Science.gov

Sample records for animals wild

  1. Wild Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and other resources focuses on wild animals. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources, as well as a class activity. (LRW)

  2. Laboratory Animal Management: Wild Birds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Inst. of Lab. Animal Resources.

    This is a report on the care and use of wild birds in captivity as research animals. Chapters are presented on procurement and identification, housing, nutrition, health of birds and personnel, reproduction in confinement, and surgical procedures. Also included are addresses of federal, state, and provencial regulatory agencies concerned with wild…

  3. Toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Toxoplasma gondii is widely distributed in wild and domestic animals. The present chapter reviews toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals. Coverage in wild animal species is limited to confirmed cases of toxoplasmosis, cases with parasite isolation, cases with parasite detection by PCR, and exper...

  4. Mycobacterium ulcerans in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Portaels, F; Chemlal, K; Elsen, P; Johnson, P D; Hayman, J A; Hibble, J; Kirkwood, R; Meyers, W M

    2001-04-01

    ulcerans infection is a rapidly re-emerging disease in some developing tropical countries. The re-emergence may be related to environmental and socioeconomic factors, for example, deforestation leading to increased flooding, and population expansion without improved agricultural techniques, thus putting more people at risk. Eradication of diseases related to these factors is difficult. Whether wild animals have a role in transmission is an important question that, to date, has been virtually unexplored. To address this question, surveys of wild animals are urgently required in those areas in which Buruli ulcer is endemic.

  5. Molecular identification of trypanosomatids in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Tenório, M S; Oliveira e Sousa, L; Alves-Martin, M F; Paixão, M S; Rodrigues, M V; Starke-Buzetti, W A; Araújo Junior, J P; Lucheis, S B

    2014-06-16

    Diverse wild animal species can be reservoirs of zoonotic flagellate parasites, which can cause pathologic Chagas disease. The present study aimed to detect the natural occurrence of flagellate parasites through direct microscopic examination of the parasites in blood samples and through PCR of whole blood and blood culture (haemoculture) samples from 38 captive and 65 free-living wild animals in the Centre for Conservation of Wild Fauna (CCWF), an area endemic for leishmaniasis. For this study, PCR was accomplished using primers for the ribosomal region (ITS-1) of the flagellate parasites. The amplified fragments were cloned and sequenced to identify DNA of the Trypanosomatid parasite species, observed in blood cultures from 3.9% (04/103) of the animals. Through these techniques, Trypanosoma cruzi was identified in haemoculture samples of the following three free-living species: common agouti (Dasyprocta aguti), white-eared opossum (Didelphis albiventris), and nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus). Furthermore, Trypanosoma minasense was identified in whole blood samples from 01 (0.9%) captive animal (black howler monkey-Alouatta caraya). These results demonstrated the first report of T. cruzi isolation in wild species from the CCWF using blood culture, which can be applied in addition to molecular tools for epidemiological studies and to identify trypanosomatids in wild animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identifying teaching in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Alex; Raihani, Nichola J

    2010-08-01

    After a long period of neglect, the study of teaching in nonhuman animals is beginning to take a more prominent role in research on social learning. Unlike other forms of social learning, teaching requires knowledgeable individuals to play an active role in facilitating learning by the naive. Casting aside anthropocentric requirements for cognitive mechanisms assumed to underpin teaching in our own species, researchers are now beginning to discover evidence for teaching across a wide range of taxa. Nevertheless, unequivocal evidence for teaching remains scarce, with convincing experimental data limited to meerkats, pied babblers, and tandem-running ants. In this review, our aim is to stimulate further research in different species and contexts by providing conceptual and methodological guidelines for identifying teaching, with a focus on natural populations. We begin by highlighting the fact that teaching is a form of cooperative behavior that functions to promote learning in others and show that consideration of these key characteristics is critical in helping to identify suitable targets for future research. We then go on to discuss potential observational, experimental, and statistical techniques that may assist researchers in providing evidence that the criteria that make up the accepted operational definition of teaching have been met. Supplemental materials for this article may be downloaded from http://lb.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  7. Wild boar helminths: risks in animal translocations.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-de-Mera, Isabel G; Gortazar, Christian; Vicente, Joaquin; Höfle, Ursula; Fierro, Yolanda

    2003-08-14

    The helminth populations found in a group of wild boars collected in central Spain were compared to those in a group of animals imported from a French game farm that produces boars for restocking. Eleven helminth species, including ten nematodes and one acanthocephalan, were found. Gongylonema pulchrum and Macracanthorhynchus hirundinaceus were only detected in autochthonous wild boars, while Oesophagostomum dentatum, Ascaris suum, and Trichuris suis were detected in imported animals only. Autochthonous wild boars were more frequently and more intensely parasitised by Ascarops strongylina than the imported ones. No differences in prevalence nor intensity were found for the species Capillaria garfiai, Globocephalus urosubulatus, Metastrongylus sp., Physocephalus sexalatus and Simondsia paradoxa. To our knowledge, G. urosubulatus, G. pulchrum and S. paradoxa have not previously been described in wild boars in Spain. Our results highlight the risks of translocating wild animals, with regard to their helminth parasites. Until improved control measures are established, it would be wise to avoid long-distance translocations in order to prevent the potential introduction of foreign parasites.

  8. Rovers minimize human disturbance in research on wild animals.

    PubMed

    Le Maho, Yvon; Whittington, Jason D; Hanuise, Nicolas; Pereira, Louise; Boureau, Matthieu; Brucker, Mathieu; Chatelain, Nicolas; Courtecuisse, Julien; Crenner, Francis; Friess, Benjamin; Grosbellet, Edith; Kernaléguen, Laëtitia; Olivier, Frédérique; Saraux, Claire; Vetter, Nathanaël; Viblanc, Vincent A; Thierry, Bernard; Tremblay, Pascale; Groscolas, René; Le Bohec, Céline

    2014-12-01

    Investigating wild animals while minimizing human disturbance remains an important methodological challenge. When approached by a remote-operated vehicle (rover) which can be equipped to make radio-frequency identifications, wild penguins had significantly lower and shorter stress responses (determined by heart rate and behavior) than when approached by humans. Upon immobilization, the rover-unlike humans-did not disorganize colony structure, and stress rapidly ceased. Thus, rovers can reduce human disturbance of wild animals and the resulting scientific bias.

  9. [Wild animals and law and ethics in France].

    PubMed

    Nouët, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Legal systems applying to wild animals are very different depending on whether the animals are in captivity or under human control, or whether they are in the wild. Animals in captivity, like domesticated animals, are covered by protective measures for the welfare of the individual animal, but wild animals are not considered as individuals but only as members of a species, their numbers being controlled by humans and determined by human interests. In the light of contemporary scientific knowledge, such legal approaches are now inappropriate and can no longer be accepted for ethical reasons. The legal systems need to develop and must include a definition of the animal as an individual and as a sentient being.

  10. Federal Measures Against the Abuse of Wild Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Nathaniel P.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the appalling conditions associated with many zoos and with the trafficking of exotic pets, and discusses recent federal and international measures designed to reduce the abuse of wild animals. (JR)

  11. Federal Measures Against the Abuse of Wild Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Nathaniel P.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the appalling conditions associated with many zoos and with the trafficking of exotic pets, and discusses recent federal and international measures designed to reduce the abuse of wild animals. (JR)

  12. Buying time for wild animals with zoos.

    PubMed

    Conway, William G

    2011-01-01

    Zoos and aquariums exhibit many rare species, but sustain few for long periods. Demanding genetic, demographic, and behavioral requirements are a part of the sustainability challenge, and historical zoo goals and limiting animal management objectives are another, but they have been overtaken by worldwide wildlife population contraction and endangerment. New policies are essential for zoo continuance and, if vanishing species are to be helped by zoo propagation, they must be given priority. However, zoos have little animal carrying capacity and propagation must be much more sharply focused. In addition, it is becoming urgent that zoos help to support parks and reserves and, where possible, manage some especially endangered species mutually with parks.

  13. Trichinella infection in wild animals from endemic regions of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ribicich, Mabel; Gamble, H R; Bolpe, Jorge; Scialfa, Exequiel; Krivokapich, Silvio; Cardillo, Natalia; Betti, Adriana; Holzmann, Maria Laura Cambiaggi; Pasqualetti, Mariana; Fariña, Fernando; Rosa, Adriana

    2010-07-01

    Natural infection with Trichinella has been described in more than 150 mammalian species. However, few reports of Trichinella infection in wild animals have come from Argentina. In this study, muscle tissue was obtained from wild animals in Argentina with the aim of evaluating the presence of Trichinella. A total of 169 muscle samples were collected to determine the presence of Trichinella larvae by artificial digestion. The 169 muscle samples originated from 12 species including 36 opossums (Didelphis albiventris), 19 armadillos (Chaetophractus villosus), 9 capybaras (Hydrocaeris hydrocaeris), 1 puma (Puma concolor), 3 grey fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus), 6 coypus (Myocastor coypus), 6 skunks (Conepatus chinga), 2 ferrets (Galictis cuja), 66 rats (Rattus norvegicus), 6 mice (Mus musculus), 12 wild boars (Sus scrofa), and 3 wild cats (Felis geoffroyi). Trichinella infection was detected in 1 puma [2 larvae per gram (LPG)], 3 wild boars (8-420 LPG), 3 armadillos (0.04-0.08 LPG), and 9 rats (0.1 to 150 LPG). Only 3 Trichinella isolates, of 1 rat and 2 wild boars from Neuquén, were identified as Trichinella spiralis by nested PCR. The presence of Trichinella infection among wild animal populations suggests a sylvatic cycle of transmission in Argentina, which can serve as a reservoir for humans and domestic animals. Further, evidence of high prevalence in rats emphasizes the need to improve pig management, mainly in small individual farms without adequate technology, to enhance the quality of feeds, and to improve veterinary services to avoid exposure of pigs to Trichinella.

  14. Arboviruses pathogenic for domestic and wild animals.

    PubMed

    Hubálek, Zdenek; Rudolf, Ivo; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to provide an updated and concise systematic review on taxonomy, history, arthropod vectors, vertebrate hosts, animal disease, and geographic distribution of all arboviruses known to date to cause disease in homeotherm (endotherm) vertebrates, except those affecting exclusively man. Fifty arboviruses pathogenic for animals have been documented worldwide, belonging to seven families: Togaviridae (mosquito-borne Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan equine encephalilitis viruses; Sindbis, Middelburg, Getah, and Semliki Forest viruses), Flaviviridae (mosquito-borne yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, Murray Valley encephalitis, West Nile, Usutu, Israel turkey meningoencephalitis, Tembusu and Wesselsbron viruses; tick-borne encephalitis, louping ill, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, and Tyuleniy viruses), Bunyaviridae (tick-borne Nairobi sheep disease, Soldado, and Bhanja viruses; mosquito-borne Rift Valley fever, La Crosse, Snowshoe hare, and Cache Valley viruses; biting midges-borne Main Drain, Akabane, Aino, Shuni, and Schmallenberg viruses), Reoviridae (biting midges-borne African horse sickness, Kasba, bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer, Ibaraki, equine encephalosis, Peruvian horse sickness, and Yunnan viruses), Rhabdoviridae (sandfly/mosquito-borne bovine ephemeral fever, vesicular stomatitis-Indiana, vesicular stomatitis-New Jersey, vesicular stomatitis-Alagoas, and Coccal viruses), Orthomyxoviridae (tick-borne Thogoto virus), and Asfarviridae (tick-borne African swine fever virus). They are transmitted to animals by five groups of hematophagous arthropods of the subphyllum Chelicerata (order Acarina, families Ixodidae and Argasidae-ticks) or members of the class Insecta: mosquitoes (family Culicidae); biting midges (family Ceratopogonidae); sandflies (subfamily Phlebotominae); and cimicid bugs (family Cimicidae). Arboviral diseases in endotherm animals may therefore be classified as: tick

  15. Correlations between elements in the fur of wild animals.

    PubMed

    Długaszek, Maria; Kopczyński, Krzysztof

    2014-07-01

    There is little data on the elemental composition of wild animals fur. In the paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate the concentration of elements in the fur of roe deer, wild boar and hare. The contents of following elements: calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), aluminium (Al), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry method. Their content was in the range 0.01 (Cd) to 1,519 (Ca) μg/g. Correlations between the content of Mn, Al, Ca, Pb, Cr, Ni in the fur of animals, liver and muscle tissues were found. Thus it can be assumed that the fur of wild animals can provide an information on the bioavailability of elements and environmental exposure and can be considered as an useful biomarker in animals and environmental studies, although research on this subject should be continued.

  16. Toxicological significance of soil ingestion by wild and domestic animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Fries, George F.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    2003-01-01

    Most wild and domestic animals ingest some soil or sediment, and some species may routinely, or under special circumstances, ingest considerable amounts. Ingested soil supplies nutrients, exposes animals to parasites and pathogens, and may play a role in developing immune systems.1 Soil ingestion is also sometimes the principal route of exposure to various environmental contaminants.2-7 Ingestion of soil and earthy material is defined as geophagy and may be either intentional or unintentional, occurring as an animal eats or grooms.

  17. Natural infection by endoparasites among free-living wild animals.

    PubMed

    Holsback, Luciane; Cardoso, Mauro José Lahm; Fagnani, Rafael; Patelli, Thaís Helena Constantino

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence and variety of intestinal parasites among free-living wild animals. Fecal samples from wild mammals and birds at rehabilitation centers in the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and São Paulo were analyzed by sedimentation and flotation-centrifugation methods. Parasite eggs, oocysts, cysts and/or trophozoites were found in 71% of the samples. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were detected in fecal samples from oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus) and scaly-headed parrots (Pionus maximiliani). Giardia cysts were identified in the feces of a gray brocket (Mazama gouazoubira). Among the most common parasites found, there were eggs from Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina and Ancylostoma tubaeforme, and from Cestoda. Several Enterobius sp. eggs were found in the feces of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). It can be concluded from this study that despite the small number of samples, the diversity of parasites found was noteworthy. Additional information about parasite endofauna in wild animals is needed, since their presence might suggest that there could be proximity to and interactions with domestic animals and/or humans. In addition, further studies on parasites from free-living wild animals are of prime importance for understanding the intensity of anthropic changes in wild environments.

  18. Occurrence of Trichinella spp. in wild animals in northwestern Libya.

    PubMed

    Hosni, M M; Maghrbi, A A El; Ganghish, K S

    2013-01-01

    The present study determined the occurrence of Trichinella spp. in captured and some perished wildlife animals which included 70 hedgehogs, 19 red foxes, 13 common jackals and 8 crested porcupines in northwestern Libya. Muscle samples of these animals were examined by trichinoscopy. Trichinella larvae were detected only in 4 (5.7%) of the hedgehogs (Erinaceus algirus) and 2 (10.5%) of the red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Larvae were found in the muscles of the diaphragm, abdomen, tongue, forelimb, hindlimb and intercostal muscles. Examination of tissue sections revealed the presence of numerous cysts within the muscle fibers containing one or more coiled or elongated larvae. Inflammatory cell infiltration was observed around the cysts especially at their poles. Results indicated the importance of wild animals as reservoirs of Trichinella larvae and their role in the transmission of the disease to other wild and domestic animals as well as humans.

  19. Occurrence of Trichinella spp. in wild animals in northwestern Libya

    PubMed Central

    Hosni, M.M.; Maghrbi, A.A. El; Ganghish, K.S.

    2013-01-01

    The present study determined the occurrence of Trichinella spp. in captured and some perished wildlife animals which included 70 hedgehogs, 19 red foxes, 13 common jackals and 8 crested porcupines in northwestern Libya. Muscle samples of these animals were examined by trichinoscopy. Trichinella larvae were detected only in 4 (5.7%) of the hedgehogs (Erinaceus algirus) and 2 (10.5%) of the red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Larvae were found in the muscles of the diaphragm, abdomen, tongue, forelimb, hindlimb and intercostal muscles. Examination of tissue sections revealed the presence of numerous cysts within the muscle fibers containing one or more coiled or elongated larvae. Inflammatory cell infiltration was observed around the cysts especially at their poles. Results indicated the importance of wild animals as reservoirs of Trichinella larvae and their role in the transmission of the disease to other wild and domestic animals as well as humans. PMID:26623318

  20. Image-based red cell counting for wild animals blood.

    PubMed

    Mauricio, Claudio R M; Schneider, Fabio K; Dos Santos, Leonilda Correia

    2010-01-01

    An image-based red blood cell (RBC) automatic counting system is presented for wild animals blood analysis. Images with 2048×1536-pixel resolution acquired on an optical microscope using Neubauer chambers are used to evaluate RBC counting for three animal species (Leopardus pardalis, Cebus apella and Nasua nasua) and the error found using the proposed method is similar to that obtained for inter observer visual counting method, i.e., around 10%. Smaller errors (e.g., 3%) can be obtained in regions with less grid artifacts. These promising results allow the use of the proposed method either as a complete automatic counting tool in laboratories for wild animal's blood analysis or as a first counting stage in a semi-automatic counting tool.

  1. GAPs in the study of zoo and wild animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Goulart, Vinícius D; Azevedo, Pedro G; van de Schepop, Joanna A; Teixeira, Camila P; Barçante, Luciana; Azevedo, Cristiano S; Young, Robert J

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the science of animal welfare for zoo and wild animals in the period from 1966 to 2007, we conducted a bibliometric analysis of abstracts downloaded from The Web of Science((c)) database using the keyword combination "Animal welfare, Zoo* and wild" in the topic field. In total we downloaded 1,125 abstracts, which were classified into the following categories: year of publication; environment of the study (e.g., zoo) or theoretical; area of knowledge (e.g., conservation in situ); number of experimental animals used; species; addresses of authors; taxonomic classification; publication language; journal name; number of citations received. Since 1990, there has been a rapid increase in the number of articles published in this area of animal welfare. One worrying result was that published articles were predominately of a theoretical nature (58.65%, N=563). Most of the articles were published by authors either in Europe (47.43%, N=480) or North America (37.65%, N=381) and written in English (87.71%, N=971). The majority of experimental studies were conducted with mammals (75.92%, N=391), and had small sample sizes (N=7 for zoo-based studies). In terms of impact factor (IF), the journals in this study had a median factor equivalent to that for the area of biological sciences (median IF=1.013). Little knowledge cross-over from farm animal welfare was found (only four articles) in this study. In conclusion, zoo and wild animal welfare as a science may benefit from a greater interaction with farm animal welfare.

  2. Measuring Animal Age with DNA Methylation: From Humans to Wild Animals.

    PubMed

    De Paoli-Iseppi, Ricardo; Deagle, Bruce E; McMahon, Clive R; Hindell, Mark A; Dickinson, Joanne L; Jarman, Simon N

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation (DNAm) is a key mechanism for regulating gene expression in animals and levels are known to change with age. Recent studies have used DNAm changes as a biomarker to estimate chronological age in humans and these techniques are now also being applied to domestic and wild animals. Animal age is widely used to track ongoing changes in ecosystems, however chronological age information is often unavailable for wild animals. An ability to estimate age would lead to improved monitoring of (i) population trends and status and (ii) demographic properties such as age structure and reproductive performance. Recent studies have revealed new examples of DNAm age association in several new species increasing the potential for developing DNAm age biomarkers for a broad range of wild animals. Emerging technologies for measuring DNAm will also enhance our ability to study age-related DNAm changes and to develop new molecular age biomarkers.

  3. Wild animals in our backyard. A contextual approach to the intrinsic value of animals.

    PubMed

    Swart, Jac A A; Keulartz, Jozef

    2011-06-01

    As a reflection on recent debates on the value of wild animals we examine the question of the intrinsic value of wild animals in both natural and man-made surroundings. We examine the concepts being wild and domesticated. In our approach we consider animals as dependent on their environment, whether it is a human or a natural environment. Stressing this dependence we argue that a distinction can be made between three different interpretations of a wild animal's intrinsic value: a species-specific, a naturalistic, and an individualistic interpretation. According to the species-specific approach, the animal is primarily considered as a member of its species; according to the naturalistic interpretation, the animal is seen as dependent on the natural environment; and according to the individualistic approach, the animal is seen in terms of its relationship to humans. In our opinion, the species-specific interpretation, which is the current dominant view, should be supplemented-but not replaced by-naturalistic and individualistic interpretations, which focus attention on the relationship of the animal to the natural and human environments, respectively. Which of these three interpretations is the most suitable in a given case depends on the circumstances and the opportunity for the animal to grow and develop according to its nature and capabilities.

  4. 19 CFR 10.75 - Wild animals and birds; zoological collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wild animals and birds; zoological collections. 10... Animals and Birds § 10.75 Wild animals and birds; zoological collections. When wild animals or birds are... animals or birds were specially imported pursuant to negotiations conducted prior to importation for the...

  5. 19 CFR 10.75 - Wild animals and birds; zoological collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wild animals and birds; zoological collections. 10... Animals and Birds § 10.75 Wild animals and birds; zoological collections. When wild animals or birds are... animals or birds were specially imported pursuant to negotiations conducted prior to importation for the...

  6. 19 CFR 10.75 - Wild animals and birds; zoological collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wild animals and birds; zoological collections. 10... Animals and Birds § 10.75 Wild animals and birds; zoological collections. When wild animals or birds are... animals or birds were specially imported pursuant to negotiations conducted prior to importation for the...

  7. 19 CFR 10.75 - Wild animals and birds; zoological collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wild animals and birds; zoological collections. 10... Animals and Birds § 10.75 Wild animals and birds; zoological collections. When wild animals or birds are... animals or birds were specially imported pursuant to negotiations conducted prior to importation for the...

  8. 19 CFR 10.75 - Wild animals and birds; zoological collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wild animals and birds; zoological collections. 10... Animals and Birds § 10.75 Wild animals and birds; zoological collections. When wild animals or birds are... animals or birds were specially imported pursuant to negotiations conducted prior to importation for...

  9. Neosomes of tungid fleas on wild and domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Linardi, Pedro Marcos; de Avelar, Daniel Moreira

    2014-10-01

    Tunga is the most specialized genus among the Siphonaptera because adult females penetrate into the skin of their hosts and, after mating and fertilization, undergo hypertrophy, forming an enlarged structure known as the neosome. In humans and other warm-blooded animals, neosomes cause tungiasis, which arises due to the action of opportunistic agents. Although its effects on humans and domestic animals are well described in the literature, little is known about the impact of tungiasis on wild animals. This review focuses on the morphology, taxonomy, geographical distribution, hosts, prevalence, sites of attachment, and impact of tungid neosomes on wild and domestic animals. Because neosomes are the most characteristic form of the genus Tunga and also the form most frequently found in hosts, they are here differentiated and illustrated to aid in the identification of the 13 currently known species. Perspectives for future studies regarding the possibility of discovering other sand flea species, adaptation to new hosts, and the transfer of tungids between hosts in natural and modified habitats are also presented.

  10. Wild Animals Used as Food Medicine in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega; Oliveira, Tacyana Pereira Ribeiro; Rosa, Ierecê Lucena

    2013-01-01

    The connection between eating and healing is common in traditional folk medical systems, and the multiple possibilities resulting from the combination of biodiversity and culture confer a wealth and complexity in terms of knowledge of the flora and fauna as to their potential as food medicine. The growing awareness of the links between traditional therapeutic-alimentary uses of wildlife and conservation has drawn attention to the gaps in knowledge on the social, economic, and biological contexts in which different forms of traditional wildlife uses take place, particularly with regard to zootherapeutic resources. In this study we interviewed 124 merchants and 203 traditional users of animal-derived remedies in Brazil, aiming at documenting the animal species used as foods and medicines in urban and rural areas of the country. At least 354 wild animal species are used in Brazilian traditional medicine, of which 157 are also used as food. The high degree of overlap between medicinal and alimentary uses of wild animals highlights the importance of understanding the socioeconomic, cultural, and ecological contexts in which those traditional uses take place for elucidating their potential impact on public health and biodiversity conservation. PMID:23986785

  11. Wild animals used as food medicine in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega; Oliveira, Tacyana Pereira Ribeiro; Rosa, Ierecê Lucena

    2013-01-01

    The connection between eating and healing is common in traditional folk medical systems, and the multiple possibilities resulting from the combination of biodiversity and culture confer a wealth and complexity in terms of knowledge of the flora and fauna as to their potential as food medicine. The growing awareness of the links between traditional therapeutic-alimentary uses of wildlife and conservation has drawn attention to the gaps in knowledge on the social, economic, and biological contexts in which different forms of traditional wildlife uses take place, particularly with regard to zootherapeutic resources. In this study we interviewed 124 merchants and 203 traditional users of animal-derived remedies in Brazil, aiming at documenting the animal species used as foods and medicines in urban and rural areas of the country. At least 354 wild animal species are used in Brazilian traditional medicine, of which 157 are also used as food. The high degree of overlap between medicinal and alimentary uses of wild animals highlights the importance of understanding the socioeconomic, cultural, and ecological contexts in which those traditional uses take place for elucidating their potential impact on public health and biodiversity conservation.

  12. Trichinella britovi from domestic to wild animals of Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Bandino, E; Goddi, L; Mulas, M; Murgia, M C; Soddu, M; Marucci, G; Pezzotti, P; Cabras, P A; Pozio, E

    2015-09-15

    The zoonotic nematode Trichinella britovi has been documented in animals and/or humans of the Mediterranean islands of Corsica and Sardinia since 2004. From 2005 to 2007 in the Sardinia island, several surveys had shown that T. britovi was circulating among backyard and free-ranging pigs reared in the Orgosolo municipality but all attempts had failed to detect this parasite in wild susceptible animals. The aim of the present work was to investigate the circulation of T. britovi in pigs and wildlife of the Orgosolo municipality, and of surrounding municipalities and provinces in the 2010-2014 slaughtering/hunting seasons. The results show that the T. britovi circulation was still restricted to the Orgosolo municipality with a prevalence of 2.6% in free-ranging pigs and 0.2% in backyard pigs but, for the first time, this parasite was detected also in 0.4% of wild boar, and 27.6% of red foxes. No infection was detected in backyard pigs, wild boar, and red foxes of the other municipalities and provinces. Since 1978, African swine fever is endemic in Sardinia and foci of this virus are still active in the investigated areas favoring cannibalism and, consequently, the T. britovi transmission, due to the high mortality rate caused by this virus. This is the first documented report on the transmission of T. britovi between the domestic and the sylvatic cycle. The health authority of the island must provide a service to dispose animal carcasses and offal, stamping out illegal free-ranging pigs, and train hunters and pig owners to manage waste and by-products according to the EU regulations.

  13. [Applications of DNA identification technology in protection of wild animals].

    PubMed

    Ni, Ping-Ya; Pei, Li; Ge, Wen-Dong; Zhang, Ying; Yang, Xue-Ying; Xu, Xiao-Yu; Tu, Zheng

    2011-12-01

    With the development of biotechnology, forensic DNA identification technology in protection of wild animals has been used more and more widely. This review introduces the global status of wildlife crime and the relevant protection to wildlife, outlines the practical applications of forensic DNA identification technology with regard to species identification, determination of geographic origin, individual identification and paternity identification. It focus on the techniques commonly used in DNA typing and their merits and demerits, as well as the problems and prospects of forensic DNA technology for wildlife conservation.

  14. Leptospirosis on captive wild animals in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Anahi S; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2017-08-04

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide bacterial infection, being more prevalent in tropical regions. Human beings, domestic animals and wildlife species are susceptible to a wide variety of serovars. Zoos have a great importance in keeping endangered species, increasing populations and accumulating knowledge on these species. Although some studies describe the occurrence of leptospirosis in captivity animals, a systematic review regarding the infection in these animals in tropical areas has never been conducted. Thus, the objective of this study was to systematically gather and analyze data regarding leptospirosis among captive wild animals in Latin America. A total of 141 species were studied, 93 genus, 44 families and 15 orders from three classes. Median seroprevalence ranged from 0 to 52% and predominant serogroups were Canicola and Icterohaemorrhagiae for mammalian, and Sejroe for reptiles. One important outcome is that, when kept on zoos, wildlife is more frequently infected by incidental strains instead of adapted strains. Preventive measures should consider periodic serosurvey of all animal species in captivity, as well as the use of commercial vaccines to reduce leptospiral infection and its hazards. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Research on vertebrate pesticides and traps: do wild animals benefit?

    PubMed

    Warburton, Bruce; O'Connor, Cheryl

    2004-06-01

    New Zealand has a range of carnivorous and herbivorous mammals that were originally introduced for recreational, financial, aesthetic and biocontrol reasons, but which now pose significant threats to conservation and animal health values. Research is undertaken to develop new tools and strategies to manage these pests. Captive trials that are carried out include those to determine the toxicity of poisons, the efficacy of fertility control agents, and welfare impacts of poisons and traps. Field trials are undertaken to test the efficacy of poisons and traps, and large-scale management trials carried out to optimise control strategies. Although this research is aimed at managing animals, including killing them, we believe that there are benefits to both individual animals and animal populations that far exceed any cost of harm to individuals that are managed (often killed). We suggest that there are three levels of beneficiaries: the individuals of the pest species that are killed, the individuals in the surviving population, and the individuals and populations of other species. We provide examples of how wild animals can benefit from vertebrate pesticide and trap research.

  16. Wild Origins: The Evolving Nature of Animal Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Ifigenia

    For billions of years, evolution has been the driving force behind the incredible range of biodiversity on our planet. Wild Origins is a concept plan for an exhibition at the National Zoo that uses case studies of animal behavior to explain the theory of evolution. Behaviors evolve, just as physical forms do. Understanding natural selection can help us interpret animal behavior and vice-versa. A living collection, digital media, interactives, fossils, and photographs will relay stories of social behavior, sex, navigation and migration, foraging, domestication, and relationships between different species. The informal learning opportunities visitors are offered at the zoo will create a connection with the exhibition's teaching points. Visitors will leave with an understanding and sense of wonder at the evolutionary view of life.

  17. Manipulating glucocorticoids in wild animals: basic and applied perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sopinka, Natalie M.; Patterson, Lucy D.; Redfern, Julia C.; Pleizier, Naomi K.; Belanger, Cassia B.; Midwood, Jon D.; Crossin, Glenn T.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most comprehensively studied responses to stressors in vertebrates is the endogenous production and regulation of glucocorticoids (GCs). Extensive laboratory research using experimental elevation of GCs in model species is instrumental in learning about stressor-induced physiological and behavioural mechanisms; however, such studies fail to inform our understanding of ecological and evolutionary processes in the wild. We reviewed emerging research that has used GC manipulations in wild vertebrates to assess GC-mediated effects on survival, physiology, behaviour, reproduction and offspring quality. Within and across taxa, exogenous manipulation of GCs increased, decreased or had no effect on traits examined in the reviewed studies. The notable diversity in responses to GC manipulation could be associated with variation in experimental methods, inherent differences among species, morphs, sexes and age classes, and the ecological conditions in which responses were measured. In their current form, results from experimental studies may be applied to animal conservation on a case-by-case basis in contexts such as threshold-based management. We discuss ways to integrate mechanistic explanations for changes in animal abundance in altered environments with functional applications that inform conservation practitioners of which species and traits may be most responsive to environmental change or human disturbance. Experimental GC manipulation holds promise for determining mechanisms underlying fitness impairment and population declines. Future work in this area should examine multiple life-history traits, with consideration of individual variation and, most importantly, validation of GC manipulations within naturally occurring and physiologically relevant ranges. PMID:27293716

  18. Addressing feral and wild animal threats during deployment: the distinction between animal control and rabies control.

    PubMed

    Dunton, Raymond F; Sargent, Gerald R

    2009-01-01

    Feral and wild animal control is a critical component of force health protection during troop deployments. The primary goal of animal control during a military deployment is to limit human injury or disease by reducing the likelihood of human-animal contact on US bases. For deployed US military forces, animal control will often be necessary, and trapping and euthanasia will remain the standard. In contrast, a rabies control program focuses on reducing disease incidence in an animal population with a subsequent reduction in rabies risk to military personnel. A successful rabies control program requires several components that typically are not possible in areas where the US Army deploys. The responsibility for animal control during an Army deployment has historically fallen to Army Preventive Medicine Sciences officers (Area of Concentration 67C). Understanding that the deployed US Army conducts animal control to limit human-animal contact, and also that it is generally not possible to mount a successful rabies control program on US contingency bases in the absence of an established, mature national plan will ensure that we are doing all we can to protect Soldiers from animal injury and disease transmission.

  19. Occurrence of Enterococci in Animals in a Wild Environment1

    PubMed Central

    Mundt, J. Orvin

    1963-01-01

    Enterococci were obtained from the feces of 71% of 216 mammals, 86% of 70 reptiles, and 32% of 22 birds sampled in a truly wild environment, the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Patterns of food dependence and also of species dependence were observed. Among the lower classes of the primarily herbivorous mammals, the enterococci occurred sporadically; however, of the six species of Sciuridae, the gray squirrel, and of four species of Cricetidae, the red-backed mouse, the enterococci appear to be natural hosts. The enterococci were not obtained from most specimens of moles, shrews, or rabbits but they were obtained from most specimens of bats and from the carnivorous mammals, such as fox, bear, raccon, skunk, and boar. Streptococcus faecalis was obtained from 12 reptiles, and a caseolytic variant was obtained from 37 specimens of the reptiles. The strongly reducing, tellurite-tolerant species, S. faecalis, its caseolytic variant, and S. faecalis var. zymogenes were isolated from 127 or 41% of 308 specimens cultured. S. faecium was recovered from 87 or 28% of the animals, chiefly from the wild boar (60 of 64 trials) and the black bear. S. zymogenes was obtained from 1 of 31 bats, 3 of 12 raccoons, and 1 of 3 owls. PMID:13936610

  20. Wild animals as reservoirs of Anaplasma phagocytophilum for humans

    PubMed

    Dzięgiel, Beata; Adaszek, Łukasz; Winiarczyk, Stanisław

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-transmitted obligate-intracellular gram-negative bacteria that causes emerging human zoonosis. A. phagocytophilum is transmitted by Ixodid ticks. Recent studies suggest that wild animals may be reservoirs of A. phagocytophilum for humans. The organism infects and survives within neutrophils. The infection diagnosis is based on the detection of morulae within granulocytes of peripheral blood, results of serological tests and detection of the DNA of A. phagocytophilum using specific polymerase chain reaction assays (PCR). A. phagocytophilum in most cases is transmitted to people by tick bites, but sometimes direct contact with infected blood may cause human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA). The possibility of infection should be taken into consideration at each occurrence of heavy disease symptoms after people come into contact with ticks.

  1. Prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Thulliez, P

    2005-10-01

    Antibodies to Neospora caninum were determined in several species of wild animals in the United States by the Neospora agglutination test (NAT). Antibodies (NAT 1:40 or higher) were found in 5 of 249 bison (Bison bison), 5 of 160 caribou (Rangifer tarandus), 4 of 162 moose (Alces alces), 4 of 122 wolves (Canis lupus), and 1 of 224 musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) but not in 197 black bears (Ursus americanus). To our knowledge, this is the first report of antibodies to N. caninum in bison and caribou. The total absence of N. caninum antibodies in black bears indicates that bears are not a host for N. caninum and that there is no cross-reactivity between the NAT and the modified agglutination test (MAT) for Toxoplasma gondii, because more than 80% of black bears in eastern United States have MAT antibodies at a 1:25 serum solution.

  2. Dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant clones of Salmonella enterica among domestic animals, wild animals, and humans.

    PubMed

    Palomo, Gonzalo; Campos, Maria Jorge; Ugarte, María; Porrero, María Concepción; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Borge, Carmen; Vadillo, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas; Quesada, Alberto; Píriz, Segundo

    2013-02-01

    Non-typhoidal salmonellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Salmonella enterica. This work focuses on the identification of Salmonella enterica clonal strains which, presenting a wide distribution potential, express resistance determinants that compromise effectiveness of the antimicrobial therapy. The screening was performed on 506 Salmonella enterica isolates from animals and humans, which were characterized by serovar and phage typing, genome macrorestriction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and detection of phenotypic and genotypic traits for antimicrobial resistance. A Salmonella Enteritidis strain with strong quinolone resistance is spread on three host environments carrying one of the four variants found for the GyrA protein: (1) Asp87Tyr, the major polymorphism found in 39 Salmonella isolates from human origin and six from poultry; (2) Ser83Phe, with four isolates from human origin and one from white stork (Ciconia ciconia); and (3) Asp87Asn or (4) Asp87Gly, with two isolates each from human origins. Several Salmonella Typhimurium strains that presented int1 elements and the classically associated pentaresistance (ACSSuT) phenotype were found distributed between two host environments: domestic animals and humans, domestics and wild animals, or wild fauna plus humans. This study points out the importance of monitoring gut microbiota and its antimicrobial resistance from wildlife, in parallel to livestock animals and humans, especially for animal species that are in close contact with people.

  3. Group A rotavirus infection in animals from an animal house and in wild-caught monkeys.

    PubMed

    Awang, A; Yap, K

    1990-09-01

    Randomly selected samples from different animal colonies from two laboratory animal houses and from the wild-caught monkeys were tested for the presence of anti-rotavirus antibodies to estimate the rates of infection with group A rotavirus. Antibodies to the common group A rotaviral antigen were detected by a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using reagents of WHO ELISA rotavirus detection kit. The results of the study showed that white mice, albino rats, and guinea pigs from long-established breeding colonies and resident house rats and house shrews from the animal house had no serological evidence of rotaviral infection. In contrast, one mousedeer from a colony of 19 animals and most of the rabbits from two separate breeding colonies at the same animal house were serologically positive for the infection. Also a significant number of the same species of monkey kept in captivity were found to acquire the infection. Leaf monkeys had no serological evidence of rotaviral infection. The infection rate in wild cynomolgus monkeys did not seem to be influenced by the different ecological environments of their respective habitats. The rate of infection in adults and juveniles was similar.

  4. Ticks infesting wild and domestic animals and humans of Sri Lanka with new host records.

    PubMed

    Liyanaarachchi, D R; Rajakaruna, R S; Dikkumbura, A W; Rajapakse, R P V J

    2015-02-01

    An island-wide collection of tick species infesting humans, domesticated and wild animals and questing ticks in domestic and peridomestic environments was carried out during 2009-2011. A total of 30,461 ticks were collected from 30 different hosts and free living stages from the ground. The collection consisted of 22 tick species from 30 different hosts recording 12 tick species from humans, 19 from domesticated animals and 21 from wild animals, with a total of 97 new host records. The most common tick species on humans were Dermacentor auratus and Amblyomma testudinairum, while Haemaphysalis intermedia, Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were common in domesticated and wild animals sharing 20 host species. Among the questing ticks, immature D. auratus was the most abundant. Humans and domesticated animals were mostly infested by the nymphal stages while adult ticks were found on wild animals. High number of new host records could be due to domestic animals picking tick species from wildlife and vise versa at the human/animal interface. Habitat destruction due to forest fragmentation has lead to wild animals roaming in urban and semi-urban neighbourhoods increasing the interactions of wild animals with domesticated animals. Wild animals play a significant role as a reservoir of many tick borne infections which can easily be spread to domesticated animals and then to humans via tick infestations. Data in this paper are useful for those interested in tick infesting wild and domestic animals and humans in describing the zoonotic potential of tick borne infections.

  5. Transmission of Neospora caninum between wild and domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Gondim, L F P; McAllister, M M; Mateus-Pinilla, N E; Pitt, W C; Mech, L D; Nelson, M E

    2004-12-01

    To determine whether deer can transmit Neospora caninum, brains of naturally infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were fed to 4 dogs; 2 of these dogs shed oocysts. Oocysts from 1 of the dogs were tested by polymerase chain reaction and found to be positive for N. caninum and negative for Hammondia heydorni. The internal transcribed spacer 1 sequence of the new strain (designated NC-deer1) was identical to N. caninum from domestic animals, indicating that N. caninum is transmitted between wild and domestic animals, often enough to prevent divergent evolution of isolated populations of the parasite. NC-deerl oocysts were administered to a calf that developed a high antibody titer, providing evidence that N. caninum from wildlife can infect cattle. In addition, N. caninum antibody seroprevalence was detected in 64/164 (39%) free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus), 12/113 (11%) coyotes (Canis latrans), 50/193 (26%) white-tailed deer, and 8/61 (13%) moose (Alces alces). These data are consistent with a sylvatic transmission cycle of N. caninum between cervids and canids. We speculate that hunting by humans favors the transmission of N. caninum from deer to canids, because deer carcasses are usually eviscerated in the field. Infection of canids in turn increases the risk of transmitting the parasite to domestic livestock.

  6. Fingerprints of global warming on wild animals and plants.

    PubMed

    Root, Terry L; Price, Jeff T; Hall, Kimberly R; Schneider, Stephen H; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Pounds, J Alan

    2003-01-02

    Over the past 100 years, the global average temperature has increased by approximately 0.6 degrees C and is projected to continue to rise at a rapid rate. Although species have responded to climatic changes throughout their evolutionary history, a primary concern for wild species and their ecosystems is this rapid rate of change. We gathered information on species and global warming from 143 studies for our meta-analyses. These analyses reveal a consistent temperature-related shift, or 'fingerprint', in species ranging from molluscs to mammals and from grasses to trees. Indeed, more than 80% of the species that show changes are shifting in the direction expected on the basis of known physiological constraints of species. Consequently, the balance of evidence from these studies strongly suggests that a significant impact of global warming is already discernible in animal and plant populations. The synergism of rapid temperature rise and other stresses, in particular habitat destruction, could easily disrupt the connectedness among species and lead to a reformulation of species communities, reflecting differential changes in species, and to numerous extirpations and possibly extinctions.

  7. Prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods on wild animals and cattle in the Las Merindades area (Burgos, Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Peñafiel, G.; Giménez-Pardo, C.; Gegúndez, M.I.; Lledó, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods in sampled groups of wild (n = 128; 16 species) and domestic (n = 69; 3 species) animals in the Las Merindades area of the Province of Burgos, Spain. The study revealed that wild animals were more infested and with a wider variety of ectoparasites than domestic animals. The parasitic prevalence was 67% for wild animals and 48% for livestock. In this way, 39% of animals were infected by ticks. Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes hexagonus were the most prevalent species whereas Dermacentor reticulatus showed affinity for the fox and wolf. The overall prevalence of parasitisation by fleas was 27%. Ctenophthalmus spp. showed the wider range host in wild animals, while Pulex irritans was the most frequent specie found. The parasitic prevalences by lice (Trichodectes melis, Trichodectes canis and Trichodectes mustelae) and by mite (Neotrombicula spp., Laelaps agilis and Sarcoptes scabiei) were 4% and 12%, respectively. In both cases only wild animals were found parasited. PMID:21894267

  8. Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus in Populations of Wild Animals in Comparison with Animals Bred in Game Enclosures.

    PubMed

    Kubankova, Monika; Kralik, Petr; Lamka, Jiri; Zakovcik, Vladimir; Dolanský, Marek; Vasickova, Petra

    2015-03-15

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is now accepted as a zoonotic virus, and domestic pigs, wild boars and deer are recognised as natural reservoirs of the pathogen. In this study, 762 animals (wild boars, fallow deer, red deer, sika deer, roe deer and mouflons) originating from the wild and from game enclosures were tested for the presence of HEV RNA by qRT-PCR. HEV RNA was detected in wild boars (96/450), red deer (2/169), roe deer (1/30) and mouflons (5/39). The sequence relationship between HEV isolates from wild boars and domestic pigs or humans indicate a circulation of HEV in the Czech Republic.

  9. Antibodies against some viruses of domestic animals in southern African wild animals.

    PubMed

    Barnard, B J

    1997-06-01

    Twenty-four species of South African wild animals were tested for the presence of antibodies against the viruses of 16 common diseases of domestic animals. Positive results were obtained for African horsesickness, equine encephalosis, equid herpes virus-1, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, Allerton disease (Herpes mammillitis), lumpy skin disease, parainfluenza, encephalomyocarditis, bluetongue, Wesselsbron disease, bovine ephemeral fever, and Akabane disease complex. No antibodies could be demonstrated against the viruses of equine influenza, equine infectious anaemia, equine viral arteritis and Rift Valley fever. The negative results substantiate observations that the latter diseases, with the exception of equine viral arteritis, are absent in South Africa. The number of animal species found positive for a specific virus, ranged from 0-16. No antibodies were found in crocodiles and warthogs, whereas antibodies against Wesselsbron and bovid herpes virus-1 were present in 16 species. Antibodies against viruses of horses were found almost exclusively in zebras and, although elephants reacted to African horsesickness, no neutralizing antibodies against it could be demonstrated in their sera. Zebras were also found to be positive for Wesselsbron and Akabane, which are usually regarded as viruses of ruminants. Antibodies against most viruses were encountered in all vegetation zones in South Africa but, as a rule, most viruses were more prevalent in the high-rainfall zone in KwaZulu-Natal.

  10. Microsporidiosis: Enterocytozoon bieneusi in domesticated and wild animals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microsporidia are a ubiquitous group of obligate intracellular parasites that infect all major animal groups. Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most commonly identified microsporidia in humans and has also been reported worldwide in animals with importance in veterinary medicine (e.g. cats, dogs, horse...

  11. Compromising genetic diversity in the wild: Unmonitored large-scale release of plants and animals

    Treesearch

    Linda Laikre; Michael K. Schwartz; Robin S. Waples; Nils Ryman; F. W. Allendorf; C. S. Baker; D. P. Gregovich; M. M. Hansen; J. A. Jackson; K. C. Kendall; K. McKelvey; M. C. Neel; I. Olivieri; R. Short Bull; J. B. Stetz; D. A. Tallmon; C. D. Vojta; D. M. Waller

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale exploitation of wild animals and plants through fishing, hunting and logging often depends on augmentation through releases of translocated or captively raised individuals. Such releases are performed worldwide in vast numbers. Augmentation can be demographically and economically beneficial but can also cause four types of adverse genetic change to wild...

  12. Parasites of wild animals as a potential source of hazard to humans.

    PubMed

    Gałęcki, Remigiusz; Sokół, Rajmund; Koziatek, Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    The decline in wild animal habitats and the uncontrolled growth of their population make these animals come closer to human settlements. The aim of the study was to identify parasitic infections in wild animals in the selected area, and to specify the hazards they create for humans. In more than 66% of the analysed faecal samples from wild boar, hares, roe deer, deer and fallow deer various developmental forms of parasites were found. These included parasites dangerous for humans: Toxocara canis, Capillaria hepatica, Capillaria bovis, Trichuris suis, Trichuris ovis, Trichuris globulosus, Eimeria spp., and Trichostongylus spp. It is necessary to monitor parasitic diseases in wild animals as they can lead to the spread of parasites creating a hazard to humans, pets and livestock.

  13. Quantifying realized inbreeding in wild and captive animal populations.

    PubMed

    Knief, U; Hemmrich-Stanisak, G; Wittig, M; Franke, A; Griffith, S C; Kempenaers, B; Forstmeier, W

    2015-04-01

    Most molecular measures of inbreeding do not measure inbreeding at the scale that is most relevant for understanding inbreeding depression-namely the proportion of the genome that is identical-by-descent (IBD). The inbreeding coefficient FPed obtained from pedigrees is a valuable estimator of IBD, but pedigrees are not always available, and cannot capture inbreeding loops that reach back in time further than the pedigree. We here propose a molecular approach to quantify the realized proportion of the genome that is IBD (propIBD), and we apply this method to a wild and a captive population of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). In each of 948 wild and 1057 captive individuals we analyzed available single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data (260 SNPs) spread over four different genomic regions in each population. This allowed us to determine whether any of these four regions was completely homozygous within an individual, which indicates IBD with high confidence. In the highly nomadic wild population, we did not find a single case of IBD, implying that inbreeding must be extremely rare (propIBD=0-0.00094, 95% CI). In the captive population, a five-generation pedigree strongly underestimated the average amount of realized inbreeding (FPed=0.013

  14. Echinococcosis (hydatodosis) in wild animals of the Kruger National Park.

    PubMed

    Young, E

    1975-09-01

    Echinococcosis has been diagnosed in the following wild species in the Kruger National Park : lion, Panthera leo, spotted hyena, Crocuta crocuta, Cape hunting dog, Lycaon pictus, Burchell's zebra, Equus burchelli antiquorum, buffalo, Syncerus caffer, hippopotamus, Hippopotamus amphibius, and impala, Aepyceros melampus. Infestation rates in the herbivores vary from 60% in zebra to less than 1% in impala. Species like elephant, Loxodonta africana, and blue wildebeest, Connochaetes taurinus, do not seem to be susceptible. The successful artificial transmission of Echinococus granulosus felidis from Burchell's zebra to the lion is reported for the first time.

  15. Prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods on wild animals and cattle in the Las Merindades area (Burgos, Spain).

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Peñafiel, G; Giménez-Pardo, C; Gegúndez, Mi; Lledó, L

    2011-08-01

    This paper reports the prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods in sampled groups of wild (n = 128; 16 species) and domestic (n = 69; 3 species) animals in the Las Merindades area of the Province of Burgos, Spain. The study revealed that wild animals were more infested and with a wider variety of ectoparasites than domestic animals. The parasitic prevalence was 67% for wild animals and 48% for livestock. In this way, 39% of animals were infected by ticks. Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes hexagonus were the most prevalent species whereas Dermacentor reticulatus showed affinity for the fox and wolf. The overall prevalence of parasitisation by fleas was 27%. Ctenophthalmus spp. showed the wider range host in wild animals, while Pulex irritans was the most frequent specie found. The parasitic prevalences by lice (Trichodectes melis, Trichodectes canis and Trichodectes mustelae) and by mite (Neotrombicula spp., Laelaps agilis and Sarcoptes scabiei) were 4% and 12%, respectively. In both cases only wild animals were found parasited.

  16. Serological evidence of Coxiella burnetii infection in wild animals in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ejercito, C L; Cai, L; Htwe, K K; Taki, M; Inoshima, Y; Kondo, T; Kano, C; Abe, S; Shirota, K; Sugimoto, T

    1993-07-01

    One hundred and thirty-four (26%) of 511 sera from 11 wild animal species in eight prefectures in Japan had antibody titers to Coxiella burnetii by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. High prevalences were observed in Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus) (78%), Hokkaido deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) (69%), Japanese hares (Lepus brachyurus) (63%), Japanese deer (Cervus nippon centralis) (56%), and to some extent in Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) (28%). A low prevalence (13%) was observed in nutrias (Myocastor coypus). Japanese serows (Capricornis crispus), wild rats (Muroides sp.), raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), wild pigs (Sus scrofa leucomystax), and masked palm civets (Paguma larvata) had no detectable antibodies to C. burnetii. Thus, six of 11 wild animal species in Japan were exposed to C. burnetii. Based on the high prevalences in some species, they may be a potential source of infection to both domestic animal and human populations.

  17. Toxoplasma gondii in wild and domestic animals from New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Roqueplo, C; Halos, L; Cabre, O; Davoust, B

    2011-11-01

    Samples (serum or meat juice) collected from 205 animals in New Caledonia in April 2009 were tested for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii by ELISA using the multi-species ID Screen® Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDVET, Montpellier). Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 2% (1/49) of the pigs, in 3.3% (1/30) of the cattle, in 13.8% (4/29) of Rusa deers, in 16% (4/25) of the horses, in 32.8% (21/64) of the dogs, and in 50% (4/8) of cats. Statistically, no significant difference was observed between T. gondii seroprevalence and age or sex. No survey on the prevalence of T. gondii in animals has ever been conducted in New Caledonia and this is the first serological evidence of T. gondii in Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa). These results indicate an important circulation of T. gondii exists in the animal populations of New Caledonia. In view of humans being exposed, it is advisable to insist on sanitary education and on respect for good hygienic and food practice.

  18. Wild fauna as a probable animal reservoir for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Njiokou, F; Laveissière, C; Simo, G; Nkinin, S; Grébaut, P; Cuny, G; Herder, S

    2006-03-01

    In order to study the existence of a wild animal reservoir for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in South Cameroon, blood was collected from wild animals in three human African trypanosomiasis foci and from a nonendemic control area. The 1142 wild animals sampled belonged to 36 different species pertaining to eight orders (407 primates, 347 artiodactyls, 265 rodents, 54 pangolins, 53 carnivores, 11 saurians and crocodilians, and five hyraxes). QBC and KIVI tests detected trypanosomes on 1.7% (13/762) and 18.4% (43/234) of animals examined, respectively. Using specific primers, T. brucei non-gambiense group 1 DNA was detected on 56 animals (4.9%). This infection rate was 5.3% in the endemic zone and 3.8% in the control zone. Of the 832 animals of the endemic zone, PCR revealed T. b. gambiense group 1 DNA in 18 (2.2%). These hosts included two rodents, two artiodactyls, two carnivores and two primates. T. b. gambiense group 1 was absent from animals from the nonendemic zone. A decrease in the prevalence of T. b. gambiense group 1 was observed in wild animals from the Bipindi sleeping sickness focus after a medical survey and vector control in this area. The epidemiological implications of these findings remain to be determined with further investigations.

  19. Helicobacter spp. in wild mice (Peromyscus leucopus) found in laboratory animal facilities.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Melissa C; Eaton, Kathryn A; Chang, Cherie

    2009-11-01

    Wild rodents are a potential source for pathogen introduction into laboratory animal research facilities. A study was designed to assess wild mice found at our institution by infectious disease surveillance. Wild white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) were captured with live capture traps placed in areas in which wild mice had been reported in several animal facilities. Captured animals were euthanized by inhalation of CO(2), blood was collected by cardiocentesis (n = 10), and necropsy was performed (n = 8). Serum samples were negative for antibodies to mouse parvovirus (types 1 and 2), mouse minute virus, Sendai virus, pneumonia virus of mice, mouse hepatitis virus, Theiler murine encephalomyelitis virus, reovirus, rotavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, mouse adenovirus, ectromelia virus, K virus, cilia-associated respiratory bacillus, and Mycoplasma pulmonis. Of the 8 animals that were necropsied, pelt and cecal examinations were negative for ectoparasites and pinworms, respectively. Histopathologic examination of brain, heart, lungs, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach, and small intestine revealed bacteria morphologically compatible with Helicobacter spp. in the cecal and colonic glands and occasionally in the gastric lumen and pits. Mesenteric lymph nodes and feces from 8 of the animals were submitted for PCR analysis for the detection of mouse parvovirus, mouse minute virus, mouse hepatitis virus, and Helicobacter spp.; 7 of the samples were PCR-positive for Helicobacter spp. At this time, wild mice found in our animal facilities do not appear to be a significant source of common laboratory mouse viral pathogens. However, they are a potential source of Helicobacter infections.

  20. Detection of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in wild animals in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Machado, Gustavo Puglia; Cruvinel, Tatiane Morosini de Andrade; Cruvinel, Ciro Alexandre; Langoni, Helio

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, that affects all warm-blooded animals, including wild animals. The increased number of cases of parasitic infections is mainly due to the destruction of environmental conservation areas, which is driving wild animals out of their habitats and towards urban areas. In this study, the occurrence of T. gondii infection was investigated by the modified agglutination test (MAT) in 26 different species of run over and injured wild animals that were treated at a Brazilian university veterinary hospital, from June 2007 to August 2008. Of the studied animals, six (23.1%; CI95% 11.1-42.2%) had T. gondii antibodies, with titers equal to 10 (4; 66.7%) and 40 (2; 33.3%). The species Pseudalopex vetulus, Cerdocyon thous, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris and Tapyrus terrestris had titers of 10, while Alouatta caraya and Puma concolor had titers of 40. There was no significant association regarding age, gender or purpose of care (p > 0.05). Carnivorous, herbivorous and omnivorous wild animals are potential sentinels of human toxoplasmosis, especially when wild felids are present, maintaining the environmental contamination.

  1. Molecular characterization of Trichinella species from wild animals in Israel.

    PubMed

    Erster, Oran; Roth, Asael; King, Roni; Markovics, Alex

    2016-11-15

    Trichinellosis is a worldwide disease caused by nematode worms of the genus Trichinella, frequently diagnosed in Israel. However, the identity of the Israeli isolates have not been studied. Here we describe the molecular characterization of 58 isolates collected from jackals (Canis aureus), wild boar (Sus scrofa), foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and a wolf (Canis lupus) in central and northern Israel. Isolates were analyzed using the multiplex PCR analysis encompassing expansion segment V (ESV) and internal sequence 1 (ITS-1) markers, which identified 52 of the 58 samples. Out of the six unidentified samples, four were successfully identified using extended PCR assays for ESV and ITS-1, developed in this study. Our analysis identified 44 isolates as T. britovi, 8 as T. spiralis, four mixed infections, and two isolates were not identified. Clonal analysis of the ITS-1 sequences from six isolates confirmed the initial identification of four mixed infections. These results show that the prevalent species in Israel are T. britovi and T. spiralis, with nearly 7% (4 of 58) incidence of mixed infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pelistega suis sp. nov., isolated from domestic and wild animals.

