOCs) in meat products, milks and sea foods using gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. In the first part, the occurrence and levels of the BHVOCs in animal products were studied. One muscle and three fat tissues were analysed by GC-Quad/MS in 16 lambs. Of 52 BHVOCs identified, 46 were found in the three fat tissues and 29 in all four tissues, confirming that VOCs are widely disseminated in the body. Twenty-six BHVOCs were quantified in fat tissues, and risk for consumer health was assessed for six of these compounds regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The BHVOC content was found to be consistent with previous reports and was below the maximum contaminant levels set by the EPA. In the second part, the performance of GCxGC-TOF/MS for comprehensively detecting BHVOCs and showing their entryways in animal-derived food chains was assessed. Meat, milk and oysters were analysed by GC-Quad/MS and GCxGC-TOF/MS. For all these products, at least a 7-fold increase in the contaminants detected was achieved with the GCxGC-TOF/MS technique. The results showed that the production surroundings, through animal feeding or geographical location, were key determinants of BHVOC composition in the animal products. PMID:19782373

  18. Formation, Alteration and Delivery of Exogenous High Molecular Weight Organic Compounds: Objectives of the Tanpopo Mission from the Point of View of Chemical Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kensei; K. Sarker, Palash; Ono, Keisuke; Kawamoto, Yukinori; Obayashi, Yumiko; Kaneko, Takeo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Mita, Hajime; Yabuta, Hikaru; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    A wide variety of organic compounds have been detected in such extraterrestrial bodies as carbonaceous chondrites and comets. Amino acids have been confirmed in extracts from carbonaceous chondrites and cometary dusts. It was suggested that these organics were formed in quite cold environments. We irradiated possible interstellar media, such as a frozen mixture of methanol, ammonia and water, with high-energy particles. Amino acid precursors with high molecular weights were detected in the irradiated products. Such complex amino acid precursors are much more stable than free amino acids against radiation, and heat. It is suggested that interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) brought much more organics than meteorites and comets. However, characteristics of organic compounds in IDPs are little known, since they have been collected only in terrestrial biosphere. We are planning the Tanpopo Mission, where IDPs would be collected in aerogel equipped on the Exposure Facility of the International Space Station. In addition, amino acids and their relating compounds would be exposed to space environments to see their possible alteration processes.

  19. The role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter--III. Generation of bitumen in laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Huizinga, B J; Tannenbaum, E; Kaplan, I R

    1987-01-01

    A series of pyrolysis experiments, utilizing two different immature kerogens (from the Monterey and Green River Formations) mixed with common sedimentary minerals (calcite, illite, or Na-montmorillonite), was conducted to study the impact of the mineral matrix on the bitumen that was generated. Calcite has no significant influence on the thermal evolution of bitumen and also shows virtually no adsorption capacity for any of the pyrolysate. In contrast, montmorillonite and illite, to a lesser extent, alter bitumen during dry pyrolysis. Montmorillonite and illite also display strong adsorption capacities for the polar constituents of bitumen. By this process, hydrocarbons are substantially concentrated within the pyrolysate that is not strongly adsorbed on the clay matrices. The effects of the clay minerals are significantly reduced during hydrous pyrolysis. The strong adsorption capacities of montmorillonite and illite, as well as their thermocatalytic properties, may in part explain why light oils and gases are generated from certain argillaceous source-rock assemblages, whereas heavy immature oils are often derived from carbonate source rocks.

  20. The role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter. III - Generation of bitumen in laboratory experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huizinga, Bradley J.; Tannenbaum, Eli; Kaplan, I. R.

    1987-01-01

    A series of pyrolysis experiments, utilizing two different immature kerogens (from the Monterey and Green River Formations) mixed with common sedimentary minerals (calcite, illite, or Na-montmorillonite), was conducted to study the impact of the mineral matrix on the bitumen that was generated. Calcite has no significant influence on the thermal evolution of bitumen and also shows virtually no adsorption capacity for any of the pyrolysate. In contrast, montmorillonite (M) and illite, to a lesser extent, alter bitumen during dry pyrolysis. M and illite also display strong adsorption capacities for the polar constituents of bitumen. By this process, hydrocarbons are substantially concentrated within the pyrolysate that is not strongly adsorbed on the clay matrices. The effects of the clay minerals are significantly reduced during hydrous pyrolysis. The strong adsorption capacities of M and illite, as well as their thermocatalytic properties, may in part explain why light oils and gases are generated from certain argillaceous source-rock assemblages, whereas heavy immature oils are often derived from carbonate source rocks.

  1. [Evaluation of the fibrogenic effect of coke dust on the lungs and internal organs of experimental animals].

    PubMed

    Zyłka-Włoszczyk, M; Ociepiński, M; Szaflarska-Stojko, E

    1991-01-01

    Based on the data collected by the Provincial Regional Administration Unit for Control of Epidemics and Hygiene in Katowice, dust concentration at the MAKOSZOWY Coking Plant in Zabrze at 18 work-places exceeded the TLV's. The purpose of this study was to determine changes within the respiratory systems of experimental animals exposed to intratracheal administration of MAKOSZOWY Coking Plant dust, sampled at the charging larry 3-4 operating stand and at the battery roof. After pulverization the dusts contained 98.1% and 99.6% respirable particles, and 6.5% and 6.0% of SiO2, respectively, determined with the Polezhajev method. They also contained aluminum and iron compounds. Hydroxyproline content in the lungs of the animals following the intratracheal administration of 50 mg of the dusts investigated 3-6 months after the experiment was determined. Determination of Hypro contend within the animals' lungs was pursued with the Stegemann method as modified by Hurych and Chvapil. The biochemical investigation results obtained were statistically analyzed with the t-Student's Test. Single intratracheal administration of dust from the battery roof work stand of the MAKOSZOWY Coking Plant caused within 6 months a statistically significant increase in the lung Hydroxyproline level in experimental animals (t = 13.10). An almost triole Hypro increase with respect to the control group was observed. No analogy between lung Hypro level increase (12.833 mg) and histological change was noted. Such a significant lung Hydroxyproline level increase could have been due to the SiO2 content of dust (6%), as well as to the presence of iron compounds in it (4.98%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Concentrations of Trace Elements in Organic Fertilizers and Animal Manures and Feeds and Cadmium Contamination in Herbal Tea (Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino).

    PubMed

    Nookabkaew, Sumontha; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Prachoom, Norratouch; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2016-04-27

    Thailand is predominantly an agriculture-based country. Organic farming is enlisted as an important national agenda to promote food safety and international export. The present study aimed to determine the concentrations of trace elements in commercial organic fertilizers (fermented and nonfermented) composed of pig and cattle manures available in Thailand. Pig and cattle manures as well as animal feeds were also collected from either animal farms or markets. The results were compared to the literature data from other countries. Fermented fertilizer composed of pig manure contained higher concentrations of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) than fertilizer composed of cattle manure. High concentrations of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were also found in fertilizers and manures. Some organic fertilizers had high concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb). The range of As concentration in these fertilizers was 0.50-24.4 mg/kg, whereas the ranges of Cd and Pb were 0.10-11.4 and 1.13-126 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, pig manure contained As and Cd (15.7 and 4.59 mg/kg, respectively), higher than their levels in cattle manure (1.95 and 0.16 mg/kg, respectively). The use of pig manure as soil supplement also resulted in high Cd contamination in herbal tea (Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino; GP). The Cd concentration in GP plants positively correlated with the Cd concentration in the soil. Therefore, the application of some organic fertilizers or animal manures to agricultural soil could increase some potentially toxic elements in soil, which may be absorbed by plants and, thus, increase the risk of contamination in agricultural products. PMID:27058252

  3. Two amphibian diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, are now globally notifiable to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE): an assessment.

    PubMed

    Schloegel, Lisa M; Daszak, Peter; Cunningham, Andrew A; Speare, Richard; Hill, Barry

    2010-11-01

    The global trade in amphibians entails the transport of tens of millions of live animals each year. In addition to the impact harvesting wild animals can have on amphibian populations, there is mounting evidence that the emerging pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and ranaviruses, the aetiological agents of chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, respectively, are spread through this trade. The link between these pathogens and amphibian declines and extinctions suggests that the epidemiological impact of the trade is significant and may negatively affect conservation and trade economics. Here we present a brief assessment of the volume of the global trade in live amphibians, the risk of individuals harboring infection, and information on the recent listing by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) of chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease in the OIE Aquatic Animal Health Code. This listing made chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease internationally notifiable diseases and thus subject to OIE standards, which aim to assure the sanitary safety of international trade in live amphibians and their products.

  4. Cytochalasin J treatment significantly alters mitotic spindle microtubule organization and kinetochore structure in PtK1 cells.

    PubMed

    Wrench, G A; Snyder, J A

    1997-01-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that treatment of mitotic PtK1 cells with 10-20 microg/ml cytochalasin J (CJ) blocks or slows chromosome motion and has a significant effect on spindle architecture [Snyder and Cohen, 1995: Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 32:245-257]. Spindle microtubules (MTs) were shown to reorganize within the spindle domain, with kinetochore MTs (kMTs) reduced in number and non-kinetochore MTs (nkMTs) shown to splay outside the original spindle domain. In some cases, bundles of MTs were shown to be refocused away from the original spindle poles, creating the appearance of a multi-polar spindle. In this paper we use serial section electron microscopy, coupled with computer-assisted reconstruction techniques, to determine the rearrangement of spindle MTs and chromosome position following brief treatments of mitotic cells with 10-20 microg/ml CJ at various stages of mitosis. CJ treatment of prometaphase cells reduces the number of kMTs and the size and organization of the kinetochore lamina. Instead of kinetochore bundles of MTs aligned parallel to one another and running from kinetochore to pole, this class of MTs is highly fragmented. Non-kinetochore MTs are also highly fragmented, usually less than 2 microm long, and remain relatively straight over short distances, with some MTs arranged at an oblique angle to the longitudinal spindle axis. In approximately 30% of cells treated with CJ, the failure of a small number of chromosomes to attach to spindle fibers can be documented. These chromosomes show a significant change in the organization of the kinetochore laminae. Light microscopic analysis of cells treated with CJ reveals loss of chromosome congression, with chromsomes usually located at the periphery of the spindle and some completely detached from the spindle. Cells treated with 10 microg/ml CJ for 10 min and released into tissue culture medium show a resumption of chromosome motion within a few minutes, both during congression and anaphase

  5. Warming Alters the Routing of Labile and Slower-Turnover Carbon Through Distinct Microbial Groups in Boreal Forest Organic Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, S. E.; Billings, S. A.; Lane, C. S.; Li, J.; Fogel, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    Increased temperature has been linked to greater losses of soil organic carbon (SOC) via microbial respiration and potentially greater relative increases in mineralization of more complex, slow-turnover SOC pools. Though critical for predicting climate feedbacks, our mechanistic understanding of these temperature responses remains limited. Here we report results from a warming experiment using organic horizon soils from two mesic, boreal forest sites with contrasting climate regimes. We replaced extant Oi soil sub-horizons with another coniferous Oi possessing a distinct δ13C signature, and tracked incorporation of the replaced Oi-C and, by difference, the more humified Oea sub-horizon C into microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) following 120 day incubations at 15C and 20C. We demonstrate how regional climate (site effects) and experimental warming (temperature effects) influence microbial incorporation of Oi versus slower-turnover Oea SOC pools. Congruent with increased mineralization in these soils, the quantity of total PLFA, a proxy for microbial biomass, increased by 32-60% with experimental warming and was 20-42% higher within soils from the warmer versus cooler site. The proportion of Gram-positive bacterial PLFA-C derived from Oi-C more than doubled and coincided with a reduction in the incorporation of Oi-C into fungal relative to bacterial PLFA with laboratory warming and in soils from the warmer site. In conjunction with the relative decrease in fungal incorporation of Oi-C, warming led to an increase of 22-31% in the proportion of fungal PLFA-C derived from the Oea-C. This is consistent with site effects and an increased incorporation of this slower-turnover SOC pool in soils from the warmer site. The increase in microbial biomass and shift in routing of Oi and Oea pools through PLFA indicate that warming increases fungal mineralization of more slow-turnover C pools in these boreal organic soils. This increased exploitation of low C:N Oea by fungi

  6. Role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter. I - Generation of gases and condensates under dry condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tannenbaum, E.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1985-01-01

    Pyrolysis experiments conducted at 200 and 300 C on kerogen and bitumen from the Monterey formation and on the Green River Formation kerogen with montmorillonite, illite, and calcite added are described. The pyrolysis products are identified and gas and condensate analyses are performed. A catalytic effect is detected in the pyrolysis of kerogen with montmorillonite; however, illite and calcite display no catalytic activity. The increased production of C1-C6 hydrocarbons and the dominance of branched hydrocarbons in the C4-C6 range reveals a catalytic influence. It is observed that the catalysis of montmorillonite is greater during bitumen pyrolysis than for kerogen, and catalysis with minerals affects the production of CO2. It is concluded that a mineral matrix is important in determining the type and amount of gases and condensates forming from organic matter under thermal stress.

  7. Maternal consumption of organic trace minerals alters calf systemic and neutrophil mRNA and microRNA indicators of inflammation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Jacometo, Carolina B; Osorio, Johan S; Socha, Michael; Corrêa, Marcio N; Piccioli-Cappelli, Fiorenzo; Trevisi, Erminio; Loor, Juan J

    2015-11-01

    Organic trace mineral (ORG) supplementation to dairy cows in substitution of sulfate (INO) sources has been associated with improvement in immune function during stressful states such as the peripartal period. However, the effect of supplemental ORG during pregnancy on the neonatal calf is unknown. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effects of ORG supplementation during late pregnancy on the immune system and growth of the neonatal calf. Of specific interest was the evaluation of inflammation-related microRNA (miRNA) and target gene expression in blood neutrophils as indicators of possible nutritional programming. Forty multiparous cows were supplemented for 30d prepartum with 40 mg/kg of Zn, 20 mg/kg of Mn, 5 mg/kg of Cu, and 1mg/kg of Co from either organic (ORG) or sulfate (INO) sources (total diet contained supplemental 75 mg/kg of Zn, 65 mg/kg of Mn, 11 mg/kg of Cu, and 1 mg/kg of Co, and additional Zn, Mn, and Co provided by sulfates), and a subset of calves (n=8/treatment) was used for blood immunometabolic marker and polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) gene and miRNA expression analyses. Samples were collected at birth (before colostrum feeding), 1d (24 h after colostrum intake), and 7 and 21d of age. Data were analyzed as a factorial design with the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS. No differences were detected in BW, but maternal ORG tended to increase calf withers height. Calves from INO-fed cows had greater concentrations of blood glucose, GOT, paraoxonase, myeloperoxidase, and reactive oxygen metabolites. Antioxidant capacity also was greater in INO calves. The PMNL expression of toll-like receptor pathway genes indicated a pro-inflammatory state in INO calves, with greater expression of the inflammatory mediators MYD88, IRAK1, TRAF6, NFKB, and NFKBIA. The lower expression of miR-155 and miR-125b in ORG calves indicated the potential for maternal organic trace minerals in regulating the PMNL inflammatory response at least via alterations in mRNA and

  8. Maternal consumption of organic trace minerals alters calf systemic and neutrophil mRNA and microRNA indicators of inflammation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Jacometo, Carolina B; Osorio, Johan S; Socha, Michael; Corrêa, Marcio N; Piccioli-Cappelli, Fiorenzo; Trevisi, Erminio; Loor, Juan J

    2015-11-01

    Organic trace mineral (ORG) supplementation to dairy cows in substitution of sulfate (INO) sources has been associated with improvement in immune function during stressful states such as the peripartal period. However, the effect of supplemental ORG during pregnancy on the neonatal calf is unknown. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effects of ORG supplementation during late pregnancy on the immune system and growth of the neonatal calf. Of specific interest was the evaluation of inflammation-related microRNA (miRNA) and target gene expression in blood neutrophils as indicators of possible nutritional programming. Forty multiparous cows were supplemented for 30d prepartum with 40 mg/kg of Zn, 20 mg/kg of Mn, 5 mg/kg of Cu, and 1mg/kg of Co from either organic (ORG) or sulfate (INO) sources (total diet contained supplemental 75 mg/kg of Zn, 65 mg/kg of Mn, 11 mg/kg of Cu, and 1 mg/kg of Co, and additional Zn, Mn, and Co provided by sulfates), and a subset of calves (n=8/treatment) was used for blood immunometabolic marker and polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) gene and miRNA expression analyses. Samples were collected at birth (before colostrum feeding), 1d (24 h after colostrum intake), and 7 and 21d of age. Data were analyzed as a factorial design with the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS. No differences were detected in BW, but maternal ORG tended to increase calf withers height. Calves from INO-fed cows had greater concentrations of blood glucose, GOT, paraoxonase, myeloperoxidase, and reactive oxygen metabolites. Antioxidant capacity also was greater in INO calves. The PMNL expression of toll-like receptor pathway genes indicated a pro-inflammatory state in INO calves, with greater expression of the inflammatory mediators MYD88, IRAK1, TRAF6, NFKB, and NFKBIA. The lower expression of miR-155 and miR-125b in ORG calves indicated the potential for maternal organic trace minerals in regulating the PMNL inflammatory response at least via alterations in mRNA and

  9. The evolution of infectious agents in relation to sex in animals and humans: brief discussions of some individual organisms

    PubMed Central

    Reed, David L.; Currier, Russell W.; Walton, Shelley F.; Conrad, Melissa; Sullivan, Steven A.; Carlton, Jane M.; Read, Timothy D.; Severini, Alberto; Tyler, Shaun; Eberle, R.; Johnson, Welkin E.; Silvestri, Guido; Clarke, Ian N.; Lagergård, Teresa; Lukehart, Sheila A.; Unemo, Magnus; Shafer, William M.; Beasley, R. Palmer; Bergström, Tomas; Norberg, Peter; Davison, Andrew J.; Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Blomberg, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    The following series of concise summaries addresses the evolution of infectious agents in relation to sex in animals and humans from the perspective of three specific questions: (1) what have we learned about the likely origin and phylogeny, up to the establishment of the infectious agent in the genital econiche, including the relative frequency of its sexual transmission; (2) what further research is needed to provide additional knowledge on some of these evolutionary aspects; and (3) what evolutionary considerations might aid in providing novel approaches to the more practical clinical and public health issues facing us currently and in the future? PMID:21824167

  10. Alteration of the molecular-size-distribution of Boom Clay dissolved organic matter induced by Na+ and Ca2 +

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durce, D.; Maes, N.; Bruggeman, C.; Van Ravestyn, L.

    2016-02-01

    In porous media, the extent of dissolved organic matter (DOM)-facilitated contaminant transport depends on the concentration, conformation and the size of the dissolved organic species. Yet, these parameters are highly sensitive to the ionic strength (IS) and the ionic composition of the solution. Boom Clay (BC) which is considered in Belgium as a potential host rock for nuclear waste disposal contains polydisperse DOM that might associate with radionuclide and increase their mobility. To get more insight into the effect of IS on DOM structure and into its impact on the solid/solution partitioning of OM in BC is essential for safety assessment. In a first set, we investigated the influence of NaCl and CaCl2 content on the concentration, the MW distribution and UV spectral parameters of DOM collected from BC. With an increase in IS two main mechanisms were identified: a compaction and/or dissociation of the DOM molecules and an aggregation. We showed that the sensitivity of the DOM species to these two mechanisms was size/MW dependent and that the presence of Ca2 + promotes the aggregation. The largest species are more prone to aggregation which at the extreme leads to their transfer to particulate OM. On the contrary, small DOM species hardly aggregate but compact or dissociate with an increase of IS. These observations were confirmed in the second experimental set in which we followed the release of DOM from BC rock in various electrolytes. The increase of IS and multivalent cations content reduces the amount, the degree of aromaticity and the MW of DOM released from BC which limit the extent of DOM-facilitated contaminant transport in BC.

  11. Role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter--I: generation of gases and condensates under dry condition.

    PubMed

    Tannenbaum, E; Kaplan, I R

    1985-01-01

    Pyrolysis experiments were carried out on Monterey formation kerogen and bitumen and Green River formation kerogen (Type II and I, respectively), in the presence and absence of montmorillonite, illite and calcite at 200 and 300 degrees C for 2-2000 hours. The pyrolysis products were identified and quantified and the results of the measurements on the gas and condensate range are reported here. A significant catalytic effect was observed for the pyrolysis of kerogen with montmorillonite, whereas small or no effects were observed with illite and calcite, respectively. Catalytic activity was evident by the production of up to five times higher C1-C6 hydrocarbons for kerogen with montmorillonite than for kerogen alone, and by the dominance of branched hydrocarbons in the C4-C6 range (up to 90% of the total amount at any single carbon number). This latter effect in the presence of montmorillonite is attributed to cracking via a carbonium-ion [carbocation] intermediate which forms on the acidic sites of the day. No catalytic effect, however, was observed for generation of methane and C2 hydrocarbons which form by thermal cracking. The catalysis of montmorillonite was significantly greater during pyrolysis of bitumen than for kerogen, which may point to the importance of the early formed bitumen as an intermediate in the production of low molecular weight hydrocarbons. Catalysis by minerals was also observed for the production of carbon dioxide. These results stress the importance of the mineral matrix in determining the type and amount of gases and condensates forming from the associated organic matter under thermal stress. The literature contains examples of gas distribution in the geologic column which can be accounted for by selective mineral catalysis, mainly during early stages of organic matter maturation. PMID:11539655

  12. [Application of the ferrocin containing waste of wine-making for reduction of 137Cs tansit from forage to laboratory animal organisms and cow milk].

