Coarse-grained depletion potentials for anisotropic colloids: Application to lock-and-key systems.
Law, Clement; Ashton, Douglas J; Wilding, Nigel B; Jack, Robert L
2016-08-28
When colloids are mixed with a depletant such as a non-adsorbing polymer, one observes attractive effective interactions between the colloidal particles. If these particles are anisotropic, analysis of these effective interactions is challenging in general. We present a method for inference of approximate (coarse-grained) effective interaction potentials between such anisotropic particles. Using the example of indented (lock-and-key) colloids, we show how numerical solutions can be used to integrate out the (hard sphere) depletant, leading to a depletion potential that accurately characterises the effective interactions. The accuracy of the method is based on matching of contributions to the second virial coefficient of the colloids. The simplest version of our method yields a piecewise-constant effective potential; we also show how this scheme can be generalised to other functional forms, where appropriate. PMID:27586946
Li, Guohui; Shen, Hujun; Zhang, Dinglin; Li, Yan; Wang, Honglei
2016-02-01
In this work, we attempt to apply a coarse-grained (CG) model, which is based on anisotropic Gay-Berne and electric multipole (EMP) potentials, to the modeling of nucleic acids. First, a comparison has been made between the CG and atomistic models (AMBER point-charge model) in the modeling of DNA and RNA hairpin structures. The CG results have demonstrated a good quality in maintaining the nucleic acid hairpin structures, in reproducing the dynamics of backbone atoms of nucleic acids, and in describing the hydrogen-bonding interactions between nucleic acid base pairs. Second, the CG and atomistic AMBER models yield comparable results in modeling double-stranded DNA and RNA molecules. It is encouraging that our CG model is capable of reproducing many elastic features of nucleic acid base pairs in terms of the distributions of the interbase pair step parameters (such as shift, slide, tilt, and twist) and the intrabase pair parameters (such as buckle, propeller, shear, and stretch). Finally, The GBEMP model has shown a promising ability to predict the melting temperatures of DNA duplexes with different lengths.
Li, Guohui; Shen, Hujun; Zhang, Dinglin; Li, Yan; Wang, Honglei
2016-02-01
In this work, we attempt to apply a coarse-grained (CG) model, which is based on anisotropic Gay-Berne and electric multipole (EMP) potentials, to the modeling of nucleic acids. First, a comparison has been made between the CG and atomistic models (AMBER point-charge model) in the modeling of DNA and RNA hairpin structures. The CG results have demonstrated a good quality in maintaining the nucleic acid hairpin structures, in reproducing the dynamics of backbone atoms of nucleic acids, and in describing the hydrogen-bonding interactions between nucleic acid base pairs. Second, the CG and atomistic AMBER models yield comparable results in modeling double-stranded DNA and RNA molecules. It is encouraging that our CG model is capable of reproducing many elastic features of nucleic acid base pairs in terms of the distributions of the interbase pair step parameters (such as shift, slide, tilt, and twist) and the intrabase pair parameters (such as buckle, propeller, shear, and stretch). Finally, The GBEMP model has shown a promising ability to predict the melting temperatures of DNA duplexes with different lengths. PMID:26717419
Path statistics, memory, and coarse-graining of continuous-time random walks on networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manhart, Michael; Kion-Crosby, Willow; Morozov, Alexandre V.
2015-12-01
Continuous-time random walks (CTRWs) on discrete state spaces, ranging from regular lattices to complex networks, are ubiquitous across physics, chemistry, and biology. Models with coarse-grained states (for example, those employed in studies of molecular kinetics) or spatial disorder can give rise to memory and non-exponential distributions of waiting times and first-passage statistics. However, existing methods for analyzing CTRWs on complex energy landscapes do not address these effects. Here we use statistical mechanics of the nonequilibrium path ensemble to characterize first-passage CTRWs on networks with arbitrary connectivity, energy landscape, and waiting time distributions. Our approach can be applied to calculating higher moments (beyond the mean) of path length, time, and action, as well as statistics of any conservative or non-conservative force along a path. For homogeneous networks, we derive exact relations between length and time moments, quantifying the validity of approximating a continuous-time process with its discrete-time projection. For more general models, we obtain recursion relations, reminiscent of transfer matrix and exact enumeration techniques, to efficiently calculate path statistics numerically. We have implemented our algorithm in PathMAN (Path Matrix Algorithm for Networks), a Python script that users can apply to their model of choice. We demonstrate the algorithm on a few representative examples which underscore the importance of non-exponential distributions, memory, and coarse-graining in CTRWs.
Path statistics, memory, and coarse-graining of continuous-time random walks on networks.
Manhart, Michael; Kion-Crosby, Willow; Morozov, Alexandre V
2015-12-01
Continuous-time random walks (CTRWs) on discrete state spaces, ranging from regular lattices to complex networks, are ubiquitous across physics, chemistry, and biology. Models with coarse-grained states (for example, those employed in studies of molecular kinetics) or spatial disorder can give rise to memory and non-exponential distributions of waiting times and first-passage statistics. However, existing methods for analyzing CTRWs on complex energy landscapes do not address these effects. Here we use statistical mechanics of the nonequilibrium path ensemble to characterize first-passage CTRWs on networks with arbitrary connectivity, energy landscape, and waiting time distributions. Our approach can be applied to calculating higher moments (beyond the mean) of path length, time, and action, as well as statistics of any conservative or non-conservative force along a path. For homogeneous networks, we derive exact relations between length and time moments, quantifying the validity of approximating a continuous-time process with its discrete-time projection. For more general models, we obtain recursion relations, reminiscent of transfer matrix and exact enumeration techniques, to efficiently calculate path statistics numerically. We have implemented our algorithm in PathMAN (Path Matrix Algorithm for Networks), a Python script that users can apply to their model of choice. We demonstrate the algorithm on a few representative examples which underscore the importance of non-exponential distributions, memory, and coarse-graining in CTRWs.
A reductionist perspective on quantum statistical mechanics: Coarse-graining of path integrals.
Sinitskiy, Anton V; Voth, Gregory A
2015-09-01
Computational modeling of the condensed phase based on classical statistical mechanics has been rapidly developing over the last few decades and has yielded important information on various systems containing up to millions of atoms. However, if a system of interest contains important quantum effects, well-developed classical techniques cannot be used. One way of treating finite temperature quantum systems at equilibrium has been based on Feynman's imaginary time path integral approach and the ensuing quantum-classical isomorphism. This isomorphism is exact only in the limit of infinitely many classical quasiparticles representing each physical quantum particle. In this work, we present a reductionist perspective on this problem based on the emerging methodology of coarse-graining. This perspective allows for the representations of one quantum particle with only two classical-like quasiparticles and their conjugate momenta. One of these coupled quasiparticles is the centroid particle of the quantum path integral quasiparticle distribution. Only this quasiparticle feels the potential energy function. The other quasiparticle directly provides the observable averages of quantum mechanical operators. The theory offers a simplified perspective on quantum statistical mechanics, revealing its most reductionist connection to classical statistical physics. By doing so, it can facilitate a simpler representation of certain quantum effects in complex molecular environments.
A reductionist perspective on quantum statistical mechanics: Coarse-graining of path integrals
Sinitskiy, Anton V.; Voth, Gregory A.
2015-09-07
Computational modeling of the condensed phase based on classical statistical mechanics has been rapidly developing over the last few decades and has yielded important information on various systems containing up to millions of atoms. However, if a system of interest contains important quantum effects, well-developed classical techniques cannot be used. One way of treating finite temperature quantum systems at equilibrium has been based on Feynman’s imaginary time path integral approach and the ensuing quantum-classical isomorphism. This isomorphism is exact only in the limit of infinitely many classical quasiparticles representing each physical quantum particle. In this work, we present a reductionist perspective on this problem based on the emerging methodology of coarse-graining. This perspective allows for the representations of one quantum particle with only two classical-like quasiparticles and their conjugate momenta. One of these coupled quasiparticles is the centroid particle of the quantum path integral quasiparticle distribution. Only this quasiparticle feels the potential energy function. The other quasiparticle directly provides the observable averages of quantum mechanical operators. The theory offers a simplified perspective on quantum statistical mechanics, revealing its most reductionist connection to classical statistical physics. By doing so, it can facilitate a simpler representation of certain quantum effects in complex molecular environments.
A reductionist perspective on quantum statistical mechanics: Coarse-graining of path integrals.
Sinitskiy, Anton V; Voth, Gregory A
2015-09-01
Computational modeling of the condensed phase based on classical statistical mechanics has been rapidly developing over the last few decades and has yielded important information on various systems containing up to millions of atoms. However, if a system of interest contains important quantum effects, well-developed classical techniques cannot be used. One way of treating finite temperature quantum systems at equilibrium has been based on Feynman's imaginary time path integral approach and the ensuing quantum-classical isomorphism. This isomorphism is exact only in the limit of infinitely many classical quasiparticles representing each physical quantum particle. In this work, we present a reductionist perspective on this problem based on the emerging methodology of coarse-graining. This perspective allows for the representations of one quantum particle with only two classical-like quasiparticles and their conjugate momenta. One of these coupled quasiparticles is the centroid particle of the quantum path integral quasiparticle distribution. Only this quasiparticle feels the potential energy function. The other quasiparticle directly provides the observable averages of quantum mechanical operators. The theory offers a simplified perspective on quantum statistical mechanics, revealing its most reductionist connection to classical statistical physics. By doing so, it can facilitate a simpler representation of certain quantum effects in complex molecular environments. PMID:26342356
A coarse-grained α-carbon protein model with anisotropic hydrogen-bonding
Yap, Eng-Hui; Fawzi, Nicolas Lux; Head-Gordon, Teresa
2012-01-01
We develop a sequence based α-carbon model to incorporate a mean field estimate of the orientation dependence of the polypeptide chain that gives rise to specific hydrogen bond pairing to stabilize α-helices and β-sheets. We illustrate the success of the new protein model in capturing thermodynamic measures and folding mechanism of proteins L and G. Compared to our previous coarse-grained model, the new model shows greater folding cooperativity and improvements in designability of protein sequences, as well as predicting correct trends for kinetic rates and mechanism for proteins L and G. We believe the model is broadly applicable to other protein folding and protein–protein co-assembly processes, and does not require experimental input beyond the topology description of the native state. Even without tertiary topology information, it can also serve as a mid-resolution protein model for more exhaustive conformational search strategies that can bridge back down to atomic descriptions of the polypeptide chain. PMID:17879350
Lu, Jibao; Qiu, Yuqing; Baron, Riccardo; Molinero, Valeria
2014-09-01
Coarse-grained models are becoming a competitive alternative for modeling processes that occur over time and length scales beyond the reach of fully atomistic molecular simulations. Ideally, coarse-grained models should not only achieve high computational efficiency but also provide accurate predictions and fundamental insight into the role of molecular interactions, the characteristic behavior, and properties of the system they model. In this work we derive a series of monatomic coarse-grained water models mX(REM) from the most popular atomistic water models X = TIP3P, SPC/E, TIP4P-Ew, and TIP4P/2005, using the relative entropy minimization (REM) method. Each coarse-grained water molecule is represented by a single particle that interacts through short-ranged anisotropic interactions that encourage the formation of "hydrogen-bonded" structures. We systematically investigate the features of the coarse-grained models in reproducing over 20 structural, dynamic, and thermodynamic properties of the reference atomistic water models-including the existence and locus of the characteristic density anomaly. The mX(REM) coarse-grained models reproduce quite faithfully the radial and angular distribution function of water, produce a temperature of maximum density (TMD), and stabilize the ice I crystal. Moreover, the ratio between the TMD and the melting temperature of the crystal in the mX(REM) models and liquid-ice equilibrium properties show reasonable agreement with the results of the corresponding atomistic models. The mX(REM) models, however, severely underestimate the cohesive energy of the condensed water phases. We investigate which specific limitations of the coarse-grained models arise from the REM methodology, from the monatomic nature of the models, and from the Stillinger-Weber interaction potential form. Our analysis indicates that a small compromise in the accuracy of structural properties can result in a significant increase of the overall accuracy and
Chen, Wenduo; Zhu, Youliang; Cui, Fengchao; Liu, Lunyang; Sun, Zhaoyan; Chen, Jizhong; Li, Yunqi
2016-01-01
Gay-Berne (GB) potential is regarded as an accurate model in the simulation of anisotropic particles, especially for liquid crystal (LC) mesogens. However, its computational complexity leads to an extremely time-consuming process for large systems. Here, we developed a GPU-accelerated molecular dynamics (MD) simulation with coarse-grained GB potential implemented in GALAMOST package to investigate the LC phase transitions for mesogens in small molecules, main-chain or side-chain polymers. For identical mesogens in three different molecules, on cooling from fully isotropic melts, the small molecules form a single-domain smectic-B phase, while the main-chain LC polymers prefer a single-domain nematic phase as a result of connective restraints in neighboring mesogens. The phase transition of side-chain LC polymers undergoes a two-step process: nucleation of nematic islands and formation of multi-domain nematic texture. The particular behavior originates in the fact that the rotational orientation of the mesogenes is hindered by the polymer backbones. Both the global distribution and the local orientation of mesogens are critical for the phase transition of anisotropic particles. Furthermore, compared with the MD simulation in LAMMPS, our GPU-accelerated code is about 4 times faster than the GPU version of LAMMPS and at least 200 times faster than the CPU version of LAMMPS. This study clearly shows that GPU-accelerated MD simulation with GB potential in GALAMOST can efficiently handle systems with anisotropic particles and interactions, and accurately explore phase differences originated from molecular structures. PMID:26986851
Cui, Fengchao; Liu, Lunyang; Sun, Zhaoyan; Chen, Jizhong; Li, Yunqi
2016-01-01
Gay-Berne (GB) potential is regarded as an accurate model in the simulation of anisotropic particles, especially for liquid crystal (LC) mesogens. However, its computational complexity leads to an extremely time-consuming process for large systems. Here, we developed a GPU-accelerated molecular dynamics (MD) simulation with coarse-grained GB potential implemented in GALAMOST package to investigate the LC phase transitions for mesogens in small molecules, main-chain or side-chain polymers. For identical mesogens in three different molecules, on cooling from fully isotropic melts, the small molecules form a single-domain smectic-B phase, while the main-chain LC polymers prefer a single-domain nematic phase as a result of connective restraints in neighboring mesogens. The phase transition of side-chain LC polymers undergoes a two-step process: nucleation of nematic islands and formation of multi-domain nematic texture. The particular behavior originates in the fact that the rotational orientation of the mesogenes is hindered by the polymer backbones. Both the global distribution and the local orientation of mesogens are critical for the phase transition of anisotropic particles. Furthermore, compared with the MD simulation in LAMMPS, our GPU-accelerated code is about 4 times faster than the GPU version of LAMMPS and at least 200 times faster than the CPU version of LAMMPS. This study clearly shows that GPU-accelerated MD simulation with GB potential in GALAMOST can efficiently handle systems with anisotropic particles and interactions, and accurately explore phase differences originated from molecular structures. PMID:26986851
Davis, C.L.; King, J.E.
1996-10-01
In part 1 of this article, cleavage initiation in the intercritically reheated coarse-grained heat affected zone (IC CG HAZ) of high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels was determined to occur between two closely spaced blocky MA particles. Blunt notch, crack tip opening displacement (CTOD), and precracked Charpy testing were used in this investigation to determine the failure criteria required for cleavage initiation to occur by this mechanism in the IC CG HAZ. It was found that the attainment of a critical level of strain was required in addition to a critical level of stress. This does not occur in the case of high strain rate testing, for example, during precracked Charpy testing. A different cleavage initiation mechanism is then found to operate. The precise fracture criteria and microstructural requirements (described in part 1 of this article) result in competition between potential cleavage initiation mechanisms in the IC CG HAZ.
Quasiclassical coarse graining and thermodynamic entropy
Gell-Mann, Murray; Hartle, James B.
2007-08-15
Our everyday descriptions of the universe are highly coarse grained, following only a tiny fraction of the variables necessary for a perfectly fine-grained description. Coarse graining in classical physics is made natural by our limited powers of observation and computation. But in the modern quantum mechanics of closed systems, some measure of coarse graining is inescapable because there are no nontrivial, probabilistic, fine-grained descriptions. This essay explores the consequences of that fact. Quantum theory allows for various coarse-grained descriptions, some of which are mutually incompatible. For most purposes, however, we are interested in the small subset of 'quasiclassical descriptions' defined by ranges of values of averages over small volumes of densities of conserved quantities such as energy and momentum and approximately conserved quantities such as baryon number. The near-conservation of these quasiclassical quantities results in approximate decoherence, predictability, and local equilibrium, leading to closed sets of equations of motion. In any description, information is sacrificed through the coarse graining that yields decoherence and gives rise to probabilities for histories. In quasiclassical descriptions, further information is sacrificed in exhibiting the emergent regularities summarized by classical equations of motion. An appropriate entropy measures the loss of information. For a 'quasiclassical realm' this is connected with the usual thermodynamic entropy as obtained from statistical mechanics. It was low for the initial state of our universe and has been increasing since.
The Theory of Ultra Coarse-graining
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voth, Gregory
2013-03-01
Coarse-grained (CG) models provide a computationally efficient means to study biomolecular and other soft matter processes involving large numbers of atoms correlated over distance scales of many covalent bond lengths and long time scales. Variational methods based on information from simulations of finer-grained (e.g., all-atom) models, for example the multiscale coarse-graining (MS-CG) and relative entropy minimization methods, provide attractive tools for the systematic development of CG models. However, these methods have important drawbacks when used in the ``ultra coarse-grained'' (UCG) regime, e.g., at a resolution level coarser or much coarser than one amino acid residue per effective CG particle in proteins. This is due to the possible existece of multiple metastable states ``within'' the CG sites for a given UCG model configuration. In this talk I will describe systematic variational UCG methods specifically designed to CG entire protein domains and subdomains into single effective CG particles. This is accomplished by augmenting existing effective particle CG schemes to allow for discrete state transitions and configuration-dependent resolution. Additionally, certain conclusions of this work connect back to single-state force matching and open up new avenues for method development in that area. These results provide a formal statistical mechanical basis for UCG methods related to force matching and relative entropy CG methods and suggest practical algorithms for constructing optimal approximate UCG models from fine-grained simulation data.
Equilibrium behavior of coarse-grained chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Egolf, David A.; Ballard, Christopher C.; Esty, C. Clark
2015-03-01
A wide variety of systems exhibiting spatiotemporal chaos have been shown to be extensive, in that their fractal dimensions grow linearly with volume. Ruelle argued that this extensivity is evidence that these systems can be viewed as a gas of weakly-interacting regions. We have tested this idea by performing large-scale computational studies of spatiotemporal chaos in the 1D complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, and we have found that aspects of the coarse-grained system are well-described not only as a gas, but as an equilibrium gas -- in particular, a Tonks gas (and variants) in the grand canonical ensemble. Furthermore, for small system sizes, the average number of particles in the corresponding Tonks gas exhibits oscillatory, decaying deviations from extensivity in agreement with deviations in the fractal dimension found by Fishman and Egolf. This result not only supports Ruelle's picture but also suggests that the coarse-grained behavior of this far-from-equilibrium system might be understood using equilibrium statistical mechanics.
Systematic Coarse-graining of Molecular Dynamics Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voth, Gregory
2015-03-01
Coarse-grained (CG) models can provide a computationally efficient means to study biomolecular and other soft matter processes involving large numbers of atoms that are correlated over distance scales of many covalent bond lengths and at long time scales. Systematic variational coarse-graining methods based on information from molecular dynamics simulations of finer-grained (e.g., all-atom) models provide attractive tools for the systematic development of CG models. Examples include the multiscale coarse-graining (MS-CG) and relative entropy minimization methods, and results from the former theory will be presented in this talk. In addition, a new approach will be presented that is appropriate for the ``ultra coarse-grained'' (UCG) regime, e.g., at a coarse-grained resolution that is much coarser than one amino acid residue per CG particle in a protein. At this level of coarse-graining, one is faced with the possible existence of multiple metastable states ``within'' the CG sites for a given UCG model configuration. I will therefore describe newer systematic variational UCG methods specifically designed to CG entire protein domains and subdomains into single effective CG particles. This is accomplished by augmenting existing effective particle CG schemes to allow for discrete state transitions and configuration-dependent resolution. Additionally, certain aspects of this work connect back to single-state force matching and open up new avenues for method development. This general body of theory and algorithm provides a formal statistical mechanical basis for the coarse-graining of fine-grained molecular dynamics simulation data at various levels of CG resolution. Representative applications will be described as time allows.
Coarse graining of polystyrene sulfonate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perahia, Dvora; Agrawal, Anupriya; Grest, Gary S.
2015-03-01
Capturing large length scales in soft matter while retaining atomistic properties is imperative to computational studies. Here we develop a new coarse-grained model for polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) that often serves as a model system because of its narrow molecular weight distribution and defined degree of sulfonation. Four beads are used to represent polymer where the backbone, the phenyl group, and the sulfonated group are each represented by a different bead and the fourth one represents counterion, which is sodium in our case. Initial atomistic simulations of PSS melt with sulfonation levels of 2-10%, with a dielectric constant ɛ = 1 revealed a ``locked'' phase where motion of the polymer is limited. Dielectric constant of ɛ = 5 was used to accelerate the dynamics. Bonded interactions were obtained using Boltzmann inversion on the bonded distributions extracted from atomistic simulation. Non-bonded interaction of polystyrene monomer was taken from our previous work and potential of mean force was used as the initial guess for interaction of the ionic beads. This set of potential was subsequently iterated to get a good match with radial distribution functions. This potential and its transferability across dielectric constants and temperatures will be presented. Grant DE-SC007908.
Coarse-Grained Prediction of RNA Loop Structures
Liu, Liang; Chen, Shi-Jie
2012-01-01
One of the key issues in the theoretical prediction of RNA folding is the prediction of loop structure from the sequence. RNA loop free energies are dependent on the loop sequence content. However, most current models account only for the loop length-dependence. The previously developed “Vfold” model (a coarse-grained RNA folding model) provides an effective method to generate the complete ensemble of coarse-grained RNA loop and junction conformations. However, due to the lack of sequence-dependent scoring parameters, the method is unable to identify the native and near-native structures from the sequence. In this study, using a previously developed iterative method for extracting the knowledge-based potential parameters from the known structures, we derive a set of dinucleotide-based statistical potentials for RNA loops and junctions. A unique advantage of the approach is its ability to go beyond the the (known) native structures by accounting for the full free energy landscape, including all the nonnative folds. The benchmark tests indicate that for given loop/junction sequences, the statistical potentials enable successful predictions for the coarse-grained 3D structures from the complete conformational ensemble generated by the Vfold model. The predicted coarse-grained structures can provide useful initial folds for further detailed structural refinement. PMID:23144887
Optimization of Analytical Potentials for Coarse-Grained Biopolymer Models.
Mereghetti, Paolo; Maccari, Giuseppe; Spampinato, Giulia Lia Beatrice; Tozzini, Valentina
2016-08-25
The increasing trend in the recent literature on coarse grained (CG) models testifies their impact in the study of complex systems. However, the CG model landscape is variegated: even considering a given resolution level, the force fields are very heterogeneous and optimized with very different parametrization procedures. Along the road for standardization of CG models for biopolymers, here we describe a strategy to aid building and optimization of statistics based analytical force fields and its implementation in the software package AsParaGS (Assisted Parameterization platform for coarse Grained modelS). Our method is based on the use and optimization of analytical potentials, optimized by targeting internal variables statistical distributions by means of the combination of different algorithms (i.e., relative entropy driven stochastic exploration of the parameter space and iterative Boltzmann inversion). This allows designing a custom model that endows the force field terms with a physically sound meaning. Furthermore, the level of transferability and accuracy can be tuned through the choice of statistical data set composition. The method-illustrated by means of applications to helical polypeptides-also involves the analysis of two and three variable distributions, and allows handling issues related to the FF term correlations. AsParaGS is interfaced with general-purpose molecular dynamics codes and currently implements the "minimalist" subclass of CG models (i.e., one bead per amino acid, Cα based). Extensions to nucleic acids and different levels of coarse graining are in the course. PMID:27150459
Measuring Crack Length in Coarse Grain Ceramics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salem, Jonathan A.; Ghosn, Louis J.
2010-01-01
Due to a coarse grain structure, crack lengths in precracked spinel specimens could not be measured optically, so the crack lengths and fracture toughness were estimated by strain gage measurements. An expression was developed via finite element analysis to correlate the measured strain with crack length in four-point flexure. The fracture toughness estimated by the strain gaged samples and another standardized method were in agreement.
Coarse-grained Simulations of Viral Assembly
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elrad, Oren M.
2011-12-01
The formation of viral capsids is a marvel of natural engineering and design. A large number (from 60 to thousands) of protein subunits assemble into complete, reproducible structures under a variety of conditions while avoiding kinetic and thermodynamic traps. Small single-stranded RNA viruses not only assemble their coat proteins in this fashion but also package their genome during the self-assembly process. Recent experiments have shown that the coat proteins are competent to assemble not merely around their own genomes but heterologous RNA, synthetic polyanions and even functionalized gold nanoparticles. Remarkably these viruses can even assemble around cargo not commensurate with their native state by adopting different morphologies. Understanding the properties that confer such exquisite precision and flexibility to the assembly process could aid biomedical research in the search for novel antiviral remedies, drug-delivery vehicles and contrast agents used in bioimaging. At the same time, viral assembly provides an excellent model system for the development of a statistical mechanical understanding of biological self-assembly, in the hopes of that we will identify some universal principles that underly such processes. This work consists of computational studies using coarse-grained representations of viral coat proteins and their cargoes. We find the relative strength of protein-cargo and protein-protein interactions has a profound effect on the assembly pathway, in some cases leading to assembly mechanisms that are markedly different from those found in previous work on the assembly of empty capsids. In the case of polymeric cargo, we find the first evidence for a previously theorized mechanism in which the polymer actively participates in recruiting free subunits to the assembly process through cooperative polymer-protein motions. We find that successful assembly is non-monotonic in protein-cargo affinity, such affinity can be detrimental to assembly if it
Trément, Sébastien; Rousseau, Bernard; Schnell, Benoît; Petitjean, Laurent; Couty, Marc
2014-04-07
We apply operational procedures available in the literature to the construction of coarse-grained conservative and friction forces for use in dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations. The full procedure rely on a bottom-up approach: large molecular dynamics trajectories of n-pentane and n-decane modeled with an anisotropic united atom model serve as input for the force field generation. As a consequence, the coarse-grained model is expected to reproduce at least semi-quantitatively structural and dynamical properties of the underlying atomistic model. Two different coarse-graining levels are studied, corresponding to five and ten carbon atoms per DPD bead. The influence of the coarse-graining level on the generated force fields contributions, namely, the conservative and the friction part, is discussed. It is shown that the coarse-grained model of n-pentane correctly reproduces self-diffusion and viscosity coefficients of real n-pentane, while the fully coarse-grained model for n-decane at ambient temperature over-predicts diffusion by a factor of 2. However, when the n-pentane coarse-grained model is used as a building block for larger molecule (e.g., n-decane as a two blobs model), a much better agreement with experimental data is obtained, suggesting that the force field constructed is transferable to large macro-molecular systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trément, Sébastien; Schnell, Benoît.; Petitjean, Laurent; Couty, Marc; Rousseau, Bernard
2014-04-01
We apply operational procedures available in the literature to the construction of coarse-grained conservative and friction forces for use in dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations. The full procedure rely on a bottom-up approach: large molecular dynamics trajectories of n-pentane and n-decane modeled with an anisotropic united atom model serve as input for the force field generation. As a consequence, the coarse-grained model is expected to reproduce at least semi-quantitatively structural and dynamical properties of the underlying atomistic model. Two different coarse-graining levels are studied, corresponding to five and ten carbon atoms per DPD bead. The influence of the coarse-graining level on the generated force fields contributions, namely, the conservative and the friction part, is discussed. It is shown that the coarse-grained model of n-pentane correctly reproduces self-diffusion and viscosity coefficients of real n-pentane, while the fully coarse-grained model for n-decane at ambient temperature over-predicts diffusion by a factor of 2. However, when the n-pentane coarse-grained model is used as a building block for larger molecule (e.g., n-decane as a two blobs model), a much better agreement with experimental data is obtained, suggesting that the force field constructed is transferable to large macro-molecular systems.
Coarse-Grain Modeling of Energetic Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brennan, John
2015-06-01
Mechanical and thermal loading of energetic materials can incite responses over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales due to inherent nano- and microscale features. Many energy transfer processes within these materials are atomistically governed, yet the material response is manifested at the micro- and mesoscale. The existing state-of-the-art computational methods include continuum level approaches that rely on idealized field-based formulations that are empirically based. Our goal is to bridge the spatial and temporal modeling regimes while ensuring multiscale consistency. However, significant technical challenges exist, including that the multiscale methods linking the atomistic and microscales for molecular crystals are immature or nonexistent. To begin addressing these challenges, we have implemented a bottom-up approach for deriving microscale coarse-grain models directly from quantum mechanics-derived atomistic models. In this talk, a suite of computational tools is described for particle-based microscale simulations of the nonequilibrium response of energetic solids. Our approach builds upon recent advances both in generating coarse-grain models under high strains and in developing a variant of dissipative particle dynamics that includes chemical reactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Avisek; Lu, Lanyuan; Andersen, Hans C.; Voth, Gregory A.
2012-05-01
The multiscale coarse-graining (MS-CG) method uses simulation data for an atomistic model of a system to construct a coarse-grained (CG) potential for a coarse-grained model of the system. The CG potential is a variational approximation for the true potential of mean force of the degrees of freedom retained in the CG model. The variational calculation uses information about the atomistic positions and forces in the simulation data. In principle, the resulting MS-CG potential will be an accurate representation of the true CG potential if the basis set for the variational calculation is complete enough and the canonical distribution of atomistic states is well sampled by the data set. In practice, atomistic configurations that have very high potential energy are not sampled. As a result there usually is a region of CG configuration space that is not sampled and about which the data set contains no information regarding the gradient of the true potential. The MS-CG potential obtained from a variational calculation will not necessarily be accurate in this unsampled region. A priori considerations make it clear that the true CG potential of mean force must be very large and positive in that region. To obtain an MS-CG potential whose behavior in the sampled region is determined by the atomistic data set, and whose behavior in the unsampled region is large and positive, it is necessary to intervene in the variational calculation in some way. In this paper, we discuss and compare two such methods of intervention, which have been used in previous MS-CG calculations for dealing with nonbonded interactions. For the test systems studied, the two methods give similar results and yield MS-CG potentials that are limited in accuracy only by the incompleteness of the basis set and the statistical error of associated with the set of atomistic configurations used. The use of such methods is important for obtaining accurate CG potentials.
Diaz, Aaron A.; Andersen, Eric S.; Samuel, Todd J.
2004-11-01
In the rail industry, sections of high strength Manganese steel are employed at critical locations in railroad networks. Ultrasonic inspections of Manganese steel microstructures are difficult to inspect with conventional means, as the propagation medium is highly attenuative, coarse-grained, anisotropic and nonhomogeneous in nature. Current in-service inspection methods are ineffective while pre-service X-ray methods (used for full-volumetric examinations of components prior to shipment) are time-consuming, costly, require special facilities and highly trained personnel for safe operations, and preclude manufacturers from inspecting statistically meaningful numbers of frogs for effective quality assurance. In-service examinations consist of visual inspections only and by the time a defect or flaw is visually detected, the structural integrity of the component may already be compromised, and immediate repair or replacement is required. A novel ultrasonic inspection technique utilizing low frequency ultrasound (100 to 500 kHz) combined with a synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) for effective reduction of signal clutter and noise, and extraction of important features in the data, has proven to be effective for these coarse grained steel components. Results from proof-of-principal tests in the laboratory demonstrate an effective means to detect and localize reflectors introduced as a function of size and depth from the top of the frog rail. Using non-optimal, commercially available transducers coupled with the low-frequency/SAFT approach, preliminary evaluations were conducted to study the effects of the material microstructure on ultrasonic propagation, sensitivity and resolution in thick section frog components with machined side-drilled holes. Results from this study will be presented and discussed.
Coarse-grained modeling of DNA curvature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freeman, Gordon S.; Hinckley, Daniel M.; Lequieu, Joshua P.; Whitmer, Jonathan K.; de Pablo, Juan J.
2014-10-01
The interaction of DNA with proteins occurs over a wide range of length scales, and depends critically on its local structure. In particular, recent experimental work suggests that the intrinsic curvature of DNA plays a significant role on its protein-binding properties. In this work, we present a coarse grained model of DNA that is capable of describing base-pairing, hybridization, major and minor groove widths, and local curvature. The model represents an extension of the recently proposed 3SPN.2 description of DNA [D. M. Hinckley, G. S. Freeman, J. K. Whitmer, and J. J. de Pablo, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 144903 (2013)], into which sequence-dependent shape and mechanical properties are incorporated. The proposed model is validated against experimental data including melting temperatures, local flexibilities, dsDNA persistence lengths, and minor groove width profiles.
Coarse-grained model of glycosaminoglycans.
Samsonov, Sergey A; Bichmann, Leon; Pisabarro, M Teresa
2015-01-26
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) represent a class of anionic periodic linear polysaccharides, which mediate cell communication processes by interactions with their protein targets in the extracellular matrix. Due to their high flexibility, charged nature, periodicity, and polymeric nature, GAGs are challenging systems for computational approaches. To deal with the length challenge, coarse-grained (CG) modeling could be a promising approach. In this work, we develop AMBER-compatible CG parameters for GAGs using all-atomic (AA) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in explicit solvent and the Boltzmann conversion approach. We compare both global and local properties of GAGs obtained in the simulations with AA and CG approaches, and we conclude that our CG model is appropriate for the MD approach of long GAG molecules at long time scales.
Glasses in coarse-grained micrometeorites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varela, M. E.; Kurat, G.
2009-06-01
Micrometeorites (MMs, interplanetary dust particles with 25 - 500 μm diameters) carry the main mass of extraterrestrial matter that is captured by Earth. The coarse-grained MMs mainly consist of olivine aggregates, which - as their counterparts in CC chondrites - also contain pyroxenes and glass. We studied clear glasses in four coarse-grained crystalline MMs (10M12, M92-6b, AM9, and Mc7-10), which were collected from the ice at Cap Prudhomme, Antarctica. Previous studies of glasses (e.g., glass inclusions trapped in olivine and clear mesostasis glass) in carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites showed that these phases could keep memory of the physical-chemical conditions to which extraterrestrial matter was exposed. Here we compare the chemical compositions of MM glasses and glasses from CM chondrites with that in experimentally heated objects from the Allende CV chondrite and with glasses from cometary particles. Our results show that MMs were heated to variable degrees (during entry through the terrestrial atmosphere), which caused a range from very little chemical modification of the glass to total melting of the precursor object. Such modifications include dissolution of minerals in the melted glass precursor and some loss of volatile alkali elements. The chemical composition of all precursor glasses in the MMs investigated is not primitive such as glasses in CM and CR chondrite objects. It shows signs of pre-terrestrial chemical modification, e.g., metasomatic enrichments in Na and Fe 2+ presumably in the solar nebula. Glasses of MMs heated to very low degree have a chemical composition indistinguishable from that of glasses in comet Wild 2 particles; giving additional evidence that interplanetary dust (e.g., Antarctic MMs) possibly represents samples from comets.
Exact dynamical coarse-graining without time-scale separation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Jianfeng; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric
2014-07-01
A family of collective variables is proposed to perform exact dynamical coarse-graining even in systems without time scale separation. More precisely, it is shown that these variables are not slow in general, yet satisfy an overdamped Langevin equation that statistically preserves the sequence in which any regions in collective variable space are visited and permits to calculate exactly the mean first passage times from any such region to another. The role of the free energy and diffusion coefficient in this overdamped Langevin equation is discussed, along with the way they transform under any change of variable in collective variable space. These results apply both to systems with and without inertia, and they can be generalized to using several collective variables simultaneously. The view they offer on what makes collective variables and reaction coordinates optimal breaks from the standard notion that good collective variable must be slow variable, and it suggests new ways to interpret data from molecular dynamics simulations and experiments.
A coarse-grained spectral signature generator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lam, K. P.; Austin, J. C.; Day, C. R.
2007-01-01
This paper investigates the method for object fingerprinting in the context of element specific x-ray imaging. In particular, the use of spectral descriptors that are illumination invariant and viewpoint independent for pattern identification was examined in some detail. To improve generating the relevant "signature", the spectral descriptor constructed is enhanced with a differentiator which has built-in noise filtration capability and good localisation properties, thus facilitating the extraction of element specific features at a coarse-grained level. In addition to the demonstrable efficacy in identifying significant image intensity transitions that are associated with the underlying physical process of interest, the method has the distinct advantage of being conceptually simple and computationally efficient. These latter properties allow the descriptor to be further utilised by an intelligent system capable of performing a fine-grained analysis of the extracted pattern signatures. The performance of the spectral descriptor has been studied in terms of the quality of the signature vectors that it generated, quantitatively based on the established framework of Spectral Information Measure (SIM). Early results suggested that such a multiscale approach of image sequence analysis offers a considerable potential for real-time applications.
Coarse-grained models for biological simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Zhe; Cui, Qiang; Yethiraj, Arun
2011-03-01
The large timescales and length-scales of interest in biophysics preclude atomistic study of many systems and processes. One appealing approach is to use coarse-grained (CG) models where several atoms are grouped into a single CG site. In this work we describe a new CG force field for lipids, surfactants, and amino acids. The topology of CG sites is the same as in the MARTINI force field, but the new model is compatible with a recently developed CG electrostatic water (Big Multiple Water, BMW) model. The model not only gives correct structural, elastic properties and phase behavior for lipid and surfactants, but also reproduces electrostatic properties at water-membrane interface that agree with experiment and atomistic simulations, including the potential of mean force for charged amino acid residuals at membrane. Consequently, the model predicts stable attachment of cationic peptides (i.e., poly-Arg) on lipid bilayer surface, which is not shown in previous models with non-electrostatic water.
Systematic and simulation-free coarse graining of homopolymer melts: A structure-based study
Yang, Delian; Wang, Qiang
2015-02-07
We propose a systematic and simulation-free strategy for coarse graining of homopolymer melts, where each chain of N{sub m} monomers is uniformly divided into N segments, with the spatial position of each segment corresponding to the center-of-mass of its monomers. We use integral-equation theories suitable for the study of equilibrium properties of polymers, instead of many-chain molecular simulations, to obtain the structural and thermodynamic properties of both original and coarse-grained (CG) systems, and quantitatively examine how the effective pair potentials between CG segments and the thermodynamic properties of CG systems vary with N. Our systematic and simulation-free strategy is much faster than those using many-chain simulations, thus effectively solving the transferability problem in coarse graining, and provides the quantitative basis for choosing the appropriate N-values. It also avoids the problems caused by finite-size effects and statistical uncertainties in many-chain simulations. Taking the simple hard-core Gaussian thread model [K. S. Schweizer and J. G. Curro, Chem. Phys. 149, 105 (1990)] as the original system, we demonstrate our strategy applied to structure-based coarse graining, which is quite general and versatile, and compare in detail the various integral-equation theories and closures for coarse graining. Our numerical results show that the effective CG potentials for various N and closures can be collapsed approximately onto the same curve, and that structure-based coarse graining cannot give thermodynamic consistency between original and CG systems at any N < N{sub m}.
Cellulose microfibril formation within a coarse grained molecular dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nili, Abdolmadjid; Shklyaev, Oleg; Crespi, Vincent; Zhao, Zhen; Zhong, Linghao; CLSF Collaboration
2014-03-01
Cellulose in biomass is mostly in the form of crystalline microfibrils composed of 18 to 36 parallel chains of polymerized glucose monomers. A single chain is produced by cellular machinery (CesA) located on the preliminary cell wall membrane. Information about the nucleation stage can address important questions about intermediate region between cell wall and the fully formed crystalline microfibrils. Very little is known about the transition from isolated chains to protofibrils up to a full microfibril, in contrast to a large body of studies on both CesA and the final crystalline microfibril. In addition to major experimental challenges in studying this transient regime, the length and time scales of microfibril nucleation are inaccessible to atomistic molecular dynamics. We have developed a novel coarse grained model for cellulose microfibrils which accounts for anisotropic interchain interactions. The model allows us to study nucleation, kinetics, and growth of cellulose chains/protofibrils/microfibrils. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences as part of The Center for LignoCellulose Structure and Formation, an Energy Frontier Research Center.
Adaptive coarse graining, environment, strong decoherence, and quasiclassical realms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gell-Mann, Murray; Hartle, James B.
2014-05-01
Three ideas are introduced that when brought together characterize the realistic quasiclassical realms of our quantum universe as particular kinds of sets of alternative coarse-grained histories defined by quasiclassical variables: (i) branch-dependent adaptive coarse grainings that can be close to maximally refined and can simplify calculation, (ii) narrative coarse grainings that describe how features of the universe change over time and allow the construction of an environment, and (iii) a notion of strong decoherence that characterizes realistic mechanisms of decoherence.