    PubMed

    Vela, Ana I; Perez Sancho, Marta; Domínguez, Lucas; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Fernández-Garayzábal, Jose F

    2015-12-01

    Biochemical and molecular genetic studies were performed on three novel Gram-stain-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, bacilli-shaped organisms isolated from the tonsils of two pigs and one wild boar. The micro-organism was identified as a species of the genus Pelistega based on its cellular morphological and biochemical tests. The closest phylogenetic relative of the novel bacilli was Pelistega indica HM-7T (98.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strain). groEL and gyrB sequence analysis showed interspecies divergence from the closest 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic relative, P. indica of 87.0.% and 69 %, respectively. The polyamine pattern contains predominantly putrescine and 2-hydroxyputrescine. The major quinone is ubiquinone Q-8 and in the polar lipid profile, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified aminolipid and an unidentified lipid are predominant. The novel bacterial isolate can be distinguished from P. indica by several biochemical characteristics, such as the production of l-pyrrolydonil arylamidase but not gamma-glutamyl-transferase, and the utilization of different carbon sources. Based on both phenotypic and phylogenetic findings, the novel bacterium is classified as representing a novel species of the genus Pelistega, for which the name Pelistega suis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 3340-03T ( = CECT 8400T = CCUG 64465T).

  3. Wild animal mortality monitoring and human Ebola outbreaks, Gabon and Republic of Congo, 2001-2003.

    PubMed

    Rouquet, Pierre; Froment, Jean-Marc; Bermejo, Magdalena; Kilbourn, Annelisa; Karesh, William; Reed, Patricia; Kumulungui, Brice; Yaba, Philippe; Délicat, André; Rollin, Pierre E; Leroy, Eric M

    2005-02-01

    All human Ebola virus outbreaks during 2001-2003 in the forest zone between Gabon and Republic of Congo resulted from handling infected wild animal carcasses. After the first outbreak, we created an Animal Mortality Monitoring Network in collaboration with the Gabonese and Congolese Ministries of Forestry and Environment and wildlife organizations (Wildlife Conservation Society and Programme de Conservation et Utilisation Rationnelle des Ecosystemes Forestiers en Afrique Centrale) to predict and possibly prevent human Ebola outbreaks. Since August 2001, 98 wild animal carcasses have been recovered by the network, including 65 great apes. Analysis of 21 carcasses found that 10 gorillas, 3 chimpanzees, and 1 duiker tested positive for Ebola virus. Wild animal outbreaks began before each of the 5 human Ebola outbreaks. Twice we alerted the health authorities to an imminent risk for human outbreaks, weeks before they occurred.

  4. Wild Animal Mortality Monitoring and Human Ebola Outbreaks, Gabon and Republic of Congo, 2001–2003

    PubMed Central

    Froment, Jean-Marc; Bermejo, Magdalena; Kilbourn, Annelisa; Karesh, William; Reed, Patricia; Kumulungui, Brice; Yaba, Philippe; Délicat, André; Rollin, Pierre E.; Leroy, Eric M.

    2005-01-01

    All human Ebola virus outbreaks during 2001–2003 in the forest zone between Gabon and Republic of Congo resulted from handling infected wild animal carcasses. After the first outbreak, we created an Animal Mortality Monitoring Network in collaboration with the Gabonese and Congolese Ministries of Forestry and Environment and wildlife organizations (Wildlife Conservation Society and Programme de Conservation et Utilisation Rationnelle des Ecosystèmes Forestiers en Afrique Centrale) to predict and possibly prevent human Ebola outbreaks. Since August 2001, 98 wild animal carcasses have been recovered by the network, including 65 great apes. Analysis of 21 carcasses found that 10 gorillas, 3 chimpanzees, and 1 duiker tested positive for Ebola virus. Wild animal outbreaks began before each of the 5 human Ebola outbreaks. Twice we alerted the health authorities to an imminent risk for human outbreaks, weeks before they occurred. PMID:15752448

  5. Neural control of predatory aggression in wild and domesticated animals.

    PubMed

    Nikulina, E M

    1991-01-01

    The neural mechanisms of predatory aggression in laboratory animals were investigated in a variety of rodents and members of the order Carnivora. Experimental enhancement of brain serotonin (5-HT) blocked killing behavior in rats, mice, mink and silver foxes, indicating that there is a 5-HT inhibiting mechanism of predatory aggression in animals of different species. Suppressed killing behavior, at least in some strains of mice, does not depend for expression on the inhibitory effect of the brain 5-HT system, but is caused by the low tonus of the system activating predatory behavior. Long-term satiation of mink increased the level of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid in the lateral hypothalamus and amygdala and enhanced the latency of predatory aggression. It is suggested that 5-HT represents a dietary responsive endogenous factor regulating predatory behavior in carnivores. Selection of Norway rats over many generations for tamed behavior towards man (domestication) leads to an increase in level and turnover of 5-HT in the midbrain and hypothalamus, but does not change predatory aggression. Substantially reduced defensive behavior of domesticated rats is thus unconnected with the neural mechanism of predatory aggression.

  6. Social barriers to pathogen transmission in wild animal populations

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.

    1995-03-01

    Diseases and pathogens are receiving increasing recognition as sources of mortality in animal populations. Immune system strength is clearly important in fending off pathogen attack. Physical barriers to pathogen entry are also important. Various individual behaviors are efficacious in reducing contact with diseases and pests. This paper focuses on a fourth mode of defense: social barriers to transmission. Various social behaviors have pathogen transmission consequences. Selective pressures on these social behaviors may therefore exist. Effects on pathogen transmission of mating strategies, social avoidance, group size, group isolation, and other behaviors are explored. It is concluded that many of these behaviors may have been affected by selection pressures to reduce transmission of pathogens. 84 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from food and wild animal carcasses in Italy.

    PubMed

    Traversa, A; Gariano, G R; Gallina, S; Bianchi, D M; Orusa, R; Domenis, L; Cavallerio, P; Fossati, L; Serra, R; Decastelli, L

    2015-12-01

    Following the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398 in food-producing animals, both livestock and wildlife, and derived products, are considered potential sources of MRSA in humans. There is a paucity of data on MRSA in foods in Italy, and the data regarding wild animals are particularly scarce. A total of 2162 food samples collected during official monitoring activities in 2008 were analyzed for the detection of S. aureus. Also, samples from 1365 wild animals collected by the National Reference Center for Wild Animal Diseases in 2003-2009 were subjected to anatomopathological examination. S. aureus isolates were processed for phenotypic and molecular methicillin resistance determinations. S. aureus was found in 2.0% of wild animal carcasses and in 3.2% of wild boar lymph nodes: none showed methicillin resistance. The prevalence of S. aureus in food was 17.1%. Two MRSA strains, both from bulk tank milk (prevalence 0.77%) were isolated: the strains were resistant to tetracycline, had spa-type t899, and were negative for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. The low prevalence of MRSA suggests that the risk of transmission to humans via food is limited. However, attention should be paid to the cattle food chain, which may be a potential route of transmission of LA-MRSA.

  8. An outbreak of canine distemper virus in tigers (Panthera tigris): possible transmission from wild animals to zoo animals.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Yumiko; Nishio, Yohei; Shiomoda, Hiroshi; Tamaru, Seiji; Shimojima, Masayuki; Goto, Megumi; Une, Yumi; Sato, Azusa; Ikebe, Yusuke; Maeda, Ken

    2012-06-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV), a morbillivirus that causes one of the most contagious and lethal viral diseases known in canids, has an expanding host range, including wild animals. Since December 2009, several dead or dying wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) were found in and around one safari-style zoo in Japan, and CDV was isolated from four of these animals. In the subsequent months (January to February 2010), 12 tigers (Panthera tigris) in the zoo developed respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, and CDV RNA was detected in fecal samples of the examined tigers. In March 2010, one of the tigers developed a neurological disorder and died; CDV was isolated from the lung of this animal. Sequence analysis of the complete hemagglutinin (H) gene and the signal peptide region of the fusion (F) gene showed high homology among these isolates (99.8-100%), indicating that CDV might have been transmitted from raccoon dog to tiger. In addition, these isolates belonged to genotype Asia-1 and had lower homology (<90%) to the vaccine strain (Onderstepoort). Seropositivity of lions (Panthera leo) in the zoo and wild bears (Ursus thibetanus) captured around this area supported the theory that a CDV epidemic had occurred in many mammal species in and around the zoo. These results indicate a risk of CDV transmission among many animal species, including large felids and endangered species.

  9. Salmonella serovars and antimicrobial resistance in strains isolated from wild animals in captivity in Sinaloa, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Silva-Hidalgo, Gabriela; López-Valenzuela, Martin; Juárez-Barranco, Felipe; Montiel-Vázquez, Edith; Valenzuela-Sánchez, Beatriz

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella spp. strains from wild animals in captivity at the Culiacan Zoo and the Mazatlan Aquarium in Sinaloa, Mexico. We identified 17 different Salmonella enterica serovars at a prevalence of 19.90% (Culiacan Zoo) and 6.25% (Mazatlan Aquarium). Antibiotic sensitivity tests revealed that, of the 83 strains studied, 100% were multidrug resistant (MDR). The drugs against which the greatest resistance was observed were: penicillin, erythromycin, dicloxacillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, and chloramphenicol. We therefore conclude that MDR is common among Salmonella isolates originating from wild animals in captivity in Sinaloa.

  10. Wild animals as sentinels of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albano, A P N; Klafke, G B; Brandolt, T M; Da Hora, V P; Minello, L F; Jorge, S; Santos, E O; Behling, G M; Camargo, Z P; Xavier, M O; Meireles, M C A

    2014-04-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a dimorphic pathogenic fungus, causes the principal form of systemic mycosis in Brazil. The literature furnishes only limited data on the ecology of this fungus in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of fungal infection in wild animals, using serological tests and using the animals as sentinels of the presence of P. brasiliensis in three specified mesoregions of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 128 wild animals from the three mesoregions were included in the study. The serum samples were evaluated by immunodiffusion and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique to detect anti-gp43 antibodies from P. brasiliensis. Two conjugates were tested and compared with the ELISA technique. Although no positive samples were detected by immunodiffusion, 26 animals (20%), belonging to 13 distinct species, were found to be seropositive by the ELISA technique. The seropositive animals were from two mesoregions of the state. The results were similar according to the gender, age, and family of the animals, but differed significantly according to the conjugate used (p < 0.001), showing more sensitivity to protein A-peroxidase than to protein G-peroxidase. The finding that wild animals from the state of Rio Grande do Sul are exposed to P. brasiliensis suggests that the fungus can be found in this region despite the often-rigorous winters, which frequently include below-freezing temperatures.

  11. Molecular Epidemiology of Leptospira Serogroup Pomona Infections Among Wild and Domestic Animals in Spain.

    PubMed

    Arent, Z J; Gilmore, C; San-Miguel Ayanz, J M; Neyra, L Quevedo; García-Peña, F J

    2017-03-01

    Strains of Leptospira serogroup Pomona are known to cause widespread animal infections in many parts of the world. Forty-three isolates retrieved from domestic animals and wild small mammals suggest that serogroup Pomona is epidemiologically relevant in Spain. This is supported by the high prevalence of serovar Pomona antibodies in livestock and wild animals. In this study, the strains were serologically and genetically characterized in an attempt to elucidate their epidemiology. Serological typing was based on the microscopic agglutination test but molecular typing involved species-specific polymerase chain reaction, restriction endonuclease analysis, and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis. The study revealed that the infections are caused by two serovars, namely Pomona and Mozdok. Serovar Pomona was derived only from farm animals and may be adapted to pigs, which are recognized as the maintenance host. The results demonstrated that serovar Pomona is genetically heterogeneous and three different types were recognized. This heterogeneity was correlated with different geographical distributions of the isolates. All strains derived from small wild mammals were identified as serovar Mozdok. Some isolates of this serovar retrieved from cattle confirm that this serovar may also be the cause of infections in food-producing animals for which these wild species may be source of infection.

  12. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in different free-living wild animal species in Spain.

    PubMed

    Porrero, M Concepción; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Sánchez, Sergio; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Gómez-Barrero, Susana; Navarro-Gonzalez, Nora; Serrano, Emmanuel; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Marco, Ignasi; Fernández-Garayzabal, José-Francisco; Mateos, Ana; Vidal, Dolors; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas

    2013-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a life-threatening pathogen in humans and its presence in animals is a public health concern. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of MRSA in free-living wild animals. Samples from red deer (n=273), Iberian ibex (n=212), Eurasian Griffon vulture (n=40) and wild boar (n=817) taken from different areas in Spain between June 2008 and November 2011 were analyzed. Characterization of the isolates was performed by spa typing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A low prevalence of MRSA was found with 13 isolates obtained from 12 animals (0.89%; 95% CI: 0.46-1.56). All MRSA sequence types belonged to ST398 (t011 and t1451) and ST1 (t127). Genotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns (tetracycline resistance in ST398 and clindamycin-erythromycin-tetracycline resistance in ST1) suggest that the MRSA found probably originated in livestock (ST398) or humans (ST1). This is the first report of MRSA carriers in free-living wild animals in Europe. Although our data showed that MRSA prevalence is currently low, free-living wild animals might act as reservoir and represent a potential risk for human health.

  13. Survey of Francisella tularensis in Wild Animals in Japan in Areas Where Tularemia is Endemic.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Akitoyo; Tanabayashi, Kiyoshi; Fujita, Osamu; Shindo, Junji; Park, Chu-Ho; Kudo, Noboru; Hatai, Hitoshi; Oyamada, Toshifumi; Yamamoto, Yoshie; Takano, Ai; Kawabata, Hiroki; Sharma, Neekun; Uda, Akihiko; Yamada, Akio; Morikawa, Shigeru

    2016-09-21

    Samples taken from 428 wild animals and 126 ticks, collected from a tularemia-endemic area in Japan between 2005 and 2013, were analyzed for the presence of Francisella tularensis. F. tularensis was isolated from a Japanese hare carcass whereas the samples from live animals and ticks were negative for F. tularensis by real-time PCR. Our results suggest that F. tularensis is still present in Japan although its prevalence is considerably low even in areas where tularemia is endemic.

  14. Molecular characterization of Babesia species in wild animals and their ticks in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Orkun, Ömer; Karaer, Zafer

    2017-08-26

    To date, no study has investigated Babesia ecology in wild boars, hares or foxes in Turkey. This study aimed to determine and characterize Babesia spp. in wild animals and their ticks. We identified a novel Babesia genotype and four known Babesia species in wild animals and their ticks. We detected Babesia spp. molecularly in hares for the first time. In addition, we identified B. vulpes in foxes for the first time in Turkey. The presence of B. rossi, B. crassa and B. occultans was also revealed in ticks collected from wild boars and hares. This is only the second report of B. rossi in ticks outside of Africa and suggests that B. rossi is circulating in ticks in Turkey. Therefore B. rossi poses a significant threat to domestic dogs. Here we demonstrate the role of wild animals in the life cycle of Babesia species in Turkey and contribute to Babesia ecological and taxonomic information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A consensus endocrine profile for chronically stressed wild animals does not exist.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Molly J; Romero, L Michael

    2013-09-15

    Given the connection between chronic stress and health, there has been a growing emphasis on identifying chronically stressed wild animals, especially in relation to anthropogenic disturbances. There is considerable confusion, however, in how to identify chronically stressed wild animals, but the most common assumption is that measures of glucocorticoid (GC) function will increase. In an attempt to determine an "endocrine profile" of a chronically stressed wild animal, this review collected papers from the literature that measured baseline GC, stress-induced GC, measures of integrated GC, negative feedback, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis sensitivity, and/or body weight in chronically stressed animals. The collected studies encompassed laboratory and field studies, numerous diverse species, and multiple techniques for inducing chronic stress. Each paper was ranked according to its relevance to wild animals and scored as to whether the measured response increased, decreased, or stayed the same after exposure to chronic stress. The analyses uncovered so much variation between studies that the literature does not support a generalized endocrine profile in how wild animals respond to chronic stress. The common predictions appear to be based almost entirely on theoretical models rather than empirical data. The three most important variables affecting GC responses were the stressors used to induce chronic stress, the potential for those stressors to induce habituation, and the taxon of the focal species. The best approach for identifying a chronically stressed population appears to be documentation of changes at multiple levels of GC regulation, but the direction of the change (increase or decrease) may be relatively unimportant compared to the fact that the response changes at all. The conclusion is that a consistent, predictable, endocrine response to chronic stress, regardless of the protocol used to induce chronic stress and the species under study, does not

  16. Perception, Price and Preference: Consumption and Protection of Wild Animals Used in Traditional Medicine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao; Jiang, Zhigang; Fang, Hongxia; Li, Chunwang; Mi, Aizi; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Xiaowei; Cui, Shaopeng; Chen, Daiqiang; Ping, Xiaoge; Li, Feng; Li, Chunlin; Tang, Songhua; Luo, Zhenhua; Zeng, Yan; Meng, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    A wide array of wildlife species, including many animals, are used in traditional medicines across many medicinal systems, including in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Due to over-exploitation and habitat loss, the populations of many animals commonly used in TCM have declined and are unable to meet market demand. A number of measures have been taken to try to reduce the impact that this large and growing market for TCM may have on wild animal species. Consumer preferences and behavior are known to play an important role in the consumption and protection of wild animals used in traditional medicine, and thus are likely to be an important factor in the success of many of these mechanisms--particularly given the significant percentage of TCMs that are over-the-counter products (access to which is not mediated by practitioners). In this study we conducted questionnaires and designed stated preference experiments embodying different simulation scenarios using a random sample of the population in Beijing to elicit individuals' knowledge, perceptions and preferences toward wild or farmed animal materials and their substitutes used in traditional Chinese medicine. We found that respondents had a stated preference for wild materials over farm-raised and other alternatives because they believe that the effectiveness of wild-sourced materials is more credible than that of other sources. However, we also found that, although respondents used TCM products, they had a poor understanding of the function or composition of either traditional Chinese medicines or proprietary Chinese medicines (PCM), and paid little attention to the composition of products when making purchasing decisions. Furthermore, awareness of the need for species protection, or "conservation consciousness" was found to play an important role in willingness to accept substitutions for wild animal materials, while traditional animal medicinal materials (TAMs) derived from well-known endangered species, such

  17. Perception, Price and Preference: Consumption and Protection of Wild Animals Used in Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao; Jiang, Zhigang; Fang, Hongxia; Li, Chunwang; Mi, Aizi; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Xiaowei; Cui, Shaopeng; Chen, Daiqiang; Ping, Xiaoge; Li, Feng; Li, Chunlin; Tang, Songhua; Luo, Zhenhua; Zeng, Yan; Meng, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    A wide array of wildlife species, including many animals, are used in traditional medicines across many medicinal systems, including in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Due to over-exploitation and habitat loss, the populations of many animals commonly used in TCM have declined and are unable to meet market demand. A number of measures have been taken to try to reduce the impact that this large and growing market for TCM may have on wild animal species. Consumer preferences and behavior are known to play an important role in the consumption and protection of wild animals used in traditional medicine, and thus are likely to be an important factor in the success of many of these mechanisms—particularly given the significant percentage of TCMs that are over-the-counter products (access to which is not mediated by practitioners). In this study we conducted questionnaires and designed stated preference experiments embodying different simulation scenarios using a random sample of the population in Beijing to elicit individuals’ knowledge, perceptions and preferences toward wild or farmed animal materials and their substitutes used in traditional Chinese medicine. We found that respondents had a stated preference for wild materials over farm-raised and other alternatives because they believe that the effectiveness of wild-sourced materials is more credible than that of other sources. However, we also found that, although respondents used TCM products, they had a poor understanding of the function or composition of either traditional Chinese medicines or proprietary Chinese medicines (PCM), and paid little attention to the composition of products when making purchasing decisions. Furthermore, awareness of the need for species protection, or “conservation consciousness” was found to play an important role in willingness to accept substitutions for wild animal materials, while traditional animal medicinal materials (TAMs) derived from well-known endangered species

  18. An Automatic Weighting System for Wild Animals Based in an Artificial Neural Network: How to Weigh Wild Animals without Causing Stress

    PubMed Central

    Larios, Diego Francisco; Rodríguez, Carlos; Barbancho, Julio; Baena, Manuel; Leal, Miguel Ángel; Marín, Jesús; León, Carlos; Bustamante, Javier

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel and autonomous weighing system for wild animals. It allows evaluating changes in the body weight of animals in their natural environment without causing stress. The proposed system comprises a smart scale designed to estimate individual body weights and their temporal evolution in a bird colony. The system is based on computational intelligence, and offers valuable large amount of data to evaluate the relationship between long-term changes in the behavior of individuals and global change. The real deployment of this system has been for monitoring a breeding colony of lesser kestrels (Falco naumanni) in southern Spain. The results show that it is possible to monitor individual weight changes during the breeding season and to compare the weight evolution in males and females. PMID:23449117

  19. An automatic weighting system for wild animals based in an artificial neural network: how to weigh wild animals without causing stress.

    PubMed

    Larios, Diego Francisco; Rodríguez, Carlos; Barbancho, Julio; Baena, Manuel; Angel, Miguel Leal; Marín, Jesús; León, Carlos; Bustamante, Javier

    2013-02-28

    This paper proposes a novel and autonomous weighing system for wild animals. It allows evaluating changes in the body weight of animals in their natural environment without causing stress. The proposed system comprises a smart scale designed to estimate individual body weights and their temporal evolution in a bird colony. The system is based on computational intelligence, and offers valuable large amount of data to evaluate the relationship between long-term changes in the behavior of individuals and global change. The real deployment of this system has been for monitoring a breeding colony of lesser kestrels (Falco naumanni) in southern Spain. The results show that it is possible to monitor individual weight changes during the breeding season and to compare the weight evolution in males and females.

  20. Molecular and serological detection of Leishmania spp. in captive wild animals from Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jusi, Márcia Mariza Gomes; Starke-Buzetti, Wilma Aparecida; Oliveira, Trícia Maria Ferreira de Sousa; Tenório, Michely da Silva; Sousa, Lúcio de Oliveira de; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2011-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease that affects 12 million people worldwide. Several mammalian species can serve as a reservoir for this disease. Dogs are the main reservoir for visceral leishmaniasis in urban areas, which has become a serious public health concern in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Leishmania spp. in captive wild animals from Ilha Solteira, São Paulo, Brazil. Blood and various tissues samples were collected from animals of five different species: Speothos venaticus, Chrysocyon brachyurus, Cerdocyon thous, Pseudalopex vetulus, and Procyon cancrivorus. Antibodies against Leishmania spp. were detected in three wild canids by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PCR analyses of blood and bone marrow from all animals were negative, but Leishmania DNA was found in the tissues and skin of seropositive animals. Positive PCR samples were also positive for Leishmania donovani complex. Analysis of sequenced PCR products showed similarities with different regions of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi kinetoplastids. Measures to control visceral leishmaniasis in wild animals kept in Brazilian zoos should be established, as no disease control programs are currently available.

  1. Seroepidemiological Studies of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Domestic and Wild Animals

    DOE PAGES

    Spengler, Jessica R.; Bergeron, Eric; Rollin, Pierre E.; ...

    2016-01-07

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widely distributed, tick-borne viral disease. Humans are the only species known to develop illness after CCHF virus (CCHFV) infection, characterized by a nonspecific febrile illness that can progress to severe, often fatal, hemorrhagic disease. A variety of animals may serve as asymptomatic reservoirs of CCHFV in an endemic cycle of transmission. Seroepidemiological studies have been instrumental in elucidating CCHFV reservoirs and in determining endemic foci of viral transmission. Herein, we review over 50 years of CCHFV seroepidemiological studies in domestic and wild animals. Furthermore, this review highlights the role of livestock in the maintenancemore » and transmission of CCHFV, and provides a detailed summary of seroepidemiological studies of wild animal species, reflecting their relative roles in CCHFV ecology.« less

  2. Seroepidemiological Studies of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Domestic and Wild Animals

    PubMed Central

    Spengler, Jessica R.; Bergeron, Éric; Rollin, Pierre E.

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widely distributed, tick-borne viral disease. Humans are the only species known to develop illness after CCHF virus (CCHFV) infection, characterized by a nonspecific febrile illness that can progress to severe, often fatal, hemorrhagic disease. A variety of animals may serve as asymptomatic reservoirs of CCHFV in an endemic cycle of transmission. Seroepidemiological studies have been instrumental in elucidating CCHFV reservoirs and in determining endemic foci of viral transmission. Herein, we review over 50 years of CCHFV seroepidemiological studies in domestic and wild animals. This review highlights the role of livestock in the maintenance and transmission of CCHFV, and provides a detailed summary of seroepidemiological studies of wild animal species, reflecting their relative roles in CCHFV ecology. PMID:26741652

  3. Molecular characterization of Blastocystis sp. in captive wild animals in Qinling Mountains.

    PubMed

    Zhao, G H; Hu, X F; Liu, T L; Hu, R S; Yu, Z Q; Yang, W B; Wu, Y L; Yu, S K; Song, J K

    2017-08-01

    Blastocystis is one common protist inhabiting in gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. Examining the subtypes has important implications for assessing the zoonotic potential of Blastocystis and intestinal health of hosts. In the present study, a total of 497 fecal samples collected from 37 wild animal species in Qinling Mountains were investigated for the presence and subtypes of Blastocystis. Of them, 200 (40.2%) were positive for Blastocystis and 13 subtypes were found, including eight known subtypes (STs1-3, 5, 10, 12-14) and five possible novel subtypes (temporarily named as STs18-22), with ST10 as the predominate subtype and the subtype ST5 was detected in an ostrich for the first time. These findings indicated the wide distribution and specific subtype characteristics of Blastocystis in wild animals of Qinling Mountains.

  4. Seroepidemiological Studies of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Domestic and Wild Animals.

    PubMed

    Spengler, Jessica R; Bergeron, Éric; Rollin, Pierre E

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widely distributed, tick-borne viral disease. Humans are the only species known to develop illness after CCHF virus (CCHFV) infection, characterized by a nonspecific febrile illness that can progress to severe, often fatal, hemorrhagic disease. A variety of animals may serve as asymptomatic reservoirs of CCHFV in an endemic cycle of transmission. Seroepidemiological studies have been instrumental in elucidating CCHFV reservoirs and in determining endemic foci of viral transmission. Herein, we review over 50 years of CCHFV seroepidemiological studies in domestic and wild animals. This review highlights the role of livestock in the maintenance and transmission of CCHFV, and provides a detailed summary of seroepidemiological studies of wild animal species, reflecting their relative roles in CCHFV ecology.

  5. Seroepidemiological Studies of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Domestic and Wild Animals

    SciTech Connect

    Spengler, Jessica R.; Bergeron, Eric; Rollin, Pierre E.; Clements, Archie C. A.

    2016-01-07

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widely distributed, tick-borne viral disease. Humans are the only species known to develop illness after CCHF virus (CCHFV) infection, characterized by a nonspecific febrile illness that can progress to severe, often fatal, hemorrhagic disease. A variety of animals may serve as asymptomatic reservoirs of CCHFV in an endemic cycle of transmission. Seroepidemiological studies have been instrumental in elucidating CCHFV reservoirs and in determining endemic foci of viral transmission. Herein, we review over 50 years of CCHFV seroepidemiological studies in domestic and wild animals. Furthermore, this review highlights the role of livestock in the maintenance and transmission of CCHFV, and provides a detailed summary of seroepidemiological studies of wild animal species, reflecting their relative roles in CCHFV ecology.

  6. Leptospirosis in Ethiopia: a serological survey in domestic and wild animals.

    PubMed

    Moch, R W; Ebner, E E; Barsoum, L S; Botros, B A

    1975-02-01

    Seven hundred and fifty-eight serum samples from domestic and wild animals in Ethiopia were tested for leptospiral antibodies by the microscopic agglutination test. The following percentages of seropositivity were obtained: horse (91.3 per cent), cow (70.7 per cent), pig (57.1 per cent), goat (47.3 per cent), sheep (43.4 per cent), camel (15.4 per cent), and dog (8.3 per cent). All 54 samples from birds and wild animals were seronegative. Most of the positive sera exhibited reaction to more than one serotype and antibodies to serotype butembo were predominant in sera of the majority of the examined species. However, grippotyphosa, rather than butembo was the predominant reacting serotype in camels and dogs. It is concluded that leptospirosis is of significant prevalence in domestic animals in Ethiopia and may constitute an occupational health hazard to man.

  7. Sperm preservation by freeze-drying for the conservation of wild animals.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Takehito; Ito, Hideyuki; Sakamoto, Hidefusa; Onuma, Manabu; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2014-01-01

    Sperm preservation is a useful technique for the maintenance of biological resources in experimental and domestic animals, and in wild animals. A new preservation method has been developed that enables sperm to be stored for a long time in a refrigerator at 4 °C. Sperm are freeze-dried in a solution containing 10 mM Tris and 1 mM EDTA. Using this method, liquid nitrogen is not required for the storage and transportation of sperm. We demonstrate that chimpanzee, giraffe, jaguar, weasel and the long-haired rat sperm remain viable after freeze-drying. In all species, pronuclei were formed after the injection of freeze-dried sperm into the mouse oocytes. Although preliminary, these results may be useful for the future establishment of "freeze-drying zoo" to conserve wild animals.

  8. Sperm Preservation by Freeze-Drying for the Conservation of Wild Animals

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Takehito; Ito, Hideyuki; Sakamoto, Hidefusa; Onuma, Manabu; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2014-01-01

    Sperm preservation is a useful technique for the maintenance of biological resources in experimental and domestic animals, and in wild animals. A new preservation method has been developed that enables sperm to be stored for a long time in a refrigerator at 4°C. Sperm are freeze-dried in a solution containing 10 mM Tris and 1 mM EDTA. Using this method, liquid nitrogen is not required for the storage and transportation of sperm. We demonstrate that chimpanzee, giraffe, jaguar, weasel and the long-haired rat sperm remain viable after freeze-drying. In all species, pronuclei were formed after the injection of freeze-dried sperm into the mouse oocytes. Although preliminary, these results may be useful for the future establishment of “freeze-drying zoo” to conserve wild animals. PMID:25409172

  9. PBI creams: a spontaneously mutated mouse strain showing wild animal-type reactivity.

    PubMed

    Hendrie, C A; Van Driel, K S; Talling, J C; Inglis, I R

    2001-01-01

    PBI creams are mice derived from warfarin-resistant wild stock that has been maintained under laboratory conditions since the 1970s. This study compares their behaviour to that of laboratory mice and wild house and wood mice. Animals were tested in a black/white box and a 2.64x1.4 m runway. In the black/white box, the behaviour of PBI creams was not significantly different from that of house mice and differed most from that of laboratory mice. Notably, the PBI creams showed the greatest activity and escape-orientated behaviours. When animals were approached by the experimenter in the open runway test, the PBI creams had higher flight speeds than both house and wood mice, whilst laboratory mice failed to respond. In the closed runway test where the animals could not escape, the PBI creams, house mice and wood mice all turned and attempted to run past the approaching experimenter, whilst the laboratory mice again failed to react. At the end of this test session, the time taken to catch each animal was recorded. It took less than 5 s to catch laboratory mice but significantly longer to catch the wild strains and the PBI creams (90-100 s for the latter). In these tests, the PBI creams showed wild animal-type reactivity, and as this behaviour has been retained in the laboratory colony for over 30 years, these animals may be useful in the study of the physiological and genetic basis of fear/anxiety in mice.

  10. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XXII. Ixodid ticks on domestic dogs and on wild carnivores.

    PubMed

    Horak, I G; Guillarmod, A J; Moolman, L C; de Vos, V

    1987-12-01

    Ixodid ticks were collected from 4 dogs on smallholdings near Grahamstown, eastern Cape Province, on 1 or more occasions each week for periods ranging from 9-36 months. Fourteen tick species were recovered and the seasonal abundance of adult Haemaphysalis leachi and adult Rhipicephalus simus was determined. Complete collections of ticks were made from 50 caracals (Felis caracal) in the Cradock, Graaff-Reinet and Southwell regions in the eastern Cape Province. The animals from Cradock and Graaff-Reinet harboured 13 ixodid tick species. The caracals from Southwell were infested with 11 tick species and the seasonal abundance of Ixodes pilosus on these animals was determined. A small-spotted genet (Genetta genetta), 1 bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis), 1 aardwolf (Proteles cristatus) and 6 black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas) from various localities in the eastern Cape Province were examined for ticks and 9 species were collected. Complete tick collections were made from a side-striped jackal (Canis adustus), 2 wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), a spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta), a several (Felis serval), 2 African civets (Civettictis civetta), 2 leopards (Panthera pardus) and a lion (Panthera leo) in the Kruger National Park in the north-eastern Transvaal. Twelve ixodid tick specis were recovered from these animals.

  11. A Comparison of Brain Gene Expression Levels in Domesticated and Wild Animals

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Frank W.; Somel, Mehmet; Carneiro, Miguel; Aximu-Petri, Ayinuer; Halbwax, Michel; Thalmann, Olaf; Blanco-Aguiar, Jose A.; Trut, Lyudmila; Villafuerte, Rafael; Ferrand, Nuno; Kaiser, Sylvia; Jensen, Per; Pääbo, Svante

    2012-01-01

    Domestication has led to similar changes in morphology and behavior in several animal species, raising the question whether similarities between different domestication events also exist at the molecular level. We used mRNA sequencing to analyze genome-wide gene expression patterns in brain frontal cortex in three pairs of domesticated and wild species (dogs and wolves, pigs and wild boars, and domesticated and wild rabbits). We compared the expression differences with those between domesticated guinea pigs and a distant wild relative (Cavia aperea) as well as between two lines of rats selected for tameness or aggression towards humans. There were few gene expression differences between domesticated and wild dogs, pigs, and rabbits (30–75 genes (less than 1%) of expressed genes were differentially expressed), while guinea pigs and C. aperea differed more strongly. Almost no overlap was found between the genes with differential expression in the different domestication events. In addition, joint analyses of all domesticated and wild samples provided only suggestive evidence for the existence of a small group of genes that changed their expression in a similar fashion in different domesticated species. The most extreme of these shared expression changes include up-regulation in domesticates of SOX6 and PROM1, two modulators of brain development. There was almost no overlap between gene expression in domesticated animals and the tame and aggressive rats. However, two of the genes with the strongest expression differences between the rats (DLL3 and DHDH) were located in a genomic region associated with tameness and aggression, suggesting a role in influencing tameness. In summary, the majority of brain gene expression changes in domesticated animals are specific to the given domestication event, suggesting that the causative variants of behavioral domestication traits may likewise be different. PMID:23028369

  12. A comparison of brain gene expression levels in domesticated and wild animals.

    PubMed

    Albert, Frank W; Somel, Mehmet; Carneiro, Miguel; Aximu-Petri, Ayinuer; Halbwax, Michel; Thalmann, Olaf; Blanco-Aguiar, Jose A; Plyusnina, Irina Z; Trut, Lyudmila; Villafuerte, Rafael; Ferrand, Nuno; Kaiser, Sylvia; Jensen, Per; Pääbo, Svante

    2012-09-01

    Domestication has led to similar changes in morphology and behavior in several animal species, raising the question whether similarities between different domestication events also exist at the molecular level. We used mRNA sequencing to analyze genome-wide gene expression patterns in brain frontal cortex in three pairs of domesticated and wild species (dogs and wolves, pigs and wild boars, and domesticated and wild rabbits). We compared the expression differences with those between domesticated guinea pigs and a distant wild relative (Cavia aperea) as well as between two lines of rats selected for tameness or aggression towards humans. There were few gene expression differences between domesticated and wild dogs, pigs, and rabbits (30-75 genes (less than 1%) of expressed genes were differentially expressed), while guinea pigs and C. aperea differed more strongly. Almost no overlap was found between the genes with differential expression in the different domestication events. In addition, joint analyses of all domesticated and wild samples provided only suggestive evidence for the existence of a small group of genes that changed their expression in a similar fashion in different domesticated species. The most extreme of these shared expression changes include up-regulation in domesticates of SOX6 and PROM1, two modulators of brain development. There was almost no overlap between gene expression in domesticated animals and the tame and aggressive rats. However, two of the genes with the strongest expression differences between the rats (DLL3 and DHDH) were located in a genomic region associated with tameness and aggression, suggesting a role in influencing tameness. In summary, the majority of brain gene expression changes in domesticated animals are specific to the given domestication event, suggesting that the causative variants of behavioral domestication traits may likewise be different.

  13. Measurement of flying and diving metabolic rate in wild animals: Review and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Kyle H

    2016-12-01

    Animals' abilities to fly long distances and dive to profound depths fascinate earthbound researchers. Due to the difficulty of making direct measurements during flying and diving, many researchers resort to modeling so as to estimate metabolic rate during each of those activities in the wild, but those models can be inaccurate. Fortunately, the miniaturization, customization and commercialization of biologgers has allowed researchers to increasingly follow animals on their journeys, unravel some of their mysteries and test the accuracy of biomechanical models. I provide a review of the measurement of flying and diving metabolic rate in the wild, paying particular attention to mass loss, doubly-labelled water, heart rate and accelerometry. Biologgers can impact animal behavior and influence the very measurements they are designed to make, and I provide seven guidelines for the ethical use of biologgers. If biologgers are properly applied, quantification of metabolic rate across a range of species could produce robust allometric relationships that could then be generally applied. As measuring flying and diving metabolic rate in captivity is difficult, and often not directly translatable to field conditions, I suggest that applying multiple techniques in the field to reinforce one another may be a viable alternative. The coupling of multi-sensor biologgers with biomechanical modeling promises to improve precision in the measurement of flying and diving metabolic rate in wild animals.

  14. Plant phenolics and their potential role in mitigating iron overload disorder in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Lavin, Shana R

    2012-09-01

    Phenolic compounds are bioactive chemicals found in all vascular plants but are difficult to characterize and quantify, and comparative analyses on these compounds are challenging due to chemical structure complexity and inconsistent laboratory methodologies employed historically. These chemicals can elicit beneficial or toxic effects in consumers, depending on the compound, dose and the species of the consumer. In particular, plant phenolic compounds such as tannins can reduce the utilization of iron in mammalian and avian consumers. Multiple zoo-managed wild animal species are sensitive to iron overload, and these species tend to be offered diets higher in iron than most of the plant browse consumed by these animals in the wild and in captivity. Furthermore, these animals likely consume diets higher in polyphenols in the wild as compared with in managed settings. Thus, in addition to reducing dietary iron concentrations in captivity, supplementing diets with phenolic compounds capable of safely chelating iron in the intestinal lumen may reduce the incidence of iron overload in these animal species. It is recommended to investigate various sources and types of phenolic compounds for use in diets intended for iron-sensitive species. Candidate compounds should be screened both in vitro and in vivo using model species to reduce the risk of toxicity in target species. In particular, it would be important to assess potential compounds in terms of 1) biological activity including iron-binding capacity, 2) accessibility, 3) palatability, and 4) physiological effects on the consumer, including changes in nutritional and antioxidant statuses.

  15. Molecular detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in road-killed wild animals.

    PubMed

    Richini-Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão; Bosco, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes; Griese, Juliana; Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Macoris, Severino Assis Graça; da Silva, Reinaldo José; Barrozo, Lígia; Tavares, Patrícia Morais e Silva; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2008-02-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infections have been little studied in wild and/or domestic animals, which may represent an important indicator of the presence of the pathogen in nature. Road-killed wild animals have been used for surveillance of vectors of zoonotic pathogens and may offer new opportunities for eco-epidemiological studies of paracoccidiodomycosis (PCM). The presence of P. brasiliensis infection was evaluated by Nested-PCR in tissue samples collected from 19 road-killed animals; 3 Cavia aperea (guinea pig), 5 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating-fox), 1 Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-banded armadillo), 1 Dasypus septemcinctus (seven-banded armadillo), 2 Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum), 1 Eira barbara (tayra), 2 Gallictis vittata (grison), 2 Procyon cancrivorus (raccoon) and 2 Sphiggurus spinosus (porcupine). Specific P. brasiliensis amplicons were detected in (a) several organs of the two armadillos and one guinea pig, (b) the lung and liver of the porcupine, and (c) the lungs of raccoons and grisons. P. brasiliensis infection in wild animals from endemic areas might be more common than initially postulated. Molecular techniques can be used for detecting new hosts and mapping 'hot spot' areas of PCM.

  16. 19 CFR 12.27 - Importation or exportation of wild animals or birds, or the dead bodies thereof illegally...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... birds, or the dead bodies thereof illegally captured or killed, etc. 12.27 Section 12.27 Customs Duties... SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.27 Importation or exportation of wild animals or birds, or the dead bodies thereof illegally captured or killed, etc. Customs officers shall...

  17. 19 CFR 12.27 - Importation or exportation of wild animals or birds, or the dead bodies thereof illegally...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... birds, or the dead bodies thereof illegally captured or killed, etc. 12.27 Section 12.27 Customs Duties... SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.27 Importation or exportation of wild animals or birds, or the dead bodies thereof illegally captured or killed, etc. Customs officers shall...

  18. 19 CFR 12.27 - Importation or exportation of wild animals or birds, or the dead bodies thereof illegally...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... birds, or the dead bodies thereof illegally captured or killed, etc. 12.27 Section 12.27 Customs Duties... SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.27 Importation or exportation of wild animals or birds, or the dead bodies thereof illegally captured or killed, etc. Customs officers shall...

  19. 19 CFR 12.27 - Importation or exportation of wild animals or birds, or the dead bodies thereof illegally...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... birds, or the dead bodies thereof illegally captured or killed, etc. 12.27 Section 12.27 Customs Duties... SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.27 Importation or exportation of wild animals or birds, or the dead bodies thereof illegally captured or killed, etc. Customs officers shall...

  20. 19 CFR 12.27 - Importation or exportation of wild animals or birds, or the dead bodies thereof illegally...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... birds, or the dead bodies thereof illegally captured or killed, etc. 12.27 Section 12.27 Customs Duties... SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.27 Importation or exportation of wild animals or birds, or the dead bodies thereof illegally captured or killed, etc. Customs officers shall...

  1. Similarities between Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from humans and captive wild animals in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Smith, Anthony M; Ismail, Husna; Henton, Maryke M; Keddy, Karen H

    2014-12-15

    Salmonella is well recognized as an aetiological agent of gastrointestinal and diarrhoeal disease. Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) is one of the commonest serotypes associated with foodborne illness. In South Africa, we compared Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from humans with gastroenteritis and strains isolated from captive wild animals, between June 2011 and July 2012. Bacteria were phenotypically characterized using standard microbiological techniques. Genotypic relatedness of isolates was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. a diversity of 27 PFGE patterns amongst 196 human non-invasive isolates was shown; two PFGE patterns predominated and accounted for 74% of all human isolates. Human isolates showed a 12% prevalence rate for nalidixic acid resistance. Animal isolates from 5 different sources were investigated. With the exception of an isolate from a ground hornbill, all animal isolates (jaguar, crocodile, lion and poultry) showed PFGE pattern matches to a human isolate. Animal isolates showed susceptibility to all antimicrobial agents tested, with the exception of nalidixic acid resistance in isolates from the lion and poultry source. Our data showed similarities between Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from humans and captive wild animals, suggesting a probable common source for strains from humans and animals.

  2. Hepatitis E virus and related viruses in wild, domestic and zoo animals: A review.

    PubMed

    Spahr, C; Knauf-Witzens, T; Vahlenkamp, T; Ulrich, R G; Johne, R

    2017-09-24

    Hepatitis E is a human disease mainly characterized by acute liver illness, which is caused by infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV). Large hepatitis E outbreaks have been described in developing countries; however, the disease is also increasingly recognized in industrialized countries. Mortality rates up to 25% have been described for pregnant women during outbreaks in developing countries. In addition, chronic disease courses could be observed in immunocompromised transplant patients. Whereas the HEV genotypes 1 and 2 are mainly confined to humans, genotypes 3 and 4 are also found in animals and can be zoonotically transmitted to humans. Domestic pig and wild boar represent the most important reservoirs for these genotypes. A distinct subtype of genotype 3 has been repeatedly detected in rabbits and a few human patients. Recently, HEV genotype 7 has been identified in dromedary camels and in an immunocompromised transplant patient. The reservoir animals get infected with HEV without showing any clinical symptoms. Besides these well-known animal reservoirs, HEV-specific antibodies and/or the genome of HEV or HEV-related viruses have also been detected in many other animal species, including primates, other mammals and birds. In particular, genotypes 3 and 4 infections are documented in many domestic, wildlife and zoo animal species. In most cases, the presence of HEV in these animals can be explained by spillover infections, but a risk of virus transmission through contact with humans cannot be excluded. This review gives a general overview on the transmission pathways of HEV to humans. It particularly focuses on reported serological and molecular evidence of infections in wild, domestic and zoo animals with HEV or HEV-related viruses. The role of these animals for transmission of HEV to humans and other animals is discussed. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus by free-living wild animals in Spain.

    PubMed

    Porrero, M Concepción; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Sánchez, Sergio; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Mateos, Ana; Vidal, Dolors; Lavín, Santiago; Fernández-Garayzábal, José-Francisco; Domínguez, Lucas

    2014-08-01

    The presence of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) was analyzed in different free-living wild animals to assess the genetic diversity and predominant genotypes on each animal species. Samples were taken from the skin and/or nares, and isolates were characterized by spa typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The proportion of MSSA carriers were 5.00, 22.93, 19.78, and 17.67% in Eurasian griffon vulture, Iberian ibex, red deer, and wild boar, respectively (P = 0.057). A higher proportion of isolates (P = 0.000) were recovered from nasal samples (78.51%) than skin samples (21.49%), but the 9.26% of red deer and 18.25% of wild boar would have been undetected if only nasal samples had been tested. Sixty-three different spa types were identified, including 25 new spa types. The most common were t528 (43.59%) in Iberian ibex, t548 and t11212 (15.79% and 14.04%) in red deer, and t3750 (36.11%) in wild boar. By MLST, 27 STs were detected, of which 12 had not been described previously. The most frequent were ST581 for Iberian ibex (48.72%), ST425 for red deer (29.82%), and ST2328 for wild boar (42.36%). Isolates from Eurasian griffon vulture belong to ST133. Host specificity has been observed for the most frequent spa types and STs (P = 0.000). The highest resistance percentage was found against benzylpenicillin (average, 22.2%), although most of the S. aureus isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobial tested. Basically, MSSA isolates were different from those MRSA isolates previously detected in the same animal species. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus by Free-Living Wild Animals in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Mentaberre, Gregorio; Sánchez, Sergio; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Mateos, Ana; Vidal, Dolors; Lavín, Santiago; Fernández-Garayzábal, José-Francisco; Domínguez, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    The presence of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) was analyzed in different free-living wild animals to assess the genetic diversity and predominant genotypes on each animal species. Samples were taken from the skin and/or nares, and isolates were characterized by spa typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The proportion of MSSA carriers were 5.00, 22.93, 19.78, and 17.67% in Eurasian griffon vulture, Iberian ibex, red deer, and wild boar, respectively (P = 0.057). A higher proportion of isolates (P = 0.000) were recovered from nasal samples (78.51%) than skin samples (21.49%), but the 9.26% of red deer and 18.25% of wild boar would have been undetected if only nasal samples had been tested. Sixty-three different spa types were identified, including 25 new spa types. The most common were t528 (43.59%) in Iberian ibex, t548 and t11212 (15.79% and 14.04%) in red deer, and t3750 (36.11%) in wild boar. By MLST, 27 STs were detected, of which 12 had not been described previously. The most frequent were ST581 for Iberian ibex (48.72%), ST425 for red deer (29.82%), and ST2328 for wild boar (42.36%). Isolates from Eurasian griffon vulture belong to ST133. Host specificity has been observed for the most frequent spa types and STs (P = 0.000). The highest resistance percentage was found against benzylpenicillin (average, 22.2%), although most of the S. aureus isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobial tested. Basically, MSSA isolates were different from those MRSA isolates previously detected in the same animal species. PMID:24907325

  5. Assortative mating among animals of captive and wild origin following experimental conservation releases.

    PubMed

    Slade, Brendan; Parrott, Marissa L; Paproth, Aleisha; Magrath, Michael J L; Gillespie, Graeme R; Jessop, Tim S

    2014-11-01

    Captive breeding is a high profile management tool used for conserving threatened species. However, the inevitable consequence of generations in captivity is broad scale and often-rapid phenotypic divergence between captive and wild individuals, through environmental differences and genetic processes. Although poorly understood, mate choice preference is one of the changes that may occur in captivity that could have important implications for the reintroduction success of captive-bred animals. We bred wild-caught house mice for three generations to examine mating patterns and reproductive outcomes when these animals were simultaneously released into multiple outdoor enclosures with wild conspecifics. At release, there were significant differences in phenotypic (e.g. body mass) and genetic measures (e.g. Gst and F) between captive-bred and wild adult mice. Furthermore, 83% of offspring produced post-release were of same source parentage, inferring pronounced assortative mating. Our findings suggest that captive breeding may affect mating preferences, with potentially adverse implications for the success of threatened species reintroduction programmes.

  6. Assortative mating among animals of captive and wild origin following experimental conservation releases

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Brendan; Parrott, Marissa L.; Paproth, Aleisha; Magrath, Michael J. L.; Gillespie, Graeme R.; Jessop, Tim S.

    2014-01-01

    Captive breeding is a high profile management tool used for conserving threatened species. However, the inevitable consequence of generations in captivity is broad scale and often-rapid phenotypic divergence between captive and wild individuals, through environmental differences and genetic processes. Although poorly understood, mate choice preference is one of the changes that may occur in captivity that could have important implications for the reintroduction success of captive-bred animals. We bred wild-caught house mice for three generations to examine mating patterns and reproductive outcomes when these animals were simultaneously released into multiple outdoor enclosures with wild conspecifics. At release, there were significant differences in phenotypic (e.g. body mass) and genetic measures (e.g. Gst and F) between captive-bred and wild adult mice. Furthermore, 83% of offspring produced post-release were of same source parentage, inferring pronounced assortative mating. Our findings suggest that captive breeding may affect mating preferences, with potentially adverse implications for the success of threatened species reintroduction programmes. PMID:25411380

  7. Prevalence and genotype identification of Toxoplasma gondii in wild animals from southwestern Spain.

    PubMed

    Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Saugar, José M; Frontera, Eva; Pérez-Martín, Juan E; Habela, Miguel A; Serrano, Francisco J; Reina, David; Fuentes, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    We used PCR to detect Toxoplasma gondii in the principal game species in southwestern Spain. We detected T. gondii in 32.2% of animals tested. Prevalences varied from 14.7% in wild boar (Sus scrofa) to 51.2% in red fox (Vulpes vulpes). The most prevalent genotype was type II (50.0%), followed by type III (20.6%) and type I (5.9%). Mixed infections (11.8%) were detected in wild boar (types I+III) and red fox (types II+III). Polymorphic strains (11.8%) were detected in several species. The high prevalence and the genetic variability shown could have implications for infection of farm animals and humans.

  8. Ixodid Tick Infestation in Cattle and Wild Animals in Maswa and Iringa, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, You Shine; Kim, Tae Yun; Nam, Sung-Hyun; Lee, In-Yong; Kim, Hyung-Pyo; Mduma, Simon; Keyyu, Julius; Fyumagwa, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases are important in human and livestock health worldwide. In November 2012, ixodid ticks were collected and identified morphologically from cattle and wild animals in the Maswa district and Iringa urban, Tanzania. Amblyomma gemma, A. lepidum, and A. variegatum were identified from Maswa cattle, and A. variegatum was the predominant species. A. marmoreum, Hyalomma impeltatum, and Rhipicephalus pulchellus were identified from Iringa cattle in addition to the above 3 Amblyomma species, and A. gemma was the most abundant species. Total 4 Amblyomma and 6 Rhipicephalus species were identified from wild animals of the 2 areas. A. lepidum was predominant in Maswa buffaloes, whereas A. gemma was predominant in Iringa buffaloes. Overall, A. variegatum in cattle was predominant in the Maswa district and A. gemma was predominant in Iringa, Tanzania. PMID:25352709

  9. Ixodid tick infestation in cattle and wild animals in Maswa and Iringa, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kwak, You Shine; Kim, Tae Yun; Nam, Sung-Hyun; Lee, In-Yong; Kim, Hyung-Pyo; Mduma, Simon; Keyyu, Julius; Fyumagwa, Robert; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2014-10-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases are important in human and livestock health worldwide. In November 2012, ixodid ticks were collected and identified morphologically from cattle and wild animals in the Maswa district and Iringa urban, Tanzania. Amblyomma gemma, A. lepidum, and A. variegatum were identified from Maswa cattle, and A. variegatum was the predominant species. A. marmoreum, Hyalomma impeltatum, and Rhipicephalus pulchellus were identified from Iringa cattle in addition to the above 3 Amblyomma species, and A. gemma was the most abundant species. Total 4 Amblyomma and 6 Rhipicephalus species were identified from wild animals of the 2 areas. A. lepidum was predominant in Maswa buffaloes, whereas A. gemma was predominant in Iringa buffaloes. Overall, A. variegatum in cattle was predominant in the Maswa district and A. gemma was predominant in Iringa, Tanzania.

  10. Clostridium perfringens: A review of enteric diseases in dogs, cats and wild animals.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria

    2015-06-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a gram-positive anaerobic bacillus that is commonly part of the microbiota of humans and animals. It is considered a common enteric pathogen, but the pathogenesis and the predisposing factors of the disease commonly differ between host species. Thus, specific research is necessary to understand the role of this pathogen, how to diagnose it, and which control measures are applicable. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge of C. perfringens infections in dogs, cats and wild animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic and wild animals from the Fernando de Noronha, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, D G C; Marvulo, M F V; Silva, J S A; Santana, S C; Magalhães, F J R; Filho, C D F Lima; Ribeiro, V O; Alves, L C; Mota, R A; Dubey, J P; Silva, J C R

    2012-06-01

    Fernando de Noronha is an archipelago of 21 islands and islets in the Atlantic Ocean, state of Pernambuco, Brazil, which has a varied biodiversity including alien species or sinantropic animals. The objective here was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic and wild animals from Fernando de Noronha archipelago, Brazil. Between July 2007 and May 2010, blood samples were collected from 764 animals (533 domestic and 231 wild animals). Sera were tested by the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) or the modified agglutination test (MAT), or by both. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 80 (80.0%) of 100 chickens ( Gallus domesticus ), 3 (3.0%) of 100 cattle ( Bos taurus ), 59 (60.8%) of 97 sheep ( Ovis aries ), 9 (81.8%) of 11 goats ( Capra hircus ), 7 (43.7%) of 16 horses ( Equus caballus ), 70 (59.3%) of 118 cats ( Felis catus ), 36 (39.6%) of 91 dogs ( Canis familiaris ), 13 (38.2%) of 34 black rats ( Rattus rattus ), and 157 (79.7%) of 197 cattle egrets ( Bubulcus ibis ). Results indicate endemic infection by this zoonotic parasite among the animal and avian fauna in this archipelago from Brazil.

  12. Detection of wild animals as carriers of Leptospira by PCR in the Pantanal biome, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Anahi S; Narduche, Lorena; Martins, Gabriel; Schabib Péres, Igor A H F; Zimmermann, Namor P; Juliano, Raquel S; Pellegrin, Aiesca O; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2016-11-01

    Leptospiral infection is widespread in wildlife. In this context, wild ecosystems in tropical countries hold a vast biodiversity, including several species that may act as potential reservoirs of leptospires. The Pantanal biome presents highly favorable environmental conditions for the occurrence of leptospirosis, such as high temperatures, constant flooding, and high biodiversity. The purpose of this study was to detect wild animals as carriers of Leptospira sp. using direct methods (PCR and culture) in the Pantanal biome, Brazil. A total of 35 animals were studied, namely Cerdocyon thous, Nasua nasua, Ozotoceros bezoarticus, and Sus scrofa species. Blood for serology (MAT) and urine for bacteriological culturing and PCR was sampled. The most prevalent serogroups were Javanica and Djasiman. Additionally, 40.6% of these animals presented PCR positive reactions. Seroreactivity associated with the high frequency of leptospiral carriers among the different studied species suggests a high level of exposure of the studied animals to pathogenic Leptospira strains. Our results are still limited and the actual role of the studied animals in the epidemiology of leptospirosis in the Pantanal region remains to be elucidated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mycobacterium bovis infection at the interface between domestic and wild animals in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Hang'ombe, Mudenda B; Munyeme, Musso; Nakajima, Chie; Fukushima, Yukari; Suzuki, Haruka; Matandiko, Wigganson; Ishii, Akihiro; Mweene, Aaron S; Suzuki, Yasuhiko

    2012-11-14

    In Zambia, the presence of bovine tuberculosis in both wild and domestic animals has long been acknowledged and mutual transmission between them has been predicted without any direct evidence. Elucidation of the circulating Mycobacterium bovis strains at wild and domestic animals interphase area in Zambia, where bovine tuberculosis was diagnosed in wildlife seemed to be important. A PCR identified 15 and 37 M. bovis isolates from lechwe and cattle, respectively. Spoligotype analysis revealed that M. bovis strains from lechwe and cattle in Kafue basin clustered into a major node SB0120, where isolates outside the Kafue basin clustered into different nodes of SB0131 and SB0948. The comparatively higher variety of strains in cattle compared to lechwe elucidated by Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number Tandem Repeats analyses are consistent with cattle being the probable source of M. bovis in wild and domestic animals interphase area in Zambia. These results provide strong evidence of M. bovis strains transfer between cattle and lechwe, with the latter having developed into a sylvatic reservoir host.