    PubMed

    Gudkov, I N; Lazarev, N M; Vechtomov, Iu V

    2011-01-01

    Addition to rat ration of ferrocin containing wastes of wine-making formed during the process of wine demetalization in the amount of 0.2 g per animal per day reduces the 137Cs content in organs and tissues in 1.5-7 times. Addition of the above-mentioned substance to the ration of milk cows in the amount of 10-16 g per day reduces the radionuclide content in milk 1.5-2 times in two weeks and more than 3 times in four weeks. PMID:22384725

  13. [Application of the ferrocin containing waste of wine-making for reduction of 137Cs tansit from forage to laboratory animal organisms and cow milk].

    PubMed

    Gudkov, I N; Lazarev, N M; Vechtomov, Iu V

    2011-01-01

    Addition to rat ration of ferrocin containing wastes of wine-making formed during the process of wine demetalization in the amount of 0.2 g per animal per day reduces the 137Cs content in organs and tissues in 1.5-7 times. Addition of the above-mentioned substance to the ration of milk cows in the amount of 10-16 g per day reduces the radionuclide content in milk 1.5-2 times in two weeks and more than 3 times in four weeks.

  14. Long-term fertilization alters chemically-separated soil organic carbon pools: Based on stable C isotope analyses.

    PubMed

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools under the influence of long-term fertilization is essential for predicting carbon (C) sequestration. We combined soil chemical fractionation with stable C isotope analyses to investigate the C dynamics of the various SOC pools after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples (0-20, 20-40 cm) including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, IN; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into recalcitrant and labile fractions, and the fractions were analysed for C content, C:N ratios, δ(13)C values, soil C and N recalcitrance indexes (RIC and RIN). Chemical fractionation showed long-term MNPK fertilization strongly increased the SOC storage in both soil layers (0-20 cm = 1492.4 gC m(2) and 20-40 cm = 1770.6 gC m(2)) because of enhanced recalcitrant C (RC) and labile C (LC). The 25 years of inorganic fertilizer treatment did not increase the SOC storage mainly because of the offsetting effects of enhanced RC and decreased LC, whereas no clear SOC increases under the SNPK fertilization resulted from the fast decay rates of soil C. PMID:26750143

  15. Long-term fertilization alters chemically-separated soil organic carbon pools: Based on stable C isotope analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools under the influence of long-term fertilization is essential for predicting carbon (C) sequestration. We combined soil chemical fractionation with stable C isotope analyses to investigate the C dynamics of the various SOC pools after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples (0–20, 20–40 cm) including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, IN; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into recalcitrant and labile fractions, and the fractions were analysed for C content, C:N ratios, δ13C values, soil C and N recalcitrance indexes (RIC and RIN). Chemical fractionation showed long-term MNPK fertilization strongly increased the SOC storage in both soil layers (0–20 cm = 1492.4 gC m2 and 20–40 cm = 1770.6 gC m2) because of enhanced recalcitrant C (RC) and labile C (LC). The 25 years of inorganic fertilizer treatment did not increase the SOC storage mainly because of the offsetting effects of enhanced RC and decreased LC, whereas no clear SOC increases under the SNPK fertilization resulted from the fast decay rates of soil C.

  16. Long-term fertilization alters chemically-separated soil organic carbon pools: Based on stable C isotope analyses.

    PubMed

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools under the influence of long-term fertilization is essential for predicting carbon (C) sequestration. We combined soil chemical fractionation with stable C isotope analyses to investigate the C dynamics of the various SOC pools after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples (0-20, 20-40 cm) including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, IN; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into recalcitrant and labile fractions, and the fractions were analysed for C content, C:N ratios, δ(13)C values, soil C and N recalcitrance indexes (RIC and RIN). Chemical fractionation showed long-term MNPK fertilization strongly increased the SOC storage in both soil layers (0-20 cm = 1492.4 gC m(2) and 20-40 cm = 1770.6 gC m(2)) because of enhanced recalcitrant C (RC) and labile C (LC). The 25 years of inorganic fertilizer treatment did not increase the SOC storage mainly because of the offsetting effects of enhanced RC and decreased LC, whereas no clear SOC increases under the SNPK fertilization resulted from the fast decay rates of soil C.

  17. Long-term fertilization alters chemically-separated soil organic carbon pools: Based on stable C isotope analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools under the influence of long-term fertilization is essential for predicting carbon (C) sequestration. We combined soil chemical fractionation with stable C isotope analyses to investigate the C dynamics of the various SOC pools after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples (0-20, 20-40 cm) including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, IN; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into recalcitrant and labile fractions, and the fractions were analysed for C content, C:N ratios, δ13C values, soil C and N recalcitrance indexes (RIC and RIN). Chemical fractionation showed long-term MNPK fertilization strongly increased the SOC storage in both soil layers (0-20 cm = 1492.4 gC m2 and 20-40 cm = 1770.6 gC m2) because of enhanced recalcitrant C (RC) and labile C (LC). The 25 years of inorganic fertilizer treatment did not increase the SOC storage mainly because of the offsetting effects of enhanced RC and decreased LC, whereas no clear SOC increases under the SNPK fertilization resulted from the fast decay rates of soil C.

  18. Long-term fertilization alters chemically-separated soil organic carbon pools: Based on stable C isotope analyses

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools under the influence of long-term fertilization is essential for predicting carbon (C) sequestration. We combined soil chemical fractionation with stable C isotope analyses to investigate the C dynamics of the various SOC pools after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples (0–20, 20–40 cm) including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, IN; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into recalcitrant and labile fractions, and the fractions were analysed for C content, C:N ratios, δ13C values, soil C and N recalcitrance indexes (RIC and RIN). Chemical fractionation showed long-term MNPK fertilization strongly increased the SOC storage in both soil layers (0–20 cm = 1492.4 gC m2 and 20–40 cm = 1770.6 gC m2) because of enhanced recalcitrant C (RC) and labile C (LC). The 25 years of inorganic fertilizer treatment did not increase the SOC storage mainly because of the offsetting effects of enhanced RC and decreased LC, whereas no clear SOC increases under the SNPK fertilization resulted from the fast decay rates of soil C. PMID:26750143

  19. Urbanization and agriculture increase exports and differentially alter elemental stoichiometry of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from tropical catchments.

    PubMed

    Gücker, Björn; Silva, Ricky C S; Graeber, Daniel; Monteiro, José A F; Boëchat, Iola G

    2016-04-15

    Many tropical biomes are threatened by rapid land-use change, but its catchment-wide biogeochemical effects are poorly understood. The few previous studies on DOM in tropical catchments suggest that deforestation and subsequent land use increase stream water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, but consistent effects on DOM elemental stoichiometry have not yet been reported. Here, we studied stream water DOC concentrations, catchment DOC exports, and DOM elemental stoichiometry in 20 tropical catchments at the Cerrado-Atlantic rainforest transition, dominated by natural vegetation, pasture, intensive agriculture, and urban land cover. Streams draining pasture could be distinguished from those draining natural catchments by their lower DOC concentrations, with lower DOM C:N and C:P ratios. Catchments with intensive agriculture had higher DOC exports and lower DOM C:P ratios than natural catchments. Finally, with the highest DOC concentrations and exports, as well as the highest DOM C:P and N:P ratios, but the lowest C:N ratios among all land-use types, urbanized catchments had the strongest effects on catchment DOM. Thus, urbanization may have alleviated N limitation of heterotrophic DOM decomposition, but increased P limitation. Land use-especially urbanization-also affected the seasonality of catchment biogeochemistry. While natural catchments exhibited high DOC exports and concentrations, with high DOM C:P ratios in the rainy season only, urbanized catchments had high values in these variables throughout the year. Our results suggest that urbanization and pastoral land use exerted the strongest impacts on DOM biogeochemistry in the investigated tropical catchments and should thus be important targets for management and mitigation efforts. PMID:26849342

  20. Mutations in NEK8 link multiple organ dysplasia with altered Hippo signalling and increased c-MYC expression.

    PubMed

    Frank, Valeska; Habbig, Sandra; Bartram, Malte P; Eisenberger, Tobias; Veenstra-Knol, Hermine E; Decker, Christian; Boorsma, Reinder A C; Göbel, Heike; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Griessmann, Anabel; Franke, Mareike; Borgal, Lori; Kohli, Priyanka; Völker, Linus A; Dötsch, Jörg; Nürnberg, Peter; Benzing, Thomas; Bolz, Hanno J; Johnson, Colin; Gerkes, Erica H; Schermer, Bernhard; Bergmann, Carsten

    2013-06-01

    Mutations affecting the integrity and function of cilia have been identified in various genes over the last decade accounting for a group of diseases called ciliopathies. Ciliopathies display a broad spectrum of phenotypes ranging from mild manifestations to lethal combinations of multiple severe symptoms and most of them share cystic kidneys as a common feature. Our starting point was a consanguineous pedigree with three affected fetuses showing an early embryonic phenotype with enlarged cystic kidneys, liver and pancreas and developmental heart disease. By genome-wide linkage analysis, we mapped the disease locus to chromosome 17q11 and identified a homozygous nonsense mutation in NEK8/NPHP9 that encodes a kinase involved in ciliary dynamics and cell cycle progression. Missense mutations in NEK8/NPHP9 have been identified in juvenile cystic kidney jck mice and in patients suffering from nephronophthisis (NPH), an autosomal-recessive cystic kidney disease. This work confirmed a complete loss of NEK8 expression in the affected fetuses due to nonsense-mediated decay. In cultured fibroblasts derived from these fetuses, the expression of prominent polycystic kidney disease genes (PKD1 and PKD2) was decreased, whereas the oncogene c-MYC was upregulated, providing potential explanations for the observed renal phenotype. We furthermore linked NEK8 with NPHP3, another NPH protein known to cause a very similar phenotype in case of null mutations. Both proteins interact and activate the Hippo effector TAZ. Taken together, our study demonstrates that NEK8 is essential for organ development and that the complete loss of NEK8 perturbs multiple signalling pathways resulting in a severe early embryonic phenotype.

  1. Bdellovibrio and Like Organisms Enhanced Growth and Survival of Penaeus monodon and Altered Bacterial Community Structures in Its Rearing Water

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Qiuping; Liu, Renliang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a 96-h laboratory reduction test was conducted with strain BDHSH06 (GenBank accession no. EF011103) as the test strain for Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) and 20 susceptible marine bacterial strains forming microcosms as the targets. The results showed that BDHSH06 reduced the levels of approximately 50% of prey bacterial strains within 96 h in the seawater microcosms. An 85-day black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) rearing experiment was performed. The shrimp survival rate, body length, and weight in the test tanks were 48.1% ± 1.2%, 99.8 ± 10.0 mm, and 6.36 ± 1.50 g, respectively, which were values significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those for the control, viz., 31.0% ± 2.1%, 86.0 ± 11.1 mm, and 4.21 ± 1.56 g, respectively. With the addition of BDHSH06, total bacterial and Vibrio numbers were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by 1.3 to 4.5 log CFU · ml−1 and CFU · g−1 in both water and shrimp intestines, respectively, compared to those in the control. The effect of BDHSH06 on bacterial community structures in the rearing water was also examined using PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The DGGE profiles of rearing water samples from the control and test tanks revealed that the amounts of 44% of the bacterial species were reduced when BDHSH06 was added to the rearing water over the 85-day rearing period, and among these, approximately 57.1% were nonculturable. The results of this study demonstrated that BDHSH06 can be used as a biocontrol/probiotic agent in P. monodon culture. PMID:25107962

  2. Urbanization and agriculture increase exports and differentially alter elemental stoichiometry of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from tropical catchments.

    PubMed

    Gücker, Björn; Silva, Ricky C S; Graeber, Daniel; Monteiro, José A F; Boëchat, Iola G

    2016-04-15

    Many tropical biomes are threatened by rapid land-use change, but its catchment-wide biogeochemical effects are poorly understood. The few previous studies on DOM in tropical catchments suggest that deforestation and subsequent land use increase stream water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, but consistent effects on DOM elemental stoichiometry have not yet been reported. Here, we studied stream water DOC concentrations, catchment DOC exports, and DOM elemental stoichiometry in 20 tropical catchments at the Cerrado-Atlantic rainforest transition, dominated by natural vegetation, pasture, intensive agriculture, and urban land cover. Streams draining pasture could be distinguished from those draining natural catchments by their lower DOC concentrations, with lower DOM C:N and C:P ratios. Catchments with intensive agriculture had higher DOC exports and lower DOM C:P ratios than natural catchments. Finally, with the highest DOC concentrations and exports, as well as the highest DOM C:P and N:P ratios, but the lowest C:N ratios among all land-use types, urbanized catchments had the strongest effects on catchment DOM. Thus, urbanization may have alleviated N limitation of heterotrophic DOM decomposition, but increased P limitation. Land use-especially urbanization-also affected the seasonality of catchment biogeochemistry. While natural catchments exhibited high DOC exports and concentrations, with high DOM C:P ratios in the rainy season only, urbanized catchments had high values in these variables throughout the year. Our results suggest that urbanization and pastoral land use exerted the strongest impacts on DOM biogeochemistry in the investigated tropical catchments and should thus be important targets for management and mitigation efforts.

  3. Estradiol-17beta and linseed meal interact to alter visceral organ mass and hormone concentrations from ovariectomized ewes.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, M R; Lardy, G P; Wilson, M E; Lemley, C O; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S; Vonnahme, K A

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the estrogenic potential of secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG) found in linseed meal (LSM) on visceral organ mass, IGF-I, and thyroid hormone (T(3) and T(4)) concentrations, 48 multiparous, ovariectomized ewes (54.6 +/- 1.1 kg) were used in a 3 x 4 factorial arrangement. Main effects were length of LSM feeding (0, 1, 7, or 14 d) and length of exposure to estradiol-17beta (E(2)) implant (0, 6, or 24 h prior to tissue collection). Implanting ewes with E(2) for 24h increased liver mass relative to empty body weight (EBW; g/kg EBW) compared with ewes implanted for 0 or 6 h (P or= 0.12) CYP2C or CYP3A mRNA expression or cellularity of the liver. Exogenous E(2) influenced circulating concentrations of IGF-I, T(3), and T(4). The estrogenic or anti-estrogenic potential of LSM is dependent upon the tissue, exposure to E(2), and the duration of LSM feeding. Feeding LSM during gestation, lactation, or during the grow-finish phase warrants further investigation.

  4. Biogas Production from Vietnamese Animal Manure, Plant Residues and Organic Waste: Influence of Biomass Composition on Methane Yield

    PubMed Central

    Cu, T. T. T.; Nguyen, T. X.; Triolo, J. M.; Pedersen, L.; Le, V. D.; Le, P. D.; Sommer, S. G.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4) production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL) CH4 kg−1 volatile solids (VS) compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg−1 VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square) at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam. PMID:25557826

  5. Biogas production from vietnamese animal manure, plant residues and organic waste: influence of biomass composition on methane yield.

    PubMed

    Cu, T T T; Nguyen, T X; Triolo, J M; Pedersen, L; Le, V D; Le, P D; Sommer, S G

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4) production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL) CH4 kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square) at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam.

  6. Animal lifespan and human influence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, Q.; Yang, S.

    2002-01-01

    Lifespan differs radically among organisms ever lived on earth, even among those roughly similar in size, shape, form, and physiology; Yet, in general, there exists a strong positive relationship between lifespan and body size. Although lifespans of humans and human-related (domestic) animals are becoming increasingly longer than that of other animals of similar sizes, the slope of the regression (lifespan-body size) line and the intercepts have been surprisingly stable over the course of the dramatic human population growth, indicating substantial depression in lifespans of many other animals probably due to shrunk and fragmented natural habitats. This article addresses two questions related to the lifespan-size relationship: (1) what caused the exceptions (e.g., a few remote human-related animals are also located above the regression line with great residuals) and why (e.g., could brain size or intelligence be a covariate in addition to body size in predicting lifespan?), and (2) whether continued human activities can eventually alter the ' natural' regression line in the future, and if so, how much. We also suggest similar research efforts to be extended to the plant world as well.

  7. [Investigations of the distribution of aripiprazole in the internal organs and biological fluids of the laboratory animals in case of acute intoxication].

    PubMed

    Voronkov, A V; Remezova, I P; Lazaryan, D S; Avramenko, N S; Rybasova, A S

    2015-01-01

    Despite the present-day extensive application of aripiprazole, there are many cases of its overdose and of poisoning with this compound. The objective of the present study was to detect and quantify aripiprazole in the internal organs and biological fluids of the laboratory animals in case of acute intoxication. The experiments were carried out on white mice of both sexes weighing 20.5 and 25.7 g. Aripiprazole was isolated from the liver, kidneys, brain, and heart as described by A.A. Vasil'eva and from the plasma and urine by the newly developed original methods. Aripiprazole was identified and quantitatively determined in the extracts from the aforementioned organs and tissues with the use of HPLC. The data obtained on the completeness of extraction from the liver, kidneys , and brain of the laboratory animals indicate that aripiprazole accumulated in the highest concentrations in the brain and kidneys within 24 hours after acute poisoning. Ist content was significantly lower in the liver while no traces of aripiprazole were found in the heart of the mice. The methods for aripiprazole isolation from the urine and blood plasma are described. The maximum amounts of aripiprazole were detected in blood plasma within 24 hours after acute intoxication. It is concluded that the proposed methods for aripiprazole isolation from the biological fluids (blood plasma and urine) can be included in the scheme of the chemical toxicological analysis of this compound.

  8. [Investigations of the distribution of aripiprazole in the internal organs and biological fluids of the laboratory animals in case of acute intoxication].

    PubMed

    Voronkov, A V; Remezova, I P; Lazaryan, D S; Avramenko, N S; Rybasova, A S

    2015-01-01

    Despite the present-day extensive application of aripiprazole, there are many cases of its overdose and of poisoning with this compound. The objective of the present study was to detect and quantify aripiprazole in the internal organs and biological fluids of the laboratory animals in case of acute intoxication. The experiments were carried out on white mice of both sexes weighing 20.5 and 25.7 g. Aripiprazole was isolated from the liver, kidneys, brain, and heart as described by A.A. Vasil'eva and from the plasma and urine by the newly developed original methods. Aripiprazole was identified and quantitatively determined in the extracts from the aforementioned organs and tissues with the use of HPLC. The data obtained on the completeness of extraction from the liver, kidneys , and brain of the laboratory animals indicate that aripiprazole accumulated in the highest concentrations in the brain and kidneys within 24 hours after acute poisoning. Ist content was significantly lower in the liver while no traces of aripiprazole were found in the heart of the mice. The methods for aripiprazole isolation from the urine and blood plasma are described. The maximum amounts of aripiprazole were detected in blood plasma within 24 hours after acute intoxication. It is concluded that the proposed methods for aripiprazole isolation from the biological fluids (blood plasma and urine) can be included in the scheme of the chemical toxicological analysis of this compound. PMID:26856058

  9. Mutations in TUBGCP4 Alter Microtubule Organization via the γ-Tubulin Ring Complex in Autosomal-Recessive Microcephaly with Chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Scheidecker, Sophie; Etard, Christelle; Haren, Laurence; Stoetzel, Corinne; Hull, Sarah; Arno, Gavin; Plagnol, Vincent; Drunat, Séverine; Passemard, Sandrine; Toutain, Annick; Obringer, Cathy; Koob, Mériam; Geoffroy, Véronique; Marion, Vincent; Strähle, Uwe; Ostergaard, Pia; Verloes, Alain; Merdes, Andreas; Moore, Anthony T.; Dollfus, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    We have identified TUBGCP4 variants in individuals with autosomal-recessive microcephaly and chorioretinopathy. Whole-exome sequencing performed on one family with two affected siblings and independently on another family with one affected child revealed compound-heterozygous mutations in TUBGCP4. Subsequent Sanger sequencing was performed on a panel of individuals from 12 French families affected by microcephaly and ophthalmic manifestations, and one other individual was identified with compound-heterozygous mutations in TUBGCP4. One synonymous variant was common to all three families and was shown to induce exon skipping; the other mutations were frameshift mutations and a deletion. TUBGCP4 encodes γ-tubulin complex protein 4, a component belonging to the γ-tubulin ring complex (γ-TuRC) and known to regulate the nucleation and organization of microtubules. Functional analysis of individual fibroblasts disclosed reduced levels of the γ-TuRC, altered nucleation and organization of microtubules, abnormal nuclear shape, and aneuploidy. Moreover, zebrafish treated with morpholinos against tubgcp4 were found to have reduced head volume and eye developmental anomalies with chorioretinal dysplasia. In summary, the identification of TUBGCP4 mutations in individuals with microcephaly and a spectrum of anomalies in eye development, particularly photoreceptor anomalies, provides evidence of an important role for the γ-TuRC in brain and eye development. PMID:25817018

  10. Alteration of Endothelins: A Common Pathogenetic Mechanism in Chronic Diabetic Complications

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zia Ali; Cukiernik, Mark; Fukuda, Gen; Chen, Shali; Mukherjee, Suranjana

    2002-01-01

    Endothelin (ET) peptides perform several physiological, vascular, and nonvascular functions and are widely distributed in a number of tissues. They are altered in several disease processes including diabetes. Alteration of ETs have been demonstrated in organs of chronic diabetic complications in both experimental and clinical studies. The majority of the effects of ET alteration in diabetes are due to altered vascular function. Furthermore, ET antagonists have been shown to prevent structural and functional changes induced by diabetes in animal models. This review discusses the contribution of ETs in the pathogenesis and the potential role of ET antagonism in the treatment of chronic diabetic complications. PMID:12546275

  11. Universal pacemaker of genome evolution in animals and fungi and variation of evolutionary rates in diverse organisms.