Spectral coarse graining for random walks in bipartite networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yang; Zeng, An; Di, Zengru; Fan, Ying
2013-03-01
Many real-world networks display a natural bipartite structure, yet analyzing and visualizing large bipartite networks is one of the open challenges in complex network research. A practical approach to this problem would be to reduce the complexity of the bipartite system while at the same time preserve its functionality. However, we find that existing coarse graining methods for monopartite networks usually fail for bipartite networks. In this paper, we use spectral analysis to design a coarse graining scheme specific for bipartite networks, which keeps their random walk properties unchanged. Numerical analysis on both artificial and real-world networks indicates that our coarse graining can better preserve most of the relevant spectral properties of the network. We validate our coarse graining method by directly comparing the mean first passage time of the walker in the original network and the reduced one.
Interlaced coarse-graining for the dynamical cluster approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haehner, Urs; Staar, Peter; Jiang, Mi; Maier, Thomas; Schulthess, Thomas
The negative sign problem remains a challenging limiting factor in quantum Monte Carlo simulations of strongly correlated fermionic many-body systems. The dynamical cluster approximation (DCA) makes this problem less severe by coarse-graining the momentum space to map the bulk lattice to a cluster embedded in a dynamical mean-field host. Here, we introduce a new form of an interlaced coarse-graining and compare it with the traditional coarse-graining. We show that it leads to more controlled results with weaker cluster shape and smoother cluster size dependence, which with increasing cluster size converge to the results obtained using the standard coarse-graining. In addition, the new coarse-graining reduces the severity of the fermionic sign problem. Therefore, it enables calculations on much larger clusters and can allow the evaluation of the exact infinite cluster size result via finite size scaling. To demonstrate this, we study the hole-doped two-dimensional Hubbard model and show that the interlaced coarse-graining in combination with the DCA+ algorithm permits the determination of the superconducting Tc on cluster sizes, for which the results can be fitted with the Kosterlitz-Thouless scaling law. This research used resources of the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) awarded by the INCITE program, and of the Swiss National Supercomputing Center. OLCF is a DOE Office of Science User Facility supported under Contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.
Energy-conserving coarse-graining of complex molecules.
Español, Pep; Serrano, Mar; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Zúñiga, Ignacio
2016-05-25
Coarse-graining (CG) of complex molecules is a method to reach time scales that would be impossible to access through brute force molecular simulations. In this paper, we formulate a coarse-grained model for complex molecules using first principles caculations that ensures energy conservation. Each molecule is described in a coarse way by a thermal blob characterized by the position and momentum of the center of mass of the molecule, together with its internal energy as an additional degree of freedom. This level of description gives rise to an entropy-based framework instead of the usual one based on the configurational free energy (i.e. potential of mean force). The resulting dynamic equations, which account for an appropriate description of heat transfer at the coarse-grained level, have the structure of the dissipative particle dynamics with energy conservation (DPDE) model but with a clear microscopic underpinning. Under suitable approximations, we provide explicit microscopic expressions for each component (entropy, mean force, friction and conductivity coefficients) appearing in the coarse-grained model. These quantities can be computed directly using MD simulations. The proposed non-isothermal coarse-grained model is thermodynamically consistent and opens up a first principles CG strategy for the study of energy transport issues that are not accessible using current isothermal models. PMID:27127809
Coarse-grained dynamics of alignment in animal group models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moon, Sung Joon; Levin, Simon; Kevrekidis, Yannis
2006-03-01
Coordinated motion in animal groups, such as bird flocks and fish schools, and their models gives rise to remarkable coherent structures. Using equation-free computational tools we explore the coarse-grained dynamics of a model for the orientational movement decision in animal groups, consisting of a small number of informed "leaders" and a large number of uninformed, nonidentical ``followers.'' The direction in which each group member is headed is characterized by a phase angle of a limit-cycle oscillator, whose dynamics are nonlinearly coupled with those of all the other group members. We identify a small number of proper coarse-grained variables (using uncertainty quantification methods) that describe the collective dynamics, and perform coarse projective integration and equation-free bifurcation analysis of the coarse-grained model behavior in these variables.
Premelting, fluctuations, and coarse-graining of water-ice interfaces
Limmer, David T.; Chandler, David
2014-11-14
Using statistical field theory supplemented with molecular dynamics simulations, we consider premelting on the surface of ice as a generic consequence of broken hydrogen bonds at the boundary between the condensed and gaseous phases. A procedure for coarse-graining molecular configurations onto a continuous scalar order parameter field is discussed, which provides a convenient representation of the interface between locally crystal-like and locally liquid-like regions. A number of interfacial properties are straightforwardly evaluated using this procedure such as the average premelting thickness and surface tension. The temperature and system size dependence of the premelting layer thickness calculated in this way confirms the characteristic logarithmic growth expected for the scalar field theory that the system is mapped onto through coarse-graining, though remains finite due to long-ranged interactions. Finally, from explicit simulations the existence of a premelting layer is shown to be insensitive to bulk lattice geometry, exposed crystal face, and curvature.
Pairwise energies for polypeptide coarse-grained models derived from atomic force fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Betancourt, Marcos R.; Omovie, Sheyore J.
2009-05-01
The energy parametrization of geometrically simplified versions of polypeptides, better known as polypeptide or protein coarse-grained models, is obtained from molecular dynamics and statistical methods. Residue pairwise interactions are derived by performing atomic-level simulations in explicit water for all 210 pairs of amino acids, where the amino acids are modified to closer match their structure and charges in polypeptides. Radial density functions are computed from equilibrium simulations for each pair of residues, from which statistical energies are extracted using the Boltzmann inversion method. The resulting models are compared to similar potentials obtained by knowledge based methods and to hydrophobic scales, resulting in significant similarities in spite of the model simplicity. However, it was found that glutamine, asparagine, lysine, and arginine are more attractive to other residues than anticipated, in part, due to their amphiphilic nature. In addition, equally charged residues appear more repulsive than expected. Difficulties in the calculation of knowledge based potentials and hydrophobicity scale for these cases, as well as sensitivity of the force field to polarization effects are suspected to cause this discrepancy. It is also shown that the coarse-grained model can identify native structures in decoy databases nearly as well as more elaborate knowledge based methods, in spite of its resolution limitations. In a test conducted with several proteins and corresponding decoys, the coarse-grained potential was able to identify the native state structure but not the original atomic force field.
Pairwise energies for polypeptide coarse-grained models derived from atomic force fields.
Betancourt, Marcos R; Omovie, Sheyore J
2009-05-21
The energy parametrization of geometrically simplified versions of polypeptides, better known as polypeptide or protein coarse-grained models, is obtained from molecular dynamics and statistical methods. Residue pairwise interactions are derived by performing atomic-level simulations in explicit water for all 210 pairs of amino acids, where the amino acids are modified to closer match their structure and charges in polypeptides. Radial density functions are computed from equilibrium simulations for each pair of residues, from which statistical energies are extracted using the Boltzmann inversion method. The resulting models are compared to similar potentials obtained by knowledge based methods and to hydrophobic scales, resulting in significant similarities in spite of the model simplicity. However, it was found that glutamine, asparagine, lysine, and arginine are more attractive to other residues than anticipated, in part, due to their amphiphilic nature. In addition, equally charged residues appear more repulsive than expected. Difficulties in the calculation of knowledge based potentials and hydrophobicity scale for these cases, as well as sensitivity of the force field to polarization effects are suspected to cause this discrepancy. It is also shown that the coarse-grained model can identify native structures in decoy databases nearly as well as more elaborate knowledge based methods, in spite of its resolution limitations. In a test conducted with several proteins and corresponding decoys, the coarse-grained potential was able to identify the native state structure but not the original atomic force field.
Coarse-Grained and Atomistic Modeling of Polyimides
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clancy, Thomas C.; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.
2004-01-01
A coarse-grained model for a set of three polyimide isomers is developed. Each polyimide is comprised of BPDA (3,3,4,4' - biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride) and one of three APB isomers: 1,3-bis(4-aminophenoxy)benzene, 1,4-bis(4-aminophenoxy)benzene or 1,3-bis(3-aminophenoxy)benzene. The coarse-grained model is constructed as a series of linked vectors following the contour of the polymer backbone. Beads located at the midpoint of each vector define centers for long range interaction energy between monomer subunits. A bulk simulation of each coarse-grained polyimide model is performed with a dynamic Monte Carlo procedure. These coarsegrained models are then reverse-mapped to fully atomistic models. The coarse-grained models show the expected trends in decreasing chain dimensions with increasing meta linkage in the APB section of the repeat unit, although these differences were minor due to the relatively short chains simulated here. Considerable differences are seen among the dynamic Monte Carlo properties of the three polyimide isomers. Decreasing relaxation times are seen with increasing meta linkage in the APB section of the repeat unit.
Systematic coarse-graining in nucleation theory
Schweizer, M.; Sagis, L. M. C.
2015-08-21
In this work, we show that the standard method to obtain nucleation rate-predictions with the aid of atomistic Monte Carlo simulations leads to nucleation rate predictions that deviate 3 − 5 orders of magnitude from the recent brute-force molecular dynamics simulations [Diemand et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 074309 (2013)] conducted in the experimental accessible supersaturation regime for Lennard-Jones argon. We argue that this is due to the truncated state space the literature mostly relies on, where the number of atoms in a nucleus is considered the only relevant order parameter. We here formulate the nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of nucleation in an extended state space, where the internal energy and momentum of the nuclei are additionally incorporated. We show that the extended model explains the lack in agreement between the molecular dynamics simulations by Diemand et al. and the truncated state space. We demonstrate additional benefits of using the extended state space; in particular, the definition of a nucleus temperature arises very naturally and can be shown without further approximation to obey the fluctuation law of McGraw and LaViolette. In addition, we illustrate that our theory conveniently allows to extend existing theories to richer sets of order parameters.
Systematic coarse-graining in nucleation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schweizer, M.; Sagis, L. M. C.
2015-08-01
In this work, we show that the standard method to obtain nucleation rate-predictions with the aid of atomistic Monte Carlo simulations leads to nucleation rate predictions that deviate 3 - 5 orders of magnitude from the recent brute-force molecular dynamics simulations [Diemand et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 074309 (2013)] conducted in the experimental accessible supersaturation regime for Lennard-Jones argon. We argue that this is due to the truncated state space the literature mostly relies on, where the number of atoms in a nucleus is considered the only relevant order parameter. We here formulate the nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of nucleation in an extended state space, where the internal energy and momentum of the nuclei are additionally incorporated. We show that the extended model explains the lack in agreement between the molecular dynamics simulations by Diemand et al. and the truncated state space. We demonstrate additional benefits of using the extended state space; in particular, the definition of a nucleus temperature arises very naturally and can be shown without further approximation to obey the fluctuation law of McGraw and LaViolette. In addition, we illustrate that our theory conveniently allows to extend existing theories to richer sets of order parameters.
Multiscale Coarse-graining and Structural Correlations: Connections to Liquid State Theory
Noid, W. G.; Chu, Jhih-Wei; Ayton, Gary S.; Voth, Gregory A.
2008-01-01
A statistical mechanical framework elucidates the significance of structural correlations between coarse-grained (CG) sites in the multiscale coarse-graining (MS-CG) method [S. Izvekov and G.A. Voth. J. Phys. Chem. B 109 2469 (2005), J. Chem. Phys. 123 134105 (2005)]. If no approximations are made, the MS-CG method yields a many-body multi-dimensional potential of mean force describing the interactions between CG sites. However, numerical applications of the MS-CG method typically employ a set of pair potentials to describe non-bonded interactions. The analogy between coarse-graining and the inverse problem of liquid state theory clarifies the general significance of three-particle correlations for the development of such CG pair potentials. It is demonstrated that the MS-CG methodology incorporates critical three-body correlation effects and that, for isotropic homogeneous systems evolving under a central pair potential, the MS-CG equations are a discretized representation of the well-known Yvon-Born-Green equation. Numerical calculations validate the theory and illustrate the role of these structural correlations in the MS-CG method. PMID:17394308
Peridynamics as a rigorous coarse-graining of atomistics for multiscale materials design.
Lehoucq, Richard B.; Aidun, John Bahram; Silling, Stewart Andrew; Sears, Mark P.; Kamm, James R.; Parks, Michael L.
2010-09-01
This report summarizes activities undertaken during FY08-FY10 for the LDRD Peridynamics as a Rigorous Coarse-Graining of Atomistics for Multiscale Materials Design. The goal of our project was to develop a coarse-graining of finite temperature molecular dynamics (MD) that successfully transitions from statistical mechanics to continuum mechanics. The goal of our project is to develop a coarse-graining of finite temperature molecular dynamics (MD) that successfully transitions from statistical mechanics to continuum mechanics. Our coarse-graining overcomes the intrinsic limitation of coupling atomistics with classical continuum mechanics via the FEM (finite element method), SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics), or MPM (material point method); namely, that classical continuum mechanics assumes a local force interaction that is incompatible with the nonlocal force model of atomistic methods. Therefore FEM, SPH, and MPM inherit this limitation. This seemingly innocuous dichotomy has far reaching consequences; for example, classical continuum mechanics cannot resolve the short wavelength behavior associated with atomistics. Other consequences include spurious forces, invalid phonon dispersion relationships, and irreconcilable descriptions/treatments of temperature. We propose a statistically based coarse-graining of atomistics via peridynamics and so develop a first of a kind mesoscopic capability to enable consistent, thermodynamically sound, atomistic-to-continuum (AtC) multiscale material simulation. Peridynamics (PD) is a microcontinuum theory that assumes nonlocal forces for describing long-range material interaction. The force interactions occurring at finite distances are naturally accounted for in PD. Moreover, PDs nonlocal force model is entirely consistent with those used by atomistics methods, in stark contrast to classical continuum mechanics. Hence, PD can be employed for mesoscopic phenomena that are beyond the realms of classical continuum mechanics and
Kozłowska, Urszula; Maisuradze, Gia G.; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A.
2009-01-01
Using the harmonic-approximation approach of the accompanying paper and AM1 energy surfaces of terminally-blocked amino-acid residues, we determined physics-based side-chain-rotamer potentials and the side-chain virtual-bond-deformation potentials of 19 natural amino-acid residues with side chains. The potentials were approximated by analytical formulas and implemented in the UNRES mesoscopic dynamics program. For comparison, the corresponding statistical potentials were determined from 19,682 high-resolution protein structures. The low-free-energy region of both the AM1-derived and the statistical potentials is determined by the valence geometry and the L-chirality, and its size increases with side-chain flexibility and decreases with increasing virtual-bond-angle θ. The differences between the free energies of rotamers are greater for the AM1-derived potentials compared to the statistical potentials and, for alanine and other residues with small side chains, a region corresponding to the Cax7 conformation has remarkably low free energy for the AM1-derived potentials, as opposed to the statistical potentials. These differences probably result from the interactions between neighboring residues and indicate the need for introduction of cooperative terms accounting for the coupling between side-chain-rotamer and backbone interactions. Both AM1-derived and statistical virtual-bond-deformation potentials are multimodal for flexible side chains and are topologically similar; however, the regions of minima of the statistical potentials are much narrower, which probably results from imposing restraints in structure determination. The force field with the new potentials was preliminarily optimized using the FBP WW domain (1E0L) and the engrailed homeodomain (1ENH) as training proteins and assessed to be reasonably transferable. PMID:20017135
A nucleotide-level coarse-grained model of RNA
Šulc, Petr; Ouldridge, Thomas E.; Louis, Ard A.; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P. K.
2014-06-21
We present a new, nucleotide-level model for RNA, oxRNA, based on the coarse-graining methodology recently developed for the oxDNA model of DNA. The model is designed to reproduce structural, mechanical, and thermodynamic properties of RNA, and the coarse-graining level aims to retain the relevant physics for RNA hybridization and the structure of single- and double-stranded RNA. In order to explore its strengths and weaknesses, we test the model in a range of nanotechnological and biological settings. Applications explored include the folding thermodynamics of a pseudoknot, the formation of a kissing loop complex, the structure of a hexagonal RNA nanoring, and the unzipping of a hairpin motif. We argue that the model can be used for efficient simulations of the structure of systems with thousands of base pairs, and for the assembly of systems of up to hundreds of base pairs. The source code implementing the model is released for public use.
Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics: Dissipation Due to Internal Modes
Rudd, R E
2001-12-21
We describe progress on the issue of pathological elastic wave reflection in atomistic and multiscale simulation. First we briefly review Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics (CGMD). Originally CGMD was formulated as a Hamiltonian system in which energy is conserved. This formulation is useful for many applications, but recently CGMD has been extended to include generalized Langevin forces. Here we describe how Langevin dynamics arise naturally in CGMD, and we examine the implication for elastic wave scattering.
Systematic and Simulation-Free Coarse Graining of Polymeric Systems: A Structure-based Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Delian; Wang, Qiang
2015-03-01
We propose a systematic and simulation-free strategy for coarse graining of multicomponent polymeric systems, where we use the Polymer Reference Interaction Site Model theory, instead of many-chain molecular simulations, to calculate the structure and thermodynamic properties of both the original and coarse-grained (CG) models, and quantitatively examine how the effective CG pair potentials and properties of CG systems vary with the coarse-graining level. Our strategy is general and versatile, is much faster than those using many-chain simulations, and practically solves the transferability problem of coarse graining. As an example, here we apply it to structure-based coarse graining of homopolymer melts, which matches the structure correlations of CG segments between the original and CG systems. Our numerical results clearly show that structure-based coarse graining cannot give thermodynamic consistency between the original and CG systems at any coarse-graining level due to the information loss of coarse graining.
Coarse-Grained Model of SNARE-Mediated Docking
Fortoul, Nicole; Singh, Pankaj; Hui, Chung-Yuen; Bykhovskaia, Maria; Jagota, Anand
2015-01-01
Synaptic transmission requires that vesicles filled with neurotransmitter molecules be docked to the plasma membrane by the SNARE protein complex. The SNARE complex applies attractive forces to overcome the long-range repulsion between the vesicle and membrane. To understand how the balance between the attractive and repulsive forces defines the equilibrium docked state we have developed a model that combines the mechanics of vesicle/membrane deformation with an apparently new coarse-grained model of the SNARE complex. The coarse-grained model of the SNARE complex is calibrated by comparison with all-atom molecular dynamics simulations as well as by force measurements in laser tweezer experiments. The model for vesicle/membrane interactions includes the forces produced by membrane deformation and hydration or electrostatic repulsion. Combining these two parts, the coarse-grained model of the SNARE complex with membrane mechanics, we study how the equilibrium docked state varies with the number of SNARE complexes. We find that a single SNARE complex is able to bring a typical synaptic vesicle to within a distance of ∼3 nm from the membrane. Further addition of SNARE complexes shortens this distance, but an overdocked state of >4–6 SNAREs actually increases the equilibrium distance. PMID:25954883
REACH coarse-grained simulation of a cellulose fiber.
Glass, Dennis C; Moritsugu, Kei; Cheng, Xiaolin; Smith, Jeremy C
2012-09-10
A molecular level understanding of the structure, dynamics and mechanics of cellulose fibers can aid in understanding the recalcitrance of biomass to hydrolysis in cellulosic biofuel production. Here, a residue-scale REACH (Realistic Extension Algorithm via Covariance Hessian) coarse-grained force field was derived from all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the crystalline Iβ cellulose fibril. REACH maps the atomistic covariance matrix onto coarse-grained elastic force constants. The REACH force field was found to reproduce the positional fluctuations and low-frequency vibrational spectra from the all-atom model, allowing elastic properties of the cellulose fibril to be characterized using the coarse-grained force field with a speedup of >20 relative to atomistic MD on systems of the same size. The calculated longitudinal/transversal Young's modulus and the velocity of sound are in agreement with experiment. The persistence length of a 36-chain cellulose microcrystal was estimated to be ~380 μm. Finally, the normal-mode analysis with the REACH force field suggests that intrinsic dynamics might facilitate the deconstruction of the cellulose fibril from the hydrophobic surface.
Coarse graining of force fields for metal-organic frameworks.
Dürholt, Johannes P; Galvelis, Raimondas; Schmid, Rochus
2016-03-14
We have adapted our genetic algorithm based optimization approach, originally developed to generate force field parameters from quantum mechanic reference data, to derive a first coarse grained force field for a MOF, taking the atomistic MOF-FF as a reference. On the example of the copper paddle-wheel based HKUST-1, a maximally coarse grained model, using a single bead for each three and four coordinated vertex, was developed as a proof of concept. By adding non-bonded interactions with a modified Buckingham potential, the resulting MOF-FF-CGNB is able to predict local deformation energies of the building blocks as well as bulk properties like the tbovs.pto energy difference or elastic constants in a semi-quantitative way. As expected, the negative thermal expansion of HKUST-1 is not reproduced by the maximally coarse grained model. At the expense of atomic resolution, substantially larger systems (up to tens of nanometers in size) can be simulated with respect to structural and mechanical properties, bridging the gap to the mesoscale. As an example the deformation of the [111] surface of HKUST-1 by a "tip" could be computed without artifacts from periodic images. PMID:26732756
Atomistic and Coarse-grained Simulations of Hexabenzocoronene Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ziogos, G.; Megariotis, G.; Theodorou, D. N.
2016-08-01
This study concerns atomistic and coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics simulations of pristine hexabenzocoronene (HBC) molecular crystals. HBC is a symmetric graphene flake of nanometric size that falls in the category of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, finding numerous applications in the field of organic electronics. The HBC molecule is simulated in its crystalline phase initially by means of an all-atom representation, where the molecules self- organize into well aligned molecular stacks, which in turn create a perfect monoclinic molecular crystal. The atomistic model reproduces fairly well the structural experimental properties and thus can be used as a reliable starting point for the development of a coarsegrained model following a bottom-up approach. The coarse-grained model is developed by applying Iterative Boltzmann Inversion, a systematic coarse-graining method which reproduces a set of target atomistic radial distribution functions and intramolecular distributions at the coarser level of description. This model allows the simulation of HBC crystals over longer time and length scales. The crystalline phase is analyzed in terms of the Saupe tensor and thermomechanical properties are probed at the atomistic level.
High capacitance of coarse-grained carbide derived carbon electrodes
Dyatkin, Boris; Gogotsi, Oleksiy; Malinovskiy, Bohdan; Zozulya, Yuliya; Simon, Patrice; Gogotsi, Yury
2016-01-01
Here, we report exceptional electrochemical properties of supercapacitor electrodes composed of large, granular carbide-derived carbon (CDC) particles. We synthesized 70–250 μm sized particles with high surface area and a narrow pore size distribution, using a titanium carbide (TiC) precursor. Electrochemical cycling of these coarse-grained powders defied conventional wisdom that a small particle size is strictly required for supercapacitor electrodes and allowed high charge storage densities, rapid transport, and good rate handling ability. Moreover, the material showcased capacitance above 100 F g-1 at sweep rates as high as 250 mV s-1 in organic electrolyte. 250–1000 micron thick dense CDC films withmore » up to 80 mg cm-2 loading showed superior areal capacitances. The material significantly outperformed its activated carbon counterpart in organic electrolytes and ionic liquids. Furthermore, large internal/external surface ratio of coarse-grained carbons allowed the resulting electrodes to maintain high electrochemical stability up to 3.1 V in ionic liquid electrolyte. In addition to presenting novel insights into the electrosorption process, these coarse-grained carbons offer a pathway to low-cost, high-performance implementation of supercapacitors in automotive and grid-storage applications.« less
High capacitance of coarse-grained carbide derived carbon electrodes
Dyatkin, Boris; Gogotsi, Oleksiy; Malinovskiy, Bohdan; Zozulya, Yuliya; Simon, Patrice; Gogotsi, Yury
2016-01-01
Here, we report exceptional electrochemical properties of supercapacitor electrodes composed of large, granular carbide-derived carbon (CDC) particles. We synthesized 70–250 μm sized particles with high surface area and a narrow pore size distribution, using a titanium carbide (TiC) precursor. Electrochemical cycling of these coarse-grained powders defied conventional wisdom that a small particle size is strictly required for supercapacitor electrodes and allowed high charge storage densities, rapid transport, and good rate handling ability. Moreover, the material showcased capacitance above 100 F g^{-1} at sweep rates as high as 250 mV s^{-1} in organic electrolyte. 250–1000 micron thick dense CDC films with up to 80 mg cm^{-2} loading showed superior areal capacitances. The material significantly outperformed its activated carbon counterpart in organic electrolytes and ionic liquids. Furthermore, large internal/external surface ratio of coarse-grained carbons allowed the resulting electrodes to maintain high electrochemical stability up to 3.1 V in ionic liquid electrolyte. In addition to presenting novel insights into the electrosorption process, these coarse-grained carbons offer a pathway to low-cost, high-performance implementation of supercapacitors in automotive and grid-storage applications.
High capacitance of coarse-grained carbide derived carbon electrodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyatkin, Boris; Gogotsi, Oleksiy; Malinovskiy, Bohdan; Zozulya, Yuliya; Simon, Patrice; Gogotsi, Yury
2016-02-01
We report exceptional electrochemical properties of supercapacitor electrodes composed of large, granular carbide-derived carbon (CDC) particles. Using a titanium carbide (TiC) precursor, we synthesized 70-250 μm sized particles with high surface area and a narrow pore size distribution. Electrochemical cycling of these coarse-grained powders defied conventional wisdom that a small particle size is strictly required for supercapacitor electrodes and allowed high charge storage densities, rapid transport, and good rate handling ability. The material showcased capacitance above 100 F g-1 at sweep rates as high as 250 mV s-1 in organic electrolyte. 250-1000 micron thick dense CDC films with up to 80 mg cm-2 loading showed superior areal capacitances. The material significantly outperformed its activated carbon counterpart in organic electrolytes and ionic liquids. Furthermore, large internal/external surface ratio of coarse-grained carbons allowed the resulting electrodes to maintain high electrochemical stability up to 3.1 V in ionic liquid electrolyte. In addition to presenting novel insights into the electrosorption process, these coarse-grained carbons offer a pathway to low-cost, high-performance implementation of supercapacitors in automotive and grid-storage applications.
Coarse-grained models for aqueous polyethylene glycol solutions.
Choi, Eunsong; Mondal, Jagannath; Yethiraj, Arun
2014-01-01
A new coarse-grained force field is developed for polyethylene glycol (PEG) in water. The force field is based on the MARTINI model but with the big multipole water (BMW) model for the solvent. The polymer force field is reparameterized using the MARTINI protocol. The new force field removes the ring-like conformations seen in simulations of short chains with the MARTINI force field; these conformations are not observed in atomistic simulations. We also investigate the effect of using parameters for the end-group that are different from those for the repeat units, with the MARTINI and BMW/MARTINI models. We find that the new BMW/MARTINI force field removes the ring-like conformations seen in the MARTINI models and has more accurate predictions for the density of neat PEG. However, solvent-separated-pairs between chain ends and slow dynamics of the PEG reflect its own artifacts. We also carry out fine-grained simulations of PEG with bundled water clusters and show that the water bundling can lead to ring-like conformations of the polymer molecules. The simulations emphasize the pitfalls of coarse-graining several molecules into one site and suggest that polymer-solvent systems might be a stringent test for coarse-grained force fields. PMID:24350686
Bayesian calibration of coarse-grained forces: Efficiently addressing transferability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patrone, Paul N.; Rosch, Thomas W.; Phelan, Frederick R.
2016-04-01
Generating and calibrating forces that are transferable across a range of state-points remains a challenging task in coarse-grained (CG) molecular dynamics. In this work, we present a coarse-graining workflow, inspired by ideas from uncertainty quantification and numerical analysis, to address this problem. The key idea behind our approach is to introduce a Bayesian correction algorithm that uses functional derivatives of CG simulations to rapidly and inexpensively recalibrate initial estimates f0 of forces anchored by standard methods such as force-matching. Taking density-temperature relationships as a running example, we demonstrate that this algorithm, in concert with various interpolation schemes, can be used to efficiently compute physically reasonable force curves on a fine grid of state-points. Importantly, we show that our workflow is robust to several choices available to the modeler, including the interpolation schemes and tools used to construct f0. In a related vein, we also demonstrate that our approach can speed up coarse-graining by reducing the number of atomistic simulations needed as inputs to standard methods for generating CG forces.
Coarse-graining two-dimensional turbulence via dynamical optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turkington, Bruce; Chen, Qian-Yong; Thalabard, Simon
2016-10-01
A model reduction technique based on an optimization principle is employed to coarse-grain inviscid, incompressible fluid dynamics in two dimensions. In this reduction the spectrally-truncated vorticity equation defines the microdynamics, while the macroscopic state space consists of quasi-equilibrium trial probability densities on the microscopic phase space, which are parameterized by the means and variances of the low modes of the vorticity. A macroscopic path therefore represents a coarse-grained approximation to the evolution of a nonequilibrium ensemble of microscopic solutions. Closure in terms of the vector of resolved variables, namely, the means and variances of the low modes, is achieved by minimizing over all feasible paths the time integral of their mean-squared residual with respect to the Liouville equation. The equations governing the optimal path are deduced from Hamilton-Jacobi theory. The coarse-grained dynamics derived by this optimization technique contains a scale-dependent eddy viscosity, modified nonlinear interactions between the low mode means, and a nonlinear coupling between the mean and variance of each low mode. The predictive skill of this optimal closure is validated quantitatively by comparing it against direct numerical simulations. These tests show that good agreement is achieved without adjusting any closure parameters.
Coarse-graining stochastic biochemical networks: adiabaticity and fast simulations
Nemenman, Ilya; Sinitsyn, Nikolai; Hengartner, Nick
2008-01-01
We propose a universal approach for analysis and fast simulations of stiff stochastic biochemical kinetics networks, which rests on elimination of fast chemical species without a loss of information about mesoscoplc, non-Poissonian fluctuations of the slow ones. Our approach, which is similar to the Born-Oppenhelmer approximation in quantum mechanics, follows from the stochastic path Integral representation of the cumulant generating function of reaction events. In applications with a small number of chemIcal reactions, It produces analytical expressions for cumulants of chemical fluxes between the slow variables. This allows for a low-dimensional, Interpretable representation and can be used for coarse-grained numerical simulation schemes with a small computational complexity and yet high accuracy. As an example, we derive the coarse-grained description for a chain of biochemical reactions, and show that the coarse-grained and the microscopic simulations are in an agreement, but the coarse-gralned simulations are three orders of magnitude faster.
Bayesian calibration of coarse-grained forces: Efficiently addressing transferability.
Patrone, Paul N; Rosch, Thomas W; Phelan, Frederick R
2016-04-21
Generating and calibrating forces that are transferable across a range of state-points remains a challenging task in coarse-grained (CG) molecular dynamics. In this work, we present a coarse-graining workflow, inspired by ideas from uncertainty quantification and numerical analysis, to address this problem. The key idea behind our approach is to introduce a Bayesian correction algorithm that uses functional derivatives of CG simulations to rapidly and inexpensively recalibrate initial estimates f0 of forces anchored by standard methods such as force-matching. Taking density-temperature relationships as a running example, we demonstrate that this algorithm, in concert with various interpolation schemes, can be used to efficiently compute physically reasonable force curves on a fine grid of state-points. Importantly, we show that our workflow is robust to several choices available to the modeler, including the interpolation schemes and tools used to construct f0. In a related vein, we also demonstrate that our approach can speed up coarse-graining by reducing the number of atomistic simulations needed as inputs to standard methods for generating CG forces.
Cao, Zhen; Voth, Gregory A
2015-12-28
It is essential to be able to systematically construct coarse-grained (CG) models that can efficiently and accurately reproduce key properties of higher-resolution models such as all-atom. To fulfill this goal, a mapping operator is needed to transform the higher-resolution configuration to a CG configuration. Certain mapping operators, however, may lose information related to the underlying electrostatic properties. In this paper, a new mapping operator based on the centers of charge of CG sites is proposed to address this issue. Four example systems are chosen to demonstrate this concept. Within the multiscale coarse-graining framework, CG models that use this mapping operator are found to better reproduce the structural correlations of atomistic models. The present work also demonstrates the flexibility of the mapping operator and the robustness of the force matching method. For instance, important functional groups can be isolated and emphasized in the CG model. PMID:26723601
Cao, Zhen; Voth, Gregory A.
2015-12-28
It is essential to be able to systematically construct coarse-grained (CG) models that can efficiently and accurately reproduce key properties of higher-resolution models such as all-atom. To fulfill this goal, a mapping operator is needed to transform the higher-resolution configuration to a CG configuration. Certain mapping operators, however, may lose information related to the underlying electrostatic properties. In this paper, a new mapping operator based on the centers of charge of CG sites is proposed to address this issue. Four example systems are chosen to demonstrate this concept. Within the multiscale coarse-graining framework, CG models that use this mapping operator are found to better reproduce the structural correlations of atomistic models. The present work also demonstrates the flexibility of the mapping operator and the robustness of the force matching method. For instance, important functional groups can be isolated and emphasized in the CG model.
Coarse-grained electrostatic interactions of coronene: Towards the crystalline phase
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinemann, Thomas; Palczynski, Karol; Dzubiella, Joachim; Klapp, Sabine H. L.
2015-11-01
In this article, we present and compare two different, coarse-grained approaches to model electrostatic interactions of disc-shaped aromatic molecules, specifically coronene. Our study builds on our previous work [T. Heinemann et al., J. Chem. Phys. 141, 214110 (2014)], where we proposed, based on a systematic coarse-graining procedure starting from the atomistic level, an anisotropic effective (Gay-Berne-like) potential capable of describing van der Waals contributions to the interaction energy. To take into account electrostatics, we introduce, first, a linear quadrupole moment along the symmetry axis of the coronene disc. The second approach takes into account the fact that the partial charges within the molecules are distributed in a ring-like fashion. We then reparametrize the effective Gay-Berne-like potential such that it matches, at short distances, the ring-ring potential. To investigate the validity of these two approaches, we perform many-particle molecular dynamics simulations, focusing on the crystalline phase (karpatite) where electrostatic interaction effects are expected to be particularly relevant for the formation of tilted stacked columns. Specifically, we investigate various structural parameters as well as the melting transition. We find that the second approach yields consistent results with those from experiments despite the fact that the underlying potential decays with the wrong distance dependence at large molecule separations. Our strategy can be transferred to a broader class of molecules, such as benzene or hexabenzocoronene.
Coarse-grained electrostatic interactions of coronene: Towards the crystalline phase
Heinemann, Thomas Klapp, Sabine H. L.; Palczynski, Karol Dzubiella, Joachim
2015-11-07
In this article, we present and compare two different, coarse-grained approaches to model electrostatic interactions of disc-shaped aromatic molecules, specifically coronene. Our study builds on our previous work [T. Heinemann et al., J. Chem. Phys. 141, 214110 (2014)], where we proposed, based on a systematic coarse-graining procedure starting from the atomistic level, an anisotropic effective (Gay-Berne-like) potential capable of describing van der Waals contributions to the interaction energy. To take into account electrostatics, we introduce, first, a linear quadrupole moment along the symmetry axis of the coronene disc. The second approach takes into account the fact that the partial charges within the molecules are distributed in a ring-like fashion. We then reparametrize the effective Gay-Berne-like potential such that it matches, at short distances, the ring-ring potential. To investigate the validity of these two approaches, we perform many-particle molecular dynamics simulations, focusing on the crystalline phase (karpatite) where electrostatic interaction effects are expected to be particularly relevant for the formation of tilted stacked columns. Specifically, we investigate various structural parameters as well as the melting transition. We find that the second approach yields consistent results with those from experiments despite the fact that the underlying potential decays with the wrong distance dependence at large molecule separations. Our strategy can be transferred to a broader class of molecules, such as benzene or hexabenzocoronene.
Hinckley, Daniel M; Freeman, Gordon S; Whitmer, Jonathan K; de Pablo, Juan J
2013-10-14
A new 3-Site-Per-Nucleotide coarse-grained model for DNA is presented. The model includes anisotropic potentials between bases involved in base stacking and base pair interactions that enable the description of relevant structural properties, including the major and minor grooves. In an improvement over available coarse-grained models, the correct persistence length is recovered for both ssDNA and dsDNA, allowing for simulation of non-canonical structures such as hairpins. DNA melting temperatures, measured for duplexes and hairpins by integrating over free energy surfaces generated using metadynamics simulations, are shown to be in quantitative agreement with experiment for a variety of sequences and conditions. Hybridization rate constants, calculated using forward-flux sampling, are also shown to be in good agreement with experiment. The coarse-grained model presented here is suitable for use in biological and engineering applications, including nucleosome positioning and DNA-templated engineering. PMID:24116642
Molecular Dynamics Trajectory Compression with a Coarse-Grained Model
Cheng, Yi-Ming; Gopal, Srinivasa Murthy; Law, Sean M.; Feig, Michael
2012-01-01
Molecular dynamics trajectories are very data-intensive thereby limiting sharing and archival of such data. One possible solution is compression of trajectory data. Here, trajectory compression based on conversion to the coarse-grained model PRIMO is proposed. The compressed data is about one third of the original data and fast decompression is possible with an analytical reconstruction procedure from PRIMO to all-atom representations. This protocol largely preserves structural features and to a more limited extent also energetic features of the original trajectory. PMID:22025759
Coarse-Grained Models for Protein-Cell Membrane Interactions
Bradley, Ryan; Radhakrishnan, Ravi
2015-01-01
The physiological properties of biological soft matter are the product of collective interactions, which span many time and length scales. Recent computational modeling efforts have helped illuminate experiments that characterize the ways in which proteins modulate membrane physics. Linking these models across time and length scales in a multiscale model explains how atomistic information propagates to larger scales. This paper reviews continuum modeling and coarse-grained molecular dynamics methods, which connect atomistic simulations and single-molecule experiments with the observed microscopic or mesoscale properties of soft-matter systems essential to our understanding of cells, particularly those involved in sculpting and remodeling cell membranes. PMID:26613047
The power of coarse graining in biomolecular simulations
Ingólfsson, Helgi I; Lopez, Cesar A; Uusitalo, Jaakko J; de Jong, Djurre H; Gopal, Srinivasa M; Periole, Xavier; Marrink, Siewert J
2014-01-01
Computational modeling of biological systems is challenging because of the multitude of spatial and temporal scales involved. Replacing atomistic detail with lower resolution, coarse grained (CG), beads has opened the way to simulate large-scale biomolecular processes on time scales inaccessible to all-atom models. We provide an overview of some of the more popular CG models used in biomolecular applications to date, focusing on models that retain chemical specificity. A few state-of-the-art examples of protein folding, membrane protein gating and self-assembly, DNA hybridization, and modeling of carbohydrate fibers are used to illustrate the power and diversity of current CG modeling. PMID:25309628
Dynamical coarse grained models with realistic time dependence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andersen, Hans
2015-03-01
Coarse grained (CG) models of molecular systems, with fewer mechanical degrees of freedom than an all-atom model, are used extensively in chemical physics. It is generally accepted that a coarse grained model that accurately describes equilibrium structural properties (as a result of having a well constructed CG potential energy function) does not necessarily exhibit appropriate dynamical behavior when simulated using conservative Hamiltonian dynamics for the CG degrees of freedom on the CG potential energy surface. Attempts to develop accurate CG dynamic models usually focus on replacing Hamiltonian motion by stochastic but Markovian dynamics on that surface, such as Langevin or Brownian dynamics. However, depending on the nature of the system and the extent of the coarse graining, a Markovian dynamics for the CG degrees of freedom may not be appropriate. We consider the problem of constructing dynamic CG models within the context of the Multi-Scale Coarse Graining (MS-CG) method of Voth and coworkers. We propose a method of converting an MS-CG model into a dynamic CG model by adding degrees of freedom to it in the form of a small number of fictitious particles that interact with the CG degrees of freedom in simple ways and that are subject to Langevin forces. The dynamic models are members of a class of nonlinear systems interacting with special heat baths that was studied by Zwanzig [R. Zwanzig, J. Stat. Phys. 9, 215 (1973)]. The dynamic models generate a non-Markovian dynamics for the CG degrees of freedom, but they can be easily simulated using standard molecular dynamics simulation programs. We present tests of this method on a series of simple examples that demonstrate that the method provides realistic dynamical CG models that have non-Markovian or close to Markovian behavior that is consistent with the actual dynamical behavior of the all-atom system used to construct the CG model. The dynamic CG models have computational requirements that are similar to
Ultrasonic Sound Field Mapping Through Coarse Grained Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Components
Crawford, Susan L.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Larche, Michael R.; Diaz, Aaron A.
2014-08-01
The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been involved with nondestructive examination (NDE) of coarse-grained cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) components for over 30 years. More recent work has focused on mapping the ultrasonic sound fields generated by low-frequency phased array probes that are typically used for the evaluation of CASS materials for flaw detection and characterization. The casting process results in the formation of large grained material microstructures that are nonhomogeneous and anisotropic. The propagation of ultrasonic energy for examination of these materials results in scattering, partitioning and redirection of these sound fields. The work reported here provides an assessment of sound field formation in these materials and provides recommendations on ultrasonic inspection parameters for flaw detection in CASS components.
Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation of water diffusion in the presence of carbon nanotubes.
Lado Touriño, Isabel; Naranjo, Arisbel Cerpa; Negri, Viviana; Cerdán, Sebastián; Ballesteros, Paloma
2015-11-01
Computational modeling of the translational diffusion of water molecules in anisotropic environments entails vital relevance to understand correctly the information contained in the magnetic resonance images weighted in diffusion (DWI) and of the diffusion tensor images (DTI). In the present work we investigated the validity, strengths and weaknesses of a coarse-grained (CG) model based on the MARTINI force field to simulate water diffusion in a medium containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as models of anisotropic water diffusion behavior. We show that water diffusion outside the nanotubes follows Ficḱs law, while water diffusion inside the nanotubes is not described by a Ficḱs behavior. We report on the influence on water diffusion of various parameters such as length and concentration of CNTs, comparing the CG results with those obtained from the more accurate classic force field calculation, like the all-atom approach. Calculated water diffusion coefficients decreased in the presence of nanotubes in a concentration dependent manner. We also observed smaller water diffusion coefficients for longer CNTs. Using the CG methodology we were able to demonstrate anisotropic diffusion of water inside the nanotube scaffold, but we could not prove anisotropy in the surrounding medium, suggesting that grouping several water molecules in a single diffusing unit may affect the diffusional anisotropy calculated. The methodologies investigated in this work represent a first step towards the study of more complex models, including anisotropic cohorts of CNTs or even neuronal axons, with reasonable savings in computation time.