  14. Mycobacterium bovis infection at the interface between domestic and wild animals in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Zambia, the presence of bovine tuberculosis in both wild and domestic animals has long been acknowledged and mutual transmission between them has been predicted without any direct evidence. Elucidation of the circulating Mycobacterium bovis strains at wild and domestic animals interphase area in Zambia, where bovine tuberculosis was diagnosed in wildlife seemed to be important. Results A PCR identified 15 and 37 M. bovis isolates from lechwe and cattle, respectively. Spoligotype analysis revealed that M. bovis strains from lechwe and cattle in Kafue basin clustered into a major node SB0120, where isolates outside the Kafue basin clustered into different nodes of SB0131 and SB0948. The comparatively higher variety of strains in cattle compared to lechwe elucidated by Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units–Variable Number Tandem Repeats analyses are consistent with cattle being the probable source of M. bovis in wild and domestic animals interphase area in Zambia. Conclusions These results provide strong evidence of M. bovis strains transfer between cattle and lechwe, with the latter having developed into a sylvatic reservoir host. PMID:23151267

  15. Ticks collected from wild and domestic animals and natural habitats in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Baek-Jun; Kim, Hyewon; Won, Sohyun; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Ki-Gyoung; Seo, Hong-Yul; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2014-06-01

    Ticks were collected from 35 animals from 5 provinces and 3 metropolitan cities during 2012. Ticks also were collected by tick drag from 4 sites in Gyeonggi-do (2) and Jeollabuk-do (2) Provinces. A total of 612 ticks belonging to 6 species and 3 genera were collected from mammals and a bird (n=573) and by tick drag (n=39). Haemaphyalis longicornis (n=434) was the most commonly collected tick, followed by H. flava (158), Ixodes nipponensis (11), Amblyomma testudinarium (7), H. japonica (1), and H. formosensis (1). H. longicornis and H. flava were collected from all animal hosts examined. For animal hosts (n>1), the highest Tick Index (TI) was observed for domestic dogs (29.6), followed by Siberian roe deer (17.4), water deer (14.4), and raccoon dogs (1.3). A total of 402 H. longicornis (adults 86, 21.4%; nymphs 160, 39.8%; larvae 156, 38.9%) were collected from wild and domestic animals. A total of 158 H. flava (n=158) were collected from wild and domestic animals and 1 ring-necked pheasant, with a higher proportion of adults (103, 65.2%), while nymphs and larvae only accounted for 12.7% (20) and 22.2% (35), respectively. Only 7 A. testudinarium were collected from the wild boar (6 adults) and Eurasian badger (1 nymph), while only 5 I. nipponensis were collected from the water deer (4 adults) and a raccoon dog (1 adult). One adult female H. formosensis was first collected from vegetation by tick drag from Mara Island, Seogwipo-si, Jeju-do Province.

  16. Antibodies to Neospora caninum in wild animals from Kenya, East Africa.

    PubMed

    Ferroglio, E; Wambwa, E; Castiello, M; Trisciuoglio, A; Prouteau, A; Pradere, E; Ndungu, S; De Meneghi, D

    2003-12-01

    The prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum was examined in six wild Artiodactyla species, and in five wild Carnivora species from Kenya. Blood sera (104 wild ungulates from Marula Estates (MEs), and 31 wild carnivores from Masai-Mara reserve and from other wildlife areas in northern and Southern Kenya), were screened using a Neospora agglutination test (NAT), with a twofold dilution (1:40-1:320 titres). Presence of NAT antibodies to N. caninun is reported here for the first time in zebra (Equus burchelli), eland (Taurotragus oryx), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), Thompson gazelle (Gazella thompsoni), impala (Aepyceros melampus), warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) and in free-ranging cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). At 1:80 dilution, prevalence was 61.5% in eland, 58.5% in zebra, 19.2% in Thompson gazelle, 33.3% in warthog, 50% in African buffalo, 30% in lion (Panthera leo), 20% in cheetah, and 33.3% in spotted hyena. Antibodies up to 1:320 titre were detected in eland (38.4%), zebra (19.5%), Thompson gazelle (3.8%) and lion (5%). Amongst herbivores, sero-prevalence was significantly (P<0.05) higher, at all dilutions, in "grazer/digger" species (e.g. eland and zebra) than in non-"grazer/digger" species (e.g. impala and Thompson gazelle). No antibodies to N. caninum were found in two leopards (Panthera pardus) and one serval (Felis serval). Our results indicates a steady presence of N. caninum in wild mammals from Kenya. The hypothesis of a sylvatic cycle of N. caninum could be suggested, but more data are needed to verify the hypothesis, as to evaluate the role of N. caninum infection on the dynamics of wild animals population in the study area.

  17. Acquired antibiotic resistance among wild animals: the case of Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    PubMed

    Sousa, Margarida; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Silva, Nuno; Serra, Rodrigo; Alcaide, Eva; Zorrilla, Irene; Torres, Carmen; Caniça, Manuela; Igrejas, Gilberto; Poeta, Patrícia

    2014-01-01

    The selective pressure generated by the clinical misuse of antibiotics has been the major driving force leading to the emergence of antibiotic resistance among bacteria. Antibiotics or even resistant bacteria are released into the environment and contaminate the surrounding areas. Human and animal populations in contact with these sources are able to become reservoirs of these resistant organisms. Then, due to the convergence between habitats, the contact of wild animals with other animals, humans, or human sources is now more common and this leads to an increase in the exchange of resistance determinants between their microbiota. Indeed, it seems that wildlife populations living in closer proximity to humans have higher levels of antibiotic resistance. Now, the Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus) is a part of this issue, being suggested as natural reservoir of acquired resistant bacteria. The emerging public health concern regarding microbial resistance to antibiotics is becoming true: the bacteria are evolving and are now affecting unintentional hosts.

  18. A repeater type biotelemetry system for use on wild big game animals.

    PubMed

    Cupal, J J; Ward, A L; Weeks, R W

    1975-01-01

    A repeater type telemetry system was developed and field tested on a wild elk near laramie, Wyoming, in the summer of 1973. The telemetry system consisted of the following: (a) a heat flow rate sensing implanted transmitter, (b) a repeater type neck collar and (c) a portable receiving station consisting of a receiver, decoding circuitry and analog chart recorder. The transmitter in (a) produced relatively low frequency rf pulses whose repetition rate was directly proportional to heat flow rate through the hide of the animal. In (b), the pulses from the implant are sensed and retransmitted using a relatively high power, high frequency transmitter. A second rf pulse was generated whose pulse spacing was related to animal activity. Details of circuit design and performance are given. Field experience has shown that this method is extremely useful for the monitoring of biological data from secretive big game animals such as elk.

  19. Human-induced evolution caused by unnatural selection through harvest of wild animals.

    PubMed

    Allendorf, Fred W; Hard, Jeffrey J

    2009-06-16

    Human harvest of phenotypically desirable animals from wild populations imposes selection that can reduce the frequencies of those desirable phenotypes. Hunting and fishing contrast with agricultural and aquacultural practices in which the most desirable animals are typically bred with the specific goal of increasing the frequency of desirable phenotypes. We consider the potential effects of harvest on the genetics and sustainability of wild populations. We also consider how harvesting could affect the mating system and thereby modify sexual selection in a way that might affect recruitment. Determining whether phenotypic changes in harvested populations are due to evolution, rather than phenotypic plasticity or environmental variation, has been problematic. Nevertheless, it is likely that some undesirable changes observed over time in exploited populations (e.g., reduced body size, earlier sexual maturity, reduced antler size, etc.) are due to selection against desirable phenotypes-a process we call "unnatural" selection. Evolution brought about by human harvest might greatly increase the time required for over-harvested populations to recover once harvest is curtailed because harvesting often creates strong selection differentials, whereas curtailing harvest will often result in less intense selection in the opposing direction. We strongly encourage those responsible for managing harvested wild populations to take into account possible selective effects of harvest management and to implement monitoring programs to detect exploitation-induced selection before it seriously impacts viability.

  20. Human-induced evolution caused by unnatural selection through harvest of wild animals

    PubMed Central

    Allendorf, Fred W.; Hard, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    Human harvest of phenotypically desirable animals from wild populations imposes selection that can reduce the frequencies of those desirable phenotypes. Hunting and fishing contrast with agricultural and aquacultural practices in which the most desirable animals are typically bred with the specific goal of increasing the frequency of desirable phenotypes. We consider the potential effects of harvest on the genetics and sustainability of wild populations. We also consider how harvesting could affect the mating system and thereby modify sexual selection in a way that might affect recruitment. Determining whether phenotypic changes in harvested populations are due to evolution, rather than phenotypic plasticity or environmental variation, has been problematic. Nevertheless, it is likely that some undesirable changes observed over time in exploited populations (e.g., reduced body size, earlier sexual maturity, reduced antler size, etc.) are due to selection against desirable phenotypes—a process we call “unnatural” selection. Evolution brought about by human harvest might greatly increase the time required for over-harvested populations to recover once harvest is curtailed because harvesting often creates strong selection differentials, whereas curtailing harvest will often result in less intense selection in the opposing direction. We strongly encourage those responsible for managing harvested wild populations to take into account possible selective effects of harvest management and to implement monitoring programs to detect exploitation-induced selection before it seriously impacts viability. PMID:19528656

  1. [Detection of leptospirosis infection in certain wild and domestic animals in Mongolia].

    PubMed

    Anan'ina, Iu V; Korenberg, E I; Tserennorov, D; Savel'eva, O V; Batjav, D; Otgonbaatar, D; Enkhbold, N; Tsend, E; Erdenechimeg, B

    2011-01-01

    Serological examination for leptospirosis of domestic and certain species of wild animals in Mongolia. Collection of material from domestic and wild animals was performed in 2009--2010 in 7 aimags (regions) of Eastern, Central and Southern Mongolia. Serological study of filter paper dried blood samples obtained from 51 specimens of cattle and small cattle, camels, and 545 specimens of rodents of various species was performed in microagglutination reaction (MAR) of leptospirae with 13 reference strains. There is a presence in certain regions of Mongolia of anthropurgic loci of leptospirosis infection including arid zones where ecological conditions do not favor the development of epizootic process. The results of the study indicate the epizootic significance of Tarassovi serogroup leptospirae in cattle and Sejroe serogroup (probably hardjo serovar) in goats, sheep and camels. Results of serological studies of desert and steppe specimens of wild fauna of Mongolia suggest a possibility of circulation of leptospirae in natural foci. Detection in a significant percent of cases in tarbagan and long tailed ground squirrel blood sera of agglutinins to Pomona (mozdok) leptospirae with negative MAR results for Pomona (pomona) strain suggests a presence of a pathogen of a previously unknown serovar. However final conclusion could be made only after the isolation of cultures of the pathogen and their identification.

  2. Human Exposure to Wild Animals in the Sankuru Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Rimoin, Anne W; Alfonso, Vivian Helena; Hoff, Nicole A; Doshi, Reena H; Mulembakani, Prime; Kisalu, Nevile K; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Okitolonda, Emile W; Wright, Linda L

    2017-08-22

    Due to the high level of biological diversity in the Congo Basin and human population dependence on bushmeat, the DRC represents an ideal location for expanding knowledge on wild animal exposures and thus the potential for transmission of zoonotic pathogens. However, limited information exists on patterns and extent of contact with wildlife in such communities. Using a cross-sectional study, 14 villages in the Sankuru Province of the DRC were surveyed between August and September 2007. Villagers ≥ 1 year of age and at home of the time of the survey were eligible and enrolled to describe and assess factors associated with animal exposures (both activity and type of animal). Among respondents, 91% reported exposure to rodents, 89% to duikers, 78% to non-human primates (NHPs), and 32% reported contact with bats in the month prior to the survey. The most frequently reported activities included eating (95%), cooking (70%), and butchering or skinning of animals (55%). The activities and animals to which subjects had contact varied by sex and age. Moreover, we observed a high correlation of the same activities across animal types. In this and other populations that rely on bushmeat, there is a high frequency of exposure to multiple animal species through various modalities. In the event of future zoonotic disease outbreaks, effective public health interventions and campaigns that mitigate the risk of animal contact during outbreaks need to be broad to include various modes of contact and should be directed to both men and women across all age groups. As available information is limited, further studies are necessary to better understand the complex relationships and exposures individuals have with animals.

  3. Compromising genetic diversity in the wild: unmonitored large-scale release of plants and animals.

    PubMed

    Laikre, Linda; Schwartz, Michael K; Waples, Robin S; Ryman, Nils

    2010-09-01

    Large-scale exploitation of wild animals and plants through fishing, hunting and logging often depends on augmentation through releases of translocated or captively raised individuals. Such releases are performed worldwide in vast numbers. Augmentation can be demographically and economically beneficial but can also cause four types of adverse genetic change to wild populations: (1) loss of genetic variation, (2) loss of adaptations, (3) change of population composition, and (4) change of population structure. While adverse genetic impacts are recognized and documented in fisheries, little effort is devoted to actually monitoring them. In forestry and wildlife management, genetic risks associated with releases are largely neglected. We outline key features of programs to effectively monitor consequences of such releases on natural populations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rationalizing spatial exploration patterns of wild animals and humans through a temporal discounting framework.

    PubMed

    Namboodiri, Vijay Mohan K; Levy, Joshua M; Mihalas, Stefan; Sims, David W; Hussain Shuler, Marshall G

    2016-08-02

    Understanding the exploration patterns of foragers in the wild provides fundamental insight into animal behavior. Recent experimental evidence has demonstrated that path lengths (distances between consecutive turns) taken by foragers are well fitted by a power law distribution. Numerous theoretical contributions have posited that "Lévy random walks"-which can produce power law path length distributions-are optimal for memoryless agents searching a sparse reward landscape. It is unclear, however, whether such a strategy is efficient for cognitively complex agents, from wild animals to humans. Here, we developed a model to explain the emergence of apparent power law path length distributions in animals that can learn about their environments. In our model, the agent's goal during search is to build an internal model of the distribution of rewards in space that takes into account the cost of time to reach distant locations (i.e., temporally discounting rewards). For an agent with such a goal, we find that an optimal model of exploration in fact produces hyperbolic path lengths, which are well approximated by power laws. We then provide support for our model by showing that humans in a laboratory spatial exploration task search space systematically and modify their search patterns under a cost of time. In addition, we find that path length distributions in a large dataset obtained from free-ranging marine vertebrates are well described by our hyperbolic model. Thus, we provide a general theoretical framework for understanding spatial exploration patterns of cognitively complex foragers.

  5. Conservation of wild animals by assisted reproduction and molecular marker technology.

    PubMed

    Shivaji, S; Kholkute, S D; Verma, S K; Gaur, Ajay; Umapathy, G; Singh, Anju; Sontakke, Sadanand; Shailaja, K; Reddy, Anuradha; Monika, S; Sivaram, V; Jyotsna, B; Bala, Satyare; Ahmed, M Shakeel; Bala, Aruna; Chandrashekar, B V N; Gupta, Sandeep; Prakash, Surya; Singh, Lalji

    2003-07-01

    Wild animals are an integral component of the ecosystem. Their decimation due to abrupt natural calamities or due to gradual human intervention would be disastrous to the ecosystem and would alter the balance in nature between various biotic components. Such an imbalance could have an adverse effect on the ecosystem. Therefore, there is an urgent need to put an end to the ever increasing list of endangered species by undertaking both in situ and ex situ conservation using tools of modern biology, to ascertain the degree of genetic variation and reproductive competence in these animals. This review highlights the development and use of molecular markers such as microsatellites, minisatellites, mitochondrial control region, cytochrome b and MHC loci to assess the genetic variation in various Indian wild animals such as the lion, tiger, leopard and deer. The review also presents data on the semen profile of the big cats of India. Reproductive technologies such as cryopreservation of semen and artificial insemination in big cats are also highlighted.

  6. Identification of trypanosomes in wild animals from southern Cameroon using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    PubMed

    Herder, S; Simo, G; Nkinin, S; Njiokou, F

    2002-12-01

    One possible explanation of the maintenance of many historical foci of sleeping sickness in Central Africa could be the existence of a wild animal reservoir. In this study, PCR was used to detect the different trypanosome species present in wild animal captured by hunters in the southern forest belt of Cameroon (Bipindi). Trypanosomes were also detected by a parasitological method (Quantitative buffy coat: QBC). Parasite could not be isolated in culture medium (Kit for in vitro isolation: KIVI). Specific primers of T. brucei s.l., T. congolense forest type, T. congolense savannah type, T. vivax, T. simiae and T. b. gambiense group 1 were used to identify parasites in the blood of 164 animals belonging to 24 different species including ungulates, rodents, pangolins, carnivores, reptiles and primates. Of the 24 studied species, eight were carrying T. b. gambiense group 1. Those parasites pathogenic to man were found in monkeys (Cercocebus torquatus and Cercopithecus nictitans), in ungulates (Cephalophus dorsalis and C. monticola), in carnivores (Nandinia binotata and Genetta servalina) and in rodents (Cricetomys gambianus and Atherurus africanus). 13 species (54%) were carrying T. brucei s.l. identified as non-gambiense group 1.

  7. The parasites of giant pandas: individual-based measurement in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Yang, Xuyu; Wu, Hua; Gu, Xiaodong; Hu, Yibo; Wei, Fuwen

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing recognition of parasites as a significant factor in the successful conservation of endangered species. Determining parasite infection and load in free-ranging populations traditionally is done via necropsy or coproscopy. For studies of wild animals, fecal sample collection can result in bias because the individual identity of animals is unknown and multiple samples may be collected from the same individual, yet treated as unrelated samples. We studied parasite load in wild giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) across six mountain ranges in China. Genetic identification was used to determine the exact number of individuals sampled. The parasite fauna consisted of five species, dominated by Baylisascaris shroederi. The pattern of statistical difference between mountains was artificially inflated when animal identity was not included in the model. Our results suggest that caution should be exercised in inferring patterns from comparative parasitologic studies when samples cannot be attributed to specific individuals. Using noninvasive genetic sampling to avoid such bias should form a standard tool in the management of endangered species and their parasites.

  8. Genotyping of potentially zoonotic Giardia duodenalis from exotic and wild animals kept in captivity in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Soares, Rodrigo Martins; de Souza, Sílvio Luís Pereira; Silveira, Luciane Holsback; Funada, Mikaela Renata; Richtzenhain, Leonardo José; Gennari, Solange M

    2011-08-25

    We have studied the variability of glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and small subunit ribosomal (SSU) rRNA coding genes of Giardia species in fecal samples isolated from wild and exotic animals in Brazil, and compared with homologous sequences of isolates from human and domestic animals characterized in previous studies. Cysts of Giardia duodenalis were obtained from feces of naturally infected monkeys (Alouatta fusca) (n=20), chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) (n=3), ostriches (Struthio camelus) (n=2) and jaguar (Panthera onca) (n=1). Assemblage AI was assigned to the unique isolate of jaguar. All the samples from monkeys, chinchillas, and ostriches were assigned to Assemblage B. There was little evolutionary divergence between the referred isolates and isolates described elsewhere. The Assemblage B isolates identified in this study were closely related to Assemblage BIV isolated from humans. The molecular identification of Assemblages A and B of G. duodenalis isolates from exotic and wild animals demonstrates that such hosts may be a potential reservoir for zoonotic transmission of G. duodenalis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Going wild: what a global small-animal tracking system could do for experimental biologists.

    PubMed

    Wikelski, Martin; Kays, Roland W; Kasdin, N Jeremy; Thorup, Kasper; Smith, James A; Swenson, George W

    2007-01-01

    Tracking animals over large temporal and spatial scales has revealed invaluable and spectacular biological information, particularly when the paths and fates of individuals can be monitored on a global scale. However, only large animals (greater than approximately 300 g) currently can be followed globally because of power and size constraints on the tracking devices. And yet the vast majority of animals is small. Tracking small animals is important because they are often part of evolutionary and ecological experiments, they provide important ecosystem services and they are of conservation concern or pose harm to human health. Here, we propose a small-animal satellite tracking system that would enable the global monitoring of animals down to the size of the smallest birds, mammals (bats), marine life and eventually large insects. To create the scientific framework necessary for such a global project, we formed the ICARUS initiative (www.IcarusInitiative.org), the International Cooperation for Animal Research Using Space. ICARUS also highlights how small-animal tracking could address some of the ;Grand Challenges in Environmental Sciences' identified by the US National Academy of Sciences, such as the spread of infectious diseases or the relationship between biological diversity and ecosystem functioning. Small-animal tracking would allow the quantitative assessment of dispersal and migration in natural populations and thus help solve enigmas regarding population dynamics, extinctions and invasions. Experimental biologists may find a global small-animal tracking system helpful in testing, validating and expanding laboratory-derived discoveries in wild, natural populations. We suggest that the relatively modest investment into a global small-animal tracking system will pay off by providing unprecedented insights into both basic and applied nature. Tracking small animals over large spatial and temporal scales could prove to be one of the most powerful techniques of the

  10. Go Wild with Fruits and Veggies: Engaging Children in Nutrition Education and Physical Activity with Animal Characters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Offelen, Sara J.; Schroeder, Mary M.; Leines, DeeAnn R.; Roth-Yousey, Lori; Reicks, Marla M.

    2011-01-01

    The Go Wild with Fruits and Veggies! curriculum incorporates wild animal characters to motivate 3rd-5th grade children to increase fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity. Positive findings from a rural setting regarding a self-reported increase in intake of vegetables (n = 1,285) were verified by more intensive evaluation of vegetable…

  11. Go Wild with Fruits and Veggies: Engaging Children in Nutrition Education and Physical Activity with Animal Characters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Offelen, Sara J.; Schroeder, Mary M.; Leines, DeeAnn R.; Roth-Yousey, Lori; Reicks, Marla M.

    2011-01-01

    The Go Wild with Fruits and Veggies! curriculum incorporates wild animal characters to motivate 3rd-5th grade children to increase fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity. Positive findings from a rural setting regarding a self-reported increase in intake of vegetables (n = 1,285) were verified by more intensive evaluation of vegetable…

  12. Animal Personality Relates to Thermal Preference in Wild-Type Zebrafish, Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Rey, Sonia; Digka, Nikoletta; MacKenzie, Simon

    2015-06-01

    It has been widely supported that individual animals express different strategies to cope with environmental challenge. In ectothermic species such as fish, individuals must use behavioral thermoregulation mechanisms to optimize physiological performance. In the present study, thermal preference was tested in groups of wild-type zebrafish, Danio rerio, screened for proactive and reactive animal personalities. Three replicate groups of proactive, reactive, and naive randomly sampled non-screened controls were used for the experiments. The frequency distribution of the animals was recorded in a custom-built multichamber tank under both constant temperature (temperature restricted conditions: TR) and a continuous thermal gradient profile (temperature choice: TCh ranging from 21°C to 35°C). Proactive and reactive animal personalities expressed significantly different thermal preferences and general activity within the temperature gradient. Our results show that proactive fish, generally characterized as being more aggressive, bold risk takers, and prone to routine formation, have a preference for higher temperature environments. Reactive fish, which are shy, less risk-prone, and more flexible, favor medium colder temperatures. This is the first report of thermopreferendum in zebrafish where individual animal personality coupled to freedom of thermal choice has been applied to understand variation in individual preferences within a population.

  13. A survey of ticks (Acari: Ixodida) infesting some wild animals from Sivas, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bursali, Ahmet; Keskin, Adem; Şimşek, Eray; Keskin, Aysun; Tekin, Saban

    2015-06-01

    In order to determine the species composition of infesting ticks, between 2011 and 2012 a total of 1118 wild animals were captured from various regions of Zara, Sivas province, Turkey. A total of 138 ticks were obtained from the 58 host animals. Ticks were identified as Dermacentor marginatus (Sulzer), Haemaphysalis erinacei taurica Pospelova-Shtrom, Haemaphysalis parva (Neumann), Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini and Fanzago, Haemaphysalis sulcata Canestrini and Fanzago, Hyalomma marginatum Koch, Ixodes laguri Olenev, Ixodes ricinus (L.), Ixodes vespertilionis Koch and Rhipicephalus turanicus Pomerantzev. To the best of our knowledge, there are several new host records for D. marginatus, H. e. taurica and I. laguri. In addition, I. vespertilionis was recorded for the first time in the Central Anatolian Region in Turkey, whereas I. laguri and H. e. taurica are firstly reported in Sivas.

  14. Unusual injuries on the right hand and forearm caused by unidentified wild animals.

    PubMed

    Kiuchi, Takayuki; Matoba, Kotaro; Terazawa, Koichi

    2008-11-01

    An old man was found dead in a rice paddy with his face down in the water. His right forearm and hand were severely injured and the shapes of injuries were unusual. It was initially suspected that the injuries had been caused by a cultivator placed at the site. However, they proved to be postmortem injuries because vital reactions were not observed. The skin was widely torn away. Some edges of the injuries looked like a bite mark and other parts looked like scratches. There were many parallel injuries on the right forearm and hand and footmark-like injuries on the right hand. They were probably caused by wild animals. Judging from the sizes and shapes of the footprint, bite marks and scratches, we estimated that the animal which caused the injuries was weasels.

  15. Isolation of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. from free-ranging wild animals.

    PubMed

    Iovine, Renata de Oliveira; Dejuste, Catia; Miranda, Flávia; Filoni, Claudia; Bueno, Marina Galvão; de Carvalho, Vania Maria

    2015-01-01

    Increasing interactions between humans, domestic animals and wildlife may result in inter-species transmission of infectious agents. To evaluate the presence of pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella spp. and to test the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates, rectal swabs from 36 different free-ranging wild mammals were taken from two distinct natural sites in Brazil: Cantareira State Park (CSP, state of São Paulo) and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro Region (SIRNR, state of Amazonas). The swabs were randomly collected and processed for bacterial isolation, identification, characterization and antimicrobial resistance. Eighteen E. coli strains from CSP and 20 from SIRNR were recovered from 14 and 22 individuals, respectively. Strains from animals captured in CSP, the site with the greatest anthropization, exhibited a higher range and percentage of virulence genes, including an eae+/bfpA+ strain. Antimicrobial resistance was verified in strains originating from both sites; however, in strains from SIRNR, aminopenicillins were almost the exclusive antimicrobial class to which strains exhibited resistance, whereas in CSP there were strains resistant to cephalosporins, sulfonamide, aminoglycoside, tetracycline and fluoroquinolone, in addition to strains exhibiting multidrug resistance. Two strains of Salmonella enterica that are known to be associated with reptiles, serotypes Belem and 60:r:e,n,z15, were recovered only from Amazonian animals and showed susceptibility to all classes of antimicrobials that were tested. Although the potential impact of these pathogens on wildlife remains unknown, bacteria isolated from free-ranging wild animals may provide relevant information about environmental health and should therefore be more deeply studied.

  16. Wild and domestic animals likely involved in rickettsial endemic zones of Northwestern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Londoño, Andrés F; Acevedo-Gutiérrez, Leidy Y; Marín, Diana; Contreras, Verónica; Díaz, Francisco J; Valbuena, Gustavo; Labruna, Marcelo B; Hidalgo, Marylin; Arboleda, Margarita; Mattar, Salim; Solari, Sergio; Rodas, Juan D

    2017-10-01

    Between 2006 and 2008, three outbreaks of human rickettsiosis occurred in Northwestern Colombia (municipalities of Necoclí, Los Córdobas and Turbo), with case fatality rates between 27% and 54%. The aim of this study was to determine previous exposure of wild and domestic animals to spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae through serological tests, to detect rickettsial evidence in their ectoparasites, and to analyze their possible role in the epidemiology of rickettsial diseases in this zone of the country. A cross-sectional association study was performed from 2010 to 2011. Blood and ectoparasite samples were collected from domestic animals and small mammals. A statistically significant association (p<0.05) between seropositive animals and the study zones was observed. A total of 2937 ticks, 672 fleas and 74 lice were collected and tested in pools by PCR. The minimum infection rate (MIR) of the positive pools was 5% in ticks, 4% in fleas, and 0% in lice. Phylogenetic analyses showed circulation of three 4.Rickettsia species: R. felis in fleas, and R. bellii and Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, both in Amblyomma ovale ticks. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the occurrence of SFG rickettsiae in domestic, synanthropic and wild animals, and suggests the use of equines and canines as good sentinels of infection, in the study zone. We speculate that a transmission cycle exist involving rodents in the areas where these outbreaks have occurred. Tomes' spiny rats (Proechimys semispinosus) and common opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) could be good candidates as amplifier hosts for SFG rickettsiae in enzootic/endemic zones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus from Wild Animals and Ixodidae Ticks in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sung-Suck; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Kang, Jun-Gu; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Shin, Jeong-Hwa; Hur, Moon-Suk; Suh, Jae-Hwa; Oh, Myoung-Don; Jeong, Soo-Myoung; Shin, Nam-Shik; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-06-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV), a novel bunyavirus reported to be endemic to central-northeastern China, southern Japan, and the Republic of Korea (ROK). To investigate SFTSV infections, we collected serum samples and ticks from wild animals. Using serum samples and ticks, SFTSV-specific genes were amplified by one-step RT-PCR and nested PCR and sequenced. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was performed to analyze virus-specific antibody levels in wild animals. Serum samples were collected from a total of 91 animals: 21 Korean water deer (KWD), 3 Siberian roe deer, 5 gorals, 7 raccoon dogs, 54 wild boars (WBs), and 1 carrion crow. The SFTSV infection rate in wild animals was 3.30% (3 of 91 animals: 1 KWD and 2 WBs). The seropositive rate was 6.59% (6 of 91 animals: 5 KWD and 1 WB). A total of 891 ticks (3 species) were collected from 65 wild animals (9 species). Of the attached tick species, Haemaphysalis longicornis (74.86%) was the most abundant, followed by Haemaphysalis flava (20.20%) and Ixodes nipponensis (4.94%). The average minimum infection rate (MIR) of SFTSV in ticks was 4.98%. The MIRs of H. longicornis, H. flava, and I. nipponensis were 4.51%, 2.22%, and 22.73%, respectively. The MIRs of larvae, nymphs, and adult ticks were 0.68%, 6.88%, and 5.53%, respectively. In addition, the MIRs of fed and unfed ticks were 4.67% and 4.96%, respectively. We detected a low SFTSV infection rate in wild animals, no differences in SFTSV infection rate with respect to bloodsucking in ticks, and SFTSV infection for all developmental stages of ticks. This is the first report describing the detection of SFTSV in wild animals in the ROK.

  18. The Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre and surveillance of wild animal diseases in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Leighton, F A; Wobeser, G A; Barker, I K; Daoust, P Y; Martineau, D

    1997-01-01

    The Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre (CCWHC) was established in 1992 as an organization among Canada's 4 veterinary colleges, with a mandate to apply veterinary medicine to wildlife management and conservation in Canada. A major function of the CCWHC is nation-wide surveillance of wild animal diseases. Disease surveillance is conceived as consisting of 4 different activities: detection, diagnosis, information management, and use of information. In the CCWHC surveillance program, detection of disease is carried out by a wide range of professional and avocational field personnel, and much effort is expended to stimulate and support this activity. Diagnosis is done by personnel of provincial and federal veterinary laboratories and the CCWHC. Information management is achieved through a national database of wildlife disease incidents developed and maintained by the CCWHC. Use of information is enabled through established channels for distribution of information derived from the surveillance program to persons responsible for wildlife programs and policies, and to the public. There has been a high demand for the services of the CCWHC since its establishment. The CCWHC responds to approximately 2000 requests for information annually, distributes its newsletter to over 1700 recipients, examines approximately 1200 wild animal submissions each year, and has accumulated records of over 5000 disease incidents in its database. Technical information from the CCWHC has benefited federal, provincial/territorial, and nongovernment wildlife agencies; endangered species recovery programs; federal and provincial veterinary services; and federal and provincial public health programs. Images Figure 1. PMID:9167876

  19. The Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre and surveillance of wild animal diseases in Canada.

    PubMed

    Leighton, F A; Wobeser, G A; Barker, I K; Daoust, P Y; Martineau, D

    1997-05-01

    The Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre (CCWHC) was established in 1992 as an organization among Canada's 4 veterinary colleges, with a mandate to apply veterinary medicine to wildlife management and conservation in Canada. A major function of the CCWHC is nation-wide surveillance of wild animal diseases. Disease surveillance is conceived as consisting of 4 different activities: detection, diagnosis, information management, and use of information. In the CCWHC surveillance program, detection of disease is carried out by a wide range of professional and avocational field personnel, and much effort is expended to stimulate and support this activity. Diagnosis is done by personnel of provincial and federal veterinary laboratories and the CCWHC. Information management is achieved through a national database of wildlife disease incidents developed and maintained by the CCWHC. Use of information is enabled through established channels for distribution of information derived from the surveillance program to persons responsible for wildlife programs and policies, and to the public. There has been a high demand for the services of the CCWHC since its establishment. The CCWHC responds to approximately 2000 requests for information annually, distributes its newsletter to over 1700 recipients, examines approximately 1200 wild animal submissions each year, and has accumulated records of over 5000 disease incidents in its database. Technical information from the CCWHC has benefited federal, provincial/territorial, and nongovernment wildlife agencies; endangered species recovery programs; federal and provincial veterinary services; and federal and provincial public health programs.

  20. Cross-Reactivity of Porcine Immunoglobulin A Antibodies with Fecal Immunoglobulins of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) and Other Animal Species.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sang Won; Yoo, Sung J; Sunwoo, Sunyoung; Hyun, Bang Hun; Lyoo, Young S

    2016-06-01

    Fecal samples obtained from wild boar habitats are useful for the surveillance of diseases in wild boar populations; however, it is difficult to determine the species of origin of feces collected in natural habitats. In this study, a fecal IgA ELISA was evaluated as a method for identifying the porcine species from fecal samples. Both domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) and wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) showed significantly higher levels of fecal IgA than other animal species. Additionally, age dependent changes in the level of Ig A in wild boars and domestic pigs were identified; Titers of Ig A were highest in suckling period and lowest in weanling period.

  1. Avian influenza and animal health risk: conservation of endemic threatened wild birds in Sardinia Island.

    PubMed

    Delogu, Mauro; Piredda, Isabella; Pintore, Antonio; Cabras, Pierangela; Cotti, Claudia; Ghetti, Giulia; Raffini, Elisabetta; De Marco, Maria A

    2012-12-01

    Sardinia is a Mediterranean island with a long geological history, leading to a separation process from continental Europe during the Miocene. As a consequence, in this insular habitat some wild bird species developed endemic forms, some of which are currently threatened. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible animal health risk associated with a potential avian influenza virus (AIV) circulation in Sardinian wild bird populations. Overall, 147 cloacal swabs were sampled in the Sardinia region from June 2009 to September 2011. Samples were obtained from 12 taxonomic orders, including 16 families and 40 species of birds. Based on the endangered host status or on the ecology of the host-virus interaction, samples were categorized into three groups of species: 1) endemic, endangered, or both (17 species); 2) potential reservoir (21 species); and 3) potential spillover (two species). Cloacal swabs were tested by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR for influenza A virus matrix gene amplification. Forty-one serum samples were tested by nucleoprotein-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (NP-ELISA) for antibodies against influenza A virus nucleoprotein and by hemagglutination inhibition assay for detection of seropositivity against H5 and H7 AIV subtypes. No cloacal swabs tested RT-PCR positive for AIV, whereas two weak seropositive results were detected by NP-ELISA in a mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and in a yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis). The low or absent AIV circulation detected in Sardinia's wild birds during the study suggests a naïve status in these avian populations. These data provide new information on AIV circulation in Sardinia's wild birds that could be applied to implement conservation strategies for threatened species.

  2. [The stability of progesterone in feces of different wild animal species kept in a zoological garden].

    PubMed

    Neumann, G; Gottschalk, J; Eulenberger, K; Grün, E

    2002-05-01

    Methodical investigations were carried out to monitor especially in what respect external factors (dry mass of faeces, time point of freezing, duration of storage of the frozen samples, multiple defrosting of the samples) influence the progesterone concentration of the faeces of several wild animal species (Baringo giraffe, Black rhinoceros, Dama gazelle, Mountain goat) living in a zoological garden. With reference to one animal species the dry mass of the faeces showed only small variations. Therefore, it is possible to estimate comparable progesterone levels in several faecal samples of the same animal species without drying the samples. In all cases the progesterone concentration was increased after 24 and 48 hour storage of the faecal samples at room temperature compared with samples frozen directly (significant differences for giraffes and rhinoceroses). Samples of rhinoceroses and gazelles showed no significant changes of their progesterone concentration after a long time of storage (one and three months) in the freezing state (-20 degrees C). On the other hand, in faeces of giraffes with high progesterone levels a significant decrease of the initial level was pointed out. In comparison of single and multiple defrosting of the faecal samples, the latter caused a decrease of the progesterone concentration of the faeces of all animal species investigated (significant differences for rhinoceroses and gazelles).

  3. Rationalizing spatial exploration patterns of wild animals and humans through a temporal discounting framework

    PubMed Central

    Namboodiri, Vijay Mohan K.; Levy, Joshua M.; Mihalas, Stefan; Sims, David W.; Hussain Shuler, Marshall G.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the exploration patterns of foragers in the wild provides fundamental insight into animal behavior. Recent experimental evidence has demonstrated that path lengths (distances between consecutive turns) taken by foragers are well fitted by a power law distribution. Numerous theoretical contributions have posited that “Lévy random walks”—which can produce power law path length distributions—are optimal for memoryless agents searching a sparse reward landscape. It is unclear, however, whether such a strategy is efficient for cognitively complex agents, from wild animals to humans. Here, we developed a model to explain the emergence of apparent power law path length distributions in animals that can learn about their environments. In our model, the agent’s goal during search is to build an internal model of the distribution of rewards in space that takes into account the cost of time to reach distant locations (i.e., temporally discounting rewards). For an agent with such a goal, we find that an optimal model of exploration in fact produces hyperbolic path lengths, which are well approximated by power laws. We then provide support for our model by showing that humans in a laboratory spatial exploration task search space systematically and modify their search patterns under a cost of time. In addition, we find that path length distributions in a large dataset obtained from free-ranging marine vertebrates are well described by our hyperbolic model. Thus, we provide a general theoretical framework for understanding spatial exploration patterns of cognitively complex foragers. PMID:27385831

  4. Rabies in Greece; historical perspectives in view of the current re-emergence in wild and domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Tsiodras, Sotirios; Korou, Laskarina-Maria; Tzani, Myrsini; Tasioudi, Konstantia E; Kalachanis, Kostantinos; Mangana-Vougiouka, Olga; Rigakos, George; Dougas, George; Seimenis, Aristarchos M; Kontos, Vassileios

    2014-01-01

    Greece has been rabies free since 1987 while no human cases have been seen since 1970. The re-emergence of rabies in Northern Greece during 2012-2013 in wild and domestic animals prompted a systematic review of historical evidence of the presence of the disease in the country from ancient years till the present. Historical data is presented along with efforts to prevent disease in animals and humans especially during the high prevalent periods in the country in the mid-20th century. These efforts serve as a guide to current extensive efforts to prevent spread especially in the wild and domestic animal populations.

  5. Evaluating the risk of pathogen transmission from wild animals to domestic pigs in Australia.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Hayley E; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Lapidge, Steven J; Hernández-Jover, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Wild animals contribute to endemic infection in livestock as well as the introduction, reintroduction and maintenance of pathogens. The source of introduction of endemic diseases to a piggery is often unknown and the extent of wildlife contribution to such local spread is largely unexplored. The aim of the current study was to quantitatively assess the probability of domestic pigs being exposed to different pathogens from wild animals commonly found around commercial piggeries in Australia. Specifically, this study aims to quantify the probability of exposure to the pathogens Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. from European starlings (Sturnus vulgarus); Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Lawsonia intracellularis and Salmonella spp. from rats (Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus); and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Leptospira spp., Brucella suis and L. intracellularis from feral pigs (Sus scrofa). Exposure assessments, using scenario trees and Monte Carlo stochastic simulation modelling, were conducted to identify potential pathways of introduction and calculate the probabilities of these pathways occurring. Input parameters were estimated from a national postal survey of commercial pork producers and from disease detection studies conducted for European starlings, rats and feral pigs in close proximity to commercial piggeries in Australia. Based on the results of the exposure assessments, rats presented the highest probability of exposure of pathogens to domestic pigs at any point in time, and L. intracellularis (median 0.13, 5% and 95%, 0.05-0.23) and B. hyodysenteriae (median 0.10, 0.05-0.19) were the most likely pathogens to be transmitted. Regarding European starlings, the median probability of exposure of domestic pigs to pathogenic E. coli at any point in time was estimated to be 0.03 (0.02-0.04). The highest probability of domestic pig exposure to feral pig pathogens at any point in time was found to be for M. hyopneumoniae (median 0.013, 0

  6. Zoonotic pathogens isolated from wild animals and environmental samples at two California wildlife hospitals.

    PubMed

    Siembieda, Jennifer L; Miller, Woutrina A; Byrne, Barbara A; Ziccardi, Michael H; Anderson, Nancy; Chouicha, Nadira; Sandrock, Christian E; Johnson, Christine K

    2011-03-15

    To determine types and estimate prevalence of potentially zoonotic enteric pathogens shed by wild animals admitted to either of 2 wildlife hospitals and to characterize distribution of these pathogens and of aerobic bacteria in a hospital environment. Cross-sectional study. Fecal samples from 338 animals in 2 wildlife hospitals and environmental samples from 1 wildlife hospital. Fecal samples were collected within 24 hours of hospital admission. Environmental samples were collected from air and surfaces. Samples were tested for zoonotic pathogens via culture techniques and biochemical analyses. Prevalence of pathogen shedding was compared among species groups, ages, sexes, and seasons. Bacterial counts were determined for environmental samples. Campylobacter spp, Vibrio spp, Salmonella spp, Giardia spp, and Cryptosporidium spp (alone or in combination) were detected in 105 of 338 (31%) fecal samples. Campylobacter spp were isolated only from birds. Juvenile passerines were more likely to shed Campylobacter spp than were adults; prevalence increased among juvenile passerines during summer. Non-O1 serotypes of Vibrio cholerae were isolated from birds; during an oil-spill response, 9 of 10 seabirds screened were shedding this pathogen, which was also detected in environmental samples. Salmonella spp and Giardia spp were isolated from birds and mammals; Cryptosporidium spp were isolated from mammals only. Floors of animal rooms had higher bacterial counts than did floors with only human traffic. Potentially zoonotic enteric pathogens were identified in samples from several species admitted to wildlife hospitals, indicating potential for transmission if prevention is not practiced.

  7. Healthy and tumoral tissue resistivity in wild-type and sparc-/- animal models.

    PubMed

    Meroni, D; Mauri, G; Bovio, D; Bianchi, A M; Chiodoni, C; Colombo, M P; Meroni, E; Aliverti, A

    2016-12-01

    Despite the technological improvement of radiologic, endoscopic and nuclear imaging, the accuracy of diagnostic procedures for tumors can be limited whenever a mass-forming lesion is identified. This is true also because bioptical sampling cannot be properly guided into the lesions so as to puncture neoplastic tissue and to avoid necrotic areas. Under these circumstances, invasive and expensive procedures are still required to obtain diagnosis which is mandatory to plan the most appropriate therapeutic strategy. In order to test if electrical impedance spectroscopy may be helpful in providing further evidence for cancer detection, resistivity measurements were taken on 22 mice, 11 wild-type and 11 sparc-/- (knock out for the protein SPARC: secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine), bearing mammary carcinomas, by placing a needle-probe into tumor, peritumoral and contralateral healthy fat areas. Tumor resistivity was significantly lower than both peritumoral fat and contralateral fat tissues. Resistivity in sparc-/- mice was lower than wild-type animals. A significant frequency dependence of resistivity was present in tissues analyzed. We conclude that accurate measurements of resistivity may allow to discriminate between tissues with different pathological and/or structural characteristics. Therefore, resistivity measurements could be considered for in vivo detection and differential diagnosis of tumor masses.

  8. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Labruna, Marcelo B; de Paula, Cátia D; Lima, Thiago F; Sana, Dênis A

    2002-12-01

    From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paran river, between the states of S o Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species), Boophilus (1) and Anocentor (1). A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages) collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.

  9. Infectious Diseases in Wild Animals in Utah VI. Experimental Infection of Birds with Rickettsia rickettsii

    PubMed Central

    Lundgren, D. L.; Thorpe, B. D.; Haskell, C. D.

    1966-01-01

    Lundgren, D. L. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City), B. D. Thorpe, and C. D. Haskell. Infectious diseases in wild animals in Utah. VI. Experimental infection of birds with Rickettsia rickettsii. J. Bacteriol. 91:963–966. 1966.—Chickens, pigeons, pheasants, sparrow hawks, red-tailed hawks, ravens, magpies, and a marsh hawk were inoculated with Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiological agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. The development and persistence of complement-fixing (CF) antibodies and rickettsemias were tested for in these birds. Rickettsiae were recovered from the blood of a number of birds up to the 16th day after inoculation, whereas only the pigeon was found to develop high CF antibody titers. It was concluded that certain species of birds have the potential of contributing to the dissemination of R. rickettsii in nature, and that the CF test is generally unsuitable for serological diagnosis of this organism in birds. PMID:4956338

  10. [Presence of IgM antibodies for Leptospira interrogans in wild animals from Tocantins State, 2002].

    PubMed

    de Souza Júnior, Milton Formiga; Lobato, Zélia Inês Portela; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria; Moreira, Elvio Carlos; de Oliveira, Rogério Rodrigues; Leite, Geysa Goulart; Freitas, Theonys Diógenes; de Assis, Ronnie Antunes

    2006-01-01

    Four hundred and twenty-seven serum samples of wild animals were tested against 18 serovars of Leptospira interrogans. Of 286 samples of Cebus apella, 46 (16.1%) were positive for the serovars pomona, brasiliensis, mini, swajizak, grippotyphosa, sarmin, fluminense, autumnalis, hebdomadis, guaratuba, javanica and icterohaemorrhagiae. Of 82 samples of Alouatta caraya, 2 (2.4%) were positive for the serovars mangus and fluminense. Of 31 samples of Nasua nasua, 4 (12.9%) were positive for the serovars fluminense and javanica, and of 10 samples of Cerdocyon thous, 2 (20 %) were positive for the serovars fluminense and brasiliensis. Seven samples of Dasyprocta sp, 6 of Tamandua tetradactyla and 5 of Euphractus sexcintus did not present reactivity.

  11. [PARS--a software program for pathologic anatomic diagnosis of wild animals].

    PubMed

    Wisser, J; Jewgenow, K N

    1997-12-01

    A computer programme (PARS) was designed for the collection of Pathological-Anatomical References of the Institute for Zoo Biology and Wildlife Research. We systemized more than 40,000 postmortem cases in order to develop a data bank for wild animal pathology. The PARS-programme was designed on the basis of PARADOX 7 for WINDOWS. As a netwoking programme with a central server it offers direct access to the data of the IZW case documentation for all scientists. In order to minimize desk work, the programme contains tables of zoological systemic (amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals) as well as tables for systemic assignment (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, helminths and arthropods) for most common species. The records and findings of the necropsies can be printed immediately.

  12. The clinico-pathology and mechanisms of trypanosomosis in captive and free-living wild animals: a review.

    PubMed

    Mbaya, A W; Aliyu, M M; Ibrahim, U I

    2009-10-01

    Reports on the clinico-pathology and mechanisms of trypanosomosis in free-living and captive wild animals showed that clinical disease and outbreaks occur more commonly among captive than free-living wild animals. This is because the free-living wild animals co-exist with the disease until subjected to captivity. In exceptional cases however, draught, starvation and intercurrent diseases often compromised trypanotolerance leading to overt trypanosomosis in free-living wild animals. Meanwhile, in captivity, space restriction, reduced social interactions, change in social herd structure, reduced specie-to-specie specific behaviors, altered habitat and translocation were the major stressors that precipitated the disease. The cumulative effect of these factors produced severe physiological and somatic stress leading to diminished immune response due to increased blood cortisol output from adrenal cortex. The major symptoms manifested were pyrexia, innapetence, increased respiration, anaemia, cachexia and death. At necropsy, pulmonary oedema, splenomegally, hepatomegally, lympadenopathy and atrophy of body fats were the gross changes encountered. At the ultra-structural level, the tissues manifested degenerative changes, haemorghages, necrosis and mononuclear cellular infiltrations. The mechanisms of cellular and tissue injuries were primarily associated with physical and metabolic activities of the organisms. From the foregoing, it is evident that stress is the underlying mechanism that compromises trypanotolerance in wild animals leading to severe clinico-pathological effects.

  13. Detection of Coxiella burnetii DNA in Peridomestic and Wild Animals and Ticks in an Endemic Region (Canary Islands, Spain).

    PubMed

    Bolaños-Rivero, Margarita; Carranza-Rodríguez, Cristina; Rodríguez, Noe F; Gutiérrez, Carlos; Pérez-Arellano, José-Luis

    2017-09-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the etiological agent of human Q fever, can infect mammals, birds, and arthropods. The Canary Islands (Spain) are considered an endemic territory, with a high prevalence in both humans and livestock. Nonetheless, there is no epidemiological information about the wild and peridomestic cycles of C. burnetii. Tissue samples from rodents on farms (100) and wild rabbits (129) were collected and assessed by PCR to detect C. burnetii DNA. In parallel, ticks were also collected from vegetation (1169), livestock (335), domestic dogs (169), and wild animals (65). Globally, eight rodents (8%) and two rabbits (1.5%) were found to be positive, with the spleen being the most affected organ. Tick species identified were Hyalomma lusitanicum, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and Rhipicephalus pusillus. Hyalomma lusitanicum (80%) was the main species identified in vegetation, livestock, and wild animals, whereas Rhipicephalus sanguineus was the most prevalent in domestic dogs. Overall, C. burnetii DNA was detected in 6.1% of the processed ticks, distributed between those removed from livestock (11.3%), domestic dogs (6.9%), and from wild animals (6%). Ticks from vegetation were all negative. Results suggest that, in the Canary Islands, C. burnetii develops in a peridomestic rather than a wild cycle.

  14. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODY TO AND DNA OF LAWSONIA INTRACELLULARIS IN SAMPLES FROM WILD ANIMALS IN KOREA.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Mukter; Oh, Yeonsu; Cho, Ho-Seong

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated the prevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis infection in three wild animal species in Korea; the Korean water deer ( Hydropotes inermis ), Siberian roe deer ( Capreolus pygargus ), and raccoon dogs ( Nyctereutes procyonoides ). We collected 136 sera and 109 fecal samples from individuals in 10 Wildlife Rescue and Conservation Centers. Serum samples were tested for anti- L. intracellularis antibodies using a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA), and fecal samples were subjected to a real-time PCR assay for L. intracellularis . Thirty-five (25.7%) sera and 36 (33.0%) fecal samples were positive. We found a higher proportion of positive sera (64.7%, χ(2)=15.439, P<0.01) and feces (58.8%, χ(2)=6.126, P<0.05) in raccoon dogs (χ(2)=11.855, P<0.01) than in the other species (20% positive sera and 29% positive feces in Korean water deer; 20% positive sera and 25% positive feces in Siberian roe deer). Our data indicate infection by L. intracellularis in Korean water deer, Siberian roe deer, and raccoon dogs throughout the country. It is imperative to know whether these infected animal species are natural hosts for L. intracellularis in addition to domestic pigs ( Sus scrofa domesticus).

  15. Molecular Epidemiology of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Isolates Recovered from Wild Animal Species

    PubMed Central

    Motiwala, Alifiya S.; Amonsin, Alongkorn; Strother, Megan; Manning, Elizabeth J. B.; Kapur, Vivek; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2004-01-01

    Mycobacterial isolates were obtained by radiometric culture from 33 different species of captive or free-ranging animals (n = 106) and environmental sources (n = 3) from six geographic zones within the United States. The identities of all 109 isolates were confirmed by using mycobactin J dependence and characterization of five well-defined molecular markers, including two integration loci of IS900 (loci L1 and L9), one Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis)-specific sequence (locus 251), and one M. avium subsp. avium-specific marker (IS1245), as well as hsp65 and IS1311 restriction endonuclease analyses. Seventy-six acid-fast isolates were identified as M. paratuberculosis, 15 were identified as belonging to the M. avium-M. intracellulare complex (but not M. paratuberculosis), and the remaining 18 were identified as mycobacteria outside the M. avium-M. intracellulare complex. Fingerprinting by multiplex PCR for IS900 integration loci clustered 67 of the 76 M. paratuberculosis strains into a single clade (designated clade A18) and had a Simpson's diversity index (D) of 0.53. In contrast, sequence-based characterization of a recently identified M. paratuberculosis short sequence repeat (SSR) region enabled the differentiation of the M. paratuberculosis isolates in clade A18 into seven distinct alleles (D = 0.75). The analysis revealed eight subtypes among the 33 species of animals, suggesting the interspecies transmission of specific strains. Taken together, the results of our analyses demonstrate that SSR analysis enables the genetic characterization of M. paratuberculosis isolates from different host species and provide evidence for the host specificity of some M. paratuberculosis strains as well as sharing of strains between wild and domesticated animal species. PMID:15071028

  16. Toxoplasma gondii in domestic and wild animals from forest fragments of the municipality of Natal, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Gislene Fátima da Silva Rocha; Lopes, Marcos Gomes; Marcili, Arlei; Ramirez, Diego Garcia; Acosta, Igor Cunha Lima; Ferreira, Juliana Isabel Giuli da Silva; Cabral, Aline Diniz; Lima, Júlia Tereza Ribeiro de; Pena, Hilda Fátima de Jesus; Dias, Ricardo Augusto; Gennari, Solange Maria

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis stands out as a global disease that has felines as definitive hosts. In the municipality of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, two parks are notable for their ecological and social importance. This study aimed to investigate the presence of Toxoplasma gondii in short hair cats, bats and small non-volant mammals in these two ecological reserves. Altogether, biological samples were obtained from 154 mammals, 92 wild animals from both areas and 62 domestic cats of the Parque da Cidade. In total, 22 (53.7%) non-volant wild mammals, 11 (21.5%) bats and 28 (52.8%) cats were positive for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies using the Modified Agglutination Test (≥ 25). It was possible to detect the presence of T. gondii DNA, by means of a molecular amplification of a B1 gene fragment (155bp), in 92 tissue samples from wild animals, including Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata and Glossophaga soricina. Of the 62 cats examined by the same molecular method, T. gondii DNA could be detected in 4 cats. In this study, it was observed the circulation of T. gondii in wild species and domestic cats, demonstrating the involvement of wild and domestic animals in the cycle of T. gondii.

  17. Tularaemia seroprevalence of captured and wild animals in Germany: the fox (Vulpes vulpes) as a biological indicator.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, A; Schulze, C; Kutzer, P; Probst, C; Hlinak, A; Ochs, A; Grunow, R

    2013-04-01

    A total of 2475 animals from Germany, both captive and wild, were tested for antibodies against Francisella tularensis to obtain more knowledge about the presence of this pathogen in Germany. An indirect and a competitive ELISA served as screening methods, positive and inconclusive samples were confirmed by Western blot. Of the zoo animals sampled between 1992 and 2007 (n = 1122), three (0·3%) were seropositive. The seroconversion of a hippopotamus in Berlin Zoo was documented. From 1353 serum samples of wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes), raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and wild boars (Sus scrofa), collected between 2005 and 2009 in the federal state of Brandenburg (surrounding Berlin), a total of 101 (7·5%) tested positive for antibodies to F. tularensis lipopolysaccharide. Our results indicate a higher seroprevalence of F. tularensis in wildlife in eastern Germany than commonly assumed. Furthermore, we found foxes and raccoon dogs to be biological indicators for tularaemia.