    PubMed

    Snir, Sagi; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2014-06-01

    Gene evolution is traditionally considered within the framework of the molecular clock (MC) model whereby each gene is characterized by an approximately constant rate of evolution. Recent comparative analysis of numerous phylogenies of prokaryotic genes has shown that a different model of evolution, denoted the Universal PaceMaker (UPM), which postulates conservation of relative, rather than absolute evolutionary rates, yields a better fit to the phylogenetic data. Here, we show that the UPM model is a better fit than the MC for genome wide sets of phylogenetic trees from six species of Drosophila and nine species of yeast, with extremely high statistical significance. Unlike the prokaryotic phylogenies that include distant organisms and multiple horizontal gene transfers, these are simple data sets that cover groups of closely related organisms and consist of gene trees with the same topology as the species tree. The results indicate that both lineage-specific and gene-specific rates are important in genome evolution but the lineage-specific contribution is greater. Similar to the MC, the gene evolution rates under the UPM are strongly overdispersed, approximately 2-fold compared with the expectation from sampling error alone. However, we show that neither Drosophila nor yeast genes form distinct clusters in the tree space. Thus, the gene-specific deviations from the UPM, although substantial, are uncorrelated and most likely depend on selective factors that are largely unique to individual genes. Thus, the UPM appears to be a key feature of genome evolution across the history of cellular life. PMID:24812293

  12. Major causes of organ/carcass condemnation and financial loss estimation in animals slaughtered at two abattoirs in Bursa Province, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yibar, Artun; Selcuk, Ozgur; Senlik, Bayram

    2015-01-01

    An abattoir survey was conducted from July 2012 to December 2012 to determine the major causes of organ and carcass condemnation and to estimate the associated direct financial loss at two abattoirs in Bursa Province in Turkey. A total of 22,872 sheeps and 5363 cattle were examined by postmortem inspection using standard inspection procedures. The total economic loss in two abattoirs was estimated from the summation of organ and carcass condemnation in six-month period. The retail prices of offal (lung, liver, kidney, heart, and spleen) and kg price of cattle and sheep carcasses were obtained from local markets. The results of postmortem examination indicated that a total of 658 (2.33%) offals and 93 (0.32%) carcasses were condemned. While the main causes of organ condemnation were hydatidosis and fasciolosis, carcasses were condemned mainly due to tuberculosis and jaundice. The total revenue in 2012 for all animals (164,080 sheeps and 56,035 cattle) slaughtered in 15 abattoirs in Bursa Province was 144,401,765 USD. This study showed that financial loss due to organ and carcass condemnations at two abattoirs in six-month period was 245,483 USD (0.17% of the total annual revenue of all slaughtered animals at 15 abattoirs). In sheep, six-month financial loss was estimated at 3281 USD and 4015 USD from organ condemnation due to fasciolosis and hydatidosis, respectively. In cattle, total loss was calculated as 4042 USD and 12,321 USD due to fasciolosis and hydatidosis, respectively. A common cause of carcass condemnation in cattle was tuberculosis, totalling 214,995 USD in losses, whereas condemnation due to tuberculosis was not determined in sheep. The current study also showed that six-month monetary losses from carcass condemnation of sheep and cattle due to jaundice were 8099 USD and 6026 USD, respectively. From the data obtained in this study, it can be concluded that bacterial and parasitic diseases remain common and cause considerable economic loss in Bursa

  13. Aquatic Plants and Animals as Ecosystem Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wotton, R. S.

    2005-05-01

    Studies on aquatic plants and animals focus on population dynamics, the structure of communities and the part played by organisms in food webs and other ecosystem processes. As Lawton and Jones point out in "Linking Species and Ecosystems", less attention is given to the role of organisms as ecosystem engineers, modifying the environment in which they live. Yet plants can have a profound effect on their surroundings, altering flow patterns and trapping large amounts of organic and inorganic material. Animals also affect aquatic ecosystems in many ways, both in building structures such as tubes and shelters, and in their feeding. For example, detritus feeders often produce large numbers of faecal pellets (and pseudofaeces in bivalves) and these are very different in size to the materials ingested. Pellets are deposited in masses over the bed of streams, lakes and the sea and therefore effect a translocation of nutrients. The action of plants and animals in altering their environment is likely to be a significant process in all water bodies, from both small to large scale.

  14. Significant alteration of soil bacterial communities and organic carbon decomposition by different long-term fertilization management conditions of extremely low-productivity arable soil in South China.

    PubMed

    Xun, Weibing; Zhao, Jun; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Guishan; Ran, Wei; Wang, Boren; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2016-06-01

    Different fertilization managements of red soil, a kind of Ferralic Cambisol, strongly affected the soil properties and associated microbial communities. The association of the soil microbial community and functionality with long-term fertilization management in the unique low-productivity red soil ecosystem is important for both soil microbial ecology and agricultural production. Here, 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S recombinant ribonucleic acid genes and GeoChip4-NimbleGen-based functional gene analysis were used to study the soil bacterial community composition and functional genes involved in soil organic carbon degradation. Long-term nitrogen-containing chemical fertilization-induced soil acidification and fertility decline and significantly altered the soil bacterial community, whereas long-term organic fertilization and fallow management improved the soil quality and maintained the bacterial diversity. Short-term quicklime remediation of the acidified soils did not change the bacterial communities. Organic fertilization and fallow management supported eutrophic ecosystems, in which copiotrophic taxa increased in relative abundance and have a higher intensity of labile-C-degrading genes. However, long-term nitrogen-containing chemical fertilization treatments supported oligotrophic ecosystems, in which oligotrophic taxa increased in relative abundance and have a higher intensity of recalcitrant-C-degrading genes but a lower intensity of labile-C-degrading genes. Quicklime application increased the relative abundance of copiotrophic taxa and crop production, although these effects were utterly inadequate. This study provides insights into the interaction of soil bacterial communities, soil functionality and long-term fertilization management in the red soil ecosystem; these insights are important for improving the fertility of unique low-productivity red soil.

  15. 9 CFR 117.2 - Animal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal facilities. 117.2 Section 117.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  16. 9 CFR 117.2 - Animal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal facilities. 117.2 Section 117.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  17. 9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  18. 9 CFR 117.2 - Animal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal facilities. 117.2 Section 117.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  19. 9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  20. 9 CFR 116.6 - Animal records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal records. 116.6 Section 116.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS RECORDS AND REPORTS § 116.6 Animal...

  1. 9 CFR 116.6 - Animal records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal records. 116.6 Section 116.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS RECORDS AND REPORTS § 116.6 Animal...

  2. 9 CFR 116.6 - Animal records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal records. 116.6 Section 116.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS RECORDS AND REPORTS § 116.6 Animal...

  3. 9 CFR 117.2 - Animal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal facilities. 117.2 Section 117.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  4. 9 CFR 116.6 - Animal records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal records. 116.6 Section 116.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS RECORDS AND REPORTS § 116.6 Animal...

  5. 9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  6. 9 CFR 116.6 - Animal records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal records. 116.6 Section 116.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS RECORDS AND REPORTS § 116.6 Animal...

  7. 9 CFR 117.2 - Animal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal facilities. 117.2 Section 117.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  8. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    PubMed

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  9. Amazing Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Kuwari, Najat Saad

    2007-01-01

    "Animals" is a three-part lesson plan for young learners with a zoo animal theme. The first lesson is full of activities to describe animals, with Simon Says, guessing games, and learning stations. The second lesson is about desert animals, but other types of animals could be chosen depending on student interest. This lesson teaches…

  10. Genetic deficiency of carnitine/organic cation transporter 2 (slc22a5) is associated with altered tissue distribution of its substrate pyrilamine in mice.

    PubMed

    Kato, Sayaka; Kato, Yukio; Nakamura, Tadakatsu; Sugiura, Tomoko; Kubo, Yoshiyuki; Deguchi, Yoshiharu; Tsuji, Akira

    2009-12-01

    Carnitine/organic cation transporter 2 (OCTN2) recognizes various cationic compounds as substrates in vitro, but information on its pharmacokinetic role in vivo is quite limited. This paper demonstrates altered tissue distribution of the OCTN2 substrate pyrilamine in juvenile visceral steatosis (jvs) mice, which have a hereditary defect of the octn2 gene. At 30 min after intravenous injection of pyrilamine, the tissue-to-plasma concentration ratio (K(p)) in the heart and pancreas was higher, whereas the K(p) in kidney and testis was lower in jvs mice compared with wild-type mice. Pyrilamine transport studies in isolated heart slices confirmed higher accumulation, together with lower efflux, of pyrilamine in the heart of jvs mice. The higher accumulation in heart slices of jvs mice was abolished by lowering the temperature, by increasing the substrate concentration, and in the presence of other H(1) antagonists or another OCTN2 substrate, carnitine, suggesting that OCTN2 extrudes pyrilamine from heart tissue. On the other hand, the lower distribution to the kidney of jvs mice was probably due to down-regulation of a basolateral transporter coupled with OCTN2, because, in jvs mice, (i) the K(p) of pyrilamine in kidney assessed immediately after intravenous injection (approximately 1 min) was also lower, (ii) the urinary excretion of pyrilamine was lower, and (iii) the uptake of pyrilamine in kidney slices was lower. The renal uptake of pyrilamine was saturable (K(m) approximately 236 microM) and was strongly inhibited by cyproheptadine, astemizole, ebastine and terfenadine. The present study thus indicates that genetic deficiency of octn2 alters pyrilamine disposition tissue-dependently. PMID:19821448

  11. Red:far-red light conditions affect the emission of volatile organic compounds from barley (Hordeum vulgare), leading to altered biomass allocation in neighbouring plants

    PubMed Central

    Kegge, Wouter; Ninkovic, Velemir; Glinwood, Robert; Welschen, Rob A. M.; Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.; Pierik, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play various roles in plant–plant interactions, and constitutively produced VOCs might act as a cue to sense neighbouring plants. Previous studies have shown that VOCs emitted from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar ‘Alva’ cause changes in biomass allocation in plants of the cultivar ‘Kara’. Other studies have shown that shading and the low red:far-red (R:FR) conditions that prevail at high plant densities can reduce the quantity and alter the composition of the VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana, but whether this affects plant–plant signalling remains unknown. This study therefore examines the effects of far-red light enrichment on VOC emissions and plant–plant signalling between ‘Alva’ and ‘Kara’. Methods The proximity of neighbouring plants was mimicked by supplemental far-red light treatment of VOC emitter plants of barley grown in growth chambers. Volatiles emitted by ‘Alva’ under control and far-red light-enriched conditions were analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). ‘Kara’ plants were exposed to the VOC blend emitted by the ‘Alva’ plants that were subjected to either of the light treatments. Dry matter partitioning, leaf area, stem and total root length were determined for ‘Kara’ plants exposed to ‘Alva’ VOCs, and also for ‘Alva’ plants exposed to either control or far-red-enriched light treatments. Key Results Total VOC emissions by ‘Alva’ were reduced under low R:FR conditions compared with control light conditions, although individual volatile compounds were found to be either suppressed, induced or not affected by R:FR. The altered composition of the VOC blend emitted by ‘Alva’ plants exposed to low R:FR was found to affect carbon allocation in receiver plants of ‘Kara’. Conclusions The results indicate that changes in R:FR light conditions influence the emissions of VOCs in barley, and that these altered emissions

  12. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids suppress CD4(+) T cell proliferation by altering phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] organization.

    PubMed

    Hou, Tim Y; Barhoumi, Rola; Fan, Yang-Yi; Rivera, Gonzalo M; Hannoush, Rami N; McMurray, David N; Chapkin, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), abundant in fish oil, exert their anti-inflammatory effects have not been rigorously defined. We have previously demonstrated that n-3 PUFA decrease the amount of phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate, [PI(4,5)P2], in CD4(+) T cells, leading to suppressed actin remodeling upon activation. Since discrete pools of PI(4,5)P2 exist in the plasma membrane, we determined whether n-3 PUFA modulate spatial organization of PI(4,5)P2 relative to raft and non-raft domains. We used Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to demonstrate that lipid raft mesodomains in the plasma membrane of CD4(+) T cells enriched in n-3 PUFA display increased co-clustering of Lck(N10) and LAT(ΔCP), markers of lipid rafts. CD4(+) T cells enriched in n-3 PUFA also exhibited a depleted plasma membrane non-raft PI(4,5)P2 pool as detected by decreased co-clustering of Src(N15), a non-raft marker, and PH(PLC-δ), a PI(4,5)P2 reporter. Incubation with exogenous PI(4,5)P2 rescued the effects on the non-raft PI(4,5)P2 pool, and reversed the suppression of T cell proliferation in CD4(+) T cells enriched with n-3 PUFA. Furthermore, CD4(+) T cells isolated from mice fed a 4% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched diet exhibited a decrease in the non-raft pool of PI(4,5)P2, and exogenous PI(4,5)P2 reversed the suppression of T cell proliferation. Finally, these effects were not due to changes to post-translational lipidation, since n-3 PUFA did not alter the palmitoylation status of signaling proteins. These data demonstrate that n-3 PUFA suppress T cell proliferation by altering plasma membrane topography and the spatial organization of PI(4,5)P2.

  13. Animal papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Rector, Annabel; Van Ranst, Marc

    2013-10-01

    We provide an overview of the host range, taxonomic classification and genomic diversity of animal papillomaviruses. The complete genomes of 112 non-human papillomavirus types, recovered from 54 different host species, are currently available in GenBank. The recent characterizations of reptilian papillomaviruses extend the host range of the Papillomaviridae to include all amniotes. Although the genetically diverse papillomaviruses have a highly conserved genomic lay-out, deviations from this prototypic genome organization are observed in several animal papillomaviruses, and only the core ORFs E1, E2, L2 and L1 are present in all characterized papillomavirus genomes. The discovery of papilloma-polyoma hybrids BPCV1 and BPCV2, containing a papillomaviral late region but an early region encoding typical polyomaviral nonstructural proteins, and the detection of recombination breakpoints between the early and late coding regions of cetacean papillomaviruses, could indicate that early and late gene cassettes of papillomaviruses are relatively independent entities that can be interchanged by recombination.

  14. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification for diagnosis of 18 World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) notifiable viral diseases of ruminants, swine and poultry.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Shimaa M G; Ali, Haytham; Chase, Christopher C L; Cepica, Arnost

    2015-12-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a simple, powerful state-of-the-art gene amplification technique used for the rapid diagnosis and early detection of microbial diseases. Many LAMP assays have been developed and validated for important epizootic diseases of livestock. We review the LAMP assays that have been developed for the detection of 18 viruses deemed notifiable of ruminants, swine and poultry by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). LAMP provides a fast (the assay often takes less than an hour), low cost, highly sensitive, highly specific and less laborious alternative to detect infectious disease agents. The LAMP procedure can be completed under isothermal conditions so thermocyclers are not needed. The ease of use of the LAMP assay allows adaptability to field conditions and works well in developing countries with resource-limited laboratories. However, this technology is still underutilized in the field of veterinary diagnostics despite its huge capabilities.

  15. Comparative genomics of Korean infectious bronchitis viruses (IBVs) and an animal model to evaluate pathogenicity of IBVs to the reproductive organs.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung-Min; Kwon, Hyuk-Joon; Kim, Il-Hwan; Mo, Mei-Lan; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2012-10-30

    The K-I and nephropathogenic K-II genotypes of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) have been isolated since 1995 and 1990, respectively, in Korea and commercial inactivated oil-emulsion vaccines containing KM91 (K-II type) and Massachusetts 41 strains have been used in the field. To date, genomic analyses of Korean IBV strains and animal models to test the pathogenicity of Korean IBVs to the reproductive organs have been rare. In the present study, comparative genomics of SNU8067 (K-I type) and KM91 IBVs was performed, and an animal model to test the pathogenicity of SNU8067 was established and applied to vaccine efficacy test. The genome sizes of SNU8067 (27,708 nt) and KM91 (27,626 nt) were slightly different and the nucleotide and amino acid identities of the S1 (79%, 77%), 3a (65%, 52%), and 3b (81%, 72%) genes were lower than those of other genes (94%-97%, 92%-98%). A recombination analysis revealed that SNU8067 was a recombinant virus with a KM91-like backbone except S1, 3a, and 3b genes which might be from an unknown virus. An SNU8067 infection inhibited formation of hierarchal ovarian follicles (80%) and oviduct maturation (50%) in the control group, whereas 70% of vaccinated chickens were protected from lesions.

  16. Physiological variability in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath and released from faeces due to nutrition and somatic growth in a standardized caprine animal model.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sina; Trefz, Phillip; Bergmann, Andreas; Steffens, Markus; Ziller, Mario; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen S; Köhler, Heike; Reinhold, Petra

    2015-06-01

    Physiological effects may change volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations and may therefore act as confounding factors in the definition of VOCs as disease biomarkers. To evaluate the extent of physiological background variability, this study assessed the effects of feed composition and somatic growth on VOC patterns in a standardized large animal model. Fifteen clinically healthy goats were followed during their first year of life. VOCs present in the headspace over faeces, exhaled breath and ambient air inside the stable were repeatedly assessed in parallel with the concentrations of glucose, protein, and albumin in venous blood. VOCs were collected and analysed using solid-phase or needle-trap microextraction and gas chromatograpy together with mass spectroscopy. The concentrations of VOCs in exhaled breath and above faeces varied significantly with increasing age of the animals. The largest variations in volatiles detected in the headspace over faeces occurred with the change from milk feeding to plant-based diet. VOCs above faeces and in exhaled breath correlated significantly with blood components. Among VOCs exhaled, the strongest correlations were found between exhaled nonanal concentrations and blood concentrations of glucose and albumin. Results stress the importance of a profound knowledge of the physiological backgrounds of VOC composition before defining reliable and accurate marker sets for diagnostic purposes. PMID:25971714

  17. Comparison of selected animal observations and management practices used to assess welfare of calves and adult dairy cows on organic and conventional dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Bergman, M A; Richert, R M; Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Gamroth, M J; Schukken, Y H; Stiglbauer, K E; Ruegg, P L

    2014-07-01

    Differences in adoption of selected practices used in welfare assessment and audit programs were contrasted among organic (ORG; n=192) herds and similarly sized conventional grazing herds (CON-GR; n=36), and conventional nongrazing herds (CON-NG; n=64). Criteria from 3 programs were assessed: American Humane Association Animal Welfare Standards for Dairy Cattle, Farmers Assuring Responsible Management (FARM), and the Canadian Codes of Practice (CCP). Data were collected by trained study personnel during a herd visit and included information about neonatal care, dehorning, pain relief, calf nutrition, weaning, record keeping, use of veterinarians, and animal observations. Associations of management type (ORG, CON-GR, or CON-NG) with adoption of selected practice were assessed. Almost all farms (97%) met criteria suggested for age at weaning but fewer CON-NG farmers weaned calves at ≥5 wk of age compared with ORG and CON-GR farmers. Only 23% of farms met program requirements for use of pain relief during dehorning, and fewer CON-NG farmers used pain relief for calves after dehorning compared with ORG and CON-GR farmers. Calves on ORG farms were fed a greater volume of milk and were weaned at an older age than calves on CON-GR and CON-NG farms. Calves on CON-GR farms were dehorned at a younger age compared with calves on ORG and CON-NG farms. The calving area was shared with lactating cows for a larger proportion of ORG herds compared with conventional herds. About 30% of herds met welfare program criteria for body condition score but only about 20% met criteria for animal hygiene scores. The least proportion of cows with hock lesions was observed on ORG farms. Regular use of veterinarians was infrequent for ORG herds. Results of this study indicate that most of the organic and conventional farms enrolled in this study would have been unlikely to achieve many criteria of audit and assessment programs currently used in the US dairy industry. PMID:24819133

  18. Plant or Animal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Frank; Matthews, Catherine E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities that use marine organisms with plant-like appearances to help students build classification skills and illustrate some of the less obvious differences between plants and animals. Compares mechanisms by which sessile plants and animals deal with common problems such as obtaining energy, defending themselves, successfully…

  19. Quiescence and/or pathogenicity of the ascomycete micro-organism as one of three separate entities in a living animal or human host.