Simulating the Entropic Collapse of Coarse-Grained Chromosomes
Shendruk, Tyler N.; Bertrand, Martin; de Haan, Hendrick W.; Harden, James L.; Slater, Gary W.
2015-01-01
Depletion forces play a role in the compaction and decompaction of chromosomal material in simple cells, but it has remained debatable whether they are sufficient to account for chromosomal collapse. We present coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, which reveal that depletion-induced attraction is sufficient to cause the collapse of a flexible chain of large structural monomers immersed in a bath of smaller depletants. These simulations use an explicit coarse-grained computational model that treats both the supercoiled DNA structural monomers and the smaller protein crowding agents as combinatorial, truncated Lennard-Jones spheres. By presenting a simple theoretical model, we quantitatively cast the action of depletants on supercoiled bacterial DNA as an effective solvent quality. The rapid collapse of the simulated flexible chromosome at the predicted volume fraction of depletants is a continuous phase transition. Additional physical effects to such simple chromosome models, such as enthalpic interactions between structural monomers or chain rigidity, are required if the collapse is to be a first-order phase transition. PMID:25692586
A coarse-grained model of microtubule self-assembly
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Regmi, Chola; Cheng, Shengfeng
Microtubules play critical roles in cell structures and functions. They also serve as a model system to stimulate the next-generation smart, dynamic materials. A deep understanding of their self-assembly process and biomechanical properties will not only help elucidate how microtubules perform biological functions, but also lead to exciting insight on how microtubule dynamics can be altered or even controlled for specific purposes such as suppressing the division of cancer cells. Combining all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and the essential dynamics coarse-graining method, we construct a coarse-grained (CG) model of the tubulin protein, which is the building block of microtubules. In the CG model a tubulin dimer is represented as an elastic network of CG sites, the locations of which are determined by examining the protein dynamics of the tubulin and identifying the essential dynamic domains. Atomistic MD modeling is employed to directly compute the tubulin bond energies in the surface lattice of a microtubule, which are used to parameterize the interactions between CG building blocks. The CG model is then used to study the self-assembly pathways, kinetics, dynamics, and nanomechanics of microtubules.
Coarse-grained modeling of RNA 3D structure.
Dawson, Wayne K; Maciejczyk, Maciej; Jankowska, Elzbieta J; Bujnicki, Janusz M
2016-07-01
Functional RNA molecules depend on three-dimensional (3D) structures to carry out their tasks within the cell. Understanding how these molecules interact to carry out their biological roles requires a detailed knowledge of RNA 3D structure and dynamics as well as thermodynamics, which strongly governs the folding of RNA and RNA-RNA interactions as well as a host of other interactions within the cellular environment. Experimental determination of these properties is difficult, and various computational methods have been developed to model the folding of RNA 3D structures and their interactions with other molecules. However, computational methods also have their limitations, especially when the biological effects demand computation of the dynamics beyond a few hundred nanoseconds. For the researcher confronted with such challenges, a more amenable approach is to resort to coarse-grained modeling to reduce the number of data points and computational demand to a more tractable size, while sacrificing as little critical information as possible. This review presents an introduction to the topic of coarse-grained modeling of RNA 3D structures and dynamics, covering both high- and low-resolution strategies. We discuss how physics-based approaches compare with knowledge based methods that rely on databases of information. In the course of this review, we discuss important aspects in the reasoning process behind building different models and the goals and pitfalls that can result.
Effective mobility of dislocations from systematic coarse-graining
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kooiman, M.; Hütter, M.; Geers, MGD
2015-06-01
The dynamics of large amounts of dislocations governs the plastic response of crystalline materials. In this contribution we discuss the relation between the mobility of discrete dislocations and the resulting flow rule for coarse-grained dislocation densities. The mobilities used in literature on these levels are quite different, for example in terms of their intrinsic the stress dependence. To establish the relation across the scales, we have derived the macroscopic evolution equations of dislocation densities from the equations of motion of individual dislocations by means of systematic coarse-graining. From this, we can identify a memory kernel relating the driving force and the flux of dislocations. This kernel can be considered as an effective macroscopic mobility with two contributions; a direct contribution related to the overdamped motion of individual dislocations, and an emergent contribution that arises from time correlations of fluctuations in the Peach-Koehler force. Scaling analysis shows that the latter contribution is dominant for dislocations in metals at room temperature. We also discuss several concerns related to the separation of timescales.
Coarse-graining the structure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons clusters.
Hernández-Rojas, J; Calvo, F; Wales, D J
2016-05-18
Clusters of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are essential components of soot and may concentrate a significant fraction of carbon matter in the interstellar medium. In this contribution, coarse-grained potentials are parameterized using all-atom reference data to model PAH molecules, such as coronene (C24H12) or circumcoronene (C54H18), and their aggregates. Low-energy structures of pure coronene or circumcoronene clusters obtained using basin-hopping global optimization are found to agree with atomistic results, and consist of finite 1D columnar motifs, sometimes juxtaposed in larger clusters. The structures are only weakly perturbed when quadrupolar interactions are included. π-Stacking also dominates in binary coronene/circumcoronene aggregates, although intriguing motifs are predicted in which one or more molecules are sandwiched between the other PAH species. The coarse-grained model is also extended to account for interaction with a flat graphitic substrate. In this case, binding is stronger with the substrate than with other molecules, and the PAHs are predicted to arrange into a flat triangular monolayer. PMID:27055581
Tensile fracture of coarse-Grained cast austenitic manganese steels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rittel, D.; Roman, I.
1988-09-01
Tensile fracture of coarse-grained (0.25 to 1 mm) cast austenitic manganese (Hadfield) steels has been investigated. Numerous surface discontinuities nucleate in coarse slip bands, on the heavily deformed surface of tensile specimens. These discontinuities do not propagate radially and final fracture results from central specimen cracking at higher strains. On the microscopic scale, bulk voids nucleate during the entire plastic deformation and they do not coalesce by shear localization (e.g., void-sheet) mechanism. Close voids coalesce by internal necking, whereas distant voids are bridged by means of small voids which nucleate at later stages of the plastic deformation. The high toughness of Hadfield steels is due to their high strain-hardening capacity which stabilizes the plastic deformation, and avoids shear localization and loss of load-bearing capacity. The observed dependence of measured mechanical properties on the specimen’s geometry results from the development of a surface layer which charac-terizes the deformation of this coarse-grained material.
A coarse grain model for protein-surface interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Shuai; Knotts, Thomas A.
2013-09-01
The interaction of proteins with surfaces is important in numerous applications in many fields—such as biotechnology, proteomics, sensors, and medicine—but fundamental understanding of how protein stability and structure are affected by surfaces remains incomplete. Over the last several years, molecular simulation using coarse grain models has yielded significant insights, but the formalisms used to represent the surface interactions have been rudimentary. We present a new model for protein surface interactions that incorporates the chemical specificity of both the surface and the residues comprising the protein in the context of a one-bead-per-residue, coarse grain approach that maintains computational efficiency. The model is parameterized against experimental adsorption energies for multiple model peptides on different types of surfaces. The validity of the model is established by its ability to quantitatively and qualitatively predict the free energy of adsorption and structural changes for multiple biologically-relevant proteins on different surfaces. The validation, done with proteins not used in parameterization, shows that the model produces remarkable agreement between simulation and experiment.
Deformation Behaviour of Coarse Grain Alumina under Shock Loading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Satish
2013-06-01
To develop better understanding of the shock wave induced deformation behavior of coarse grain alumina ceramics, and for measurement of its Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL), in-situ and recovery gas gun experiments have been carried out on coarse grain alumina (grain size ~ 10 μm), prepared in the form of discs (>99.9% TMD) by pressure-less sintering of alpha alumina powder at 1583 K. The HEL value of 1.9 GPa has been determined from the kink in the pressure history recorded using piezoresistance gauge and also from the free surface velocity history of the sample shocked to 9 GPa. The nano-indentation measurements on the alumina samples shocked to 6.5 GPa showed hardness value 15% lower than 21.3 GPa for unshocked alumina, and strong Indentation Size Effect (ISE); the hardness value was still lower and the ISE was stronger for the sample shocked to 12 GPa. The XRD measurements showed reduced particle size and increased microstrains in the shocked alumina fragments. SEM, FESEM and TEM measurements on shock treated samples showed presence of grain localized micro- and nano-scale deformations, micro-cleavages, grain-boundary microcracks, extensive shear induced deformations, and localized micro-fractures, etc. These observations led to the development of a qualitative model for the damage initiation and its subsequent growth mechanisms in shocked alumina. The work performed in collaboration with K.D. Joshi of BARC and A.K. Mukhopadhyay of CGCRI.
An exactly solvable coarse-grained model for species diversity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suweis, Samir; Rinaldo, Andrea; Maritan, Amos
2012-07-01
We present novel analytical results concerning ecosystem species diversity that stem from a proposed coarse-grained neutral model based on birth-death processes. The relevance of the problem lies in the urgency for understanding and synthesizing both theoretical results from ecological neutral theory and empirical evidence on species diversity preservation. The neutral model of biodiversity deals with ecosystems at the same trophic level, where per capita vital rates are assumed to be species independent. Closed-form analytical solutions for the neutral theory are obtained within a coarse-grained model, where the only input is the species persistence time distribution. Our results pertain to: the probability distribution function of the number of species in the ecosystem, both in transient and in stationary states; the n-point connected time correlation function; and the survival probability, defined as the distribution of time spans to local extinction for a species randomly sampled from the community. Analytical predictions are also tested on empirical data from an estuarine fish ecosystem. We find that emerging properties of the ecosystem are very robust and do not depend on specific details of the model, with implications for biodiversity and conservation biology.
Simulating the entropic collapse of coarse-grained chromosomes.
Shendruk, Tyler N; Bertrand, Martin; de Haan, Hendrick W; Harden, James L; Slater, Gary W
2015-02-17
Depletion forces play a role in the compaction and decompaction of chromosomal material in simple cells, but it has remained debatable whether they are sufficient to account for chromosomal collapse. We present coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, which reveal that depletion-induced attraction is sufficient to cause the collapse of a flexible chain of large structural monomers immersed in a bath of smaller depletants. These simulations use an explicit coarse-grained computational model that treats both the supercoiled DNA structural monomers and the smaller protein crowding agents as combinatorial, truncated Lennard-Jones spheres. By presenting a simple theoretical model, we quantitatively cast the action of depletants on supercoiled bacterial DNA as an effective solvent quality. The rapid collapse of the simulated flexible chromosome at the predicted volume fraction of depletants is a continuous phase transition. Additional physical effects to such simple chromosome models, such as enthalpic interactions between structural monomers or chain rigidity, are required if the collapse is to be a first-order phase transition. PMID:25692586
DNA Duplex Formation with a Coarse-Grained Model
2015-01-01
A middle-resolution coarse-grained model of DNA is proposed. The DNA chain is built of spherical and planar rigid bodies connected by elastic virtual bonds. The bonded part of the potential energy function is fit to potentials of mean force of model systems. The rigid bodies are sets of neutral, charged, and dipolar beads. Electrostatic and van der Waals interactions are parametrized by our recently developed procedure [Maciejczyk, M.; Spasic, A.; Liwo, A.; Scheraga, H.A. J. Comp. Chem.2010, 31, 1644]. Interactions with the solvent and an ionic cloud are approximated by a multipole–multipole Debye–Hückel model. A very efficient R-RATTLE algorithm, for integrating the movement of rigid bodies, is implemented. It is the first coarse-grained model, in which both bonded and nonbonded interactions were parametrized ab initio and which folds stable double helices from separated complementary strands, with the final conformation close to the geometry of experimentally determined structures. PMID:25400520
COARSE-GRAINED MODELING OF PROTEIN UNFOLDING DYNAMICS*
DENG, MINGGE
2014-01-01
We present a new dynamic elastic network model (DENM) that describes the unfolding process of a force-loaded protein. The protein interaction network and its potentials are constructed based on information of its native-state structure obtained from the Protein Data Bank, with network nodes positioned at the Cα coordinates of the protein backbone. Specifically, to mimic the unfolding process, i.e., to simulate the process of overcoming the local energy barrier on the free energy landscape with force loading, the noncovalent protein network bonds (i.e., hydrogen bonds, salt bridges, hydrophobic contacts, etc.) are broken one-by-one with a certain probability, while the strong covalent bonds along the backbone (i.e., peptide bonds, disulfide bonds, etc.) are kept intact. The jumping event from local energy minima (bonds breaking rate) are chosen according to Kramer’s theory and the Bell model. Moreover, we exploit the self-similar structure of proteins at different scales to design an effective coarse-graining procedure for DENM with optimal parameter selection. The robustness of DENM is validated by coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulation against atomistic MD simulation of force-extension processes of the Fibrinogen and Titin Immunoglobulin proteins. We observe that the native structure of the proteins determines the total unfolding dynamics (including large deviations) and not just the fluctuations around the native state. PMID:25400515
Coarse-grained rigid blob model for soft matter simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chao, Sheng D.; Kress, Joel D.; Redondo, Antonio
2005-06-01
We have developed a coarse-grained multiscale molecular simulation method for soft matter systems that directly incorporates stereochemical information. We divide the material into disjoint groups of atoms or particles that move as separate rigid bodies; we call these groups "rigid blobs," hence the name coarse-grained rigid blob model. The method is enabled by the construction of transferable interblob potentials that approximate the net intermolecular interactions, as obtained from ab initio electronic structure calculations, other all-atom empirical potentials, experimental data, or any combination of the above. We utilize a multipolar expansion to obtain the interblob potential-energy functions. The series, which contains controllable approximations that allow us to estimate the errors, approaches the original intermolecular potential as the number of terms increases. Using a novel numerical algorithm, we can calculate the interblob potentials very efficiently in terms of a few interaction moment tensors. This reduces the labor well beyond what is required in standard molecular-dynamics calculations and allows large-scale simulations for temporal scales commensurate with characteristic times of nano- and mesoscale systems. A detailed derivation of the formulas is presented, followed by illustrative applications to several systems showing that the method can effectively capture realistic microscopic details and can easily extend to large-scale simulations.
Unconstrained Structure Formation in Coarse-Grained Protein Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bereau, Tristan
The ability of proteins to fold into well-defined structures forms the basis of a wide variety of biochemical functions in and out of the cell membrane. Many of these processes, however, operate at time- and length-scales that are currently unattainable by all-atom computer simulations. To cope with this difficulty, increasingly more accurate and sophisticated coarse-grained models are currently being developed. In the present thesis, we introduce a solvent-free coarse-grained model for proteins. Proteins are modeled by four beads per amino acid, providing enough backbone resolution to allow for accurate sampling of local conformations. It relies on simple interactions that emphasize structure, such as hydrogen bonds and hydrophobicity. Realistic alpha/beta content is achieved by including an effective nearest-neighbor dipolar interaction. Parameters are tuned to reproduce both local conformations and tertiary structures. By studying both helical and extended conformations we make sure the force field is not biased towards any particular secondary structure. Without any further adjustments or bias a realistic oligopeptide aggregation scenario is observed. The model is subsequently applied to various biophysical problems: (i) kinetics of folding of two model peptides, (ii) large-scale amyloid-beta oligomerization, and (iii) protein folding cooperativity. The last topic---defined by the nature of the finite-size thermodynamic transition exhibited upon folding---was investigated from a microcanonical perspective: the accurate evaluation of the density of states can unambiguously characterize the nature of the transition, unlike its corresponding canonical analysis. Extending the results of lattice simulations and theoretical models, we find that it is the interplay between secondary structure and the loss of non-native tertiary contacts which determines the nature of the transition. Finally, we combine the peptide model with a high-resolution, solvent-free, lipid
Polymer-solid contacts described by soft, coarse-grained models.
Müller, Marcus; Steinmüller, Birger; Daoulas, Kostas Ch; Ramírez-Hernández, Abelardo; de Pablo, Juan J
2011-06-14
The ability of soft, coarse-grained models to describe the narrow interface of a nearly incompressible polymer melt in contact with a solid is explored by numerical self-consistent field calculations and Monte-Carlo simulations. We investigate the effect of the discreteness of the bead-spring architecture by quantitatively comparing the results of a bead-spring model with different number of beads, N, but identical end-to-end distance, R(e), and a continuous Gaussian-thread model. If the width, ξ, of the narrow polymer-solid contact is smaller or comparable to the length of a statistical segment, b=R(e)/√N-1, strong differences in the interface tension and the density profiles between the two models are observed, and strategies for compensating the discrete nature of the bead-spring model are investigated. Compensating the discretization of the chain contour in the bead-spring model by applying an external segment-solid potential, we simultaneously adjust the interface tension and the density profile to the predictions of the Gaussian-thread model. We suggest that the geometry of the polymer-solid contact and the interface tension are relevant characteristics that a coarse-grained model of polymer-solid contacts must reproduce in order to establish a quantitative relationship to an experimental system.
Wang, Yaohong; Sigurdsson, Jon Karl; Brandt, Erik; Atzberger, Paul J
2013-08-01
We introduce a thermostat based on fluctuating hydrodynamics for dynamic simulations of implicit-solvent coarse-grained models of lipid bilayer membranes. We show our fluctuating hydrodynamics approach captures interesting correlations in the dynamics of lipid bilayer membranes that are missing in simulations performed using standard Langevin dynamics. Our momentum conserving thermostat accounts for solvent-mediated momentum transfer by coupling coarse-grained degrees of freedom to stochastic continuum fields that account for both the solvent hydrodynamics and thermal fluctuations. We present both a general framework and specific methods to couple the particle and continuum degrees of freedom in a manner consistent with statistical mechanics and amenable to efficient computational simulation. For self-assembled vesicles, we study the diffusivity of lipids and their spatial correlations. We find the hydrodynamic coupling yields within the bilayer interesting correlations between diffusing lipids that manifest as a vortex-like structure similar to those observed in explicit-solvent simulations. We expect the introduced fluctuating hydrodynamics methods to provide a way to extend implicit-solvent models for use in a wide variety of dynamic studies.
A Coarse-Grained Model for Simulating Chitosan Hydrogels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Hongcheng; Matysiak, Silvina
Hydrogels are biologically-derived materials composed of water-filled cross-linking polymer chains. It has widely been used as biodegradable material and has many applications in medical devices. The chitosan hydrogel is stimuli-responsive for undergoing pH-sensitive self-assembly process, allowing programmable tuning of the chitosan deposition through electric pulse. To explore the self-assembly mechanism of chitosan hydroge, we have developed an explicit-solvent coarse-grained chitosan model that has roots in the MARTINI force field, and the pH change is modeled by protonating chitosan chains using the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. The mechanism of hydrogel network formation will be presented. The self-assembled polymer network qualitatively reproduce many experimental observables such as the pH-dependent strain-stress curve, bulk moduli, and structure factor. Our model is also capable of simulating other similar polyelectrolyte polymer systems.
Coarse grained modeling of transport properties in monoclonal antibody solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Swan, James; Wang, Gang
Monoclonal antibodies and their derivatives represent the fastest growing segment of the bio pharmaceutical industry. For many applications such as novel cancer therapies, high concentration, sub-cutaneous injections of these protein solutions are desired. However, depending on the peptide sequence within the antibody, such high concentration formulations can be too viscous to inject via human derived force alone. Understanding how heterogenous charge distribution and hydrophobicity within the antibodies leads to high viscosities is crucial to their future application. In this talk, we explore a coarse grained computational model of therapeutically relevant monoclonal antibodies that accounts for electrostatic, dispersion and hydrodynamic interactions between suspended antibodies to predict assembly and transport properties in concentrated antibody solutions. We explain the high viscosities observed in many experimental studies of the same biologics.
Coarse-grained theory of a realistic tetrahedral liquid model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Procaccia, I.; Regev, I.
2012-02-01
Tetrahedral liquids such as water and silica-melt show unusual thermodynamic behavior such as a density maximum and an increase in specific heat when cooled to low temperatures. Previous work had shown that Monte Carlo and mean-field solutions of a lattice model can exhibit these anomalous properties with or without a phase transition, depending on the values of the different terms in the Hamiltonian. Here we use a somewhat different approach, where we start from a very popular empirical model of tetrahedral liquids —the Stillinger-Weber model— and construct a coarse-grained theory which directly quantifies the local structure of the liquid as a function of volume and temperature. We compare the theory to molecular-dynamics simulations and show that the theory can rationalize the simulation results and the anomalous behavior.
Coarse-grained kinetic equations for quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrov, E. G.
2013-01-01
The nonequilibrium density matrix method is employed to derive a master equation for the averaged state populations of an open quantum system subjected to an external high frequency stochastic field. It is shown that if the characteristic time τstoch of the stochastic process is much lower than the characteristic time τsteady of the establishment of the system steady state populations, then on the time scale Δ t ˜ τsteady, the evolution of the system populations can be described by the coarse-grained kinetic equations with the averaged transition rates. As an example, the exact averaging is carried out for the dichotomous Markov process of the kangaroo type.
Recent advances in transferable coarse-grained modeling of proteins.
Kar, Parimal; Feig, Michael
2014-01-01
Computer simulations are indispensable tools for studying the structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules. Biochemical processes occur on different scales of length and time. Atomistic simulations cannot cover the relevant spatiotemporal scales at which the cellular processes occur. To address this challenge, coarse-grained (CG) modeling of the biological systems is employed. Over the last few years, many CG models for proteins continue to be developed. However, many of them are not transferable with respect to different systems and different environments. In this review, we discuss those CG protein models that are transferable and that retain chemical specificity. We restrict ourselves to CG models of soluble proteins only. We also briefly review recent progress made in the multiscale hybrid all-atom/CG simulations of proteins.
Investigating the impact of representation upon coarse-grained models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foley, Thomas; Shell, M. Scott; Noid, William
The first step in building a coarse-grained (CG) model is choosing a representation or `mapping' of the original system at a reduced resolution. In practice, the mapping is often chosen on the basis of `physical intuition.' Consequently this crucial step would greatly benefit from the development of systematic and principled methodologies. Accordingly, we have studied the relationship between the mapping and the resulting CG model. As a starting point, we have analytically derived, as a function of the CG mapping, the exact many-body potential of mean force (PMF) for the simple Gaussian Network Model (GNM) of protein fluctuations. We use this as a simple model for investigating the effect of the CG mapping upon the information loss and quality of the CG model. Moreover, by considering the GNM's for different proteins, we investigate the significance of high resolution structural features for the quality of the CG model. We acknowledge support from the NSF, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and KITP.
Biomembranes in atomistic and coarse-grained simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pluhackova, Kristyna; Böckmann, Rainer A.
2015-08-01
The architecture of biological membranes is tightly coupled to the localization, organization, and function of membrane proteins. The organelle-specific distribution of lipids allows for the formation of functional microdomains (also called rafts) that facilitate the segregation and aggregation of membrane proteins and thus shape their function. Molecular dynamics simulations enable to directly access the formation, structure, and dynamics of membrane microdomains at the molecular scale and the specific interactions among lipids and proteins on timescales from picoseconds to microseconds. This review focuses on the latest developments of biomembrane force fields for both atomistic and coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and the different levels of coarsening of biomolecular structures. It also briefly introduces scale-bridging methods applicable to biomembrane studies, and highlights selected recent applications.
Coarse-grained molecular simulations of membrane adhesion domains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dharan, Nadiv; Farago, Oded
2014-07-01
We use a coarse-grained molecular model of supported lipid bilayers to study the formation of adhesion domains. We find that this process is a first order phase transition, triggered by a combination of pairwise short range attractive interactions between the adhesion bonds and many-body Casimir-like interactions, mediated by the membrane thermal undulations. The simulation results display an excellent agreement with the recently proposed Weil-Farago two-dimensional lattice model, in which the occupied and empty sites represent, respectively, the adhesion bonds and unbound segments of the membrane. A second phase transition, into a hexatic phase, is observed when the attraction between the adhesion bonds is further strengthened.
Mesoscopic coarse-grained simulations of lysozyme adsorption.
Yu, Gaobo; Liu, Jie; Zhou, Jian
2014-05-01
Coarse-grained simulations are adopted to study the adsorption behavior of lysozyme on different (hydrophobic, neutral hydrophilic, zwitterionic, negatively charged, and positively charged) surfaces at the mesoscopic microsecond time scale (1.2 μs). Simulation results indicate the following: (i) the conformation change of lysozyme on the hydrophobic surface is bigger than any other studied surfaces; (ii) the active sites of lysozyme are faced to the hydrophobic surface with a "top end-on" orientation, while they are exposed to the liquid phase on the hydrophilic surface with a "back-on" orientation; (iii) the neutral hydrophilic surface can induce the adsorption of lysozyme, while the nonspecific protein adsorption can be resisted by the zwitterionic surface; (iv) when the solution ionic strength is low, lysozyme can anchor on the negatively charged surface easily but cannot adsorb on the positively charged surface; (v) when the solution ionic strength is high, the positively charged lysozyme can also adsorb on the like-charged surface; (vi) the major positive potential center of lysozyme, especially the residue ARG128, plays a vital role in leading the adsorption of lysozyme on charged surfaces; (vii) when the ionic strength is high, a counterion layer is formed above the positively charged surface, which is the key factor why lysozyme can adsorb on a like-charged surface. The coarse-grained method based on the MARTINI force field for proteins and the BMW water model could provide an efficient way to understand protein interfacial adsorption behavior at a greater length scale and time scale. PMID:24785197
Classical predictability and coarse-grained evolution of the quantum baker's map
Scherer, Artur; Soklakov, Andrei N.; Schack, Ruediger
2006-06-15
We investigate how classical predictability of the coarse-grained evolution of the quantum baker's map depends on the character of the coarse-graining. Our analysis extends earlier work by Brun and Hartle [Phys. Rev. D 60, 123503 (1999)] to the case of a chaotic map. To quantify predictability, we compare the rate of entropy increase for a family of coarse-grainings in the decoherent histories formalism. We find that the rate of entropy increase is dominated by the number of scales characterizing the coarse-graining.
Relative entropy and optimization-driven coarse-graining methods in VOTCA
Mashayak, S. Y.; Jochum, Mara N.; Koschke, Konstantin; Aluru, N. R.; Rühle, Victor; Junghans, Christoph; Huang, Xuhui
2015-07-20
We discuss recent advances of the VOTCA package for systematic coarse-graining. Two methods have been implemented, namely the downhill simplex optimization and the relative entropy minimization. We illustrate the new methods by coarse-graining SPC/E bulk water and more complex water-methanol mixture systems. The CG potentials obtained from both methods are then evaluated by comparing the pair distributions from the coarse-grained to the reference atomistic simulations.We have also added a parallel analysis framework to improve the computational efficiency of the coarse-graining process.
Relative Entropy and Optimization-Driven Coarse-Graining Methods in VOTCA
Mashayak, S. Y.; Jochum, Mara N.; Koschke, Konstantin; Aluru, N. R.; Rühle, Victor; Junghans, Christoph
2015-01-01
We discuss recent advances of the VOTCA package for systematic coarse-graining. Two methods have been implemented, namely the downhill simplex optimization and the relative entropy minimization. We illustrate the new methods by coarse-graining SPC/E bulk water and more complex water-methanol mixture systems. The CG potentials obtained from both methods are then evaluated by comparing the pair distributions from the coarse-grained to the reference atomistic simulations. In addition to the newly implemented methods, we have also added a parallel analysis framework to improve the computational efficiency of the coarse-graining process. PMID:26192992
Coarse-grained computer simulation of dynamics in thylakoid membranes: methods and opportunities
Schneider, Anna R.; Geissler, Phillip L.
2013-01-01
Coarse-grained simulation is a powerful and well-established suite of computational methods for studying structure and dynamics in nanoscale biophysical systems. As our understanding of the plant photosynthetic apparatus has become increasingly nuanced, opportunities have arisen for coarse-grained simulation to complement experiment by testing hypotheses and making predictions. Here, we give an overview of best practices in coarse-grained simulation, with a focus on techniques and results that are applicable to the plant thylakoid membrane–protein system. We also discuss current research topics for which coarse-grained simulation has the potential to play a key role in advancing the field. PMID:24478781
Coarse-Grained Molecular Models of Water: A Review
Hadley, Kevin R.; McCabe, Clare
2012-01-01
Coarse-grained (CG) models have proven to be very effective tools in the study of phenomena or systems that involve large time- and length-scales. By decreasing the degrees of freedom in the system and using softer interactions than seen in atomistic models, larger timesteps can be used and much longer simulation times can be studied. CG simulations are widely used to study systems of biological importance that are beyond the reach of atomistic simulation, necessitating a computationally efficient and accurate CG model for water. In this review, we discuss the methods used for developing CG water models and the relative advantages and disadvantages of the resulting models. In general, CG water models differ with regards to how many waters each CG group or bead represents, whether analytical or tabular potentials have been used to describe the interactions, and how the model incorporates electrostatic interactions. Finally, how the models are parameterized depends on their application, so, while some are fitted to experimental properties such as surface tension and density, others are fitted to radial distribution functions extracted from atomistic simulations. PMID:22904601
Nanodomained Nickel Unite Nanocrystal Strength with Coarse-Grain Ductility
Wu, Xiaolei; Yuan, Fuping; Yang, Muxin; Jiang, Ping; Zhang, Chuanxin; Chen, Liu; Wei, Yueguang; Ma, Evan
2015-01-01
Conventional metals are routinely hardened by grain refinement or by cold working with the expense of their ductility. Recent nanostructuring strategies have attempted to evade this strength versus ductility trade-off, but the paradox persists. It has never been possible to combine the strength reachable in nanocrystalline metals with the large uniform tensile elongation characteristic of coarse-grained metals. Here a defect engineering strategy on the nanoscale is architected to approach this ultimate combination. For Nickel, spread-out nanoscale domains (average 7 nm in diameter) were produced during electrodeposition, occupying only ~2.4% of the total volume. Yet the resulting Ni achieves a yield strength approaching 1.3 GPa, on par with the strength for nanocrystalline Ni with uniform grains. Simultaneously, the material exhibits a uniform elongation as large as ~30%, at the same level of ductile face-centered-cubic metals. Electron microscopy observations and molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that the nanoscale domains effectively block dislocations, akin to the role of precipitates for Orowan hardening. In the meantime, the abundant domain boundaries provide dislocation sources and trapping sites of running dislocations for dislocation multiplication, and the ample space in the grain interior allows dislocation storage; a pronounced strain-hardening rate is therefore sustained to enable large uniform elongation. PMID:26122728
Perspective: Coarse-grained models for biomolecular systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noid, W. G.
2013-09-01
By focusing on essential features, while averaging over less important details, coarse-grained (CG) models provide significant computational and conceptual advantages with respect to more detailed models. Consequently, despite dramatic advances in computational methodologies and resources, CG models enjoy surging popularity and are becoming increasingly equal partners to atomically detailed models. This perspective surveys the rapidly developing landscape of CG models for biomolecular systems. In particular, this review seeks to provide a balanced, coherent, and unified presentation of several distinct approaches for developing CG models, including top-down, network-based, native-centric, knowledge-based, and bottom-up modeling strategies. The review summarizes their basic philosophies, theoretical foundations, typical applications, and recent developments. Additionally, the review identifies fundamental inter-relationships among the diverse approaches and discusses outstanding challenges in the field. When carefully applied and assessed, current CG models provide highly efficient means for investigating the biological consequences of basic physicochemical principles. Moreover, rigorous bottom-up approaches hold great promise for further improving the accuracy and scope of CG models for biomolecular systems.
Coarse-grained, foldable, physical model of the polypeptide chain
Chakraborty, Promita; Zuckermann, Ronald N.
2013-01-01
Although nonflexible, scaled molecular models like Pauling–Corey’s and its descendants have made significant contributions in structural biology research and pedagogy, recent technical advances in 3D printing and electronics make it possible to go one step further in designing physical models of biomacromolecules: to make them conformationally dynamic. We report here the design, construction, and validation of a flexible, scaled, physical model of the polypeptide chain, which accurately reproduces the bond rotational degrees of freedom in the peptide backbone. The coarse-grained backbone model consists of repeating amide and α-carbon units, connected by mechanical bonds (corresponding to φ and ψ) that include realistic barriers to rotation that closely approximate those found at the molecular scale. Longer-range hydrogen-bonding interactions are also incorporated, allowing the chain to readily fold into stable secondary structures. The model is easily constructed with readily obtainable parts and promises to be a tremendous educational aid to the intuitive understanding of chain folding as the basis for macromolecular structure. Furthermore, this physical model can serve as the basis for linking tangible biomacromolecular models directly to the vast array of existing computational tools to provide an enhanced and interactive human–computer interface. PMID:23898168
Entrainment of coarse grains using a discrete particle model
Valyrakis, Manousos; Arnold, Roger B. Jr.
2014-10-06
Conventional bedload transport models and incipient motion theories relying on a time-averaged boundary shear stress are incapable of accounting for the effects of fluctuating near-bed velocity in turbulent flow and are therefore prone to significant errors. Impulse, the product of an instantaneous force magnitude and its duration, has been recently proposed as an appropriate criterion for quantifying the effects of flow turbulence in removing coarse grains from the bed surface. Here, a discrete particle model (DPM) is used to examine the effects of impulse, representing a single idealized turbulent event, on particle entrainment. The results are classified according to the degree of grain movement into the following categories: motion prior to entrainment, initial dislodgement, and energetic displacement. The results indicate that in all three cases the degree of particle motion depends on both the force magnitude and the duration of its application and suggest that the effects of turbulence must be adequately accounted for in order to develop a more accurate method of determining incipient motion. DPM is capable of simulating the dynamics of grain entrainment and is an appropriate tool for further study of the fundamental mechanisms of sediment transport.
Coarse-grained potentials of single-walled carbon nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Junhua; Jiang, Jin-Wu; Wang, Lifeng; Guo, Wanlin; Rabczuk, Timon
2014-11-01
We develop the coarse-grained (CG) potentials of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in CNT bundles and buckypaper for the study of the static and dynamic behaviors. The explicit expressions of the CG stretching, bending and torsion potentials for the nanotubes are obtained by the stick-spiral and the beam models, respectively. The non-bonded CG potentials between two different CG beads are derived from analytical results based on the cohesive energy between two parallel and crossing SWCNTs from the van der Waals interactions. We show that the CG model is applicable to large deformations of complex CNT systems by combining the bonded potentials with non-bonded potentials. Checking against full atom molecular dynamics calculations and our analytical results shows that the present CG potentials have high accuracy. The established CG potentials are used to study the mechanical properties of the CNT bundles and buckypaper efficiently at minor computational cost, which shows great potential for the design of micro- and nanomechanical devices and systems.
Interactions of membranes with coarse-grain proteins: a comparison
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neder, Jörg; Nielaba, Peter; West, Beate; Schmid, Friederike
2012-12-01
We study the interactions between lipid bilayers and rigid transmembrane proteins by Monte Carlo simulations of generic coarse-grain models. Different popular protein models are considered and compared with each other, and key parameters such as the hydrophobicity and the hydrophobic mismatch are varied systematically. Furthermore, the properties of the membrane are manipulated by applying different tensions. The response of the membrane to the insertion of single proteins is found to be mostly generic and independent of the choice of the protein model. Likewise, the orientational distributions of single proteins depend mainly on the hydrophobic mismatch and the hydrophobicity of the proteins, and are otherwise similar for all protein models. Orientational distributions are generally found to be very broad, i.e. tilt angles fluctuate very much, in agreement with experimental findings. Weakly hydrophobic proteins respond to positive hydrophobic mismatch by tilting. Strongly hydrophobic (strongly bound) proteins distort the surrounding membrane and tend to remain upright. For proteins with intermediate hydrophobicity, the two mechanisms compete, and as a result, the tilt only sets in if the hydrophobic mismatch exceeds a threshold. Clusters of several strongly hydrophobic proteins with negative positive mismatch may nucleate raft-like structures in membranes. This effect is more pronounced for proteins with rough, structured surfaces.
Multi-blob coarse graining for ring polymer solutions.
Narros, Arturo; Likos, Christos N; Moreno, Angel J; Capone, Barbara
2014-12-28
We present a multi-scale molecular modeling of concentrated solutions of unknotted and non-concatenated ring polymers under good solvent conditions. The approach is based on a multi-blob representation of each ring polymer, which is capable of overcoming the shortcomings of single-blob approaches that lose their validity at concentrations exceeding the overlap density of the solution [A. Narros, A. J. Moreno, and C. N. Likos, Soft Matter, 2010, 6, 2435]. By means of a first principles coarse-graining strategy based on analytically determined effective pair potentials between the blobs, computed at zero density, we quantitatively reproduce the single molecule and solution properties of a system with well-defined topological constraints. Detailed comparisons with the underlying, monomer-resolved model demonstrate the validity of our approach, which employs fully transferable pair potentials between connected and unconnected blobs. We demonstrate that the pair structure between the centers of mass of the rings is accurately reproduced by the multi-blob approach, thus opening the way for simulation of arbitrarily long polymers. Finally, we show the importance of the topological constraint of non-concatenation on the structure of the concentrated solution and in particular on the size of the correlation hole and the shrinkage of the rings as melt concentrations are approached.
Coarse-Grained Model for Water Involving a Virtual Site.
Deng, Mingsen; Shen, Hujun
2016-02-01
In this work, we propose a new coarse-grained (CG) model for water by combining the features of two popular CG water models (BMW and MARTINI models) as well as by adopting a topology similar to that of the TIP4P water model. In this CG model, a CG unit, representing four real water molecules, consists of a virtual site, two positively charged particles, and a van der Waals (vdW) interaction center. Distance constraint is applied to the bonds formed between the vdW interaction center and the positively charged particles. The virtual site, which carries a negative charge, is determined by the locations of the two positively charged particles and the vdW interaction center. For the new CG model of water, we coined the name "CAVS" (charge is attached to a virtual site) due to the involvment of the virtual site. After being tested in molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of bulk water at various time steps, under different temperatures and in different salt (NaCl) concentrations, the CAVS model offers encouraging predictions for some bulk properties of water (such as density, dielectric constant, etc.) when compared to experimental ones. PMID:26747089
Nanodomained Nickel Unite Nanocrystal Strength with Coarse-Grain Ductility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Xiaolei; Yuan, Fuping; Yang, Muxin; Jiang, Ping; Zhang, Chuanxin; Chen, Liu; Wei, Yueguang; Ma, Evan
2015-06-01
Conventional metals are routinely hardened by grain refinement or by cold working with the expense of their ductility. Recent nanostructuring strategies have attempted to evade this strength versus ductility trade-off, but the paradox persists. It has never been possible to combine the strength reachable in nanocrystalline metals with the large uniform tensile elongation characteristic of coarse-grained metals. Here a defect engineering strategy on the nanoscale is architected to approach this ultimate combination. For Nickel, spread-out nanoscale domains (average 7 nm in diameter) were produced during electrodeposition, occupying only ~2.4% of the total volume. Yet the resulting Ni achieves a yield strength approaching 1.3 GPa, on par with the strength for nanocrystalline Ni with uniform grains. Simultaneously, the material exhibits a uniform elongation as large as ~30%, at the same level of ductile face-centered-cubic metals. Electron microscopy observations and molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that the nanoscale domains effectively block dislocations, akin to the role of precipitates for Orowan hardening. In the meantime, the abundant domain boundaries provide dislocation sources and trapping sites of running dislocations for dislocation multiplication, and the ample space in the grain interior allows dislocation storage; a pronounced strain-hardening rate is therefore sustained to enable large uniform elongation.
Nanodomained Nickel Unite Nanocrystal Strength with Coarse-Grain Ductility.
Wu, Xiaolei; Yuan, Fuping; Yang, Muxin; Jiang, Ping; Zhang, Chuanxin; Chen, Liu; Wei, Yueguang; Ma, Evan
2015-01-01
Conventional metals are routinely hardened by grain refinement or by cold working with the expense of their ductility. Recent nanostructuring strategies have attempted to evade this strength versus ductility trade-off, but the paradox persists. It has never been possible to combine the strength reachable in nanocrystalline metals with the large uniform tensile elongation characteristic of coarse-grained metals. Here a defect engineering strategy on the nanoscale is architected to approach this ultimate combination. For Nickel, spread-out nanoscale domains (average 7 nm in diameter) were produced during electrodeposition, occupying only ~2.4% of the total volume. Yet the resulting Ni achieves a yield strength approaching 1.3 GPa, on par with the strength for nanocrystalline Ni with uniform grains. Simultaneously, the material exhibits a uniform elongation as large as ~30%, at the same level of ductile face-centered-cubic metals. Electron microscopy observations and molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that the nanoscale domains effectively block dislocations, akin to the role of precipitates for Orowan hardening. In the meantime, the abundant domain boundaries provide dislocation sources and trapping sites of running dislocations for dislocation multiplication, and the ample space in the grain interior allows dislocation storage; a pronounced strain-hardening rate is therefore sustained to enable large uniform elongation. PMID:26122728
Improving the treatment of coarse-grain electrostatics: CVCEL
Ceres, N.; Lavery, R.