  18. Cross-Reactivity of Porcine Immunoglobulin A Antibodies with Fecal Immunoglobulins of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) and Other Animal Species

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sang won; Yoo, Sung J.; Sunwoo, Sunyoung; Hyun, Bang hun

    2016-01-01

    Fecal samples obtained from wild boar habitats are useful for the surveillance of diseases in wild boar populations; however, it is difficult to determine the species of origin of feces collected in natural habitats. In this study, a fecal IgA ELISA was evaluated as a method for identifying the porcine species from fecal samples. Both domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) and wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) showed significantly higher levels of fecal IgA than other animal species. Additionally, age dependent changes in the level of Ig A in wild boars and domestic pigs were identified; Titers of Ig A were highest in suckling period and lowest in weanling period. PMID:27340389

  19. INVESTIGATION ON CRYPTOSPORIDIUM INFECTIONS IN WILD ANIMALS IN A ZOO IN ANHUI PROVINCE.

    PubMed

    Gu, Youfang; Wang, Xiaolong; Zhou, Cefan; Li, Peiying; Xu, Qianming; Zhao, Changcheng; Liu, Wei; Xu, Wenlong

    2016-09-01

    To assess Cryptosporidium infections among wild animals in a zoo located in Anhui province, we conducted an investigation on the fecal samples collected from 44 primates, 41 herbivores, 44 carnivores and omnivores, and 103 birds in the zoo with the use of Sheather's sugar flotation technique and modified acid-fast staining. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in the fecal samples from six primates, two herbivores, four carnivores and omnivores, and seven birds by using Sheather's sugar flotation technique; the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in primates, herbivores, carnivores and omnivores and birds was 13.64, 4.88, 9.09, and 6.80%, respectively. Modified acid-fast staining detected the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the fecal samples of one primate, three herbivores, 0 carnivores and omnivores, and one bird, and the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in primates, herbivores, carnivores and omnivores and birds was 2.27, 7.32, 0.00, and 0.97%, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and phylogenetic analysis with the use of the neighbor-joining (NJ) method based on the aligned partial small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences showed that the protozoan pathogen isolated from primates was Cryptosporidium hominis and the pathogen isolated from camels ( Camelus dromedarius ) was Cryptosporidium andersoni. Subtyping the Cryptosporidium hominis by 60-kDa glycoprotein (GP60) gene phylogenetic analysis showed the Cryptosporidium hominis belongs to the subtype IdA and IbA.

  20. Wild animal surveillance for coronavirus HKU1 and potential variants of other coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Yuen, K Y; Lau, S K P; Woo, P C Y

    2012-02-01

    1. Although CoV-HKU1 was not identified in any of the studied animals, a coronavirus closely related to SARS-CoV (bat-SARS-CoV) was identified in 23 (19%) of 118 wild Chinese horseshoe bats by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). 2. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that bat-SARS-CoV formed a distinct cluster with SARS-CoV as group 2b coronaviruses, distantly related to known group 2 coronaviruses. 3. Most differences between the bat-SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV genomes were observed in the spike gene. The presence of a29-bp insertion in ORF 8 of bat-SARS-CoV genome, not in most human SARS-CoV genomes, suggests that it has a common ancestor with civet SARS-CoV. 4. Antibody against recombinant bat-SARS-CoV nucleocapsid protein was detected in 84% of Chinese horseshoe bats using an enzyme immunoassay.Neutralising antibody to human SARS-CoV was also detected in those with lower viral loads.5. This study also revealed a previously unknown diversity of coronaviruses in bats, which are important natural reservoir for coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-like viruses.

  1. Ticks on captive and free-living wild animals in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Ferreira, Débora R A; de Melo, Louise M; Lima, Polly-Ana C P; Siqueira, Daniel B; Rameh-de-Albuquerque, Luciana C; de Melo, Adriana V; Ramos, Janaina A C

    2010-02-01

    From 2005 to 2009, 147 ticks found on 32 wild animals from or referred to two zoobotanical parks (Parque Zoobotânico Arruda Câmara and Parque Estadual Dois Irmãos) located in northeastern Brazil were identified. Ticks found on two veterinarians working in one of the parks (i.e., Parque Estadual Dois Irmãos), after return from forested areas within the park's territory, were also identified. The following tick-host associations were recorded: Amblyomma fuscum Neumann on Boa constrictor L.; Amblyomma longirostre Koch on Ramphastos vitellinus ariel Vigors and Coendou prehensilis (L.); Amblyomma varium Koch on Bradypus variegates Schinz; Amblyomma rotundatum Koch on Chelonoidis carbonaria (Spix), Chelonoidis denticulata (L.), Micrurus ibiboboca (Merrem), Python molurus bivittatus Kuhl, Iguana iguana (L.) and B. variegatus; Amblyomma nodosum Neumann on Myrmecophaga tridactyla L. and Tamandua tetradactyla (L.); and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) on Nasua nasua (L.). The ticks found on the veterinarians were identified as nine Amblyomma larvae. The presence of Am. nodosum in Pernambuco and Am. rotundatum and Am. varium in Paraíba is recorded for the first time and the occurrence of Am. longirostre in Pernambuco is confirmed. Ramphastos vitellinus ariel is a new host record for Am. longirostre whereas M. ibiboboca and B. variegatus are new host records for Am. rotundatum. Finally, the human parasitism by Amblyomma ticks is reported for the first time in Pernambuco, highlighting the potential of tick-borne pathogen transmission in this state.

  2. Blood parasites of wild and domestic animals from South Kalimantan (Borneo), Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Masbar, S; Palmieri, J R; Marwoto, H A; Purnomo; Darwis, F

    1981-03-01

    Wild and domestic animals trapped from forests, villages, and rice fields in South Kalimantan (3 degrees 20' S, 115 degrees 02' E, 25 m) were examined for blood parasites using Giemsa stained thick and thin blood films and Nuclepore filter preparations of peripheral vein and heart puncture blood. Presbytis cristatus (silvered leaf monkey) (25%) and Felis catus (domestic cat) (7%) were infected with Brugia malayi and B. pahangi. In addition, P. cristatus was infected with Wuchereria kalimantani (35%); Cardiofilaria sp. (1%) and Dirofilaria sp. (1%). Microfilariae of Cardiofilaria were also recovered from Callosciurus notatus (squirrel), Pitta sordida (bird), Pycnonotus goiavier (bird) and Gallus gallus (bird). Paradoxurus hermaphroditus (civet) and Muntiacus muncak (barking deer), were positive for Dirofilaria sp. Bos indicus (cow) for Onchocerca sp. and Nectarinia jugularis (bird) for Splendidofilaria sp. Plasmodium coatneyi was found in 22% of the P. cristatus examined. Plasmodium sp. was also recovered from Zaocys fuscus and Ahaetulla prasina (reptile); Muscicapa sp. Lonchura malacca, Orthotomus sericeus, Rhipidura javanica, Treron vernans, Pycnonotus melanoleucus and G. gallus (bird). In addition 39% of the Cynopterus brachyotis and 29% of C. horsfieldi (fruit bats) were infected with Hepatocystis pteropi. A single G. gallus was infected with Leucocytozoon sabrazesi and another with Trypanosoma sp.

  3. Exposure of the endangered golden monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) to heavy metals: a comparison of wild and captive animals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Chen, Yi-Ping; Maltby, Lorraine; Ma, Qing-Yi

    2015-05-01

    Golden monkeys are endemic to China and of high conservation concern. Conservation strategies include captive breeding, but the success of captive breeding programs may be being compromised by environmental pollution. Heavy metal exposure of wild and captive golden monkeys living in the Qinling Mountains was assessed by measuring fecal metal concentrations (As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn). Captive monkeys were exposed to higher concentrations of As, Hg, Pb, and Cr than monkeys living in the wild, while high background levels of Mn led to high exposure of wild monkeys. Seasonal variations in metal exposures were detected for both wild and captive monkeys; possible reasons being seasonal changes in either diet (wild monkeys) or metal content of food (captive monkeys). Coal combustion, waste incineration, and traffic-related activities were identified as possible sources of heavy metals exposure for captive animals. Efforts to conserve this endangered primate are potentially compromised by metal pollutants derived from increasing anthropogenic activities. Providing captive animals with uncontaminated food and relocating captive breeding centers away from sources of pollution will reduce pollutant exposure; but ultimately, there is a need to improve environmental quality by controlling pollutants at source.

  4. Animal personality in a foundation species drives community divergence and collapse in the wild.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, Jonathan N; Modlmeier, Andreas P

    2015-11-01

    Despite thousands of papers on the topic, precious few of the studies on animal personality have considered the role of personality in shaping community-level processes. Here, we test the effect of individual variation on the long-term trajectories of biological communities, from initiation to their demise. The spider Anelosimus studiosus builds webs that serve as habitat for >50 species of spider, which together construct a species-rich silken reef. This species also exhibits a temporally consistent behavioural polymorphism where females exhibit either an aggressive or docile phenotype (personality). In this study, we established incipient colonies of either two docile or two aggressive females and then tracked community succession and persistence over 7 years in the field. In particular, we noted the community compositions associated with colony extinction/collapse events, which are common in this species. The community composition of webs founded by different phenotypes diverged rapidly in their early successional stages. However, this period of divergence was ephemeral and all communities eventually converged on a similar composition; communities founded by aggressive females merely took longer to reach it. This secondary stage of community convergence was itself short-lived and independent of founders' personality; all communities collapsed within a year of achieving it. Experimentally imposing this fatal climax composition on colonies caused 80% of communities to collapse within a year, suggesting that this climax composition actually causes the collapse of the community. Community collapse was characterized by a complete die-off of the foundation species and the dispersal of all other spiders. Thus, the behavioural traits of the founding, foundational individuals of these communities dictate their path of succession and longevity in the wild.

  5. Serosurveillance for Francisella tularensis Among Wild Animals in Japan Using a Newly Developed Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Neekun; Hotta, Akitoyo; Yamamoto, Yoshie; Uda, Akihiko; Fujita, Osamu; Mizoguchi, Toshio; Shindo, Junji; Park, Chun-Ho; Kudo, Noboru; Hatai, Hitoshi; Oyamada, Toshifumi; Yamada, Akio; Morikawa, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tularemia, a highly infectious zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis, occurs sporadically in Japan. However, little is known about the prevalence of the disease in wild animals. A total of 632 samples obtained from 150 Japanese black bears, 142 Japanese hares, 120 small rodents, 97 rats, 53 raptors, 26 Japanese monkeys, 21 Japanese raccoon dogs, 20 masked palm civets, and three Japanese red foxes between 2002 and 2010 were investigated for the presence of antibodies to F. tularensis by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) and the commonly used microagglutination (MA) test. Seropositive cELISA and MA results were obtained in 23 and 18 Japanese black bears, three and two Japanese raccoon dogs, and two and one small rodents, respectively. All MA-positive samples (n=21) were also positive by cELISA. Six of seven samples that were only positive by cELISA were confirmed to be antibody-positive by western blot analysis. These findings suggest that cELISA is a highly sensitive and useful test for serosurveillance of tularemia among various species of wild animals. Because this is the first study to detect F. tularensis–seropositive Japanese raccoon dogs, these could join Japanese black bears as sentinel animals for tularemia in the wild in Japan. Further continuous serosurveillance for F. tularensis in various species of wild animals using appropriate methods such as cELISA is important to assess the risks of human exposure and to improve our understanding of the ecology of F. tularensis in the wild. PMID:24689989

  6. Serosurveillance for Francisella tularensis among wild animals in Japan using a newly developed competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neekun; Hotta, Akitoyo; Yamamoto, Yoshie; Uda, Akihiko; Fujita, Osamu; Mizoguchi, Toshio; Shindo, Junji; Park, Chun-Ho; Kudo, Noboru; Hatai, Hitoshi; Oyamada, Toshifumi; Yamada, Akio; Morikawa, Shigeru; Tanabayashi, Kiyoshi

    2014-04-01

    Tularemia, a highly infectious zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis, occurs sporadically in Japan. However, little is known about the prevalence of the disease in wild animals. A total of 632 samples obtained from 150 Japanese black bears, 142 Japanese hares, 120 small rodents, 97 rats, 53 raptors, 26 Japanese monkeys, 21 Japanese raccoon dogs, 20 masked palm civets, and three Japanese red foxes between 2002 and 2010 were investigated for the presence of antibodies to F. tularensis by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) and the commonly used microagglutination (MA) test. Seropositive cELISA and MA results were obtained in 23 and 18 Japanese black bears, three and two Japanese raccoon dogs, and two and one small rodents, respectively. All MA-positive samples (n=21) were also positive by cELISA. Six of seven samples that were only positive by cELISA were confirmed to be antibody-positive by western blot analysis. These findings suggest that cELISA is a highly sensitive and useful test for serosurveillance of tularemia among various species of wild animals. Because this is the first study to detect F. tularensis-seropositive Japanese raccoon dogs, these could join Japanese black bears as sentinel animals for tularemia in the wild in Japan. Further continuous serosurveillance for F. tularensis in various species of wild animals using appropriate methods such as cELISA is important to assess the risks of human exposure and to improve our understanding of the ecology of F. tularensis in the wild.

  7. Telomeres shorten more slowly in slow-aging wild animals than in fast-aging ones.

    PubMed

    Dantzer, Ben; Fletcher, Quinn E

    2015-11-01

    Research on the physiological causes of senescence aim to identify common physiological mechanisms that explain age-related declines in fitness across taxonomic groups. Telomeres are repetitive nucleotide sequences found on the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. Past research indicates that telomere attrition is strongly correlated with inter-specific rates of aging, though these studies cannot distinguish whether telomere attrition is a cause or consequence of the aging process. We extend previous research on this topic by incorporating recent studies to test the hypothesis that telomeres shorten more slowly with age in slow-aging animals than in fast-aging ones. We assembled all studies that have quantified cross-sectional (i.e. between-individual) telomere rates of change (TROC) over the lifespans of wild animals. This included 22 estimates reflecting absolute TROC (TROCabs, bp/yr, primarily measured using the terminal restriction fragment length method), and 10 estimates reflecting relative TROC (TROCrel, relative telomere length/yr, measured using qPCR), from five classes (Aves, Mammalia, Bivalvia, Reptilia, and Actinopterygii). In 14 bird species, we correlated between-individual (i.e. cross-sectional) TROCabs estimates with both maximum lifespan and a phylogenetically-corrected principle component axis (pcPC1) that reflected the slow-fast axis of life-history variation. Bird species characterized by faster life-histories and shorter maximum lifespans had faster TROCabs. In nine studies, both between-individual and within-individual TROC estimates were available (n=8 for TROCabs, n=1 for TROCrel). Within-individual TROC estimates were generally greater than between-individual TROC estimates, which is indicative of selective disappearance of individuals with shorter telomeres. However, the difference between within- and between-individual TROC estimates was only significant in two out of nine studies. The relationship between within-individual TROCabs and maximum

  8. Prevalence of Salmonella enterica serovar Albany in captive zoo wild animals in the Culiacán Zoo in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Silva-Hidalgo, Gabriela; López-Moreno, Héctor Samuel; Ortiz-Navarrete, Vianney Francisco; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Rendón-Maldonado, José Guadalupe; López-Valenzuela, José Angel; López-Valenzuela, Martin; Juárez-Barranco, Felipe

    2013-03-01

    Salmonellosis is an important zoonotic disease but little is known about the role that free-living animals play as carriers of this pathogen. Moreover, the primary route of infection in the wild needs to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the source and the route of transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar Albany (S. Albany) infection in captive zoo wild animals in the Culiacán Zoo. A total of 267 samples were analyzed including 220 fecal samples from zoo animals, 15 fecal samples from rodents, 5 pooled samples each of two insects (Musca domestica and Periplaneta americana), and 22 samples of animal feed. We detected S. Albany in 28 (10.5%) of the samples analyzed, including in samples from raw chicken meat. Characterization of isolates was performed by serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All isolates shared a single pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile, indicating a possible common origin. These data suggest that the infected meat consumed by the wild felines was the primary source of infection in this zoo. It is likely that the pathogen was shed in the feces and disseminated by insects and rats to other locations in the zoo.

  9. Prevalence of Salmonella strains in wild animals from a highly populated area of north-eastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Rubini, Silva; Ravaioli, Cinzia; Previato, Sara; D'Incau, Mario; Tassinari, Massimo; Guidi, Enrica; Lupi, Silvia; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Bergamini, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella is a ubiquitous pathogen that can infect host species, like wild birds, rodents, and/or arthropods, which may transmit infection to domestic animals and human population. In order to assess the related risk, a cross-sectional study was performed on 1114 carcasses of wild animals from a north-eastern area of the Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy. During post mortem examination, intestine samples were cultured. A statistical analysis demonstrated that there is no correlation between the presence of sub-clinically infected animals and greater human population density. In contrast, a significant correlation between the number of carcasses positive for Salmonella spp. and greater spatial density of pig, poultry, and cattle farms was observed (p < 0.01). The results of the present study show that wild animals with omnivorous feeding habits are particularly exposed to Salmonella colonization and, consequently, to spreading the organism. Regarding drug resistance, this study confirms the resistance to antimicrobials is increasing in commensal and environmental isolates.

  10. Phenotype and animal domestication: A study of dental variation between domestic, wild, captive, hybrid and insular Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Evin, Allowen; Dobney, Keith; Schafberg, Renate; Owen, Joseph; Vidarsdottir, Una Strand; Larson, Greger; Cucchi, Thomas

    2015-02-04

    Identifying the phenotypic responses to domestication remains a long-standing and important question for researchers studying its early history. The great diversity in domestic animals and plants that exists today bears testament to the profound changes that domestication has induced in their ancestral wild forms over the last millennia. Domestication is a complex evolutionary process in which wild organisms are moved to new anthropogenic environments. Although modern genetics are significantly improving our understanding of domestication and breed formation, little is still known about the associated morphological changes linked to the process itself. In order to explore phenotypic variation induced by different levels of human control, we analysed the diversity of dental size, shape and allometry in modern free-living and captive wild, wild x domestic hybrid, domestic and insular Sus scrofa populations. We show that domestication has created completely new dental phenotypes not found in wild boar (although the amount of variation amongst domestic pigs does not exceed that found in the wild). Wild boar tooth shape also appears to be biogeographically structured, likely the result of post-glacial recolonisation history. Furthermore, distinct dental phenotypes were also observed among domestic breeds, probably the result of differing types and intensity of past and present husbandry practices. Captivity also appears to impact tooth shape. Wild x domestic hybrids possess second molars that are strictly intermediate in shape between wild boar and domestic pigs (third molars, however, showing greater shape similarity with wild boar) while their size is more similar to domestic pigs. The dental phenotypes of insular Sus scrofa populations found on Corsica and Sardinia today (originally introduced by Neolithic settlers to the islands) can be explained either by feralization of the original introduced domestic swine or that the founding population maintained a wild boar

  11. Use of enzyme-labelled protein G assay for the detection of anti Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in wild animal sera.

    PubMed

    Deruaz, D; Eid, P; Deruaz, J; Sempéré, A; Bourgouin, C; Rodhain, F; Pérez-Eid, C

    1996-10-01

    A modified ELISA was developed for the detection of anti-Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) IgG antibodies in wild animal sera based on an Enzyme-Labelled-protein G Assay (ELGA). Microplates were coated with an extract of Bb sensu stricto strain (SVI) as antigen. Specific antibodies of the serum samples were detected by a peroxidase-labelled-protein G. Using comparative immunodiagnosis by means of a passive hemagglutination test (HA), ELGA was tested on 82 roe-deer blood samples. A correlation was found between the two methods (r = 0.66). Good reproducibility of titers was observed by ELGA technique. A minimal cross-reactivity was discovered with Leptospira. ELGA could facilitate the recognition of specific antibodies in collections of wild animal sera.

  12. Further investigation of exposure to Lawsonia intracellularis in wild and feral animals captured on horse properties with equine proliferative enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Pusterla, Nicola; Mapes, Samantha; Gebhart, Connie

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the exposure to Lawsonia intracellularis in wild birds, mice, rabbits, raccoons, coyotes and squirrels, and feral cats and pigs on 10 farms with confirmed equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE). Serum samples from all resident foals (417 samples) as well as fecal (461) and serum (106) samples from wild and feral animals were collected for serological and molecular detection of L. intracellularis following the diagnosis of EPE in index cases. A total of three cats from two farms, three mice from two farms and eight cottontail rabbits from one farm had evidence of prior exposure to L. intracellularis. These animals may be an indicator of environmental exposure or may be actively involved in the transmission of L. intracellularis to foals by acting as a potential reservoir/amplifier host. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Aspergillus and aspergilloses in wild and domestic animals: a global health concern with parallels to human disease.

    PubMed

    Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Guillot, Jacques; Arné, Pascal; de Hoog, G Sybren; Mouton, Johan W; Melchers, Willem J G; Verweij, Paul E

    2015-11-01

    The importance of aspergillosis in humans and various animal species has increased over the last decades. Aspergillus species are found worldwide in humans and in almost all domestic animals and birds as well as in many wild species, causing a wide range of diseases from localized infections to fatal disseminated diseases, as well as allergic responses to inhaled conidia. Some prevalent forms of animal aspergillosis are invasive fatal infections in sea fan corals, stonebrood mummification in honey bees, pulmonary and air sac infection in birds, mycotic abortion and mammary gland infections in cattle, guttural pouch mycoses in horses, sinonasal infections in dogs and cats, and invasive pulmonary and cerebral infections in marine mammals and nonhuman primates. This article represents a comprehensive overview of the most common infections reported by Aspergillus species and the corresponding diseases in various types of animals.

  14. Common cancer in a wild animal: the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) as an emerging model for carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Browning, Helen M; Gulland, Frances M D; Hammond, John A; Colegrove, Kathleen M; Hall, Ailsa J

    2015-07-19

    Naturally occurring cancers in non-laboratory species have great potential in helping to decipher the often complex causes of neoplasia. Wild animal models could add substantially to our understanding of carcinogenesis, particularly of genetic and environmental interactions, but they are currently underutilized. Studying neoplasia in wild animals is difficult and especially challenging in marine mammals owing to their inaccessibility, lack of exposure history, and ethical, logistical and legal limits on experimentation. Despite this, California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) offer an opportunity to investigate risk factors for neoplasia development that have implications for terrestrial mammals and humans who share much of their environment and diet. A relatively accessible California sea lion population on the west coast of the USA has a high prevalence of urogenital carcinoma and is regularly sampled during veterinary care in wildlife rehabilitation centres. Collaborative studies have revealed that genotype, persistent organic pollutants and a herpesvirus are all associated with this cancer. This paper reviews research to date on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of urogenital carcinoma in this species, and presents the California sea lion as an important and currently underexploited wild animal model of carcinogenesis. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Common cancer in a wild animal: the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) as an emerging model for carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Helen M.; Gulland, Frances M. D.; Hammond, John A.; Colegrove, Kathleen M.; Hall, Ailsa J.

    2015-01-01

    Naturally occurring cancers in non-laboratory species have great potential in helping to decipher the often complex causes of neoplasia. Wild animal models could add substantially to our understanding of carcinogenesis, particularly of genetic and environmental interactions, but they are currently underutilized. Studying neoplasia in wild animals is difficult and especially challenging in marine mammals owing to their inaccessibility, lack of exposure history, and ethical, logistical and legal limits on experimentation. Despite this, California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) offer an opportunity to investigate risk factors for neoplasia development that have implications for terrestrial mammals and humans who share much of their environment and diet. A relatively accessible California sea lion population on the west coast of the USA has a high prevalence of urogenital carcinoma and is regularly sampled during veterinary care in wildlife rehabilitation centres. Collaborative studies have revealed that genotype, persistent organic pollutants and a herpesvirus are all associated with this cancer. This paper reviews research to date on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of urogenital carcinoma in this species, and presents the California sea lion as an important and currently underexploited wild animal model of carcinogenesis. PMID:26056370

  16. Encephalomyocarditis virus infection in Macaca sylvanus and Hystrix cristata from an Italian rescue centre for wild and exotic animals.

    PubMed

    Cardeti, Giusy; Mariano, Valeria; Eleni, Claudia; Aloisi, Marco; Grifoni, Goffredo; Sittinieri, Stefania; Dante, Giampiero; Antognetti, Valeria; Foglia, Efrem Alessandro; Cersini, Antonella; Nardi, Alberigo

    2016-11-28

    The Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a small, non enveloped, positive sense single-stranded RNA virus in the genus Cardiovirus, family Picornaviridae, with two known serotypes. It is spread worldwide and infects a huge range of vertebrate hosts with zoonotic potential for humans. The pig is the mammal most likely to be impacted on with the disease, but EMCV occurrence has also been reported in non-human primates and in a variety of domestic, captive and wild animals. Until now, human cases have been very rare and the risk appears to be almost negligible in spite of human susceptibility to the infection. Between September and November 2012 a fatal Encephalomyocarditis virus outbreak involving four Barbary macaques and 24 crested porcupines occurred at a rescue centre for wild and exotic animals in Central Italy. In this open-field zoo park located near Grosseto, Tuscany about 1000 animals belonging to different species, including various non-human primates were hosted at that time. Sudden deaths were generally observed without any evident symptoms or only with mild nonspecific clinical signs. The major gross change was characterised by grey-white necrotic foci in the myocardium and the same EMCV strain was isolated both in macaques and crested porcupines. Phylogenetic analysis has confirmed that only one EMCV strain is circulating in Italy, capable of infecting different animal species. This report confirms the susceptibility of non-human primates to the EMCV infection and describes the disease in porcupine, a common wild Italian and African species. No human cases were observed, but given the zoonotic potential of EMCV these findings are of importance in the context of animal-human interface.

  17. Why the Wild Things Are: Animals in the Lives of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melson, Gail F.

    This book examines children's many connections to animals and their developmental significance, exploring the growth of the human animal connection, and showing how children's innate interest in animals is shaped by their families and their social worlds, and may in turn shape the kind of people they will become. Chapter 1 documents how theory and…

  18. Why the Wild Things Are: Animals in the Lives of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melson, Gail F.

    This book examines children's many connections to animals and their developmental significance, exploring the growth of the human animal connection, and showing how children's innate interest in animals is shaped by their families and their social worlds, and may in turn shape the kind of people they will become. Chapter 1 documents how theory and…

  19. An epidemiological evaluation of Mycobacterium bovis infections in wild game animals of the Spanish Mediterranean ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Parra, A; García, A; Inglis, N F; Tato, A; Alonso, J M; Hermoso de Mendoza, M; Hermoso de Mendoza, J; Larrasa, J

    2006-04-01

    Recreational hunting of indigenous wild artiodactyls has been one of the most lucrative and rapidly growing industries in Western Spain over the last five years. In the absence of careful ecological management, one consequence of the commercial exploitation of this natural resource has been the appearance of outbreaks of infectious disease; most notably bovine tuberculosis. From the outset of the study in 1997, we have observed a steady increase in prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) in both species reaching 1.74 (+/-0.17) in deer in 2002 and 2.32 (+/-0.24) in wild boar. The latter species seems to be most severely affected with pulmonary lesions appearing more chronic than those observed in deer. In this study, we describe the epidemiology of M. bovis in European wild boar (Sus scrofa) and Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) in Extremadura (W. Spain); a region where there are large areas of natural habitat for these species.

  20. Immunoglobulin G class identification from wild ungulates by cross-reactivity with antisera to domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Lastras, M E; Pastor, J; Viñas, L; Marco, I; Lavin, S

    2000-08-01

    Seven species of Spanish ungulates were tested for the presence of homologous immunoglobulin G (IgG) with a gel-diffusion test using bovine, ovine, caprine and porcine IgG antisera. Homologous ovine and caprine IgG were detected in sera from chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica), Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica), mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon), red deer (Cervus elaphus), fallow deer (Dama dama) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Homologous porcine IgG was detected in wild boar (Sus scrofa) serum. Immunoelectrophoretic assays were performed to compare the electrophoretic mobility of IgG from domestic and wild species.

  1. Essential veterinary education in the virology of domestic animals, wild animals and birds: diagnosis and pathogenesis of viral infections.

    PubMed

    Wilks, C R; Fenwick, S G

    2009-08-01

    An education in veterinary virology should establish a basis for life-long learning and enable veterinary graduates to address professionally the control and eradication of viral diseases, both locally and globally. It is therefore more important that the curriculum focuses on a sound understanding of the nature and behaviour of viruses and their interactions with animal hosts, rather than imparting detailed information on an ever-increasing number of individual viral diseases in a widening range of animal species. Graduate veterinarians should be prepared with a comprehensive knowledge of the nature of viruses and their close dependence on the hosts thatthey infect, as well as a good understanding of pathogenesis, immunology, epidemiology, diagnostic approaches and control options. All these are necessary if the profession is successfully to meet familiar and new challenges in viral diseases in a wide range of host species, under different management conditions, in various geographic areas of the world.

  2. An exploratory clustering approach for extracting stride parameters from tracking collars on free-ranging wild animals.

    PubMed

    Dewhirst, Oliver P; Roskilly, Kyle; Hubel, Tatjana Y; Jordan, Neil R; Golabek, Krystyna A; McNutt, J Weldon; Wilson, Alan M

    2017-02-01

    Changes in stride frequency and length with speed are key parameters in animal locomotion research. They are commonly measured in a laboratory on a treadmill or by filming trained captive animals. Here, we show that a clustering approach can be used to extract these variables from data collected by a tracking collar containing a GPS module and tri-axis accelerometers and gyroscopes. The method enables stride parameters to be measured during free-ranging locomotion in natural habitats. As it does not require labelled data, it is particularly suitable for use with difficult to observe animals. The method was tested on large data sets collected from collars on free-ranging lions and African wild dogs and validated using a domestic dog. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. An emerging public health problem: acquired carbapenemase-producing microorganisms are present in food-producing animals, their environment, companion animals and wild birds.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Beatriz; Fischer, Jennie; Helmuth, Reiner

    2014-07-16

    Worldwide, the emergence and global spread of microorganisms with acquired carbapenemases is of great concern. The reservoirs for such organisms are increasing, not only in hospitals, but also in the community and environment. A new and important development is the presence of such organisms in livestock, companion animals and wildlife. During the last three years, carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. (VIM-1 producers) and Acinetobacter spp. (producing OXA-23 and NDM-1) in livestock animals (poultry, cattle and swine) and their environment have been reported. In addition, the isolation of NDM-1-producing E. coli, OXA-48 in E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae or OXA-23 in Acinetobacter spp. from companion animals (cats, dogs or horses) has also been observed. Other reports have described the presence of NDM-1-producing Salmonella isolated from wild birds, as well as OXA-23-like-producing Acinetobacter baumannii in ectoparasites. However, until now carbapenemase producers from foods have not been detected. For humans in contrast carbapenem-producing Salmonella isolates are increasingly reported. The real prevalence of carbapenemase-encoding genes in zoonotic bacteria or commensals from animals is unknown. Consequently, there is a need for intensified surveillance on the occurrence of carbapenemase-producing bacteria in the food chain and other animal sources in order to assist in the formulation of measures to prevent their potential spread. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 19 CFR 12.26 - Importations of wild animals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, and crustaceans; prohibited...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Public Health Service quarantine station established at a port of entry in the United States. (5) Ducks... International Airport, Chicago, Illinois (h) All invoices of animals and birds shall specify the species covered..., cages, stalls, etc., the space, ventilation, and protection from the elements accorded the animals or...

  5. Epidemiological study of relapsing fever borreliae detected in Haemaphysalis ticks and wild animals in the western part of Japan.

    PubMed

    Furuno, Kiwa; Lee, Kyunglee; Itoh, Yukie; Suzuki, Kazuo; Yonemitsu, Kenzo; Kuwata, Ryusei; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Watarai, Masahisa; Maeda, Ken; Takano, Ai

    2017-01-01

    The genus Borrelia comprises arthropod-borne bacteria, which are infectious agents in vertebrates. They are mainly transmitted by ixodid or argasid ticks. In Hokkaido, Japan, Borrelia spp. were found in deer and Haemaphysalis ticks between 2011 and 2013; however, the study was limited to a particular area. Therefore, in the present study, we conducted large-scale surveillance of ticks and wild animals in the western part of the main island of Japan. We collected 6,407 host-seeking ticks from two regions and 1,598 larvae obtained from 32 engorged female ticks and examined them to elucidate transovarial transmission. In addition, we examined whole blood samples from 190 wild boars and 276 sika deer, as well as sera from 120 wild raccoons. We detected Borrelia spp. in Haemaphysalis flava, Haemaphysalis megaspinosa, Haemaphysalis kitaokai, Haemaphysalis longicornis, and Haemaphysalis formosensis. In addition, we isolated a strain from H. megaspinosa using Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly medium. The minimum infection rate of ticks was less than 5%. Transovarial transmission was observed in H. kitaokai. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolated strain and DNA fragments amplified from ticks identified at least four bacterial genotypes, which corresponded to the tick species detected. Bacteria were detected in 8.4%, 15%, and 0.8% of wild boars, sika deer, and raccoons, respectively. In this study, we found seasonal differences in the prevalence of bacterial genotypes in sika deer during the winter and summer. The tick activity season corresponds to the season with a high prevalence of animals. The present study suggests that a particular bacterial genotype detected in this study are defined by a particular tick species in which they are present.

  6. Epidemiological study of relapsing fever borreliae detected in Haemaphysalis ticks and wild animals in the western part of Japan

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Yukie; Suzuki, Kazuo; Yonemitsu, Kenzo; Kuwata, Ryusei; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Watarai, Masahisa; Maeda, Ken

    2017-01-01

    The genus Borrelia comprises arthropod-borne bacteria, which are infectious agents in vertebrates. They are mainly transmitted by ixodid or argasid ticks. In Hokkaido, Japan, Borrelia spp. were found in deer and Haemaphysalis ticks between 2011 and 2013; however, the study was limited to a particular area. Therefore, in the present study, we conducted large-scale surveillance of ticks and wild animals in the western part of the main island of Japan. We collected 6,407 host-seeking ticks from two regions and 1,598 larvae obtained from 32 engorged female ticks and examined them to elucidate transovarial transmission. In addition, we examined whole blood samples from 190 wild boars and 276 sika deer, as well as sera from 120 wild raccoons. We detected Borrelia spp. in Haemaphysalis flava, Haemaphysalis megaspinosa, Haemaphysalis kitaokai, Haemaphysalis longicornis, and Haemaphysalis formosensis. In addition, we isolated a strain from H. megaspinosa using Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly medium. The minimum infection rate of ticks was less than 5%. Transovarial transmission was observed in H. kitaokai. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolated strain and DNA fragments amplified from ticks identified at least four bacterial genotypes, which corresponded to the tick species detected. Bacteria were detected in 8.4%, 15%, and 0.8% of wild boars, sika deer, and raccoons, respectively. In this study, we found seasonal differences in the prevalence of bacterial genotypes in sika deer during the winter and summer. The tick activity season corresponds to the season with a high prevalence of animals. The present study suggests that a particular bacterial genotype detected in this study are defined by a particular tick species in which they are present. PMID:28362864

  7. Clonal diversity of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli isolates in fecal samples of wild animals.

    PubMed

    Cristóvão, Filipe; Alonso, Carla Andrea; Igrejas, Gilberto; Sousa, Margarida; Silva, Vanessa; Pereira, José Eduardo; Lozano, Carmen; Cortés-Cortés, Gerardo; Torres, Carmen; Poeta, Patrícia

    2017-03-01

    The clonal diversity of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates from nine different species of wild animals from distinct regions of Portugal and Spain and their content in replicon plasmids were analyzed. Among the initial 53 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates that were studied (from previous studies), 28 were selected, corresponding to different animal origins with distinct ESBL types and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. These 28 isolates produced different ESBLs ascribed to the following families: CTX-M, SHV and TEM. The isolates were classified into three phylogenetic groups: B1 (n = 11), A (n = 10) and D (n = 7). The seven E. coli of phylogroup D were then typed by multilocus sequence typing and ascribed to four distinct sequence types: ST117, ST115, ST2001 and ST69. The clonal diversity and relationship between isolates was studied by PFGE. Lastly, the plasmids were analyzed according to their incompatibility group using the PCR-based-replicon-typing scheme. A great diversity of replicon types was identified, with up to five per isolate. Most of the CTX-M-1 and SHV-12 producing E. coli isolates carried IncI1 or IncN replicons. The diversity of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates in wild animals, which can be disseminated in the environment, emphasizes the environmental and health problems that we face nowadays. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Trap gun: an unusual firearm, aimed at wild animals but causing a silent epidemic of human fatalities.

    PubMed

    Kodikara, Sarathchandra; Kudagama, Muditha

    2014-03-01

    Among a variety of uncommon firearms of different origin used worldwide, the trap gun used in Sri Lanka is underreported. This is an illegal, locally made, smooth-bore, long-barreled, muzzle-loading firearm with a victim-activated simple trigger mechanism. It is mainly used to protect crops and livestock from the potential harm by wild animals. Trap gun is mounted horizontally on pegs of sticks fixed to the ground. Miscellaneous metal pieces are used as ammunition. A small metal container filled with powdered matchstick heads/firecrackers covered by the striker surface of the matchstick box is used as the percussion cap. A metal hammer is set to hit the percussion cap. Through a lever mechanism, the hammer is kept under tension. The lever mechanism is connected to a trigger cord, which runs across the animal path. The first passerby, a human being or a wild animal, who accidentally trips the trigger cord and activates the trigger mechanism is critically injured. This characteristically damages the lower limbs of the human being. This communication highlights a death due to trap gun injury. The injury pattern caused by trap gun could overlap with that of shotgun and rifled firearm. A meticulous autopsy could sort it out.

  9. Vegetable and animal food sorts found in the gastric content of Sardinian Wild Boar (Sus scrofa meridionalis).

    PubMed

    Pinna, W; Nieddu, G; Moniello, G; Cappai, M G

    2007-06-01

    Authors report results emerging from gastric content analysis from n. 96 wild boars hunted in Sardinia isle, during the hunting tide (2001-2005), from November to January. Mean pH of the gastric content was 3.77 +/- 0.69. Mean total capacity (TC) of each stomach was 1702 +/- 680 g. Mean Stuff ratio (CW/TC) between the content weight (CW) and stomachs TC was 0.45. Food categories found in animal stomachs were: 19 categories of vegetal species (Allium spp., Arbutus unedo, Arisarum vulgare, Avena fatua, Avena sativa, Castanea sativa, Ceratonia siliqua, Chamaerops umilis, Cichorium intybus, Hordeum sativum, Juniperus oxycedrus, Myrtus communis, Olea europea, Pirus amygdaliformis, Pistacia lentiscus, Quercus spp., Rhamnus alaternus, Triticum durum, Zea mais); 11 categories of animal species (Agriotes lineatus, Apodemus sylvaticus dicrurus, Chalcides chalcides, Chalcides ocellatus tiligugu, Crematogaster scutellaris, Forficula auricularia, Helix aspersa, Lumbricus terrestris, Ovis aries, Podarcis tiliguerta tiliguerta, Scolopendra cingulata); three categories were identified in general terms (insects larvae, hairs of mammals, feathers of birds). Food categories found in the stomach contents of Sus scrofa meridionalis confirm observations by other researchers who report the prevalence of vegetables in spite of animal food sorts in the wild boar diet in Italian regions.

  10. Detection of Bartonella tamiae, Coxiella burnetii and rickettsiae in arthropods and tissues from wild and domestic animals in northeastern Algeria.

    PubMed

    Leulmi, Hamza; Aouadi, Atef; Bitam, Idir; Bessas, Amina; Benakhla, Ahmed; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2016-01-20

    In recent years, the scope and importance of emergent vector-borne diseases has increased dramatically. In Algeria, only limited information is currently available concerning the presence and prevalence of these zoonotic diseases. For this reason, we conducted a survey of hematophagous ectoparasites of domestic mammals and/or spleens of wild animals in El Tarf and Souk Ahras, Algeria. Using real-time PCR, standard PCR and sequencing, the presence of Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp., Borrelia spp. and Coxiella burnetii was evaluated in 268/1626 ticks, 136 fleas, 11 Nycteribiidae flies and 16 spleens of domestic and/or wild animals from the El Tarf and Souk Ahras areas. For the first time in Algeria, Bartonella tamiae was detected in 12/19 (63.2%) Ixodes vespertilionis ticks, 8/11 (72.7%) Nycteribiidae spp. flies and in 6/10 (60%) bat spleens (Chiroptera spp.). DNA from Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, was also identified in 3/19 (15.8%) I. vespertilionis from bats. Rickettsia slovaca, the agent of tick-borne lymphadenopathy, was detected in 1/1 (100%) Haemaphysalis punctata and 2/3 (66.7%) Dermacentor marginatus ticks collected from two boars (Sus scrofa algira) respectively. Ri. massiliae, an agent of spotted fever, was detected in 38/94 (40.4%) Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato collected from cattle, sheep, dogs, boars and jackals. DNA of Ri. aeschlimannii was detected in 6/20 (30%) Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum and 6/20 (30%) Hy. scupense from cattle. Finally, Ri. felis, an emerging rickettsial pathogen, was detected in 80/110 (72.7%) Archaeopsylla erinacei and 2/2 (100%) Ctenocephalides felis of hedgehogs (Atelerix algirus). In this study, we expanded knowledge about the repertoire of ticks and flea-borne bacteria present in ectoparasites and/or tissues of domestic and wild animals in Algeria.

  11. Gastrointestinal parasites and bacteria flora of wild animals in the Borgu game reserve in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunji, F O; Akinboade, O A; Dipeolu, O O

    1982-06-01

    Faecal droppings from animals in the Borgu game reserve were examined between the months of January and March 1981. These animals included Buffalo, Hartebeest, Kob, Roan antelope, Genu cat, Mangoose, Warthog and Monkey. Haemonchus contortus was identified from the faeces of five buffalos, Oesophagostomum species was identified from one warthog while Strongyloides species was identified from two monkeys. No pathogenic bacteria was isolated in any of the faecal samples examined. The influence of weather on the infection rate is discussed.

  12. Endemicity of leptospirosis in domestic and wild animal species from Reunion Island (Indian Ocean).

    PubMed

    Desvars, A; Naze, F; Benneveau, A; Cardinale, E; Michault, A

    2013-06-01

    Leptospirosis is the major infectious disease on Reunion Island but little is known about the animal reservoir. We conducted a wide-ranging survey that included samples from 574 animals belonging to 12 species. The seroprevalence and prevalence of renal carriage varied greatly depending on the species, with the highest seroprevalence (79·5%) found in Norway rats, and the lowest (13·2%) in tenrecs. The renal carriage rate ranged from 84·6% in mice to 0% in tenrecs. Our results suggest that rodents are the most important reservoirs of leptospirosis on Reunion Island. The epidemiological role that animals play in human infection is discussed. For the first time, we quantified the renal concentration of leptospires in ten naturally infected mammals. The history of Reunion Island colonization probably explains why the circulating Leptospira serogroups were similar to those found in Europe. Our study provides evidence that will help implement preventive measures against this zoonosis.

  13. Giardia duodenalis genotypes in domestic and wild animals from Romania identified by PCR-RFLP targeting the gdh gene.

    PubMed

    Adriana, Gyӧrke; Zsuzsa, Kalmár; Mirabela Oana, Dumitrache; Mircea, Gherman Călin; Viorica, Mircean

    2016-02-15

    Sixty Giardia duodenalis isolates from domestic (n=49) and wild (n=11) animals (dogs, cats, deers, wolves, raccoon dog and muskrat) were analysed by PCR-RFLP at glutamate dehydrogenase locus (gdh). The isolates were obtained from positive feces samples for Giardia cysts analysed by flotation technique with saturated sodium chloride solution (specific gravity 1.28). Three G. duodenalis genotypes were identified: C (10/60; 16.7%); D (42/60; 70.0%); and E (7/60; 11.7%). In dogs all three genotypes were found, with the following prevalences: 76.9% genotype D (30/39); 23.1% C (9/39); 2.6% genotype E (1/39). One dog was co-infected with C and D genotypes. In cats we identified only G. duodenalis genotype D. Wolves and raccoon dog harbored infection with G. duodenalis genotype D, deers with E type and muskrat C type. This is the first study regarding genotyping of G. duodenalis in cats and wild animals from Romania. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of assemblages E in roe deers; assemblage C in wolves and muskrat; and assemblage D in raccoon dog. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. The wild rat as sentinel animal in the environmental risk assessment of asbestos pollution: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ardizzone, Michele; Vizio, Carlotta; Bozzetta, Elena; Pezzolato, Marzia; Meistro, Serena; Dondo, Alessandro; Giorgi, Ilaria; Seghesio, Angelo; Mirabelli, Dario; Capella, Silvana; Vigliaturo, Ruggero; Belluso, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Asbestos has been banned in many countries, including Italy. However, sources of exposure may still exist, due to asbestos in-situ or past disposal of asbestos-containing waste. In an urban area with past high environmental exposure, like Casale Monferrato, the lung fiber burden in sentinel animals may be useful to identify such sources. A pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of its determination in wild rats, a suitable sentinel species never used before for environmental lung asbestos fiber burden studies. Within the framework of pest control campaigns, 11 adult animals from 3 sites in the urban area of Casale Monferrato and 3 control rats from a different, unexposed town were captured. Further, 3 positive and 3 negative control lung samples were obtained from laboratories involved in breeding programs and conducting experimental studies on rats. Tissue fiber concentration was measured by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry. Asbestos (chrysotile and crocidolite) was identified in the lungs from rats from Casale Monferrato, but not in control rats and in negative control lung samples. Asbestos grunerite at high concentration was found in positive control lung samples. Measurement of the lung fiber burden in wild rats has proved feasible: it was possible not only to detect, but also to characterize asbestos fibers both qualitatively and quantitatively. The pilot study provides the rationale for using wild rats as sentinels of the soil contamination level in Casale Monferrato, to identify areas with the possible presence of previously unrecognized asbestos sources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Young Scientists Explore Wild Plants and Animals. Book 12 Primary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Linda

    Designed to present interesting facts about science and to heighten the curiosity of primary age students, this book contains activities about the natural world and numerous black and white illustrations. This activity book explores easily recognized animals, along with a few not-so-well-known plants. The theme of the first section is fall…

  16. The impact of climatic change on wild animals and plants: a meta-analysis

    Treesearch

    Terry L. Root; Jeff T. Price; Kimberly R. Hall; Stephen H. Schneider; Cynthia Rosenzweig; J. Alan Pounds

    2005-01-01

    Over the last 100 years, the global average temperature has increased approximately 0.6° C. Using information from the literature, we examine the extent to which animals and plants are already exhibiting a discernible change consistent with changing temperatures and predicted by our understanding of the species’ physiological constraints. The types of...

  17. 19 CFR 12.26 - Importations of wild animals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, and crustaceans; prohibited...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... under a sport or a commercial fishing license; and (iii) Fish or eggs of the family Salmonidae when... certain northern States of Mexico may be imported only under a permit from the Animal and Plant Health... Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services, United States Department of Agriculture. (4) Psittacine...

  18. 19 CFR 12.26 - Importations of wild animals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, and crustaceans; prohibited...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... under a sport or a commercial fishing license; and (iii) Fish or eggs of the family Salmonidae when... certain northern States of Mexico may be imported only under a permit from the Animal and Plant Health... Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services, United States Department of Agriculture. (4) Psittacine...

  19. 19 CFR 12.26 - Importations of wild animals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, and crustaceans; prohibited...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... under a sport or a commercial fishing license; and (iii) Fish or eggs of the family Salmonidae when... certain northern States of Mexico may be imported only under a permit from the Animal and Plant Health... Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services, United States Department of Agriculture. (4) Psittacine...

  20. 19 CFR 12.26 - Importations of wild animals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, and crustaceans; prohibited...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... under a sport or a commercial fishing license; and (iii) Fish or eggs of the family Salmonidae when... certain northern States of Mexico may be imported only under a permit from the Animal and Plant Health... Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services, United States Department of Agriculture. (4) Psittacine...

  1. Young Scientists Explore Wild Plants and Animals. Book 12 Primary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Linda

    Designed to present interesting facts about science and to heighten the curiosity of primary age students, this book contains activities about the natural world and numerous black and white illustrations. This activity book explores easily recognized animals, along with a few not-so-well-known plants. The theme of the first section is fall…

  2. Prevalence of parasitic infection in captive wild animals in Bir Moti Bagh mini zoo (Deer Park), Patiala, Punjab

    PubMed Central

    Mir, A. Q.; Dua, K.; Singla, L. D.; Sharma, S.; Singh, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was conducted to know the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of captive wild animals at Bir Moti Bagh Mini Zoo (Deer Park), Patiala, Punjab. Materials and Methods: A total of 31 fecal samples from eight species of captive animals including Civet cat (Viverra zibetha), Porcupine (Hystrix indica), Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus), Spotted deer (Axis axis), Black buck (Antelope cervicapra), Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor), Hog deer (Axis porcinus), and Barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak) were screened using classical parasitological techniques including sedimentation and floatation technique. Results: Out of 31 fecal samples examined, 20 were positive for parasitic ova/oocysts of different species indicating an overall prevalence of 68.0%. The six different types of parasites observed in the study included strongyle (67%), Strongyloides spp. (14%), coccidia (38%), Trichuris spp. (19%), ascarid (10%), and Capillaria spp. (10%). Strongyles were the most common parasites observed (67%) followed by coccidia (38%). Mixed helminth and protozoan infection were observed in 48% of animals. No cestode or trematodes were detected during the study. Conclusion: The high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites without overt clinical signs of disease or mortality as observed in this study is suggestive of subclinical infection. The findings will help in formulating the appropriate deworming protocol for parasitic control in these captive animals. PMID:27397973

  3. Molecular identification of Spirometra spp. (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidae) in some wild animals from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Gregório Guilherme; Coscarelli, Daniel; Melo, Maria Norma; Melo, Alan Lane; Pinto, Hudson Alves

    2016-10-01

    Species of the genus Spirometra are diphyllobothriid tapeworms with complex life cycles and are involved in human sparganosis, a neglected disease that affects individuals worldwide. Although some species were reported in wild felids and human cases of sparganosis were described in Brazil, the biology and taxonomy of these parasites are poorly understood. In the present study, samples of diphyllobothriids (eggs and/or proglottids) obtained from the stools of wild carnivores (Leopardus pardalis and Lycalopex vetulus) and plerocercoid larvae found in a snake (Crotalus durissus) from Brazil were analysed by amplifying a fragment of the gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1). The DNA sequences obtained here for the first time from the Spirometra spp. from Brazil were used to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships with other species. Molecular data identified two species in the Brazilian samples (evolutionary divergence of 17.8-19.2%). The species were identified as Spirometra sp. 1, found in Le. pardalis, and Spirometra sp. 2 found in Ly. vetulus and C. durissus, and they differed from Asian isolates of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (17.5-20.2% and 12.2-15.6%, respectively), a species previously considered to be distributed worldwide. Moreover, Spirometra sp. 1 is genetically distinct from Sparganum proliferum from Venezuela (19.6-20.4%), while Spirometra sp. 2 is more closely related with the Venezuelan species (6.1-7.0%). Sequences of Spirometra sp. 2 revealed that it is conspecific with the Argentinean isolate of Spirometra found in Lycalopex gymnocercus (1.9-2.2%). Taxonomic and phylogenetic aspects related to New World species of Spirometra are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Co-Infection and Wild Animal Health: Effects of Trypanosomatids and Gastrointestinal Parasites on Coatis of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Olifiers, Natalie; Jansen, Ana Maria; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Bianchi, Rita de Cassia; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Mourão, Guilherme de Miranda; Gompper, Matthew Edzart

    2015-01-01

    Wild animals are infected by diverse parasites, but how they influence host health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship of trypanosomatids and gastrointestinal parasites with health of wild brown-nosed coatis (Nasua nasua) from the Brazilian Pantanal. We used coati body condition and hematological parameters as response variables in linear models that were compared using an information theoretic approach. Predictors were high/low parasitemias by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi, and indices representing the abundance of distinct groups of gastrointestinal parasites. We also analyzed how host health changed with host sex and reproductive seasonality. Hemoparasites was best related to coati body condition and hematological indices, whereas abundance of gastrointestinal parasites was relatively less associated with coati health. Additionally, some associations were best predicted by models that incorporated reproductive seasonality and host sex. Overall, we observed a lower health condition during the breeding season, when coatis are under reproductive stress and may be less able to handle infection. In addition, females seem to handle infection better than males. Body condition was lower in coatis with high parasitemias of T. evansi, especially during the reproductive season. Total red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, platelets and eosinophils were also lower in animals with high T. evansi parasitemias. Total white blood cell counts and mature neutrophils were lower in animals with high parasitemias for both Trypanosoma species, with neutrophils decreasing mainly during the reproductive season. Overall, decreases in hematological parameters of females with T. evansi high parasitemias were less evident. For T. cruzi, monocytes decreased in individuals with high parasitemias. High abundances of microfilariae in the bloodstream, and cestode eggs and coccidian oocysts in feces were also associated with coati blood parameters. This study shows the

  5. Co-Infection and Wild Animal Health: Effects of Trypanosomatids and Gastrointestinal Parasites on Coatis of the Brazilian Pantanal

    PubMed Central

    Olifiers, Natalie; Jansen, Ana Maria; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Bianchi, Rita de Cassia; D’Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Mourão, Guilherme de Miranda; Gompper, Matthew Edzart

    2015-01-01

    Wild animals are infected by diverse parasites, but how they influence host health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship of trypanosomatids and gastrointestinal parasites with health of wild brown-nosed coatis (Nasua nasua) from the Brazilian Pantanal. We used coati body condition and hematological parameters as response variables in linear models that were compared using an information theoretic approach. Predictors were high/low parasitemias by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi, and indices representing the abundance of distinct groups of gastrointestinal parasites. We also analyzed how host health changed with host sex and reproductive seasonality. Hemoparasites was best related to coati body condition and hematological indices, whereas abundance of gastrointestinal parasites was relatively less associated with coati health. Additionally, some associations were best predicted by models that incorporated reproductive seasonality and host sex. Overall, we observed a lower health condition during the breeding season, when coatis are under reproductive stress and may be less able to handle infection. In addition, females seem to handle infection better than males. Body condition was lower in coatis with high parasitemias of T. evansi, especially during the reproductive season. Total red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, platelets and eosinophils were also lower in animals with high T. evansi parasitemias. Total white blood cell counts and mature neutrophils were lower in animals with high parasitemias for both Trypanosoma species, with neutrophils decreasing mainly during the reproductive season. Overall, decreases in hematological parameters of females with T. evansi high parasitemias were less evident. For T. cruzi, monocytes decreased in individuals with high parasitemias. High abundances of microfilariae in the bloodstream, and cestode eggs and coccidian oocysts in feces were also associated with coati blood parameters. This study shows the

  6. Protozoan and bacterial pathogens in tick salivary glands in wild and domestic animal environments in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Berggoetz, M; Schmid, M; Ston, D; Wyss, V; Chevillon, C; Pretorius, A-M; Gern, L

    2014-03-01

    A total of 7364 ticks belonging to 13 species was collected from 64 game animals (belonging to 11 species) and from 64 livestock animals (cattle and sheep) living in close vicinity at 6 localities in 3 South African Provinces (Free State, Mpumalanga, and Limpopo). The geographic distribution of all tick species was congruent with the literature except for Haemaphysalis silacea. From each infested host, a maximum of 10 males and 10 females of each tick species were dissected to isolate the salivary glands. Salivary glands were screened for tick-borne pathogens using polymerase chain reaction followed by reverse line blotting and sequencing. This approach allowed us to evaluate the exposure of wild and domestic hosts to tick-borne pathogens in their respective environments. Among the 2117 examined ticks, 329 (15.5%), belonging to 8 species, were infected and harboured 397 infections. Among those, 57.7% were identified to species level and were assigned to 23 pathogen species of the genera Babesia, Theileria, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia. In 3 out of 6 localities, salivary glands from ticks infesting wild ruminants displayed significantly higher infection prevalence and pathogen mean density than salivary glands from ticks infesting livestock animals. Four piroplasm species [Theileria bicornis, Babesia sp. (sable), Theileria sp. (giraffe), and Theileria sp. (kudu)] were detected for the first time in ticks. The tick species Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Hyalomma rufipes, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, and Amblyomma hebraeum were associated with a broader pathogen range than previously known, and thus new vector-pathogen combinations are described. In addition, previously unknown coinfection patterns in tick salivary glands are reported. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. From wild animals to domestic pets, an evolutionary view of domestication.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Carlos A; Macdonald, David W; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2009-06-16

    Artificial selection is the selection of advantageous natural variation for human ends and is the mechanism by which most domestic species evolved. Most domesticates have their origin in one of a few historic centers of domestication as farm animals. Two notable exceptions are cats and dogs. Wolf domestication was initiated late in the Mesolithic when humans were nomadic hunter-gatherers. Those wolves less afraid of humans scavenged nomadic hunting camps and over time developed utility, initially as guards warning of approaching animals or other nomadic bands and soon thereafter as hunters, an attribute tuned by artificial selection. The first domestic cats had limited utility and initiated their domestication among the earliest agricultural Neolithic settlements in the Near East. Wildcat domestication occurred through a self-selective process in which behavioral reproductive isolation evolved as a correlated character of assortative mating coupled to habitat choice for urban environments. Eurasian wildcats initiated domestication and their evolution to companion animals was initially a process of natural, rather than artificial, selection over time driven during their sympatry with forbear wildcats.

