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Sample records for anion exchange membrane

  1. Anion exchange membrane

    DOEpatents

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  2. Advancements in Anion Exchange Membrane Cations

    SciTech Connect

    Sturgeon, Matthew R.; Long, Hai; Park, Andrew M.; Pivovar, Bryan S.

    2015-10-15

    Anion-exchange membrane fuel cells (AME-FCs) are of increasingly popular interest as they enable the use of non-Pt fuel cell catalysts, the primary cost limitation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Benzyltrimethyl ammonium (BTMA) is the standard cation that has historically been utilized as the hydroxide conductor in AEMs. Herein we approach AEMs from two directions. First and foremost we study the stability of several different cations in a hydroxide solution at elevated temperatures. We specifically targeted BTMA and methoxy and nitro substituted BTMA. We've also studied the effects of adding an akyl spacer units between the ammonium cation and the phenyl group. In the second approach we use computational studies to predict stable ammonium cations, which are then synthesized and tested for stability. Our unique method to study cation stability in caustic conditions at elevated temperatures utilizes Teflon Parr reactors suitable for use under various temperatures and cation concentrations. NMR analysis was used to determine remaining cation concentrations at specific time points with GCMS analysis verifying product distribution. We then compare the experimental results with calculated modeling stabilities. Our studies show that the electron donating methoxy groups slightly increase stability (compared to that of BTMA), while the electron withdrawing nitro groups greatly decrease stability in base. These results give insight into possible linking strategies to be employed when tethering a BTMA like ammonium cation to a polymeric backbone; thus synthesizing an anion exchange membrane.

  3. Contamination of an anion-exchange membrane by glutathione.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, T; Kikuchi, K

    2000-01-01

    Electrodialysis, which can separate electrolytes under mild conditions by using ion-exchange membranes, is a strong candidate for separation of GSH from yeast extracts, because GSH is unstable and easily oxidized forming a disulfide bond especially under alkali conditions. In this paper, sorption behavior of GSH on an anion-exchange membrane, in the pH 3-6 region that is expected to be the most preferable for its electro-dialytic separation, was examined. Sorption of GSH on a Selemion-AMV anion-exchange membrane was accelerated as the pH of the membrane-contact solution increased, and there was a good correlation between the sorbed amounts and the molar fraction of monovalent anionic species of GSH. However, the amounts of GSH desorbed from the membrane by a NaCl desorbing solution were much lower than the initial sorbed amounts, and the difference between them was enlarged with increasing pH. The GSH which was lost could be recovered by the addition of DTT in the membrane-contact and desorbing solutions. Similar results were also obtained with Cys. We thus concluded that an anion-exchange membrane would be contaminated by thiol compounds, such as GSH and Cys, through oxidative binding of the thiol group with the membrane, the local OH- concentration in which was enhanced due to attraction by the positively charged anion-exchange membrane.

  4. Predicting Carbonate Species Ionic Conductivity in Alkaline Anion Exchange Membranes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    anion exchange membranes. Andrew M. Kiss, Timothy D . Myles, Kyle N. Grew, Aldo A. Peracchio, George J. Nelson, and Wilson K. S. Chiu University of...Alkaline Anion Exchange Membranes Andrew M. Kiss1, Timothy D . Myles1, Kyle N. Grew2, Aldo A. Peracchio1, George J. Nelson1, and Wilson K. S. Chiu1* 1...Vol. 301, 93-106, 2007. 16. Satterfleld,M.B., Benziger,J.B., J. Phys. Chem. B, Vol. 112,12, 3693 -3704, 2008. 17. Motupally,S., Becker,A.J

  5. Mechanical Characterization of Anion Exchange Membranes Under Controlled Environmental Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-11

    membranes (AEM) have the potential to dramatically lower the cost of fuel cells by utilizing non-noble catalysts and a variety of fuel sources. Although...the cost of fuel cells by utilizing non-noble catalysts and a variety of fuel sources. Although chemical degradation typically dominates membrane...anion exchange membranes (AEM) have the potential to dramatically lower the cost of fuel cells by utilizing non-noble catalysts and a variety of

  6. Collection of ambient air phenols using an anion exchange membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Nishioka, M.; Burkholder, H.; Reynolds, S.; Burdick, N.; Pleil, J.

    1994-12-31

    The authors have previously demonstrated the feasibility of collecting vapor phase ambient air phenols by reversible chemical reaction with a solid sorbent. The authors report here enhanced detection limits for ambient phenols using an anion exchange membrane that allows high collection efficiency at 10 L/min sampling rate. The membrane consists of 5 {micro}m particles of the anion exchange resin enmeshed in a Teflon microfibril matrix. This membrane is similar to Empore membranes, with the addition of the anion exchange capacity. Sampling is accomplished using a 10.5 cm (diameter) membrane and a General Metal Works PS-1 sampler. A Teflon-coated glass fiber filter, spiked with deutered phenols, and placed ahead of the membrane, is used to deliver these surrogate recovery standards to the membrane during the sampling. Following sampling, membranes are shaken gently in an acidified mixture of methanol and dichloromethane. The extract is derivatized with BSTFA and analyzed using either GC/FID or EI GC/MS. Analytical methodology allows detection at the 0.02 ppbv level for 12 hrs of sampling ({approximately} 0.1 {micro}g/m{sup 3}).

  7. Highly Water Resistant Anion Exchange Membrane for Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhengjin; Hou, Jianqiu; Wang, Xinyu; Wu, Liang; Xu, Tongwen

    2015-07-01

    For anion exchange membranes (AEMs), achieving efficient hydroxide conductivity without excessive hydrophilicity presents a challenge. Hence, new strategies for constructing mechanically strengthened and hydroxide conductive (especially at controlled humidity) membranes are critical for developing better AEMs. Macromolecular modification involving ylide chemistry (Wittig reaction) for the fabrication of novel AEMs with an interpenetrating polymer network structure is reported. The macromolecular modification is cost effective, facile, and based on a one-pot synthesis. AEM water uptake is reduced to 3.6 wt% and a high hydroxide conductivity (69.7 mS cm(-1) , 90 °C) is achieved simultaneously. More importantly, the membrane exhibits similar tensile strength (>35 MPa) and comparable flexibility in both dry and wet states. These AEMs could find further applications within anion exchange membrane fuel cells with low humidity or photoelectric assemblies.

  8. Optimized anion exchange membranes for vanadium redox flow batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongyang; Hickner, Michael A; Agar, Ertan; Kumbur, E Caglan

    2013-08-14

    In order to understand the properties of low vanadium permeability anion exchange membranes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs), quaternary ammonium functionalized Radel (QA-Radel) membranes with three ion exchange capacities (IECs) from 1.7 to 2.4 mequiv g(-1) were synthesized and 55-60 μm thick membrane samples were evaluated for their transport properties and in-cell battery performance. The ionic conductivity and vanadium permeability of the membranes were investigated and correlated to the battery performance through measurements of Coulombic efficiency, voltage efficiency and energy efficiency in single cell tests, and capacity fade during cycling. Increasing the IEC of the QA-Radel membranes increased both the ionic conductivity and VO(2+) permeability. The 1.7 mequiv g(-1) IEC QA-Radel had the highest Coulombic efficiency and best cycling capacity maintenance in the VRFB, while the cell's voltage efficiency was limited by the membrane's low ionic conductivity. Increasing the IEC resulted in higher voltage efficiency for the 2.0 and 2.4 mequiv g(-1) samples, but the cells with these membranes displayed reduced Coulombic efficiency and faster capacity fade. The QA-Radel with an IEC of 2.0 mequiv g(-1) had the best balance of ionic conductivity and VO(2+) permeability, achieving a maximum power density of 218 mW cm(-2) which was higher than the maximum power density of a VRFB assembled with a Nafion N212 membrane in our system. While anion exchange membranes are under study for a variety of VRFB applications, this work demonstrates that the material parameters must be optimized to obtain the maximum cell performance.

  9. Anion Exchange Membranes: Current Status and Moving Forward

    SciTech Connect

    Hickner, MA; Herring, AM; Coughlin, EB

    2013-10-29

    This short review is meant to provide the reader with highlights in anion exchange membrane research, describe current needs in the field, and point out promising directions for future work. Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) provide one possible route to low platinum or platinum-free fuel cells with the potential for facile oxidation of complex fuels beyond hydrogen and methanol. AEMs and related stable cationic polymers also have applications in energy storage and other electrochemical technologies such as water electrolyzers and redox flow batteries. While anion exchange membranes have been known for a long time in water treatment applications, materials for electrochemical technology with robust mechanical properties in thin film format have only recently become more widely available. High hydroxide and bicarbonate anion conductivity have been demonstrated in a range of AEM formats, but intrinsic stability of the polymers and demonstration of long device lifetime remain major roadblocks. Novel approaches to stable materials have focused on new types of cations that employ delocalization and steric shielding of the positive center to mitigate nucleophilic attack by hydroxide. A number of promising polymer backbones and membrane architectures have been identified, but limited device testing and a lack of understanding of the degradation mechanisms in operating devices is slowing progress on engineered systems with alkaline fuel cell technology. Our objective is to spur more research in this area to develop fuel cell systems that approach the costs of inexpensive batteries for large-scale applications. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2013, 51, 1727-1735, 2013

  10. Anion selective membrane. [ion exchange resins and ion exchange membrane electrolytes for electrolytic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, S. S.; Geoffroy, R. R.; Hodgdon, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental anion permselective membranes were prepared and tested for their suitability as cell separators in a chemical redox power storage system being developed at NASA-Lewis Research Center. The goals of long-term (1000 hr) oxidative and thermal stability at 80 C in FeCl3 and CrCl3 electrolytes were met by most of the weak base and strong base amino exchange groups considered in the program. Good stability is exhibited by several of the membrane substrate resins. These are 'styrene' divinylbenzene copolymer and PVC film. At least four membrane systems produce strong flexible films with electrochemical properties (resistivity, cation transfer) superior to those of the 103QZL, the most promising commercial membrane. The physical and chemical properties of the resins are listed.

  11. Hydroxide Solvation and Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Tse, Ying-Lung Steve; Lindberg, Gerrick E; Knight, Chris; Voth, Gregory A

    2016-01-27

    Understanding hydroxide solvation and transport in anion exchange membranes (AEMs) can provide important insight into the design principles of these new membranes. To accurately model hydroxide solvation and transport, we developed a new multiscale reactive molecular dynamics model for hydroxide in aqueous solution, which was then subsequently modified for an AEM material. With this model, we investigated the hydroxide solvation structure and transport mechanism in the membrane. We found that a relatively even separation of the rigid side chains produces a continuous overlapping region for hydroxide transport that is made up of the first hydration shell of the tethered cationic groups. Our results show that hydroxide has a significant preference for this overlapping region, transporting through it and between the AEM side chains with substantial contributions from both vehicular (standard diffusion) and Grotthuss (proton hopping) mechanisms. Comparison of the AEM with common proton exchange membranes (PEMs) showed that the excess charge is less delocalized in the AEM than the PEMs, which is correlated with a higher free energy barrier for proton transfer reactions. The vehicular mechanism also contributes considerably more than the Grotthuss mechanism for hydroxide transport in the AEM, while our previous studies of PEM systems showed a larger contribution from the Grotthuss mechanism than the vehicular mechanism for proton transport. The activation energy barrier for hydroxide diffusion in the AEM is greater than that for proton diffusion in PEMs, implying a more significant enhancement of ion transport in the AEM at elevated temperatures.

  12. Hydroxide Solvation and Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chen; Tse, Ying-Lung Steve; Lindberg, Gerrick E.; Knight, Chris; Voth, Gregory A.

    2016-01-27

    Understanding hydroxide solvation and transport in anion exchange membranes (AEMs) can provide important insight into the design principles of these new membranes. To accurately model hydroxide solvation and transport, we developed a new multiscale reactive molecular dynamics model for hydroxide in aqueous solution, which was then subsequently modified for an AEM material. With this model, we investigated the hydroxide solvation structure and transport mechanism in the membrane. We found that a relatively even separation of the rigid side chains produces a continuous overlapping region for hydroxide transport that is made up of the first hydration shell of the tethered cationic groups. Our results show that hydroxide has a significant preference for this overlapping region, transporting through it and between the AEM side chains with substantial contributions from both vehicular (standard diffusion) and Grotthuss (proton hopping) mechanisms. Comparison of the AEM with common proton exchange membranes (PEMs) showed that the excess charge is less delocalized in the AEM than the PEMs, which is correlated with a higher free energy barrier for proton transfer reactions. The vehicular mechanism also contributes considerably more than the Grotthuss mechanism for hydroxide transport in the AEM, while our previous studies of PEM systems showed a larger contribution from the Grotthuss mechanism than the vehicular mechanism for proton transport. The activation energy barrier for hydroxide diffusion in the AEM is greater than that for proton diffusion in PEMs, implying a more significant enhancement of ion transport in the AEM at elevated temperatures.

  13. A Novel Methodology to Synthesize Highly Conductive Anion Exchange Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yubin; Pan, Jiefeng; Wu, Liang; Zhu, Yuan; Ge, Xiaolin; Ran, Jin; Yang, Zhengjin; Xu, Tongwen

    2015-08-01

    Alkaline polyelectrolyte fuel cell now receives growing attention as a promising candidate to serve as the next generation energy-generating device by enabling the use of non-precious metal catalysts (silver, cobalt, nickel et al.). However, the development and application of alkaline polyelectrolyte fuel cell is still blocked by the poor hydroxide conductivity of anion exchange membranes. In order to solve this problem, we demonstrate a methodology for the preparation of highly OH- conductive anion exchange polyelectrolytes with good alkaline tolerance and excellent dimensional stability. Polymer backbones were grafted with flexible aliphatic chains containing two or three quaternized ammonium groups. The highly flexible and hydrophilic multi-functionalized side chains prefer to aggregate together to facilitate the formation of well-defined hydrophilic-hydrophobic microphase separation, which is crucial for the superior OH- conductivity of 69 mS/cm at room temperature. Besides, the as-prepared AEMs also exhibit excellent alkaline tolerance as well as improved dimensional stability due to their carefully designed polymer architecture, which provide new directions to pursue high performance AEMs and are promising to serve as a candidate for fuel cell technology.

  14. Alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells using an anion exchange membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Koji; Iriyama, Yasutoshi; Abe, Takeshi; Matsuoka, Masao; Ogumi, Zempachi

    Alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells using an OH-form anion exchange membrane and polyhydric alcohols were studied. A high open circuit voltage of ca. 800 mV was obtained for a cell using Pt-Ru/C (anode) and Pt/C (cathode) at 323 K, which was about 100-200 mV higher than that for a DMFC using Nafion ®. The maximum power densities were in the order of ethylene glycol > glycerol > methanol > erythritol > xylitol. Silver catalysts were used as a cathode catalyst to fabricate alkaline fuel cells, since silver catalyst is almost inactive in the oxidation of polyhydric alcohols. Alkaline direct ethylene glycol fuel cells using silver as a cathode catalyst gave excellent performance because higher concentrations of fuel could be supplied to the anode.

  15. Ether cleavage-triggered degradation of benzyl alkylammonium cations for polyethersulfone anion exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    Miyanishi, Shoji; Yamaguchi, Takeo

    2016-04-28

    Anion exchange membranes are of increasing interest due to their applications in many electrochemical devices such as solid-state alkaline fuel cells. However, their practical applications remain limited compared to proton exchange membranes as they have been found to degrade in alkaline media. This degradation is believed to be derived from the instability of the anion exchange group under alkaline conditions. Consequently, much effort has been focused on the development of an anion exchange group that is stable in alkaline media, allowing for application in membranes. Herein, we analyze the detailed alkaline degradation mechanism of a generally applied anion exchange membrane, composed of quaternary ammonium-modified polyethersulfone, using several model compounds. We found that decomposition of the anion exchange group was not derived from the instability of the ionic group itself, as commonly believed; rather, ether cleavage triggered the degradation of the ionic group. The mechanism proposed herein indicates that improvement of the backbone stability is much more important than optimization of the anion exchange group in developing a durable anion exchange membrane. Furthermore, careful analysis is necessary to precisely evaluate the stability of the anion exchange group in the membrane.

  16. Ionic resistance and permselectivity tradeoffs in anion exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    Geise, Geoffrey M; Hickner, Michael A; Logan, Bruce E

    2013-10-23

    Salinity gradient energy technologies, such as reverse electrodialysis (RED) and capacitive mixing based on Donnan potential (Capmix CDP), could help address the global need for noncarbon-based energy. Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) are a key component in these systems, and improved AEMs are needed in order to optimize and extend salinity gradient energy technologies. We measured ionic resistance and permselectivity properties of quaternary ammonium-functionalized AEMs based on poly(sulfone) and poly(phenylene oxide) polymer backbones and developed structure-property relationships between the transport properties and the water content and fixed charge concentration of the membranes. Ion transport and ion exclusion properties depend on the volume fraction of water in the polymer membrane, and the chemical nature of the polymer itself can influence fine-tuning of the transport properties to obtain membranes with other useful properties, such as chemical and dimensional stability. The ionic resistance of the AEMs considered in this study decreased by more than 3 orders of magnitude (i.e., from 3900 to 1.6 Ω m) and the permselectivity decreased by 6% (i.e., from 0.91 to 0.85) as the volume fraction of water in the polymer was varied by a factor of 3.8 (i.e., from 0.1 to 0.38). Water content was used to rationalize a tradeoff relationship between the permselectivity and ionic resistance of these AEMs whereby polymers with higher water content tend to have lower ionic resistance and lower permselectivity. The correlation of ion transport properties with water volume fraction and fixed charge concentration is discussed with emphasis on the importance of considering water volume fraction when interpreting ion transport data.

  17. Mass transfer of single- and double-charged anions through an MA-41L anion-exchange membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Kulikova, O.M.; Sharkova, O.V.; Kulikov, S.M.

    1995-02-20

    Selective anion transfer through an MA-41L anion-exchange membrane in the Cl{sup -}-F{sup -}, Cl{sup -}-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, F{sup -}-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, and F{sup -}-CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} systems has been studied. The feasibility of partial anion separation in the chloride-sulfate system has been demonstrated. The separation of fluoride ions from accompanying anions was found to be practically impossible.

  18. Mimicking the cell membrane: bio-inspired simultaneous functions with monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membrane.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Liu, Huimin; Tang, Kaini; Jin, Yali; Pan, Jiefeng; der Bruggen, Bart Van; Shen, Jiangnan; Gao, Congjie

    2016-11-17

    A new bio-inspired method was applied in this study to simultaneously improve the monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membranes (AEMs). Three-layer architecture was developed by deposition of polydopamine (PDA) and electro-deposition of N-O-sulfonic acid benzyl chitosan (NSBC). The innermost and outermost layers were PDA with different deposition time. The middle layer was prepared by NSBC. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that PDA and NSBC were successfully modified on the surfaces of AEMs. The contact angle of the membranes indicated an improved hydrophilicity of the modified membranes. A series of electrodialysis experiments in which Cl(-)/SO4(2-) separation was studied, demonstrating the monovalent anion selectivity of the samples. The Cl(-)/SO4(2-) permselectivity of the modified membranes can reach up to 2.20, higher than that of the commercial membrane (only 0.78) during 90 minutes in electrodialysis (ED). The increase value of the resistance of the membranes was also measured to evaluate the antifouling properties. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) was used as the fouling material in the ED process and the membrane area resistance of modified membrane increase value of was only 0.08 Ωcm(2) 30 minutes later.

  19. Mimicking the cell membrane: bio-inspired simultaneous functions with monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membrane

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan; Liu, Huimin; Tang, Kaini; Jin, Yali; Pan, Jiefeng; der Bruggen, Bart Van; Shen, Jiangnan; Gao, Congjie

    2016-01-01

    A new bio-inspired method was applied in this study to simultaneously improve the monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membranes (AEMs). Three-layer architecture was developed by deposition of polydopamine (PDA) and electro-deposition of N-O-sulfonic acid benzyl chitosan (NSBC). The innermost and outermost layers were PDA with different deposition time. The middle layer was prepared by NSBC. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that PDA and NSBC were successfully modified on the surfaces of AEMs. The contact angle of the membranes indicated an improved hydrophilicity of the modified membranes. A series of electrodialysis experiments in which Cl−/SO42− separation was studied, demonstrating the monovalent anion selectivity of the samples. The Cl−/SO42− permselectivity of the modified membranes can reach up to 2.20, higher than that of the commercial membrane (only 0.78) during 90 minutes in electrodialysis (ED). The increase value of the resistance of the membranes was also measured to evaluate the antifouling properties. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) was used as the fouling material in the ED process and the membrane area resistance of modified membrane increase value of was only 0.08 Ωcm2 30 minutes later. PMID:27853255

  20. Mimicking the cell membrane: bio-inspired simultaneous functions with monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yan; Liu, Huimin; Tang, Kaini; Jin, Yali; Pan, Jiefeng; der Bruggen, Bart Van; Shen, Jiangnan; Gao, Congjie

    2016-11-01

    A new bio-inspired method was applied in this study to simultaneously improve the monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membranes (AEMs). Three-layer architecture was developed by deposition of polydopamine (PDA) and electro-deposition of N-O-sulfonic acid benzyl chitosan (NSBC). The innermost and outermost layers were PDA with different deposition time. The middle layer was prepared by NSBC. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that PDA and NSBC were successfully modified on the surfaces of AEMs. The contact angle of the membranes indicated an improved hydrophilicity of the modified membranes. A series of electrodialysis experiments in which Cl‑/SO42‑ separation was studied, demonstrating the monovalent anion selectivity of the samples. The Cl‑/SO42‑ permselectivity of the modified membranes can reach up to 2.20, higher than that of the commercial membrane (only 0.78) during 90 minutes in electrodialysis (ED). The increase value of the resistance of the membranes was also measured to evaluate the antifouling properties. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) was used as the fouling material in the ED process and the membrane area resistance of modified membrane increase value of was only 0.08 Ωcm2 30 minutes later.

  1. Mechanism of Polysulfone-Based Anion Exchange Membranes Degradation in Vanadium Flow Battery.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhizhang; Li, Xianfeng; Zhao, Yuyue; Zhang, Huamin

    2015-09-02

    The stability of hydrocarbon ion exchange membranes is one of the critical issues for a flow battery. However, the degradation mechanism of ion exchange membranes has been rarely investigated especially for anion exchange membranes. Here, the degradation mechanism of polysulfone based anion exchange membranes, carrying pyridine ion exchange groups, under vanadium flow battery (VFB) medium was investigated in detail. We find that sp(2) hybrid orbital interactions between pyridinic-nitrogen in 4,4'-bipyridine and benzylic carbon disrupt the charge state balance of pristine chloromethylated polysulfone. This difference in electronegativity inversely induces an electrophilic carbon center in the benzene ring, which can be attacked by the lone pair electron on the vanadium(V) oxygen species, further leading to the degradation of polymer backbone, while leaving the 4,4'-bipyridine ion exchange groups stable. This work represents a step toward design and construction of alternative type of chemically stable hydrocarbon ion exchange membranes for VFB.

  2. Quaternized poly (styrene-co-vinylbenzyl chloride) anion exchange membranes for alkaline water electrolysers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vengatesan, S.; Santhi, S.; Jeevanantham, S.; Sozhan, G.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, poly (ST-co-VBC) based anion exchange membranes with different styrene to VBC ratios (1: 0.16, 1: 0.33 and 1: 1) have been prepared via chloromethylation-free synthetic route using aromatic vinyl monomers. The synthesized co-polymers are identified by FTIR and 1H-NMR analysis. Hydroxide (OH-) ion conductivity of the anion exchange membrane with styrene to VBC ratio of 1: 0.33 is as high as 6.8 × 10-3 S cm-1 in de-ionised water at 25 °C. The membrane also acquires the ion-exchange capacity of 2.14 meq. g-1, and the water uptake of 127%. Membrane-electrode-assembly (MEA) using the anion exchange membrane and Ni - foam catalyst demonstrate the current density of 40 mA cm-2 at 2.3 V in a water electrolyser cell.

  3. Donnan dialysis of transition metal ions using anion exchange membrane modified with Xylenol Orange

    SciTech Connect

    Sawicka, B.; Brajter, K.; Trojanowicz, M.; Kado, B. )

    1991-01-01

    A chelating ion-exchange membrane was obtained by modification of a PTFE-based anion-exchange membrane with Xylenol Orange. Its utility for dialysis of Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), and Zn(II) was investigated by using receiver solutions without and with iminodiacetate. 1,2-diaminocyclohexanetetraacetic acid, and tetraethylenepentamine. In comparison to commercial PTFE cation-exchange membranes, modified chelating membranes exhibit for the metal ions investigated a larger differentiation of retention in the membrane phase and transport-to-receiver solution depending on the modifier used and the composition of the receiver solution.

  4. Donnan dialysis of copper, gold and silver cyanides with various anion exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    Akretche, D E; Kerdjoudj, H

    2000-02-07

    Donnan dialysis is an ion exchange membrane process that can be used for the purification and concentration of diluted solutions. In this work, the behaviour of gold, silver and copper in cyanide medium is examined. Flux of cyanide complexes and corresponding free cyanide are determined using five commercial anion exchanger membranes (AMV, ACS, RAI 5035, ADP and ADS). The results show that the rate transfer depends upon the nature of the anion exchanger membrane. It is observed that the species number in the feed solution influences the transfer selectivity of metal ion complex against free cyanide Thus, gold which forms only one stable species with cyanides is transferred faster through an ACS membrane than copper which forms three species. However, this result is not verified when an ADS membrane is used. A model of the complex transfer through anion exchange membranes based on Donnan dialysis is proposed. A three compartment Donnan dialysis is performed to improve the separation between the studied metals. Decyanidation is also examined and separation factors are calculated. It is shown that Donnan dialysis can be an efficient technique for the separation of cyanides complexes of copper, gold and silver when parameters such as anion exchange membrane and the number of compartments are optimised. An advantage of this technique is also the possibility of recycling all reactants with a good impact on the environment.

  5. Removal of fluoride from water using anion-exchange membrane under Donnan dialysis condition.

    PubMed

    Tor, Ali

    2007-03-22

    The transport of fluoride through Neosepta-ACM anion-exchange membrane has been studied as a function of feed phase and receiver phase concentration and co-existence anions under Donnan dialysis condition. It was observed that the transport of fluoride was maximum at pH 6 of feed phase and at pH 1 of receiver phase. Moreover, transport of fluoride increased with increase of feed and receiver phase concentration and decreased in the presence of other co-existence anions in the feed phase. The transport of fluoride was also correlated with the flux data and explained according to structure of membrane.

  6. Facile surface modification of anion-exchange membranes for improvement of diffusion dialysis performance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hyeong; Park, Han-Sol; Seo, Seok-Jun; Park, Jin-Soo; Moon, Seung-Hyeon; Choi, Young-Woo; Jiong, Young Su; Kim, Dong Hee; Kang, Moon-Sung

    2014-02-15

    In this study, a facile membrane modification method by spin-coating of pyrrole (Py) monomers dissolved in a volatile solvent followed by an interfacial polymerization is proposed. The surface of a commercial anion-exchange membrane (i.e., Neosepta-AFX, Astom Corp., Japan) was successfully modified with polypyrrole (Ppy) to improve the acid recovery performance in diffusion dialysis (DD). The result of DD experiments revealed that both the acid and metal ion transports are significantly influenced by the surface modification. The metal crossover through the membranes was largely reduced while mostly maintaining the acid permeability by introducing a thin Ppy layer with excellent repelling property to cations on the membrane surface. As a result, the anion-exchange membrane modified with the optimum content of Py monomer (5 vol.%) exhibited excellent acid dialysis coefficient (KAcid) and selectivity (KAcid/KMetal) which is approximately twice as high as that of the pristine membrane.

  7. Tailor-made anion-exchange membranes for salinity gradient power generation using reverse electrodialysis.

    PubMed

    Guler, Enver; Zhang, Yali; Saakes, Michel; Nijmeijer, Kitty

    2012-11-01

    Reverse electrodialysis (RED) or blue energy is a non-polluting, sustainable technology for generating power from the mixing of solutions with different salinity, that is, seawater and river water. A concentrated salt solution (e.g., seawater) and a diluted salt solution (e.g., river water) are brought into contact through an alternating series of polymeric anion-exchange membranes (AEMs) and cation-exchange membranes (CEMs), which are either selective for anions or cations. Currently available ion-exchange membranes are not optimized for RED, whereas successful RED operation notably depends on the used ion-exchange membranes. We designed such ion-exchange membranes and for the first time we show the performance of tailor-made membranes in RED. More specifically, we focus on the development of AEMs because these are much more complex to prepare. Herein we propose a safe and more environmentally friendly method and use halogenated polyethers, such as polyepichlorohydrin (PECH) as the starting material. A tertiary diamine (1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane, DABCO) was used to introduce the ion-exchange groups by amination and for simultaneous cross-linking of the polymer membrane. Area resistances of the series of membranes ranged from 0.82 to 2.05 Ω cm² and permselectivities from 87 to 90 %. For the first time we showed that tailor-made ion-exchange membranes can be applied in RED. Depending on the properties and especially membrane thickness, application of these membranes in RED resulted in a high power density of 1.27 W m⁻², which exceeds the power output obtained with the commercially available AMX membranes. This shows the potential of the design of ion-exchange membranes for a viable blue energy process.

  8. Topology of the membrane domain of human erythrocyte anion exchange protein, AE1.

    PubMed

    Fujinaga, J; Tang, X B; Casey, J R

    1999-03-05

    Anion exchanger 1 (AE1) is the chloride/bicarbonate exchange protein of the erythrocyte membrane. By using a combination of introduced cysteine mutants and sulfhydryl-specific chemistry, we have mapped the topology of the human AE1 membrane domain. Twenty-seven single cysteines were introduced throughout the Leu708-Val911 region of human AE1, and these mutants were expressed by transient transfection of human embryonic kidney cells. On the basis of cysteine accessibility to membrane-permeant biotin maleimide and to membrane-impermeant lucifer yellow iodoacetamide, we have proposed a model for the topology of AE1 membrane domain. In this model, AE1 is composed of 13 typical transmembrane segments, and the Asp807-His834 region is membrane-embedded but does not have the usual alpha-helical conformation. To identify amino acids that are important for anion transport, we analyzed the anion exchange activity for all introduced cysteine mutants, using a whole cell fluorescence assay. We found that mutants G714C, S725C, and S731C have very low transport activity, implying that this region has a structurally and/or catalytically important role. We measured the residual anion transport activity after mutant treatment with the membrane-impermeant, cysteine-directed compound, sodium (2-sulfonatoethyl)methanethiosulfonate) (MTSES). Only two mutants, S852C and A858C, were inhibited by MTSES, indicating that these residues may be located in a pore-lining region.

  9. Radioactive iodine waste treatment using electrodialysis with an anion exchange paper membrane.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroyoshi; Kagoshima, Mayumi; Yamasaki, Mariko; Honda, Yoko

    2004-12-01

    In order to simply and safely treat radioactive iodine waste, a study of the removal of iodide ion from radioactive waste using electrodialysis with an anion exchange paper membrane, in which trimethylhydroxylpropylammonium groups were homogeneously dispersed with high density. In Na125I and Na36Cl concentration-cell system, electric ion and water conductances, phenomenological coefficients, have been experimentally determined on basis of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Prepared paper membrane had higher permselectivity of 125I ion than 36Cl ions by approximately 21%. On the other hand, water flux that was accompanied by an ionic transference in prepared paper membrane was greatly larger than that in typical synthesized membrane. It is suggested that a depression of water mobility is important to practice an ideal radioactive iodide waste electrodialysis system with a novel anion exchange paper membrane.

  10. Water uptake, ionic conductivity and swelling properties of anion-exchange membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Qiongjuan; Ge, Shanhai; Wang, Chao-Yang

    2013-12-01

    Water uptake, ionic conductivity and dimensional change of the anion-exchange membrane made by Tokuyama Corporation (A201 membrane) are investigated at different temperatures and water activities. Specifically, the amount of water taken up by membranes exposed to water vapor and membranes soaked in liquid water is determined. The water uptake of the A201 membrane increases with water content as well as temperature. In addition, water sorption data shows Schroeder's paradox for the AEMs investigated. The swelling properties of the A201 membrane exhibit improved dimensional stability compared with Nafion membrane. Water sorption of the A201 membrane occurs with a substantial negative excess volume of mixing. The threshold value of hydrophilic fraction in the A201 membrane for ionic conductivity is around 0.34, above which, the conductivity begins to rise quickly. This indicates that a change in the connectivity of the hydrophilic domains occurs when hydrophilic fraction approaches 0.34.

  11. Anion permselective membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgdon, R. B.; Waite, W. A.; Alexander, S. S.

    1984-07-01

    Two polymer ion exchange membranes were synthesized to fulfill the needs of both electrical resistivity and anolyte/catholyte separation for utility load leveling utilizing the DOE/NASA mixed electrolyte REDOX battery. Both membranes were shown to meet mixed electrolyte utility load leveling criteria. Several modifications of an anion exchange membrane failed to meet utility load leveling REDOX battery criteria using the unmixed electrolyte REDOX cell.

  12. Anion permselective membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgdon, R. B.; Waite, W. A.; Alexander, S. S.

    1984-01-01

    Two polymer ion exchange membranes were synthesized to fulfill the needs of both electrical resistivity and anolyte/catholyte separation for utility load leveling utilizing the DOE/NASA mixed electrolyte REDOX battery. Both membranes were shown to meet mixed electrolyte utility load leveling criteria. Several modifications of an anion exchange membrane failed to meet utility load leveling REDOX battery criteria using the unmixed electrolyte REDOX cell.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Imidazolium Linear Bisphenol Polycarbonate Hydroxides for Anion Exchange Membrane.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hohyoun; Hossain, Md Awlad; Lee, Soonho; Ha, Jaesung; Yoo, Jihoo; Kim, Kyungchul; Kim, Whangi

    2015-11-01

    A novel anion exchange membrane of imidazolium functionalized bisphenol polycarbonate was prepared for application in alkaline fuel cell. Di-imidazolium polycarbonate anionic membrane was synthesized by sequential interfacial polymerization, chloromethylation, substitution with 1-methylimidazole and ion exchange with 1.0 M KOH. Chloromethylation reaction was quantitative to achieve a high content of hydroxide ions. Introduction of conjugated imidazole ring in polymer plays an important role to improve both thermal and chemical stability. Bisphenol polycarbonate is a flexible polymer and shows a good solubility in polar organic solvent. The alkaline imidazolium bisphenol polycarbonate rendered an elevated molecular weight with excellent solubility in polar aprotic solvent. Different levels of substitution and ion exchange were investigated; the resulting membranes showed high ion exchange capacities (IECs) of up to 2.15 mmol g(-1). The imidazolium-functionalized copolymer membranes showed lower water affinity (14.2-42.8% at 30 degrees C) that satisfied an essential criterion for fuel cell application. The chemical structure of the imidazolium functionalized polycarbonate membrane was confirmed by 1H NMR spectroscopy, and also the membrane properties were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and water uptake (WU), IEC and conductivity assessment. They exhibited hydroxide conductivity above 10(-2) S cm(-1) at room temperature and good chemical stability for up to five days without significant losses of ion conductivity.

  14. Highly conductive anion exchange membrane for high power density fuel-cell performance.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaoming; Price, Samuel C; Jackson, Aaron C; Pomerantz, Natalie; Beyer, Frederick L

    2014-08-27

    Anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs) are regarded as a new generation of fuel cell technology that has the potential to overcome many obstacles of the mainstream proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) in cost, catalyst stability, efficiency, and system size. However, the low ionic conductivity and poor thermal stability of current anion exchange membranes (AEMs) have been the key factors limiting the performance of AEMFCs. In this study, an AEM made of styrenic diblock copolymer with a quaternary ammonium-functionalized hydrophilic block and a cross-linkable hydrophobic block and possessing bicontinuous phases of a hydrophobic network and hydrophilic conduction paths was found to have high ionic conductivity at 98 mS cm(-1) and controlled membrane swelling with water uptake at 117 wt % at 22 °C. Membrane characterizations and fuel cell tests of the new AEM were carried out together with a commercial AEM, Tokuyama A201, for comparison. The high ionic conductivity and water permeability of the new membrane reported in this study is attributed to the reduced torturosity of the ionic conduction paths, while the hydrophobic network maintains the membrane mechanical integrity, preventing excessive water uptake.

  15. Thin Robust Anion Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    water diffsuion. Here we use a Polyphenylene Oxide dibock polymer co- polymerized with polyvinyl benzyl trimethyl ammonium blocks (PPO-b-PVBTMA[F... polymers we have strong theoretical evidence for a heterogeneous distribution of water across the channel. Fluoride is used as a non-reactive...with each other when it comes to water absorption. Ions require wet pathways to traverse the membrane. Too much water , however, and the polymer can

  16. Carbonate and Bicarbonate Ion Transport in Alkaline Anion Exchange Membranes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-25

    bicarbonate, membrane A. M. Kiss, T. D . Myles, K. N. Grew, A. A. Peracchio, G. J. Nelson, W. K. S. Chiu University of Connecticut - Storrs Office for...Timothy D . Myles,a Kyle N. Grew,b,∗∗ Aldo A. Peracchio,a George J. Nelson,a,∗∗ and Wilson K. S. Chiua,∗∗,z aDepartment of Mechanical Engineering...Phys., 9(12), 1479 (2007). 8. J. R. Varcoe and R. C. T. Slade, Electrochem. Comm., 8(5), 839 (2006). 9. J. R. Varcoe, R. C. T. Slade, H. Y. Lam, S. D

  17. Diels Alder polyphenylene anion exchange membrane for nonaqueous redox flow batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Small, Leo J.; Pratt, III, Harry D.; Fujimoto, Cy H.; ...

    2015-10-23

    Here highly conductive, solvent-resistant anionic Diels Alder polyphenylene (DAPP) membranes were synthesized with three different ionic contents and tested in an ionic liquid-based nonaqueous redox flow battery (RFB). These membranes display 3–10× increase in conductivity in propylene carbonate compared to some commercially available (aqueous) anion exchange membranes. The membrane with an ion content of 1.5 meq/g (DAPP1.5) proved too brittle for operation in a RFB, while the membrane with an ion content of 2.5 meq/g (DAPP2.5) allowed excessive movement of solvent and poor electrochemical yields (capacity fade). Despite having lower voltage efficiencies compared to DAPP2.5, the membrane with an intermediatemore » ion content of 2.0 meq/g (DAPP2.0) exhibited higher coulombic efficiencies (96.4% vs. 89.1%) and electrochemical yields (21.6% vs. 10.9%) after 50 cycles. Crossover of the electroactive species was the primary reason for decreased electrochemical yields. Analysis of the anolyte and catholyte revealed degradation of the electroactive species and formation of a film at the membrane-solution interface. Increases in membrane resistance were attributed to mechanical and thermal aging of the membrane; no chemical change was observed. As a result, improvements in the ionic selectivity and ionic conductivity of the membrane will increase the electrochemical yield and voltage efficiency of future nonaqueous redox flow batteries.« less

  18. Diels Alder polyphenylene anion exchange membrane for nonaqueous redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Small, Leo J.; Pratt, III, Harry D.; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Anderson, Travis M.

    2015-10-23

    Here highly conductive, solvent-resistant anionic Diels Alder polyphenylene (DAPP) membranes were synthesized with three different ionic contents and tested in an ionic liquid-based nonaqueous redox flow battery (RFB). These membranes display 3–10× increase in conductivity in propylene carbonate compared to some commercially available (aqueous) anion exchange membranes. The membrane with an ion content of 1.5 meq/g (DAPP1.5) proved too brittle for operation in a RFB, while the membrane with an ion content of 2.5 meq/g (DAPP2.5) allowed excessive movement of solvent and poor electrochemical yields (capacity fade). Despite having lower voltage efficiencies compared to DAPP2.5, the membrane with an intermediate ion content of 2.0 meq/g (DAPP2.0) exhibited higher coulombic efficiencies (96.4% vs. 89.1%) and electrochemical yields (21.6% vs. 10.9%) after 50 cycles. Crossover of the electroactive species was the primary reason for decreased electrochemical yields. Analysis of the anolyte and catholyte revealed degradation of the electroactive species and formation of a film at the membrane-solution interface. Increases in membrane resistance were attributed to mechanical and thermal aging of the membrane; no chemical change was observed. As a result, improvements in the ionic selectivity and ionic conductivity of the membrane will increase the electrochemical yield and voltage efficiency of future nonaqueous redox flow batteries.

  19. Thermally Cross-Linked Anion Exchange Membranes from Solvent Processable Isoprene Containing Ionomers

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Ertem, S. Piril; Maes, Ashley M.; Seifert, Soenke; Herring, Andrew M; Coughlin, E. Bryan

    2015-01-28

    Random copolymers of isoprene and 4-vinylbenzyl chloride (VBCl) with varying compositions were synthesized via nitroxide-mediated polymerization. Subsequent quaternization afforded solvent processable and cross-linkable ionomers with a wide range of ion exchange capacities (IECs). Solution cast membranes were thermally cross-linked to form anion exchange membranes. Cross-linking was achieved by taking advantage of the unsaturations on the polyisoprene backbone, without added cross-linkers. A strong correlation was found between water uptake and ion conductivity of the membranes: conductivities of the membranes with IECs beyond a critical value were found to be constant related to their high water absorption. Environmentally controlled small-angle X-ray scattering experiments revealed a correlation between the average distance between ionic clusters and the ion conductivity, indicating that a well-connected network of ion clusters is necessary for efficient ion conduction and high ion conductivity.

  20. Towards high conductivity in anion-exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Nanwen; Guiver, Michael D; Binder, Wolfgang H

    2013-08-01

    Quaternized poly(2,6-dimethylphenylene oxide) materials (PPOs) containing clicked 1,2,3-triazoles were first prepared through Cu(I) -catalyzed "click chemistry" to improve the anion transport in anion-exchange membranes (AEMs). Clicked 1,2,3-triazoles incorporated into AEMs provided more sites to form efficient and continuous hydrogen-bond networks between the water/hydroxide and the triazole for anion transport. Higher water uptake was observed for these triazole membranes. Thus, the membranes showed an impressive enhancement of the hydroxide diffusion coefficient and, therefore, the anion conductivities. The recorded hydroxide conductivity was 27.8-62 mS cm(-1) at 20 °C in water, which was several times higher than that of a typical PPO-based AEM (TMA-20) derived from trimethylamine (5 mS cm(-1) ). Even at reduced relative humidity, the clicked membrane showed superior conductivity to a trimethylamine-based membrane. Moreover, similar alkaline stabilities at 80 °C in 1 M NaOH were observed for the clicked and non-clicked membranes. The performance of a H2 /O2 single cell assembled with a clicked AEM was much improved compared to that of a non-clicked TMA-20 membrane. The peak power density achieved for an alkaline fuel cell with the synthesized membrane 1a(20) was 188.7 mW cm(-2) at 50 °C. These results indicated that clicked AEM could be a viable strategy for improving the performance of alkaline fuel cells.

  1. Anion- or Cation-Exchange Membranes for NaBH4/H2O2 Fuel Cells?

    PubMed

    Sljukić, Biljana; Morais, Ana L; Santos, Diogo M F; Sequeira, César A C

    2012-07-19

    Direct borohydride fuel cells (DBFC), which operate on sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as the fuel, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as the oxidant, are receiving increasing attention. This is due to their promising use as power sources for space and underwater applications, where air is not available and gas storage poses obvious problems. One key factor to improve the performance of DBFCs concerns the type of separator used. Both anion- and cation-exchange membranes may be considered as potential separators for DBFC. In the present paper, the effect of the membrane type on the performance of laboratory NaBH4/H2O2 fuel cells using Pt electrodes is studied at room temperature. Two commercial ion-exchange membranes from Membranes International Inc., an anion-exchange membrane (AMI-7001S) and a cation-exchange membrane (CMI-7000S), are tested as ionic separators for the DBFC. The membranes are compared directly by the observation and analysis of the corresponding DBFC's performance. Cell polarization, power density, stability, and durability tests are used in the membranes' evaluation. Energy densities and specific capacities are estimated. Most tests conducted, clearly indicate a superior performance of the cation-exchange membranes over the anion-exchange membrane. The two membranes are also compared with several other previously tested commercial membranes. For long term cell operation, these membranes seem to outperform the stability of the benchmark Nafion membranes but further studies are still required to improve their instantaneous power load.

  2. Synthesis and Structure-Property Relationships of Poly(sulfone)s for Anion Exchange Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, JL; Moore, HD; Hibbs, MR; Hickner, MA

    2013-10-05

    Membranes based on cationic polymers that conduct anions are important for enabling alkaline membrane fuel cells and other solid-state electrochemical devices that operate at high pH. Anion exchange membranes with poly(arylene ether sulfone) backbones are demonstrated by two routes: chloromethylation of commercially available poly(sulfone)s or radical bromination of benzylmethyl moieties in poly(sulfone)s containing tetramethylbisphenol A monomer residues. Polymers with tethered trimethylbenzyl ammonium moieties resulted from conversion of the halomethyl groups by quaternization with trimethyl amine. The water uptake of the chloromethylated polymers was dependent on the type of poly(sulfone) backbone for a given IEC. Bisphenol A-based Udel (R) poly(sulfone) membranes swelled in water to a large extent while membranes from biphenol-based Radel (R) poly(sulfone), a stiffer backbone than Udel, only showed moderate water uptake. The water uptake of cationic poly(sulfone)s was further reduced by synthesizing tetramethylbisphenol A and 4,4-biphenol-containing poly(sulfone) copolymers where the ionic groups were clustered on the tetramethylbisphenol A residues. The conductivity of all samples scaled with the bulk water uptake. The hydration number of the membranes could be increased by casting membranes from the ionic form polymers versus converting the halomethyl form cast polymers to ionic form in the solid state. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2013, 51, 1790-1798, 2013

  3. Poly(phenyl sulfone) anion exchange membranes with pyridinium groups for vanadium redox flow battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bengui; Zhang, Enlei; Wang, Guosheng; Yu, Ping; Zhao, Qiuxia; Yao, Fangbo

    2015-05-01

    To develop high performance and cost-effective membranes with low permeability of vanadium ions for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) application, poly(phenyl sulfone) anion exchange membranes with pyridinium groups (PyPPSU) are prepared and first investigated for VRFB application. PyPPSU membranes show much lower vanadium ions permeability (0.07 × 10-7-0.15 × 10-7 cm2 min-1) than that of Nafion 117 membrane (31.3 × 10-7 cm2 min-1). As a result, the self-discharge duration of the VRFB cell with PyPPSU membrane (418 h) is about four times longer than that of VRFB cell with Nafion 117 membrane (110 h). Furthermore, the VRFB cell with PyPPSU membrane exhibits higher battery efficiency (coulombic efficiency of 97.8% and energy efficiency of 80.2%) compare with that of VRFB cell with Nafion 117 membrane (coulombic efficiency of 96.1% and energy efficiency of 77.2%) at a high current density of 100 mA cm-2. In addition, PyPPSU membrane exhibits stable performance in 100-cycle test. The results indicate that PyPPSU membrane is high performance and low-cost alternative membrane for VRFB application.

  4. Imidazolium-Based Polymeric Materials as Alkaline Anion-Exchange Fuel Cell Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Sri R.; Yen, Shiao-Ping S.; Reddy, Prakash V.; Nair, Nanditha

    2012-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membranes that conduct hydroxide ions have potential use in fuel cells. A variety of polystyrene-based quaternary ammonium hydroxides have been reported as anion exchange fuel cell membranes. However, the hydrolytic stability and conductivity of the commercially available membranes are not adequate to meet the requirements of fuel cell applications. When compared with commercially available membranes, polystyrene-imidazolium alkaline membrane electrolytes are more stable and more highly conducting. At the time of this reporting, this has been the first such usage for imidazolium-based polymeric materials for fuel cells. Imidazolium salts are known to be electrochemically stable over wide potential ranges. By controlling the relative ratio of imidazolium groups in polystyrene-imidazolium salts, their physiochemical properties could be modulated. Alkaline anion exchange membranes based on polystyrene-imidazolium hydroxide materials have been developed. The first step was to synthesize the poly(styrene-co-(1-((4-vinyl)methyl)-3- methylimidazolium) chloride through a free-radical polymerization. Casting of this material followed by in situ treatment of the membranes with sodium hydroxide solutions provided the corresponding hydroxide salts. Various ratios of the monomers 4-chloromoethylvinylbenzine (CMVB) and vinylbenzine (VB) provided various compositions of the polymer. The preferred material, due to the relative ease of casting the film, and its relatively low hygroscopic nature, was a 2:1 ratio of CMVB to VB. Testing confirmed that at room temperature, the new membranes outperformed commercially available membranes by a large margin. With fuel cells now in use at NASA and in transportation, and with defense potential, any improvement to fuel cell efficiency is a significant development.

  5. Transport of some strong incompletely dissociated acids through anion-exchange membrane.

    PubMed

    Palatý, Zdenek; Záková, Alena

    2003-12-01

    Nitric and sulfuric acids belong among strong incompletely dissociated acids, so that in the description of their transport through an ion-exchange membrane, ionic equilibria have to be taken into account. The paper presents the determination of ionic mobilities and diffusivity of nondissociated form of these acids. For that purpose, data on the dialysis experiments with nitric and sulfuric acids in a batch mixed cell with an anion-exchange membrane NEOSEPTA-AFN, which have been completed by those on the membrane conductivity, have been used. The dependencies of the ionic mobilities and the diffusivity of nondissociated form of nitric acid upon the acid concentration in the membrane have been approximated by second degree polynomials. Their coefficients have been determined by numerical integration of the partial differential equation describing the concentration fields of the acids in the membrane and liquid films on both sides of the membrane, followed by an optimizing procedure. The model used is based on the Nernst-Planck electrodiffusion equation. Using all the experimental data obtained at various acid concentrations and rotational speeds of the stirrers, it has been found that ionic mobility is strongly affected by the acid concentration in the membrane and decreases in the series H(3)O(+), SO(2-)(4), NO(-)(3), HSO(-)(4).

  6. A green approach for preparing anion exchange membrane based on cardo polyetherketone powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jue; Zhang, Chengxu; Zhang, Xiaodong; Chen, Longwei; Jiang, Lin; Meng, Yuedong; Wang, Xiangke

    2014-12-01

    Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) have attracted great attention due to their irreplaceable role in platinum-free fuel cell applications. The majority of AEM preparations have been performed in two steps: the grafting of functional groups and quaternization. Here, we adopted a simpler, more eco-friendly approach for the first time to prepare AEMs by atmospheric-pressure plasma-grafting. This approach enables the direct introduction of anion exchange groups (benzyltrimethylammonium groups) into the polymer matrix, overcoming the need for toxic chloromethyl ether and quaternization reagents. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and 1H NMR spectroscopy results demonstrate that benzyltrimethylammonium groups have been successfully grafted into the cardo polyetherketone (PEK-C) matrix. Thermogravimetric analysis reveals that the plasma-grafting technique is a facile and non-destructive method able to improve the thermal stability of the polymer matrix due to the strong preservation of the PEK-C backbone structure and the cross-linking of the grafted side chains. The plasma-grafted PG-NOH membrane, which shows satisfactory alcohol resistance (ethanol permeability of 6.3 × 10-7 cm2 s-1), selectivity (1.2 × 104 S s cm-3), thermal stability (safely used below 130 °C), chemical stability, anion conductivity (7.7 mS cm-1 at 20 °C in deionized water) and mechanical properties is promising for the construction of high-performance fuel cells.

  7. Water uptake, ionic conductivity and swelling properties of anion-exchange membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, QJ; Ge, SH; Wang, CY

    2013-12-01

    Water uptake, ionic conductivity and dimensional change of the anion-exchange membrane made by Tokuyama Corporation (A201 membrane) are investigated at different temperatures and water activities. Specifically, the amount of water taken up by membranes exposed to water vapor and membranes soaked in liquid water is determined. The water uptake of the A201 membrane increases with water content as well as temperature. In addition, water sorption data shows Schroeder's paradox for the AEMs investigated. The swelling properties of the A201 membrane exhibit improved dimensional stability compared with Nafion membrane. Water sorption of the A201 membrane occurs with a substantial negative excess volume of mixing. The threshold value of hydrophilic fraction in the A201 membrane for ionic conductivity is around 0.34, above which, the conductivity begins to rise quickly. This indicates that a change in the connectivity of the hydrophilic domains occurs when hydrophilic fraction approaches 0.34. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Purification of plasmid DNA from Escherichia coli ferments using anion-exchange membrane and hydrophobic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Germán, Patricia; Montesinos-Cisneros, Rosa Ma; Prazeres, D Miguel F; Tejeda-Mansir, Armando

    2011-01-01

    A novel downstream bioprocess was developed to obtain purified plasmid DNA (pDNA) from Escherichia coli ferments. The intermediate recovery and purification of the pDNA in cell lysate was conducted using hollow-fiber tangential filtration and frontal anion-exchange membrane and elution hydrophobic chromatographies. The purity of the solutions of pDNA obtained during each process stage was investigated. The results show that the pDNA solution purity increased 30-fold and more than 99% of RNA in the lysate was removed during the process operations. The combination of membrane operations and hydrophobic interaction chromatography resulted in an efficient way to recover pDNA from cell lysates. A better understanding of membrane-based technology for the purification of pDNA from clarified E. coli lysate was developed in this research.

  9. A novel self-adaptive microalgae photobioreactor using anion exchange membranes for continuous supply of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qian; Chang, Hai-Xing; Huang, Yun; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Xia, Ao; Sun, Ya-Hui

    2016-08-01

    A novel self-adaptive microalgae photobioreactor using anion exchange membranes (AEM-PBR) for continuous supply of nutrients was proposed to improve microalgae biomass production. The introduction of anion exchange membranes to the PBR can realize continuous supply of nutrients at desired rates, which is beneficial to the growth of microalgae. The results showed that the maximum biomass concentration obtained in the AEM-PBR under continuous supply of nitrogen at an average rate of 19.0mgN/L/d was 2.98g/L, which was 129.2% higher than that (1.30g/L) in a PBR with all the nitrogen supplied in batch at initial. In addition, the feeding rates of nitrogen and phosphorus were optimized in the AEM-PBR to maximize biomass production. The maximum biomass concentration of 4.38g/L was obtained under synergistic regulation of nitrogen and phosphorus feeding rates at 19.0mgN/L/d and 4.2mgP/L/d. The AEM-PBR demonstrates a promising approach for high-density cultivation of microalgae.

  10. The recovery of zinc from hot galvanizing slag in an anion-exchange membrane electrolysis reactor.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiulian; Wei, Qifeng; Hu, Surong; Wei, Sijie

    2010-09-15

    This paper reports the optimization of the process parameters for recovery of zinc from hot galvanizing slag in an anion-exchange membrane electrolysis reactor. The experiments were carried out in an ammoniacal ammonium chloride system. The influence of composition of electrolytes, pH, stirring rate, current density and temperature, on cathodic current efficiency, specific power consumption and anodic dissolution of Zn were investigated. The results indicate that the cathode current efficiency increases and the hydrogen evolution decreased with increasing the cathode current density. The partial current for electrodeposition of Zn has liner relationship with omega(1/2) (omega: rotation rate). The highest current efficiency for dissolving zinc was obtained when NH(4)Cl concentration was 53.46 g L(-1) and the anodic dissolution of zinc was determined by mass transfer rate at stirring rate 0-300 r min(-1). Increase in temperature benefits to improve CE and dissolution of Zn, and reduce cell voltage. Initial pH of electrolytes plays an important role in the deposition and anodic dissolution of Zn. The results of single factor experiment show that about 50% energy consumption was saved for electrodeposition of Zn in the anion-exchange membrane electrolysis reactor.

  11. Organic-inorganic hybrid anion exchange hollow fiber membranes: a novel device for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Wu, Cuiming; Cheng, Yiyun; Xu, Tongwen

    2011-04-15

    The clinical use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (such as sodium salicylate (NaSA)) for the treatment of chronic arthritis is limited due to the adverse effects and patient non-compliance. In order to solve these problems, anion exchange hollow fiber membranes (AEHFMs) are proposed for the first time here as potential drug carriers. Brominated poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (BPPO) is used as the starting membrane material. In-situ sol-gel process of γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (γ-MPS) in BPPO matrix is operated so as to enhance the membranes' thermal and dimensional stability. The performances of the membranes in controlled release of the drug (NaSA as the model drug) are improved accordingly. Loading and release experiments illustrate that the hybrid AEHFM can bind salicylate (SA⁻) at a high loading efficiency (28.4%), and the retention of the drug on the membrane matrix is significantly prolonged (drug released in 7 days under physiological condition: 51.9%, neglecting the drug bound by protein). Meanwhile, the membrane is biocompatible and can support the adherence, growth, and survival of human cells. Overall, the prepared AEHFM is a promising scaffolding material for drug delivery and tissue engineering.

  12. Cross-linked anion exchange membranes with pendent quaternary pyrrolidonium salts for alkaline polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Chunhua; Fang, Jun; Guan, Yingjie; Zhou, Huili; Zhao, Jinbao

    2015-11-01

    Novel anion-exchange membranes based on two kinds of pyrrolidonium type ionic liquids, N-methyl-N-vinyl-pyrrolidonium (NVMP) and N-ethyl-N-vinyl-pyrrolidonium (NVEP), have been synthesized via polymerization and crosslinking treatment, followed by membrane casting. The covalent cross-linked structures of these membranes are confirmed by FT-IR. The obtained membranes are also characterized in terms of water uptake, ion exchange capacity (IEC), ionic conductivity as well as thermal, dimensional and chemical stability. The membranes display hydroxide conductivity of above 10-2 S cm-1 at 25 °C. Excellent thermal stability with onset degradation temperature above 235 °C, good alkaline stability in 6 mol L-1 NaOH at 60 °C for 168 h and remarkable dimensional stability of the resulting membranes have been proved. H2/air single fuel cells employed membrane M3 and N3 show the open-circuit voltage (OCV) of 0.953 V and 0.933 V, and the maximum power density of 88.90 mW cm-2 and 81.90 mW cm-2 at the current density of 175 mA cm-2 and 200 mA cm-2 at 65 °C, respectively.

  13. Tunable High Performance Cross-Linked Alkaline Anion Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Nicholas J.; Kostalik, IV, Henry A.; Clark, Timothy J.; Mutolo, Paul F.; Abruña, Héctor D.; Coates, Geoffrey W.

    2010-02-23

    Fuel cells are energy conversion devices that show great potential in numerous applications ranging from automobiles to portable electronics. However, further development of fuel cell components is necessary for them to become commercially viable. One component critical to their performance is the polymer electrolyte membrane, which is an ion conductive medium separating the two electrodes. While proton conducting membranes are well established (e.g., Nafion), hydroxide conducting membranes (alkaline anion exchange membranes, AAEMs) have been relatively unexplored by comparison. Operating under alkaline conditions offers significant efficiency benefits, especially for the oxygen reduction reaction; therefore, effective AAEMs could significantly advance fuel cell technologies. Here we demonstrate the use of ring-opening metathesis polymerization to generate new cross-linked membrane materials exhibiting high hydroxide ion conductivity and good mechanical properties. Cross-linking allows for increased ion incorporation, which, in turn supports high conductivities. This facile synthetic approach enables the preparation of cross-linked materials with the potential to meet the demands of hydrogen-powered fuel cells as well as direct methanol fuel cells.

  14. Anion- or Cation-Exchange Membranes for NaBH4/H2O2 Fuel Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Šljukić, Biljana; Morais, Ana L.; Santos, Diogo M. F.; Sequeira, César A. C.

    2012-01-01

    Direct borohydride fuel cells (DBFC), which operate on sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as the fuel, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as the oxidant, are receiving increasing attention. This is due to their promising use as power sources for space and underwater applications, where air is not available and gas storage poses obvious problems. One key factor to improve the performance of DBFCs concerns the type of separator used. Both anion- and cation-exchange membranes may be considered as potential separators for DBFC. In the present paper, the effect of the membrane type on the performance of laboratory NaBH4/H2O2 fuel cells using Pt electrodes is studied at room temperature. Two commercial ion-exchange membranes from Membranes International Inc., an anion-exchange membrane (AMI-7001S) and a cation-exchange membrane (CMI-7000S), are tested as ionic separators for the DBFC. The membranes are compared directly by the observation and analysis of the corresponding DBFC’s performance. Cell polarization, power density, stability, and durability tests are used in the membranes’ evaluation. Energy densities and specific capacities are estimated. Most tests conducted, clearly indicate a superior performance of the cation-exchange membranes over the anion-exchange membrane. The two membranes are also compared with several other previously tested commercial membranes. For long term cell operation, these membranes seem to outperform the stability of the benchmark Nafion membranes but further studies are still required to improve their instantaneous power load. PMID:24958292

  15. High-performance purification of gelsolin from plasma using anion-exchange porous hollow-fiber membrane.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Kyohei; Yonedu, Shinji; Saito, Kyoichi; Shiraishi, Tomoyuki; Sugo, Takanobu; Tojyo, Tadashi; Katayama, Eisaku

    2005-07-25

    Gelsolin was purified from bovine plasma using an anion-exchange porous hollow-fiber membrane. The anion-change porous hollow-fiber membrane was prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization of an epoxy-group-containing monomer, glycidyl methacrylate, and subsequent chemical modifications. Some of the epoxy groups of the polymer chain grafted onto the pore surface were converted into diethylamino groups, and the remaining epoxy groups were converted into 2-hydroxyethylamino groups. First, a gelsolin-containing dialyzed protein solution, prepared by pretreatments of ammonium sulfate precipitation and dialysis of plasma, was forced to permeate through the pores of an anion-exchange porous hollow-fiber membrane. Various proteins including gelsolin were adsorbed onto the anion-exchange polymer brush at a high rate with negligible diffusional mass-transfer resistance. Second, adsorbed gelsolin was specifically eluted by permeating 2mM calcium chloride. The amount of recovered gelsolin was 0.1 mg per 1 mL of plasma. Third, the remaining adsorbed proteins were quantitatively eluted with 1M sodium chloride, leading to a constant amount of recovered gelsolin during four cycles of purification. The total time required for gelsolin purification from 30 mL of bovine plasma was 11h, during which the time for selective adsorption of various proteins and affinity elution of gelsolin using the anion-exchange porous hollow-fiber membrane was 20 min.

  16. Influence of Hydration Level on Polymer and Water Dynamics in Alkaline Anion Exchange Fuel Cell Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarver, Jacob; Kim, Jenny; Tyagi, Madhu; Soles, Christopher; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Coughlin, Bryan

    2015-03-01

    Triblock copolymers based on poly(chloromethylstyrene)-b-poly(ethylene)-b-poly(chloromethylstyrene) can be quaternized to different extents to yield anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells. In the absence of moisture, these membranes demonstrate bilayer lamellar morphology. Upon high levels of hydration, however, in-situ small angle neutron scattering reveals the emergence of higher-order diffraction peaks. This phenomena has previously been observed in analogous diblock copolymer-based membranes and has been attributed to the induction of a multilayer lamellar morphology in which selective striping of water occurs in the center of the ion-rich domain. By conducting humidity-resolved quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) measurements using deuterated water, we are able to isolate differences in the pico- to nanosecond timescale dynamics of the hydrogenated membrane upon hydration. QENS measurements in the presence of a hydrogenated water source subsequently permit deconvolution and isolation of the translational and rotational dynamics of water as a function of relative humidity, revealing spatial and temporal changes in polymer and water motion at high levels of hydration.

  17. Separation of boric acid in liquid waste with anion exchange membrane contactor

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.K.; Lee, K.J.

    1995-12-31

    In order to separate boric acid in liquid waste, some possible technologies were investigated and the membrane contactor without dispersion and density differences was selected. The separation experiments on a Celgard 3401{reg_sign} hydrophilic microporous membrane contactor were first performed to obtain the basic data and to determine the properties of the contactor. The experimental conditions were as follows: boric acid concentrations up to 2.0 M, pH 7.0, temperatures of 25 and 55 C, and flow rates of 100, 300, 500, and 800 cm{sup 3}/min. Secondly, an AFN{reg_sign} anion exchange membrane contactor was tested at temperatures of 40 and 55 C and flow rate 400 cm{sup 3}/min. Boric acid solutions were prepared by the same method as that for Celgard 3401{reg_sign} but contained 5.0{times}10{sup {minus}4} M cobalt chloride (CoCl{sub 2}). To simulate membrane contractors, parameters such as the differential diffusion coefficients of boric acid and the mass transfer coefficients in the AFN membrane were measured, and regression models estimating the diffusion coefficient at several conditions were developed. The Celgard 3401{reg_sign} membrane contactor was simulated and compared with experimental data. Simulation results agreed with the experimental data well when a proper correction factor was utilized. The correction factor was independent of the solution temperature and was 8.75 at the flow rates of 300--800 cm{sup 3}/min. This correction factor was also applied to simulate the AFN{reg_sign} resulted in a good agreement with experiment at 40 C, but not 55 C. The retention on cobalt was also better at 40 c than 55 C. The simulating computer program was also applied to a life size contactor designed conceptually.

  18. Reversible air electrodes integrated with an anion-exchange membrane for secondary air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Naoko; Yao, Masaru; Siroma, Zyun; Senoh, Hiroshi; Ioroi, Tsutomu; Yasuda, Kazuaki

    Reversible air electrodes integrated with a polymer electrolyte membrane have been proposed for use in rechargeable metal-air batteries or unitized regenerative fuel cells to reduce the impact of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Reversible air electrodes were prepared with an anion-exchange membrane (AEM) as a polymer electrolyte membrane and platinum-based catalysts. The AEM at the interface between the alkaline electrolyte and the air electrode layer plays major roles in AEM-type air electrodes as follows: it blocks (a) the permeation of cations in the alkaline electrolyte into the air electrode layer to prevent carbonate precipitation, (b) penetration of the alkaline solution itself, and (c) neutralization of the alkaline electrolyte by carbon dioxide, all of which prevent performance degradation of oxygen reactions. Catalysts for decreasing the overvoltage of oxygen reactions were also investigated with the AEM-type air electrode, and the overall efficiency was improved due to a remarkable decrease in the potential for the oxygen evolution reaction with Pt-Ir catalysts.

  19. Understanding ion and solvent transport in anion exchange membranes under humidified conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarode, Himanshu

    Anion exchange membranes (AEM) have been studied for more than a decade for potential applications in low temperature fuel cells and other electrochemical devices. They offer the advantage of faster reaction kinetics under alkaline conditions and ability to perform without costly platinum catalyst. Inherently slow diffusion of hydroxide ions compared to protons is a primary reason for synthesizing and studying the ion transport properties in AEMs. The aim of this thesis is to understand ion transport in novel AEMs using Pulse Gradient stimulated Spin Echo Nuclear Magnetic Resonance technique (PGSE NMR), water uptake, ionic conductivity, Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) etc. All experiments were performed under humidified conditions (80--95% relative humidity) and fuel cell operating temperatures of 30--90°C. In this work, the NMR tube design was modified for humidifying the entire NMR tube evenly from our previous design. We have developed a new protocol for replacing caustic hydroxide with harmless fluoride or bicarbonate ions for 19F and 13 C NMR diffusion experiments. After performing these NMR experiments, we have obtained in-depth understanding of the morphology linked ion transport in AEMs. We have obtained the highest fluoride self-diffusion coefficient of > 1 x 10-5 cm2/sec ( 55°C) for ETFE-g-PVBTMA membrane which is a result of low tortuosity of 1 obtained for the membrane. This faster fluoride transport combined with low tortuosity of the membrane resulted in > 100mS/cm hydroxide conductivity for the membrane. Polycyclooctene (PCOE) based triblock copolymers are also studied for in-depth understanding of molecular weight, IEC, mechanical and transport properties. Effect of melting temperature of PCOE has favorable effect on increasing ion conductivity and lowering activation energy. Mechanical properties of these types of membranes were studied showing detrimental effect of water plasticization which results in unsuitable mechanical properties

  20. Ionic polymer-metal composite actuators obtained from radiation-grafted cation- and anion-exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Hyuk; Han, Man Jae; Song, Dae Seock; Jho, Jae Young

    2014-12-24

    Two series of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs), one cationic and one anionic, are designed and prepared from radiation-grafted ion-exchange membranes. Through examination of the properties of the membranes synthesized from the two grafting monomers and the two base polymers, acrylic acid-grafted poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) and quarternized 4-vinylpyridine-grafted poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) with the appropriate amount of ionic groups are employed for the fabrication of cation and anion IPMCs, respectively. The bending displacement of the cation IPMC is comparable to Nafion-based IPMC under direct- and alternating-current voltage, but back-relaxation is not observed. The actuation performance of the anion IPMC is highly improved over those reported earlier in the literature for the other anion IPMCs.

  1. Full cell study of Diels Alder poly(phenylene) anion and cation exchange membranes in vanadium redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Pezeshki, Alan M.; Fujimoto, Cy; Sun, Che -Nan; Mench, Matthew M.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Tang, Z. J.

    2015-11-14

    In this paper, we report on the performance of Diels Alder poly(phenylene) membranes in vanadium redox flow batteries. The membranes were functionalized with quaternary ammonium groups to form an anion exchange membrane (QDAPP) and with sulfonic acid groups to form a cation exchange membrane (SDAPP). Both membrane classes showed similar conductivities in the battery environment, suggesting that the ion conduction mechanism in the material is not strongly affected by the moieties along the polymer backbone. The resistance to vanadium permeation in QDAPP was not improved relative to SDAPP, further suggesting that the polarity of the functional groups do not play a significant role in the membrane materials tested. Both QDAPP and SDAPP outperformed Nafion membranes in cycling tests, with both achieving voltage efficiencies above 85% while maintaining 95% coulombic efficiency while at a current density of 200 mA/cm2.

  2. Full cell study of Diels Alder poly(phenylene) anion and cation exchange membranes in vanadium redox flow batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Pezeshki, Alan M.; Fujimoto, Cy; Sun, Che -Nan; ...