2015-12-28
We propose an analytic approach for calculating the electrostatic energy of proteins or protein complexes in aqueous solution. This method, termed CVCEL (Circular Variance Continuum ELectrostatics), is fitted to Poisson calculations and is able to reproduce the corresponding energies for different choices of solute dielectric constant. CVCEL thus treats both solute charge interactions and charge self-energies, and it can also deal with salt solutions. Electrostatic damping notably depends on the degree of solvent exposure of the charges, quantified here in terms of circular variance, a measure that reflects the vectorial distribution of the neighbors around a given center. CVCEL energies can be calculated rapidly and have simple analytical derivatives. This approach avoids the need for calculating effective atomic volumes or Born radii. After describing how the method was developed, we present test results for coarse-grain proteins of different shapes and sizes, using different internal dielectric constants and different salt concentrations and also compare the results with those from simple distance-dependent models. We also show that the CVCEL approach can be used successfully to calculate the changes in electrostatic energy associated with changes in protein conformation or with protein-protein binding.
Design of a rotamer library for coarse-grained models in protein-folding simulations.
Larriva, María; Rey, Antonio
2014-01-27
Rotamer libraries usually contain geometric information to trace an amino acid side chain, atom by atom, onto a protein backbone. These libraries have been widely used in protein design, structure refinement and prediction, homology modeling, and X-ray and NMR structure validation. However, they usually present too much information and are not always fully compatible with the coarse-grained models of the protein geometry that are frequently used to tackle the protein-folding problem through molecular simulation. In this work, we introduce a new backbone-dependent rotamer library for side chains compatible with low-resolution models in polypeptide chains. We have dispensed with an atomic description of proteins, representing each amino acid side chain by its geometric center (or centroid). The resulting rotamers have been estimated from a statistical analysis of a large structural database consisting of high-resolution X-ray protein structures. As additional information, each rotamer includes the frequency with which it has been found during the statistical analysis. More importantly, the library has been designed with a careful control to ensure that the vast majority of side chains in protein structures (at least 95% of residues) are properly represented. We have tested our library using an independent set of proteins, and our results support a good correlation between the reconstructed centroids from our rotamer library and those in the experimental structures. This new library can serve to improve the definition of side chain centroids in coarse-grained models, avoiding at the same time an excessive additional complexity in a geometric model for the polypeptide chain.
One-particle-thick, solvent-free, coarse-grained model for biological and biomimetic fluid membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Hongyan; Huang, Changjin; Li, Ju; Lykotrafitis, George; Zhang, Sulin
2010-07-01
Biological membranes are involved in numerous intriguing biophysical and biological cellular phenomena of different length scales, ranging from nanoscale raft formation, vesiculation, to microscale shape transformations. With extended length and time scales as compared to atomistic simulations, solvent-free coarse-grained membrane models have been exploited in mesoscopic membrane simulations. In this study, we present a one-particle-thick fluid membrane model, where each particle represents a cluster of lipid molecules. The model features an anisotropic interparticle pair potential with the interaction strength weighed by the relative particle orientations. With the anisotropic pair potential, particles can robustly self-assemble into fluid membranes with experimentally relevant bending rigidity. Despite its simple mathematical form, the model is highly tunable. Three potential parameters separately and effectively control diffusivity, bending rigidity, and spontaneous curvature of the model membrane. As demonstrated by selected examples, our model can naturally simulate dynamics of phase separation in multicomponent membranes and the topological change of fluid vesicles.
Coarse-graining to the meso and continuum scales with molecular-dynamics-like models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plimpton, Steve
Many engineering-scale problems that industry or the national labs try to address with particle-based simulations occur at length and time scales well beyond the most optimistic hopes of traditional coarse-graining methods for molecular dynamics (MD), which typically start at the atomic scale and build upward. However classical MD can be viewed as an engine for simulating particles at literally any length or time scale, depending on the models used for individual particles and their interactions. To illustrate I'll highlight several coarse-grained (CG) materials models, some of which are likely familiar to molecular-scale modelers, but others probably not. These include models for water droplet freezing on surfaces, dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) models of explosives where particles have internal state, CG models of nano or colloidal particles in solution, models for aspherical particles, Peridynamics models for fracture, and models of granular materials at the scale of industrial processing. All of these can be implemented as MD-style models for either soft or hard materials; in fact they are all part of our LAMMPS MD package, added either by our group or contributed by collaborators. Unlike most all-atom MD simulations, CG simulations at these scales often involve highly non-uniform particle densities. So I'll also discuss a load-balancing method we've implemented for these kinds of models, which can improve parallel efficiencies. From the physics point-of-view, these models may be viewed as non-traditional or ad hoc. But because they are MD-style simulations, there's an opportunity for physicists to add statistical mechanics rigor to individual models. Or, in keeping with a theme of this session, to devise methods that more accurately bridge models from one scale to the next.
Development and application of coarse-grained models for lipids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Qiang
2013-03-01
I'll discuss a number of topics that represent our efforts in developing reliable molecular models for describing chemical and physical processes involving biomembranes. This is an exciting yet challenging research area because of the multiple length and time scales that are present in the relevant problems. Accordingly, we attempt to (1) understand the value and limitation of popular coarse-grained (CG) models for lipid membranes with either a particle or continuum representation; (2) develop new CG models that are appropriate for the particular problem of interest. As specific examples, I'll discuss (1) a comparison of atomistic, MARTINI (a particle based CG model) and continuum descriptions of a membrane fusion pore; (2) the development of a modified MARTINI model (BMW-MARTINI) that features a reliable description of membrane/water interfacial electrostatics and its application to cell-penetration peptides and membrane-bending proteins. Motivated specifically by the recent studies of Wong and co-workers, we compare the self-assembly behaviors of lipids with cationic peptides that include either Arg residues or a combination of Lys and hydrophobic residues; in particular, we attempt to reveal factors that stabilize the cubic ``double diamond'' Pn3m phase over the inverted hexagonal HII phase. For example, to explicitly test the importance of the bidentate hydrogen-bonding capability of Arg to the stabilization of negative Gaussian curvature, we also compare results using variants of the BMW-MARTINI model that treat the side chain of Arg with different levels of details. Collectively, the results suggest that both the bidentate feature of Arg and the overall electrostatic properties of cationic peptides are important to the self-assembly behavior of these peptides with lipids. The results are expected to have general implications to the mechanism of peptides and proteins that stimulate pore formation in biomembranes. Work in collaboration with Zhe Wu, Leili Zhang
Coarse grained molecular dynamics simulation of nanoconfined water.
Eslami, Hossein; Jaafari, Bahram; Mehdipour, Nargess
2013-04-01
A coarse-grained (CG) model for the simulation of nanoconfined water between graphene surfaces is developed. For this purpose, mixed-grained simulations are done, in which the two-site water model of Riniker and van Gunsteren [S. Riniker, W. F. van Gunsteren, J. Chem. Phys. 2011, 134, 084110] is simulated between atomistically resolved graphene surfaces. In the developed pure CG model, the two interaction sites of water and a combination of eight carbon atoms in the graphene surface are grouped together to construct water and surface CG beads. The pure CG potentials are constructed by iteratively matching the radial distribution functions and the density profiles of water beads in the pore with the corresponding mixed-grained distributions. The constructed potentials are shown to be pore-size transferable, capable of predicting structural properties of confined water over the whole range of pore sizes, ranging from extremely narrow pores to bulk water. The model is used to simulate a number of nanoconfined systems of a variety of pore sizes at constant temperature, constant parallel component of pressure, and constant surface area of the confining surfaces. The model is shown to predict the layering of water in contact with the surfaces, and the solvation force is in complete agreement with the mixed-grained model. It is shown that water molecules in the pore have smaller parallel diffusion coefficients compared to bulk water. Well-organized layers beside the surfaces are shown to have lower diffusion coefficients than diffuse layers. More information on the dynamics of water in the pore is obtained by calculating the rate of water exchange between slabs parallel to the surfaces. The time scale to achieve equilibrium for this process, depending on the pore width and on the degree of layering of water beside the surfaces, is a few nanoseconds in nanometric pores.
PRIMO: A Transferable Coarse-grained Force Field for Proteins.
Kar, Parimal; Gopal, Srinivasa Murthy; Cheng, Yi-Ming; Predeus, Alexander; Feig, Michael
2013-08-13
We describe here the PRIMO (PRotein Intermediate Model) force field, a physics-based fully transferable additive coarse-grained potential energy function that is compatible with an all-atom force field for multi-scale simulations. The energy function consists of standard molecular dynamics energy terms plus a hydrogen-bonding potential term and is mainly parameterized based on the CHARMM22/CMAP force field in a bottom-up fashion. The solvent is treated implicitly via the generalized Born model. The bonded interactions are either harmonic or distance-based spline interpolated potentials. These potentials are defined on the basis of all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of dipeptides with the CHARMM22/CMAP force field. The non-bonded parameters are tuned by matching conformational free energies of diverse set of conformations with that of CHARMM all-atom results. PRIMO is designed to provide a correct description of conformational distribution of the backbone (ϕ/ψ) and side chains (χ1) for all amino acids with a CMAP correction term. The CMAP potential in PRIMO is optimized based on the new CHARMM C36 CMAP. The resulting optimized force field has been applied in MD simulations of several proteins of 36-155 amino acids and shown that the root-mean-squared-deviation of the average structure from the corresponding crystallographic structure varies between 1.80 and 4.03 Å. PRIMO is shown to fold several small peptides to their native-like structures from extended conformations. These results suggest the applicability of the PRIMO force field in the study of protein structures in aqueous solution, structure predictions as well as ab initio folding of small peptides.
Microcanonical thermostatistics of coarse-grained proteins with amyloidogenic propensity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frigori, Rafael B.; Rizzi, Leandro G.; Alves, Nelson A.
2013-01-01
The formation of fibrillar aggregates seems to be a common characteristic of polypeptide chains, although the observation of these aggregates may depend on appropriate experimental conditions. Partially folded intermediates seem to have an important role in the generation of protein aggregates, and a mechanism for this fibril formation considers that these intermediates also correspond to metastable states with respect to the fibrillar ones. Here, using a coarse-grained (CG) off-lattice model, we carry out a comparative analysis of the thermodynamic aspects characterizing the folding transition with respect to the propensity for aggregation of four different systems: two isoforms of the amyloid β-protein, the Src SH3 domain, and the human prion proteins (hPrP). Microcanonical analysis of the data obtained from replica exchange method is conducted to evaluate the free-energy barrier and latent heat in these models. The simulations of the amyloid β isoforms and Src SH3 domain indicated that the folding process described by this CG model is related to a negative specific heat, a phenomenon that can only be verified in the microcanonical ensemble in first-order phase transitions. The CG simulation of the hPrP heteropolymer yielded a continuous folding transition. The absence of a free-energy barrier and latent heat favors the presence of partially unfolded conformations, and in this context, this thermodynamic aspect could explain the reason why the hPrP heteropolymer is more aggregation-prone than the other heteropolymers considered in this study. We introduced the hydrophobic radius of gyration as an order parameter and found that it can be used to obtain reliable information about the hydrophobic packing and the transition temperatures in the folding process.
Coarse-grained DNA modeling: Hybridization and ionic effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hinckley, Daniel M.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a biopolymer of enormous significance in living systems. The utility of DNA in such systems is derived from the programmable nature of DNA and its unique mechanical properties. Recently, material scientists have harnessed these properties in order to create systems that spontaneous self-assemble on the nanoscale. Both biologists and material scientists are hindered by an incomplete understanding of the physical interactions that together govern DNA's behavior. Computer simulations, especially those at the coarse-grained (CG) level, can potentially complete this understanding by resolving details indiscernible with current experimental techniques. In this thesis, we advance the state-of-the-art of DNA CG simulations by first reviewing the relevant theory and the evolution of CG DNA models since their inception. Then we present 3SPN.2, an improved CG model for DNA that should provide new insights into biological and nanotechnological systems which incorporate DNA. We perform forward flux sampling simulations in order to examine the effect of sequence, oligomer length, and ionic strength on DNA oligomer hybridization. Due to the limitations inherent in continuum treatments of electrostatic interactions in biological systems, we generate a CG model of biological ions for use with 3SPN.2 and other CG models. Lastly, we illustrate the potential of 3SPN.2 and CG ions by using the models in simulations of viral capsid packaging experiments. The models and results described in this thesis will be useful in future modeling efforts that seek to identify the fundamental physics that govern behavior such as nucleosome positioning, DNA hybridization, and DNA nanoassembly.
STOCK: Structure mapper and online coarse-graining kit for molecular simulations
Bevc, Staš; Junghans, Christoph; Praprotnik, Matej
2015-03-15
We present a web toolkit STructure mapper and Online Coarse-graining Kit for setting up coarse-grained molecular simulations. The kit consists of two tools: structure mapping and Boltzmann inversion tools. The aim of the first tool is to define a molecular mapping from high, e.g. all-atom, to low, i.e. coarse-grained, resolution. Using a graphical user interface it generates input files, which are compatible with standard coarse-graining packages, e.g. VOTCA and DL_CGMAP. Our second tool generates effective potentials for coarse-grained simulations preserving the structural properties, e.g. radial distribution functions, of the underlying higher resolution model. The required distribution functions can be providedmore » by any simulation package. Simulations are performed on a local machine and only the distributions are uploaded to the server. The applicability of the toolkit is validated by mapping atomistic pentane and polyalanine molecules to a coarse-grained representation. Effective potentials are derived for systems of TIP3P (transferable intermolecular potential 3 point) water molecules and salt solution. The presented coarse-graining web toolkit is available at http://stock.cmm.ki.si.« less
STOCK: Structure mapper and online coarse-graining kit for molecular simulations
Bevc, Staš; Junghans, Christoph; Praprotnik, Matej
2015-03-15
We present a web toolkit STructure mapper and Online Coarse-graining Kit for setting up coarse-grained molecular simulations. The kit consists of two tools: structure mapping and Boltzmann inversion tools. The aim of the first tool is to define a molecular mapping from high, e.g. all-atom, to low, i.e. coarse-grained, resolution. Using a graphical user interface it generates input files, which are compatible with standard coarse-graining packages, e.g. VOTCA and DL_CGMAP. Our second tool generates effective potentials for coarse-grained simulations preserving the structural properties, e.g. radial distribution functions, of the underlying higher resolution model. The required distribution functions can be provided by any simulation package. Simulations are performed on a local machine and only the distributions are uploaded to the server. The applicability of the toolkit is validated by mapping atomistic pentane and polyalanine molecules to a coarse-grained representation. Effective potentials are derived for systems of TIP3P (transferable intermolecular potential 3 point) water molecules and salt solution. The presented coarse-graining web toolkit is available at http://stock.cmm.ki.si.
Evaluation of coarse-grained mapping schemes for polysaccharide chains in cellulose
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markutsya, Sergiy; Devarajan, Ajitha; Baluyut, John Y.; Windus, Theresa L.; Gordon, Mark S.; Lamm, Monica H.
2013-06-01
A fundamental understanding of the intermolecular forces that bind polysaccharide chains together in cellulose is crucial for designing efficient methods to overcome the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass to hydrolysis. Because the characteristic time and length scales for the degradation of cellulose by enzymatic hydrolysis or chemical pretreatment span orders of magnitude, it is important to closely integrate the molecular models used at each scale so that, ultimately, one may switch seamlessly between quantum, atomistic, and coarse-grained descriptions of the system. As a step towards that goal, four multiscale coarse-grained models for polysaccharide chains in a cellulose-Iα microfiber are considered. Using the force matching method, effective coarse-grained forces are derived from all-atom trajectories. Performance of the coarse-grained models is evaluated by comparing the intrachain radial distribution functions with those obtained using the all-atom reference data. The all-atom simulation reveals a double peak in the radial distribution function for sites within each glucose residue that arises from the distinct conformations sampled by the primary alcohol group in the glucose residues. The three-site and four-site coarse-grained models have sufficient degrees of freedom to predict this double peak while the one-site and two-site models do not. This is the first time that coarse-grained models have been shown to reproduce such subtle, yet important, molecular features in a polysaccharide chain. The relative orientations between glucose residues along the polysaccharide chain are evaluated and it is found that the four-site coarse-grained model is best at reproducing the glucose-glucose conformations observed in the all-atom simulation. The success of the four-site coarse-grained model underscores the importance of decoupling the pyranose ring from the oxygen atom in the glycosidic bond when developing all-atom to coarse-grained mapping schemes for
First-principle approach to rescale the dynamics of simulated coarse-grained macromolecular liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyubimov, I.; Guenza, M. G.
2011-09-01
We present a detailed derivation and testing of our approach to rescale the dynamics of mesoscale simulations of coarse-grained polymer melts (I. Y. Lyubimov, J. McCarty, A. Clark, and M. G. Guenza, J. Chem. Phys.JCPSA60021-960610.1063/1.3450301 132, 224903 (2010)). Starting from the first-principle Liouville equation and applying the Mori-Zwanzig projection operator technique, we derive the generalized Langevin equations (GLEs) for the coarse-grained representations of the liquid. The chosen slow variables in the projection operators define the length scale of coarse graining. Each polymer is represented at two levels of coarse graining: monomeric as a bead-and-spring model and molecular as a soft colloid. In the long-time regime where the center-of-mass follows Brownian motion and the internal dynamics is completely relaxed, the two descriptions must be equivalent. By enforcing this formal relation we derive from the GLEs the analytical rescaling factors to be applied to dynamical data in the coarse-grained representation to recover the monomeric description. Change in entropy and change in friction are the two corrections to be accounted for to compensate the effects of coarse graining on the polymer dynamics. The solution of the memory functions in the coarse-grained representations provides the dynamical rescaling of the friction coefficient. The calculation of the internal degrees of freedom provides the correction of the change in entropy due to coarse graining. The resulting rescaling formalism is a function of the coarse-grained model and thermodynamic parameters of the system simulated. The rescaled dynamics obtained from mesoscale simulations of polyethylene, represented as soft-colloidal particles, by applying our rescaling approach shows a good agreement with data of translational diffusion measured experimentally and from simulations. The proposed method is used to predict self-diffusion coefficients of new polyethylene samples.
Microscopic derivation of particle-based coarse-grained dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Izvekov, Sergei
2013-04-01
In this paper we revisit the derivation of equations of motion for coarse-grained (CG) particles from the microscopic Hamiltonian dynamics of the underlying atomistic system in equilibrium. The derivation is based on the projection operator method and time-convolution equation. We demonstrate that due to the energy exchange between CG and intraparticle phase space coordinates in the microscopic system, the choice of projection operator is not unique, leading to different CG equations of motion that have the form of the nonlinear generalized Langevin equation (GLE). We derive the idempotence properties for the projection operators along the system trajectories and show that these properties result in streaming terms of the respective GLEs that are conservative forces and allow the expression of the non-conservative forces explicitly through thermodynamic averages, which can be measured from the microscopic simulations. The difference between GLEs that are presented herein lies in how the non-conservative forces are partitioned into dissipative and projected contributions. We compute the projected force and analyze conditions under which the projected (stochastic) force is orthogonal to (uncorrelated with) the momenta of CG particles, therefore justifying a transition to a framework of stochastic differential equations. We show that a position- and momentum-independent memory function appears only if the projected force is fully decoupled from the past CG positions and momenta, respectively. In the case of non-vanishing correlations between the projected force and the CG coordinates in past times, we derive explicitly the position- and momentum-dependent memory function in a form of projection onto a space spanned by N-order Hermite polynomials. The expressions presented herein can be used to construct a hierarchy of thermodynamically consistent CG models with momentum-dependent memory functions. They can also be used to design computational schemes for obtaining the
Coarse graining the distribution function of cold dark matter - II
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henriksen, R. N.
2004-12-01
We study analytically the coarse- and fine-grained distribution function (DF) established by the self-similar infall of collisionless matter. We find this function explicitly for isotropic and spherically symmetric systems in terms of cosmological initial conditions. The coarse-grained function is structureless and steady but the familiar phase-space sheet substructure is recovered in the fine-grained limit. By breaking the self-similarity of the halo infall we are able to argue for a central density flattening. In addition there will be an edge steepening. The best-fitting analytic density function is likely to be provided by a high-order polytrope fit smoothly to an outer power law of index -3 for isolated systems. There may be a transition to a -4 power law in the outer regions of tidally truncated systems. As we find that the central flattening is progressive in time, dynamically young systems such as galaxy clusters may well possess a Navarro, Frenk and White type density profile, while primordial dwarf galaxies, for example, are expected to have cores. This progressive flattening is expected to end either in the non-singular isothermal sphere, or in the non-singular metastable polytropic cores; as the DFs associated with each of these arise naturally in the bulk halo during the infall. We suggest, based on previous studies of the evolution of de-stabilized polytropes, that a collisionless system may pass through a family of polytropes of increasing order, finally approaching the limit of the non-singular isothermal sphere, if the `violent' collective relaxation is frequently re-excited by `merger' events. Thus central dominant (cD) galaxies, and indeed all bright galaxies that have grown in this fashion, should be in polytropic states. Our results suggest that no physics beyond that of wave-particle scattering is necessary to explain the nature of dark matter density profiles. However, this may be assisted by the scattering of particles from the centre of the
Microscopic derivation of particle-based coarse-grained dynamics.
Izvekov, Sergei
2013-04-01
In this paper we revisit the derivation of equations of motion for coarse-grained (CG) particles from the microscopic Hamiltonian dynamics of the underlying atomistic system in equilibrium. The derivation is based on the projection operator method and time-convolution equation. We demonstrate that due to the energy exchange between CG and intraparticle phase space coordinates in the microscopic system, the choice of projection operator is not unique, leading to different CG equations of motion that have the form of the nonlinear generalized Langevin equation (GLE). We derive the idempotence properties for the projection operators along the system trajectories and show that these properties result in streaming terms of the respective GLEs that are conservative forces and allow the expression of the non-conservative forces explicitly through thermodynamic averages, which can be measured from the microscopic simulations. The difference between GLEs that are presented herein lies in how the non-conservative forces are partitioned into dissipative and projected contributions. We compute the projected force and analyze conditions under which the projected (stochastic) force is orthogonal to (uncorrelated with) the momenta of CG particles, therefore justifying a transition to a framework of stochastic differential equations. We show that a position- and momentum-independent memory function appears only if the projected force is fully decoupled from the past CG positions and momenta, respectively. In the case of non-vanishing correlations between the projected force and the CG coordinates in past times, we derive explicitly the position- and momentum-dependent memory function in a form of projection onto a space spanned by N-order Hermite polynomials. The expressions presented herein can be used to construct a hierarchy of thermodynamically consistent CG models with momentum-dependent memory functions. They can also be used to design computational schemes for obtaining the
Deriving Coarse-Grained Charges from All-Atom Systems: An Analytic Solution.
McCullagh, Peter; Lake, Peter T; McCullagh, Martin
2016-09-13
An analytic method to assign optimal coarse-grained charges based on electrostatic potential matching is presented. This solution is the infinite size and density limit of grid-integration charge-fitting and is computationally more efficient by several orders of magnitude. The solution is also minimized with respect to coarse-grained positions which proves to be an extremely important step in reproducing the all-atom electrostatic potential. The joint optimal-charge optimal-position coarse-graining procedure is applied to a number of aggregating proteins using single-site per amino acid resolution. These models provide a good estimate of both the vacuum and Debye-Hückel screened all-atom electrostatic potentials in the vicinity and in the far-field of the protein. Additionally, these coarse-grained models are shown to approximate the all-atom dimerization electrostatic potential energy of 10 aggregating proteins with good accuracy.
A principle in dynamic coarse graining-Onsager principle and its applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doi, M.
2016-07-01
Dynamic coarse graining is a procedure to map a dynamical system with large degrees of freedom to a system with smaller degrees of freedom by properly choosing coarse grained variables. This procedure has been conducted mainly by empiricisms. In this paper, I will discuss a theoretical principle which may be useful for this procedure. I will discuss how to choose coarse grained variables (or slow variables), and how to set up their evolution equations. To this end, I will review the classical example of dynamic coarse graining, i.e., the Brownian motion theory, and show a variational principle for the evolution of the slow variables. The principle, called the Onsager principle, is useful not only to derive the evolution equations, but also to solve the problems.
Cratering Efficiency Reduction due to Armoring on the Coarse-Grained Targets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tatsumi, E.; Sugita, S.
2015-09-01
Cratering experiments on coarse-grained targets, simulating the surface of rubble-pile asteroids, such as Itokawa. The transfers of energy and momentum on the disruption of the first target grain would model the cratering efficiency reduction.
Studying Amphiphilic Self-assembly with Soft Coarse-Grained Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, Marcus
2011-11-01
Highly coarse-grained models for investigating the self-assembly of lipids and copolymer materials are discussed. Soft interactions between segments that represent many atoms naturally arise in the course of systematic coarse-graining, and they are necessary for modeling fluctuation effects whose strengths is dictated by a large invariant degree of polymerization. The soft non-bonded interactions of the coarse-grained models are related to the excess free-energy functional of an equivalent field-theoretic description. The connection between the particle-based model and the field-theoretic description helps to identify the physical significance of the model interactions. Non-bonded interactions, which describe the complex phase behavior of compressible mixtures or include local fluid-like packing effects of the coarse-grained segments, can be systematically constructed based on liquid-state theory or classical density functional theory. Details of the computational implementation and limitations of soft coarse-grained models are discussed. Two computational techniques—field-theoretic force-matching and umbrella sampling—are devised for computing a free-energy functional from a particle-based description. They can be employed to (i) derive the non-bonded free-energy functional of a soft coarse-grained model from a more detailed computational model or to (ii) derive a field-theoretic description from a particle-based model. Moreover, different strategies for accurately calculating free energies of self-assembled systems are described and selected applications presented.
Coarse-graining using the relative entropy and simplex-based optimization methods in VOTCA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rühle, Victor; Jochum, Mara; Koschke, Konstantin; Aluru, N. R.; Kremer, Kurt; Mashayak, S. Y.; Junghans, Christoph
2014-03-01
Coarse-grained (CG) simulations are an important tool to investigate systems on larger time and length scales. Several methods for systematic coarse-graining were developed, varying in complexity and the property of interest. Thus, the question arises which method best suits a specific class of system and desired application. The Versatile Object-oriented Toolkit for Coarse-graining Applications (VOTCA) provides a uniform platform for coarse-graining methods and allows for their direct comparison. We present recent advances of VOTCA, namely the implementation of the relative entropy method and downhill simplex optimization for coarse-graining. The methods are illustrated by coarse-graining SPC/E bulk water and a water-methanol mixture. Both CG models reproduce the pair distributions accurately. SYM is supported by AFOSR under grant 11157642 and by NSF under grant 1264282. CJ was supported in part by the NSF PHY11-25915 at KITP. K. Koschke acknowledges funding by the Nestle Research Center.
Müller, Kathrin; Osterman, Natan; Babič, Dušan; Likos, Christos N; Dobnikar, Jure; Nikoubashman, Arash
2014-05-13
We study the pattern formation in a two-dimensional system of superparamagnetic colloids interacting via spatially coherent induced interactions driven by an external precessing magnetic field. On the pair level, upon changing the opening angle of the external field, the interactions smoothly vary from purely repulsive (opening angle equal to zero) to purely attractive (time-averaged pair interactions at an opening angle of 90°). In the experiments, we observed ordered hexagonal crystals at the repulsive end and coarsening frothlike structures for purely attractive interactions. In both of these limiting cases, the dense colloidal systems can be sufficiently accurately described by assuming pairwise additivity of the interaction potentials. However, for a range of intermediate angles, pronounced many-body depolarization effects compete with the direct induced interactions, resulting in inherently anisotropic effective interactions. Under such conditions, we observed the decay of hexagonal order with the concomitant formation of short chains and percolated networks of chains coexisting with free colloids. In order to describe and investigate these systems theoretically, we developed a coarse-grained model of a binary mixture of patchy and nonpatchy particles with the ratio of patchy and nonpatchy colloids as the order parameter. Combining genetic algorithms with Monte Carlo simulations, we optimized the model parameters and quantitatively reproduced the experimentally observed sequence of colloidal structures. The results offer new insight into the anisotropy induced by the many-body effects. At the same time, they allow for a very efficient description of the system by means of a pairwise-additive Hamiltonian, whereupon the original, one-component system features a two-component mixture of isotropic and patchy colloids.
Lu, Qing; Straub, John E
2016-03-10
The solid-to-liquid phase transition in water nanofilms confined between plates, with varying separations and water-plate interactions ranging from strongly hydrophobic to strongly hydrophilic, was simulated using a coarse-grained monatomic water model (mW) and the generalized replica exchange method (gREM). Extensive gREM simulations combined with the statistical temperature weighted histogram analysis method (ST-WHAM) provide a detailed description of the thermodynamic properties intrinsic to the phase transition, including the transition temperature, isobaric heat capacity, phase change enthalpy, entropy, and their dependence on the interplate distance and the plate-water interaction. The ice structure of water nanofilms was characterized at various conditions using the transverse density profile and the distribution of angles formed by hydrogen-bonded neighboring molecules. Flat bilayer ice was observed to be the dominant solid phase at close interplate distance, while puckered bilayer ice, similar to a slab of ice Ih, is the predominant structure at larger interplates. Stable puckered bilayer ice, previously observed to have a low melting point, is observed to have enhanced stability with high melting temperature when confined between hydrophilic plates. These results demonstrate the strong dependence of phase stability and coexistence in nanoconfined systems on the geometry and physical properties of the confining environment. PMID:26906259
Lu, Qing; Straub, John E
2016-03-10
The solid-to-liquid phase transition in water nanofilms confined between plates, with varying separations and water-plate interactions ranging from strongly hydrophobic to strongly hydrophilic, was simulated using a coarse-grained monatomic water model (mW) and the generalized replica exchange method (gREM). Extensive gREM simulations combined with the statistical temperature weighted histogram analysis method (ST-WHAM) provide a detailed description of the thermodynamic properties intrinsic to the phase transition, including the transition temperature, isobaric heat capacity, phase change enthalpy, entropy, and their dependence on the interplate distance and the plate-water interaction. The ice structure of water nanofilms was characterized at various conditions using the transverse density profile and the distribution of angles formed by hydrogen-bonded neighboring molecules. Flat bilayer ice was observed to be the dominant solid phase at close interplate distance, while puckered bilayer ice, similar to a slab of ice Ih, is the predominant structure at larger interplates. Stable puckered bilayer ice, previously observed to have a low melting point, is observed to have enhanced stability with high melting temperature when confined between hydrophilic plates. These results demonstrate the strong dependence of phase stability and coexistence in nanoconfined systems on the geometry and physical properties of the confining environment.
A pressure-transferable coarse-grained potential for modeling the shock Hugoniot of polyethylene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agrawal, Vipin; Peralta, Pedro; Li, Yiyang; Oswald, Jay
2016-09-01
We investigate the thermomechanical response of semi-crystalline polyethylene under shock compression by performing molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using a new coarse-graining scheme inspired by the embedded atom method. The coarse-graining scheme combines the iterative Boltzmann inversion method and least squares optimization to parameterize interactions between coarse-grained sites, including a many-body potential energy designed to improve the representability of the model across a wide range of thermodynamic states. We demonstrate that a coarse-grained model of polyethylene, calibrated to match target structural and thermodynamic data generated from isothermal MD simulations at different pressures, can also accurately predict the shock Hugoniot response. Analysis of the rise in temperature along the shock Hugoniot and comparison with analytical predictions from the Mie-Grüneisen equation of state are performed to thoroughly explore the thermodynamic consistency of the model. As the coarse-graining model affords nearly two orders of magnitude reduction in simulation time compared to all-atom MD simulations, the proposed model can help identify how nanoscale structure in semi-crystalline polymers, such as polyethylene, influences mechanical behavior under extreme loading.
Munafò, A; Panesi, M; Magin, T E
2014-02-01
A Boltzmann rovibrational collisional coarse-grained model is proposed to reduce a detailed kinetic mechanism database developed at NASA Ames Research Center for internal energy transfer and dissociation in N(2)-N interactions. The coarse-grained model is constructed by lumping the rovibrational energy levels of the N(2) molecule into energy bins. The population of the levels within each bin is assumed to follow a Boltzmann distribution at the local translational temperature. Excitation and dissociation rate coefficients for the energy bins are obtained by averaging the elementary rate coefficients. The energy bins are treated as separate species, thus allowing for non-Boltzmann distributions of their populations. The proposed coarse-grained model is applied to the study of nonequilibrium flows behind normal shock waves and within converging-diverging nozzles. In both cases, the flow is assumed inviscid and steady. Computational results are compared with those obtained by direct solution of the master equation for the rovibrational collisional model and a more conventional multitemperature model. It is found that the proposed coarse-grained model is able to accurately resolve the nonequilibrium dynamics of internal energy excitation and dissociation-recombination processes with only 20 energy bins. Furthermore, the proposed coarse-grained model provides a superior description of the nonequilibrium phenomena occurring in shock heated and nozzle flows when compared with the conventional multitemperature models.
A pressure-transferable coarse-grained potential for modeling the shock Hugoniot of polyethylene.
Agrawal, Vipin; Peralta, Pedro; Li, Yiyang; Oswald, Jay
2016-09-14
We investigate the thermomechanical response of semi-crystalline polyethylene under shock compression by performing molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using a new coarse-graining scheme inspired by the embedded atom method. The coarse-graining scheme combines the iterative Boltzmann inversion method and least squares optimization to parameterize interactions between coarse-grained sites, including a many-body potential energy designed to improve the representability of the model across a wide range of thermodynamic states. We demonstrate that a coarse-grained model of polyethylene, calibrated to match target structural and thermodynamic data generated from isothermal MD simulations at different pressures, can also accurately predict the shock Hugoniot response. Analysis of the rise in temperature along the shock Hugoniot and comparison with analytical predictions from the Mie-Grüneisen equation of state are performed to thoroughly explore the thermodynamic consistency of the model. As the coarse-graining model affords nearly two orders of magnitude reduction in simulation time compared to all-atom MD simulations, the proposed model can help identify how nanoscale structure in semi-crystalline polymers, such as polyethylene, influences mechanical behavior under extreme loading. PMID:27634275
Multiresolution Modeling of Polymer Solutions: Wavelet-Based Coarse-Graining and Reverse-Mapping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ismail, Ahmed; Adorf, Carl Simon; Agarwal, Animesh; Iacovella, Christopher R.
2014-03-01
Unlike multiscale methods, which encompass multiple simulation techniques, multiresolution models uses one modeling technique at different length and time scales. We present a combined coarse-graining and reverse-mapping framework for modeling of semidilute polymer solutions, based on the wavelet-accelerated Monte Carlo (WAMC) method, which forms a hierarchy of resolutions to model polymers at length scales that cannot be reached via atomistic or even ``standard'' coarse-grained simulations. A universal scaling function is obtained so that potentials do not need to be recomputed as the scale of the system is changed. We show that coarse-grained polymer solutions can reproduce results obtained from the simulations of the more detailed atomistic system to a reasonable degree of accuracy. Reverse mapping proceeds similarly: using probability distributions obtained from coarse-graining the bond lengths, angles, torsions, and the non-bonded potentials, we can reconstruct a more detailed polymer consistent with both geometric constraints and energetic considerations. Using a ``convergence factor'' within a Monte Carlo-based energy optimization scheme, we can successfully reconstruct entire atomistic configurations from coarse-grained descriptions.
Coarse-grained event tree analysis for quantifying Hodgkin-Huxley neuronal network dynamics.
Sun, Yi; Rangan, Aaditya V; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David
2012-02-01
We present an event tree analysis of studying the dynamics of the Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) neuronal networks. Our study relies on a coarse-grained projection to event trees and to the event chains that comprise these trees by using a statistical collection of spatial-temporal sequences of relevant physiological observables (such as sequences of spiking multiple neurons). This projection can retain information about network dynamics that covers multiple features, swiftly and robustly. We demonstrate that for even small differences in inputs, some dynamical regimes of HH networks contain sufficiently higher order statistics as reflected in event chains within the event tree analysis. Therefore, this analysis is effective in discriminating small differences in inputs. Moreover, we use event trees to analyze the results computed from an efficient library-based numerical method proposed in our previous work, where a pre-computed high resolution data library of typical neuronal trajectories during the interval of an action potential (spike) allows us to avoid resolving the spikes in detail. In this way, we can evolve the HH networks using time steps one order of magnitude larger than the typical time steps used for resolving the trajectories without the library, while achieving comparable statistical accuracy in terms of average firing rate and power spectra of voltage traces. Our numerical simulation results show that the library method is efficient in the sense that the results generated by using this numerical method with much larger time steps contain sufficiently high order statistical structure of firing events that are similar to the ones obtained using a regular HH solver. We use our event tree analysis to demonstrate these statistical similarities.
From time series to complex networks: The phase space coarse graining
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Minggang; Tian, Lixin
2016-11-01
In this paper, we present a simple and fast computational method, the phase space coarse graining algorithm that converts a time series into a directed and weighted complex network. The constructed directed and weighted complex network inherits several properties of the series in its structure. Thereby, periodic series convert into regular networks, and random series do so into random networks. Moreover, chaotic series convert into scale-free networks. It is shown that the phase space coarse graining algorithm allows us to distinguish, identify and describe in detail various time series. Finally, we apply the phase space coarse graining algorithm to the practical observations series, international gasoline regular spot price series and identify its dynamic characteristics.
Bottom-up coarse-graining of a simple graphene model: the blob picture.
Kauzlarić, David; Meier, Julia T; Español, Pep; Succi, Sauro; Greiner, Andreas; Korvink, Jan G
2011-02-14
The coarse-graining of a simple all-atom 2D microscopic model of graphene, in terms of "blobs" described by center of mass variables, is presented. The equations of motion of the coarse-grained variables take the form of dissipative particle dynamics (DPD). The coarse-grained conservative forces and the friction of the DPD model are obtained via a bottom-up procedure from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The separation of timescales for blobs of 24 and 96 carbon atoms is sufficiently pronounced for the Markovian assumption, inherent to the DPD model, to provide satisfactory results. In particular, the MD velocity autocorrelation function of the blobs is well reproduced by the DPD model, provided that the effect of friction and noise is taken into account. However, DPD cross-correlations between neighbor blobs show appreciable discrepancies with respect to the MD results. Possible extensions to mend these discrepancies are briefly outlined. PMID:21322660
Resolution-Adapted All-Atomic and Coarse-Grained Model for Biomolecular Simulations.
Shen, Lin; Hu, Hao
2014-06-10
We develop here an adaptive multiresolution method for the simulation of complex heterogeneous systems such as the protein molecules. The target molecular system is described with the atomistic structure while maintaining concurrently a mapping to the coarse-grained models. The theoretical model, or force field, used to describe the interactions between two sites is automatically adjusted in the simulation processes according to the interaction distance/strength. Therefore, all-atomic, coarse-grained, or mixed all-atomic and coarse-grained models would be used together to describe the interactions between a group of atoms and its surroundings. Because the choice of theory is made on the force field level while the sampling is always carried out in the atomic space, the new adaptive method preserves naturally the atomic structure and thermodynamic properties of the entire system throughout the simulation processes. The new method will be very useful in many biomolecular simulations where atomistic details are critically needed.
Coarse Grained Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Transmembrane Protein-Lipid Systems
Spijker, Peter; van Hoof, Bram; Debertrand, Michel; Markvoort, Albert J.; Vaidehi, Nagarajan; Hilbers, Peter A.J.
2010-01-01
Many biological cellular processes occur at the micro- or millisecond time scale. With traditional all-atom molecular modeling techniques it is difficult to investigate the dynamics of long time scales or large systems, such as protein aggregation or activation. Coarse graining (CG) can be used to reduce the number of degrees of freedom in such a system, and reduce the computational complexity. In this paper the first version of a coarse grained model for transmembrane proteins is presented. This model differs from other coarse grained protein models due to the introduction of a novel angle potential as well as a hydrogen bonding potential. These new potentials are used to stabilize the backbone. The model has been validated by investigating the adaptation of the hydrophobic mismatch induced by the insertion of WALP-peptides into a lipid membrane, showing that the first step in the adaptation is an increase in the membrane thickness, followed by a tilting of the peptide. PMID:20640160
An implicit solvent coarse-grained lipid model with correct stress profile
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sodt, Alex J.; Head-Gordon, Teresa
2010-05-01
We develop a coarse-grained parametrization strategy for lipid membranes that we illustrate for a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer. Our coarse-graining approach eliminates the high cost of explicit solvent but maintains more lipid interaction sites. We use a broad attractive tail-tail potential and extract realistic bonded potentials of mean force from all-atom simulations, resulting in a model with a sharp gel to fluid transition, a correct bending modulus, and overall very reasonable dynamics when compared with experiment. We also determine a quantitative stress profile and correct breakdown of contributions from lipid components when compared with detailed all-atom simulation benchmarks, which has been difficult to achieve for implicit membrane models. Such a coarse-grained lipid model will be necessary for efficiently simulating complex constructs of the membrane, such as protein assembly and lipid raft formation, within these nonaqueous chemical environments.