  8. From wild animals to domestic pets, an evolutionary view of domestication

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Carlos A.; Macdonald, David W.; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Artificial selection is the selection of advantageous natural variation for human ends and is the mechanism by which most domestic species evolved. Most domesticates have their origin in one of a few historic centers of domestication as farm animals. Two notable exceptions are cats and dogs. Wolf domestication was initiated late in the Mesolithic when humans were nomadic hunter-gatherers. Those wolves less afraid of humans scavenged nomadic hunting camps and over time developed utility, initially as guards warning of approaching animals or other nomadic bands and soon thereafter as hunters, an attribute tuned by artificial selection. The first domestic cats had limited utility and initiated their domestication among the earliest agricultural Neolithic settlements in the Near East. Wildcat domestication occurred through a self-selective process in which behavioral reproductive isolation evolved as a correlated character of assortative mating coupled to habitat choice for urban environments. Eurasian wildcats initiated domestication and their evolution to companion animals was initially a process of natural, rather than artificial, selection over time driven during their sympatry with forbear wildcats. PMID:19528637

  9. Molecular and Serological Study of Rickettsial Infection in Humans, and in Wild and Farm Animals, in the Province of Burgos, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Peñafiel, Gerardo; Giménez-Pardo, Consuelo; Gegúndez, Isabel; González, Rosario; Saz, José Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Limited information is available on the presence of rickettsial infection in humans and animal reservoirs in Spain. Exposure to spotted fever group rickettsia in healthy humans and in farm and wild animals in the Province of Burgos, Spain, was examined by serological methods. Rickettsial DNA was also sought by PCR in animal samples. Of 102 human serum samples examined by indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA), 5.88% were positive for antibodies against Rickettsia conorii (titers 1/128–1/512). Significant differences were detected in human seroprevalence with respect to age. In further IFAs, 102 out of 375 (27.2%) serum samples from the wild animals reacted with R. conorii antigens (titers 1/64–1/1024); 32 out of 281 (11.38%) samples from farm animals were also positive for R. conorii (titers 1/64–1/2048). The prevalence detected among total wild animals was significantly higher than among total farm animals. No rickettsial DNA was found by PCR in any farm or wild animal sample. PMID:24866558

  10. Molecular and serological study of rickettsial infection in humans, and in wild and farm animals, in the province of Burgos, Spain.

    PubMed

    Lledó, Lourdes; Domínguez-Peñafiel, Gerardo; Giménez-Pardo, Consuelo; Gegúndez, Isabel; González, Rosario; Saz, José Vicente

    2014-06-01

    Limited information is available on the presence of rickettsial infection in humans and animal reservoirs in Spain. Exposure to spotted fever group rickettsia in healthy humans and in farm and wild animals in the Province of Burgos, Spain, was examined by serological methods. Rickettsial DNA was also sought by PCR in animal samples. Of 102 human serum samples examined by indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA), 5.88% were positive for antibodies against Rickettsia conorii (titers 1/128-1/512). Significant differences were detected in human seroprevalence with respect to age. In further IFAs, 102 out of 375 (27.2%) serum samples from the wild animals reacted with R. conorii antigens (titers 1/64-1/1024); 32 out of 281 (11.38%) samples from farm animals were also positive for R. conorii (titers 1/64-1/2048). The prevalence detected among total wild animals was significantly higher than among total farm animals. No rickettsial DNA was found by PCR in any farm or wild animal sample.

  11. Characterization of fecal vancomycin-resistant enterococci with acquired and intrinsic resistance mechanisms in wild animals, Spain.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Carmen; Gonzalez-Barrio, David; Camacho, Maria Cruz; Lima-Barbero, Jose Francisco; de la Puente, Javier; Höfle, Ursula; Torres, Carmen

    2016-11-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the presence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci with acquired (VRE-a) and intrinsic (VRE-i) resistance mechanisms in fecal samples from different wild animals, and analyze their phenotypes and genotypes of antimicrobial resistance. A total of 348 cloacal/rectal samples from red-legged partridges (127), white storks (81), red kites (59), and wild boars (81) (June 2014/February 2015) were inoculated in Slanetz-Bartley agar supplemented with vancomycin (4 μg/mL). We investigated the susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials and the presence of 19 antimicrobial resistance and five virulence genes. In addition, we performed multilocus sequence typing, detection of IS16 and studied Tn1546 structure. One VRE-a isolate was identified in one wild boar. This isolate was identified as Enterococcus faecium, harbored vanA gene included into Tn1546 (truncated with IS1542/IS1216), and belonged to the new ST993. This isolate contained the erm(A), erm(B), tet(M), dfrG, and dfrK genes. Neither element IS16 nor the studied virulence genes were detected. Ninety-six VRE-i isolates were identified (89 Enterococcus gallinarum and seven Enterococcus casseliflavus), with the following prevalence: red kites (71.2 %), white storks (46.9 %), red-legged partridges (7.9 %), and wild boars (4.9 %). Most E. gallinarum isolates showed resistance to tetracycline (66.3 %) and/or erythromycin (46.1 %). High-level resistance to aminoglycosides was present among our VRE-i isolates: kanamycin (22.9 %), streptomycin (11.5 %), and gentamicin (9.4 %). In general, VRE-i isolates of red kites showed higher rates of resistance for non-glycopeptide agents than those of other animal species. The dissemination of acquired resistance mechanisms in natural environments could have implications in the global spread of resistance with public health implications.

  12. Effects of field applications of heptachlor on bobwhite quail and other wild animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosene, W.

    1965-01-01

    A study of the effects of field applications of heptachlor on bobwhite quail (Colinus uirginianus) and other animals was conducted on three similar areas, two in Decatur County, Georgia, and one in Escambia County, Alabama, from February, 1958, to March, 1962. Heptachlor in granules was applied by aircraft on the Georgia areas for eradication of the imported fire ant (Solenopsis saevissima). Applications were directed by personnel of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Plant Pest Control Division. The Alabama area remained untreated. Transects where whistling cocks were counted were superimposed on areas where coveys were counted. Size of areas varied from 14,000 to 20,000 acres. Each area had six transects, totaling 11,000 acres. Whistling cock bobwhites and coveys averaged 28 and 20 per 1,000 acres, respectively, the year before treatment on a Georgia area, and cocks and coveys averaged 25 per 1,000 acres for the duration of the study on the untreated Alabama area. Where portions of an area were treated at 2 pounds of heptachlor per acre, whistling cocks and coveys were reduced significantly, with a greater reduction where a greater amount of land was treated on the area or its transects. A decline of cocks and coveys also followed 1/2-pound applications (approaching statistical significance for coveys). Three years after treatment, cock and covey numbers were below those recorded before treatment. Whistling cocks and coveys also declined on adjoining land which remained untreated (significant for cocks, approaching significance for coveys). This decline was attributed to movements of bobwhites from untreated land to repopulate treated land. There is evidence that some loss occurred in bobwhites after they moved from untreated to treated land; the decrease in each instance was ascribed to the application of heptachlor. Songbirds were listed on the two Georgia areas. The first summer, eight more species and 458 more individuals of permanent resident birds were

  13. A Systematic Review of the Epidemiology of Echinococcosis in Domestic and Wild Animals

    PubMed Central

    Otero-Abad, Belen; Torgerson, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Human echinococcosis is a neglected zoonosis caused by parasites of the genus Echinococcus. The most frequent clinical forms of echinococcosis, cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE), are responsible for a substantial health and economic burden, particularly to low-income societies. Quantitative epidemiology can provide important information to improve the understanding of parasite transmission and hence is an important part of efforts to control this disease. The purpose of this review is to give an insight on factors associated with echinococcosis in animal hosts by summarising significant results reported from epidemiological studies identified through a systematic search. Methodology and Principal Findings The systematic search was conducted mainly in electronic databases but a few additional records were obtained from other sources. Retrieved entries were examined in order to identify available peer-reviewed epidemiological studies that found significant risk factors for infection using associative statistical methods. One hundred studies met the eligibility criteria and were suitable for data extraction. Epidemiological factors associated with increased risk of E. granulosus infection in dogs included feeding with raw viscera, possibility of scavenging dead animals, lack of anthelmintic treatment and owners' poor health education and indicators of poverty. Key factors associated with E. granulosus infection in intermediate hosts were related to the hosts' age and the intensity of environmental contamination with parasite eggs. E. multilocularis transmission dynamics in animal hosts depended on the interaction of several ecological factors, such as hosts' population densities, host-prey interactions, landscape characteristics, climate conditions and human-related activities. Conclusions/Significance Results derived from epidemiological studies provide a better understanding of the behavioural, biological and ecological factors

  14. A systematic review of the epidemiology of echinococcosis in domestic and wild animals.

    PubMed

    Otero-Abad, Belen; Torgerson, Paul R

    2013-01-01

    Human echinococcosis is a neglected zoonosis caused by parasites of the genus Echinococcus. The most frequent clinical forms of echinococcosis, cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE), are responsible for a substantial health and economic burden, particularly to low-income societies. Quantitative epidemiology can provide important information to improve the understanding of parasite transmission and hence is an important part of efforts to control this disease. The purpose of this review is to give an insight on factors associated with echinococcosis in animal hosts by summarising significant results reported from epidemiological studies identified through a systematic search. The systematic search was conducted mainly in electronic databases but a few additional records were obtained from other sources. Retrieved entries were examined in order to identify available peer-reviewed epidemiological studies that found significant risk factors for infection using associative statistical methods. One hundred studies met the eligibility criteria and were suitable for data extraction. Epidemiological factors associated with increased risk of E. granulosus infection in dogs included feeding with raw viscera, possibility of scavenging dead animals, lack of anthelmintic treatment and owners' poor health education and indicators of poverty. Key factors associated with E. granulosus infection in intermediate hosts were related to the hosts' age and the intensity of environmental contamination with parasite eggs. E. multilocularis transmission dynamics in animal hosts depended on the interaction of several ecological factors, such as hosts' population densities, host-prey interactions, landscape characteristics, climate conditions and human-related activities. Results derived from epidemiological studies provide a better understanding of the behavioural, biological and ecological factors involved in the transmission of this parasite and hence can aid in the

  15. Social and behavioral barriers to pathogen transmission in wild animal populations

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.S.

    1988-12-31

    Disease and pathogens have been studied as regulators of animal populations but not really as selective forces. The authors propose that pathogens can be major selective forces influencing social behaviors when these are successful at reducing disease transmission. The behaviors whose evolution could have been influenced by pathogen effects include group size, group isolation, mixed species flocking, migration, seasonal sociality, social avoidance, and dominance behaviors. Mate choice, mating system, and sexual selection are put in a new light when examined in terms of disease transmission. It is concluded that pathogen avoidance is a more powerful selective force than has heretofore been recognized.

  16. An animal location-based habitat suitability model for bighorn sheep and wild horses in Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area and the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range, Montana, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wockner, Gary; Singer, Francis J.; Schoenecker, Kathryn A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this habitat suitability model is to provide a tool that will help managers and researchers better manage bighorn sheep and wild horses in the Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area (BICA) and Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range (PMWHR). A concern in the management of the Pryor Mountain wild horse population is whether or not the wild horses compete with bighorn sheep for available forage or available space. Two studies have been conducted that have shown no obvious, convincing competition between the two species. A study of diets and habitat-use of both species revealed substantial diet overlap only during some seasons, but there were considerable spatial and habitat separations between wild horses and bighorns during all seasons (Kissell and others, 1996). This empirical data was then used in a modeling exercise that predicted that neither the current (about 160 horses at the time of the analysis) nor larger numbers of wild horses on the area (e.g., about 200 horses) would result in reduced numbers or condition of bighorn sheep (Coughenour 1999). But competition is a very complex biological process to document. Bighorns might have already been spatially avoiding wild horses when these studies were conducted. A second concern for managers is that earlier studies suggest both species are not using many areas of the range that appear to be suitable (Gudorf and others, 1996; Kissell and others, 1996). A primary goal for the management of both species is to increase their numbers for purposes of genetic conservation and viability. The bighorn sheep population declined during the mid-1990’s from a peak of about 211 animals to ~ 100 animals at present. Absolute minimum goals for genetic viability in the bighorn sheep herd (genetic effective population size of N >50) suggest at least 150 animals should be present, while studies of persistence suggest populations of 250+ are e more likely to recover rapidly and persist should the population experience an

  17. Electrocardiograms of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) out of water: habituated collection versus wild postcapture animals.

    PubMed

    Harms, Craig A; Jensen, Eric D; Townsend, Forrest I; Hansen, Larry J; Schwacke, Lori H; Rowles, Teresa K

    2013-12-01

    Electrocardiography (ECG) was performed on captured free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) during a health assessment exercise and compared with that of a Navy collection of dolphins habituated to handling out of water in order to assess possible cardiovascular impacts of capture and handling. Six-lead recordings (I, II, III, aVr, aVl, and aVf) in the frontal plane and direct thorax leads were collected from both groups, with a modified base-apex lead additionally employed with the Navy collection dolphins. Measured and calculated parameters included amplitudes of P, R, S, and T waves and total QRS complex; T:S and T:QRS ratios; heart rate; durations of P wave; QRS complex, PR, QT, and RR intervals; maximum minus minimum RR interval; ST segment elevation-depression; and mean electrical axis (MEA). Physiologically minor but statistically significant differences were detected in S wave amplitude, PR interval, QRS duration, and MEA. The PR interval, QRS duration, and S wave amplitude were slightly greater and the MEA oriented slightly rightward in wild postcapture dolphins compared to Navy collection dolphins. There were no differences in heart rate or maximum minus minimum RR interval, which serves as a proxy for the expected sinus arrhythmia of dolphins. The base-apex lead resulted in greater QRS amplitude than lead II, as expected for the category B ventricular activation of dolphins. The left-side direct thorax lead was more consistent than that of the right side. Clinically, ECG was a useful adjunct to auscultation and thoracic palpation for monitoring heart rate and rhythm and generated a record for archiving. Safe capture and handling protocols in place, under which dolphins are immediately returned to the water at progressive signs of distress, may make cardiovascular decompensation less likely to be detected by ECG. It appears that the dolphin cardiovascular system compensates suitably well to capture, as measured by ECG under the conditions of

  18. A novel isolation method of Brucella species and molecular tracking of Brucella suis biovar 2 in domestic and wild animals.

    PubMed

    Abril, Carlos; Thomann, Andreas; Brodard, Isabelle; Wu, Natacha; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre; Frey, Joachim; Overesch, Gudrun

    2011-06-02

    Brucella suis biovar 2 is the most common aetiological agent of porcine brucellosis in Europe. B. suis biovar 2 is considered to have low zoonotic potential, but is a causative agent of reproductive losses in pigs, and it is thus economically important. The multilocus variable-number of tandem repeats genotyping analysis of 16 loci (MLVA-16) has proven to be highly discriminatory and is the most suitable assay for simultaneously identifying B. suis and tracking infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the relatedness between isolates of B. suis biovar 2 obtained during a brucellosis outbreak in domestic pigs and isolates from wild boars and hares collected from proximal or remote geographical areas by MLVA-16. A cluster analysis of the MLVA-16 data revealed that most of the isolates obtained from Switzerland clustered together, with the exception of one isolate. The outbreak isolates constituted a unique subcluster (with a genetic similarity >93.8%) distinct from that of the isolates obtained from wild animals, suggesting that direct transmission of the bacterium from wild boars to domestic pigs did not occur in this outbreak. To obtain a representative number of isolates for MLVA-16, alternative methods of Brucella spp. isolation from tissue samples were compared with conventional direct cultivation on a Brucella-selective agar. We observed an enhanced sensitivity when mechanical homogenisation was followed by host cell lysis prior to cultivation on the Brucella-selective agar. This work demonstrates that MLVA-16 is an excellent tool for both monitoring brucellosis and investigating outbreaks. Additionally, we present efficient alternatives for the isolation of Brucella spp.

  19. Diagnosis of Peste des Petits Ruminants in Wild and Domestic Animals in Xinjiang, China, 2013-2016.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Li, L; Wu, X; Liu, F; Zou, Y; Wang, Q; Liu, C; Bao, J; Wang, W; Ma, W; Lin, H; Huang, J; Zheng, X; Wang, Z

    2017-01-18

    Peste des petits ruminants viruses (PPRVs) re-emerged in China at the end of 2013 and then spread rapidly into 22 provinces through movement of live goats and sheep. In this study, 96 samples of domestic animals and 13 samples of wildlife were analysed for the presence of PPRV infection by ELISA or RT-PCR. Of 96 samples from sheep and goats, 91 were PPRV positive, whereas all of the 13 samples from three wild species, Capra ibex (Capra ibex sibirica), argali (Ovis ammon) and Goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa), were found to be positive. Five wildlife-origin isolates from the above samples were identified as the lineage IV by a multiple alignment of the partial sequences in N gene.

  20. Agglutinins to Coxiella burnetii and Brucella spp, with particular reference to Brucella canis, in wild animals of southern Texas.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, A S; Kelly, V P; Baker, E F

    1977-11-01

    The prevalence of agglutinins to Coxiella burnetii and Brucella spp, particularly Brucella canis, was determined in 269 wild animals (14 species) in southern Texas. Serologic evidence of coxiellosis and brucellosis, including B canis infection, was shown for coyotes, raccoons, opossums, badgers, jackrabbits, and feral hogs. Using the microagglutination test, the seroprevalence of C burnetii, phases I and II (titer greater than or equal to 4) was 4.1 and 27.9%, respectively. For brucella agglutinins, prevalence rates were 7.1, 8.9, and 6.7%, as determined by the brucellosis card test, the rapid slide agglutination test, and the salt 2-mercaptoethanol tube agglutination (titer greater than or equal to 50) test, respectively.

  1. In vitro activity of dalbavancin against enterococci isolates from wild animals, pets, poultry and humans in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Poeta, Patricia; Radhouani, Hajer; Sargo, Roberto; Igrejas, Gilberto

    2008-12-01

    Dalbavancin is a new new semisynthetic teicoplanin-related lipoglycopeptide with activity against gram-positive organisms. We investigated the activity of dalbavancin against faecal enterococci isolates from wild animals, pets, poultry and healthy humans in Portugal. The in vitro activity of dalbavancin was determined by the microbroth dilution method according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines in 589 enterococci of different species and origins. All vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus spp. were inhibited by < or =0.25 mg/l dalbavancin. Although vancomycin-resistant-enterococci (VRE) showed higher dalbavancin MIC values (16 mg/l), the isolates that exhibited the VanC resistance phenotype were inhibited at dalbavancin concentrations < or =0.125 mg/l. Only van A isolates were not inhibited by low concentrations of dalbavancin since van A strains showed higher dalbavancin MIC values (16 mg/l).

  2. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. X. Helminths in impala.

    PubMed

    Horak, I G

    1978-12-01

    Two to four impala in the Nylsvley Nature Reserve were culled each month from February 1975-February 1976. Two trematode species, 1 cestode species and 13 species of nematodes were recovered from these antelope. Of these, Fasciola gigantica, Gongylonema pulchrum, Haemonchus placei and Trichostrongylus falculatus are new records for impala. In general, H. placei, Longistrongylus sabie and Impalaia tuberculata exhibited a similar pattern of seasonal occurrence. Adult worms were present during November-February, while marked inhibition in the development of large numbers of 4th stage larvae occurred from April-September or October. Cooperia hungi, Cooperioides hamiltoni and Cooperloides hepaticae followed a similar pattern, but inhibition in the 4th larval stage was not as marked and lasted from June-September. No seasonal pattern of prevalence could be determined for Trichostrongylus spp. The worm burdens of young impala increased with the age of the animals and reached a peak when the impala were 1 year old.

  3. Interaction between Japanese flowering cherry trees and some wild animals observed during physiological experiment in fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Teruko

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the weeping habit of Japanese flowering cherry tree in the field of Tama Forest Science Garden, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute at the foot of Mt. Takao. Since cherry trees at various age were the materials for our plant physiology experiments, our studies were conducted in the fields where we experienced certain difficulties. Even under such difficult environment that was rather unexpected and uncontrollable, we could obtain fruitful results on the growth of cherry tree, and found them scientifically significant, especially in terms of biological effects of gravity on earth. Moreover, a lot of interesting interactions of cherry trees with various kinds of animals were observed in parallel to the plant physiology.

  4. Interaction between Japanese flowering cherry trees and some wild animals observed during physiological experiment in fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Teruko

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the weeping habit of Japanese flowering cherry tree in the field of Tama Forest Science Garden, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute at the foot of Mt. Takao. Since cherry trees at various age were the materials for our plant physiology experiments, our studies were conducted in the fields where we experienced certain difficulties. Even under such difficult environment that was rather unexpected and uncontrollable, we could obtain fruitful results on the growth of cherry tree, and found them scientifically significant, especially in terms of biological effects of gravity on earth. Moreover, a lot of interesting interactions of cherry trees with various kinds of animals were observed in parallel to the plant physiology.

  5. Comparison of bacterial culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Sting, Reinhard; Runge, Martin; Eisenberg, Tobias; Braune, Silke; Müller, Wolfgang; Otto, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Detection of the zoonotic pathogen Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica (EF tularensis) in wild animals with culture techniques as well as polymerase chain reaction were compared and discussed on the basis of the investigation of 60 animals. The samples originated from 55 European brown hares (Lepus europaeus), two red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and one each from a wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), a European beaver (Castor fiber), and a lemur (Lemur catta). When comparing the growth of 28 F. tularensis isolates on the cysteine blood agar and the modified Martin-Lewis-agar used in this study, cultivation was successful for 26 isolates on both media, but for two isolates only on the cysteine blood agar. Out of 43 carcasses 19 tested positive in bacteriological culture and PCR. Two culture positive samples of tonsils originating from foxes could not be confirmed by PCR, although PCR was positive in 22 samples that missed growth of F. tularensis. Comparative studies on cultural detection of E. tularensis were performed on samples of 16 hares from lung, spleen, liver and gut and in one case with a peritoneal swab. In at least one of these localizations cultivation of the pathogen was successful. Detection rate was reduced to 94% (15 of 16 hares) considering only the results of the cultures of the lungs and spleens. For a sensitive and rapid detection of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica, the PCR is a suitable method thereby avoiding hazardous multiplying of the pathogen. However, cultivation of F. tularensis is often a prerequisite for further studies on antibiotic resistance patterns of the pathogen, molecular epidemiological and pathological analyses of tularaemia.

  6. A rapid field test for sylvatic plague exposure in wild animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, Rachel C.; Hudak, Robert; Mondesire, Roy; Baeten, Laurie A.; Russell, Robin E.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2014-01-01

    Plague surveillance is routinely conducted to predict future epizootics in wildlife and exposure risk for humans. The most common surveillance method for sylvatic plague is detection of antibodies to Yersinia pestis F1 capsular antigen in sentinel animals, such as coyotes (Canis latrans). Current serologic tests for Y. pestis, hemagglutination (HA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are expensive and labor intensive. To address this need, we developed a complete lateral flow device for the detection of specific antibodies to Y. pestis F1 and V antigens. Our test detected anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies in serum and Nobuto filter paper samples from coyotes, and in serum samples from prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), lynx (Lynx canadensis), and black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes). Comparison of cassette results for anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies with results of ELISA or HA tests showed correlations ranging from 0.68 to 0.98. This device provides an affordable, user-friendly tool that may be useful in plague surveillance programs and as a research tool.

  7. A rapid field test for sylvatic plague exposure in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Rachel C; Hudak, Robert; Mondesire, Roy; Baeten, Laurie A; Russell, Robin E; Rocke, Tonie E

    2014-04-01

    Plague surveillance is routinely conducted to predict future epizootics in wildlife and exposure risk for humans. The most common surveillance method for sylvatic plague is detection of antibodies to Yersinia pestis F1 capsular antigen in sentinel animals, such as coyotes (Canis latrans). Current serologic tests for Y. pestis, hemagglutination (HA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are expensive and labor intensive. To address this need, we developed a complete lateral flow device for the detection of specific antibodies to Y. pestis F1 and V antigens. Our test detected anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies in serum and Nobuto filter paper samples from coyotes, and in serum samples from prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), lynx (Lynx canadensis), and black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes). Comparison of cassette results for anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies with results of ELISA or HA tests showed correlations ranging from 0.68 to 0.98. This device provides an affordable, user-friendly tool that may be useful in plague surveillance programs and as a research tool.

  8. Presence of Clostridium difficile in pig faecal samples and wild animal species associated with pig farms.

    PubMed

    Andrés-Lasheras, S; Bolea, R; Mainar-Jaime, R C; Kuijper, E; Sevilla, E; Martín-Burriel, I; Chirino-Trejo, M

    2017-02-01

    To determine the presence of Clostridium difficile on fattening pig farms in north-eastern Spain. Twenty-seven farms were sampled. Pools of pig faecal samples (n = 210), samples of intestinal content from common farm pest species (n = 95) and environment-related samples (n = 93) were collected. Isolates were tested for toxin genes of C. difficile, and typed by PCR-ribotyping and toxinotyping. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of six antimicrobial agents were determined using Etest. Thirty-four isolates were obtained from 12 farms, and 30 (88·2%) had toxin genes. Seven ribotypes were identified. Ribotype 078 and its variant 126 were predominant (52·9%). The same ribotypes were isolated from different animal species on the same farm. None of the isolates were resistant to metronidazole or vancomycin. Clostridium difficile was common within the pig farm environment. Most of the positive samples came from pest species or were pest-related environmental samples. Pest species were colonized with toxigenic and antimicrobial-resistant C. difficile strains of the same ribotypes that are found in humans and pigs. Rodents and pigeons may transmit toxigenic and antimicrobial-resistant C. difficile strains that are of the same ribotypes as those occuring in humans. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Serological investigation of wild boars (Sus scrofa) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as indicator animals for circulation of Francisella tularensis in Germany.

    PubMed

    Otto, Peter; Chaignat, Valerie; Klimpel, Diana; Diller, Roland; Melzer, Falk; Müller, Wolfgang; Tomaso, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Tularemia outbreaks in humans have recently been reported in many European countries, but data on the occurrence in the animal population are scarce. In North America, seroconversion of omnivores and carnivores was used as indicator for the presence of tularemia, for the European fauna, however, data are barely available. Therefore, the suitability of wild boars (Sus scrofa) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as indicators for the circulation of F. tularensis in Germany was evaluated. Serum samples from 566 wild boars and 457 red foxes were collected between 1995 and 2012 in three federal states in Central Germany (Hesse, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia). The overall rate of seropositive animals was 1.1% in wild boars and 7.4% in red foxes. In conclusion, serological examination of red foxes is recommended, because they can be reliably used as indicator animals for the presence of F. tularensis in the environment.

  10. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLVIII. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting domestic cats and wild felids in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Horak, Ivan G; Heyne, Heloise; Donkin, Edward F

    2010-11-24

    Ticks collected from domestic cats (Felis catus), cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus),caracals (Caracal caracal), African wild cats (Felis lybica), black-footed cats (Felis nigripes), a serval (Leptailurus serval), lions(Panthera leo), and leopards (Panthera pardus) were identified and counted. Thirteen species of ixodid ticks and one argasid tick were identified from domestic cats and 17 species of ixodid ticks from wild felids. The domestic cats and wild felids harboured 11 ixodid species in common. The adults of Haemaphysalis elliptica, the most abundant tick species infesting cats and wild felids, were most numerous on a domestic cat in late winter and in mid-summer, during 2 consecutive years. The recorded geographic distribution of the recently described Haemaphysalis colesbergensis, a parasite of cats and caracals, was extended by 2 new locality records in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa.

  11. Prevalence, Environmental Loading, and Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia Isolates from Domestic and Wild Animals along the Central California Coast

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Melissa A.; Hardin, Dane; Conrad, Patricia A.; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A.; Dominik, Clare; Roug, Annette; Tinker, M. Tim; Miller, Woutrina A.

    2012-01-01

    The risk of disease transmission from waterborne protozoa is often dependent on the origin (e.g., domestic animals versus wildlife), overall parasite load in contaminated waterways, and parasite genotype, with infections being linked to runoff or direct deposition of domestic animal and wildlife feces. Fecal samples collected from domestic animals and wildlife along the central California coast were screened to (i) compare the prevalence and associated risk factors for fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium and Giardia species parasites, (ii) evaluate the relative importance of animal host groups that contribute to pathogen loading in coastal ecosystems, and (iii) characterize zoonotic and host-specific genotypes. Overall, 6% of fecal samples tested during 2007 to 2010 were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts and 15% were positive for Giardia cysts. Animal host group and age class were significantly associated with detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia parasites in animal feces. Fecal loading analysis revealed that infected beef cattle potentially contribute the greatest parasite load relative to other host groups, followed by wild canids. Beef cattle, however, shed host-specific, minimally zoonotic Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis genotypes, whereas wild canids shed potentially zoonotic genotypes, including G. duodenalis assemblages A and B. Given that the parasite genotypes detected in cattle were not zoonotic, the public health risk posed by protozoan parasite shedding in cattle feces may be lower than that posed by other animals, such as wild canids, that routinely shed zoonotic genotypes. PMID:23042185

  12. Prevalence, environmental loading, and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia isolates from domestic and wild animals along the Central California Coast.

    PubMed

    Oates, Stori C; Miller, Melissa A; Hardin, Dane; Conrad, Patricia A; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A; Dominik, Clare; Roug, Annette; Tinker, M Tim; Miller, Woutrina A

    2012-12-01

    The risk of disease transmission from waterborne protozoa is often dependent on the origin (e.g., domestic animals versus wildlife), overall parasite load in contaminated waterways, and parasite genotype, with infections being linked to runoff or direct deposition of domestic animal and wildlife feces. Fecal samples collected from domestic animals and wildlife along the central California coast were screened to (i) compare the prevalence and associated risk factors for fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium and Giardia species parasites, (ii) evaluate the relative importance of animal host groups that contribute to pathogen loading in coastal ecosystems, and (iii) characterize zoonotic and host-specific genotypes. Overall, 6% of fecal samples tested during 2007 to 2010 were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts and 15% were positive for Giardia cysts. Animal host group and age class were significantly associated with detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia parasites in animal feces. Fecal loading analysis revealed that infected beef cattle potentially contribute the greatest parasite load relative to other host groups, followed by wild canids. Beef cattle, however, shed host-specific, minimally zoonotic Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis genotypes, whereas wild canids shed potentially zoonotic genotypes, including G. duodenalis assemblages A and B. Given that the parasite genotypes detected in cattle were not zoonotic, the public health risk posed by protozoan parasite shedding in cattle feces may be lower than that posed by other animals, such as wild canids, that routinely shed zoonotic genotypes.

  13. Prevalence, environmental loading, and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardiawild animals along the Central California Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oates, Stori C; Miller, Melissa A.; Hardin, Dane; Conrad, Patricia A.; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A.; Dominik, Clare; Roug, Annette; Tinker, M. Tim; Miller, Woutrina A.

    2012-01-01

    The risk of disease transmission from waterborne protozoa is often dependent on the origin (e.g., domestic animals versus wildlife), overall parasite load in contaminated waterways, and parasite genotype, with infections being linked to runoff or direct deposition of domestic animal and wildlife feces. Fecal samples collected from domestic animals and wildlife along the central California coast were screened to (i) compare the prevalence and associated risk factors for fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium and Giardia species parasites, (ii) evaluate the relative importance of animal host groups that contribute to pathogen loading in coastal ecosystems, and (iii) characterize zoonotic and host-specific genotypes. Overall, 6% of fecal samples tested during 2007 to 2010 were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts and 15% were positive for Giardia cysts. Animal host group and age class were significantly associated with detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia parasites in animal feces. Fecal loading analysis revealed that infected beef cattle potentially contribute the greatest parasite load relative to other host groups, followed by wild canids. Beef cattle, however, shed host-specific, minimally zoonotic Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis genotypes, whereas wild canids shed potentially zoonotic genotypes, including G. duodenalis assemblages A and B. Given that the parasite genotypes detected in cattle were not zoonotic, the public health risk posed by protozoan parasite shedding in cattle feces may be lower than that posed by other animals, such as wild canids, that routinely shed zoonotic genotypes.

  14. Assessing the Impact of Capture on Wild Animals: The Case Study of Chemical Immobilisation on Alpine Ibex

    PubMed Central

    Brivio, Francesca; Grignolio, Stefano; Sica, Nicoletta; Cerise, Stefano; Bassano, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The importance of capturing wild animals for research and conservation projects is widely shared. As this activity continues to become more common, the need to assess its negative effects increases so as to ensure ethical standards and the validity of research results. Increasing evidence has revealed that indirect (physiological and behavioural) effects of capture are as important as direct risks (death or injury) and that different capture methodologies can cause heterogeneous effects. We investigated the influence of chemical immobilisation on Alpine ibex (Capra ibex): during the days following the capture we collected data on spatial behaviour, activity levels of both males and females, and male hormone levels. Moreover, we recorded the reproductive status of each marked female during the breeding seasons of 15 years. Then, by several a priori models we investigated the effects of the capture taking into account biological factors and changes in environmental conditions. Our results showed that chemical immobilisation did not affect either spatial behaviour (for both males and females) or male hormone levels, though both sexes showed reduced activity levels up to two days after the capture. The capture did not significantly affect the likelihood for a female to give birth in the following summer. Our findings highlighted the scarce impact of chemical immobilisation on ibex biology, as we detected alteration of activity levels only immediately after the capture if compared to the following days (i.e., baseline situation). Hence, the comparison of our findings with previous research showed that our methodology is one of the less invasive procedures to capture large mammals. Nonetheless, in areas characterised by high predator density, we suggest that animals released be carefully monitored for some hours after the capture. Moreover, researchers should avoid considering data collected during the first days after the manipulation in order to avoid biased

  15. Assessing the Impact of Capture on Wild Animals: The Case Study of Chemical Immobilisation on Alpine Ibex.

    PubMed

    Brivio, Francesca; Grignolio, Stefano; Sica, Nicoletta; Cerise, Stefano; Bassano, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The importance of capturing wild animals for research and conservation projects is widely shared. As this activity continues to become more common, the need to assess its negative effects increases so as to ensure ethical standards and the validity of research results. Increasing evidence has revealed that indirect (physiological and behavioural) effects of capture are as important as direct risks (death or injury) and that different capture methodologies can cause heterogeneous effects. We investigated the influence of chemical immobilisation on Alpine ibex (Capra ibex): during the days following the capture we collected data on spatial behaviour, activity levels of both males and females, and male hormone levels. Moreover, we recorded the reproductive status of each marked female during the breeding seasons of 15 years. Then, by several a priori models we investigated the effects of the capture taking into account biological factors and changes in environmental conditions. Our results showed that chemical immobilisation did not affect either spatial behaviour (for both males and females) or male hormone levels, though both sexes showed reduced activity levels up to two days after the capture. The capture did not significantly affect the likelihood for a female to give birth in the following summer. Our findings highlighted the scarce impact of chemical immobilisation on ibex biology, as we detected alteration of activity levels only immediately after the capture if compared to the following days (i.e., baseline situation). Hence, the comparison of our findings with previous research showed that our methodology is one of the less invasive procedures to capture large mammals. Nonetheless, in areas characterised by high predator density, we suggest that animals released be carefully monitored for some hours after the capture. Moreover, researchers should avoid considering data collected during the first days after the manipulation in order to avoid biased

  16. Survey of Trypanosoma and Leishmania in wild and domestic animals in an Atlantic rainforest fragment and surroundings in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Igor da C L; Da Costa, Andrea P; Gennari, Solange M; Marcili, Arlei

    2014-05-01

    Trypanosoma and Leishmania infections affect wild and domestic animals and human populations. The growing process of deforestation and urbanization of Atlantic Rainforest areas has given rise to introduction of humans and domestic animals to the sylvatic cycles of Trypanosoma and Leishmania species. Serological, parasitological, and molecular surveys among wild and domestic animals in the Corrego do Veado Biological Reserve, which is an Atlantic Rainforest fragment in the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil, were evaluated. In total, 154 wild animals of 25 species and 67 domestic animals (47 dogs and 20 horses) were sampled. All the domestic animals were serologically negative for anti-Leishmania infantum chagasi antibodies and negative in parasitological approaches. Only the Order Chiroptera presented positive blood cultures and cryopreserved isolates. The phylogenetic trees based on SSU rDNA and gGAPDH genes confirmed the occurrence of Trypanosoma dionisii and provided the first record of Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei in southeastern Brazil. The studies conducted in Atlantic Rainforest remaining trees provide the knowledge of parasite diversity or detect parasites that can accelerate the loss of hosts diversity.

  17. The role of social and ecological processes in structuring animal populations: a case study from automated tracking of wild birds

    PubMed Central

    Farine, Damien R.; Firth, Josh A.; Aplin, Lucy M.; Crates, Ross A.; Culina, Antica; Garroway, Colin J.; Hinde, Camilla A.; Kidd, Lindall R.; Milligan, Nicole D.; Psorakis, Ioannis; Radersma, Reinder; Verhelst, Brecht; Voelkl, Bernhard; Sheldon, Ben C.

    2015-01-01

    Both social and ecological factors influence population process and structure, with resultant consequences for phenotypic selection on individuals. Understanding the scale and relative contribution of these two factors is thus a central aim in evolutionary ecology. In this study, we develop a framework using null models to identify the social and spatial patterns that contribute to phenotypic structure in a wild population of songbirds. We used automated technologies to track 1053 individuals that formed 73 737 groups from which we inferred a social network. Our framework identified that both social and spatial drivers contributed to assortment in the network. In particular, groups had a more even sex ratio than expected and exhibited a consistent age structure that suggested local association preferences, such as preferential attachment or avoidance. By contrast, recent immigrants were spatially partitioned from locally born individuals, suggesting differential dispersal strategies by phenotype. Our results highlight how different scales of social decision-making, ranging from post-natal dispersal settlement to fission–fusion dynamics, can interact to drive phenotypic structure in animal populations. PMID:26064644

  18. The role of social and ecological processes in structuring animal populations: a case study from automated tracking of wild birds.

    PubMed

    Farine, Damien R; Firth, Josh A; Aplin, Lucy M; Crates, Ross A; Culina, Antica; Garroway, Colin J; Hinde, Camilla A; Kidd, Lindall R; Milligan, Nicole D; Psorakis, Ioannis; Radersma, Reinder; Verhelst, Brecht; Voelkl, Bernhard; Sheldon, Ben C

    2015-04-01

    Both social and ecological factors influence population process and structure, with resultant consequences for phenotypic selection on individuals. Understanding the scale and relative contribution of these two factors is thus a central aim in evolutionary ecology. In this study, we develop a framework using null models to identify the social and spatial patterns that contribute to phenotypic structure in a wild population of songbirds. We used automated technologies to track 1053 individuals that formed 73 737 groups from which we inferred a social network. Our framework identified that both social and spatial drivers contributed to assortment in the network. In particular, groups had a more even sex ratio than expected and exhibited a consistent age structure that suggested local association preferences, such as preferential attachment or avoidance. By contrast, recent immigrants were spatially partitioned from locally born individuals, suggesting differential dispersal strategies by phenotype. Our results highlight how different scales of social decision-making, ranging from post-natal dispersal settlement to fission-fusion dynamics, can interact to drive phenotypic structure in animal populations.

  19. Serological and Molecular Detection of Toxoplasma gondii and Babesia microti in the Blood of Rescued Wild Animals in Gangwon-do (Province), Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Hee; Kim, Hee-Jong; Jeong, Young-Il; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja; Kim, Jong-Tak; Lee, Sang-Eun

    2017-04-01

    Infections of Toxoplasma gondii and Babesia microti are reported in many wild animals worldwide, but information on their incidence and molecular detection in Korean wild fields is limited. In this study, the prevalence of T. gondii and B. microti infection in blood samples of 5 animal species (37 Chinese water deer, 23 raccoon dogs, 6 roe deer, 1 wild boar, and 3 Eurasian badgers) was examined during 2008-2009 in Gangwon-do (Province), the Republic of Korea (=Korea) by using serological and molecular tests. The overall seropositivity of T. gondii was 8.6% (6/70); 10.8% in Chinese water deer, 4.3% in raccoon dogs, and 16.7% in roe deer. PCR revealed only 1 case of T. gondii infection in Chinese water deer, and phylogenic analysis showed that the positive isolate was practically identical to the highly pathogenetic strain type I. In B. microti PCR, the positive rate was 5.7% (4/70), including 2 Chinese water deer and 2 Eurasian badgers. Phylogenetic analysis results of 18S rRNA and the β-tubulin gene showed that all positive isolates were US-type B. microti. To our knowledge, this is the first report of B. microti detected in Chinese water deer and Eurasian badger from Korea. These results indicate a potentially high prevalence of T. gondii and B. microti in wild animals of Gangwon-do, Korea. Furthermore, Chinese water deer might act as a reservoir for parasite infections of domestic animals.

  20. Antifungal susceptibility profile of diferent yeasts isolates from wild animals, cow's milk with subclinical mastitis and hospital environment.

    PubMed

    Mendes, J F; Gonçalves, C L; Ferreira, G F; Esteves, I A; Freitas, C H; Villarreal, J P V; Mello, J R B; Meireles, M C A; Nascente, P S

    2017-07-10

    Yeast infections have acquired great importance due to increasing frequency in immunocompromised patients or patients undergoing invasive diagnostic and therapeutic techniques, and also because of its high morbidity and mortality. At the same time, it has been seen an increase in the emergence of new pathogenic species difficult to diagnose and treat. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility of 89 yeasts from different sources against the antifungals amphotericin B, voriconazole, fluconazole and flucytosine, using the VITEK® 2 Compact system. The antifungal susceptibility was performed automatically by the Vitek® 2 Compact system. The origin of the yeasts was: Group 1 - microbiota of wild animals (W) (26/89), 2 - cow's milk with subclinical mastitis (M) (27/89) and 3 - hospital enviorment (H) (36/89). Of the 89 yeasts submitted to the Vitek® 2 test, 25 (20.9%) were resistant to fluconazole, 11 (12.36%) to amphotericin B, 3 (3.37%) to voriconazole, and no sample was resistant to flucytosine. Regarding the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), fluconazole showed an MIC between 1 and 64 mg/mL for the three groups, voriconazole had an MIC between 0.12 and 8 mg/mL, amphotericin B had an MIC between 0.25 and 4 mg/mL for group H and group W respectively, between 0.25 and 16 mg/mL for group M and flucytosine had an MIC equal to 1μg/mL for all groups. The yeasts isolated from the H group showed the highest resistance to fluconazole 12/89 (13.49%), followed by group W (7.87%) and group M (5.62%). The more resistant group to voriconazole was followed by the M and H groups, the W group showed no resistance to this antifungal. Group H was the least resistant (2.25%) to amphotericin.

  1. Can interbreeding of wild and artificially propagated animals be prevented by using broodstock selected for a divergent life history?

    PubMed

    Seamons, Todd R; Hauser, Lorenz; Naish, Kerry A; Quinn, Thomas P

    2012-11-01

    TWO STRATEGIES HAVE BEEN PROPOSED TO AVOID NEGATIVE GENETIC EFFECTS OF ARTIFICIALLY PROPAGATED INDIVIDUALS ON WILD POPULATIONS: (i) integration of wild and captive populations to minimize domestication selection and (ii) segregation of released individuals from the wild population to minimize interbreeding. We tested the efficacy of the strategy of segregation by divergent life history in a steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, system, where hatchery fish were selected to spawn months earlier than the indigenous wild population. The proportion of wild ancestry smolts and adults declined by 10-20% over the three generations since the hatchery program began. Up to 80% of the naturally produced steelhead in any given year were hatchery/wild hybrids. Regression model selection analysis showed that the proportion of hatchery ancestry smolts was lower in years when stream discharge was high, suggesting a negative effect of flow on reproductive success of early-spawning hatchery fish. Furthermore, proportions of hybrid smolts and adults were higher in years when the number of naturally spawning hatchery-produced adults was higher. Divergent life history failed to prevent interbreeding when physical isolation was ineffective, an inadequacy that is likely to prevail in many other situations.

  2. Can interbreeding of wild and artificially propagated animals be prevented by using broodstock selected for a divergent life history?

    PubMed Central

    Seamons, Todd R; Hauser, Lorenz; Naish, Kerry A; Quinn, Thomas P

    2012-01-01

    Two strategies have been proposed to avoid negative genetic effects of artificially propagated individuals on wild populations: (i) integration of wild and captive populations to minimize domestication selection and (ii) segregation of released individuals from the wild population to minimize interbreeding. We tested the efficacy of the strategy of segregation by divergent life history in a steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, system, where hatchery fish were selected to spawn months earlier than the indigenous wild population. The proportion of wild ancestry smolts and adults declined by 10–20% over the three generations since the hatchery program began. Up to 80% of the naturally produced steelhead in any given year were hatchery/wild hybrids. Regression model selection analysis showed that the proportion of hatchery ancestry smolts was lower in years when stream discharge was high, suggesting a negative effect of flow on reproductive success of early-spawning hatchery fish. Furthermore, proportions of hybrid smolts and adults were higher in years when the number of naturally spawning hatchery-produced adults was higher. Divergent life history failed to prevent interbreeding when physical isolation was ineffective, an inadequacy that is likely to prevail in many other situations. PMID:23144657

  3. Use of Protein AG in an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Screening for Antibodies against Parapoxvirus in Wild Animals in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Inoshima, Yasuo; Shimizu, Shinya; Minamoto, Nobuyuki; Hirai, Katsuya; Sentsui, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    Using protein AG in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we tried to detect antibodies against parapoxvirus in 9 species of wild animals in Japan: the Japanese badger (Meles meles anakuma), Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus), Japanese deer (Cervus nippon centralis), Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata), Japanese raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus), Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax), masked palm civet (Paguma larvata), and nutria (Myocastor coypus). A total of 272 serum samples were collected over the period from 1984 to 1995 and were tested by the protein AG-ELISA, the agar gel immunodiffusion test, and an indirect immunofluorescence assay. The protein AG-ELISA was effective in a serological survey for parapoxvirus in wild animals, and antibodies were detected only in Japanese serows. A total of 24 of 66 (36.4%) Japanese serows reacted positively, and they were found in almost all prefectures in all years tested. These results suggest that epizootic cycles of parapoxvirus exist widely in Japanese serows and that they could be reservoirs for the virus in the field in Japan. Moreover, it is probable that they might carry the virus to domestic animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats. PMID:10225841

  4. A review of piroplasmid infections in wild carnivores worldwide: importance for domestic animal health and wildlife conservation.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Rybak, Mario; Solano-Gallego, Laia; Millán, Javier

    2016-10-10

    Piroplasmids are tick-borne protozoan parasites that infect blood cells (erythrocytes, lymphocytes or other leukocytes) or endothelial cells of numerous wild and domestic vertebrates worldwide. They cause severe disease in livestock, dogs, cats, wild mammals and, occasionally, in humans. Piroplasmid infections are prevalent in wild carnivores worldwide although there is limited information about their clinical and epidemiological importance. There are currently nine recognized species of Babesia, two of Theileria, two of Cytauxzoon and one of Rangelia infecting captive and wild carnivores, including members of Canidae, Felidae, Mustelidae, Procyonidae, Ursidae, Viverridae, Hyaenidae and Herpestidae in the Americas, Eurasia and Africa. However, the number of piroplasmid species is likely higher than currently accepted due to the reported existence of DNA sequences that may correspond to new species and the lack of studies on many host species and biogeographical areas. Indeed, many species have been recognized in the last few years with the advancement of molecular analyses. Disease and mortality have been documented in some wild carnivores, whereas other species appear to act as natural, subclinical reservoirs. Various factors (e.g. unnatural hosts, stress due to captivity, habitat degradation, climate fluctuation or immunosuppression) have been associated with disease susceptibility to piroplasmid infections in some species in captivity. We aimed to review the current knowledge on the epidemiology of piroplasmid infections in wild carnivores and associated tick vectors. Emphasis is given to the role of wild carnivores as reservoirs of clinical piroplasmosis for domestic dogs and cats, and to the importance of piroplasmids as disease agents for endangered carnivores.

  5. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  6. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  7. Detection of Rickettsia helvetica in Ixodes ricinus infesting wild and domestic animals and in a botfly larva (Cephenemyia stimulator) infesting roe deer in Germany.

    PubMed

    Scheid, Patrick; Speck, Stephanie; Schwarzenberger, Rafael; Litzinger, Mark; Balczun, Carsten; Dobler, Gerhard

    2016-10-01

    Ixodes ricinus is a well-known vector of different human pathogens including Rickettsia helvetica. The role of wild mammals in the distribution and probable maintenance of Rickettsia in nature is still to be determined. We therefore investigated various parasites from different wild mammals as well as companion animals for the presence of Rickettsia. A total of 606 I. ricinus, 38 Cephenemyia stimulator (botfly larvae), one Dermacentor reticulatus, 24 Haematopinus suis (hog lice) and 30 Lipoptena cervi (deer flies) were collected from free-ranging animals during seasonal hunting, and from companion animals. Sample sites included hunting leases at three main sampling areas and five additional areas in West and Central Germany. All collected parasites were screened for Rickettsia spp. and I. ricinus were investigated for tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in addition. While no TBEV was detected, the minimum infection rate (MIR) of I. ricinus with Rickettsia was 4.1% referring to all sampling sites and up to 6.9% at the main sampling site in Koblenz area. Sequencing of a fragment of the ompB gene identified R. helvetica. Approximately one third (29.5%) of the animals carried Rickettsia-positive ticks and the MIR in ticks infesting wild mammals ranged from 4.1% (roe deer) to 9.5%. These data affirm the widespread distribution of R. helvetica in Germany. One botfly larva from roe deer also harboured R. helvetica. Botfly larvae are obligate parasites of the nasal cavity, pharynx and throat of cervids and feed on cell fragments and blood. Based on this one might hypothesise that R. helvetica likely induces rickettsemia in cervids thus possibly contributing to maintenance and distribution of this rickettsia in the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Comprehensive Serology Based on a Peptide ELISA to Assess the Prevalence of Closely Related Equine Herpesviruses in Zoo and Wild Animals

    PubMed Central

    Abdelgawad, Azza; Hermes, Robert; Damiani, Armando; Lamglait, Benjamin; Czirják, Gábor Á.; East, Marion; Aschenborn, Ortwin; Wenker, Christian; Kasem, Samy; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2015-01-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) causes respiratory disorders and abortion in equids while EHV-1 regularly causes equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM), a stroke-like syndrome following endothelial cell infection in horses. Both EHV-1 and EHV-9 infections of non-definitive hosts often result in neuronal infection and high case fatality rates. Hence, EHV-1 and EHV-9 are somewhat unusual herpesviruses and lack strict host specificity, and the true extent of their host ranges have remained unclear. In order to determine the seroprevalence of EHV-1 and EHV-9, a sensitive and specific peptide-based ELISA was developed and applied to 428 sera from captive and wild animals representing 30 species in 12 families and five orders. Members of the Equidae, Rhinocerotidae and Bovidae were serologically positive for EHV-1 and EHV-9. The prevalence of EHV-1 in the sampled wild zebra populations was significantly higher than in zoos suggesting captivity may reduce exposure to EHV-1. Furthermore, the seroprevalence for EHV-1 was significantly higher than for EHV-9 in zebras. In contrast, EHV-9 antibody prevalence was high in captive and wild African rhinoceros species suggesting that they may serve as a reservoir or natural host for EHV-9. Thus, EHV-1 and EHV-9 have a broad host range favoring African herbivores and may have acquired novel natural hosts in ecosystems where wild equids are common and are in close contact with other perissodactyls. PMID:26378452

  9. Comprehensive Serology Based on a Peptide ELISA to Assess the Prevalence of Closely Related Equine Herpesviruses in Zoo and Wild Animals.

    PubMed

    Abdelgawad, Azza; Hermes, Robert; Damiani, Armando; Lamglait, Benjamin; Czirják, Gábor Á; East, Marion; Aschenborn, Ortwin; Wenker, Christian; Kasem, Samy; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Greenwood, Alex D

    2015-01-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) causes respiratory disorders and abortion in equids while EHV-1 regularly causes equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM), a stroke-like syndrome following endothelial cell infection in horses. Both EHV-1 and EHV-9 infections of non-definitive hosts often result in neuronal infection and high case fatality rates. Hence, EHV-1 and EHV-9 are somewhat unusual herpesviruses and lack strict host specificity, and the true extent of their host ranges have remained unclear. In order to determine the seroprevalence of EHV-1 and EHV-9, a sensitive and specific peptide-based ELISA was developed and applied to 428 sera from captive and wild animals representing 30 species in 12 families and five orders. Members of the Equidae, Rhinocerotidae and Bovidae were serologically positive for EHV-1 and EHV-9. The prevalence of EHV-1 in the sampled wild zebra populations was significantly higher than in zoos suggesting captivity may reduce exposure to EHV-1. Furthermore, the seroprevalence for EHV-1 was significantly higher than for EHV-9 in zebras. In contrast, EHV-9 antibody prevalence was high in captive and wild African rhinoceros species suggesting that they may serve as a reservoir or natural host for EHV-9. Thus, EHV-1 and EHV-9 have a broad host range favoring African herbivores and may have acquired novel natural hosts in ecosystems where wild equids are common and are in close contact with other perissodactyls.

  10. General patterns of niche construction and the management of 'wild' plant and animal resources by small-scale pre-industrial societies.

    PubMed

    Smith, Bruce D

    2011-03-27

    Niche construction efforts by small-scale human societies that involve 'wild' species of plants and animals are organized into a set of six general categories based on the shared characteristics of the target species and similar patterns of human management and manipulation: (i) general modification of vegetation communities, (ii) broadcast sowing of wild annuals, (iii) transplantation of perennial fruit-bearing species, (iv) in-place encouragement of economically important perennials, (v) transplantation and in-place encouragement of perennial root crops, and (vi) landscape modification to increase prey abundance in specific locations. Case study examples, mostly drawn from North America, are presented for each of the six general categories of human niche construction. These empirically documented categories of ecosystem engineering form the basis for a predictive model that outlines potential general principles and commonalities in how small-scale human societies worldwide have modified and manipulated their 'natural' landscapes throughout the Holocene.

  11. Swine and rabbits are the main reservoirs of hepatitis E virus in China: detection of HEV RNA in feces of farmed and wild animals.

    PubMed

    Xia, Junke; Zeng, Hang; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Yulin; Liu, Peng; Geng, Jiabao; Wang, Lin; Wang, Ling; Zhuang, Hui

    2015-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is recognized as a zoonosis. The prevalence of HEV RNA and anti-HEV antibodies in many animal species has been reported, but the host range of HEV is unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate HEV infection in various animal species and to determine the reservoirs of HEV. Eight hundred twenty-two fecal samples from 17 mammal species and 67 fecal samples from 24 avian species were collected in China and tested for HEV RNA by RT-nPCR. The products of PCR were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. The positive rates of HEV RNA isolated from pigs in Beijing, Shandong, and Henan were 33%, 30%, and 92%, respectively, and that from rabbits in Beijing was 5%. HEV RNA was not detectable in farmed foxes, sheep or sika deer, or in wild animals in zoos, including wild boars, yaks, camels, Asiatic black bears, African lions, red pandas, civets, wolves, jackals and primates. Sequence analysis revealed that swine isolates had 97.8%-98.4% nucleotide sequence identity to genotype 4d isolates from patients in Shandong and Jiangsu of China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that swine HEV isolates belong to genotype 4, including subgenotype 4h in Henan and 4d in Beijing and Shandong. The rabbit HEV strains shared 93%-99% nucleotide sequence identity with rabbit strains isolated from Inner Mongolia. In conclusion, swine and rabbits have been confirmed to be the main reservoirs of HEV in China.