    2015-11-14

    In this paper, we report on the performance of Diels Alder poly(phenylene) membranes in vanadium redox flow batteries. The membranes were functionalized with quaternary ammonium groups to form an anion exchange membrane (QDAPP) and with sulfonic acid groups to form a cation exchange membrane (SDAPP). Both membrane classes showed similar conductivities in the battery environment, suggesting that the ion conduction mechanism in the material is not strongly affected by the moieties along the polymer backbone. The resistance to vanadium permeation in QDAPP was not improved relative to SDAPP, further suggesting that the polarity of the functional groups do not playmore » a significant role in the membrane materials tested. Both QDAPP and SDAPP outperformed Nafion membranes in cycling tests, with both achieving voltage efficiencies above 85% while maintaining 95% coulombic efficiency while at a current density of 200 mA/cm2.« less

  3. Degradation of imidazolium- and quaternary ammonium-functionalized poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone) anion exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongyang; Hickner, Michael A

    2012-11-01

    Imidazolium and quaternary ammonium-functionalized poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s were synthesized successfully with the same degree of cationic functionalization and identical polymer backbones for a comparative study of anion exchange membranes (AEMs) for solid-state alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs). Both anion exchange membranes were synthesized using a new methyl-containing monomer that avoided the use of toxic chloromethylation reagents. The polymer chemical structures were confirmed by ¹H NMR and FTIR. The derived AEMs were fully characterized by water uptake, anion conductivity, stability under aqueous basic conditions, and thermal stability. Interestingly, both the cationic groups and the polymer backbone were found to be degraded in 1 M NaOH solution at 60 °C over 48 h as measured by changes of ion exchange capacity and intrinsic viscosity. Imidazolium-functionalized poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s had similar aqueous alkaline stability to quaternary ammonium-functionalized materials at 60 °C but much lower stability at 80 °C. This work demonstrates that quaternary ammonium and imidazolium cationic groups are not stable on poly(arylene ether sulfone) backbones under relatively mild conditions. Additionally, the poly(arylene ether sulfone) backbone, which is one of the most common polymers used in ion exchange membrane applications, is not stable in the types of molecular configurations analyzed.

  4. Degradation of Imidazolium- and Quaternary Ammonium-Functionalized Poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone) Anion Exchange Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, DY; Hickner, MA

    2012-11-01

    Imidazolium and quaternary ammonium-functionalized poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s were synthesized successfully with the same degree of cationic functionalization and identical polymer backbones for a comparative study of anion exchange membranes (AEMs) for solid-state alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs). Both anion exchange membranes were synthesized using a new methyl-containing monomer that avoided the use of toxic chloromethylation reagents. The polymer chemical structures were confirmed by H-1 NMR and FTIR. The derived AEMs were fully characterized by water uptake, anion conductivity, stability under aqueous basic conditions, and thermal stability. Interestingly, both the cationic groups and the polymer backbone were found to be degraded in 1 M NaOH solution at 60 degrees C over 48 h as measured by changes of ion exchange capacity and intrinsic viscosity. Imidazolium-functionalized poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s had similar aqueous alkaline stability to quaternary ammonium-functionalized materials at 60 degrees C but much lower stability at 80 degrees C. This work demonstrates that quaternary ammonium and imidazolium cationic groups are not stable on poly(arylene ether sulfone) backbones under relatively mild conditions. Additionally, the poly(arylene ether sulfone) backbone, which is one of the most common polymers used in ion exchange membrane applications, is not stable in the types of molecular configurations analyzed.

  5. The role of polymer nanolayer architecture on the separation performance of anion-exchange membrane adsorbers: I. Protein separations.

    PubMed

    Bhut, Bharat V; Weaver, Justin; Carter, Andrew R; Wickramasinghe, S Ranil; Husson, Scott M

    2011-11-01

    This contribution describes the preparation of strong anion-exchange membranes with higher protein binding capacities than the best commercial resins. Quaternary amine (Q-type) anion-exchange membranes were prepared by grafting polyelectrolyte nanolayers from the surfaces of macroporous membrane supports. A focus of this study was to better understand the role of polymer nanolayer architecture on protein binding. Membranes were prepared with different polymer chain graft densities using a newly developed surface-initiated polymerization protocol designed to provide uniform and variable chain spacing. Bovine serum albumin and immunoglobulin G were used to measure binding capacities of proteins with different size. Dynamic binding capacities of IgG were measured to evaluate the impact of polymer chain density on the accessibility of large size protein to binding sites within the polyelectrolyte nanolayer under flow conditions. The dynamic binding capacity of IgG increased nearly linearly with increasing polymer chain density, which suggests that the spacing between polymer chains is sufficient for IgG to access binding sites all along the grafted polymer chains. Furthermore, the high dynamic binding capacity of IgG (>130 mg/mL) was independent of linear flow velocity, which suggests that the mass transfer of IgG molecules to the binding sites occurs primarily via convection. Overall, this research provides clear evidence that the dynamic binding capacities of large biologics can be higher for well-designed macroporous membrane adsorbers than commercial membrane or resin ion-exchange products. Specifically, using controlled polymerization leads to anion-exchange membrane adsorbers with high binding capacities that are independent of flow rate, enabling high throughput. Results of this work should help to accelerate the broader implementation of membrane adsorbers in bioprocess purification steps.

  6. Enhanced performance of anion exchange membranes via crosslinking of ion cluster regions for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Ao Nan; Guo, Dong; Lin, Chen Xiao; Zhang, Qiu Gen; Zhu, Ai Mei; Ye, Mei Ling; Liu, Qing Lin

    2016-09-01

    Development of anion exchange membranes (AEMs) with high hydroxide conductivity, good dimensional and alkaline stabilities is still a challenge for the practical application of AEM fuel cells. In this study, we report a new strategy to prepare high-performance AEMs with crosslinked ionic regions. A series of phenolphthalein-containing poly(arylene ether sulfone)s crosslinked AEMs was synthesized by grafting ion groups selectively and densely on the phenolphthalein units to form ion clusters that are further crosslinked to generate the hydrophilic ionic regions. The crosslinking reaction not only improved the dimensional stability of the AEMs, but also increased the aggregation of the ion clusters leading to the formation of hydrophilic/hydrophobic phase-separated morphology and ion-conducting channels. As a result, enhancements in both ion conductivity and dimensional stability can be achieved. The crosslinked AEMs showed high hydroxide conductivities in the range of 52.2-143.4 mS cm-1 from 30 to 80 °C and a superb ratio of relative conductivity to relative swelling at 80 °C. Furthermore, the crosslinked AEMs also exhibited good mechanical properties, thermal and alkaline stabilities and desirable single cell performance. This work presents a promising strategy for the synthesis of high-performance AEMs for fuel cells.

  7. Nature identification and morphology characterization of anion-exchange membrane fouling during conventional electrodialysis.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Bribiesca, Erik; Pourcelly, Gérald; Bazinet, Laurent

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect on the fouling of anion-exchange membranes (AEM) of (1) the pH value of the concentrate solution and (2) the composition in calcium, carbonate, and protein of the diluate solution to be treated by conventional electrodialysis. It appeared that after demineralization of solutions containing CaCl(2) using a concentrate solution maintained at a pH value of 7 or 12, mineral fouling appeared on the AEM surface in contact with the concentrate. The mineral deposits presented a cylindrical filament shape for conditions with a concentrate solution pH value of 7, while, for a pH value of 12, the mineral deposit had a crumbly and spongy texture formed by irregular aggregates. The nature of the fouling was identified as a calcium phosphate with or without calcium hydroxide. In addition, gel-like protein fouling was detected on the AEM surface in contact with the diluate after demineralization procedures using a concentrate pH value of 2 or 7, regardless of the mineral composition of the diluate.

  8. A dication cross-linked composite anion-exchange membrane for all-vanadium flow battery applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengxiang; Zhang, Huamin; Qu, Chao

    2013-12-01

    We report the fabrication and properties of a high-performance, inexpensive, composite, anion-exchange membrane (AEM) for an all-vanadium flow battery (VFB) application. The AEM was fabricated by dication cross-linking without the involvement of trimethylamine, and shows well-balanced anion conductivity and robustness due to imidazolium and imidazolium-ammonium functionalities, as well as a concomitantly achieved semi-interpenetrating network structure. The VFB single cell yielded a Coulombic efficiency of 99 % and an energy efficiency of 84 % at 80 mA cm(-2) , and operated for over 900 charge/discharge cycles. This work demonstrates the combined use of several favorable AEM design rationales, such as incorporating abundant and efficient anion-exchange groups, constructing a swelling- and oxidation-resistant structure, and facile fabrication; it provides an effective way of developing high-performance, low-cost AEMs for VFB applications.

  9. Anion exchange membranes for electrochemical oxidation-reduction energy storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonnell, P. M.; Sheibley, D. W.; Gahn, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    Oxidation-reduction couples in concentrated solutions separated by appropriate ion selective membranes were considered as an attractive approach to bulk electrical energy storage. A key problem is the development of the membrane. Several promising types of anionic membranes are discussed which were developed and evaluated for redox energy storage systems. The copolymers of ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate with either 2-vinylpyridine or vinylbenzl chloride gave stable resistance values compared to the copolymer of vinylbenzlchloride and divinylbenzene which served as the baseline membrane. A polyvinylchloride film aminated with tetraethylenepentamine had a low resistance but a high ion transfer rate. A slurry coated vinylpyridine had the lowest ion transfer rate. All these membranes functioned well in laboratory cells at ambient temperatures with the acidic chloride oxidant/reductant system, Fe 3, Fe 2/Ti 3, Ti 4.

  10. Anion permselective membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgdon, R. B.; Waite, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    The efforts on the synthesis of polymer anion redox membranes were mainly concentrated in two areas, membrane development and membrane fabrication. Membrane development covered the preparation and evaluation of experimental membranes systems with improved resistance stability and/or lower permeability. Membrane fabrication covered the laboratory scale production of prime candidate membranes in quantities of up to two hundred and sizes up to 18 inches x 18 inches (46 cm x 46 cm). These small (10 in x 11 in) and medium sized membranes were mainly for assembly into multicell units. Improvements in processing procedures and techniques for preparing such membrane sets lifted yields to over 90 percent.

  11. Quaternized adamantane-containing poly(aryl ether ketone) anion exchange membranes for vanadium redox flow battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bengui; Zhang, Shouhai; Weng, Zhihuan; Wang, Guosheng; Zhang, Enlei; Yu, Ping; Chen, Xiaomeng; Wang, Xinwei

    2016-09-01

    Quaternized adamantane-containing poly(aryl ether ketone) anion exchange membranes (QADMPEK) are prepared and investigated for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFB) application. The bulky, rigid and highly hydrophobic adamantane segment incorporated into the backbone of membrane material makes QADMPEK membranes have low water uptake and swelling ratio, and the as-prepared membranes display significantly lower permeability of vanadium ions than that of Nafion117 membrane. As a consequence, the VRFB cell with QADMPEK-3 membrane shows higher coulombic efficiency (99.4%) and energy efficiency (84.0%) than those for Nafion117 membrane (95.2% and 80.5%, respectively) at the current density of 80 mA cm-2. Furthermore, at a much higher current density of 140 mA cm-2, QADMPEK membrane still exhibits better coulombic efficiency and energy efficiency than Nafion117 membrane (coulombic efficiency 99.2% vs 96.5% and energy efficiency 76.0% vs 74.0%). Moreover, QADMPEK membranes show high stability in in-situ VRFB cycle test and ex-situ oxidation stability test. These results indicate that QADMPEK membranes are good candidates for VRFB applications.

  12. Investigation of Anion-Exchange and Immunoaffinity Particle-Loaded Membranes for the Isolation of Charged Organic Analytes from Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dombrowski, T.R.; Wilson, G.S.; Thurman, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    Anion-exchange and immunoaffinity particle loaded membranes (PLMs) were investigated as a mechanism for the isolation of charged organic analytes from water. Kinetic properties determined theoretically included dynamic capacity, pressure drop (??P), residence and diffusion times (Tr, Td), and total membrane porosity (???T). These properties were confirmed through experimental evaluation, and the PLM method showed significant improvement over conventional solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ion-exchange formats. Recoveries of more than 90% were observed for a variety of test compounds at flow rates up to 70 mL/min (equipment-limited maximum flow rate). A fast-flow immunoaffinity column was developed using antibodies (Abs) attached to the PLMs. Reproducible recoveries (88% ?? 4%) were observed at flow rates up to 70 mL/min for the antibody (Ab)-loaded PLMs. Findings indicate increased selectivity over anion-exchange PLMs and conventional SPE or ion-exchange methods and rapid Ab-antigen binding rates given the excellent mass-transfer characteristics of the PLMs.

  13. In and ex situ characterization of an anion-exchange membrane for alkaline direct methanol fuel cell (ADMFC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santasalo-Aarnio, Annukka; Hietala, Sami; Rauhala, Taina; Kallio, Tanja

    2011-08-01

    Anion exchange membrane fumasep® FAA-2 was characterized with ex and in situ methods in order to estimate the membranes' suitability as an electrolyte for an alkaline direct methanol fuel cell (ADMFC). The interactions of this membrane with water, hydroxyl ions and methanol were studied with both calorimetry and NMR and compared with the widely used proton exchange membrane Nafion® 115. The results indicate that FAA-2 has a tighter structure and more homogeneous distribution of ionic groups in contrast to the clustered structure of Nafion, moreover, the diffusion of OH- ions through this membrane is clearly slower compared to water molecules. The permeability of methanol through the FAA-2 membrane was found to be an order of magnitude lower than for Nafion. Fuel cell experiments in 1 mol dm-3 methanol with FAA-2 resulted in OCV of 0.58 V and maximum power density of 0.32 mW cm-2. However, even higher current densities were obtained with highly concentrated fuels. This implies that less water is needed for fuel dilution, thereby decreasing the mass of the fuel cell system. In addition, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for the ADMFC was used to determine ohmic resistance of the cell facilitating the further membrane development.

  14. The transfer behavior of different ions across anion and cation exchange membranes under vanadium flow battery medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jiawei; Li, Xianfeng; Xi, Xiaoli; Lai, Qinzhi; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Huamin

    2014-12-01

    The transfer behavior of different ions (V2+, V3+, VO2+, VO2+, H+, SO42-) across ion exchange membranes is investigated under vanadium flow battery (VFB) operating condition. VX-20 anion exchange membrane (AEM) and Nafion 115 cation exchange membrane (CEM) are selected to investigate the influence of fixed charged groups on the transfer behavior of different ions. The interaction between different ions and water is discussed in detail aiming to ascertain the variation of different ions in the charge-discharge process. Under the VFB medium, the transfer behavior and function of different ions are very different for the AEM and CEM. V2+ ions at the negative side accumulate when VFB is assembled with Nafion 115, while the VO2+ ions at the positive side accumulate for VX-20. The SO42- ions will transfer across Nafion 115 to balance the charges and the protons can balance the charges of VX-20. Finally the capacity fade mechanism of different membranes is investigated, showing that the capacity decay of VFB assembled with Nafion 115 mainly results from the cross mix of vanadium ions across the membrane, however, for VX-20, the side reactions can be the major reason. This paper provides important information about electrolyte for the application of VFB.

  15. Preparation of high-capacity, weak anion-exchange membranes by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) and subsequent derivatization with diethylamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xiaolei; Fan, Hua; Wang, Chaozhan; Wei, Yinmao

    2013-04-01

    Ion-exchange membrane is of importance for the development of membrane chromatography. In this work, a high-capacity anion-exchange membrane was prepared by grafting of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto the surface of regenerated cellulose (RC) membranes via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) and subsequent derivatization with diethylamine. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize changes in the chemical functionality, surface topography and pore morphology of the modified membranes. The static capacity of the prepared anion-exchange membrane was evaluated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein. The results indicated that the anion-exchange membrane which could reach a maximum capacity of 96 mg/mL for static adsorption possesses a higher adsorption capacity, and the adsorption capacity increases with the polymerization time. The effect of pH and salt concentration confirmed that the adsorption of BSA followed ion-exchange mechanism. The established method would have potential application in the preparation of anion-exchange membrane.

  16. Synthesis and performance of novel anion exchange membranes based on imidazolium ionic liquids for alkaline fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jun; Lyu, Ming; Wang, Xin; Wu, Yongbin; Zhao, Jinbao

    2015-06-01

    Novel anion exchange membranes (AEMs) based on two types of imidazolium ionic liquids, 1-vinyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide [VMI]I and 1-vinyl-3-butylimidazolium bromide [VBI]Br, have been synthesized by copolymerization. The obtained membranes are characterized in terms of water uptake, ion exchange capacity (IEC), ionic conductivity as well as thermal and chemical stability. The conductivity reaches 0.0226 Scm-1 at 30 °C. All the membranes show excellent thermostability. The membranes are stable in 10 mol L-1 NaOH solution at 60 °C for 120 h without obvious changes in ion conductivity. Fuel cell performance using the resulting membrane has been investigated. The open circuit voltage (OCV) of the H2/O2 fuel cell is 1.07 V. A peek power density of 116 mW cm-2 is obtained at a current density of 230 mA cm-2 at 60 °C. The results demonstrate the brilliant prospect of the developed membranes for alkaline fuel cell applications.

  17. Novel quaternized poly(arylene ether sulfone)/Nano-ZrO₂ composite anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuhua; Yu, Yingfeng; Meng, Yuezhong

    2013-02-01

    A series of composite anion exchange membranes based on novel quaternized poly(arylene ether sulfone)/nanozirconia (QPAES/nano-ZrO₂) composites are prepared using a solution casting method. The QPAES/nano-ZrO₂ composite membranes are characterized by FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX). The ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, swelling ratio, hydroxide ion conductivity, mechanical properties, thermal stability, and chemical stability of the composite membranes are measured to evaluate their applicability in fuel cells. The introduction of nano-ZrO₂ induces the crystallization of the matrix and enhances the IEC of the composite membranes. The modification with nano-ZrO₂ improves water uptake, dimension stability, hydroxide ion conductivity, mechanical properties, and thermal and chemical stabilities of the composite membranes. The QPAES/nano-ZrO₂ composite membranes show hydroxide ion conductivities over 25.7 mS cm⁻¹ at a temperature above 60 °C. Especially, the QPAES/nano-ZrO₂ composite membranes with the nano-ZrO₂ content above 7.5% display hydroxide ion conductivities over 41.4 mS cm⁻¹ at 80 °C. The E(a) values of the QPAES/nano-ZrO₂ composite membranes with the nano-ZrO₂ content above 5% are lower than 11.05 kJ mol⁻¹. The QPAES/7.5% nano-ZrO₂ composite membrane displays the lowest E(a) value and the best comprehensive properties and constitutes a good potential candidate for alkaline fuel cells.

  18. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik; Lee, Kwan-Soo

    2013-07-23

    Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes and compositions comprising chemical compounds comprising a polymeric core, a spacer A, and a guanidine base, wherein said chemical compound is uniformly dispersed in a suitable solvent and has the structure: ##STR00001## wherein: i) A is a spacer having the structure O, S, SO.sub.2, --NH--, --N(CH.sub.2).sub.n, wherein n=1-10, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.sub.3--, wherein n=1-10, SO.sub.2-Ph, CO-Ph, ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.5, R.sub.6, R.sub.7 and R.sub.8 each are independently --H, --NH.sub.2, F, Cl, Br, CN, or a C.sub.1-C.sub.6 alkyl group, or any combination of thereof; ii) R.sub.9, R.sub.10, R.sub.11, R.sub.12, or R.sub.13 each independently are --H, --CH.sub.3, --NH.sub.2, --NO, --CH.sub.nCH.sub.3 where n=1-6, HC.dbd.O--, NH.sub.2C.dbd.O--, --CH.sub.nCOOH where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--C(NH.sub.2)--COOH where n=1-6, --CH--(COOH)--CH.sub.2--COOH, --CH.sub.2--CH(O--CH.sub.2CH.sub.3).sub.2, --(C.dbd.S)--NH.sub.2, --(C.dbd.NH)--N--(CH.sub.2).sub.nCH.sub.3, where n=0-6, --NH--(C.dbd.S)--SH, --CH.sub.2--(C.dbd.O)--O--C(CH.sub.3).sub.3, --O--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--(NH.sub.2)--COOH, where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.dbd.CH wherein n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--CN wherein n=1-6, an aromatic group such as a phenyl, benzyl, phenoxy, methylbenzyl, nitrogen-substituted benzyl or phenyl groups, a halide, or halide-substituted methyl groups; and iii) wherein the composition is suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly.

  19. Effects of substituents and substitution positions on alkaline stability of imidazolium cations and their corresponding anion-exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    Si, Zhihong; Qiu, Lihua; Dong, Huilong; Gu, Fenglou; Li, Youyong; Yan, Feng

    2014-03-26

    Imidazolium cations with butyl groups at various substitution positions (N1-, C2-, and N3-), 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium ([N1-BDMIm](+)), 2-butyl-1,3-dimethylimidazolium ([C2-BDMIm](+)), and 3-butyl-1,2-dimethylimidazolium ([N3-BDMIm](+)), were synthesized. Quantitative (1)H NMR spectra and density functional theory calculation were applied to investigate the chemical stability of the imidazolium cations in alkaline solutions. The results suggested that the alkaline stability of the imidazolium cations was drastically affected by the C2-substitution groups. The alkaline stability of imidazolium cations with various substitution groups at the C2-position, including 2-ethyl-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C2-EBMIm](+)), 1,2-dibutyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C2-BBMIm](+)), and 2-hydroxymethyl-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C2-HMBMIm](+)), was further studied. The butyl group substituted imidazolium cation ([C2-BBMIm](+)) exhibited the highest alkaline stability at the elevated temperatures. The synthesized anion-exchange membranes based on the [C2-BBMIm](+) cation showed promising alkaline stability. These observations should pave the way to the practical application of imidazolium-based anion exchange membrane fuel cells.

  20. Highly stable pyridinium-functionalized cross-linked anion exchange membranes for all vanadium redox flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, L.; Zhao, T. S.; Wei, L.; Zeng, Y. K.; Zhang, Z. H.

    2016-11-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that the use of anion exchange membranes (AEMs) in vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) can reduce the migration of vanadium ions through the membrane due to the Donnan exclusion effect among the positively charged functional groups and vanadium ions. However, AEMs are plagued by low chemical stability in harsh chemical environments. Here we propose and fabricate a pyridinium-functionalized cross-linked AEM for VRFBs. The pyridinium-functionalized bromomethylated poly (2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) exhibits a superior chemical stability as a result of the strengthened internal cross-linking networks and the chemical inertness of the polymer backbone. Therefore, the membrane exhibits littler decay in a harsh environment for 20 days during the course of an ex situ immersion test. A cycling test also demonstrates that the VRFB assembled with the membrane enable to retain 80% of the initial discharge capacity over 537 cycles with a capacity decay rate of 0.037% cycle-1. Meanwhile, the membrane also shows a low vanadium permeability and a reasonably high conductivity in supporting electrolytes. Hence, all the measurements and performance tests reported in this work suggest that the membrane is a promising AEM for redox flow batteries to achieve excellent cycling stability and superior cell performance.

  1. Anion permselective membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgdon, R. B.; Waite, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The synthesis and fabrication of polymeric anion permselective membranes for redox systems are discussed. Variations of the prime candidate anion membrane formulation to achieve better resistance and/or lower permeability were explored. Processing parameters were evaluated to lower cost and fabricate larger sizes. The processing techniques to produce more membranes per batch were successfully integrated with the fabrication of larger membranes. Membranes of about 107 cm x 51 cm were made in excellent yield. Several measurements were made on the larger sample membranes. Among the data developed were water transport and transference numbers for these prime candidate membranes at 20 C. Other work done on this system included characterization of a number of specimens of candidate membranes which had been returned after service lives of up to sixteen months. Work with new polymer constituents, with new N.P.'s, catalysts and backing fabrics is discussed. Some work was also done to evaluate other proportions of the ingredients of the prime candidate system. The adoption of a flow selectivity test at elevated temperature was explored.

  2. Anion permselective membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, S.; Hodgdon, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of NAS 3-20108 was the development and evaluation of improved anion selective membranes useful as efficient separators in a redox power storage cell system being constructed. The program was divided into three parts, (a) optimization of the selected candidate membrane systems, (b) investigation of alternative membrane/polymer systems, and (c) characterization of candidate membranes. The major synthesis effort was aimed at improving and optimizing as far as possible each candidate system with respect to three critical membrane properties essential for good redox cell performance. Substantial improvements were made in 5 candidate membrane systems. The critical synthesis variables of cross-link density, monomer ratio, and solvent composition were examined over a wide range. In addition, eight alternative polymer systems were investigated, two of which attained candidate status. Three other alternatives showed potential but required further research and development. Each candidate system was optimized for selectivity.

  3. Improved electrical power production of thermally regenerative batteries using a poly(phenylene oxide) based anion exchange membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Mohammad; Zhu, Liang; Kowalski, Kelly L.; Zhu, Xiuping; Gorski, Christopher A.; Hickner, Michael A.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2017-02-01

    Thermally regenerative ammonia-based batteries (TRABs) can be used to harvest low-grade waste heat as electrical power. To improve TRAB performance, a series of benzyltrimethyl quaternary ammonium-functionalized poly(phenylene oxide) anion exchange membranes (BTMA-AEMs) were examined for their impact on performance relative to a commercial AEM (Selemion AMV). The synthesized AEMs had different degrees of functionalization (DF; 25% and 40%), and thicknesses (50, 100 and 150 μm). Power and energy densities were shown to be a function of both DF and membrane thickness. The power density of TRAB increased by 31% using a BTMA-AEM (40% DF, 50 μm thick; 106 ± 7 W m-2) compared to the Selemion (81 ± 5 W m-2). Moreover, the energy density increased by 13% when using a BTMA-based membrane (25% DF, 150 μm thick; 350 Wh m-3) compared to the Selemion membrane (311 Wh m-3). The thermal-electric conversion efficiency improved to 0.97% with the new membrane compared to 0.86% for the Selemion. This energy recovery was 7.0% relative to the Carnot efficiency, which was 1.8 times greater than the highest previously reported value of a system used to capture low-grade waste heat as electricity.

  4. Anion Transport in a Chemically Stable, Sterically Bulky alpha-C Modified Imidazolium Functionalized Anion Exchange Membrane

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-24

    membrane performance. From AFM and SAXS under humid conditions, the domain sizes of the 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13...with the same protected cation) show interesting differences in membrane performance. From AFM and SAXS under humid conditions, the domain sizes of the...conditions, the domain sizes of the membrane change, which impact the transport properties. The lower IEC sample showed a smaller tortuosity and, thus

  5. Assemblies of protective anion exchange membrane on air electrode for its efficient operation in aqueous alkaline electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolotti, Bruno; Chikh, Linda; Vancaeyzeele, Cédric; Alfonsi, Séverine; Fichet, Odile

    2015-01-01

    Aqueous alkaline metal-air batteries represent promising energy storage devices when supplied with atmospheric air. However, under this condition, the air electrode shows a very short life time (i.e. 50 h of operation in 5 M LiOH at -10 mA cm-2), mainly due to the precipitation of carbonates inside the electrode porosity. The air electrode can then be protected by an anion exchange membrane on the electrolyte side. In this paper, we demonstrate that the efficiency of this protective membrane depends on the assembly method on the electrode. When a modified poly(epichlorohydrin) (PECH) network is synthesized directly on the electrode, the polymer seeps inside the electrode porosity, and a suitable interface inducing negligible additional polarization in comparison with classical pressure-assembled membranes is obtained. This protected electrode shows improved stability of up to 160 h of operation in 5 M LiOH. This performance is improved to 350 h by adjusting the conductivity and the ionic exchange capacity. Finally, the interest of interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) architecture compared to a single network is confirmed. Indeed, an electrode protected with a PECH/poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) IPN is stable for 650 h in 5 M LiOH. In addition, degradation process becomes reversible since the assembly can be regenerated, which is not possible for the bare electrode.

  6. How pulse modes affect proton-barriers and anion-exchange membrane mineral fouling during consecutive electrodialysis treatments.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes-Araya, Nicolás; Pourcelly, Gérald; Bazinet, Laurent

    2013-02-15

    Mineral fouling of cation-exchange membrane (CEM) was recently reduced by pulsed electric fields (PEFs) during the electrodialysis (ED) of solutions containing high Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) ratios. However, a fouling layer appeared on the diluate side of anion-exchange membrane (AEM) once the pause lapse surpassed certain duration. Recent studies presented a multilayer mineral growth on CEM, but the case of AEM needs yet to be cleared. The current study reveals the mechanisms involved in AEM fouling growth when applying pulse modes of current in comparison with dc current. The results showed that dc current generated steady proton barriers given by water splitting at AEM interfaces that impeded fouling on both membrane sides. The higher frequency of PEF ratio 1 (Ton/Toff=10s/10s) acted removing completely an initial mineral deposit on the concentrate side of AEM, keeping it clean after two and three consecutive runs. Particularly, an undesirable brucite layer was formed on the AEM-diluate side for longer pause lapses as for a PEF ratio 0.3 (Ton/Toff=10s/33.3s) current regime. This structure caused violent water splitting resulting in amorphous magnesium hydroxide formation and consequently in fouling precipitation on the concentrate side during a third run through current exaltation.

  7. Effect of magnesium/calcium ratios in solutions treated by electrodialysis: morphological characterization and identification of anion-exchange membrane fouling.

    PubMed

    Casademont, Christophe; Pourcelly, Gérald; Bazinet, Laurent

    2008-06-01

    The present study aimed the characterization of the fouling formed on anion-exchange membrane during electrodialysis treatment of model salt solutions at different Mg/Ca ratio (0, 1/20, 1/10, 1/5 and 2/5). The membrane fouling was characterized by membrane parameters (membrane thickness and electrical conductivity) and identified by membrane surface analysis (elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction). The mineral deposit was identified as Ca(OH)2 when no magnesium was present in the model salt. As soon as magnesium was present in the model salt solution for neutral pH((concentrate)) conditions a mix between CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2 was formed. This study is the first one to report the influence of magnesium in solution on the formation of CaCO3 fouling at the interface of anion-exchange membrane during electrodialysis.

  8. A semi-interpenetrating network approach for dimensionally stabilizing highly-charged anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells.

    PubMed

    He, Steve S; Strickler, Alaina L; Frank, Curtis W

    2015-04-24

    There is a delicate balance between ion exchange capacity (IEC), conductivity, and dimensional stability in anion exchange membranes as higher charge content can lead to increased water uptake, causing excessive swelling and charge dilution. Using highly-charged benzyltrimethylammonium polysulfone (IEC=2.99 mEq g(-1) ) as a benchmark (which ruptured in water even at room temperature), we report the ability to dramatically decrease water uptake using a semi-interpenetrating network wherein we reinforced the linear polyelectrolyte with a crosslinked poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) network. These membranes show enhanced dimensional stability as a result of lower water uptake (75 % vs. 301 % at 25 °C) while maintaining excellent hydroxide conductivity (up to 50 mS cm(-1) at 25 °C). These improvements produced an enhanced alkaline fuel cell capable of generating 236 mW cm(-2) peak power density at 80 °C. This method is easily adaptable and can be a viable strategy for stabilizing existing systems.

  9. Oxygen evolution reaction characteristics of synthetic nickel-cobalt-oxide electrodes for alkaline anion-exchange membrane water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Tae Woo; Park, ChanSu; Kim, Yang Do; Lee, Dooyong; Park, Sungkyun; Lee, Jae Ho; Choi, Sung Mook; Choi, Chul Young

    2015-11-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolysis system can produce high-purity hydrogen gases in a highly efficient manner. However, the level of hydrogen gas production is still small. In addition, noble-metal catalysts for the reaction in acidic environments, as well as an additional drying step to remove water contained in the hydrogen, are required. Therefore, water electrolysis system with high efficiency and lower cost, an alkaline anion-exchange membrane system that can produce high-purity hydrogen without a noble-metal catalyst, is needed. Nano-size NiCo2O4 powders were prepared by using a sol-gel method to achieve an efficient and economical water electrolysis system. When the powder was calcined at 450 °C, the crystallinity and the cyclic voltammogram measurement showed the best values. In addition, the 15-wt.% polytetrafluoroethylene mixed NiCo2O4 powders exhibited the largest cyclic voltammetry active area and the highest oxygen evolution reaction activity with the appropriate stability.

  10. Anion-exchange membranes derived from quaternized polysulfone and exfoliated layered double hydroxide for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wan; Liang, Na; Peng, Pai; Qu, Rong; Chen, Dongzhi; Zhang, Hongwei

    2017-02-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDH) are prepared by controlling urea assisted homogeneous precipitation conditions. Morphology and crystallinity of LDHs are confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. After LDHs are incorporated into quaternized polysulfone membranes, transmission electron microscope is used to observe the exfoliated morphology of LDH sheets in the membranes. The properties of the nanocomposite membranes, including water uptake, swelling ratio, mechanical property and ionic conductivity are investigated. The nanocomposite membrane containing 5% LDH sheets shows more balanced performances, exhibiting an ionic conductivity of 2.36×10-2 S cm-1 at 60 °C.

  11. Simultaneous clarification of Escherichia coli culture and purification of extracellularly produced penicillin G acylase using tangential flow filtration and anion-exchange membrane chromatography (TFF-AEMC).

    PubMed

    Orr, Valerie; Scharer, Jeno; Moo-Young, Murray; Honeyman, C Howie; Fenner, Drew; Crossley, Lisa; Suen, Shing-Yi; Chou, C Perry

    2012-07-01

    Downstream purification often represents the most cost-intensive step in the manufacturing of recombinant proteins since conventional purification processes are lengthy, technically complicated, and time-consuming. To address this issue, herein we demonstrated the simultaneous clarification and purification of the extracellularly produced recombinant protein by Escherichia coli using an integrated system of tangential flow filtration and anion exchange membrane chromatography (TFF-AEMC). After cultivation in a bench-top bioreactor with 1L working volume using the developed host/vector system for high-level expression and effective secretion of recombinant penicillin G acylase (PAC), the whole culture broth was applied directly to the established system. One-step purification of recombinant PAC was achieved based on the dual nature of membrane chromatography (i.e. microfiltration-sized pores and anion-exchange chemistry) and cross-flow operations. Most contaminant proteins in the extracellular medium were captured by the anion-exchange membrane and cells remained in the retentate, whereas extracellular PAC was purified and collected in the filtrate. The batch time for both cultivation and purification was less than 24h and recombinant PAC with high purity (19 U/mg), yield (72% recovery), and productivity (41 mg of purified PAC per liter of culture) was obtained. Due to the nature of the non-selective protein secretion system and the versatility of ion-exchange membrane chromatography, the developed system can be widely applied for effective production and purification of recombinant proteins.

  12. Study on adsorption properties of QCS/PS-G8-2-8 anion exchange membrane for Rhodamine B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Wang, Jilin; Wang, Lulu; Feng, Ruijiang; Zhang, Fan

    2015-06-01

    A series of novel anion exchange composite membrane (QCS/PS-G8-2-8) were synthesized based on the quaternized chitosan (QCS, DQ = 89.20 (±3.50)%) blended with block polymer of polystyrene (PS) and G8-2-8 (maleic acid diethyl brace base pairs [octyl dimethyl chloride/ammonium bromide]). Then the QCS was cross-linked by glutaraldehyde (GA). The parameters including adsorption time (t), pH, and initial concentration of Rhodamine B (C0), temperature (T), the mass fraction of G8-2-8 and GA (WGA) on the adsorption were investigated to determine the optimum condition for the removal of RB. The kinetic and thermodynamic properties of the adsorption process were also discussed. The optimum adsorption condition was that the adsorption time was 100 min, pH was 4, the initial concentration of RB was 100 mg L-1, the mass fraction of G8-2-8 was 5.0 wt%, the mass fraction of GA was 2.0 wt%, the temperature was 40 °C. Thus, RB optimum adsorption capacity (q) of the composite membrane QCS/PS-G8-2-8 (5.0%) (G8-2-8 mass content (wt.%) was 5.0%) was 17.04 mg g-1. The adsorption isotherm of the RB on the composite membrane can be well fitted with the Temkin equation. The adsorption kinetics can be well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The values of ΔG, ΔH and ΔS indicated that the adsorption of RB onto QCS/PS-G8-2-8 was spontaneous and exothermic.

  13. Electrochemical and fuel cell evaluation of Co based catalyst for oxygen reduction in anion exchange polymer membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamlouk, M.; Kumar, S. M. Senthil; Gouerec, Pascal; Scott, Keith

    Co based catalyst were evaluated for oxygen reduction (ORR) in liquid KOH and alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AAEMFCs). In liquid KOH solution the catalyst exhibited good performance with an onset potential 120 mV more negative than platinum and a Tafel slope of ca. 120 mV dec -1. The hydrogen peroxide generated, increased from 5 to 50% as the electrode potential decreased from 175 to -300 mV vs. SHE. In an AAEMFC environment, one catalyst (GP2) showed promising performance for ORR, i.e. at 50 mA cm -2 the differences in cell potential between the stable performance for platinum (more positive) and cobalt cathodes with air and oxygen, were only 45 and 67 mV respectively. The second catalyst (GP4) achieved the same stable power density as with platinum, of 200 and 145 mW cm -2, with air at 1 bar (gauge) pressure and air (atm) cathode feed (60 °C), respectively. However the efficiency was lower (i.e. cell voltage was lower) i.e. 40% in comparison to platinum 47.5%.

  14. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2015-10-08

    This project seeks to improve the efficiency of the plutonium anion-exchange process for purifying Pu through the development of alternate ion-exchange media. The objective of the project in FY15 was to develop and test a porous foam monolith material that could serve as a replacement for the current anion-exchange resin, Reillex® HPQ, used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for purifying Pu. The new material provides advantages in efficiency over the current resin by the elimination of diffusive mass transport through large granular resin beads. By replacing the large resin beads with a porous foam there is much more efficient contact between the Pu solution and the anion-exchange sites present on the material. Several samples of a polystyrene based foam grafted with poly(4-vinylpyridine) were prepared and the Pu sorption was tested in batch contact tests.

  15. Interaction of amphiphiles with integral membrane proteins. II. A simple, minimal model for the nonspecific interaction of amphiphiles with the anion exchanger of the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Gruber, H J

    1988-10-20

    In a previous paper we have reported on the structural perturbation of the erythrocyte membrane anion exchanger by a regular series of model amphiphiles, as shown by differential scanning calorimetry (Gruber, H.J. and Low, P.S., Biochim. Biophys. Acta, preceding article). Now the data are interpreted by a model in which the effects of amphiphile structure upon buffer-membrane partitioning are well separated from the dependence of the intrinsic potencies of membrane-bound amphiphiles upon amphiphile structure. The buffer-membrane partitioning situation was demonstrated to regularly change between extremes within a series of homologous amphiphiles, i.e. from a negligible to a predominant fraction of total amphiphile in the sample residing in the membrane. Based upon this demonstration a large number of reports on the chain length dependence of apparent potency could be reinterpreted in terms of chain length profiles of intrinsic potency, allowing for a comparison of the responses of various membrane proteins to homologous series of amphiphiles. The response patterns for chain length variation could be divided into three distinct classes: the intrinsic potency (i) can be independent of chain length over a very wide range of length, (ii) it can be rather independent up to a critical length where a sudden cut-off in potency occurs, or (iii) it can drop monotonically over a wide range of chain length. The intrinsic potency values of saturated fatty acids in destabilizing the anion exchanger were interpreted by very simple assumptions: only direct interactions between amphiphiles and target proteins and a simple amphiphile partition equilibrium between a pool of equivalent low affinity sites on the protein and the bulk lipid matrix. The observed monotonic decay of the intrinsic potency of saturated fatty acids with increasing chain length from C8 to C20 was translated into a constant increment of free energy by which each additional CH2 favors the transfer away from sites

  16. Thermally Cross-Linked Anion Exchange Membranes from Solvent Processable Isoprene Containing Ionomers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-15

    under reduced pressure at 40 °C for 20 h. The quaternized polymer polyisoprene-ran- poly(vinylbenzyltrimethylammonium chloride) (PI-ran- P [VBTMA]- [Cl...was obtained as pale yellow solid. The quaternized polymers are denoted as PI-ran- P [VBTMA][Cl]-x, where x is the ion exchange capacity (IEC) of the...Characterization of PI-ran- P [VBTMA]- [Cl]-x Copolymers. Precursor copolymers of PI-ran-PVBCl were synthesized through nitroxide-mediated polymerization

  17. Preparation and Characterization of an Alkaline Anion Exchange Membrane from Chlorinated Poly(propylene) Aminated with Branched Poly(ethyleneimine)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    was produced through amination of chlorinated poly(propylene) (PP) with poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) and quaternized with iodoethane. The synthesis of...PP) with poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) and quaternized with iodoethane. The synthesis of the new polymer is confirmed by FTIR 1 H and 13 C NMR. The...Article history : Received 4 December 2012 Received in revised form 29 March 2013 Accepted 2 April 2013 Available online Keywords: Anion exchange

  18. Single particle electron microscopy analysis of the bovine anion exchanger 1 reveals a flexible linker connecting the cytoplasmic and membrane domains.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiansen; Magilnick, Nathaniel; Tsirulnikov, Kirill; Abuladze, Natalia; Atanasov, Ivo; Ge, Peng; Narla, Mohandas; Pushkin, Alexander; Zhou, Z Hong; Kurtz, Ira

    2013-01-01

    Anion exchanger 1 (AE1) is the major erythrocyte membrane protein that mediates chloride/bicarbonate exchange across the erythrocyte membrane facilitating CO₂ transport by the blood, and anchors the plasma membrane to the spectrin-based cytoskeleton. This multi-protein cytoskeletal complex plays an important role in erythrocyte elasticity and membrane stability. An in-frame AE1 deletion of nine amino acids in the cytoplasmic domain in a proximity to the membrane domain results in a marked increase in membrane rigidity and ovalocytic red cells in the disease Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis (SAO). We hypothesized that AE1 has a flexible region connecting the cytoplasmic and membrane domains, which is partially deleted in SAO, thus causing the loss of erythrocyte elasticity. To explore this hypothesis, we developed a new non-denaturing method of AE1 purification from bovine erythrocyte membranes. A three-dimensional (3D) structure of bovine AE1 at 2.4 nm resolution was obtained by negative staining electron microscopy, orthogonal tilt reconstruction and single particle analysis. The cytoplasmic and membrane domains are connected by two parallel linkers. Image classification demonstrated substantial flexibility in the linker region. We propose a mechanism whereby flexibility of the linker region plays a critical role in regulating red cell elasticity.

  19. Single Particle Electron Microscopy Analysis of the Bovine Anion Exchanger 1 Reveals a Flexible Linker Connecting the Cytoplasmic and Membrane Domains

    PubMed Central

    Abuladze, Natalia; Atanasov, Ivo; Ge, Peng; Narla, Mohandas; Pushkin, Alexander; Zhou, Z. Hong; Kurtz, Ira

    2013-01-01

    Anion exchanger 1 (AE1) is the major erythrocyte membrane protein that mediates chloride/bicarbonate exchange across the erythrocyte membrane facilitating CO2 transport by the blood, and anchors the plasma membrane to the spectrin-based cytoskeleton. This multi-protein cytoskeletal complex plays an important role in erythrocyte elasticity and membrane stability. An in-frame AE1 deletion of nine amino acids in the cytoplasmic domain in a proximity to the membrane domain results in a marked increase in membrane rigidity and ovalocytic red cells in the disease Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis (SAO). We hypothesized that AE1 has a flexible region connecting the cytoplasmic and membrane domains, which is partially deleted in SAO, thus causing the loss of erythrocyte elasticity. To explore this hypothesis, we developed a new non-denaturing method of AE1 purification from bovine erythrocyte membranes. A three-dimensional (3D) structure of bovine AE1 at 2.4 nm resolution was obtained by negative staining electron microscopy, orthogonal tilt reconstruction and single particle analysis. The cytoplasmic and membrane domains are connected by two parallel linkers. Image classification demonstrated substantial flexibility in the linker region. We propose a mechanism whereby flexibility of the linker region plays a critical role in regulating red cell elasticity. PMID:23393575

  20. Anion exchange membrane prepared from simultaneous polymerization and quaternization of 4-vinyl pyridine for non-aqueous vanadium redox flow battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, Sandip; Shin, Sung-Hee; Sung, Ki-Won; Moon, Seung-Hyeon

    2014-06-01

    A simple, single step and environmentally friendly process is developed for the synthesis of anion exchange membrane (AEM) by simultaneous polymerization and quaternization, unlike the conventional membrane synthesis which consists of separate polymerization and quaternization step. The membrane synthesis is carried out by dissolving polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in cyclohexanone along with 4-vinyl pyridine (4VP) and 1,4-dibromobutane (DBB) in the presence of thermal initiator benzoyl peroxide, followed by film casting to get thin and flexible AEMs. The membrane properties such as ion exchange capacity, ionic conductivity and swelling behaviour are tuned by varying the degree of crosslinking. These AEMs exhibit low vanadium permeability, while retaining good dimensional and chemical stability in an electrolyte solution, making them appropriate candidates for non-aqueous vanadium acetylacetonate redox flow battery (VRFB) applications. The optimized membrane displays ion exchange capacity and ionic conductivity of 2.0 mequiv g-1 and 0.105 mS cm-1, respectively, whereas the efficiency of 91.7%, 95.7% and 87.7% for coulombic, voltage and energy parameter in non-aqueous VRFB, respectively. This study reveals that the non-aqueous VRFB performance is greatly influenced by membrane properties; therefore the optimal control over the membrane properties is advantageous for the improved performance.

  1. [Effects and mechanism on removing organics and reduction of membrane fouling using granular macro-porous anion exchange resin in drinking water treatment].

    PubMed

    He, Huan; Dong, Bing-Zhi; Xu, Guang-Hong; Yan, Zhao-Hui

    2014-05-01

    A granular macro-porous anion exchange resin combined with coagulation was used as pretreatment of microfiltration membrane, and their effects and mechanism on removing organics and reduction of membrane fouling were evaluated. The results showed that resin could be effective in removing organics with medium and small molecular weight ( Mr) but ineffective in removing organics with large Mr, while couagulation could significantly remove organics with large Mr, with a limited removal for organics with medium and small Mr. Using resin alone as pretreatment could be effective in removal of organics but limited in reduction of membrane fouling. With combination of coagulation and resin as pretreatment of microfiltration, not only organics could be removed effectively, but also membrane fouling could be reduced.

  2. Carbon nanotube supported PdAg nanoparticles for electrocatalytic oxidation of glycerol in anion exchange membrane fuel cells

    DOE PAGES

    Benipal, Neeva; Qi, Ji; Liu, Qi; ...

    2017-03-10

    Electro-oxidation of alcohol is the key reaction occurring at the anode of a direct alcohol fuel cell (DAFC), in which both reaction kinetics (rate) and selectivity (to deep oxidation products) need improvement to obtain higher power density and fuel utilization for a more efficient DAFC. We recently found that a PdAg bimetallic nanoparticle catalyst is more efficient than Pd for alcohol oxidation: Pd can facilitate deprotonation of alcohol in a base electrolyte, while Ag can promote intermediate aldehyde oxidation and cleavage of C-single bondC bond of C3 species to C2 species. Furthermore, a combination of the two active sites (Pdmore » and Ag) with two different functions, can simultaneously improve the reaction rates and deeper oxidation products of alcohols. In this continuing work, Pd, Ag mono, and bimetallic nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes (Ag/CNT, Pd/CNT, Pd1Ag1/CNT, and Pd1Ag3/CNT) were prepared using an aqueous-phase reduction method; they served as working catalysts for studying electrocatalytic oxidation of glycerol in an anion-exchange membrane-based direct glycerol fuel cell. Combined XRD, TEM, and HAADF-STEM analyses performed to fully characterize as-prepared catalysts suggested that they have small particle sizes: 2.0 nm for Pd/CNT, 2.3 nm for PdAg/CNT, 2.4 nm for PdAg3/CNT, and 13.9 nm for Ag/CNT. XPS further shows that alloying with Ag results in more metal state Pd presented on the surface, and this may be related to their higher direct glycerol fuel cell (DGFC) performances. Single DGFC performance and product analysis results show that PdAg bimetallic nanoparticles can not only improve the glycerol reaction rate so that higher power output can be achieved, but also facilitate deep oxidation of glycerol so that a higher faradaic efficiency and fuel utilization can be achieved along with optimal reaction conditions (increased base-to-fuel ratio). Half-cell electrocatalytic activity measurement and single fuel cell product analysis

  3. Anion exchange membrane adsorbers for flow-through polishing steps: Part II. Virus, host cell protein, DNA clearance, and antibody recovery.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Justin; Husson, Scott M; Murphy, Louise; Wickramasinghe, S Ranil

    2013-02-01

    Anion exchange membrane adsorbers are used for contaminant removal in flow-through polishing steps in the manufacture of biopharmaceuticals. This contribution describes the clearance of minute virus of mice, DNA, and host cell proteins by three commercially available anion-exchange membranes: Sartobind Q, Mustang Q, and ChromaSorb. The Sartobind Q and Mustang Q products contain quaternary amine ligands; whereas, ChromaSorb contains primary amine based ligands. Performance was evaluated over a range of solution conditions: 0-200 mM NaCl, pH 6.0-9.0, and flow rates of 4-20 membrane volumes/min in the presence and absence of up to 50 mM phosphate and acetate. In addition contaminant clearance was determined in the presence and absence of 5 g/L monoclonal antibody. The quaternary amine based ligands depend mainly on Coulombic interactions for removal of negatively charged contaminants. Consequently, performance of Sartobind Q and Mustang Q was compromised at high ionic strength. Primary amine based ligands in ChromaSorb enable high capacities at high ionic strength due to the presence of secondary, hydrogen bonding interactions. However, the presence of hydrogen phosphate ions leads to reduced capacity. Monoclonal antibody recovery using primary amine based anion-exchange ligands may be lower if significant binding occurs due to secondary interactions. The removal of a specific contaminant is affected by the level of removal of the other contaminants. The results of this study may be used to help guide selection of commercially available membrane absorbers for flow-through polishing steps.

  4. Modeling and simulation of anion-exchange membrane chromatography for purification of Sf9 insect cell-derived virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Ladd Effio, Christopher; Hahn, Tobias; Seiler, Julia; Oelmeier, Stefan A; Asen, Iris; Silberer, Christine; Villain, Louis; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2016-01-15

    Recombinant protein-based virus-like particles (VLPs) are steadily gaining in importance as innovative vaccines against cancer and infectious diseases. Multiple VLPs are currently evaluated in clinical phases requiring a straightforward and rational process design. To date, there is no generic platform process available for the purification of VLPs. In order to accelerate and simplify VLP downstream processing, there is a demand for novel development approaches, technologies, and purification tools. Membrane adsorbers have been identified as promising stationary phases for the processing of bionanoparticles due to their large pore sizes. In this work, we present the potential of two strategies for designing VLP processes following the basic tenet of 'quality by design': High-throughput experimentation and process modeling of an anion-exchange membrane capture step. Automated membrane screenings allowed the identification of optimal VLP binding conditions yielding a dynamic binding capacity of 5.7 mg/mL for human B19 parvovirus-like particles derived from Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 insect cells. A mechanistic approach was implemented for radial ion-exchange membrane chromatography using the lumped-rate model and stoichiometric displacement model for the in silico optimization of a VLP capture step. For the first time, process modeling enabled the in silico design of a selective, robust and scalable process with minimal experimental effort for a complex VLP feedstock. The optimized anion-exchange membrane chromatography process resulted in a protein purity of 81.5%, a DNA clearance of 99.2%, and a VLP recovery of 59%.

  5. Preparing alkaline anion exchange membrane with enhanced hydroxide conductivity via blending imidazolium-functionalized and sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Jiang, Zhongyi; Tian, Huimin; Wang, Siwen; Zhang, Bei; Cao, Ying; He, Guangwei; Li, Zongyu; Wu, Hong

    2015-08-01

    The development of alkaline anion exchange membrane (AEM) with both high ion conductivity and stabilities is of great significance for fuel cell applications. In this study, a facile acid-base blending method is designed to improve AEM performances. Basic imidazolium-functionalized poly (ether ether ketone) with a high functionalization degree is employed as polymer matrix to pursue high ion-exchange capacity (IEC) as well as high hydroxide conductivity, meanwhile acidic sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) is employed as the cross-linking agent to enhance the stabilities of the blend membranes. Particularly, an in-situ Menshutkin/crosslinking method is exploited to prevent the flocculation in the preparation process of blend membranes. As a result, dense and defect-free blend membranes are obtained. The blend membranes exhibit high level of IEC up to 3.15 mmol g-1, and consequently possess elevated hydroxide conductivity up to 31.59 mS cm-1 at 30 °C. In addition, benefiting from the strong electrostatic interaction introduced by the acid-base blending, the stabilities and methanol resistance of blend membranes are enhanced.

  6. High-Resolution Coarse-Grained Model of Hydrated Anion-Exchange Membranes that Accounts for Hydrophobic and Ionic Interactions through Short-Ranged Potentials.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jibao; Jacobson, Liam C; Perez Sirkin, Yamila A; Molinero, Valeria

    2017-01-10

    Molecular simulations provide a versatile tool to study the structure, anion conductivity, and stability of anion-exchange membrane (AEM) materials and can provide a fundamental understanding of the relation between structure and property of membranes that is key for their use in fuel cells and other applications. The quest for large spatial and temporal scales required to model the multiscale structure and transport processes in the polymer electrolyte membranes, however, cannot be met with fully atomistic models, and the available coarse-grained (CG) models suffer from several challenges associated with their low-resolution. Here, we develop a high-resolution CG force field for hydrated polyphenylene oxide/trimethylamine chloride (PPO/TMACl) membranes compatible with the mW water model using a hierarchical parametrization approach based on Uncertainty Quantification and reference atomistic simulations modeled with the Generalized Amber Force Field (GAFF) and TIP4P/2005 water. The parametrization weighs multiple properties, including coordination numbers, radial distribution functions (RDFs), self-diffusion coefficients of water and ions, relative vapor pressure of water in the solution, hydration enthalpy of the tetramethylammonium chloride (TMACl) salt, and cohesive energy of its aqueous solutions. We analyze the interdependence between properties and address how to compromise between the accuracies of the properties to achieve an overall best representability. Our optimized CG model FFcomp quantitatively reproduces the diffusivities and RDFs of the reference atomistic model and qualitatively reproduces the experimental relative vapor pressure of water in solutions of tetramethylammonium chloride. These properties are of utmost relevance for the design and operation of fuel cell membranes. To our knowledge, this is the first CG model that includes explicitly each water and ion and accounts for hydrophobic, ionic, and intramolecular interactions explicitly

  7. A gemini quaternary ammonium poly (ether ether ketone) anion-exchange membrane for alkaline fuel cell: design, synthesis, and properties.

    PubMed

    Si, Jiangju; Lu, Shanfu; Xu, Xin; Peng, Sikan; Xiu, Ruijie; Xiang, Yan

    2014-12-01

    To reconcile the tradeoff between conductivity and dimensional stability in AEMs, a novel Gemini quaternary ammonium poly (ether ether ketone) (GQ-PEEK) membrane was designed and successfully synthesized by a green three-step procedure that included polycondensation, bromination, and quaternization. Gemini quaternary ammonium cation groups attached to the anti-swelling PEEK backbone improved the ionic conductivity of the membranes while undergoing only moderate swelling. The grafting degree (GD) of the GQ-PEEK significantly affected the properties of the membranes, including their ion-exchange capacity, water uptake, swelling, and ionic conductivity. Our GQ-PEEK membranes exhibited less swelling (≤ 40 % at 25-70 °C, GD 67 %) and greater ionic conductivity (44.8 mS cm(-1) at 75 °C, GD 67 %) compared with single quaternary ammonium poly (ether ether ketone). Enhanced fuel cell performance was achieved when the GQ-PEEK membranes were incorporated into H2 /O2 single cells.

  8. Ion distribution in quaternary-ammonium-functionalized aromatic polymers: effects on the ionic clustering and conductivity of anion-exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    Weiber, E Annika; Jannasch, Patric

    2014-09-01

    A series of copoly(arylene ether sulfone)s that have precisely two, three, or four quaternary ammonium (QA) groups clustered directly on single phenylene rings along the backbone are studied as anion-exchange membranes. The copolymers are synthesized by condensation polymerizations that involve either di-, tri-, or tetramethylhydroquinone followed by virtually complete benzylic bromination using N-bromosuccinimide and quaternization with trimethylamine. This synthetic strategy allows excellent control and systematic variation of the local density and distribution of QA groups along the backbone. Small-angle X-ray scattering of these copolymers shows extensive ionic clustering, promoted by an increasing density of QA on the single phenylene rings. At an ion-exchange capacity (IEC) of 2.1 meq g(-1), the water uptake decreases with the increasing local density of QA groups. Moreover, at moderate IECs at 20 °C, the Br(-) conductivity of the densely functionalized copolymers is higher than a corresponding randomly functionalized polymer, despite the significantly higher water uptake of the latter. Thus, the location of multiple cations on single aromatic rings in the polymers facilitates the formation of a distinct percolating hydrophilic phase domain with a high ionic concentration to promote efficient anion transport, despite probable limitations by reduced ion dissociation. These findings imply a viable strategy to improve the performance of alkaline membrane fuel cells.

  9. Imidazolium-Functionalized Poly(arylene ether sulfone) Anion-Exchange Membranes Densely Grafted with Flexible Side Chains for Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dong; Lai, Ao Nan; Lin, Chen Xiao; Zhang, Qiu Gen; Zhu, Ai Mei; Liu, Qing Lin

    2016-09-28

    With the intention of optimizing the performance of anion-exchange membranes (AEMs), a set of imidazolium-functionalized poly(arylene ether sulfone)s with densely distributed long flexible aliphatic side chains were synthesized. The membranes made from the as-synthesized polymers are robust, transparent, and endowed with microphase segregation capability. The ionic exchange capacity (IEC), hydroxide conductivity, water uptake, thermal stability, and alkaline resistance of the AEMs were evaluated in detail for fuel cell applications. Morphological observation with the use of atomic force microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering reveals that the combination of high-local-density-type and side-chain-type architectures induces distinguished nanophase separation in the AEMs. The as-prepared membranes have advantages in effective water management and ionic conductivity over traditional main-chain polymers. Typically, the conductivity and IEC were in the ranges of 57.3-112.5 mS cm(-1) and 1.35-1.84 mequiv g(-1) at 80 °C, respectively. Furthermore, the membranes exhibit good thermal and alkaline stability and achieve a peak power density of 114.5 mW cm(-2) at a current density of 250.1 mA cm(-2). Therefore, the present polymers containing clustered flexible pendent aliphatic imidazolium promise to be attractive AEM materials for fuel cells.

  10. PDLIM5 links kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to ILK and is required for membrane targeting of kAE1

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ya; Hiemstra, Thomas F.; Yan, Yahui; Li, Juan; Karet, Hannah I.; Rosen, Lawrence; Moreno, Pablo; Frankl, Fiona E. Karet

    2017-01-01

    Anion exchanger 1 (AE1) mediates Cl−/HCO3− exchange in erythrocytes and kidney intercalated cells where it functions to maintain normal bodily acid-base homeostasis. AE1’s C-terminal tail (AE1C) contains multiple potential membrane targeting/retention determinants, including a predicted PDZ binding motif, which are critical for its normal membrane residency. Here we identify PDLIM5 as a direct binding partner for AE1 in human kidney, via PDLIM5’s PDZ domain and the PDZ binding motif in AE1C. Kidney AE1 (kAE1), PDLIM5 and integrin-linked kinase (ILK) form a multiprotein complex in which PDLIM5 provides a bridge between ILK and AE1C. Depletion of PDLIM5 resulted in significant reduction in kAE1 at the cell membrane, whereas over-expression of kAE1 was accompanied by increased PDLIM5 levels, underscoring the functional importance of PDLIM5 for proper kAE1 membrane residency, as a crucial linker between kAE1 and actin cytoskeleton-associated proteins in polarized cells. PMID:28045035

  11. Multivariate analysis of the transport in an ion exchange membrane bioreactor for removal of anionic micropollutants from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, A R; Velizarov, S; Crespo, J G; Reis, M A M

    2011-01-01

    The present study focuses on investigating the effects of biological compartment conditions on the transport of nitrate and perchlorate in an Ion Exchange Membrane Bioreactor (IEMB). In this hybrid process, the transport depends not only on the membrane properties but also on the biological compartment conditions. The experiments were planned according to the Plackett-Burman statistical design in order to cover a broader range of experimental conditions, under which a previously developed mechanistic transport model was not able to predict correctly the transport fluxes of the target pollutants. Using Principal Component Analysis, it was possible to identify not only the concentrations of target (nitrate and perchlorate) and of major driving counter-ion (chloride) but also those of some biomedium components (e.g. ammonia, ethanol and sulphate) as variables that affect the transport rate of micropollutants across the membrane. These conclusions are based on the loadings of the two first principal components that describe 84% of the data variance. The present study also revealed that the hydraulic retention time and the hydrodynamic conditions in the biocompartment have a minor contribution to the micropollutants transport. The results obtained are important for process optimization purposes.

  12. Interplay between water uptake, ion interactions, and conductivity in an e-beam grafted poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) anion exchange membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Tara P.; Maes, Ashley M.; Sarode, Himanshu N.; Peters, Bethanne D.; Lavina, Sandra; Vezzù, Keti; Yang, Yuan; Poynton, Simon D.; Varcoe, John R.; Seifert, Soenke; Liberatore, Matthew W.; Di Noto, Vito; Herring, Andrew M.

    2014-12-23

    We demonstrate that the true hydroxide conductivity in an e-beam grafted poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) [ETFE] anion exchange membrane (AEM) is as high as 132 mS cm-1 at 80 °C and 95% RH, comparable to a proton exchange membrane, but with very much less water present in the film. To understand this behaviour we studied ion transport of hydroxide, carbonate, bicarbonate and chloride, as well as water uptake and distribution. Water uptake of the AEM in water vapor is an order of magnitude lower than when submerged in liquid water. In addition 19F pulse field gradient spin echo NMR indicates that there is little tortuosity in the ionic pathways through the film. A complete analysis of the IR spectrum of the AEM and the analyses of water absorption using FT-IR led to conclusion that the fluorinated backbone chains do not interact with water and that two types of water domains exist within the membrane. The reduction in conductivity was measured during exposure of the OH- form of the AEM to air at 95% RH and was seen to be much slower than the reaction of CO2 with OH- as the amount of water in the film determines its ionic conductivity and at relative wet RHs its re-organization is slow.

  13. Interplay between water uptake, ion interactions, and conductivity in an e-beam grafted poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) anion exchange membrane

    DOE PAGES

    Pandey, Tara P.; Maes, Ashley M.; Sarode, Himanshu N.; ...

    2014-12-23

    We demonstrate that the true hydroxide conductivity in an e-beam grafted poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) [ETFE] anion exchange membrane (AEM) is as high as 132 mS cm-1 at 80 °C and 95% RH, comparable to a proton exchange membrane, but with very much less water present in the film. To understand this behaviour we studied ion transport of hydroxide, carbonate, bicarbonate and chloride, as well as water uptake and distribution. Water uptake of the AEM in water vapor is an order of magnitude lower than when submerged in liquid water. In addition 19F pulse field gradient spin echo NMR indicates that there ismore » little tortuosity in the ionic pathways through the film. A complete analysis of the IR spectrum of the AEM and the analyses of water absorption using FT-IR led to conclusion that the fluorinated backbone chains do not interact with water and that two types of water domains exist within the membrane. The reduction in conductivity was measured during exposure of the OH- form of the AEM to air at 95% RH and was seen to be much slower than the reaction of CO2 with OH- as the amount of water in the film determines its ionic conductivity and at relative wet RHs its re-organization is slow.« less

  14. Ion exchange polymers for anion separations

    DOEpatents

    Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Marsh, S. Fredric; Bartsch, Richard A.

    1997-01-01

    Anion exchange resins including at least two positively charged sites and a ell-defined spacing between the positive sites are provided together with a process of removing anions or anionic metal complexes from aqueous solutions by use of such resins. The resins can be substituted poly(vinylpyridine) and substituted polystyrene.

  15. Ion exchange polymers for anion separations

    DOEpatents

    Jarvinen, G.D.; Marsh, S.F.; Bartsch, R.A.

    1997-09-23

    Anion exchange resins including at least two positively charged sites and a well-defined spacing between the positive sites are provided together with a process of removing anions or anionic metal complexes from aqueous solutions by use of such resins. The resins can be substituted poly(vinylpyridine) and substituted polystyrene.

  16. Advanced treatment of textile dyeing secondary effluent using magnetic anion exchange resin and its effect on organic fouling in subsequent RO membrane.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng; Li, Li; Shi, Jialu; Long, Chao; Li, Aimin

    2015-03-02

    Strict regulations are forcing dyeing factory to upgrade existing waste treatment system. In this study, advanced treatment of dyeing secondary effluent by magnetic anion exchange resin (NDMP) was investigated and compared with ultrafiltration (UF); NDMP as a pre-treatment of reverse osmosis (RO) was also studied. NDMP resin (20 mL/L) gave higher removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (83.9%) and colority (94.9%) than UF with a cut-off of 10 kDa (only 48.6% and 44.1%, respectively), showing that NDMP treatment was effective to meet the stringent discharge limit of DOC and colority. Besides, NDMP resin (20 mL/L) as a pretreatment of RO increased the permeate flux by 12.5% and reduced irreversible membrane fouling by 6.6%, but UF pretreatment did not mitigate RO membrane fouling. The results of excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectra and resin fractions showed that NDMP had more efficient removal than UF for transphilic acid and hydrophilic fraction, such as protein-like organic matters and soluble microbial products, which contributed to a significant proportion of RO membrane fouling. In sum, NDMP resin treatment not only gave effective removal of DOC and colority of dyeing secondary effluent, but exhibited some improvement for RO membrane flux and irreversible fouling.

  17. Anion-exchange nanospheres as titration reagents for anionic analytes.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Jingying; Xie, Xiaojiang; Bakker, Eric

    2015-08-18

    We present here anion-exchange nanospheres as novel titration reagents for anions. The nanospheres contain a lipophilic cation for which the counterion is initially Cl(-). Ion exchange takes place between Cl(-) in the nanospheres and a more lipophilic anion in the sample, such as ClO4(-) and NO3(-). Consecutive titration in the same sample solution for ClO4(-) and NO3(-) were demonstrated. As an application, the concentration of NO3(-) in spinach was successfully determined using this method.

  18. Nexal membrane permeability to anions

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    The permeability of the septa of the earthworm in the median axon has been calculated for the anions fluorescein and its halogen derivatives. The values ranged from 5.4 X 10(-5) to 4 X 10(-6) cm/s. Previously, the septa had been shown to contain nexuses. By using freeze-fracture material, the surface area of nexus on the septal membranes was determined to be 4.5%, very similar to the percentage of nexus in the intercalated disk of mammalian myocardium. Plasma membrane permeability to these dyes was also calculated and shown to be much less than that of the septal membranes. In addition, an estimate of cytoplasmic binding for each dye was made, and most dyes showed little or no binding with the exception of aminofluorescein. PMID:702107

  19. A Pd/C-CeO2 Anode Catalyst for High-Performance Platinum-Free Anion Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Miller, Hamish A; Lavacchi, Alessandro; Vizza, Francesco; Marelli, Marcello; Di Benedetto, Francesco; D'Acapito, Francesco; Paska, Yair; Page, Miles; Dekel, Dario R

    2016-05-10

    One of the biggest obstacles to the dissemination of fuel cells is their cost, a large part of which is due to platinum (Pt) electrocatalysts. Complete removal of Pt is a difficult if not impossible task for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEM-FCs). The anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEM-FC) has long been proposed as a solution as non-Pt metals may be employed. Despite this, few examples of Pt-free AEM-FCs have been demonstrated with modest power output. The main obstacle preventing the realization of a high power density Pt-free AEM-FC is sluggish hydrogen oxidation (HOR) kinetics of the anode catalyst. Here we describe a Pt-free AEM-FC that employs a mixed carbon-CeO2 supported palladium (Pd) anode catalyst that exhibits enhanced kinetics for the HOR. AEM-FC tests run on dry H2 and pure air show peak power densities of more than 500 mW cm(-2) .

  20. The role of polymer nanolayer architecture on the separation performance of anion-exchange membrane adsorbers: part II. DNA and virus separations.

    PubMed

    Bhut, Bharat V; Weaver, Justin; Carter, Andrew R; Wickramasinghe, S Ranil; Husson, Scott M

    2011-11-01

    The surface-initiated polymerization protocol developed in part I was used to prepare strong anion-exchange membranes with variable polymer chain graft densities and degrees of polymerization for DNA and virus particle separations. A focus of part II was to evaluate the role of polymer nanolayer architecture on DNA and virus binding. Salmon sperm-DNA (SS-DNA) was used as model nucleic acid to measure the dynamic-binding capacities at 10% breakthrough. The dynamic-binding capacity increases linearly with increasing poly ([2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) chain density up to the highest chain density used in this study. The new membranes yielded threefold higher SS-DNA-binding capacity (30 mg/mL) than a leading commercial membrane with the same functional group chemistry. Elution of bound DNA yielded a sharp peak, and resulted in a 13-fold increase relative to the feed concentration. This concentration effect further demonstrates the highly favorable transport properties of the newly designed Q-type membranes. However, unlike findings in part I on protein binding, SS-DNA binding was not fully reversible. Minute virus of mice (MVM) was used as model virus to evaluate the virus clearance performance of newly designed Q-type membranes. Log reduction of virus (LRV) of MVM increased with increasing polymer chain density. Membranes exhibited >4.5 LRV for the given MVM impurity load and may be capable of higher LRV values, as the MVM concentration in the flow-through fraction of these samples was below the limit of detection of the assay.