    PubMed

    White, M W

    1978-01-01

    Experimental studies on I.C.R. mice with induced ascitic fluid suggest that the mold micro-organism of the ascomycete family when inoculated in a living host, with a lowered pH, may survive but only initially in a conidial phase as a distinct and separate entity. It may reside quiescently as a sexual conidium within a cell of the reticulo-endothial system or with provocation multiply as the asexual form. Because of their altered physiomorphological status these conidial bodies cannot be identified accurately either by a microscopic study on a cytobiological wet smear basis or by a stained slide, nor be readily recaptured by utilizing the conventional culture techniques. Revised culturing methods utilizing the elements carbon dioxide, sodium chloride, calcium and magnesium in Sabouraud's Agar slant aerobically may help recover the adult micro-organism for positive identification. Sometimes, however, under deteriorating or moribund status of the host the conidia may revert, in ascitic fluid, to the autonomous form spontaneously. The transformation-reformation potential of the ascomycete in vivo, the non-recognizable status of the conidial bodies, and the inability to recapture the adult autonomous form by conventional laboratory means, despite their known presence, suggests a possible relationship of this micro-organism to certain of the acute, chronic inflammatory diseases, pleomorphic tumors, granulomas, and the malignancies. These diseases despite signs of an acute or chronic inflammatory process usually give a "no growth" result. The conidial phase of the ascomycete may very well, I believe, be the malefactor in these conditions that hitherto have defied etiological explanation.

  20. Development of a Large Animal Long-Term Intervertebral Disc Organ Culture Model That Includes the Bony Vertebrae for Ex Vivo Studies.

    PubMed

    Grant, Michael; Epure, Laura M; Salem, Omar; AlGarni, Nizar; Ciobanu, Ovidiu; Alaqeel, Motaz; Antoniou, John; Mwale, Fackson

    2016-07-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is a common cause of low back pain. Testing potential therapeutics in the regeneration of the disc requires the use of model systems. Although several animal models have been developed to investigate IVD degeneration, they are technically challenging to prepare, expensive, present with limitations when performing biomechanical studies on the disc, and are impractical in large-scale screening of novel anabolic and scaffolding agents. An IVD organ culture system offers an inexpensive alternative. In the current paradigm, the bony endplates are removed to allow for nutrient diffusion and maintenance of disc cell viability. Although this is an excellent system for testing biologics, it results in concave cartilage endplates and, as such, requires special platens for loading purposes in a bioreactor as flat ones can overload the annular disc region leading to improper loading. Furthermore, the absence of bone makes it unsuitable for applying complex cyclic loading, a topic of interest in the study of chronic progressive degeneration, as multiaxial loading is more representative of daily forces encountered by the IVD. We have developed and validated a novel long-term IVD organ culture model that retains vertebral bone and is easy to prepare. Our model is ideal for testing potential drugs and alternate-based therapies, in addition to investigating the long-term effects of loading paradigms on disc degeneration and repair. PMID:27216856

  1. A systems approach to animal communication.

    PubMed

    Hebets, Eileen A; Barron, Andrew B; Balakrishnan, Christopher N; Hauber, Mark E; Mason, Paul H; Hoke, Kim L

    2016-03-16

    Why animal communication displays are so complex and how they have evolved are active foci of research with a long and rich history. Progress towards an evolutionary analysis of signal complexity, however, has been constrained by a lack of hypotheses to explain similarities and/or differences in signalling systems across taxa. To address this, we advocate incorporating a systems approach into studies of animal communication--an approach that includes comprehensive experimental designs and data collection in combination with the implementation of systems concepts and tools. A systems approach evaluates overall display architecture, including how components interact to alter function, and how function varies in different states of the system. We provide a brief overview of the current state of the field, including a focus on select studies that highlight the dynamic nature of animal signalling. We then introduce core concepts from systems biology (redundancy, degeneracy, pluripotentiality, and modularity) and discuss their relationships with system properties (e.g. robustness, flexibility, evolvability). We translate systems concepts into an animal communication framework and accentuate their utility through a case study. Finally, we demonstrate how consideration of the system-level organization of animal communication poses new practical research questions that will aid our understanding of how and why animal displays are so complex.

  2. A systems approach to animal communication

    PubMed Central

    Barron, Andrew B.; Balakrishnan, Christopher N.; Hauber, Mark E.; Hoke, Kim L.

    2016-01-01

    Why animal communication displays are so complex and how they have evolved are active foci of research with a long and rich history. Progress towards an evolutionary analysis of signal complexity, however, has been constrained by a lack of hypotheses to explain similarities and/or differences in signalling systems across taxa. To address this, we advocate incorporating a systems approach into studies of animal communication—an approach that includes comprehensive experimental designs and data collection in combination with the implementation of systems concepts and tools. A systems approach evaluates overall display architecture, including how components interact to alter function, and how function varies in different states of the system. We provide a brief overview of the current state of the field, including a focus on select studies that highlight the dynamic nature of animal signalling. We then introduce core concepts from systems biology (redundancy, degeneracy, pluripotentiality, and modularity) and discuss their relationships with system properties (e.g. robustness, flexibility, evolvability). We translate systems concepts into an animal communication framework and accentuate their utility through a case study. Finally, we demonstrate how consideration of the system-level organization of animal communication poses new practical research questions that will aid our understanding of how and why animal displays are so complex. PMID:26936240

  3. Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    This is a list of aerospace organizations and other groups that provides educators with assistance and information in specific areas. Both government and nongovernment organizations are included. (Author/SA)

  4. Alterations caused to soil organic matter by post-fire rehabilitation actions in a pine forest from doñana national park (southwest Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Pérez, José A.; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Granged, Arturo J. P.; González-Vila, Francisco J.

    2016-04-01

    Post-fire rehabilitation actions and recovery attempts of burned soils include a range of management practices (tillage, tree logging, reforestation …), in some cases producing an additional damage to that directly caused by fire. Among negative impacts derived from unappropriated rehab practices are the increase soil erosion, loss of soil fertility and alterations in the hydrological cycle. Analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) is an appropriate technique to study organic matter characteristics within complex matrices. Here this technique is used to study the alterations caused by burning and post-fire rehab plans to soil organic matter (SOM). Fire and post-fire rehab actions impact on SOM is studied in a sandy soil under pine (Pinus pinea) forest that was affected by a severe fire in August 2012 in Doñana National Park (SW Spain). Bulk samples as well as its sieved soil fractions (coarse, 1-2 mm, and fine, <0.05 mm) collected from an undisturbed burned area (B) and in an adjacent burned area after rehab practices (BR) (logging and extraction of burned trees) were studied. An additional adjacent unburned (UB) area was used as a control. Conspicuous differences among bulk samples from the B, BR and UB control areas were found in the relative proportions of the main molecular families obtained by analytical pyrolysis, including alkane/alkene pairs, unspecific aromatic compounds (UAC), peptides, methoxyphenols, fatty acids, carbohydrates, N-compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The B site SOM showed lower proportion of lignin methoxyphenols and higher of UAC and PAH than the SOM from the UB site. This indicates that fire produced methoxyphenol de-functionalization, increasing the proportion of recalcitrant compounds. With respect to soil size fractions, in all cases, the coarse fraction showed a high content of carbohydrate-derived compounds and methoxyphenols followed by fatty acids, in line with inputs of new litter from stressed post-fire vegetation

  5. Animal models of oral candidiasis. A review.

    PubMed

    Allen, C M

    1994-08-01

    Candida albicans is the most common fungal infection of the human oral mucosa, yet much remains to be understood with respect to the pathogenesis of the disease. Numerous difficulties are inherent in designing studies that use human beings as subjects. The use of various animal species in experimental contexts has helped to provide insight with respect to this condition. A variety of manipulations of the system can be performed, including altering the host immune response, the mucosal environment, or the systemic environment. In addition, organism-related factors can be examined in a more controlled setting. The information obtained from such studies could not be obtained in an in vitro situation.

  6. 9 CFR 151.5 - Alteration of pedigree certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alteration of pedigree certificate. 151.5 Section 151.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED...

  7. 9 CFR 151.5 - Alteration of pedigree certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alteration of pedigree certificate. 151.5 Section 151.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED...

  8. 9 CFR 151.5 - Alteration of pedigree certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alteration of pedigree certificate. 151.5 Section 151.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED...

  9. 9 CFR 151.5 - Alteration of pedigree certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alteration of pedigree certificate. 151.5 Section 151.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED...

  10. 9 CFR 151.5 - Alteration of pedigree certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alteration of pedigree certificate. 151.5 Section 151.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED...

  11. New insights into the thermal behaviour of organic ionic plastic crystals: magnetic resonance imaging of polycrystalline morphology alterations induced by solid-solid phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Konstantin; Pringle, Jennifer M; O'Dell, Luke A; Forsyth, Maria

    2015-07-15

    Organic ionic plastic crystals (OIPCs) show strong potential as solid-state electrolytes for lithium battery applications, demonstrating promising electrochemical performance and eliminating the need for a volatile and flammable liquid electrolyte. The ionic conductivity (σ) in these systems has recently been shown to depend strongly on polycrystalline morphology, which is largely determined by the sample's thermal history. [K. Romanenko et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2014, 136, 15638]. Tailoring this morphology could lead to conductivities sufficiently high for battery applications, so a more complete understanding of how phenomena such as solid-solid phase transitions can affect the sample morphology is of significant interest. Anisotropic relaxation of nuclear spin magnetisation provides a new MRI based approach for studies of polycrystalline materials at both a macroscopic and molecular level. In this contribution, morphology alterations induced by solid-solid phase transitions in triisobutyl(methyl)phosphonium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (P1444FSI) and diethyl(methyl)(isobutyl)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate (P1224PF6) are examined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), alongside nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, diffusion measurements and conductivity data. These observations are linked to molecular dynamics and structural behaviour crucial for the conductive properties of OIPCs. A distinct correlation is established between the conductivity at a given temperature, σ(T), and the intensity of the narrow NMR signal that is attributed to a mobile fraction, fm(T), of ions in the OIPC. To explain these findings we propose an analogy with the well-studied relationship between permeability (k) and void fraction (θ) in porous media, with k(θ) commonly quantified by a power-law dependence that can also be employed to describe σ(fm).

  12. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    PubMed

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

    2002-04-01

    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries.

  13. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  14. Gene Expression Data from the Moon Jelly, Aurelia, Provide Insights into the Evolution of the Combinatorial Code Controlling Animal Sense Organ Development.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Camara, Anthony C; Yuan, David C; Gold, David A; Jacobs, David K

    2015-01-01

    In Bilateria, Pax6, Six, Eya and Dach families of transcription factors underlie the development and evolution of morphologically and phyletically distinct eyes, including the compound eyes in Drosophila and the camera-type eyes in vertebrates, indicating that bilaterian eyes evolved under the strong influence of ancestral developmental gene regulation. However the conservation in eye developmental genetics deeper in the Eumetazoa, and the origin of the conserved gene regulatory apparatus controlling eye development remain unclear due to limited comparative developmental data from Cnidaria. Here we show in the eye-bearing scyphozoan cnidarian Aurelia that the ectodermal photosensory domain of the developing medusa sensory structure known as the rhopalium expresses sine oculis (so)/six1/2 and eyes absent/eya, but not optix/six3/6 or pax (A&B). In addition, the so and eya co-expression domain encompasses the region of active cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and mechanoreceptor development in rhopalia. Consistent with the role of so and eya in rhopalial development, developmental transcriptome data across Aurelia life cycle stages show upregulation of so and eya, but not optix or pax (A&B), during medusa formation. Moreover, pax6 and dach are absent in the Aurelia genome, and thus are not required for eye development in Aurelia. Our data are consistent with so and eya, but not optix, pax or dach, having conserved functions in sensory structure specification across Eumetazoa. The lability of developmental components including Pax genes relative to so-eya is consistent with a model of sense organ development and evolution that involved the lineage specific modification of a combinatorial code that specifies animal sense organs. PMID:26225420

  15. Gene Expression Data from the Moon Jelly, Aurelia, Provide Insights into the Evolution of the Combinatorial Code Controlling Animal Sense Organ Development

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Camara, Anthony C.; Yuan, David C.; Gold, David A.; Jacobs, David K.

    2015-01-01

    In Bilateria, Pax6, Six, Eya and Dach families of transcription factors underlie the development and evolution of morphologically and phyletically distinct eyes, including the compound eyes in Drosophila and the camera-type eyes in vertebrates, indicating that bilaterian eyes evolved under the strong influence of ancestral developmental gene regulation. However the conservation in eye developmental genetics deeper in the Eumetazoa, and the origin of the conserved gene regulatory apparatus controlling eye development remain unclear due to limited comparative developmental data from Cnidaria. Here we show in the eye-bearing scyphozoan cnidarian Aurelia that the ectodermal photosensory domain of the developing medusa sensory structure known as the rhopalium expresses sine oculis (so)/six1/2 and eyes absent/eya, but not optix/six3/6 or pax (A&B). In addition, the so and eya co-expression domain encompasses the region of active cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and mechanoreceptor development in rhopalia. Consistent with the role of so and eya in rhopalial development, developmental transcriptome data across Aurelia life cycle stages show upregulation of so and eya, but not optix or pax (A&B), during medusa formation. Moreover, pax6 and dach are absent in the Aurelia genome, and thus are not required for eye development in Aurelia. Our data are consistent with so and eya, but not optix, pax or dach, having conserved functions in sensory structure specification across Eumetazoa. The lability of developmental components including Pax genes relative to so-eya is consistent with a model of sense organ development and evolution that involved the lineage specific modification of a combinatorial code that specifies animal sense organs. PMID:26225420

  16. Development of the Gecko (Pachydactylus turneri) Animal Model during Foton M-2 to Study Comparative Effects of Microgravity in Terrestrial and Aquatic Organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almeida, E. A.; Roden, C.; Phillips, J. A.; Globus, R. K.; Searby, N.; Vercoutere, W.; Morey-Holton, E.; Gulimova, V.; Saveliev, S.; Tairbekov, M.; Iwaniec, U. T.; McNamra, A. J.; Turner, R. T.

    2006-01-01

    Terrestrial organisms exposed to microgravity during spaceflight experience degeneration in bone, muscle, and possibly other tissues that require gravity-mediated mechanical stimulation for normal regenerative growth. In the Gecko experiment aboard Foton M-2, we flew for the first time, five terrestrial Pachydactylus turneri specimens to develop a model of microgravity effects comparable to the newt Pleurodeles waltl, a well-established model organism for spaceflight. These lower vertebrate species have similar body plans and size, are poikilothermic, have tissue regenerative ability, and are adapted to moderate periods of fasting. Furthermore the gecko (Pachydactylus) can also survive prolonged periods without water. In pre-flight control experiments and after a 16-day Foton M-2 spaceflight without food or water, the geckos were recovered and showed no apparent negative health effects. However, detailed analysis of bone mass and architecture by micro Computed Tomography { pCT), showed that both synchronous control and spaceflight animals lost significant amounts of cancellous bone in the distal femur and humerus relative to basal controls. In addition, cell cycle analysis of 30h post-flight liver tissue reveals a shift of DNA content from G2 and S to G1, both in spaceflight and synchronous controls. Together, these results suggest that housing conditions alone induce rapid catabolism of cancellous bone and reduced normal tissue regeneration. Further use of the gecko Puchydactylus turneri as a spaceflight model requires modification of housing conditions, possibly by including water and food, or changing other factors such as eliminating housing stresses to obtain stable bone structure and tissue regeneration during spaceflight experiments.

  17. Gene Expression Data from the Moon Jelly, Aurelia, Provide Insights into the Evolution of the Combinatorial Code Controlling Animal Sense Organ Development.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Camara, Anthony C; Yuan, David C; Gold, David A; Jacobs, David K

    2015-01-01

    In Bilateria, Pax6, Six, Eya and Dach families of transcription factors underlie the development and evolution of morphologically and phyletically distinct eyes, including the compound eyes in Drosophila and the camera-type eyes in vertebrates, indicating that bilaterian eyes evolved under the strong influence of ancestral developmental gene regulation. However the conservation in eye developmental genetics deeper in the Eumetazoa, and the origin of the conserved gene regulatory apparatus controlling eye development remain unclear due to limited comparative developmental data from Cnidaria. Here we show in the eye-bearing scyphozoan cnidarian Aurelia that the ectodermal photosensory domain of the developing medusa sensory structure known as the rhopalium expresses sine oculis (so)/six1/2 and eyes absent/eya, but not optix/six3/6 or pax (A&B). In addition, the so and eya co-expression domain encompasses the region of active cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and mechanoreceptor development in rhopalia. Consistent with the role of so and eya in rhopalial development, developmental transcriptome data across Aurelia life cycle stages show upregulation of so and eya, but not optix or pax (A&B), during medusa formation. Moreover, pax6 and dach are absent in the Aurelia genome, and thus are not required for eye development in Aurelia. Our data are consistent with so and eya, but not optix, pax or dach, having conserved functions in sensory structure specification across Eumetazoa. The lability of developmental components including Pax genes relative to so-eya is consistent with a model of sense organ development and evolution that involved the lineage specific modification of a combinatorial code that specifies animal sense organs.

  18. Animal models of portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Abraldes, Juan G; Pasarín, Marcos; García-Pagán, Juan Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Animal models have allowed detailed study of hemodynamic alterations typical of portal hypertension and the molecular mechanisms involved in abnormalities in splanchnic and systemic circulation associated with this syndrome. Models of prehepatic portal hypertension can be used to study alterations in the splanchnic circulation and the pathophysiology of the hyperdynamic circulation. Models of cirrhosis allow study of the alterations in intrahepatic microcirculation that lead to increased resistance to portal flow. This review summarizes the currently available literature on animal models of portal hypertension and analyzes their relative utility. The criteria for choosing a particular model, depending on the specific objectives of the study, are also discussed. PMID:17075968

  19. Organics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  20. Organizers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a specific…

  1. The role of the World Trade Organization and the 'three sisters' (the World Organisation for Animal Health, the International Plant Protection Convention and the Codex Alimentarius Commission) in the control of invasive alien species and the preservation of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Kahn, S; Pelgrim, W

    2010-08-01

    The missions of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) include the design of surveillance and control methods for infectious transboundary animal diseases (including zoonoses), the provision of guarantees concerning animal health and animal production food safety, and the setting of standards for, and promotion of, animal welfare. The OIE role in setting standards for the sanitary safety of international trade in animals and animal products is formally recognised in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). While the primary focus of the OIE is on animal diseases and zoonoses, the OIE has also been working within the WTO framework to examine possible contributions the organisation can make to achieving the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity, particularly to preventing the global spread of invasive alien species (IAS). However, at the present time, setting standards for invasive species (other than those connected to the cause and distribution of diseases listed by the OIE) is outside the OIE mandate. Any future expansion of the OIE mandate would need to be decided by its Members and resources (expertise and financial contributions) for an extended standard-setting work programme secured. The other international standard-setting organisations referenced by the SPS Agreement are the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The IPPC mandate and work programme address IAS and the protection of biodiversity. The CAC is not involved in this field. PMID:20919590

  2. The role of the World Trade Organization and the 'three sisters' (the World Organisation for Animal Health, the International Plant Protection Convention and the Codex Alimentarius Commission) in the control of invasive alien species and the preservation of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Kahn, S; Pelgrim, W

    2010-08-01

    The missions of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) include the design of surveillance and control methods for infectious transboundary animal diseases (including zoonoses), the provision of guarantees concerning animal health and animal production food safety, and the setting of standards for, and promotion of, animal welfare. The OIE role in setting standards for the sanitary safety of international trade in animals and animal products is formally recognised in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). While the primary focus of the OIE is on animal diseases and zoonoses, the OIE has also been working within the WTO framework to examine possible contributions the organisation can make to achieving the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity, particularly to preventing the global spread of invasive alien species (IAS). However, at the present time, setting standards for invasive species (other than those connected to the cause and distribution of diseases listed by the OIE) is outside the OIE mandate. Any future expansion of the OIE mandate would need to be decided by its Members and resources (expertise and financial contributions) for an extended standard-setting work programme secured. The other international standard-setting organisations referenced by the SPS Agreement are the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The IPPC mandate and work programme address IAS and the protection of biodiversity. The CAC is not involved in this field.

  3. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation

    This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  4. Compared with feeding infants breast milk or cow-milk formula, soy formula feeding does not affect subsequent reproductive organ size at 5 years of age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract Background: Literature reports suggest that phytochemicals, such as isoflavones found in soybeans, impair reproductive function in animals and raise the possibility that consuming soy infant formula could alter hormonally sensitive organ development in children. Objective: This study compar...