A unified data representation theory for network visualization, ordering and coarse-graining
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovács, István A.; Mizsei, Réka; Csermely, Péter
2015-09-01
Representation of large data sets became a key question of many scientific disciplines in the last decade. Several approaches for network visualization, data ordering and coarse-graining accomplished this goal. However, there was no underlying theoretical framework linking these problems. Here we show an elegant, information theoretic data representation approach as a unified solution of network visualization, data ordering and coarse-graining. The optimal representation is the hardest to distinguish from the original data matrix, measured by the relative entropy. The representation of network nodes as probability distributions provides an efficient visualization method and, in one dimension, an ordering of network nodes and edges. Coarse-grained representations of the input network enable both efficient data compression and hierarchical visualization to achieve high quality representations of larger data sets. Our unified data representation theory will help the analysis of extensive data sets, by revealing the large-scale structure of complex networks in a comprehensible form.
Coarse-grained representation of protein flexibility. Foundations, successes, and shortcomings.
Orozco, Modesto; Orellana, Laura; Hospital, Adam; Naganathan, Athi N; Emperador, Agustí; Carrillo, Oliver; Gelpí, J L
2011-01-01
Flexibility is the key magnitude to understand the variety of functions of proteins. Unfortunately, its experimental study is quite difficult, and in fact, most experimental procedures are designed to reduce flexibility and allow a better definition of the structure. Theoretical approaches have become then the alternative but face serious timescale problems, since many biologically relevant deformation movements happen in a timescale that is far beyond the possibility of current atomistic models. In this complex scenario, coarse-grained simulation methods have emerged as a powerful and inexpensive alternative. Along this chapter, we will review these coarse-grained methods, and explain their physical foundations and their range of applicability. PMID:21920324
Preface: Special Topic on Coarse Graining of Macromolecules, Biopolymers, and Membranes.
Holm, Christian; Gompper, Gerhard; Dill, Ken A
2015-12-28
This special issue highlights new developments in theory and coarse-graining in biological and synthetic macromolecules and membranes. Such approaches give unique insights into the principles and design of the structures, dynamics, and assembly processes of these complex fluids and soft materials, where the length and time scales are often prohibitively long for fully atomistic modeling. PMID:26723585
Toward Quantitative Coarse-Grained Models of Lipids with Fluids Density Functional Theory.
Frink, Laura J Douglas; Frischknecht, Amalie L; Heroux, Michael A; Parks, Michael L; Salinger, Andrew G
2012-04-10
We describe methods to determine optimal coarse-grained models of lipid bilayers for use in fluids density functional theory (fluids-DFT) calculations. Both coarse-grained lipid architecture and optimal parametrizations of the models based on experimental measures are discussed in the context of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid bilayers in water. The calculations are based on a combination of the modified-iSAFT theory for bonded systems and an accurate fundamental measures theory (FMT) for hard sphere reference fluids. We furthermore discuss a novel approach for pressure control in the fluids-DFT calculations that facilitates both partitioning studies and zero tension control for the bilayer studies. A detailed discussion of the numerical implementations for both solvers and pressure control capabilities are provided. We show that it is possible to develop a coarse-grained lipid bilayer model that is consistent with experimental properties (thickness and area per lipid) of DPPC provided that the coarse-graining is not too extreme. As a final test of the model, we find that the predicted area compressibility moduli and lateral pressure profiles of the optimized models are in reasonable agreement with prior results.
Coarse-grained molecular dynamics: Nonlinear finite elements and finite temperature
Rudd, R E; Broughton, J Q
2005-05-30
Coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) is a technique developed as a concurrent multiscale model that couples conventional molecular dynamics (MD) to a more coarse-grained description of the periphery. The coarse-grained regions are modeled on a mesh in a formulation that generalizes conventional finite element modeling (FEM) of continuum elasticity. CGMD is derived solely from the MD model, however, and has no continuum parameters. As a result, it provides a coupling that is smooth and provides control of errors that arise at the coupling between the atomistic and coarse-grained regions. In this article, we elaborate on the formulation of CGMD, describing in detail how CGMD is applied to anharmonic solids and finite temperature simulations. As tests of CGMD, we present in detail the calculation of the phonon spectra for solid argon and tantalum in 3D, demonstrating how CGMD provides a better description of the elastic waves than that provided by FEM. We also present elastic wave scattering calculations that show the elastic wave scattering is more benign in CGMD than FEM. We also discuss the dependence of scattering on the properties of the mesh. We introduce a rigid approximation to CGMD that eliminates internal relaxation, similar to the Quasicontinuum technique, and compare it to the full CGMD.
Insights into DNA-mediated interparticle interactions from a coarse-grained model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Yajun; Mittal, Jeetain
2014-11-01
DNA-functionalized particles have great potential for the design of complex self-assembled materials. The major hurdle in realizing crystal structures from DNA-functionalized particles is expected to be kinetic barriers that trap the system in metastable amorphous states. Therefore, it is vital to explore the molecular details of particle assembly processes in order to understand the underlying mechanisms. Molecular simulations based on coarse-grained models can provide a convenient route to explore these details. Most of the currently available coarse-grained models of DNA-functionalized particles ignore key chemical and structural details of DNA behavior. These models therefore are limited in scope for studying experimental phenomena. In this paper, we present a new coarse-grained model of DNA-functionalized particles which incorporates some of the desired features of DNA behavior. The coarse-grained DNA model used here provides explicit DNA representation (at the nucleotide level) and complementary interactions between Watson-Crick base pairs, which lead to the formation of single-stranded hairpin and double-stranded DNA. Aggregation between multiple complementary strands is also prevented in our model. We study interactions between two DNA-functionalized particles as a function of DNA grafting density, lengths of the hybridizing and non-hybridizing parts of DNA, and temperature. The calculated free energies as a function of pair distance between particles qualitatively resemble experimental measurements of DNA-mediated pair interactions.
Free-energy coarse-grained potential for C{sub 60}
Edmunds, D. M. Tangney, P.; Vvedensky, D. D.; Foulkes, W. M. C.
2015-10-28
We propose a new deformable free energy method for generating a free-energy coarse-graining potential for C{sub 60}. Potentials generated from this approach exhibit a strong temperature dependence and produce excellent agreement with benchmark fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. Parameter sets for analytical fits to this potential are provided at four different temperatures.
Path-space variational inference for non-equilibrium coarse-grained systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harmandaris, Vagelis; Kalligiannaki, Evangelia; Katsoulakis, Markos; Plecháč, Petr
2016-06-01
In this paper we discuss information-theoretic tools for obtaining optimized coarse-grained molecular models for both equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular simulations. The latter are ubiquitous in physicochemical and biological applications, where they are typically associated with coupling mechanisms, multi-physics and/or boundary conditions. In general the non-equilibrium steady states are not known explicitly as they do not necessarily have a Gibbs structure. The presented approach can compare microscopic behavior of molecular systems to parametric and non-parametric coarse-grained models using the relative entropy between distributions on the path space and setting up a corresponding path-space variational inference problem. The methods can become entirely data-driven when the microscopic dynamics are replaced with corresponding correlated data in the form of time series. Furthermore, we present connections and generalizations of force matching methods in coarse-graining with path-space information methods. We demonstrate the enhanced transferability of information-based parameterizations to different observables, at a specific thermodynamic point, due to information inequalities. We discuss methodological connections between information-based coarse-graining of molecular systems and variational inference methods primarily developed in the machine learning community. However, we note that the work presented here addresses variational inference for correlated time series due to the focus on dynamics. The applicability of the proposed methods is demonstrated on high-dimensional stochastic processes given by overdamped and driven Langevin dynamics of interacting particles.
Coarse-grained cosmological perturbation theory: Stirring up the dust model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uhlemann, Cora; Kopp, Michael
2015-04-01
We study the effect of coarse graining the dynamics of a pressureless self-gravitating fluid (coarse-grained dust) in the context of cosmological perturbation theory, in both the Eulerian and Lagrangian frameworks. We obtain recursion relations for the Eulerian perturbation kernels of the coarse-grained dust model by relating them to those of the standard pressureless fluid model. The effect of the coarse graining is illustrated by means of power and cross spectra for the density and velocity, which are computed up to one-loop order. In particular, the large-scale vorticity power spectrum that arises naturally from a mass-weighted velocity is derived from first principles. We find qualitatively good agreement for the magnitude, shape, and spectral index of the vorticity power spectrum with recent measurements from N -body simulations and results from the effective field theory of large-scale structure. To lay the ground for applications in the context of Lagrangian perturbation theory, we finally describe how the kernels obtained in Eulerian space can be mapped to Lagrangian ones.
Preface: Special Topic on Coarse Graining of Macromolecules, Biopolymers, and Membranes
Holm, Christian; Gompper, Gerhard; Dill, Ken A.
2015-12-28
This special issue highlights new developments in theory and coarse-graining in biological and synthetic macromolecules and membranes. Such approaches give unique insights into the principles and design of the structures, dynamics, and assembly processes of these complex fluids and soft materials, where the length and time scales are often prohibitively long for fully atomistic modeling.
Coarse-grained variables for particle-based models: diffusion maps and animal swarming simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Ping; Safford, Hannah R.; Couzin, Iain D.; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.
2014-12-01
As microscopic (e.g. atomistic, stochastic, agent-based, particle-based) simulations become increasingly prevalent in the modeling of complex systems, so does the need to systematically coarse-grain the information they provide. Before even starting to formulate relevant coarse-grained equations, we need to determine the right macroscopic observables—the right variables in terms of which emergent behavior will be described. This paper illustrates the use of data mining (and, in particular, diffusion maps, a nonlinear manifold learning technique) in coarse-graining the dynamics of a particle-based model of animal swarming. Our computational data-driven coarse-graining approach extracts two coarse (collective) variables from the detailed particle-based simulations, and helps formulate a low-dimensional stochastic differential equation in terms of these two collective variables; this allows the efficient quantification of the interplay of "informed" and "naive" individuals in the collective swarm dynamics. We also present a brief exploration of swarm breakup and use data-mining in an attempt to identify useful predictors for it. In our discussion of the scope and limitations of the approach we focus on the key step of selecting an informative metric, allowing us to usefully compare different particle swarm configurations.
Symmetry-adapted digital modeling III. Coarse-grained icosahedral viruses.
Janner, A
2016-05-01
Considered is the coarse-grained modeling of icosahedral viruses in terms of a three-dimensional lattice (the digital modeling lattice) selected among the projected points in space of a six-dimensional icosahedral lattice. Backbone atomic positions (Cα's for the residues of the capsid and phosphorus atoms P for the genome nucleotides) are then indexed by their nearest lattice point. This leads to a fine-grained lattice point characterization of the full viral chains in the backbone approximation (denoted as digital modeling). Coarse-grained models then follow by a proper selection of the indexed backbone positions, where for each chain one can choose the desired coarseness. This approach is applied to three viruses, the Satellite tobacco mosaic virus, the bacteriophage MS2 and the Pariacoto virus, on the basis of structural data from the Brookhaven Protein Data Bank. In each case the various stages of the procedure are illustrated for a given coarse-grained model and the corresponding indexed positions are listed. Alternative coarse-grained models have been derived and compared. Comments on related results and approaches, found among the very large set of publications in this field, conclude this article. PMID:27126109
Preface: Special Topic on Coarse Graining of Macromolecules, Biopolymers, and Membranes.
Holm, Christian; Gompper, Gerhard; Dill, Ken A
2015-12-28
This special issue highlights new developments in theory and coarse-graining in biological and synthetic macromolecules and membranes. Such approaches give unique insights into the principles and design of the structures, dynamics, and assembly processes of these complex fluids and soft materials, where the length and time scales are often prohibitively long for fully atomistic modeling.
Transferability of coarse-grained force field for nCB liquid crystal systems.
Zhang, Jianguo; Guo, Hongxia
2014-05-01
In this paper, the transferability of the coarse-grained (CG) force field originally developed for the liquid crystal (LC) molecule 5CB ( Zhang et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2012 , 116 , 2075 - 2089 ) was investigated by its homologues 6CB and 8CB molecules. Note that, to construct the 5CB CG force field, we combined the structure-based and thermodynamic quantities-based methods and at the same time attempted to use several fragment molecular systems to derive the CG nonbonded interaction parameters. The resultant 5CB CG force field exhibits a good transferability to some extent. For example, not only the experimental densities, the local packing of atom groups, and the antiparallel arrangements of nearest neighboring molecules, but also the unique LC mesophases as well as the nematic-isotropic phase transition temperatures of 6CB and 8CB were reproduced. Meanwhile, the limitations of this 5CB CG force field were also observed, such as the phase transition from nematic to smectic was postponed to the lower temperature and the resulting smectic phase structure is single-layer-like instead of partially interdigitated bilayer-like as observed in underlying atomistic model. Apparently, more attention should be paid when applying a CG force field to the state point which is quite different from which the force field is explicitly parametrized for. The origin of the above limitations can be potentially traced back to the inherent simplifications and some approximations often adopted in the creation process of CG force field, for example, choosing symmetric CG potentials which do not explicitly include electrostatic interactions and are parametrized by reproducing the target properties of the specific nematic 5CB phase at 300 K and 1 atm, as well as using soft nonbonded potential and excluding torsion barriers. Moreover, although by construction this CG force field could inevitably incorporate both thermodynamic and local structural information on the nematic 5CB phase, the
Transferability of coarse-grained force field for nCB liquid crystal systems.
Zhang, Jianguo; Guo, Hongxia
2014-05-01
In this paper, the transferability of the coarse-grained (CG) force field originally developed for the liquid crystal (LC) molecule 5CB ( Zhang et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2012 , 116 , 2075 - 2089 ) was investigated by its homologues 6CB and 8CB molecules. Note that, to construct the 5CB CG force field, we combined the structure-based and thermodynamic quantities-based methods and at the same time attempted to use several fragment molecular systems to derive the CG nonbonded interaction parameters. The resultant 5CB CG force field exhibits a good transferability to some extent. For example, not only the experimental densities, the local packing of atom groups, and the antiparallel arrangements of nearest neighboring molecules, but also the unique LC mesophases as well as the nematic-isotropic phase transition temperatures of 6CB and 8CB were reproduced. Meanwhile, the limitations of this 5CB CG force field were also observed, such as the phase transition from nematic to smectic was postponed to the lower temperature and the resulting smectic phase structure is single-layer-like instead of partially interdigitated bilayer-like as observed in underlying atomistic model. Apparently, more attention should be paid when applying a CG force field to the state point which is quite different from which the force field is explicitly parametrized for. The origin of the above limitations can be potentially traced back to the inherent simplifications and some approximations often adopted in the creation process of CG force field, for example, choosing symmetric CG potentials which do not explicitly include electrostatic interactions and are parametrized by reproducing the target properties of the specific nematic 5CB phase at 300 K and 1 atm, as well as using soft nonbonded potential and excluding torsion barriers. Moreover, although by construction this CG force field could inevitably incorporate both thermodynamic and local structural information on the nematic 5CB phase, the
Perez Sirkin, Yamila A; Factorovich, Matías H; Molinero, Valeria; Scherlis, Damian A
2016-06-14
The vapor pressure of water is a key property in a large class of applications from the design of membranes for fuel cells and separations to the prediction of the mixing state of atmospheric aerosols. Molecular simulations have been used to compute vapor pressures, and a few studies on liquid mixtures and solutions have been reported on the basis of the Gibbs Ensemble Monte Carlo method in combination with atomistic force fields. These simulations are costly, making them impractical for the prediction of the vapor pressure of complex materials. The goal of the present work is twofold: (1) to demonstrate the use of the grand canonical screening approach ( Factorovich , M. H. J. Chem. Phys. 2014 , 140 , 064111 ) to compute the vapor pressure of solutions and to extend the methodology for the treatment of systems without a liquid-vapor interface and (2) to investigate the ability of computationally efficient high-resolution coarse-grained models based on the mW monatomic water potential and ions described exclusively with short-range interactions to reproduce the relative vapor pressure of aqueous solutions. We find that coarse-grained models of LiCl and NaCl solutions faithfully reproduce the experimental relative pressures up to high salt concentrations, despite the inability of these models to predict cohesive energies of the solutions or the salts. A thermodynamic analysis reveals that the coarse-grained models achieve the experimental activity coefficients of water in solution through a compensation of severely underestimated hydration and vaporization free energies of the salts. Our results suggest that coarse-grained models developed to replicate the hydration structure and the effective ion-ion attraction in solution may lead to this compensation. Moreover, they suggest an avenue for the design of coarse-grained models that accurately reproduce the activity coefficients of solutions.
Perez Sirkin, Yamila A; Factorovich, Matías H; Molinero, Valeria; Scherlis, Damian A
2016-06-14
The vapor pressure of water is a key property in a large class of applications from the design of membranes for fuel cells and separations to the prediction of the mixing state of atmospheric aerosols. Molecular simulations have been used to compute vapor pressures, and a few studies on liquid mixtures and solutions have been reported on the basis of the Gibbs Ensemble Monte Carlo method in combination with atomistic force fields. These simulations are costly, making them impractical for the prediction of the vapor pressure of complex materials. The goal of the present work is twofold: (1) to demonstrate the use of the grand canonical screening approach ( Factorovich , M. H. J. Chem. Phys. 2014 , 140 , 064111 ) to compute the vapor pressure of solutions and to extend the methodology for the treatment of systems without a liquid-vapor interface and (2) to investigate the ability of computationally efficient high-resolution coarse-grained models based on the mW monatomic water potential and ions described exclusively with short-range interactions to reproduce the relative vapor pressure of aqueous solutions. We find that coarse-grained models of LiCl and NaCl solutions faithfully reproduce the experimental relative pressures up to high salt concentrations, despite the inability of these models to predict cohesive energies of the solutions or the salts. A thermodynamic analysis reveals that the coarse-grained models achieve the experimental activity coefficients of water in solution through a compensation of severely underestimated hydration and vaporization free energies of the salts. Our results suggest that coarse-grained models developed to replicate the hydration structure and the effective ion-ion attraction in solution may lead to this compensation. Moreover, they suggest an avenue for the design of coarse-grained models that accurately reproduce the activity coefficients of solutions. PMID:27196963
A test of systematic coarse-graining of molecular dynamics simulations: Transport properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Chia-Chun; Kulkarni, Pandurang M.; Shell, M. Scott; Leal, L. Gary
2013-09-01
To what extent can a "bottom-up" mesoscale fluid model developed through systematic coarse-graining techniques recover the physical properties of a molecular scale system? In a previous paper [C.-C. Fu, P. M. Kulkarni, M. S. Shell, and L. G. Leal, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 164106 (2012)], 10.1063/1.4759463, we addressed this question for thermodynamic properties through the development of coarse-grained (CG) fluid models using modified iterative Boltzmann inversion methods that reproduce correct pair structure and pressure. In the present work we focus on the dynamic behavior. Unlike the radial distribution function and the pressure, dynamical properties such as the self-diffusion coefficient and viscosity in a CG model cannot be matched during coarse-graining by modifying the pair interaction. Instead, removed degrees of freedom require a modification of the equations of motion to simulate their implicit effects on dynamics. A simple but approximate approach is to introduce a friction coefficient, γ, and random forces for the remaining degrees of freedom, in which case γ becomes an additional parameter in the coarse-grained model that can be tuned. We consider the non-Galilean-invariant Langevin and the Galilean-invariant dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) thermostats with CG systems in which we can systematically tune the fraction ϕ of removed degrees of freedom. Between these two choices, only DPD allows both the viscosity and diffusivity to match a reference Lennard-Jones liquid with a single value of γ for each degree of coarse-graining ϕ. This friction constant is robust to the pressure correction imposed on the effective CG potential, increases approximately linearly with ϕ, and also depends on the interaction cutoff length, rcut, of the pair interaction potential. Importantly, we show that the diffusion constant and viscosity are constrained by a simple scaling law that leads to a specific choice of DPD friction coefficient for a given degree of coarse-graining
Heterogeneous lamella structure unites ultrafine-grain strength with coarse-grain ductility.
Wu, Xiaolei; Yang, Muxin; Yuan, Fuping; Wu, Guilin; Wei, Yujie; Huang, Xiaoxu; Zhu, Yuntian
2015-11-24
Grain refinement can make conventional metals several times stronger, but this comes at dramatic loss of ductility. Here we report a heterogeneous lamella structure in Ti produced by asymmetric rolling and partial recrystallization that can produce an unprecedented property combination: as strong as ultrafine-grained metal and at the same time as ductile as conventional coarse-grained metal. It also has higher strain hardening than coarse-grained Ti, which was hitherto believed impossible. The heterogeneous lamella structure is characterized with soft micrograined lamellae embedded in hard ultrafine-grained lamella matrix. The unusual high strength is obtained with the assistance of high back stress developed from heterogeneous yielding, whereas the high ductility is attributed to back-stress hardening and dislocation hardening. The process discovered here is amenable to large-scale industrial production at low cost, and might be applicable to other metal systems. PMID:26554017
Folding of small knotted proteins: Insights from a mean field coarse-grained model
Najafi, Saeed; Potestio, Raffaello
2015-12-28
A small but relevant number of proteins whose native structure is known features nontrivial topology, i.e., they are knotted. Understanding the process of folding from a swollen unknotted state to the biologically relevant native conformation is, for these proteins, particularly difficult, due to their rate-limiting topological entanglement. To shed some light into this conundrum, we introduced a structure-based coarse-grained model of the protein, where the information about the folded conformation is encoded in bonded angular interactions only, which do not favor the formation of native contacts. A stochastic search scheme in parameter space is employed to identify a set of interactions that maximizes the probability to attain the knotted state. The optimal knotting pathways of the two smallest knotted proteins, obtained through this approach, are consistent with the results derived by means of coarse-grained as well as full atomistic simulations.
Leonard, T.; Lander, B.; Seifert, U.; Speck, T.
2013-11-28
We discuss the stochastic thermodynamics of systems that are described by a time-dependent density field, for example, simple liquids and colloidal suspensions. For a time-dependent change of external parameters, we show that the Jarzynski relation connecting work with the change of free energy holds if the time evolution of the density follows the Kawasaki-Dean equation. Specifically, we study the work distributions for the compression and expansion of a two-dimensional colloidal model suspension implementing a practical coarse-graining scheme of the microscopic particle positions. We demonstrate that even if coarse-grained dynamics and density functional do not match, the fluctuation relations for the work still hold albeit for a different, apparent, change of free energy.
Crowley, M. F.; Matthews, J.; Beckham, G.; Bomble, Y.; Hynninen, A. P.; Ciesielski, P. F.
2012-01-01
Cellulose is still a mysterious polymer in many ways: structure of microfibrils, thermodynamics of synthesis and degradation, and interactions with other plant cell wall components. Our aim is to uncover the details and mechanisms of cellulose digestion and synthesis. We report the details of the structure of cellulose 1-beta under several temperature conditions and report here the results of these studies and connections to experimental measurements and the measurement in-silico the free energy of decrystallization of several morphologies of cellulose. In spatially large modeling, we show the most recent work of mapping atomistic and coarse-grain models into tomographic images of cellulose and extreme coarse-grain modeling of interactions of large cellulase complexes with microfibrils. We discuss the difficulties of modeling cellulose and suggest future work both experimental and theoretical to increase our understanding of cellulose and our ability to use it as a raw material for fuels and materials.
Inferring a weighted elastic network from partial unfolding with coarse-grained simulations.
de Mendonça, Matheus R; Rizzi, Leandro G; Contessoto, Vinicius; Leite, Vitor B P; Alves, Nelson A
2014-01-01
A number of studies have demonstrated that simple elastic network models can reproduce experimental B-factors, providing insights into the structure-function properties of proteins. Here, we report a study on how to improve an elastic network model and explore its performance by predicting the experimental B-factors. Elastic network models are built on the experimental Cα coordinates, and they only take the pairs of Cα atoms within a given cutoff distance rc into account. These models describe the interactions by elastic springs with the same force constant. We have developed a method based on numerical simulations with a simple coarse-grained force field, to attribute weights to these spring constants. This method considers the time that two Cα atoms remain connected in the network during partial unfolding, establishing a means of measuring the strength of each link. We examined two different coarse-grained force fields and explored the computation of these weights by unfolding the native structures.
Systematic coarse-grained modeling of complexation between small interfering RNA and polycations
Wei, Zonghui; Luijten, Erik
2015-12-28
All-atom molecular dynamics simulations can provide insight into the properties of polymeric gene-delivery carriers by elucidating their interactions and detailed binding patterns with nucleic acids. However, to explore nanoparticle formation through complexation of these polymers and nucleic acids and study their behavior at experimentally relevant time and length scales, a reliable coarse-grained model is needed. Here, we systematically develop such a model for the complexation of small interfering RNA (siRNA) and grafted polyethyleneimine copolymers, a promising candidate for siRNA delivery. We compare the predictions of this model with all-atom simulations and demonstrate that it is capable of reproducing detailed binding patterns, charge characteristics, and water release kinetics. Since the coarse-grained model accelerates the simulations by one to two orders of magnitude, it will make it possible to quantitatively investigate nanoparticle formation involving multiple siRNA molecules and cationic copolymers.
Short-range, overpressure-driven methane migration in coarse-grained gas hydrate reservoirs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nole, Michael; Daigle, Hugh; Cook, Ann E.; Malinverno, Alberto
2016-09-01
Two methane migration mechanisms have been proposed for coarse-grained gas hydrate reservoirs: short-range diffusive gas migration and long-range advective fluid transport from depth. Herein, we demonstrate that short-range fluid flow due to overpressure in marine sediments is a significant additional methane transport mechanism that allows hydrate to precipitate in large quantities in thick, coarse-grained hydrate reservoirs. Two-dimensional simulations demonstrate that this migration mechanism, short-range advective transport, can supply significant amounts of dissolved gas and is unencumbered by limitations of the other two end-member mechanisms. Short-range advective migration can increase the amount of methane delivered to sands as compared to the slow process of diffusion, yet it is not necessarily limited by effective porosity reduction as is typical of updip advection from a deep source.
Heterogeneous lamella structure unites ultrafine-grain strength with coarse-grain ductility
Wu, Xiaolei; Yang, Muxin; Yuan, Fuping; Wu, Guilin; Wei, Yujie; Huang, Xiaoxu; Zhu, Yuntian
2015-01-01
Grain refinement can make conventional metals several times stronger, but this comes at dramatic loss of ductility. Here we report a heterogeneous lamella structure in Ti produced by asymmetric rolling and partial recrystallization that can produce an unprecedented property combination: as strong as ultrafine-grained metal and at the same time as ductile as conventional coarse-grained metal. It also has higher strain hardening than coarse-grained Ti, which was hitherto believed impossible. The heterogeneous lamella structure is characterized with soft micrograined lamellae embedded in hard ultrafine-grained lamella matrix. The unusual high strength is obtained with the assistance of high back stress developed from heterogeneous yielding, whereas the high ductility is attributed to back-stress hardening and dislocation hardening. The process discovered here is amenable to large-scale industrial production at low cost, and might be applicable to other metal systems. PMID:26554017
Consistent and transferable coarse-grained model for semidilute polymer solutions in good solvent.
D'Adamo, Giuseppe; Pelissetto, Andrea; Pierleoni, Carlo
2012-07-14
We present a coarse-grained model for linear polymers with a tunable number of effective atoms (blobs) per chain interacting by intra- and intermolecular potentials obtained at zero density. We show how this model is able to accurately reproduce the universal properties of the underlying solution of athermal linear chains at various levels of coarse-graining and in a range of chain densities which can be widened by increasing the spatial resolution of the multiblob representation, i.e., the number of blobs per chain. The present model is unique in its ability to quantitatively predict thermodynamic and large scale structural properties of polymer solutions deep in the semidilute regime with a very limited computational effort, overcoming most of the problems related to the simulations of semidilute polymer solutions in good solvent conditions.
Tensor network algorithm by coarse-graining tensor renormalization on finite periodic lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Hui-Hai; Xie, Zhi-Yuan; Xiang, Tao; Imada, Masatoshi
2016-03-01
We develop coarse-graining tensor renormalization group algorithms to compute physical properties of two-dimensional lattice models on finite periodic lattices. Two different coarse-graining strategies, one based on the tensor renormalization group and the other based on the higher-order tensor renormalization group, are introduced. In order to optimize the tensor network model globally, a sweeping scheme is proposed to account for the renormalization effect from the environment tensors under the framework of second renormalization group. We demonstrate the algorithms by the classical Ising model on the square lattice and the Kitaev model on the honeycomb lattice, and show that the finite-size algorithms achieve substantially more accurate results than the corresponding infinite-size ones.
Short-range, overpressure-driven methane migration in coarse-grained gas hydrate reservoirs
Nole, Michael; Daigle, Hugh; Cook, Ann E.; Malinverno, Alberto
2016-08-31
Two methane migration mechanisms have been proposed for coarse-grained gas hydrate reservoirs: short-range diffusive gas migration and long-range advective fluid transport from depth. Herein we demonstrate that short-range fluid flow due to overpressure in marine sediments is a significant additional methane transport mechanism that allows hydrate to precipitate in large quantities in thick, coarse-grained hydrate reservoirs. Two-dimensional simulations demonstrate that this migration mechanism, short-range advective transport, can supply significant amounts of dissolved gas and is unencumbered by limitations of the other two end-member mechanisms. Here, short-range advective migration can increase the amount of methane delivered to sands as compared tomore » the slow process of diffusion, yet it is not necessarily limited by effective porosity reduction as is typical of updip advection from a deep source.« less
N-Body interactions in soft-sphere coarse-grained models of star polymers.
Pelissetto, Andrea
2012-02-01
We consider the coarse-grained approach in which star polymers are mapped onto atoms located at the centers of the stars interacting by means of ultrasoft potentials. We generalize the Witten-Pincus formula to all n-body potentials: in the good-solvent regime all potentials show an ultrasoft logarithmic divergence when the relative distance of all n stars goes to zero, with coefficients that can be related to the partition-function exponents γ(f). PMID:22463232
A coarse-grained protein-protein potential derived from an all-atom force field.
Basdevant, Nathalie; Borgis, Daniel; Ha-Duong, Tap
2007-08-01
In order to study protein-protein nonbonded interactions, we present the development of a new reduced protein model that represents each amino acid residue with one to three coarse grains, whose physical properties are derived in a consistent bottom-up procedure from the higher-resolution all-atom AMBER force field. The resulting potential energy function is pairwise additive and includes distinct van-der-Waals and Coulombic terms. The van-der-Waals effective interactions are deduced from preliminary molecular dynamics simulations of all possible amino acid homodimers. They are best represented by a soft 1/r6 repulsion and a Gaussian attraction, with parameters obeying Lorentz-Berthelot mixing rules. For the Coulombic interaction, coarse grain charges are optimized for each separate protein in order to best represent the all-atom electrostatic potential outside the protein core. This approach leaves the possibility of using any implicit solvent model to describe solvation effects and electrostatic screening. The coarse-grained force field is tested carefully for a small homodimeric complex, the magainin. It is shown to reproduce satisfactorily the specificity of the all-atom underlying potential, in particular within a PB/SA solvation model. The coarse-grained potential is applied to the redocking prediction of three different protein-protein complexes: the magainin dimer, the barnase-barstar, and the trypsin-BPTI complexes. It is shown to provide per se an efficient and discriminating scoring energy function for the protein-protein docking problem that remains pertinent at both the global and refinement stage. PMID:17616119
A coarse-grained protein-protein potential derived from an all-atom force field.
Basdevant, Nathalie; Borgis, Daniel; Ha-Duong, Tap
2007-08-01
In order to study protein-protein nonbonded interactions, we present the development of a new reduced protein model that represents each amino acid residue with one to three coarse grains, whose physical properties are derived in a consistent bottom-up procedure from the higher-resolution all-atom AMBER force field. The resulting potential energy function is pairwise additive and includes distinct van-der-Waals and Coulombic terms. The van-der-Waals effective interactions are deduced from preliminary molecular dynamics simulations of all possible amino acid homodimers. They are best represented by a soft 1/r6 repulsion and a Gaussian attraction, with parameters obeying Lorentz-Berthelot mixing rules. For the Coulombic interaction, coarse grain charges are optimized for each separate protein in order to best represent the all-atom electrostatic potential outside the protein core. This approach leaves the possibility of using any implicit solvent model to describe solvation effects and electrostatic screening. The coarse-grained force field is tested carefully for a small homodimeric complex, the magainin. It is shown to reproduce satisfactorily the specificity of the all-atom underlying potential, in particular within a PB/SA solvation model. The coarse-grained potential is applied to the redocking prediction of three different protein-protein complexes: the magainin dimer, the barnase-barstar, and the trypsin-BPTI complexes. It is shown to provide per se an efficient and discriminating scoring energy function for the protein-protein docking problem that remains pertinent at both the global and refinement stage.
Improved Coarse-Grained Modeling of Cholesterol-Containing Lipid Bilayers
2015-01-01
Cholesterol trafficking, which is an essential function in mammalian cells, is intimately connected to molecular-scale interactions through cholesterol modulation of membrane structure and dynamics and interaction with membrane receptors. Since these effects of cholesterol occur on micro- to millisecond time scales, it is essential to develop accurate coarse-grained simulation models that can reach these time scales. Cholesterol has been shown experimentally to thicken the membrane and increase phospholipid tail order between 0 and 40% cholesterol, above which these effects plateau or slightly decrease. Here, we showed that the published MARTINI coarse-grained force-field for phospholipid (POPC) and cholesterol fails to capture these effects. Using reference atomistic simulations, we systematically modified POPC and cholesterol bonded parameters in MARTINI to improve its performance. We showed that the corrections to pseudobond angles between glycerol and the lipid tails and around the oleoyl double bond particle (the “angle-corrected model”) slightly improves the agreement of MARTINI with experimentally measured thermal, elastic, and dynamic properties of POPC membranes. The angle-corrected model improves prediction of the thickening and ordering effects up to 40% cholesterol but overestimates these effects at higher cholesterol concentration. In accordance with prior work that showed the cholesterol rough face methyl groups are important for limiting cholesterol self-association, we revised the coarse-grained representation of these methyl groups to better match cholesterol-cholesterol radial distribution functions from atomistic simulations. In addition, by using a finer-grained representation of the branched cholesterol tail than MARTINI, we improved predictions of lipid tail order and bilayer thickness across a wide range of concentrations. Finally, transferability testing shows that a model incorporating our revised parameters into DOPC outperforms other
Model reduction for agent-based social simulation: coarse-graining a civil violence model.
Zou, Yu; Fonoberov, Vladimir A; Fonoberova, Maria; Mezic, Igor; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G
2012-06-01
Agent-based modeling (ABM) constitutes a powerful computational tool for the exploration of phenomena involving emergent dynamic behavior in the social sciences. This paper demonstrates a computer-assisted approach that bridges the significant gap between the single-agent microscopic level and the macroscopic (coarse-grained population) level, where fundamental questions must be rationally answered and policies guiding the emergent dynamics devised. Our approach will be illustrated through an agent-based model of civil violence. This spatiotemporally varying ABM incorporates interactions between a heterogeneous population of citizens [active (insurgent), inactive, or jailed] and a population of police officers. Detailed simulations exhibit an equilibrium punctuated by periods of social upheavals. We show how to effectively reduce the agent-based dynamics to a stochastic model with only two coarse-grained degrees of freedom: the number of jailed citizens and the number of active ones. The coarse-grained model captures the ABM dynamics while drastically reducing the computation time (by a factor of approximately 20).
Simulation of Coarse-Grained Protein-Protein Interactions with Graphics Processing Units.
Tunbridge, Ian; Best, Robert B; Gain, James; Kuttel, Michelle M
2010-11-01
We report a hybrid parallel central and graphics processing units (CPU-GPU) implementation of a coarse-grained model for replica exchange Monte Carlo (REMC) simulations of protein assemblies. We describe the design, optimization, validation, and benchmarking of our algorithms, particularly the parallelization strategy, which is specific to the requirements of GPU hardware. Performance evaluation of our hybrid implementation shows scaled speedup as compared to a single-core CPU; reference simulations of small 100 residue proteins have a modest speedup of 4, while large simulations with thousands of residues are up to 1400 times faster. Importantly, the combination of coarse-grained models with highly parallel GPU hardware vastly increases the length- and time-scales accessible for protein simulation, making it possible to simulate much larger systems of interacting proteins than have previously been attempted. As a first step toward the simulation of the assembly of an entire viral capsid, we have demonstrated that the chosen coarse-grained model, together with REMC sampling, is capable of identifying the correctly bound structure, for a pair of fragments from the human hepatitis B virus capsid. Our parallel solution can easily be generalized to other interaction functions and other types of macromolecules and has implications for the parallelization of similar N-body problems that require random access lookups. PMID:26617104
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyubimov, I. Y.; Guenza, M. G.
2013-03-01
The theory to reconstruct the atomistic-level chain diffusion from the accelerated dynamics that is measured in mesoscale simulations of the coarse-grained system, is applied here to the dynamics of cis-1,4-polybutadiene melts where each chain is described as a soft interacting colloidal particle. The rescaling formalism accounts for the corrections in the dynamics due to the change in entropy and the change in friction that are a consequence of the coarse-graining procedure. By including these two corrections the dynamics is rescaled to reproduce the realistic dynamics of the system described at the atomistic level. The rescaled diffusion coefficient obtained from mesoscale simulations of coarse-grained cis-1,4-polybutadiene melts shows good agreement with data from united atom simulations performed by Tsolou et al. [Macromolecules 38, 1478 (2005)], 10.1021/ma0491210. The derived monomer friction coefficient is used as an input to the theory for cooperative dynamics that describes the internal dynamics of a polymer moving in a transient regions of slow cooperative motion in a liquid of macromolecules. Theoretically predicted time correlation functions show good agreement with simulations in the whole range of length and time scales in which data are available.
Multiscale simulation of thin-film lubrication: Free-energy-corrected coarse graining
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Z.-B.; Zeng, X. C.
2014-09-01
The quasicontinuum method was previously extended to the nonzero temperature conditions by implementing a free-energy correction on non-nodal atoms in coarse-grained solid systems to avoid the dynamical constraint, [Diestler, Wu, and Zeng, J. Chem. Phys. 121, 9279 (2004), 10.1063/1.1806811]. In this paper, we combine the extended quasicontinuum method and an atomistic simulation to treat the monolayer film lubrication with elastic (nonrigid) substrates. It is shown that the multiscale method with the coarse-graining local elements in the merging regions between the atomistic and continuous descriptions of the substrates can reasonably predict the shear stress profile, the mean separation curve, and the transverse stress profile in the fully atomistic simulation for the tribological system. Moreover, when the nonlocal elements are placed in the merging regions, the inhomogeneous solid atoms in the near regions covered by the cut-off circles of the nonlocal elements replace the homogeneous ones at the equilibrium configuration for the free-energy correction on the non-nodal atoms. The treatment can cause an unphysical sliding between the near and far regions of the upper substrate. It is shown that if the free-energy correction on the non-nodal atoms in the coarse-grained merging regions is removed, the multiscale method can still well reproduce the shear stress profile, the mean separation curve, and the transverse stress profile obtained from the fully atomistic simulation for the system.
Lyubimov, I Y; Guenza, M G
2013-03-28
The theory to reconstruct the atomistic-level chain diffusion from the accelerated dynamics that is measured in mesoscale simulations of the coarse-grained system, is applied here to the dynamics of cis-1,4-polybutadiene melts where each chain is described as a soft interacting colloidal particle. The rescaling formalism accounts for the corrections in the dynamics due to the change in entropy and the change in friction that are a consequence of the coarse-graining procedure. By including these two corrections the dynamics is rescaled to reproduce the realistic dynamics of the system described at the atomistic level. The rescaled diffusion coefficient obtained from mesoscale simulations of coarse-grained cis-1,4-polybutadiene melts shows good agreement with data from united atom simulations performed by Tsolou et al. [Macromolecules 38, 1478 (2005)]. The derived monomer friction coefficient is used as an input to the theory for cooperative dynamics that describes the internal dynamics of a polymer moving in a transient regions of slow cooperative motion in a liquid of macromolecules. Theoretically predicted time correlation functions show good agreement with simulations in the whole range of length and time scales in which data are available. PMID:23556797
Flatow, Daniel; Leelananda, Sumudu P; Skliros, Aris; Kloczkowski, Andrzej; Jernigan, Robert L
2014-01-01
Computing volumes and surface areas of molecular structures is generally considered to be a solved problem, however, comparisons presented in this review show that different ways of computing surface areas and volumes can yield dramatically different values. Volumes and surface areas are the most basic geometric properties of structures, and estimating these becomes especially important for large scale simulations when individual components are being assembled in protein complexes or drugs being fitted into proteins. Good approximations of volumes and surfaces are derived from Delaunay tessellations, but these values can differ significantly from those from the rolling ball approach of Lee and Richards (3V webserver). The origin of these differences lies in the extended parts and the less well packed parts of the proteins, which are ignored in some approaches. Even though surface areas and volumes from the two approaches differ significantly, their correlations are high. Atomic models have been compared, and the poorly packed regions of proteins are found to be most different between the two approaches. The Delaunay complexes have been explored for both fully atomic and for coarse-grained representations of proteins based on only C(α) atoms. The scaling relationships between the fully atomic models and the coarse-grained model representations of proteins are reported, and the lines fit yield simple relationships for the surface areas and volumes as a function of the number of protein residues and the number of heavy atoms. Further, the atomic and coarse-grained values are strongly correlated and simple relationships are reported.
Quantitative comparison of alternative methods for coarse-graining biological networks.