  1. Novel quaternary ammonium microblock poly (p-phenylene-co-aryl ether ketone)s as anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xue; Xue, Boxin; Qian, Huidong; Zheng, Jifu; Li, Shenghai; Zhang, Suobo

    2017-02-01

    Using cation compounds as raw materials, three quaternized microblock poly(p-phenylene-co-aryl ether ketone)s (s-, m-, and l-QPP-co-PAEK) were synthesized using a nickel (0)-catalyzed coupling reaction. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties were affixed using cationic quaternary ammonium (QA) groups attached to poly(p-phenylene) by a three-carbon interstitial spacer and nonionic dichloride monomers of various lengths, respectively. The morphology, water uptake, swelling ratio, mechanical properties, thermal stability, hydroxide conductivity and alkaline stability of these new membranes were investigated. Experimental results indicated that the membrane with the longest hydrophobic microblock exhibited high hydroxide conductivity (37.6 mS cm-1 at 80 °C) resulting from the aggregation of ionic clusters observed using TEM. The copolymers with longer hydrophobic nonionic segments exhibited improved alkaline stability, suggesting that the hydrophobic chain shields the QA groups and that the polymer chains pack in a manner that restricts rotation. Controlling the distribution of QA groups in poly(p-phenylene) moieties and tuning the block length of nonionic segments are demonstrated to be effective methods for improving the hydroxide conductivity and alkaline stability of anion exchange membranes.

  2. Impact of ozonation, anion exchange resin and UV/H2O2 pre-treatments to control fouling of ultrafiltration membrane for drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Pramanik, Sagor Kumar; Sarker, Dipok Chandra; Suja, Fatihah

    2016-09-20

    The effects of ozonation, anion exchange resin (AER) and UV/H2O2 were investigated as a pre-treatment to control organic fouling (OF) of ultrafiltration membrane in the treatment of drinking water. It was found that high molecular weight (MW) organics such as protein and polysaccharide substances were majorly responsible for reversible fouling which contributed to 90% of total fouling. The decline rate increased with successive filtration cycles due to deposition of protein content over time. All pre-treatment could reduce the foulants of a Ultrafiltration membrane which contributed to the improvement in flux, and there was a greater improvement of flux by UV/H2O2 (61%) than ozonation (43%) which in turn was greater than AER (23%) treatment. This was likely due to the effective removal/breakdown of high MW organic content. AER gave greater removal of biofouling potential components (such as biodegradable dissolved organic carbon and assimilable organic carbon contents) compared to UV/H2O2 and ozonation treatment. Overall, this study demonstrated the potential of pre-treatments for reducing OF of ultrafiltration for the treatment of drinking water.

  3. Mixed anion materials and compounds for novel proton conducting membranes

    DOEpatents

    Poling, Steven Andrew; Nelson, Carly R.; Martin, Steve W.

    2006-09-05

    The present invention provides new amorphous or partially crystalline mixed anion chalcogenide compounds for use in proton exchange membranes which are able to operate over a wide variety of temperature ranges, including in the intermediate temperature range of about 100 .degree. C. to 300.degree. C., and new uses for crystalline mixed anion chalcogenide compounds in such proton exchange membranes. In one embodiment, the proton conductivity of the compounds is between about 10.sup.-8 S/cm and 10.sup.-1 S/cm within a temperature range of between about -60 and 300.degree. C. and a relative humidity of less than about 12%..

  4. Kinetics and mechanism of exogenous anion exchange in FeFbpA-NTA: significance of periplasmic anion lability and anion binding activity of ferric binding protein A.

    PubMed

    Heymann, Jared J; Gabricević, Mario; Mietzner, Timothy A; Crumbliss, Alvin L

    2010-02-01

    The bacterial transferrin ferric binding protein A (FbpA) requires an exogenous anion to facilitate iron sequestration, and subsequently to shuttle the metal across the periplasm to the cytoplasmic membrane. In the diverse conditions of the periplasm, numerous anions are known to be present. Prior in vitro experiments have demonstrated the ability of multiple anions to fulfill the synergistic iron-binding requirement, and the identity of the bound anion has been shown to modulate important physicochemical properties of iron-bound FbpA (FeFbpA). Here we address the kinetics and mechanism of anion exchange for the FeFbpA-nitrilotriacetate (NTA) assembly with several biologically relevant anions (citrate, oxalate, phosphate, and pyrophosphate), with nonphysiologic NTA serving as a representative synergistic anion/chelator. The kinetic data are consistent with an anion-exchange process that occurs in multiple steps, dependent on the identity of both the entering anion and the leaving anion. The exchange mechanism may proceed either as a direct substitution or through an intermediate FeFbpA-X* assembly based on anion (X) identity. Our kinetic results further develop an understanding of exogenous anion lability in the periplasm, as well as address the final step of the iron-free FbpA (apo-FbpA)/Fe(3+) sequestration mechanism. Our results highlight the kinetic significance of the FbpA anion binding site, demonstrating a correlation between apo-FbpA/anion affinity and the FeFbpA rate of anion exchange, further supporting the requirement of an exogenous anion to complete tight sequestration of iron by FbpA, and developing a mechanism for anion exchange within FeFbpA that is dependent on the identity of both the entering anion and the leaving anion.

  5. Development of anion-selective membranes. [for energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacey, R. E.; Cowsar, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    Methods were studied of preparing anion-exchange membranes that would have low resistance, high selectivity, and physical and chemical stability when used in acidic media in a redox energy storage system. Of the twelve systems selected for study, only the system that was based on crosslinked poly-4-vinylpyridinium chloride produced physically strong membranes when equilibrated in l M HCl. The resistivity of the best membrane was 12 ohm-cm, and the transference number for chloride ions was 0.81.

  6. Durability and performance of polystyrene- b -poly(vinylbenzyl trimethylammonium) diblock copolymer and equivalent blend anion exchange membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Vandiver, Melissa A.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Poskin, Zach; Li, Yifan; Seifert, Sönke; Knauss, Daniel M.; Herring, Andrew M.; Liberatore, Matthew W.

    2014-11-01

    Anion exchange membranes (AEM) are solid polymer electrolytes that facilitate ion transport in fuel cells. In this study, a polystyrene-b-poly(vinylbenzyl trimethylammonium) diblock copolymer was evaluated as potential AEM and compared with the equivalent homopolymer blend. The diblock had a 92% conversion of reactive sites with an IEC of 1.72 ± 0.05 mmol g-1, while the blend had a 43% conversion for an IEC of 0.80 ± 0.03 mmol g-1. At 50°C and 95% relative humidity, the chloride conductivity of the diblock was higher, 24–33 mS cm-1, compared with the blend, 1–6 mS cm-1. The diblock displayed phase separation on the length scale of 100 nm, while the blend displayed microphase separation (~10 μm). Mechanical characterization of films from 40 to 90 microns thick found that elasticity and elongation decreased with the addition of cations to the films. At humidified conditions, water acted as a plasticizer to increase film elasticity and elongation. While the polystyrene-based diblock displayed sufficient ionic conductivity, the films' mechanical properties require improvement, i.e., greater elasticity and strength, before use in fuel cells. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2015, 132, 41596.

  7. Durability and Performance of Polystyrene-b-Poly(vinylbenzyl trimethylammonium) Diblock Copolymer and Equivalent Blend Anion Exchange Membranes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    properties; however dropcast films of the pure diblock were not robust enough to study.24 Through controlled film casting , pure PS diblock films were...mL21 in a round bot- tom flask. The solution was heated at 80!C with magnetic stir - ring until the polymer was completely dissolved as a homogeneous...solution. Water Uptake Water uptake (WU) was characterized using a dynamic vapor sorption apparatus (SMS DVS Advantage 1, Allentown, PA). A membrane

  8. Nanoheterostructure cation exchange: anionic framework conservation.

    PubMed

    Jain, Prashant K; Amirav, Lilac; Aloni, Shaul; Alivisatos, A Paul

    2010-07-28

    In ionic nanocrystals the cationic sublattice can be replaced with a different metal ion via a fast, simple, and reversible place exchange, allowing postsynthetic modification of the composition of the nanocrystal, while preserving its size and shape. Here, we demonstrate that, during such an exchange, the anionic framework of the crystal is preserved. When applied to nanoheterostructures, this phenomenon ensures that compositional interfaces within the heterostructure are conserved throughout the transformation. For instance, a morphology composed of a CdSe nanocrystal embedded in a CdS rod (CdSe/CdS) was exchanged to a PbSe/PbS nanorod via a Cu(2)Se/Cu(2)S structure. During every exchange cycle, the seed size and position within the nanorod were preserved, as evident by excitonic features, Z-contrast imaging, and elemental line scans. Anionic framework conservation extends the domain of cation exchange to the design of more complex and unique nanostructures.

  9. Improved ion exchange membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A.; Yen, S. P. S.; Klein, E.

    1975-01-01

    Membrane, made from commercially-available hollow fibers, is used in reverse osmosis, or dialysis. Fiber has skin layers which pass only small molecules. Macromolecules cannot penetrate skin. Fibers can also be used to remove other undesirable anions, such as phosphate, sulfate, carbonate, and uranium in form of uranium-sulfate complex.

  10. Membrane process for separating contaminant anions from aqueous solutions of valuable metal anions

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.; Laferty, J.M.

    1980-11-18

    An aqueous solution of at least one valuable oxyanion containing molybdenum, tungsten, vanadium, or uranium is refined to lower the content of contaminant anions such as PO/sub 4//sup -3/, SO/sub 4//sup -2/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, Cl/sup -/, ClO/sub 3//sup -/, and ClO/sub 4//sup -/, by subjecting the solution to electrolysis at a ph of from 0.5 to 4.0 between a cation-permselective membrane and an anion-permselective membrane having tertiary amine or quaternary ammonium anion exchange groups, to cause contaminant anions to pass from the solution into the anolyte. Ammonium molybdates, tungstates, vanadates, and uranates are formed from the thus-refined solution by subjecting it to a second stage of electrolysis at a ph of at least 7 between a cation-permselective membrane and an anion-permselective membrane to cause valuable oxyanions to pass from the solution into an anolyte which comprises an aqueous solution of ammonia and to form the desired ammonium compound.

  11. Nanoheterostructure Cation Exchange: Anionic Framework Conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Prashant K.; Amirav, Lilac; Aloni, Shaul; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2010-05-11

    In ionic nanocrystals the cationic sub-lattice can be replaced with a different metal ion via a fast, simple, and reversible place-exchange, allowing post-synthetic modification of the composition of the nanocrystal, while preserving its size and shape. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that during such an exchange, the anionic framework of the crystal is preserved. When applied to nanoheterostructures, this phenomenon ensures that compositional interfaces within the heterostructure are conserved throughout the transformation. For instance, a morphology composed of a CdSe nanocrystal embedded in a CdS rod (CdSe/CdS) was exchanged to a PbSe/PbS nanorod via a Cu2Se/Cu2S structure. During every exchange cycle, the seed size and position within the nanorod were preserved, as evident by excitonic features, Z-contrast imaging, and elemental line-scans. Anionic framework conservation extends the domain of cation exchange to the design of more complex and unique nanostructures.

  12. Anionic phospholipids modulate peptide insertion into membranes.

    PubMed

    Liu, L P; Deber, C M

    1997-05-06

    While the insertion of a hydrophobic peptide or membrane protein segment into the bilayer can be spontaneous and driven mainly by the hydrophobic effect, anionic lipids, which comprise ca. 20% of biological membranes, provide a source of electrostatic attractions for binding of proteins/peptides into membranes. To unravel the interplay of hydrophobicity and electrostatics in the binding of peptides into membranes, we designed peptides de novo which possess the typical sequence Lys-Lys-Ala-Ala-Ala-X-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala-X-Ala-Ala-Trp-Ala-Ala-X-Ala-Al a-Ala-Lys-Lys-Lys-Lys-amide, where X residues correspond to "guest" residues which encompass a range of hydrophobicity (Leu, Ile, Gly, and Ser). Circular dichroism spectra demonstrated that peptides were partially (40-90%) random in aqueous buffer but were promoted to form 100% alpha-helical structures by anionic lipid micelles. In neutral lipid micelles, only the relatively hydrophobic peptides (X = L and I) spontaneously adopted the alpha-helical conformation, but when 25% of negatively charged lipids were mixed in to mimic the content of anionic lipids in biomembranes, the less hydrophobic (X = S and G) peptides then formed alpha-helical conformations. Consistent with these findings, fluorescence quenching by the aqueous-phase quencher iodide indicated that in anionic (dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol) vesicles, the peptide Trp residue was buried in the lipid vesicle hydrophobic core, while in neutral (dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine) vesicles, only hydrophobic (X = L and I) peptides were shielded from the aqueous solution. Trp emission spectra of peptides in the presence of phospholipids doxyl-labeled at the 5-, 7-, 10-, 12-, and 16-fatty acid positions implied not only a transbilayer orientation for inserted peptides but also that mixed peptide populations (transbilayer + surface-associated) may arise. Overall results suggest that for hydrophobic peptides with segmental threshold hydrophobicity below that which

  13. Cellulosic ion-exchange membranes for hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Mollison, A N; Graydon, W F

    1977-07-01

    The application of cellulosic ion-exchange membranes to hemodialysis was studied in vitro. The membranes were prepared by radiation-grafting methacrylic acid and vinylpyridine to films of DuPont cellophane PD-215 to produce cation-exchange and anion-exchange membranes, respectively. Solutions of urea, creatinine, glucose, and uric acid were studied for their interactions with and diffusion through the membranes. Ultrafiltration rates were also determined. Cuprophane and PD-215 cellophane were studied as controls. Dialysis plots for the membranes revealed a mechanism of "assisted transport." Initially, the solutes were removed from solution by a sorption/adsorption mechanism followed by a steady-state diffusion process. The calculated diffusivities for these later steady-state regions increased linearly with capacity for urea, creatinine, and uric acid, while for glucose the reverse was true. The combined processes involved provided considerably greater mass transport per unit thickness than either DuPont PD-215 cellophane or Cupropane.

  14. Anion-conducting polymer, composition, and membrane

    DOEpatents

    Pivovar, Bryan S.; Thorn, David L.

    2010-12-07

    Anion-conducing polymers and membranes with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a polymer backbone with attached sulfonium, phosphazenium, phosphazene, and guanidinium residues. Compositions also with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a support embedded with sulfonium, phosphazenium, and guanidinium salts.

  15. Anion-conducting polymer, composition, and membrane

    DOEpatents

    Pivovar, Bryan S.; Thorn, David L.

    2009-09-01

    Anion-conducing polymers and membranes with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a polymer backbone with attached sulfonium, phosphazenium, phosphazene, and guanidinium residues. Compositions also with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a support embedded with sulfonium, phosphazenium, and guanidinium salts.

  16. Anion-conducting polymer, composition, and membrane

    DOEpatents

    Pivovar, Bryan S [Los Alamos, NM; Thorn, David L [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-11-22

    Anion-conducing polymers and membranes with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a polymer backbone with attached sulfonium, phosphazenium, phosphazene, and guanidinium residues. Compositions also with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a support embedded with sulfonium, phosphazenium, and guanidinium salts.

  17. Anion-Conducting Polymer, Composition, and Membrane

    DOEpatents

    Pivovar, Bryan S.; Thorn, David L.

    2008-10-21

    Anion-conducing polymers and membranes with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a polymer backbone with attached sulfonium, phosphazenium, phosphazene, and guanidinium residues. Compositions also with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a support embedded with sulfonium, phosphazenium, and guanidinium salts.

  18. Donnan membrane technique (DMT) for anion measurement.

    PubMed

    Vega, Flora Alonso; Weng, Liping; Temminghoff, Erwin J M; Van Riemsdijk, Willem H

    2010-04-01

    Donnan membrane technique (DMT) is developed and tested for determination of free anion concentrations. Time needed to reach the Donnan membrane equilibrium depends on type of ions and the background. The Donnan membrane equilibrium is reached in 1 day for Cl(-), 1-2 days for NO(3)(-), 1-4 days for SO(4)(2-) and SeO(4)(2-), and 1-14 days for H(2)PO(4)(-) in a background of 2-200 mM KCl or K(2)SO(4). The strongest effect of ionic strength on equilibrium time is found for H(2)PO(4)(-), followed by SO(4)(2-) and SeO(4)(2-), and then by Cl(-) and NO(3)(-). The negatively charged organic particles of fulvic and humic acids do not pass the membrane. Two approaches for the measurement of different anion species of the same element, such as SeO(4)(2-) and HSeO(3)(-), using DMT are proposed and tested. These two approaches are based on transport kinetics or response to ionic strength difference. A transport model that was developed previously for cation DMT is applied in this work to analyze the rate-limiting step in the anion DMT. In the absence of mobile/labile complexes, transport tends to be controlled by diffusion in solution at a low ionic strength, whereas at a higher ionic strength, diffusion in the membrane starts to control the transport.

  19. Complex anion inclusion compounds: flexible anion-exchange materials.

    PubMed

    Williams, Edward R; Leithall, Rebecca M; Raja, Robert; Weller, Mark T

    2013-01-11

    Copper chloropyrophosphate frameworks have been synthesised with a wide variety of complex inorganic anions trapped in a large, flexible, one-dimensional pore, with anions including chloride, bromide, phosphate and the complex metal halo-anions PtCl(4)(2-), PdBr(4)(2-), CuCl(4)(2-) and AuCl(4)(-).

  20. OXIDATIVE STRESS ACTIVATES ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 2 AND AP-1 IN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anion exchange protein 2 (AE2) is a membrane-bound protein that mediates chloride-bicarbonate exchange. In addition to regulating intracellular pH and cell volume, AE2 exports superoxide (O.) to the extracellular matrix in an HCO-dependent process. Given this ability to export O....

  1. 8. VIEW OF GLOVE BOXES USED IN THE ANION EXCHANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF GLOVE BOXES USED IN THE ANION EXCHANGE PROCESS. THE ANION EXCHANGE PROCESS PURIFIED AND CONCENTRATED PLUTONIUM-BEARING NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS TO MAKE THEM ACCEPTABLE AS FEED FOR CONVERSION TO METAL. (6/20/60) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery & Fabrication Facility, North-central section of plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  2. Aniosotropically organized LDH on PVDF: a geometrically templated electrospun substrate for advanced anion conducting membranes.

    PubMed

    Sailaja, G S; Zhang, Peilin; Anilkumar, Gopinathan M; Yamaguchi, Takeo

    2015-04-01

    A bioinspired geometric templating of an electrospun PVDF substrate with hexagonal platelets of Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH), an intrinsic anion conductor, is presented. The distinctive morphology restructures the internal pore geometry and modulates the dynamic wetting profile of PVDF, transforming it into a highly functional substrate for SAFC anion conducting membranes. The membrane fabricated with PVDF-LDH substrate exhibited exceptionally high durability (>140 °C), high anionic conductivity, ion exchange capacity (IEC), restricted swelling, and improved tensile strength, overcoming critical challenges associated with PVDF electrospun substrates and validating its immense potential as a high-temperature-stable and durable substrate for advanced fuel cell membrane applications.

  3. Polybenzimidazole-crosslinked poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) with quaternary 1,4-diazabicyclo (2.2.2) octane groups as high-performance anion exchange membrane for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wangting; Zhang, Geng; Li, Jin; Hao, Jinkai; Wei, Feng; Li, Wenhui; Zhang, Jiying; Shao, Zhi-Gang; Yi, Baolian

    2015-11-01

    Development of anion exchange membrane (AEM) with high conductivity, good dimensional stability, desirable toughness and long life-time simultaneously is still a challenge for the practical application of AEM fuel cells. Herein, a novel AEM (denoted as PBI-c-PVBC/OH) is fabricated by applying polybenzimidazole (PBI) and 1,4-diazabicyclo (2.2.2) octane (DABCO) as the macromolecular crosslinker and quaternizing reagent for poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) (PVBC), respectively. With the aid of crosslinking by PBI, PBI-c-PVBC/OH exhibits good flexibility and strength both in dry and water-saturated state. Moreover, high hydroxide conductivity (>25 mS cm-1 at room temperature) and low swelling ratio (∼13%) is obtained, especially the swelling ratio nearly does not increase with temperature. The membrane is also advanced for the superior chemical stability in alkaline environment due to the stable polymer backbone and ionic conductive group (only one nitrogen atom in a DABCO molecule is quaternized). Furthermore, a peak power density of 230 mW cm-2 at 50 °C is obtained on the H2/O2 fuel cell using PBI-c-PVBC/OH, and the membrane presents high durability both in the constant current and continuous open circuit voltage testing. Therefore, it is considered that the PBI crosslinking together with DABCO quaternization can be regarded as a promising strategy in the development of AEM for fuel cells.

  4. Nitrogen-induced surface area and conductivity modulation of carbon nanohorn and its function as an efficient metal-free oxygen reduction electrocatalyst for anion-exchange membrane fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Unni, Sreekuttan M; Bhange, Siddheshwar N; Illathvalappil, Rajith; Mutneja, Nisha; Patil, Kasinath R; Kurungot, Sreekumar

    2015-01-21

    Nitrogen-doped carbon morphologies have been proven to be better alternatives to Pt in polymer-electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. However, efficient modulation of the active sites by the simultaneous escalation of the porosity and nitrogen doping, without affecting the intrinsic electrical conductivity, still remains to be solved. Here, a simple strategy is reported to solve this issue by treating single-walled carbon nanohorn (SWCNH) with urea at 800 °C. The resulting nitrogen-doped carbon nanohorn shows a high surface area of 1836 m2 g(-1) along with an increased electron conductivity, which are the pre-requisites of an electrocatalyst. The nitrogen-doped nanohorn annealed at 800 °C (N-800) also shows a high oxygen reduction activity (ORR). Because of the high weight percentage of pyridinic nitrogen coordination in N-800, the present catalyst shows a clear 4-electron reduction pathway at only 50 mV overpotential and 16 mV negative shift in the half-wave potential for ORR compared to Pt/C along with a high fuel selectivity and electrochemical stability. More importantly, a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) based on N-800 provides a maximum power density of 30 mW cm(-2) under anion-exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC) testing conditions. Thus, with its remarkable set of physical and electrochemical properties, this material has the potential to perform as an efficient Pt-free electrode for AEMFCs.

  5. Pd and Pt-Ru anode electrocatalysts supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their use in passive and active direct alcohol fuel cells with an anion-exchange membrane (alcohol = methanol, ethanol, glycerol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambagioni, Valentina; Bianchini, Claudio; Marchionni, Andrea; Filippi, Jonathan; Vizza, Francesco; Teddy, Jacques; Serp, Philippe; Zhiani, Mohammad

    Palladium and platinum-ruthenium nanoparticles supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are prepared by the impregnation-reduction procedure. The materials obtained, Pd/ MWCNT and Pt-Ru/ MWCNT, are characterized by TEM, ICP-AES and XRPD. Electrodes coated with Pd/ MWCNT are scrutinized for the oxidation of methanol, ethanol or glycerol in 2 M KOH solution in half cells. The catalyst is very active for the oxidation of all alcohols, with glycerol providing the best performance in terms of specific current density and ethanol showing the lowest onset potential. Membrane-electrode assemblies have been fabricated using Pd/ MWCNT anodes, commercial cathodes and anion-exchange membrane and evaluated in both single passive and active direct alcohol fuel cells fed with aqueous solutions of 10 wt.% methanol, 10 wt.% ethanol or 5 wt.% glycerol. Pd/ MWCNT exhibits unrivalled activity as anode electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation. The analysis of the anode exhausts shows that ethanol is selectively oxidized to acetic acid, detected as acetate ion in the alkaline media of the reaction, while methanol yields carbonate and formate. A much wider product distribution, including glycolate, glycerate, tartronate, oxalate, formate and carbonate, is obtained from the oxidation of glycerol. The results obtained with Pt-Ru/ MWCNT anodes in acid media are largely inferior to those provided by Pd/ MWCNT electrodes in alkaline media.

  6. Purification Or Organic Acids Using Anion Exchange Chromatography.

    DOEpatents

    Ponnampalam; Elankovan

    2001-09-04

    Disclosed is a cost-effective method for purifying and acidifying carboxylic acids, including organic acids and amino acids. The method involves removing impurities by allowing the anionic form of the carboxylic acid to bind to an anion exchange column and washing the column. The carboxylic anion is displaced as carboxylic acid by washing the resin with a strong inorganic anion. This method is effective in removing organic carboxylic acids and amino acids from a variety of industrial sources, including fermentation broths, hydrolysates, and waste streams.

  7. The electrochemical investigation of salts partition with ion exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    Ata, Nejla; Yazicigil, Zafer; Oztekin, Yasemin

    2008-12-15

    The regenaration of acid and base from the solutions containing metallic salts was achieved by salt splitting method (SSM) using not only anion-exchange membranes (AEM) but also cation-exchange membrane (CEM). In these experiments, while the ion exchange membrane was anion-exchange membrane, acid solutions were used as an anolyte and different salts of potassium were used as a catholyte. In addition to these experiments, while the ion exchange membrane was cation-exchange membrane, base solutions were used as a catholyte and different salts of potassium were used as an anolyte. The effects of current density, initial concentrations of anolyte and catholyte solutions, the type of salt solution and the type of the ion-exchange membranes on the recovery ratio of bases and acids were investigated. The results of the experiments were investigated with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program. The obtained results show that this technique can be used not only for recovering the acid and base wastes of industry but also for removing the impurities in order to obtain pure acids and bases in laboratory conditions.

  8. Crystal structure of the anion exchanger domain of human erythrocyte band 3.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Takatoshi; Kobayashi-Yurugi, Takami; Alguel, Yilmaz; Iwanari, Hiroko; Hatae, Hinako; Iwata, Momi; Abe, Yoshito; Hino, Tomoya; Ikeda-Suno, Chiyo; Kuma, Hiroyuki; Kang, Dongchon; Murata, Takeshi; Hamakubo, Takao; Cameron, Alexander D; Kobayashi, Takuya; Hamasaki, Naotaka; Iwata, So

    2015-11-06

    Anion exchanger 1 (AE1), also known as band 3 or SLC4A1, plays a key role in the removal of carbon dioxide from tissues by facilitating the exchange of chloride and bicarbonate across the plasma membrane of erythrocytes. An isoform of AE1 is also present in the kidney. Specific mutations in human AE1 cause several types of hereditary hemolytic anemias and/or distal renal tubular acidosis. Here we report the crystal structure of the band 3 anion exchanger domain (AE1(CTD)) at 3.5 angstroms. The structure is locked in an outward-facing open conformation by an inhibitor. Comparing this structure with a substrate-bound structure of the uracil transporter UraA in an inward-facing conformation allowed us to identify the anion-binding position in the AE1(CTD), and to propose a possible transport mechanism that could explain why selected mutations lead to disease.

  9. New stationary phase for anion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Auler, Lúcia M L A; Silva, César R; Collins, Kenneth E; Collins, Carol H

    2005-05-06

    This work describes the preparation of an anion-exchange phase based on silica, using a two-step modification process. First, 10 microm Davisil silica particles were silanized with chloropropyltrimethoxysilane to yield chloropropyl silica. The modified silica was then reacted with pyridine to produce positively charged propylpyridinium groups on the surface, the anion-exchange sites. The phase was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis and infrared and solid state 13C and 29Si NMR spectroscopies. HPLC separations of common inorganic anions, including chloride, nitrite, bromide and nitrate, were performed using 150 x 3.9 HPLC columns packed with the phase, using a phthalate buffer solution as mobile phase with non-suppressed conductivity detection. Efficiency and resolution were calculated and the results show that the new phase has significant promise for the analysis of these anions in environmental samples.

  10. Anionic lipids and the maintenance of membrane electrostatics in eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Platre, Matthieu Pierre

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT A wide range of signaling processes occurs at the cell surface through the reversible association of proteins from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. Some low abundant lipids are enriched at the membrane of specific compartments and thereby contribute to the identity of cell organelles by acting as biochemical landmarks. Lipids also influence membrane biophysical properties, which emerge as an important feature in specifying cellular territories. Such parameters are crucial for signal transduction and include lipid packing, membrane curvature and electrostatics. In particular, membrane electrostatics specifies the identity of the plasma membrane inner leaflet. Membrane surface charges are carried by anionic phospholipids, however the exact nature of the lipid(s) that powers the plasma membrane electrostatic field varies among eukaryotes and has been hotly debated during the last decade. Herein, we discuss the role of anionic lipids in setting up plasma membrane electrostatics and we compare similarities and differences that were found in different eukaryotic cells. PMID:28102755

  11. Counterion-mediated pattern formation in membranes containing anionic lipids

    PubMed Central

    Slochower, David R.; Wang, Yu-Hsiu; Tourdot, Richard W.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi; Janmey, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Most lipid components of cell membranes are either neutral, like cholesterol, or zwitterionic, like phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin. Very few lipids, such as sphingosine, are cationic at physiological pH. These generally interact only transiently with the lipid bilayer, and their synthetic analogs are often designed to destabilize the membrane for drug or DNA delivery. However, anionic lipids are common in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell membranes. The net charge per anionic phospholipid ranges from −1 for the most abundant anionic lipids such has phosphatidylserine, to near −7 for phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5 trisphosphate, although the effective charge depends on many environmental factors. Anionic phospholipids and other negatively charged lipids such as lipopolysaccharides are not randomly distributed in the lipid bilayer, but are highly restricted to specific leaflets of the bilayer and to regions near transmembrane proteins or other organized structures within the plane of the membrane. This review highlights some recent evidence that counterions, in the form of monovalent or divalent metal ions, polyamines, or cationic protein domains, have a large influence of the lateral distribution of anionic lipids within the membrane, and that lateral demixing of anionic lipids has effects on membrane curvature and protein function that are important for biological control. PMID:24556233

  12. Understanding and modeling removal of anionic organic contaminants (AOCs) by anion exchange resins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huichun; Shields, Anthony J; Jadbabaei, Nastaran; Nelson, Maurice; Pan, Bingjun; Suri, Rominder P S

    2014-07-01

    Ionic organic contaminants (OCs) are a growing concern for water treatment and the environment and are removed inefficiently by many existing technologies. This study examined removal of anionic OCs by anion exchange resins (AXRs) as a promising alternative. Results indicate that two polystyrene AXRs (IRA910 and IRA96) have higher sorption capacities and selectivity than a polyacrylate resin (A860). For the polystyrene resins, selectivity follows: phenolates ≥ aromatic dicarboxylates > aromatic monocarboxylates > benzenesulfonate > aliphatic carboxylates. This trend can be explained based on hydration energy, the number of exchange groups, and aromaticity and hydrophobicity of the nonpolar moiety (NPM) of the anions. For A860, selectivity only varies within a narrow range (0.13-1.64). Despite the importance of the NPM of the anions, neutral solutes were sorbed much less, indicating synergistic combinations of electrostatic and nonelectrostatic interactions in the overall sorption. By conducting multiple linear regression between Abraham's descriptors and nature log of selectivity, induced dipole-related interactions and electrostatic interactions were found to be the most important interaction forces for sorption of the anions, while solute H-bond basicity has a negative effect. A predictive model was then developed for carboxylates and phenolates based on the poly parameter linear free energy relationships established for a diverse range of 16 anions and 5 neutral solutes, and was validated by accurate prediction of sorption of five test solutes within a wide range of equilibrium concentrations and that of benzoate at different pH.

  13. Anion exchanger 2 is essential for spermiogenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Juan F.; Recalde, Sergio; Prieto, Jesús; Lecanda, Jon; Sáez, Elena; Funk, Colin D.; Vecino, Paola; van Roon, Marian A.; Ottenhoff, Roelof; Bosma, Piter J.; Bakker, Conny T.; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude

    2003-01-01

    Na+-independent anion exchangers (AE) mediate electroneutral exchange of Cl- for \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{HCO}}_{3}^{-}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} ions across cell membranes, being involved in intracellular pH and cell volume regulation and in transepithelial hydroionic fluxes. Bicarbonate activation of adenylyl cyclase is known to be necessary for sperm motility and sperm capacitation, and a few studies have suggested a possible role of AE carriers in reproduction. Among the four AE genes identified in mammals thus far, only Ae2 (Slc4a2) has been determined to be expressed in the male reproductive system, especially in developing spermatozoa and in epididymal epithelium. Most AE genes drive alternative transcription, which in mouse Ae2 results in several Ae2 isoforms. Here, we generated mice carrying a targeted disruption of Ae2 that prevents the expression of the three AE2 isoforms (Ae2a, Ae2b1, and Ae2b2) normally found in mouse testes. Male Ae2-/- mice (but not female Ae2-/- mice) are infertile. Histopathological analysis of Ae2-/- testes shows an interruption of spermiogenesis, with only a few late spermatids and a complete absence of spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules. The number of apoptotic bodies is increased in the seminiferous tubules and in the epididymis, which also shows squamous metaplasia of the epididymal epithelium. Our findings reveal an essential role of Ae2 in mouse spermiogenesis and stress the recently postulated involvement of bicarbonate in germ-cell differentiation through the bicarbonate-sensitive soluble-adenylyl-cyclase pathway. PMID:14673081

  14. Use of urchin-like NixCo3-xO4 hierarchical nanostructures based on non-precious metals as bifunctional electrocatalysts for anion-exchange membrane alkaline alcohol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manivasakan, Palanisamy; Ramasamy, Parthiban; Kim, Jinkwon

    2014-07-01

    Bifunctional electrocatalysts based on non-precious metals were developed for the dioxygen reduction and methanol oxidation reactions. These electrocatalysts can be considered as candidate cathode and anode materials for anion-exchange membrane (AEM) alkaline alcohol fuel cells. A series of Ni-doped cobalt oxide (NixCo3-xO4) hierarchical nanostructures composed of one-dimensional nanorods was prepared by an inexpensive hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the NixCo3-xO4 crystallized in a cubic spinel phase. The electrochemical performance of the catalysts was investigated using a conventional cyclic voltammetry technique. The electrocatalytic behaviour of the NixCo3-xO4 hierarchical nanostructures was compared with the behaviour of Co3O4 and Co0.33Ni0.67O. The synergistic behaviour of the Ni in the NixCo3-xO4 nanostructures was established with respect to the Ni content. NixCo3-xO4 hierarchical nanostructures show a better catalytic behaviour than Co3O4 and Co0.33Ni0.67O. Although the NixCo3-xO4 compositions all showed good catalytic behaviour, Ni1Co2O4 was identified as a superior bifunctional electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction and methanol oxidation reactions in alkaline media. The effect of the Ni content on the electrocatalytic properties of the NixCo3-xO4 hierarchical nanostructures was clearly shown. The use of these electrocatalysts based on non-precious metals could have a commercial impact on the development of non-platinum electrocatalysts for application in AEM alkaline alcohol fuel cells.Bifunctional electrocatalysts based on non-precious metals were developed for the dioxygen reduction and methanol oxidation reactions. These electrocatalysts can be considered as candidate cathode and anode materials for anion-exchange membrane (AEM) alkaline alcohol fuel cells. A series of Ni-doped cobalt oxide (NixCo3-xO4) hierarchical nanostructures composed of one-dimensional nanorods was prepared by an inexpensive hydrothermal method. X

  15. Anion exchange through band 3 protein in canine leishmaniasis at different stages of disease.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Rossana; Remigante, Alessia; Cavallaro, Mauro; Taormina, Alessandro; La Spada, Giuseppina; Marino, Angela

    2017-04-05

    Band 3 protein efficiency in mediating Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchange through erythrocytes membrane is reduced by oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to verify whether and how anion transport through band 3 protein may be useful in monitoring canine leishmaniasis (Leishmania infantum) development, a disease associated to membrane protein degradation and oxidative stress. To accomplish this aim, serological analysis to determine IFAT (immunofluorescence antibody test) titers against leishmaniasis has been performed and 1:160 and 1:540 titers, determined at diagnosis and after 6 months, were considered for experiments. Oxidative conditions have been assessed by estimating MDA (malondialdehyde) plasma levels, intracellular GSH (reduced glutathione) content, and membrane -SH groups. Band 3 protein anion exchange capability was evaluated by measuring the rate constant for SO4(=) uptake, and its expression levels, along with those of P-Tyr (phosphorylated tyrosine), involved in pathways underlying band 3 protein function, have been also determined. Our results show that, in infected dogs with 1:160 IFAT titer, high MDA plasma levels and oxidation of -SH groups are associated to increased P-Tyr expression levels, leading to a reduction in anion exchange capability throughout 6 months of diagnosis. On the other hand, infected dogs with 1:540 IFAT titer, exhibited oxidative conditions associated to an impaired anion exchange capability at diagnosis, were ameliorated after 6 months. Such findings suggest that (1) band 3 protein-mediated anion transport is reduced by oxidative conditions associated to leishmaniasis, putatively via phosphorylative pathways; (2) band 3 protein efficiency may account for canine leishmaniasis development; and (3) the assessment of band 3 protein function may represent an additional tool for canine leishmaniasis diagnosis and monitoring of its development, with potential application to humans, either in case of leishmaniasis or other

  16. Neptunium Valence Chemistry in Anion Exchange Processing

    SciTech Connect

    KYSER, EDWARD

    2003-02-01

    The current anion resin in use in HB-Line Phase II, Reillex{trademark} HPQ, was tested in the laboratory under expected plant conditions for Np processing and was found to load between 50 and 70 g Np per liter of resin. Losses varied from 0.2 to 15 percent depending on a number of parameters. Hydrazine in the feed at 0.02 to 0.05 M appeared to keep the Np from oxidizing and increasing the losses within four to seven days after the FS addition. Losses of up to three percent were observed five days after FS addition when hydrazine was not used in the feed, compared with 0.3 percent when the feed was loaded immediately after FS addition. Based on these test results the following processing conditions are recommended: (1) Feed conditions: 8 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.02 M hydrazine, 0.05 M excess FS, less than 5 days storage of solution after FS addition. (2) Wash conditions: 100 liters of 8 M HNO{sub 3}, no FS, no hydrazine. (3) Elution conditions: 0.17 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.05 M hydrazine, no FS. (4) Precipitation feed conditions: 0.03 M excess ascorbic acid, no additional hydrazine, no FS, precipitation within three days.

  17. The human erythrocyte anion-transport protein. Partial amino acid sequence, conformation and a possible molecular mechanism for anion exchange.

    PubMed Central

    Brock, C J; Tanner, M J; Kempf, C

    1983-01-01

    The N-terminal 72 residues of an integral membrane fragment, P5, of the human erythrocyte anion-transport protein, which is known to be directly involved in the anion-exchange process, was shown to have the following amino acid sequence: Met-Val-Pro-Lys-Pro-Gln-Gly-Pro-Leu-Pro-Asn-Thr-Ala-Leu-Leu-Ser-Leu-Val-Leu-Met -Ala-Gly-Thr-Phe-Phe-Phe-Ala-Met-Met-Leu-Arg-Lys-Phe-Lys-Asn-Ser-Ser-Tyr-Phe-Pro-Gly-Lys-Leu-Arg-Arg-Val-Ile-Gly-Asp-Phe-Gly-Val-Pro-Ile-Ser-Ile-Leu-Ile-Met-Val-Leu-Val-Asp-Phe-Phe-Ile-Gln-Asp-Thr-Tyr-Thr-Gln- The structure of this fragment was analysed, with account being taken of the constraints that apply to the folding of integral membrane proteins and the topographical locations of various sites in the sequence. It was concluded that this sequence forms two transmembrane alpha-helices. These are probably part of a cluster of amphipathic transmembrane alpha-helices, which could comprise that part of the protein responsible for transport activity. The presently available evidence relating to the anion-exchange process was considered with the structural features noted in this study and a possible molecular mechanism is proposed. In this model the rearrangement of a network of intramembranous charged pairs mediates the translocation of an anion between anion-binding regions at each surface of the membrane, which are composed of clusters of positively charged amino acids. This model imposes a sequential exchange mechanism on the system. Supplementary material, including Tables and Figures describing the compositions of peptides determined by amino acid analysis and sequence studies, quantitative and qualitative data that provide a residue-by-residue justification for the sequence assignment and a description of modifications to and use of the solid-phase sequencer has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50123 (12 pages) with the British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be

  18. Anion exchangers with negatively charged functionalities in hyperbranched ion-exchange layers for ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Uzhel, Anna S; Zatirakha, Alexandra V; Smirnov, Konstantin N; Smolenkov, Alexandr D; Shpigun, Oleg A

    2017-01-27

    Novel pellicular poly(styrene-divinylbenzene)-based (PS-DVB) anion exchangers with covalently-bonded hyperbranched functional ion-exchange layers containing negatively charged functionalities are obtained and examined. The hyperbranched coating is created on the surface of aminated PS-DVB substrate by repeating the modification cycles including alkylation with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (1,4-BDDGE), and amination of the terminal epoxide rings with methylamine (MA) or glycine (Gly). The influence of the position and the number of the layers with glycine, as well as of the total number of the layers of amine in the coating on the chromatographic properties of the obtained stationary phases is investigated. Chromatographic performance of the obtained stationary phases is evaluated using the model mixtures of inorganic and organic anions with hydroxide eluent. It is shown that the best selectivity toward weakly retained organic acids and oxyhalides is possessed by the anion exchanger obtained after 5 modification cycles, with glycine being used in the first one. Such anion exchanger packed in 25-cm long column is capable of separating 22 anions in 58min including 7 standard anions, mono-, di- and trivalent organic acids, oxyhalides, and some other double- and triple-charged anions.

  19. Hydrothermal carbonaceous sphere based stationary phase for anion exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiming; Wu, Shuchao; Zhang, Peimin; Zhu, Yan

    2017-01-15

    Monodisperse carbonaceous spheres produced by the hydrothermal carbonization of sucrose were first applied as green stationary phase for ion chromatography after quaternization. Depending on the polycondensation of methylamine and 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether, polymer containing quaternary ammonium groups were facilely grafted onto the surfaces of hydrothermal carbonaceous spheres (HCSs). The quaternized HCSs with different number of polyelectrolyte layers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, brunauer-emmett-teller, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and elemental analysis. The measurements of breakthrough curves demonstrated that more layers of grafted polyelectrolyte resulted in higher anion exchange capacity of stationary phase. With good stability, common inorganic anions, monocarboxylic acids, polarizable anions and carbohydrates were effectively separated on the stationary phases, respectively. The high hydrophilicity of HCS surface afforded excellent peak symmetry for all analytes. Furthermore, high-capacity HCSs stationary phase was successfully applied to detect fluoride in tea samples.

  20. Determination of sulphide by anion-exchange with lead iodate.

    PubMed

    Verma, K K; Gupta, D; Sanghi, S K; Jain, A

    1988-11-01

    A quick anion-exchange reaction, suitable for the determination of sulphide, has been found to occur on stirring a suspension of lead iodate (solubility product, K(s0) = 1.2 x 10(-13)) with sulphide solution at pH 5-8. After removal of the precipitates of lead iodate and lead sulphide (K(s0) = 3.4 x 10(-28)), the iodate released can be determined by its reaction with acidified iodide to give tri-iodide which is either titrated with thiosulphate or measured spectrophotometrically as its blue complex with starch. Chloride, bromide, iodide, fluoride, oxalate, sulphate, thiocyanate and phosphate do not interfere. Thiosulphate, sulphite, nitrite and thiols do not give an anion-exchange reaction but do interfere in the redox reaction of iodate with acidified iodide. However, this is avoided if they are first oxidized with bromine (the liberated iodate remains unaffected before iodometry.

  1. Membrane consisting of polyquaternary amine ion exchange polymer network interpenetrating the chains of thermoplastic matrix polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A.; Wallace, C. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An ion exchange membrane was formed from a solution containing dissolved matrix polymer and a set of monomers which are capable of reacting to form a polyquaternary ion exchange material; for example vinyl pyride and a dihalo hydrocarbon. After casting solution and evaporation of the volatile component's, a relatively strong ion exchange membrane was obtained which is capable of removing anions, such as nitrate or chromate from water. The ion exchange polymer forms an interpenetrating network with the chains of the matrix polymer.

  2. A method for production of new anion exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, G.; Hunger, H. D.

    1991-12-01

    The invention relates to a method for the production of new anion exchangers that can be used in molecular biology, genetic engineering, biotechnology, and phytopathology. According to the invention, halogen-containing polyurethanes are reacted with one or more tertiary amines. By the method, polyurethane shapes with positive surface charges are produced from preformed shapes, with preservation of the form and properties thereof. The products have thermally stable bonds with biomolecules together with high binding capacity.

  3. Bifunctional anion-exchange resins with improved selectivity and exchange kinetics

    DOEpatents

    Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Brown, Gilbert M.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed herein are a class of anion exchange resins containing two different exchange sites with improved selectivity and sorptive capability for chemical species in solution, such as heptavalent technetium (as pertechnetate anion, TcO.sub.4.sup.-). The resins are prepared by first reacting haloalkylated crosslinked copolymer beads with a large tertiary amine in a solvent in which the resin beads can swell, followed by reaction with a second, smaller, tertiary amine to more fully complete the functionalization of the resin. The resins have enhanced selectivity, capacity, and exchange kinetics.

  4. Bifunctional anion-exchange resins with improved selectivity and exchange kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandratos, S.D.; Brown, G.M.; Bonnesen, P.V.; Moyer, B.A.

    2000-05-09

    Disclosed herein are a class of anion exchange resins containing two different exchange sites with improved selectivity and sorptive capability for chemical species in solution, such as heptavalent technetium as pertechnetate anion, TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}. The resins are prepared by first reacting haloalkylated crosslinked copolymer beads with a large tertiary amine in a solvent in which the resin beads can swell, followed by reaction with a second, smaller, tertiary amine to more fully complete the functionalization of the resin. The resins have enhanced selectivity, capacity, and exchange kinetics.

  5. Anion exchanger and chloride channel in cat carotid body chemotransduction.

    PubMed

    Iturriaga, R; Mokashi, A; Lahiri, S

    1998-05-28

    In order to test the hypothesis that carotid body (CB) chemoreception depends on the functions of anion channels and HCO3-/Cl- exchangers, we studied the effects of the anion channel blocker anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (9-ANC), the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor methazolamide, and the HCO3-/Cl- exchanger blocker 4,4 diisothiocyanatostilbene-2-2'disulfonic acid (DIDS) on the chemosensory discharges of cat CB, perfused-superfused in vitro at 36.5 +/- 0.5 degrees C, with a modified Tyrode solution. The chemosensory responses to hypoxia (PO2 approximately 50 Torr), hypercapnia (PCO2 approximately 60 Torr, pH = 7.10), nicotine (2-4 nmol) and NaCN (20-40 nmol) were recorded. 9-ANC (2 microM) and DIDS (10 microM) decreased the chemosensory baseline activity, and eliminated the initial peak responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia and increased the time to achieve it. Methazolamide (0.13 mM) did not alter the effect of 9-ANC. The steady state responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia were not diminished after 9-ANC but DIDS lowered the responses. Responses to NaCN effects were all diminished but those to nicotine were not affected. The results suggest that the functions of anion channels and HCO3-/Cl- exchangers are important for the resting dischargers and for the fast responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia.

  6. ANION EXCHANGE METHOD FOR SEPARATION OF METAL VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, E.K.; Raby, B.A.

    1959-02-10

    A method is described for selectively separating radium, bismuth, poloniums and lead values from a metallic mixture of thc same. The mixture is dissolved in aqueous hydrochloric acid and the acidity is adjusted to between 1 to 2M in hydrochloric acid to form the anionic polychloro complexes of polonium and bismuth. The solution is contacted with a first anion exchange resin such as strong base quaternary ammonia type to selectively absorb the polonium and bismuth leaving the radium and lead in the effluent. The effluent, after treatment in hydrochloric acid to increase the hydrochloric acid concentration to 6M is contacted with a second anion exchange iesin of the same type as the above to selectively adsorb the lead leaving the radium in the effluent. Radium is separately recovered from the effluent from the second exchange column. Lead is stripped from the loaded resin of the second column by treatment with 3M hydrochloric acid solution. The loaded resin of the first column is washed with 8M hydrochloric acid solution to recover bismuth and then treated with strong nitric acid solution to recover polonium.

  7. Predicting Carbonate Ion Transport in Alkaline Anion Exchange Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Schematic of the permeation cell experiment used to measure transient CO2 flux across the polymer electrolyte membrane. Experimental result vs. model trend...Microstructure on Charge Transfer, Mass Transfer, and Electrochemical Reactions in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells ; Part 2. Ion and Water Transport in Alkaline Anion...through the use of the Fuel Cell Technologies Test Station such as the relative humidity and flow rate of the feed gases, the cell temperature, and the

  8. Anion exchangers with branched functional ion exchange layers of different hydrophilicity for ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shchukina, O I; Zatirakha, A V; Smolenkov, A D; Nesterenko, P N; Shpigun, O A

    2015-08-21

    Novel polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) based anion exchangers differing from each other in the structure of the branched functional ion exchange layer are prepared to investigate the role of linker and functional site on ion exchange selectivity. The proposed method of synthesis includes the obtaining of aminated PS-DVB particles by means of their acylation with following reductive amination with methylamine. Further modification of the obtained secondary aminogroups is provided by the alkylation with either 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (1,4-BDDGE) or resorcinol diglycidyl ether (RDGE), which form the linkers of different hydrophobicity, and amination of terminal epoxide rings with trimethylamine (TMA), dimethylethanolamine (DMEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) or triethanolamine (TEA). The variation of the structure and hydrophobicity of the linker and terminal quaternary ammonium sites in the functional layer allows the alteration of selectivity and separation efficiency of the obtained adsorbents. The ion exchange selectivity and separation efficiency of the anion exchangers are evaluated using the model mixtures of anions (F(-), HCOO(-), Cl(-), NO2(-), Br(-), NO3(-), HPO4(2-) and SO4(2-)) in potassium hydroxide eluents. The adsorbents show the decrease of selectivity with increasing the hydrophilicity of the terminal functional site. The anion exchangers having more flexible and hydrophilic 1,4-BDDGE linker provide smaller separation factors for most of the analytes as compared with RDGE-containing adsorbents with the same terminal ion exchange sites, but are characterized with higher column efficiencies and better peak symmetry for polarizable anions. In case of 1,4-BDDGE-modified anion exchangers of the particle size of 3.3μm functionalized with DMEA and MDEA the calculated values of column efficiencies for polarizable NO3(-) and Br(-) are up to 49,000 and 53,000N/m, respectively, which is almost twice higher than the values obtained for the RDGE

  9. Anion exchanger and the resistance against thermal haemolysis.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, I T; Zheleva, A; Zlatanov, I

    2011-01-01

    4,4'-Diiso-thiocyanato stilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS) is a membrane-impermeable, highly specific covalent inhibitor and powerful thermal stabiliser of the anion exchanger (AE1), the major integral protein of erythrocyte membrane (EM). Suspensions of control and DIDS-treated (15 µM, pH 8.2) human erythrocytes were heated from 20° to 70°C using various but constant heating rates (1-8°C/min). The cellular electrolyte leakage exhibited a sigmoidal response to temperature as detected by conductometry. The critical midpoint temperature of leakage, T(mo), extrapolated to low heating rate (0.5°C/min) was used as a measure for EM thermostability. T(mo) was greater for DIDS-treated erythrocytes, 63.2° ± 0.3°C, than for intact erythrocytes, 60.7° ± 0.2°C. The time, t(1/2), for 50% haemolysis of erythrocytes, exposed to 53°C was used as a measure for the resistance of erythrocytes against thermal haemolysis. The t(1/2) was also greater for DIDS-treated erythrocytes, 63 ± 3 min, than for intact erythrocytes, 38 ± 2 min. The fluorescent label N-(3-pyrenyl)maleimide and EPR spin label 3-maleimido-proxyl, covalently bound to sulphydryl groups of major EM proteins, were used to monitor the changes in molecular motions during transient heating. Both labels reported an intensification of the motional dynamics at the denaturation temperatures of spectrin (50°C) and AE1 (67°C), and, surprisingly, immobilisation of a major EM protein, presumably the AE1, at T(mo). The above results are interpreted in favour of the possible involvement of a predenaturational rearrangement of AE1 copies in the EM thermostability and the resistance against thermal haemolysis.

  10. Integrating tunable anion exchange with reverse osmosis for enhanced recovery during inland brackish water desalination.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ryan C; SenGupta, Arup K

    2015-05-05

    For inland brackish water desalination by reverse osmosis or RO, concentrate or reject disposal poses a major challenge. However, enhanced recovery and consequent reduction in the reject volume using RO processes is limited by the solubility of ions present in the feedwater. One of the most common and stubborn precipitate formed during desalination is calcium sulfate. Reducing or eliminating the presence of sulfate would allow the process to operate at higher recoveries without threat to membrane scaling. In this research, this goal is accomplished by using an appropriate mixture of self-regenerating anion exchange resins that selectively remove and replace sulfate by chloride prior to the RO unit. Most importantly, the mixed bed of anion exchange resins is self-regenerated with the reject brine from the RO process, thus requiring no addition of external chemicals. The current work demonstrates the reversibility of the hybrid ion exchange and RO (HIX-RO) process with 80% recovery for a brackish water composition representative of groundwater in San Joaquin Valley in California containing approximately 5200 mg/L of total dissolved solids or TDS. Consequently, the reject volume can be reduced by 50% without the threat of sulfate scaling and use of antiscaling chemicals can be eliminated altogether. By appropriately designing or tuning the mixed bed of anion exchange resins, the process can be extended to nearly any composition of brackish water for enhanced recovery and consequent reduction in the reject volume.

  11. Anionically-Conductive Ultrathin Film Composite Membranes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-19

    these polymers in pervaporation separations. The interfacial polymerizations we have developed are used to prepare ultrathin films of conductive... pervaporation -separations, etc. We are continuing this research effort by exploring in particular sensor and pervaporation applications of these coated...particular emphasis are in novel biosensors and novel membranes for pervaporation separations. IV. Research Articles. 1. Lei, J.; Menon, V. P.; Martin, C. R

  12. Bicarbonate-form anion exchange: affinity, regeneration, and stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Rokicki, Christopher A; Boyer, Treavor H

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic ion exchange (MIEX) is an effective process for removing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from natural waters, but its implementation has been limited due to production of waste sodium chloride solution (i.e., brine) from the regeneration process. Chloride is of concern because elevated concentrations can have adverse effects on engineered and natural systems. The goal of this research was to explore the efficacy of using anion exchange resin with bicarbonate as the mobile counter ion, which would produce a non-chloride regeneration solution. It was found that bicarbonate-form MIEX resin had a similar affinity as chloride-form MIEX resin for sulfate, nitrate, DOC, and ultraviolet-absorbing substances. Both bicarbonate-form and chloride-form MIEX resins showed the greatest removal efficiencies as fresh resin, and removal efficiency decreased with multiple regeneration cycles. Nevertheless, sodium bicarbonate solution was as effective as sodium chloride solution at regenerating MIEX resin. Regeneration of the bicarbonate-form MIEX resin was illustrated by sparging carbon dioxide gas in a water/resin slurry. This regeneration process would eliminate the need for the addition of salts such as sodium chloride or sodium bicarbonate. The stoichiometry of the bicarbonate-form resin revealed that the bicarbonate was deprotonating within the resin matrix leading to a mixture of both carbonate and bicarbonate mobile counter ions. This work makes an important contribution to ion exchange applications for water treatment by evaluating the affinity, regeneration, and stoichiometry of bicarbonate-form anion exchange.

  13. Concentration profiles in heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnova, N.M.; Glazkova, I.N.; Glukhova, L.P.; Murzinov, V.I.; Komarova, N.I.; Kvaratskheli, Yu.K.

    1982-05-10

    Concentration profiles of uranium and SO/sub 4//sup -2/ ions were determined in MKK-1 (based on KU-2 cation-exchange resin) and MAK-2 (based on AM anion-exchange resin) heterogeneous membranes in the course of diffusion and electrodialysis. The method employed for locating the position and determining the concentration of ions in a particular region of an ion-exchange material was local x-ray spectrochemical analysis with the aid of an electron probe. A solution containing 10g of U per liter and 0.5 N/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ was used as the ''transferring'' solution. Uranium is present in this solution in the form of UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/ cations and (UO/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/)/sup 2 -/ and (UO/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/)/sup 4 -/ anionic complexes, so that it is transported both through the cation-exchange and the anion-exchange membranes. The ''receiving'' solution was 0.1N H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The REMP-2 electron probe microanalyzer was used for recording the concentration profiles. The uranium L..cap alpha../sub 1/ line (lambda = 9.1 x 10/sup -11/m) and the sulfur K..cap alpha../sub 1,2/ line (lambda = 53.7 x 10/sup -11/m) were used as the analytical lines. The membrane conductivities, and the amount of uranium sorbed were determined at the same time. This investigation confirmed that the method of local x-ray spectrochemical analysis in conjunction with physicochemical investigations of the properties of ion-exchange membranes is a promising, reliable, and rapid method for studying the mechanism of ion transport in comparison with the use of multiplet devices. It can make mathematical modelling of transport processes considerably easier and more precise, as introduction of various assumptions is obviated.

  14. Determining gold in water by anion-exchange batch extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McHugh, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a batch procedure for determining gold in natural waters. It is completely adaptable to field operations. The water samples are filtered and acidified before they are equilibrated with an anion-exchange resin by shaking. The gold is then eluted with acetone-nitric acid solution, and the eluate evaporated to dryness. The residue is taken up in hydrobromic acid-bromine solution and the gold is extracted with methyl isobutyl ketone. The extract is electrothermally atomized in an atomic-absorption spectrophotometer. The limit of determination is 1 ng 1. ?? 1986.

  15. Regeneration of anion exchange resins by catalyzed electrochemical reduction

    DOEpatents

    Gu, Baohua; Brown, Gilbert M.

    2002-01-01

    Anion exchange resins sorbed with perchlorate may be regenerated by a combination of chemical reduction of perchlorate to chloride using a reducing agent and an electrochemical reduction of the oxidized reducing agent. Transitional metals including Ti, Re, and V are preferred chemical reagents for the reduction of perchlorate to chloride. Complexing agents such as oxalate are used to prevent the precipitation of the oxidized Ti(IV) species, and ethyl alcohol may be added to accelerate the reduction kinetics of perchlorate. The regeneration may be performed by continuously recycling the regenerating solution through the resin bed and an electrochemical cell so that the secondary waste generation is minimized.

  16. Molecular Basis for Differential Anion Binding and Proton Coupling in the Cl−/H+ Exchanger ClC-ec1

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Tao; Han, Wei; Maduke, Merritt; Tajkhorshid, Emad

    2016-01-01

    Cl−/H+ transporters of the CLC superfamily form a ubiquitous class of membrane proteins that catalyze stoichiometrically coupled exchange of Cl− and H+ across biological membranes. CLC transporters exchange H+ for halides and certain polyatomic anions, but exclude cations, F−, and larger physiological anions, such as PO43− and SO42−. Despite comparable transport rates of different anions, the H+ coupling in CLC transporters varies significantly depending on the chemical nature of the transported anion. Although the molecular mechanism of exchange remains unknown, studies on bacterial ClC-ec1 transporter revealed that Cl− binding to the central anion-binding site (Scen) is crucial for the anion-coupled H+ transport. Here, we show that Cl−, F−, NO3−, and SCN− display distinct binding coordinations at the Scen site and are hydrated in different manners. Consistent with the observation of differential bindings, ClC-ec1 exhibits markedly variable ability to support the formation of the transient water wires, which are necessary to support the connection of the two H+ transfer sites (Gluin and Gluex), in the presence of different anions. While continuous water wires are frequently observed in the presence of physiologically transported Cl−, binding of F− or NO3− leads to the formation of pseudo-water-wires that are substantially different from the wires formed with Cl−. Binding of SCN−, however, eliminates the water wires altogether. These findings provide structural details of anion binding in ClC-ec1 and reveal a putative atomic-level mechanism for the decoupling of H+ transport to the transport of anions other than Cl−. PMID:26880377

  17. Molecular Basis for Differential Anion Binding and Proton Coupling in the Cl(-)/H(+) Exchanger ClC-ec1.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; Han, Wei; Maduke, Merritt; Tajkhorshid, Emad

    2016-03-09

    Cl–/H+ transporters of the CLC superfamily form a ubiquitous class of membrane proteins that catalyze stoichiometrically coupled exchange of Cl– and H+ across biological membranes. CLC transporters exchange H+ for halides and certain polyatomic anions, but exclude cations, F–, and larger physiological anions, such as PO43– and SO42–. Despite comparable transport rates of different anions, the H+ coupling in CLC transporters varies significantly depending on the chemical nature of the transported anion. Although the molecular mechanism of exchange remains unknown, studies on bacterial ClC-ec1 transporter revealed that Cl– binding to the central anion-binding site (Scen) is crucial for the anion-coupled H+ transport. Here, we show that Cl–, F–, NO3–, and SCN– display distinct binding coordinations at the Scen site and are hydrated in different manners. Consistent with the observation of differential bindings, ClC-ec1 exhibits markedly variable ability to support the formation of the transient water wires, which are necessary to support the connection of the two H+ transfer sites (Gluin and Gluex), in the presence of different anions. While continuous water wires are frequently observed in the presence of physiologically transported Cl–, binding of F– or NO3– leads to the formation of pseudo-water-wires that are substantially different from the wires formed with Cl–. Binding of SCN–, however, eliminates the water wires altogether. These findings provide structural details of anion binding in ClC-ec1 and reveal a putative atomic-level mechanism for the decoupling of H+ transport to the transport of anions other than Cl–.

  18. Simultaneous separation of inorganic anions and cations by using anion-exchange and cation-exchange columns connected in tandem in ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Karim, Khairil Juhanni Binti Abd; Jin, Ji-Ye; Takeuchi, Toyohide

    2003-05-02

    Inorganic anions and cations in environmental waters were determined by ion chromatography. Stationary and mobile phases were examined for the simultaneous separation of both anions and cations. Cations detection by UV detection requires a mobile phase with a UV absorbing additive, which indirectly visualizes cations as negative peaks. Simultaneous separation of anions and cations were achieved when using an eluent that consists of inorganic acid with weak basic amino acid as additives. It was convenient to separate both anions and cations by coupling anion-exchange and cation-exchange columns in tandem. The order of the separation columns connected affected the elution profiles. When the eluent comprises of multiple anions and a single cation, the anion-exchange column should be connected in the upper stream, whereas when the eluent comprises multiple cations and a single anion, the cation-exchange column should be connected in the upper stream. Use of switching valves also allowed simultaneous separation of anions and cations in a single chromatographic run. In the present work, operating conditions were optimized for the simultaneous separation of anions and cations.

  19. Synthesis of temperature-responsive anion exchanger via click reaction.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kenji; Yu, Xue; Kato, Takahiro; Inoue, Yukihiko; Sugawara, Katsuyasu

    2012-06-15

    The temperature-responsive anion exchanger was synthesized by immobilizing the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM), a kind of the temperature-responsive polymer, on the external surface of mesoporous silica via click reaction. The structure of this synthesized composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), elemental analysis, and nitrogen adsorption experiment. The amount of PNIPAM immobilized on the external surface of mesoporous silica, which was calculated from the weight loss measured by thermogravimetry, increased from 5.3 wt.% to 12.9 wt.% (dry) depending on the amount of PNIPAM added in the click reaction. The adsorption-desorption behavior of methyl orange (MO) ions in this synthesized anion exchanger was affected by the temperature of aqueous solution: the MO ions were adsorbed and desorbed reversibly and repeatedly with changing the pH of the solution at 25 °C, while the amount of adsorbed MO ions remained nearly constant at about 0.05 mmol/g independent of the pH of the solution at 40 °C. Also, the amount of PNIPAM immobilized on the mesoporous silica influenced the adsorption rate of MO ions, suggesting that the adsorption rate in this composite is controlled by the diffusion of MO ions through the PNIPAM layer.

  20. Exploring Alkaline Stable Organic Cations for Polymer Hydroxide Exchange Membranes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-29

    Organic Cations for Polymer Hydroxide Exchange Membranes Hydroxide exchange membranes (HEMs) are important polymer electrolytes for electrochemical...Exploring Alkaline Stable Organic Cations for Polymer Hydroxide Exchange Membranes Report Title Hydroxide exchange membranes (HEMs) are important polymer ...constructing HEMs. EXPLORING ALKALINE STABLE ORGANIC CATIONS FOR POLYMER HYDROXIDE EXCHANGE MEMBRANES by Bingzi Zhang

  1. Computer simulation of methanol exchange dynamics around cations and anions

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Santanu; Dang, Liem X.

    2016-03-03

    In this paper, we present the first computer simulation of methanol exchange dynamics between the first and second solvation shells around different cations and anions. After water, methanol is the most frequently used solvent for ions. Methanol has different structural and dynamical properties than water, so its ion solvation process is different. To this end, we performed molecular dynamics simulations using polarizable potential models to describe methanol-methanol and ion-methanol interactions. In particular, we computed methanol exchange rates by employing the transition state theory, the Impey-Madden-McDonald method, the reactive flux approach, and the Grote-Hynes theory. We observed that methanol exchange occurs at a nanosecond time scale for Na+ and at a picosecond time scale for other ions. We also observed a trend in which, for like charges, the exchange rate is slower for smaller ions because they are more strongly bound to methanol. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  2. Enhanced DOC removal using anion and cation ion exchange resins.

    PubMed

    Arias-Paic, Miguel; Cawley, Kaelin M; Byg, Steve; Rosario-Ortiz, Fernando L

    2016-01-01

    Hardness and DOC removal in a single ion exchange unit operation allows for less infrastructure, is advantageous for process operation and depending on the water source, could enhance anion exchange resin removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Simultaneous application of cationic (Plus) and anionic (MIEX) ion exchange resin in a single contact vessel was tested at pilot and bench scales, under multiple regeneration cycles. Hardness removal correlated with theoretical predictions; where measured hardness was between 88 and 98% of the predicted value. Comparing bench scale DOC removal of solely treating water with MIEX compared to Plus and MIEX treated water showed an enhanced DOC removal, where removal was increased from 0.5 to 1.25 mg/L for the simultaneous resin application compared to solely applying MIEX resin. A full scale MIEX treatment plant (14.5 MGD) reduced raw water DOC from 13.7 mg/L to 4.90 mg/L in the treated effluent at a bed volume (BV) treatment rate of 800, where a parallel operation of a simultaneous MIEX and Plus resin pilot (10 gpm) measured effluent DOC concentrations of no greater than 3.4 mg/L, even at bed volumes of treatment 37.5% greater than the full scale plant. MIEX effluent compared to simultaneous Plus and MIEX effluent resulted in differences in fluorescence intensity that correlated to decreases in DOC concentration. The simultaneous treatment of Plus and MIEX resin produced water with predominantly microbial character, indicating the enhanced DOC removal was principally due to increased removal of terrestrially derived organic matter. The addition of Plus resin to a process train with MIEX resin allows for one treatment process to remove both DOC and hardness, where a single brine waste stream can be sent to sewer at a full-scale plant, completely removing lime chemical addition and sludge waste disposal for precipitative softening processes.

  3. Evaluation of a new, macroporous polyvinylpyridine resin for processing plutonium using nitrate anion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, S.F.

    1989-04-01

    Anion exchange in nitric acid is the major aqueous process used to recover and purify plutonium from impure scrap materials. Most strong-base anion exchange resins incorporate a styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer. A newly available, macroporous anion exchange resin based on a copolymer of 1-methyl-4-vinylpyridine and divinylbenzene has been evaluated. Comparative data for Pu(IV) sorption kinetics and capacity are presented for this new resin and two other commonly used anion exchange resins. The new resin offers high capacity and rapid sorption kinetics for Pu(IV) from nitric acid, as well as greatly stability to chemical and radiolytic degradation. 8 refs., 14 figs.

  4. Simultaneous determination of NH4+, NO2(-) and NO3(-) by ion-exclusion/anion-exchange chromatography on a strongly basic anion-exchange resin with basic eluent.

    PubMed

    Mori, Masanobu; Hironaga, Takahiro; Itabashi, Hideyuki; Nakatani, Nobutake; Kozaki, Daisuke; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2012-04-01

    Ion-exclusion/anion-exchange chromatography (IEC/AEC) on a combination of a strongly basic anion-exchange resin in the OH(-)-form with basic eluent has been developed. The separation mechanism is based on the ion-exclusion/penetration effect for cations and the anion-exchange effect for anions to anion-exchange resin phase. This system is useful for simultaneous separation and determination of ammonium ion (NH4+), nitrite ion (NO2(-)), and nitrate ion (NO3(-)) in water samples. The resolution of analyte ions can be manipulated by changing the concentration of base in eluent on a polystyrene-divinylbenzene based strongly basic anion-exchange resin column. In this study, several separation columns, which consisted of different particle sizes, different functional groups and different anion-exchange capacities, were compared. As the results, the separation column with the smaller anion-exchange capacity (TSKgel Super IC-Anion) showed well-resolved separation of cations and anions. In the optimization of the basic eluent, lithium hydroxide (LiOH) was used as the eluent and the optimal concentration was concluded to be 2 mmol/L, considering the resolution of analyte ions and the whole retention times. In the optimal conditions, the relative standard deviations of the peak areas and the retention times of NH4+, NO2(-), and NO3(-) ranged 1.28% - 3.57% and 0.54% - 1.55%, respectively. The limits of detection at signal-to-noise of 3 were 4.10 micromol/L for NH4+, 1.87 micromol/L for NO2(-) and 2.83 micromol/L for NO3(-).

  5. A simple halide-to-anion exchange method for heteroaromatic salts and ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Alcalde, Ermitas; Dinarès, Immaculada; Ibáñez, Anna; Mesquida, Neus

    2012-04-02

    A broad and simple method permitted halide ions in quaternary heteroaromatic and ammonium salts to be exchanged for a variety of anions using an anion exchange resin (A(-) form) in non-aqueous media. The anion loading of the AER (OH(-) form) was examined using two different anion sources, acids or ammonium salts, and changing the polarity of the solvents. The AER (A(-) form) method in organic solvents was then applied to several quaternary heteroaromatic salts and ILs, and the anion exchange proceeded in excellent to quantitative yields, concomitantly removing halide impurities. Relying on the hydrophobicity of the targeted ion pair for the counteranion swap, organic solvents with variable polarity were used, such as CH(3)OH, CH(3)CN and the dipolar nonhydroxylic solvent mixture CH(3)CN:CH(2)Cl(2) (3:7) and the anion exchange was equally successful with both lipophilic cations and anions.