  5. Animal welfare and animal rights.

    PubMed

    Sumner, L W

    1988-05-01

    Animal liberationists tend to divide into two mutually antagonistic camps: animal welfarists, who share a utilitarian moral outlook, and animal rightists, who presuppose a structure of basic rights. However, the gap between these groups tends to be exaggerated by their allegiance to oversimplified versions of their favored moral frameworks. For their part, animal rightists should acknowledge that rights, however basic, are also defeasible by appeals to consequences. Contrariwise, animal welfarists should recognize that rights, however derivative, are capable of constraining appeals to consequences. If both sides move to more defensible theoretical positions, their remaining differences on that level may be compatible with a broad area of convergence on practical issues.

  6. World Health Organization ranking of antimicrobials according to their importance in human medicine: A critical step for developing risk management strategies for the use of antimicrobials in food production animals.

    PubMed

    Collignon, Peter; Powers, John H; Chiller, Tom M; Aidara-Kane, Awa; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2009-07-01

    The use of antimicrobials in food animals creates an important source of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria that can spread to humans through the food supply. Improved management of the use of antimicrobials in food animals, particularly reducing the usage of those that are "critically important" for human medicine, is an important step toward preserving the benefits of antimicrobials for people. The World Health Organization has developed and applied criteria to rank antimicrobials according to their relative importance in human medicine. Clinicians, regulatory agencies, policy makers, and other stakeholders can use this ranking when developing risk management strategies for the use of antimicrobials in food production animals. The ranking allows stakeholders to focus risk management efforts on drugs used in food animals that are the most important to human medicine and, thus, need to be addressed most urgently, such as fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. PMID:19489713

  7. MEDLI Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of MEDLI, the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrument, which contains multiple sophisticated temperature sensors to measure atmospheric conditions and performance o...

  8. Animal therapy.

    PubMed

    Willis, D A

    1997-01-01

    This article explores the concept of animal therapy. The discussion includes a brief history of animal therapy, its importance, its relationship to rehabilitation, and its usefulness as a tool to influence adaptation, change, power, communication, advocacy, teaching, accountability, responsibility, and locus of control. This theoretical concept is important because of the joy and unconditional love animals can provide their owners. Relationships with animals can promote feelings of self-worth, help offset loneliness, reduce anxiety, provide contact, comfort, security, and the feeling of being needed. PMID:9110848

  9. Animal cytomegaloviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Staczek, J

    1990-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovirus infections. Recent advances in biotechnology have permitted the study of many of the animal cytomegaloviruses in vitro. Consequently, animal cytomegaloviruses can be used as model systems for studying the pathogenesis, immunobiology, and molecular biology of cytomegalovirus-host and cytomegalovirus-cell interactions. PMID:2170830

  10. The Early Years: Animal Adventures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Children can have a new favorite animal every week or even every hour. The more familiar the children become with an animal, the more they will be able to understand how its body form and behavior allow it to survive. Learning about the characteristics of organisms and how organisms relate to their environment is part of the National Science…

  11. 75 FR 24569 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Animal Traceability; Public Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant... opportunity for stakeholders to offer their input on the new framework being developed for animal disease... meetings are being organized by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. DATES: The meetings will...

  12. 75 FR 47769 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Animal Traceability; Public Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant... for stakeholders to offer their input on the new framework being developed for animal disease traceability. The meetings are being organized by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. DATES:...

  13. 75 FR 33576 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Animal Traceability; Public Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant... for stakeholders to offer their input on the new framework being developed for animal disease traceability. The meetings are being organized by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service....

  14. Kindergarten Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  15. Animal Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  16. Space research on organs and tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Marc E.; Morey-Holton, Emily

    1992-01-01

    The effects of microgravity on various physiological systems are reviewed focusing on muscle, bone, cardiovascular, pulmonary, neurovestibular, liver, and endocrine systems. It is noted that certain alterations of organs and tissues caused by microgravity are not reproducible in earth-bound animal or human models. Thus space research on organs and tissues is essential for both validating the earth-bound models used in laboratories and studying the adaptations to weightlessness which cannot be mimicked on earth.

  17. Animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  18. Animal learning.

    PubMed

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  19. Animal learning.

    PubMed

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26272842

  20. Artificial human tissues from cord and cord blood stem cells for multi-organ regenerative medicine: viable alternatives to animal in vitro toxicology.

    PubMed

    Jurga, Marcin; Forraz, Nico; McGuckin, Colin P

    2010-05-01

    New medicinal products and procedures must meet very strict safety criteria before being applied for use in humans. The laboratory procedures involved require the use of large numbers of animals each year. Furthermore, such investigations do not always give an accurate translation to the human setting. Here, we propose a viable alternative to animal testing, which uses novel technology featuring human cord and cord blood stem cells. With over 130 million children born each year, cord and cord blood remains the most widely available alternative to the use of animals or cadaveric human tissues for in vitro toxicology.

  1. Microgravity alters the expression of salivary proteins.

    PubMed

    Mednieks, Maija; Khatri, Aditi; Rubenstein, Renee; Burleson, Joseph A; Hand, Arthur R

    2014-06-01

    Spaceflight provides a unique opportunity to study how physiologic responses are influenced by the external environment. Microgravity has been shown to alter the function of a number of tissues and organ systems. Very little, however, is known about how microgravity affects the oral cavity. The rodent model is useful for study in that their salivary gland morphology and physiology is similar to that of humans. Useful also is the fact that saliva, a product of the salivary glands with a major role in maintaining oral health, can be easily collected in humans whereas the glands can be studied in experimental animals. Our working hypothesis is that expression of secretory proteins in saliva will respond to microgravity and will be indicative of the nature of physiologic reactions to travel in space. This study was designed to determine which components of the salivary proteome are altered in mice flown on the US space shuttle missions and to determine if a subset with predictive value can be identified using microscopy and biochemistry methods. The results showed that the expression of secretory proteins associated with beta-adrenergic hormone regulated responses and mediated via the cyclic AMP pathway was significantly altered, whereas that of a number of unrelated proteins was not. The findings are potentially applicable to designing a biochemical test system whereby specific salivary proteins can be biomarkers for stress associated with travel in space and eventually for monitoring responses to conditions on earth.

  2. Microgravity alters the expression of salivary proteins.

    PubMed

    Mednieks, Maija; Khatri, Aditi; Rubenstein, Renee; Burleson, Joseph A; Hand, Arthur R

    2014-06-01

    Spaceflight provides a unique opportunity to study how physiologic responses are influenced by the external environment. Microgravity has been shown to alter the function of a number of tissues and organ systems. Very little, however, is known about how microgravity affects the oral cavity. The rodent model is useful for study in that their salivary gland morphology and physiology is similar to that of humans. Useful also is the fact that saliva, a product of the salivary glands with a major role in maintaining oral health, can be easily collected in humans whereas the glands can be studied in experimental animals. Our working hypothesis is that expression of secretory proteins in saliva will respond to microgravity and will be indicative of the nature of physiologic reactions to travel in space. This study was designed to determine which components of the salivary proteome are altered in mice flown on the US space shuttle missions and to determine if a subset with predictive value can be identified using microscopy and biochemistry methods. The results showed that the expression of secretory proteins associated with beta-adrenergic hormone regulated responses and mediated via the cyclic AMP pathway was significantly altered, whereas that of a number of unrelated proteins was not. The findings are potentially applicable to designing a biochemical test system whereby specific salivary proteins can be biomarkers for stress associated with travel in space and eventually for monitoring responses to conditions on earth. PMID:24984624

  3. Wild Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and other resources focuses on wild animals. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources, as well as a class activity. (LRW)

  4. Pulsar Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Pulsars are thought to emit relatively narrow radio beams, shown as green in this animation. If these beams don't sweep toward Earth, astronomers cannot detect the radio signals. Pulsar gamma-ray e...

  5. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  6. Suzaku Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the Suzaku spacecraft. Suzaku (originally known as Astro-E2) was launched July 10, 2005, and maintains a low-Earth orbit while it observes X-rays from the universe. The satel...

  7. [Dangerous animals].

    PubMed

    Koljonen, Virve; Söderlund, Tim; Mäkisalo, Heikki; Gissler, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Contacts between humans and animals inevitably involve encounters possibly resulting in the human being injured. During the period of 2000 to 2014 almost 90 people died in this kind of conflict in Finland. Of these deaths, one third were associated with horses. In addition, over the same period 85 people died in traffic accidents in which an animal was hit by a car. Accidents requiring hospitalization occurred for approx. 8 000 people. PMID:27522833

  8. Correlated alterations in genome organization, histone methylation, and DNA-lamin A/C interactions in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    PubMed

    McCord, Rachel Patton; Nazario-Toole, Ashley; Zhang, Haoyue; Chines, Peter S; Zhan, Ye; Erdos, Michael R; Collins, Francis S; Dekker, Job; Cao, Kan

    2013-02-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a premature aging disease that is frequently caused by a de novo point mutation at position 1824 in LMNA. This mutation activates a cryptic splice donor site in exon 11, and leads to an in-frame deletion within the prelamin A mRNA and the production of a dominant-negative lamin A protein, known as progerin. Here we show that primary HGPS skin fibroblasts experience genome-wide correlated alterations in patterns of H3K27me3 deposition, DNA-lamin A/C associations, and, at late passages, genome-wide loss of spatial compartmentalization of active and inactive chromatin domains. We further demonstrate that the H3K27me3 changes associate with gene expression alterations in HGPS cells. Our results support a model that the accumulation of progerin in the nuclear lamina leads to altered H3K27me3 marks in heterochromatin, possibly through the down-regulation of EZH2, and disrupts heterochromatin-lamina interactions. These changes may result in transcriptional misregulation and eventually trigger the global loss of spatial chromatin compartmentalization in late passage HGPS fibroblasts.

  9. World Health Organization Ranking of Antimicrobials According to Their Importance in Human Medicine: A Critical Step for Developing Risk Management Strategies to Control Antimicrobial Resistance From Food Animal Production.

    PubMed

    Collignon, Peter C; Conly, John M; Andremont, Antoine; McEwen, Scott A; Aidara-Kane, Awa

    2016-10-15

    Antimicrobial use in food animals selects for antimicrobial resistance in bacteria, which can spread to people. Reducing use of antimicrobials-particularly those deemed to be critically important for human medicine-in food production animals continues to be an important step for preserving the benefits of these antimicrobials for people. The World Health Organization ranking of antimicrobials according to their relative importance in human medicine was recently updated. Antimicrobials considered the highest priority among the critically important antimicrobials were quinolones, third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, macrolides and ketolides, and glycopeptides. The updated ranking allows stakeholders in the agriculture sector and regulatory agencies to focus risk management efforts on drugs used in food animals that are the most important to human medicine. In particular, the current large-scale use of fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and third-generation cephalosporins and any potential use of glycopeptides and carbapenems need to be addressed urgently.

  10. Animal Bioacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Neville H.

    Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model vocalization frequency scaling in animals hearing sound production animal animal biological biological bioacoustics whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

  11. 9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Segregation of animals. 117.5 Section 117.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT...

  12. 9 CFR 117.6 - Removal of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Removal of animals. 117.6 Section 117.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED...

  13. 9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Segregation of animals. 117.5 Section 117.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT...

  14. 9 CFR 117.6 - Removal of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Removal of animals. 117.6 Section 117.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED...

  15. 9 CFR 117.6 - Removal of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Removal of animals. 117.6 Section 117.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED...

  16. 9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT...

  17. 9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT...

  18. 9 CFR 117.6 - Removal of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Removal of animals. 117.6 Section 117.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED...

  19. 9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT...

  20. 9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Segregation of animals. 117.5 Section 117.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT...

  1. 9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT...

  2. 9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Segregation of animals. 117.5 Section 117.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT...

  3. 9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Segregation of animals. 117.5 Section 117.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT...

  4. 9 CFR 117.6 - Removal of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Removal of animals. 117.6 Section 117.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED...

  5. 9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT...

  6. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    PubMed

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort.

  7. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  8. Conservation physiology of animal migration

    PubMed Central

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  9. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  10. Phylogenomic Insights into Animal Evolution.

    PubMed

    Telford, Maximilian J; Budd, Graham E; Philippe, Hervé

    2015-10-01

    Animals make up only a small fraction of the eukaryotic tree of life, yet, from our vantage point as members of the animal kingdom, the evolution of the bewildering diversity of animal forms is endlessly fascinating. In the century following the publication of Darwin's Origin of Species, hypotheses regarding the evolution of the major branches of the animal kingdom - their relationships to each other and the evolution of their body plans - was based on a consideration of the morphological and developmental characteristics of the different animal groups. This morphology-based approach had many successes but important aspects of the evolutionary tree remained disputed. In the past three decades, molecular data, most obviously primary sequences of DNA and proteins, have provided an estimate of animal phylogeny largely independent of the morphological evolution we would ultimately like to understand. The molecular tree that has evolved over the past three decades has drastically altered our view of animal phylogeny and many aspects of the tree are no longer contentious. The focus of molecular studies on relationships between animal groups means, however, that the discipline has become somewhat divorced from the underlying biology and from the morphological characteristics whose evolution we aim to understand. Here, we consider what we currently know of animal phylogeny; what aspects we are still uncertain about and what our improved understanding of animal phylogeny can tell us about the evolution of the great diversity of animal life.

  11. Overexpression of a pectin methylesterase inhibitor in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to altered growth morphology of the stem and defective organ separation

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Kerstin; Levesque-Tremblay, Gabriel; Fernandes, Anwesha; Wormit, Alexandra; Bartels, Sebastian; Usadel, Bjoern; Kermode, Allison

    2013-01-01

    The methylesterification status of cell wall pectins, mediated through the interplay of pectin methylesterases (PMEs) and pectin methylesterase inhibitors (PMEIs), influences the biophysical properties of plant cell walls. We found that the overexpression of a PMEI gene in Arabidopsis thaliana plants caused the stems to develop twists and loops, most strongly around points on the stem where leaves or inflorescences failed to separate from the main stem. Altered elasticity of the stem, underdevelopment of the leaf cuticle, and changes in the sugar composition of the cell walls of stems were evident in the PMEI overexpression lines. We discuss the mechanisms that potentially underlie the aberrant growth phenotypes. PMID:24675171

  12. Animal Identification

    PubMed Central

    Macpherson, J. W.; Penner, P.

    1967-01-01

    A number of branding tools of various metals and various sizes in combination with several wetting agents were cooled with liquid nitrogen and applied for different lengths of time to calves and mature cattle. White hair appeared in the shape of the brand on the animals in place of dark hair when the application was properly carried out. Best results can be obtained by using metal irons at least 25 millimeters thick and 14 millimeters wide with xylol as a wetting agent for ten seconds in young or thin skinned animals and up to twenty seconds in mature or thick skinned animals. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 5. PMID:4229181

  13. CXCL13 blockade disrupts B lymphocyte organization in tertiary lymphoid structures without altering B cell receptor bias or preventing diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Henry, Rachel A; Kendall, Peggy L

    2010-08-01

    Lymphocytes that invade nonlymphoid tissues often organize into follicle-like structures known as tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs). These structures resemble those found in spleen or lymph nodes, but their function is unknown. TLOs are recognized in many autoimmune diseases, including the NOD mouse model of type 1 diabetes. In some cases, TLOs have been associated with the B lymphocyte chemoattractant, CXCL13. Studies presented in this article show that CXCL13 is present in inflamed islets of NOD mice. Ab blockade of this chemokine unraveled B lymphocyte organization in islet TLOs, without reducing their proportion in the islets. These chaotic milieus contained B lymphocytes with the same distinct repertoire of B cell receptors as those found in mice with well-organized structures. Somatic hypermutation, associated with T-B interactions, was not impaired in these disorganized insulitis lesions. Finally, loss of B lymphocyte organization in islets did not provide disease protection. Thus, B lymphocytes infiltrating islets in NOD mice do not require the morphology of secondary lymphoid tissues to support their role in disease. PMID:20574003

  14. Animal Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  15. Curriculum Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gose, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-five teachers with reputations for artistry in curriculum planning were interviewed about their "curriculum animation" plans or how they ensured their curriculum was brought to life. Their statements indicated that much of their planning is informal and intuitive, and that the criteria they use for their curriculum includes: (1) it is…

  16. Transgenic Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  17. Portrayals of canine obesity in English-language newspapers and in leading veterinary journals, 2000-2009: implications for animal welfare organizations and veterinarians as public educators.

    PubMed

    Degeling, Chris; Rock, Melanie; Toews, Lorraine; Teows, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    In industrialized societies, more than 1 in 3 dogs and people currently qualify as overweight or obese. Experts in public health expect both these figures to rise. Although clinical treatment remains important, so are public perceptions and social norms. This article presents a thematic analysis of English-language mass media coverage on canine obesity from 2000 through 2009 and compares these results with a thematic analysis of articles on canine obesity in leading veterinary journals during the same time period. Drawing on Giddens's theory of structuration, this study identified articles that emphasized individual agency, environmental structure, or both as contributors to canine obesity. Comparisons with weight-related health problems in human populations were virtually absent from the veterinary sample. Although such comparisons were almost always present in the media sample, quotations from veterinarians and other spokespeople for the welfare of nonhuman animals emphasized the agency of individual caregivers (owners) over structural influences. Now that weight gain and obesity have been established as a pressing animal welfare problem, these results suggest a need for research and for interventions, such as media advocacy, that emphasize intersections between animal-owner agency, socioenvironmental determinants, and connections between animal welfare and human health.

  18. The Bioenergetics of Isolated Mitochondria from Different Animal Models for Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rendon, Dairo A

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic alteration characterized by a higher than normal blood glucose level. For the experimental study of the metabolic changes that occur during this illness, various animal models have been introduced: alloxan- and streptozotocin-injected animals, as well as depancreatized animals, as models for type 1 diabetes, and high-fat fed diabetic animals and laboratory animals with genetic diabetes as models for type 2 diabetes. All these models have been used to investigate specific events on the cellular and organ levels that occur as a consequence of diabetes. In particular, mitochondrial energy metabolism has been extensively studied using these experimental models for diabetes. The experimental results for the bioenergetics of isolated mitochondria harvested from different animal models for diabetes, with the exception of those obtained with high-fat fed diabetic animals, are conflicting; nevertheless, many researchers now consider mitochondrial energy dysfunction as one of the direct causes of the serious complications, in various organs and tissues, that are exhibited as a result of this illness. For this reason, it is important that future research clarify the true energy functional state of these organelles isolated from diabetic animals. In the present paper, the published data on this controversial but important issue of the energetic functioning of the mitochondria isolated from diabetic animals is reviewed. This paper also includes commentary on the status of current research and makes useful suggestions for the future direction of research on this topic.

  19. The role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter. IV - Generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes in laboratory experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huizinga, Bradley J.; Tannenbaum, Eli; Kaplan, Isaac R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of common sedimentary minerals (illite, Na-montmorillonite, or calcite) under different water concentrations on the generation and release of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and select alkenes from oil-prone kerogens was investigated. Matrices containing Green River Formation kerogen or Monterey Formation kerogen, alone or in the presence of minerals, were heated at 200 or 300 C for periods of up to 1000 hours, and the pyrolysis products were analyzed. The influence of the first two clay minerals was found to be critically dependent on the water content. Under the dry pyrolysis conditions, both minerals significantly reduced alkene formation; the C12+ n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids were mostly destroyed by montmorillonite, but underwent only minor alteration with illite. Under hydrous conditions (mineral/water of 2/1), the effects of both minerals were substantially reduced. Calcite had no significant effect on the thermal evolution of the hydrocarbons.

  20. Optogenetics in psychiatric animal models.

    PubMed

    Wentz, Christian T; Oettl, Lars-Lennart; Kelsch, Wolfgang

    2013-10-01

    Optogenetics is the optical control of neuronal excitability by genetically delivered light-activated channels and pumps and represents a promising tool to fuel the study of circuit function in psychiatric animal models. This review highlights three developments. First, we examine the application of optogenetics in one of the neuromodulators central to the pathophysiology of many psychiatric disorders, the dopaminergic system. We then discuss recent work in translating functional magnetic resonance imaging in small animals (in which optogenetics can be employed to reveal physiological mechanisms underlying disease-related alterations in brain circuits) to patients. Finally, we describe emerging technological developments for circuit manipulation in freely behaving animals.