Bowman, Gregory R; Meng, Luming; Huang, Xuhui
2013-09-28
Markov models and master equations are a powerful means of modeling dynamic processes like protein conformational changes. However, these models are often difficult to understand because of the enormous number of components and connections between them. Therefore, a variety of methods have been developed to facilitate understanding by coarse-graining these complex models. Here, we employ Bayesian model comparison to determine which of these coarse-graining methods provides the models that are most faithful to the original set of states. We find that the Bayesian agglomerative clustering engine and the hierarchical Nyström expansion graph (HNEG) typically provide the best performance. Surprisingly, the original Perron cluster cluster analysis (PCCA) method often provides the next best results, outperforming the newer PCCA+ method and the most probable paths algorithm. We also show that the differences between the models are qualitatively significant, rather than being minor shifts in the boundaries between states. The performance of the methods correlates well with the entropy of the resulting coarse-grainings, suggesting that finding states with more similar populations (i.e., avoiding low population states that may just be noise) gives better results. PMID:24089717
A Generic Force Field for Protein Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics Simulation
Gu, Junfeng; Bai, Fang; Li, Honglin; Wang, Xicheng
2012-01-01
Coarse-grained (CG) force fields have become promising tools for studies of protein behavior, but the balance of speed and accuracy is still a challenge in the research of protein coarse graining methodology. In this work, 20 CG beads have been designed based on the structures of amino acid residues, with which an amino acid can be represented by one or two beads, and a CG solvent model with five water molecules was adopted to ensure the consistence with the protein CG beads. The internal interactions in protein were classified according to the types of the interacting CG beads, and adequate potential functions were chosen and systematically parameterized to fit the energy distributions. The proposed CG force field has been tested on eight proteins, and each protein was simulated for 1000 ns. Even without any extra structure knowledge of the simulated proteins, the Cα root mean square deviations (RMSDs) with respect to their experimental structures are close to those of relatively short time all atom molecular dynamics simulations. However, our coarse grained force field will require further refinement to improve agreement with and persistence of native-like structures. In addition, the root mean square fluctuations (RMSFs) relative to the average structures derived from the simulations show that the conformational fluctuations of the proteins can be sampled. PMID:23203075
A simple and transferable all-atom/coarse-grained hybrid model to study membrane processes.
Genheden, Samuel; Essex, Jonathan W
2015-10-13
We present an efficient all-atom/coarse-grained hybrid model and apply it to membrane processes. This model is an extension of the all-atom/ELBA model applied previously to processes in water. Here, we improve the efficiency of the model by implementing a multiple-time step integrator that allows the atoms and the coarse-grained beads to be propagated at different timesteps. Furthermore, we fine-tune the interaction between the atoms and the coarse-grained beads by computing the potential of mean force of amino acid side chain analogs along the membrane normal and comparing to atomistic simulations. The model was independently validated on the calculation of small-molecule partition coefficients. Finally, we apply the model to membrane peptides. We studied the tilt angle of the Walp23 and Kalp23 helices in two different model membranes and the stability of the glycophorin A dimer. The model is efficient, accurate, and straightforward to use, as it does not require any extra interaction particles, layers of atomistic solvent molecules or tabulated potentials, thus offering a novel, simple approach to study membrane processes. PMID:26574264
Adaptive resolution simulation of polarizable supramolecular coarse-grained water models
Zavadlav, Julija; Praprotnik, Matej; Melo, Manuel N.; Marrink, Siewert J.
2015-06-28
Multiscale simulations methods, such as adaptive resolution scheme, are becoming increasingly popular due to their significant computational advantages with respect to conventional atomistic simulations. For these kind of simulations, it is essential to develop accurate multiscale water models that can be used to solvate biophysical systems of interest. Recently, a 4-to-1 mapping was used to couple the bundled-simple point charge water with the MARTINI model. Here, we extend the supramolecular mapping to coarse-grained models with explicit charges. In particular, the two tested models are the polarizable water and big multiple water models associated with the MARTINI force field. As corresponding coarse-grained representations consist of several interaction sites, we couple orientational degrees of freedom of the atomistic and coarse-grained representations via a harmonic energy penalty term. This additional energy term aligns the dipole moments of both representations. We test this coupling by studying the system under applied static external electric field. We show that our approach leads to the correct reproduction of the relevant structural and dynamical properties.
Quantitative comparison of alternative methods for coarse-graining biological networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bowman, Gregory R.; Meng, Luming; Huang, Xuhui
2013-09-01
Markov models and master equations are a powerful means of modeling dynamic processes like protein conformational changes. However, these models are often difficult to understand because of the enormous number of components and connections between them. Therefore, a variety of methods have been developed to facilitate understanding by coarse-graining these complex models. Here, we employ Bayesian model comparison to determine which of these coarse-graining methods provides the models that are most faithful to the original set of states. We find that the Bayesian agglomerative clustering engine and the hierarchical Nyström expansion graph (HNEG) typically provide the best performance. Surprisingly, the original Perron cluster cluster analysis (PCCA) method often provides the next best results, outperforming the newer PCCA+ method and the most probable paths algorithm. We also show that the differences between the models are qualitatively significant, rather than being minor shifts in the boundaries between states. The performance of the methods correlates well with the entropy of the resulting coarse-grainings, suggesting that finding states with more similar populations (i.e., avoiding low population states that may just be noise) gives better results.
Na, Hyuntae; Jernigan, Robert L.; Song, Guang
2015-01-01
Dynamics can provide deep insights into the functional mechanisms of proteins and protein complexes. For large protein complexes such as GroEL/GroES with more than 8,000 residues, obtaining a fine-grained all-atom description of its normal mode motions can be computationally prohibitive and is often unnecessary. For this reason, coarse-grained models have been used successfully. However, most existing coarse-grained models use extremely simple potentials to represent the interactions within the coarse-grained structures and as a result, the dynamics obtained for the coarse-grained structures may not always be fully realistic. There is a gap between the quality of the dynamics of the coarse-grained structures given by all-atom models and that by coarse-grained models. In this work, we resolve an important question in protein dynamics computations—how can we efficiently construct coarse-grained models whose description of the dynamics of the coarse-grained structures remains as accurate as that given by all-atom models? Our method takes advantage of the sparseness of the Hessian matrix and achieves a high efficiency with a novel iterative matrix projection approach. The result is highly significant since it can provide descriptions of normal mode motions at an all-atom level of accuracy even for the largest biomolecular complexes. The application of our method to GroEL/GroES offers new insights into the mechanism of this biologically important chaperonin, such as that the conformational transitions of this protein complex in its functional cycle are even more strongly connected to the first few lowest frequency modes than with other coarse-grained models. PMID:26473491
Na, Hyuntae; Jernigan, Robert L; Song, Guang
2015-10-01
Dynamics can provide deep insights into the functional mechanisms of proteins and protein complexes. For large protein complexes such as GroEL/GroES with more than 8,000 residues, obtaining a fine-grained all-atom description of its normal mode motions can be computationally prohibitive and is often unnecessary. For this reason, coarse-grained models have been used successfully. However, most existing coarse-grained models use extremely simple potentials to represent the interactions within the coarse-grained structures and as a result, the dynamics obtained for the coarse-grained structures may not always be fully realistic. There is a gap between the quality of the dynamics of the coarse-grained structures given by all-atom models and that by coarse-grained models. In this work, we resolve an important question in protein dynamics computations--how can we efficiently construct coarse-grained models whose description of the dynamics of the coarse-grained structures remains as accurate as that given by all-atom models? Our method takes advantage of the sparseness of the Hessian matrix and achieves a high efficiency with a novel iterative matrix projection approach. The result is highly significant since it can provide descriptions of normal mode motions at an all-atom level of accuracy even for the largest biomolecular complexes. The application of our method to GroEL/GroES offers new insights into the mechanism of this biologically important chaperonin, such as that the conformational transitions of this protein complex in its functional cycle are even more strongly connected to the first few lowest frequency modes than with other coarse-grained models.
Transferability of the coarse-grained potentials for trans-1,4-polybutadiene.
Gao, Peiyuan; Guo, Hongxia
2015-12-21
In this paper, we evaluate the transferability of the coarse-grained (CG) force field (FF) of trans-1,4-polybutadiene which was built via a combined structure-based and thermodynamic quantity-based CG method at 413 K and 1 atm by systematically examining CG simulated structural and thermodynamic properties against the underlying atomistic simulation results at different temperatures. Interestingly, the derived CG force field exhibits good "state-point transferability" to some extent. For example, when applying this CG FF to the nearby state point (e.g., amorphous phase at 500 K), the resulting local conformation statistics, chain size, and local packing properties as well as density values for the CG models closely match the atomistic simulated data. When further applying this CG force field to the crystalline state at 300 K, the structural and thermodynamic properties of the crystalline phase formed for these CG and atomistic MD simulations still match within a certain level of accuracy. Furthermore, the CG torsion potential has a dual effect: for the amorphous state, the presence of an intramolecular energy barrier against rotation improves the capability of CG models to more precisely reproduce the structural properties, while in the crystalline state this CG torsion barrier suppresses the formation of the more fully stretched chain with a higher trans content. As a result, in the crystalline phase the CG model chains without torsion potentials possess a more stretched chain conformation, pack more efficiently, and have a higher crystallinity degree than its counterpart with CG torsion potentials as well as its underlying atomistic model. However, the dual effect of CG torsion potentials does not mean that we have to use different dihedral parameters to describe different state points. Both CG FFs, one with and another without torsion potentials, are able to represent the melt and the crystalline states. Overall, the phase and its structural consistency between
Derivation of free energy expressions for tube models from coarse-grained slip-link models.
Steenbakkers, Rudi J A; Schieber, Jay D
2012-07-21
We present the free energy of a single-chain mean-field model for polymer melt dynamics, which uses a continuous (tube-like) approximation to the discrete entanglements with surrounding chains, but, in contrast to previous tube models, includes fluctuations in the number density of Kuhn steps along the primitive path and in the degree of entanglement. The free energy is obtained from that of the slip-link model with fluctuating entanglement positions [J. D. Schieber and K. Horio, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 074905 (2010)] by taking the continuous limit of (functions of) the discrete Kuhn-step numbers and end-to-end vectors of the strands between entanglements. This coarse-graining from a more-detailed level of description has the advantage that no ad hoc arguments need to be introduced. Moreover, the thermodynamic consistency of the slip-link model [J. D. Schieber, J. Non-Equilib. Thermodyn. 28, 179 (2003)] can be preserved. Fluctuations in the positions of entanglements lead to a harmonic bending term in the free energy of the continuous chain, similar to that derived by Read et al. [Macromolecules 41, 6843 (2008)] starting from a modified GLaMM model [R. S. Graham, A. E. Likhtman, T. C. B. McLeish, and S. T. Milner, J. Rheol. 47, 1171 (2003)]. If these fluctuations are set to zero, the free energy becomes purely Gaussian and corresponds to the continuous limit of the original slip-link model, with affinely moving entanglements [J. D. Schieber, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 5162 (2003)]. The free energy reduces to that of Read et al. under their assumptions of a homogeneous Kuhn-step number density and a constant degree of entanglement. Finally, we show how a transformation of the primitive-path coordinate can be applied to make the degree of entanglement an outcome of the model instead of a variable. In summary, this paper constitutes a first step towards a unified mathematical formulation of tube models. The next step will be to formulate the dynamics of the primitive
Derivation of free energy expressions for tube models from coarse-grained slip-link models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steenbakkers, Rudi J. A.; Schieber, Jay D.
2012-07-01
We present the free energy of a single-chain mean-field model for polymer melt dynamics, which uses a continuous (tube-like) approximation to the discrete entanglements with surrounding chains, but, in contrast to previous tube models, includes fluctuations in the number density of Kuhn steps along the primitive path and in the degree of entanglement. The free energy is obtained from that of the slip-link model with fluctuating entanglement positions [J. D. Schieber and K. Horio, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 074905 (2010)], 10.1063/1.3314727 by taking the continuous limit of (functions of) the discrete Kuhn-step numbers and end-to-end vectors of the strands between entanglements. This coarse-graining from a more-detailed level of description has the advantage that no ad hoc arguments need to be introduced. Moreover, the thermodynamic consistency of the slip-link model [J. D. Schieber, J. Non-Equilib. Thermodyn. 28, 179 (2003)], 10.1515/JNETDY.2003.010 can be preserved. Fluctuations in the positions of entanglements lead to a harmonic bending term in the free energy of the continuous chain, similar to that derived by Read et al. [Macromolecules 41, 6843 (2008)], 10.1021/ma8009855 starting from a modified GLaMM model [R. S. Graham, A. E. Likhtman, T. C. B. McLeish, and S. T. Milner, J. Rheol. 47, 1171 (2003)], 10.1122/1.1595099. If these fluctuations are set to zero, the free energy becomes purely Gaussian and corresponds to the continuous limit of the original slip-link model, with affinely moving entanglements [J. D. Schieber, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 5162 (2003)], 10.1063/1.1553764. The free energy reduces to that of Read et al. under their assumptions of a homogeneous Kuhn-step number density and a constant degree of entanglement. Finally, we show how a transformation of the primitive-path coordinate can be applied to make the degree of entanglement an outcome of the model instead of a variable. In summary, this paper constitutes a first step towards a unified mathematical
Transferability of the coarse-grained potentials for trans-1,4-polybutadiene.
Gao, Peiyuan; Guo, Hongxia
2015-12-21
In this paper, we evaluate the transferability of the coarse-grained (CG) force field (FF) of trans-1,4-polybutadiene which was built via a combined structure-based and thermodynamic quantity-based CG method at 413 K and 1 atm by systematically examining CG simulated structural and thermodynamic properties against the underlying atomistic simulation results at different temperatures. Interestingly, the derived CG force field exhibits good "state-point transferability" to some extent. For example, when applying this CG FF to the nearby state point (e.g., amorphous phase at 500 K), the resulting local conformation statistics, chain size, and local packing properties as well as density values for the CG models closely match the atomistic simulated data. When further applying this CG force field to the crystalline state at 300 K, the structural and thermodynamic properties of the crystalline phase formed for these CG and atomistic MD simulations still match within a certain level of accuracy. Furthermore, the CG torsion potential has a dual effect: for the amorphous state, the presence of an intramolecular energy barrier against rotation improves the capability of CG models to more precisely reproduce the structural properties, while in the crystalline state this CG torsion barrier suppresses the formation of the more fully stretched chain with a higher trans content. As a result, in the crystalline phase the CG model chains without torsion potentials possess a more stretched chain conformation, pack more efficiently, and have a higher crystallinity degree than its counterpart with CG torsion potentials as well as its underlying atomistic model. However, the dual effect of CG torsion potentials does not mean that we have to use different dihedral parameters to describe different state points. Both CG FFs, one with and another without torsion potentials, are able to represent the melt and the crystalline states. Overall, the phase and its structural consistency between
Vögele, Martin; Holm, Christian; Smiatek, Jens
2015-12-28
We present simulations of aqueous polyelectrolyte complexes with new MARTINI models for the charged polymers poly(styrene sulfonate) and poly(diallyldimethylammonium). Our coarse-grained polyelectrolyte models allow us to study large length and long time scales with regard to chemical details and thermodynamic properties. The results are compared to the outcomes of previous atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and verify that electrostatic properties are reproduced by our MARTINI coarse-grained approach with reasonable accuracy. Structural similarity between the atomistic and the coarse-grained results is indicated by a comparison between the pair radial distribution functions and the cumulative number of surrounding particles. Our coarse-grained models are able to quantitatively reproduce previous findings like the correct charge compensation mechanism and a reduced dielectric constant of water. These results can be interpreted as the underlying reason for the stability of polyelectrolyte multilayers and complexes and validate the robustness of the proposed models.
Rubin, A.E.; Wasson, J.T.
1987-07-01
Bulk compositions of 20 chondrules, 13 coarse-grained chondrule rims and two composite samples of matrix material from CV3 Allende were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Three rare nonporphyritic CV chondrules (from Allende, Leoville and Vigarano) were analyzed by broad-beam electron microprobe analysis. Chondrule precursor components deduced from chondrule compositions are characterized by: (1) refractory and semi-refractory lithophiles with low FeO, (2) common siderophiles and chalcophiles, (3) common to slightly volatile lithophiles (Si, Cr, Mn), and modal pyroxene with moderately high FeO/(FeO + MgO), (4) moderately volatile siderophiles and (5) alkalies. These precursor components can be explained by plausible processes occurring in the solar nebula. In general, the compositions of coarse-grained rims are more similar to the mean chondrule composition than to those of the chondrules they enclose. Several chondrules and rims have fractionated rare-earth patterns and may have been affected by metamorphism. The enclosure of some coarse-grained rims by fine-grained matrix-like rims indicates that coarse-grained rims were also formed in the nebula. Two matrix samples are similar in composition to some coarse-grained rims, suggesting that matrix was derived from similar compositional reservoirs of nebular dust. Chondrules with coarse-grained rims were reheated in space following the accretion of dusty coatings.
Multiscale design of coarse-grained elastic network-based potentials for the μ opioid receptor.
Fossépré, Mathieu; Leherte, Laurence; Laaksonen, Aatto; Vercauteren, Daniel P
2016-09-01
Despite progress in computer modeling, most biological processes are still out of reach when using all-atom (AA) models. Coarse-grained (CG) models allow classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to be accelerated. Although simplification of spatial resolution at different levels is often investigated, simplification of the CG potential in itself has been less common. CG potentials are often similar to AA potentials. In this work, we consider the design and reliability of purely mechanical CG models of the μ opioid receptor (μOR), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). In this sense, CG force fields (FF) consist of a set of holonomic constraints guided by an elastic network model (ENM). Even though ENMs are used widely to perform normal mode analysis (NMA), they are not often implemented as a single FF in the context of MD simulations. In this work, various ENM-like potentials were investigated by varying their force constant schemes and connectivity patterns. A method was established to systematically parameterize ENM-like potentials at different spatial resolutions by using AA data. To do so, new descriptors were introduced. The choice of conformation descriptors that also include flexibility information is important for a reliable parameterization of ENMs with different degrees of sensitivity. Hence, ENM-like potentials, with specific parameters, can be sufficient to accurately reproduce AA MD simulations of μOR at highly coarse-grained resolutions. Therefore, the essence of the flexibility properties of μOR can be captured with simple models at different CG spatial resolutions, opening the way to mechanical approaches to understanding GPCR functions. Graphical Abstract All atom structure, residue interaction network and coarse-grained elastic network models of the μ opioid receptor (μOR). PMID:27566318
Multiscale design of coarse-grained elastic network-based potentials for the μ opioid receptor.
Fossépré, Mathieu; Leherte, Laurence; Laaksonen, Aatto; Vercauteren, Daniel P
2016-09-01
Despite progress in computer modeling, most biological processes are still out of reach when using all-atom (AA) models. Coarse-grained (CG) models allow classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to be accelerated. Although simplification of spatial resolution at different levels is often investigated, simplification of the CG potential in itself has been less common. CG potentials are often similar to AA potentials. In this work, we consider the design and reliability of purely mechanical CG models of the μ opioid receptor (μOR), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). In this sense, CG force fields (FF) consist of a set of holonomic constraints guided by an elastic network model (ENM). Even though ENMs are used widely to perform normal mode analysis (NMA), they are not often implemented as a single FF in the context of MD simulations. In this work, various ENM-like potentials were investigated by varying their force constant schemes and connectivity patterns. A method was established to systematically parameterize ENM-like potentials at different spatial resolutions by using AA data. To do so, new descriptors were introduced. The choice of conformation descriptors that also include flexibility information is important for a reliable parameterization of ENMs with different degrees of sensitivity. Hence, ENM-like potentials, with specific parameters, can be sufficient to accurately reproduce AA MD simulations of μOR at highly coarse-grained resolutions. Therefore, the essence of the flexibility properties of μOR can be captured with simple models at different CG spatial resolutions, opening the way to mechanical approaches to understanding GPCR functions. Graphical Abstract All atom structure, residue interaction network and coarse-grained elastic network models of the μ opioid receptor (μOR).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Padding, J. T.; Louis, A. A.
2006-09-01
We describe in detail how to implement a coarse-grained hybrid molecular dynamics and stochastic rotation dynamics simulation technique that captures the combined effects of Brownian and hydrodynamic forces in colloidal suspensions. The importance of carefully tuning the simulation parameters to correctly resolve the multiple time and length scales of this problem is emphasized. We systematically analyze how our coarse-graining scheme resolves dimensionless hydrodynamic numbers such as the Reynolds number Re, which indicates the importance of inertial effects, the Schmidt number Sc, which indicates whether momentum transport is liquidlike or gaslike, the Mach number, which measures compressibility effects, the Knudsen number, which describes the importance of noncontinuum molecular effects, and the Peclet number, which describes the relative effects of convective and diffusive transport. With these dimensionless numbers in the correct regime the many Brownian and hydrodynamic time scales can be telescoped together to maximize computational efficiency while still correctly resolving the physically relevant processes. We also show how to control a number of numerical artifacts, such as finite-size effects and solvent-induced attractive depletion interactions. When all these considerations are properly taken into account, the measured colloidal velocity autocorrelation functions and related self-diffusion and friction coefficients compare quantitatively with theoretical calculations. By contrast, these calculations demonstrate that, notwithstanding its seductive simplicity, the basic Langevin equation does a remarkably poor job of capturing the decay rate of the velocity autocorrelation function in the colloidal regime, strongly underestimating it at short times and strongly overestimating it at long times. Finally, we discuss in detail how to map the parameters of our method onto physical systems and from this extract more general lessons—keeping in mind that there
Padding, J T; Louis, A A
2006-09-01
We describe in detail how to implement a coarse-grained hybrid molecular dynamics and stochastic rotation dynamics simulation technique that captures the combined effects of Brownian and hydrodynamic forces in colloidal suspensions. The importance of carefully tuning the simulation parameters to correctly resolve the multiple time and length scales of this problem is emphasized. We systematically analyze how our coarse-graining scheme resolves dimensionless hydrodynamic numbers such as the Reynolds number Re, which indicates the importance of inertial effects, the Schmidt number Sc, which indicates whether momentum transport is liquidlike or gaslike, the Mach number, which measures compressibility effects, the Knudsen number, which describes the importance of noncontinuum molecular effects, and the Peclet number, which describes the relative effects of convective and diffusive transport. With these dimensionless numbers in the correct regime the many Brownian and hydrodynamic time scales can be telescoped together to maximize computational efficiency while still correctly resolving the physically relevant processes. We also show how to control a number of numerical artifacts, such as finite-size effects and solvent-induced attractive depletion interactions. When all these considerations are properly taken into account, the measured colloidal velocity autocorrelation functions and related self-diffusion and friction coefficients compare quantitatively with theoretical calculations. By contrast, these calculations demonstrate that, notwithstanding its seductive simplicity, the basic Langevin equation does a remarkably poor job of capturing the decay rate of the velocity autocorrelation function in the colloidal regime, strongly underestimating it at short times and strongly overestimating it at long times. Finally, we discuss in detail how to map the parameters of our method onto physical systems and from this extract more general lessons-keeping in mind that there
Markov state modeling and dynamical coarse-graining via discrete relaxation path sampling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fačkovec, B.; Vanden-Eijnden, E.; Wales, D. J.
2015-07-01
A method is derived to coarse-grain the dynamics of complex molecular systems to a Markov jump process (MJP) describing how the system jumps between cells that fully partition its state space. The main inputs are relaxation times for each pair of cells, which are shown to be robust with respect to positioning of the cell boundaries. These relaxation times can be calculated via molecular dynamics simulations performed in each cell separately and are used in an efficient estimator for the rate matrix of the MJP. The method is illustrated through applications to Sinai billiards and a cluster of Lennard-Jones discs.
Davtyan, Aram; Dama, James F.; Voth, Gregory A.; Andersen, Hans C.
2015-04-21
Coarse-grained (CG) models of molecular systems, with fewer mechanical degrees of freedom than an all-atom model, are used extensively in chemical physics. It is generally accepted that a coarse-grained model that accurately describes equilibrium structural properties (as a result of having a well constructed CG potential energy function) does not necessarily exhibit appropriate dynamical behavior when simulated using conservative Hamiltonian dynamics for the CG degrees of freedom on the CG potential energy surface. Attempts to develop accurate CG dynamic models usually focus on replacing Hamiltonian motion by stochastic but Markovian dynamics on that surface, such as Langevin or Brownian dynamics. However, depending on the nature of the system and the extent of the coarse-graining, a Markovian dynamics for the CG degrees of freedom may not be appropriate. In this paper, we consider the problem of constructing dynamic CG models within the context of the Multi-Scale Coarse-graining (MS-CG) method of Voth and coworkers. We propose a method of converting a MS-CG model into a dynamic CG model by adding degrees of freedom to it in the form of a small number of fictitious particles that interact with the CG degrees of freedom in simple ways and that are subject to Langevin forces. The dynamic models are members of a class of nonlinear systems interacting with special heat baths that were studied by Zwanzig [J. Stat. Phys. 9, 215 (1973)]. The properties of the fictitious particles can be inferred from analysis of the dynamics of all-atom simulations of the system of interest. This is analogous to the fact that the MS-CG method generates the CG potential from analysis of equilibrium structures observed in all-atom simulation data. The dynamic models generate a non-Markovian dynamics for the CG degrees of freedom, but they can be easily simulated using standard molecular dynamics programs. We present tests of this method on a series of simple examples that demonstrate that
Markov state modeling and dynamical coarse-graining via discrete relaxation path sampling.
Fačkovec, B; Vanden-Eijnden, E; Wales, D J
2015-07-28
A method is derived to coarse-grain the dynamics of complex molecular systems to a Markov jump process (MJP) describing how the system jumps between cells that fully partition its state space. The main inputs are relaxation times for each pair of cells, which are shown to be robust with respect to positioning of the cell boundaries. These relaxation times can be calculated via molecular dynamics simulations performed in each cell separately and are used in an efficient estimator for the rate matrix of the MJP. The method is illustrated through applications to Sinai billiards and a cluster of Lennard-Jones discs. PMID:26233119
RedMDStream: Parameterization and Simulation Toolbox for Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics Models
Leonarski, Filip; Trylska, Joanna
2015-01-01
Coarse-grained (CG) models in molecular dynamics (MD) are powerful tools to simulate the dynamics of large biomolecular systems on micro- to millisecond timescales. However, the CG model, potential energy terms, and parameters are typically not transferable between different molecules and problems. So parameterizing CG force fields, which is both tedious and time-consuming, is often necessary. We present RedMDStream, a software for developing, testing, and simulating biomolecules with CG MD models. Development includes an automatic procedure for the optimization of potential energy parameters based on metaheuristic methods. As an example we describe the parameterization of a simple CG MD model of an RNA hairpin. PMID:25902423
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Hung; Van, Thanh Dac; Le, Ly
2015-10-01
The novel hyperactive antifreeze protein (AFP) of Antarctic sea ice bacterium Colwellia sp. provides a target for studying the protection of psychrophilic microgoranisms against freezing environment. Interestingly, the Colwellia sp. hyperactive antifreeze protein (ColAFP) was crystallized without the structural dynamic characteristics. Here, the result indicated, through coarse grained simulation of ColAFP under various subfreezing temperature, that ColAFP remains active at temperature of equal and greater than 275 K (∼2 °C). Extensive simulation analyses also revealed the adaptive mechanism of ColAFP in subfreezing environment. Our result provides a structural dynamic understanding of the ColAFP.
Morphological study of near threshold fatigue crack growth in a coarse grain aluminum alloy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maurer, Gerhard; Liu, H. W.
1984-01-01
Fatigue crack propagation in the near-threshold region has been studied in coarse grain Al 7029 alloy. Over eighty percent of the crack surfaces are planar areas parallel to either 100-oriented or 111-oriented planes. The 100-plane crack surfaces show 'pine tree' morphological features formed by slip on two sets of intersecting planes. The 111-plane crack surfaces were planar and shiny. They were formed primarily by slip on a single dominant 111-oriented slip plane with sparse and very light secondary slip markings. Crack growth rates were measured and correlated with Delta-K.
Entanglement of a coarse grained quantum field in the expanding universe
Nambu, Yasusada; Ohsumi, Yuji
2009-12-15
We investigate the entanglement of a quantum field in the expanding universe. By introducing a bipartite system using a coarse-grained scalar field, we apply the separability criterion based on the partial transpose operation and numerically calculate the bipartite entanglement between separate spatial regions. We find that the initial entangled state becomes separable or disentangled after the spatial separation of two points exceed the Hubble horizon. This provides the necessary conditions for the appearance of classicality of the quantum fluctuation. We also investigate the condition of classicality that the quantum field can be treated as the classical stochastic variables.
Coarse-grained particle model for pedestrian flow using diffusion maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marschler, Christian; Starke, Jens; Liu, Ping; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.
2014-01-01
Interacting particle systems constitute the dynamic model of choice in a variety of application areas. A prominent example is pedestrian dynamics, where good design of escape routes for large buildings and public areas can improve evacuation in emergency situations, avoiding exit blocking and the ensuing panic. Here we employ diffusion maps to study the coarse-grained dynamics of two pedestrian crowds trying to pass through a door from opposite sides. These macroscopic variables and the associated smooth embeddings lead to a better description and a clearer understanding of the nature of the transition to oscillatory dynamics. We also compare the results to those obtained through intuitively chosen macroscopic variables.
A coarse-graining approach for the proton complex in protonated aluminosilicates.
Calero, S; Lobato, M D; García-Pérez, E; Mejías, J A; Lago, S; Vlugt, T J H; Maesen, T L M; Smit, B; Dubbeldam, D
2006-03-30
We have developed a computational framework for the adsorption of linear alkanes in protonated aluminosilicates. These zeolites contain trace amounts of water that form hydrated proton complexes. The presence of hydrated protons makes the simulations at the fully atomistic level difficult. Instead of constructing an elaborate and complex model, we show that an approach based on a coarse-graining of the proton-complex accurately describes the available experimental isotherms, Henry coefficients, heats of adsorption, and oxygen-proton distances. Our approach is supported by MP2 quantum mechanical simulations. The model gives remarkably good agreement with experimental data beyond the initial calibration set.
Hybrid simulations: combining atomistic and coarse-grained force fields using virtual sites.
Rzepiela, Andrzej J; Louhivuori, Martti; Peter, Christine; Marrink, Siewert J
2011-06-14
Hybrid simulations, in which part of the system is represented at atomic resolution and the remaining part at a reduced, coarse-grained, level offer a powerful way to combine the accuracy associated with the atomistic force fields to the sampling speed obtained with coarse-grained (CG) potentials. In this work we introduce a straightforward scheme to perform hybrid simulations, making use of virtual sites to couple the two levels of resolution. With the help of these virtual sites interactions between molecules at different levels of resolution, i.e. between CG and atomistic molecules, are treated the same way as the pure CG-CG interactions. To test our method, we combine the Gromos atomistic force field with a number of coarse-grained potentials, obtained through several approaches that are designed to obtain CG potentials based on an existing atomistic model, namely iterative Boltzmann inversion, force matching, and a potential of mean force subtraction procedure (SB). We also explore the use of the MARTINI force field for the CG potential. A simple system, consisting of atomistic butane molecules dissolved in CG butane, is used to study the performance of our hybrid scheme. Based on the potentials of mean force for atomistic butane in CG solvent, and the properties of 1:1 mixtures of atomistic and CG butane which should exhibit ideal mixing behavior, we conclude that the MARTINI and SB potentials are particularly suited to be combined with the atomistic force field. The MARTINI potential is subsequently used to perform hybrid simulations of atomistic dialanine peptides in both CG butane and water. Compared to a fully atomistic description of the system, the hybrid description gives similar results provided that the dielectric screening of water is accounted for. Within the field of biomolecules, our method appears ideally suited to study e.g. protein-ligand binding, where the active site and ligand are modeled in atomistic detail and the rest of the protein
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davtyan, Aram; Dama, James F.; Voth, Gregory A.; Andersen, Hans C.
2015-04-01
Coarse-grained (CG) models of molecular systems, with fewer mechanical degrees of freedom than an all-atom model, are used extensively in chemical physics. It is generally accepted that a coarse-grained model that accurately describes equilibrium structural properties (as a result of having a well constructed CG potential energy function) does not necessarily exhibit appropriate dynamical behavior when simulated using conservative Hamiltonian dynamics for the CG degrees of freedom on the CG potential energy surface. Attempts to develop accurate CG dynamic models usually focus on replacing Hamiltonian motion by stochastic but Markovian dynamics on that surface, such as Langevin or Brownian dynamics. However, depending on the nature of the system and the extent of the coarse-graining, a Markovian dynamics for the CG degrees of freedom may not be appropriate. In this paper, we consider the problem of constructing dynamic CG models within the context of the Multi-Scale Coarse-graining (MS-CG) method of Voth and coworkers. We propose a method of converting a MS-CG model into a dynamic CG model by adding degrees of freedom to it in the form of a small number of fictitious particles that interact with the CG degrees of freedom in simple ways and that are subject to Langevin forces. The dynamic models are members of a class of nonlinear systems interacting with special heat baths that were studied by Zwanzig [J. Stat. Phys. 9, 215 (1973)]. The properties of the fictitious particles can be inferred from analysis of the dynamics of all-atom simulations of the system of interest. This is analogous to the fact that the MS-CG method generates the CG potential from analysis of equilibrium structures observed in all-atom simulation data. The dynamic models generate a non-Markovian dynamics for the CG degrees of freedom, but they can be easily simulated using standard molecular dynamics programs. We present tests of this method on a series of simple examples that demonstrate that
Coarse grained molecular dynamics and theoretical studies of carbon nanotubes entering cell membrane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Xinghua; Kong, Yong; Gao, Huajian
2008-04-01
Motivated by recent experimental observations that carbon nanotubes (CNT) can enter animal cells, here we conduct coarse grained molecular dynamics and theoretical studies of the intrinsic interaction mechanisms between CNT’s and lipid bilayer. The results indicate that CNT-cell interaction is dominated by van der Waals and hydrophobic forces, and that CNT’s with sufficiently small radii can directly pierce through cell membrane while larger tubes tend to enter cell via a wrapping mechanism. Theoretical models are proposed to explain the observed size effect in transition of entry mechanisms.
Temporal coarse-graining method to simulate the movement of atoms
Ichinomiya, Takashi
2013-10-15
We propose a novel method to simulate the movement of atoms at finite temperature. The main idea of our method is to derive “renormalized,” or coarse-grained in time, dynamics from the Euler–Maruyama scheme, which is the standard method for solving the stochastic differential equations numerically. Based on this renormalization, we propose a new algorithm for solving overdamped Langevin equations. We test our renormalization scheme on two models and demonstrate that the results obtained by this method are consistent with those obtained by the standard method. Our algorithm performs better than the standard scheme, especially at low temperatures and with multiple processors.
Towards a unified framework for coarse-graining particle-based simulations.
Junghans, Christoph
2012-06-28
Different coarse-graining techniques for soft matter systems have been developed in recent years, however it is often very demanding to find the method most suitable for the problem studied. For this reason we began to develop the VOTCA toolkit to allow for easy comparison of different methods. We have incorporated 6 different techniques into the package and implemented a powerful and parallel analysis framework plus multiple simulation back-ends. We will discuss the specifics of the package by means of various studies, which have been performed with the toolkit and highlight problems we encountered along the way.
Houjou, Hirohiko
2011-10-21
Using theory of harmonic normal-mode vibration analysis, we developed a procedure for evaluating the anisotropic stiffness of intermolecular forces. Our scheme for coarse-graining of molecular motions is modified so as to account for intramolecular vibrations in addition to relative translational/rotational displacement. We applied this new analytical scheme to four carboxylic acid dimers, for which coupling between intra- and intermolecular vibrations is crucial for determining the apparent stiffness of the intermolecular double hydrogen bond. The apparent stiffness constant was analyzed on the basis of a conjunct spring model, which defines contributions from true intermolecular stiffness and molecular internal stiffness. Consequently, the true intermolecular stiffness was in the range of 43-48 N m(-1) for all carboxylic acids studied, regardless of the molecules' acidity. We concluded that the difference in the apparent stiffness can be attributed to differences in the internal stiffness of the respective molecules.
Español, Pep; Donev, Aleksandar
2015-12-21
We derive a coarse-grained description of the dynamics of a nanoparticle immersed in an isothermal simple fluid by performing a systematic coarse graining of the underlying microscopic dynamics. As coarse-grained or relevant variables, we select the position of the nanoparticle and the total mass and momentum density field of the fluid, which are locally conserved slow variables because they are defined to include the contribution of the nanoparticle. The theory of coarse graining based on the Zwanzing projection operator leads us to a system of stochastic ordinary differential equations that are closed in the relevant variables. We demonstrate that our discrete coarse-grained equations are consistent with a Petrov-Galerkin finite-element discretization of a system of formal stochastic partial differential equations which resemble previously used phenomenological models based on fluctuating hydrodynamics. Key to this connection between our "bottom-up" and previous "top-down" approaches is the use of the same dual orthogonal set of linear basis functions familiar from finite element methods (FEMs), both as a way to coarse-grain the microscopic degrees of freedom and as a way to discretize the equations of fluctuating hydrodynamics. Another key ingredient is the use of a "linear for spiky" weak approximation which replaces microscopic "fields" with a linear FE interpolant inside expectation values. For the irreversible or dissipative dynamics, we approximate the constrained Green-Kubo expressions for the dissipation coefficients with their equilibrium averages. Under suitable approximations, we obtain closed approximations of the coarse-grained dynamics in a manner which gives them a clear physical interpretation and provides explicit microscopic expressions for all of the coefficients appearing in the closure. Our work leads to a model for dilute nanocolloidal suspensions that can be simulated effectively using feasibly short molecular dynamics simulations as input
Español, Pep; Donev, Aleksandar
2015-12-21
We derive a coarse-grained description of the dynamics of a nanoparticle immersed in an isothermal simple fluid by performing a systematic coarse graining of the underlying microscopic dynamics. As coarse-grained or relevant variables, we select the position of the nanoparticle and the total mass and momentum density field of the fluid, which are locally conserved slow variables because they are defined to include the contribution of the nanoparticle. The theory of coarse graining based on the Zwanzing projection operator leads us to a system of stochastic ordinary differential equations that are closed in the relevant variables. We demonstrate that our discrete coarse-grained equations are consistent with a Petrov-Galerkin finite-element discretization of a system of formal stochastic partial differential equations which resemble previously used phenomenological models based on fluctuating hydrodynamics. Key to this connection between our “bottom-up” and previous “top-down” approaches is the use of the same dual orthogonal set of linear basis functions familiar from finite element methods (FEMs), both as a way to coarse-grain the microscopic degrees of freedom and as a way to discretize the equations of fluctuating hydrodynamics. Another key ingredient is the use of a “linear for spiky” weak approximation which replaces microscopic “fields” with a linear FE interpolant inside expectation values. For the irreversible or dissipative dynamics, we approximate the constrained Green-Kubo expressions for the dissipation coefficients with their equilibrium averages. Under suitable approximations, we obtain closed approximations of the coarse-grained dynamics in a manner which gives them a clear physical interpretation and provides explicit microscopic expressions for all of the coefficients appearing in the closure. Our work leads to a model for dilute nanocolloidal suspensions that can be simulated effectively using feasibly short molecular dynamics
Español, Pep; Donev, Aleksandar
2015-12-21
We derive a coarse-grained description of the dynamics of a nanoparticle immersed in an isothermal simple fluid by performing a systematic coarse graining of the underlying microscopic dynamics. As coarse-grained or relevant variables, we select the position of the nanoparticle and the total mass and momentum density field of the fluid, which are locally conserved slow variables because they are defined to include the contribution of the nanoparticle. The theory of coarse graining based on the Zwanzing projection operator leads us to a system of stochastic ordinary differential equations that are closed in the relevant variables. We demonstrate that our discrete coarse-grained equations are consistent with a Petrov-Galerkin finite-element discretization of a system of formal stochastic partial differential equations which resemble previously used phenomenological models based on fluctuating hydrodynamics. Key to this connection between our "bottom-up" and previous "top-down" approaches is the use of the same dual orthogonal set of linear basis functions familiar from finite element methods (FEMs), both as a way to coarse-grain the microscopic degrees of freedom and as a way to discretize the equations of fluctuating hydrodynamics. Another key ingredient is the use of a "linear for spiky" weak approximation which replaces microscopic "fields" with a linear FE interpolant inside expectation values. For the irreversible or dissipative dynamics, we approximate the constrained Green-Kubo expressions for the dissipation coefficients with their equilibrium averages. Under suitable approximations, we obtain closed approximations of the coarse-grained dynamics in a manner which gives them a clear physical interpretation and provides explicit microscopic expressions for all of the coefficients appearing in the closure. Our work leads to a model for dilute nanocolloidal suspensions that can be simulated effectively using feasibly short molecular dynamics simulations as input
Two-Component Coarse-Grained Molecular-Dynamics Model for the Human Erythrocyte Membrane
Li, He; Lykotrafitis, George
2012-01-01
We present a two-component coarse-grained molecular-dynamics model for simulating the erythrocyte membrane. The proposed model possesses the key feature of combing the lipid bilayer and the erythrocyte cytoskeleton, thus showing both the fluidic behavior of the lipid bilayer and the elastic properties of the erythrocyte cytoskeleton. In this model, three types of coarse-grained particles are introduced to represent clusters of lipid molecules, actin junctions, and band-3 complexes, respectively. The proposed model facilitates simulations that span large length scales (approximately micrometers) and timescales (approximately milliseconds). By tuning the interaction potential parameters, we were able to control the diffusivity and bending rigidity of the membrane model. We studied the membrane under shearing and found that at a low shear strain rate, the developed shear stress was due mainly to the spectrin network, whereas the viscosity of the lipid bilayer contributed to the resulting shear stress at higher strain rates. In addition, we investigated the effects of a reduced spectrin network connectivity on the shear modulus of the membrane. PMID:22225800
Coarse Graining to Investigate Membrane Induced Peptide Folding of Anticancer Peptides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganesan, Sai; Xu, Hongcheng; Matysiak, Silvina
Information about membrane induced peptide folding mechanisms using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations is a challenge due to time and length scale issues.We recently developed a low resolution Water Explicit Polarizable PROtein coarse-grained Model by adding oppositely charged dummy particles inside protein backbone beads.These two dummy particles represent a fluctuating dipole,thus introducing structural polarization into the coarse-grained model.With this model,we were able to achieve significant α- β secondary structure content de novo,without any added bias.We extended the model to zwitterionic and anionic lipids,by adding oppositely charged dummy particles inside polar beads, to capture the ability of the head group region to form hydrogen bonds.We use zwitterionic POPC and anionic POPS as our model lipids, and a cationic anticancer peptide,SVS1,as our model peptide.We have characterized the driving forces for SVS1 folding on lipid bilayers with varying anionic and zwitterionic lipid compositions.Based on our results, dipolar interactions between peptide backbone and lipid head groups contribute to stabilize folded conformations.Cooperativity in folding is induced by both intra peptide and membrane-peptide interaction.