  12. Twelve-year proximity relationships in a captive group of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at the San Diego Wild Animal Park, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Nakamichi, Masayuki; Onishi, Kenji; Silldorf, April; Sexton, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Proximity data were collected in a captive breeding group of gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at the San Diego Wild Animal Park (currently called the San Diego Zoo Safari Park) twice a year (spring and fall periods) for over 12 years, by using a convenient method in which individuals less than 5 m from each animal in the group were recorded by scan sampling, approximately once per hour. Immature females from infancy to young adulthood maintained relatively frequent proximity to both their mothers and the silverback male and spent little time alone (no animals within 10 m), with relatively large individual differences. On the other hand, immature males decreased the time spent near their mothers and the silverback male and increased the time spent alone with increasing age. Therefore, sex differences in proximity to mothers and the silverback male became apparent after late juvenility. Some adult females maintained increased frequency of proximity to the silverback male than that by other females over the 12-year period, indicating the presence of long-term, stable proximity relationships between the silverback male and the adult females. Such long-term, stable proximity relationships were also observed among adult females. Some association patterns reported in wild gorillas, such as frequent proximity between adult females with dependent offspring and the silverback male and close relationships between related females, were not observed in the present study. The idiosyncratic or individual factors influencing some association patterns were easily reflected in captive situations. © 2014 The Authors. Zoo Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Detection of wide genetic diversity and several novel strains among non-avium nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from farmed and wild animals in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Rónai, Z; Eszterbauer, E; Csivincsik, Á; Guti, C F; Dencső, L; Jánosi, S; Dán, Á

    2016-07-01

    Besides Mycobacterium avium numerous nontuberculous Mycobacterium (NTM) species exist, which pose constant health risk to both humans and animals. The aim of our study was to identify non-avium NTM isolates from veterinary origin in Hungary, and to detect the occurrence of rifampicin resistance among them. Two hundred and twenty-five strains isolated between 2006 and 2013 from domestic and wild animals and veterinary important samples were identified on the basis of partial DNA sequences of different structural or coding genes, besides commercial kits and multiplex PCR. From 14 different sources, 28 NTM strains and 8 hitherto unidentified strain types were detected. Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum was the most frequently occurring strain (25·78%). Besides, new hosts and mycobacteria-related pathological symptoms were detected. Noticeable rifampicin resistance (42·76%) was found among 159 strains from six different host species. Furthermore, we described the problematics of strain-misidentifications using commercial kits. Our study identified the most common non-avium NTM strains in Hungary, and provided account of their occurrence, host range, and pathogenicity. The detected high rifampicin resistance among the strains isolated mainly from fallow and red deer clearly shows that more attention should be paid to the examination of wild animals especially to those ones which may have contact or shared territory with farmed animals. In domestic animal husbandry the maintenance of tuberculosis free status is of primary importance. As immunological cross-reactions due to NTM hamper the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis, the precise identification of NTM strains would be essential in the veterinary diagnostics, especially for potentially zoonotic strains. This is the first study investigating the strain diversity of non-avium NTM in Hungary. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Genetic variation of Gongylonema pulchrum from wild animals and cattle in Japan based on ribosomal RNA and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I genes.

    PubMed

    Makouloutou, P; Setsuda, A; Yokoyama, M; Tsuji, T; Saita, E; Torii, H; Kaneshiro, Y; Sasaki, M; Maeda, K; Une, Y; Hasegawa, H; Sato, H

    2013-09-01

    The gullet worm (Gongylonema pulchrum) has been recorded from a variety of mammals worldwide, including monkeys and humans. Due to its wide host range, it has been suggested that the worm may be transmitted locally to any mammalian host by chance. To investigate this notion, the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA), mainly regions of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1 and 2, and a cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) region of mitochondrial DNA of G. pulchrum were characterized using parasites from the following hosts located in Japan: cattle, sika deer, wild boars, Japanese macaques, a feral Reeves's muntjac and captive squirrel monkeys. The rDNA nucleotide sequences of G. pulchrum were generally well conserved regardless of their host origin. However, a few insertions/deletions of nucleotides along with a few base substitutions in the ITS1 and ITS2 regions were observed in G. pulchrum from sika deer, wild boars and Japanese macaques, and those differed from G. pulchrum in cattle, the feral Reeves's muntjac and captive squirrel monkeys. The COI sequences of G. pulchrum were further divided into multiple haplotypes and two groups of haplotypes, i.e. those from a majority of sika deer, wild boars and Japanese macaques and those from cattle and zoo animals, were clearly differentiated. Our findings indicate that domestic and sylvatic transmission cycles of the gullet worm are currently present, at least in Japan.

  15. Experimental studies of animal social learning in the wild: Trying to untangle the mystery of human culture.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kim

    2010-08-01

    Here I discuss how studies on animal social learning may help us understand human culture. It is an evolutionary truism that complex biological adaptations always evolve from less complex but related adaptations, but occasionally evolutionary transitions lead to major biological changes whose end products are difficult to anticipate. Language-based cumulative adaptive culture in humans may represent an evolutionary transition of this type. Most of the social learning observed in animals (and even plants) may be due to mechanisms that cannot produce cumulative cultural adaptations. Likewise, much of the critical content of socially transmitted human culture seems to show no parallel in nonhuman species. Thus, with regard to the uniquely human extent and quality of culture, we are forced to ask: Are other species only a few small steps away from this transition, or do they lack multiple critical features that make us the only truly cultural species? Only future research into animal social learning can answer these questions.

  16. An acute multispecies episode of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever in captive wild animals in an Italian zoo

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In July 2011, in a zoological garden in Rome, Italy, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a fatal, systemic disease of Artiodactyls, was suspected on the basis of neurological signs and gross lesions observed in a banteng, the first animal to die of this infection. An MCF type-specific, one-step PCR wit...

  17. Ticks infesting captive and free-roaming wild animal species at the São Paulo Zoo, São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Irys Hany Lima; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Chagas, Carolina Romeiro Fernandes; Salgado, Paula Andrea Borges; Monticelli, Cauê; Morais, Luan Henrique; Moraes, Amanda Alves de; Antunes, Thatiane Cristina; Ramos, Patrícia Locosque; Martins, Thiago Fernandes

    2017-07-10

    Ticks are ectoparasites of worldwide distribution that affect vertebrates and can transmit pathogens to animals and humans. The Zoological Park Foundation of São Paulo (FPZSP) is located in a Conservation Unit in one of the most important remaining fragments of the Atlantic Rainforest biome in the suburbs of São Paulo, Brazil. The FPZSP houses more than 3,000 wild animals on exhibit, in breeding programs and in environmental education programs, and also attracts migratory birds and free-roaming wildlife. This study focused on identifying the diversity of tick species that infest captive and free-roaming animals at the FPZSP. The collection of ticks kept at the FPZSP contains 523 specimens that were collected from different host species between 1990 and 2017. Ten tick species were found. In addition, Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas) was found on stray cats living in the Atlantic forest fragment in the FPZSP. This study reveals a low occurrence of parasitism in captive animals and a high diversity of tick species collected from hosts in this Atlantic forest fragment, contributing information about host-parasite relationships and potential vectors of zoonotic diseases, since the vectors of Brazilian spotted fever, A. aureolatum and Amblyomma sculptum Berlese, were found in some hosts.

  18. Continued implication of the banned pesticides carbofuran and aldicarb in the poisoning of domestic and wild animals of the Canary Islands (Spain).

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Boada, Luis D; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; González-Moreo, Federico; Suárez-Pérez, Alejandro; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida-González, Maira; Del Mar Travieso-Aja, María; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-02-01

    Although nowadays the intentional poisoning of domestic and wild animals is a crime in EU, in the past the poison was used in rural areas of a number of European countries to kill animals that were considered harmful for human activities. In Spain evidences indicate that intentional poisonings continue to occur throughout the entire country nowadays. This situation seems to be of particular concern in the Canary Islands (Spain), where this study was performed. Our results confirmed that 225 animals were poisoned by pesticides over the study period (32 months; 2010-2013). The intentionality of the poisoning was confirmed in 117 cases. It has to be highlighted that the other 108 animals also died by pesticide poisoning, although the intentionality was only suspected. This incidence is currently the highest reported in any region from European Union. The pesticides carbofuran, bromadiolone, brodifacoum and aldicarb were the most frequently detected involved. Among the affected species, it has to be highlighted that endangered species are frequently affected in poisoning incidents. Notably, chemicals banned in the EU (carbofuran and aldicarb) were identified in approximately 75% of cases, and in almost 100% of baits, which suggests that these pesticides are still available to the population. Several circumstances may explain these results. Firstly, little control over the sale and possession of pesticide products, and the potential existence of an illegal market of pesticides banned in the European Union in the neighbouring African continent. In addition, the limited awareness of the population about the dangerousness of these compounds, for the environment, animals, or even people, make the situation very worrying in these islands. Stronger regulations, control of legal and illegal pesticide use, development of educational programs and legal action in poisoning incidents are needed to decrease the impact of pesticide misuse on wildlife and domestic animals.

  19. An Acute Multispecies Episode of Sheep-Associated Malignant Catarrhal Fever in Captive Wild Animals in an Italian Zoo.

    PubMed

    Frontoso, R; Autorino, G L; Friedrich, K G; Li, H; Eleni, C; Cocumelli, C; Di Cerbo, P; Manna, G; Scicluna, M T

    2016-12-01

    In July 2011, in a zoological garden in Rome, Italy, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a fatal, systemic disease of Artiodactyla, was suspected on the basis of neurological signs and gross lesions observed in a banteng, the first animal to die of this infection. An MCF type-specific PCR with subsequent sequencing of the PCR amplicon confirmed the aetiological agent as ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2). Biological samples were collected from the dead animals for gross, histological, bacteriological, virological and serological examinations. An epidemiological investigation was conducted to identify the source of the outbreak, as further deaths due to OvHV-2 still occurred after the removal of the acknowledged reservoirs, domestic sheep and goats. For this purpose, samples from other susceptible species and reservoir hosts were collected for virological and serological analysis. In conjunction, a retrospective sero-investigation was conducted on sera collected between 1999 and 2010 from some of the species involved in the present episode. In total, 11 animals belonging to four different species (banteng, Himalayan tahr, Nile lechwe and sika deer) died between July 2011 and October 2012. The severe gross and histological lesions were consistent with the disease, namely haemorrhages and congestion of several organs as well as lymphoid cell infiltrates and vasculitis of varying severity. The virological tests confirmed that all animals had died of sheep-associated MCF. The investigation indicated that the OvHV-2 infection could have been due to the arrival of sheep in the petting zoo, with cases commencing after first lambing and subsequent shedding of virus. This was also supported by the serological retrospective study that indicated limited previous MCF virus circulation. Further MCF cases that occurred even after the removal of the domestic sheep and goats were attributed to the mouflon. This episode confirms the importance of biosecurity measures in zoos, which house MCF

  20. Genetic diversity of laboratory gray short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica): effect of newly introduced wild-caught animals.

    PubMed

    van Oorschot, R A; Williams-Blangero, S; VandeBerg, J L

    1992-06-01

    The colony of gray, short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica) at the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, the primary supplier of this species for research purposes, was founded with nine animals trapped in 1978 in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Since 1984, 14 newly acquired founders from the state of Paraiba, Brazil have contributed to the gene pool of the colony. The animals from Paraiba and their descendants are significantly larger than the founders from Pernambuco and their descendants. The two groups also differ significantly in several measurements of morphologic traits. The changes in proportional contribution of each founder to the colony, and changes in inbreeding coefficients during the colony's history, are evaluated. Using previously established markers and three newly identified markers (ACP2, APRT, and DIA1), we show that the Paraiba-derived animals differ significantly from the original founders in allele frequencies and heterozygosity. The genetic diversity of the colony has been substantially increased by acquisition of the new founders from Paraiba. The colony is highly polymorphic, with 22.2% of loci surveyed by protein electrophoresis being variable. We conclude that the genetic differences between populations and among projects within the colony should be considered in future colony management procedures and in selection of experimental subjects.

  1. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  2. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... surrounding the bite. Bites from wild animals, especially bats but also skunks, raccoons, coyotes, and foxes, are much more dangerous than those from tame, immunized (against rabies) dogs and cats. The health of the animal ...

  3. Dominance of Dermacentor reticulatus over Ixodes ricinus (Ixodidae) on livestock, companion animals and wild ruminants in eastern and central Poland.

    PubMed

    Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Welc-Faleciak, Renata; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Kowalec, Maciej; Behnke, Jerzy M; Bajer, Anna

    2015-05-01

    The most common tick species parasitizing animals in Poland are Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus. These tick species differ in their distribution, habitats, seasonal activity and host specificity. Ixodes ricinus is the most prevalent and widely distributed, whereas the range of D. reticulatus is limited to eastern and central parts of the country with several new foci in the middle-west and the west. However, as in many central European countries, the range of D. reticulatus is expanding, and some authors have correlated this expansion with an increasing number of available hosts. The aim of the present study was to determine the tick fauna on domestic and livestock animals in two areas endemic for I. ricinus and D. reticulatus and to compare the risk of infestation with different tick species in open and forest areas. Over a 14 month period, 732 ticks were collected from five host species including domestic animals (dogs and cats), livestock (cows and horses) and wildlife (European bison) in two areas, central and NE Poland, endemic for D. reticulatus. Three tick species were recorded: D. reticulatus (623 individuals; 85.1% of all collected ticks), I. ricinus (106 individuals; 14.5%) and three females of Ixodes hexagonus (0.4%) from a dog. Dermacentor reticulatus was the dominant tick species found on four host species and constituted 86, 81, 97 and 100% of all ticks from dogs, horses, cows and bison, respectively, and was collected from animals throughout the year, including during the winter. The common tick, I. ricinus, was the dominant tick collected from cats (94%). Fully-engorged, ready-for-reproduction females of D. reticulatus were collected from all host species. In May 2012, questing ticks were collected by dragging in forest or open habitats. The density of adult marsh ticks in open areas was around 2 ticks/100 m(2) in the majority of locations, with a maximum of 9.5 ticks/100 m(2). The density of adult I. ricinus was much lower in its typical

  4. Diet and phylogeny shape the gut microbiota of Antarctic seals: a comparison of wild and captive animals.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Tiffanie M; Rogers, Tracey L; Carlini, Alejandro R; Brown, Mark V

    2013-04-01

    The gut microbiota of mammals underpins the metabolic capacity and health of the host. Our understanding of what influences the composition of this community has been limited primarily to evidence from captive and terrestrial mammals. Therefore, the gut microbiota of southern elephant seals, Mirounga leonina, and leopard seals, Hydrurga leptonyx, inhabiting Antarctica were compared with captive leopard seals. Each seal exhibited a gut microbiota dominated by four phyla: Firmicutes (41.5 ± 4.0%), Fusobacteria (25.6 ± 3.9%), Proteobacteria (17.0 ± 3.2%) and Bacteroidetes (14.1 ± 1.7%). Species, age, sex and captivity were strong drivers of the composition of the gut microbiota, which can be attributed to differences in diet, gut length and physiology and social interactions. Differences in particular prey items consumed by seal species could contribute to the observed differences in the gut microbiota. The longer gut of the southern elephant seal provides a habitat reduced in available oxygen and more suitable to members of the phyla Bacteroidetes compared with other hosts. Among wild seals, 16 'core' bacterial community members were present in the gut of at least 50% of individuals. As identified between southern elephant seal mother-pup pairs, 'core' members are passed on via vertical transmission from a young age and persist through to adulthood. Our study suggests that these hosts have co-evolved with their gut microbiota and core members may provide some benefit to the host, such as developing the immune system. Further evidence of their strong evolutionary history is provided with the presence of 18 shared 'core' members in the gut microbiota of related seals living in the Arctic. The influence of diet and other factors, particularly in captivity, influences the composition of the community considerably. This study suggests that the gut microbiota has co-evolved with wild mammals as is evident in the shared presence of 'core' members.

  5. Serology, isolation, and molecular detection of Leptospira spp. from the tissues and blood of rats captured in a wild animal preservation centre in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paixão, Mirian dos Santos; Alves-Martin, Maria Fernanda; Tenório, Michely da S; Starke-Buzetti, Wilma A; Alves, Maria Luana; da Silva, Diogo Tiago; Ferreira, Andréa Gonçalves; Floró e Silva, Marina; Sousa, Lúcio O; Lucheis, Simone B

    2014-07-01

    To elucidate the occurrence and epidemiology of leptospirosis in rats cohabitating with forest animals, 13 rats were captured at seven locations of the Centre for the Conservation of Wild Fauna (CCWF) in Sao Paulo state, Brazil, and samples of their blood, liver, and kidneys were collected. The diagnostic techniques utilized were the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Leptospira spp., and cultures of rat kidneys and liver in Fletcher's medium. The MAT results showed that 13 (100%) of the samples were reactive to 12 serovars among the 29 Leptospira spp. tested, and the Australis and Tarassovi serovars were the most frequently identified serovars. To research the agent in fragments of the liver and kidney, 13 samples from each tissue were cultured in Fletcher's medium, and the results revealed seven positive samples (53.8%; three from the kidneys and four from the livers). The analysis of the blood samples by PCR for Leptospira spp. showed that six animals (46.1%) were positive, whereas the analysis of the organs (kidneys and liver) by PCR revealed that nine animals (69.2%) were positive, and the culture of the organs revealed four positive animals (30.8%). These results suggest that the presence of Leptospira spp. infection in rats at the study site and the knowledge of the serovars that exist in this environment are important for the epidemiological comprehension of the disease and for the identification of control measures that should be considered to reduce the risk of transmission of the disease through this animal reservoir. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Red blood cells open promising avenues for longitudinal studies of ageing in laboratory, non-model and wild animals.

    PubMed

    Stier, Antoine; Reichert, Sophie; Criscuolo, Francois; Bize, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    Ageing is characterized by a progressive deterioration of multiple physiological and molecular pathways, which impair organismal performance and increase risks of death with advancing age. Hence, ageing studies must identify physiological and molecular pathways that show signs of age-related deterioration, and test their association with the risk of death and longevity. This approach necessitates longitudinal sampling of the same individuals, and therefore requires a minimally invasive sampling technique that provides access to the larger spectrum of physiological and molecular pathways that are putatively associated with ageing. The present paper underlines the interest in using red blood cells (RBCs) as a promising target for longitudinal studies of ageing in vertebrates. RBCs provide valuable information on the following six pathways: cell maintenance and turnover (RBC number, size, and heterogeneity), glucose homeostasis (RBC glycated haemoglobin), oxidative stress parameters, membrane composition and integrity, mitochondrial functioning, and telomere dynamics. The last two pathways are specific to RBCs of non-mammalian species, which possess a nucleus and functional mitochondria. We present the current knowledge about RBCs and age-dependent changes in these pathways in non-model and wild species that are especially suitable to address questions related to ageing using longitudinal studies. We discuss how the different pathways relate with survival and lifespan and give information on their genetic and environmental determinants to appraise their evolutionary potential.

  7. Epidemiology and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in humans, wild primates, and domesticated animals in the Greater Gombe Ecosystem, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Michele B; Travis, Dominic; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Lipende, Iddi; Roellig, Dawn M; Roellig, Dawn M Anthony; Collins, Anthony; Kamenya, Shadrack; Zhang, Hongwei; Xiao, Lihua; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2015-02-01

    Cryptosporidium is an important zoonotic parasite globally. Few studies have examined the ecology and epidemiology of this pathogen in rural tropical systems characterized by high rates of overlap among humans, domesticated animals, and wildlife. We investigated risk factors for Cryptosporidium infection and assessed cross-species transmission potential among people, non-human primates, and domestic animals in the Gombe Ecosystem, Kigoma District, Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey was designed to determine the occurrence and risk factors for Cryptosporidium infection in humans, domestic animals and wildlife living in and around Gombe National Park. Diagnostic PCR revealed Cryptosporidium infection rates of 4.3% in humans, 16.0% in non-human primates, and 9.6% in livestock. Local streams sampled were negative. DNA sequencing uncovered a complex epidemiology for Cryptosporidium in this system, with humans, baboons and a subset of chimpanzees infected with C. hominis subtype IfA12G2; another subset of chimpanzees infected with C. suis; and all positive goats and sheep infected with C. xiaoi. For humans, residence location was associated with increased risk of infection in Mwamgongo village compared to one camp (Kasekela), and there was an increased odds for infection when living in a household with another positive person. Fecal consistency and other gastrointestinal signs did not predict Cryptosporidium infection. Despite a high degree of habitat overlap between village people and livestock, our results suggest that there are distinct Cryptosporidium transmission dynamics for humans and livestock in this system. The dominance of C. hominis subtype IfA12G2 among humans and non-human primates suggest cross-species transmission. Interestingly, a subset of chimpanzees was infected with C. suis. We hypothesize that there is cross-species transmission from bush pigs (Potaochoerus larvatus) to chimpanzees in Gombe forest, since domesticated pigs are regionally absent. Our

  8. Identifying areas for infectious animal disease surveillance in the absence of population data: highly pathogenic avian influenza in wild bird populations of Europe.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, I; Perez, A M; De la Torre, A; Muñoz, M J; Martínez, M; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2010-08-01

    A large number (n=591) of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) outbreaks have been reported in wild birds of Europe from October 2005 through January 2009. Consequently, prevention and control strategies have been implemented in response to the outbreaks and considerable discussion has taken place regarding the need for implementing surveillance programs in high-risk areas with the objective of early detecting and preventing HPAIV epidemics. However countries ability to define the temporal and spatial extension of the high risk areas has been impaired by the lack of information on the distribution of susceptible wild bird populations in the region. Here, a technique for the detection of time-space disease clustering that does not require information on the distribution of susceptible populations and that has been referred to as the time-space permutation model of the scan statistic was used to identify areas and times of the year in which epidemics of H5N1 HPAIV were most likely to occur in wild bird populations of Europe from October, 2005, through December, 2008. The scan statistic was parameterized considering pre-existing knowledge on the epidemiological and ecological characteristics of the disease in the region. Robustness of the results was assessed using a generalized linear regression model to compare the outcomes of 36 alternative parameterizations of the scan statistic. Ten significant time-space clusters of H5N1 HPAI outbreaks were detected in six European countries. Results were sensitive (P<0.05) to the definition of the maximum spatial size defined for the clusters. Results presented here will help to identify high risk areas for HPAIV surveillance in the European Union. Assumptions, results, and implications of the analytical model are extensively presented and discussed in order to facilitate the use of this approach for the identification of high risk areas for infectious animal disease surveillance in the absence of population

  9. Deduced sequences of the membrane fusion and attachment proteins of canine distemper viruses isolated from dogs and wild animals in Korea.

    PubMed

    Bae, Chae-Wun; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Nak-Hyung; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kang, Young-Sun; Park, Choi-Kyu; Choi, In-Soo

    2013-08-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes highly contagious respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological diseases in wild and domestic animal species. Despite a broad vaccination campaign, the disease is still a serious problem worldwide. In this study, six field CDV strains were isolated from three dogs, two raccoon dogs, and one badger in Korea. The full sequence of the genes encoding fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) proteins were compared with those of other CDVs including field and vaccine strains. The phylogenetic analysis for the F and H genes indicated that the two CDV strains isolated from dogs were most closely related to Chinese strains in the Asia-1 genotype. Another four strains were closely related to Japanese strains in the Asia-2 genotype. The six currently isolated strains shared 90.2-92.1% and 88.2-91.8% identities with eight commercial vaccine strains in their nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the F protein, respectively. They also showed 90.1-91.4% and 87.8-90.7% identities with the same vaccine strains in their nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the H protein, respectively. Different N-linked glycosylation sites were identified in the F and H genes of the six isolates from the prototype vaccine strain Onderstepoort. Collectively, these results demonstrate that at least two different CDV genotypes currently exist in Korea. The considerable genetic differences between the vaccine strains and wild-type isolates would be a major factor of the incomplete protection of dogs from CDV infections.

  10. Genetic relatedness of H6 subtype avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds and domestic ducks in Korea and their pathogenicity in animals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Oem, Jae-Ku; Kim, Seong-Hee; Lee, Mun-Han; Lee, O-Soo; Park, Choi-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    We report the genetic characterization of H6 avian influenza (AI) viruses isolated from domestic ducks and wild birds in Korea between April 2008 and April 2009. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the H6N1 viruses of wild birds and domestic ducks were of the same genotype (K-1) and were similar to the H6N1 virus isolated from a live poultry market in 2003, as six of the eight gene segments of those viruses had a common source. However, the H6N2 viruses of domestic poultry were separated into four genotypes (K-2a, K-2b, K-2c and K-2d) by at least a triple reassortment between influenza viruses of low pathogenicity from Korean poultry (H9N2 and H3N2) and viruses from aquatic birds. In an experimental infection of animals, certain H6 AI viruses replicated well in chickens and mice without pre-adaptation, indicating that H6 virus pathogenicity has the potential to be altered due to multiple reassortments, and that these reassortments could result in interspecies transmission to mammals.

  11. The usefulness of direct agglutination test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Kornacka, Aleksandra; Cybulska, Aleksandra; Bień, Justyna; Goździk, Katarzyna; Moskwa, Bożena

    2016-09-15

    The aim of the study was to compare the usefulness of two antibody-based methods, the direct agglutination test (DAT) and enzyme linked immuosorbent assay (ELISA), with that of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting anti-Toxoplasma gondii in samples derived from naturally-infected wild animals. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected in meat juice samples collected from 129 free- living carnivores and omnivores. T. gondii seroprevalence was confirmed in 73,6% of examined samples when DAT and ELISA were used separately, but in only 88,4% samples when both immunological tests were used in parallel. PCR results confirmed the presence of DNA of the parasite in 24 of all the 129 samples. Sixteen samples were classified as positive when all three tests were used. A moderate degree of agreement was found between DAT and ELISA (κ=0.55). However, no agreement was found between the molecular and serological tests: κ=-1.75 for DAT versus PCR; κ=-1.67 ELISA versus PCR. By using both serological tests, antibodies against T. gondii were found in 77.5% of red foxes, 12.5% of badgers, 40% of martens and 8.3% of raccoon dogs. Antibodies against the parasite were detected also in one mink, but not in the sample derived from a polecat. T.gondii DNA was found in the brain tissue of 20 red foxes, three badgers and one raccoon dog. Our studies confirm that ELISA and DAT are suitable and reliable techniques for T. gondii antibody detection in meat juice from wild animals when serum samples are unavailable. Positive results obtained by immunological tests do not always reflect that the host was infected by T. gondii. They indicate only a contact with parasite. PCR should be used to confirm te presence of DNA from T. gondii. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The curse of the prey: Sarcoptes mite molecular analysis reveals potential prey-to-predator parasitic infestation in wild animals from Masai Mara, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recently, there have been attempts to understand the molecular epidemiology of Sarcoptes scabiei, to evaluate the gene flow between isolates of S. scabiei from different hosts and geographic regions. However, to our knowledge, a molecular study has not been carried out to assess the molecular diversity and gene flow of Sarcoptes mite in a predator/prey ecosystem. Results Our study revealed an absence of gene flow between the two herbivore (Thomson's gazelle and wildebeest)- and between the two carnivore (lion and cheetah)-derived Sarcoptes populations from Masai Mara (Kenya), which is in discrepancy with the host-taxon law described for wild animals in Europe. Lion- and wildebeest-derived Sarcoptes mite populations were similar yet different from the Thomson's gazelle-derived Sarcoptes population. This could be attributed to Sarcoptes cross-infestation from wildebeest ("favourite prey") of the lion, but not from Thomson's gazelle. The cheetah-derived Sarcoptes population had different subpopulations: one is cheetah-private, one similar to the wildebeest- and lion-derived Sarcoptes populations, and another similar to the Thomson's gazelle-derived Sarcoptes mite population, where both wildebeest and Thomson's gazelle are "favourite preys" for the cheetah. Conclusions In a predator/prey ecosystem, like Masai Mara in Kenya, it seems that Sarcoptes infestation in wild animals is prey-to-predator-wise, depending on the predator's "favourite prey". More studies on the lion and cheetah diet and behaviour could be of great help to clarify the addressed hypotheses. This study could have further ramification in the epidemiological studies and the monitoring protocols of the neglected Sarcoptes mite in predator/prey ecosystems. PMID:21978557

  13. The curse of the prey: Sarcoptes mite molecular analysis reveals potential prey-to-predator parasitic infestation in wild animals from Masai Mara, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gakuya, Francis; Rossi, Luca; Ombui, Jackson; Maingi, Ndichu; Muchemi, Gerald; Ogara, William; Soriguer, Ramón C; Alasaad, Samer

    2011-10-06

    Recently, there have been attempts to understand the molecular epidemiology of Sarcoptes scabiei, to evaluate the gene flow between isolates of S. scabiei from different hosts and geographic regions. However, to our knowledge, a molecular study has not been carried out to assess the molecular diversity and gene flow of Sarcoptes mite in a predator/prey ecosystem. Our study revealed an absence of gene flow between the two herbivore (Thomson's gazelle and wildebeest)- and between the two carnivore (lion and cheetah)-derived Sarcoptes populations from Masai Mara (Kenya), which is in discrepancy with the host-taxon law described for wild animals in Europe. Lion- and wildebeest-derived Sarcoptes mite populations were similar yet different from the Thomson's gazelle-derived Sarcoptes population. This could be attributed to Sarcoptes cross-infestation from wildebeest ("favourite prey") of the lion, but not from Thomson's gazelle. The cheetah-derived Sarcoptes population had different subpopulations: one is cheetah-private, one similar to the wildebeest- and lion-derived Sarcoptes populations, and another similar to the Thomson's gazelle-derived Sarcoptes mite population, where both wildebeest and Thomson's gazelle are "favourite preys" for the cheetah. In a predator/prey ecosystem, like Masai Mara in Kenya, it seems that Sarcoptes infestation in wild animals is prey-to-predator-wise, depending on the predator's "favourite prey". More studies on the lion and cheetah diet and behaviour could be of great help to clarify the addressed hypotheses. This study could have further ramification in the epidemiological studies and the monitoring protocols of the neglected Sarcoptes mite in predator/prey ecosystems.

  14. Targeted genetic manipulations of neuronal subtypes using promoter-specific combinatorial AAVs in wild-type animals

    PubMed Central

    Gompf, Heinrich S.; Budygin, Evgeny A.; Fuller, Patrick M.; Bass, Caroline E.

    2015-01-01

    Techniques to genetically manipulate the activity of defined neuronal subpopulations have been useful in elucidating function, however applicability to translational research beyond transgenic mice is limited. Subtype targeted transgene expression can be achieved using specific promoters, but often currently available promoters are either too large to package into many vectors, in particular adeno-associated virus (AAV), or do not drive expression at levels sufficient to alter behavior. To permit neuron subtype specific gene expression in wildtype animals, we developed a combinatorial AAV targeting system that drives, in combination, subtype specific Cre-recombinase expression with a strong but non-specific Cre-conditional transgene. Using this system we demonstrate that the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter (TH-Cre-AAV) restricted expression of channelrhodopsin-2 (EF1α-DIO-ChR2-EYFP-AAV) to the rat ventral tegmental area (VTA), or an activating DREADD (hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherry-AAV) to  the  rat  locus  coeruleus  (LC). High expression levels were achieved in both regions. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed the majority of ChR2+ neurons (>93%) colocalized with TH in the VTA, and optical stimulation evoked striatal dopamine release. Activation of TH neurons in the LC produced sustained EEG and behavioral arousal. TH-specific hM3Dq expression in the LC was further compared with: (1) a Cre construct driven by a strong but non-specific promoter (non-targeting); and (2) a retrogradely-transported WGA-Cre delivery mechanism (targeting a specific projection). IHC revealed that the area of c-fos activation after CNO treatment in the LC and peri-LC neurons appeared proportional to the resulting increase in wakefulness (non-targeted > targeted > ACC to LC projection restricted). Our dual AAV targeting system effectively overcomes the large size and weak activity barrier prevalent with many subtype specific promoters by functionally separating subtype specificity from

  15. One Health proof of concept: Bringing a transdisciplinary approach to surveillance for zoonotic viruses at the human-wild animal interface.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Terra R; Karesh, William B; Johnson, Christine Kreuder; Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Anthony, Simon J; Goldstein, Tracey; Olson, Sarah H; Machalaba, Catherine; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2017-02-01

    As the world continues to react and respond inefficiently to emerging infectious diseases, such as Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome and the Ebola and Zika viruses, a growing transdisciplinary community has called for a more proactive and holistic approach to prevention and preparedness - One Health. Such an approach presents important opportunities to reduce the impact of disease emergence events and also to mitigate future emergence through improved cross-sectoral coordination. In an attempt to provide proof of concept of the utility of the One Health approach, the US Agency for International Development's PREDICT project consortium designed and implemented a targeted, risk-based surveillance strategy based not on humans as sentinels of disease but on detecting viruses early, at their source, where intervention strategies can be implemented before there is opportunity for spillover and spread in people or food animals. Here, we share One Health approaches used by consortium members to illustrate the potential for successful One Health outcomes that can be achieved through collaborative, transdisciplinary partnerships. PREDICT's collaboration with partners around the world on strengthening local capacity to detect hundreds of viruses in wild animals, coupled with a series of cutting-edge virological and analytical activities, have significantly improved our baseline knowledge on the zoonotic pool of viruses and the risk of exposure to people. Further testament to the success of the project's One Health approach and the work of its team of dedicated One Health professionals are the resulting 90 peer-reviewed, scientific publications in under 5 years that improve our understanding of zoonoses and the factors influencing their emergence. The findings are assisting in global health improvements, including surveillance science, diagnostic technologies, understanding of viral evolution, and ecological driver identification. Through its One Health leadership and multi

  16. Obtaining accurate glucose measurements from wild animals under field conditions: comparing a hand held glucometer with a standard laboratory technique in grey seals.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Kimberley A; Turner, Lucy M; Millward, Sebastian; Moss, Simon E W; Hall, Ailsa J

    2017-01-01

    Glucose is an important metabolic fuel and circulating levels are tightly regulated in most mammals, but can drop when body fuel reserves become critically low. Glucose is mobilized rapidly from liver and muscle during stress in response to increased circulating cortisol. Blood glucose levels can thus be of value in conservation as an indicator of nutritional status and may be a useful, rapid assessment marker for acute or chronic stress. However, seals show unusual glucose regulation: circulating levels are high and insulin sensitivity is limited. Accurate blood glucose measurement is therefore vital to enable meaningful health and physiological assessments in captive, wild or rehabilitated seals and to explore its utility as a marker of conservation relevance in these animals. Point-of-care devices are simple, portable, relatively cheap and use less blood compared with traditional sampling approaches, making them useful in conservation-related monitoring. We investigated the accuracy of a hand-held glucometer for 'instant' field measurement of blood glucose, compared with blood drawing followed by laboratory testing, in wild grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), a species used as an indicator for Good Environmental Status in European waters. The glucometer showed high precision, but low accuracy, relative to laboratory measurements, and was least accurate at extreme values. It did not provide a reliable alternative to plasma analysis. Poor correlation between methods may be due to suboptimal field conditions, greater and more variable haematocrit, faster erythrocyte settling rate and/or lipaemia in seals. Glucometers must therefore be rigorously tested before use in new species and demographic groups. Sampling, processing and glucose determination methods have major implications for conclusions regarding glucose regulation, and health assessment in seals generally, which is important in species of conservation concern and in development of circulating glucose as a

  17. Obtaining accurate glucose measurements from wild animals under field conditions: comparing a hand held glucometer with a standard laboratory technique in grey seals

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Lucy M.; Millward, Sebastian; Moss, Simon E. W.; Hall, Ailsa J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Glucose is an important metabolic fuel and circulating levels are tightly regulated in most mammals, but can drop when body fuel reserves become critically low. Glucose is mobilized rapidly from liver and muscle during stress in response to increased circulating cortisol. Blood glucose levels can thus be of value in conservation as an indicator of nutritional status and may be a useful, rapid assessment marker for acute or chronic stress. However, seals show unusual glucose regulation: circulating levels are high and insulin sensitivity is limited. Accurate blood glucose measurement is therefore vital to enable meaningful health and physiological assessments in captive, wild or rehabilitated seals and to explore its utility as a marker of conservation relevance in these animals. Point-of-care devices are simple, portable, relatively cheap and use less blood compared with traditional sampling approaches, making them useful in conservation-related monitoring. We investigated the accuracy of a hand-held glucometer for ‘instant’ field measurement of blood glucose, compared with blood drawing followed by laboratory testing, in wild grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), a species used as an indicator for Good Environmental Status in European waters. The glucometer showed high precision, but low accuracy, relative to laboratory measurements, and was least accurate at extreme values. It did not provide a reliable alternative to plasma analysis. Poor correlation between methods may be due to suboptimal field conditions, greater and more variable haematocrit, faster erythrocyte settling rate and/or lipaemia in seals. Glucometers must therefore be rigorously tested before use in new species and demographic groups. Sampling, processing and glucose determination methods have major implications for conclusions regarding glucose regulation, and health assessment in seals generally, which is important in species of conservation concern and in development of circulating

  18. [Epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Chile. V. Prevalence of the infection in humans and domestic and wild animals, studied by indirect hemagglutination reaction, in the Juan Fernández Archipelago. V Region].

    PubMed

    Stutzin, M; Contreras, M C; Schenone, H

    1989-01-01

    A serological study utilizing an indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT) for toxoplasmosis was carried out in 222 humans and in 58 domestic animals (31 dogs, Canis familiaris; 27 cats, Felis catus), and in 62 wild mammals distributed into 50 rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus and 12 goats, Capra hircus. This survey was performed in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, formed by three islands: Robinson Crusoe, Santa Clara and Alejandro Selkirk (80 degrees 47'-78 degrees 47' west long., and 33 degrees 36'-33 degrees 47' south lat.). Blood samples were collected in filter paper and IHAT with titres greater than or equal to 1:16 were considered positive. This survey showed a prevalence of 42.3% in humans with no difference between men (43.0%) and women (41.5%). A high prevalence was found within groups of young individuals (0 to 19 years old), men and women. Regarding the domestic animal population, 44.8% resulted positive, distributed as follows: dogs 9.7% and cats 85.2%. Twenty one percent of wild animals were positive, distributed as follows: rabbits 8.0% and goats 75.0%. The global prevalence of toxoplasmosis in animals (domestic and wild) was 32.5%. All titres in humans and animals were less than or equal to 1:512. Toxoplasmosis is well extended among the human and animal population of the Juan Fernández Archipelago.

  19. Combining animal personalities with transcriptomics resolves individual variation within a wild-type zebrafish population and identifies underpinning molecular differences in brain function.

    PubMed

    Rey, S; Boltana, S; Vargas, R; Roher, N; Mackenzie, S

    2013-12-01

    Resolving phenotype variation within a population in response to environmental perturbation is central to understanding biological adaptation. Relating meaningful adaptive changes at the level of the transcriptome requires the identification of processes that have a functional significance for the individual. This remains a major objective towards understanding the complex interactions between environmental demand and an individual's capacity to respond to such demands. The interpretation of such interactions and the significance of biological variation between individuals from the same or different populations remain a difficult and under-addressed question. Here, we provide evidence that variation in gene expression between individuals in a zebrafish population can be partially resolved by a priori screening for animal personality and accounts for >9% of observed variation in the brain transcriptome. Proactive and reactive individuals within a wild-type population exhibit consistent behavioural responses over time and context that relates to underlying differences in regulated gene networks and predicted protein-protein interactions. These differences can be mapped to distinct regions of the brain and provide a foundation towards understanding the coordination of underpinning adaptive molecular events within populations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild animals, or the appropriation of minerals and other uncultivated products from the soil are not employed...

  1. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild animals, or the appropriation of minerals and other uncultivated products from the soil are not employed...

  2. Induction of primary cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms in urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)-deficient and wild-type mice: cellular blue nevi invade but do not progress to malignant melanoma in uPA-deficient animals.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, R L; Duquette, J G; Roses, D F; Nunes, I; Harris, M N; Kamino, H; Wilson, E L; Rifkin, D B

    1996-08-01

    Evidence suggests that the plasminogen activators (PAs), in particular urokinase-type PA (uPA), play a pivotal role in tumor invasion and metastasis. We studied the contribution of the PAs to the malignant phenotype through the chemical induction of melanocytic neoplasms in uPA-deficient mice. Primary tumors were induced and promoted concurrently in 35 uPA-/- deficient and 35 uPA+/+ wild-type mice using a single application of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene followed by repetitive applications of croton oil. Animals were sacrificed at 60-day intervals for 1 year. At necropsy, the four largest pigmented lesions in each animal were excised, characterized histologically, and evaluated microscopically for evidence of invasion. The regional lymph nodes, lungs, and solid abdominal visceral organs were sectioned and examined microscopically for evidence of metastatic disease. Cellular blue nevi were induced in 100% of uPA-/- and uPA+/+ promoted animals. Although a reduction in the radial and vertical progression of these lesions was noted in the uPA-deficient mice compared with the wild-type group, more than 95% of cellular blue nevi induced in both groups of animals invaded the underlying tissues. These lesions did not metastasize to the regional lymph nodes. Malignant melanoma arose in 5 of 35 (14.3%) of promoted wild-type mice. These tumors were locally aggressive, produced tissue-type PA, but were not metastatic to the regional nodes, lungs, or abdominal viscera. These results indicate that the invasive capability of melanocytic lesions may depend more on tissue-type PA than uPA activity. No melanomas were induced in the uPA-/- mice. The resistance of the uPA -/- strain to melanoma induction suggests that uPA contributes to malignant progression. We propose that the absence of uPA negatively affects tumorigenesis by decreasing the liberation and availability of growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor.

  3. Installation of devices in water tanks to prevent drowning of wild animals (Instalacion de Estructuras Dentro de Tanques de Agua Para Evitar El Ahogamiento de Animales Silvestres)

    Treesearch

    Alberto Lafon

    2006-01-01

    Domestic farm and ranch properties use a variety of water retention structures and water supply infrastructures that benefit wildlife. Some water supply systems, however, are harmful to wild birds, small mammals, and reptiles. Water supply systems include metal water tanks, cemented reservoirs, or excavated earthen retention ponds (or tanques as they are known in...

  4. Effect of Condition of Birth on the Training and Control of California Sea Lions. Comparison of Animals Born in Captivity and in the Wild.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    this problem requires more in-depth analysis, including an examination of the animal’s training and environmental history . 8 LL . . . ..::::.: •.. . .. .. . .. .. ,........................**......... . ..-..-.-........... ,.... -, ... .. , -r- I* .1 % .. DTIC

  5. Ecological Immunology through the Lens of Exercise Immunology: New Perspective on the Links between Physical Activity and Immune Function and Disease Susceptibility in Wild Animals.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Jacintha G B; Matson, Kevin D

    2016-08-01

    Locomotion and other physical activities by free-living animals may influence immune function and disease susceptibility. This influence may be a consequence of energetic trade-offs or other mechanisms that are often, but not always, inseparably linked to an animal's life history (e.g., flight and migration). Ecological immunology has mainly focused on these life-history trade-offs, overlooking the possible effects of physical activity per se on immune function and disease susceptibility. In this review, we explore the field of exercise immunology, which examines the impact of exercise on immune function and disease susceptibility in humans, with the aim of presenting new perspectives that might be transferable to ecological immunology. First, we explore key concepts in exercise immunology that could be extended to animals. Next, we investigate the concept "exercise" in animals, and propose the use of "physical activity" instead. We briefly discuss methods used in animals to quantify physical activity in terms of energy expenditure and summarize several examples of animals engaging in physical activity. Then, we highlight potential consequences of physical activity on immune function and disease susceptibility in animals, together with an overview of animal studies that examine these links. Finally, we explore and discuss the potential for incorporating perspectives from exercise immunology into ecological immunology. Such integration could help advance our understanding of human and animal health and contribute new ideas to budding "One Health" initiatives.

  6. [Hunting and animal protection].

    PubMed

    Herling, A W

    1993-04-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany the handling of animals during hunting is governed more by the animal protection law than by the corresponding hunting law. Points of the animal protection law which directly affect hunting are (1) the release of wild animals, (2) the training and examination of animals concerning attacking other animals, (3) the setting of animals on other animals, and (4) the killing of vertebrates. Guiding principles for killing wild animals during hunting according to the animal protection law are formulated and discussed in relation to the traditional German understanding of hunting ethics. It can be expected that hunting will increasingly become a topic of public discussion on animal protection, in which the ethics of hunting in relation to the wild animal will be dominant.

  7. Blastomycosis in wild wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiel, R.P.; Mech, L.D.; Ruth, G.R.; Archer, J.R.; Kaufman, L.

    1987-01-01

    Blastomycosis was fatal to a wild wolf in Minnesota, and serologic evidence of blastomycosis was found in a Wisconsin wolf. No unusual movements were detected in the Minnesota animal from October 1983 through October 1985. However, by early December 1985, this wolf was weak and debilitated, and it perished on 14 December after approaching a human residence.

  8. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) - 35 Years of Global Efforts to Ensure That International Trade in Wild Animals and Plants Is Legal and Sustainable.

    PubMed

    Wijnstekers, W

    2011-01-01

    CITES is a 35-year-old convention with a current total of 175 signatories, or parties. It regulates international trade in live specimens and products of more than 30,000 animal and plant species under three different trade regimes. CITES has clearly proved its importance for nature conservation, but its regulations often are difficult to implement and enforce, leading to unacceptably high levels of unsustainable and illegal trade in many wildlife species. There are ways, however, to improve the situation and to make compliance with CITES regulations both easier and more attractive. Copyright © 2011 Central Police University.

  9. Threat Perception and Attitudes of Adolescents Towards Re-Introduced Wild Animals: A qualitative study of young learners from affected regions in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, Nadin; Menzel, Susanne

    2013-12-01

    Conservation efforts such as the restoration of European bison or the support of wolf immigration into Germany are often socio-scientifically controversial. In many cases, disputes are based on individuals' threat perception and attitudes towards the animal involved. The herewith reported study provides qualitative insights into German adolescents' (n = 31, Mage = 16.6 years) attitudes towards animal reintroduction, their threat and coping appraisal about wildlife and their knowledge of local endangered species. We found that students had rather limited knowledge of local endangered species. After Kellert's categories of animal attitudes, the adolescents showed a strong moralistic view on wildlife return. Naturalistic, ecologistic and utilitarian views were also strongly apparent. According to the Protection Motivation Theory, perceived threats could be identified as threats to animals on the one hand and threats to human interests on the other. Such threat perceptions often lead to a dilemma, which made it difficult to decide upon the priorities of wildlife protection versus protection of human interests. Coping mechanism to reduce threats to human interests as mentioned by the participants included restrictions of the animal as well as strategies that focused on responsibility by humans. Regarding coping mechanism to prevent the species' extinction, participants showed a relatively superficial understanding. Furthermore, we found that participants from regions where wolves are currently immigrating or European bison are being reintroduced showed a more positive understanding of the respective animal. Our findings are discussed in the light of this topic's potential as an example of a real-life socio-scientific issue in classroom discussions.

  10. Threat Perception and Attitudes of Adolescents towards Re-Introduced Wild Animals: A Qualitative Study of Young Learners from Affected Regions in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Nadin; Menzel, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Conservation efforts such as the restoration of European bison or the support of wolf immigration into Germany are often socio-scientifically controversial. In many cases, disputes are based on individuals' threat perception and attitudes towards the animal involved. The herewith reported study provides qualitative insights into German…

  11. Art Image Preschool: Introducing 3-to-5-Year-Old Children to Art and Artists. [Packet] 4: Animals in the Wild. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Christine

    This teacher's guide accompanies a packet of five art reproductions based on animals as a theme. The guide offers suggestions for engaging children's attention and curiosity about art and artists, and encourages exploration of the issues these works present through art activities, discussions, learning centers, field trips, and other experiences…

  12. Art Image Preschool: Introducing 3-to-5-Year-Old Children to Art and Artists. [Packet] 4: Animals in the Wild. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Christine

    This teacher's guide accompanies a packet of five art reproductions based on animals as a theme. The guide offers suggestions for engaging children's attention and curiosity about art and artists, and encourages exploration of the issues these works present through art activities, discussions, learning centers, field trips, and other experiences…

  13. Threat Perception and Attitudes of Adolescents towards Re-Introduced Wild Animals: A Qualitative Study of Young Learners from Affected Regions in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Nadin; Menzel, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Conservation efforts such as the restoration of European bison or the support of wolf immigration into Germany are often socio-scientifically controversial. In many cases, disputes are based on individuals' threat perception and attitudes towards the animal involved. The herewith reported study provides qualitative insights into German…

  14. Isolation of Tick and Mosquito-Borne Arboviruses from Ticks Sampled from Livestock and Wild Animal Hosts in Ijara District, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Lutomiah, Joel; Obanda, Vincent; Gakuya, Francis; Mutisya, James; Mulwa, Francis; Michuki, George; Chepkorir, Edith; Fischer, Anne; Venter, Marietjie; Sang, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Tick-borne viruses infect humans through the bite of infected ticks during opportunistic feeding or through crushing of ticks by hand and, in some instances, through contact with infected viremic animals. The Ijara District, an arid to semiarid region in northern Kenya, is home to a pastoralist community for whom livestock keeping is a way of life. Part of the Ijara District lies within the boundaries of a Kenya Wildlife Service–protected conservation area. Arbovirus activity among mosquitoes, animals, and humans is reported in the region, mainly because prevailing conditions necessitate that people continuously move their animals in search of pasture, bringing them in contact with ongoing arbovirus transmission cycles. To identify the tick-borne viruses circulating among these communities, we analyzed ticks sampled from diverse animal hosts. A total of 10,488 ticks were sampled from both wildlife and livestock hosts and processed in 1520 pools of up to eight ticks per pool. The sampled ticks were classified to species, processed for virus screening by cell culture using Vero cells and RT-PCR (in the case of Hyalomma species), followed by amplicon sequencing. The tick species sampled included Rhipicephalus pulchellus (76.12%), Hyalomma truncatum (8.68%), Amblyomma gemma (5.00%), Amblyomma lepidum (4.34%), and others (5.86%). We isolated and identified Bunyamwera (44), Dugbe (5), Ndumu (2), Semliki forest (25), Thogoto (3), and West Nile (3) virus strains. This observation constitutes a previously unreported detection of mosquito-borne Semliki forest and Bunyamwera viruses in ticks, and association of West Nile virus with A. gemma and Rh. pulchellus ticks. These findings provide additional evidence on the potential role of ticks and associated animals in the circulation of diverse arboviruses in northeastern Kenya, including viruses previously known to be essentially mosquito borne. PMID:23805790

  15. The novel primers for mammal species identification-based mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence: implication for reserved wild animals in Thailand and endangered mammal species in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Muangkram, Yuttamol; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Amano, Akira; Sukmak, Manakorn

    2016-10-19

    We presented the powerful techniques for species identification using the short amplicon of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequence. Two faecal samples and one single hair sample of the Asian tapir were tested using the new cytochrome b primers. The results showed a high sequence similarity with the mainland Asian tapir group. The comparative sequence analysis of the reserved wild mammals in Thailand and the other endangered mammal species from Southeast Asia comprehensibly verified the potential of our novel primers. The forward and reverse primers were 94.2 and 93.2%, respectively, by the average value of the sequence identity among 77 species sequences, and the overall mean distance was 35.9%. This development technique could provide rapid, simple, and reliable tools for species confirmation. Especially, it could recognize the problematic biological specimens contained less DNA material from illegal products and assist with wildlife crime investigation of threatened species and related forensic casework.

  16. Patterns of Antimicrobial Resistance Observed in Escherichia coli Isolates Obtained from Domestic- and Wild-Animal Fecal Samples, Human Septage, and Surface Water

    PubMed Central

    Sayah, Raida S.; Kaneene, John B.; Johnson, Yvette; Miller, RoseAnn

    2005-01-01

    A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the patterns of antimicrobial resistance in 1,286 Escherichia coli strains isolated from human septage, wildlife, domestic animals, farm environments, and surface water in the Red Cedar watershed in Michigan. Isolation and identification of E. coli were done by using enrichment media, selective media, and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by the disk diffusion method was conducted for neomycin, gentamicin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, ofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, ampicillin, nalidixic acid, nitrofurantoin, cephalothin, and sulfisoxazole. Resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent was demonstrated in isolates from livestock, companion animals, human septage, wildlife, and surface water. In general, E. coli isolates from domestic species showed resistance to the largest number of antimicrobial agents compared to isolates from human septage, wildlife, and surface water. The agents to which resistance was demonstrated most frequently were tetracycline, cephalothin, sulfisoxazole, and streptomycin. There were similarities in the patterns of resistance in fecal samples and farm environment samples by animal, and the levels of cephalothin-resistant isolates were higher in farm environment samples than in fecal samples. Multidrug resistance was seen in a variety of sources, and the highest levels of multidrug-resistant E. coli were observed for swine fecal samples. The fact that water sample isolates were resistant only to cephalothin may suggest that the resistance patterns for farm environment samples may be more representative of the risk of contamination of surface waters with antimicrobial agent-resistant bacteria. PMID:15746342

  17. Animal Watching: Outdoors and In.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLure, John W.

    2001-01-01

    Describes using domesticated, wild, or feral animals to teach students about nature and animal behavior. Connections can be made with psychology, economics, genetics, history, art, and other disciplines. The study of animal behavior provides opportunities for harmless student experimentation. (SAH)

  18. Animal Watching: Outdoors and In.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLure, John W.

    2001-01-01

    Describes using domesticated, wild, or feral animals to teach students about nature and animal behavior. Connections can be made with psychology, economics, genetics, history, art, and other disciplines. The study of animal behavior provides opportunities for harmless student experimentation. (SAH)

  19. Phenotypic variation in metabolism and morphology correlating with animal swimming activity in the wild: relevance for the OCLTT (oxygen- and capacity-limitation of thermal tolerance), allocation and performance models

    PubMed Central

    Baktoft, Henrik; Jacobsen, Lene; Skov, Christian; Koed, Anders; Jepsen, Niels; Berg, Søren; Boel, Mikkel; Aarestrup, Kim; Svendsen, Jon C.

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing climate change is affecting animal physiology in many parts of the world. Using metabolism, the oxygen- and capacity-limitation of thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis provides a tool to predict the responses of ectothermic animals to variation in temperature, oxygen availability and pH in the aquatic environment. The hypothesis remains controversial, however, and has been questioned in several studies. A positive relationship between aerobic metabolic scope and animal activity would be consistent with the OCLTT but has rarely been tested. Moreover, the performance model and the allocation model predict positive and negative relationships, respectively, between standard metabolic rate and activity. Finally, animal activity could be affected by individual morphology because of covariation with cost of transport. Therefore, we hypothesized that individual variation in activity is correlated with variation in metabolism and morphology. To test this prediction, we captured 23 wild European perch (Perca fluviatilis) in a lake, tagged them with telemetry transmitters, measured standard and maximal metabolic rates, aerobic metabolic scope and fineness ratio and returned the fish to the lake to quantify individual in situ activity levels. Metabolic rates were measured using intermittent flow respirometry, whereas the activity assay involved high-resolution telemetry providing positions every 30 s over 12 days. We found no correlation between individual metabolic traits and activity, whereas individual fineness ratio correlated with activity. Independent of body length, and consistent with physics theory, slender fish maintained faster mean and maximal swimming speeds, but this variation did not result in a larger area (in square metres) explored per 24 h. Testing assumptions and predictions of recent conceptual models, our study indicates that individual metabolism is not a strong determinant of animal activity, in contrast to individual morphology, which is

  20. Learning to Walk on the Wild Side

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faught, Jon

    1977-01-01

    A program at Moorpark Community College, in Moorpark, California, offers a two-and-a-half-year major in Exotic Animal Training and Management. Emphasis is on the practical, everyday handling and training of wild animals. (LBH)

  1. Project WILD: Aquatic Education Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memphis State Univ., TN. Tennessee Administrative Software Clearinghouse.