  6. Specific ion effects on membrane potential and the permselectivity of ion exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    Geise, Geoffrey M; Cassady, Harrison J; Paul, Donald R; Logan, Bruce E; Hickner, Michael A

    2014-10-21

    Membrane potential and permselectivity are critical parameters for a variety of electrochemically-driven separation and energy technologies. An electric potential is developed when a membrane separates electrolyte solutions of different concentrations, and a permselective membrane allows specific species to be transported while restricting the passage of other species. Ion exchange membranes are commonly used in applications that require advanced ionic electrolytes and span technologies such as alkaline batteries to ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis, but membranes are often only characterized in sodium chloride solutions. Our goal in this work was to better understand membrane behaviour in aqueous ammonium bicarbonate, which is of interest for closed-loop energy generation processes. Here we characterized the permselectivity of four commercial ion exchange membranes in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, ammonium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and ammonium bicarbonate. This stepwise approach, using four different ions in aqueous solution, was used to better understand how these specific ions affect ion transport in ion exchange membranes. Characterization of cation and anion exchange membrane permselectivity, using these ions, is discussed from the perspective of the difference in the physical chemistry of the hydrated ions, along with an accompanying re-derivation and examination of the basic equations that describe membrane potential. In general, permselectivity was highest in sodium chloride and lowest in ammonium bicarbonate solutions, and the nature of both the counter- and co-ions appeared to influence measured permselectivity. The counter-ion type influences the binding affinity between counter-ions and polymer fixed charge groups, and higher binding affinity between fixed charge sites and counter-ions within the membrane decreases the effective membrane charge density. As a result permselectivity decreases. The charge density and polarizability

  7. Design and performance evaluation of a microfluidic ion-suppression module for anion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Sam; Wouters, Bert; Jespers, Sander; Desmet, Gert; Eghbali, Hamed; Bruggink, Cees; Eeltink, Sebastiaan

    2014-08-15

    A microfluidic membrane suppressor has been constructed to suppress ions of alkaline mobile-phases via an acid-base reaction across a sulfonated poly(tetrafluoroethylene)-based membrane and was evaluated for anion-exchange separations using conductivity detection. The membrane was clamped between two chip substrates, accommodating rectangular microchannels for the eluent and regenerant flow, respectively. Additionally, a clamp-on chip holder has been constructed which allows the alignment and stacking of different chip modules. The response and efficacy of the microfluidic chip suppressor was assessed for a wide range of eluent (KOH) concentrations, using 127 and 183μm thick membranes, while optimizing the flow rate and concentration of the regenerant solution (H2SO4). The optimal operating eluent flow rate was determined at 5μL/min, corresponding to the optimal van-Deemter flow velocity of commercially-available column technology, i.e. a 0.4mm i.d.×250mm long column packed with 7.5μm anion-exchange particles. When equilibrated at 10mM KOH, a 99% decrease in conductivity signal could be obtained within 5min when applying 10mM H2SO4 regenerant at 75μL/min. A background signal as low as 1.2μS/cm was obtained, which equals the performance of a commercially-available electrolytic hollow-fiber suppressor. When increasing the temperature of the membrane suppressor from 15 to 20°C, ion suppression was significantly improved allowing the application of 75mM KOH. The applicability of the chip suppressor has been demonstrated with an isocratic baseline separation of a mixture of seven inorganic ions, yielding plate numbers between 5300 and 10,600 and with a gradient separation of a complex ion mixture.

  8. Dual transport properties of anion exchanger 1: the same transmembrane segment is involved in anion exchange and in a cation leak.

    PubMed

    Barneaud-Rocca, Damien; Borgese, Franck; Guizouarn, Hélène

    2011-03-18

    Previous results suggested that specific point mutations in human anion exchanger 1 (AE1) convert the electroneutral anion exchanger into a monovalent cation conductance. In the present study, the transport site for anion exchange and for the cation leak has been studied by cysteine scanning mutagenesis and sulfhydryl reagent chemistry. Moreover, the role of some highly conserved amino acids within members of the SLC4 family to which AE1 belongs has been assessed in AE1 transport properties. The results suggest that the same transport site within the AE1 spanning domain is involved in anion exchange or in cation transport. A functioning mechanism for this transport site is proposed according to transport properties of the different studied point mutations of AE1.

  9. Solid state oxygen anion and electron mediating membrane and catalytic membrane reactors containing them

    DOEpatents

    Schwartz, Michael; White, James H.; Sammels, Anthony F.

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to gas-impermeable, solid state materials fabricated into membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors. This invention particularly relates to solid state oxygen anion- and electron-mediating membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors for promoting partial or full oxidation of different chemical species, for decomposition of oxygen-containing species, and for separation of oxygen from other gases. Solid state materials for use in the membranes of this invention include mixed metal oxide compounds having the brownmillerite crystal structure.

  10. Solid state oxygen anion and electron mediating membrane and catalytic membrane reactors containing them

    DOEpatents

    Schwartz, Michael; White, James H.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2005-09-27

    This invention relates to gas-impermeable, solid state materials fabricated into membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors. This invention particularly relates to solid state oxygen anion- and electron-mediating membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors for promoting partial or full oxidation of different chemical species, for decomposition of oxygen-containing species, and for separation of oxygen from other gases. Solid state materials for use in the membranes of this invention include mixed metal oxide compounds having the brownmillerite crystal structure.

  11. Comparison among three anion exchange chromatographic supports to capture erythropoietin from cell culture supernatant.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Lourdes; Stewart, Diobel; Zumalacárregui, Lourdes; Amaro, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Affinity and ion exchange conventional chromatography have been used to capture erythropoietin (EPO) from mammalian cell culture supernatant. Currently, chromatographic adsorbent perfusion is available, however a limited number of applications have been found in the literature. In this work, three anion exchange chromatographic supports (gel, membrane and monolithic) were evaluated in the capture step of the recombinant erythropoietin purification process. The influences of load and flow rate on each support performance were analyzed. Also the purity of the EPO molecules was determined. A productivity analysis, as a decision tool for larger scale implementation, was done. As a conclusion, the evaluated supports are technically suitable to capture EPO with adequate recovery and good purity. However, the monolithic column admits high operating velocity, showing the highest adsorption capacity and productivity.

  12. Hetero-Epitaxial Anion Exchange Yields Single-Crystalline Hollow Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jungwon; Zheng, Haimei; Jun, Young-wook; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2009-08-26

    Anion exchange with S was performed on ZnO colloidal nanoparticles. The resulting hollow ZnS nanoparticles are crystal whose shape is dictated by the initial ZnO. Crystallographic and elemental analyses provide insight into the mechanism of the anion exchange.

  13. Effects of the exchange capacity and cross-linking degree on the hydration states of anions in quantitative loading onto strongly basic anion-exchange resins.

    PubMed

    Yuchi, Akio; Kuroda, Shigeo; Takagi, Mayuu; Watanabe, Yuuya; Nakao, Satoshi

    2010-10-15

    The water content was determined for five strongly basic anion-exchange resins (trimethyammonium type having different exchange capacities and cross-linking degrees by divinylbenzene) in definite anionic forms (ten singly, three doubly, one triply, and one quadruply charged) dried at 25 °C and at a relative humidity of 50%. Incorporation of the results of the previous research on the conventional resins by X-ray absorption fine structure and diffraction methods indicated that the present method gave the number of intrinsic water molecules strongly interacting with an anion. The hydration numbers of weakly hydrating anions (Cl⁻, Br⁻, and ClO₄⁻) and a small anion (F⁻) were independent of the exchange capacity and slightly decreased with an increase in cross-linking, especially at 8%. The small and strongly hydrating ion F⁻ kept the in-water hydration structure to form a water-separated ion pair in the resins, while the other weakly hydrating ions were appreciably dehydrated to form a contact ion pair. The hydration number of a strongly hydrating ion, H₂PO₄⁻, appreciably decreased with increases in both the exchange capacity and cross-linking degree accompanied by intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the anions. This may be related to other characteristics of the H₂PO₄⁻ form resin, such as a higher concentration required for quantitative exchange, a systematic change in infrared spectra on the degree of exchange, and facile thermal dehydration, giving H₂P₂O₇²⁻. In contrast, multivalent anions were exchanged without dehydration, due to the larger space allowed for in the resins and the stronger interaction with water compared to those of monovalent anions.

  14. Selectivity control in synergistic liquid-liquid anion exchange of univalent anions via structure-specific cooperativity between quaternary ammonium cations and anion receptors.

    PubMed

    Borman, Christopher J; Bonnesen, Peter V; Moyer, Bruce A

    2012-10-02

    Two anion receptors enhance liquid-liquid anion exchange when added to quaternary alkylammonium chloride anion exchangers, but with a striking dependence on the structure of the alkylammonium cation that suggests a supramolecular cooperative effect. Two anion receptors were investigated, meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole (C4P) and the bisthiourea tweezer 1,1'-(propane-1,3-diyl)bis(3-(4-sec-butylphenyl)thiourea (BTU). Whereas synergism is comparatively weak when either methyltri(C(8,10))alkylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) or tetraheptylammonium chloride is used with the BTU receptor, synergism between C4P and Aliquat 336 is so pronounced that anion exchange prefers chloride over more extractable nitrate and trifluoroacetate, effectively overcoming the ubiquitous Hofmeister bias. A thermochemical analysis of synergistic anion exchange has been provided for the first time, resulting in the estimation of binding constants for C4P with the ion pairs of A336(+) with Cl(-), Br(-), OAc(F3)(-), NO(3)(-), and I(-).

  15. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B)

    SciTech Connect

    Duangtum, Natapol; Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2011-09-16

    Highlights: {yields} Impaired trafficking of kAE1 causes distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). {yields} The interaction between kAE1 and kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) is reported. {yields} The co-localization between kAE and KIF3B was detected in human kidney tissues. {yields} A marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane was observed when KIF3B was knockdown. {yields} KFI3B plays an important role in trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Impaired trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the basolateral membrane of {alpha}-intercalated cells of the kidney collecting duct leads to the defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange and the failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane of these cells, causing distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). In the sorting process, kAE1 interacts with AP-1 mu1A, a subunit of AP-1A adaptor complex. However, it is not known whether kAE1 interacts with motor proteins in its trafficking process to the plasma membrane or not. We report here that kAE1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) in kidney cells and a dileucine motif at the carboxyl terminus of kAE1 contributes to this interaction. We have also demonstrated that kAE1 co-localizes with KIF3B in human kidney tissues and the suppression of endogenous KIF3B in HEK293T cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases membrane localization of kAE1 but increases its intracellular accumulation. All results suggest that KIF3B is involved in the trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane of human kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells.

  16. Physical and functional links between anion exchanger-1 and sodium pump.

    PubMed

    Su, Ya; Al-Lamki, Rafia S; Blake-Palmer, Katherine G; Best, Alison; Golder, Zoe J; Zhou, Aiwu; Karet Frankl, Fiona E

    2015-02-01

    Anion exchanger-1 (AE1) mediates chloride-bicarbonate exchange across the plasma membranes of erythrocytes and, via a slightly shorter transcript, kidney epithelial cells. On an omnivorous human diet, kidney AE1 is mainly active basolaterally in α-intercalated cells of the collecting duct, where it is functionally coupled with apical proton pumps to maintain normal acid-base homeostasis. The C-terminal tail of AE1 has an important role in its polarized membrane residency. We have identified the β1 subunit of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (sodium pump) as a binding partner for AE1 in the human kidney. Kidney AE1 and β1 colocalized in renal α-intercalated cells and coimmunoprecipitated (together with the catalytic α1 subunit of the sodium pump) from human kidney membrane fractions. ELISA and fluorescence titration assays confirmed that AE1 and β1 interact directly, with a Kd value of 0.81 μM. GST-AE1 pull-down assays using human kidney membrane proteins showed that the last 11 residues of AE1 are important for β1 binding. siRNA-induced knockdown of β1 in cell culture resulted in a significant reduction in kidney AE1 levels at the cell membrane, whereas overexpression of kidney AE1 increased cell surface sodium pump levels. Notably, membrane staining of β1 was reduced throughout collecting ducts of AE1-null mouse kidney, where increased fractional excretion of sodium has been reported. These data suggest a requirement of β1 for proper kidney AE1 membrane residency, and that activities of AE1 and the sodium pump are coregulated in kidney.

  17. Preparation of a dibenzylated 1,4-diazacyclohexane-derived strong anion-exchange stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Juxiang; Zuo, Xiongjun; Lang, Qiwei; Zeng, Zhijian; Li, Chao

    2013-07-05

    This paper reports the preparation of a novel, silica-based, strong anion-exchange stationary phase from a 1,4-diazacyclohexane derivative. To prepare the difunctional strong anion-exchange stationary phase, activated silica beads were first bonded with 3-chloropropyltriethoxysilane and then reacted with 1-methylpiperazine followed by benzyl chloride. The silica beads, the strong anion-exchange stationary phase and its precusors were instrumentally characterized. Aromatic acids were separated with non-aqueous anion-exchange chromatography. After elution with eluant prepared in mixed solvents of water and methanol, the resulting 1,4-diazacyclohexane-derived, difunctional, strong anion-exchange stationary phase exhibited good separation and selectivity for the aromatic acids investigated. The effects of eluant pH, eluant ion concentration and solvent composites on the separations were investigated. Organic acids with different substituents were eluted in order of decreasing dissociation coefficients, with no observable peak shape differences.

  18. Role of anion exchangers in Cl- and HCO3- secretion by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dusik; Kim, Juyeon; Burghardt, Beáta; Best, Len; Steward, Martin C

    2014-07-15

    Despite the importance of airway surface liquid pH in the lung's defenses against infection, the mechanism of airway HCO3- secretion remains unclear. Our aim was to assess the contribution of apical and basolateral Cl-/HCO3- exchangers to Cl- and HCO3- transport in the Calu-3 cell line, derived from human airway submucosal glands. Changes in intracellular pH (pHi) were measured following substitution of Cl- with gluconate. Apical Cl- substitution led to an alkalinization in forskolin-stimulated cells, indicative of Cl-/HCO3- exchange. This was unaffected by the anion exchange inhibitor DIDS but inhibited by the CFTR blocker CFTRinh-172, suggesting that the HCO3- influx might occur via CFTR, rather than a solute carrier family 26 (SLC26) exchanger, as recently proposed. The anion selectivity of the recovery process more closely resembled that of CFTR than an SLC26 exchanger, and quantitative RT-PCR showed only low levels of SLC26 exchanger transcripts relative to CFTR and anion exchanger 2 (AE2). For pHi to rise to observed values (∼7.8) through HCO3- entry via CFTR, the apical membrane potential must reverse to at least +20 mV following Cl- substitution; this was confirmed by perforated-patch recordings. Substitution of basolateral Cl- evoked a DIDS-sensitive alkalinization, attributed to Cl-/HCO3- exchange via AE2. This appeared to be abolished in forskolin-stimulated cells but was unmasked by blocking apical efflux of HCO3- via CFTR. We conclude that Calu-3 cells secrete HCO3- predominantly via CFTR, and, contrary to previous reports, the basolateral anion exchanger AE2 remains active during stimulation, providing an important pathway for basolateral Cl- uptake.

  19. Ion Exchange Membrane Influence on Ohmic Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection of the proper ion exchange membrane can have a significant influence on bioelectrochemical system (BES) power densities. Because ions move across the membrane to achieve electroneutrality, the ion transport resistance (ohmic loss) needs to be minimized to increase power densities. Ohmic ...

  20. Removal of Pu238 from Neptunium Solution by Anion Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    KYSER, EDWARD

    2003-12-01

    A new anion flowsheet for use in HB-Line was tested in the lab with Reillex{trademark} HPQ for removal of Pu{sup 238} contamination from Np. Significant rejection of Pu{sup 238} was observed by washing with 6 to 12 bed volumes (BV) of reductive wash containing reduced nitric acid concentration along with both ferrous sulfamate (FS) and hydrazine. A shortened-height column was utilized in these tests to match changes in the plant equipment. Lab experiments scaled to plant batch sizes of 1500 to 2200 g Np were observed with modest losses for up-flow washing. Down-flow washing was observed to have high losses. The following are recommended conditions for removing Pu{sup 238} from Np solutions by anion exchange in HB-Line: (1) Feed conditions: Up-flow 6.4-8 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.02 M hydrazine, 0.05 M excess FS, less than 5 days storage of solution after FS addition. (2) Reductive Wash conditions: Up-flow 6-12 BV of 6.4 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.05 M FS, 0.05 M hydrazine. 1.8 mL/min/cm{sup 2} flowrate. (3) Decontamination Wash conditions: Up-flow 1-2 BV of 6.4-8 M HNO{sub 3}, no FS, no hydrazine. (4) Elution conditions: Down-flow 0.17 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.05 M hydrazine, no FS.

  1. High-capacity anion exchangers based on poly (glycidylmethacrylate-divinylbenzene) microspheres for ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junwei; Wang, Yong; Cheng, Heli; Wang, Nani; Wu, Shuchao; Zhang, Peimin; Zhu, Yan

    2016-10-01

    Poly (glycidylmethacrylate-divinylbenzene) microspheres were prepared by the two-staged swelling and polymerization method and applied to prepare anion exchange stationary phases. Methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, diethylamine and triethylamine were selected to prepare the quaternary ammonium groups of anion exchangers, respectively. The diameters and surface characteristics of microspheres were measured by scanning electron microscope and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements. The anion exchangers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrum, elemental analysis and breakthrough curve methods. The chromatographic performances of anion exchangers were illustrated by separating conventional anions, organic weak acids and carbohydrates. The results indicated that the anion exchange capacities were controllable by changing either the content of glycidylmethacrylate in microspheres or the number of bonded quaternary ammonium layer. Meanwhile, the substituents of quaternary ammonium groups greatly influenced the separation properties of anion exchangers. Finally, the three-layer methylamine-quaternized anion exchanger was successfully applied for the determination of fluoride in tea sample. The content of fluoride was detected to be 0.13mgg(-1) without the interference of acetate and formate.

  2. 21 CFR 173.20 - Ion-exchange membranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ion-exchange membranes. 173.20 Section 173.20 Food... for Food Treatment § 173.20 Ion-exchange membranes. Ion-exchange membranes may be safely used in the processing of food under the following prescribed conditions: (a) The ion-exchange membrane is prepared...

  3. Preparation of high purity egg phosvitin using anion exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jiandong; Wu, Jianping

    2014-09-01

    Egg yolk phosvitin serves as a warehouse to provide metal ions for embryo development. It is significant for mineral metabolism study and also of great potential to be developed into functional foods with mineral absorption promoting ability. In this study, phosvitin was first extracted from yolk granules using 10% NaCl, dialysed and then adjusted to various pHs to remove impurities. The purity of phosvitin extracts was increased from 54.5% to 63.7% at decreasing pH from 8.0 to 5.5, and started to decrease afterwards. Both the yield and recovery were significantly decreased at decreasing pHs, especially at pHs close to its pI (pH 4.0), indicating the occurrence of co-precipitation of phosvitin with HDL. The extract prepared at pH 8.0 showed the highest recovery of 82.7%; its purity was increased from 54.5% to 97.1% by anion exchange chromatography, with a recovery of 42.0%. This simple method could be scaled up for industrial production.

  4. Effects of arginine on multimodal anion exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Atsushi; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Kameda, Tomoshi

    2015-12-01

    The effects of arginine on binding and elution properties of a multimodal anion exchanger, Capto adhere, were examined using bovine serum albumin (BSA) and a monoclonal antibody against interleukin-8 (mAb-IL8). Negatively charged BSA was bound to the positively charged Capto adhere and was readily eluted from the column with a stepwise or gradient elution using 1M NaCl at pH 7.0. For heat-treated BSA, small oligomers and remaining monomers were also eluted using a NaCl gradient, whereas larger oligomers required arginine for effective elution. The positively charged mAb-IL8 was bound to Capto adhere at pH 7.0. Arginine was also more effective for elution of the bound mAb-IL8 than was NaCl. The results imply that arginine interacts with the positively charged Capto adhere. The mechanism underlying the interactions of arginine with Capto adhere was examined by calculating the binding free energy between an arginine molecule and a Capto adhere ligand in water through molecular dynamics simulations. The overall affinity of arginine for Capto adhere is attributed to the hydrophobic and π-π interactions between an arginine side chain and the aromatic moiety of the ligand as well as hydrogen bonding between arginine and the ligand hydroxyl group, which may account for the characteristics of protein elution using arginine.

  5. Adsorption of plasmid DNA on anion exchange chromatography media.

    PubMed

    Tarmann, Christina; Jungbauer, Alois

    2008-08-01

    Anion exchange chromatography (AEC) is a useful and effective tool for DNA purification, but due to average pore sizes between 40 and 100 nm most AEC resins lack truly useful binding capacities for plasmid DNA (pDNA). Equilibrium binding capacities and uptake kinetics of AEC media including conventional media (Source 30 Q, Q Sepharose HP), a polymer grafted medium (Fractogel EMD DEAE (M)), media with large pores (Celbeads DEAE, PL SAX 4000 A 30 microm) and a monolithic medium (CIM-DEAE) were investigated by batch uptake or shallow bed experiments at two salt concentrations. Theoretical and experimental binding capacities suggest that the shape of the pDNA molecule can be described by a rod with a length to diameter ratio of 20:1 and that the molecule binds in upright position. The arrangement of DNA like a brush at the surface can be considered as entropy driven, kind of self-assembly process which is inherent to highly and uniformly charged DNA molecules. The initial phase of adsorption is very fast and levels off, associated with a change in mass transfer mechanism. Feed concentrations higher than 0.1 mg/mL pDNA pronounce this effect. Monolithic media showed the fastest adsorption rate and highest binding capacity with 13 mg pDNA per mL.

  6. Improved immunoadsorption procedure with anion-exchange bacterial cell columns.

    PubMed

    McKinney, R M; Thacker, L; Wong, M C; Hebert, G A

    1978-01-01

    Bacterial cell columns for immunoadsorption were prepared with Streptococcus cells and triethylaminoethyl cellulose (Cellex-T) matrix material as a model system. Good column flow properties and satisfactory retention of the cells were obtained with ratios as high as 2 ml of packed cells/3 g dry weight of cellulose. Anion-exchange fractionation of whole serum by the Cellex-T was prevented by using 0.25 M NaCl in the developing buffer. Antibodies were adsorbed directly from whole serum and recovered in high yield by desorption at pH 2.3. Pre-exposing bacterial cells to formalin and washing them with acetone was necessary to ensure that they remained on the columns. One strain of Streptococcus salivarius (SS 908) was satisfactorily retained on a column only after cells were labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate and washed with acetone. The means by which Cellex-T retains bacterial cells appears to be a combination of electronic attraction and physical entrapment.

  7. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Sheth, A.C.; Strevel, S.D.; Dharmapurikar, R.

    1992-01-01

    Under the current grant, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) will carry out the bench scale evaluation and further development of the anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization concept to desulfurize alkali metal sulfates. This concept has been developed and patented by UTSI under US Patent No. 4,917,874. The developmental program proposed under this DOE grant includes screening of commercially available resins to select three candidate resins for further study. These three resins will undergo a series of experiments designed to test the resins' performance under different process conditions (including the use of spent MHD seed material). The best of these resins will be used in optimizing the regeneration step and in testing the effects of performance enhancers. The process schematic developed from the results will be used to estimate the related economics. During this reporting period, October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992, analysis of batch mode screening experiments was completed to select three candidate resins for process variables study in the fixed-bed set-up. This setup was modified and the experiments were carded out to evaluate effects of major process variables. The analysis of fixed-bed experiments is going on and we have also started simple batch mode experiments to identify desirable conditions for resin regeneration step. We have also started simple process engineering type calculations to determine the trade-off between the solution concentration and the resulting evaporation/concentration load.

  8. Controlled optical properties of water-soluble CdTe nanocrystals via anion exchange.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Jia, Jianguang; Lin, Yuan; Zhou, Xiaowen

    2016-02-01

    We report a study on anion exchange reaction of CdTe nanocrystals with S(2-) in aqueous solution under ambient condition. We found that the optical properties of CdTe nanocrystals can be well tuned by controlling the reaction conditions, in which the reaction temperature is crucially important. At low reaction temperature, the product nanocrystals showed blue-shifts in both absorption and PL spectra, while the photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) was significantly enhanced. When anion exchanges were carried out at higher reaction temperature, on the other hand, obvious red shifts in absorption and PL spectra accompanied by a fast increase followed by gradual decrease in PLQY were observed. On variation of S(2-) concentration, it was found that the overall kinetics of Te(2-) for S(2-) exchanges depends also on [S(2-)] when anion exchanges were performed at higher temperature. A possible mechanism for anion exchanges in CdTe NCs was proposed.

  9. Evolution of volatile substances from strongly basic anion-exchangers into the gas phase

    SciTech Connect

    Ryabikina, L.G.; Afanas'eva, E.K.; Vulkih, A.I.; Yakovlev, A.I.

    1985-05-10

    The purpose of this work was chemical evaluation, from the sanitary standpoint, of strongly basic anion-exchangers and of polyacrylonitrile fibers filled with them, in relation to their use for purification of air intended for human respiration. The carbonate forms of granulated anion-exchange resins AV-17-8 and AV-29-10P and fibers filled with them were investigated. Amines were determined spectrophotometrically. It is determined that the sanitary chemical characteristics of PAN fibers filled with strongly basic anion-exchangers of the polymerization type make them suitable for removing substances which have no destructive effects on the resins from air.

  10. Anion-conductive membranes with ultralow vanadium permeability and excellent performance in vanadium flow batteries.

    PubMed

    Mai, Zhensheng; Zhang, Huamin; Zhang, Hongzhang; Xu, Wanxing; Wei, Wenping; Na, Hui; Li, Xianfeng

    2013-02-01

    Anion exchange membranes prepared from quaternized poly(tetramethyl diphenyl ether sulfone) (QAPES) were first investigated in the context of vanadium flow battery (VFB) applications. The membranes showed an impressive suppression effect on vanadium ions. The recorded vanadium permeability was 0.02×10(-7)-0.09×10(-7) cm(2) min(-1), which was two orders of magnitude lower than that of Nafion 115. The self-discharge duration of a VFB single cell with a QAPES membrane is four times longer than that of Nafion 115. The morphological difference in hydrophilic domains between QAPES and Nafion was confirmed by TEM. After soaking the membranes in VO(2)(+) solution, adsorbed vanadium ions can barely be found in QAPES, whereas the hydrophilic domains of Nafion were stained. In the ex situ chemical stability test, QAPES showed a high tolerance to VO(2)(+) and remained intact after immersion in VO(2)(+) solution for over 250 h. The performance of a VFB single cell assembled with QAPES membranes is equal to or even better than that of Nafion 115 and remains stable in a long-term cycle test. These results indicate that QAPES membranes can be an ideal option in the fabrication of high-performance VFBs with low electric capacity loss.

  11. Acute and chronic influence of temperature on red blood cell anion exchange.

    PubMed

    Jensen, F B; Wang, T; Brahm, J

    2001-01-01

    Unidirectional (36)Cl(-) efflux via the red blood cell anion exchanger was measured under Cl(-) self-exchange conditions (i.e. no net flow of anions) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and red-eared freshwater turtle Trachemys scripta to examine the effects of acute temperature changes and acclimation temperature on this process. We also evaluated the possible adaptation of anion exchange to different temperature regimes by including our previously published data on other animals. An acute temperature increase caused a significant increase in the rate constant (k) for unidirectional Cl(-) efflux in rainbow trout and freshwater turtle. After 3 weeks of temperature acclimation, 5 degrees C-acclimated rainbow trout showed only marginally higher Cl(-) transport rates than 15 degrees C-acclimated trout when compared at the same temperature. Apparent activation energies for red blood cell Cl(-) exchange in trout and turtle were lower than values reported in endothermic animals. The Q(10) for red blood cell anion exchange was 2.0 in trout and 2.3 in turtle, values close to those for CO(2) excretion, suggesting that, in ectothermic animals, the temperature sensitivity of band-3-mediated anion exchange matches the temperature sensitivity of CO(2) transport (where red blood cell Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange is a rate-limiting step). In endotherms, such as man and chicken, Q(10) values for red blood cell anion exchange are considerably higher but are no obstacle to CO(2) transport, because body temperature is normally kept constant at values at which anion exchange rates are high. When compared at constant temperature, red blood cell Cl(-) permeability shows large differences among species (trout, carp, eel, cod, turtle, alligator, chicken and man). Cl(-) permeabilities are, however, remarkable similar when compared at preferred body temperatures, suggesting an appropriate evolutionary adaptation of red blood cell anion exchange function to the different thermal niches occupied

  12. Ion-exchange equilibrium of N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid on a strong anionic exchanger.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinglan; Ke, Xu; Zhang, Xudong; Zhuang, Wei; Zhou, Jingwei; Ying, Hanjie

    2015-09-15

    N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) is a high value-added product widely applied in the food industry. A suitable equilibrium model is required for purification of Neu5Ac based on ion-exchange chromatography. Hence, the equilibrium uptake of Neu5Ac on a strong anion exchanger, AD-1 was investigated experimentally and theoretically. The uptake of Neu5Ac by the hydroxyl form of the resin occurred primarily by a stoichiometric exchange of Neu5Ac(-) and OH(-). The experimental data showed that the selectivity coefficient for the exchange of Neu5Ac(-) with OH(-) was a non-constant quantity. Subsequently, the Saunders' model, which took into account the dissociation reactions of Neu5Ac and the condition of electroneutrality, was used to correlate the Neu5Ac sorption isotherms at various solution pHs and Neu5Ac concentrations. The model provided an excellent fit to the binary exchange data for Cl(-)/OH(-) and Neu5Ac(-)/OH(-), and an approximate prediction of equilibrium in the ternary system Cl(-)/Neu5Ac(-)/OH(-). This basic information combined with the general mass transfer model could lay the foundation for the prediction of dynamic behavior of fixed bed separation process afterwards.

  13. Fouling of anion exchange resin by fluorescence analysis in advanced treatment of municipal wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Li, Haibo; Li, Aimin; Shuang, Chendong; Zhou, Qing; Li, Wentao

    2014-12-01

    The application of anion exchange resins (AERs) has been limited by the critical problem of resin fouling, which increases the volume of the desorption concentrate and decreases treatment efficiency. To date, resin fouling has not been well studied and is poorly understood compared to membrane fouling. To reflect the resin fouling level, a resin fouling index (RFI) was established in this work according to the decrease of DOC removal after regeneration of the resin for the advanced treatment of municipal wastewater. Comparing the linear fitting results between the RFI and the fluorescence intensity indicated that the resin fouling was related to the protein-like substances with fluorescence peak T in the region of excitation wavelength <250 nm and emission wavelength <380 nm. Using their fluorescent characteristics as a label, the protein-like substances causing the fouling were further identified as hydrophilic components with molecular weights greater than 6500 Da.

  14. Biological Membranes in Extreme Conditions: Simulations of Anionic Archaeal Tetraether Lipid Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Pineda De Castro, Luis Felipe; Dopson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the majority of organisms that have cells bound by di-ester phospholipids, archaeal membranes consist of di- and tetraether phospholipids. Originating from organisms that withstand harsh conditions (e.g., low pH and a wide range of temperatures) such membranes have physical properties that make them attractive materials for biological research and biotechnological applications. We developed force-field parameters based on the widely used Generalized Amber Force Field (GAFF) to enable the study of anionic tetraether membranes of the model archaean Sulfolobus acidocaldarius by computer simulations. The simulations reveal that the physical properties of these unique membranes depend on the number of cyclopentane rings included in each lipid unit, and on the size of cations that are used to ensure charge neutrality. This suggests that the biophysical properties of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius cells depend not only on the compositions of their membranes but also on the media in which they grow. PMID:27167213

  15. 21 CFR 173.20 - Ion-exchange membranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ion-exchange membranes. 173.20 Section 173.20 Food... Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.20 Ion-exchange membranes. Ion-exchange... ion-exchange membrane is prepared by subjecting a polyethylene base conforming to § 177.1520 of...

  16. 21 CFR 173.20 - Ion-exchange membranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ion-exchange membranes. 173.20 Section 173.20 Food... Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.20 Ion-exchange membranes. Ion-exchange... ion-exchange membrane is prepared by subjecting a polyethylene base conforming to § 177.1520 of...

  17. 21 CFR 173.20 - Ion-exchange membranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ion-exchange membranes. 173.20 Section 173.20 Food... Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.20 Ion-exchange membranes. Ion-exchange... ion-exchange membrane is prepared by subjecting a polyethylene base conforming to § 177.1520 of...

  18. 21 CFR 173.20 - Ion-exchange membranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ion-exchange membranes. 173.20 Section 173.20 Food... Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.20 Ion-exchange membranes. Ion-exchange... ion-exchange membrane is prepared by subjecting a polyethylene base conforming to § 177.1520 of...

  19. Cr(VI) removal via anion exchange on a silver-triazolate MOF.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Li; Feng, Xiao-Quan; Han, Run-Ping; Zang, Shuang-Quan; Yang, Guang

    2017-01-05

    Gram-scale synthesis of a silver-triazolato framework - {[Ag8(tz)6](NO3)2·6H2O}n (1-NO3; tz(-)=3,5-diphenyl-1,2,4-triazolate) - has been achieved, enabling the systematic investigation of its anion-exchange properties. Our experimental results show that the anion-exchange pattern of 1-NO3 conforms to the so-called Hofmeister bias, which has been correlated to the hydrophobic nature of the MOF pores, and can be understood by considering the difference between the hydration energies of the exchanging anions. Furthermore, 1-NO3 displays a fast, efficient, and reversible adsorption of HCrO4(-) (via anion-exchange) from Cr(VI)-containing aqueous solution (Qmax=37.0 Cr mg/g, 303K), rendering it a promising prototype of a recyclable MOF for Cr(VI) removal.

  20. Transesterification of propylene glycol methyl ether in chromatographic reactors using anion exchange resin as a catalyst.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jungmin; Sreedhar, Balamurali; Donaldson, Megan E; Frank, Timothy C; Schultz, Alfred K; Bommarius, Andreas S; Kawajiri, Yoshiaki

    2016-09-30

    Reactive chromatography using an anion exchange resin is proposed for a transesterification reaction of propylene glycol methyl ether (DOWANOL™ PM) with ethyl acetate to produce propylene glycol methyl ether acetate (DOWANOL™ PMA). This reaction is studied in batch and chromatographic reactors catalyzed by an anion exchange resin. Several anion exchange resins are tested and compared based on the performance of resin as an adsorbent and a catalyst. A chromatographic column is packed with a selected catalyst, AMBERLITE™ IRA904, and both reaction and chromatographic elution are studied at different temperatures and feed concentrations. The resulting chromatograms are fitted to a mathematical model to obtain adsorption equilibrium and reaction kinetic parameters by the inverse method. Compared to esterification investigated in a previous study, transesterification has advantages such as a higher conversion at lower temperature and easy removal of the byproduct which may lead to higher productivity. Deactivation of anion exchange resins is observed and potential solutions are suggested.

  1. The inhibition by bromothymol blue of anion translocation across the mitochondrial membrane.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrowicz, Z; Sweirczyński, J

    1975-02-28

    1. In rat liver mitochondria bromothymol blue inhibited the exchange of [14C]succinate for succinate, malonate, L-malate and inorganic phosphate; the [14C]citrate/citrate and [14C]citrate/malate exchange reactions and the phosphate/hydroxyl exchange were also inhibited by this dye. The inhibition of the rate of succinate, citrate and phosphate uptake by bromothymol blue is found to be competitive. 2. The degree of inhibition by bromothymol blue of the ]14C]succinate/malonate exchange reaction was pH dependent. It has been shown that the inhibition increased linearly while the pH was increased from 6.0 to 8.2. However, the binding rate of bromothymol blue to the mitochondria decreased with the rising pH of the medium. It is concluded that the binding of acidic bromothymol blue was not essential for the inhibitory effect. 3. Other sulfonephthalein derivatives also inhibited [14C]succinate/malonate exchange reaction. At pH 7.2 the relative order of the strength of the inhibitory action of the sulfonephthalein compounds tested was: thymol blue greater than bronocresol green greater than bromothymol blue greater than phenol red greater than bromocresol purple. The results do not indicate any correlation between the pK values of pH values of pH indicators and their extents of inhibition. 4. It is suggested that the negatively charged bromothymol blue interacts with the positively charged centers of the anion carrier systems causing inhibition of membrane permeability for anions.

  2. Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Devanathan, Ramaswami

    2010-11-01

    Proton exchange membrane, also known as polymer electrolyte membrane, fuel cells (PEMFCs) offer the promise of efficient conversion of chemical energy of fuel, such as hydrogen or methanol, into electricity with minimal pollution. Their widespread use to power zero-emission automobiles as part of a hydrogen economy can contribute to enhanced energy security and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. However, the commercial viability of PEMFC technology is hindered by high cost associated with the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and poor membrane durability under prolonged operation at elevated temperature. Membranes for automotive fuel cell applications need to perform well over a period comparable to the life of an automotive engine and under heavy load cycling including start-stop cycling under sub-freezing conditions. The combination of elevated temperature, changes in humidity levels, physical stresses and harsh chemical environment contribute to membrane degradation. Perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA)-based membranes, such as Nafion®, have been the mainstay of PEMFC technology. Their limitations, in terms of cost and poor conductivity at low hydration, have led to continuing research into membranes that have good proton conductivity at elevated temperatures above 120 °C and under low humidity conditions. Such membranes have the potential to avoid catalyst poisoning, simplify fuel cell design and reduce the cost of fuel cells. Hydrocarbon-based membranes are being developed as alternatives to PFSA membranes, but concerns about chemical and mechanical stability and durability remain. Novel anhydrous membranes based on polymer gels infused with protic ionic liquids have also been recently proposed, but considerable fundamental research is needed to understand proton transport in novel membranes and evaluate durability under fuel cell operating conditions. In order to advance this promising technology, it is essential to rationally design the next generation

  3. Determination of cyanuric acid in milk powder by anion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Hou, Shengjie; Ding, Mingyu; Zhang, Jinghua

    2010-01-01

    An anion-exchange chromatographic method has been developed for simultaneous analysis of cyanuric acid (CA) and five inorganic anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO(3)(-), HPO(4)(2-) and SO(4)(2-)) in milk powder. The separation was achieved within 15 min on an anion-exchange column with simple elution of Na(2)CO(3)/NaHCO(3) buffer as mobile phase. Furthermore, the effect of the total concentration of Na(2)CO(3)/NaHCO(3) buffer on the retention of five inorganic anions was more obvious than that on CA retention, which indicated that CA retention on anion-exchange column depends not only on anion-exchange interaction but also on hydrophobic interactions between CA and anion-exchange column. The linear range of the calibration curve for CA was 0.1-100 mg L(-1). The detection limit calculated at S/N = 3 was 0.083 mg L(-1). The method was successfully applied to the analysis of CA in milk powder.

  4. Stomatin modulates the activity of the Anion Exchanger 1 (AE1, SLC4A1)

    PubMed Central

    Genetet, Sandrine; Desrames, Alexandra; Chouali, Youcef; Ripoche, Pierre; Lopez, Claude; Mouro-Chanteloup, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Anion Exchanger 1 (AE1) and stomatin are integral proteins of the red blood cell (RBC) membrane. Erythroid and kidney AE1 play a major role in HCO3− and Cl− exchange. Stomatins down-regulate the activity of many channels and transporters. Biochemical studies suggested an interaction of erythroid AE1 with stomatin. Moreover, we previously reported normal AE1 expression level in stomatin-deficient RBCs. Here, the ability of stomatin to modulate AE1-dependent Cl−/HCO3− exchange was evaluated using stopped-flow methods. In HEK293 cells expressing recombinant AE1 and stomatin, the permeabilities associated with AE1 activity were 30% higher in cells overexpressing stomatin, compared to cells with only endogenous stomatin expression. Ghosts from stomatin-deficient RBCs and controls were resealed in the presence of pH- or chloride-sensitive fluorescent probes and submitted to inward HCO3− and outward Cl− gradients. From alkalinization rate constants, we deduced a 47% decreased permeability to HCO3− for stomatin-deficient patients. Similarly, kinetics of Cl− efflux, followed by the probe dequenching, revealed a significant 42% decrease in patients. In situ Proximity Ligation Assays confirmed an interaction of AE1 with stomatin, in both HEK recombinant cells and RBCs. Here we show that stomatin modulates the transport activity of AE1 through a direct protein-protein interaction. PMID:28387307

  5. CATALYTIC PROMOTION OF THE ADSORPTION OF VANADIUM ON AN ANIONIC EXCHANGE RESIN

    DOEpatents

    Bailes, R.H.; Ellis, D.A.

    1958-08-26

    An improvement in the process for the recovery of vanadium from acidic phosphatic solutions is presented. In this process the vanadium is first oxidized to the pentavaleat state, and is then separated by contacting such solutions with an anion exchange resin whereby adsorption of the complexed pentavalent vanadium is effected. The improvement lies in the fact that adsorp tion of the vanadium complex by the anion exchange resin is promoted and improved by providing fiuoride ions in solution to be contacted.

  6. Radiation stability of anion-exchange resins based on epichlorohydrin and vinylpyridines

    SciTech Connect

    Zainutdinov, S.S.; Dzhalilov, A.T.; Askarov, M.A.

    1983-02-01

    The vigorous development of nuclear technology and atomic energy and the hydrometallurgy of the rare and radioactive metals has made it necessary to create and use ion-exchange materials possessing a high resistance to the action of ionizing radiations and the temperature. In view of this, the necessity has arisen for obtaining ion-exchange materials possessing adequate radiation stability. The results of an investigation of the radiation stability of anion-exchange resins based on the products of spontaneous polymerization in the interaction of epichlorohydrin with vinylpyridines show that they possess higher radiation resistance than the industrial anion-exchange resin AN-31 used at the present time.

  7. Novel ion-exchange membranes for electrodialysis prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuneda, Satoshi; Saito, Kyoichi; Misuhara, Hisashi; Sugo, Takanobu

    1995-11-01

    Ion-exchange membranes have been used to concentrate seawater to produce salt as well as to desalinate brackish water to render it potable. Also, the interest in applications of ion-exchange membranes as separators for electrodialytic desalination of bioproducts and separators in hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells has been growing. Novel ion-exchange membranes containing sulfonic acid (SO{sub 3}H) and trimethyl ammonium [N(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}] groups were prepared by a simple method of radiation-induced cografting of sodium styrene sulfonate (SSS) with acrylic acid (AAc) and vinyl benzyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (VBTAC) with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), onto a polyethylene film with a thickness of 50 {micro}m. The high density graft chain was introduced throughout the polyethylene film. The maximum cation- and anion-exchange capacities of the resultant membranes were 2.5 and 1.3 mol/kg, receptively. These membranes exhibited an electrical resistance one order lower than commercially available ion-exchange membranes; for example, 12 h cografting provided cation- and anion-exchange membranes whose electrical resistances in a 0.5 M NaCl solution were 0.25 and 0.85 {Omega} cm{sup 2}, respectively. From the evaluation of electrodialytic desalination in a batch mode, using a pair of the graft-type ion-exchange membranes, the time required to achieve 99.5% desalination of the initial 0.5 M NaCl solutions was reduced to 85% comparing with that of the commercial ion-exchange membranes.

  8. Multilayer chitosan-based open tubular capillary anion exchange column with integrated monolithic capillary suppressor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaojia; Foss, Frank W; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2011-11-30

    We describe a multilayered open tubular anion exchange column fabricated by alternately pumping solutions of chitosan and glutaraldehyde. The column is terminated in an integrally bonded monolithic suppressor cast around a mandrel of a tungsten wire, composed of an acrylic acid (AA)-ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) monolith that is made with sufficient porogen for the monolith to function as a membrane. For a 4.5m long 75 μm bore column coated with 24 successive layers of the condensation polymer (estimated to contain ~72 molecular layers) and coupled to 1cm length of a suppressor fabricated with 55-60% AA, effective separation of several common anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO(2)(-), Br(-), NO(3)(-), average number of theoretical plates ~12,000) and adequate suppression of 1 mM KOH used as eluent was observed at a flow rate of 800 nL min(-1) to obtain sub-picomol detection limits at an operating pressure of ~1 bar. The separation is not time efficient but the system can be meritorious in unique niche applications where a small form factor is desired and liquid volume and power consumption are more important than separation speed.

  9. New Gel-Like Polymers as Selective Weak-Base Anion Exchangers

    PubMed Central

    Gierczyk, Błażej; Cegłowski, Michał; Zalas, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    A group of new anion exchangers, based on polyamine podands and of excellent ion-binding capacity, were synthesized. The materials were obtained in reactions between various poly(ethyleneamines) with glycidyl derivatives of cyclotetrasiloxane. The final polymeric, strongly cross-linked materials form gel-like solids. Their structures and interactions with anions adsorbed were studied by spectroscopic methods (CP-MAS NMR, FR-IR, UV-Vis). The sorption isotherms and kinetic parameters were determined for 29 anions. Materials studied show high ion capacity and selectivity towards some important anions, e.g., selenate(VI) or perrhenate. PMID:25946220

  10. Anion-Exchange Properties of Trifluoroacetate and Triflate Salts of N-Alkylammonium Resorcinarenes.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fangfang; Beyeh, Ngong Kodiah; Bertella, Stefania; Rissanen, Kari

    2016-03-04

    The synthesis of N-benzyl- and N-cyclohexylammonium resorcinarene trifluoroacetate (TFA) and triflate (OTf) salt receptors was investigated. Solid-state analysis by single-crystal X-ray diffraction revealed that the N-alkylammonium resorcinarene salts (NARSs) with different upper substituents had different cavity sizes and different affinities for anions. Anion-exchange experiments by mixing equimolar amounts of N-benzylammonium resorcinarene trifluoroacetate and N-cyclohexylammonium resorcinarene triflate, as well as N-benzylammonium resorcinarene triflate and N-cyclohexylammonium resorcinarene trifluoroacetate showed that the NARS with flexible benzyl groups preferred the larger OTf anion, whereas the rigid cyclohexyl groups preferred the smaller TFA anions. The anion-exchange processes were confirmed in the solid state by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction experiments and in the gas phase by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

  11. Anion exchange resins: Structure, formulation, and applications. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the formulation and synthesis of anion exchange resins based on such resins as amides, polyethylenes, and styrenes. Osmotic, sorption, and electrical properties; exchange kinetics behavior; structure studies; and temperature related performance effects on anion exchange resins are considered. Anion exchange chromatography of liquids, and applications in water purification, pollution control, and protein and metallic ion separation are included. (Contains a minimum of 222 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Generation of light-induced electrical potential from ion exchange membranes containing 4,4{prime}-bipyridine moiety

    SciTech Connect

    Sata, Toshikatsu

    1996-07-15

    Ion exchange membranes, which are some of the most advanced separation membranes, are widely used in industry, i.e., in electrodialysis processes, diffusion dialysis processes, as separators for electrolysis, solid polyelectrolytes for fuel cells, etc. Generation of photovoltage and photocurrent from ion exchange membranes containing a viologen moiety was examined, cation exchange membranes ion-exchanged with methyl viologen and anion exchange membranes to which a viologen moiety was bonded. After the membrane, swelled with ethylene glycol, had been clamped between two ITO electrodes and sealed, it was irradiated with a xenon lamp. In the case of the cation exchange membranes ion-exchanged with methyl viologen, 155.3 mV of photo-voltage was observed immediately after photoirradiation, and the voltage decreased and attained almost a constant value. The photovoltage of anion exchange membranes with the viologen moiety increased very slowly (maximum 81 mV, 405 nA; load resistance 200 K{Omega}) after beginning the irradiation. However, when the light was irradiated again on the membrane after interruption of the irradiation, almost the same photovoltage was generated immediately after the irradiation. Though the anion exchange membrane showed absorbance only at 320 nm in the UV-VIS spectrum, wavelengths between 300 and 400 nm were active to reduce the viologen moiety of the membrane. This might be due to a polymer effect. On the other hand, the electrical resistance between the ITO electrodes decreased upon photoirradiation because of radical formation. In order to accelerate generation of the voltage, an oxidative agent (ferric ions) or a reductive agent (triethanolamine) was added to the system. The photovoltage was generated immediately after irradiation in both cases. Ferric ions act as an electron acceptor and triethanolamine forms cation radicals in the membrane before the irradiation.

  13. Palmitoylation is not required for trafficking of human anion exchanger 1 to the cell surface.

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Joanne C; Reithmeier, Reinhart A F

    2004-01-01

    AE1 (anion exchanger 1) is a glycoprotein found in the plasma membrane of erythrocytes, where it mediates the electroneutral exchange of chloride and bicarbonate, a process important in CO2 removal from tissues. It had been previously shown that human AE1 purified from erythrocytes is covalently modified at Cys-843 in the membrane domain with palmitic acid. In this study, the role of Cys-843 in human AE1 trafficking was investigated by expressing various AE1 and Cys-843Ala (C843A) mutant constructs in transiently transfected HEK-293 cells. The AE1 C843A mutant was expressed to a similar level to AE1. The rate of N-glycan conversion from high-mannose into complex form in a glycosylation mutant (N555) of AE1 C843A, and thus the rate of trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi, were comparable with that of AE1 (N555). Like AE1, AE1 C843A could be biotinylated at the cell surface, indicating that a cysteine residue at position 843 is not required for cell-surface expression of the protein. The turnover rate of AE1 C843A was not significantly different from AE1. While other proteins could be palmitoylated, labelling of transiently transfected HEK-293 cells or COS7 cells with [3H]palmitic acid failed to produce any detectable AE1 palmitoylation. These results suggest that AE1 is not palmitoylated in HEK-293 or COS7 cells and can traffic to the plasma membrane. PMID:14640982

  14. ZEOLITE PERFORMANCE AS AN ANION EXCHANGER FOR ARSENIC SEQUESTRATION IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zeolites are well known for their use in ion exchange and acid catalysis reactions. The use of zeolites in anion or ligand exchange reactions is less studied. The NH4+ form of zeolite Y (NY6, Faujasite) has been tested in this work to evaluate its performance for arsenic removal...

  15. Removal of dissolved organic matter by anion exchange: Effect of dissolved organic matter properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyer, T.H.; Singer, P.C.; Aiken, G.R.

    2008-01-01

    Ten isolates of aquatic dissolved organic matter (DOM) were evaluated to determine the effect that chemical properties of the DOM, such as charge density, aromaticity, and molecular weight, have on DOM removal by anion exchange. The DOM isolates were characterized asterrestrial, microbial, or intermediate humic substances or transphilic acids. All anion exchange experiments were conducted using a magnetic ion exchange (MIEX) resin. The charge density of the DOM isolates, determined by direct potentiometric titration, was fundamental to quantifying the stoichiometry of the anion exchange mechanism. The results clearly show that all DOM isolates were removed by anion exchange; however, differences among the DOM isolates did influence their removal by MIEX resin. In particular, MIEX resin had the greatest affinity for DOM with high charge density and the least affinity for DOM with low charge density and low aromaticity. This work illustrates that the chemical characteristics of DOM and solution conditions must be considered when evaluating anion exchange treatment for the removal of DOM. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  16. Separation of thorium and uranium in nitric acid solution using silica based anion exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanliang; Wei, Yuezhou; He, Linfeng; Tang, Fangdong

    2016-09-30

    To separate thorium and uranium in nitric acid solution using anion exchange process, a strong base silica-based anion exchange resin (SiPyR-N4) was synthesized. Batch experiments were conducted and the separation factor of thorium and uranium in 9M nitric acid was about 10. Ion exchange chromatography was applied to separate thorium and uranium in different ratios. Uranium could be eluted by 9M nitric acid and thorium was eluted by 0.1M nitric acid. It was proved that thorium and uranium can be separated and recovered successfully by this method.

  17. 21 CFR 173.21 - Perfluorinated ion exchange membranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Perfluorinated ion exchange membranes. 173.21... Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.21 Perfluorinated ion exchange membranes. Substances identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as ion exchange membranes intended for use in...

  18. 21 CFR 173.21 - Perfluorinated ion exchange membranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Perfluorinated ion exchange membranes. 173.21... ion exchange membranes. Substances identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as ion exchange membranes intended for use in the treatment of bulk quantities of liquid food under...

  19. 21 CFR 173.21 - Perfluorinated ion exchange membranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Perfluorinated ion exchange membranes. 173.21... ion exchange membranes. Substances identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as ion exchange membranes intended for use in the treatment of bulk quantities of liquid food under...

  20. 21 CFR 173.21 - Perfluorinated ion exchange membranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Perfluorinated ion exchange membranes. 173.21... ion exchange membranes. Substances identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as ion exchange membranes intended for use in the treatment of bulk quantities of liquid food under...

  1. 21 CFR 173.21 - Perfluorinated ion exchange membranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Perfluorinated ion exchange membranes. 173.21... ion exchange membranes. Substances identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as ion exchange membranes intended for use in the treatment of bulk quantities of liquid food under...

  2. Improved recovery and purification of plutonium at Los Alamos using macroporous anion exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, S.F.; Mann, M.J.

    1987-05-01

    For almost 30 years, Los Alamos National Laboratory has used anion exchange in nitric acid as the major aqueous process or the recovery and purification of plutonium. One of the few disadvantages of this system is the particularly slow rate at which the anionic nitrato complex of Pu(IV) equilibrates with the resin. The Nuclear Materials Process Technology Group at Los Alamos recently completed an ion exchange development program that focused on improving the slow sorption kinetics that limits this process. A comprehensive investigation of modern anion exchange resins identified porosity and bead size as the properties that most influence plutonium sorption kinetics. Our study found that small beads of macroporous resin produced a dramatic increase in plutonium process efficiency. The Rocky Flats Plant has already adopted this improved ion exchange technology, and it currently is being evaluated for use in other DOE plutonium-processing facilities.

  3. Rapid exchange between atmospheric CO2 and carbonate anion intercalated within magnesium rich layered double hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Pathik; Ishihara, Shinsuke; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Deguchi, Kenzo; Ohki, Shinobu; Tansho, Masataka; Shimizu, Tadashi; Eisaku, Nii; Sasai, Ryo; Labuta, Jan; Ishikawa, Daisuke; Hill, Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Bastakoti, Bishnu Prasad; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Iyi, Nobuo

    2014-10-22

    The carbon cycle, by which carbon atoms circulate between atmosphere, oceans, lithosphere, and the biosphere of Earth, is a current hot research topic. The carbon cycle occurring in the lithosphere (e.g., sedimentary carbonates) is based on weathering and metamorphic events so that its processes are considered to occur on the geological time scale (i.e., over millions of years). In contrast, we have recently reported that carbonate anions intercalated within a hydrotalcite (Mg0.75Al0.25(OH)2(CO3)0.125·yH2O), a class of a layered double hydroxide (LDH), are dynamically exchanging on time scale of hours with atmospheric CO2 under ambient conditions. (Ishihara et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 18040-18043). The use of (13)C-labeling enabled monitoring by infrared spectroscopy of the dynamic exchange between the initially intercalated (13)C-labeled carbonate anions and carbonate anions derived from atmospheric CO2. In this article, we report the significant influence of Mg/Al ratio of LDH on the carbonate anion exchange dynamics. Of three LDHs of various Mg/Al ratios of 2, 3, or 4, magnesium-rich LDH (i.e., Mg/Al ratio = 4) underwent extremely rapid exchange of carbonate anions, and most of the initially intercalated carbonate anions were replaced with carbonate anions derived from atmospheric CO2 within 30 min. Detailed investigations by using infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, adsorption, thermogravimetric analysis, and solid-state NMR revealed that magnesium rich LDH has chemical and structural features that promote the exchange of carbonate anions. Our results indicate that the unique interactions between LDH and CO2 can be optimized simply by varying the chemical composition of LDH, implying that LDH is a promising material for CO2 storage and/or separation.

  4. A new anionic exchange stir bar sorptive extraction coating based on monolithic material for the extraction of inorganic anion.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaojia; Lin, Jianbing; Yuan, Dongxing

    2010-07-23

    A novel anionic exchange stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) coating based on poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyltrimethylammonium chloride-co-divinylbenzene) monolithic material for the extraction of inorganic anion was prepared. The effect of preparation conditions such as ratio of functional monomer to cross-linker, content of porogenic solvent on the extraction efficiencies were investigated in detailed. The monolithic material was characterized by elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. In order to investigate the extraction capacity of the new coating for inorganic anion, the new SBSE was combined with ionic chromatography with conductivity detection, Br-, NO3-, PO4(3-) and SO4(2-) were selected as detected solutes. Several extractive parameters, including pH value and ionic strength in sample matrix, desorption solvent, extraction and desorption time were optimized. The results showed that strongly ionic strength did not favor the extraction of anlaytes. Under the optimum experimental conditions, low detection limits (S/N=3) and quantification limits (S/N=10) of the proposed method for the target anions were achieved within the range of 0.92-2.62 and 3.03-9.25 microg/L, respectively. The method also showed good linearity, simplicity, practicality and low cost for the extraction inorganic anions. Finally, the proposed method was successfully used to detect the two different trademarks of commercial purified water with satisfactory recovery in the range of 70.0-92.6%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first to use SBSE to enrich inorganic anions.

  5. [Application of high performance anion exchange chromatography for trace analysis of polarizable anions].

    PubMed

    Mo, Shumin; Liang, Lina; Cai, Yaqi; Mou, Shifen; Wen, Meijuan

    2005-11-01

    Polarizable anions such as Br-, S2O3(2-), I- and SCN- were separated using 45 mmol/L sodium hydroxide solution as the mobile phase on a high hydrophilic IonPac AS16 column. With a pulsed amperometric detector, the detection limits were 0.5, 0.2, 0.05 and 2 microg/L (25.0 microL injected, signal-to-noise ratio of 3) for Br-, S2O3(2-), I- and SCN. The relative standard deviation (RSD) range of trace anions was from 0.8% to 3.7% (n = 9). Under the same chromatographic conditions, these anions were also determined using a suppressed conductivity detector and the detection limits were 1, 1, 2 and 10 microg/L (25 microL injected, signal-to-noise ratio of 3), respectively. The RSD range was from 0.9% to 4.7% (n = 9). Comparing a pulsed amperometric detector with a conductivity detector, the former is 2 to 40 times more sensitive than the latter. For the determination of polarizable anions, a pulsed amperometric detector has higher selectivity, precision and sensitivity.

  6. Simultaneous separation and detection of anions and thiophilic cations using capillary-size anion exchange chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Sötz, Veronika Anna; Kochmann, Sven

    2015-05-01

    In this fundamental study, the simultaneous separation and detection of anions and thiophilic cations in anion exchange chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection is investigated. Mercury(II) and cadmium(II) served as model analytes. Separation and detection was performed by introducing 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate, which forms complexes with both mercury and cadmium with a strong metal-sulfur bond, into the KOH eluent. Additional to the separation on the column, these complexes were able to pass the suppressor. Subsequently, they could be detected as negative peaks. A simple model for the separation mechanism was developed based on these results. Furthermore, the effect of the eluent concentration on the retention factors of both cation complexes and standard anions was examined and quantified. It revealed that the concentration of 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate has more influence on the cations than the KOH concentration. Also, 2.0 mM of 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate had about the same effect on the anion separation as 60 mM KOH. Finally, selectivity and detection limits were investigated. The detection limits were 4.9 μM for mercury and 2.2 μM for cadmium.

  7. A new method for the reconstitution of the anion transport system of the human erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Scheuring, U; Kollewe, K; Haase, W; Schubert, D

    1986-01-01

    The anion transport protein of the human erythrocyte membrane, band 3, was solubilized and purified in solutions of the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100. It was incorporated into spherical lipid bilayers by the following procedure: Dry phosphatidylcholine was suspended in the protein solution. Octylglucopyranoside was added until the milky suspension became clear. The sample was dialyzed overnight against detergent-free buffer. Residual Triton X-100 was removed from the opalescent vesicle suspension by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and subsequent dialysis. Sulfate efflux from the vesicles was studied, under exchange conditions, using a filtration method. Three vesicle subpopulations could be distinguished by analyzing the time course of the efflux. One was nearly impermeable to sulfate, and efflux from another was due to leaks. The largest subpopulation, however, showed transport characteristics very similar to those of the anion transport system of the intact erythrocyte membrane: transport numbers (at 30 degrees C) close to 20 sulfate molecules per band 3 and min, an activation energy of approx. 140 kJ/mol, a pH maximum at pH 6.2, saturation of the sulfate flux at sulfate concentrations around 100 mM, inhibition of the flux by H2DIDS and flufenamate (approx. KI-values at 30 degrees C: 0.1 and 0.7 microM, respectively), and "right-side-out" orientation of the transport protein (as judged from the inhibition of sulfate efflux by up to 98% by externally added H2DIDS). Thus, the system represents, for the first time, a reconstitution of all the major properties of the sulfate transport across the erythrocyte membrane.

  8. Nitrosamine, dimethylnitramine, and chloropicrin formation during strong base anion-exchange treatment.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Jerome M; Westerhoff, Paul; Dotson, Aaron; Mitch, William A

    2009-01-15

    Strong base anion-exchange resins represent an important option for water utilities and homeowners to address growing concerns with nitrate, arsenate, and perchlorate contamination of source waters. Most commercially available anion-exchange resins employ quaternary amine functional groups. Previous research has provided contradictory evidence regarding whether these resins serve as sources of nitrosamines, considered as highly carcinogenic nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs), even without disinfectants. For three common varieties of commercial anion-exchange resins, we evaluated the importance of releases of nitrosamines, and two other N-DBPs (dimethylnitramine and chloropicrin), when the resins were subjected to typical column flow conditions with and without free chlorine or chloramine application upstream or downstream of the columns. In the absence of disinfectants, fresh trimethylamine- and tributylamine-based type 1 and dimethylethanolamine-based type 2 anion-exchange resins usually released 2-10 ng/L nitrosamines, likely due to shedding of manufacturing impurities, with excursions of up to 20 ng/L following regeneration. However, the lack of significant nitrosamine release in a full-scale anion-exchange treatment system after multiple regeneration cycles indicates that releases may eventually subside. Resins also shed organic precursors that might contribute to nitrosamine formation within distribution systems when chloramines are applied downstream. With free chlorine or chloramine application upstream, nitrosamine concentrations were more significant, at 20-100 ng/L for the type 1 resins and approximately 400 ng/L for the type 2 resin. However, chloropicrin formation was lowest for the type 2 resin. Dimethylnitramine formation was significant with free chlorine application upstream but negligible with chloramines. Although no N-DBPs were detected in cation-exchange-based consumer point-of-use devices exposed to chlorinated or chloraminated waters

  9. Influence of Ionic Liquids on the Selectivity of Ion Exchange-Based Polymer Membrane Sensing Layers.

    PubMed

    Mendecki, Lukasz; Callan, Nicole; Ahern, Meghan; Schazmann, Benjamin; Radu, Aleksandar

    2016-07-16

    The applicability of ion exchange membranes is mainly defined by their permselectivity towards specific ions. For instance, the needed selectivity can be sought by modifying some of the components required for the preparation of such membranes. In this study, a new class of materials -trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium based ionic liquids (ILs) were used to modify the properties of ion exchange membranes. We determined selectivity coefficients for iodide as model ion utilizing six phosphonium-based ILs and compared the selectivity with two classical plasticizers. The dielectric properties of membranes plasticized with ionic liquids and their response characteristics towards ten different anions were investigated using potentiometric and impedance measurements. In this large set of data, deviations of obtained selectivity coefficients from the well-established Hofmeister series were observed on many occasions thus indicating a multitude of applications for these ion-exchanging systems.

  10. Influence of Ionic Liquids on the Selectivity of Ion Exchange-Based Polymer Membrane Sensing Layers

    PubMed Central

    Mendecki, Lukasz; Callan, Nicole; Ahern, Meghan; Schazmann, Benjamin; Radu, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    The applicability of ion exchange membranes is mainly defined by their permselectivity towards specific ions. For instance, the needed selectivity can be sought by modifying some of the components required for the preparation of such membranes. In this study, a new class of materials –trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium based ionic liquids (ILs) were used to modify the properties of ion exchange membranes. We determined selectivity coefficients for iodide as model ion utilizing six phosphonium-based ILs and compared the selectivity with two classical plasticizers. The dielectric properties of membranes plasticized with ionic liquids and their response characteristics towards ten different anions were investigated using potentiometric and impedance measurements. In this large set of data, deviations of obtained selectivity coefficients from the well-established Hofmeister series were observed on many occasions thus indicating a multitude of applications for these ion-exchanging systems. PMID:27438837

  11. Regeneration of strong-base anion-exchange resins by sequential chemical displacement

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Gu, Baohua; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    A method for regenerating strong-base anion exchange resins utilizing a sequential chemical displacement technique with new regenerant formulation. The new first regenerant solution is composed of a mixture of ferric chloride, a water-miscible organic solvent, hydrochloric acid, and water in which tetrachloroferrate anion is formed and used to displace the target anions on the resin. The second regenerant is composed of a dilute hydrochloric acid and is used to decompose tetrachloroferrate and elute ferric ions, thereby regenerating the resin. Alternative chemical displacement methods include: (1) displacement of target anions with fluoroborate followed by nitrate or salicylate and (2) displacement of target anions with salicylate followed by dilute hydrochloric acid. The methodology offers an improved regeneration efficiency, recovery, and waste minimization over the conventional displacement technique using sodium chloride (or a brine) or alkali metal hydroxide.

  12. Flow Chronopotentiometry with Ion-Selective Membranes for Cation, Anion, and Polyion Detection.

    PubMed

    Ghahraman Afshar, Majid; Crespo, Gastón A; Bakker, Eric

    2016-04-05

    We report here on the development of a chronopotentiometric readout for ion-selective electrodes that allows one to record transition times in continuous flow conditions without the necessity to stop the flow. A sample plug of 150 μL is injected into the carrier solution (0.5 mM NaCl) and subsequently transported to the detection cell (∼20 μL) at moderate flow rates (∼0.5 mL min(-1)), where a short current pulse (5s) is applied between the ionophore-based working electrode and a biocompatible and nonpolarizable Donnan exclusion anion-exchanger membrane reference/counter electrode. Flow conditions bear an influence on the thickness of the aqueous diffusion layer and result in a shift of the chronopotentiometric transition time with respect to stopped flow. Two models based on rotating disk electrodes and flow chronopotentiometry at metal-based electrodes were used to corroborate the data. The method was successfully applied to the determination of calcium, chloride, alkalinity, acidity, and protamine with a range of ion-selective membranes. Because of the limiting exposure time of ca. 20 s of the membranes with the sample, this approach is demonstrated to be useful for the detection of protamine in the therapeutic range of undiluted human blood.

  13. Membrane Separator for Redox Flow Batteries that Utilize Anion Radical Mediators.

    SciTech Connect

    Delnick, Frank M.

    2014-10-01

    A Na + ion conducting polyethylene oxide membrane is developed for an organic electrolyte redox flow battery that utilizes anion radical mediators. To achieve high specific ionic conductivity, tetraethyleneglycol dimethylether (TEGDME) is used as a plasticizer to reduce crystallinity and increase the free volume of the gel film. This membrane is physically and chemically stable in TEGDME electrolyte that contains highly reactive biphenyl anion radical mediators.

  14. Anion Exchanger 2 Regulates Dectin-1-Dependent Phagocytosis and Killing of Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Urso, Katia; Charles, Julia F.; Shull, Gary E.; Aliprantis, Antonios O.; Balestrieri, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Anion exchanger 2 (Ae2; gene symbol, Slc4a2) is a plasma membrane Cl-/HCO3- exchanger expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, kidney and bone. We have previously shown that Ae2 is required for the function of osteoclasts, bone resorbing cells of the macrophage lineage, to maintain homeostatic cytoplasmic pH and electroneutrality during acid secretion. Macrophages require endosomal acidification for pathogen killing during the process known as phagocytosis. Chloride is thought to be the principal ion responsible for maintaining electroneutrality during organelle acidification, but whether Cl-/HCO3- exchangers such as Ae2 contribute to macrophage function is not known. In this study we investigated the role of Ae2 in primary macrophages during phagocytosis. We find that Ae2 is expressed in macrophages where it regulates intracellular pH and the binding of Zymosan, a fungal cell wall derivative. Surprisingly, the transcription and surface expression of Dectin-1, the major phagocytic receptor for Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Zymosan, is reduced in the absence of Ae2. As a consequence, Zymosan-induced Tnfα expression is also impaired in Ae2-deficient macrophages. Similar to Ae2 deficiency, pharmacological alkalinization of lysosomal pH with bafilomycin A decreases both Dectin-1 mRNA and cell surface expression. Finally, Ae2-deficient macrophages demonstrate defective phagocytosis and killing of the human pathogenic fungus C. albicans. Our results strongly suggest that Ae2 is a critical factor in the innate response to C. albicans. This study represents an important contribution to a better understanding of how Dectin-1 expression and fungal clearance is regulated. PMID:27391897

  15. Uncoupling of a CLC Cl-/H+ exchange transporter by polyatomic anions.

    PubMed

    Nguitragool, Wang; Miller, Christopher

    2006-09-29

    CLC-ec1 is a bacterial archetype of CLC transporters, a ubiquitous class of proteins that catalyze transmembrane exchange of Cl- and H+ necessary for pH regulation of numerous physiological processes. Despite a profusion of high-resolution structures, the molecular mechanism of exchange remains unknown. Here, we rigorously demonstrate strict exchange stoichiometry of 2 Cl-/1 H+. In addition to Cl- and Br-, two non-halide ions, NO3- and SCN-, are shown to be transported by CLC-ec1, but with reduced H+ counter-transport. The loss of proton coupling to these anions is accompanied by an absence of bound anions in the central and external Cl- binding sites in the protein's anion selectivity region, as revealed by crystallographic comparison of Br- and SeCN- bound to this region.

  16. Uncoupling of a CLC Cl-/H+ exchange transporter by polyatomic anions

    SciTech Connect

    Nguitragool,W.; Miller, C.