Simulation of ballistic performance of coarse-grained metals strengthened by nanotwinned regions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, G.; Guo, X.; Weng, G. J.; Zhu, L. L.; Ji, R.
2015-12-01
Coarse-grained (CG) metals strengthened by nanotwinned (NT) regions have both ultrahigh strength and good ductility. The presence of the NT regions contributes to their ultrahigh strength, while their good ductility is attributed to the recrystallized coarse grains. These characteristics make them a potential candidate for bullet-proof material. In this paper, numerical simulations based on the mechanism-based strain gradient plasticity and the Johnson-Cook failure criterion are carried out to investigate the effects of twin spacing and microstructural attributes on the ballistic performance of CG copper strengthened by NT regions. We investigate the performance of fourteen idealized microstructures, and find that smaller twin spacing and regular distribution of NT regions are more conducive to the promotion of the ballistic performance. We also uncover that the role of the shape of NT regions is significantly affected by twin spacing. Furthermore, we make a comparison with its CG counterpart without NTs, and find that microstructures with array arrangement of NT regions have higher limit velocities and smaller relative displacements than the single phase CG structure. This makes them a strong candidate for helmets and other personal protective equipments. It is believed that the simulated results could provide useful insights into the development of this advanced class of metals for ballistic protection.
A coarse-grained model to study calcium activation of the cardiac thin filament
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jing; Schwartz, Steven
2015-03-01
Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) is one of the most common heart disease caused by genetic mutations. Cardiac muscle contraction and relaxation involve regulation of crossbridge binding to the cardiac thin filament, which regulates actomyosin interactions through calcium-dependent alterations in the dynamics of cardiac troponin (cTn) and tropomyosin (Tm). An atomistic model of cTn complex interacting with Tm has been studied by our group. A more realistic model requires the inclusion of the dynamics of actin filament, which is almost 6 times larger than cTn and Tm in terms of atom numbers, and extensive sampling of the model becomes very resource-demanding. By using physics-based protein united-residue force field, we introduce a coarse-grained model to study the calcium activation of the thin filament resulting from cTn's allosteric regulation of Tm dynamics on actin. The time scale is much longer than that of all-atom molecular dynamics simulation because of the reduction of the degrees of freedom. The coarse-grained model is a good template for studying cardiac thin filament mutations that cause FHC, and reduces the cost of computational resources.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keten, Sinan; Xia, Wenjie; Hsu, David
2015-03-01
We present a systematic, two-bead per monomer coarse graining strategy that simulates the thermomechanical behavior of polymers several hundred times faster than all-atom MD (Hsu et al. JCTC, 2014). The predictive capability of the technique is illustrated here for 5 different methacrylate monomers and polystyrene stereoisomers. The approach involves optimization of analytical bonded potentials from atomistic bonded distributions to emulate local structure, as validated by chain end-to-end length and the radius of gyration comparisons with experiments and random coil theory. Nonbonded Lennard-Jones potentials are tuned to reproduce the elastic modulus (E) and glass transition temperature (Tg) at a single thermodynamic state. Density-corrected parameters capture temperature-modulus dependence in the 150-600 K range. Flory-Fox constants of the CG models are commensurate with all atomistic and experimental results, even though all calibrations are done at a single molecular weight. Finally, we further demonstrate the predictive capabilities of the models by examining thin film nanoconfinement effects for different polymers, film thicknesses, interfacial energies, and molecular weights. Our technique, called thermomechanically consistent coarse graining (TCCG), is demonstrated, using polystyrene and poly(methylmethacrylate) as universal benchmarks, to be a robust and effective technique to understand the thermomechanical behavior of polymers thin films and nanocomposites.
Incorporation of memory effects in coarse-grained modeling via the Mori-Zwanzig formalism.
Li, Zhen; Bian, Xin; Li, Xiantao; Karniadakis, George Em
2015-12-28
The Mori-Zwanzig formalism for coarse-graining a complex dynamical system typically introduces memory effects. The Markovian assumption of delta-correlated fluctuating forces is often employed to simplify the formulation of coarse-grained (CG) models and numerical implementations. However, when the time scales of a system are not clearly separated, the memory effects become strong and the Markovian assumption becomes inaccurate. To this end, we incorporate memory effects into CG modeling by preserving non-Markovian interactions between CG variables, and the memory kernel is evaluated directly from microscopic dynamics. For a specific example, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of star polymer melts are performed while the corresponding CG system is defined by grouping many bonded atoms into single clusters. Then, the effective interactions between CG clusters as well as the memory kernel are obtained from the MD simulations. The constructed CG force field with a memory kernel leads to a non-Markovian dissipative particle dynamics (NM-DPD). Quantitative comparisons between the CG models with Markovian and non-Markovian approximations indicate that including the memory effects using NM-DPD yields similar results as the Markovian-based DPD if the system has clear time scale separation. However, for systems with small separation of time scales, NM-DPD can reproduce correct short-time properties that are related to how the system responds to high-frequency disturbances, which cannot be captured by the Markovian-based DPD model. PMID:26723613
Incorporation of memory effects in coarse-grained modeling via the Mori-Zwanzig formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhen; Bian, Xin; Li, Xiantao; Karniadakis, George Em
2015-12-01
The Mori-Zwanzig formalism for coarse-graining a complex dynamical system typically introduces memory effects. The Markovian assumption of delta-correlated fluctuating forces is often employed to simplify the formulation of coarse-grained (CG) models and numerical implementations. However, when the time scales of a system are not clearly separated, the memory effects become strong and the Markovian assumption becomes inaccurate. To this end, we incorporate memory effects into CG modeling by preserving non-Markovian interactions between CG variables, and the memory kernel is evaluated directly from microscopic dynamics. For a specific example, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of star polymer melts are performed while the corresponding CG system is defined by grouping many bonded atoms into single clusters. Then, the effective interactions between CG clusters as well as the memory kernel are obtained from the MD simulations. The constructed CG force field with a memory kernel leads to a non-Markovian dissipative particle dynamics (NM-DPD). Quantitative comparisons between the CG models with Markovian and non-Markovian approximations indicate that including the memory effects using NM-DPD yields similar results as the Markovian-based DPD if the system has clear time scale separation. However, for systems with small separation of time scales, NM-DPD can reproduce correct short-time properties that are related to how the system responds to high-frequency disturbances, which cannot be captured by the Markovian-based DPD model.
Incorporation of memory effects in coarse-grained modeling via the Mori-Zwanzig formalism
Li, Zhen; Bian, Xin; Karniadakis, George Em; Li, Xiantao
2015-12-28
The Mori-Zwanzig formalism for coarse-graining a complex dynamical system typically introduces memory effects. The Markovian assumption of delta-correlated fluctuating forces is often employed to simplify the formulation of coarse-grained (CG) models and numerical implementations. However, when the time scales of a system are not clearly separated, the memory effects become strong and the Markovian assumption becomes inaccurate. To this end, we incorporate memory effects into CG modeling by preserving non-Markovian interactions between CG variables, and the memory kernel is evaluated directly from microscopic dynamics. For a specific example, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of star polymer melts are performed while the corresponding CG system is defined by grouping many bonded atoms into single clusters. Then, the effective interactions between CG clusters as well as the memory kernel are obtained from the MD simulations. The constructed CG force field with a memory kernel leads to a non-Markovian dissipative particle dynamics (NM-DPD). Quantitative comparisons between the CG models with Markovian and non-Markovian approximations indicate that including the memory effects using NM-DPD yields similar results as the Markovian-based DPD if the system has clear time scale separation. However, for systems with small separation of time scales, NM-DPD can reproduce correct short-time properties that are related to how the system responds to high-frequency disturbances, which cannot be captured by the Markovian-based DPD model.
Coarse-Grained Molecular Monte Carlo Simulations of Liquid Crystal-Nanoparticle Mixtures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neufeld, Ryan; Kimaev, Grigoriy; Fu, Fred; Abukhdeir, Nasser M.
Coarse-grained intermolecular potentials have proven capable of capturing essential details of interactions between complex molecules, while substantially reducing the number of degrees of freedom of the system under study. In the domain of liquid crystals, the Gay-Berne (GB) potential has been successfully used to model the behavior of rod-like and disk-like mesogens. However, only ellipsoid-like interaction potentials can be described with GB, making it a poor fit for many real-world mesogens. In this work, the results of Monte Carlo simulations of liquid crystal domains using the Zewdie-Corner (ZC) potential are presented. The ZC potential is constructed from an orthogonal series of basis functions, allowing for potentials of essentially arbitrary shapes to be modeled. We also present simulations of mixtures of liquid crystalline mesogens with nanoparticles. Experimentally these mixtures have been observed to exhibit microphase separation and formation of long-range networks under some conditions. This highlights the need for a coarse-grained approach which can capture salient details on the molecular scale while simulating sufficiently large domains to observe these phenomena. We compare the phase behavior of our simulations with that of a recently presented continuum theory. This work was made possible by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and Compute Ontario.
Gay-Berne and electrostatic multipole based coarse-grain potential in implicit solvent
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Johnny; Zhen, Xia; Shen, Hujun; Li, Guohui; Ren, Pengyu
2011-10-01
A general, transferable coarse-grain (CG) framework based on the Gay-Berne potential and electrostatic point multipole expansion is presented for polypeptide simulations. The solvent effect is described by the Generalized Kirkwood theory. The CG model is calibrated using the results of all-atom simulations of model compounds in solution. Instead of matching the overall effective forces produced by atomic models, the fundamental intermolecular forces such as electrostatic, repulsion-dispersion, and solvation are represented explicitly at a CG level. We demonstrate that the CG alanine dipeptide model is able to reproduce quantitatively the conformational energy of all-atom force fields in both gas and solution phases, including the electrostatic and solvation components. Replica exchange molecular dynamics and microsecond dynamic simulations of polyalanine of 5 and 12 residues reveal that the CG polyalanines fold into "alpha helix" and "beta sheet" structures. The 5-residue polyalanine displays a substantial increase in the "beta strand" fraction relative to the 12-residue polyalanine. The detailed conformational distribution is compared with those reported from recent all-atom simulations and experiments. The results suggest that the new coarse-graining approach presented in this study has the potential to offer both accuracy and efficiency for biomolecular modeling.
Parameterizing the Morse potential for coarse-grained modeling of blood plasma
Zhang, Na; Zhang, Peng; Kang, Wei; Bluestein, Danny; Deng, Yuefan
2014-01-15
Multiscale simulations of fluids such as blood represent a major computational challenge of coupling the disparate spatiotemporal scales between molecular and macroscopic transport phenomena characterizing such complex fluids. In this paper, a coarse-grained (CG) particle model is developed for simulating blood flow by modifying the Morse potential, traditionally used in Molecular Dynamics for modeling vibrating structures. The modified Morse potential is parameterized with effective mass scales for reproducing blood viscous flow properties, including density, pressure, viscosity, compressibility and characteristic flow dynamics of human blood plasma fluid. The parameterization follows a standard inverse-problem approach in which the optimal micro parameters are systematically searched, by gradually decoupling loosely correlated parameter spaces, to match the macro physical quantities of viscous blood flow. The predictions of this particle based multiscale model compare favorably to classic viscous flow solutions such as Counter-Poiseuille and Couette flows. It demonstrates that such coarse grained particle model can be applied to replicate the dynamics of viscous blood flow, with the advantage of bridging the gap between macroscopic flow scales and the cellular scales characterizing blood flow that continuum based models fail to handle adequately.
Coarse-grained simulation of lipid vesicles with ``n-atic'' orientational order
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geng, Jun; Selinger, Jonathan; Selinger, Robin
2012-02-01
We perform coarse-grained simulation studies of fluid lipid vesicles with in-plane ``n-atic'' orientational order associated with the shape of lipid head group, to test the theoretical predictions of Park, Lubensky and MacKintosh [1] for resulting vesicle shape and defect structures. Our simulation model uses a single layer coarse-grained implicit-solvent approach proposed by Yuan et al [2], with addition of an extra vector degree of freedom representing in-plane orientational order. We carry out simulation studies for n=1 to 6, examining in each case the spatial distribution of defects and resulting deformation of the vesicle. An initially spherical vesicle (genus zero) with n-atic order has a ground state with 2n vortices of strength 1/n, as expected, but the observed equilibrium shapes are sometimes quite different from those predicted theoretically. For the n=1 case, we find that the vesicle may become trapped in a disordered, long-lived metastable state with extra +/- defects whose pair-annihilation is inhibited by local changes in membrane curvature, and thus may never reach its predicted ground state. [4pt] [1] J. Park, T. C. Lubensky, and F. C. MacKintosh, Europhys. Lett. 20, 279 (1992)[0pt] [2] H. Yuan, C. Huang, Ju Li, G. Lykotrafitis, and S. Zhang, Phys. Rev. E 82, 011905 (2010)
Optimal matched filter design for ultrasonic NDE of coarse grain materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Minghui; Hayward, Gordon
2016-02-01
Coarse grain materials are widely used in a variety of key industrial sectors like energy, oil and gas, and aerospace due to their attractive properties. However, when these materials are inspected using ultrasound, the flaw echoes are usually contaminated by high-level, correlated grain noise originating from the material microstructures, which is time-invariant and demonstrates similar spectral characteristics as flaw signals. As a result, the reliable inspection of such materials is highly challenging. In this paper, we present a method for reliable ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of coarse grain materials using matched filters, where the filter is designed to approximate and match the unknown defect echoes, and a particle swarm optimization (PSO) paradigm is employed to search for the optimal parameters in the filter response with an objective to maximise the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Experiments with a 128-element 5MHz transducer array on mild steel and INCONEL Alloy 617 samples are conducted, and the results confirm that the SNR of the images is improved by about 10-20 dB if the optimized matched filter is applied to all the A-scan waveforms prior to image formation. Furthermore, the matched filter can be implemented in real-time with low extra computational cost.
Construction of Coarse-Grained Models by Reproducing Equilibrium Probability Density Function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Shi-Jing; Zhou, Xin
2015-01-01
The present work proposes a novel methodology for constructing coarse-grained (CG) models, which aims at minimizing the difference between CG model and the corresponding original system. The difference is defined as a functional of their equilibrium conformational probability densities, then is estimated from equilibrium averages of many independent physical quantities denoted as basis functions. An orthonormalization strategy is adopted to get the independent basis functions from sufficiently preselected interesting physical quantities of the system. Thus the current method is named as probability density matching coarse-graining (PMCG) scheme, which effectively takes into account the overall characteristics of the original systems to construct CG model, and it is a natural improvement of the usual CG scheme wherein some physical quantities are intuitively chosen without considering their correlations. We verify the general PMCG framework in constructing a one-site CG water model from TIP3P model. Both structure of liquids and pressure of the TIP3P water system are found to be well reproduced at the same time in the constructed CG model.
Refining the treatment of membrane proteins by coarse-grained models.
Vorobyov, Igor; Kim, Ilsoo; Chu, Zhen T; Warshel, Arieh
2016-01-01
Obtaining a quantitative description of the membrane proteins stability is crucial for understanding many biological processes. However the advance in this direction has remained a major challenge for both experimental studies and molecular modeling. One of the possible directions is the use of coarse-grained models but such models must be carefully calibrated and validated. Here we use a recent progress in benchmark studies on the energetics of amino acid residue and peptide membrane insertion and membrane protein stability in refining our previously developed coarse-grained model (Vicatos et al., Proteins 2014;82:1168). Our refined model parameters were fitted and/or tested to reproduce water/membrane partitioning energetics of amino acid side chains and a couple of model peptides. This new model provides a reasonable agreement with experiment for absolute folding free energies of several β-barrel membrane proteins as well as effects of point mutations on a relative stability for one of those proteins, OmpLA. The consideration and ranking of different rotameric states for a mutated residue was found to be essential to achieve satisfactory agreement with the reference data.
Two-component coarse-grained molecular-dynamics model for the human erythrocyte membrane.
Li, He; Lykotrafitis, George
2012-01-01
We present a two-component coarse-grained molecular-dynamics model for simulating the erythrocyte membrane. The proposed model possesses the key feature of combing the lipid bilayer and the erythrocyte cytoskeleton, thus showing both the fluidic behavior of the lipid bilayer and the elastic properties of the erythrocyte cytoskeleton. In this model, three types of coarse-grained particles are introduced to represent clusters of lipid molecules, actin junctions, and band-3 complexes, respectively. The proposed model facilitates simulations that span large length scales (approximately micrometers) and timescales (approximately milliseconds). By tuning the interaction potential parameters, we were able to control the diffusivity and bending rigidity of the membrane model. We studied the membrane under shearing and found that at a low shear strain rate, the developed shear stress was due mainly to the spectrin network, whereas the viscosity of the lipid bilayer contributed to the resulting shear stress at higher strain rates. In addition, we investigated the effects of a reduced spectrin network connectivity on the shear modulus of the membrane.
Coarse-grained model for the interconversion between different crystalline cellulose allomorphs
Langan, Paul
2012-01-01
We present the results of Langevin dynamics simulations on a coarse grained model for crystalline cellulose. In particular, we analyze two different cellulose crystalline forms: cellulose I (the natural form of cellulose) and cellulose IIII (obtained after cellulose I is treated with anhydrous liquid ammonia). Cellulose IIII has been the focus of wide interest in the field of cellulosic biofuels as it can be efficiently hydrolyzed to glucose (its enzymatic degradation rates are up to 5 fold higher than those of cellulose I ). In turn, glucose can eventually be fermented into fuels. The coarse-grained model presented in this study is based on a simplified geometry and on an effective potential mimicking the changes in both intracrystalline hydrogen bonds and stacking interactions during the transition from cellulose I to cellulose IIII. The model accurately reproduces both structural and thermomechanical properties of cellulose I and IIII. The work presented herein describes the structural transition from cellulose I to cellulose IIII as driven by the change in the equilibrium state of two degrees of freedom in the cellulose chains. The structural transition from cellulose I to cellulose IIII is essentially reduced to a search for optimal spatial arrangement of the cellulose chains.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Wenjie; Hsu, David; Keten, Sinan
Understanding and predicting the thermomechanical responses of nanoscale polymer systems are very challenging as their responses are greatly influenced by many factors, such as interfacial energy, filler volume fraction and molecule weight, giving rise to the presence of nanoscale interface and free surface. To overcome these issues, here we employ a novel atomistically informed coarse-grained computational technique, called thermomechanically consistent coarse graining (TCCG), to investigate how the nanoscale interface and free surface influence the elastic modulus (E) and glass transition temperature (Tg) of polymer films and nanocomposites. By performing tensile tests and nanoindentation simulations, we are able to predict the size dependent elastic properties of polymer films and quantify the length scale of the local mechanical interphase. Finally, taking cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) and poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposites as a relevant model system, we present a multi-scale framework built upon our CG approach to allow the prediction of Tg of nanocomposite as a function of interfacial energy and filler volume fractions by drawing the analogy between thin film and nanocomposites. Our established multi-scale framework is validated by recent experiments and breaks new ground in predicting, without any empirical parameters, key structure-property relationships for polymer nanomaterials.
Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of protein-ligand binding.
Negami, Tatsuki; Shimizu, Kentaro; Terada, Tohru
2014-09-30
Coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) simulations with the MARTINI force field were performed to reproduce the protein-ligand binding processes. We chose two protein-ligand systems, the levansucrase-sugar (glucose or sucrose), and LinB-1,2-dichloroethane systems, as target systems that differ in terms of the size and shape of the ligand-binding pocket and the physicochemical properties of the pocket and the ligand. Spatial distributions of the Coarse-grained (CG) ligand molecules revealed potential ligand-binding sites on the protein surfaces other than the real ligand-binding sites. The ligands bound most strongly to the real ligand-binding sites. The binding and unbinding rate constants obtained from the CGMD simulation of the levansucrase-sucrose system were approximately 10 times greater than the experimental values; this is mainly due to faster diffusion of the CG ligand in the CG water model. We could obtain dissociation constants close to the experimental values for both systems. Analysis of the ligand fluxes demonstrated that the CG ligand molecules entered the ligand-binding pockets through specific pathways. The ligands tended to move through grooves on the protein surface. Thus, the CGMD simulations produced reasonable results for the two different systems overall and are useful for studying the protein-ligand binding processes.
Systematic hierarchical coarse-graining with the inverse Monte Carlo method
Lyubartsev, Alexander P.; Naômé, Aymeric; Vercauteren, Daniel P.; Laaksonen, Aatto
2015-12-28
We outline our coarse-graining strategy for linking micro- and mesoscales of soft matter and biological systems. The method is based on effective pairwise interaction potentials obtained in detailed ab initio or classical atomistic Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations, which can be used in simulations at less accurate level after scaling up the size. The effective potentials are obtained by applying the inverse Monte Carlo (IMC) method [A. P. Lyubartsev and A. Laaksonen, Phys. Rev. E 52(4), 3730–3737 (1995)] on a chosen subset of degrees of freedom described in terms of radial distribution functions. An in-house software package MagiC is developed to obtain the effective potentials for arbitrary molecular systems. In this work we compute effective potentials to model DNA-protein interactions (bacterial LiaR regulator bound to a 26 base pairs DNA fragment) at physiological salt concentration at a coarse-grained (CG) level. Normally the IMC CG pair-potentials are used directly as look-up tables but here we have fitted them to five Gaussians and a repulsive wall. Results show stable association between DNA and the model protein as well as similar position fluctuation profile.
Distributions of experimental protein structures on coarse-grained free energy landscapes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sankar, Kannan; Liu, Jie; Wang, Yuan; Jernigan, Robert L.
2015-12-01
Predicting conformational changes of proteins is needed in order to fully comprehend functional mechanisms. With the large number of available structures in sets of related proteins, it is now possible to directly visualize the clusters of conformations and their conformational transitions through the use of principal component analysis. The most striking observation about the distributions of the structures along the principal components is their highly non-uniform distributions. In this work, we use principal component analysis of experimental structures of 50 diverse proteins to extract the most important directions of their motions, sample structures along these directions, and estimate their free energy landscapes by combining knowledge-based potentials and entropy computed from elastic network models. When these resulting motions are visualized upon their coarse-grained free energy landscapes, the basis for conformational pathways becomes readily apparent. Using three well-studied proteins, T4 lysozyme, serum albumin, and sarco-endoplasmic reticular Ca2+ adenosine triphosphatase (SERCA), as examples, we show that such free energy landscapes of conformational changes provide meaningful insights into the functional dynamics and suggest transition pathways between different conformational states. As a further example, we also show that Monte Carlo simulations on the coarse-grained landscape of HIV-1 protease can directly yield pathways for force-driven conformational changes.
Predicting RNA 3D structure using a coarse-grain helix-centered model.
Kerpedjiev, Peter; Höner Zu Siederdissen, Christian; Hofacker, Ivo L
2015-06-01
A 3D model of RNA structure can provide information about its function and regulation that is not possible with just the sequence or secondary structure. Current models suffer from low accuracy and long running times and either neglect or presume knowledge of the long-range interactions which stabilize the tertiary structure. Our coarse-grained, helix-based, tertiary structure model operates with only a few degrees of freedom compared with all-atom models while preserving the ability to sample tertiary structures given a secondary structure. It strikes a balance between the precision of an all-atom tertiary structure model and the simplicity and effectiveness of a secondary structure representation. It provides a simplified tool for exploring global arrangements of helices and loops within RNA structures. We provide an example of a novel energy function relying only on the positions of stems and loops. We show that coupling our model to this energy function produces predictions as good as or better than the current state of the art tools. We propose that given the wide range of conformational space that needs to be explored, a coarse-grain approach can explore more conformations in less iterations than an all-atom model coupled to a fine-grain energy function. Finally, we emphasize the overarching theme of providing an ensemble of predicted structures, something which our tool excels at, rather than providing a handful of the lowest energy structures. PMID:25904133
Ilnytskyi, Jaroslav M; Trokhymchuk, Andrij; Schoen, Martin
2014-09-21
We consider the applicability of coarse-grained molecular dynamics for the simulation of defects in a nematic liquid crystal around a colloidal particle. Two types of colloids are considered, a soft colloid resembling a liquid crystal dendrimer or a similar macromolecule. In addition, a decorated colloid is used which could represent a gold nanoparticle with mesogen-modified surface. For both models we consider homeotropic and tangential anchoring. Precise control of the easy axis on the colloid's surface enables us to focus on specific planar arrangements in the case of a decorated colloid. The nematic phase is modelled explicitly via soft spherocylinders interacting through a potential, suggested by Lintuvuori and Wilson [J. Chem. Phys. 128, 044906 (2008)]. Properties of the nematic phase are studied by computing the Frank elastic constants. In addition, estimates for the nematic-isotropic transition and the coherence length allow us to establish a relation between energy and length scales with respect to experimental systems. Both models exhibit similar defect topologies, namely, that of a Saturn ring and a boojum-type of defect for homeotropic and tangential surface anchoring, respectively. In the decorated colloid model we tune the anchoring strength through the density of the mesogenic shell on the surface. We also found the biaxial boojum defect for the special case of longitudinal planar anchoring. The study demonstrates the potential of coarse-grained simulation methods for studying defects in liquid crystals. PMID:25240368
Coarse Grained Approach to First Principles Modeling of Radiation Cascade in Large Fe Supercells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odbadrakh, Kh; Nicholson, D. M.; Rusanu, A.; Samolyuk, G. D.; Stoller, R. E.; Zhang, X.-G.; Stocks, G. M.
2012-12-01
Classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations characterizing dislocations and radiation damage typically treat 105-107 atoms. First principles techniques employed to understand systems at an atomistic level are not practical for such large systems consisting of millions of atoms. We present an efficient coarse grained (CG) approach to calculate local electronic and magnetic properties of large MD-generated structures from the first principles. Local atomic magnetic moments in crystalline Fe are perturbed by the presence of radiation generated vacancies and interstitials. The effects are most pronounced near the defect cores and decay slowly as the strain field of the defects decrease with distance. We develop the CG technique based on the Locally Self-consistent Multiple Scattering (LSMS) method that exploits the near-sightedness of the electron Green function. The atomic positions were determined by MD with an embedded atom force field. The local moments in the neighborhood of the defect cores are calculated with first-principles based on full local structure information. Atoms in the rest of the system are modeled by representative atoms with approximated properties. The calculations result in local moments near the defect centers with first-principles accuracy, while capturing coarse-grained details of local moments at greater length scales. This CG approach makes these large scale structures amenable to first principles study.
Predicting RNA 3D structure using a coarse-grain helix-centered model.
Kerpedjiev, Peter; Höner Zu Siederdissen, Christian; Hofacker, Ivo L
2015-06-01
A 3D model of RNA structure can provide information about its function and regulation that is not possible with just the sequence or secondary structure. Current models suffer from low accuracy and long running times and either neglect or presume knowledge of the long-range interactions which stabilize the tertiary structure. Our coarse-grained, helix-based, tertiary structure model operates with only a few degrees of freedom compared with all-atom models while preserving the ability to sample tertiary structures given a secondary structure. It strikes a balance between the precision of an all-atom tertiary structure model and the simplicity and effectiveness of a secondary structure representation. It provides a simplified tool for exploring global arrangements of helices and loops within RNA structures. We provide an example of a novel energy function relying only on the positions of stems and loops. We show that coupling our model to this energy function produces predictions as good as or better than the current state of the art tools. We propose that given the wide range of conformational space that needs to be explored, a coarse-grain approach can explore more conformations in less iterations than an all-atom model coupled to a fine-grain energy function. Finally, we emphasize the overarching theme of providing an ensemble of predicted structures, something which our tool excels at, rather than providing a handful of the lowest energy structures.
Molecular dynamics simulation of water in and around carbon nanotubes: A coarse-grained description
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pantawane, Sanwardhini; Choudhury, Niharendu
2016-05-01
In the present study, we intend to investigate behaviour of water in and around hydrophobic open ended carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using a coarse-grained, core-softened model potential for water. The model potential considered here for water has recently been shown to successfully reproduce dynamic, thermodynamic and structural anomalies of water. The epitome of the study is to understand the incarceration of this coarse-grained water in a single-file carbon nanotube. In order to examine the effect of fluid-water van der Waals interaction on the structure of fluid in and around the nanotube, we have simulated three different CNT-water systems with varying degree of solute-water dispersion interaction. The analyses of the radial one-particle density profiles reveal varying degree of permeation and wetting of the CNT interior depending on the degree of fluid-solute attractive van der Waals interaction. A peak in the radial density profile slightly off the nanotube axis signifies a zigzag chain of water molecule around the CNT axis. The average numbers of water molecules inside the CNT have been shown to increase with the increase in fluid-water attractive dispersion interaction.
Holliday Junction Thermodynamics and Structure: Coarse-Grained Simulations and Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wujie; Nocka, Laura M.; Wiemann, Brianne Z.; Hinckley, Daniel M.; Mukerji, Ishita; Starr, Francis W.
2016-03-01
Holliday junctions play a central role in genetic recombination, DNA repair and other cellular processes. We combine simulations and experiments to evaluate the ability of the 3SPN.2 model, a coarse-grained representation designed to mimic B-DNA, to predict the properties of DNA Holliday junctions. The model reproduces many experimentally determined aspects of junction structure and stability, including the temperature dependence of melting on salt concentration, the bias between open and stacked conformations, the relative populations of conformers at high salt concentration, and the inter-duplex angle (IDA) between arms. We also obtain a close correspondence between the junction structure evaluated by all-atom and coarse-grained simulations. We predict that, for salt concentrations at physiological and higher levels, the populations of the stacked conformers are independent of salt concentration, and directly observe proposed tetrahedral intermediate sub-states implicated in conformational transitions. Our findings demonstrate that the 3SPN.2 model captures junction properties that are inaccessible to all-atom studies, opening the possibility to simulate complex aspects of junction behavior.
Lardner, Timothy; Gachagan, Anthony; Li, Minghui
2014-02-18
Materials with a coarse grain structure are becoming increasingly prevalent in industry due to their resilience to stress and corrosion. These materials are difficult to inspect with ultrasound because reflections from the grains lead to high noise levels which hinder the echoes of interest. Spatially Averaged Sub-Aperture Correlation Imaging (SASACI) is an advanced array beamforming technique that uses the cross-correlation between images from array sub-apertures to generate an image weighting matrix, in order to reduce noise levels. This paper presents a method inspired by SASACI to further improve imaging using phase information to refine focusing and reduce noise. A-scans from adjacent array elements are cross-correlated using both signal amplitude and phase to refine delay laws and minimize phase aberration. The phase-based and amplitude-based corrected images are used as inputs to a two-dimensional cross-correlation algorithm that will output a weighting matrix that can be applied to any conventional image. This approach was validated experimentally using a 5MHz array a coarse grained Inconel 625 step wedge, and compared to the Total Focusing Method (TFM). Initial results have seen SNR improvements of over 20dB compared to TFM, and a resolution that is much higher.
Systematic hierarchical coarse-graining with the inverse Monte Carlo method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyubartsev, Alexander P.; Naômé, Aymeric; Vercauteren, Daniel P.; Laaksonen, Aatto
2015-12-01
We outline our coarse-graining strategy for linking micro- and mesoscales of soft matter and biological systems. The method is based on effective pairwise interaction potentials obtained in detailed ab initio or classical atomistic Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations, which can be used in simulations at less accurate level after scaling up the size. The effective potentials are obtained by applying the inverse Monte Carlo (IMC) method [A. P. Lyubartsev and A. Laaksonen, Phys. Rev. E 52(4), 3730-3737 (1995)] on a chosen subset of degrees of freedom described in terms of radial distribution functions. An in-house software package MagiC is developed to obtain the effective potentials for arbitrary molecular systems. In this work we compute effective potentials to model DNA-protein interactions (bacterial LiaR regulator bound to a 26 base pairs DNA fragment) at physiological salt concentration at a coarse-grained (CG) level. Normally the IMC CG pair-potentials are used directly as look-up tables but here we have fitted them to five Gaussians and a repulsive wall. Results show stable association between DNA and the model protein as well as similar position fluctuation profile.
On the representability problem and the physical meaning of coarse-grained models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagner, Jacob W.; Dama, James F.; Durumeric, Aleksander E. P.; Voth, Gregory A.
2016-07-01
In coarse-grained (CG) models where certain fine-grained (FG, i.e., atomistic resolution) observables are not directly represented, one can nonetheless identify indirect the CG observables that capture the FG observable's dependence on CG coordinates. Often, in these cases it appears that a CG observable can be defined by analogy to an all-atom or FG observable, but the similarity is misleading and significantly undermines the interpretation of both bottom-up and top-down CG models. Such problems emerge especially clearly in the framework of the systematic bottom-up CG modeling, where a direct and transparent correspondence between FG and CG variables establishes precise conditions for consistency between CG observables and underlying FG models. Here we present and investigate these representability challenges and illustrate them via the bottom-up conceptual framework for several simple analytically tractable polymer models. The examples provide special focus on the observables of configurational internal energy, entropy, and pressure, which have been at the root of controversy in the CG literature, as well as discuss observables that would seem to be entirely missing in the CG representation but can nonetheless be correlated with CG behavior. Though we investigate these problems in the framework of systematic coarse-graining, the lessons apply to top-down CG modeling also, with crucial implications for simulation at constant pressure and surface tension and for the interpretations of structural and thermodynamic correlations for comparison to experiment.
On the representability problem and the physical meaning of coarse-grained models.
Wagner, Jacob W; Dama, James F; Durumeric, Aleksander E P; Voth, Gregory A
2016-07-28
In coarse-grained (CG) models where certain fine-grained (FG, i.e., atomistic resolution) observables are not directly represented, one can nonetheless identify indirect the CG observables that capture the FG observable's dependence on CG coordinates. Often, in these cases it appears that a CG observable can be defined by analogy to an all-atom or FG observable, but the similarity is misleading and significantly undermines the interpretation of both bottom-up and top-down CG models. Such problems emerge especially clearly in the framework of the systematic bottom-up CG modeling, where a direct and transparent correspondence between FG and CG variables establishes precise conditions for consistency between CG observables and underlying FG models. Here we present and investigate these representability challenges and illustrate them via the bottom-up conceptual framework for several simple analytically tractable polymer models. The examples provide special focus on the observables of configurational internal energy, entropy, and pressure, which have been at the root of controversy in the CG literature, as well as discuss observables that would seem to be entirely missing in the CG representation but can nonetheless be correlated with CG behavior. Though we investigate these problems in the framework of systematic coarse-graining, the lessons apply to top-down CG modeling also, with crucial implications for simulation at constant pressure and surface tension and for the interpretations of structural and thermodynamic correlations for comparison to experiment. PMID:27475349
Thermal and mechanical properties of thermosetting polymers using coarse-grained simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jang, C.; Abrams, C. F.
2016-07-01
We developed coarse-grained (CG) molecular representations of mixtures of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) and poly(oxypropylene) diamine (POP-DA) for use in CG molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In the CG representation, DGEBA is comprised of three beads of two types and POP-DA also by three beads of two types. Atomistic MD of liquid systems was performed to derive intra- and inter-bead potentials via Boltzmann inversion. While the bonded potentials, composed of bond stretching and angle bending, were parameterized directly from the distribution functions of all atomistic molecular dynamics trajectories, the non-bonded potentials were derived from the iterative Boltzmann Inversion with a given set of coarse-grained interactions. CG systems correctly reproduced liquid and crosslinked densities. Under uniaxial tension, the Young's modulus of the CG systems was much lower than the experimental value, and we show this arises from the assumed form of the extrapolated regions of the CG potentials. By stiffening these regions, we increased the CG Young's modulus of the crosslinked systems without sacrificing the correct prediction of density. This suggests that transferrable CG potentials can be optimized for use in non-equilibrium MD for property estimation.
SimRNA: a coarse-grained method for RNA folding simulations and 3D structure prediction
Boniecki, Michal J.; Lach, Grzegorz; Dawson, Wayne K.; Tomala, Konrad; Lukasz, Pawel; Soltysinski, Tomasz; Rother, Kristian M.; Bujnicki, Janusz M.
2016-01-01
RNA molecules play fundamental roles in cellular processes. Their function and interactions with other biomolecules are dependent on the ability to form complex three-dimensional (3D) structures. However, experimental determination of RNA 3D structures is laborious and challenging, and therefore, the majority of known RNAs remain structurally uncharacterized. Here, we present SimRNA: a new method for computational RNA 3D structure prediction, which uses a coarse-grained representation, relies on the Monte Carlo method for sampling the conformational space, and employs a statistical potential to approximate the energy and identify conformations that correspond to biologically relevant structures. SimRNA can fold RNA molecules using only sequence information, and, on established test sequences, it recapitulates secondary structure with high accuracy, including correct prediction of pseudoknots. For modeling of complex 3D structures, it can use additional restraints, derived from experimental or computational analyses, including information about secondary structure and/or long-range contacts. SimRNA also can be used to analyze conformational landscapes and identify potential alternative structures. PMID:26687716
Coarse-graining molecular dynamics models using an extended Galerkin method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiantao
2013-03-01
I will present a systematic approach to coarse-grain molecular dynamics models for solids. The coarse-grained models are derived by Galerkin projection to a sequence of Krylov subspaces. On the coarsest space, the model corresponds to a finite element discretization of the continuum elasto-dynamics model. On the other hand, the projection to the finest space yields the full molecular dynamics description. The models in between serve as a smooth transition between the two scales. We start with a molecular dynamics (MD) model, mix¨i = -∂V/∂xi . First, let Y0 be the approximation space for the continuum model. By projecting the MD model onto the subspace, we obtain a coarse-grained model, M q ¨ = F (q) . Using the Cauchy-Born approximation, this model can be shown to coincide with the finite element representation of the continuum elastodynamics model. This model has limited accuracy near lattice defects. One natural idea is to switch to the MD model in regions surround local defect. As a result, one creates an interface between the continuum and atomistic description, where coupling conditions are needed. Direct coupling methods may involve enforcing constraints or mixing the energy or forces. Such an approach may suffer from large phonon reflections at the interface, and introduce large modeling error. In order to seamlessly couple this model to MD, we successively expand the approximation space to the Krylov spaces, Kl =Y0 + AY0 + ⋯ +AlY0 . Here A is the force constant matrix, computed from the atomistic model. Due to the translational invariance, only a smaller number of such matrices need to be computed. By projecting the MD model onto this new subspace, we obtain an extended system, M q .. =F0 (q ,ξ1 , ... ,ξl) ,ξ̈1 =F1 (q ,ξ1 , ... ,ξl) , ... ... ,ξ̈l =Fl (q ,ξ1 , ... ,ξl) . The additional variables ξj represent the coefficients in the extended approximation space. Using this systematic approach, one can build a hierarchy of models with
Kalligiannaki, Evangelia; Harmandaris, Vagelis; Katsoulakis, Markos A; Plecháč, Petr
2015-08-28
Using the probabilistic language of conditional expectations, we reformulate the force matching method for coarse-graining of molecular systems as a projection onto spaces of coarse observables. A practical outcome of this probabilistic description is the link of the force matching method with thermodynamic integration. This connection provides a way to systematically construct a local mean force and to optimally approximate the potential of mean force through force matching. We introduce a generalized force matching condition for the local mean force in the sense that allows the approximation of the potential of mean force under both linear and non-linear coarse graining mappings (e.g., reaction coordinates, end-to-end length of chains). Furthermore, we study the equivalence of force matching with relative entropy minimization which we derive for general non-linear coarse graining maps. We present in detail the generalized force matching condition through applications to specific examples in molecular systems.
Kalligiannaki, Evangelia; Harmandaris, Vagelis; Plecháč, Petr
2015-08-28
Using the probabilistic language of conditional expectations, we reformulate the force matching method for coarse-graining of molecular systems as a projection onto spaces of coarse observables. A practical outcome of this probabilistic description is the link of the force matching method with thermodynamic integration. This connection provides a way to systematically construct a local mean force and to optimally approximate the potential of mean force through force matching. We introduce a generalized force matching condition for the local mean force in the sense that allows the approximation of the potential of mean force under both linear and non-linear coarse graining mappings (e.g., reaction coordinates, end-to-end length of chains). Furthermore, we study the equivalence of force matching with relative entropy minimization which we derive for general non-linear coarse graining maps. We present in detail the generalized force matching condition through applications to specific examples in molecular systems.