    Project WILD is an interdisciplinary, supplementary environmental and conservation education program which emphasizes wildlife. This document is one guide developed by Project WILD with the specific purpose of focusing on aquatic wildlife, or any wild animals that depend upon aquatic environments for survival. The book contains instructional…

  2. Major Anthropogenic Causes for and Outcomes of Wild Animal Presentation to a Wildlife Clinic in East Tennessee, USA, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Schenk, Ashley N.; Souza, Marcy J.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the reasons for presentation and outcome of wildlife cases in East Tennessee, a retrospective analysis was performed using 14,303 records from cases presented to the wildlife clinic of the University of Tennessee Veterinary Teaching Hospital between 2000 and 2011. The cases were first categorized into amphibian/non-avian reptile, mammal, or avian and then classified into groups based on the primary admitting/presenting sign. There are a variety of reasons animals were presented to the clinic, and some were directly or indirectly anthropogenic in origin, including cat related, dog related, hit by automobile, and other human encounters leading to trauma; of the cases reviewed, 4,443 (31.1%) presented for one of these 4 reasons. Overall case fatality risk in regard to these 4 admitting/presenting signs was 0.519 for the amphibian/non-avian reptile cases, 0.675 for mammal cases, and 0.687 for avian cases. This study confirms the importance of monitoring wildlife morbidity and mortality and of focusing efforts to reduce the anthropogenic threat on native habitats and resident wildlife populations. PMID:24686490

  3. Major anthropogenic causes for and outcomes of wild animal presentation to a wildlife clinic in East Tennessee, USA, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Ashley N; Souza, Marcy J

    2014-01-01

    To determine the reasons for presentation and outcome of wildlife cases in East Tennessee, a retrospective analysis was performed using 14,303 records from cases presented to the wildlife clinic of the University of Tennessee Veterinary Teaching Hospital between 2000 and 2011. The cases were first categorized into amphibian/non-avian reptile, mammal, or avian and then classified into groups based on the primary admitting/presenting sign. There are a variety of reasons animals were presented to the clinic, and some were directly or indirectly anthropogenic in origin, including cat related, dog related, hit by automobile, and other human encounters leading to trauma; of the cases reviewed, 4,443 (31.1%) presented for one of these 4 reasons. Overall case fatality risk in regard to these 4 admitting/presenting signs was 0.519 for the amphibian/non-avian reptile cases, 0.675 for mammal cases, and 0.687 for avian cases. This study confirms the importance of monitoring wildlife morbidity and mortality and of focusing efforts to reduce the anthropogenic threat on native habitats and resident wildlife populations.

  4. Identification of bapA in Strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Isolated from Wild Animals Kept in Captivity in Sinaloa, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    López-Valenzuela, Martin; Cárcamo-Aréchiga, Nora; Cota-Guajardo, Silvia; López-Salazar, Mayra; Montiel-Vázquez, Edith

    2016-01-01

    bapA, previously named stm2689, encodes the BapA protein, which, along with cellulose and fimbriae, constitutes biofilms. Biofilms are communities of microorganisms that grow in a matrix of exopolysaccharides and may adhere to living tissues or inert surfaces. Biofilm formation is associated with the ability to persist in different environments, which contributes to the pathogenicity of several species. We analyzed the presence of bapA in 83 strains belonging to 17 serovars of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica from wildlife in captivity at Culiacan's Zoo and Mazatlán's Aquarium. Each isolate amplified a product of 667 bp, which corresponds to the expected size of the bapA initiator, with no observed variation between different serovars analyzed. bapA gene was found to be highly conserved in Salmonella and can be targeted for the genus-specific detection of this organism from different sources. Since bapA expression improves bacterial proliferation outside of the host and facilitates resistance to disinfectants and desiccation, the survival of Salmonella in natural habitats may be favored. Thus, the risk of bacterial contamination from these animals is increased. PMID:27379195

  5. Identification of bapA in Strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Isolated from Wild Animals Kept in Captivity in Sinaloa, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Silva-Hidalgo, Gabriela; López-Valenzuela, Martin; Cárcamo-Aréchiga, Nora; Cota-Guajardo, Silvia; López-Salazar, Mayra; Montiel-Vázquez, Edith

    2016-01-01

    bapA, previously named stm2689, encodes the BapA protein, which, along with cellulose and fimbriae, constitutes biofilms. Biofilms are communities of microorganisms that grow in a matrix of exopolysaccharides and may adhere to living tissues or inert surfaces. Biofilm formation is associated with the ability to persist in different environments, which contributes to the pathogenicity of several species. We analyzed the presence of bapA in 83 strains belonging to 17 serovars of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica from wildlife in captivity at Culiacan's Zoo and Mazatlán's Aquarium. Each isolate amplified a product of 667 bp, which corresponds to the expected size of the bapA initiator, with no observed variation between different serovars analyzed. bapA gene was found to be highly conserved in Salmonella and can be targeted for the genus-specific detection of this organism from different sources. Since bapA expression improves bacterial proliferation outside of the host and facilitates resistance to disinfectants and desiccation, the survival of Salmonella in natural habitats may be favored. Thus, the risk of bacterial contamination from these animals is increased.

  6. Wild Marshmallows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallas, John N.

    1984-01-01

    Provides information for teaching a unit on wild plants, including resources to use, plants to learn, safety considerations, list of plants (with scientific name, edible parts, and uses), list of plants that might cause allergic reactions when eaten. Also describes the chickweed, bull thistle, and common mallow. (BC)

  7. Wild Marshmallows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallas, John N.

    1984-01-01

    Provides information for teaching a unit on wild plants, including resources to use, plants to learn, safety considerations, list of plants (with scientific name, edible parts, and uses), list of plants that might cause allergic reactions when eaten. Also describes the chickweed, bull thistle, and common mallow. (BC)

  8. Wild turkey

    Treesearch

    William F. Moore; John C. Kilgo; William D. Carlisle; Michael B. Caudell

    2005-01-01

    Wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) were once abundant throughout the southeast, but unregulated hunting and habitat destruction greatly reduced populations to a few thousand birds by 1930 (Hust and Dickson 1992). Though intensive restocking efforts beginning in the 1950s, protection from hunting, and reforestation, southeastern turkey populations...

  9. Heroes and Victims: The Stereotyping of Animal Characters in Children's Realistic Animal Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Lori Jo

    1995-01-01

    Discusses portrayals of animals in children's realistic animal fiction over the course of the 20th century. Shows how the definition of animal hero generally changed from wild animals that were heroic for surviving against all odds to domesticated animals that were heroic for rescuing humans from wild beasts. Discusses animals as victims. (SR)

  10. Heroes and Victims: The Stereotyping of Animal Characters in Children's Realistic Animal Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Lori Jo

    1995-01-01

    Discusses portrayals of animals in children's realistic animal fiction over the course of the 20th century. Shows how the definition of animal hero generally changed from wild animals that were heroic for surviving against all odds to domesticated animals that were heroic for rescuing humans from wild beasts. Discusses animals as victims. (SR)

  11. Animal culture: chimpanzee conformity?

    PubMed

    van Schaik, Carel P

    2012-05-22

    Culture-like phenomena in wild animals have received much attention, but how good is the evidence and how similar are they to human culture? New data on chimpanzees suggest their culture may even have an element of conformity.

  12. [KIND Worksheet Packet: Wild Animals (Junior).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Humane and Environmental Education, East Haddam, CT.

    This packet is the junior part of a series of worksheet packets available at both junior (grades 3-4) and senior (grades 5-6) levels that covers a variety of humane and environmental topics. Each packet includes 10 worksheets, all of which originally appeared in past issues of the annual teaching magazine "KIND (Kids in Nature's Defense)…

  13. [KIND Worksheet Packet: Wild Animals (Senior).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Humane and Environmental Education, East Haddam, CT.

    This packet is the senior part of a series of worksheet packets available at both junior (grades 3-4) and senior (grades 5-6) levels that covers a variety of humane and environmental topics. Each packet includes 10 worksheets, all of which originally appeared in past issues of the annual teaching magazine "KIND (Kids in Nature's Defense)…

  14. Wild animals don't make appointments.

    PubMed

    Panto, Bev

    2016-11-26

    Bev Panto grew up with a keen interest in wildlife, as well as being an active member of a local conservation group and a 'young ornithologist'. Twenty years on, she is now a wildlife vet. British Veterinary Association.

  15. Living Wild.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Merrily

    1994-01-01

    A documentary will detail the experiences of two Canadians surviving for a year in the wilderness of northern Ontario by using Native skills. For the past year, they have prepared jerky, studied and talked with Native elders, made flour out of cattails, and sewn protective clothing out of animal hides. (LP)

  16. Teaching in wild meerkats.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Alex; McAuliffe, Katherine

    2006-07-14

    Despite the obvious benefits of directed mechanisms that facilitate the efficient transfer of skills, there is little critical evidence for teaching in nonhuman animals. Using observational and experimental data, we show that wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta) teach pups prey-handling skills by providing them with opportunities to interact with live prey. In response to changing pup begging calls, helpers alter their prey-provisioning methods as pups grow older, thus accelerating learning without the use of complex cognition. The lack of evidence for teaching in species other than humans may reflect problems in producing unequivocal support for the occurrence of teaching, rather than the absence of teaching.

  17. Leprosy in wild armadillos.

    PubMed

    Truman, Richard

    2005-09-01

    Wild nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) in the south central United States are highly endemic natural hosts of Mycobacterium leprae. Surveys conducted over the last 30 years on more than 5000 animals confirm that the infection is present among armadillos in Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi and Texas. Highest prevalence rates are found among the animals in low-lying alluvial and coastal areas, primarily in Louisiana and Texas. Both animal density and local factors may contribute to the detectability of armadillo leprosy in those regions. Little evidence for M. leprae infection is found among armadillos elsewhere in the US range, and only a few reports relate finding the infection among animals in Central or South America. However, the issue has received only scant attention in other countries. Armadillos only recently expanded their range into the US, and leprosy was present in Texas and Louisiana prior to the arrival of armadillos. The ecological relationship between humans and armadillos with M. leprae in this region remains unclear. However, infected armadillos constitute a large reservoir of M. leprae and they may be a source of infection for some humans in this country, and perhaps in other locations across the animal's range.

  18. Animal bites - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Bites - animals - self-care ... Most animal bites come from pets. Dog bites are common and most often happen to children. Cat bites are ... which can cause deeper puncture wounds. Most other animal bites are caused by stray or wild animals, ...

  19. Hepatozoon sp. in wild carnivores in Texas.

    PubMed

    Mercer, S H; Jones, L P; Rappole, J H; Twedt, D; Lack, L L; Craig, T M

    1988-07-01

    Twelve coyotes (Canis latrans), three bobcats (Lynx rufus) and six ocelots (Felis pardalis) from the Gulf Coast of Texas were infected with Hepatozoon sp. The geographic distribution of infected wild animals coincides with the highest prevalence of Hepatozoon canis infection in domestic dogs for which the wild species may act as a reservoir.

  20. Lightning safety of animals.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Chandima

    2012-11-01

    This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed.

  1. Saving Wild Species through Habitat Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohlen, Janet

    1980-01-01

    Describes the conservation approach adopted by World Wildlife Fund which focuses on habitat protection to save wild plant and animal species. Priority attention to tropical forests is explained. Examples are given of techniques (e.g., radiotelemetry and aerial survey) for studying ecological behavior patterns of specific animals. (CS)

  2. Saving Wild Species through Habitat Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohlen, Janet

    1980-01-01

    Describes the conservation approach adopted by World Wildlife Fund which focuses on habitat protection to save wild plant and animal species. Priority attention to tropical forests is explained. Examples are given of techniques (e.g., radiotelemetry and aerial survey) for studying ecological behavior patterns of specific animals. (CS)

  3. 9 CFR 2.131 - Handling of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Handling of animals. 2.131 Section 2.131 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.131 Handling of animals. (a) All licensees who maintain wild...

  4. 9 CFR 2.131 - Handling of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Handling of animals. 2.131 Section 2.131 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.131 Handling of animals. (a) All licensees who maintain wild...

  5. 9 CFR 2.131 - Handling of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling of animals. 2.131 Section 2.131 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.131 Handling of animals. (a) All licensees who maintain wild...

  6. 9 CFR 2.131 - Handling of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Handling of animals. 2.131 Section 2.131 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.131 Handling of animals. (a) All licensees who maintain wild...

  7. 9 CFR 2.131 - Handling of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Handling of animals. 2.131 Section 2.131 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.131 Handling of animals. (a) All licensees who maintain wild...

  8. [A society for humans and animals].

    PubMed

    Porcher, Jocelyne

    2013-01-01

    In industrial societies, living with animals can no longer be taken for granted. The long-standing tradition of living with animals has been radically questioned by biotechnological developments in animal farming and by animal liberation theories. The goal seems to be to exclude domestic animals from our food chain and return them to the wild, a paradoxical development as, at the same time, there is a tendency to domesticate wild animals. The paradox may be explained by coming back to the issue of work: living with animals means that humans and animals not only live together but also work together, thus giving work a role to play in their mutual emancipation.

  9. Cur Wild Neighbors: Teaching Unit (Grades 1-3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammut-Tovar, Dorothy

    Designed to sensitize primary grade students to the responsibilities of protecting wild animals, this teaching unit contains a variety of interdisciplinary worksheets and activities. Although focusing on wild animals indigenous to San Mateo County (California), materials are easily adaptable for use in other areas. Examples of activities are…

  10. Cur Wild Neighbors: Teaching Unit (Grades 1-3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammut-Tovar, Dorothy

    Designed to sensitize primary grade students to the responsibilities of protecting wild animals, this teaching unit contains a variety of interdisciplinary worksheets and activities. Although focusing on wild animals indigenous to San Mateo County (California), materials are easily adaptable for use in other areas. Examples of activities are…

  11. [Animals and environmentalist ethics].

    PubMed

    Guichet, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    While environmental ethics and animal ethics have a common source of inspiration, they do not agree on the question of the status of animals. Environmental ethicists criticise the narrowness of the reason, focused on pain, given by animal ethicists and their strictly individual point of view; they maintain that their ethical concept is less emotional and more informed by science, with a broad point of view taking natural networks into account. Animal ethicists respond critically, accusing the environmental ethicists of not having any ethical foundation. There are, however, prospects for reconciling the two approaches, provided that they recognise two different ethical stances for animals: one based on the integrity of wild animals and the other based on a model contract for tame animals.

  12. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  13. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. 93.428 Section 93.428 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL...

  14. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. 93.428 Section 93.428 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL...

  15. ADVANCES IN ANIMAL WELFARE FOR FREE-LIVING ANIMALS.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    Over several decades, animal welfare has grown into its own free-standing field of scientific study, from its early beginnings in laboratory animal research to eventually include exhibited animals and farm animals. While it has always been present to some degree, consideration of animal welfare for free-ranging animals has lagged behind, developing as a field of study in the last 20 yr or so. Part of that increase was that animal welfare legislation was finally applied to studies being done on free-ranging animals. But it is the appreciation by the biologists and veterinarians working on wild animals, in which the quality of their results is largely controlled by the quality of the animals they use in their studies, which has resulted in increased attention to the well-being or welfare of the animals that they use. Other important influences driving the recognition of wildlife welfare have been changes in the public's expectations of how wild animals are dealt with, a shift in focus of wildlife professionals from managing animals that can be hunted or angled to include nongame species, the decrease in participation in hunting and fishing by members of the public, and the entry of large numbers of women into fish and wildlife agencies and departments and into veterinary medicine. Technical improvements have allowed the safe capture and handling of large or dangerous animals as immobilization drugs and equipment have been developed. The increasing use of sedating drugs allows for handling of animals with reduced stress and other impacts. A number of topics, such as toe-clipping, branding, defining which taxa can or cannot feel pain, catch-and-release fishing, and more, remain controversial within wildlife science. How we treat the wild animals that we deal with defines who we are as wildlife professionals, and animal welfare concerns and techniques for free-ranging animals will continue to develop and evolve.

  16. Evolutionary Biology Needs Wild Microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Hird, Sarah M

    2017-01-01

    The microbiome is a vital component to the evolution of a host and much of what we know about the microbiome derives from studies on humans and captive animals. But captivity alters the microbiome and mammals have unique biological adaptations that affect their microbiomes (e.g., milk). Birds represent over 30% of known tetrapod diversity and possess their own suite of adaptations relevant to the microbiome. In a previous study, we showed that 59 species of birds displayed immense variation in their microbiomes and host (bird) taxonomy and ecology were most correlated with the gut microbiome. In this Frontiers Focused Review, I put those results in a broader context by discussing how collecting and analyzing wild microbiomes contributes to the main goals of evolutionary biology and the specific ways that birds are unique microbial hosts. Finally, I outline some of the methodological considerations for adding microbiome sampling to the research of wild animals and urge researchers to do so. To truly understand the evolution of a host, we need to understand the millions of microorganisms that inhabit it as well: evolutionary biology needs wild microbiomes.

  17. Evolutionary Biology Needs Wild Microbiomes

    PubMed Central

    Hird, Sarah M.

    2017-01-01

    The microbiome is a vital component to the evolution of a host and much of what we know about the microbiome derives from studies on humans and captive animals. But captivity alters the microbiome and mammals have unique biological adaptations that affect their microbiomes (e.g., milk). Birds represent over 30% of known tetrapod diversity and possess their own suite of adaptations relevant to the microbiome. In a previous study, we showed that 59 species of birds displayed immense variation in their microbiomes and host (bird) taxonomy and ecology were most correlated with the gut microbiome. In this Frontiers Focused Review, I put those results in a broader context by discussing how collecting and analyzing wild microbiomes contributes to the main goals of evolutionary biology and the specific ways that birds are unique microbial hosts. Finally, I outline some of the methodological considerations for adding microbiome sampling to the research of wild animals and urge researchers to do so. To truly understand the evolution of a host, we need to understand the millions of microorganisms that inhabit it as well: evolutionary biology needs wild microbiomes. PMID:28487687

  18. [The wild children: myth or reality?].

    PubMed

    Valtueña Borque, O

    2001-01-01

    Although Car von Linné described in 1758 on his Systema Naturae the feral man because their characters hirsutus, tetrapus and mutus, he done this work upon 9 children lifted in the forest and suckled by animals. Malson, in 1964, described 53 wild children. The author of these paper, after an analysis of the history and general facts of the actually known wild children, arrives to the deduction that survival and characters of the wild children find the explanation in the recent memetric theory.

  19. Understanding attitudes toward the control of nonnative wild and feral mammals: similarities and differences in the opinions of the general public, animal protectionists, and conservationists in New Zealand (aotearoa).

    PubMed

    Farnworth, Mark J; Watson, Helen; Adams, Nigel J

    2014-01-01

    Lethal control is used extensively in New Zealand to control nonnative nonhuman mammals. Respondents were surveyed about 8 mammal groups considered pests and their attitudes toward their control and pest status. They also identified the most appropriate method of control for the 8 different mammals. Information was gathered from 3 groups of respondents: nonhuman animal protectionists, conservationists, and the general public. Conservationists routinely rated all animal groups as more severe pests than the general public or animal protectionists, who provided the lowest scores. Rats, stoats, brushtail possums, and rabbits were identified as the 4 most serious pests by all 3 groups. Conservationists were 5.7 and 2.6 times more likely to prefer a lethal method of control than protectionists and the general public, respectively. For all 3 groups an increase in pest score for a given animal saw a decline in importance placed upon the animal's welfare. This relationship was strong for the general public but weak for conservationists and animal protectionists. Understanding aspects of potentially opposing viewpoints may be invaluable in supporting the development of new welfare-focused control methods.

  20. 19 CFR 12.28 - Importation of wild mammals and birds in violation of foreign law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Importation of wild mammals and birds in violation... HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.28 Importation of wild mammals and birds in violation of foreign law. No imported wild mammal...

  1. 19 CFR 12.28 - Importation of wild mammals and birds in violation of foreign law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Importation of wild mammals and birds in violation... HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.28 Importation of wild mammals and birds in violation of foreign law. No imported wild mammal...

  2. 19 CFR 12.28 - Importation of wild mammals and birds in violation of foreign law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Importation of wild mammals and birds in violation... HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.28 Importation of wild mammals and birds in violation of foreign law. No imported wild mammal...

  3. 19 CFR 12.28 - Importation of wild mammals and birds in violation of foreign law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Importation of wild mammals and birds in violation... HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.28 Importation of wild mammals and birds in violation of foreign law. No imported wild mammal...

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Wild Boars, Wild Rabbits, and Wild Chickens in Hubei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Houqiang; Li, Kun; Shahzad, Muhammad; Zhang, Hui; Lan, Yanfang; Xiong, Xiong

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes serious infection worldwide in humans and animals. In this study, the seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis was investigated in wild boars (Sus scrofa) (n=377), wild rabbits (cape hare, Lapus capensis) (n=331), and wild chickens (red junglefwol, Gallus gallus) (n=571) in 4 forested and country sided area of Hubei province of China. For this, blood samples were collected and tested by indirect hemagglutination test (IHA). The seroprevalence was found to be 7.2%, 5.1%, and 12.6% in wild boars, rabbits, and chickens, respectively, with significant differences among these species. The prevalence of T. gondii infection in male and female wild boars was found to be 7.9% and 6.5% (P<0.01), in male and female rabbits was 5.6% and 4.9% (P<0.01), and in male and female chickens was 17.1% and 7.7% (P<0.01), respectively, with significant differences between 2 genders of chickens (P<0.01). The findings of this study may help in planning of the prevention measures against T. gondii infection in wild animals in this area. PMID:28285512

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Wild Boars, Wild Rabbits, and Wild Chickens in Hubei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Houqiang; Li, Kun; Shahzad, Muhammad; Zhang, Hui; Lan, Yanfang; Xiong, Xiong

    2017-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes serious infection worldwide in humans and animals. In this study, the seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis was investigated in wild boars (Sus scrofa) (n=377), wild rabbits (cape hare, Lapus capensis) (n=331), and wild chickens (red junglefwol, Gallus gallus) (n=571) in 4 forested and country sided area of Hubei province of China. For this, blood samples were collected and tested by indirect hemagglutination test (IHA). The seroprevalence was found to be 7.2%, 5.1%, and 12.6% in wild boars, rabbits, and chickens, respectively, with significant differences among these species. The prevalence of T. gondii infection in male and female wild boars was found to be 7.9% and 6.5% (P<0.01), in male and female rabbits was 5.6% and 4.9% (P<0.01), and in male and female chickens was 17.1% and 7.7% (P<0.01), respectively, with significant differences between 2 genders of chickens (P<0.01). The findings of this study may help in planning of the prevention measures against T. gondii infection in wild animals in this area.

  6. Video cameras on wild birds.

    PubMed

    Rutz, Christian; Bluff, Lucas A; Weir, Alex A S; Kacelnik, Alex

    2007-11-02

    New Caledonian crows (Corvus moneduloides) are renowned for using tools for extractive foraging, but the ecological context of this unusual behavior is largely unknown. We developed miniaturized, animal-borne video cameras to record the undisturbed behavior and foraging ecology of wild, free-ranging crows. Our video recordings enabled an estimate of the species' natural foraging efficiency and revealed that tool use, and choice of tool materials, are more diverse than previously thought. Video tracking has potential for studying the behavior and ecology of many other bird species that are shy or live in inaccessible habitats.

  7. The roles and values of wild foods in agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Zareen; Pretty, Jules

    2010-09-27

    Almost every ecosystem has been amended so that plants and animals can be used as food, fibre, fodder, medicines, traps and weapons. Historically, wild plants and animals were sole dietary components for hunter-gatherer and forager cultures. Today, they remain key to many agricultural communities. The mean use of wild foods by agricultural and forager communities in 22 countries of Asia and Africa (36 studies) is 90-100 species per location. Aggregate country estimates can reach 300-800 species (e.g. India, Ethiopia, Kenya). The mean use of wild species is 120 per community for indigenous communities in both industrialized and developing countries. Many of these wild foods are actively managed, suggesting there is a false dichotomy around ideas of the agricultural and the wild: hunter-gatherers and foragers farm and manage their environments, and cultivators use many wild plants and animals. Yet, provision of and access to these sources of food may be declining as natural habitats come under increasing pressure from development, conservation-exclusions and agricultural expansion. Despite their value, wild foods are excluded from official statistics on economic values of natural resources. It is clear that wild plants and animals continue to form a significant proportion of the global food basket, and while a variety of social and ecological drivers are acting to reduce wild food use, their importance may be set to grow as pressures on agricultural productivity increase.

  8. The roles and values of wild foods in agricultural systems

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Zareen; Pretty, Jules

    2010-01-01

    Almost every ecosystem has been amended so that plants and animals can be used as food, fibre, fodder, medicines, traps and weapons. Historically, wild plants and animals were sole dietary components for hunter–gatherer and forager cultures. Today, they remain key to many agricultural communities. The mean use of wild foods by agricultural and forager communities in 22 countries of Asia and Africa (36 studies) is 90–100 species per location. Aggregate country estimates can reach 300–800 species (e.g. India, Ethiopia, Kenya). The mean use of wild species is 120 per community for indigenous communities in both industrialized and developing countries. Many of these wild foods are actively managed, suggesting there is a false dichotomy around ideas of the agricultural and the wild: hunter–gatherers and foragers farm and manage their environments, and cultivators use many wild plants and animals. Yet, provision of and access to these sources of food may be declining as natural habitats come under increasing pressure from development, conservation-exclusions and agricultural expansion. Despite their value, wild foods are excluded from official statistics on economic values of natural resources. It is clear that wild plants and animals continue to form a significant proportion of the global food basket, and while a variety of social and ecological drivers are acting to reduce wild food use, their importance may be set to grow as pressures on agricultural productivity increase. PMID:20713393

  9. Animal welfare: European legislation and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bonafos, Laurence; Simonin, Denis; Gavinelli, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Although animals are central to the life of all societies, substantial differences exist in the level of understanding or attitudes toward animal-welfare issues between agrarian and urban societies in developing or industrial countries. These differences are largely dependent on people's degree of contact with animals. Other than domestic species, people in industrialized nations tend to have limited contact with farm and wild animals. With this reduced or lack of daily animal contact, there can be a parallel lack of understanding of or appreciation for animal-welfare issues. As a result, different nations have adopted various policies, procedures, and laws to ensure that their societies protect the welfare of animals. In this article, we chronicle 30 years of actions by European nations through the European Commission to enact legislation that ensures uniform standards of animal-welfare practices to protect farm animals, animals used in research, and wild animals held in captivity.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF WILD PIG VEHICLE COLLISIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J; Paul E. Johns, P

    2007-05-23

    Wild pig (Sus scrofa) collisions with vehicles are known to occur in the United States, but only minimal information describing these accidents has been reported. In an effort to better characterize these accidents, data were collected from 179 wild pig-vehicle collisions from a location in west central South Carolina. Data included accident parameters pertaining to the animals involved, time, location, and human impacts. The age structure of the animals involved was significantly older than that found in the population. Most collisions involved single animals; however, up to seven animals were involved in individual accidents. As the number of animals per collision increased, the age and body mass of the individuals involved decreased. The percentage of males was significantly higher in the single-animal accidents. Annual attrition due to vehicle collisions averaged 0.8 percent of the population. Wild pig-vehicle collisions occurred year-round and throughout the 24-hour daily time period. Most accidents were at night. The presence of lateral barriers was significantly more frequent at the collision locations. Human injuries were infrequent but potentially serious. The mean vehicle damage estimate was $1,173.

  11. Influenza infection in wild raccoons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, J.S.; Bentler, K.T.; Landolt, G.; Elmore, S.A.; Minnis, R.B.; Campbell, T.A.; Barras, S.C.; Root, J.J.; Pilon, J.; Pabilonia, K.; Driscoll, C.; Slate, D.; Sullivan, H.; McLean, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are common, widely distributed animals that frequently come into contact with wild waterfowl, agricultural operations, and humans. Serosurveys showed that raccoons are exposed to avian influenza virus. We found antibodies to a variety of influenza virus subtypes (H10N7, H4N6, H4N2, H3, and H1) with wide geographic variation in seroprevalence. Experimental infection studies showed that raccoons become infected with avian and human influenza A viruses, shed and transmit virus to virus-free animals, and seroconvert. Analyses of cellular receptors showed that raccoons have avian and human type receptors with a similar distribution as found in human respiratory tracts. The potential exists for co-infection of multiple subtypes of influenza virus with genetic reassortment and creation of novel strains of influenza virus. Experimental and field data indicate that raccoons may play an important role in influenza disease ecology and pose risks to agriculture and human health.

  12. Influenza infection in wild raccoons.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jeffrey S; Bentler, Kevin T; Landolt, Gabrielle; Elmore, Stacey A; Minnis, Richard B; Campbell, Tyler A; Barras, Scott C; Root, J Jeffrey; Pilon, John; Pabilonia, Kristy; Driscoll, Cindy; Slate, Dennis; Sullivan, Heather; McLean, Robert G

    2008-12-01

    Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are common, widely distributed animals that frequently come into contact with wild waterfowl, agricultural operations, and humans. Serosurveys showed that raccoons are exposed to avian influenza virus. We found antibodies to a variety of influenza virus subtypes (H10N7, H4N6, H4N2, H3, and H1) with wide geographic variation in seroprevalence. Experimental infection studies showed that raccoons become infected with avian and human influenza A viruses, shed and transmit virus to virus-free animals, and seroconvert. Analyses of cellular receptors showed that raccoons have avian and human type receptors with a similar distribution as found in human respiratory tracts. The potential exists for co-infection of multiple subtypes of influenza virus with genetic reassortment and creation of novel strains of influenza virus. Experimental and field data indicate that raccoons may play an important role in influenza disease ecology and pose risks to agriculture and human health.

  13. Influenza Infection in Wild Raccoons

    PubMed Central

    Bentler, Kevin T.; Landolt, Gabrielle; Elmore, Stacey A.; Minnis, Richard B.; Campbell, Tyler A.; Barras, Scott C.; Root, J. Jeffrey; Pilon, John; Pabilonia, Kristy; Driscoll, Cindy; Slate, Dennis; Sullivan, Heather; McLean, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are common, widely distributed animals that frequently come into contact with wild waterfowl, agricultural operations, and humans. Serosurveys showed that raccoons are exposed to avian influenza virus. We found antibodies to a variety of influenza virus subtypes (H10N7, H4N6, H4N2, H3, and H1) with wide geographic variation in seroprevalence. Experimental infection studies showed that raccoons become infected with avian and human influenza A viruses, shed and transmit virus to virus-free animals, and seroconvert. Analyses of cellular receptors showed that raccoons have avian and human type receptors with a similar distribution as found in human respiratory tracts. The potential exists for co-infection of multiple subtypes of influenza virus with genetic reassortment and creation of novel strains of influenza virus. Experimental and field data indicate that raccoons may play an important role in influenza disease ecology and pose risks to agriculture and human health. PMID:19046505

  14. Amazing Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Kuwari, Najat Saad

    2007-01-01

    "Animals" is a three-part lesson plan for young learners with a zoo animal theme. The first lesson is full of activities to describe animals, with Simon Says, guessing games, and learning stations. The second lesson is about desert animals, but other types of animals could be chosen depending on student interest. This lesson teaches…

  15. Unavailability of wild relatives

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The unavailability of crop wild relatives may come in many forms, including limited possibilities of gene flow with related species due to clonality, differing ploidy levels, or other crossing barriers between species. Alternatively, it may simply mean that we lack information about the wild relativ...

  16. 43 CFR 4720.1 - Removal of excess animals from public lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Removal § 4720.1 Removal of excess animals from public... excess of wild horses or burros exists, the authorized officer shall remove the excess animals...

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax) and wild sika deer (Cervus nippon) in Gunma Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Jun; Kako, Yune; Morita, Yukio; Kabeya, Hidenori; Sakano, Chieko; Nagai, Akira; Maruyama, Soichi; Nogami, Sadao

    2011-09-01

    The ingestion of undercooked meat from wild animals can be a source of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and other animals. In this study, we determined the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 175 wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax) and 107 wild sika deer (Cervus nippon) hunted in 2004-2007 in Gunma Prefecture, Japan, by using a commercial latex agglutination test (LAT). Antibodies (LAT, 1:64 or higher) to T. gondii were found in 6.3% of wild boars and 1.9% of sika deer. This is the first record of T. gondii infection in wild deer in Japan, and deer and wild boar meat should be cooked well before human consumption. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 36 CFR 10.1 - Animals available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Animals available. 10.1 Section 10.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR DISPOSAL OF CERTAIN WILD ANIMALS § 10.1 Animals available. From time to time there are surplus live elk...

  19. 36 CFR 10.1 - Animals available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Animals available. 10.1 Section 10.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR DISPOSAL OF CERTAIN WILD ANIMALS § 10.1 Animals available. From time to time there are surplus live elk...

  20. 36 CFR 10.1 - Animals available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Animals available. 10.1 Section 10.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR DISPOSAL OF CERTAIN WILD ANIMALS § 10.1 Animals available. From time to time there are surplus live elk...

  1. 36 CFR 10.1 - Animals available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Animals available. 10.1 Section 10.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR DISPOSAL OF CERTAIN WILD ANIMALS § 10.1 Animals available. From time to time there are surplus live elk...

  2. 36 CFR 10.1 - Animals available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Animals available. 10.1 Section 10.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR DISPOSAL OF CERTAIN WILD ANIMALS § 10.1 Animals available. From time to time there are surplus live elk...

  3. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection in Small Wild Mammals.

    PubMed

    Sbeghen, Mônica Raquel; Zanata, Thais Bastos; Macagnan, Rafaela; de Abreu, Kaue Cachuba; da Cunha, Willian Luiz; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Ono, Mario Augusto

    2015-12-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis prevalent in Brazil and other Latin American countries. The etiological agents of PCM are the thermo-dimorphic fungi Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii. Taking into account that the natural habitat of Paracoccidioides spp. is still undefined, domestic and wild animals could be useful as indicators of Paracoccidioides spp. presence in endemic areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate the infection of small wild mammals by P. brasiliensis in an endemic area for human PCM. Samples from 38 wild mammals from different species such as Akodon sp., Thaptomys nigrita, Euryoryzomys russatus, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Monodelphis sp., Sooretamys angouya, Abrawayaomys angouya, Abrawayaomys ruschii and Akodontinae sp. were evaluated by ELISA, immunodiffusion, histopathology, nested PCR and culture. The overall positivity to gp43 observed in the ELISA was 23.7%. Samples from heart and liver of one O. nigripes were PCR positive, and the animal was also seropositive to gp43 in ELISA. This study showed that wild animals living in endemic areas for PCM are infected with P. brasiliensis and can be valuable epidemiological markers of the fungus presence in the environment. This is the first evidence of PCM infection in Akodon sp., E. russatus, T. nigrita and O. nigripes.

  4. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Lewejohann, Lars; Pickel, Thorsten; Sachser, Norbert; Kaiser, Sylvia

    2010-03-25

    Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus), starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment.In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all perform worse than their wild relatives in tests of spatial

  5. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus), starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment. In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Results Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. Conclusion The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all perform worse than their wild

  6. A review of toxoplasmosis in wild birds.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P

    2002-06-03

    Toxoplasma gondii affects most species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. There is considerable confusion regarding the identity of T. gondii-like parasites and the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in wild birds. In this review, T. gondii-like infections in different species of wild birds are reviewed with particular reference to prevalences, clinical signs, pathology, diagnosis, and treatment. Although subclinical T. gondii infections are prevalent in many avian species, toxoplasmosis can be clinically severe in pigeons and canaries. Blindness associated with T. gondii in canaries is reviewed in detail.

  7. Ixodid ticks parasitizing wild carnivores in Romania.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Gianluca; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Matei, Ioana Adriana; Ionică, Angela Monica; Gherman, Călin Mircea; Sándor, Attila David; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2017-02-01

    In Romania, data regarding hard-tick diversity and tick-host associations in wild carnivores are scarce. We aimed to identify tick species in wild carnivores and to establish reliable data on tick-host associations. The study was conducted in various Romanian localities from all five ecoregions found in the country. Fourteen species of wild carnivores were examined. Immature and adult ticks were collected and identified using the morphological keys. The frequency and mean intensity of tick infestation, overall and differentiated by species, developmental stage and host were calculated. Of 202 wild carnivores, 68 were parasitized by seven tick species (predominantly Ixodes ricinus, I. hexagonus and Dermacentor reticulatus). The mean intensity of tick infestation was similar in males (6.97, BCa 95% CI 5.15-9.88) and females (5.76, BCa 95% CI 4.15-9.17). The highest prevalence of infested animals was recorded in the pannonian and steppic ecoregions, 66.7 and 52.7%, respectively. In the continental ecoregion the prevalence was 26.7%, whereas in the pontic ecoregion it was 28%. The lowest value, 16.7% was recorded in the alpine ecoregion. In total 430 ticks were collected, and 24.8% (n = 50) of the animals were infested with more than one tick species. Fourteen new tick-host associations were recorded. Our results suggest that anthropogenic changes of the environment lead to the diminishing of the boundaries, between wild and domestic animals, increasing the exposure for both animals and humans, to infective agents, including tick-borne pathogens.

  8. The Wild Bunch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Bibi; Brook, Richard; Tisdale, Mary; Wooster, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes the history of wild horses in North America and explains the social structure of horses. Discusses issues related to wildlife management. Presents activities for classroom use and includes a list of references and resources. (YDS)

  9. The Wild Bunch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Bibi; Brook, Richard; Tisdale, Mary; Wooster, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes the history of wild horses in North America and explains the social structure of horses. Discusses issues related to wildlife management. Presents activities for classroom use and includes a list of references and resources. (YDS)

  10. Osmoregulation in wild and captive West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus).

    PubMed

    Ortiz, R M; Worthy, G A; MacKenzie, D S

    1998-01-01

    The ability of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris and Trichechus manatus manatus) to inhabit both freshwater and marine habitats presents an interesting model to study osmoregulation in sirenians. Blood samples were analyzed from manatees held in fresh- and saltwater and from wild animals captured in fresh-, brackish, and saltwater for concentrations of aldosterone, arginine vasopressin, plasma renin activity, Na+, K+, Cl-, and osmolality. Two separate experiments were also conducted on captive animals to evaluate osmoregulatory responses to acute saltwater exposure and freshwater deprivation. Spurious differences were observed in plasma electrolyte and osmolality among the captive and wild groups. Wild brackish water animals exhibited the highest vasopressin concentrations, while wild freshwater manatees had the highest aldosterone levels. A significant correlation between mean vasopressin and osmolality was demonstrated for captive and wild animals. When freshwater animals were acutely exposed to saltwater, osmolality, Na+, and Cl- increased 5.5%, 8.0%, and 14%, respectively, while aldosterone decreased 82.6%. Saltwater animals deprived of freshwater exhibited an almost twofold increase in aldosterone during the deprivation period and a fourfold decrease when freshwater was again provided. Within this group, osmolality increased significantly by 3.4% over the course of the study; however, electrolytes did not change. The lack of consistent differences in electrolyte and osmolality among wild and captive groups suggests that manatees are good osmoregulators regardless of the environment. The high aldosterone levels in wild freshwater animals may indicate a need to conserve Na+, while the high vasopressin levels in wild brackish-water manatees suggest an antidiuretic state to conserve water. Vasopressin levels appear to be osmotically mediated in manatees as in other mammals.

  11. [Animal models for vascular calcification].

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Koji; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Matsubara, Hiroaki

    2010-11-01

    Analysis of animal models is indispensable to elucidate the molecular mechanism in vascular calcification (VC) as well as to develop new therapies for VC. Various gene-modified mice that show VC have been reported, and considerable progress has been made through the analyses of these animals. Mice of which bone-calcification regulatory factors were modified are the representative animal models for VC, indicating that these factors certainly regulate VC as well as bone-calcification. Inducible VC in wild-type animals is also an important research tool for developing preventive and therapeutic approach for VC.

  12. Echolocation in wild toothed whales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyack, Peter L.; Johnson, Mark; Madsen, Peter Teglberg; Zimmer, Walter M. X.

    2004-05-01

    Don Griffin showed more than 50 years ago that bats echolocate for orientation and to capture prey. Experiments also demonstrated that captive dolphins can echolocate; more recent work parallels Griffin's work with bats in the wild. Digital acoustic recording tags were attached to sperm and beaked whales, Ziphius cavirostris and Mesoplodon densirostris, to record outgoing clicks and incoming echoes. The sperm whale data show echoes from the sea surface and seafloor, which are probably used for orientation and obstacle avoidance. When diving, sperm whales adjust their interclick interval as they change their pitch angle, consistent with the hypothesis that they are echolocating on a horizontal layer at the depth at which they will feed. This suggests that they may be listening for volume reverberation to select a prey patch. The beam pattern of sperm whales includes a narrow, forward-directed high-frequency beam probably used for prey detection, and a broader, backward-directed lower-frequency beam probably used for orientation. Beaked whales produce directional clicks with peak frequencies in the 25-40-kHz region. Echoes from individual prey items have been detected from clicks of beaked whales. This opens a new window into the study of how animals use echolocation to forage in the wild.

  13. Farm Animals

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Back of a Horse Chickens in the City Diseases Cat-Scratch Disease E. coli Infection Ringworm ... animals when even when they appear healthy and clean. Although it usually doesn’t make farm animals ...

  14. Animals as Sentinels of Bioterrorism Agents

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Zimra; Chudnov, Daniel; Wilcox, Matthew; Odofin, Lynda; Liu, Ann; Dein, Joshua

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature from 1966 to 2005 to determine whether animals could provide early warning of a bioterrorism attack, serve as markers for ongoing exposure risk, and amplify or propagate a bioterrorism outbreak. We found evidence that, for certain bioterrorism agents, pets, wildlife, or livestock could provide early warning and that for other agents, humans would likely manifest symptoms before illness could be detected in animals. After an acute attack, active surveillance of wild or domestic animal populations could help identify many ongoing exposure risks. If certain bioterrorism agents found their way into animal populations, they could spread widely through animal-to-animal transmission and prove difficult to control. The public health infrastructure must look beyond passive surveillance of acute animal disease events to build capacity for active surveillance and intervention efforts to detect and control ongoing outbreaks of disease in domestic and wild animal populations. PMID:16704814

  15. Animal and human influenzas.

    PubMed

    Peiris, M; Yen, H-L

    2014-08-01

    Influenza type A viruses affect humans and other animals and cause significant morbidity, mortality and economic impact. Influenza A viruses are well adapted to cross species barriers and evade host immunity. Viruses that cause no clinical signs in wild aquatic birds may adapt in domestic poultry to become highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses which decimate poultry flocks. Viruses that cause asymptomatic infection in poultry (e.g. the recently emerged A/H7N9 virus) may cause severe zoonotic disease and pose a major pandemic threat. Pandemic influenza arises at unpredictable intervals from animal viruses and, in its global spread, outpaces current technologies for making vaccines against such novel viruses. Confronting the threat of influenza in humans and other animals is an excellent example of a task that requires a One Health approach. Changes in travel, trade in livestock and pets, changes in animal husbandry practices, wet markets and complex marketing chains all contribute to an increased risk of the emergence of novel influenza viruses with the ability to cross species barriers, leading to epizootics or pandemics. Coordinated surveillance at the animal- human interface for pandemic preparedness, risk assessment, risk reduction and prevention at source requires coordinated action among practitioners in human and animal health and the environmental sciences. Implementation of One Health in the field can be challenging because of divergent short-term objectives. Successful implementation requires effort, mutual trust, respect and understanding to ensure that long-term goals are achieved without adverse impacts on agricultural production and food security.

  16. Wild Justice: Honor and Fairness among Beasts at Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekoff, Marc; Pierce, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    This essay challenges science's traditional taboo against anthropomorphizing animals or considering their behavior as indicative of feelings similar to human emotions. In their new book "Wild Justice: The Moral Lives of Animals," the authors argue that anthropomorphism is alive and well, as it should be. Here they describe some…

  17. 19 CFR 12.29 - Plumage and eggs of wild birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Plumage and eggs of wild birds. 12.29 Section 12... THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.29 Plumage and eggs of wild birds. (a) The provisions of Chapter 5, Additional U.S. Note 1, relating to the plumage of...

  18. 19 CFR 12.29 - Plumage and eggs of wild birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Plumage and eggs of wild birds. 12.29 Section 12... THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.29 Plumage and eggs of wild birds. (a) The provisions of Chapter 5, Additional U.S. Note 1, relating to the plumage of...

  19. 19 CFR 12.29 - Plumage and eggs of wild birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Plumage and eggs of wild birds. 12.29 Section 12... THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.29 Plumage and eggs of wild birds. (a) The provisions of Chapter 5, Additional U.S. Note 1, relating to the plumage of...

  20. 19 CFR 12.29 - Plumage and eggs of wild birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Plumage and eggs of wild birds. 12.29 Section 12... THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.29 Plumage and eggs of wild birds. (a) The provisions of Chapter 5, Additional U.S. Note 1, relating to the plumage...

  1. Ecotoxicology of wild mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Shore, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    An international group of 32 scientists has critically reviewed the scientific literature on exposure and effects of environmental contaminants in wild mammals. Although the absolute number of toxicological studies in domesticated and wild mammals eclipses that for birds, a detailed examination of scientific publications and databases reveal that information for 'wild' birds is actually greater than that for 'wild' mammals. Of the various taxa of mammals, ecotoxicological data is most noticeably lacking for marsupials and monotremes. In contrast, rodents (comprising 43% of all mammal species) have been studied extensively, despite evidence of their tolerance to some organochlorine compounds, rodenticides, and even radionuclides. Mammalian species at greatest risk of exposure include those that consume a high percentage of their body weight on a daily basis (e.g., shrews, moles and bats). Aquatic mammals tend to bioaccumulate tremendous burdens of lipophilic contaminants, although storage in their fat depots may actually limit toxicity. Carnivores appear to be more sensitive to adverse effects of environmental contaminants than herbivores. Remarkably few of the thousands of compounds manufactured worldwide have been toxicologically evaluated in wild mammals, and concentrations of even fewer have been monitored in tissues. Overarching research needs include: development of new exposure/effects models and better methods for estimation of species sensitivities; generation of comparative data on contaminant bioavailability, sublethal responses and detoxication mechanisms; enhanced understanding of pesticide, industrial contaminant and metal interactions; identification of endocrine disruptive contaminants and their overall ecological significance; and finally, estimating the relative contribution of environmental contamination as a factor affecting wild mammal populations.

  2. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation

    This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  3. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  4. Project Wild (Project Tame).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegenthaler, David

    For 37 states in the United States, Project Wild has become an officially sanctioned, distributed and funded "environemtnal and conservation education program." For those who are striving to implement focused, sequential, learning programs, as well as those who wish to promote harmony through a non-anthropocentric world view, Project…

  5. Endangered Species: Wild & Rare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Endangered Species: Wild and Rare." Contents are organized into the…

  6. Project Wild (Project Tame).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegenthaler, David

    For 37 states in the United States, Project Wild has become an officially sanctioned, distributed and funded "environemtnal and conservation education program." For those who are striving to implement focused, sequential, learning programs, as well as those who wish to promote harmony through a non-anthropocentric world view, Project…

  7. Reflections on WILD9

    Treesearch

    David J. Parsons

    2010-01-01

    The 9th World Wilderness Congress (WILD9), held November 6-13 in Merida, Mexico, provided a vivid reminder of the magnitude of the challenges - both environmental and human - facing advocates for the protection of wilderness resources and values. From a U.S. government scientist's perspective, it was also a reminder of the differences in wilderness focused...

  8. Wildlife Photography - Wild Pigs

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-08

    A wild pig finds food in the underbrush at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The center shares a border with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. More than 330 native and migratory bird species, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles call Kennedy and the wildlife refuge home.

  9. Wild and Crafty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Wild & Crafty." It contains a variety of craft ideas related to…

  10. Taming the Wild Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allyn, Pam

    2012-01-01

    As a well-known advocate for promoting wider reading and reading engagement among all children--and founder of a reading program for foster children--Pam Allyn knows that struggling readers often face any printed text with fear and confusion, like Max in the book Where the Wild Things Are. She argues that teachers need to actively create a…

  11. William Wilde: Historian.

    PubMed

    Geary, L

    2016-05-01

    This essay attempts to assess William Wilde as a social historian. It examines some of his contributions to the discipline of history and looks particularly at 'The food of the Irish', which was published in the Dublin University Magazine in February 1854.

  12. Marc Chagall: "Wild Poppies."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Carolyn

    1987-01-01

    Based on a full-color reproduction of Marc Chagall's painting, "Wild Poppies," the goals of this lesson plan are to introduce students to artist's use of dreams and memories in making art, to communicate the idea that artists include their visual memories of people and things they love in their artwork, and to introduce the concepts of…

  13. Taming the Wild Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allyn, Pam

    2012-01-01

    As a well-known advocate for promoting wider reading and reading engagement among all children--and founder of a reading program for foster children--Pam Allyn knows that struggling readers often face any printed text with fear and confusion, like Max in the book Where the Wild Things Are. She argues that teachers need to actively create a…

  14. Biology Gone Wild.

    PubMed

    Crow, Diana

    2017-07-13

    To study how genes, cells, or organisms operate in natural environments, researchers often need to leave the bench and venture into the field. Here are a few approaches that field biologists use in designing and conducting semi-wild experiments and the many challenges they face. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Endangered Species: Wild & Rare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Endangered Species: Wild and Rare." Contents are organized into the…

  16. Wild 2 Close Look

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-06-17

    This image shows the comet Wild 2, which NASA's Stardust spacecraft flew by on Jan. 2, 2004. This image is the closest short exposure of the comet, taken at an11.4-degree phase angle, the angle between the camera, comet and the Sun. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA06285

  17. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from...

  18. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from...

  19. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from...

  20. The Impact of Wild Birds and Farm Management on Salmonella and Campylobacter in Small Ruminants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wild-birds are potential sources of enteric disease infections in farm animals. This study was designed to evaluate the potential pathways and control of foodborne pathogen transmission between wild-birds and farm animals. At two farms, a total of 14 one-acre pastures were fenced to each host 12 sh...

  1. MEDLI Animation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Animation of MEDLI, the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrument, which contains multiple sophisticated temperature sensors to measure atmospheric conditions and performance o...

  2. 36 CFR 222.29 - Relocation and disposal of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... animals. 222.29 Section 222.29 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... disposal of animals. (a) The Chief, Forest Service, shall, when he determines over-population of wild... animals from that particular territory. Such action shall be taken until all excess animals have been...

  3. 36 CFR 222.69 - Relocation and disposal of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... animals. 222.69 Section 222.69 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... disposal of animals. (a) The Chief, Forest Service, shall, when he determines over-population of wild... animals from that particular territory. Such action shall be taken until all excess animals have been...

  4. 36 CFR 222.29 - Relocation and disposal of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... animals. 222.29 Section 222.29 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... disposal of animals. (a) The Chief, Forest Service, shall, when he determines over-population of wild... animals from that particular territory. Such action shall be taken until all excess animals have been...

  5. 36 CFR 222.29 - Relocation and disposal of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... animals. 222.29 Section 222.29 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... disposal of animals. (a) The Chief, Forest Service, shall, when he determines over-population of wild... animals from that particular territory. Such action shall be taken until all excess animals have been...

  6. Interview with a Wild Animal: Integrating Science and Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarnati, James T.

    1994-01-01

    Using a unit on earthworms, this article shows how science and language arts can be successfully integrated in a middle school classroom through hands-on observation, interviewing, and writing exercises. The integration process engages students, uses class time more efficiently, encourages dialog, and improves outcomes and appreciation of the…

  7. Interview with a Wild Animal: Integrating Science and Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarnati, James T.

    1994-01-01

    Using a unit on earthworms, this article shows how science and language arts can be successfully integrated in a middle school classroom through hands-on observation, interviewing, and writing exercises. The integration process engages students, uses class time more efficiently, encourages dialog, and improves outcomes and appreciation of the…

  8. Transmission of Neospora caninum between wild and domestic animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gondim, L.F.P.; McAllister, M.M.; Mateus-Pinilla, N. E.; Pitt, W.; Mech, L.D.; Nelson, M.E.; Lenarz, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that can cause abortions in cows. N. caninum antibody seroprevalence was detected in 64/164 (39%) free-ranging gray wolves from Minnesota, 30/150 (20%) white-tailed deer, and 8/61 (13%) moose. These data are consistent with a sylvatic transmission cycle of N. caninum between cervids and canids. Infection of canids increases the risk of transmitting the parasite to domestic livestock.

  9. Advances in Animal Cognition.

    PubMed

    Vonk, Jennifer

    2016-11-30

    This editorial endorses a diverse approach to the study of animal cognition and emphasizes the theoretical and applied gains that can be made by embracing this approach. This diversity emerges from cross-talk among scientists trained in a variety of backgrounds and theoretical approaches, who study a variety of topics with a range of species. By shifting from an anthropocentric focus on humans and our closest living relatives, and the historic reliance on the lab rat or pigeon, modern students of animal cognition have uncovered many fascinating facets of cognition in species ranging from insects to carnivores. Diversity in both topic and species of study will allow researchers to better understand the complex evolutionary forces giving rise to widely shared and unique cognitive processes. Furthermore, this increased understanding will translate into more effective strategies for managing wild and captive populations of nonhuman species.

  10. Advances in Animal Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Vonk, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This editorial endorses a diverse approach to the study of animal cognition and emphasizes the theoretical and applied gains that can be made by embracing this approach. This diversity emerges from cross-talk among scientists trained in a variety of backgrounds and theoretical approaches, who study a variety of topics with a range of species. By shifting from an anthropocentric focus on humans and our closest living relatives, and the historic reliance on the lab rat or pigeon, modern students of animal cognition have uncovered many fascinating facets of cognition in species ranging from insects to carnivores. Diversity in both topic and species of study will allow researchers to better understand the complex evolutionary forces giving rise to widely shared and unique cognitive processes. Furthermore, this increased understanding will translate into more effective strategies for managing wild and captive populations of nonhuman species. PMID:27916874

  11. Animal Allies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Brenda

    1999-01-01

    Discusses young teenagers' adoption of animal personas in their creative writing classes, and the way these classroom activities follow Montessori principles. Considers both the role of imagination in the animal identification and the psychological and pedagogical significance of the underlying development of unconscious kinship with Earth and its…

  12. Kindergarten Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  13. Animal Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  14. Enceladus Animation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-08-31

    This frame from an animation shows the Cassini spacecraft approaching Saturn's icy moon Enceladus. It shows the highest resolution images obtained of the moon's surface. This is followed by a depiction of Saturn's magnetic field, which interacts with Enceladus' atmosphere and presumed plume coming from the south pole. An animation is available at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03554

  15. Kindergarten Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  16. Animal Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  17. Excelsior Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinkamp, Mary J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art project where students used excelsior, shredded wood used for packing, to create animals. Explains that excelsior can be found at furniture and grocery stores. Discusses in detail the process of making the animals and includes learning objectives. (CMK)

  18. Animal health: foot-and-mouth disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious viral diseases that can affect cloven-hoofed livestock and wild animals. Outbreaks of FMD have caused devastating economic losses and the slaughter of millions of animals in many regions of the world affecting the food chain and global devel...

  19. Wild Duck Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    On April 7, 2005, the Deep Impact spacecraft's Impactor Target Sensor camera recorded this image of M11, the Wild Duck cluster, a galactic open cluster located 6 thousand light years away. The camera is located on the impactor spacecraft, which will image comet Tempel 1 beginning 22 hours before impact until about 2 seconds before impact. Impact with comet Tempel 1 is planned for July 4, 2005.

  20. Wild Duck Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    On April 7, 2005, the Deep Impact spacecraft's Impactor Target Sensor camera recorded this image of M11, the Wild Duck cluster, a galactic open cluster located 6 thousand light years away. The camera is located on the impactor spacecraft, which will image comet Tempel 1 beginning 22 hours before impact until about 2 seconds before impact. Impact with comet Tempel 1 is planned for July 4, 2005.

  1. Wild 2 Features

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-06-17

    These images taken by NASA's Stardust spacecraft highlight the diverse features that make up the surface of comet Wild 2, showing a variety of small pinnacles and mesas seen on the limb of the comet and the location of a 2-kilometer (1.2-mile) series of aligned scarps, or cliffs, that are best seen in the stereo images. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA06284

  2. Collapsing animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janse van Rensburg, E. J.; Orlandini, E.; Tesi, M. C.

    1999-03-01

    Lattice animals with fugacities conjugate to the number of indepedent cycles, or to the number of nearest neighbour contacts, go through a collapse transition at a 0305-4470/32/9/007/img5-point at a critical value of the fugacity. We examine the phase diagram of a model which includes both a cycle and a contact fugacity with Monte Carlo methods. Using an underlying cut-and-paste Metropolis algorithm for lattice animals, we implement in the first instance a multiple Markov chain simulation of collapsing animals to estimate the location of the collapse transitions and the values of the crossover exponents associated with these. Secondly, we use umbrella sampling to sample animals over a rectangle in the phase diagram to examine the structure of the phase diagram of these animals.

  3. Going WILD for Drupal

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, Jennifer; Sandberg, Tami

    2014-06-01

    The Wind-Wildlife Impacts Literature Database (WILD), formerly known as the Avian Literature Database, was created in 1997. The goal of the database was to begin tracking the research that detailed the potential impact of wind energy development on birds. The Avian Literature Database was originally housed on a proprietary platform called Livelink ECM from Open- Text and maintained by in-house technical staff. The initial set of records was added by library staff. A vital part of the newly launched Drupal-based WILD database is the Bibliography module. Many of the resources included in the database have digital object identifiers (DOI). The bibliographic information for any item that has a DOI can be imported into the database using this module. This greatly reduces the amount of manual data entry required to add records to the database. The content available in WILD is international in scope, which can be easily discerned by looking at the tags available in the browse menu.