    2006-01-01

    CLC-ec1 is a bacterial archetype of CLC transporters, a ubiquitous class of proteins that catalyze transmembrane exchange of Cl{sup -} and H{sup +} necessary for pH regulation of numerous physiological processes. Despite a profusion of high-resolution structures, the molecular mechanism of exchange remains unknown. Here, we rigorously demonstrate strict exchange stoichiometry of 2 Cl{sup -}/1 H{sup +}. In addition to Cl{sup -} and Br{sup -}, two non-halide ions, NO{sub 3}{sup -} and SCN{sup -}, are shown to be transported by CLC-ec1, but with reduced H{sup +} counter-transport. The loss of proton coupling to these anions is accompanied by an absence of bound anions in the central and external Cl{sup -} binding sites in the protein's anion selectivity region, as revealed by crystallographic comparison of Br{sup -} and SeCN{sup -} bound to this region.

  17. Extraction of Carbon Dioxide From Seawater by Ion Exchange Resin. Part 2. Using Strong Base Anion Exchange Resin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-29

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6180--09-9211 Extraction of Carbon Dioxide from Sea water by Ion Exchange Resin Part...STRONG BASE ANION EXCHANGE RESIN 1.0 BACKGROUND The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) process converts solar thermal energy absorbed by the ocean...into electrical power [1,2]. During the OTEC process dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) in ocean water is liberated as a gas. Since CO2 is implicated in

  18. Overloading ion-exchange membranes as a purification step for monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Brown, Arick; Bill, Jerome; Tully, Timothy; Radhamohan, Asha; Dowd, Chris

    2010-06-11

    The present study examined the overloading of ion-exchange membrane adsorbers, a form of frontal chromatography, as the final purification step in the production of mAbs (monoclonal antibodies) produced from CHO (Chinese-hamster ovary) cells. Preferential binding of impurities over antibody product was exploited using commercially available cation- and anion-exchange membranes. Three different antibody feedstreams previously purified over Protein A and ion-exchange column chromatography were tested. Feedstream conductivity and pH were adjusted to induce product and impurity adsorption. Membranes were then overloaded in a normal flow mode, resulting in retention of impurities and breakthrough of purified antibody. Although some amount of the product also binds to the membranes (usually < or =30 g mAb/l membrane), yields of > or =99% were achieved by marginalizing the losses, typically by loading more than 3 kg mAb/l membrane. Analyses of the purified pools show consistent removal of impurities despite strong mAb-ligand interactions and high membrane loadings. The clearance of host cell proteins was affected by pH and conductivity, but was unaffected by flow rate, membrane properties or scale. The importance of the present study lies in our demonstration of an alternative use of ion-exchange membranes for fast, effective and high yielding purification of mAbs.

  19. Anion exchange resins as a source of nitrosamines and nitrosamine precursors.

    PubMed

    Flowers, Riley C; Singer, Philip C

    2013-07-02

    Anion exchange resins are important tools for the removal of harmful anionic contaminants from drinking water, but their use has been linked to the presence of carcinogenic nitrosamines in treated drinking water. In bench-scale batch and column experiments, anion exchange resins from a large, representative group were investigated as sources of the nitrosamines N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine (NDPA), and N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine (NDBA) and their precursors. Several resins were found to release high levels (up to >2000 ng/L, orders of magnitude above drinking water regulatory levels) of nitrosamines upon initial rinsing with lab-grade water, with levels subsiding within 50-100 bed volumes of rinsing. Resins released similarly high levels of nitrosamine precursors, with spikes in precursor release triggered by regeneration of resins with sodium chloride or by interruptions in flow resulting in prolonged contact times. Free chlorine or preformed monochloramine in feedwater led to the production of nitrosamines. Resins released different nitrosamines and precursors depending on their functional groups, with some resins releasing as many as three different nitrosamines and their precursors. These findings have significant implications for the pretreatment and appropriate use of anion exchange resins by drinking water utilities and for the production of anion exchange resins by manufacturers.

  20. Measurement of the distribution of anion exchange function in normal human red cells.

    PubMed Central

    Raftos, J E; Bookchin, R M; Lew, V L

    1997-01-01

    1. The aim of the present work was to investigate cell-to-cell variation in anion exchange turnover in normal human red cells. Red cells permeabilized to protons and K+ dehydrate extremely rapidly by processes that are rate-limited by the induced K+ permeability or by anion exchange turnover. Conditions were designed to render dehydration rate-limited by anion exchange turnover. Cell-to-cell variation in anion exchange function could then be measured from the distribution of delay times required for dehydrating cells to attain resistance to haemolysis in a selected hypotonic medium. 2. Red cells were suspended at 10% haematocrit in a low-K+ solution and, after a brief preincubation with 20 microM SITS at 4 degrees C, were warmed to 24 degrees C, and the protonophore CCCP was added (20 microM) followed 2 min later by valinomycin (60 microM). Delay times for cells to become resistant to lysis were measured from the instant of valinomycin addition by sampling suspension aliquots into thirty volumes of 35 mM NaCl. After centrifugation the per cent lysis was estimated by measuring the haemoglobin concentration in the supernatant. Typical median delay times with this standardized method were 4-5 min. 3. The statistical parameters of the delay time distributions report the population spread in the transport function that was limiting to dehydration. In the absence of SITS and CCCP, dehydration was limited by the diffusional Cl- permeability (PCl). Delay time distributions for PCl- and anion exchange-limited dehydration were measured in red cells from three normal donors. For both distributions, the coefficients of variation ranged between 13.0 and 15.2%, indicating a high degree of uniformity in PCl and anion exchange function among individual red cells. PMID:9061637

  1. Relationships of anion-exchange sorption of boron from natural thermal-spring water

    SciTech Connect

    Meichik, N.R.; Leikin, Yu.A.; Antipov, M.A.; Goryacheva, N.V.; Klimenko, I.S.; Medvedev, S.A.; Galitskaya, N.B.

    1988-02-20

    Boric acid is one of the characteristic components of Kamchatka waters. Extraction of boron from thermal waters for production of potable water is closely linked with current problems of multiproduct utilization of resources and protection of the environment. The authors have investigated the possibilities of using ion exchange for extraction of boron from natural waters, and studied the sorption relationships by a dynamic method. They synthesized a macroporous anion-exchanger based on a copolymer of styrene with divinylbenzene, containing N-methylglucamine groups (ANB-11 resin). ANB-11 resin had high sorption capacity for boron anions during sorption from thermal-spring water. The experimental data were described by Elkins equation.

  2. Development of (126)Sn separation method by means of anion exchange resin and gamma spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dulanská, Silvia; Remenec, Boris; Bilohuščin, Ján; Mátel, Ľubomír; Bujdoš, Marek

    2017-05-01

    This paper describes a method employing anion exchange resin for determination of (126)Sn in radioactive waste. The method is suitable for the separation of (126)Sn isotope from hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acid solution. The separation is based on precipitation of tin with ammonium sulfide in 0.5molL(-1) HCl, dissolution of the precipitate in concentrated HCl, loading in 2molL(-1) HCl onto anion exchange resin column and elution with 2molL(-1) HNO3. (126)Sn was measured by gamma spectrometry.

  3. Poly(arylene)-based anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Yu Seung; Bae, Chulsung

    2015-06-09

    Poly(arylene) electrolytes including copolymers lacking ether groups in the polymer may be used as membranes and binders for electrocatalysts in preparation of anodes for electrochemical cells such as solid alkaline fuel cells.

  4. Ion exchange membrane textile bioreactor as a new alternative for drinking water denitrification.

    PubMed

    Berdous, Dalila; Akretche, Djamal-Eddine; Abderahmani, Ahmed; Berdous, Sakina; Meknaci, Rima

    2014-06-01

    This work enters in the optics of the denitrification of a polluted water by two membrane techniques, the Donnan dialysis (DD) and the ion exchange membrane bioreactor (IEMB), using a conventional barrier, composed by an anion exchange membrane (AEM), and a hybrid barrier, where the AEM is combined to an anion exchange textile (AET). The effects of the hydrodynamic factor and the nature of the carbon source on the transfer and the reduction of nitrate ions were studied. The study results obtained through the DD showed the effectiveness of the hybrid barrier in the recovery and concentration of nitrate ions. This was also recorded during denitrification by the hybrid process, called the ion exchange membrane textile bioreactor (IEMTB), with a significant reduction of nitrates, compared to IEMB, due to the efficiency of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formed at the surface of the AET. Here, the permselectivity of the membrane and the good bioreduction of the pollutants are no longer major conditions to the better performance of the process. The application of IEMTB in the denitrification of groundwater, having a nitrate concentration of 96.67 ppm, shows a total reduction of nitrate ions without changing the quality of the water. Indeed, the analysis of the recovered water, or yet the treated water, shows the absence of the bacterium by-products and concentrations in the nitrates and nitrites which are, respectively, equal to 0.02±0.01 ppm, and inferiors to the detection limit (<0.02 ppm).

  5. Membrane device and process for mass exchange, separation, and filtration

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Wei; Canfield, Nathan L.

    2016-11-15

    A membrane device and processes for fabrication and for using are disclosed. The membrane device may include a number of porous metal membranes that provide a high membrane surface area per unit volume. The membrane device provides various operation modes that enhance throughput and selectivity for mass exchange, mass transfer, separation, and/or filtration applications between feed flow streams and permeate flow streams.

  6. Regulation of intracellular pH in rat lactotrophs: involvement of anionic exchangers.

    PubMed

    Garcia, L; Boué-Grabot, E; Garret, M; Sartor, P

    1997-10-01

    Regulation of the intracellular pH (pHi) of normal rat lactotrophs was studied. As this cell type, cultured with 10% FCS, can achieve a relatively alkaline pHi (7.3-7.5), we investigated the presence of a mechanism based on Cl-/HCO3- exchange. Using the pHi-sensitive probe SNARF-1 (seminaphtorodafluor) in its permeant form, SNARF-1/AM, we studied pHi recovery after acidic loading in individual cells with a microspectrofluorometric approach. We showed the involvement of anionic exchange in lactotroph cell pHi regulation. Acute CO2-bicarbonate cell acidic loading combined with external Cl- depletion induces the activation of a Cl-/HCO3- exchange. This exchange is 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid sensitive and corresponds to the type 3 anionic exchanger (AE3). However, after nigericin acidification, Na+/H+ exchange can also participate in recovery. In addition, incubation experiments strongly suggest that a 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid-insensitive anionic exchanger (type 2 anionic exchanger or AE2) is present in rat lactotrophs. The presence and involvement of carbonic anhydrase in pHi regulation have been demonstrated. Finally, using Northern blot and reverse transcription-PCR techniques, messenger RNAs for both AE2 and AE3 were identified in anterior pituitary cell extracts. We concluded that in normal rat lactotrophs, pHi regulation is achieved by a complex system in which Cl-/HCO3- exchange has a pivotal role.

  7. A general halide-to-anion switch for imidazolium-based ionic liquids and oligocationic systems using anion exchange resins (A- form).

    PubMed

    Alcalde, Ermitas; Dinarès, Immaculada; Ibáñez, Anna; Mesquida, Neus

    2011-03-21

    Further studies on the application of an AER (A(-) form) method broadened the anion exchange scope of representative ionic liquids and bis(imidazolium) systems. Depending on the hydrophobicity nature of the targeted imidazolium species and counteranions, different organic solvents were used to swap halides for assorted anions, proceeding in excellent to quantitative yields.

  8. Evidence for the presence of three different anion exchangers in a red cell. Functional expression studies in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Guizouarn, H; Musch, M W; Goldstein, L

    2003-05-15

    Anion exchangers (AE) are transmembrane proteins catalyzing electroneutral exchange of Cl(-) for HCO3-. To date, three different genes coding for this protein, AE1, AE2 and AE3, have been identified in many species. AE1 is considered to be the unique anion exchanger expressed in erythrocytes. In this paper we propose the presence of three different AEs in skate erythrocytes, a skAE1, a skAE2 and a skAE3, cloned by RT-PCR (reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction). These three skAE have a similar predicted secondary structure. All three skAE are divided in two main domains: a hydrophilic cytoplasmic N-terminal domain and a C-terminal domain crossing the lipid bilayer at least 12 times. The greatest similarity is found in the membrane-spanning domain of the three skAE. The size as well as the amino-acid sequence of the cytoplasmic domain differ significantly among three anion exchangers. Functional expression studies in Xenopus oocytes led to the conclusion that skAE-1 and -2 share some functional features (Cl-dependence and DIDS sensitivity). The skAE3 could not be expressed in Xenopus oocytes. These data are in agreement with expression data obtained with AEs of different species utilizing the oocyte system. It is highly probable that these three new AE sequences come from three different genes, thus suggesting for the first time the presence of the three AE genes in Chondrichthyes.

  9. 2D fluorescence spectroscopy for monitoring ion-exchange membrane based technologies - Reverse electrodialysis (RED).

    PubMed

    Pawlowski, Sylwin; Galinha, Claudia F; Crespo, João G; Velizarov, Svetlozar

    2016-01-01

    Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is one of the emerging, membrane-based technologies for harvesting salinity gradient energy. In RED process, fouling is an undesirable operation constraint since it leads to a decrease of the obtainable net power density due to increasing stack electric resistance and pressure drop. Therefore, early fouling detection is one of the main challenges for successful RED technology implementation. In the present study, two-dimensional (2D) fluorescence spectroscopy was used, for the first time, as a tool for fouling monitoring in RED. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) of ion-exchange membrane surfaces and of natural aqueous streams were acquired during one month of a RED stack operation. Fouling evolvement on the ion-exchange membrane surfaces was successfully followed by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy and quantified using principal components analysis (PCA). Additionally, the efficiency of cleaning strategy was assessed by measuring the membrane fluorescence emission intensity before and after cleaning. The anion-exchange membrane (AEM) surface in contact with river water showed to be significantly affected due to fouling by humic compounds, which were found to cross through the membrane from the lower salinity (river water) to higher salinity (sea water) stream. The results obtained show that the combined approach of using 2D fluorescence spectroscopy and PCA has a high potential for studying fouling development and membrane cleaning efficiency in ion exchange membrane processes.

  10. Epoxy-crosslinked sulfonated poly (phenylene) copolymer proton exchange membranes

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Michael; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Norman, Kirsten; Hickner, Michael A.

    2010-10-19

    An epoxy-crosslinked sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer composition used as proton exchange membranes, methods of making the same, and their use as proton exchange membranes (PEM) in hydrogen fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cell, in electrode casting solutions and electrodes, and in sulfur dioxide electrolyzers. These improved membranes are tougher, have higher temperature capability, and lower SO.sub.2 crossover rates.

  11. The structure and organization of the human erythroid anion exchanger (AE1) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Sahr, K.E.; Taylor, W.M.; Daniels, B.P.

    1994-12-01

    The AE1 (anion exchanger, band 3) protein is expressed in erythrocytes and in the A-type intercalated cells of the kidney distal collecting tubule. In both cell types it mediates the electroneutral transport of chloride and bicarbonate ions across the lipid bilayer, and, in erythrocytes, it also serves as the critical attachment site of the peripheral membrane skeleton. We have characterized the human AE1 gene using overlapping clones isolated from a phage library of human genomic DNA. The gene spans {approximately}20 kb and consists of 20 exons separated by 19 introns. The structure of the human AE1 gene corresponds closely with that of the previously characterized mouse AE1 gene, with a high degree of conservation of exon/intron junctions, as well as exon and intron nucleotide sequences. The putative upstream and internal promoter sequences of the human AE1 gene used in erythroid and kidney cells, respectively, are described. We also report the nucleotide sequence of the entire 3{prime} noncoding region of exon 20, which was lacking in the published cDNA sequences. In addition, we have characterized 9 Alu repeat elements found within the body of the human AE1 gene that are members of 4 related subfamilies that appear to have entered the genome at different times during primate evolution. 59 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Mechanism for binding site diversity on ankyrin. Comparison of binding sites on ankyrin for neurofascin and the Cl-/HCO3- anion exchanger.

    PubMed

    Michaely, P; Bennett, V

    1995-12-29

    Ankyrins are a family of spectrin-binding proteins that associate with at least seven distinct membrane proteins, including ion transporters and cell adhesion molecules. The membrane-binding domain of ankyrin is comprised of a tandem array of 24 ANK repeats organized into four 6-repeat folding domains. Tandem arrays of ANK repeats have been proposed to mediate protein interactions in a variety of proteins including factors involved in the regulation of transcription and the cell cycle. This report provides several new insights into the versatility of ANK repeats of ankyrin in protein recognition, using neurofascin and the Cl-/HCO3- anion exchanger as model ligands and ankyrinR as the prototypic ankyrin. Different combinations of ANK repeat domains from this ankyrin form two distinct, high affinity binding sites for neurofascin. One site requires both repeat domains 3 and 4. The other site involves both repeat domains 2 and 3, although domain 2 has significant activity alone. The sites appear to be independent with Kd values of 3 and 14 nM, respectively. Both the Cl-/HCO3- anion exchanger and neurofascin can interact simultaneously with repeat domains 3 and 4, because neurofascin is unable to displace binding of the anion exchanger cytoplasmic domain to domains 3 and 4, despite having a 3-5-fold higher affinity. These results demonstrate two levels of diversity in the binding sites on ankyrin: one resulting from different combinations of ANK repeat domains and another from different determinants within the same combination of repeat domains. One consequence of this diversity is that ankyrin can accommodate two neurofascin molecules as well as the anion exchanger through interactions mediated by ANK repeats. The ability of ankyrin to simultaneously associate with multiple types of membrane proteins is an unanticipated finding with implications for the assembly of integral membrane proteins into specialized regions of the plasma membrane.

  13. Effect of the type of ion exchange membrane on performance, ion transport, and pH in biocatalyzed electrolysis of wastewater.

    PubMed

    Rozendal, R A; Sleutels, T H J A; Hamelers, H V M; Buisman, C J N

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the application of cation exchange membranes (CEMs) in bioelectrochemical systems running on wastewater can cause operational problems. In this paper the effect of alternative types of ion exchange membrane is studied in biocatalyzed electrolysis cells. Four types of ion exchange membranes are used: (i) a CEM, (ii) an anion exchange membrane (AEM), (iii) a bipolar membrane (BPM), and (iv) a charge mosaic membrane (CMM). With respect to the electrochemical performance of the four biocatalyzed electrolysis configurations, the ion exchange membranes are rated in the order AEM > CEM > CMM > BPM. However, with respect to the transport numbers for protons and/or hydroxyl ions (t(H/OH)) and the ability to prevent pH increase in the cathode chamber, the ion exchange membranes are rated in the order BPM > AEM > CMM > CEM.

  14. Selective separation of the major whey proteins using ion exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    Goodall, S; Grandison, A S; Jauregi, P J; Price, J

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic microporous membranes with functional groups covalently attached were used to selectively separate beta-lactoglobulin, BSA, and alpha-lactalbumin from rennet whey. The selectivity and membrane performance of strong (quaternary ammonium) and weak (diethylamine) ion-exchange membranes were studied using breakthrough curves, measurement of binding capacity, and protein composition of the elution fraction to determine the binding behavior of each membrane. When the weak and strong anion exchange membranes were saturated with whey, they were both selective primarily for beta-lactoglobulin with less than 1% of the eluate consisting of alpha-lactalbumin or BSA. The binding capacity of a pure beta-lactoglobulin solution was in excess of 1.5 mg/cm2 of membrane. This binding capacity was reduced to approximately 1.2 mg/cm2 when using a rennet whey solution (pH 6.4). This reduction in protein binding capacity can be explained by both the competitive effects of other whey proteins and the effect of ions present in whey. Using binary solution breakthrough curves and rennet whey breakthrough curves, it was shown that alpha-lactalbumin and BSA were displaced from the strong and weak anion exchange membranes by beta-lactoglobulin. Finally, the effect of ionic strength on the binding capacity of individual proteins for each membrane was determined by comparing model protein solutions in milk permeate (pH 6.4) and a 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.4). Binding capacities of beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, and BSA in milk permeate were reduced by as much as 50%. This reduction in capacity coupled with the low binding capacity of current ion exchange membranes are 2 serious considerations for selectively separating complex and concentrated protein solutions.

  15. Anion exchange kinetics of nanodimensional layered metal hydroxides: use of isoconversional analysis.

    PubMed

    Majoni, Stephen; Hossenlopp, Jeanne M

    2010-12-16

    Anion exchange reactions of nanodimensional layered metal hydroxide compounds are utilized to create materials with targeted physical and chemical properties and also as a means for controlled release of intercalated anions. The kinetics of this important class of reaction are generally characterized by model-based approaches. In this work, a different approach based on isothermal, isoconversional analysis was utilized to determine effective activation energies with respect to extent of reaction. Two different layered metal hydroxide materials were chosen for reaction with chloride anions, using a temperature range of 30-60 °C. The concentrations of anions released into solution and the changes in polycrystalline solid phases were evaluated using model-based (Avrami-Erofe'ev nucleation-growth model) and model-free (integral isoconversional) methods. The results demonstrate the utility of the isoconversional approach for identifying when fitting to a single model is not appropriate, particularly for characterizing the temperature dependence of the reaction kinetics.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Perfluoro Quaternary Ammonium Ion Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    TERMS Perfluoroinated polymer; anion exchange membrane; morphology; base stability Mellisa A. Vandiver, Soenke Seifert, Matthew W. Liberatore, Andrew...humidities. Better understanding of the role of water and polymer morphology on the ion conduction and stability of AEMs is necessary for practical AEM fuel...sufficient chemical and mechanical stability (5, 10) For these reasons PFSAs remain the benchmark comparison for all new PEMs and AEMs (1, 11). The

  17. Characterisation of gunshot residue from three ammunition types using suppressed anion exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Elizabeth; Jongekrijg, Fleur; Harvey, Laura; Smith, Norman; Barron, Leon

    2012-09-10

    Gunshot residue (GSR) is commonly analysed in forensic casework using either scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Relatively little work has been reported on the post-discharge GSR content of non-metallic inorganic or low molecular weight organic anions to distinguish between different ammunition types. The development of an analytical method using suppressed micro-bore anion exchange chromatography (IC) is presented for the analysis of GSR. A hydroxide gradient was optimised for the separation of 19 forensically relevant organic and inorganic anions in <23min and sensitivities of the order of 0.12-3.52ng of anion detected for all species were achieved. Along with an optimised extraction procedure, this method was applied to the analysis of post-ignition residues from three selected ammunition types. By profiling and comparing the anionic content in each ammunition residue, the possibility to distinguish between each type using their anionic profiles and absolute weight is presented. The potential for interference is also discussed with respect to sample types which are typically problematic in the analysis of GSR using SEM-EDX and GC-MS. To the best of our knowledge this represents the first study on the analysis of inorganic anions in GSR using suppressed ion chromatography.

  18. EFFECTS OF PH AND COMPETING ANIONS ON THE SOLUTION SPECIATION OF ARSENIC BY ION EXCHANGE RESINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anion-exchange resins (AER) are used to differentiate As(V) and As(III) by retaining As(V) and allowing As(III) to pass through. AERs allow rapid speciation of As in the field which precludes the effects sample preservation on As speciation. Aqueous environmental samples contai...

  19. Anion-exchange synthesis of nanoporous FeP nanosheets as electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction.

    PubMed

    Xu, You; Wu, Rui; Zhang, Jingfang; Shi, Yanmei; Zhang, Bin

    2013-07-28

    Nanoporous FeP nanosheets are successfully synthesized via the anion-exchange reaction of inorganic-organic hybrid Fe18S25-TETAH (TETAH = protonated triethylenetetramine) nanosheets with P ions. The as-prepared nanoporous FeP nanosheets exhibit high electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction activity in acidic medium.

  20. Separation of the rare earths by anion-exchange in the presence of lactic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faris, J. P.

    1969-01-01

    Investigation of adsorption of rare earths and a few other elements to an anion-exchange resin from mixed solvents containing lactic acid shows that the lanthanides are absorbed more strongly than from the alpha-hydroxyisobutryric acid system, but with less separation between adjacent members of the series.

  1. DEMINERALIZER BUILDING, TRA608. CATION AND ANION EXCHANGERS LINE UP ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DEMINERALIZER BUILDING, TRA-608. CATION AND ANION EXCHANGERS LINE UP ALONG NORTH WALL ON CONCRETE PLATFORMS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2527. Unknown Photographer, 6/12/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. M8L12 cubic cages with all facial Δ or facial Λ configuration: effects of surface anions on the occupancy of the cage and anion exchange.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Chang, Xiao-Yong; Sham, Kiu-Chor; Yiu, Shek-Man; Kwong, Hoi-Lun; Che, Chi-Ming

    2016-05-01

    M8L12 cubic cages (M = Mn(II), Zn(II) or Cd(II)), with all eight metal ions having all facial Δ or facial Λ configurations and having an encapsulated anion, were prepared by the self-assembly of m-xylene-bridged imidazolyl-imine ligands and MX2 (X = PF6(-), SbF6(-), TfO(-)) salts; the encapsulated anion exchange with different anions (SbF6(-), Tf2N(-), NO3(-), TsO(-)) was studied and the results with NO3(-) and TsO(-) indicate that anions on the cage surfaces affect the encapsulated anion exchange and the occupancy of the cage.

  3. A new anion-exchange/hydrophobic monolith as stationary phase for nano liquid chromatography of small organic molecules and inorganic anions.

    PubMed

    Aydoğan, Cemil

    2015-05-01

    In this study, an anion-exchange/hydrophobic polymethacrylate-based stationary phase was prepared for nano-liquid chromatography of small organic molecules and inorganic anions. The stationary phase was synthesized by in situ polymerization of 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropylmethacrylate and ethylene dimethacrylate inside silanized 100 μm i.d. fused silica capillary. The porogen mixture consisted of toluene and dodecanol. The pore size distrubution profiles of the resulting monolith were determined by mercury intrusion porosimetry and the morphology of the prepared monolith was investigated by scanning electron microscope. Good permeability, stability and column efficiency were observed on the monolithic column with nano flow. The produced monolithic column, which contains reactive chloro groups, was then modified by reaction with N,N-dimethyl-N-dodecylamine to obtain an anion-exchange/hydrophobic monolithic stationary phase. The functionalized monolith contained ionizable amine groups and hydrophobic groups that are useful of anion-exchange/hydrophobic mixed-mode chromatography. The final monolithic column performance with respect to anion-exchange and hydrophobic interactions was assesed by the separation of alkylbenzene derivatives, phenolic compounds and inorganic anions, respectively. Theoretical plate numbers up to 23,000 plates/m were successfully achieved in the separation of inorganic anions.

  4. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sheth, A C; Dharmapurikar, R; Strevel, S D

    1994-01-01

    The following investigations were performed: (1) batch mode screening of eleven(11) commercially available resins and selection of three candidate resins for further evaluation in a fixed-bed setup. (2) Process variables study using three candidate resins in the fixed-bed setup and selection of the ``best`` resin for process economics development. (3) Exhaustion efficiency and solution concentration were found to be inversely related necessitating a trade-off between the resin cost versus the cost of evaporation/concentration of ensuing effluents. (4) Higher concentration of the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} form of active sites over less active CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} form of sites in the resin was believed to be the main reason for the observed increase in the equilibrium capacity of the resin at an elevated static CO{sub 2}-pressure. This Increase in capacity was found to level off around 80--120 psig range. The increase in CO{sub 2}-pressure, however, did not appear to affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics. (5) In the fixed-bed mode, the solution concentration was found to affect the equilibrium capacity of candidate resins. Their relationship was well satisfied by the Langmuir type non-linear equilibrium isotherm. Alternatively, the effect of solution concentration on overall ion-exchange kinetics varied from resin to resin. (6) Product inhibition effect on the resin was observed as an initial increase followed by a significant decrease in the resin`s equilibrium capacity for SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} as the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} molar ratio in the solution was increased from 0 to 1.0. This ratio, however, did not affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics.

  5. Transport of heptafluorostearate across model membranes. Membrane transport of long-chain fatty acid anions I.

    PubMed

    Schmider, W; Fahr, A; Blum, H E; Kurz, G

    2000-05-01

    Heptafluorostearic acid, an isogeometric derivative of stearic acid, has a pK(a) value of about 0.5. To evaluate the suitability of heptafluorostearate as model compound for anions of long-chain fatty acids in membrane transport, monolayer and liposome studies were performed with lipid mixtures containing phospholipids;-cholesterol-heptafluorostearate or stearate (100:40:20 molar ratios). Transfer of heptafluorostearate and stearate from liposomes to bovine serum albumin (BSA) was followed by measuring the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA. The percentage of heptafluorostearate, equivalent to the amount placed in their outer monolayer, transferred from liposomes (120;-130 nm diameter) to BSA was 55.7 +/- 3.7% within 10 min at 25 degrees C and 55 +/- 2% within 5 min at 37 degrees C. Slow transfer of 22.7 +/- 2.5% of heptafluorostearate at 25 degrees C followed with a half-life of 2.3 +/- 0.4 h and of 20 +/- 4% at 37 degrees C with a half-life of 0.9 +/- 0.1 h until the final equilibrium distributions between BSA and liposomes were reached, 79 +/- 6% to 21 +/- 5% at 25 degrees C and 75 +/- 5% to 25 +/- 4% at 37 degrees C. The pseudounimolecular rate constants for flip-flop of heptafluorostearate equal k(FF,25) = 0.24 +/- 0.05 h(-) and k(FF,37) = 0.6 +/- 0.1 h(-), respectively. By comparison, transfer of stearate required only 3 min to reach equilibrium distribution. The difference between heptafluorostearate and stearate may be explained by a rapid flip-flop movement of the un-ionized fatty acids which exist in different concentrations in accordance with their pK(a) values. Half-life of flip-flop of heptafluorostearate makes it suitable to study mediated membrane transport of long-chain fatty acid anions.

  6. Optical sensor of anionic surfactants using solid-phase extraction with a lactone-form rhodamine B membrane.

    PubMed

    Masadome, Takashi; Akatsu, Motoo

    2008-06-01

    An optical sensor for the detection of anionic surfactants was developed. The optical sensing membrane is a 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether-plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) membrane incorporating a lactone-form Rhodamine B (L-RB). The response of the optical membrane to anionic surfactants was a result of the ion-pair coextraction of an anionic surfactant and a proton into the PVC membrane. The L-RB forms an ion associate with the extracted anionic surfactant; simultaneously, the formed L-RB ion associate is accompanied by a spectral change. Namely, the extracted anionic surfactant changes the color of the membrane from light pink to dark pink (absorption maximum; 558 nm). The optical membrane responds to anionic surfactants, such as dodecylbenzenesulfonate, dodecylsulfate and di-2-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate in the concentration range from 1 to 50 microM.

  7. Tuning the Optical Properties of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals by Anion Exchange Reactions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that, via controlled anion exchange reactions using a range of different halide precursors, we can finely tune the chemical composition and the optical properties of presynthesized colloidal cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs), from green emitting CsPbBr3 to bright emitters in any other region of the visible spectrum, and back, by displacement of Cl– or I– ions and reinsertion of Br– ions. This approach gives access to perovskite semiconductor NCs with both structural and optical qualities comparable to those of directly synthesized NCs. We also show that anion exchange is a dynamic process that takes place in solution between NCs. Therefore, by mixing solutions containing perovskite NCs emitting in different spectral ranges (due to different halide compositions) their mutual fast exchange dynamics leads to homogenization in their composition, resulting in NCs emitting in a narrow spectral region that is intermediate between those of the parent nanoparticles. PMID:26214734

  8. Tuning the Optical Properties of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals by Anion Exchange Reactions.

    PubMed

    Akkerman, Quinten A; D'Innocenzo, Valerio; Accornero, Sara; Scarpellini, Alice; Petrozza, Annamaria; Prato, Mirko; Manna, Liberato

    2015-08-19

    We demonstrate that, via controlled anion exchange reactions using a range of different halide precursors, we can finely tune the chemical composition and the optical properties of presynthesized colloidal cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs), from green emitting CsPbBr3 to bright emitters in any other region of the visible spectrum, and back, by displacement of Cl(-) or I(-) ions and reinsertion of Br(-) ions. This approach gives access to perovskite semiconductor NCs with both structural and optical qualities comparable to those of directly synthesized NCs. We also show that anion exchange is a dynamic process that takes place in solution between NCs. Therefore, by mixing solutions containing perovskite NCs emitting in different spectral ranges (due to different halide compositions) their mutual fast exchange dynamics leads to homogenization in their composition, resulting in NCs emitting in a narrow spectral region that is intermediate between those of the parent nanoparticles.

  9. Perchlorate Selectivity of Anion Exchange Resins as Evaluated Using Ion-Selective Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kenji; Mitsuda, Shin'ya; Ohtake, Naomi; Murashige, Natsuki; Ohmuro, Satoshi; Yuchi, Akio

    2017-01-01

    The selectivity coefficients reported for perchlorate of the high selectivity on anion exchange resins (AXRs) have not been consistent with one another. Possible errors by the unique use of four parameters (concentrations of two anions in two phases) were experimentally verified. The concentrations of perchlorate buffered at low levels (10(-6) - 10(-4) mol L(-1)) by two forms of AXRs were successfully determined by potentiometry with a perchlorate ion-selective electrode. This gave reasonable coefficients. The coefficients for perchlorate on several AXRs were independent of the relative exchange (RE), in contrast to the previous reports. On the other hand, the coefficients for fluoride of the low selectivity that were examined for comparison decreased with an increase in RE, and the dependency was more remarkable for the resins of large exchange capacity.

  10. Anion-exchangeable layered materials based on rare-earth phosphors: unique combination of rare-earth host and exchangeable anions.

    PubMed

    Geng, Fengxia; Ma, Renzhi; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2010-09-21

    Layered materials, three-dimensional crystals built from stacking two-dimensional components, are attracting intense interest because of their structural anisotropy and the fascinating properties that result. However, the range of such layered materials that can exchange anions is quite small. Continuing efforts have been underway to identify a new class of anion-exchangeable materials. One major goal is the incorporation of rare-earth elements within the host because researchers expect that the marriage of rare-earth skeleton host and the exchangeable species within the interlayer will open up new avenues both for the assembly of layered materials and for the understanding of rare-earth element chemistry. Such lanthanide layered solids have industrial potential. These materials are also of academic importance, serving as an ideal model for studying the cationic size effect on structure stability associated with lanthanide contraction. In this Account, we present the work done by ourselves and others on this novel class of materials. We examine the following four subtopics regarding these layered anionic materials: (1) synthesis strategy and composition diversity, (2) structural features, (3) structure stability with relative humidity, and (4) applications. These materials can be synthesized either by hydrothermal reactions or by homogeneous precipitation, and a variety of anions can be intercalated into the gallery. Although only cations with a suitable size can form the layered structure, the possible range is wide, from early to late lanthanides. We illustrate the effect of lanthanide contraction on properties including morphology, lattice dimensions, and coordination numbers. Because each lanthanide metal ion coordinates water molecules, and the water molecules point directly into the gallery space, this feature plays a critical role in stabilizing the layered structure. In the 9-fold monocapped square antiprism structure, the humidity-triggered transition

  11. Sulfate transport mediated by the mammalian anion exchangers in reconstituted proteoliposomes.

    PubMed

    Sekler, I; Lo, R S; Mastrocola, T; Kopito, R R

    1995-05-12

    The kinetic properties of sulfate transport mediated by the anion exchangers AE1 and AE2 have been examined. Microsomes isolated from HEK cells transiently overexpressing either protein were reconstituted in unilamellar, 200-600-nm diameter proteoliposomes. Transport mediated by the exchangers was monitored by loading the reconstituted proteoliposomes with the slowly transportable anion SO4(2-) using [35S]SO4(2-) as a tracer and performing [35S]SO4(2-)/SO4(2-) exchange. The following data suggest that AE1 and AE2 have been functionally reconstituted: (i) the rate of SO4(2-) transport in AE1 and AE2 containing proteoliposomes was 10-20 times higher than in proteoliposomes derived from control microsomes; (ii) the transport of SO4(2-) was strongly dependent on the presence of a trans anion; and (iii) the anion exchanger inhibitors, 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (DIDS) and 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-di-sulfonate (DIDS) totally abolished SO4(2-) transport. furthermore, DIDS inhibits SO4(2-) transport only when occluded inside the vesicles, indicating a uniform, asymmetrical, inside-out orientation of the reconstituted exchangers. The Ki values of the stilbene disulfonate compound DNDS were 2.5 and 4 microM for AE1 and AE2, respectively, suggesting that the two exchangers possess similar high affinity sites for stilbene compounds. Both AE1 and AE2 showed the same steep pH dependence of sulfate transport, which was maximal at pH 5.5 and reduced to less than 10% (of the value at pH 5.5) at pH 8.5, suggesting that an acidic residue shared by AE1 and AE2 participates in the pH regulation of sulfate transport.

  12. Liquid membrane coated ion-exchange column solids

    DOEpatents

    Barkey, Dale P.

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for improving the performance of liquid membrane separations by coating a liquid membrane onto solid ion-exchange resin beads in a fixed bed. Ion-exchange beads fabricated from an ion-exchange resin are swelled with water and are coated with a liquid membrane material that forms a film over the beads. The beads constitute a fixed bed ion-exchange column. Fluid being treated that contains the desired ion to be trapped by the ion-exchange particle is passed through the column. A carrier molecule, contained in the liquid membrane ion-exchange material, is selective for the desired ion in the fluid. The carrier molecule forms a complex with the desired ion, transporting it through the membrane and thus separating it from the other ions. The solution is fed continuously until breakthrough occurs at which time the ion is recovered, and the bed is regenerated.

  13. Synthesis, characterisation and anion exchange properties of copper, magnesium, zinc and nickel hydroxy nitrates

    SciTech Connect

    Biswick, Timothy; Jones, William . E-mail: wj10@cam.ac.uk; Pacula, Aleksandra; Serwicka, Ewa

    2006-01-15

    Anion exchange reactions of four structurally related hydroxy salts, Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}NO{sub 3}, Mg{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}NO{sub 3}, Ni{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}NO{sub 3} and Zn{sub 3}(OH){sub 4}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} are compared and trends rationalised in terms of the strength of the covalent bond between the nitrate group and the matrix cation. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and elemental analysis are used to characterise the materials. Replacement of the nitrate anions in the zinc and copper salts with benzoate anions is possible although exchange of the zinc salt is accompanied by modification of the layer structure from one where zinc is exclusively six-fold coordinated to a structure where there is both six- and four-fold zinc coordination. Magnesium and nickel hydroxy nitrates, on the other hand, hydrolyse to their respective metal hydroxides. -- Graphical abstract: PXRD patterns of exchange products of (a) Zn{sub 3}(OH){sub 4}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} (b) Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O and (c) Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}NO{sub 3} with benzoate anions.

  14. Preparation, Characterization and Anion Exchange Properties of Polypyrrole/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Xiaoli; Engelhard, Mark H.; Lin, Yuehe

    2006-02-01

    In this study, polypyrrole (PPy) thin film was electrodeposited on carbon nanotube (CNT) backbones by applying a constant deposition potential in solution with 0.1 M pyrrole with different electrolytes such as NaCl, NaNO3, or NaClO4. The hybrid films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. SEM images revealed the nanostructrure of PPy film generated on CNTs surface. The electrochemical and anion exchange properties of PPy-CNT composite film have been investigated. Nanostructured composite thin films of polypyrrole/CNTs were studied by cyclic voltammetry between 0.4 and -0.8 V in aqueous solution to evaluate their cycling stability and capacity for electrically switched anion exchange. It is found that the PPy/CNTs nanocomposites can improve the anion exchange capacity and stability of the PPy-CNTs composite film, which may be attributed to the nanostructure of the polypyrrole film, which offer the high aspect ratio of the film and ease of diffusion of anions in the nanostructured film, and the interaction between CNTs and PPy.

  15. Ion exchange and intercalation properties of layered double hydroxides towards halide anions.

    PubMed

    Costantino, Umberto; Vivani, Riccardo; Bastianini, Maria; Costantino, Ferdinando; Nocchetti, Morena

    2014-08-14

    A layered double hydroxide (LDH) obtained by the urea method, having an empirical formula [Zn(0.61)Al(0.39)(OH)2](CO3)(0.195)·0.50H2O, has been converted into the corresponding chloride form [Zn(0.61)Al(0.39)(OH)2]Cl(0.39)·0.47H2O by making the solid come into contact with a suitable HCl solution. The intercalation of the other halide anions (X(-) = F(-), Br(-), I(-)) via the Cl(-)/X(-) anion exchange has been attained and the respective anion exchange isotherms have been obtained with the batch method. The analysis of the isotherms indicates that the selectivity of LDH towards the halides decreases with the increase of the X(-) ionic radius, the selectivity order being F(-) > Cl(-)≥ Br(-) > I(-). The CO3(2-)/Cl(-) isotherm has also been reported to highlight the extraordinary selectivity of LDH towards carbonate anions. Samples taken from the isotherms at different exchange degrees were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry and thermodiffractometry to obtain information about the ion exchange mechanism. The Cl(-)/Br(-) and the reverse Br(-)/Cl(-) exchanges occur with the formation of solid solutions, very likely because of the similar ionic radius of the exchanging anions. In contrast, in the Cl(-)/F(-) and Cl(-)/I(-) exchange, the co-existence of the Cl(-) and F(-) (or I(-)) phases in the same sample was detected, indicating the occurrence of a first order phase transition, in which the starting phase is transformed into the final phase, as the process goes on. The variation of the interlayer distances of ZnAl-X intercalation compounds with the hydration degree has been interpreted with a structural model based on the nesting of the guest species into the trigonal pockets of the brucite-like layer surface. Rietveld refinements of the phases with the maximum F(-), Br(-) and I(-) content were also performed and compared with the above model, giving indications of the arrangement and order/disorder of the halide anions in the interlayer region.

  16. Band 3, the human red cell chloride/bicarbonate anion exchanger (AE1, SLC4A1), in a structural context.

    PubMed

    Reithmeier, Reinhart A F; Casey, Joseph R; Kalli, Antreas C; Sansom, Mark S P; Alguel, Yilmaz; Iwata, So

    2016-07-01

    The crystal structure of the dimeric membrane domain of human Band 3(1), the red cell chloride/bicarbonate anion exchanger 1 (AE1, SLC4A1), provides a structural context for over four decades of studies into this historic and important membrane glycoprotein. In this review, we highlight the key structural features responsible for anion binding and translocation and have integrated the following topological markers within the Band 3 structure: blood group antigens, N-glycosylation site, protease cleavage sites, inhibitor and chemical labeling sites, and the results of scanning cysteine and N-glycosylation mutagenesis. Locations of mutations linked to human disease, including those responsible for Southeast Asian ovalocytosis, hereditary stomatocytosis, hereditary spherocytosis, and distal renal tubular acidosis, provide molecular insights into their effect on Band 3 folding. Finally, molecular dynamics simulations of phosphatidylcholine self-assembled around Band 3 provide a view of this membrane protein within a lipid bilayer.

  17. Mechanisms of Anion and Cation Permeations in the Resting Membrane of a Barnacle Muscle Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, S.; Toyama, K.; Hayashi, H.

    1971-01-01

    The resting membrane of a barnacle muscle fiber is mostly permeable to cations in a solution of pH 7.7 whereas it becomes primarily permeable to anions if the pH is below 4.0. Mechanisms of ion permeation for various monovalent cations and anions were investigated at pH 7.7 and 3.9, respectively. Permeability ratios were obtained from the relationship between the membrane potential and the concentration of the test ions, and ionic conductances from current-voltage relations of the membrane. The permeability sequence for anions (SCN > I > NO3 > Br > ClO3 > Cl > BrO3 > IO3) was different from the conductance sequence for anions (Br, Cl > ClO3, NO3 > SCN). In contrast, the permeability and conductance sequences were identical for cations (K > Rb > Cs > Na > Li). The results suggest that anion permeation is governed by membrane charges while cation permeation is via some electrically neutral mechanism. PMID:5549097

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Perfluoro Quaternary Ammonium Anion Exchange Membranes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    which suffer a number hydroxide degradation routes. Quaternary ammonium compounds can undergo Hoff- man elimination to form an amine and an olefin ...nucleophilic substitution to produce an amine and an alcohol , and elimina- tion of hydrogen to form water and an ylide, which further reacts to form an...amine and an olefin .2,4,18 Some of these degra- dation pathways can be avoided or reduced by careful selection of cation species.2 Degradation of

  19. "Salt tolerant" anion exchange chromatography for direct capture of an acidic protein from CHO cell culture.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Jérôme; Balluet, Guillaume; Gantier, René; Toueille, Magali

    2013-06-01

    The present study describes the use of the new HyperCel STAR AX "salt tolerant" anion exchange sorbent for the capture from Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell culture supernatant (CCS) of an acidic model protein (α-amylase). HyperCel STAR AX sorbent and other conventional anion exchangers were evaluated to purify biologically-active enzyme. Salt tolerance of the sorbent allowed reaching 5-fold higher dynamic binding capacity than conventional anion exchange during capture of the enzyme from neat (undiluted) CCS. After optimization of operating conditions, HyperCel STAR AX turned out to be the only sorbent allowing efficient protein capture directly from both neat and diluted CCS with consistent and satisfying purity, yield and productivity. Therefore implementation of the salt tolerant sorbent in industrial purification processes should allow avoiding time and cost consuming steps such as dilution or UF/DF that exclusively aim at establishing suitable conditions for ion exchange step without bringing any added value to the purification process performance. Altogether this study highlights the flexibility and cost-reduction potential brought in process design by the HyperCel STAR AX salt tolerant sorbent.

  20. Chromatographic evaluation of reversed-phase/anion-exchange/cation-exchange trimodal stationary phases prepared by electrostatically driven self-assembly process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaodong; Pohl, Christopher; Woodruff, Andrew; Chen, Jinhua

    2011-06-03

    This work describes chromatographic properties of reversed-phase/cation-exchange/anion-exchange trimodal stationary phases. These stationary phases were based on high-purity porous spherical silica particles coated with nano-polymer beads using an electrostatically driven self-assembly process. The inner-pore area of the material was modified covalently with an organic layer that provided both reversed-phase and anion-exchange properties while the outer surface was coated with nano-sized polymer beads with strong cation-exchange characteristics. This design ensured spatial separation of the anion-exchange and the cation-exchange regions, and allowed reversed-phase, anion-exchange and cation-exchange retention mechanisms to function simultaneously. Chromatographic evaluation of ions and small molecules suggested that retention of ionic analytes was influenced by the ionic strength, pH, and mobile phase organic solvent content, and governed by both ion-exchange and hydrophobic interactions. Meanwhile, neutral analytes were retained by hydrophobic interaction and was mainly affected by mobile phase organic solvent content. Depending on the specific application, selectivity could be optimized by adjusting the anion-exchange/cation-exchange capacity ratio (selectivity), which was achieved experimentally by using porous silica particles with different surface areas.

  1. Hydrothermal carbon nanosphere-based agglomerated anion exchanger for ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiming; Wu, Shuchao; Zhang, Kai; Lou, Chaoyan; Zhang, Peiming; Zhu, Yan

    2016-10-14

    This work reports the application of hydrothermal carbon nanospheres (HCNSs) as stationary phases in ion chromatography. HCNSs were facilely quaternized through polycondensation of methylamine and 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether. The quaternization was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Owing to the electrostatic interaction, quaternized HCNSs were equably attached onto the surface of sulfonated polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) beads to construct the anion exchangers. The aggregation was verified by scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis. Common anions, aliphatic monocarboxylic acids, polarizable anions, and aromatic acids were well separated on the stationary phases with good stability and symmetry. The prepared column was further applied to detect phosphate content in Cola drink samples. The limit of detection (S/N=3) was 0.09mg/L, and the relative standard deviation (n=10) of retention time was 0.31%. The average recovery was 99.58%.

  2. Chromatographic separation of vanadium, tungsten and molybdenum with a liquid anion-exchanger.

    PubMed

    Fritz, J S; Topping, J J

    1971-09-01

    In acidic solution only molybdenum(VI), tungsten(VI), vanadium(V), niobium(V) and tantalum(V) form stable, anionic complexes with dilute hydrogen peroxide. This fact has been used in developing an analytical method of separating molybdenum(VI), tungsten(VI) and vanadium(V) from other metal ions and from each other. Preliminary investigations using reversed-phase paper chromatography and solvent extraction led to a reversed-phase column Chromatographic separation technique. These metal-peroxy anions are retained by a column containing a liquid anion-exchanger (General Mills Aliquat 336) in a solid support. Then molybdenum(VI), tungsten(VI) and vanadium(V) are selectively eluted with aqueous solutions containing dilute hydrogen peroxide and varying concentrations of sulphuric acid.

  3. Ultrasensitive anion detection by NMR spectroscopy: a supramolecular strategy based on modulation of chemical exchange rate.

    PubMed

    Perruchoud, Loïse H; Hadzovic, Alen; Zhang, Xiao-An

    2015-06-08

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for monitoring molecular interactions and is widely used to characterize supramolecular systems at the atomic level. NMR is limited for sensing purposes, however, due to low sensitivity. Dynamic processes such as conformational changes or binding events can induce drastic effects on NMR spectra in response to variations in chemical exchange (CE) rate, which can lead to new strategies in the design of supramolecular sensors through the control and monitoring of CE rate. Here, we present an indirect NMR anion sensing technique in which increased CE rate, due to anion-induced conformational flexibility of a relatively rigid structure of a novel sensor, allows ultrasensitive anion detection as low as 120 nM.

  4. Anion-exchange purification of recombinant factor IX from cell culture supernatant using different chromatography supports.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Daniel A; Passos, Douglas F; Ferraz, Helen C; Castilho, Leda R

    2013-11-01

    Both recombinant and plasma-derived factor IX concentrates are used in replacement therapies for the treatment of haemophilia B. In the present work, the capture step for a recombinant FIX (rFIX) purification process was investigated. Different strong anion-exchange chromatography media (the resins Q Sepharose(®) FF and Fractogel(®) TMAE, the monolith CIM(®) QA and the membrane adsorber Sartobind(®) Q) were tested for their rFIX binding capacity under dynamic conditions. In these experiments, crude supernatant from CHO cells was used, thus in the presence of supernatant contaminants and mimicking process conditions. The highest dynamic binding capacity was obtained for the monolith, which was then further investigated. To study pseudoaffinity elution of functional rFIX with Ca(2+) ions, a design of experiments to evaluate the effects of pH, NaCl and CaCl2 on yield and purification factor was carried out. The effect of pH was not statistically significant, and a combination of no NaCl and 45mM CaCl2 yielded a good purification factor combined with a high yield of active rFIX. Under these conditions, activity yield of rFIX was higher than the mass yield, confirming selective elution of functional, γ-carboxylated rFIX. Scaling-up of this process 8 fold resulted in very similar process performance. Monitoring of the undesired activated FIX (FIXa) revealed that the FIXa/FIX ratio (1.94%) was higher in the eluate than in the loaded sample, but was still within an acceptable range. HCP and DNA clearances were high (1256 and 7182 fold, respectively), indicating that the proposed process is adequate for the intended rFIX capture step.

  5. Evaluating of arsenic(V) removal from water by weak-base anion exchange adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Awual, M Rabiul; Hossain, M Amran; Shenashen, M A; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Shinichi; Jyo, Akinori

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater has been called the largest mass poisoning calamity in human history and creates severe health problems. The effective adsorbents are imperative in response to the widespread removal of toxic arsenic exposure through drinking water. Evaluation of arsenic(V) removal from water by weak-base anion exchange adsorbents was studied in this paper, aiming at the determination of the effects of pH, competing anions, and feed flow rates to improvement on remediation. Two types of weak-base adsorbents were used to evaluate arsenic(V) removal efficiency both in batch and column approaches. Anion selectivity was determined by both adsorbents in batch method as equilibrium As(V) adsorption capacities. Column studies were performed in fixed-bed experiments using both adsorbent packed columns, and kinetic performance was dependent on the feed flow rate and competing anions. The weak-base adsorbents clarified that these are selective to arsenic(V) over competition of chloride, nitrate, and sulfate anions. The solution pH played an important role in arsenic(V) removal, and a higher pH can cause lower adsorption capacities. A low concentration level of arsenic(V) was also removed by these adsorbents even at a high flow rate of 250-350 h(-1). Adsorbed arsenic(V) was quantitatively eluted with 1 M HCl acid and regenerated into hydrochloride form simultaneously for the next adsorption operation after rinsing with water. The weak-base anion exchange adsorbents are to be an effective means to remove arsenic(V) from drinking water. The fast adsorption rate and the excellent adsorption capacity in the neutral pH range will render this removal technique attractive in practical use in chemical industry.

  6. Mechanism of charged pollutants removal in an ion exchange membrane bioreactor: drinking water denitrification.

    PubMed

    Velizarov, S; Rodrigues, C M; Reis, M A; Crespo, J G

    The mechanism of anionic pollutant removal in an ion exchange membrane bioreactor (IEMB) was studied for drinking water denitrification. This hybrid process combines continuous ion exchange transport (Donnan dialysis) of nitrate and its simultaneous bioreduction to gaseous nitrogen. A nonporous mono-anion permselective membrane precludes direct contact between the polluted water and the denitrifying culture and prevents secondary pollution of the treated water with dissolved nutrients and metabolic products. Complete denitrification may be achieved without accumulation of NO3(-) and NO2(-) ions in the biocompartment. Focus was given to the effect of the concentration of co-ions, counterions, and ethanol on the IEMB performance. The nitrate overall mass transfer coefficient in this hybrid process was found to be 2.8 times higher compared to that in a pure Donnan dialysis process without denitrification. Furthermore, by adjusting the ratio of co-ions between the biocompartment and the polluted water compartment, the magnitude and direction of each individual anion flux can be easily regulated, allowing for flexible process operation and control. Synthetic groundwater containing 135-350 mg NO3(-) L(-1) was treated in the IEMB system. A surface denitrification rate of 33 g NO3(-) per square meter of membrane per day was obtained at a nitrate loading rate of 360 g NO3(-) m(-3)d(-1), resulting in a nitrate removal efficiency of 85%.

  7. Liquid membrane coated ion-exchange column solids

    DOEpatents

    Barkey, Dale P.

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for improving the performance of liquid embrane separations by coating a liquid membrane onto solid ion-exchange resin beads in a fixed bed. Ion-exchange beads fabricated from an ion-exchange resin are swelled with water and are coated with a liquid membrane material that forms a film over the beads. The beads constitute a fixed bed ion-exchange column. Fluid being treated that contains the desired ion to be trapped by the ion-exchange particle is passed through the column. A carrier molecule, contained in the liquid membrane ion-exchange material, is selected for the desired ion in the fluid. The carrier molecule forms a complex with the desired ion, transporting it through the membrane and thus separating it from the other ions. The solution is fed continuously until breakthrough occurs at which time the ion is recovered, and the bed is regenerated.

  8. Recent progress and applications of ion-exclusion/ion-exchange chromatography for simultaneous determination of inorganic anions and cations.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Nobutake; Kozaki, Daisuke; Mori, Masanobu; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    One of the ultimate goals of ion chromatography is to determine both anions and cations found in samples with a single chromatographic run. In the present article, recent progress in ion-exclusion/ion-exchange chromatography for the simultaneous determinations of inorganic anions and cations are reviewed. Firstly, the principle and the control for the simultaneous separation and detection of analyte ions using ion-exclusion/cation-exchange chromatography with a weakly acidic cation-exchange column are outlined. Then, advanced chromatographic techniques in terms of analytical time, selectively and sensitivity are summarized. As a related method, ion-exclusion/anion-exchange chromatography with an anion-exchange column could be used for the simultaneous determination of inorganic nitrogen species, such as ammonium, nitrite and nitrate ions. Their usefulness and applications to water-quality monitoring and related techniques are also described.

  9. Enhanced removal of fluoride by polystyrene anion exchanger supported hydrous zirconium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pan, Bingcai; Xu, Jingsheng; Wu, Bing; Li, Zhigang; Liu, Xitong

    2013-08-20

    Here we fabricated a novel nanocomposite HZO-201, an encapsulated nanosized hydrous zirconium oxide (HZO) within a commercial porous polystyrene anion exchanger D201, for highly efficient defluoridation of water. HZO-201 exhibited much higher preference than activated alumina and D201 toward fluoride removal when competing anions (chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and bicarbonate) coexisted at relatively high levels. Fixed column adsorption indicated that the effective treatable volume of water with HZO-201 was about 7-14 times as much as with D201 irrespective of whether synthetic solution or groundwater was the feeding solution. In addition, HZO-201 could treat >3000 BV of the acidic effluent (around 3.5 mg F(-)/L) per run at pH 3.5, compared to only ∼4 BV with D201. The exhausted HZO-201 could be regenerated by NaOH solution for repeated use without any significant capacity loss. Such attractive performance of HZO-201 resulted from its specific hybrid structure, that is, the host anion exchanger D201 favors the preconcentration of fluoride ions inside the polymer based on the Donnan principle, and the encapsulated nanosized HZO exhibits preferable sequestration of fluoride through specific interaction, as further demonstrated by XPS spectra. The influence of solution pH, competitive anions, and contact time was also examined. The results suggested that HZO-201 has a great potential in efficient defluoridation of groundwater and acidic mine drainage.

  10. Anion intercalation and exchange in Al(OH) 3-derived compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sissoko, I.; Iyagba, E. T.; Sahai, R.; Biloen, P.

    1985-12-01

    Precipitation of Al 3+ at pH = 10 in excess Li 2CO 3 leads to an anion exchanging compound, [Al 2Li(OH) 6] +2CO 2-3. This compound exhibits, compared to [Mg 3Al(OH) 8] +2CO 2-3, a higher degree of size selectivity in anion exchange. The structure of the [Al 2Li(OH) 6] + layers is gibbsite-like, with a (110) diffraction feature at d = 4.35 Å indicating a pronounced Al 3+ ordering. As claimed originally by Serna et al., the structure is [ Al 2Li(OH) 6] +A z-{1}/{z} rather than [Al 2(OH) 6]Li +A z-{1}/{z}, with the Li + coordinated in the octahedral positions left vacant by Al 3+. This emerges from the details of a lithium-leaching process, which proposedly leads to a novel compound, [ Al 2H(OH) 6] +A z-{1}/{z}.

  11. Anion-induced exchange interactions in binuclear complexes of Cu(II) with flexible hexadentate bispicolylamidrazone ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baryshnikov, Gleb V.; Minaev, Boris F.; Baryshnikova, Alina A.; Ågren, Hans

    2016-09-01

    Two recently synthesized copper(II) complexes with spacer-armed bispicolylamidrazone ligands have been theoretically studied at the density functional theory (DFT) level accounting for empirical dispersion correction and intrinsic anionic environment by perchlorate ions. The exchange parameter between the open-shell singlet and triplet states of the studied complexes has been estimated by broken symmetry DFT calculations. The mechanism of spin-spin exchange interaction between the unpaired electrons via the σ-bond aliphatic chain (Gusev et al., 2015) is confirmed. Instead, a anion-induced mechanism is proposed which means that the anionic grid participates in the exchange interaction between the unpaired electrons.

  12. DNA Release from Lipoplexes by Anionic Lipids: Correlation with Lipid Mesomorphism, Interfacial Curvature, and Membrane Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Tarahovsky, Yury S.; Koynova, Rumiana; MacDonald, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    DNA release from lipoplexes is an essential step during lipofection and is probably a result of charge neutralization by cellular anionic lipids. As a model system to test this possibility, fluorescence resonance energy transfer between DNA and lipid covalently labeled with Cy3 and BODIPY, respectively, was used to monitor the release of DNA from lipid surfaces induced by anionic liposomes. The separation of DNA from lipid measured this way was considerably slower and less complete than that estimated with noncovalently labeled DNA, and depends on the lipid composition of both lipoplexes and anionic liposomes. This result was confirmed by centrifugal separation of released DNA and lipid. X-ray diffraction revealed a clear correlation of the DNA release capacity of the anionic lipids with the interfacial curvature of the mesomorphic structures developed when the anionic and cationic liposomes were mixed. DNA release also correlated with the rate of fusion of anionic liposomes with lipoplexes. It is concluded that the tendency to fuse and the phase preference of the mixed lipid membranes are key factors for the rate and extent of DNA release. The approach presented emphasizes the importance of the lipid composition of both lipoplexes and target membranes and suggests optimal transfection may be obtained by tailoring lipoplex composition to the lipid composition of target cells. PMID:15298910

  13. The dynamics of sorption of sulfuric acid by weakly basic polyacrylic anion exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamchenko, A. V.; Kushnir, T. V.

    2009-05-01

    The nonequilibrium dynamics of sorption of sulfuric acid by free base forms of Amberlite IRA-67 and Lewatite VP.OC.1072 weakly basic anion exchangers is studied. It is established that, in hydrodynamic regimes of filtration, which are typical of OH filters of the first stage of water-desalting plants, the limiting stage of sorption kinetics is inside diffusion. It is concluded that the process is correctly described by an asymptotic solution to the inside-diffusion model of sorption dynamics.

  14. Removal and recovery of vanadium from alkaline steel slag leachates with anion exchange resins.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Helena I; Jones, Ashley; Rogerson, Mike; Greenway, Gillian M; Lisbona, Diego Fernandez; Burke, Ian T; Mayes, William M

    2017-02-01

    Leachable vanadium (V) from steel production residues poses a potential environmental hazard due to its mobility and toxicity under the highly alkaline pH conditions that characterise these leachates. This work aims to test the efficiency of anion exchange resins for vanadium removal and recovery from steel slag leachates at a representative average pH of 11.5. Kinetic studies were performed to understand the vanadium sorption process. The sorption kinetics were consistent with a pseudo-first order kinetic model. The isotherm data cannot differentiate between the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The maximum adsorption capacity (Langmuir value qmax) was 27 mg V g(-1) resin. In column anion exchange, breakthrough was only 14% of the influent concentration after passing 90 L of steel slag leachate with 2 mg L(-1) V through the column. When eluting the column 57-72% of vanadium was recovered from the resin with 2 M NaOH. Trials on the reuse of the anion exchange resin showed it could be reused 20 times without loss of efficacy, and on average 69% of V was recovered during regeneration. The results document for the first time the use of anion exchange resins to remove vanadium from steel slag leachate. As an environmental contaminant, removal of V from leachates may be an obligation for long-term management requirements of steel slag repositories. Vanadium removal coupled with the recovery can potentially be used to offset long-term legacy treatment costs.

  15. Study of kinetic and fixed bed operation of removal of sulfate anions from an industrial wastewater by an anion exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Haghsheno, Reza; Mohebbi, Ali; Hashemipour, Hassan; Sarrafi, Amir

    2009-07-30

    Sulfate anions represent very important wastewater pollutants, which appear in the effluents discharged from copper mines. In this study, for the first time, an attempt has been made on the removal of sulfate anions by an ion exchange resin. This work is focused on the removal of sulfate anions from the Sarcheshmeh copper complex (Kerman province, Southeast of Iran) wastewater by an anion exchange resin. Batch experiments of sulfate anions adsorption on Lewatit K6362 resin were carried out to determine the adsorption equilibrium data and the relation of adsorption isotherms. Isothermal data can be fitted with Freundlich adsorption isotherms better than Langmuir equation. The results show that maximum removal of sulfate anions take places in the resin dosage of 1000 mg/100ml and the adsorption of sulfate anions on the resin follows reversible first-order kinetics. The overall adsorption rate constants were compared for different initial concentrations. Finally, the effects of parameters such as the flow rate, bed height and inlet adsorbate concentration on the breakthrough curve in a fixed bed column were studied in detail.

  16. Kinetically controlled patterning of highly cross-linked phosphonium photopolymers using simple anion exchange.

    PubMed

    Guterman, Ryan; Gillies, Elizabeth R; Ragogna, Paul J

    2015-05-12

    A phosphonium salt possessing three methacrylate groups has been incorporated into a photopolymeric system to generate highly cross-linked polyelectrolyte networks. Emergent chemical and physical properties in the polymers were observed and attributed to the tandem increase in cross-link density and ion-content upon incorporation of the self-cross-linking cation. Anion-exchange with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide or dodecylbenzenesulfonate resulted in significant differences in wettability and ion-exchange behavior. The passivating effects of dodecylbenzenesulfonate were utilized to selectively pattern fluorescein dye into the polymer network, highlighting a new patterning procedure using ionic-bond forming reactions.

  17. Determination of traces of silver in waters by anion exchange and atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, T.T.; Fishman, M. J.; Ball, J.W.

    1969-01-01

    A method has been developed for the accurate determination of 0.1-1 ??g of silver per liter of water. The method permits stabilization of silver in water without loss to container walls. Optimum conditions have been established for the complete recovery of silver from water with an anion-exchange column, for quantitative elution of silver from the resin, and for measurement of silver by atomic absorption spectrophotometry after chelation with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and extraction of the chelate with MIBK. Silver in the 1-10 ??g 1 range can be determined by extraction without pre-concentration on an ion-exchange resin. ?? 1969.

  18. Anion exchange selectivity of surfactant modified clinoptilolite-rich tuff for environmental remediation.

    PubMed

    de Gennaro, Bruno; Catalanotti, Lilia; Bowman, Robert S; Mercurio, Mariano

    2014-09-15

    Lately, the functionalization of industrial minerals with high technological properties, such as natural zeolites, is shaping as a promising approach in environmental sphere. In fact, under the specific conditions, the surface functionalization via adsorption of cationic surfactants reverses the surface charge of the mineral, enabling zeolites to simultaneously interact either with organic contaminants or inorganic anions. This aspect allows zeolites to be used in the remediation of contaminated fluids. The present research shed new light on some still not fully understood aspects concerning exchange kinetics such as anion-exchange mechanisms and selectivity of surface modified minerals. For this purpose the mineralogical characterization and the surface properties evaluation (X Ray Powder Diffraction, chemical analysis, thermal analysis, ECEC and AEC) of a clinoptilolite-rich tuff were performed, and the anion exchange isotherms of the sample, modified with hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride or bromide (HDTMA-Cl/-Br), were determined. Ion-exchange equilibrium data of uni-uni valent reaction were obtained by solutions containing Br(-), Cl(-), NO3(-) or ClO4(-). Liquid phase was analysed via high performance liquid chromatography. Thermodynamic quantities (Ka and ΔG(0)) were determined and compared with the Hofmeister series. The value of the ECEC, calculated in batch conditions, was about 137 mmol/kg, in good agreement with that evaluated in dynamic conditions, while the AEC data were different for the SMNZ-Br and -Cl samples, amounting to 137 and 106 mmol/kg, respectively, thus indicating a different compactness of the bilayer formed in the two cases. Moreover, the anion isotherm results and the mathematical evaluation of the thermodynamic parameters, demonstrated the good affinity of SMNZ-Br towards chloride, nitrate and perchlorate, and of SMNZ-Cl for nitrate and perchlorate, also endorsing the possibility of using the same thermodynamic approach developed to

  19. Kinetics of sorption of niobium ions by anion-exchangers from mixed chloride-fluoride solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Rychkov, V.N.; Pakholkov, V.S.; Kuznetsova, L.D.

    1987-08-10

    The authors showed earlier on the basis of experimental and calculated data obtained in studies of ion-exchange equilibrium that the sorbability and composition of sorbed niobium ions are determined by the content of hydrofluoric acid in mixed chloride-fluoride solutions. Variation of the ionic state of niobium in these solutions should also influence the rate of ion exchange. In this communication they examine the results of a study of the kinetics of exchange of niobium ions on AV-17 x 8, EDE-10P, and AN-2F anion-exchange resins in fluoride-containing solutions. Kinetic curves for sorption of niobium ions and the results of their evaluation are presented.

  20. Anion exchange nanofiber materials activated by daylight with a dual antibacterial effect.

    PubMed

    Plíštil, L; Henke, P; Kubát, P; Mosinger, J

    2014-09-01

    Anion exchange polystyrene nanofiber materials (AE) were prepared by electrospinning followed by two-step functionalization of the nanofiber surface by chlorosulfonic acid and ethylendiamine. The photoactive character of these materials was introduced through adsorption of the tetra-anionic 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin photosensitizer (TPPS-AE) on the nanofiber surface or by encapsulation of the nonpolar 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin photosensitizer (AE(TPP)) into the nanofibers. Anion exchange nanofiber materials with porphyrins are characterized by a high ion-exchange capacity, photogeneration of singlet oxygen O2((1)Δg), and singlet oxygen-sensitized delayed fluorescence. Due to the photogeneration of cytotoxic O2((1)Δg), the nanofibers exhibited oxidation of the external substrates in aqueous solution and an efficient antibacterial effect when activated by simulated daylight. Adsorption of both TPPS and I(-) on the surface of AE led to the formation of more efficient I-TPPS-AE materials. Rapid photooxidation of I(-) by O2((1)Δg), and the formation of another cytotoxic species, I3(-), on the surface of the nanofibers were responsible for the increased antibacterial properties of I-TPPS-AE and the prolonged antibacterial effect in the dark.

  1. Kinetic study of the mass transfer of bovine serum albumin in anion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Miyabe, K; Guiochon, G

    2000-01-14

    A kinetic study was made on the mass transfer phenomena of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in two different anion-exchange columns (Resource-Q and TSK-GEL-DEAE-5PW). The analysis of the concentration dependence of the lumped mass transfer rate coefficient (km,L) provided the information about the kinetics of the several mass transfer processes in the columns and the anion exchangers, i.e., the axial dispersion, the fluid-to-particle mass transfer, the intraparticle diffusion, and the adsorption/desorption. In the Resource-Q column, the intraparticle diffusion had a dominant contribution to the band broadening compared with those of the other processes. The surface diffusion coefficient (Ds) of BSA showed a positive concentration dependence, by which the linear dependence of km,L on the BSA concentration seemed to be interpreted. On the other hand, in the TSK-GEL-DEAE-5PW column, the contribution of the adsorption/desorption was also important and almost same as that due to the intraparticle diffusion. There are some differences between the intrinsic properties of the mass transfer kinetics inside the two anion exchangers. It was likely that the positive concentration dependence of Ds was explained by the heterogeneous surface model.