  1. Brain Injury Alters Volatile Metabolome.

    PubMed

    Kimball, Bruce A; Cohen, Akiva S; Gordon, Amy R; Opiekun, Maryanne; Martin, Talia; Elkind, Jaclynn; Lundström, Johan N; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2016-06-01

    Chemical signals arising from body secretions and excretions communicate information about health status as have been reported in a range of animal models of disease. A potential common pathway for diseases to alter chemical signals is via activation of immune function-which is known to be intimately involved in modulation of chemical signals in several species. Based on our prior findings that both immunization and inflammation alter volatile body odors, we hypothesized that injury accompanied by inflammation might correspondingly modify the volatile metabolome to create a signature endophenotype. In particular, we investigated alteration of the volatile metabolome as a result of traumatic brain injury. Here, we demonstrate that mice could be trained in a behavioral assay to discriminate mouse models subjected to lateral fluid percussion injury from appropriate surgical sham controls on the basis of volatile urinary metabolites. Chemical analyses of the urine samples similarly demonstrated that brain injury altered urine volatile profiles. Behavioral and chemical analyses further indicated that alteration of the volatile metabolome induced by brain injury and alteration resulting from lipopolysaccharide-associated inflammation were not synonymous. Monitoring of alterations in the volatile metabolome may be a useful tool for rapid brain trauma diagnosis and for monitoring recovery. PMID:26926034

  2. A supplement containing trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid reduces milk fat yield but does not alter organ weight or body fat deposition in lactating ewes.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Liam A; Weerasinghe, Weerasinghe M P B; Wilkinson, Robert G; de Veth, Michael J; Bauman, Dale E

    2010-11-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been demonstrated to be a potent inhibitor of milk fat synthesis in ruminants, but effects on carcass composition and organ weight are unknown. Our objectives in this experiment were to determine the dose response of ruminally protected CLA on the performance, organ weight, and fatty acid (FA) composition of early lactation dairy ewes. Twenty-four multiparous dairy ewes were fed a basal diet for 10 wk that was supplemented with a lipid-encapsulated CLA at 1 of 3 levels: no CLA (control, CON), low CLA (L-CLA), or high CLA (H-CLA) to supply 0, 1.5, or 3.8 g/d, respectively, of both trans-10, cis-12 and cis-9, trans-11 CLA. Dry matter intake was not affected (P > 0.05) by dietary treatment. Ewes fed H-CLA had a 13% higher milk yield compared with those receiving either CON or L-CLA. Compared with CON, milk fat yield (g/d) was 14 and 24% lower in ewes fed L-CLA or H-CLA, respectively. Supplementing ewes with CLA did not affect carcass or organ weights, carcass composition, or organ FA content. Compared with ewes receiving the CON diet, CLA supplementation had little effect on the FA composition of the Longissimus dorsi, although cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA were increased in ewes receiving H-CLA. The current findings are consistent with the view that the energy spared by the CLA reduction in milk fat content was mainly partitioned to milk yield and there was no evidence of organ hypertrophy or liver steatosis.

  3. Fusarium mycotoxins: effects on reproductive function in domestic animals--a review.

    PubMed

    Cortinovis, Cristina; Pizzo, Fabiola; Spicer, Leon J; Caloni, Francesca

    2013-10-01

    On a global scale, cereal grains and animal feed may be contaminated with trichothecenes, such as deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin, zearalenone (ZEA), and fumonisins, the major mycotoxins of Fusarium fungi. Of these mycotoxins, ZEA is unequivocally implicated in reproductive disorders of swine and other domestic animals. Experiments in vivo and in vitro indicate that ZEA and its metabolites exert estrogenic effects resulting in functional and morphological alterations in reproductive organs. Recently, the potential of trichothecenes and fumonisins to cause reproductive disorders in domestic animals has been investigated. The present review summarizes the toxicological data on the effects of Fusarium mycotoxins on ovarian function, testicular function, placenta and fetus, and puberty/sexual maturity of domestic animals. The results of in vivo animal studies and in vitro tests are reported and discussed.

  4. Androgen and taxol cause cell type-specific alterations of centrosome and DNA organization in androgen-responsive LNCaP and androgen-independent DU145 prostate cancer cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, H.; Ripple, M.; Balczon, R.; Weindruch, R.; Chakrabarti, A.; Taylor, M.; Hueser, C. N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the effects of androgen and taxol on the androgen-responsive LNCaP and androgen-independent DU145 prostate cancer cell lines. Cells were treated for 48 and 72 h with 0.05-1 nM of the synthetic androgen R1881 and with 100 nM taxol. Treatment of LNCaP cells with 0.05 nM R1881 led to increased cell proliferation, whereas treatment with 1 nM R1881 resulted in inhibited cell division, DNA cycle arrest, and altered centrosome organization. After treatment with 1 nM R1881, chromatin became clustered, nuclear envelopes convoluted, and mitochondria accumulated around the nucleus. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies to centrosomes showed altered centrosome structure. Although centrosomes were closely associated with the nucleus in untreated cells, they dispersed into the cytoplasm after treatment with 1 nM R1881. Microtubules were only faintly detected in 1 nM R1881-treated LNCaP cells. The effects of taxol included microtubule bundling and altered mitochondria morphology, but not DNA organization. As expected, the androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line DU145 was not affected by R1881. Treatment with taxol resulted in bundling of microtubules in both cell lines. Additional taxol effects were seen in DU145 cells with micronucleation of DNA, an indication of apoptosis. Simultaneous treatment with R1881 and taxol had no additional effects on LNCaP or DU145 cells. These results suggest that LNCaP and DU145 prostate cancer cells show differences not only in androgen responsiveness but in sensitivity to taxol as well. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. 9 CFR 85.8 - Interstate movement of swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd. 85.8 Section 85.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... negative gene-altered vaccinated herd. Swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd, and... are from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd; (2) The date of the herd's last...

  6. 9 CFR 85.8 - Interstate movement of swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd. 85.8 Section 85.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... negative gene-altered vaccinated herd. Swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd, and... are from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd; (2) The date of the herd's last...

  7. 9 CFR 85.8 - Interstate movement of swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd. 85.8 Section 85.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... negative gene-altered vaccinated herd. Swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd, and... are from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd; (2) The date of the herd's last...

  8. 9 CFR 85.8 - Interstate movement of swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd. 85.8 Section 85.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... negative gene-altered vaccinated herd. Swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd, and... are from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd; (2) The date of the herd's last...

  9. 9 CFR 85.8 - Interstate movement of swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd. 85.8 Section 85.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... negative gene-altered vaccinated herd. Swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd, and... are from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd; (2) The date of the herd's last...

  10. Animal leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Ellis, William A

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a global disease of animals, which can have a major economic impact on livestock industries and is an important zoonosis. The current knowledge base is heavily biased towards the developed agricultural economies. The disease situation in the developing economies presents a major challenge as humans and animals frequently live in close association. The severity of disease varies with the infecting serovar and the affected species, but there are many common aspects across the species; for example, the acute phase of infection is mostly sub-clinical and the greatest economic losses arise from chronic infection causing reproductive wastage. The principles of, and tests for, diagnosis, treatment, control and surveillance are applicable across the species. PMID:25388134

  11. Robotic animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretch, S. J.

    1982-08-01

    The effectiveness of the robotic systems Place and Animate at McDonnell Douglas is discussed. The systems are designed for CAD/CAM on a kinematic basis. Place allows creation, analysis, and editing of cell descriptions as part of the CAD process, and involves primitive cell configuring prior to eventual integration of the entire robot. Objects are displayed in wire frame form and movement receives an awkwardness rating automatically, indicating the percentage of the real-world joint limit that is being approached. The same program is employed in the Animate process, where verification and debugging of the robot programs proceeds. Clearances, motion limits, and correct responses to commands are checked, allowing decisions on production to be made before any robots are actually built.

  12. Kindergarten Science Unit on Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Nancy A.

    Seven activities designed to teach kindergarten students about animals are offered in this unit. Instructions for each activity include a behavioral objective, materials needed, step-by-step procedures, and an evaluation suggestion. Topics of the activities are: (1) characteristics that distinguish animals from other living organisms (including…

  13. Alteration in rhizosphere soil properties of afforested Rhamnus lycioides seedlings in short-term response to mycorrhizal inoculation with Glomus intraradices and organic amendment.

    PubMed

    Caravaca, Fuensanta; Figueroa, Dino; Roldán, Antonio; Azcón-Aguilar, Concepción

    2003-03-01

    The reestablishment of autochthonous plant species is an essential strategy for recovering degraded areas under semiarid conditions. A field experiment was carried out to assess the short-term effect of two reafforestation methods involving mycorrhizal inoculation and compost addition on soil quality parameters and Rhamnus lycioides seedling growth. The nutrient content (NPK) and enzymatic activities (dehydrogenase, urease, protease-BAA, acid phosphatase and beta-glucosidase) increased and bulk density decreased in the rhizosphere soil with the organic amendment. Biomass C of rhizosphere soil increased by at least 240% with respect to the control soil after mycorrhizal inoculation and the combination of compost addition + mycorrhizal inoculation. Both mycorrhizal inoculation and composted organic residue addition increased R. lycioides seedling growth in the same proportion. In the short term, we conclude that the application of both reafforestation methods not only enhances the establishment of R. lycioides seedlings, but also improves soil quality. PMID:12592456

  14. Downstream alterations in biodegradability and optical characteristics of dissolved and particulate organic carbon fractions exported during storm events in a mixed land-use watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Byung-Joon; Yang, Boram; Park, Ji-Hyung

    2014-05-01

    Although storm pulses of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) can account for a significant C loss from the terrestrial sink of atmospheric CO2, there have been rare attempts to compare the biodegradation and chemical transformation of terrestrially derived DOC and POC in receiving waters. Short-term laboratory incubations were performed with water and sediment samples collected during intense monsoon rainfalls at four stream locations in a mountainous, mixed land-use watershed, Korea to compare biodegradation and optical properties of DOC and POC exported from different sources. Biodegradable DOC (BDOC) and fluorescence EEMs coupled with PARAFAC modeling in either bulk or flow field-flow fractionated samples were measured to track changes in biodegradation and optical characteristics of DOC and suspended sediment-derived DOC (SS-DOC). During a 30 day incubation at 25 °C, both DOC and POC from a forested headwater stream initially exhibited rapid biodegradation of labile components, whereas sediment-derived materials increased continuously not just DOC concentrations, but also fulvic- and humic-like fluorescent components. In the second 13-day incubation with DOC and POC samples from a forest stream, an agricultural stream, and two downstream rivers, the BDOC of filtered waters differed little between sites, whereas the BDOC of SS-DOC was higher in downstream rivers. Higher ratios of protein- to fuvic- or humic-like fluorescence in the SS-DOC from two downstream rivers compared to upstream measurements pointed to a higher contribution of labile organic components to the biodegradation of SS-DOC from the downstream rivers. Downstream increases in labile moieties of SS-DOC were also observed in fluorescence measurements of field-flow fractionated samples. The results suggest that storm pulses of POC contain labile organic components that are increasingly released from downstream sources and can rapidly change in optical properties

  15. Small Animal Imaging with Magnetic Resonance Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Driehuys, Bastiaan; Nouls, John; Badea, Alexandra; Bucholz, Elizabeth; Ghaghada, Ketan; Petiet, Alexandra; Hedlund, Laurence W.

    2009-01-01

    Small animal magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) has evolved significantly from testing the boundaries of imaging physics to its expanding use today as a tool in non-invasive biomedical investigations. This review is intended to capture the state-of-the-art in MRM for scientists who may be unfamiliar with this modality, but who want to apply its capabilities to their research. We therefore include a brief review of MR concepts and methods of animal handling and support before covering a range of MRM applications including the heart, lung, brain, and the emerging field of MR histology. High-resolution anatomical imaging reveals increasingly exquisite detail in healthy animals and subtle architectural aberrations that occur in genetically altered models. Resolution of 100 µm in all dimensions is now routinely attained in living animals, and 10 µm3 is feasible in fixed specimens. Such images almost rival conventional histology while allowing the object to be viewed interactively in any plane. MRM is now increasingly used to provide functional information in living animals. Images of the beating heart, breathing lung, and functioning brain can be recorded. While clinical MRI focuses on diagnosis, MRM is used to reveal fundamental biology or to non-invasively measure subtle changes in the structure or function of organs during disease progression or in response to experimental therapies. The ability of MRM to provide a detailed functional and anatomical picture in rats and mice, and to track this picture over time, makes it a promising platform with broad applications in biomedical research. PMID:18172332

  16. Increase in short-chain ceramides correlates with an altered lipid organization and decreased barrier function in atopic eczema patients[S

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, Michelle; van Smeden, Jeroen; Gooris, Gert S.; Bras, Wim; Portale, Guiseppe; Caspers, Peter J.; Vreeken, Rob J.; Hankemeier, Thomas; Kezic, Sanja; Wolterbeek, Ron; Lavrijsen, Adriana P.; Bouwstra, Joke A.

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark of atopic eczema (AE) is skin barrier dysfunction. Lipids in the stratum corneum (SC), primarily ceramides, fatty acids, and cholesterol, are crucial for the barrier function, but their role in relation to AE is indistinct. Filaggrin is an epithelial barrier protein with a central role in the pathogenesis of AE. Nevertheless, the precise causes of AE-associated barrier dysfunction are largely unknown. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of ceramide composition and lipid organization in nonlesional SC of AE patients and control subjects was performed by means of mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. In addition, the skin barrier and clinical state of the disease were examined. The level of ceramides with an extreme short chain length is drastically increased in SC of AE patients, which leads to an aberrant lipid organization and a decreased skin barrier function. Changes in SC lipid properties correlate with disease severity but are independent of filaggrin mutations. We demonstrate for the first time that changes in ceramide chain length and lipid organization are directly correlated with the skin barrier defects in nonlesional skin of AE patients. We envisage that these insights will provide a new therapeutic entry in therapy and prevention of AE. PMID:23024286

  17. [Single and group organizations of individual animals in the community of bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) hibernating in artificial caves of the Samarskaia Luka].

    PubMed

    Smirnov, D G; Vekhnik, V P

    2009-01-01

    The spatial arrangement of individual bats of seven species and their tendency to form groups were studied in artificial caves of the Samara Luka during five winter periods (1999 and 2003-2006). It was demonstrated that formation of dense groups did not depend on the hibernating population size or density and was related to the biological characteristics of the species. Most Myotis brandtii and M. dasycneme (60-80% of the populations) wintered in groups. M. mystacinus, M. daubentonii, Pecotus auritus, M. nattereri, and Eptesicus nilssonii usually wintered singly (87% of the animals). In M. brandtii and M. dasycneme, as many as 78% of individual animals were in conspecific groups, whereas this proportion for the other species was no higher than 11%. All pairs of species exhibited negative assortativeness, which indicated a higher preference of spending winter in conspecific groups than in groups containing representatives of other species. Estimation of the ratios between groups containing animals of one and several species showed that conspecific groups were prevailing in M. brandtii and M. dasycneme, whereas all other species usually formed mixed groups.

  18. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin treatment alters eicosanoid levels in several organs of the mouse in an aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent fashion

    SciTech Connect

    Bui, Peter; Solaimani, Parrisa; Wu, Xiaomeng; Hankinson, Oliver

    2012-03-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) adversely affects many mammalian organs and tissues. These effects are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 are upregulated by the liganded AHR. These (and other) cytochromes P450 can metabolize arachidonic acid into a variety of bioactive eicosanoids. Towards investigating a potential role of eicosanoids in TCDD toxicity, arachidonic acid, two other unsaturated long-chain fatty acids, and up to twenty-five eicosanoids were measured in five organs/tissues of male and female wild-type and Ahr null mice treated or untreated with TCDD. TCDD generally increased the levels of the four dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) and (where measured) 5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid and 18-, 19- and 20-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (HETEs) in the serum, liver, spleen and lungs, but not the heart, of both sexes, and increased the levels in the serum, liver and spleen of several metabolites that are usually considered products of lipoxygenase activity, but which may also be generated by cytochromes P450. TCDD also increased the levels of the esterified forms of these eicosanoids in the liver in parallel with the corresponding free forms. The levels of prostanoids were generally not affected by TCDD. The above changes did not occur in Ahr null mice, and are therefore mediated by the AHR. TCDD increased the mRNA levels of Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1 and the Pla2g12a form of phospholipase A{sub 2} to varying degrees in the different organs, and these increases correlated with some but not all the changes in eicosanoids levels in the organs, suggesting that other enzymes may also be involved. -- Highlights: ► TCDD treatment increases the levels of many eicosanoids in several mouse organs. ► Products of both the cytochrome P450 and classical lipoxygenase pathways are increased. ► These increases are dependent on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. ► Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2 and Cyp1b1 appear to be responsible for much but

  19. Nanodiamonds coupled with 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, a plant bioactive metabolite, interfere with the mitotic process in B16F10 cells altering the actin organization

    PubMed Central

    Gismondi, Angelo; Nanni, Valentina; Reina, Giacomo; Orlanducci, Silvia; Terranova, Maria Letizia; Canini, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, we coupled reduced detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) with a plant secondary metabolite, citropten (5,7-dimethoxycoumarin), and demonstrated how this complex was able to reduce B16F10 tumor cell growth more effectively than treatment with the pure molecule. These results encouraged us to find out the specific mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Internalization kinetics and quantification of citropten in cells after treatment with its pure or ND-conjugated form were measured, and it was revealed that the coupling between NDs and citropten was essential for the biological properties of the complex. We showed that the adduct was not able to induce apoptosis, senescence, or differentiation, but it determined cell cycle arrest, morphological changes, and alteration of mRNA levels of the cytoskeletal-related genes. The identification of metaphasic nuclei and irregular disposition of β-actin in the cell cytoplasm supported the hypothesis that citropten conjugated with NDs showed antimitotic properties in B16F10 cells. This work can be considered a pioneering piece of research that could promote and support the biomedical use of plant drug-functionalized NDs in cancer therapy. PMID:26893562

  20. Nanodiamonds coupled with 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, a plant bioactive metabolite, interfere with the mitotic process in B16F10 cells altering the actin organization.

    PubMed

    Gismondi, Angelo; Nanni, Valentina; Reina, Giacomo; Orlanducci, Silvia; Terranova, Maria Letizia; Canini, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, we coupled reduced detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) with a plant secondary metabolite, citropten (5,7-dimethoxycoumarin), and demonstrated how this complex was able to reduce B16F10 tumor cell growth more effectively than treatment with the pure molecule. These results encouraged us to find out the specific mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Internalization kinetics and quantification of citropten in cells after treatment with its pure or ND-conjugated form were measured, and it was revealed that the coupling between NDs and citropten was essential for the biological properties of the complex. We showed that the adduct was not able to induce apoptosis, senescence, or differentiation, but it determined cell cycle arrest, morphological changes, and alteration of mRNA levels of the cytoskeletal-related genes. The identification of metaphasic nuclei and irregular disposition of β-actin in the cell cytoplasm supported the hypothesis that citropten conjugated with NDs showed antimitotic properties in B16F10 cells. This work can be considered a pioneering piece of research that could promote and support the biomedical use of plant drug-functionalized NDs in cancer therapy. PMID:26893562

  1. Coupler for surgery on small animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. E., Jr.; Swartz, P. F.

    1979-01-01

    Minicoupler simplifies exchange of fluids with organs of laboratory animals enabling one person to perform surgery on experimental animals such as rats and mice. Innovation eliminates obstructing hands and instruments from areas of surgery.

  2. Variations in the chemical and stable isotope composition of carbon and sulfur species during organic-rich sediment alteration: An experimental and theoretical study of hydrothermal activity at guaymas basin, gulf of california

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seewald, Jeffrey S.; Seyfried, W.E.; Shanks, Wayne C.

    1994-01-01

    Organic-rich diatomaceous ooze was reacted with seawater and a Na-Ca-K-Cl fluid of seawater chlorinity at 325-400??C, 400-500 bars, and fluid/sediment mass ratios of 1.56-2.35 to constrain factors regulating the abundance and stable isotope composition of C and S species during hydrothermal alteration of sediment from Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. Alteration of inorganic and organic sedimentary components resulted in extensive exchange reactions, the release of abundant H2S, CO2, CH4, and Corganic, to solution, and recrystallization of the sediment to an assemblage containing albitic plagioclase, quartz, pyrrhotite, and calcite. The ??34Scdt values of dissolved H2S varied from -10.9 to +4.3??? during seawater-sediment interaction at 325 and 400??C and from -16.5 to -9.0??? during Na-Ca-K-Cl fluid-sediment interaction at 325 and 375??C. In the absence of seawater SO4, H2S is derived from both the transformation of pyrite to pyrrhotite and S released during the degradation of organic matter. In the presence of seawater SO4, reduction of SO4 contributes directly to H2S production. Sedimentary organic matter acts as the reducing agent during pyrite and SO4 reduction. Requisite acidity for the reduction of SO4 is provided by Mg fixation during early-stage sediment alteration and by albite and calcite formation in Mg-free solutions. Organically derived CH4 was characterized by ??13Cpdb values ranging between -20.8 and -23.1???, whereas ??13Cpdb values for dissolved Corganic ranged between -14.8 and -17.7%. Mass balance calculations indicate that ??13C values for organically derived CO2 were ??? - 14.8%. Residual solid sedimentary organic C showed small (??? 0.7???) depletions in 13C relative to the starting sediment. The experimental results are consistent with the isotopic and chemical composition of natural hydrothermal fluids and minerals at Guaymas Basin and permit us to better constrain sources and sinks for C and S species in subseafloor hydrothermal systems

  3. Polydextrose enrichment of infant formula demonstrates prebiotic characteristics by altering intestinal microbiota, organic acid concentrations, and cytokine expression in suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Herfel, Tina M; Jacobi, Sheila K; Lin, Xi; Fellner, Vivek; Walker, D Carey; Jouni, Zeina E; Odle, Jack

    2011-12-01

    Oligosaccharides, the 3rd-most abundant component in human milk, are virtually absent from infant formulas and from the cow milk on which most are based. In breast-fed infants, human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) act as both receptor analogs, interfering with pathogen adhesion, and as prebiotics, stimulating the growth of certain commensal bacteria (e.g. bifidobacteria) and supporting the innate immunity. To further align the functional properties of infant formula with those of human milk, polydextrose (PDX) is proposed as a substitute for HMO. To determine the prebiotic functionality of PDX, 1-d-old pigs were fed a cow milk-based formula supplemented with increasing concentrations of PDX (0, 1.7, 4.3, 8.5, or 17 g/L) for 18 d (n = 13). Additional reference groups included pigs sampled at d 0 and sow-reared pigs sampled at d 18 (n = 12). Ileal Lactobacilli CFU, but not Bifidobacteria, increased linearly with increasing PDX (P = 0.02). The propionic acid concentration in digesta linearly increased with the PDX level (P = 0.045) and lactic acid increased linearly by 5-fold with increasing PDX (P = 0.001). Accordingly, digesta pH decreased linearly (P < 0.05) as PDX increased, with a maximal reduction approaching 0.5 pH units in pigs fed 17 g/L. Expression of TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-8 showed a negative quadratic pattern in response to PDX supplementation, declining at intermediate concentrations and rebounding at higher concentrations of PDX. In summary, PDX enrichment of infant formula resulted in a prebiotic effect by increasing ileal lactobacilli and propionic and lactic acid concentrations and decreasing pH with associated alterations in ileal cytokine expression.