  4. Wildlife of southern forests habitat & management (Chapter 16): Wild Hogs

    Treesearch

    James G. Dickson; John J. Mayer; John D. Dickson

    2003-01-01

    Wild hogs or swine are medium to large-sized, stout-bodied, and proportionately short-legged hoofed mammals with thick skin covered with sparse to dense coats of coarse bristles. These animals have elongated heads and snouts ending in a disc-like pad through which the external nares open. The only other species in the southern United States that resembles the wild hog...

  5. Ecotoxicology of Wild Mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2001-01-01

    An international group of 32 scientists has critically reviewed the scientific literature on exposure and effects of environmental contaminants in wild mammals. The underlying theme of this text is encompassed by the following four questions: What exactly do we know about environmental contaminants in mammals? What are the commonalities and differences between mammal orders/species in the effects that contaminants have? How and to what degree of accuracy can we predict the adverse effects of environmental contaminants on mammalian wildlife? How significant are contaminant insults compared with other density-independent and -dependent factors such as habitat loss, climatic factors and disease? The book is organized three topical sections including introductory chapters that provide a background on environmental contaminants and the mammalian orders, eight taxonomic chapters discussing all aspects of the exposure to and effects of contaminants in mammalian orders, and four thematic chapters that review and discuss generic issues including biomarkers, prediction and extrapolation of exposure and effects, hazard and risk assessment, and the relative significance of contaminants on mammals compared with other commonly encountered stressors. A final a summary chapter identifies phylogenetic trends, critical data gaps, and overarching research needs. Although the absolute number of toxicological studies in domesticated and wild mammals eclipses that wildlife species, a detailed examination of our knowledge base reveals that information for 'wild' birds is actually greater than that for 'wild' mammals. Of the various mammalian taxa, ecotoxicological data is most noticeably lacking for marsupials and monotremes. In contrast, rodents (comprising 43% of all mammal species) have been studied extensively, despite evidence of their tolerance to some organochlorine compounds, rodenticides, and even radionuclides. Mammalian species at greatest risk of exposure include those that

  6. Selection signature in domesticated animals.

    PubMed

    Zhangyuan, Pan; Xiaoyun, He; Xiangyu, Wang; Xiaofei, Guo; Xiaohan, Cao; Wenping, Hu; Ran, Di; Qiuyue, Liu; Mingxing, Chu

    2016-12-20

    Domesticated animals play an important role in the life of humanity. All these domesticated animals undergo same process, first domesticated from wild animals, then after long time natural and artificial selection, formed various breeds that adapted to the local environment and human needs. In this process, domestication, natural and artificial selection will leave the selection signal in the genome. The research on these selection signals can find functional genes directly, is one of the most important strategies in screening functional genes. The current studies of selection signal have been performed in pigs, chickens, cattle, sheep, goats, dogs and other domestic animals, and found a great deal of functional genes. This paper provided an overview of the types and the detected methods of selection signal, and outlined researches of selection signal in domestic animals, and discussed the key issues in selection signal analysis and its prospects.

  7. [The wild boar of Egypt].

    PubMed

    Manlius, N; Gautier, A

    1999-07-01

    The wild boar, Sus scrofa, is not a typical member of the Egyptian wild fauna, although it appears to have lived in the Nile Delta and other suitable regions in the north of the country. However, historic populations were probably of mixed origin, including feral domestic pigs. It is incorrect, as is sometimes still done, to include the wild boar in the iconographic bestiary of Ancient Egypt and assume that the domestic pigs of Ancient Egypt derive from local wild boars.

  8. Animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  9. Measuring Hearing in Wild Beluga Whales.

    PubMed

    Mooney, T Aran; Castellote, Manuel; Quakenbush, Lori; Hobbs, Roderick; Goertz, Caroline; Gaglione, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We measured the hearing abilities of seven wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) during a collection-and-release experiment in Bristol Bay, AK. Here we summarize the methods and initial data from one animal and discuss the implications of this experiment. Audiograms were collected from 4 to 150 kHz. The animal with the lowest threshold heard best at 80 kHz and demonstrated overall good hearing from 22 to 110 kHz. The robustness of the methodology and data suggest that the auditory evoked potential audiograms can be incorporated into future collection-and-release health assessments. Such methods may provide high-quality results for multiple animals, facilitating population-level audiograms and hearing measures in new species.

  10. Imitation and traditions in wild banded mongooses.

    PubMed

    Müller, Corsin A; Cant, Michael A

    2010-07-13

    Evidence has accumulated in recent years indicating that traditions are not a unique feature of human societies but may be common in primates and some other mammals. However, most documented cases remain contentious because observational studies of free-living animals suffer from interpretive weaknesses, whereas social diffusion experiments performed in captivity may not reflect conditions found in nature. Here we use experiments under natural conditions to demonstrate that wild banded mongooses (Mungos mungo) pass preferences for one of two possible foraging techniques on to the next generation through contextual imitation. Notably, both techniques coexisted within the same groups and were transmitted concurrently between adults and pups, which form close one-to-one associations during the period of pup dependency. This experimental demonstration of a foraging tradition in wild mammals provides critical evidence to support previous accounts of traditions in nonhuman animals based on distribution patterns of natural behaviors. Moreover, our data provide the first experimental demonstration of imitation in wild mammals and, contrary to common assumption, show that social learning need not lead to an increased behavioral homogeneity within groups.

  11. Gathering and Preparing Wild Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, A. Dudley; Williams, Robert A.

    1975-01-01

    Discussed are the applications of gathering and preparing wild foods to environmental, survival, career, and community education programs. It recommends wild foods activities be used to stimulate social and historical studies of "return-to-nature" life styles. Wild food study also emphasizes man as part of the environment. (MR)

  12. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of foodborne bacteria in wild boars (Sus scrofa) and wild deer (Cervus nippon) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yoshimasa; Goshima, Tomoko; Mori, Tetsuya; Murakami, Mariko; Haruna, Mika; Ito, Kazuo; Yamada, Yukiko

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the role of wild boars and deer as reservoirs of foodborne bacteria. We investigated the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 and O26, and Listeria monocytogenes isolated from wild boars and deer in Japan, from July through December 2010. Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. were isolated from 43.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 35.0-52.6) and 7.4% (95% CI: 2.8-12.1) of rectal content samples of wild boars, respectively, but not from wild deer. The most common Campylobacter species was C. lanienae and C. hyointestinalis. The nine Salmonella serovars isolated were S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Agona (three isolates), S. Narashino (two), S. Enteritidis (one), S. Havana (one), S. Infantis (one), and S. Thompson (one). Five (16%) and 6 (29%) isolates of C. lanienae and C. hyointestinalis, respectively, were resistant to enrofloxacin. STEC O157 and O26 and L. monocytogenes were isolated from 2.3% (95% CI: 0-5.0), 0.8% (95% CI: 0-2.3), and 6.1% (95% CI: 1.7-10.5) of the rectal content samples of wild deer, respectively, but not from wild boars. This first nationwide survey of the prevalence of foodborne bacteria in wild boars and wild deer in Japan suggests that consumption of meat from these animals is associated with the risk of causing infection with these bacteria in humans. Moreover, these animals are potential vehicles for distribution of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria into their habitat. The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of such foodborne bacteria in these wild animals should be monitored periodically.

  13. Suzaku Animation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation depicts the Suzaku spacecraft. Suzaku (originally known as Astro-E2) was launched July 10, 2005, and maintains a low-Earth orbit while it observes X-rays from the universe. The satel...

  14. Pulsar Animation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Pulsars are thought to emit relatively narrow radio beams, shown as green in this animation. If these beams don't sweep toward Earth, astronomers cannot detect the radio signals. Pulsar gamma-ray e...

  15. Evidence of natural transmission of group A rotavirus between domestic pigs and wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okadera, Kota; Abe, Masako; Ito, Naoto; Morikawa, Shigeki; Yamasaki, Ari; Masatani, Tatsunori; Nakagawa, Keisuke; Yamaoka, Satoko; Sugiyama, Makoto

    2013-12-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are a major cause of acute dehydrating diarrhea in infants and young animals worldwide. RVAs have also been detected in several wild and zoo animals, indicating wide susceptibility of wild animals. However, the role of wild animals in the infection cycle of RVAs is unclear. Wild boars are indigenous in many countries in the world. Japanese wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax) have been migrating close to human habitats in Japan, indicating the possibility of natural transmission between domestic animals or humans and wild boars. We investigated infection of RVAs in wild boars in Japan to identify types of RVAs infecting wild animals. We obtained stool samples from 90 wild boars and detected a VP4 gene of RVAs by RT-semi-nested PCR. RVAs were detected in samples from four of the 90 wild boars. Nucleotide analyses of VP7 and VP4 genes revealed that the four strains belong to G9P[23], G4P[23], G9P[13] and G4P[6], suggesting a relation to porcine and human RVAs. We therefore characterized RVAs circulating among domestic pigs living in the same area as the wild boars. We collected stool samples from 82 domestic pigs. RVAs were detected in samples from 49 of the 82 domestic pigs. Phylogenetic and similarity analyses provided evidence for natural transmission between domestic pigs and wild boars. The results also suggested that natural reassortment events occurred before or after transmission between domestic pigs and wild boars. Our findings indicate the possibility that RVAs circulate among wild animals, humans and domestic animals in nature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Locomotion dynamics of hunting in wild cheetahs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A M; Lowe, J C; Roskilly, K; Hudson, P E; Golabek, K A; McNutt, J W

    2013-06-13

    Although the cheetah is recognised as the fastest land animal, little is known about other aspects of its notable athleticism, particularly when hunting in the wild. Here we describe and use a new tracking collar of our own design, containing a combination of Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial measurement units, to capture the locomotor dynamics and outcome of 367 predominantly hunting runs of five wild cheetahs in Botswana. A remarkable top speed of 25.9 m s(-1) (58 m.p.h. or 93 km h(-1)) was recorded, but most cheetah hunts involved only moderate speeds. We recorded some of the highest measured values for lateral and forward acceleration, deceleration and body-mass-specific power for any terrestrial mammal. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed locomotor information on the hunting dynamics of a large cursorial predator in its natural habitat.

  17. 43 CFR 4720.2-2 - Removal of excess animals from private lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Removal § 4720.2-2 Removal of excess animals from private lands. If the authorized officer determines that proper management requires the removal of wild horses...

  18. Orthopox virus infections in Eurasian wild rodents.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Paula M; Henttonen, Heikki; Hoffmann, Bernd; Kallio, Eva R; Korthase, Christian; Laakkonen, Juha; Niemimaa, Jukka; Palva, Airi; Schlegel, Mathias; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Suominen, Paula; Ulrich, Rainer G; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2011-08-01

    The genus Orthopoxvirus includes variola (smallpox) virus and zoonotic cowpox virus (CPXV). All orthopoxviruses (OPV) are serologically cross-reactive and cross-protective, and after the cessation of smallpox vaccination, CPXV and other OPV infections represent an emerging threat to human health. In this respect CPXV, with its reservoir in asymptomatically infected wild rodents, is of special importance. In Europe, clinical cowpox has been diagnosed in both humans and animals. The main objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of OPV infections in wild rodents in different parts of Eurasia and to compare the performance of three real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods in detecting OPV DNA in wildlife samples. We investigated 962 wild rodents from Northern Europe (Finland), Central Europe (Germany), and Northern Asia (Siberia, Russia) for the presence of OPV antibodies. According to a CPXV antigen-based immunofluorescence assay, animals from 13 of the 17 locations (76%) showed antibodies. Mean seroprevalence was 33% in Finland (variation between locations 0%-69%), 32% in Germany (0%-43%), and 3.2% (0%-15%) in Siberia. We further screened tissue samples from 513 of the rodents for OPV DNA using up to three real-time PCRs. Three rodents from two German and one Finnish location were OPV DNA positive. The amplicons were 96% to 100% identical to available CPXV sequences. Further, we demonstrated OPV infections as far east as the Baikal region and occurring in hamster and two other rodent species, ones previously unnoticed as possible reservoir hosts. Based on serological and PCR findings, Eurasian wild rodents are frequently but nonpersistently infected with OPVs. Results from three real-time PCR methods were highly concordant. This study extends the geographic range and wildlife species diversity in which OPV (or CPXV) viruses are naturally circulating.

  19. Animal Bioacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Neville H.

    Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model vocalization frequency scaling in animals hearing sound production animal animal biological biological bioacoustics whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

  20. Animal learning.

    PubMed

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Epidemiological Profile of Wild Rabies in Brazil (2002-2012).

    PubMed

    Rocha, S M; de Oliveira, S V; Heinemann, M B; Gonçalves, V S P

    2017-04-01

    Rabies is one of the most important zoonosis in the world with high impact on public health. Studies report the presence of Lyssavirus in reservoirs of the wild cycle, highlighting the role of wild canines, marmosets, and vampire and non-vampire bats as potential vectors of the disease to domestic animals and human beings. Therefore, the reintroduction of rabies in urban environments from reservoirs of the wild cycle is a matter of concern. This study describes the profile of rabies cases documented in Brazil from 2002 to 2012, with emphasis on the wild transmission cycle of the disease. We carried out a descriptive study using records with information on the time of infection, persons with infection and location of confirmed cases of rabies in humans and animals, as well as data on anti-rabies treatments obtained from the Information System of Notifiable Diseases (Sinan) database. Within the study period, 82 cases of rabies transmitted by wild animals to humans were reported, predominantly in rural areas of the northern and north-eastern regions. Of the cases in humans, 72% did not receive post-exposure prophylaxis. Among wild mammals, vampire bats were the most frequent vectors of the disease. In the north-east region, 460 terrestrial wild mammals were reported with confirmed rabies. Over the study period, 1703 bats were reported to carry the rabies virus. In the south-east region, the most frequently reported carriers of the virus were non-vampire bats. The midwest and northern regions presented a lower number of records of rabies cases among terrestrial wild mammals. However, the high number of rabies cases among bovines reflects the role of the vampire bat as a maintainer of the rabies virus in the rural cycle. The present results are key to adjust the planning of rabies control in Brazil to the current epidemiological trends. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Animal Identification

    PubMed Central

    Macpherson, J. W.; Penner, P.

    1967-01-01

    A number of branding tools of various metals and various sizes in combination with several wetting agents were cooled with liquid nitrogen and applied for different lengths of time to calves and mature cattle. White hair appeared in the shape of the brand on the animals in place of dark hair when the application was properly carried out. Best results can be obtained by using metal irons at least 25 millimeters thick and 14 millimeters wide with xylol as a wetting agent for ten seconds in young or thin skinned animals and up to twenty seconds in mature or thick skinned animals. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 5. PMID:4229181

  3. 78 FR 57227 - Animal Welfare; Retail Pet Stores and Licensing Exemptions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... not sell or negotiate the sale of any wild or exotic animal, dog, or cat and who derives no more than $500 gross income from the sale of the animals other than wild or exotic animals, dogs, or cats during any calendar year. We are also increasing from three to four the number of breeding female dogs, cats...

  4. Mycobacterium bovis infection in a wild sow (Sus scrofa): the first case in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Myung; Jang, Young-Boo; Jang, Yunho; Yu, So Yoon; Kim, Jiro; Moon, Oun Kyung; Jung, Suk Chan; Lee, Min Kwon; Jeong, Tae Nam

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium (M.) bovis causes tuberculosis and has a broad host range, including humans, livestock, and wild animals. M. bovis infection of wild boar has been reported in several European countries. We report here the first case of M. bovis infection in a domesticated wild sow in Korea. Granulomatous and necrotizing lesions with small numbers of acid-fast bacilli were observed in nodules of the lung of wild sow. Furthermore, the M. bovis isolate from the wild sow had spoligotype SB0140 and a novel MIRU-VNTR allelic profile, which is not found in cattle and deer in Korea. PMID:26726026

  5. Wilde's worlds: Sir William Wilde in Victorian Ireland.

    PubMed

    McGeachie, J

    2016-05-01

    Other contributors to this collection have evoked the disparate worlds inhabited by Sir William Wilde. To provide an overall assessment of his career. Looking at the historical conditions that made possible such a career spanning such disparate worlds. Deploying methodologies developed by historians of medicine and sociologists of science, the article brings together Wilde the nineteenth century clinician and Dublin man of science, the Wilde of the Census and of the west of Ireland, William Wilde Victorian medical man and Wilde the Irish medical man-the historian of Irish medical traditions and the biographer of Irish medical men, and William Wilde as an Irish Victorian. A variety of close British Isles parallels can be drawn between Wilde and his cohort in the medical elite of Dublin and their clinical peers in Edinburgh and London both in terms of clinical practice and self-presentation and in terms of the social and political challenges facing their respective ancient regime hegemonies in an age of democratic radicalisation. The shared ideological interests of Wilde and his cohort, however, were also challenged by the socio-political particularities and complexities of Ireland during the first half of the nineteenth century culminating in the catastrophe of the Great Famine. William Wilde saw the practice of scientific medicine as offering a means of deliverance from historical catastrophe for Irish society and invoked a specifically Irish scientific and medical tradition going back to the engagement with the condition of Ireland by enlightened medical men in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

  6. The role of wildlife (wild birds) in the global transmission of antimicrobial resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Ma, Zhen-Bao; Zeng, Zhen-Ling; Yang, Xue-Wen; Huang, Ying; Liu, Jian-Hua

    2017-03-18

    Antimicrobial resistance is an urgent global health challenge in human and veterinary medicine. Wild animals are not directly exposed to clinically relevant antibiotics; however, antibacterial resistance in wild animals has been increasingly reported worldwide in parallel to the situation in human and veterinary medicine. This underlies the complexity of bacterial resistance in wild animals and the possible interspecies transmission between humans, domestic animals, the environment, and wildlife. This review summarizes the current data on expanded-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC β-lactamase, carbapenemase, and colistin resistance genes in Enterobacteriaceae isolates of wildlife origin. The aim of this review is to better understand the important role of wild animals as reservoirs and vectors in the global dissemination of crucial clinical antibacterial resistance. In this regard, continued surveillance is urgently needed worldwide.

  7. The role of wildlife (wild birds) in the global transmission of antimicrobial resistance genes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Ma, Zhen-Bao; Zeng, Zhen-Ling; Yang, Xue-Wen; Huang, Ying; Liu, Jian-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is an urgent global health challenge in human and veterinary medicine. Wild animals are not directly exposed to clinically relevant antibiotics; however, antibacterial resistance in wild animals has been increasingly reported worldwide in parallel to the situation in human and veterinary medicine. This underlies the complexity of bacterial resistance in wild animals and the possible interspecies transmission between humans, domestic animals, the environment, and wildlife. This review summarizes the current data on expanded-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC β-lactamase, carbapenemase, and colistin resistance genes in Enterobacteriaceae isolates of wildlife origin. The aim of this review is to better understand the important role of wild animals as reservoirs and vectors in the global dissemination of crucial clinical antibacterial resistance. In this regard, continued surveillance is urgently needed worldwide. PMID:28409502

  8. Wild Type and PPAR KO Dataset

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Data set 1 consists of the experimental data for the Wild Type and PPAR KO animal study and includes data used to prepare Figures 1-4 and Table 1 of the Das et al, 2016 paper.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Das, K., C. Wood, M. Lin, A.A. Starkov, C. Lau, K.B. Wallace, C. Corton, and B. Abbott. Perfluoroalky acids-induced liver steatosis: Effects on genes controlling lipid homeostasis. TOXICOLOGY. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, 378: 32-52, (2017).

  9. Transgenic Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  10. Transgenic Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  11. Curriculum Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gose, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-five teachers with reputations for artistry in curriculum planning were interviewed about their "curriculum animation" plans or how they ensured their curriculum was brought to life. Their statements indicated that much of their planning is informal and intuitive, and that the criteria they use for their curriculum includes: (1) it is…

  12. Animal impacts

    Treesearch

    Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    The aspen ecosystem is rich in number and species of animals, especially in comparison to associated coniferous forest types. This natural species diversity and richness has been both increased and influenced by the introduction of domestic livestock. The high value of the aspen type as a forage resource for livestock and as forage and cover for wildlife makes the...

  13. Animal Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  14. Animal Bioacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Neville

    Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

  15. Animal Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  16. Wild sheep and deer in Hawai'i: a threat to fragile ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steven C.

    2008-01-01

    The unique native flora of the Hawaiian Islands, which evolved in the absence of ungulates (grazing animals), is highly vulnerable to damage by trampling and browsing. Wild ungulates introduced into Hawai'i in the past 150 years, including mouflon, axis deer, and mule deer, have severely harmed the native flora. Control measures used against feral animals do not work as well against these wild animals. Trophy hunting tends to alter sex ratios and increase population growth. U.S. Geological Survey scientists are studying these wild ungulates in order to develop more effective control measures that help protect Hawai'i's endemic flora.

  17. Wild boars as sources for infectious diseases in livestock and humans

    PubMed Central

    Meng, X. J.; Lindsay, D. S.; Sriranganathan, N.

    2009-01-01

    Wild boars (Sus scrofa) are indigenous in many countries in the world. These free-living swine are known reservoirs for a number of viruses, bacteria and parasites that are transmissible to domestic animals and humans. Changes of human habitation to suburban areas, increased use of lands for agricultural purposes, increased hunting activities and consumption of wild boar meat have increased the chances of exposure of wild boars to domestic animals and humans. Wild boars can act as reservoirs for many important infectious diseases in domestic animals, such as classical swine fever, brucellosis and trichinellosis, and in humans, diseases such as hepatitis E, tuberculosis, leptospirosis and trichinellosis. For examples, wild boars are reservoirs for hepatitis E virus, and cluster cases of hepatitis E have been reported in Japan of humans who consumed wild boar meat. In Canada, an outbreak of trichinellosis was linked to the consumption of wild boar meat. The incidence of tuberculosis owing to Mycobacterium bovis has increased in wild boars, thus posing a potential concern for infections in livestock and humans. It has also been documented that six hunters contracted Brucella suis infections from wild swine in Florida. This article discusses the prevalence and risk of infectious agents in wild boars and their potential transmission to livestock and humans. PMID:19687039

  18. Engendering Anthropocentrism: Lessons from Children's Realistic Animal Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kathleen R.

    In children's realistic stories about animals a number of wholly and unambiguously anthropocentric assumptions are at work. For instance, in a study most of the books (81%) in one sampling of 50 stories involve a pet or the process of domesticating a wild animal. In most cases the primary animal character is a dog or horse. The predominance of…

  19. Novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Isolate from a Wild Chimpanzee

    PubMed Central

    Coscolla, Mireia; Lewin, Astrid; Metzger, Sonja; Maetz-Rennsing, Kerstin; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Nitsche, Andreas; Dabrowski, Pjotr Wojtek; Radonic, Aleksandar; Niemann, Stefan; Parkhill, Julian; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Feldman, Julia; Comas, Iñaki; Boesch, Christophe; Gagneux, Sebastien

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by gram-positive bacteria known as the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). MTBC include several human-associated lineages and several variants adapted to domestic and, more rarely, wild animal species. We report an M. tuberculosis strain isolated from a wild chimpanzee in Côte d’Ivoire that was shown by comparative genomic and phylogenomic analyses to belong to a new lineage of MTBC, closer to the human-associated lineage 6 (also known as M. africanum West Africa 2) than to the other classical animal-associated MTBC strains. These results show that the general view of the genetic diversity of MTBC is limited and support the possibility that other MTBC variants exist, particularly in wild mammals in Africa. Exploring this diversity is crucial to the understanding of the biology and evolutionary history of this widespread infectious disease. PMID:23735084

  20. Novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolate from a wild chimpanzee.

    PubMed

    Coscolla, Mireia; Lewin, Astrid; Metzger, Sonja; Maetz-Rennsing, Kerstin; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Nitsche, Andreas; Dabrowski, Pjotr Wojtek; Radonic, Aleksandar; Niemann, Stefan; Parkhill, Julian; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Feldman, Julia; Comas, Iñaki; Boesch, Christophe; Gagneux, Sebastien; Leendertz, Fabian H

    2013-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by gram-positive bacteria known as the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). MTBC include several human-associated lineages and several variants adapted to domestic and, more rarely, wild animal species. We report an M. tuberculosis strain isolated from a wild chimpanzee in Côte d'Ivoire that was shown by comparative genomic and phylogenomic analyses to belong to a new lineage of MTBC, closer to the human-associated lineage 6 (also known as M. africanum West Africa 2) than to the other classical animal-associated MTBC strains. These results show that the general view of the genetic diversity of MTBC is limited and support the possibility that other MTBC variants exist, particularly in wild mammals in Africa. Exploring this diversity is crucial to the understanding of the biology and evolutionary history of this widespread infectious disease.

  1. Isolation of dermatophytes in wild felids from screening centers

    PubMed Central

    Albano, Ana Paula N.; da Silva Nascente, Patrícia; Meirelles Leite, Alice T.; Xavier, Melissa O.; Santin, Rosema; Mattei, Antonella Souza; Humberg, Roberta M.P.; Coimbra, Marco Antonio A.; Minello, Luiz Fernando; Meireles, Mario C.A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was detect the presence of dermatophyte fungi on wild felids from screening centers. Samples were taken from 30 animals, assembled in two groups: “free-ranging” and “transitory captivity”. The dermatophytes (Trichophyton genus), isolated from two felids (6.6%), both of the group “free-ranging”. PMID:24159301

  2. Wild Horses: Stories and Activities. The Wonder Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorehead, Carol Ann

    This curriculum guide is all about wild horses and provides information through the telling of stories about these animals and their history and folklore. The activities contained in this guide employ an interdisciplinary approach and use mazes, puzzles, model-building, and board games to interest and inform students. Topics covered include the…

  3. Wild Horses: Stories and Activities. The Wonder Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorehead, Carol Ann

    This curriculum guide is all about wild horses and provides information through the telling of stories about these animals and their history and folklore. The activities contained in this guide employ an interdisciplinary approach and use mazes, puzzles, model-building, and board games to interest and inform students. Topics covered include the…

  4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Wild Asian Elephants, Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Zachariah, Arun; Pandiyan, Jeganathan; Madhavilatha, G.K.; Mundayoor, Sathish; Chandramohan, Bathrachalam; Sajesh, P.K.; Santhosh, Sam

    2017-01-01

    We tested 3 ild Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in southern India and confirmed infection in 3 animals with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an obligate human pathogen, by PCR and genetic sequencing. Our results indicate that tuberculosis may be spilling over from humans (reverse zoonosis) and emerging in wild elephants. PMID:28221104

  5. Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Wild Asian Elephants, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Zachariah, Arun; Pandiyan, Jeganathan; Madhavilatha, G K; Mundayoor, Sathish; Chandramohan, Bathrachalam; Sajesh, P K; Santhosh, Sam; Mikota, Susan K

    2017-03-01

    We tested 3 ild Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in southern India and confirmed infection in 3 animals with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an obligate human pathogen, by PCR and genetic sequencing. Our results indicate that tuberculosis may be spilling over from humans (reverse zoonosis) and emerging in wild elephants.

  6. Variable Nitrogen Fixation in Wild Populus

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Sharon L.; Sher, Andrew W.; Fleck, Neil D.; Khorasani, Mahsa; Bumgarner, Roger E.; Khan, Zareen; Ko, Andrew W. K.; Kim, Soo-Hyung; DeLuca, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    The microbiome of plants is diverse, and like that of animals, is important for overall health and nutrient acquisition. In legumes and actinorhizal plants, a portion of essential nitrogen (N) is obtained through symbiosis with nodule-inhabiting, N2-fixing microorganisms. However, a variety of non-nodulating plant species can also thrive in natural, low-N settings. Some of these species may rely on endophytes, microorganisms that live within plants, to fix N2 gas into usable forms. Here we report the first direct evidence of N2 fixation in the early successional wild tree, Populus trichocarpa, a non-leguminous tree, from its native riparian habitat. In order to measure N2 fixation, surface-sterilized cuttings of wild poplar were assayed using both 15N2 incorporation and the commonly used acetylene reduction assay. The 15N label was incorporated at high levels in a subset of cuttings, suggesting a high level of N-fixation. Similarly, acetylene was reduced to ethylene in some samples. The microbiota of the cuttings was highly variable, both in numbers of cultured bacteria and in genetic diversity. Our results indicated that associative N2-fixation occurred within wild poplar and that a non-uniformity in the distribution of endophytic bacteria may explain the variability in N-fixation activity. These results point to the need for molecular studies to decipher the required microbial consortia and conditions for effective endophytic N2-fixation in trees. PMID:27196608

  7. Variable Nitrogen Fixation in Wild Populus.

    PubMed

    Doty, Sharon L; Sher, Andrew W; Fleck, Neil D; Khorasani, Mahsa; Bumgarner, Roger E; Khan, Zareen; Ko, Andrew W K; Kim, Soo-Hyung; DeLuca, Thomas H

    2016-01-01

    The microbiome of plants is diverse, and like that of animals, is important for overall health and nutrient acquisition. In legumes and actinorhizal plants, a portion of essential nitrogen (N) is obtained through symbiosis with nodule-inhabiting, N2-fixing microorganisms. However, a variety of non-nodulating plant species can also thrive in natural, low-N settings. Some of these species may rely on endophytes, microorganisms that live within plants, to fix N2 gas into usable forms. Here we report the first direct evidence of N2 fixation in the early successional wild tree, Populus trichocarpa, a non-leguminous tree, from its native riparian habitat. In order to measure N2 fixation, surface-sterilized cuttings of wild poplar were assayed using both 15N2 incorporation and the commonly used acetylene reduction assay. The 15N label was incorporated at high levels in a subset of cuttings, suggesting a high level of N-fixation. Similarly, acetylene was reduced to ethylene in some samples. The microbiota of the cuttings was highly variable, both in numbers of cultured bacteria and in genetic diversity. Our results indicated that associative N2-fixation occurred within wild poplar and that a non-uniformity in the distribution of endophytic bacteria may explain the variability in N-fixation activity. These results point to the need for molecular studies to decipher the required microbial consortia and conditions for effective endophytic N2-fixation in trees.

  8. Evolutionary significance of ageing in the wild.

    PubMed

    Kowald, Axel; Kirkwood, Thomas B L

    2015-11-01

    Human lifespan has risen dramatically over the last 150 years, leading to a significant increase in the fraction of aged people in the population. Until recently it was believed that this contrasted strongly with the situation in wild populations of animals, where the likelihood of encountering demonstrably senescent individuals was believed to be negligible. Over the recent years, however, a series of field studies has appeared that shows ageing can also be observed for many species in the wild. We discuss here the relevance of this finding for the different evolutionary theories of ageing, since it has been claimed that ageing in the wild is incompatible with the so-called non-adaptive (non-programmed) theories, i.e. those in which ageing is presumed not to offer a direct selection benefit. We show that a certain proportion of aged individuals in the population is fully compatible with the antagonistic pleiotropy and the disposable soma theories, while it is difficult to reconcile with the mutation accumulation theory. We also quantify the costs of ageing using life history data from recent field studies and a range of possible metrics. We discuss the merits and problems of the different metrics and also introduce a new metric, yearly death toll, that aims directly at quantifying the deaths caused by the ageing process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Dangerous animals].

    PubMed

    Hasle, Gunnar

    2002-06-30

    As travellers seek ever more exotic destinations they are more likely to encounter dangerous animals. Compared to risks such as AIDS, traffic accidents and malaria, the risk is not so great; many travellers are, however, concerned about this and those who give pre-travel vaccines and advice should know something about it. This article is mainly based on medical and zoological textbooks. Venomous stings and bites may be prevented by adequate clothing and by keeping safe distance to the animals. Listening to those who live in the area is of course important. Travellers should not carry antisera with them, but antisera should be available at local hospitals. It should be borne in mind that plant eaters cause just as many deaths as large predators. In some cases it is necessary to carry a sufficiently powerful firearm.

  10. Animal leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Ellis, William A

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a global disease of animals, which can have a major economic impact on livestock industries and is an important zoonosis. The current knowledge base is heavily biased towards the developed agricultural economies. The disease situation in the developing economies presents a major challenge as humans and animals frequently live in close association. The severity of disease varies with the infecting serovar and the affected species, but there are many common aspects across the species; for example, the acute phase of infection is mostly sub-clinical and the greatest economic losses arise from chronic infection causing reproductive wastage. The principles of, and tests for, diagnosis, treatment, control and surveillance are applicable across the species.

  11. Hepatitis E Virus in Wild Boars and Spillover Infection in Red and Roe Deer, Germany, 2013–2015

    PubMed Central

    Anheyer-Behmenburg, Helena E.; Szabo, Kathrin; Schotte, Ulrich; Binder, Alfred; Klein, Günter

    2017-01-01

    To determine animal hepatitis E virus (HEV) reservoirs, we analyzed serologic and molecular markers of HEV infection among wild animals in Germany. We detected HEV genotype 3 strains in inner organs and muscle tissues of a high percentage of wild boars and a lower percentage of deer, indicating a risk for foodborne infection of humans. PMID:27983488

  12. Animal communication.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Gisela

    2014-11-01

    Animal communication is first and foremost about signal transmission and aims to understand how communication occurs. It is a field that has contributed to and been inspired by other fields, from information technology to neuroscience, in finding ever better methods to eavesdrop on the actual 'message' that forms the basis of communication. Much of this review deals with vocal communication as an example of the questions that research on communication has tried to answer and it provides an historical overview of the theoretical arguments proposed. Topics covered include signal transmission in different environments and different species, referential signaling, and intentionality. The contention is that animal communication may reveal significant thought processes that enable some individuals in a small number of species so far investigated to anticipate what conspecifics might do, although some researchers think of such behavior as adaptive or worth dismissing as anthropomorphizing. The review further points out that some species are more likely than others to develop more complex communication patterns. It is a matter of asking how animals categorize their world and which concepts require cognitive processes and which are adaptive. The review concludes with questions of life history, social learning, and decision making, all criteria that have remained relatively unexplored in communication research. Long-lived, cooperative social animals have so far offered especially exciting prospects for investigation. There are ample opportunities and now very advanced technologies as well to tap further into expressions of memory of signals, be they vocal or expressed in other modalities. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:661-677. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1321 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Why study cognition in the wild (and how to test it)?

    PubMed

    Pritchard, David J; Hurly, T Andrew; Tello-Ramos, Maria C; Healy, Susan D

    2016-01-01

    An animal's behavior is affected by its cognitive abilities, which are, in turn, a consequence of the environment in which an animal has evolved and developed. Although behavioral ecologists have been studying animals in their natural environment for several decades, over much the same period animal cognition has been studied almost exclusively in the laboratory. Traditionally, the study of animal cognition has been based on well-established paradigms used to investigate well-defined cognitive processes. This allows identification of what animals can do, but may not, however, always reflect what animals actually do in the wild. As both ecologists and some psychologists increasingly try to explain behaviors observable only in wild animals, we review the different motivations and methodologies used to study cognition in the wild and identify some of the challenges that accompany the combination of a naturalistic approach together with typical psychological testing paradigms. We think that studying animal cognition in the wild is likely to be most productive when the questions addressed correspond to the species' ecology and when laboratory cognitive tests are appropriately adapted for use in the field. Furthermore, recent methodological and technological advances will likely allow significant expansion of the species and questions that can be addressed in the wild.

  14. The Wilde analyst.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joel

    2013-03-01

    Oscar Wilde (1854-1900) took on the challenge of teaching us how to live artfully. From the dynamic successes and tragedies of his own life Oscar knew that everything worthy of existence is worthy of art, including its ugliness and suffering. Oscar observed much about human nature, especially his own, in an era when convention was not challenged, knowledge was taught and appearances were everything. For him, "The supreme vice is shallowness."(1) Society and psychoanalysis can still be honored and shaken by his words. The paradoxical and complex nature of Oscar's insights was as good as any coming from a thoughtful psychoanalyst. After the first two attempts to write about Oscar fell flat, it became clear that I must engage with him and try to match the unsparing commitment to explore his unconscious and interior life. In the process of creating the array of sketches of my psychoanalytic encounters with Oscar, I also found the words to describe what drew me to the field some 20 years ago-the art of psychoanalysis.

  15. Babesiosis of wild carnivores and ungulates.

    PubMed

    Penzhorn, Banie L

    2006-05-31

    Although large and small piroplasms have been reported from various wild carnivore and ungulate species, relatively few have been named. In the past, mere presence of a piroplasm in a specific host frequently prompted naming of a new species. Descriptions were often inadequate or lacking altogether. Currently, demarcation of species relies heavily on molecular characterisation. Even serological evidence is deemed insufficient. Experimental transmission of Babesia spp. from domestic to wild animals is usually only successful in closely related species, or after splenectomy. There are indications that endemic stability, similar to the situation in livestock, is the general pattern in Babesia sp. infections in wildlife. All lions in Kruger National Park were found to be infected with B. leo, which did not lead to clinical disease manifestation in artificially infected lions. Under stressful conditions, infections could flare up and be fatal, as purportedly happened to the famous lioness "Elsa". Similarly black rhinos, which can harbour Babesia bicornis without ill effects, may develop clinical babesiosis during confinement after capture. Zoo-bred animals, which were not exposed to Babesia spp. at a young age, may be fully susceptible when released into a natural environment where other members of their species occur. This could have major implications for ex situ conservation programmes aimed at bolstering natural wildlife populations.

  16. Social recognition in wild fish populations

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Ashley J.W; Webster, Michael M; Hart, Paul J.B

    2007-01-01

    The ability of animals to gather information about their social and physical environment is essential for their ecological function. Odour cues are an important component of this information gathering across taxa. Recent laboratory studies have revealed the importance of flexible chemical cues in facilitating social recognition of fishes. These cues are known to be mediated by recent habitat experience and fishes are attracted to individuals that smell like themselves. However, to be relevant to wild populations, where animals may move and forage freely, these cues would have to be temporally flexible and allow spatial resolution. Here, we present data from a study of social recognition in wild populations of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Focal fish preferentially associated with conspecifics from the same habitat as themselves. These preferences were changed and updated following translocation of the focal fish to a different site. Further investigation revealed that association preferences changed after 3 h of exposure to different habitat cues. In addition to temporal flexibility, the cues also allowed a high degree of spatial resolution: fish taken from sites 200 m apart produced cues that were sufficiently different to enable the focal fish to discriminate and associate with fish captured near their own home site. The adaptive benefits of this social recognition mechanism remain unclear, though they may allow fish to orient within their social environment and gain current local information. PMID:17284411

  17. [Liberation into the wild of wild felines--danger of the release of virus infections].

    PubMed

    Lutz, H; Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Fehr, D; Leutenegger, C; Hartmann, M; Ossent, P; Grob, M; Elgizoli, M; Weilenmann, P

    1996-01-01

    There are several felidae amongst the numerous endangered species. Means of aiding survival are the reintroduction to the wild of animals bred under the auspices of man and their relocation from densely populated to thinly populated areas. It is unlikely that the dangers of such reintroduction or relocation projects have been examined sufficiently in respect to the risks of virus infections confronting individuals kept in zoos or similar situations. This report presents three examples to illustrate that accidental virus infections may be expected to occur when relocating and reintroducing wild cats. The first example is the reintroduction of captive snow leopards. Zoo bred snow leopards may be infected with FIV, a virus infection that is highly unlikely to occur in the original himalayan highlands of Tibet and China. A second example is of several cases of FIP that occurred in European wild cats bred in groups in captivity. The third example mentioned is the relocation of lions from East Africa where all the commonly known feline viruses are wide-spread to the Etosha National Park. In the latter, virus infections such as FIV, FCV and FPV do not occur. The indiscriminate relocation and reintroduction of the wild cats mentioned here harbours a potential of undesirable consequences.

  18. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Frequently Asked Questions Animal Drug Safety Frequently Asked Questions Share Tweet Linkedin ...

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium bovis Strain D-10-02315 Isolated from Wild Boar

    PubMed Central

    Branger, Maxime; Hauer, Amandine; Michelet, Lorraine; Karoui, Claudine; Cochard, Thierry; De Cruz, Krystel; Henault, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is the etiologic agent of bovine tuberculosis, a chronic infectious disease, affecting livestock, wild animals, and sometimes humans. We report the draft genome sequence of a Mycobacterium bovis strain isolated from wild boar of spoligotype SB0120 (or BCG-like) also present in wildlife-livestock multi-host systems. PMID:27834714

  20. Project Wild and the Dominant Western Paradigm: A Content Analysis Utilizing Deep Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Blake

    Environmental educators utilize activity guides as a primary method of diffusing environmental education material into educational settings. The most popular environmental education activity guide in use today is Project WILD. Project WILD has come under fire by various groups, especially animal rights groups. Accordingly, a content analysis study…

  1. Animal Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  2. The high prevalence of hepatitis E virus infection in wild boars in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    MOTOYA, Takumi; NAGATA, Noriko; KOMORI, Harumi; DOI, Ikuko; KUROSAWA, Miho; KETA, Toshimasa; SASAKI, Nobuya; ISHII, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is known as a causative agent of zoonosis and food poisoning. Pigs and some species of wild animals, including wild boar, are known to be a reservoir of HEV. In this study, we investigated the situation regarding HEV infection in wild boars in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. Serum, liver and feces samples from 68 animals were collected, and the presence or absence of HEV genomic RNA and HEV antibodies were analyzed. The viral genome was detected in samples from 7 (10.3%) animals, with all HEVs classified as genotype 3, subtype 3b. HEV antibodies were detected in samples from 28 (41%) animals. This report demonstrates for the first time the high prevalence of HEV infection in wild boars in Ibaraki Prefecture. PMID:26234737

  3. First detection of sarcoptic mange in free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Haas, C; Origgi, F C; Akdesir, E; Batista Linhares, M; Giovannini, S; Mavrot, F; Casaubon, J; Ryser-Degiorgis, M-P

    2015-05-01

    In Switzerland sarcoptic mange is frequent in free-ranging wild carnivores but until recent years no cases had been recorded in wild ungulates. Since 2010, cases have been observed in wild boar in the cantons of Solothurn, Tessin and Thurgau. Here, we report the detection of mange-like skin lesions in wild boars by photo-trapping and the post-mortem findings in 6 culled animals presenting different stages of the disease. Potential sources of infection include mangy red foxes, outdoor domestic pigs and wild boars from surrounding countries. Disease spread in the wild boar population may become relevant not only for wildlife but also for domestic pig health in the future if piggeries' biosecurity is insufficient to prevent interactions with wild boar.

  4. Animal papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Rector, Annabel; Van Ranst, Marc

    2013-10-01

    We provide an overview of the host range, taxonomic classification and genomic diversity of animal papillomaviruses. The complete genomes of 112 non-human papillomavirus types, recovered from 54 different host species, are currently available in GenBank. The recent characterizations of reptilian papillomaviruses extend the host range of the Papillomaviridae to include all amniotes. Although the genetically diverse papillomaviruses have a highly conserved genomic lay-out, deviations from this prototypic genome organization are observed in several animal papillomaviruses, and only the core ORFs E1, E2, L2 and L1 are present in all characterized papillomavirus genomes. The discovery of papilloma-polyoma hybrids BPCV1 and BPCV2, containing a papillomaviral late region but an early region encoding typical polyomaviral nonstructural proteins, and the detection of recombination breakpoints between the early and late coding regions of cetacean papillomaviruses, could indicate that early and late gene cassettes of papillomaviruses are relatively independent entities that can be interchanged by recombination. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic variation in domestic reindeer and wild caribou in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, M.; Renecker, L.; Pierson, Barbara J.; Patton, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Reindeer were introduced into Alaska 100 years ago and have been maintained as semidomestic livestock. They have had contact with wild caribou herds, including deliberate cross-breeding and mixing in the wild. Reindeer have considerable potential as a domestic animal for meat or velvet antler production, and wild caribou are important to subsistence and sport hunters. Our objective was to quantify the genetic relationships of reindeer and caribou in Alaska. We identified allelic variation among five herds of wild caribou and three herds of reindeer with DNA sequencing and restriction enzymes for three loci: a DQA locus of the major histocompatibility complex (Rata-DQA1), k-casein and the D-loop of mitochondrial DNA. These loci are of interest because of their potential influence on domestic animal performance and the fitness of wild populations. There is considerable genetic variation in reindeer and caribou for all three loci, including five, three and six alleles for DQA, k-casein and D-loop respectively. Most alleles occur in both reindeer and caribou, which may be the result of recent common ancestry or genetic introgression in either direction. However, allele frequencies differ considerably between reindeer and caribou, which suggests that gene flow has been limited.

  6. Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis in wild boars in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Myung; Ku, Bok Kyung; Lee, Haet-nim; Hwang, In-Yeong; Jang, Young-Boo; Kim, Jaejo; Hyun, Bang-Hun; Jung, Suk Chan

    2013-04-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes chronic infectious enteritis in various domestic and wild mammals and is widely distributed globally. Interspecies transmission has been frequently reported. We investigated the presence of MAP from December 2010 to March 2011 in blood and feces collected from 222 hunter-killed wild boars. We collected 197 serum and 180 fecal samples and examined them by culture, PCR, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We investigated the status of MAP infection and the MAP genotypes in the wild boar population of Korea by using IS900 PCR and IS1311-restriction endonuclease analysis typing. Of the 180 fecal samples cultured, MAP colonies were recovered from two. By PCR, 18 animals were positive for MAP and one serum sample had a strong humoral response to MAP. The PCR-positive DNA samples from the colonies and the feces samples were genotyped as "cattle type" and "bison type," which are major MAP genotypes infecting domestic species in Korea. Our study provides new information on mycobacterial infection among wild boars, and suggests that a more effective program should be developed to monitor mycobacterial infections in wild animal populations in Korea.

  7. Markers for Ongoing or Previous Hepatitis E Virus Infection Are as Common in Wild Ungulates as in Humans in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Anette; Lin, Jay; Magnius, Lars; Karlsson, Marie; Belák, Sándór; Widén, Frederik; Norder, Heléne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a human pathogen with zoonotic spread, infecting both domestic and wild animals. About 17% of the Swedish population is immune to HEV, but few cases are reported annually, indicating that most infections are subclinical. However, clinical hepatitis E may also be overlooked. For identified cases, the source of infection is mostly unknown. In order to identify whether HEV may be spread from wild game, the prevalence of markers for past and/or ongoing infection was investigated in sera and stool samples collected from 260 hunted Swedish wild ungulates. HEV markers were found in 43 (17%) of the animals. The most commonly infected animal was moose (Alces alces) with 19 out of 69 animals (28%) showing HEV markers, followed by wild boar (Sus scrofa) with 21 out of 139 animals (15%), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) with 2 out of 30 animals, red deer (Cervus elaphus) with 1 out of 15 animals, and fallow deer (Dama dama) 0 out of 7 animals. Partial open reading frame 1 (ORF1) of the viral genomes from the animals were sequenced and compared with those from 14 endemic human cases. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that three humans were infected with HEV strains similar to those from wild boar. These results indicate that wild animals may be a source of transmission to humans and could be an unrecognized public health concern. PMID:27657108

  8. Epizootic canine distemper virus infection among wild mammals.

    PubMed

    Kameo, Yuki; Nagao, Yumiko; Nishio, Yohei; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Nakano, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Kazuo; Une, Yumi; Sato, Hiroshi; Shimojima, Masayuki; Maeda, Ken

    2012-01-27

    In the spring of 2007, seven raccoon dogs and a weasel were captured near the city of Tanabe in Wakayama prefecture, Japan. The causative agent of the animals' death 1-2 days after capture was identified as canine distemper virus (CDV) by virus isolation, immunostaining with an anti-CDV polyclonal antibody, and a commercially available CDV antigen-detection kit. Sequence analysis of hemagglutinin genes indicated the isolated viruses belong to genotype Asia-1 and possess the substitution from tyrosine (Y) to histidine (H) at position 549 that is associated with the spread of CDV to non-canine hosts. A serosurvey for CDV was then conducted among wild animals in the region. The animals assayed consisted of 104 raccoons, 41 wild boars, 19 raccoon dogs, five Sika deer, two badgers, one weasel, one marten, one Siberian weasel and one fox. Virus-neutralization (VN) tests showed that, except for fox and weasel, all of the species assayed had VN antibodies to CDV. Interestingly, 11 of the 41 wild boars (27%) and two of the five Sika deer assayed possessed VN antibodies to CDV. These findings indicate that CDV infection was widespread among wild mammals during this epizootic.

  9. What's hot in animal biosafety?

    PubMed

    Richmond, J Y; Hill, R H; Weyant, R S; Nesby-O'Dell, S L; Vinson, P E

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, the emergence or re-emergence of critical issues in infectious disease and public health has presented new challenges and opportunities for laboratory animal care professionals. The re-emergence of bioterrorism as a threat activity of individuals or small groups has caused a heightened awareness of biosecurity and improved biosafety. The need for animal work involving high-risk or high-consequence pathogens and for arthropod-borne diseases has stimulated renewed interest in animal biosafety matters, particularly for work in containment. Application of these principles to animals retained in outdoor environments has been a consequence of disease eradication programs. The anticipated global eradication of wild poliovirus has prompted the promulgation of new biosafety guidelines for future laboratory and animal work. Increased concern regarding the use of biologically derived toxins and hazardous chemicals has stimulated a new categorization of facility containment based on risk assessment. Recognition that prion disease agents and other high-consequence pathogens require safe handling and thorough destruction during terminal decontamination treatment has led to the development of new biosafety guidelines and technologies. The implementation of these guidelines and technologies will promote state-of-the-art research while minimizing risk to laboratory animals, researchers, and the environment.

  10. [Role of vaccination in animal health].

    PubMed

    Pastoret, Paul-Pierre

    2012-03-01

    According to the IFAH, veterinary vaccines currently account for 26% of the global market in veterinary medicines, reflecting the importance of vaccines in animal health, as well as the number of wild and domesticated target species, and the monospecific nature of most vaccines. Multispecies vaccines include tetanus and rabies. In 2010, the number of food-producing animals was estimated to be roughly 20 billion and is rising gradually. Fowl currently represent the main food species. Veterinary vaccination has allowed the eradication of rinderpest, as officially declared last year (2011), jointly by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO). Rinderpest was a real scourge, and was only the second viral disease to be totally eradicated (after human smallpox). One characteristic of veterinary vaccination is the DIVA approach, "differentiating infected from vaccinated animals". The DIVA strategy is especially interesting for regulated control of diseases like foot-and-mouth disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, pseudorabies, and classical swine fever. DIVA vaccination requires prior serological testing. Vaccination is also used for wild animals such as foxes (rabies) and wild boars (classical swine fever). "In ovo" vaccination of fowl on day 18 of the incubation period is used to prevent Marek's disease for instance, and double vaccination (vector and insert) to prevent both Marek's disease and Gumboro's disease in fowl. Animal vaccination can also help to protect human health, as illustrated by fowl vaccination against salmonellosis.

  11. The control of classical swine fever in wild boar.

    PubMed

    Moennig, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a viral disease with severe economic consequences for domestic pigs. Natural hosts for the CSF virus (CSFV) are members of the family Suidae, i.e., Eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa) are also susceptible. CSF in wild boar poses a serious threat to domestic pigs. CSFV is an enveloped RNA virus belonging to the pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Transmission of the infection is usually by direct contact or by feeding of contaminated meat products. In recent decades CSF has been successfully eradicated from Australia, North America, and the European Union. In areas with dense wild boar populations CSF tends to become endemic whereas it is often self-limiting in small, less dense populations. In recent decades eradication strategies of CSF in wild boar have been improved considerably. The reduction of the number of susceptible animals to a threshold level where the basic reproductive number is R 0 < 1 is the major goal of all control efforts. Depending on the epidemiological situation, hunting measures combined with strict hygiene may be effective in areas with a relatively low density of wild boar. Oral immunization was shown to be highly effective in endemic situations in areas with a high density of wild boar.

  12. The control of classical swine fever in wild boar

    PubMed Central

    Moennig, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a viral disease with severe economic consequences for domestic pigs. Natural hosts for the CSF virus (CSFV) are members of the family Suidae, i.e., Eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa) are also susceptible. CSF in wild boar poses a serious threat to domestic pigs. CSFV is an enveloped RNA virus belonging to the pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Transmission of the infection is usually by direct contact or by feeding of contaminated meat products. In recent decades CSF has been successfully eradicated from Australia, North America, and the European Union. In areas with dense wild boar populations CSF tends to become endemic whereas it is often self-limiting in small, less dense populations. In recent decades eradication strategies of CSF in wild boar have been improved considerably. The reduction of the number of susceptible animals to a threshold level where the basic reproductive number is R0 < 1 is the major goal of all control efforts. Depending on the epidemiological situation, hunting measures combined with strict hygiene may be effective in areas with a relatively low density of wild boar. Oral immunization was shown to be highly effective in endemic situations in areas with a high density of wild boar. PMID:26594202

  13. 43 CFR 4720.2-1 - Removal of strayed animals from private lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Removal § 4720.2-1 Removal of strayed animals from private... Management, the authorized officer shall remove stray wild horses and burros from private lands as soon as... the authorized officer. The request shall indicate the numbers of wild horses or burros, the date(s...

  14. 43 CFR 4720.2-1 - Removal of strayed animals from private lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Removal § 4720.2-1 Removal of strayed animals from private... Management, the authorized officer shall remove stray wild horses and burros from private lands as soon as... the authorized officer. The request shall indicate the numbers of wild horses or burros, the...

  15. Investigating monkeypox in the wild

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, Christopher J.; Slota, Paul

    2003-01-01

    A recent monkeypox outbreak in pet prairie dogs led to the first recorded human case of the disease in the U.S. The outbreak has USGS scientists concerned the disease may spread to wild rodent populations.

  16. Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Besharat, Sima; Besharat, Mahsa; Jabbari, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) can cause toxic effects when eaten. Wild lettuce grows in the north of Iran and some natives consume it unaware of its adverse side effects. We describe eight patients with manifestations of wild lettuce toxicity, admitted to a general hospital affiliated to the Golestan University of Medical Sciences. All the patients recovered (although one had to spend 48 h in the intensive care unit) and no chronic complications were reported. A clinical suspicion of toxicity caused by wild lettuce intake and an accurate history formed the basis of the diagnosis. Conservative treatment, vital sign monitoring, control of patient intake and output, and reducing patient agitation provided the basis for treatment. PMID:21686920

  17. Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) toxicity.

    PubMed

    Besharat, Sima; Besharat, Mahsa; Jabbari, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) can cause toxic effects when eaten. Wild lettuce grows in the north of Iran and some natives consume it unaware of its adverse side effects. We describe eight patients with manifestations of wild lettuce toxicity, admitted to a general hospital affiliated to the Golestan University of Medical Sciences. All the patients recovered (although one had to spend 48 h in the intensive care unit) and no chronic complications were reported. A clinical suspicion of toxicity caused by wild lettuce intake and an accurate history formed the basis of the diagnosis. Conservative treatment, vital sign monitoring, control of patient intake and output, and reducing patient agitation provided the basis for treatment.

  18. Spargana in a Weasel, Mustela sibirica manchurica, and a Wild Boar, Sus scrofa, from Gangwon-do, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Ha; Choe, Eun-Yoon; Shin, Hyun-Duk

    2013-01-01

    To know the status of sparganum (plerocercoid of Spirometra erinacei) infection in the Korean wild life, several species of wild animals were captured in Gangwon-do and examined for their status of infection with spargana. From February to December 2011, a total of 62 wild boars, 5 badgers, 1 weasel, 1 Siberian chipmunk, and 53 wild rodents were captured, and their whole muscles were examined with naked eyes for the presence of spargana worms. From the weasel and 1 wild boar, a total of 5 spargana specimens were extracted. The weasel was for the first time recorded as an intermediate or paratenic/transport host of S. erinacei in Korea, and both the weasel (Mustela sibirica manchurica) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) were added to the list of wild animals carrying spargana. PMID:23864753

  19. Spargana in a weasel, Mustela sibirica manchurica, and a wild boar, Sus scrofa, from Gangwon-do, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Ha; Choe, Eun-Yoon; Shin, Hyun-Duk; Seo, Min

    2013-06-01

    To know the status of sparganum (plerocercoid of Spirometra erinacei) infection in the Korean wild life, several species of wild animals were captured in Gangwon-do and examined for their status of infection with spargana. From February to December 2011, a total of 62 wild boars, 5 badgers, 1 weasel, 1 Siberian chipmunk, and 53 wild rodents were captured, and their whole muscles were examined with naked eyes for the presence of spargana worms. From the weasel and 1 wild boar, a total of 5 spargana specimens were extracted. The weasel was for the first time recorded as an intermediate or paratenic/transport host of S. erinacei in Korea, and both the weasel (Mustela sibirica manchurica) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) were added to the list of wild animals carrying spargana.

  20. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)