  2. Predicting Salt Permeability Coefficients in Highly Swollen, Highly Charged Ion Exchange Membranes.

    PubMed

    Kamcev, Jovan; Paul, Donald R; Manning, Gerald S; Freeman, Benny D

    2017-02-01

    This study presents a framework for predicting salt permeability coefficients in ion exchange membranes in contact with an aqueous salt solution. The model, based on the solution-diffusion mechanism, was tested using experimental salt permeability data for a series of commercial ion exchange membranes. Equilibrium salt partition coefficients were calculated using a thermodynamic framework (i.e., Donnan theory), incorporating Manning's counterion condensation theory to calculate ion activity coefficients in the membrane phase and the Pitzer model to calculate ion activity coefficients in the solution phase. The model predicted NaCl partition coefficients in a cation exchange membrane and two anion exchange membranes, as well as MgCl2 partition coefficients in a cation exchange membrane, remarkably well at higher external salt concentrations (>0.1 M) and reasonably well at lower external salt concentrations (<0.1 M) with no adjustable parameters. Membrane ion diffusion coefficients were calculated using a combination of the Mackie and Meares model, which assumes ion diffusion in water-swollen polymers is affected by a tortuosity factor, and a model developed by Manning to account for electrostatic effects. Agreement between experimental and predicted salt diffusion coefficients was good with no adjustable parameters. Calculated salt partition and diffusion coefficients were combined within the framework of the solution-diffusion model to predict salt permeability coefficients. Agreement between model and experimental data was remarkably good. Additionally, a simplified version of the model was used to elucidate connections between membrane structure (e.g., fixed charge group concentration) and salt transport properties.

  3. Lipid exchange between membranes: effects of membrane surface charge, composition, and curvature.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tao; Jiang, Zhongying; Ma, Yuqiang

    2012-09-01

    Intermembrane lipid exchange is critical to membrane functions and pharmaceutical applications. The exchange process is not fully understood and it is explored by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitor method in this research. It is found that intermembrane lipid exchange is accelerated with the decrease of vesicle size and the increase of charge and liquid crystalline lipid composition ratio. Vesicle adsorption rate, membrane lateral pressure gradient, and lipid lateral diffusion coefficient are inferred to be critical in deciding the lipid exchange kinetics between membranes. Besides that, the membrane contact situation during lipid exchange is also studied. The maximum total membrane contact area is found to increase with the decrease of vesicle size, charged and liquid crystalline lipid composition ratio. A competition mechanism between the vesicle adsorption rate and the intermembrane lipid exchange rate was proposed to control the maximum total membrane contact area.

  4. Biocompatible Double-Membrane Hydrogels from Cationic Cellulose Nanocrystals and Anionic Alginate as Complexing Drugs Codelivery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ning; Gèze, Annabelle; Wouessidjewe, Denis; Huang, Jin; Dufresne, Alain

    2016-03-23

    A biocompatible hydrogel with a double-membrane structure is developed from cationic cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and anionic alginate. The architecture of the double-membrane hydrogel involves an external membrane composed of neat alginate, and an internal composite hydrogel consolidates by electrostatic interactions between cationic CNC and anionic alginate. The thickness of the outer layer can be regulated by the adsorption duration of neat alginate, and the shape of the inner layer can directly determine the morphology and dimensions of the double-membrane hydrogel (microsphere, capsule, and filmlike shapes). Two drugs are introduced into the different membranes of the hydrogel, which will ensure the complexing drugs codelivery and the varied drugs release behaviors from two membranes (rapid drug release of the outer hydrogel, and prolonged drug release of the inner hydrogel). The double-membrane hydrogel containing the chemically modified cellulose nanocrystals (CCNC) in the inner membrane hydrogel can provide the sustained drug release ascribed to the "nano-obstruction effect" and "nanolocking effect" induced by the presence of CCNC components in the hydrogels. Derived from natural polysaccharides (cellulose and alginate), the novel double-membrane structure hydrogel material developed in this study is biocompatible and can realize the complexing drugs release with the first quick release of one drug and the successively slow release of another drug, which is expected to achieve the synergistic release effects or potentially provide the solution to drug resistance in biomedical application.

  5. Salmonella typhimurium contains an anion-selective outer membrane porin induced by phosphate starvation.

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, K; Benz, R; Brass, J; Boos, W

    1985-01-01

    A mutant of Salmonella typhimurium was selected that is constitutive for the pho regulon. It exhibited constitutive glycerol-3-phosphate transport activity and synthesized a new outer membrane porin. Upon measurement of porin activity in black lipid films, it exhibited anion selectivity. It therefore appears analogous to the Escherichia coli PhoE porin. Images PMID:2981826

  6. Treatment of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis concentrates: comparison of precipitative softening, coagulation, and anion exchange.

    PubMed

    Comstock, Sarah E H; Boyer, Treavor H; Graf, Katherine C

    2011-10-15

    Disposal and treatment of concentrate from nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) are major challenges to implementing membrane treatment processes. Intermediate treatment of membrane concentrate, between primary and secondary membrane stages, has the potential to increase membrane recovery rates and decrease the volume of concentrate produced. To achieve this, however, there is a need to better understand treatment of membrane concentrate. As a result, this work systematically evaluated lime softening, ferric sulfate coagulation, and magnetic ion exchange (MIEX) as individual, intermediate treatment processes for membrane concentrate. Six membrane concentrates, from NF and RO, with varying concentrations of calcium, dissolved organic matter (DOM), and sulfate were chosen for this study. Maximum removal of calcium was achieved by lime softening, whereas maximum removals of DOM and sulfate were achieved by MIEX. The results of this work show that intermediate treatment of NF/RO concentrate is capable of producing treated concentrate with water quality approximately equal to the initial source water.

  7. Retention behavior of C1-C6 aliphatic monoamines on anion-exchange and polymethacrylate resins with heptylamine as eluent.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Kazutoku; Ohashi, Masayoshi; Jin, Ji-Ye; Takeuchi, Toyohide; Fujimoto, Chuzo; Choi, Seong-Ho; Ryoo, Jae Jeong; Lee, Kwang-Pill

    2004-06-11

    Retention behavior of C1-C6, aliphatic monoamines (methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, butylamine, amylamine and hexylamine) on columns (150 mm x 6 mm i.d.) packed with various anion-exchange resins (styrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) copolymer-based strongly basic anion-exchange resin: TSKgel SAX, polymethacrylate-based strongly basic anion-exchange resin: TSKgel SuperQ-5PW and polymethacrylate-based weakly basic anion-exchange resin: TSKgel DEAE-5PW) and unfunctionized polymethacrylate resins (TSKgel G5000PW and TSKgel G3000PWXL) was investigated with basic solutions (sodium hydroxide and heptylamine) as the eluents. Due to strongly electrostatic repulsion (ion-exclusion effect) between these anion-exchange resins and these amines, peak resolution between these amines on these anion-exchange resin columns was unsatisfactory with both sodium hydroxide and heptylamine as the eluents. In contrast, these polymethacrylate resins were successfully applied as the stationary phases for the separation of these C1-C6 amines with heptylamine as eluent, because of both small hydrophobicity and small cation-exchange ability of these resins. Excellent simultaneous separation, highly sensitive conductimetric detection and symmetrical peaks for these C1-C6 amines were achieved on the TSKgel G3000PWXL column in 35 min with 5 mM heptylamine at pH 11.1 as the eluent.

  8. New Anion-Exchange Resins for Improved Separations of Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bartsch, Richard A.; Barr, Mary E.

    2001-04-30

    Improved separations of nuclear materials will have a significant impact upon a broad range of DOE activities. DOE-EM Focus Areas and Crosscutting Programs have identified improved methods for the extraction and recovery of radioactive metal ions from process, waste, and environmental waters as critical needs for the coming years. We propose to develop multifunctional anion-exchange resins that facilitate anion uptake by carefully controlling the structure of the anion receptor site. Our new ion-exchange resins interface the field of ion-specific chelating ligands with robust, commercial ion-exchange technology to provide materials which exhibit superior selectivity and kinetics of sorption and desorption. The following Focus Areas and Crosscutting Programs have described needs that would be favorably impacted by the new material: Efficient Separations and Processing - radionuclide removal from aqueous phases; Plutonium - Pu, Am or total alpha removal to meet regulatory requirement s before discharge to the environment; Plumes - U and Tc in groundwater, U, Pu, Am, and Tc in soils; Mixed Waste - radionuclide partitioning; High-Level Tank Waste - actinide and Tc removal from supernatants and/or sludges. The basic scientific issues which need to be addressed are actinide complex speciation along with modeling of metal complex/functional site interactions in order to determine optimal binding-site characteristics. Synthesis of multifunctionalized extractants and ion-exchange materials that implement key features of the optimized binding site, and testing of these materials, will provide feedback to the modeling and design activities. Resin materials which actively facilitate the uptake of actinide complexes from solution should display both improved selectivity and kinetic properties. The long-range implications of this research, however, go far beyond the nuclear complex. This new methodology of ''facilitated uptake'' could revolutionize ion-exchange technology

  9. Mono- and polyprotic buffer systems in anion exchange chromatography of influenza virus particles.

    PubMed

    Vajda, Judith; Weber, Dennis; Stefaniak, Sabine; Hundt, Boris; Rathfelder, Tanja; Müller, Egbert

    2016-05-27

    Different ions typically used in downstream processing of biologicals are evaluated for their potential in anion exchange chromatography of an industrially produced, pandemic influenza H1N1 virus. Capacity, selectivity and recovery are investigated based on single step elution parallel chromatography experiments. The inactivated H1N1 feedstream is produced in Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney cells. Interesting effects are found for sodium phosphate and sodium citrate. Both anions are triprotic kosmotropes. Anion exchange chromatography generally offers high scalability to satisfy sudden demands for vaccines, which may occur in case of an emerging influenza outbreak. Appropriate pH conditions for H1N1 adsorption are determined by Zeta potential measurements. The dynamic binding capacity of a salt tolerant polyamine-type resin is up to 6.4 times greater than the capacity of a grafted Q-type resin. Pseudo-affinity interactions of polyamines with the M2 protein of influenza may contribute to the obtained capacity increase. Both resins achieve greater capacity in sodium phosphate buffer compared to Tris/HCl. A recovery of 67% and DNA clearance close to 100% without DNAse treatment are achieved for the Q-type resin. Recovery of the virus from the salt tolerant resin requires the use of polyprotic acids in the elution buffer. 85% of the DNA and 60% of the proteins can be removed by the salt tolerant resin. The presence of sodium phosphate during anion exchange chromatography seems to support stability of the H1N1 particles in presence of hydrophobic cations.

  10. Electrodeposition of microparticles on polarized ion exchange membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Verbich, S.V.; Ponomarev, M.I.; Grebenyuk, V.D.; Dukhin, S.S.

    1986-11-01

    The use of ion exchange membranes to extract microparticles from an aqueous solution is considered. The efficiency of removing negatively charged aerosil particles depends substantially on the nature of the membrane located at the anode. It has been established that besides an increase in the electric field intensity the principal factor ensuring an increase in the efficiency of purifying a solution by electrodeposition of microparticles on a membrane surface is a reduction in the flowrate relative to the membrane surface.

  11. Hydration and sorption characteristics of a polyfunctional weak-base anion exchanger after the sorption of vanillin and ethylvanillin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionova, D. O.; Voronyuk, I. V.; Eliseeva, T. V.

    2016-07-01

    Features of the sorption of substituted aromatic aldehydes by a weak-base anion exchanger under equilibrium conditions are investigated using vanillin and ethylvanillin as examples. Analysis of the sorption isotherms of carbonyl compounds at different temperatures allows us to calculate the equilibrium characteristics of their sorption and assess the entropy and enthalpy contributions to the energy of the process. Hydration characteristics of the macroporous weak-base anion exchanger before and after the sorption of aromatic aldehydes are compared.

  12. Sorption of uranium(VI) ions from hydrochloric acid and ammonium chloride solutions by anion exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Pakholkov, V.S.; Denisova, L.A.; Rychkov, V.N.; Kurnosenko, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    The sorption of macroscopic quantities of uranium from solutions of UO/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ containing HCl and NH/sub 4/Cl in concentrations from 0.0 to 6.0 M by the AV-17 x 8, AV-16G, EDE-10P, AN-31, AN-2F, AN22, and AN-251 anion exchangers has been investigated under static conditions. The sorption isotherms are described by an equation similar to Freundlich's equation: K/sub d/ = K tilde x C/sub eq/sup 1/z/ or log K/sub d/ = log K tilde + 1/z x log C/sub eq/. Equations describing the dependence of the sorbability (or K/sub d/) on the equilibrium concentration of uranium in the solution have been obtained with the aid of the least-squares method. Conclusions regarding the chemistry of the exchange of uranium ions on anion exchangers in chloride solutions have been drawn on the basis of the UV spectra of the original solutions and the IR spectra of the ion exchangers obtained in this work, as well as the established general laws governing sorption.

  13. Removal of fluorescent dissolved organic matter in biologically treated textile effluents by NDMP anion exchange process: efficiency and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Tao; Xu, Zi-Xiao; Shuang, Chen-Dong; Zhou, Qing; Li, Hai-Bo; Li, Ai-Min

    2016-03-01

    The efficiency and mechanism of anion exchange resin Nanda Magnetic Polymer (NDMP) for removal of fluorescent dissolved organic matter in biologically treated textile effluents were studied. The bench-scale experiments showed that as well as activated carbon, anion exchange resin could efficiently remove both aniline-like and humic-like fluorescent components, which can be up to 40 % of dissolved organic matter. The humic-like fluorescent component HS-Em460-Ex3 was more hydrophilic than HS-Em430-Ex2 and contained fewer alkyl chains but more acid groups. As a result, HS-Em460-Ex3 was eliminated more preferentially by NDMP anion exchange. However, compared with adsorption resins, the polarity of fluorescent components had a relatively small effect on the performance of anion exchange resin. The long-term pilot-scale experiments showed that the NDMP anion exchange process could remove approximately 30 % of the chemical oxygen demand and about 90 % of color from the biologically treated textile effluents. Once the issue of waste brine from resin desorption is solved, the NDMP anion exchange process could be a promising alternative for the advanced treatment of textile effluents.

  14. Metal-organic framework supported ionic liquid membranes for CO2 capture: anion effects.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Krishna M; Chen, Yifei; Hu, Zhongqiao; Jiang, Jianwen

    2012-04-28

    IRMOF-1 supported ionic liquid (IL) membranes are investigated for CO(2) capture by atomistic simulation. The ILs consist of identical cation 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium [BMIM](+), but four different anions, namely hexafluorophosphate [PF(6)](-), tetrafluoroborate [BF(4)](-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [Tf(2)N](-), and thiocyanate [SCN](-). As compared with the cation, the anion has a stronger interaction with IRMOF-1 and a more ordered structure in IRMOF-1. The small anions [PF(6)](-), [BF(4)](-), and [SCN](-) prefer to locate near to the metal-cluster, particularly the quasi-spherical [PF(6)](-) and [BF(4)](-). In contrast, the bulky and chain-like [BMIM](+) and [Tf(2)N](-) reside near the phenyl ring. Among the four anions, [Tf(2)N](-) has the weakest interaction with IRMOF-1 and thus the strongest interaction with [BMIM](+). With increasing the weight ratio of IL to IRMOF-1 (W(IL/IRMOF-1)), the selectivity of CO(2)/N(2) at infinite dilution is enhanced. At a given W(IL/IRMOF-1), the selectivity increases as [Tf(2)N](-) < [PF(6)](-) < [BF(4)](-) < [SCN](-). This hierarchy is predicted by the COSMO-RS method, and largely follows the order of binding energy between CO(2) and anion estimated by ab initio calculation. In the [BMIM][SCN]/IRMOF-1 membrane with W(IL/IRMOF-1) = 1, [SCN](-) is identified to be the most favorable site for CO(2) adsorption. [BMIM][SCN]/IRMOF-1 outperforms polymer membranes and polymer-supported ILs in CO(2) permeability, and its performance surpasses Robeson's upper bound. This simulation study reveals that the anion has strong effects on the microscopic properties of ILs and suggests that MOF-supported ILs are potentially intriguing for CO(2) capture.

  15. Controlling Disorder and Superconductivity in Titanium Oxynitride Nanoribbons with Anion Exchange.

    PubMed

    Sluban, Melita; Umek, Polona; Jagličić, Zvonko; Buh, Jože; Šmitek, Petra; Mrzel, Aleš; Bittencourt, Carla; Guttmann, Peter; Delville, Marie-Helene; Mihailović, Dragan; Arčon, Denis

    2015-10-27

    In recent years, conversion chemical reactions, which are driven by ion diffusion, emerged as an important concept for formation of nanoparticles. Here we demonstrate that the slow anion diffusion in anion exchange reactions can be efficiently used to tune the disorder strength and the related electronic properties of nanoparticles. This paradigm is applied to high-temperature formation of titanium oxynitride nanoribbons, Ti(O,N), transformed from hydrogen titanate nanoribbons in an ammonia atmosphere. The nitrogen content, which determines the chemical disorder through random O/N occupancy and ion vacancies in the Ti(O,N) composition, increases with the reaction time. The presence of disorder has paramount effects on resistivity of Ti(O,N) nanoribbons. Atypically for metals, the resistivity increases with decreasing temperature due to the weak localization effects. From this state, superconductivity develops below considerably or completely suppressed critical temperatures, depending on the disorder strength. Our results thus establish the remarkable versatility of anion exchange for tuning of the electronic properties of Ti(O,N) nanoribbons and suggest that similar strategies may be applied to a vast number of nanostructures.

  16. Trace adsorption of positively charged proteins onto Sepharose FF and Sepharose FF-based anion exchangers.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin-Ling; Sun, Yan

    2012-08-31

    Agarose-based matrices have been widely used in ion exchange chromatography (IEC). We have herein observed that positively charged proteins (lysozyme and cytochrome c) are adsorbed on the agarose-based anion-exchangers (Q and DEAE Sepharose FF gels) in a capacity of 10-40 μg/mL. In contrast, negatively charged protein (bovine serum albumin) is not adsorbed to Sepharose FF and SP Sepharose FF gels. Elemental analysis of the gel indicated that the residual anionic sulfate groups in agarose would have worked as the cation exchange groups for the positively charged proteins. The trace adsorption behavior of lysozyme onto Sepharose FF and Sepharose FF-based anion exchangers was studied and the effects of NaCl concentration and cation group density on the adsorption were examined for better understanding of the trace adsorption in chromatographic processes. At NaCl concentrations less than 0.05 mol/L, which is the normal adsorption condition in IEC, the trace adsorption kept at a high level, so this trace adsorption cannot be avoided in the ionic strength range of routine IEC operations. Grafting poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) chain of 60 kDa to a cation group density of 700 mmol/L could reduce the adsorption capacity to about 20 μg/mL, but further reduction was not possible by increasing the cation group density to 1200 mmol/L. Therefore, attentions need to be paid to the phenomenon in protein purification practice using agarose-based matrices. The research is expected to call attentions to the trace adsorption on agarose-based matrices and to the importance in the selection of the suitable solid matrices in the production of high-purity protein products in large-scale bioprocesses.

  17. Transport of copper ammines through a cation-exchange membrane during electrodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kireeva, L.D.; Shaposhnik, V.A.; Sorokina, V.I.

    1987-09-10

    Extraction of copper ammine complexes from waste waters in electroplating technology and in production of cuprammonium fibers is an important problem and electrodialysis with ion-exchange membranes is the most promising method of solving it. The authors aim was to study transport of copper(II) ammines through a commercial cation-exchange membrane of the MK-40 type. The electrodialyzer consisted of five Plexiglas compartments separated in alternating order by MK-40 cation-exchange and MA-40 anion-exchange membranes. The authors studied the dependence of the transport of copper(II) ammine complexes on the current density at copper concentration 0.025 M in the desalination compartment and 0.15 M ammonia concentration. The experiments lead to the conclusion that electrodialysis of copper(II) ammine complexes is possible only at current densities below the limiting values and that the transport is accompanied by decrease of the formation function of the complexes both in the membrane and in the solution of the concentrate receiving compartment.

  18. Fuel cell ion-exchange membrane investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toy, M. S.

    1972-01-01

    The present deficiencies in the fluorocarbon sulfonic acid membrane used as the solid polymer electrolyte in the H2/O2 fuel cell are studied. Considered are: Adhesives selection, elastomeric formulations, scavenger exploration, and membrane characterization. The significant data are interpreted and recommendations are given for both short and long range further investigations in two of the four major areas: membrane adhesives and membrane stabilization.

  19. The plasma membrane sodium-hydrogen exchanger and its role in physiological and pathophysiological processes.

    PubMed

    Mahnensmith, R L; Aronson, P S

    1985-06-01

    The plasma membranes of most if not all vertebrate cells contain a transport system that mediates the transmembrane exchange of sodium for hydrogen. The kinetic properties of this transport system include a 1:1 stoichiometry, affinity for lithium and ammonium ion in addition to sodium and hydrogen, the ability to function in multiple 1:1 exchange modes involving these four cations, sensitivity to inhibition by amiloride and its analogues, and allosteric regulation by intracellular protons. The plasma membrane sodium-hydrogen exchanger plays a physiological role in the regulation of intracellular pH, the control of cell growth and proliferation, stimulus-response coupling in white cells and platelets, the metabolic response to hormones such as insulin and glucocorticoids, the regulation of cell volume, and the transepithelial absorption and secretion of sodium, hydrogen, bicarbonate and chloride ions, and organic anions. Preliminary evidence raises the possibility that the sodium-hydrogen exchanger may play a pathophysiological role in such diverse conditions as renal acid-base disorders, essential hypertension, cancer, and tissue or organ hypertrophy. Thus, future research on cellular acid-base homeostasis in general, and on plasma membrane sodium-hydrogen exchange in particular, will enhance our understanding of a great variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes.

  20. Cyclic AMP inhibits Cl-/HCO3- exchange at the apical membrane of Necturus gallbladder epithelium

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Intracellular microelectrode techniques were employed to study the effect of cyclic AMP on apical membrane Cl-/HCO3- exchange and electrodiffusive HCO3- transport in Necturus gallbladder epithelium. Intracellular cAMP levels were raised by addition of either the phosphodiesterase inhibitor theophylline (3 X 10(-3) M) or the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin (10(-5) M) to the serosal bathing solution. Measurements of pH in a poorly buffered control mucosal solution upon stopping superfusion show acidification, owing to secretion of both H+ and HCO3-. When the same experiment is performed after addition of amiloride or removal of Na+ from the mucosal bathing medium, alkalinization is observed since H+ transport is either inhibited or reversed, whereas HCO3- secretion persists. The changes in pH in both amiloride or Na-free medium were significantly decreased in theophylline-treated tissues. Theophylline had no effect on the initial rates of fall of intracellular Cl- activity (aCli) upon reducing mucosal solution [Cl-] to either 10 or 0 mM, although membrane voltage and resistance measurements were consistent with stimulation of apical membrane electrodiffusive Cl- permeability. Estimates of the conductive flux, obtained by either reducing simultaneously mucosal [Cl-] and [HCO3-] or lowering [Cl-] alone in the presence of a blocker of anion exchange (diphenylamine-2-carboxylate), indicate that elevation of intracellular cAMP inhibited the anion exchanger by approximately 50%. Measurements of net Cl- uptake upon increasing mucosal Cl- from nominally zero to levels ranging from 2.5 to 100 mM suggest that the mechanism of inhibition is a decrease in Vmax. Consistent with these results, the rate of intracellular alkalinization upon reducing external Cl- was also inhibited significantly by theophylline. Reducing mucosal solution [HCO3-] from 10 to 1 mM under control conditions caused intracellular acidification and an increase in aCli. Theophylline inhibited both

  1. Synthesis of Composition Tunable and Highly Luminescent Cesium Lead Halide Nanowires through Anion-Exchange Reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dandan; Yang, Yiming; Bekenstein, Yehonadav; Yu, Yi; Gibson, Natalie A; Wong, Andrew B; Eaton, Samuel W; Kornienko, Nikolay; Kong, Qiao; Lai, Minliang; Alivisatos, A Paul; Leone, Stephen R; Yang, Peidong

    2016-06-15

    Here, we demonstrate the successful synthesis of brightly emitting colloidal cesium lead halide (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I) nanowires (NWs) with uniform diameters and tunable compositions. By using highly monodisperse CsPbBr3 NWs as templates, the NW composition can be independently controlled through anion-exchange reactions. CsPbX3 alloy NWs with a wide range of alloy compositions can be achieved with well-preserved morphology and crystal structure. The NWs are highly luminescent with photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQY) ranging from 20% to 80%. The bright photoluminescence can be tuned over nearly the entire visible spectrum. The high PLQYs together with charge transport measurements exemplify the efficient alloying of the anionic sublattice in a one-dimensional CsPbX3 system. The wires increased functionality in the form of fast photoresponse rates and the low defect density suggest CsPbX3 NWs as prospective materials for optoelectronic applications.

  2. Chemical treatment of plutonium with hydrogen peroxide before nitrate anion exchange processing. [Reduction to (IV)

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, S.F.; Gallegos, T.D.

    1987-05-01

    The major aqueous process used to recover and purify plutonium at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility is anion exchange in nitric acid. This process is highly selective for plutonium; however, all plutonium must be as Pu(IV) to form the strongly sorbed anionic nitrato complex. The previous ''full-reduction treatment'' used at Los Alamos to obtain Pu(IV) results in a three- to fourfold increase in the feed solution volume and the introduction of kilogram quantities of extraneous salts immediately before a process whose function is to remove such impurities. That treatment has been successfully replaced by a single reagent, hydrogen peroxide, which converts all plutonium to Pu(IV), minimally increases the feed volume, and introduces no residual impurities. Safety aspects of this revised chemical treatment are addressed.

  3. Incorporation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in microspheres used as anion exchange resin via suspension polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathy, Mahmoud; Abdel Moghny, Th.; Awadallah, Ahmed E.; El-Bellihi, Abdel-Hameed A.-A.

    2014-06-01

    Amination of vinylbenzyl chloride-divinylbenzene (VBC-DVB) copolymers is an effective method for preparation of anion-exchange resins. Conventionally, the starting polymer is produced by chloromethylation of a styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer that utilizes chloromethyl methyl ether, a known carcinogen. An alterative approach is to copolymerize vinylbenzyl chloride with divinylbenzene to generate the necessary VBC-DVB. This method provides precise control over the density of the ion-exchange groups. The regiochemistry of the vinylbenzyl chloride methods was realized using solvent-ion exchange groups. These resulting anion-exchange polymers were characterized by a variety of techniques such as analytical titrations, transform infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. Testing of these copolymers for breakthrough was performed. The results indicate that these anion exchangers have a meaningful increase in thermal stability over commercial anionic exchange beads. Resins containing MWCNTs achieved anion exchange capacity value of 323.6 meq/100 g over than that of copolymer resins and that useful in water desalination or treatment.

  4. Discrete and infinite 1D, 2D/3D cage frameworks with inclusion of anionic species and anion-exchange reactions of Ag3L2 type receptor with tetrahedral and octahedral anions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Ke; Huang, Xiaohua; Lu, Tianhong; Wang, Xiujian; Sun, Wei-Yin; Kang, Bei-Sheng

    2008-06-28

    Complexes [PF6 subset(Ag3(titmb)2](PF6)2 (8) and {SbF6 subset[Ag3(titmb)2](SbF6)2}.H2O.1.5 CH3OH (9) are obtained by reaction of titmb and Ag+ salts with different anions (PF6(-) and SbF6(-)), and crystal structures reveal that they are both M3L2 cage complexes with short Ag...F interactions between the silver atoms and the fluorine atoms of the anions. In complex 8, a novel cage dimer is formed by weak Ag...F contacts; an unique cage tetramer formed via Ag...pi interactions (Ag...eta5-imidazole) between dimers and an infinite 1D cage chain is presented. However, each of the external non-disordered SbF6(-) anions connect with six cage 9s via Ag...F contacts, and each cage 9 in turn connects with three SbF6(-) anions to form a 2D network cage layer; and the layers are connected by pi-pi interactions to form a 3D network. The anion-exchange reactions of four Ag3L2 type complexes ([BF4 subset(Ag3(titmb)2](BF4)2 (6), [ClO4 subset(Ag3(titmb)2](ClO4)2 (7b), [PF6 subset(Ag3(titmb)2](PF6)2 (8) and [SbF6 subset(Ag3(titmb)2](SbF6)2.1.5CH3OH (9)) with tetrahedral and octahedral anions (ClO4(-), BF4(-), PF6(-) and SbF6(-)) are also reported. The anion-exchange experiments demonstrate that the anion selective order is SbF6(-) > PF6(-) > BF4(-), ClO4(-), and this anion receptor is preferred to trap octahedral and tetrahedral anions rather than linear or triangle anions; SbF6(-) is the biggest and most preferable one, so far. The dimensions of cage complexes with or without internal anions, anion-exchange reactions, cage assembly and anion inclusions, silver(I) coordination environments, Ag-F and Ag-pi interactions of Ag3L2 complexes 1-9 are discussed.

  5. Comparison of reversed-phase/cation-exchange/anion-exchange trimodal stationary phases and their use in active pharmaceutical ingredient and counterion determinations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaodong; Pohl, Christopher A

    2012-04-06

    This study involved three commercial reversed-phase (RP)/anion-exchange (AEX)/cation-exchange (CEX) trimodal columns, namely Acclaim Trinity P1 (Thermo Fisher Scientific), Obelisc R (SIELC Technologies) and Scherzo SM-C18 (Imtakt). Their chromatographic properties were compared in details with respect to hydrophobicity, anion-exchange capacity, cation-exchange capacity, and selectivity, by studying retention behavior dependency on organic solvent, buffer concentration and pH. It was found that their remarkably different column chemistries resulted in distinctive chromatography properties. Trinity P1 exhibited strong anion-exchange and cation-exchange interactions but low RP retention while Scherzo SM-C18 showed strong reversed-phase retention with little cation-exchange and anion-exchange capacities. For Obelisc R, its reversed-phase capacity was weaker than Scherzo SM-C18 but slightly higher than Trinity P1, and its ion-exchange retentions were between Trinity P1 and Scherzo SM-C18. In addition, their difference in selectivity was demonstrated by examples of determining the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and counterion of drug products.

  6. Anionic Lipids: Determinants of Binding Cytotoxins from Snake Venom on the Surface of Cell Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Boldyrev, I.A.; Omelkov, A.V.; Utkin, Yu.N.; Efremov, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    The cytotoxic properties of cytotoxins (CTs) from snake venom are mediated by their interaction with the cell membrane. The hydrophobic pattern containing the tips of loops I–III and flanked by polar residues is known to be a membrane–binding motif of CTs. However, this is not enough to explain the difference in activity among various CTs which are similar in sequence and in 3D structure. The mechanism of further CT–membrane interaction leading to pore formation and cell death still remains unknown. Published experimental data on the specific interaction between CT and low molecular weight anionic components (sulphatide) of the bilayer point to the existence of corresponding ligand binding sites on the surface of toxin molecules. In this work we study the membrane–lytic properties of CT I, CT II (Naja oxiana), and Ct 4 (Naja kaouthia), which belong to different structural and functional types (P– and S–type) of CTs, by measuring the intensity of a fluorescent dye, calcein released from liposomes containing a phosphatidylserine (PS) lipid as an anionic component. Using molecular docking simulations, we find and characterize three sites in CT molecules that can potentially bind the PS polar head. Based on the data obtained, we suggest a hypothesis that CTs can specifically interact with one or more of the anionic lipids (in particular, with PS) contained in the membrane, thus facilitating the interaction between CTs and the lipid bilayer of a cell membrane. PMID:22649646

  7. Bioregeneration of spent anion exchange resin for treatment of nitrate in water.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiaoyang; Vaccari, David A; Zhang, Jianfeng; Fiume, Antonio; Meng, Xiaoguang

    2014-01-01

    Anion exchange resin treatment is a commonly used technique for removal of nitrate from water. However, spent anion exchange resins are themselves regenerated using brine solution, which produces spent solution containing a high concentration of nitrate and salt. The present study developed a bioregeneration technique for conversion of nitrate on the spent resins to nitrogen gas while eliminating the use of brine solutions. Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of biomass content, pH, salinity, and molar ratio of exogenous organic carbon to nitrate on the kinetics of bioregeneration. The bioregeneration rate decreased when pH increased from 7 to 10. It increased with increasing microbial concentration from 8.3 to 13.8 g/L as volatile suspended solid (VSS) and with decreasing conductivity of the regeneration suspension from 31 to 9 mS/cm. Spent exchange resins were effectively regenerated within 5 h under the optimal conditions and the regenerated resins could be used repeatedly for filtration removal of nitrate from water. A desorption-denitrification model was developed to describe bioregeneration kinetics. Modeling results indicated that the bioregeneration was through desorption of nitrate from the spent resin and subsequent denitrification of the soluble nitrate. Denitrification was the rate-limiting process. This research demonstrated the feasibility of using a biological process to regenerate nitrate-saturated resins.

  8. Microcalorimetric study of adsorption of glycomacropeptide on anion-exchange chromatography adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Lira, Rafael A; Minim, Luis A; Bonomo, Renata C F; Minim, Valéria P R; da Silva, Luis H M; da Silva, Maria C H

    2009-05-15

    The adsorption of glycomacropeptide (GMP) from cheese whey on an anion-exchange adsorbent was investigated using isothermal titration microcalorimetry to measure thermodynamic information regarding such processes. Isotherms data were measured at temperatures of 25 and 45 degrees C, pH 8.2 and various ionic strengths (0-0.08 molL(-1) NaCl). The equilibrium data were fit using the Langmuir model and the process was observed to be reversible. Temperature was observed to positively affect the interaction of the protein and adsorbent. Microcalorimetric studies indicated endothermic adsorption enthalpy in all cases, except at 45 degrees C and 0.0 molL(-1) NaCl. The adsorption process was observed to be entropically driven at all conditions studied. It was concluded that the increase in entropy, attributed to the release of hydration waters as well as bounded ions from the adsorbent and protein surface due to interactions of the protein and adsorbent, was a major driving force for the adsorption of GMP on the anion-exchange adsorbent. These results could allow for design of more effective ion-exchange separation processes for proteins.

  9. Sulfate secretion and chloride absorption are mediated by the anion exchanger DRA (Slc26a3) in the mouse cecum.

    PubMed

    Whittamore, Jonathan M; Freel, Robert W; Hatch, Marguerite

    2013-07-15

    Inorganic sulfate (SO₄²⁻) is essential for a multitude of physiological processes. The specific molecular pathway has been identified for uptake from the small intestine but is virtually unknown for the large bowel, although there is evidence for absorption involving Na⁺-independent anion exchange. A leading candidate is the apical chloride/bicarbonate (Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻) exchanger DRA (down-regulated in adenoma; Slc26a3), primarily linked to the Cl⁻ transporting defect in congenital chloride diarrhea. The present study set out to characterize transepithelial ³⁵SO₄²⁻ and ³⁶Cl⁻ fluxes across the isolated, short-circuited cecum from wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice and subsequently to define the contribution of DRA. The cecum demonstrated simultaneous net SO₄²⁻ secretion (-8.39 ± 0.88 nmol·cm⁻²·h⁻¹) and Cl⁻ absorption (10.85 ± 1.41 μmol·cm⁻²·h⁻¹). In DRA-KO mice, SO₄²⁻ secretion was reversed to net absorption via a 60% reduction in serosal to mucosal SO₄²⁻ flux. Similarly, net Cl⁻ absorption was abolished and replaced by secretion, indicating that DRA represents a major pathway for transcellular SO₄²⁻ secretion and Cl⁻ absorption. Further experiments including the application of DIDS (500 μM), bumetanide (100 μM), and substitutions of extracellular Cl⁻ or HCO₃⁻/CO₂ helped to identify specific ion dependencies and driving forces and suggested that additional anion exchangers were operating at both apical and basolateral membranes supporting SO₄²⁻ transport. In conclusion, DRA contributes to SO₄²⁻ secretion via DIDS-sensitive HCO₃⁻/SO₄²⁻ exchange, in addition to being the principal DIDS-resistant Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻ exchanger. With DRA linked to the pathogenesis of other gastrointestinal diseases extending its functional characterization offers a more complete picture of its role in the intestine.

  10. Local anesthetics structure-dependently interact with anionic phospholipid membranes to modify the fluidity.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Hironori; Ueno, Takahiro; Mizogami, Maki; Takakura, Ko

    2010-01-05

    While bupivacaine is more cardiotoxic than other local anesthetics, the mechanistic background for different toxic effects remains unclear. Several cardiotoxic compounds act on lipid bilayers to change the physicochemical properties of membranes. We comparatively studied the interaction of local anesthetics with lipid membranous systems which might be related to their structure-selective cardiotoxicity. Amide local anesthetics (10-300 microM) were reacted with unilamellar vesicles which were prepared with different phospholipids and cholesterol of varying lipid compositions. They were compared on the potencies to modify membrane fluidity by measuring fluorescence polarization. Local anesthetics interacted with liposomal membranes to increase the fluidity. Increasing anionic phospholipids in membranes enhanced the membrane-fluidizing effects of local anesthetics with the potency being cardiolipin>phosphatidic acid>phosphatidylglycerol>phosphatidylserine. Cardiolipin was most effective on bupivacaine, followed by ropivacaine. Local anesthetics interacted differently with biomimetic membranes consisting of 10mol% cardiolipin, 50mol% other phospholipids and 40mol% cholesterol with the potency being bupivacaine>ropivacaine>lidocaine>prilocaine, which agreed with the rank order of cardiotoxicity. Bupivacaine significantly fluidized 2.5-12.5mol% cardiolipin-containing membranes at cardiotoxicologically relevant concentrations. Bupivacaine is considered to affect lipid bilayers by interacting electrostatically with negatively charged cardiolipin head groups and hydrophobically with phospholipid acyl chains. The structure-dependent interaction with lipid membranes containing cardiolipin, which is preferentially localized in cardiomyocyte mitochondrial membranes, may be a mechanistic clue to explain the structure-selective cardiotoxicity of local anesthetics.

  11. New monolith technology for automated anion-exchange purification of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Thayer, J R; Flook, K J; Woodruff, A; Rao, S; Pohl, C A

    2010-04-15

    Synthetic nucleic acid analysis often employs pellicular anion-exchange (AE) chromatography because it supports very high efficiency separations while offering means to control secondary structure, retention and resolution by readily modifiable chromatographic conditions. However, these pellicular anion-exchange (pAE) phases do not offer capacity sufficient for lab-scale oligonucleotide (ON) purification. In contrast, monolithic phases produce fast separations at capacities exceeding their pellicular counterparts, but do not exhibit capacities typical of fully porous, bead-based, anion-exchangers. In order to further increase monolith capacity and obtain the selectivity and mass transfer characteristics of pellicular phases, a surface-functionalized monolith was coated with pAE nanobeads (latexes) usually employed on the pellicular DNAPac phase. The nanobead-coated monolith exhibited chromatographic behaviors typical of polymer AE phases. Based on this observation the monolithic substrate surface porosity and latex diameters were co-optimized to produce a hybrid monolith harboring capacity similar to that of fully porous bead-based phases and peak shape approaching that of the pAE phases. We tested the hybrid monolith on a variety of previously developed pAE capabilities including control of ON selectivity, resolution of derivatized ONs, the ability to resolve RNA ONs harboring aberrant linkages at different positions in a single sequence and separation of phosphorothioate diastereoisomers. We compared the yield and purity of an 8 mg ON sample purified on both the new hybrid monolith and a benchmark AE column based on fully porous monodisperse beads. This comparison included an assessment of the relative selectivities of both columns. Finally, we demonstrated the ability to couple AE ON separations with ESI-MS using an automated desalting protocol. This protocol is also useful for preparing ONs for other assays, such as enzyme treatments, that may be sensitive to

  12. Fe electron transfer and atom exchange in goethite: influence of Al-substitution and anion sorption.

    PubMed

    Latta, Drew E; Bachman, Jonathan E; Scherer, Michelle M

    2012-10-02

    The reaction of Fe(II) with Fe(III) oxides and hydroxides is complex and includes sorption of Fe(II) to the oxide, electron transfer between sorbed Fe(II) and structural Fe(III), reductive dissolution coupled to Fe atom exchange, and, in some cases mineral phase transformation. Much of the work investigating electron transfer and atom exchange between aqueous Fe(II) and Fe(III) oxides has been done under relatively simple aqueous conditions in organic buffers to control pH and background electrolytes to control ionic strength. Here, we investigate whether electron transfer is influenced by cation substitution of Al(III) in goethite and the presence of anions such as phosphate, carbonate, silicate, and natural organic matter. Results from (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy indicate that both Al-substitution (up to 9%) and the presence of common anions (PO(4)(3-), CO(3)(2-), SiO(4)(4-), and humic acid) does not inhibit electron transfer between aqueous Fe(II) and Fe(III) in goethite under the conditions we studied. In contrast, sorption of a long-chain phospholipid completely shuts down electron transfer. Using an enriched isotope tracer method, we found that Al-substitution in goethite (10%), does, however, significantly decrease the extent of atom exchange between Fe(II) and goethite (from 43 to 12%) over a month's time. Phosphate, somewhat surprisingly, appears to have little effect on the rate and extent of atom exchange between aqueous Fe(II) and goethite. Our results show that electron transfer between aqueous Fe(II) and solid Fe(III) in goethite can occur under wide range of geochemical conditions, but that the extent of redox-driven Fe atom exchange may be dependent on the presence of substituting cations such as Al.

  13. Determination of uranium isotopes in environmental samples by anion exchange in sulfuric and hydrochloric acid media.

    PubMed

    Popov, L

    2016-09-01

    Method for determination of uranium isotopes in various environmental samples is presented. The major advantages of the method are the low cost of the analysis, high radiochemical yields and good decontamination factors from the matrix elements, natural and man-made radionuclides. The separation and purification of uranium is attained by adsorption with strong base anion exchange resin in sulfuric and hydrochloric acid media. Uranium is electrodeposited on a stainless steel disk and measured by alpha spectrometry. The analytical method has been applied for the determination of concentrations of uranium isotopes in mineral, spring and tap waters from Bulgaria. The analytical quality was checked by analyzing reference materials.

  14. TREATMENT FOR IMPROVING THE OPERATION OF STRONG BASE ANION EXCHANGE RESINS

    DOEpatents

    Stevenson, P.C.

    1960-11-29

    A process is offered for improving quaternary ammonium type strongly basic anion exchange resins so that centain zinc and cadmium residues, which normally stick to and "poison" this type of resin, can be removed by elution. Specifically, the resin as obtained commercially is treated with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide of about 1 to 4 M concentration by heating therein and periodically adding small amounts of oxidizing agent selected from hydrogen peroxide, sodium peroxide and hypochlorite. Zinc and cadmium values may then be adsorbed onto the resin from a 0.1 to 3 M HCl and thereafter eluted therefrom with very dilute HCl solutions.

  15. Anion-exchange method for determination of phytate in foods: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Harland, B F; Oberleas, D

    1986-01-01

    Phytate, a naturally occurring organic compound found in plant seeds, roots, and tubers, was determined in a collaborative study using a modified anion-exchange method. Seven samples (peanut flour, oats, rice, isolated soybean protein, a vegetarian diet composite, wheat bran, and whole wheat bread), supplied as blind duplicate samples, were analyzed in triplicate by 7 collaborators. Phytate concentrations in the samples ranged from 2.38 to 46.70 mg/g. Relative standard deviations (RSD = CV) for repeatability ranged from 2.5 to 10.1%, and for reproducibility, from 4.5 to 11.0%. The method has been adopted official first action.

  16. Separation of small inorganic anions using methacrylate-based anion-exchange monolithic column prepared by low temperature UV photo-polymerization.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mutsumi; Hirano, Tomohiko; Kitagawa, Shinya; Ohtani, Hajime

    2012-04-06

    A methacrylate-based anion-exchange monolithic column was prepared by a single-step UV photo-copolymerization of [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]-trimethyl ammonium chloride, butylmethacrylate, and ethylene dimethacrylate at a low temperature of -15 °C. The anion-exchange column exhibited good separation efficiency for the small inorganic anions of NO(2)(-), Br(-), NO(3)(-), and I(-) in the isocratic mode. Under the conditions optimized using a mobile phase of 50% ACN containing 100mM of NaCl, the theoretical plate heights of the anions were within the range of 12.2-15.6 μm (N, 64,000-82,000 m(-1); k, 0.2-1.6); and a value of 9.4 μm (N, 110,000 m(-1)) was achieved for t(0). The flow resistance of the column was acceptably low with a permeability of 2.7 × 10(-13) m(2). Fast gradient elution at a flow rate of 32 mm/s resulted in rapid and precise separation of the inorganic anions of IO(3)(-), NO(2)(-), Br(-), NO(3)(-), and I(-) within 20s.

  17. Proton exchange membranes prepared by grafting of styrene/divinylbenzene into crosslinked PTFE membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingye; Ichizuri, Shogo; Asano, Saneto; Mutou, Fumihiro; Ikeda, Shigetoshi; Iida, Minoru; Miura, Takaharu; Oshima, Akihiro; Tabata, Yoneho; Washio, Masakazu

    2005-07-01

    Thin PTFE membranes were prepared by coating the PTFE dispersion onto the aluminum films. Thus the thin crosslinked PTFE (RX-PTFE) membranes were obtained by means of electron beam irradiation above the melting temperature of PTFE under oxygen-free atmosphere. The RX-PTFE membranes were pre-irradiated and grafted by styrene with or without divinylbenzene (DVB) in liquid phase. The existence of DVB accelerated the initial grafting rate. The styrene grafted RX-PTFE membranes are white colored, on the other hand, the styrene/DVB grafted RX-PTFE membranes are colorless. The proton exchange membranes (PEMs) were obtained by sulfonating the grafted membranes using chlorosulfonic acid. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) values of the PEMs ranging from 1.5 to 2.8 meq/g were obtained. The PEMs made from the styrene/DVB grafted membranes showed higher chemical stability than those of the styrene grafted membranes under oxidative circumstance.

  18. Anion exchange reaction potentials as approximate estimates of the relative thermodynamic stabilities of Mg/Al layered double hydroxides containing different anions.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Belavalli E; Kamath, P Vishnu; Vijayamohanan, K

    2011-11-15

    Coatings of hydrotalcite-like nitrate-intercalated Mg/Al layered double hydroxides are electrochemically deposited on a Pt electrode by electrogeneration of base by reduction of a mixed metal nitrate aqueous solution. As-prepared coatings are stable to workup and function as rugged electrodes. The voltammetric response generated by anion exchange of intercalated nitrate for dissolved anions from solution under equilibrium conditions is employed to estimate the thermodynamic stabilities of the Mg/Al layered double hydroxides comprising different anions relative to the nitrate-containing phase. Among monovalent anions, the most stable is the fluoride-containing LDH (ΔG° = -48.7 kJ mol(-1)) relative to the nitrate-containing LDH. The stability in aqueous phase decreases as F(-) > Cl(-) > Br(-) > NO(2)(-) > NO(3)(-), whereas, among divalent anions, SO(4)(2-) (ΔG° = -8.7 kJ mol(-1)) > CO(3)(2-) (ΔG° = 14.3 kJ mol(-1)). The results of monovalent ions match well with the Miyata series, whereas the divalent anion series is at variance with the commonly held belief that carbonate-LDHs are more stable than sulfate-LDHs.

  19. Exchange of interlayer terephthalate anions from a Mg Al layered double hydroxide: formation of intermediate interstratified phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneyoshi, Masami; Jones, William

    1998-10-01

    The exchange of interlayer terephthalate (TA) anions from a Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) by carbonate, sulfate, chloride and nitrate anions is reported. It is shown that TA is readily exchanged by CO 32- and SO 42- but only partly by Cl - and NO 3-. We demonstrate that during the exchange process interstratified phases are observed. Such interstratification has previously been reported only for directly synthesised materials. The origin of the interstratification is believed to be associated with two preferred orientations of TA anions within the layers, i.e. vertical or horizontal to the clay sheets. Two models for the possible exchange mechanism which is operating in these systems are proposed.

  20. Renal peroxiredoxin 6 interacts with anion exchanger 1 and plays a novel role in pH homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Duncan B.; Frankl, Fiona E. Karet

    2015-01-01

    Peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) is one of six members of the PRDX family, which have peroxidase and antioxidant activity. PRDX6 is unique, containing only one conserved cysteine residue (C47) rather than the two found in other PRDXs. A yeast two-hybrid screen found PRDX6 to be a potential binding partner of the C-terminal tail of anion exchanger 1 (AE1), a Cl−/HCO3− exchanger basolaterally expressed in renal α-intercalated cells. PRDX6 immunostaining in human kidney was both cytoplasmic and peripheral and co-localized with AE1. Analysis of native protein showed it was largely monomeric, whereas expressed tagged protein was more dimeric. Two methionine oxidation sites were identified. In vitro and ex vivo pulldowns and immunoprecipitation assays confirmed interaction with AE1, but mutation of the conserved cysteine resulted in loss of interaction. Prdx6 knockout mice had a baseline acidosis with a major respiratory component and greater AE1 expression than wild type animals. After an oral acid challenge, PRDX6 expression increased in wild type mice, with preservation of AE1. However, AE1 expression was significantly decreased in knockout animals. Kidneys from acidified mice showed widespread proximal tubular vacuolation in wild type but not knockout animals. Knockdown of PRDX6 by siRNA in mammalian cells reduced both total and cell membrane AE1 levels. Thus, PRDX6-AE1 interaction contributes to maintenance of AE1 during cellular stress such as during metabolic acidosis. PMID:26398495

  1. Chloride transport in red blood cells of lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis: evidence for a novel anion-exchange system.

    PubMed

    Bogdanova AYu; Sherstobitov, A O; Gusev, G P

    1998-03-01

    The existence of a furosemide-sensitive Cl- transport pathway activated by external Ca2+ and Mg2+ has been demonstrated previously in studies of Cl- influx across the lamprey erythrocyte membrane. The aim of the present study was to characterize further specific Cl- transport pathways, especially those involved in Cl- efflux, in the red blood cell membrane of Lampetra fluviatilis. Cl- efflux was inhibited by 0.05 mmol l-1 dihydroindenyloxyalkanoic acid (DIOA) (81%), 1 mmol l-1 furosemide (76%) and 0.1 mmol l-1 niflumic acid (54%). Bumetanide (100 mumol l-1) and DIDS (100 mumol l-1) had no effect effect on Cl- efflux. Substitution of external Cl- by gluconate, but not by NO3-, led to a gradual decline of Cl- efflux. In addition, the removal of external Ca2+ resulted in a significant reduction in the rate of Cl- efflux. Membrane depolarization caused by increasing external K+ concentration or by inhibiting K+ channels with 1 mmol l-1 Ba2+ did not affect Cl- efflux. The furosemide-sensitive component of Cl- influx was a saturable function of external [Cl-] with an apparent K(m) of approximately 92 mmol l-1 and Vmax of approximately 17.8 mmol l-1 cells-1 h-1. Furosemide did not affect intracellular Cl- concentration (57.6 +/- 5.2 mmol l-1 cell water), measured using an ion-selective Cl- electrode, showing that a furosemide-sensitive pathway is not involved in net Cl- movement. A gradual fall (from 28.1 +/- 1.4 to 15.0 +/- 1.3 mmol l-1 cells-1 h-1) in unidirectional Cl- influx with time was observed within 3 h of cell preincubation in the standard physiological medium. These data provide evidence for the existence for an electroneutral furosemide-sensitive anion-exchange pathway in the lamprey erythrocyte membrane that accepts chloride and nitrate, but not bicarbonate or bromide.

  2. Removal of chloride ion from aqueous solution by ZnAl-NO(3) layered double hydroxides as anion-exchanger.

    PubMed

    Lv, Liang; Sun, Peide; Gu, Zhengyu; Du, Hangeng; Pang, Xiangjun; Tao, Xiaohong; Xu, Rufeng; Xu, Lili

    2009-01-30

    The layered double hydroxides (LDHs) containing nitrate as the interlayer anion has a high anion-exchange capacity in the presence of appropriate anions. In the light of this, ZnAl-NO(3) LDHs have been employed to remove chloride ion from aqueous solution in a batch mode. The influences of conditions for chloride ion uptake, including dosage of LDHs, pH of aqueous solution, and temperature on anion-exchange have been investigated, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters including Gibbs free energy (DeltaG(0)), standard enthalpy change (DeltaH(0)), and standard entropy change (DeltaS(0)) for the process were calculated using the Langmuir constants. It was found from kinetics test that the pseudo-second order kinetics model could be used to well describe the uptake process. An E(a) value of 10.27 kJ/mol provides evidence the anion-exchange process. The explanation of anion-exchange phenomenon has also been supported by X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectra.

  3. Diclofenac removal in urine using strong-base anion exchange polymer resins.

    PubMed

    Landry, Kelly A; Boyer, Treavor H

    2013-11-01

    One of the major sources of pharmaceuticals in the environment is wastewater effluent of which human urine contributes the majority of pharmaceuticals. Urine source separation has the potential to isolate pharmaceuticals at a higher concentration for efficient removal as well as produce a nutrient byproduct. This research investigated the efficacy of using strong-base anion exchange polymer resins to remove the widely detected and abundant pharmaceutical, diclofenac, from synthetic human urine under fresh and ureolyzed conditions. The majority of experiments were conducted using a strong-base, macroporous, polystyrene resin (Purolite A520E). Ion-exchange followed a two-step removal rate with rapid removal in 1 h and equilibrium removal in 24 h. Diclofenac removal was >90% at a resin dose of 8 mL/L in both fresh and ureolyzed urine. Sorption of diclofenac onto A520E resin was concurrent with desorption of an equivalent amount of chloride, which indicates the ion-exchange mechanism is occurring. The presence of competing ions such as phosphate and citrate did not significantly impact diclofenac removal. Comparisons of three polystyrene resins (A520E, Dowex 22, Dowex Marathon 11) as well as one polyacrylic resin (IRA958) were conducted to determine the major interactions between anion exchange resin and diclofenac. The results showed that polystyrene resins provide the highest level of diclofenac removal due to electrostatic interactions between quaternary ammonium functional groups of resin and carboxylic acid of diclofenac and non-electrostatic interactions between resin matrix and benzene rings of diclofenac. Diclofenac was effectively desorbed from A520E resin using a regeneration solution that contained 4.5% (m/m) NaCl in an equal-volume mixture of methanol and water. The greater regeneration efficiency of the NaCl/methanol-water mixture over the aqueous NaCl solution supports the importance of non-electrostatic interactions between resin matrix and benzene rings

  4. An approach to fouling characterization of an ion-exchange membrane using current-voltage relation and electrical impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Soo; Choi, Jae-Hwan; Yeon, Kyeong-Ho; Moon, Seung-Hyeon

    2006-02-01

    Fouling phenomena of an anion-exchange membrane by bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated using current-voltage relation and electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in this study. Electrochemical parameters of the Neosepta CMX cation- and AMX anion-exchange membrane (Tokuyama Corp., Japan) such as limiting current density (LCD), transport number, plateau length, and fraction of the conducting phase were measured. Fraction of the conducting phase of the ion-exchange membranes, calculated from the modified Sand equation, played an important role in determining the electrochemical parameters in the presence of foulants such as BSA. Fraction of the conducting phase of the AMX membrane significantly decreased in the presence of BSA. Two distinguishable slopes were observed in the over-LCD region of the current-voltage (I-V) curve, indicating the change of resistance. To further elucidate the phenomena, the electrical impedance spectroscopic study was carried out using the offset alternating current. It was found that the negatively charged loose fouling layer changed to the dense deposited BSA on the surface of the AMX membrane occurring along with enhanced water dissociation phenomena at the surface of the fouled AMX membrane at a higher current density. This result was confirmed by water dissociation experiments in a six-compartment electrodialysis cell.

  5. Comparison of diffusion by anionic surfactants through cellulose acetate and collagen membranes.

    PubMed

    García Ramón, M T; Ribosa, I; Leal, J S; Parra, J L

    1989-06-01

    Synopsis From a dermatological point of view, it is important to know what is the irritation potential of surfactants on human skin. Recent research trends have been oriented towards the establishment of new 'in vitro' techniques that will avoid animal experimentation. In this paper, some results on the rate of diffusion of different anionic surfactants through both cellulose acetate and collagen membranes are described. A correlation between results of diffusion through the protein membrane and results published on the same surfactants and their irritation potential during 'in vivo' experiments appears possible.

  6. Anion exchange strategy to synthesis of porous NiS hexagonal nanoplates for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongchun; Yu, Xuewei; Gu, Aijun; Tang, Huang; Wang, Liangbiao; Lou, Zhengsong

    2017-02-01

    A facile anion exchange strategy was applied to the synthesis of porous NiS hexagonal nanoplates (NiS HNPs) as an electrode material for supercapacitors. It was found that Na2S concentration is a key factor to achieve porous NiS hexagonal nanoplates with well-defined architecture. Porous NiS hexagonal nanoplates exhibited a specific capacitance of 1897 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1. NiS HNPs//activated carbon (AC) asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) shows a long cycle lifespan (about 100% capacity retention after 4000 cycles at a current density of 3 A g-1) with a maximum energy density of 11.6 Wh kg-1 at a large loading mass of about 30 mg. Impressively, two NiS HNPs//AC ASCs in series could light up a red LED for about 30 min. The remarkable electrochemical performance of NiS HNPs is ascribed to their unique hierarchical porous architectures. The anion exchange method is a facile and versatile strategy for the synthesis of metal sulfides with high performance for energy storage.

  7. Phosphorus recovery from microbial biofuel residual using microwave peroxide digestion and anion exchange.

    PubMed

    Gifford, McKay; Liu, Jianyong; Rittmann, Bruce E; Vannela, Raveender; Westerhoff, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Sustainable production of microalgae for biofuel requires efficient phosphorus (P) utilization, which is a limited resource and vital for global food security. This research tracks the fate of P through biofuel production and investigates P recovery from the biomass using the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Our results show that Synechocystis contained 1.4% P dry weight. After crude lipids were extracted (e.g., for biofuel processing), 92% of the intracellular P remained in the residual biomass, indicating phospholipids comprised only a small percentage of cellular P. We estimate a majority of the P is primarily associated with nucleic acids. Advanced oxidation using hydrogen peroxide and microwave heating released 92% of the cellular P into orthophosphate. We then recovered the orthophosphate from the digestion matrix using two different types of anion exchange resins. One resin impregnated with iron nanoparticles adsorbed 98% of the influent P through 20 bed volumes, but only released 23% during regeneration. A strong-base anion exchange resin adsorbed 87% of the influent P through 20 bed volumes and released 50% of it upon regeneration. This recovered P subsequently supported growth of Synechocystis. This proof-of-concept recovery process reduced P demand of biofuel microalgae by 54%.

  8. Removal of tartrazine from aqueous solutions by strongly basic polystyrene anion exchange resins.

    PubMed

    Wawrzkiewicz, Monika; Hubicki, Zbigniew

    2009-05-30

    The removal of tartrazine from aqueous solutions onto the strongly basic polystyrene anion exchangers of type 1 (Amberlite IRA-900) and type 2 (Amberlite IRA-910) was investigated. The experimental data obtained at 100, 200, 300 and 500 mg/dm(3) initial concentrations at 20 degrees C were applied to the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Weber-Morris kinetic models. The calculated sorption capacities (q(e,cal)) and the rate constant of the first order adsorption (k(1)) were determined. The pseudo-second order kinetic constants (k(2)) and capacities were calculated from the plots of t/q(t) vs. t, 1/q(t) vs. 1/t, 1/t vs. 1/q(t) and q(t)/t vs. q(t) for type 1, type 2, type 3 and type 4 of the pseudo-second order expression, respectively. The influence of phase contact time, solution pH and temperature on tartrazine removal was also discussed. The FTIR spectra of pure anion exchangers and those loaded with tartrazine were recorded, too.

  9. Effects of the anion salt nature on the rate constants of the aqueous proton exchange reactions.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Jose M; Garzon, Andres; Crovetto, Luis; Orte, Angel; Lopez, Sergio G; Alvarez-Pez, Jose M

    2012-04-28

    The proton-transfer ground-state rate constants of the xanthenic dye 9-[1-(2-methyl-4-methoxyphenyl)]-6-hydroxy-3H-xanthen-3-one (TG-II), recovered by Fluorescence Lifetime Correlation Spectroscopy (FLCS), have proven to be useful to quantitatively reflect specific cation effects in aqueous solutions (J. M. Paredes, L. Crovetto, A. Orte, J. M. Alvarez-Pez and E. M. Talavera, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011, 13, 1685-1694). Since these phenomena are more sensitive to anions than to cations, in this paper we have accounted for the influence of salts with the sodium cation in common, and the anion classified according to the empirical Hofmeister series, on the proton transfer rate constants of TG-II. We demonstrate that the presence of ions accelerates the rate of the ground-state proton-exchange reaction in the same order than ions that affect ion solvation in water. The combination of FLCS with a fluorophore undergoing proton transfer reactions in the ground state, along with the desirable feature of a pseudo-dark state when the dye is protonated, allows one unique direct determination of kinetic rate constants of the proton exchange chemical reaction.

  10. Influence of solvent on polymer prequaternization toward anion-conductive membrane fabrication for all-vanadium flow battery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengxiang; Zhang, Huamin; Qu, Chao

    2012-08-02

    Triethylamine- (TEA-) enabled prequaternization of a polymer for nonalkaline anion-exchange membrane (AEM) fabrication is more facile and environmentally benign than the conventional trimethylamine-based postquaternization route. It is also more compatible with forming a microphase-separated membrane morphology that can facilitate ion transport. However, most studies of TEA-quaternized AEMs have reported unsatisfactory conductivities, and no examples of their application in all-vanadium flow batteries (VFBs) have been reported. In this work, we aim to address this issue and demonstrate that, by employing a favorable solvent, polysulfone can be prequaternized to a high level with TEA and further fabricated into an AEM showing good conductivity (18.2 mS cm(-1) at room temperature) and impressive VFB performance (Coulombic efficiency above 98% and energy efficiency above 80% at 80 mA cm(-2)). In contrast, when an unfavorable solvent is used, membrane quaternization does not occur significantly. This contrast is shown to result from the absence or presence of solvent-TEA competition during quaternization, which is related to the the electron-donating or -withdrawing properties of the solvents used. Our study adds new understanding to the quaternization chemistry of AEMs and also represents the first example, to our knowledge, of a TEA-quaternized AEM yielding high VFB efficiencies.

  11. Studies on the interactions of bisphenols with anionic phospholipids of decomposer membranes in model systems.

    PubMed

    Broniatowski, Marcin; Sobolewska, Katarzyna; Flasiński, Michał; Wydro, Paweł

    2016-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and other bisphenols constitute a class of organic pollutants, which because of their estrogenic properties, low dose activity and bioaccumulation pose considerable risk for public health as well as for the environment. Accumulated in the sediment bisphenols can endanger the decomposers' populations being incorporated into their cellular membranes; however, the mechanism of their membrane activity is unknown. Therefore, to study these phenomena we applied anionic phospholipid Langmuir monolayers as simple but versatile models of decomposers biomembranes. Phosphatidylglycerols and cardiolipins are not only the main components of bacterial membranes but also of crucial importance in mitochondrial and thylakoid membranes in eukaryotic cells. In our investigations we applied five compounds of the bisphenol class most commonly detected in the environment. To characterize the bisphenols-model membrane interactions we applied multiple mutually independent methods of physical chemistry; namely: the Langmuir monolayer technique, surface potential measurements, Brewster angle microscopy for the visualization of the monolayers' texture and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction for the discussion of the phospholipids packing within the monolayers. Our studies indicated that all the investigated bisphenols interact with the model membrane, but the strength of the interactions is dependent on the bisphenol structure and hydrophobicity and the fluidity of the model membranes. We proved that bisphenol S often treated as the least toxic BPA analog can also be incorporated to the model membranes changing their structure and fluidity.

  12. Performance of single chamber biocatalyzed electrolysis with different types of ion exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    Rozendal, René A; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Molenkamp, Redmar J; Buisman, Cees J N

    2007-05-01

    In this paper hydrogen production through biocatalyzed electrolysis was studied for the first time in a single chamber configuration. Single chamber biocatalyzed electrolysis was tested in two configurations: (i) with a cation exchange membrane (CEM) and (ii) with an anion exchange membrane (AEM). Both configurations performed comparably and produced over 0.3 m3 H2/m3 reactor liquid volume/day at 1.0 V applied voltage (overall hydrogen efficiencies around 23%). Analysis of the water that permeated through the membrane revealed that a large part of potential losses in the system were associated with a pH gradient across the membrane (CEM DeltapH=6.4; AEM DeltapH=4.4). These pH gradient associated potential losses were lower in the AEM configuration (CEM 0.38 V; AEM 0.26 V) as a result of its alternative ion transport properties. This benefit of the AEM, however, was counteracted by the higher cathode overpotentials occurring in the AEM configuration (CEM 0.12 V at 2.39 A/m2; AEM 0.27 V at 2.15 A/m2) as a result of a less effective electroless plating method for the AEM membrane electrode assembly (MEA).

  13. Recent developments on ion-exchange membranes and electro-membrane processes.

    PubMed

    Nagarale, R K; Gohil, G S; Shahi, Vinod K

    2006-02-28

    Rapid growth of chemical and biotechnology in diversified areas fuels the demand for the need of reliable green technologies for the down stream processes, which include separation, purification and isolation of the molecules. Ion-exchange membrane technologies are non-hazardous in nature and being widely used not only for separation and purification but their application also extended towards energy conversion devices, storage batteries and sensors etc. Now there is a quite demand for the ion-exchange membrane with better selectivities, less electrical resistance, high chemical, mechanical and thermal stability as well as good durability. A lot of work has been done for the development of these types of ion-exchange membranes during the past twenty-five years. Herein we have reviewed the preparation of various types of ion-exchange membranes, their characterization and applications for different electro-membrane processes. Primary attention has been given to the chemical route used for the membrane preparation. Several general reactions used for the preparation of ion-exchange membranes were described. Methodologies used for the characterization of these membranes and their applications were also reviewed for the benefit of readers, so that they can get all information about the ion-exchange membranes at one platform. Although there are large number of reports available regarding preparations and applications of ion-exchange membranes more emphasis were predicted for the usefulness of these membranes or processes for solving certain type of industrial or social problems. More efforts are needed to bring many products or processes to pilot scale and extent their applications.

  14. Use of niflumic acid to determine the nature of the asymmetry of the human erythrocyte anion exchange system

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Niflumic acid is a noncompetitive inhibitor of chloride exchange, which binds to a site different from the transport or modifier sites. When the internal Cl- concentration is raised, at constant extracellular Cl- , the inhibitory potency of niflumic acid increases. This effect cannot be attributed to changes in membrane potential, but rather it suggests that niflumic acid binds to the anion exchange protein band 3 only when the transport site faces outward. When the chloride gradient is reversed, with Clo greater than Cli , the inhibitory potency of niflumic acid decreases greatly, which indicates that the affinity of niflumic acid for band 3 with the transport site facing inward is almost 50 times less than when the transport site faces outward. Experiments in which Cli = Clo show no significant change in the inhibition by niflumic acid when Cl- is lowered from 150 to 10 mM. These data suggest that the intrinsic dissociation constants for Cl- at the two sides of the membrane are nearly equal. Thus, the chloride- loaded transport sites have an asymmetric orientation like that of the unloaded transport sites, with approximately 15 times more sites facing the inside than the outside. The asymmetry reflects an approximately 1.5 kcal/mol free energy difference between the inward-facing and outward-facing chloride-loaded forms of band 3. High concentrations of chloride (with Cli = Clo), which partially saturate the modifier site, have no effect on niflumic acid inhibition, which indicates that chloride binds equally well to the modifier site regardless of the orientation of the transport site. PMID:6736917

  15. Use of niflumic acid to determine the nature of the asymmetry of the human erythrocyte anion exchange system.

    PubMed

    Knauf, P A; Mann, N A

    1984-05-01

    Niflumic acid is a noncompetitive inhibitor of chloride exchange, which binds to a site different from the transport or modifier sites. When the internal Cl- concentration is raised, at constant extracellular Cl-, the inhibitory potency of niflumic acid increases. This effect cannot be attributed to changes in membrane potential, but rather it suggests that niflumic acid binds to the anion exchange protein band 3 only when the transport site faces outward. When the chloride gradient is reversed, with Clo greater than Cli , the inhibitory potency of niflumic acid decreases greatly, which indicates that the affinity of niflumic acid for band 3 with the transport site facing inward is almost 50 times less than when the transport site faces outward. Experiments in which Cli = Clo show no significant change in the inhibition by niflumic acid when Cl- is lowered from 150 to 10 mM. These data suggest that the intrinsic dissociation constants for Cl- at the two sides of the membrane are nearly equal. Thus, the chloride-loaded transport sites have an asymmetric orientation like that of the unloaded transport sites, with approximately 15 times more sites facing the inside than the outside. The asymmetry reflects an approximately 1.5 kcal/mol free energy difference between the inward-facing and outward-facing chloride-loaded forms of band 3. High concentrations of chloride (with Cli = Clo), which partially saturate the modifier site, have no effect on niflumic acid inhibition, which indicates that chloride binds equally well to the modifier site regardless of the orientation of the transport site.