  4. Animal picobirnavirus.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Balasubramanian; Masachessi, Gisela; Mladenova, Zornitsa

    2014-01-01

    Picobirnavirus (PBV) is a small, non-enveloped, bisegmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus of vertebrate hosts. The name 'Picobirnavirus' derives from the prefix 'pico' (latin for 'small') in reference to the small virion size, plus the prefix 'bi' (latin for 'two') and the word 'RNA' to indicate the nature of the viral genome. The serendipitous discovery of PBV dates back to 1988 from Brazil, when human fecal samples collected during the acute gastroenteritis outbreaks were subjected for routine rotavirus surveillance by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and silver straining (S/S). The PAGE gels after silver staining showed a typical 'two RNA band' pattern, and it was identified as Picobirnavirus. Likewise, the feces of wild black-footed pigmy rice rats (Oryzomys nigripes) subjected for PAGE assay by the same research group in Brazil reported the presence of PBV (Pereira et al., J Gen Virol 69:2749-2754, 1988). PBVs have been detected in faeces of humans and wide range of animal species with or without diarrhoea, worldwide. The probable role of PBV as either a 'primary diarrhoeal agent' in 'immunocompetent children'; or a 'potential pathogen' in 'immunocompromised individuals' or an 'innocuous virus' in the intestine remains elusive and needs to be investigated despite the numerous reports of the presence of PBV in fecal samples of various species of domestic mammals, wild animals, birds and snakes; our current knowledge of their biology, etiology, pathogenicity or their transmission characteristics remains subtle. This review aims to analyse the veterinary and zoonotic aspects of animal Picobirnavirus infections since its discovery. PMID:25674589

  5. Animal behavior and animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Houpt, K A

    1991-04-15

    The value of behavioral techniques in assessing animal welfare, and in particular assessing the psychological well being of animals, is reviewed. Using cats and horses as examples, 3 behavioral methods are presented: (1) comparison of behavior patterns and time budgets; (2) choice tests; and (3) operant conditioning. The behaviors of intact and declawed cats were compared in order to determine if declawing led to behavioral problems or to a change in personality. Apparently it did not. The behavior of free ranging horses was compared with that of stabled horses. Using two-choice preference tests, the preference of horses for visual contact with other horses and the preference for bedding were determined. Horses show no significant preference for locations from which they can make visual contact with other horses, but they do prefer bedding, especially when lying down. Horses will perform an operant response in order to obtain light in a darkened barn or heat in an outside shed. These same techniques can be used to answer a variety of questions about an animal's motivation for a particular attribute of its environment. PMID:2061151

  6. Signals of typhoon induced hydrologic alteration in particulate organic matter from largest tropical river system of Hainan Island, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, U. K.; Wu, Ying; Wang, Xiaona; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Guosen

    2016-03-01

    Tropical river systems affected by climatic extremes (typhoon) are recognized as significant source of particulate organic matter (POM) delivered to their adjacent seas. Studies on POM composition in typhoon affected rivers of tropical Hainan Island are limited. The Nandu River-Estuary (NRE) is the largest river system on Hainan Island in the South China Sea, affected by frequent typhoons every year. We used elemental contents, stable isotope ratios of organic carbon and lignin phenols to characterize POM compositions in NRE during typhoon affected wet season (August, 2011) vs. normal wet season (October, 2012). Short term and heavy precipitation during typhoon in August, 2011 was evidenced with a significant hydrologic change as well as change in POM composition along the NRE. The multi-proxy results suggest that POM was degraded and their sources significantly changed along the NRE hydrograph. Results from an end member mixing model indicated that POM constituted nearly similar OM input from soil (35%) and freshwater plankton (32%) during August, 2011, in contrast POM dominated with OM from freshwater plankton (51%) during October 2012 in riverine regions of NRE. In the estuarine region, POM constituted dominant inputs from marine plankton during August, 2011 (44%) and October, 2012 (56%) as compared to other sources. Collectively, the nature of POM composition change in the vicinity of typhoon induced copious precipitation, with potential land-use intervention across the Hainan Island are key factors affecting the carbon cycling in NRE and adjacent South China Sea.

  7. Mercury induced time-dependent alterations in lipid profiles and lipid peroxidation in different body organs of cat-fish Heteropneustes fossilis

    SciTech Connect

    Bano, Y.; Hasan, M.

    1989-04-01

    The effects of mercuric chloride (HgCl/sub 2/) on lipid profiles and lipid peroxidation in different body organs of fresh water cat-fish Heteropneustes fossilis were studied. The daily exposure of HgCl/sub 2/ 0.2 mg/L for 10, 20 and 30 days depleted the total lipids in brain. But the content of phospholipids enhanced significantly at 30 days. Significant diminution in C/P ratio was discernible with 30 days of exposure following mercury toxicosis. Liver exhibited elevated levels of total lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol and C/P ratio. Interestingly kidney showed marked decrease in the concentration of total lipids, cholesterol and C/P ratio at higher exposure. However, the phospholipid values increased during the longer exposure. The content of total lipids and phospholipids was high in muscle but the level of cholesterol and C/P ratio were depleted. Significant increment in lipid peroxidation was discernible in brain, liver and muscle. In kidney the rate of lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced. The results suggest that exposure of HgCl/sub 2/ enhances the peroxidation of endogenous lipids in brain, liver and muscle. Interestingly the lipid contents are affected differently in different body organs.

  8. 9 CFR 107.1 - Veterinary practitioners and animal owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Veterinary practitioners and animal owners. 107.1 Section 107.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS...

  9. Animal Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  10. Histopathological alterations after a growth promoter boldenone injection in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Tousson, Ehab

    2016-02-01

    Boldenone (BOL) is a derivative of the testosterone that has dual effects on humans, both directly and indirectly; directly as injection to build muscles and indirectly as through consuming meat of animals that where treated with BOL. However, the action of these steroids on different body organs structures is still unclear; therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the intramuscular injection of BOL undecylenate on the different organ structures. A total of 10 adult New Zealand rabbits were divided into two main groups, the first group was the control group, which includes animals that were injected intramuscularly with olive oil and the second group included animals that received two intramuscular injections of 5 mg/kg body weight BOL dissected after 6 weeks. Our results showed that intramuscular injection of rabbits with BOL showed hypertrophy in both skeletal and cardiac muscles, disturbances of the hepatocytes radially arranged cords with multifocal hepatocellular vacuolations in the liver, glomerulus mass reduction with multifocal glomerular injury in the kidney, disturbances of the cycle of spermatogenesis in the testes. In conclusion, using BOL, while preparing for a young bodybuilding contest, may cause an alteration in the histological structure of most of the body organs; these findings suggested that especially young people who misuse anablic androgenic steroids should be careful if they want to use such steroids to enhance their strength and endurance.

  11. Autotrophic fixation of geogenic CO2 by microorganisms contributes to soil organic matter formation and alters isotope signatures in a wetland mofette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, M. E.; Beulig, F.; von Fischer, J.; Muhr, J.; Küsel, K.; Trumbore, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    To quantify the contribution of autotrophic microorganisms to organic matter (OM) formation in soils, we investigated natural CO2 vents (mofettes) situated in a wetland in northwest Bohemia (Czech Republic). Mofette soils had higher soil organic matter (SOM) concentrations than reference soils due to restricted decomposition under high CO2 levels. We used radiocarbon (Δ14C) and stable carbon (δ13C) isotope ratios to characterize SOM and its sources in two mofettes and compared it with respective reference soils, which were not influenced by geogenic CO2. The geogenic CO2 emitted at these sites is free of radiocarbon and enriched in 13C compared to atmospheric CO2. Together, these isotopic signals allow us to distinguish C fixed by plants from C fixed by autotrophic microorganisms using their differences in 13C discrimination. We can then estimate that up to 27 % of soil organic matter in the 0-10 cm layer of these soils was derived from microbially assimilated CO2. Isotope values of bulk SOM were shifted towards more positive δ13C and more negative Δ14C values in mofettes compared to reference soils, suggesting that geogenic CO2 emitted from the soil atmosphere is incorporated into SOM. To distinguish whether geogenic CO2 was fixed by plants or by CO2 assimilating microorganisms, we first used the proportional differences in radiocarbon and δ13C values to indicate the magnitude of discrimination of the stable isotopes in living plants. Deviation from this relationship was taken to indicate the presence of microbial CO2 fixation, as microbial discrimination should differ from that of plants. 13CO2-labelling experiments confirmed high activity of CO2 assimilating microbes in the top 10 cm, where δ13C values of SOM were shifted up to 2 ‰ towards more negative values. Uptake rates of microbial CO2 fixation ranged up to 1.59 ± 0.16 μg gdw-1 d-1. We inferred that the negative δ13C shift was caused by the activity of autotrophic microorganisms using the Calvin

  12. Autotrophic fixation of geogenic CO2 by microorganisms contributes to soil organic matter formation and alters isotope signatures in a wetland mofette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, M. E.; Beulig, F.; von Fischer, J.; Muhr, J.; Küsel, K.; Trumbore, S. E.

    2015-09-01

    To quantify the contribution of autotrophic microorganisms to organic matter formation (OM) in soils, we investigated natural CO2 vents (mofettes) situated in a wetland in NW Bohemia (Czech Republic). Mofette soils had higher SOM concentrations than reference soils due to restricted decomposition under high CO2 levels. We used radiocarbon (Δ14C) and stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) to characterize SOM and its sources in two moffetes and compared it with respective reference soils, which were not influenced by geogenic CO2. The geogenic CO2 emitted at these sites is free of radiocarbon and enriched in δ13C compared to atmospheric CO2. Together, these isotopic signals allow us to distinguish C fixed by plants from C fixed by autotrophic microorganisms using their differences in δ13C discrimination. We can then estimate that up to 27 % of soil organic matter in the 0-10 cm layer of these soils was derived from microbially assimilated CO2. Isotope values of bulk SOM were shifted towards more positive δ13C and more negative Δ14C values in mofettes compared to reference soils, suggesting that geogenic CO2 emitted from the soil atmosphere is incorporated into SOM. To distinguish whether geogenic CO2 was fixed by plants or by CO2 assimilating microorganisms, we first used the proportional differences in radiocarbon and δ13C values to indicate the magnitude of discrimination of the stable isotopes in living plants. Deviation from this relationship was taken to indicate the presence of microbial CO2 fixation, as microbial discrimination should differ from that of plants. 13CO2-labelling experiments confirmed high activity of CO2 assimilating microbes in the top 10 cm, where δ13C values of SOM were shifted up to 2 ‰ towards more negative values. Uptake rates of microbial CO2 fixation ranged up to 1.59 ± 0.16 μg gdw-1 d-1. We inferred that the negative δ13C shift was caused by the activity of chemo-lithoautotrophic microorganisms, as indicated from

  13. ANIMAL COMMUNICATION.

    PubMed

    SEBEOK, T A

    1965-02-26

    Semiotics and ethology have converged in a new behavioral science, zoosemiotics. Those who are interested in the theoretical analysis of the complex problems of non-verbal behavior that arise where these two disciplines interact aim to treat comprehensively animal communication systems by the aid of representations that have proved illuminating in the study of sentences of human language. Students of zoosemiotics are concerned with codes and messages much as linguists are concerned with competence, or language, and performance, or speech. They thus face the twin tasks of constructing a model for the addresser to specify how a message is encoded and transformed into a signal carried by a variety of channels to the addressee; and of constructing a model for the addressee to specify the ways in which animals utilize their knowledge of their code to recognize the messages they receive. Finally, they assess the context of the communicative event in the hope of dissecting that which is relevant to the selection process from the rest of the background, a program for which there is as yet neither a procedural eliciting technique nor a satisfactory theoretical solution in sight.

  14. Excess of Organic Carbon in Mountain Spruce Forest Soils after Bark Beetle Outbreak Altered Microbial N Transformations and Mitigated N-Saturation

    PubMed Central

    Kaňa, Jiří; Tahovská, Karolina; Kopáček, Jiří; Šantrůčková, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Mountain forests in National park Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic) were affected by bark beetle attack and windthrows in 2004–2008, followed by an extensive tree dieback. We evaluated changes in the biochemistry of the uppermost soil horizons with the emphasis on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in a near-natural spruce (Picea abies) mountain forest after the forest dieback, and compared it with an undisturbed control plot of similar age, climate, elevation, deposition, N-saturation level, and land use history. We hypothesised that the high litter input after forest dieback at the disturbed plot and its consequent decomposition might influence the availability of C for microorganisms, and consequently, N transformations in the soil. The concentrations of dissolved organic C (DOC) and N (DON) in soil water extracts rapidly increased at the disturbed plot for 3 yeas and then continually decreased. Net ammonification exhibited a similar trend as DOC and DON, indicating elevated mineralization. Despite the high ammonium concentrations found after the forest dieback (an increase from 0.5 mmol kg-1 to 2–3 mmol kg-1), net nitrification was stable and low during these 3 years. After the DOC depletion and decrease in microbial biomass 5 years after the forest dieback, net nitrification started to rise, and nitrate concentrations increased from 0.2–1 mmol kg-1 to 2–3 mmol kg-1. Our results emphasize the key role of the availability of organic C in microbial N transformations, which probably promoted microbial heterotrophic activity at the expense of slow-growing nitrifiers. PMID:26230678

  15. Effects of altered groundwater chemistry upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial attachment during transport within an organically contaminated sandy aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, R.W.; Metge, D.W.; Barber, L.B.; Aiken, G.R.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of a dilute (ionic strength = 5 ?? 10-3 M) plume of treated sewage, with elevated levels (3.9 mg/L) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial transport through an iron-laden, quartz sand aquifer (Cape Cod, MA) were evaluated using sets of replicate, static minicolumns. Compared with uncontaminated groundwater, the plume chemistry diminished bacterial attachment under mildly acidic (pH 5.0-6.5) in-situ conditions, in spite of the 5-fold increase in ionic strength and substantively enhanced attachment under more alkaline conditions. The effects of the hydrophobic neutral and total fractions of the plume DOC; modest concentrations of fulvic and humic acids (1.5 mg/L); linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) (25 mg/L); Imbentin (200 ??g/L), a model nonionic surfactant; sulfate (28 mg/L); and calcium (20 mg/L) varied sharply in response to relatively small changes in pH, although the plume constituents collectively decreased the pH-dependency of bacterial attachment. LAS and other hydrophobic neutrals (collectively representing only ???3% of the plume DOC) had a disproportionately large effect upon bacterial attachment, as did the elevated concentrations of sulfate within the plume. The findings further suggest that the roles of organic plume constituents in transport or bacteria through acidic aquifer sediments can be very different than would be predicted from column studies performed at circumneutral pH and that the inorganic constituents within the plume cannot be ignored.

  16. Excess of Organic Carbon in Mountain Spruce Forest Soils after Bark Beetle Outbreak Altered Microbial N Transformations and Mitigated N-Saturation.

    PubMed

    Kaňa, Jiří; Tahovská, Karolina; Kopáček, Jiří; Šantrůčková, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Mountain forests in National park Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic) were affected by bark beetle attack and windthrows in 2004-2008, followed by an extensive tree dieback. We evaluated changes in the biochemistry of the uppermost soil horizons with the emphasis on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in a near-natural spruce (Picea abies) mountain forest after the forest dieback, and compared it with an undisturbed control plot of similar age, climate, elevation, deposition, N-saturation level, and land use history. We hypothesised that the high litter input after forest dieback at the disturbed plot and its consequent decomposition might influence the availability of C for microorganisms, and consequently, N transformations in the soil. The concentrations of dissolved organic C (DOC) and N (DON) in soil water extracts rapidly increased at the disturbed plot for 3 yeas and then continually decreased. Net ammonification exhibited a similar trend as DOC and DON, indicating elevated mineralization. Despite the high ammonium concentrations found after the forest dieback (an increase from 0.5 mmol kg-1 to 2-3 mmol kg-1), net nitrification was stable and low during these 3 years. After the DOC depletion and decrease in microbial biomass 5 years after the forest dieback, net nitrification started to rise, and nitrate concentrations increased from 0.2-1 mmol kg-1 to 2-3 mmol kg-1. Our results emphasize the key role of the availability of organic C in microbial N transformations, which probably promoted microbial heterotrophic activity at the expense of slow-growing nitrifiers. PMID:26230678

  17. Effects of altered groundwater chemistry upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial attachment during transport within an organically contaminated sandy aquifer.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ronald W; Metge, David W; Barber, L B; Aiken, George R

    2010-02-01

    The effects of a dilute (ionic strength=5x10(-3)M) plume of treated sewage, with elevated levels (3.9 mg/L) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial transport through an iron-laden, quartz sand aquifer (Cape Cod, MA) were evaluated using sets of replicate, static minicolumns. Compared with uncontaminated groundwater, the plume chemistry diminished bacterial attachment under mildly acidic (pH 5.0-6.5) in-situ conditions, in spite of the 5-fold increase in ionic strength and substantively enhanced attachment under more alkaline conditions. The effects of the hydrophobic neutral and total fractions of the plume DOC; modest concentrations of fulvic and humic acids (1.5 mg/L); linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) (25 mg/L); Imbentin (200 microg/L), a model nonionic surfactant; sulfate (28 mg/L); and calcium (20 mg/L) varied sharply in response to relatively small changes in pH, although the plume constituents collectively decreased the pH-dependency of bacterial attachment. LAS and other hydrophobic neutrals (collectively representing only approximately 3% of the plume DOC) had a disproportionately large effect upon bacterial attachment, as did the elevated concentrations of sulfate within the plume. The findings further suggest that the roles of organic plume constituents in transport or bacteria through acidic aquifer sediments can be very different than would be predicted from column studies performed at circumneutral pH and that the inorganic constituents within the plume cannot be ignored.

  18. Enhanced Photosynthesis and Growth in atquac1 Knockout Mutants Are Due to Altered Organic Acid Accumulation and an Increase in Both Stomatal and Mesophyll Conductance.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, David B; Martins, Samuel C V; Cavalcanti, João Henrique F; Daloso, Danilo M; Martinoia, Enrico; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; DaMatta, Fábio M; Fernie, Alisdair R; Araújo, Wagner L

    2016-01-01

    Stomata control the exchange of CO2 and water vapor in land plants. Thus, whereas a constant supply of CO2 is required to maintain adequate rates of photosynthesis, the accompanying water losses must be tightly regulated to prevent dehydration and undesired metabolic changes. Accordingly, the uptake or release of ions and metabolites from guard cells is necessary to achieve normal stomatal function. The AtQUAC1, an R-type anion channel responsible for the release of malate from guard cells, is essential for efficient stomatal closure. Here, we demonstrate that mutant plants lacking AtQUAC1 accumulated higher levels of malate and fumarate. These mutant plants not only display slower stomatal closure in response to increased CO2 concentration and dark but are also characterized by improved mesophyll conductance. These responses were accompanied by increases in both photosynthesis and respiration rates, without affecting the activity of photosynthetic and respiratory enzymes and the expression of other transporter genes in guard cells, which ultimately led to improved growth. Collectively, our results highlight that the transport of organic acids plays a key role in plant cell metabolism and demonstrate that AtQUAC1 reduce diffusive limitations to photosynthesis, which, at least partially, explain the observed increments in growth under well-watered conditions.

  19. Enhanced Photosynthesis and Growth in atquac1 Knockout Mutants Are Due to Altered Organic Acid Accumulation and an Increase in Both Stomatal and Mesophyll Conductance.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, David B; Martins, Samuel C V; Cavalcanti, João Henrique F; Daloso, Danilo M; Martinoia, Enrico; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; DaMatta, Fábio M; Fernie, Alisdair R; Araújo, Wagner L

    2016-01-01

    Stomata control the exchange of CO2 and water vapor in land plants. Thus, whereas a constant supply of CO2 is required to maintain adequate rates of photosynthesis, the accompanying water losses must be tightly regulated to prevent dehydration and undesired metabolic changes. Accordingly, the uptake or release of ions and metabolites from guard cells is necessary to achieve normal stomatal function. The AtQUAC1, an R-type anion channel responsible for the release of malate from guard cells, is essential for efficient stomatal closure. Here, we demonstrate that mutant plants lacking AtQUAC1 accumulated higher levels of malate and fumarate. These mutant plants not only display slower stomatal closure in response to increased CO2 concentration and dark but are also characterized by improved mesophyll conductance. These responses were accompanied by increases in both photosynthesis and respiration rates, without affecting the activity of photosynthetic and respiratory enzymes and the expression of other transporter genes in guard cells, which ultimately led to improved growth. Collectively, our results highlight that the transport of organic acids plays a key role in plant cell metabolism and demonstrate that AtQUAC1 reduce diffusive limitations to photosynthesis, which, at least partially, explain the observed increments in growth under well-watered conditions. PMID:26542441

  20. Decomposition of water-soluble mononitrosyl iron complexes with dithiocarbamates and of dinitrosyl iron complexes with thiol ligands in animal organisms.

    PubMed

    Serezhenkov, Vladimir A; Timoshin, Alexander A; Orlova, Tsvetina R; Mikoyan, Vasak D; Kubrina, Lioudmila N; Poltorakov, Alexander P; Ruuge, Enno K; Sanina, Natalia A; Vanin, Anatoly F

    2008-05-01

    EPR studies have shown that water-soluble mononitrosyl iron complexes with N-methyl-d-glucamine dithiocarbamate (MNIC-MGD) (3 micromol) injected to intact mice were decomposed virtually completely within 1h. The total content of MNIC-MGD in animal urine did not exceed 30 nmol/ml. In the liver, a small amount of MNIC-MGD were converted into dinitrosyl iron complexes (30 nmol/g of liver tissue). The same was observed in intact rabbits in which MNIC-MGD formation was induced by endogenous or exogenous NO binding to NO traps, viz., iron complexes with MGD. In mice, the content of MNIC-MGD in urine samples did not change after bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of iNOS. It was supposed that MNIC-MGD decomposition in intact animals was largely due to the release of NO from the complexes and its further transfer to other specific acceptors. In mice with iNOS expression, the main contribution to MNIC-MGD decomposition was made by superoxide ions whose destructive effect is mediated by an oxidative mechanism. This effect could fully compensate the augmented synthesis of MNIC-MGD involving endogenous NO whose production was supported by iNOS. Water-soluble dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC) with various thiol-containing ligands and thiosulfate injected to intact mice were also decomposed; however, in this case the effect was less pronounced than in the case of MNIC-MGD. It was concluded that DNIC decomposition was largely due to the oxidative effect of superoxide ions on these complexes. PMID:18222183

  1. The E119D neuraminidase mutation identified in a multidrug-resistant influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 isolate severely alters viral fitness in vitro and in animal models.

    PubMed

    Abed, Yacine; Bouhy, Xavier; L'Huillier, Arnaud G; Rhéaume, Chantal; Pizzorno, Andrés; Retamal, Miguel; Fage, Clément; Dubé, Karen; Joly, Marie-Hélène; Beaulieu, Edith; Mallett, Corey; Kaiser, Laurent; Boivin, Guy

    2016-08-01

    We recently isolated an influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 E119D/H275Y neuraminidase (NA) variant from an immunocompromised patient who received oseltamivir and zanamivir therapies. This variant demonstrated cross resistance to zanamivir, oseltamivir, peramivir and laninamivir. In this study, the viral fitness of the recombinant wild-type (WT), E119D and E119D/H275Y A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses was evaluated in vitro and in experimentally-infected C57BL/6 mice and guinea pigs. In replication kinetics experiments, viral titers obtained with the E119D and E119D/H275Y recombinants were up to 2- and 4-log lower compared to the WT virus in MDCK and ST6GalI-MDCK cells, respectively. Enzymatic studies revealed that the E119D mutation significantly decreased the surface NA activity. In experimentally-infected mice, a 50% mortality rate was recorded in the group infected with the WT recombinant virus whereas no mortality was observed in the E119D and E119D/H275Y groups. Mean lung viral titers on day 5 post-inoculation for the WT (1.2 ± 0.57 × 10(8) PFU/ml) were significantly higher than those of the E119D (9.75 ± 0.41 × 10(5) PFU/ml, P < 0.01) and the E119D/H275Y (1.47 ± 0.61 × 10(6) PFU/ml, P < 0.01) groups. In guinea pigs, comparable seroconversion rates and viral titers in nasal washes (NW) were obtained for the WT and mutant index and contact groups. However, the D119E reversion was observed in most NW samples of the E119D and E119D/H275Y animals. In conclusion, the E119D NA mutation that could emerge in A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses during zanamivir therapy has a significant impact on viral fitness and such mutant is unlikely to be highly transmissible. PMID:27185624

  2. The common neural parasite Pseudoloma neurophilia is associated with altered startle response habituation in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio): Implications for the zebrafish as a model organism

    PubMed Central

    Spagnoli, Sean; Xue, Lan; Kent, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish’s potential as a model for human neurobehavioral research appears nearly limitless despite its relatively recent emergence as an experimental organism. Since the zebrafish has only been part of the research community for a handful of decades, pathogens from its commercial origins continue to plague laboratory stocks. One such pathogen is Pseudoloma neurophilia, a common microparasite in zebrafish laboratories world-wide that generally produces subclinical infections. Given its high prevalence, its predilection for the host’s brain and spinal cord, and the delicate nature of neurobehavioral research, the behavioral consequences of subclinical P. neurophilia infection must be explored. Fish infected via cohabitation were tested for startle response habituation in parallel with controls in a device that administered ten taps over ten minutes along with taps at 18 and 60 minutes to evaluate habituation extinction. After testing, fish were euthanized and evaluated for infection via histopathology. Infected fish had a significantly smaller reduction in startle velocity during habituation compared to uninfected tankmates and controls. Habituation was eliminated in infected and control fish at 18 minutes, whereas exposed negative fish retained partial habituation at 18 minutes. Infection was also associated with enhanced capture evasion: Despite the absence of external symptoms, infected fish tended to be caught later than uninfected fish netted from the same tank. The combination of decreased overall habituation, early extinction of habituation compared to uninfected cohorts, and enhanced netting evasion indicates that P. neurophilia infection is associated with a behavioral phenotype distinct from that of controls and uninfected cohorts. Because of its prevalence in zebrafish facilities, P. neurophilia has the potential to insidiously influence a wide range of neurobehavioral studies if these associations are causative. Rigorous health screening is

  3. Binding of EBP50 to Nox organizing subunit p47phox is pivotal to cellular reactive species generation and altered vascular phenotype.

    PubMed

    Al Ghouleh, Imad; Meijles, Daniel N; Mutchler, Stephanie; Zhang, Qiangmin; Sahoo, Sanghamitra; Gorelova, Anastasia; Henrich Amaral, Jefferson; Rodríguez, Andrés I; Mamonova, Tatyana; Song, Gyun Jee; Bisello, Alessandro; Friedman, Peter A; Cifuentes-Pagano, M Eugenia; Pagano, Patrick J

    2016-09-01

    Despite numerous reports implicating NADPH oxidases (Nox) in the pathogenesis of many diseases, precise regulation of this family of professional reactive oxygen species (ROS) producers remains unclear. A unique member of this family, Nox1 oxidase, functions as either a canonical or hybrid system using Nox organizing subunit 1 (NoxO1) or p47(phox), respectively, the latter of which is functional in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). In this manuscript, we identify critical requirement of ezrin-radixin-moesin-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50; aka NHERF1) for Nox1 activation and downstream responses. Superoxide (O2 (•-)) production induced by angiotensin II (AngII) was absent in mouse EBP50 KO VSMC vs. WT. Moreover, ex vivo incubation of aortas with AngII showed a significant increase in O2 (•-) in WT but not EBP50 or Nox1 nulls. Similarly, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative stress was attenuated in femoral arteries from EBP50 KO vs. WT. In silico analyses confirmed by confocal microscopy, immunoprecipitation, proximity ligation assay, FRET, and gain-/loss-of-function mutagenesis revealed binding of EBP50, via its PDZ domains, to a specific motif in p47(phox) Functional studies revealed AngII-induced hypertrophy was absent in EBP50 KOs, and in VSMC overexpressing EBP50, Nox1 gene silencing abolished VSMC hypertrophy. Finally, ex vivo measurement of lumen diameter in mouse resistance arteries exhibited attenuated AngII-induced vasoconstriction in EBP50 KO vs. WT. Taken together, our data identify EBP50 as a previously unidentified regulator of Nox1 and support that it promotes Nox1 activity by binding p47(phox) This interaction is pivotal for agonist-induced smooth muscle ROS, hypertrophy, and vasoconstriction and has implications for ROS-mediated physiological and pathophysiological processes.

  4. Increased size of solid organs in patients with Chuvash polycythemia and in mice with altered expression of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Donghoon; Okhotin, David V; Kim, Bumjun; Okhotina, Yulia; Okhotin, Daniel J; Miasnikova, Galina Y; Sergueeva, Adelina I; Polyakova, Lydia A; Maslow, Alexei; Lee, Yonggu; Semenza, Gregg L; Prchal, Josef T; Gordeuk, Victor R

    2010-05-01

    Chuvash polycythemia, the first hereditary disease associated with dysregulated oxygen-sensing to be recognized, is characterized by a homozygous germ-line loss-of-function mutation of the VHL gene (VHL(R200W)) resulting in elevated hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha and HIF-2alpha levels, increased red cell mass and propensity to thrombosis. Organ volume is determined by the size and number of cells, and the underlying molecular control mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Work from several groups has demonstrated that the proliferation of cells is regulated in opposite directions by HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha. HIF-1alpha inhibits cell proliferation by displacing MYC from the promoter of the gene encoding the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21(Cip1), thereby inducing its expression. In contrast, HIF-2alpha promotes MYC activity and cell proliferation. Here we report that the volumes of liver, spleen, and kidneys relative to body mass were larger in 30 individuals with Chuvash polycythemia than in 30 matched Chuvash controls. In Hif1a(+/-) mice, which are heterozygous for a null (knockout) allele at the locus encoding HIF-1alpha, hepatic HIF-2alpha mRNA was increased (2-fold) and the mass of the liver was increased, compared with wild-type littermates, without significant difference in cell volume. Hepatic p21(Cip1) mRNA levels were 9.5-fold lower in Hif1a(+/-) mice compared with wild-type littermates. These data suggest that, in addition to increased red cell mass, the sizes of liver, spleen, and kidneys are increased in Chuvash polycythemia. At least in the liver, this phenotype may result from increased HIF-2alpha and decreased p21(Cip1) levels leading to increased hepatocyte proliferation. PMID:20140661

  5. The common neural parasite Pseudoloma neurophilia is associated with altered startle response habituation in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio): Implications for the zebrafish as a model organism.

    PubMed

    Spagnoli, Sean; Xue, Lan; Kent, Michael L

    2015-09-15

    The zebrafish's potential as a model for human neurobehavioral research appears nearly limitless despite its relatively recent emergence as an experimental organism. Since the zebrafish has only been part of the research community for a handful of decades, pathogens from its commercial origins continue to plague laboratory stocks. One such pathogen is Pseudoloma neurophilia, a common microparasite in zebrafish laboratories world-wide that generally produces subclinical infections. Given its high prevalence, its predilection for the host's brain and spinal cord, and the delicate nature of neurobehavioral research, the behavioral consequences of subclinical P. neurophilia infection must be explored. Fish infected via cohabitation were tested for startle response habituation in parallel with controls in a device that administered ten taps over 10 min along with taps at 18 and 60 min to evaluate habituation extinction. After testing, fish were euthanized and evaluated for infection via histopathology. Infected fish had a significantly smaller reduction in startle velocity during habituation compared to uninfected tankmates and controls. Habituation was eliminated in infected and control fish at 18 min, whereas exposed negative fish retained partial habituation at 18 min. Infection was also associated with enhanced capture evasion: Despite the absence of external symptoms, infected fish tended to be caught later than uninfected fish netted from the same tank. The combination of decreased overall habituation, early extinction of habituation compared to uninfected cohorts, and enhanced netting evasion indicates that P. neurophilia infection is associated with a behavioral phenotype distinct from that of controls and uninfected cohorts. Because of its prevalence in zebrafish facilities, P. neurophilia has the potential to insidiously influence a wide range of neurobehavioral studies if these associations are causative. Rigorous health screening is therefore vital to the

  6. Binding of EBP50 to Nox organizing subunit p47phox is pivotal to cellular reactive species generation and altered vascular phenotype.

    PubMed

    Al Ghouleh, Imad; Meijles, Daniel N; Mutchler, Stephanie; Zhang, Qiangmin; Sahoo, Sanghamitra; Gorelova, Anastasia; Henrich Amaral, Jefferson; Rodríguez, Andrés I; Mamonova, Tatyana; Song, Gyun Jee; Bisello, Alessandro; Friedman, Peter A; Cifuentes-Pagano, M Eugenia; Pagano, Patrick J

    2016-09-01

    Despite numerous reports implicating NADPH oxidases (Nox) in the pathogenesis of many diseases, precise regulation of this family of professional reactive oxygen species (ROS) producers remains unclear. A unique member of this family, Nox1 oxidase, functions as either a canonical or hybrid system using Nox organizing subunit 1 (NoxO1) or p47(phox), respectively, the latter of which is functional in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). In this manuscript, we identify critical requirement of ezrin-radixin-moesin-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50; aka NHERF1) for Nox1 activation and downstream responses. Superoxide (O2 (•-)) production induced by angiotensin II (AngII) was absent in mouse EBP50 KO VSMC vs. WT. Moreover, ex vivo incubation of aortas with AngII showed a significant increase in O2 (•-) in WT but not EBP50 or Nox1 nulls. Similarly, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative stress was attenuated in femoral arteries from EBP50 KO vs. WT. In silico analyses confirmed by confocal microscopy, immunoprecipitation, proximity ligation assay, FRET, and gain-/loss-of-function mutagenesis revealed binding of EBP50, via its PDZ domains, to a specific motif in p47(phox) Functional studies revealed AngII-induced hypertrophy was absent in EBP50 KOs, and in VSMC overexpressing EBP50, Nox1 gene silencing abolished VSMC hypertrophy. Finally, ex vivo measurement of lumen diameter in mouse resistance arteries exhibited attenuated AngII-induced vasoconstriction in EBP50 KO vs. WT. Taken together, our data identify EBP50 as a previously unidentified regulator of Nox1 and support that it promotes Nox1 activity by binding p47(phox) This interaction is pivotal for agonist-induced smooth muscle ROS, hypertrophy, and vasoconstriction and has implications for ROS-mediated physiological and pathophysiological processes. PMID:27540115

  7. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  8. Animal welfare and international trade.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B; Babcock, S

    2005-08-01

    Globalisation is becoming a force that is revolutionising international trade, particularly that of animals and animal products. There is increasing interest in animal welfare worldwide, and as part of its 2001-2005 Strategic Plan the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) identified the development of international standards on animal welfare as a priority. The OIE's scientific approach to standard-setting provides the foundation for the development, and acceptance by all OIE Member Countries, of these animal welfare guidelines. The paper discusses how these guidelines on animal welfare can be implemented, both within the provisions of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements and within the framework of voluntary codes of conduct. Even if animal welfare guidelines are not covered by any WTO agreements in the future, bi- and multilateral agreements, voluntary corporate codes, and transparent labelling of products should result in a progressive acceptance of OIE guidelines. Ultimately, consumer demands and demonstrable gains in animal production will result in an incremental evolution in animal welfare consciousness and adherence to international standards.

  9. Myocardial diseases of animals.

    PubMed Central

    Van Vleet, J. F.; Ferrans, V. J.

    1986-01-01

    In this review we have attempted a comprehensive compilation of the cardiac morphologic changes that occur in spontaneous and experimental myocardial diseases of animals. Our coverage addresses diseases of mammals and birds and includes these diseases found in both domesticated and wild animals. A similar review of the myocardial diseases in this broad range of animal species has not been attempted previously. We have summarized and illustrated the gross, microscopic, and ultrastructural alterations for these myocardial diseases; and, whenever possible, we have reviewed their biochemical pathogenesis. We have arranged the myocardial diseases for presentation and discussion according to an etiologic classification with seven categories. These include a group of idiopathic or primary cardiomyopathies recognized in man (hypertrophic, dilated, and restrictive types) and a large group of secondary cardiomyopathies with known causes, such as inherited tendency; nutritional deficiency; toxicity; physical injury and shock; endocrine disorders, and myocarditides of viral, bacterial, and protozoal causation. Considerable overlap exists between each of the etiologic groups in the spectrum of pathologic alterations seen in the myocardium. These include various degenerative changes, myocyte necrosis, and inflammatory lesions. However, some diseases show rather characteristic myocardial alterations such as vacuolar degeneration in anthracycline cardiotoxicity, myofibrillar lysis in furazolidone cardiotoxicity, calcification in calcinosis of mice, glycogen accumulation in the glycogenoses, lipofuscinosis in cattle, fatty degeneration in erucic acid cardiotoxicity, myofiber disarray in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and lymphocytic inflammation with inclusion bodies in canine parvoviral myocarditis. The myocardial diseases represent the largest group in the spectrum of spontaneous cardiac diseases of animals. Pericardial and endocardial diseases and congential cardiac diseases are

  10. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    PubMed

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint.

  11. Animating Brains

    PubMed Central

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  12. The Evolution of Multicellular Plants and Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, James W.

    1978-01-01

    Traces the evolution of unicellular organisms to the multi-cellular plants and animals in existence today. Major events are depicted in a geologic timetable. Organisms, extinct and recent, are classified by taxonomic group. (MA)

  13. MicroSPECT and MicroPET Imaging of Small Animals for Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The process of drug discovery and development requires substantial resources and time. The drug industry has tried to reduce costs by conducting appropriate animal studies together with molecular biological and genetic analyses. Basic science research has been limited to in vitro studies of cellular processes and ex vivo tissue examination using suitable animal models of disease. However, in the past two decades new technologies have been developed that permit the imaging of live animals using radiotracer emission, Xrays, magnetic resonance signals, fluorescence, and bioluminescence. The main objective of this review is to provide an overview of small animal molecular imaging, with a focus on nuclear imaging (single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography). These technologies permit visualization of toxicodynamics as well as toxicity to specific organs by directly monitoring drug accumulation and assessing physiological and/or molecular alterations. Nuclear imaging technology has great potential for improving the efficiency of the drug development process. PMID:24278622

  14. Organic compounds present in airborne particles stimulate superoxide production and DNA fragmentation: role of NOX and xanthine oxidase in animal tissues.

    PubMed

    Busso, Iván Tavera; Silva, Guillermo Benjamín; Carreras, Hebe Alejandra

    2016-08-01

    Suspended particulate matter trigger the production of reactive oxygen species. However, most of the studies dealing with oxidative damage of airborne particles focus on the effects of individual compounds and not real mixtures. In order to study the enzymatic superoxide production resulting from the exposition to a complex mixture, we derived organic extracts from airborne particles collected daily in an urban area and exposed kidney, liver, and heart mammal tissues. After that, we measured DNA damage employing the comet assay. We observed that in every tissue, NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase were involved in O2 (-) production when they were exposed to the organic extracts, as the lucigenin's chemiluminescence decays when enzymes were inhibited. The same trend was observed with the percentage of cells with comets, since DNA damage was higher when they were exposed to same experimental conditions. Our data allow us to hypothesize that these enzymes play an important role in the oxidative stress produced by PAHs and that there is a mechanism involving them in the O2 (-)generation. PMID:27180836

  15. Organic compounds present in airborne particles stimulate superoxide production and DNA fragmentation: role of NOX and xanthine oxidase in animal tissues.

    PubMed

    Busso, Iván Tavera; Silva, Guillermo Benjamín; Carreras, Hebe Alejandra

    2016-08-01

    Suspended particulate matter trigger the production of reactive oxygen species. However, most of the studies dealing with oxidative damage of airborne particles focus on the effects of individual compounds and not real mixtures. In order to study the enzymatic superoxide production resulting from the exposition to a complex mixture, we derived organic extracts from airborne particles collected daily in an urban area and exposed kidney, liver, and heart mammal tissues. After that, we measured DNA damage employing the comet assay. We observed that in every tissue, NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase were involved in O2 (-) production when they were exposed to the organic extracts, as the lucigenin's chemiluminescence decays when enzymes were inhibited. The same trend was obse