  16. Anion-Sensitive, H+-Pumping ATPase in Membrane Vesicles from Oat Roots 1

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, Kathleen A.; Sze, Heven

    1983-01-01

    H+-pumping ATPases were detected in microsomal vesicles of oat (Avena sativa L. var Lang) roots using [14C]methylamine distribution or quinacrine fluorescent quenching. Methylamine (MeA) accumulation into vesicles and quinacrine quench were specifically dependent on Mg,ATP. Both activities reflected formation of a proton gradient (ΔpH) (acid inside) as carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, nigericin (in the presence of K+), or gramicidin decreased MeA uptake or increased quinacrine fluorescence. The properties of H+ pumping as measured by MeA uptake were characterized. The Kmapp for ATP was about 0.1 millimolar. Mg,GTP and Mg, pyrophosphate were 19% and 30% as effective as Mg,ATP. MeA uptake was inhibited by N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and was mostly insensitive to oligomycin, vanadate, or copper. ATP-dependent MeA was stimulated by anions with decreasing order of potency of Cl− > Br− > NO3− > SO42−, iminodiacetate, benzene sulfonate. Anion stimulation of H+ pumping was caused in part by the ability of permeant anions to dissipate the electrical potential and in part by a specific requirement of Cl− by a H+ -pumping ATPase. A pH gradient, probably caused by a Donnan potential, could be dissipated by K+ in the presence or absence of ATP. MeA uptake was enriched in vesicles of relatively low density and showed a parallel distribution with vanadate-insensitive ATPase activity on a continuous dextran gradient. ΔpH as measured by quinacrine quench was partially vanadate-sensitive. These results show that plant membranes have at least two types of H+ -pumping ATPases. One is vanadate-sensitive and probably enriched in the plasma membrane. One is vanadate-resistant, anion-sensitive and has many properties characteristic of a vacuolar ATPase. These results are consistent with the presence of electrogenic H+ pumps at the plasma membrane and tonoplast of higher plant cells. PMID:16662875

  17. Membrane Contact Sites: Complex Zones for Membrane Association and Lipid Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Quon, Evan; Beh, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    Lipid transport between membranes within cells involves vesicle and protein carriers, but as agents of nonvesicular lipid transfer, the role of membrane contact sites has received increasing attention. As zones for lipid metabolism and exchange, various membrane contact sites mediate direct associations between different organelles. In particular, membrane contact sites linking the plasma membrane (PM) and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) represent important regulators of lipid and ion transfer. In yeast, cortical ER is stapled to the PM through membrane-tethering proteins, which establish a direct connection between the membranes. In this review, we consider passive and facilitated models for lipid transfer at PM–ER contact sites. Besides the tethering proteins, we examine the roles of an additional repertoire of lipid and protein regulators that prime and propagate PM–ER membrane association. We conclude that instead of being simple mediators of membrane association, regulatory components of membrane contact sites have complex and multilayered functions. PMID:26949334

  18. Use of a biomimetic chromatographic stationary phase for study of the interactions occurring between inorganic anions and phosphatidylcholine membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wenzhi; Haddad, Paul R; Hasebe, Kiyoshi; Mori, Masanobu; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Ohno, Masako; Kamo, Naoki

    2002-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic method for the study of ion-membrane interactions is reported. A phosphatidylcholine biomimetic stationary phase was established by loading dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) onto a reversed-phase octadecylsilica packed column. This column was then used to study the interaction of some inorganic anions with the stationary phase by UV and conductivity detection. Ten inorganic anions were selected as model ions and were analyzed with the proposed chromatographic system. Anion-DMPC interactions of differing magnitudes were observed for all of the model anions. Perchlorate-DMPC interactions were strongest, followed by thiocyanate-DMPC, iodide-DMPC, chlorate-DMPC, nitrate-DMPC, bromide-DMPC, chloride-DMPC, fluoride-DMPC, and then sulfate-DMPC. Cations in the eluent, especially H(+) ions and divalent cations such as Ca(2+), showed strong effects on anion-DMPC interactions. The chromatographic data suggest that DMPC interacts with both the anions and the cations. Anion-DMPC interactions were dependent on the surface potential of the stationary phase: at low surface potentials anion-DMPC interactions were predominantly solvation dependent in nature whereas at more positive surface potentials anion-DMPC interactions were predominantly electrostatic in nature. Cation-DMPC interactions served to raise the surface potential, causing the anion-DMPC interactions to vary from solvation dependent to electrostatic. The chromatographic data were used to provide quantitative estimates of the enthalpies of the anion-DMPC interactions. PMID:12496102

  19. Organic Anion Transporter 1 Is Inhibited by Multiple Mechanisms and Shows a Transport Mode Independent of Exchange.

    PubMed

    Hotchkiss, Adam G; Gao, Tiandai; Khan, Usman; Berrigan, Liam; Li, Mansong; Ingraham, Leslie; Pelis, Ryan M

    2015-12-01

    The mechanism by which drugs inhibit organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) was examined. OAT1 was stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and para-aminohippurate (PAH) and 6-carboxyfluorescein were the substrates. Most compounds (10 of 14) inhibited competitively, increasing the Michaelis constant (Km) without affecting the maximal transport rate (Jmax). Others were mixed-type (lowering Jmax and increasing Km) or noncompetitive (lowering Jmax only) inhibitors. The interaction of a noncompetitive inhibitor (telmisartan) with OAT1 was examined further. Binding of telmisartan to OAT1 was observed, but translocation was not. Telmisartan did not alter the plasma membrane expression of OAT1, indicating that it lowers Jmax by reducing the turnover number. PAH transport after telmisartan treatment and its washout recovered faster in the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum in the washout buffer, indicating that binding of telmisartan to OAT1 and its inhibitory effect are reversible. Together, these data suggest that telmisartan binds reversibly to a site distinct from substrate and stabilizes the transporter in a conformation unfavorable for translocation. In the absence of an exchangeable extracellular substrate, PAH efflux from CHO-OAT1 cells was relatively rapid. Telmisartan slowed PAH efflux, suggesting that some transporter-mediated efflux occurs independent of exchange. Although drug-drug interaction predictions at OAT1 assume competitive inhibition, these data show that OAT1 can be inhibited by other mechanisms, which could influence the accuracy of drug-drug interaction predictions at the transporter. Telmisartan was useful for examining how a noncompetitive inhibitor can alter OAT1 transport activity and for uncovering a transport mode independent of exchange.

  20. Ca(2+)-activated anion channels and membrane depolarizations induced by blue light and cold in Arabidopsis seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, B. D.; Karlin-Neumann, G.; Davis, R. W.; Spalding, E. P.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The activation of an anion channel in the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls by blue light (BL) is believed to be a signal-transducing event leading to growth inhibition. Here we report that the open probability of this particular anion channel depends on cytoplasmic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt) within the concentration range of 1 to 10 microM, raising the possibility that BL activates the anion channel by increasing [Ca2+]cyt. Arabidopsis seedlings cytoplasmically expressing aequorin were generated to test this possibility. Aequorin luminescence did not increase during or after BL, providing evidence that Ca2+ does not play a second-messenger role in the activation of anion channels. However, cold shock simultaneously triggered a large increase in [Ca2+]cyt and a 110-mV transient depolarization of the plasma membrane. A blocker of the anion channel, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid, blocked 61% of the cold-induced depolarization without affecting the increase in [Ca2+]cyt. These data led us to propose that cold shock opens Ca2+ channels at the plasma membrane, allowing an inward, depolarizing Ca2+ current. The resulting large increase in [Ca2+]cyt activates the anion channel, which further depolarizes the membrane. Although an increase in [Ca2+]cyt may activate anion channels in response to cold, it appears that BL does so via a Ca(2+)-independent pathway.

  1. Exchange of monooleoylphosphatidylcholine with single egg phosphatidylcholine vesicle membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Zhelev, D V

    1996-01-01

    In a previous paper we described the experiments and the framework of a model for the exchange of monooleoylphosphatidylcholine with a single egg phosphatidylcholine membrane. In the present paper a model is presented that relates the experimentally measured apparent characteristics of the overall kinetics of lysolipid exchange to the true rates of lysolipid exchange and interbilayer transfer. It is shown that the adsorption of the lysolipid follows two pathways: one through the adsorption of lipid monomers and other through the fusion of micelles. The desorption of lysolipid follows a single pathway, namely, the desorption of monomers. The overall rate of fast desorption under convective flow conditions gives the true rate of monomer desorption from the outer membrane monolayer. The overall rate of both slow lysolipid uptake and slow desorption gives the rate of interbilayer transfer. Because of the uneven distribution of lysolipid between the two monolayers during its uptake, one of the membrane monolayers is apparently extended relative to the other. This relative extension of one of the monolayers induces a monolayer tension. The induced monolayer tension can increase up to 7 mN.m-1, when most of the intercalated lysolipid only partitions into the monolayer facing the lysolipid solution. This value is similar to the measured value for the critical monolayer tension of membrane failure, which is on the order of 5 mN.m-1. The similarity of the magnitudes of the induced monolayer tension during monooleoylphosphatidylcholine exchange and the monolayer tension of membrane failure suggests that the interbilayer lipid transfer may be affected by the formation of short living membrane defects. Furthermore, the pH-induced interbilayer exchange of phosphatidylglycerol is considered. In this case, it is shown that the rate of interbilayer transfer is a function of the phosphatidylglycerol concentration in the membrane. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8804609

  2. High performance ion chromatography of haloacetic acids on macrocyclic cryptand anion exchanger.

    PubMed

    Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta; De Carlo, Rosa Maria; Horvath, Krisztian; Perrachon, Daniela; Prelle, Ambra; Tófalvi, Renáta; Sarzanini, Corrado; Hajós, Péter

    2008-04-11

    A new high performance ion chromatographic method has been developed for the separation of the nine chlorinated-brominated haloacetic acids (HAAs) that are the disinfection by-products of chlorination of drinking water, using a macrocycle-based adjustable-capacity anion-exchange separator column (IonPac Cryptand A1). A gradient method based on theoretical and experimental considerations has been optimized in which 10 mM NaOH-LiOH step gradient was performed at the third minute of the analysis. The optimized method allowed us to separate the nine HAAs and seven possibly interfering inorganic anions in less than 25 min with acceptable resolution. The minimum concentrations detectable for HAAs were between 8.0 (MBA) and 210 (TBA) microg L(-1), with linearity included between 0.9947 (TBA) and 0.9998 (MBA). To increase sensitivity, a 25-fold preconcentration step on a reversed phase substrate (LiChrolut EN) has been coupled. Application of this method to the analysis of haloacetic acids in real tap water samples is illustrated.

  3. Perchlorate adsorption and desorption on activated carbon and anion exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Yoon, In-Ho; Meng, Xiaoguang; Wang, Chao; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Bang, Sunbaek; Choe, Eunyoung; Lippincott, Lee

    2009-05-15

    The mechanisms of perchlorate adsorption on activated carbon (AC) and anion exchange resin (SR-7 resin) were investigated using Raman, FTIR, and zeta potential analyses. Batch adsorption and desorption results demonstrated that the adsorption of perchlorate by AC and SR-7 resin was reversible. The reversibility of perchlorate adsorption by the resin was also proved by column regeneration test. Solution pH significantly affected perchlorate adsorption and the zeta potential of AC, while it did not influence perchlorate adsorption and the zeta potential of resin. Zeta potential measurements showed that perchlorate was adsorbed on the negatively charged AC surface. Raman spectra indicated the adsorption resulted in an obvious position shift of the perchlorate peak, suggesting that perchlorate was associated with functional groups on AC at neutral pH through interactions stronger than electrostatic interaction. The adsorbed perchlorate on the resin exhibited a Raman peak at similar position as the aqueous perchlorate, indicating that perchlorate was adsorbed on the resin through electrostatic attraction between the anion and positively charged surface sites.

  4. Anion-exchange separation of Pt and Pd using perchloric and hydrochloric acid solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petrie, R.K.; Morgan, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    On Biorad Ag-1X8 anion-exchange resin (200-400 mesh), Pd and Pt may be separated from one another by elution with 0.2M HClO4, and 5M HClO4, respectively. If present, Au may be retained by making the elutriants 0.003M in HCl. Alternatively, reduction by H2SO3 enables elution of Pt2+ with 6M HCl before recovery of Pd2+ with 0.2M HClO4??Ir4+ is reduced to Ir3+ by H2SO3 and may be eluted ahead of Pt2+ by 2M HCl. ?? 1982 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  5. Magnetic graphitic carbon nitride anion exchanger for specific enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gang-Tian; He, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Xi; Hussain, Dilshad; Ding, Jun; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2016-03-11

    Anion-exchange chromatography (AEX) is one of the chromatography-based methods effectively being used for phosphopeptide enrichment. However, the development of AEX materials with high specificity toward phosphopeptides is still less explored as compared to immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) or metal oxide affinity chromatography (MOAC). In this work, magnetic graphitic carbon nitride (MCN) was successfully prepared and introduced as a promising AEX candidate for phosphopeptide enrichment. Due to the extremely abundant content of nitrogen with basic functionality on the surface, this material kept excellent retention for phosphopeptides at pH as low as 1.8. Benefiting from the large binding capacity at such low pH, MCN showed remarkable specificity to capture phosphopeptides from tryptic digests of standard protein mixtures as well as nonfat milk and human serum. In addition, MCN was also applied to selective enrichment of phosphopeptides from the tryptic digests of rat brain lysate and 2576 unique phosphopeptides were successfully identified.

  6. Mg/Al double-metal hydroxide regeneration of anion exchange resin by electric field intensification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Li, Zhun; Li, Yansheng; Liu, Zhigang

    2017-03-01

    Fouled anion exchange resins were regenerated by electric field intensification of Mg/Al double-metal hydroxides. Regenerative experiments were performed with varying voltages (10-30 V) and dosages of Mg/Al hydroxides (0.045-0.135 mol and 0.015-0.045 mol, respectively) for 1-5 h. Optimal results were obtained under the following regenerative conditions: 20 V, 4 h, and 0.09/0.03 mol of Mg/Al hydroxides. The maximum regenerative capacity of resins was increased to 41.07%. The regenerative mechanism was presented by Fourier-transform infrared spectrum of resins and Mg/Al hydroxides, and the regenerative degree was analyzed with respect to conductivity, pH value, and electric current. Mg/Al hydroxides were also recycled after the regeneration. This method was proven to be cost-effective and environmentally friendly.

  7. NASA Li/CF(x) cell problem analysis: Anion exchange chromatography analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bytella, Joseph

    1991-05-01

    An analysis was made of wiper samples used to wipe down lithium/chlorine fluorine battery components and production equipment. These components and equipment were potentially exposed to thionyl chloride vapors. In the presence of moisture, thionyl chloride decomposes to sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride. The wiper samples were analyzed for soluble chlorides and fluorides by anion exchange chromatography. During the examination of the test chromatographs, fluoride contamination was discovered in wiper samples from the test equipment. An analytical method to determine fluoride was developed. The first 3 extracts from the potentially exposed and clean wiper samples were tested, and the total fluoride from both groups determined. A comparison of the results from both groups was made to determine the extent of fluoride contamination.

  8. Controllable Synthesis of Mn6+ Doped Nanoparticles by a Facile Anion Exchange Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaowen; Li, Yang; Liao, Chenxing; Chen, Zhi; Qiu, Jianrong

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II, 1000-1400 nm) is attracting extensive attention. Mn6+ doped BaSO4 with broadband emission from 900 nm to 1400 nm is emerging as a new class of NIR phosphor for fluorescence imaging. Manganese has diverse valence states, thus it is difficult to prevent valence change of Mn6+ during traditional synthesis process. In this work, BaSO4:Mn6+ nanoparticles with uniform size and morphology were first successfully prepared through a fast liquid-solid solution route at room temperature. The nanoparticles exhibit broadband NIR emission from Mn6+ when excited by 808 nm lasers. This convenient strategy, based on an efficient anion exchange reaction, is proved effective for synthesizing nano-sized materials. The results reveal that our strategy has great potential in fabricating special valence state ion doped nanomaterials.

  9. NASA Li/CF(x) cell problem analysis: Anion exchange chromatography analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bytella, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    An analysis was made of wiper samples used to wipe down lithium/chlorine fluorine battery components and production equipment. These components and equipment were potentially exposed to thionyl chloride vapors. In the presence of moisture, thionyl chloride decomposes to sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride. The wiper samples were analyzed for soluble chlorides and fluorides by anion exchange chromatography. During the examination of the test chromatographs, fluoride contamination was discovered in wiper samples from the test equipment. An analytical method to determine fluoride was developed. The first 3 extracts from the potentially exposed and clean wiper samples were tested, and the total fluoride from both groups determined. A comparison of the results from both groups was made to determine the extent of fluoride contamination.

  10. Enhancement of anion-exchange chromatography of DNA using compaction agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Jason C.; Fox, George E.; Willson, Richard C.

    2003-01-01

    The use of adsorptive chromatography for preparative nucleic acid separations is often limited by low capacity. The possibility that the adsorbent surface area sterically accessible to nucleic acid molecules could be increased by reducing their radius of gyration with compaction agents has been investigated. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of Q Sepharose anion-exchange matrix for plasmid DNA at 600 mM NaCl was enhanced by up to ca. 40% in the presence of 2.5 mM spermine. In addition, compaction agent selectivity has been demonstrated. Spermine, for example, enhances the adsorption of both plasmid and genomic DNA, spermidine enhances binding only of plasmid, and hexamine cobalt enhances only the binding of genomic DNA. Compaction may be generally useful for enhancing adsorptive separations of nucleic acids.

  11. Multigram group separation of actinide and lanthanide elements by LiCl-based anion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.D.; Benker, D.E.; Chattin, F.R.; Orr, P.B.; Ross, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    The laboratory-scale LiCl AIX process has been successfully adapted to the multigram scale and has been used effectively in transuranium element production campaigns to separate the lanthanide fission products from the transplutonium actinides and to partition americium and curium from the heavier elements. Corrosion of the tantalum and glass equipment has been negligible. Although radiolytic gas generation has not caused a problem, radiation exposure of the Dowex 1-X10 anion exchange resin does occur significantly. However, the 1.3-L resin bed can be used successfully to process up to 3 batches, each containing 19 g of /sup 244/Cm (54 W of decay heat). The chromatographic elution process is controlled by use of an alpha detector in the column effluent line and by periodic measurement of the neutron profile of the column. The development and use of feed pretreatment and operating methods has enabled effective and dependable operation.

  12. Proton exchange membranes based on PVDF/SEBS blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokrini, A.; Huneault, M. A.

    Proton-conductive polymer membranes are used as an electrolyte in the so-called proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Current commercially available membranes are perfluorosulfonic acid polymers, a class of high-cost ionomers. This paper examines the potential of polymer blends, namely those of styrene-(ethylene-butylene)-styrene block copolymer (SEBS) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), in the proton exchange membrane application. SEBS/PVDF blends were prepared by twin-screw extrusion and the membranes were formed by calendering. SEBS is a phase-segregated material where the polystyrene blocks can be selectively functionalized offering high ionic conductivity, while PVDF insures good dimensional stability and chemical resistance to the films. Proton conductivity of the films was obtained by solid-state grafting of sulfonic acid moieties. The obtained membranes were characterized in terms of conductivity, ionic exchange capacity and water uptake. In addition, the membranes were characterized in terms of morphology, microstructure and thermo-mechanical properties to establish the blends morphology-property relationships. Modification of interfacial properties between SEBS and PVDF was found to be a key to optimize the blends performance. Addition of a methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate-methyl methacrylate block copolymer (MMA-BA-MMA) was found to compatibilize the blend by reducing the segregation scale and improving the blend homogeneity. Mechanical resistance of the membranes was also improved through the addition of this compatibilizer. As little as 2 wt.% compatibilizer was sufficient for complete interfacial coverage and lead to improved mechanical properties. Compatibilized blend membranes also showed higher conductivities, 1.9 × 10 -2 to 5.5 × 10 -3 S cm -1, and improved water management.

  13. Possibility of separating toxins from bacteria associated with sudden infant death syndrome using anion exchange chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Drucker, D B; Aluyi, H A; Morris, J A; Telford, D R; Oppenheim, B A; Crawley, B A

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To develop techniques for the characterisation of toxins elaborated by a strain of Escherichia coli associated with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). METHODS: E coli SIDS 04, isolated from the nasopharynx of a case of SIDS, was studied. Cell-free toxin preparations were standardised, their protein measured, and analytical separation of proteins achieved using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Acetone precipitation of proteins was required prior to Coomassie blue staining of bands. Preparative separation was achieved on an anion exchange column using a programmed concentration gradient of NaCl in TRIS buffer. Fractions were tested individually or pooled for presence of lethal toxin including endotoxin. Lethal toxin was detected with the chick embryo test system. Endotoxin was measured using a chromogenic modification of the Limulus amoebocyte assay. RESULTS: Twenty one peaks were detected by chromatography. Ten individual, or pooled, fractions were assayed for endotoxin which ranged from 27-33 pg/ml. Much greater variation was found when the same fractions were assayed in chick embryos. E coli fractions varied considerably in lethal toxicity, from 0/10 to 10/10 chick embryos killed/tested. Certain E coli fractions tested individually (lethality four out of 10 to eight out of 10) proved more lethal (10 out of 10) if pooled prior to testing. CONCLUSIONS: In E coli infection associated with SIDS relatively low concentrations of extracellular protein are lethally toxigenic for the chick embryo model of SIDS. These proteins can be separated analytically by SDS-PAGE and preparatively by anion exchange chromatography. Toxicity of individual fractions is not correlated with endotoxin concentrations in samples tested. PMID:1401212

  14. Interfacial Water-Transport Effects in Proton-Exchange Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kienitz, Brian; Yamada, Haruhiko; Nonoyama, Nobuaki; Weber, Adam

    2009-11-19

    It is well known that the proton-exchange membrane is perhaps the most critical component of a polymer-electrolyte fuel cell. Typical membranes, such as Nafion(R), require hydration to conduct efficiently and are instrumental in cell water management. Recently, evidence has been shown that these membranes might have different interfacial morphology and transport properties than in the bulk. In this paper, experimental data combined with theoretical simulations will be presented that explore the existence and impact of interfacial resistance on water transport for Nafion(R) 21x membranes. A mass-transfer coefficient for the interfacial resistance is calculated from experimental data using different permeation cells. This coefficient is shown to depend exponentially on relative humidity or water activity. The interfacial resistance does not seem to exist for liquid/membrane or membrane/membrane interfaces. The effect of the interfacial resistance is to flatten the water-content profiles within the membrane during operation. Under typical operating conditions, the resistance is on par with the water-transport resistance of the bulk membrane. Thus, the interfacial resistance can be dominant especially in thin, dry membranes and can affect overall fuel-cell performance.

  15. Gas Transfer in Cellularized Collagen-Membrane Gas Exchange Devices

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Justin H.; Bassett, Erik K.; Penson, Elliot J. N.; Hoganson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lower respiratory disease is highly prevalent in the United States, and there remains a need for alternatives to lung transplant for patients who progress to end-stage lung disease. Portable or implantable gas oxygenators based on microfluidic technologies can address this need, provided they operate both efficiently and biocompatibly. Incorporating biomimetic materials into such devices can help replicate native gas exchange function and additionally support cellular components. In this work, we have developed microfluidic devices that enable blood gas exchange across ultra-thin collagen membranes (as thin as 2 μm). Endothelial, stromal, and parenchymal cells readily adhere to these membranes, and long-term culture with cellular components results in remodeling, reflected by reduced membrane thickness. Functionally, acellular collagen-membrane lung devices can mediate effective gas exchange up to ∼288 mL/min/m2 of oxygen and ∼685 mL/min/m2 of carbon dioxide, approaching the gas exchange efficiency noted in the native lung. Testing several configurations of lung devices to explore various physical parameters of the device design, we concluded that thinner membranes and longer gas exchange distances result in improved hemoglobin saturation and increases in pO2. However, in the design space tested, these effects are relatively small compared to the improvement in overall oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer by increasing the blood flow rate. Finally, devices cultured with endothelial and parenchymal cells achieved similar gas exchange rates compared with acellular devices. Biomimetic blood oxygenator design opens the possibility of creating portable or implantable microfluidic devices that achieve efficient gas transfer while also maintaining physiologic conditions. PMID:26020102

  16. Gas Transfer in Cellularized Collagen-Membrane Gas Exchange Devices.

    PubMed

    Lo, Justin H; Bassett, Erik K; Penson, Elliot J N; Hoganson, David M; Vacanti, Joseph P

    2015-08-01

    Chronic lower respiratory disease is highly prevalent in the United States, and there remains a need for alternatives to lung transplant for patients who progress to end-stage lung disease. Portable or implantable gas oxygenators based on microfluidic technologies can address this need, provided they operate both efficiently and biocompatibly. Incorporating biomimetic materials into such devices can help replicate native gas exchange function and additionally support cellular components. In this work, we have developed microfluidic devices that enable blood gas exchange across ultra-thin collagen membranes (as thin as 2 μm). Endothelial, stromal, and parenchymal cells readily adhere to these membranes, and long-term culture with cellular components results in remodeling, reflected by reduced membrane thickness. Functionally, acellular collagen-membrane lung devices can mediate effective gas exchange up to ∼288 mL/min/m(2) of oxygen and ∼685 mL/min/m(2) of carbon dioxide, approaching the gas exchange efficiency noted in the native lung. Testing several configurations of lung devices to explore various physical parameters of the device design, we concluded that thinner membranes and longer gas exchange distances result in improved hemoglobin saturation and increases in pO2. However, in the design space tested, these effects are relatively small compared to the improvement in overall oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer by increasing the blood flow rate. Finally, devices cultured with endothelial and parenchymal cells achieved similar gas exchange rates compared with acellular devices. Biomimetic blood oxygenator design opens the possibility of creating portable or implantable microfluidic devices that achieve efficient gas transfer while also maintaining physiologic conditions.

  17. Structure and dynamics of water and lipid molecules in charged anionic DMPG lipid bilayer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rønnest, A. K.; Peters, G. H.; Hansen, F. Y.; Taub, H.; Miskowiec, A.

    2016-04-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to investigate the influence of the valency of counter-ions on the structure of freestanding bilayer membranes of the anionic 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DMPG) lipid at 310 K and 1 atm. At this temperature, the membrane is in the fluid phase with a monovalent counter-ion and in the gel phase with a divalent counter-ion. The diffusion constant of water as a function of its depth in the membrane has been determined from mean-square-displacement calculations. Also, calculated incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering functions have been compared to experimental results and used to determine an average diffusion constant for all water molecules in the system. On extrapolating the diffusion constants inferred experimentally to a temperature of 310 K, reasonable agreement with the simulations is obtained. However, the experiments do not have the sensitivity to confirm the diffusion of a small component of water bound to the lipids as found in the simulations. In addition, the orientation of the dipole moment of the water molecules has been determined as a function of their depth in the membrane. Previous indirect estimates of the electrostatic potential within phospholipid membranes imply an enormous electric field of 108-109 V m-1, which is likely to have great significance in controlling the conformation of translocating membrane proteins and in the transfer of ions and molecules across the membrane. We have calculated the membrane potential for DMPG bilayers and found ˜1 V (˜2 ṡ 108 V m-1) when in the fluid phase with a monovalent counter-ion and ˜1.4 V (˜2.8 ṡ 108 V m-1) when in the gel phase with a divalent counter-ion. The number of water molecules for a fully hydrated DMPG membrane has been estimated to be 9.7 molecules per lipid in the gel phase and 17.5 molecules in the fluid phase, considerably smaller than inferred experimentally for 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine (DMPC

  18. RADIATION STABILITY OF NAFION MEMBRANES USED FOR ISOTOPE SEPARATION BY PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, E

    2009-05-15

    Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzers have potential interest for use for hydrogen isotope separation from water. In order for PEME to be fully utilized, more information is needed on the stability of Nafion when exposed to radiation. This work examines Nafion 117 under varying exposure conditions, including dose rate, total dosage and atmospheric condition. Analytical tools, such as FT-IR, ion exchange capacity, DMA and TIC-TOC were used to characterize the exposed membranes. Analysis of the water from saturated membranes can provide important data on the stability of the membranes during radiation exposure. It was found that the dose rate of exposure plays an important role in membrane degradation. Potential mechanisms for membrane degradation include peroxide formation by free radicals.

  19. Features of ion transport in perfluorinated ion-exchange membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Timashev, S.F.

    1986-02-01

    The conditions for functioning for various systems and devices electrolyzers for ''chlorate'' electrolysis, current sources, etc.) with perfluorinated ion-exchange membranes and septums are determined to a considerable degree by the physicochemical properties of the perfluorinated materials. In this work, on the basis of concepts developed in streaming theory as to the topology of the ''infinite clusters'' (ICs), the author defines more precisely the form of the preexponential dependence of ion transport coefficients and draws conclusions on the character of heat evolution in a perfluorinated membrane when an electric current is passed through the membrane.

  20. Dissolved organic matter removal using magnetic anion exchange resin treatment on biological effluent of textile dyeing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jun; Li, Haibo; Shuang, Chendong; Li, Wentao; Li, Aimin

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from real dyeing bio-treatment effluents (DBEs) with the use of a novel magnetic anion exchange resin (NDMP). DOMs in two typical DBEs were fractionized using DAX-8/XAD-4 resin and ultrafiltration membranes. The hydrophilic fractions and the low molecular weight (MW) (<3kDa) DOM fractions constituted a major portion (>50%) of DOMs for the two effluents. The hydrophilic and low MW fractions of both effluents were the greatest contributors of specific UV254 absorbance (SUVA254), and the SUVA254 of DOM fractions decreased with hydrophobicity and MW. Two DBEs exhibited acute and chronic biotoxicities. Both acute and chronic toxicities of DOM fractions increased linearly with the increase of SUVA254 value. Kinetics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal via NDMP treatment was performed by comparing it with that of particle active carbon (PAC). Results indicated that the removal of DOC from DBEs via NDMP was 60%, whereas DOC removals by PAC were lower than 15%. Acidic organics could be significantly removed with the use of NDMP. DOM with large MW in DBE could be removed significantly by using the same means. Removal efficiency of NDMP for DOM decreased with the decrease of MW. Compared with PAC, NDMP could significantly reduce the acute and chronic bio-toxicities of DBEs. NaCl/NaOH mixture regenerants, with selected concentrations of 10% NaCl (m/m)/1% NaOH (m/m), could improve desorption efficiency.

  1. Membrane permeation process for dehydration of organic liquid mixtures using sulfonated ion-exchange polyalkene membranes

    DOEpatents

    Cabasso, Israel; Korngold, Emmanuel

    1988-01-01

    A membrane permeation process for dehydrating a mixture of organic liquids, such as alcohols or close boiling, heat sensitive mixtures. The process comprises causing a component of the mixture to selectively sorb into one side of sulfonated ion-exchange polyalkene (e.g., polyethylene) membranes and selectively diffuse or flow therethrough, and then desorbing the component into a gas or liquid phase on the other side of the membranes.

  2. Molecular tectonics. Selective exchange of cations in porous anionic hydrogen-bonded networks built from derivatives of tetraphenylborate.

    PubMed

    Malek, Nadia; Maris, Thierry; Simard, Michel; Wuest, James D

    2005-04-27

    Tetraphenylmethanes with multiple hydrogen-bonding sites are known to associate to form robust porous supramolecular networks. Analogous anionic networks can be built from the corresponding tetraphenylborates. Crystallization of the tetraphenylphosphonium salt of tetraphenylborate 2 produces an anionic network in which 74% of the volume is available for including cations and neutral guests. Other salts of anion 2 with diverse cations crystallize consistently to form the same network, whereas a neutral analogue of anion 2, tetraphenylmethane 1, produces an uncharged network that is far less open. Cations can be exchanged in single crystals of salts of tetraphenylborate 2 with retention of crystallinity and with selectivities similar to those observed in typical zeolites. Together, these observations provide new strategies for making ordered molecular materials by design, and they reveal that constructing such materials from charged subunits offers special advantages.

  3. Magnetic cellulose ionomer/layered double hydroxide: An efficient anion exchange platform with enhanced diclofenac adsorption property.

    PubMed

    Hossein Beyki, Mostafa; Mohammadirad, Mosleh; Shemirani, Farzaneh; Saboury, Ali Akbar

    2017-02-10

    Polymeric ionomers with anion exchange capability are considered to be classes of environmentally friendly compounds as combination of them with anionic layered hydroxides constitute emerging advance materials. Biosorption by polymeric ionomer - layered double hydroxide (LDH) hybrid material exhibits an attractive green, low cost and low toxic - clean way. As a result, a novel anion exchange platform has been developed by the reaction of CaAl - LDH with Fe(2+), cellulose solution, epichlorohydrin and pyridine. Magnetite cellulose - LDH (MCL) and the ionomer were used for efficient biosorption of diclofenac sodium (DF). Results showed that ionomer has more efficiency for DF adsorption relative to MCL. Magnetite ionomer showed fast equilibrium time (2min) with maximum uptake of 268mgg(-1). Isotherm and Kinetic models were also studied. Regeneration of the sorbent was performed with a mixture of methanol -NaOH (2.0molL(-1)) solution.

  4. Solid phase extraction of lactic acid from fermentation broth by anion-exchangeable silica confined ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Bi, Wentao; Zhou, Jun; Row, Kyung Ho

    2011-01-15

    Three anion-exchangeable, silica-confined ionic liquids were synthesized for solid phase extraction of lactic acid from fermentation broth, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ultraviolet detection. By comparing the adsorption isotherms of lactic acid on different silica-confined ionic liquids, interactions between the lactic acid and sorbents were investigated. The adsorbed amounts were then fitted into different adsorption isotherm equations; finally, the Langmuir equation was selected. Then the imidazolium silica with the highest adsorption capacity of lactic acid was packed into a cartridge for solid phase extraction. The loading volume of the cartridge was optimized by the Langmuir equation and geometry. After washing with distilled water and eluting with 0.25 mol L(-1) of an HCl solution, the lactic acid was separated from interference with a recovery yield of 91.9%. Furthermore, this kind of anion-exchangeable material exhibited potential for industrial applications and separation of other anionic bioactive compounds.

  5. Mechanism of sorption sulpho-derivative organic chelating agents on strong base anion exchanger Amberlite IRA-402 by FT-IR/PAS and DRS methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wronski, G.; Pasieczna-Patkowska, S.; Hubicki, Z.

    2008-02-01

    In the paper, strong base anion exchanger Amberlite IRA-402 was modified by using sulpho-derivative organic chelating agents as: Brilliant Yellow, Xylenol Orange, Bromophenyl Blue. The investigations exhibited, that anion exchanger Amberlite IRA-402 is modified very simply by organic chelating agents (working capacity 0.25 0.5 g/cm3).

  6. [Separation of coagulation factor VIII with high activity using gigaporous anion exchange chromatography].

    PubMed

    Kang, Limei; Zhang, Yan; Luo, Jian; Li, You; Zhou, Yuefang; Yu, Rong; Su, Zhiguo

    2012-06-01

    A purification process to obtain coagulation factor VIII (F VIII) with high activity from human plasma was established. Based on the analysis of the size ratio between F VIII and matrix porous medium and its effect on the protein activity, a novel purification process designed was superporous ion exchange chromatography (IEC). The operating conditions of gigaporous and traditional anion exchange chromatography were optimized separately. The chromogenic substrate, gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) were used to monitor the bioactivity and purity of the chromatographic products. The results showed that the superporous medium could not only protect structure of macro-protein but also enhance its mass transfer, finally giving FVIII product with high activity. The yield of F VIII in superporous chromatography was about five times of commercially agarose chromatography and the specific activity was up to 154 IU/mg protein. Furthermore, we studied the regeneration process of the superporous medium, washing the column with 5 column volumes of 1 mol/L NaOH at a low flow rate, to ensure the chromatographic stability. This purification process is simple, reproducible and suitable for large-scale production.

  7. Analysis of diffusion models for protein adsorption to porous anion-exchange adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Dong; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Yan

    2002-07-12

    The ion-exchange adsorption kinetics of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and gamma-globulin to an anion exchanger, DEAE Spherodex M, has been studied by batch adsorption experiments. Various diffusion models, that is, pore diffusion, surface diffusion, homogeneous diffusion and parallel diffusion models, are analyzed for their suitabilities to depict the adsorption kinetics. Protein diffusivities are estimated by matching the models with the experimental data. The dependence of the diffusivities on initial protein concentration is observed and discussed. The adsorption isotherm of BSA is nearly rectangular, so there is little surface diffusion. As a result, the surface and homogeneous diffusion models do not fit to the kinetic data of BSA adsorption. The adsorption isotherm of gamma-globulin is less favorable, and the surface diffusion contributes greatly to the mass transport. Consequently, both the surface and homogeneous diffusion models fit to the kinetic data of gamma-globulin well. The adsorption kinetics of BSA and gamma-globulin can be very well fitted by parallel diffusion model, because the model reflects correctly the intraparticle mass transfer mechanism. In addition, for both the favorably bound proteins, the pore diffusion model fits the adsorption kinetics reasonably well. The results here indicate that the pore diffusion model can be used as a good approximate to depict protein adsorption kinetics for protein adsorption systems from rectangular to linear isotherms.

  8. Modeling of protein-anion exchange resin interaction for the human growth hormone charge variants.

    PubMed

    Lapelosa, Mauro; Patapoff, Thomas W; Zarraga, Isidro E

    2015-12-01

    Modeling ion exchange chromatography (IEC) behavior has generated significant interest because of the wide use of IEC as an analytical technique as well as a preparative protein purification process; indeed there is a need for better understanding of what drives the unique behavior of protein charge variants. We hypothesize that a complex protein molecule, which contains both hydrophobic and charged moieties, would interact strongly with an in silico designed resin through charged electrostatic patches on the surface of the protein. In the present work, variants of recombinant human growth hormone that mimic naturally-occurring deamidation products were produced and characterized in silico. The study included these four variants: rhGH, N149D, N152D, and N149D/N152D. Poisson-Boltzmann calculations were used to determine surface electrostatic potential. Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations were carried out with the resulting variants to simulate IEC systems, examining the free energy of the interaction of the protein with an in silico anion exchange column represented by polylysine polypeptide. The results show that the charge variants have different average binding energies and the free energy of interaction can be used to predict the retention time for the different variants.

  9. Performance testing of grout-based waste forms for the solidification of anion exchange resins

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, I.L.; Bostick, W.D.

    1990-10-01

    The solidification of spent ion exchanges resins in a grout matrix as a means of disposing of spent organic resins produced in the nuclear fuel cycle has many advantages in terms of process simplicity and economy, but associated with the process is the potential for water/cement/resins to interact and degrade the integrity of the waste form solidified. Described in this paper is one possible solution to preserving the integrity of these solidified waste forms: the encapsulation of beaded anion exchange resins in grout formulations containing ground granulated blast furnace slag, Type I-II (mixed) portland cement, and additives (clays, amorphous silica, silica fume, and fly ash). The results of the study reported herein show the cured waste form tested has a low leach rate for nitrate ion from the resin (and a low leach rate is inferred for Tc-99) and acceptable durability as assessed by the water immersion and freezing/thawing test protocols. The results also suggest a tested surrogate waste form prepared in vinyl ester styrene binder performs satisfactorily against the wetting/drying criterion, and it should offer additional insight into future work on the solidification of spent organic resins. 26 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. ANIONIC EXCHANGE PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF URANIUM AND VANADIUM FROM CARBONATE SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Bailes, R.H.; Ellis, D.A.; Long, R.S.

    1958-12-16

    Uranium and vanadium can be economically purified and recovered from non- salt roast carbonate leach liquors by adsorption on a strongly basic anionic exchange resin and subsequent selective elution by one of three alternative methods. Method 1 comprises selectively eluting uranium from the resin with an ammonium sulfate solution followed by eluting vanadium from the resin with either 5 M NaCl, saturated (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, saturated NaHCO/sub 3/, 1 M NaOH, or saturated S0/sub 2/ solutions. Method II comprises selectively eluting vanadium from the resin with either concentrated NaCl or S0/sub 2/ solutions subsequent to pretreatment of the column with either S0/sub 2/ gas, 1 N HCl, or 0.1 N H/sub 2/8O/sub 4/ followed by eluting uranium from the resin with solutions containing 0.9 M NH/sub 4/Cl or NaCl and 0.1 Cl. Method III comprises flowing the carbonate leac solutlon through a first column of a strongly basic anlonlc exchange resin untll vanadium breakthrough occurs, so that the effluent solution is enriched ln uranium content and the vanadium is chiefly retalned by the resln, absorbing the uranlum from the enriched effluent solution on a second column of a strongly basic anionic exchange resin, pretreating the first column with either 0.1 N HCl, 0.1 H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, C0/sub 2/ gas, or ammonium sulfate, selectively eluting the vanadlum from the column with saturated S0/sub 2/ solution, pretreatlng the second column with either 0.1 N HCl or S0/sub 2/ gas, selectively eluting residual vanadium from the column with saturated S0/sub 2/ solution, and then eluting the uranium from the column with either 0.1 N HCl and 1 N NaCl orO.l N HCl and 1 N NH/sub 4/Cl.

  11. Grafting glycidyl methacrylate to Sepharose gel for fabricating high-capacity protein anion exchangers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qianqian; Yu, Linling; Sun, Yan

    2016-04-22

    To develop ion exchangers of high protein adsorption capacity, we have herein introduced atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method to graft glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto Sepharose FF gel. GMA-grafted Sepharose FF resins of four grafting densities and different grafting chain lengths were obtained by adjusting reaction conditions. The epoxy groups on the grafted chains were functionalized by modification with diethylamine (DEA), leading to the fabrication of Sepharose-based anion exchangers of 14 different grafting densities and/or grafting chain lengths. The resins were first characterized for the effects of grafting density, chain length and ionic strength on pore sizes by inverse size exclusion chromatography. Then, the resins were evaluated by adsorption equilibria of bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a function of ionic capacity (IC) (chain length) at individual grafting densities. It was observed that at each grafting density there was a specific IC value (chain length) that offered the maximum equilibrium capacity. Of the resins with maximum values at individual grafting densities, the resin of the second grafting density with an IC value of 330 mmol/L (denoted as FF-Br2-pG-D330) showed the highest capacity, 264 mg/mL, about two times higher than that of the traditional ungrafted resin Q Sepharose FF (137 mg/mL). This resin also showed the most favorable uptake kinetics among the resins of similar IC values but different grafting densities, or of the same grafting density but different IC values. Effects of ionic strength showed that the capacities of FF-Br2-pG-D330 were much higher than Q Sepharose FF at a wide range of NaCl concentrations (0-200 mmol/L), and the uptake rates of the two resins were similar in the ionic strength range. Therefore, the dynamic binding capacity values of BSA on FF-Br2-pG-D330 were much higher than Q Sepharose FF as demonstrated at different residence times and ionic strengths. Taken together, the research has proved the

  12. Boosting Proton Conductivity in Highly Robust 3D Inorganic Cationic Extended Frameworks through Ion Exchange with Dihydrogen Phosphate Anions.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chengliang; Wang, Yaxing; Chen, Lanhua; Yin, Xuemiao; Shu, Jie; Sheng, Daopeng; Chai, Zhifang; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E; Wang, Shuao

    2015-12-01

    The limited long-term hydrolytic stability of rapidly emerging 3D-extended framework materials (MOFs, COFs, MOPs, etc.) is still one of major barriers for their practical applications as new solid-state electrolytes in fuel cells. To obtain hydrolytically stable materials, two H2 PO4 (-) -exchanged 3D inorganic cationic extended frameworks (CEFs) were successfully prepared by a facile anion-exchange method. Both anion-exchanged CEFs (YbO(OH)P and NDTBP) show significantly enhanced proton conductivity when compared with the original materials (YbO(OH)Cl and NDTB) with an increase of up to four orders-of-magnitude, reaching 2.36×10(-3) and 1.96×10(-2)  S cm(-1) at 98 % RH and 85 °C for YbO(OH)P and NDTBP, respectively. These values are comparable to the most efficient proton-conducting MOFs. In addition, these two anion-exchanged materials are stable in boiling water, which originates from the strong electrostatic interaction between the H2 PO4 (-) anion and the cationic host framework, showing a clear advance over all the acid-impregnated materials (H2 SO4 @MIL-101, H3 PO4 @MIL-101, and H3 PO4 @Tp-Azo) as practical solid-state fuel-cell electrolytes. This work offers a new general and efficient approach to functionalize 3D-extended frameworks through an anion-exchange process and achieves water-stability with ultra-high proton conductivity above 10(-2)  S cm(-1) .

  13. Ion exchange membrane bioreactor for treating groundwater contaminated with high perchlorate concentrations.

    PubMed

    Fox, Shalom; Oren, Yoram; Ronen, Zeev; Gilron, Jack

    2014-01-15

    Perchlorate contamination of groundwater is a worldwide concern. The most cost efficient treatment for high concentrations is biological treatment. In order to improve and increase the acceptance of this treatment, there is a need to reduce the contact between micro organisms in the treatment unit and the final effluent. An ion exchange membrane bioreactor (IEMB), in which treated water is separated from the bioreactor, was suggested for this purpose. In this study, the IEMB's performance was studied at a concentration as high as 250mgL(-1) that were never studied before. In the bioreactor, glycerol was used as a low cost and nontoxic carbon and energy source for the reduction of perchlorate to chloride. We found that high perchlorate concentrations in the feed rendered the anion exchange membrane significantly less permeable to perchlorate. However, the presence of bacteria in the bio-compartment significantly increased the flux through the membrane by more than 25% in comparison to pure Donnan dialysis. In addition, the results suggested minimal secondary contamination (<3mgCL(-1)) of the treated water with the optimum feed of carbon substrate. Our results show that IEMB can efficiently treat groundwater contaminated with perchlorate as high as 250mgL(-1).

  14. Hydrocarbon-based polymer electrolyte cerium composite membranes for improved proton exchange membrane fuel cell durability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyejin; Han, Myungseong; Choi, Young-Woo; Bae, Byungchan

    2015-11-01

    Hydrocarbon-based cerium composite membranes were prepared for proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications to increase oxidative stability. Different amounts of cerium ions were impregnated in sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPES) membranes and their physicochemical properties were investigated according to the cerium content. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma analyses confirmed the presence of cerium ions in the composite membranes and 1H NMR indicated the successful coordination of sulfonic acid groups with the metal ions. Increasing amounts of cerium ions resulted in decreases in the proton conductivity and water uptake, but enhanced oxidative stability. The oxidative stability of the composite membranes was proven via a hydrogen peroxide exposure experiment which mimicked fuel cell operating conditions. In addition, more than 2200 h was achieved with the composite membrane under in situ accelerated open circuit voltage (OCV) durability testing (DOE protocol), whereas the corresponding pristine SPES membrane attained only 670 h.

  15. Impedance study of membrane dehydration and compression in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Canut, Jean-Marc; Latham, Ruth; Mérida, Walter; Harrington, David A.

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is used to measure drying and rehydration in proton exchange membrane fuel cells running under load. The hysteresis between forward and backward acquisition of polarization curves is shown to be largely due to changes in the membrane resistance. Drying tests are carried out with hydrogen and simulated reformate (hydrogen and carbon dioxide), and quasi-periodic drying and rehydration conditions are studied. The membrane hydration state is clearly linked to the high-frequency arc in the impedance spectrum, which increases in size for dry conditions indicating an increase in membrane resistance. Changes in impedance spectra as external compression is applied to the cell assembly show that EIS can separate membrane and interfacial effects, and that changes in membrane resistance dominate. Reasons for the presence of a capacitance in parallel with the membrane resistance are discussed.

  16. Anion-directed assemblies of cationic metal-organic frameworks based on 4,4'-bis(1,2,4-triazole): syntheses, structures, luminescent and anion exchange properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinxiong; Gong, Yaqiong; Zhao, Huaixia; Wang, Ruihu

    2014-11-17

    Three cationic metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), Ag(btr)·PF6·0.5CH3CN (1), Ag2(btr)2(H2O)·2CF3SO3·H2O (2), and Ag2(btr)2(NO3)·NO3 (3), were prepared from reaction of 4,4'-bis(1,2,4-triazole) (btr) with silver salts containing different anions. Complex 1 is a three-dimensional (3-D) framework constructed from tetrahedral-shaped nanoscale coordination cages with PF6(-) as counteranions. 2 and 3 are 3-D architectures containing 1-D channels, in which charge-balancing CF3SO3(-) and NO3(-) are located in their respective channels. Luminescent emission of 1-3 shows an obvious red shift compared with the btr ligand. Anion exchange studies show that 1 is able to selectively exchange MnO4(-) in aqueous solution with a modest capacity of 0.56 mol mol(-1); the luminescent emission of 1 is quickly quenched upon MnO4(-) exchange.

  17. Removing hexavalent chromium from subsurface waters with anion-exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, R.A.

    1995-06-01

    Some subsurface waters at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), is also present in the ground water; however, the source of the Cr(VI) may be natural. The Cr(VI) still must be treated if brought to the surface because its concentration exceeds discharge standards. We are planning facilities for removing the VOCs and Cr(VI) to a level below the discharge standards. The planned treatment includes the following steps: (1) Pumping the water to the surface facility. (2) Purging the VOCs with air and absorbing them on activated carbon. The VOCs in LLNL`s subsurface waters are primarily chlorinated organic solvents, such as dichloroethylene (DCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and chloroform (CHCl{sub 3}). Contamination levels range from tens to thousands of parts per billion. (3) Filtering the water. (4) Passing the water through anion-exchange resin to remove the Cr. The Cr in LLNL subsurface waters occurs almost entirely as Cr(VI), which exists as the chromate anion, CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, at environmental pH. Cr levels range from tens to hundreds of parts per billion. (5) Discharging the treated water into the local arroyos. The relevant discharge criteria are 5 ppb total VOCs, 11 ppb Cr(VI), and pH between 6.5 and 8.5, inclusive. This report describes laboratory experiments undertaken to learn how the proposed treatment facility can be expected to operate. The laboratory results are expected to supply vendors with the detailed performance specifications needed to prepare bids on the Cr removal portion of the treatment facility. The treatment facility is expected to process 60 gallons per minute (gpm) of water by stripping VOCs with 720 standard cubic feet per minute (scfm) of air and removing Cr(VI) with 60 ft{sup 3} of resin.

  18. Anion exchange of organic carboxylate by soils responsible for positive Km-fc relationship from methanol mixture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minhee; Han, Junho; Hyun, Seunghun

    2013-09-01

    The cosolvency model was not applicable for predicting the sorption of organic carboxylic acids. The reason of inapplicability was investigated by analyzing the solubility (Sm) and sorption (Km) of benzoic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). The Sm and Km by two iron-rich soils was measured as a function of methanol volume fraction (fc), electrolyte compositions, and pH(app). For 2,4,6-TCP, the Km of both neutral and anion species was well-explainable by the cosolvency model, exemplifying the knowledge of cosolvency power (σ) being sufficient to describe its sorption. However, for benzoic acid and 2,4-D, the Km of organic anions increased with fc, illustrating the organic carboxylate to be responsible for the deviation. The Sm of organic anions was not affected by the ionic valence (Ca(2+) vs. K(+)) of liquid phase. Among hydrophilic quantities of the 2,4-D sorption, the fraction of anion exchange increased with fc while the fraction of Ca-bridge decreased in the same range. Adding solvent in soil-water system is likely to render soil surface charge more positive, fortifying the anion exchange, but opposing the formation of Ca-bridging. Therefore, it can be concluded that the positive Km-fc relationship is due to the anion exchange of organic carboxylate with positively charged soil surface, whose contribution is >50% of overall sorption at solvent-free system and becomes greater with fc up to 82%.

  19. Fouling of an anion exchange chromatography operation in a monoclonal antibody process: Visualization and kinetic studies

    PubMed Central

    Close, Edward J; Salm, Jeffrey R; Iskra, Timothy; Sørensen, Eva; Bracewell, Daniel G

    2013-01-01

    Fouling of chromatographic resins over their operational lifetimes can be a significant problem for commercial bioseparations. In this article, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), batch uptake experiments, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and small-scale column studies were applied to characterize a case study where fouling had been observed during process development. The fouling was found to occur on an anion exchange (AEX) polishing step following a protein A affinity capture step in a process for the purification of a monoclonal antibody. Fouled resin samples analyzed by SEM and batch uptake experiments indicated that after successive batch cycles, significant blockage of the pores at the resin surface occurred, thereby decreasing the protein uptake rate. Further studies were performed using CLSM to allow temporal and spatial measurements of protein adsorption within the resin, for clean, partially fouled and extensively fouled resin samples. These samples were packed within a miniaturized flowcell and challenged with fluorescently labeled albumin that enabled in situ measurements. The results indicated that the foulant has a significant impact on the kinetics of adsorption, severely decreasing the protein uptake rate, but only results in a minimal decrease in saturation capacity. The impact of the foulant on the kinetics of adsorption was further investigated by loading BSA onto fouled resin over an extended range of flow rates. By decreasing the flow rate during BSA loading, the capacity of the resin was recovered. These data support the hypothesis that the foulant is located on the particle surface, only penetrating the particle to a limited degree. The increased understanding into the nature of the fouling can help in the continued process development of this industrial example. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), batch uptake experiments, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and small-scale column experiments were applied to characterize a

  20. Effect of Oxalate on the Recycle of Neptunium Filtrate Solution by Anion Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E

    2004-11-18

    A series of laboratory column runs has been performed that demonstrates the recovery of neptunium (Np) containing up to 0.05 M oxalate. Np losses were generally less than one percent to the raffinate for feed solutions that contained 2 to 10 g Np/L. Up to 16 percent Np losses were observed with lower Np feed concentrations, but those losses were attributed to the shortened residence times rather than the higher oxalate to Np ratios. Losses in the plant are expected to be significantly less due to the lower cross-section flowrate possible with existing plant pumps. Elimination of the permanganate treatment of filtrates appears to be reasonable since the amount of Np in those filtrates does not appear to be practical to recover. Combination of untreated filtrates with other actinide rich solutions is not advisable as precipitation problems are likely. If untreated filtrates are kept segregated from other actinide rich streams, the recovery of the remaining Np is probably still possible, but could be limited due to the excessively high oxalate to Np ratio. The persistence of hydrazine/hydrazoic acid in filtrate solutions dictates that the nitrite treatment be retained to eliminate those species from the filtrates prior to transfer to the canyon. Elimination of the permanganate treatment of precipitator flushes and recovery by anion exchange does not appear to be limited by the oxalate effect on anion exchange. Np from solutions with higher oxalate to Np molar ratios than expected in precipitator flushes was recovered with low to modest losses. Solubility problems appear to be unlikely when the moles of oxalate involved are less than the total number of moles of Np due to complexation effects. The presence of significant concentrations of iron (Fe) in the solutions will further decrease the probability of Np oxalate precipitation due the formation of Fe oxalate complexes. Np oxalate solubility data in 8 M HNO{sub 3} with from one to six times as much oxalate as Np have

  1. Gaseous anion chemistry. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange in mono- and dialcohol alkoxide ions: ionization reactions in dialcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, J.R.; Agosta, W.C.; Field, F.H.

    1980-08-15

    The subject of this work is H-D exchange in certain gaseous anions using D/sub 2/ as the exchanging agent. The anions involved are produced from ethylene glycol, 1,3-propanediol, 1,4-butanediol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol. Spectra and postulated ionization reactions for these mono- and dialcohols are given. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange occurs in the (M - 1)/sup -/ and (2M - 1)/sup -/ ions of ethylene glycol, 1,3-propanediol, and 1,4-butanediol. The amount of exchange occurring is 3-8 times greater in (2M - 1)/sup -/ than in (M - 1)/sup -/. The amount of H-D exchange occurring in ethanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol is small or zero in the (2M - 1)/sup -/ ions and in the (M - 1)/sup -/ ion for 1-butanol (the only (M - 1)/sup -/ ion which could be examined experimentally). The amount of exchange occurring in the (2M - 1)/sup -/ and (M - 1)/sup -/ ions from ethylene glycol is not affected by the total pressure or composition of the reaction mixture in the ionization chamber of the mass spectrometer. A novel hydrogen-bridging mechanism is suggested to account for the observed exchange occurring in the dialcohols.

  2. Membrane properties induced by anionic phospholipids and phosphatidylethanolamine are critical for the membrane binding and catalytic activity of human cytochrome P450 3A4.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keon-Hee; Ahn, Taeho; Yun, Chul-Ho

    2003-12-30

    Human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, a membrane anchoring protein, is the major CYP enzyme present in both liver and small intestine. The enzyme plays a major role in the metabolism of many drugs and procarcinogens. The roles of individual phospholipids and membrane properties in the catalytic activity, membrane binding, and insertion into the membrane of CYP3A4 are poorly understood. Here we report that the catalytic activity of testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation, membrane binding, and membrane insertion of CYP3A4 increase as a function of anionic phospholipid concentration in the order phosphatidic acid (PA) > phosphatidylserine (PS) in a binary system of phosphatidylcholine (PC)/anionic phospholipid and as a function of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) content in ternary systems of PC/PE/PA or PC/PE/PS having a fixed concentration of anionic phospholipids. These results suggest that PA and PE might help the binding of CYP3A4 to the membrane and the interaction with NPR. Cytochrome b(5) (b(5)) and apolipoprotein b(5) further enhanced the testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation activities of CYP3A4 in all tested phospholipids vesicles with various compositions. Phospholipid-dependent changes of the CYP3A4 conformation were also revealed by altered Trp fluorescence and CD spectra. We also found that PE induced the formation of anionic phospholipid-enriched domains in ternary systems using extrinsic fluorescent probes incorporated into lipid bilayers. Taken together, it can be suggested that the chemical and physical properties of membranes induced by anionic phospholipids and PE are critical for the membrane binding and catalytic activity of CYP3A4.

  3. HYDROGEN ISOTOPE RECOVERY USING PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE ELECTROLYSIS OF WATER

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, E; Scott Greenway, S; Amy Ekechukwu, A

    2007-08-27

    A critical component of tritium glovebox operations is the recovery of high value tritium from the water vapor in the glove box atmosphere. One proposed method to improve existing tritium recovery systems is to replace the disposable hot magnesium beds used to separate the hydrogen and oxygen in water with continuous use Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzers (PEMEs). This study examines radiation exposure to the membrane of a PEME and examines the sizing difference that would be needed if the electrolyzer were operated with a cathode water vapor feed instead of an anode liquid water feed.

  4. The application of Dow Chemical's perfluorinated membranes in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisman, G. A.

    1989-01-01

    Dow Chemical's research activities in fuel cells revolve around the development of perfluorosulfonic acid membranes useful as the proton transport medium and separator. Some of the performance characteristics which are typical for such membranes are outlined. The results of tests utilizing a new experimental membrane useful in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells are presented. The high voltage at low current densities can lead to higher system efficiencies while, at the same time, not sacrificing other critical properties pertinent to membrane fuel cell operation. A series of tests to determine response times indicated that on-off cycles are on the order of 80 milliseconds to reach 90 percent of full power. The IR free voltage at 100 amps/sq ft was determined and the results indicating a membrane/electrode package resistance to be .15 ohm-sq cm at 100 amps/sq ft.

  5. Zonal rate model for stacked membrane chromatography part II: characterizing ion-exchange membrane chromatography under protein retention conditions.

    PubMed

    Francis, Patrick; von Lieres, Eric; Haynes, Charles

    2012-03-01

    The Zonal Rate Model (ZRM) has previously been shown to accurately account for contributions to elution band broadening, including external flow nonidealities and radial concentration gradients, in ion-exchange membrane (IEXM) chromatography systems operated under nonbinding conditions. Here, we extend the ZRM to analyze and model the behavior of retained proteins by introducing terms for intra-column mass transfer resistances and intrinsic binding kinetics. Breakthrough curve (BTC) data from a scaled-down anion-exchange membrane chromatography module using ovalbumin as a model protein were collected at flow rates ranging from 1.5 to 20 mL min(-1). Through its careful accounting of transport nonidealities within and external to the membrane stack, the ZRM is shown to provide a useful framework for characterizing putative protein binding mechanisms and models, for predicting BTCs and complex elution behavior, including the common observation that the dynamic binding capacity can increase with linear velocity in IEXM systems, and for simulating and scaling separations using IEXM chromatography. Global fitting of model parameters is used to evaluate the performance of the Langmuir, bi-Langmuir, steric mass action (SMA), and spreading-type protein binding models in either correlating or fundamentally describing BTC data. When combined with the ZRM, the bi-Langmuir, and SMA models match the chromatography data, but require physically unrealistic regressed model parameters to do so. In contrast, for this system a spreading-type model is shown to accurately predict column performance while also providing a realistic fundamental explanation for observed trends, including an observed increase in dynamic binding capacity with flow rate.

  6. Studies on the batch adsorption of plasmid DNA onto anion-exchange chromatographic supports.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, G N; Cabral, J M; Prazeres, D M

    2000-01-01

    The adsorption of a supercoiled 4.8 kbp plasmid onto quaternary ammonium anion-exchangers was studied in a finite bath. Equilibrium experiments were performed with pure plasmid, at 25 degrees C, using commercial Q-Sepharose matrices differing in particle diameter (High Performance, 34 microm; Fast Flow, 90 microm; and Big Beads, 200 microm) and a recently commercialized ion-exchanger, Streamline QXL (d(p) = 200 microm) at different salt concentrations (0.5, 0.7, and 1 M NaCl). Plasmid adsorption was found to follow second-order kinetics (Langmuir isotherm) with average association constants K(A) = 0.32+/-0.12 mL microg(-)(1) and K(A) = 0.25+/-0.15 mL microg(-1) at 0.5 and 0.7 M Nacl, respectively. The maximum binding capacities were not dependent on the ionic strength in the range 0.5-0.7 M but decreased with increasing particle diameter, suggesting that adsorption mainly occurs at the surface of the particles. No adsorption was found at 1 M NaCl. A nonporous model was applied to describe the uptake rate of plasmid onto Streamline QXL at 0.5 M NaCl. The overall process rate was controlled by mass transfer in the regions of low relative amounts of adsorbent (initial stages) and kinetically controlled in the later stages of the process for high relative amounts of adsorbent. The forward reaction rate constant (k(1) = 0.09+/-0.01 mL mg(-1) s(-1)) and film mass transfer coefficient (K(f) = (6 +/- 2) x 10(-4) cm s(-1)) were calculated. Simulations were performed to study the effect of the relative amount of adsorbent on the overall process rate, yield, and media capacity utilization.

  7. Oxygen isotope fractionation in phosphates: the role of dissolved complex anions in isotope exchange.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yong-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen isotope fractionation factors for phosphates were calculated by means of the increment method. The results suggest that Ag3PO4 and BiPO4 are enriched in (18)O relative to AgPO4, and the three phosphates are consistently depleted in (18)O relative to Ba3[PO4]2; fluorapatite and chlorapatite exhibit a similar behaviour of oxygen isotope fractionation with consistent enrichment of (18)O relative to hydroxyapatite. The valence, radii and coordination of metal cations play a quantitative role in dictating the (18)O/(16)O partitioning in these phosphates of different compositions. The calculated fractionation factors for the Ag3PO4-H2O system are in agreement with experimental determinations derived from enzyme-catalysed isotope exchange between dissolved inorganic phosphate and water at the longest reaction durations at low temperatures. This demonstrates that the precipitated Ag3PO4 has completely captured the oxygen isotope fractionation in the dissolved inorganic phosphate. The calculated fractionation factors for the F/Cl-apatite-water systems are in agreement with the enzyme-catalysed experimental fractionations for the dissolved phosphate-water system at the longest reaction durations but larger than fractionations derived from bacteria-facilitated exchange and inorganic precipitation experiments as well as natural observations. For the experimental calibrations of oxygen isotope fractionation involving the precipitation of dissolved phosphate species from aqueous solutions, the fractionation between precipitate and water is primarily dictated by the isotope equilibration between the dissolved complex anions and water prior to the precipitation. Therefore, the present results provide a quantitative means to interpret the temperature dependence of oxygen isotope fractionation in inorganic and biogenic phosphates.

  8. Non-covalent bonding interaction of surfactants with functionalized carbon nanotubes in proton exchange membranes for fuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Sayeed, M Abu; Kim, Young Ho; Park, Younjin; Gopalan, A I; Lee, Kwang-Pill; Choi, Sang-June

    2013-11-01

    Dispersion of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in proton exchange membranes (PEMs) was conducted via non-covalent bonding between benzene rings of various surfactants and functionalized MWCNTs. In the solution casting method, dispersion of functionalized MWCNTs in PEMs such as Nafion membranes is a critical issue. In this study, 1 wt.% pristine MWCNTs (p-MWCNTs) and oxidized MWCNTs (ox-MWCNTs) were reinforced in Nafion membranes by adding 0.1-0.5 wt.% of a surfactant such as benzalkonium chloride (BKC) as a cationic surfactant with a benzene ring, Tween-80 as a nonanionic surfactant without a benzene ring, sodium dodecylsulfonate (SDS) as an anionic surfactant without a benzene ring, or sodium dodecylben-zenesulfonate (SDBS) as an anionic surfactant with a benzene ring and their effects on the dispersion of nanocomposites were then observed. Among these surfactants, those with benzene rings such as BKC and SDBS produced enhanced dispersion via non-covalent bonding interaction between CNTs and surfactants. Specifically, the surfactants were adsorbed onto the surface of functionalized MWCNTs, where they prevented re-aggregation of MWCNTs in the nanocomposites. Furthermore, the prepared CNTs reinforced nanocomposite membranes showed reduced methanol uptake values while the ion exchange capacity values were maintained. The enhanced properties, including thermal property of the CNTs reinforced PEMs with surfactants, could be applicable to fuel cell applications.

  9. Monitoring of enzymatic hydrolysis of starch by microdialysis sampling coupled on-line to anion exchange chromatography and integrated pulsed electrochemical detection using post-column switching.

    PubMed

    Torto, N; Gorton, L; Marko-Varga, G; Emnéus, J; Akerberg, C; Zacchi, G; Laurell, T

    1997-12-05

    A quantitative evaluation of the hydrolysis of wheat starch using Termamyl, a thermostable alpha-amylase (endo-1,4-alpha-d-glucan, glucanohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.78), is reported. Data from the monitoring of the hydrolysis of wheat starch indicated that, after 1 h, glucose and maltooligosaccharides up to DP 7 were the main hydrolysis products and thus enabled optimization of a liquefication step during the production of L-lactic acid. The monitoring system used, both in the on- and off-line mode, was based on continuous flow microdialysis sampling (CFMS) coupled to anion exchange chromatography and integrated pulsed electrochemical detection (IPED). A microdialysis probe equipped with a 5-mm polysulfone (SPS 4005) membrane, with a molecular-weight cut-off of 5 kDa, was used to sample the hydrolysis products of native wheat starch at 90 degrees C. Characteristic fingerprint separations were achieved by anion exchange chromatography after enzymatic hydrolysis. Post-column switching improved the detection and, consequently, also quantification of the hydrolysates as fouling of the electrode could be reduced. Maltooligosaccharide standards were used for quantification and to verify the elution of the hydrolysates by spiking the off-line samples. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 56: 546-554, 1997.

  10. Monitoring of enzymatic hydrolysis of starch by microdialysis sampling coupled on-line to anion exchange chromatography and integrated pulsed electrochemical detection using post-column switching

    SciTech Connect

    Torto, N.; Gorton, L.; Emneus, J.; Laurell, T.; Marko-Varga, G.; Akerberg, C.; Zacchi, G. |

    1997-12-05

    A quantitative evaluation of the hydrolysis of wheat starch using Termamyl, a thermostable {alpha}-amylase, is reported. Data from the monitoring of the hydrolysis of wheat starch indicated that, after 1 h, glucose and maltooligosaccharides up to DP 7 were the main hydrolysis products and thus enabled optimization of a liquefaction step during the production of L-lactic acid. The monitoring system used, both in the on- and off-line mode, was based on continuous flow microdialysis sampling (CFMS) coupled to anion exchange chromatography and integrated pulsed electrochemical detection (IPED). A microdialysis probe equipped with a 5-mm polysulfone (SPS 4005) membrane, with a molecular-weight cut-off of 5 kDa, was used to sample the hydrolysis products of native wheat starch at 90 C. Characteristic fingerpoint separations were achieved by anion exchange chromatography after enzymatic hydrolysis. Post-column switching improved the detection and, consequently, also quantification of the hydrolysates as fouling of the electrode could be reduced. Maltooligosaccharide standards were used for quantification and to verify the elution of the hydrolysates by spiking the off-line samples.

  11. Interpenetrating polymer network ion exchange membranes and method for preparing same

    DOEpatents

    Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Danesi, Pier R.; Horwitz, E. Philip

    1989-01-01

    Interpenetrating polymer network ion exchange membranes include a microporous polymeric support film interpenetrated by an ion exchange polymer and are produced by absorbing and polymerizing monomers within the support film. The ion exchange polymer provides ion exchange ligands at the surface of and throughout the support film which have sufficient ligand mobility to extract and transport ions across the membrane.

  12. Macroporous poly(glycidyl methacrylate-triallyl isocyanurate-divinylbenzene) matrix as an anion-exchange resin for protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Yu, Y; Sun, Y

    1999-09-03

    A novel macroporous poly(glycidyl methacrylate-triallyl isocyanurate-divinylbenzene) matrix was prepared by a radical suspension copolymerization. The matrix contained epoxy groups, so diethylaminohydroxypropyl groups were coupled to the matrix, leading to an anion-exchange resin. We studied the components, surface and pore structures of the anion-exchange resin by Fourier transform infared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM observations showed that the resin abounded in macropores as large as 3 to 8 microns both in the surface and the interior. The back-pressure of the column packed with the resin was modest even at a high flow-rate (60.2 cm/min). Then, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a model protein to examine the adsorption properties of the anion-exchange resin. The results showed that under optimum conditions the resin had a capacity as high as 22.8 mg BSA/g wet resin, or 68.7 mg/g dry resin. The adsorbed protein could be desorbed by increasing the liquid phase ionic strength. Most importantly, the matrix had little nonspecific adsorption for BSA before introducing the ion-exchange groups.

  13. Safety of Propofol for Oxygenator Exchange in Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Hohlfelder, Benjamin; Szumita, Paul M; Lagambina, Susan; Weinhouse, Gerald; Degrado, Jeremy R

    The purpose of this analysis is to describe the safety of propofol administration in adult extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) patients. We performed a prospective cohort analysis of patients using ECMO at Brigham and Women's Hospital between February 2013 and October 2015. Patients were included if they used ECMO for at least 48 hours. The major end-point of the analysis was the median oxygenator lifespan. Oxygenator exchanges were analyzed by the number of patients requiring an oxygenator exchange and the number of oxygenator exchanges per ECMO day. A priori analysis was performed by comparing the outcomes between patients who did and did not receive propofol during their ECMO course. During the study, 43 patients were included in the analysis. Sixteen patients used propofol during their ECMO course. There were 12 oxygenator exchanges during therapy. Oxygenator exchange occurred on 1.8% of ECMO days. The median oxygenator lifespan was 7 days. Patients who used propofol had a significantly longer oxygenator lifespan (p = 0.02). Among patients who received propofol, patients who required oxygenator exchange used a significantly lower median daily dose of propofol (p < 0.001). The use of propofol appears safe in ECMO with regards to oxygenator viability. Contrary to expected, oxygenator lifespan was significantly longer among patients who received propofol.

  14. Quaternized dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate strong base anion exchange fibers for As(V) adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavaklı, Cengiz; Akkaş Kavaklı, Pınar; Turan, Burcu Dila; Hamurcu, Aslı; Güven, Olgun

    2014-09-01

    N,N-Dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) grafted polyethylene/polypropylene (PE/PP) nonwoven fibers (DMAEMA-g-PE/PP) was prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization. DMAEMA graft chains on nonwoven fibers were quaternized with dimethyl sulfate solution for the preparation of strong base anion exchange fibers (QDMAEMA-g-PE/PP). Fiber structures were characterized by FTIR, XPS and SEM techniques. The effect of solution pH, contact time, initial As(V) ion concentration and coexisting ions on the As(V) adsorption capacity of the QDMAEMA-g-PE/PP fibers were investigated by performing batch adsorption experiments. The adsorption of As(V) by QDMAEMA-g-PE/PP fibers was found to be independent on solution pH in the range 4.00-10.00. Kinetic experiments show that the As(V) adsorption rate was rapid and As(V) adsorption follows pseudo second-order kinetic model. As(V) adsorption equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm model equations. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models fitted the experimental data well. The maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) calculated from Langmuir isotherm was found to be 83.33 mg As(V)/g polymer at pH 7.00. The adsorbent was used for three cycles without significant loss of adsorption capacity. The adsorbed As(V) ions were desorbed effectively by a 0.1 M NaOH solution.

  15. Accounting for host cell protein behavior in anion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Ryan K; Xu, Ruo; Nettleton, Daniel S; Glatz, Charles E

    2016-11-01

    Host cell proteins (HCP) are a problematic set of impurities in downstream processing (DSP) as they behave most similarly to the target protein during separation. Approaching DSP with the knowledge of HCP separation behavior would be beneficial for the production of high purity recombinant biologics. Therefore, this work was aimed at characterizing the separation behavior of complex mixtures of HCP during a commonly used method: anion-exchange chromatography (AEX). An additional goal was to evaluate the performance of a statistical methodology, based on the characterization data, as a tool for predicting protein separation behavior. Aqueous two-phase partitioning followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis provided data on the three physicochemical properties most commonly exploited during DSP for each HCP: pI (isoelectric point), molecular weight, and surface hydrophobicity. The protein separation behaviors of two alternative expression host extracts (corn germ and E. coli) were characterized. A multivariate random forest (MVRF) statistical methodology was then applied to the database of characterized proteins creating a tool for predicting the AEX behavior of a mixture of proteins. The accuracy of the MVRF method was determined by calculating a root mean squared error value for each database. This measure never exceeded a value of 0.045 (fraction of protein populating each of the multiple separation fractions) for AEX. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1453-1463, 2016.

  16. Development of a modular virus clearance package for anion exchange chromatography operated in weak partitioning mode.

    PubMed

    Iskra, Timothy; Sacramo, Ashley; Gallo, Chris; Godavarti, Ranga; Chen, Shuang; Lute, Scott; Brorson, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Anion exchange chromatography (AEX) operated under weak partitioning mode has been proven to be a powerful polishing step as well as a robust viral clearance step in Pfizer's monoclonal antibody (mAb) platform purification process. A multivariate design of experiment (DoE) study was conducted to understand the impact of operating parameters and feedstream impurity levels on viral clearance by weak partitioning mode AEX. Bacteriophage was used initially as a surrogate for neutral and acidic isoelectric point mammalian viruses (e.g., retrovirus and parvovirus). Five different mAbs were used in the evaluation of process parameters such as load challenge (both product and impurities), load pH, load conductivity, and contact time (bed height and flow-rate). The operating ranges obtained from phage clearance studies and Pfizer's historical data were used to define an appropriate operating range for a subsequent clearance study with model retrovirus and parvovirus. Both phage and virus clearance evaluations included feedstreams containing different levels of impurities such as high molecular mass species (HMMS), host cell proteins (HCPs), and host cell DNA. For all the conditions tested, over 5 log10 of clearance for both retrovirus and parvovirus was achieved. The results demonstrated that weak partitioning mode AEX chromatography is a robust step for viral clearance and has the potential to be included as part of the modular viral clearance approach.

  17. PLUTONIUM LOADING CAPACITY OF REILLEX HPQ ANION EXCHANGE COLUMN - AFS-2 PLUTONIUM FLOWSHEET FOR MOX

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E.; King, W.; O'Rourke, P.

    2012-07-26

    Radioactive plutonium (Pu) anion exchange column experiments using scaled HB-Line designs were performed to investigate the dependence of column loading performance on the feed composition in the H-Canyon dissolution process for plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) product shipped to the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). These loading experiments show that a representative feed solution containing {approx}5 g Pu/L can be loaded onto Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin from solutions containing 8 M total nitrate and 0.1 M KF provided that the F is complexed with Al to an [Al]/[F] molar ratio range of 1.5-2.0. Lower concentrations of total nitrate and [Al]/[F] molar ratios may still have acceptable performance but were not tested in this study. Loading and washing Pu losses should be relatively low (<1%) for resin loading of up to 60 g Pu/L. Loading above 60 g Pu/L resin is possible, but Pu wash losses will increase such that 10-20% of the additional Pu fed may not be retained by the resin as the resin loading approaches 80 g Pu/L resin.

  18. Anion exchange chromatographic separation of inositol phosphates and their quantification by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Heathers, G P; Juehne, T; Rubin, L J; Corr, P B; Evers, A S

    1989-01-01

    The direct measurement of mass of inositol trisphosphate from biologic samples is described. Separation of inositol monophosphate, bisphosphate, trisphosphate, and inositol tetrakisphosphate was achieved using anion exchange chromatography with a sodium sulfate gradient. In addition, separation of the isomers of each inositol phosphate was performed using HPLC procedures. The individual inositol phosphate fractions were subsequently dephosphorylated and desalted. The myo-inositol from each fraction was then derivatized to the hexatrimethylsilyl derivative and the myo-inositol derivatives were quantified by a novel gas chromatographic analysis using the hexatrimethylsilyl derivative of chiro-inositol as an internal concentration reference. This method is a reproducible and relatively rapid procedure for the direct quantification of inositol phosphate mass which overcomes many of the problems associated with the use of radiolabeled precursors. The method is a significant improvement over existing procedures for the quantitative determination of the mass of inositol phosphate by virtue of improved recovery, sensitivity, and technical simplicity. The applicability of this method is illustrated by the quantitative determination of inositol trisphosphate in response to norepinephrine stimulation of adult canine myocytes and cerebral cortical brain slices and by measurement of the isomers of inositol trisphosphate in isolated myocytes.

  19. Polyphenylene sulfide based anion exchange fiber: synthesis, characterization and adsorption of Cr(VI).

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiajia; Zhang, Xin; Bai, Lingling; Yuan, Siguo

    2012-01-01

    A fibrous strong base anion exchanger (QAPPS) was prepared for the first time via chloromethylation and quaternary amination reaction of polyphenylene sulfide fiber (PPS), and its physical-chemical structure and adsorption behavior for Cr(VI) were characterized by FTIR, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry, TG-DTG, elemental analysis and batch adsorptive technique, respectively. The novel fibrous adsorbent could effectively adsorb Cr(VI) over the pH range 1-12, the maximum adsorption capacity was 166.39 mg/g at pH 3.5, and the adsorption behavior could be described well by Langmuir isotherm equation model. The adsorption kinetics was studied using pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order models, and the t1/2 and equilibrium adsorption time were 5 and 20 min respectively when initial Cr(VI) concentration was 100 mg/L. The saturated fibers could be regenerated rapidly by a mixed solution of 0.5 mol/L NaOH and 0.5 mol/L NaCl, and the adsorption capacity was well maintained after six adsorption-desorption cycles.

  20. Characterisation of brewpub beer carbohydrates using high performance anion exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Arfelli, Giuseppe; Sartini, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    High performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) was optimised in order to quantify mannose, maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentaose, maltohexaose and maltoheptaose content of beer. The method allows the determination of above mentioned oligosaccharides, in a single chromatographic run, without any pre-treatment. Limit of detection and limit of quantification were suitable for beer. Accuracy and repeatability were good for the entire amount considered. Once optimised HPAEC PAD for the specific matrix, the second goal of this research was to verify the possibility to discriminate beers, depending on their style. The carbohydrates content of brewpub commercial beers was very variable, ranging from 19.3 to 1469mg/L (mannose), 34.5 to 2882mg/L (maltose), 141.9 to 20731mg/L (maltotriose), 168.5 to 7650mg/L (maltotetraose), 20.1 to 2537mg/L (maltopentaose), 22.9 to 3295mg/L (maltohexaose), 8.5 to 2492mg/L (maltoeptaose), even in the same style of beer. However, the carbohydrates content was useful, jointed with other compounds amount, to discriminate different styles of beer. As a matter of fact, principal component analysis put in evidence beer differences considering some fermentation conditions and colour.

  1. Phosphate removal from wastewaters using a weak anion exchanger prepared from a lignocellulosic residue.

    PubMed

    Anirudhan, T S; Noeline, B F; Manohar, D M

    2006-04-15

    Surface modifications of lignocellulosic residues has become increasingly important for improving their applications as adsorbents. In this study a new adsorbent system (BS-DMAHP) containing dimethylaminohydroxypropyl (DMAHP) weak base groups was prepared by the reaction of banana stem (BS), a lignocellulosic residue with epichlorohydrin and dimethylamine followed by treatment of hydrochloric acid. The original BS and BS-DMAHP were characterized with the help of surface area analyzer, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Surface charge density of the samples as a function of pH was investigated using potentiometric titrations. Adsorbent exhibits very high adsorption potential for phosphate and more than 99.0% removal was achieved in the pH range of 5.0-7.0. Adsorption has been found to be concentration dependent and endothermic and follows a reversible second-order kinetics. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to describe the equilibrium data. Equilibrium data agreed very well with the Langmuir model. Adsorption experiments were conducted using a commercial chloride form Duolite A-7, a weak base anion exchanger. The removal efficiency was tested using fertilizer industry wastewater. Adsorbed phosphate on BS-DMAHP can be recovered by treating with 0.1 M NaOH solution. A stability test operated for four cycles indicate a capacity loss of < 12.0%.

  2. Weak anion exchange chromatographic profiling of glycoprotein isoforms on a polymer monolithic capillary.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Ren, Lianbing; Liu, Yunchun; Li, Hengye; Liu, Zhen

    2012-03-09

    High resolution separation of intact glycoproteins, which is essential for many aspects such as finger-print profiling, represents a great challenge because one glycoprotein can exhibit many isoforms with close physicochemical properties. Monolithic columns are important separation media for the separation of intact proteins due to its significant advantages such as easy preparation, high column efficiency and high permeability. However, there are few reports on high resolution profiling of intact glycoproteins. Herein, we presented a polymeric weak anion exchange (WAX) monolithic capillary for high resolution separation of glycoprotein isoforms. A base monolith was first prepared through ring-opening polymerization between tris(2,3-epoxypropyl)isocyanurate and tri(2-aminoethyl), and then modified through reacting with ammonia aqueous solution to convert the unreacted epoxide moieties into primary amino groups. The prepared monolithic capillary was characterized in terms of morphology, pore size, hydrophilicity and reproducibility. The obtained WAX monolithic capillary exhibited desired through-pores and mesopore size, stable skeleton and hydrophilic nature. The performance of the capillary was evaluated using several typical glycoproteins such as α(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP) as mode analytes. Effects of the experimental parameters on the glycoform resolution were investigated. Under the optimized separation conditions, the tested glycoproteins were all resolved into distinct glycoforms. A comparative investigation with capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) revealed that this WAX column provided better selectivity as more isoforms were observed, although the resolution of some glycoprotein isoforms decreased.

  3. Electric field-driven extraction of lipophilic anions across a carrier-mediated polymer inclusion membrane.

    PubMed

    See, Hong Heng; Hauser, Peter C

    2011-10-01

    The use of a cationic carrier-mediated polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) for extraction and preconcentration of anionic model analytes driven by an electric field directly into an aqueous acceptor solution is demonstrated. The optimized membrane was 20 μm thick and consisted of 60% cellulose triacetate as base polymer, 20% o-nitrophenyl octyl ether as plasticizer, and 20% Aliquat 336 as cationic carrier in the perchlorate form. By applying voltages of up to 700 V across the membrane, the lipophilic model analytes propanesulfonate, octanesulfonate, and decanesulfonate could be transported from the aqueous donor solution to the aqueous acceptor solution with efficiences >90% within 5 to 20 min. A preconcentration factor of 26, defined by the volume ratio between donor and acceptor compartments of the current cell design, could be achieved. The utility of the method for analytical applications is demonstrated by extraction of the herbicide glyphosate and its breakdown product aminomethylphosphonic acid from spiked river water, followed by quantification with capillary electrophoresis using contactless conductivity detection. Limits of detection of 0.8 and 1.5 ng/mL were obtained for glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid, respectively.

  4. Evaluation of the humidification requirements of new proton exchange membranes for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grot, Stephen; Hedstrom, J. C.; Vanderborgh, N. E.

    Measurements of PEM fuel cell device performance were made with different gas inlet temperatures and relative humidity using a newly-designed test fixture. Significant improvement in device performance was observed when the fuel inlet temperature was increased above the operating temperature of the cell. These measurements were then correlated to a model to describe energy and mass transport processes. Proton exchange membrane (PEM), fuel cells--the focus of this study--use an ion conducting polymer, especially polyperfluorosulfonic acid materials. These polymer materials, when imbibed with water, exhibit solution-like properties, but because the anions are chemically bound to the polymeric structure, the electrolyte is contained. Importantly, product water removal is simplified, as electrolyte dilution is not a concern. However, the proton transport rate is a function of the polymer geometry, which is set, in part, by the polymer water content. Consequently, dynamics of water flow are essential to understand the design of efficient conversion devices.

  5. SWELL1, a plasma membrane protein, is an essential component of volume-regulated anion channel

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Zhaozhu; Dubin, Adrienne E.; Mathur, Jayanti; Tu, Buu; Reddy, Kritika; Miraglia, Loren J.; Reinhardt, Jürgen; Orth, Anthony P.; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2014-01-01

    Summary Maintenance of a constant cell volume in response to extracellular or intracellular osmotic changes is critical for cellular homeostasis. Activation of a ubiquitous volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) plays a key role in this process; however, its molecular identity in vertebrates remains unknown. Here, we used a cell-based fluorescence assay and performed a genome-wide RNAi screen to find components of VRAC. We identified SWELL1 (LRRC8A), a member of a four-transmembrane protein family with unknown function, as essential for hypotonicity-induced iodide influx. SWELL1 is localized to the plasma membrane, and its knockdown dramatically reduces endogenous VRAC currents and regulatory cell volume decrease in various cell types. Furthermore, point mutations in SWELL1 cause a significant change in VRAC anion selectivity, demonstrating that SWELL1 is an essential VRAC component. These findings enable further molecular characterization of the VRAC channel complex and genetic studies for understanding the function of VRAC in normal physiology and disease. PMID:24725410

  6. Separation of certain carboxylic acids utilizing cation exchange membranes

    DOEpatents

    Chum, H.L.; Sopher, D.W.

    1983-05-09

    A method of substantially separating monofunctional lower carboxylic acids from a liquid mixture containing the acids wherein the pH of the mixture is adjusted to a value in the range of from about 1 to about 5 to form protonated acids. The mixture is heated to an elevated temperature not greater than about 100/sup 0/C and brought in contact with one side of a perfluorinated cation exchange membrane having sulfonate or carboxylate groups or mixtures thereof with the mixture containing the protonated acids. A pressure gradient can be established across the membrane with the mixture being under higher pressure, so that protonated monofunctional lower carboxylic acids pass through the membrane at a substantially faster rate than the remainder of the mixture thereby substantially separating the acids from the mixture.

  7. Separation of certain carboxylic acids utilizing cation exchange membranes

    DOEpatents

    Chum, Helena L.; Sopher, David W.

    1984-01-01

    A method of substantially separating monofunctional lower carboxylic acids from a liquid mixture containing the acids wherein the pH of the mixture is adjusted to a value in the range of from about 1 to about 5 to form protonated acids. The mixture is heated to an elevated temperature not greater than about 100.degree. C. and brought in contact with one side of a perfluorinated cation exchange membrane having sulfonate or carboxylate groups or mixtures thereof with the mixture containing the protonated acids. A pressure gradient can be established across the membrane with the mixture being under higher pressure, so that protonated monofunctional lower carboxylic acids pass through the membrane at a substantially faster rate than the remainder of the mixture thereby substantially separating the acids from the mixture.

  8. Preparation and performance of nano silica/Nafion composite membrane for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Keping; McDermid, Scott; Li, Jing; Kremliakova, Natalia; Kozak, Paul; Song, Chaojie; Tang, Yanghua; Zhang, Jianlu; Zhang, Jiujun

    Composite membranes made from Nafion ionomer with nano phosphonic acid-functionalised silica and colloidal silica were prepared and evaluated for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) operating at elevated temperature and low relative humidity (RH). The phosphonic acid-functionalised silica additive obtained from a sol-gel process was well incorporated into Nafion membrane. The particle size determined using transmission electron microscope (TEM) had a narrow distribution with an average value of approximately 11 nm and a standard deviation of ±4 nm. The phosphonic acid-functionalised silica additive enhanced proton conductivity and water retention by introducing both acidic groups and porous silica. The proton conductivity of the composite membrane with the acid-functionalised silica was 0.026 S cm -1, 24% higher than that of the unmodified Nafion membrane at 85 °C and 50% RH. Compared with the Nafion membrane, the phosphonic acid-functionalised silica (10% loading level) composite membrane exhibited 60 mV higher fuel cell performance at 1 A cm -2, 95 °C and 35% RH, and 80 mV higher at 0.8 A cm -2, 120 °C and 35% RH. The fuel cell performance of composite membrane made with 6% colloidal silica without acidic group was also higher than unmodified Nafion membrane, however, its performance was lower than the acid-functionalised silica additive composite membrane.

  9. Simulated diabetic ketoacidosis therapy in vitro elicits brain cell swelling via sodium-hydrogen exchange and anion transport.

    PubMed

    Rose, Keeley L; Watson, Andrew J; Drysdale, Thomas A; Cepinskas, Gediminas; Chan, Melissa; Rupar, C Anthony; Fraser, Douglas D

    2015-08-15

    A common complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus is diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a state of severe insulin deficiency. A potentially harmful consequence of DKA therapy in children is cerebral edema (DKA-CE); however, the mechanisms of therapy-induced DKA-CE are unknown. Our aims were to identify the DKA treatment factors and membrane mechanisms that might contribute specifically to brain cell swelling. To this end, DKA was induced in juvenile mice with the administration of the pancreatic toxins streptozocin and alloxan. Brain slices were prepared and exposed to DKA-like conditions in vitro. Cell volume changes were imaged in response to simulated DKA therapy. Our experiments showed that cell swelling was elicited with isolated DKA treatment components, including alkalinization, insulin/alkalinization, and rapid reductions in osmolality. Methyl-isobutyl-amiloride, a nonselective inhibitor of sodium-hydrogen exchangers (NHEs), reduced cell swelling in brain slices elicited with simulated DKA therapy (in vitro) and decreased brain water content in juvenile DKA mice administered insulin and rehydration therapy (in vivo). Specific pharmacological inhibition of the NHE1 isoform with cariporide also inhibited cell swelling, but only in the presence of the anion transport (AT) inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid. DKA did not alter brain NHE1 isoform expression, suggesting that the cell swelling attributed to the NHE1 was activity dependent. In conclusion, our data raise the possibility that brain cell swelling can be elicited by DKA treatment factors and that it is mediated by NHEs and/or coactivation of NHE1 and AT.

  10. Multi-modal applicability of a reversed-phase/weak-anion exchange material in reversed-phase, anion-exchange, ion-exclusion, hydrophilic interaction and hydrophobic interaction chromatography modes.

    PubMed

    Lämmerhofer, Michael; Nogueira, Raquel; Lindner, Wolfgang

    2011-06-01

    We recently introduced a mixed-mode reversed-phase/weak anion-exchange type separation material based on silica particles which consisted of a hydrophobic alkyl strand with polar embedded groups (thioether and amide functionalities) and a terminal weak anion-exchange-type quinuclidine moiety. This stationary phase was designed to separate molecules by lipophilicity and charge differences and was mainly devised for peptide separations with hydroorganic reversed-phase type elution conditions. Herein, we demonstrate the extraordinary flexibility of this RP/WAX phase, in particular for peptide separations, by illustrating its applicability in various chromatographic modes. The column packed with this material can, depending on the solute character and employed elution conditions, exploit attractive or repulsive electrostatic interactions, and/or hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions as retention and selectivity increments. As a consequence, the column can be operated in a reversed-phase mode (neutral compounds), anion-exchange mode (acidic compounds), ion-exclusion chromatography mode (cationic solutes), hydrophilic interaction chromatography mode (polar compounds), and hydrophobic interaction chromatography mode (e.g., hydrophobic peptides). Mixed-modes of these chromatographic retention principles may be materialized as well. This allows an exceptionally flexible adjustment of retention and selectivity by tuning experimental conditions. The distinct separation mechanisms will be outlined by selected examples of peptide separations in the different modes.

  11. Eu(III) complexes as anion-responsive luminescent sensors and paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer agents.

    PubMed

    Hammell, Jacob; Buttarazzi, Leandro; Huang, Ching-Hui; Morrow, Janet R

    2011-06-06

    The Eu(III) complex of (1S,4S,7S,10S)-1,4,7,10-tetrakis(2-hydroxypropyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (S-THP) is studied as a sensor for biologically relevant anions. Anion interactions produce changes in the luminescence emission spectrum of the Eu(III) complex, in the (1)H NMR spectrum, and correspondingly, in the PARACEST spectrum of the complex (PARACEST = paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer). Direct excitation spectroscopy and luminescence lifetime studies of Eu(S-THP) give information about the speciation and nature of anion interactions including carbonate, acetate, lactate, citrate, phosphate, and methylphosphate at pH 7.2. Data is consistent with the formation of both innersphere and outersphere complexes of Eu(S-THP) with acetate, lactate, and carbonate. These anions have weak dissociation constants that range from 19 to 38 mM. Citrate binding to Eu(S-THP) is predominantly innersphere with a dissociation constant of 17 μM. Luminescence emission peak changes upon addition of anion to Eu(S-THP) show that there are two distinct binding events for phosphate and methylphosphate with dissociation constants of 0.3 mM and 3.0 mM for phosphate and 0.6 mM and 9.8 mM for methyl phosphate. Eu(THPC) contains an appended carbostyril derivative as an antenna to sensitize Eu(III) luminescence. Eu(THPC) binds phosphate and citrate with dissociation constants that are 10-fold less than that of the Eu(S-THP) parent, suggesting that functionalization through a pendent group disrupts the anion binding site. Eu(S-THP) functions as an anion responsive PARACEST agent through exchange of the alcohol protons with bulk water. The alcohol proton resonances of Eu(S-THP) shift downfield in the presence of acetate, lactate, citrate, and methylphosphate, giving rise to distinct PARACEST peaks. In contrast, phosphate binds to Eu(S-THP) to suppress the PARACEST alcohol OH peak and carbonate does not markedly change the alcohol peak at 5 mM Eu(S-THP), 15 mM carbonate at p

  12. Intercalation chemistry in a LDH system: anion exchange process and staging phenomenon investigated by means of time-resolved, in situ X-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Taviot-Guého, Christine; Feng, Yongjun; Faour, Azzam; Leroux, Fabrice

    2010-07-14

    Using time-resolved, in situ energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD), the formation of interstratified LDH structures, with alternate interlayer spaces occupied by different anions, have been demonstrated during anion exchange reactions. Novel hybrid LDH nanostructures can thus be prepared, combining the physicochemical properties of two intercalated anions plus those of the LDH host. A general trend is that inorganic-inorganic anion exchange reactions occur in a one-step process while inorganic-organic exchanges may proceed via a second-stage intermediate, suggesting that staging occurs partly as a result of organic-inorganic separation. Yet, other influencing parameters must be considered such as LDH host composition, LDH affinity for different anions and LDH particle size as well as extrinsic parameters like the reaction temperature. Hence, a correlation between the occurrence of staging phenomenon and the difficulty of the exchange of the initial anion is observed, suggesting that staging is needed to overcome the energy barrier in the case of the exchange by organic anions. Notwithstanding the LiAl(2) system, staging has mainly been observed with Zn(2)Cr LDH host so far, a peculiar LDH composition with a unique Zn/Cr ratio of two and a local order of the cations within the hydroxide layers. The formation of a higher order-staged intermediate than stage two, observed during the exchange reaction of CO(3)(2-) or SO(4)(2-) anions with Zn(2)Cr-tartrate, is in favour of a Daumas-Herold model although this model implies a bending of LDH layers. The analysis of the X-ray powder diffraction pattern of Zn(2)Cr-Cl/tartrate second-stage intermediate, isolated almost as a pure phase during the exchange of Cl(-) with tartrate anions in Zn(2)Cr LDH, indicates a disorder in the stacking sequence and a relative proportion of the two kinds of interlayers slightly different from 50/50. Besides, the microstructural analysis of the XRD pattern reveals a great reduction of the

  13. The application of Dow Chemical's perfluorinated membranes in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisman, G. A.

    1989-01-01

    Dow Chemical's research activities in fuel cell devices revolves around the development and subsequent investigation of the perfluorinated inomeric membrane separator useful in proton-exchange membrane systems. Work is currently focusing on studying the effects of equivalent weight, thickness, water of hydration, pretreatment procedures, as well as the degree of water management required for a given membrane separator in the cell. The presentation will include details of certain aspects of the above as well as some of the requirements for high and low power generation.

  14. Ion exchange membranes as novel passive sampling material for organic ions: application for the determination of freely dissolved concentrations.

    PubMed

    Oemisch, Luise; Goss, Kai-Uwe; Endo, Satoshi

    2014-11-28

    Many studies in pharmacology, toxicology and environmental science require a method for determining the freely dissolved concentration of a target substance. A recently developed tool for this purpose is equilibrium passive sampling with polymeric materials. However, this method has rarely been applied to ionic organic substances, primarily due to limited availability of convenient sorption materials. This study introduces ion exchange membranes (IEMs) as a novel passive sampling material for organic ions. The partitioning of 4-ethylbenzene-1-sulfonate, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and pentachlorophenol to one anion exchange membrane (FAS) and of difenzoquat, nicotine and verapamil to one cation exchange membrane (FKS) was investigated. All test substances exhibited a sufficiently high affinity for the respective IEM with logarithmic IEM-water partition coefficients >2.3. Sorption equilibrium was established quickly, within several hours for the FAS membrane and within 1-3 days for the FKS membrane. For permanently charged substances the partitioning to the IEMs was independent of pH, but was influenced by the salt composition of the test solution. For all test substances sorption to IEM was dependent on the substance concentration. Bovine serum albumin-water partition coefficients determined by passive sampling with IEMs agree well with those determined by the conventional dialysis method. The results of this study indicate that IEMs exhibit the potential to measure freely dissolved concentrations of organic ions in a simple and time-saving manner.

  15. Framework Cationization by Preemptive Coordination of Open Metal Sites for Anion-Exchange Encapsulation of Nucleotides and Coenzymes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiang; Mao, Chengyu; Luong, Karen Tu; Lin, Qipu; Zhai, Quan-Guo; Feng, Pingyun; Bu, Xianhui

    2016-02-18

    Cationic frameworks can selectively trap anions through ion exchange, and have applications in ion chromatography and drug delivery. However, cationic frameworks are much rarer than anionic or neutral ones. Herein, we propose a concept, preemptive coordination (PC), for targeting positively charged metal-organic frameworks (P-MOFs). PC refers to proactive blocking of metal coordination sites to preclude their occupation by neutralizing ligands such as OH(-) . We use 20 MOFs to show that this PC concept is an effective approach for developing P-MOFs whose high stability, porosity, and anion-exchange capability allow immobilization of anionic nucleotides and coenzymes, in addition to charge- and size-selective capture or separation of organic dyes. The CO2 and C2 H2 uptake capacity of 117.9 cm(3)  g(-1) and 148.5 cm(3)  g(-1) , respectively, at 273 K and 1 atm, is exceptionally high among cationic framework materials.

  16. Selective Anion Exchange Resins for the Removal of Perchlorate [(CIO{sub 4}{sup -})] from Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, B.

    1999-05-20

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate a novel bifunctional anion exchange resin for the cost-effective, in situ treatment of groundwater contaminated with perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup -}). Both laboratory and field studies were performed to determine the selectivity and capacity of the bifunctional synthetic resins to sorb ClO{sub 4}{sup -} from simulated or actual contaminated groundwater. A number of synthetic bifunctional resins, including two commercial versions made by Purolite International and three commercially available, mono-functional resins, were tested. Initial laboratory batch and column breakthrough studies determined the best synthetic resins and the optimal conditions for the field experiment. Laboratory results indicated that the bifunctional synthetic resins, D-3696 and RO-02-119 were highly selective toward ClO{sub 4}{sup -} and performed {approx}5 times better than the best commercial nitrate resin (Purolite{reg_sign} A-520E) and more than an order of magnitude better than some nonselective commercial resins (e.g. Amberlite{reg_sign} IRA-900). The bifunctional resins were particularly effective in removing trace quantities of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} in groundwater to below the detection limit ({approx} 3 {micro}g/L). A field trial demonstrated that the bifunctional resin (D-3696) was able to treat {approx} 110,000 bed volumes of groundwater before a 10% breakthrough of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} occurred under the column flow-through conditions (running at {approx} 2 bed volumes per minute). On the other hand, the Purolite{reg_sign} A-520E resin was able to treat {approx} 23,000 bed volumes of groundwater under the same experimental conditions. No pretreatment was needed to remove either dissolved organic matter or other competing anions (such as SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} or NO{sub 3}{sup -}) in the groundwater, and the treatment process did not alter the water quality by removing or adding secondary by-products because of the high selectivity of the

  17. Formation of periodic interfacial misfit dislocation array at the InSb/GaAs interface via surface anion exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Bo Wen; Tan, Kian Hua; Loke, Wan Khai; Wicaksono, Satrio; Yoon, Soon Fatt

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between growth temperature and the formation of periodic interfacial misfit (IMF) dislocations via the anion exchange process in InSb/GaAs heteroepitaxy was systematically investigated. The microstructural and electrical properties of the epitaxial layer were characterized using atomic force microscope, high-resolution x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Hall resistance measurement. The formation of interfacial misfit (IMF) dislocation arrays depended on growth temperature. A uniformly distributed IMF array was found in a sample grown at 310 °C, which also exhibited the lowest threading dislocation density. The analysis suggested that an incomplete As-for-Sb anion exchange process impeded the formation of IMF on sample grown above 310 °C. At growth temperature below 310 °C, island coalescence led to the formation of 60° dislocations and the disruption of periodic IMF array. All samples showed higher electron mobility at 300 K than at 77 K.

  18. Synthesis of blue-photoluminescent graphene quantum dots/polystyrenic anion-exchange resin for Fe(III) detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenjun; Gan, Jie

    2016-05-01

    A novel solid fluorescent sensor with millimeter size, based on graphene quantum dots/polystyrenic anion-exchange resin (GQDs/PS-AER) was obtained for the detection of Fe3+. The linear response range of Fe3+ was obtained from 1 μM to 7 μM and the detection limit was as low as 0.65 μM. In addition, the sensor could be regenerated by adding complexing agent EDTA and be separated by using simple filtration.

  19. Random and Block Sulfonated Polyaramides as Advanced Proton Exchange Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsinger, Corey L.; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Feilong; Yang, Yuan; Seifert, Soenke; Knauss, Daniel M.; Herring, Andrew M; Maupin, C. Mark

    2015-10-09

    We present here the experimental and computational characterization of two novel copolyaramide proton exchange membranes (PEMs) with higher conductivity than Nafion at relatively high temperatures, good mechanical properties, high thermal stability, and the capability to operate in low humidity conditions. The random and block copolyaramide PEMs are found to possess different ion exchange capacities (IEC) in addition to subtle structural and morphological differences, which impact the stability and conductivity of the membranes. SAXS patterns indicate the ionomer peak for the dry block copolymer resides at q = 0.1 Å–1, which increases in amplitude when initially hydrated to 25% relative humidity, but then decrease in amplitude with additional hydration. This pattern is hypothesized to signal the transport of water into the polymer matrix resulting in a reduced degree of phase separation. Coupled to these morphological changes, the enhanced proton transport characteristics and structural/mechanical stability for the block copolymer are hypothesized to be primarily due to the ordered structure of ionic clusters that create connected proton transport pathways while reducing swelling upon hydration. Interestingly, the random copolymer did not possess an ionomer peak at any of the hydration levels investigated, indicating a lack of any significant ionomer structure. The random copolymer also demonstrated higher proton conductivity than the block copolymer, which is opposite to the trend normally seen in polymer membranes. However, it has reduced structural/mechanical stability as compared to the block copolymer. In conclusion, this reduction in stability is due to the random morphology formed by entanglements of polymer chains and the adverse swelling characteristics upon hydration. Therefore, the block copolymer with its enhanced proton conductivity characteristics, as compared to Nafion, and favorable structural/mechanical stability, as compared to the

  20. Random and Block Sulfonated Polyaramides as Advanced Proton Exchange Membranes

    DOE PAGES

    Kinsinger, Corey L.; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Feilong; ...

    2015-10-09

    We present here the experimental and computational characterization of two novel copolyaramide proton exchange membranes (PEMs) with higher conductivity than Nafion at relatively high temperatures, good mechanical properties, high thermal stability, and the capability to operate in low humidity conditions. The random and block copolyaramide PEMs are found to possess different ion exchange capacities (IEC) in addition to subtle structural and morphological differences, which impact the stability and conductivity of the membranes. SAXS patterns indicate the ionomer peak for the dry block copolymer resides at q = 0.1 Å–1, which increases in amplitude when initially hydrated to 25% relative humidity,more » but then decrease in amplitude with additional hydration. This pattern is hypothesized to signal the transport of water into the polymer matrix resulting in a reduced degree of phase separation. Coupled to these morphological changes, the enhanced proton transport characteristics and structural/mechanical stability for the block copolymer are hypothesized to be primarily due to the ordered structure of ionic clusters that create connected proton transport pathways while reducing swelling upon hydration. Interestingly, the random copolymer did not possess an ionomer peak at any of the hydration levels investigated, indicating a lack of any significant ionomer structure. The random copolymer also demonstrated higher proton conductivity than the block copolymer, which is opposite to the trend normally seen in polymer membranes. However, it has reduced structural/mechanical stability as compared to the block copolymer. In conclusion, this reduction in stability is due to the random morphology formed by entanglements of polymer chains and the adverse swelling characteristics upon hydration. Therefore, the block copolymer with its enhanced proton conductivity characteristics, as compared to Nafion, and favorable structural/mechanical stability, as compared to the

  1. Kinetics of nitrate and perchlorate removal and biofilm stratification in an ion exchange membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Ana R; Carvalho, Gilda; Velizarov, Svetlozar; Crespo, João G; Reis, Maria A M

    2012-09-15

    The biological degradation of nitrate and perchlorate was investigated in an ion exchange membrane bioreactor (IEMB) using a mixed anoxic microbial culture and ethanol as the carbon source. In this process, a membrane-supported biofilm reduces nitrate and perchlorate delivered through an anion exchange membrane from a polluted water stream, containing 60 mg/L of NO₃⁻ and 100 μg/L of ClO₄⁻. Under ammonia limiting conditions, the perchlorate reduction rate decreased by 10%, whereas the nitrate reduction rate was unaffected. Though nitrate and perchlorate accumulated in the bioreactor, their concentrations in the treated water (2.8 ± 0.5 mg/L of NO₃⁻ and 7.0 ± 0.8 μg/L of ClO₄⁻, respectively) were always below the drinking water regulatory levels, due to Donnan dialysis control of the ionic transport in the system. Kinetic parameters determined for the mixed microbial culture in suspension showed that the nitrate reduction rate was 35 times higher than the maximum perchlorate reduction rate. It was found that perchlorate reduction was inhibited by nitrate, since after nitrate depletion perchlorate reduction rate increased by 77%. The biofilm developed in the IEMB was cryosectioned and the microbial population was analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The results obtained seem to indicate that the kinetic advantage of nitrate reduction favored accumulation of denitrifiers near the membrane, whereas per(chlorate) reducing bacteria were mainly positioned at the biofilm outer surface, contacting the biomedium. As a consequence of the biofilm stratification, the reduction of perchlorate and nitrate occur sequentially in space allowing for the removal of both ions in the IEMB.

  2. Removal of bromate from drinking water using the ion exchange membrane bioreactor concept.

    PubMed

    Matos, Cristina T; Velizarov, Svetlozar; Reis, Maria A M; Crespo, João G

    2008-10-15

    Bromate is a disinfection byproduct with carcinogenic properties that has to be removed from drinking water to concentrations below 10 or 25 microg/L. This work evaluates the applicability of the ion exchange membrane bioreactor (IEMB) concept for the removal of bromate from drinking water, in situations where nitrate is also present in concentrations up to 3 orders of magnitude higher than bromate. The batch results obtained show that the biological reduction of bromate was slow and only occurring after the complete reduction of nitrate. The specific bromate reduction rates varied from 0.027 +/- 0.01 mg BrO3(-)/g(cell dry weight) x h to 0.090 mg BrO3(-)/ g(cell dry weight) x h for the studied concentrations. On the other hand, transport studies, using anion exchange membranes showed that Donnan dialysis could efficiently remove bromate from polluted waters. Therefore, the use of a dense, nonporous membrane in the IEMB system, isolates the water stream from the biological compartment, allowing for the uncoupling of the water production rate from the biological reduction rate. The IEMB system was used for the treatment of a polluted water stream containing 200 microg/L of BrO3(-) and 60 mg/L of NO3(-). The concentrations of both ions in the treated water were reduced below the recommended levels. No bromate accumulation was observed in the biocompartment of the IEMB, suggesting its complete reduction in the biofilm formed on the membrane surface contacting the biocompartment. Therefore, the IEMB has proven to be a technology able to solve specific problems associated with the removal of bromate from water streams, since it efficiently removes bromate from drinking water even in the presence of nitrate, a known competitor of bromate biological reduction, without secondary contamination of the treated water by cells or excess of carbon source.

  3. Sulfated Titania-Silica Reinforced Nafion Nanocomposite Membranes for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Abu Sayeed, M D; Kim, Hee Jin; Gopalan, A I; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Kwang-Pill; Choi, Sang-June

    2015-09-01

    Sulfated titania-silica (SO4(2-)-/TiO2-SiO2) composites were prepared by a sol-gel method with sulfate reaction and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The nanometric diameter and geometry of the sulfated titania-silica (STS) was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A small amount of the STS composite in the range of 0.5-3 wt% was then added as reinforcing into the Nafion membrane by water-assisted solution casting method to prepare STS reinforced Nafion nanocomposite membranes (STS-Nafion nanocomposite membranes). The additional functional groups, sulfate groups, of the nanocomposite membrane having more surface oxygenated groups enhanced the fuel cell membrane properties. The STS-Nafion nanocomposite membranes exhibited improved water uptake compared to that of neat Nafion membranes, whereas methanol uptake values were decreased dramatically improved thermal property of the prepared nanocomposite membranes were measured by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Furthermore, increased ion exchange capacity values were obtained by thermoacidic pretreatment of the nanocomposite membranes.

  4. ELECTROENDOSMOSIS THROUGH MAMMALIAN SEROUS MEMBRANES : I. THE HYDROGEN ION REVERSAL POINT WITH BUFFERS CONTAINING POLYVALENT ANIONS.

    PubMed

    Mudd, S

    1925-01-20

    essentially due to admixture with the buffers of buffer salts from the blood. Clear differences between the reversal points of the membranes in the first compared with later hours or days post mortem were not detected, with the possible exception of a small shift toward the acid range of the fat pericardium reversal points estimated several days post mortem. The reversal points with cat membranes were somewhat lower (more acid) than those of the dog. The approximate mean reversal points found with the citrate-phosphate buffers used were as follows: For mesenteries of living animals pH = 4.4; for mesenteries, post mortem, pH = 4.8; for cat pleurae, post mortem, pH = 4.3; for dog pleurae, post mortem, pH = 5.0; for lean and fat pericardia, post mortem, pH = 5.1. The mean reversal point of the two human pericardia was about pH = 5.0. Reversal points determined with buffers containing only monovalent anions are somewhat higher (less acid), as will be shown later. The bearing of these data on the question of the chemical composition of the surfaces of the fat cells of the serous membranes is discussed. Briefly, it is believed that proteins are probably present in important amount in these cell surfaces.

  5. Anion exchange SPE and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in GHB analysis.

    PubMed

    Elian, Albert A; Hackett, Jeffery

    2011-12-01

    In this study, the extraction of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) from urine using solid-phase extraction (SPE) is described. SPE was performed on anion exchange columns after samples of urine had been diluted with de-ionized water. After application of the diluted samples containing GHB-d(6) as an internal standard, the sorbent was washed with deionized water and methanol and dried. The GHB was eluted from the SPE column with a solvent consisting of methanol containing 6% glacial acetic acid. The eluent was collected, evaporated to dryness, and dissolved in mobile phase (100 μL) for analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in negative multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Liquid chromatography was performed in gradient mode employing a biphenyl column and a mobile phase consisting of acetontitrile (containing 0.1% formic acid) and 0.1% aqueous formic acid. The total run time for each analysis was less than 5 min. The limits of detection/quantification for this method were determined to be 50 and 100 ng/mL, respectively. The method was found to be linear from 500 ng/mL to 10,000 ng/mL (r(2)>0.995). The recovery of GHB was found to be greater than 75%. In this report, results of authentic urine samples analyzed for GHB by this method are presented. GHB concentrations in these samples were found to be range from less than 500 ng/mL to 5110 ng/mL.

  6. Selective removal of phosphate from wastewater using hydrated metal oxides dispersed within anionic exchange media.

    PubMed

    Acelas, Nancy Y; Martin, Benjamin D; López, Diana; Jefferson, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Hydrated ferric oxide (HFeO), hydrated zirconium oxide (HZrO) and hydrated copper oxide (HCuO) were immobilized within a microporous anion exchange resin (IRA-400), forming hybrid media for enhanced phosphate removal from aqueous systems. Empirical data from batch kinetic trials fitted the pseudo second order mechanism for chemical adsorption and each media was rate limited by intraparticle diffusion overall. These models were also used to predict the adsorption rate constants and the equilibrium adsorption capacities, which ranged from 26.51 to 30.44 mgP g(-1), and from 24.15 to 27.90 mgP g(-1) of media for the calculated and experimental capacities, respectively. The phosphate adsorption behavior by the hybrid materials fit both the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms (R(2)>0.94), and the maximum adsorption capacities were 111.1 mgP g(-1) for HFeO, 91.74 mgP g(-1) for HZrO and 74.07 mgP g(-1) for HCuO. The effect of competing ions such as sulfate reduced these capacities to 18.52 mgP g(-1) for HFeO and 18.97 mgP g(-1) for HZrO. Despite this decrease, HFeO was capable of reducing the phosphate in a real wastewater matrix by 83%, and the HZrO media was able to reduce it by 86%, suggesting that such hybrid media have the potential for application at full scale.

  7. Chemical separation of Mo and W from terrestrial and extraterrestrial samples via anion exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Yuichiro; Yokoyama, Tetsuya

    2014-05-20

    A new two-stage chemical separation method was established using an anion exchange resin, Eichrom 1 × 8, to separate Mo and W from four natural rock samples. First, the distribution coefficients of nine elements (Ti, Fe, Zn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Hf, Ta, and W) under various chemical conditions were determined using HCl, HNO3, and HF. On the basis of the obtained distribution coefficients, a new technique for the two-stage chemical separation of Mo and W, along with the group separation of Ti-Zr-Hf, was developed as follows: 0.4 M HCl-0.5 M HF (major elements), 9 M HCl-0.05 M HF (Ti-Zr-Hf), 9 M HCl-1 M HF (W), and 6 M HNO3-3 M HF (Mo). After the chemical procedure, Nb remaining in the W fraction was separated using 9 M HCl-3 M HF. On the other hand, Nb and Zn remaining in the Mo fraction were removed using 2 M HF and 6 M HCl-0.1 M HF. The performance of this technique was evaluated by separating these elements from two terrestrial and two extraterrestrial samples. The recovery yields for Mo, W, Zr, and Hf were nearly 100% for all of the examined samples. The total contents of the Zr, Hf, W, and Mo in the blanks used for the chemical separation procedure were 582, 9, 29, and 396 pg, respectively. Therefore, our new separation technique can be widely used in various fields of geochemistry, cosmochemistry, and environmental sciences and particularly for multi-isotope analysis of these elements from a single sample with significant internal isotope heterogeneities.

  8. Strategies for developing design spaces for viral clearance by anion exchange chromatography during monoclonal antibody production.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Daniel M; Cano, Tony; Cai, Nick; Delucchi, Heather; Plancarte, Magdalena; Coleman, Daniel; Blank, Gregory S; Chen, Qi; Yang, Bin

    2010-01-01

    The quality-by-design (QbD) regulatory initiative promotes the development of process design spaces describing the multidimensional effects and interactions of process variables on critical quality attributes of therapeutic products. However, because of the complex nature of production processes, strategies must be devised to provide for design space development with reasonable allocation of resources while maintaining highly dependable results. Here, we discuss strategies for the determination of design spaces for viral clearance by anion exchange chromatography (AEX) during purification of monoclonal antibodies. We developed a risk assessment for AEX using a formalized method and applying previous knowledge of the effects of certain variables and the mechanism of action for virus removal by this process. We then use design-of-experiments (DOE) concepts to perform a highly fractionated factorial experiment and show that varying many process parameters simultaneously over wide ranges does not affect the ability of the AEX process to remove endogenous retrovirus-like particles from CHO-cell derived feedstocks. Finally, we performed a full factorial design and observed that a high degree of viral clearance was obtained for three different model viruses when the most significant process parameters were varied over ranges relevant to typical manufacturing processes. These experiments indicate the robust nature of viral clearance by the AEX process as well as the design space where removal of viral impurities and contaminants can be assured. In addition, the concepts and methodology presented here provides a general approach for the development of design spaces to assure that quality of biotherapeutic products is maintained.

  9. Structural and performance characteristics of representative anion exchange resins used for weak partitioning chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaojie; Iskra, Tim; Daniels, William; Salm, Jeffrey; Gallo, Christopher; Godavarti, Ranga; Carta, Giorgio

    2016-12-20

    Weak partitioning chromatography (WPC) has been proposed for the purification of monoclonal antibodies using an anion exchange (AEX) resin to simultaneously remove both acidic and basic protein impurities. Despite potential advantages, the relationship between resin structure and WPC performance has not been evaluated systematically. In this work, we determine the structure of representative AEX resins (Fractogel® EMD TMAE HiCap, Q Sepharose FF, and POROS 50 HQ) using transmission electron microscopy and inverse size exclusion chromatography and characterize protein interactions while operating these resins under WPC conditions using two mAb monomers, a mAb dimer, mAb multimers, and BSA as model products and impurities. We determine the isocratic elution behavior of the weakly bound monomer and dimer species and the adsorptive and mass transfer properties of the strongly bound multimers and BSA by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results show that for each resin, using the product Kp value as guidance, salt, and pH conditions can be found where mAb multimers and BSA are simultaneously removed. Isocratic elution and adsorption mechanisms are, however, different for each resin and for the different components. Under WPC conditions, the Fractogel resin exhibited very slow diffusion of both mAb monomer and dimer species but fast adsorption for both mAb multimers and BSA with high capacity for BSA, while the Sepharose resin, because of its small pore size, was unable to effectively remove mAb multimers. The POROS resin was instead able to bind both multimers and BSA effectively, while exhibiting a greater resolution of mAb monomer and dimer species. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2017.

  10. Polyethyleneimine precipitation versus anion exchange chromatography in fractionating recombinant beta-glucuronidase from transgenic tobacco extract.

    PubMed

    Holler, Chris; Vaughan, David; Zhang, Chenming

    2007-02-16

    Tobacco has been studied as a possible host for the production of recombinant proteins. In this report, recombinant beta-glucuronidase (rGUS) was used as a model protein to study the feasibility of using polyethyleneimine (PEI) precipitation to fractionate acidic recombinant proteins from transgenic tobacco. Results showed that rGUS was preferentially precipitated when the PEI dosage was beyond 200mg PEI/g total protein. At 700-800 mg PEI/g total protein, nearly 100% rGUS was precipitated with less than 40% native tobacco proteins co-precipitated. Approximately 85-90% of the rGUS activity could be recovered from the precipitation pellet for an enrichment ratio of 2.7-3.4. As a comparison, anion exchange chromatography (AEX) yielded similar results to PEI precipitation with 66-90% rGUS activity recovered and an enrichment ratio of 1.8-3.1. The rGUS was further purified by an additional hydrophobic interaction chromatographic (HIC) step after precipitation or AEX. Similar results in terms of rGUS activity recovered and enrichment were obtained. The major interfering protein at the end of all purification steps is most likely the Fraction 1 protein ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco). The presence of this protein is likely the cause for the varying and somewhat low enrichment ratios, but it may be later removed via a size-exclusion chromatography step. PEI precipitation offers the advantage of allowing significant sample concentration prior to subsequent purification techniques such as chromatography and is much less expensive than chromatographic methods as well. Through direct comparison, this study shows that PEI may be used as an initial fractionation step in replacement of AEX to facilitate the purification of acidic recombinant proteins from transgenic tobacco.

  11. HB-LINE ANION EXCHANGE PURIFICATION OF AFS-2 PLUTONIUM FOR MOX

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E. A.; King, W. D.

    2012-07-31

    Non-radioactive cerium (Ce) and radioactive plutonium (Pu) anion exchange column experiments using scaled HB-Line designs were performed to investigate the feasibility of using either gadolinium nitrate (Gd) or boric acid (B as H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}) as a neutron poison in the H-Canyon dissolution process. Expected typical concentrations of probable impurities were tested and the removal of these impurities by a decontamination wash was measured. Impurity concentrations are compared to two specifications - designated as Column A or Column B (most restrictive) - proposed for plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) product shipped to the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). Use of Gd as a neutron poison requires a larger volume of wash for the proposed Column A specification. Since boron (B) has a higher proposed specification and is more easily removed by washing, it appears to be the better candidate for use in the H-Canyon dissolution process. Some difficulty was observed in achieving the Column A specification due to the limited effectiveness that the wash step has in removing the residual B after ~4 BV's wash. However a combination of the experimental 10 BV's wash results and a calculated DF from the oxalate precipitation process yields an overall DF sufficient to meet the Column A specification. For those impurities (other than B) not removed by 10 BV's of wash, the impurity is either not expected to be present in the feedstock or process, or recommendations have been provided for improvement in the analytical detection/method or validation of calculated results. In summary, boron is recommended as the appropriate neutron poison for H-Canyon dissolution and impurities are expected to meet the Column A specification limits for oxide production in HB-Line.

  12. HB-LINE ANION EXCHANGE PURIFICATION OF AFS-2 PLUTONIUM FOR MOX

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E.; King, W.

    2012-04-25

    Non-radioactive cerium (Ce) and radioactive plutonium (Pu) anion exchange column experiments using scaled HB-Line designs were performed to investigate the feasibility of using either gadolinium nitrate (Gd) or boric acid (B as H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}) as a neutron poison in the H-Canyon dissolution process. Expected typical concentrations of probable impurities were tested and the removal of these impurities by a decontamination wash was measured. Impurity concentrations are compared to two specifications - designated as Column A or Column B (most restrictive) - proposed for plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) product shipped to the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). Use of Gd as a neutron poison requires a larger volume of wash for the proposed Column A specification. Since boron (B) has a higher proposed specification and is more easily removed by washing, it appears to be the better candidate for use in the H-Canyon dissolution process. Some difficulty was observed in achieving the Column A specification due to the limited effectiveness that the wash step has in removing the residual B after {approx}4 BV's wash. However a combination of the experimental 10 BV's wash results and a calculated DF from the oxalate precipitation process yields an overall DF sufficient to meet the Column A specification. For those impurities (other than B) not removed by 10 BV's of wash, the impurity is either not expected to be present in the feedstock or process, or recommendations have been provided for improvement in the analytical detection/method or validation of calculated results. In summary, boron is recommended as the appropriate neutron poison for H-Canyon dissolution and impurities are expected to meet the Column A specification limits for oxide production in HB-Line.

  13. Adsorption of polyethylene-glycolated bovine serum albumin on macroporous and polymer-grafted anion exchangers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mimi; Carta, Giorgio

    2014-01-24

    The chromatographic and adsorptive properties of BSA and BSA conjugated with 10 and 30kDa PEG polymers are determined for a macroporous anion exchanger (UNOsphere™ Diol Q) and for a polymer-grafted material having the same backbone matrix (Nuvia Q™). Chromatographic retention, adsorption capacity, and adsorption kinetics are enhanced in the polymer-grafted resin for both BSA and 10kDa PEG-BSA as a result of interactions with the grafted polymers. However, the difference between the two resins diminishes for 30kDa PEG-BSA indicating that size exclusion effects strongly affect binding in the polymer-grafted material for this larger conjugate. Images of intraparticle concentration profiles obtained by confocal scanning laser microscopy show that the transport mechanisms of both BSA and PEGylated BSA are very different in the two resins. The protein binding kinetics are dominated by ordinary pore diffusion and are essentially independent of the direction of transport for UNOsphere Diol Q as a result of its large pore size. Thus, for this material, displacement of PEGylated BSA by BSA is clearly evident at the intraparticle scale. On the other hand, the protein binding kinetics in Nuvia Q are consistent with a solid diffusion mechanism driven by the adsorbed protein concentration. For this material, protein transport is very fast for one component or two-component co-adsorption of BSA and PEGylated BSA but slows down dramatically for sequential adsorption of these species as a result of heightened diffusional hindrance when the two components counterdiffuse within the resin.

  14. Water hydrogen bonding in proton exchange and neutral polymer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedley, Sarah Black

    Understanding the dynamics of water sorbed into polymer films is critical to reveal structure-property relationships in membranes for energy and water treatment applications, where membranes must interact with water to facilitate or inhibit the transport of ions. The chemical structure of the polymer has drastic effects on the transport properties of the membrane due to the morphological structure of the polymer and how water is interacting with the functional groups on the polymer backbone. Therefore studying the dynamics of water adsorbed into a membrane will give insight into how water-polymer interactions influence transport properties of the film. With a better understanding of how to design materials to have specific properties, we can accelerate development of smarter materials for both energy and water treatment applications to increase efficiency and create high-flux materials and processes. The goal of this dissertation is to investigate the water-polymer interactions in proton exchange and uncharged membranes and make correlations to their charge densities and transport properties. A linear Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic method for measuring the hydrogen bonding distribution of water sorbed in proton exchange membranes is described in this thesis. The information on the distribution of the microenvironments of water in an ionic polymer is critical to understanding the effects of different acidic groups on the proton conductivity of proton exchange membranes at low relative humidity. The OD stretch of dilute HOD in H2O is a single, well-defined vibrational band. When HOD in dilute H2O is sorbed into a proton exchange membrane, the OD stretch peak shifts based on the microenvironment that water encounters within the nanophase separated structure of the material. This peak shift is a signature of different hydrogen bonding populations within the membrane, which can be deconvoluted rigorously for dilute HOD in H 2O compared to only

  15. Concentration and purification of enterovirus 71 using a weak anion-exchange monolithic column

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is a neurotropic virus causing Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) in infants and children under the age of five. It is a major concern for public health issues across Asia-Pacific region. The most effective way to control the disease caused by EV-71 is by vaccination thus a novel vaccine is urgently needed. Inactivated EV-71 induces a strong, virus-neutralizing antibody response in animal models, protecting them against a lethal EV-71 challenge and it has been shown to elicit cross-neutralizing antibodies in human trials. Hence, the large-scale production of purified EV-71 is required for vaccine development, diagnosis and clinical trials. Methods CIM® Monolith columns are single-piece columns made up of poly(glycidyl methacrylate co-ethylene dimethacrylate) as support matrix. They are designed as porous channels rather than beads with different chemistries for different requirements. As monolithic columns have a high binding capacity, flow rate and resolution, a CIM® DEAE-8f tube monolithic column was selected for purification in this study. The EV-71 infected Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cell supernatant was concentrated using 8% PEG 8000 in the presence of 400 mM sodium chloride. The concentrated virus was purified by weak anion exchange column using 50 mM HEPES + 1 M sodium chloride as elution buffer. Results Highly pure viral particles were obtained at a concentration of 350 mM sodium chloride as confirmed by SDS-PAGE and electron microscopy. Presence of viral proteins VP1, VP2 and VP3 was validated by western blotting. The overall process achieved a recovery of 55%. Conclusions EV-71 viral particles of up to 95% purity can be recovered by a single step ion-exchange chromatography using CIM-DEAE monolithic columns and 1 M sodium chloride as elution buffer. Moreover, this method is scalable to purify several litres of virus-containing supernatant, using industrial monolithic columns with a capacity of up to 8 L such as

  16. High temperature polymers for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einsla, Brian Russel

    Novel proton exchange membranes (PEMs) were investigated that show potential for operating at higher temperatures in both direct methanol (DMFC) and H 2/air PEM fuel cells. The need for thermally stable polymers immediately suggests the possibility of heterocyclic polymers bearing appropriate ion conducting sites. Accordingly, monomers and random disulfonated poly(arylene ether) copolymers containing either naphthalimide, benzoxazole or benzimidazole moieties were synthesized via direct copolymerization. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) was varied by simply changing the ratio of disulfonated monomer to nonsulfonated monomer in the copolymerization step. Water uptake and proton conductivity of cast membranes increased with IEC. The water uptake of these heterocyclic copolymers was lower than that of comparable disulfonated poly(arylene ether) systems, which is a desirable improvement for PEMs. Membrane electrode assemblies were prepared and the initial fuel cell performance of the disulfonated polyimide and polybenzoxazole (PBO) copolymers was very promising at 80°C compared to the state-of-the-art PEM (NafionRTM); nevertheless these membranes became brittle under operating conditions. Several series of poly(arylene ether)s based on disodium-3,3'-disulfonate-4,4 '-dichlorodiphenylsulfone (S-DCDPS) and a benzimidazole-containing bisphenol were synthesized and afforded copolymers with enhanced stability. Selected properties of these membranes were compared to separately prepared miscible blends of disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers and polybenzimidazole (PBI). Complexation of the sulfonic acid groups with the PBI structure reduced water swelling and proton conductivity. The enhanced proton conductivity of NafionRTM membranes has been proposed to be due to the aggregation of the highly acidic side-chain sulfonic acid sites to form ion channels. A series of side-chain sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers based on methoxyhydroquinone was

  17. Numerical modeling transport phenomena in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, DongMyung

    To study the coupled phenomena occurring in proton exchange membrane fuel cells, a two-phase, one-dimensional, non-isothermal model is developed in the chapter 1. The model includes water phase change, proton transport in the membrane and electro-osmotic effect. The thinnest, but most complex layer in the membrane electrode assembly, catalyst layer, is considered an interfacial boundary between the gas diffusion layer and the membrane. Mass and heat transfer and electro-chemical reaction through the catalyst layer are formulated into equations, which are applied to boundary conditions for the gas diffusion layer and the membrane. Detail accounts of the boundary equations and the numerical solving procedure used in this work are given. The polarization curve is calculated at different oxygen pressures and compared with the experimental results. When the operating condition is changed along the polarization curve, the change of physicochemical variables in the membrane electrode assembly is studied. In particular, the over-potential diagram presents the usage of the electrochemical energy at each layer of the membrane electrode assembly. Humidity in supplying gases is one of the most important factors to consider for improving the performance of PEMFE. Both high and low humidity conditions can result in a deteriorating cell performance. The effect of humidity on the cell performance is studied in the chapter 2. First, a numerical model based on computational fluid dynamics is developed. Second, the cell performances are simulated, when the relative humidity is changed from 0% to 100% in the anode and the cathode channel. The simulation results show how humidity in the reactant gases affects the water content distribution in the membrane, the over-potential at the catalyst layers and eventually the cell performance. In particular, the rapid enhancement in the cell performance caused by self-hydrating membrane is captured by the simulation. Fully humidifying either H2

  18. On the freezing behavior and diffusion of water in proximity to single-supported zwitterionic and anionic bilayer lipid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miskowiec, A.; Buck, Z. N.; Brown, M. C.; Kaiser, H.; Hansen, F. Y.; King, G. M.; Taub, H.; Jiji, R.; Cooley, J. W.; Tyagi, M.; Diallo, S. O.; Mamontov, E.; Herwig, K. W.

    2014-07-01

    We compare the freezing/melting behavior of water hydrating single-supported bilayers of a zwitterionic lipid DMPC with that of an anionic lipid DMPG. For both membranes, the temperature dependence of the elastically scattered neutron intensity indicates distinct water types undergoing translational diffusion: bulk-like water probably located above the membrane and two types of confined water closer to the lipid head groups. The membranes differ in the greater width \\Delta T of the water freezing transition near the anionic DMPG bilayer (\\Delta T \\sim 70\\ \\text{K}) compared to zwitterionic DMPC (\\Delta T \\sim 20\\ \\text{K}) as well as in the abruptness of the freezing/melting transitions of the bulk-like water.

  19. Conductivity Measurements of Synthesized Heteropoly Acid Membranes for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Record, K.A.; Haley, B.T.; Turner, J.

    2006-01-01

    Fuel cell technology is receiving attention due to its potential to be a pollution free method of electricity production when using renewably produced hydrogen as fuel. In a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell H2 and O2 react at separate electrodes, producing electricity, thermal energy, and water. A key component of the PEM fuel cell is the membrane that separates the electrodes. DuPont’s Nafion® is the most commonly used membrane in PEM fuel cells; however, fuel cell dehydration at temperatures near 100°C, resulting in poor conductivity, is a major hindrance to fuel cell performance. Recent studies incorporating heteropoly acids (HPAs) into membranes have shown an increase in conductivity and thus improvement in performance. HPAs are inorganic materials with known high proton conductivities. The primary objective of this work is to measure the conductivity of Nafion, X-Ionomer membranes, and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Developed Membranes that are doped with different HPAs at different concentrations. Four-point conductivity measurements using a third generation BekkTech conductivity test cell are used to determine membrane conductivity. The effect of multiple temperature and humidification levels is also examined. While the classic commercial membrane, Nafion, has a conductivity of approximately 0.10 S/cm, measurements for membranes in this study range from 0.0030 – 0.58 S/cm, depending on membrane type, structure of the HPA, and the relative humidity. In general, the X-ionomer with H6P2W21O71 HPA gave the highest conductivity and the Nafion with the 12-phosphotungstic (PW12) HPA gave the lowest. The NREL composite membranes had conductivities on the order of 0.0013 – 0.025 S/cm.

  20. Ozonated graphene oxide film as a proton-exchange membrane.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Wu, Gang; Janicke, Michael T; Cullen, David A; Mukundan, Rangachary; Baldwin, Jon K; Brosha, Eric L; Galande, Charudatta; Ajayan, Pulickel M; More, Karren L; Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Zelenay, Piotr

    2014-04-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) contains several chemical functional groups that are attached to the graphite basal plane and can be manipulated to tailor GO for specific applications. It is now revealed that the reaction of GO with ozone results in a high level of oxidation, which leads to significantly improved ionic (protonic) conductivity of the GO. Freestanding ozonated GO films were synthesized and used as efficient polymer electrolyte fuel cell membranes. The increase in protonic conductivity of the ozonated GO originates from enhanced proton hopping, which is due to the higher content of oxygenated functional groups in the basal planes and edges of ozonated GO as well as the morphology changes in GO that are caused by ozonation. The results of this study demonstrate that the modification of dispersed GO presents a powerful opportunity for optimizing a nanoscale material for proton-exchange membranes.

  1. Durability of symmetrically and asymmetrically porous polybenzimidazole membranes for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jheng, Li-Cheng; Chang, Wesley Jen-Yang; Hsu, Steve Lien-Chung; Cheng, Po-Yang

    2016-08-01

    Two types of porous polybenzimidazole (PBI) membranes with symmetric and asymmetric morphologies were fabricated by the template-leaching method and characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Their physicochemical properties were compared in terms of acid-doping level, proton conductivity, mechanical strength, and oxidative stability. The durability of fuel cell operation is one of the most challenging for the PBI based membrane electrode assembly (MEA) used in high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs). In the present work, we carried out a long-term steady-state fuel cell test to compare the effect of membrane structure on the cell voltage degradation. It has also been demonstrated that the asymmetrically porous PBI could bring some notable improvements on the durability of fuel cell operation, the fuel crossover problem, and the phosphoric acid leakage.

  2. Electronic circuit model for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dachuan; Yuvarajan, S.

    The proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is being investigated as an alternate power source for various applications like transportation and emergency power supplies. The paper presents a novel circuit model for a PEM fuel cell that can be used to design and analyze fuel cell power systems. The PSPICE-based model uses bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) and LC elements available in the PSPICE library with some modification. The model includes the phenomena like activation polarization, ohmic polarization, and mass transport effect present in a PEM fuel cell. The static and dynamic characteristics obtained through simulation are compared with experimental results obtained on a commercial fuel cell module.

  3. Regulatory Conformational Coupling between CLC Anion Channel Membrane and Cytoplasmic Domains.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Toshiki; Strange, Kevin

    2016-11-01

    CLC anion channels are homodimeric proteins. Each subunit is comprised of 18 α-helices designated "A-R" and an intracellular carboxy-terminus containing two cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS1 and CBS2) domains. Conformational coupling between membrane and intracellular domains via poorly understood mechanisms is required for CLC regulation. The activity of the C. elegans CLC channel CLH-3b is reduced by phosphorylation of a carboxy-terminus "activation domain," which disrupts its interaction with CBS domains. CBS2 interfaces with a short intracellular loop, the H-I loop, connecting membrane helices H and I. Alanine mutation of a conserved H-I loop tyrosine residue, Y232, prevents regulation demonstrating that the loop functions to couple phosphorylation-dependent CBS domain conformational changes to channel membrane domains. To gain further insight into the mechanisms of this coupling, we mutated conserved amino acid residues in membrane helices H and I. Only mutation of the H-helix valine residue V228 to leucine prevented phosphorylation-dependent channel regulation. Structural and functional studies of other CLC proteins suggest that V228 may interact with Y529, a conserved R-helix tyrosine residue that forms part of the CLC ion conduction pathway. Mutation of Y529 to alanine also prevented CLH-3b regulation. Intracellular application of the sulfhydryl reactive reagent MTSET using CLH-3b channels engineered with single-cysteine residues in CBS2 indicate that V228L, Y529A, and Y232A disrupt putative regulatory intracellular conformational changes. Extracellular Zn(2+) inhibits CLH-3b and alters the effects of intracellular MTSET on channel activity. The effects of Zn(2+) are disrupted by V228L, Y529A, and Y232A. Collectively, our findings indicate that there is conformational coupling between CBS domains and the H and R membrane helices mediated by the H-I loop. We propose a simple model by which conformational changes in H and R helices mediate CLH-3b regulation

  4. Fault tolerance control for proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaojuan; Zhou, Boyang

    2016-08-01

    Fault diagnosis and controller design are two important aspects to improve proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system durability. However, the two tasks are often separately performed. For example, many pressure and voltage controllers have been successfully built. However, these controllers are designed based on the normal operation of PEMFC. When PEMFC faces problems such as flooding or membrane drying, a controller with a specific design must be used. This paper proposes a unique scheme that simultaneously performs fault diagnosis and tolerance control for the PEMFC system. The proposed control strategy consists of a fault diagnosis, a reconfiguration mechanism and adjustable controllers. Using a back-propagation neural network, a model-based fault detection method is employed to detect the PEMFC current fault type (flooding, membrane drying or normal). According to the diagnosis results, the reconfiguration mechanism determines which backup controllers to be selected. Three nonlinear controllers based on feedback linearization approaches are respectively built to adjust the voltage and pressure difference in the case of normal, membrane drying and flooding conditions. The simulation results illustrate that the proposed fault tolerance control strategy can track the voltage and keep the pressure difference at desired levels in faulty conditions.

  5. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A)

    SciTech Connect

    Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Junking, Mutita; Ngaojanlar, Piengpaga; Sukomon, Nattakan; Ungsupravate, Duangporn; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Akkarapatumwong, Varaporn; Noisakran, Sansanee; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Trafficking defect of kAE1 is a cause of dRTA but trafficking pathway of kAE1 has not been clearly described. {yields} Adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A) was firstly reported to interact with kAE1. {yields} The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. {yields} AP-1 mu1A knockdown showed a marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane and its accumulation in endoplasmic reticulum. {yields} AP-1 mu1A has a critical role in kAE1 trafficking to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) mediates chloride (Cl{sup -}) and bicarbonate (HCO{sub 3}{sup -}) exchange at the basolateral membrane of kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells. Impaired trafficking of kAE1 leads to defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange at the basolateral membrane and failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane, causing a kidney disease - distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). To gain a better insight into kAE1 trafficking, we searched for proteins physically interacting with the C-terminal region of kAE1 (Ct-kAE1), which contains motifs crucial for intracellular trafficking, by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. An adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A) subunit was found to interact with Ct-kAE1. The interaction between either Ct-kAE1 or full-length kAE1 and AP-1 mu1A were confirmed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T by co-immunoprecipitation, affinity co-purification, co-localization, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-based protein fragment complementation assay (PCA) and GST pull-down assay. The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. Interestingly, suppression of endogenous AP-1 mu1A in HEK 293T by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased membrane localization of kAE1 and increased its intracellular accumulation, suggesting for the first time that AP-1 mu1A is involved in the kAE1

  6. The Position of Aβ22−40 and Aβ1−42 in Anionic Lipid Membranes Containing Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Matthew A.; Alsop, Richard J.; Hauß, Thomas