Markutsya, Sergiy; Lamm, Monica H
2014-11-07
We report on a new approach for deriving coarse-grained intermolecular forces that retains the frictional contribution that is often discarded by conventional coarse-graining methods. The approach is tested for water and an aqueous glucose solution, and the results from the new implementation for coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation show remarkable agreement with the dynamics obtained from reference all-atom simulations. The agreement between the structural properties observed in the coarse-grained and all-atom simulations is also preserved. We discuss how this approach may be applied broadly to any existing coarse-graining method where the coarse-grained models are rigorously derived from all-atom reference systems.
Membrane-Protein Interactions in a Generic Coarse-Grained Model for Lipid Bilayers
West, Beate; Brown, Frank L.H.; Schmid, Friederike
2009-01-01
Abstract We study membrane-protein interactions and membrane-mediated protein-protein interactions by Monte Carlo simulations of a generic coarse-grained model for lipid bilayers with cylindrical hydrophobic inclusions. The strength of the hydrophobic force and the hydrophobic thickness of the proteins are systematically varied. The results are compared with analytical predictions of two popular analytical theories: The Landau-de Gennes theory and the elastic theory. The elastic theory provides an excellent description of the fluctuation spectra of pure membranes and successfully reproduces the deformation profiles of membranes around single proteins. However, its prediction for the potential of mean force between proteins is not compatible with the simulation data for large distances. The simulations show that the lipid-mediated interactions are governed by five competing factors: direct interactions; lipid-induced depletion interactions; lipid bridging; lipid packing; and a smooth long-range contribution. The mechanisms leading to hydrophobic mismatch interactions are critically analyzed. PMID:18835907
Systematic coarse-graining of spectrin-level red blood cell models
Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Caswell, Bruce; Karniadakis, George Em
2013-01-01
We present a rigorous procedure to derive coarse-grained red blood cell (RBC) models, which yield accurate mechanical response. Based on a semi-analytic theory the linear and nonlinear elastic properties of healthy and infected RBCs in malaria can be matched with those obtained in optical tweezers stretching experiments. The present analysis predicts correctly the membrane Young’s modulus in contrast to about 50% error in predictions by previous models. In addition, we develop a stress-free model which avoids a number of pitfalls of existing RBC models, such as non-smooth or poorly controlled equilibrium shape and dependence of the mechanical properties on the initial triangulation quality. Here we employ dissipative particle dynamics for the implementation but the proposed model is general and suitable for use in many existing continuum and particle-based numerical methods. PMID:24353352
Emergence of attraction in simulations of coarse-grained double stranded DNA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghanbarian, Shahzad; Rottler, Joerg
2015-03-01
DNA condensation induced by multivalent counterions is believed to play an important role in DNA bundling and packing into the cell nucleus. We present a coarse-grained, implicit solvent representation of rigid ds-DNA molecules in the presence of divalent counterions. In order to include solvation effects arising from the discrete nature of the water molecules, short-ranged corrections are added to the pairwise interaction potentials such that the structure of counterions is consistent with results from corresponding explicit solvent simulations. The effective force between two DNA strands generated by these potentials provides an excellent match to that observed in the explicit solvent model. Importantly, this interaction features multiple minima and reproduces the like-charge attraction effect between DNA molecules observed in full atomistic simulations at significantly reduced computational expense. This result proves that it is possible to capture complex multibody interactions between polyelectrolyte strands with two-body potentials.
de Jong, Djurre H; Liguori, Nicoletta; van den Berg, Tom; Arnarez, Clement; Periole, Xavier; Marrink, Siewert J
2015-06-25
Electron transfers within and between protein complexes are core processes of the electron transport chains occurring in thylakoid (chloroplast), mitochondrial, and bacterial membranes. These electron transfers involve a number of cofactors. Here we describe the derivation of molecular mechanics parameters for the cofactors associated with the function of the photosystem II core complex: plastoquinone, plastoquinol, heme b, chlorophyll A, pheophytin, and β-carotene. Parameters were also obtained for ubiquinol and ubiquinone, related cofactors involved in the respiratory chain. Parameters were derived at both atomistic and coarse grain (CG) resolutions, compatible with the building blocks of the GROMOS united-atom and Martini CG force fields, respectively. Structural and thermodynamic properties of the cofactors were compared to experimental values when available. The topologies were further tested in molecular dynamics simulations of the cofactors in their physiological environment, e.g., either in a lipid membrane environment or in complex with the heme binding protein bacterioferritin.
Coarse-grained simulations of flow-induced morphology dynamics in dispersed graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yueyi; Green, Micah
2013-11-01
We investigated how flow fields affect graphene morphology dynamics in liquid phase using a coarse-grained model. Past simulations of the dynamics of dispersed graphene sheets are limited to static fluids on small timescales, with little attention devoted to flow dynamics, which is critical given the importance of graphene solution-processing of multifunctional devices and materials. We developed a Brownian Dynamics (BD) algorithm to study the morphology of sheetlike macromolecules in dilute solutions with an applied external flow field. We used a bead-rod lattice to represent the mesoscopic conformation of individual two dimensional sheets. We then analyzed the morphology dynamic modes (stretching, tumbling, crumpling) of these molecules as a function of sheet size, Weissenberg number, and bending stiffness. The physical properties (e. g. viscosity) affected by the morphology are also studied. Our results demonstrate how bending stiffness relates to relaxation modes during startup of shear.
A coarse-grain force field for RDX: Density dependent and energy conserving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, Joshua D.; Barnes, Brian C.; Izvekov, Sergei; Lísal, Martin; Sellers, Michael S.; Taylor, DeCarlos E.; Brennan, John K.
2016-03-01
We describe the development of a density-dependent transferable coarse-grain model of crystalline hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine (RDX) that can be used with the energy conserving dissipative particle dynamics method. The model is an extension of a recently reported one-site model of RDX that was developed by using a force-matching method. The density-dependent forces in that original model are provided through an interpolation scheme that poorly conserves energy. The development of the new model presented in this work first involved a multi-objective procedure to improve the structural and thermodynamic properties of the previous model, followed by the inclusion of the density dependency via a conservative form of the force field that conserves energy. The new model accurately predicts the density, structure, pressure-volume isotherm, bulk modulus, and elastic constants of the RDX crystal at ambient pressure and exhibits transferability to a liquid phase at melt conditions.
Experimental study on waves propagation over a coarse-grained sloping beach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Tai-Wen; Lai, Jian-Wu
2013-04-01
This study investigates velocity fields of wave propagation over a coarse-grained sloping beach using laboratory experiments. The experiment was conducted in a wave flume of 25 m long, 0.5 m wide and 0.6 m high in which a coarse-grained sloping 1:5 beach was placed with two layers ball. The glass ball is D=7.9 cm and the center to center distance of each ball is 8.0 cm. The test section for observing wave and flow fields is located at the middle part of the flume. A piston type wave maker driven by an electromechanical hydraulic serve system is installed at the end of the flume. The intrinsic permeability Kp and turbulent drag coefficient Cf were obtained from steady flow water-head experiments. The flow velocity was measured by the particle image velocimeter (PIV) and digital image process (DIP) techniques. Eleven fields of view (FOVS) were integrated into a complete representation including the outer, surf and swash zone. Details of the definition sketch of the coarse-grained sloping beach model as well as experimental setup are referred to Lai et al. (2008). A high resolution of CCD camera was used to capture the images which was calibrated by the direct linear transform (DCT) algorithm proposed by Abed El-Aziz and Kar-Ara (1971). The water surface between the interface of air and water at each time step are calculated by Otsu' (1978) detect algorithm. The comparison shows that the water surface elevation observed by integrated image agrees well with that of Otsu' detection results. For the flow field measurement, each image pair was cross correlated with 32X32 pixel inter rogation window and a half overlap between adjacent windows. The repeatability and synchronization are the key elements for both wave motion and PIV technique. The wave profiles and flow field were compared during several wave periods to ensure that they can be reproduced by the present system. The water depth is kept as a constant of h=32 cm. The incident wave conditions are set to be wave
Coarse-graining intermittent intracellular transport: Two- and three-dimensional models.
Lawley, Sean D; Tuft, Marie; Brooks, Heather A
2015-10-01
Viruses and other cellular cargo that lack locomotion must rely on diffusion and cellular transport systems to navigate through a biological cell. Indeed, advances in single particle tracking have revealed that viral motion alternates between (a) diffusion in the cytoplasm and (b) active transport along microtubules. This intermittency makes quantitative analysis of trajectories difficult. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to construct mathematical methods to approximate intermittent dynamics by effective stochastic differential equations. The coarse-graining method that we develop is more accurate than existing techniques and applicable to a wide range of intermittent transport models. In particular, we apply our method to two- and three-dimensional cell geometries (disk, sphere, and cylinder) and demonstrate its accuracy. In addition to these specific applications, we also explain our method in full generality for use on future intermittent models.
Development of DPD coarse-grained models: From bulk to interfacial properties.
Solano Canchaya, José G; Dequidt, Alain; Goujon, Florent; Malfreyt, Patrice
2016-08-01
A new Bayesian method was recently introduced for developing coarse-grain (CG) force fields for molecular dynamics. The CG models designed for dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) are optimized based on trajectory matching. Here we extend this method to improve transferability across thermodynamic conditions. We demonstrate the capability of the method by developing a CG model of n-pentane from constant-NPT atomistic simulations of bulk liquid phases and we apply the CG-DPD model to the calculation of the surface tension of the liquid-vapor interface over a large range of temperatures. The coexisting densities, vapor pressures, and surface tensions calculated with different CG and atomistic models are compared to experiments. Depending on the database used for the development of the potentials, it is possible to build a CG model which performs very well in the reproduction of the surface tension on the orthobaric curve. PMID:27497539
A polarizable coarse-grained protein model for dissipative particle dynamics.
Peter, Emanuel K; Lykov, Kirill; Pivkin, Igor V
2015-10-01
We present a new coarse-grained polarizable protein model for dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method. This method allows large timesteps in particle-based systems and speeds up sampling by many orders of magnitude. Our new model is based on the electrostatic polarization of the protein backbone and a detailed representation of the sidechains in combination with a polarizable water model. We define our model parameters using the experimental structures of two proteins, TrpZip2 and TrpCage. Backmapping and subsequent short replica-exchange molecular dynamics runs verify our approach and show convergence to the experimental structures on the atomistic level. We validate our model on five different proteins: GB1, the WW-domain, the B-domain of Protein A, the peripheral binding subunit and villin headpiece. PMID:26339692
Generalization of the DLA process with different immiscible components by time-scale coarse graining
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Postnikov, E. B.; Ryabov, A. B.; Loskutov, A.
2007-10-01
In the framework of the mean-field approximation we propose a new approach to the description of the growth of fractal structures which are formed as a result of the process of diffusion limited aggregation. Our approach is based on the coarse graining of the time scale which takes into account the property of discreteness of such structures. The obtained system of partial differential equations allows us to evaluate numerically the fractal dimension and the cluster density depending on the distance from the cluster center. The results are in a quite good agreement with values found by the direct numerical simulations. The proposed approach is generalized for the case of the cluster description with different immiscible particles.
Monte-Carlo simulations of a coarse-grained model for α-oligothiophenes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almutairi, Amani; Luettmer-Strathmann, Jutta
The interfacial layer of an organic semiconductor in contact with a metal electrode has important effects on the performance of thin-film devices. However, the structure of this layer is not easy to model. Oligothiophenes are small, π-conjugated molecules with applications in organic electronics that also serve as small-molecule models for polythiophenes. α-hexithiophene (6T) is a six-ring molecule, whose adsorption on noble metal surfaces has been studied extensively (see, e.g., Ref.). In this work, we develop a coarse-grained model for α-oligothiophenes. We describe the molecules as linear chains of bonded, discotic particles with Gay-Berne potential interactions between non-bonded ellipsoids. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to study the structure of isolated and adsorbed molecules
Highly Scalable and Memory Efficient Ultra-Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics Simulations.
Grime, John M A; Voth, Gregory A
2014-01-14
The use of coarse-grained (CG) models can significantly increase the time and length scales accessible to computational molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. To address very large-scale phenomena, however, requires a careful consideration of memory requirements and parallel MD load balancing in order to make efficient use of current supercomputers. In this work, a CG-MD code is introduced which is specifically designed for very large, highly parallel simulations of systems with markedly non-uniform particle distributions, such as those found in highly CG models having an implicit solvent. The CG-MD code uses an unorthodox combination of sparse data representations with a Hilbert space-filling curve (SFC) to provide dynamic topological descriptions, reduced memory overhead, and advanced load-balancing characteristics. The results of representative large-scale simulations indicate that our approach can offer significant advantages over conventional MD techniques, and should enable new classes of CG-MD systems to be investigated. PMID:26579921
Virtual ultrasound sources for inspecting nuclear components of coarse-grained structure
Brizuela, J.; Katchadjian, P.; Desimone, C.; Garcia, A.
2014-02-18
This work describes an ultrasonic inspection procedure designed for verifying coarse-grained structure materials, which are commonly used on nuclear reactors. In this case, conventional phased array techniques cannot be used due to attenuating characteristics and backscattered noise from microstructures inside the material. Thus, synthetic aperture ultrasonic imaging (SAFT) is used for this approach in contact conditions. In order to increase energy transferred to the medium, synthetic transmit aperture is formed by several elements which generate a diverging wavefront equivalent to a virtual ultrasound source behind the transducer. On the other hand, the phase coherence technique has been applied to reduce more structural noise and improve the image quality. The beamforming process has been implemented over a GPU platform to reduce computing time.
Yu, Qin; Jiang, Yanyao; Wang, Jian
2015-04-07
Using electron backscatter diffraction, the microstructural features of tension–compression–tension (T–C–T) tertiary twins are studied in coarse-grained pure polycrystalline magnesium subjected to monotonic compression along the extrusion direction in ambient air. T–C–T tertiary twins are developed due to the formation of a compression–tension double twin inside a primary tension twin. All the observed T–C–T twin variants are of TiCjTj type. TiCi+1Ti+1 (or TiCi–1Ti–1) variants are observed more frequently than TiCi+2Ti+2 (or TiCi–2Ti–2) variants. Moreover, the number of tertiary twin lamellae increases with the applied compressive strain.
Coarse-graining intermittent intracellular transport: Two- and three-dimensional models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lawley, Sean D.; Tuft, Marie; Brooks, Heather A.
2015-10-01
Viruses and other cellular cargo that lack locomotion must rely on diffusion and cellular transport systems to navigate through a biological cell. Indeed, advances in single particle tracking have revealed that viral motion alternates between (a) diffusion in the cytoplasm and (b) active transport along microtubules. This intermittency makes quantitative analysis of trajectories difficult. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to construct mathematical methods to approximate intermittent dynamics by effective stochastic differential equations. The coarse-graining method that we develop is more accurate than existing techniques and applicable to a wide range of intermittent transport models. In particular, we apply our method to two- and three-dimensional cell geometries (disk, sphere, and cylinder) and demonstrate its accuracy. In addition to these specific applications, we also explain our method in full generality for use on future intermittent models.
Investigating bile salt aggregation using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vila Verde, Ana; Frenkel, Daan
2010-03-01
Bile salts are necessary for fat digestion due to their unusual surfactant properties: they assemble into small, polydisperse micelles and easily form mixed micelles with poorly soluble amphiphiles. Understanding these properties requires molecular scale information about bile salt micelles, something challenging to obtain experimentally but amenable to computational modeling. To address this issue we build a coarse-grained model of bile salts. We investigate their aggregation behavior through molecular dynamics simulations in a grand-canonical parallel tempering scheme. We validate our model against available solubility and light scattering data. Our results indicate that at physiological bile salt and counter ion concentrations, bile salts pack in many different orientations in pure bile micelles, contrary to standard surfactants. This feature may be physiologically relevant, allowing bile salts to solubilize the heterogeneous blends of fats typical of digestion.
Coarse-grained simulation reveals key features of HIV-1 capsid self-assembly
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grime, John M. A.; Dama, James F.; Ganser-Pornillos, Barbie K.; Woodward, Cora L.; Jensen, Grant J.; Yeager, Mark; Voth, Gregory A.
2016-05-01
The maturation of HIV-1 viral particles is essential for viral infectivity. During maturation, many copies of the capsid protein (CA) self-assemble into a capsid shell to enclose the viral RNA. The mechanistic details of the initiation and early stages of capsid assembly remain to be delineated. We present coarse-grained simulations of capsid assembly under various conditions, considering not only capsid lattice self-assembly but also the potential disassembly of capsid upon delivery to the cytoplasm of a target cell. The effects of CA concentration, molecular crowding, and the conformational variability of CA are described, with results indicating that capsid nucleation and growth is a multi-stage process requiring well-defined metastable intermediates. Generation of the mature capsid lattice is sensitive to local conditions, with relatively subtle changes in CA concentration and molecular crowding influencing self-assembly and the ensemble of structural morphologies.
Development of DPD coarse-grained models: From bulk to interfacial properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solano Canchaya, José G.; Dequidt, Alain; Goujon, Florent; Malfreyt, Patrice
2016-08-01
A new Bayesian method was recently introduced for developing coarse-grain (CG) force fields for molecular dynamics. The CG models designed for dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) are optimized based on trajectory matching. Here we extend this method to improve transferability across thermodynamic conditions. We demonstrate the capability of the method by developing a CG model of n-pentane from constant-NPT atomistic simulations of bulk liquid phases and we apply the CG-DPD model to the calculation of the surface tension of the liquid-vapor interface over a large range of temperatures. The coexisting densities, vapor pressures, and surface tensions calculated with different CG and atomistic models are compared to experiments. Depending on the database used for the development of the potentials, it is possible to build a CG model which performs very well in the reproduction of the surface tension on the orthobaric curve.
Coarse-grained simulation reveals key features of HIV-1 capsid self-assembly
Grime, John M. A.; Dama, James F.; Ganser-Pornillos, Barbie K.; Woodward, Cora L.; Jensen, Grant J.; Yeager, Mark; Voth, Gregory A.
2016-01-01
The maturation of HIV-1 viral particles is essential for viral infectivity. During maturation, many copies of the capsid protein (CA) self-assemble into a capsid shell to enclose the viral RNA. The mechanistic details of the initiation and early stages of capsid assembly remain to be delineated. We present coarse-grained simulations of capsid assembly under various conditions, considering not only capsid lattice self-assembly but also the potential disassembly of capsid upon delivery to the cytoplasm of a target cell. The effects of CA concentration, molecular crowding, and the conformational variability of CA are described, with results indicating that capsid nucleation and growth is a multi-stage process requiring well-defined metastable intermediates. Generation of the mature capsid lattice is sensitive to local conditions, with relatively subtle changes in CA concentration and molecular crowding influencing self-assembly and the ensemble of structural morphologies. PMID:27174390
Highly Scalable and Memory Efficient Ultra-Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics Simulations.
Grime, John M A; Voth, Gregory A
2014-01-14
The use of coarse-grained (CG) models can significantly increase the time and length scales accessible to computational molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. To address very large-scale phenomena, however, requires a careful consideration of memory requirements and parallel MD load balancing in order to make efficient use of current supercomputers. In this work, a CG-MD code is introduced which is specifically designed for very large, highly parallel simulations of systems with markedly non-uniform particle distributions, such as those found in highly CG models having an implicit solvent. The CG-MD code uses an unorthodox combination of sparse data representations with a Hilbert space-filling curve (SFC) to provide dynamic topological descriptions, reduced memory overhead, and advanced load-balancing characteristics. The results of representative large-scale simulations indicate that our approach can offer significant advantages over conventional MD techniques, and should enable new classes of CG-MD systems to be investigated.
Effective thermostat induced by coarse graining of simple point charge water.
Eriksson, Anders; Jacobi, Martin Nilsson; Nyström, Johan; Tunstrøm, Kolbjørn
2008-07-14
We investigate how the transport properties of a united atom fluid with a dissipative particle dynamics thermostat depend on the functional form and magnitude of both the conservative and the stochastic interactions. We demonstrate how the thermostat strongly affects the hydrodynamics, especially diffusion, viscosity, and local escape times. As model system we use simple point charge (SPC) water, from which projected trajectories are used to determine the effective interactions in the united atom model. The simulation results support our argument that the thermostat should be viewed as an integral part of the coarse-grained dynamics rather than a tool for approaching thermal equilibrium. As our main result we show that the united atom model with the adjusted effective interactions approximately reproduces the diffusion constant and the viscosity of the underlying detailed SPC water model.
Aggregation of alpha-synuclein by a coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farmer, Barry; Pandey, Ras
Alpha-synuclein, an intrinsic protein abundant in neurons, is believed to be a major cause of neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. Alzheimer, Parkinson's disease). Abnormal aggregation of ASN leads to Lewy bodies with specific morphologies. We investigate the self-organizing structures in a crowded environment of ASN proteins by a coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulation. ASN is a chain of 140 residues. Structure detail of residues is neglected but its specificity is captured via unique knowledge-based residue-residue interactions. Large-scale simulations are performed to analyze a number local and global physical quantities (e.g. mobility profile, contact map, radius of gyration, structure factor) as a function of temperature and protein concentration. Trend in multi-scale structural variations of the protein in a crowded environment is compared with that of a free protein chain.
Abbott, Lauren J.; Stevens, Mark J.
2015-12-22
In this study, a coarse-grained (CG) model is developed for the thermoresponsive polymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM), using a hybrid top-down and bottom-up approach. Nonbonded parameters are fit to experimental thermodynamic data following the procedures of the SDK (Shinoda, DeVane, and Klein) CG force field, with minor adjustments to provide better agreement with radial distribution functions from atomistic simulations. Bonded parameters are fit to probability distributions from atomistic simulations using multi-centered Gaussian-based potentials. The temperature-dependent potentials derived for the PNIPAM CG model in this work properly capture the coil–globule transition of PNIPAM single chains and yield a chain-length dependence consistent with atomisticmore » simulations.« less
Abbott, Lauren J.; Stevens, Mark J.
2015-12-28
A coarse-grained (CG) model is developed for the thermoresponsive polymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM), using a hybrid top-down and bottom-up approach. Nonbonded parameters are fit to experimental thermodynamic data following the procedures of the SDK (Shinoda, DeVane, and Klein) CG force field, with minor adjustments to provide better agreement with radial distribution functions from atomistic simulations. Bonded parameters are fit to probability distributions from atomistic simulations using multi-centered Gaussian-based potentials. The temperature-dependent potentials derived for the PNIPAM CG model in this work properly capture the coil–globule transition of PNIPAM single chains and yield a chain-length dependence consistent with atomistic simulations.
Abbott, Lauren J.; Stevens, Mark J.
2015-12-22
In this study, a coarse-grained (CG) model is developed for the thermoresponsive polymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM), using a hybrid top-down and bottom-up approach. Nonbonded parameters are fit to experimental thermodynamic data following the procedures of the SDK (Shinoda, DeVane, and Klein) CG force field, with minor adjustments to provide better agreement with radial distribution functions from atomistic simulations. Bonded parameters are fit to probability distributions from atomistic simulations using multi-centered Gaussian-based potentials. The temperature-dependent potentials derived for the PNIPAM CG model in this work properly capture the coil–globule transition of PNIPAM single chains and yield a chain-length dependence consistent with atomistic simulations.
Ruff, Kiersten M.; Harmon, Tyler S.; Pappu, Rohit V.
2015-12-28
We report the development and deployment of a coarse-graining method that is well suited for computer simulations of aggregation and phase separation of protein sequences with block-copolymeric architectures. Our algorithm, named CAMELOT for Coarse-grained simulations Aided by MachinE Learning Optimization and Training, leverages information from converged all atom simulations that is used to determine a suitable resolution and parameterize the coarse-grained model. To parameterize a system-specific coarse-grained model, we use a combination of Boltzmann inversion, non-linear regression, and a Gaussian process Bayesian optimization approach. The accuracy of the coarse-grained model is demonstrated through direct comparisons to results from all atom simulations. We demonstrate the utility of our coarse-graining approach using the block-copolymeric sequence from the exon 1 encoded sequence of the huntingtin protein. This sequence comprises of 17 residues from the N-terminal end of huntingtin (N17) followed by a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract. Simulations based on the CAMELOT approach are used to show that the adsorption and unfolding of the wild type N17 and its sequence variants on the surface of polyQ tracts engender a patchy colloid like architecture that promotes the formation of linear aggregates. These results provide a plausible explanation for experimental observations, which show that N17 accelerates the formation of linear aggregates in block-copolymeric N17-polyQ sequences. The CAMELOT approach is versatile and is generalizable for simulating the aggregation and phase behavior of a range of block-copolymeric protein sequences.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruff, Kiersten M.; Harmon, Tyler S.; Pappu, Rohit V.
2015-12-01
We report the development and deployment of a coarse-graining method that is well suited for computer simulations of aggregation and phase separation of protein sequences with block-copolymeric architectures. Our algorithm, named CAMELOT for Coarse-grained simulations Aided by MachinE Learning Optimization and Training, leverages information from converged all atom simulations that is used to determine a suitable resolution and parameterize the coarse-grained model. To parameterize a system-specific coarse-grained model, we use a combination of Boltzmann inversion, non-linear regression, and a Gaussian process Bayesian optimization approach. The accuracy of the coarse-grained model is demonstrated through direct comparisons to results from all atom simulations. We demonstrate the utility of our coarse-graining approach using the block-copolymeric sequence from the exon 1 encoded sequence of the huntingtin protein. This sequence comprises of 17 residues from the N-terminal end of huntingtin (N17) followed by a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract. Simulations based on the CAMELOT approach are used to show that the adsorption and unfolding of the wild type N17 and its sequence variants on the surface of polyQ tracts engender a patchy colloid like architecture that promotes the formation of linear aggregates. These results provide a plausible explanation for experimental observations, which show that N17 accelerates the formation of linear aggregates in block-copolymeric N17-polyQ sequences. The CAMELOT approach is versatile and is generalizable for simulating the aggregation and phase behavior of a range of block-copolymeric protein sequences.
A Coarse-Grained Model of Stratum Corneum Lipids: Free Fatty Acids and Ceramide NS.
Moore, Timothy C; Iacovella, Christopher R; Hartkamp, Remco; Bunge, Annette L; McCabe, Clare
2016-09-22
Ceramide (CER)-based biological membranes are used both experimentally and in simulations as simplified model systems of the skin barrier. Molecular dynamics studies have generally focused on simulating preassembled structures using atomistically detailed models of CERs, which limit the system sizes and time scales that can practically be probed, rendering them ineffective for studying particular phenomena, including self-assembly into bilayer and lamellar superstructures. Here, we report on the development of a coarse-grained (CG) model for CER NS, the most abundant CER in human stratum corneum. Multistate iterative Boltzmann inversion is used to derive the intermolecular pair potentials, resulting in a force field that is applicable over a range of state points and suitable for studying ceramide self-assembly. The chosen CG mapping, which includes explicit interaction sites for hydroxyl groups, captures the directional nature of hydrogen bonding and allows for accurate predictions of several key structural properties of CER NS bilayers. Simulated wetting experiments allow the hydrophobicity of CG beads to be accurately tuned to match atomistic wetting behavior, which affects the whole system, since inaccurate hydrophobic character is found to unphysically alter the lipid packing in hydrated lamellar states. We find that CER NS can self-assemble into multilamellar structures, enabling the study of lipid systems more representative of the multilamellar lipid structures present in the skin barrier. The coarse-grained force field derived herein represents an important step in using molecular dynamics to study the human skin barrier, which gives a resolution not available through experiment alone. PMID:27564869
Deviation of permeable coarse-grained boundary resistance from Nikuradse's observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Nian-Sheng; Liu, Xingnian; Chen, Xingwei; Qiao, Changkai
2016-02-01
Nikuradse's (1933) rough pipe study is enormously influential in the understanding of flow resistance over a sediment bed. However, the rough boundary employed in Nikuradse's study differs from permeable sediment beds in rivers. This implies that the results derived from the rough pipe experiments may not be applicable for flows over a permeable coarse-grained bed. The present study aimed to explore to what extent the flow resistance of a permeable coarse-grained boundary deviates from the Nikuradse's observations. Experiments were conducted with rough pipes, which were prepared by overlaying the inner wall with one to four layers of spherical beads. The single layer roughness resembles the experimental setup reported in Nikuradse's study, while the multilayer of grains allows significant flow to pass through the porous roughness layer. In addition, the ratio of grain diameter, k, to pipe diameter, d, was chosen to be one to two orders greater than the range (0.001 < k/d < 0.033) adopted in Nikuradse's experiments. The data show that the friction factor deviates significantly from the prediction based on Nikuradse's rough pipe relation. For hydraulically rough pipes, the friction factor is found to be proportional to the squared ratio of the grain diameter to nominal pipe diameter. This result is different from the one-third power function as implied by Nikuradse's rough pipe relation or the Manning-Strickler formula but agrees well with laboratory observations of open channel resistance in the presence of large-scale roughness. The measurements also suggest the existence of a laminar flow regime, in which the friction factor is inversely proportional to the Reynolds number. The observed variations in the flow resistance are attributed to both wall permeability and large-scale roughness.
Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Membrane-Trehalose Interactions.
Kapla, Jon; Stevensson, Baltzar; Maliniak, Arnold
2016-09-15
It is well established that trehalose (TRH) affects the physical properties of lipid bilayers and stabilizes biological membranes. We present molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations to investigate the interactions between lipid membranes formed by 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and TRH. Both atomistic and coarse-grained (CG) interaction models were employed, and the coarse graining of DMPC leads to a reduction in the acyl chain length corresponding to a 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine lipid (DLPC). Several modifications of the Martini interaction model, used for CG simulations, were implemented, resulting in different potentials of mean force (PMFs) for DMPC bilayer-TRH interactions. These PMFs were subsequently used in a simple two-site analytical model for the description of sugar binding at the membrane interface. In contrast to that in atomistic MD simulations, the binding in the CG model was not in agreement with the two-site model. Our interpretation is that the interaction balance, involving water, TRH, and lipids, in the CG systems needs further tuning of the force-field parameters. The area per lipid is only weakly affected by TRH concentration, whereas the compressibility modulus related to the fluctuations of the membrane increases with an increase in TRH content. In agreement with experimental findings, the bending modulus is not affected by the inclusion of TRH. The important aspects of lipid bilayer interactions with biomolecules are membrane curvature generation and sensing. In the present investigation, membrane curvature is generated by artificial buckling of the bilayer in one dimension. It turns out that TRH prefers the regions with the highest curvature, which enables the most favorable situation for lipid-sugar interactions. PMID:27530142
Polarizable Water Model for the Coarse-Grained MARTINI Force Field
Sengupta, Durba; Marrink, Siewert J.
2010-01-01
Coarse-grained (CG) simulations have become an essential tool to study a large variety of biomolecular processes, exploring temporal and spatial scales inaccessible to traditional models of atomistic resolution. One of the major simplifications of CG models is the representation of the solvent, which is either implicit or modeled explicitly as a van der Waals particle. The effect of polarization, and thus a proper screening of interactions depending on the local environment, is absent. Given the important role of water as a ubiquitous solvent in biological systems, its treatment is crucial to the properties derived from simulation studies. Here, we parameterize a polarizable coarse-grained water model to be used in combination with the CG MARTINI force field. Using a three-bead model to represent four water molecules, we show that the orientational polarizability of real water can be effectively accounted for. This has the consequence that the dielectric screening of bulk water is reproduced. At the same time, we parameterized our new water model such that bulk water density and oil/water partitioning data remain at the same level of accuracy as for the standard MARTINI force field. We apply the new model to two cases for which current CG force fields are inadequate. First, we address the transport of ions across a lipid membrane. The computed potential of mean force shows that the ions now naturally feel the change in dielectric medium when moving from the high dielectric aqueous phase toward the low dielectric membrane interior. In the second application we consider the electroporation process of both an oil slab and a lipid bilayer. The electrostatic field drives the formation of water filled pores in both cases, following a similar mechanism as seen with atomistically detailed models. PMID:20548957
PRAM C:a new programming environment for fine-grain and coarse-grain parallelism.
Brown, Jonathan Leighton; Wen, Zhaofang.
2004-11-01
In the search for ''good'' parallel programming environments for Sandia's current and future parallel architectures, they revisit a long-standing open question. Can the PRAM parallel algorithms designed by theoretical computer scientists over the last two decades be implemented efficiently? This open question has co-existed with ongoing efforts in the HPC community to develop practical parallel programming models that can simultaneously provide ease of use, expressiveness, performance, and scalability. Unfortunately, no single model has met all these competing requirements. Here they propose a parallel programming environment, PRAM C, to bridge the gap between theory and practice. This is an attempt to provide an affirmative answer to the PRAM question, and to satisfy these competing practical requirements. This environment consists of a new thin runtime layer and an ANSI C extension. The C extension has two control constructs and one additional data type concept, ''shared''. This C extension should enable easy translation from PRAM algorithms to real parallel programs, much like the translation from sequential algorithms to C programs. The thin runtime layer bundles fine-grained communication requests into coarse-grained communication to be served by message-passing. Although the PRAM represents SIMD-style fine-grained parallelism, a stand-alone PRAM C environment can support both fine-grained and coarse-grained parallel programming in either a MIMD or SPMD style, interoperate with existing MPI libraries, and use existing hardware. The PRAM C model can also be integrated easily with existing models. Unlike related efforts proposing innovative hardware with the goal to realize the PRAM, ours can be a pure software solution with the purpose to provide a practical programming environment for existing parallel machines; it also has the potential to perform well on future parallel architectures.
Coarse-grained Brownian ratchet model of membrane protrusion on cellular scale.
Inoue, Yasuhiro; Adachi, Taiji
2011-07-01
Membrane protrusion is a mechanochemical process of active membrane deformation driven by actin polymerization. Previously, Brownian ratchet (BR) was modeled on the basis of the underlying molecular mechanism. However, because the BR requires a priori load that cannot be determined without information of the cell shape, it cannot be effective in studies in which resultant shapes are to be solved. Other cellular-scale models describing the protrusion have also been suggested for modeling a whole cell; however, these models were not developed on the basis of coarse-grained physics representing the underlying molecular mechanism. Therefore, to express the membrane protrusion on the cellular scale, we propose a novel mathematical model, the coarse-grained BR (CBR), which is derived on the basis of nonequilibrium thermodynamics theory. The CBR can reproduce the BR within the limit of the quasistatic process of membrane protrusion and can estimate the protrusion velocity consistently with an effective elastic constant that represents the state of the energy of the membrane. Finally, to demonstrate the applicability of the CBR, we attempt to perform a cellular-scale simulation of migrating keratocyte in which the proposed CBR is used for the membrane protrusion model on the cellular scale. The results show that the experimentally observed shapes of the leading edge are well reproduced by the simulation. In addition, The trend of dependences of the protrusion velocity on the curvature of the leading edge, the temperature, and the substrate stiffness also agreed with the other experimental results. Thus, the CBR can be considered an appropriate cellular-scale model to express the membrane protrusion on the basis of its underlying molecular mechanism.
Shendruk, Tyler N.; Bertrand, Martin; Harden, James L.; Slater, Gary W.; Haan, Hendrick W. de
2014-12-28
Given the ubiquity of depletion effects in biological and other soft matter systems, it is desirable to have coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation approaches appropriate for the study of complex systems. This paper examines the use of two common truncated Lennard-Jones (Weeks-Chandler-Andersen (WCA)) potentials to describe a pair of colloidal particles in a thermal bath of depletants. The shifted-WCA model is the steeper of the two repulsive potentials considered, while the combinatorial-WCA model is the softer. It is found that the depletion-induced well depth for the combinatorial-WCA model is significantly deeper than the shifted-WCA model because the resulting overlap of the colloids yields extra accessible volume for depletants. For both shifted- and combinatorial-WCA simulations, the second virial coefficients and pair potentials between colloids are demonstrated to be well approximated by the Morphometric Thermodynamics (MT) model. This agreement suggests that the presence of depletants can be accurately modelled in MD simulations by implicitly including them through simple, analytical MT forms for depletion-induced interactions. Although both WCA potentials are found to be effective generic coarse-grained simulation approaches for studying depletion effects in complicated soft matter systems, combinatorial-WCA is the more efficient approach as depletion effects are enhanced at lower depletant densities. The findings indicate that for soft matter systems that are better modelled by potentials with some compressibility, predictions from hard-sphere systems could greatly underestimate the magnitude of depletion effects at a given depletant density.
Sharma, Govind K; Kumar, Anish; Jayakumar, T; Purnachandra Rao, B; Mariyappa, N
2015-03-01
A signal processing methodology is proposed in this paper for effective reconstruction of ultrasonic signals in coarse grained high scattering austenitic stainless steel. The proposed methodology is comprised of the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) processing of ultrasonic signals and application of signal minimisation algorithm on selected Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) obtained by EEMD. The methodology is applied to ultrasonic signals obtained from austenitic stainless steel specimens of different grain size, with and without defects. The influence of probe frequency and data length of a signal on EEMD decomposition is also investigated. For a particular sampling rate and probe frequency, the same range of IMFs can be used to reconstruct the ultrasonic signal, irrespective of the grain size in the range of 30-210 μm investigated in this study. This methodology is successfully employed for detection of defects in a 50mm thick coarse grain austenitic stainless steel specimens. Signal to noise ratio improvement of better than 15 dB is observed for the ultrasonic signal obtained from a 25 mm deep flat bottom hole in 200 μm grain size specimen. For ultrasonic signals obtained from defects at different depths, a minimum of 7 dB extra enhancement in SNR is achieved as compared to the sum of selected IMF approach. The application of minimisation algorithm with EEMD processed signal in the proposed methodology proves to be effective for adaptive signal reconstruction with improved signal to noise ratio. This methodology was further employed for successful imaging of defects in a B-scan.
Thermal dileptons from coarse-grained transport as fireball probes at SIS energies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galatyuk, Tetyana; Hohler, Paul M.; Rapp, Ralf; Seck, Florian; Stroth, Joachim
2016-05-01
Utilizing a coarse-graining method to convert hadronic transport simulations of Au+Au collisions at SIS energies into local temperature, baryon and pion densities, we compute the pertinent radiation of thermal dileptons based on an in-medium ρ spectral function that describes available spectra at ultrarelativistic collision energies. In particular, we analyze how far the resulting yields and slopes of the invariant-mass spectra can probe the lifetime and temperatures of the fireball. We find that dilepton radiation sets in after the initial overlap phase of the colliding nuclei of about 7fm/ c, and lasts for about 13fm/ c. This duration closely coincides with the development of the transverse collectivity of the baryons, thus establishing a direct correlation between hadronic collective effects and thermal EM radiation, and supporting a near local equilibration of the system. This fireball "lifetime" is substantially smaller than the typical 20-30fm/ c that naive considerations of the density evolution alone would suggest. We furthermore find that the total dilepton yield radiated into the invariant-mass window of M=0.3 -0.7GeV/ c^2 normalized to the number of charged pions, follows a relation to the lifetime found earlier in the (ultra-) relativistic regime of heavy-ion collisions, and thus corroborates the versatility of this tool. The spectral slopes of the invariant-mass spectra above the φ -meson mass provide a thermometer of the hottest phases of the collision, and agree well with the maximal temperatures extracted from the coarse-grained hadron spectra.
Mixing MARTINI: electrostatic coupling in hybrid atomistic-coarse-grained biomolecular simulations.
Wassenaar, Tsjerk A; Ingólfsson, Helgi I; Priess, Marten; Marrink, Siewert J; Schäfer, Lars V
2013-04-01
Hybrid molecular dynamics simulations of atomistic (AA) solutes embedded in coarse-grained (CG) environment can substantially reduce the computational cost with respect to fully atomistic simulations. However, interfacing both levels of resolution is a major challenge that includes a balanced description of the relevant interactions. This is especially the case for polar solvents such as water, which screen the electrostatic interactions and thus require explicit electrostatic coupling between AA and CG subsystems. Here, we present and critically test computationally efficient hybrid AA/CG models. We combined the Gromos atomistic force field with the MARTINI coarse-grained force field. To enact electrostatic coupling, two recently developed CG water models with explicit electrostatic interactions were used: the polarizable MARTINI water model and the BMW model. The hybrid model was found to be sensitive to the strength of the AA-CG electrostatic coupling, which was adjusted through the relative dielectric permittivity εr(AA-CG). Potentials of mean force (PMFs) between pairs of amino acid side chain analogues in water and partitioning free enthalpies of uncharged amino acid side chain analogues between apolar solvent and water show significant differences between the hybrid simulations and the fully AA or CG simulations, in particular for charged and polar molecules. For apolar molecules, the results obtained with the hybrid AA/CG models are in better agreement with the fully atomistic results. The structures of atomistic ubiquitin solvated in CG water and of a single atomistic transmembrane α-helix and the transmembrane portion of an atomistic mechanosensitive channel in CG lipid bilayers were largely maintained during 50-100 ns of AA/CG simulations, partly due to an overstabilization of intramolecular interactions. This work highlights some key challenges on the way toward hybrid AA/CG models that are both computationally efficient and sufficiently accurate for
Comparing normal modes across different models and scales: Hessian reduction versus coarse-graining.
Ghysels, An; Miller, Benjamin T; Pickard, Frank C; Brooks, Bernard R
2012-10-30
Dimension reduction is often necessary when attempting to reach longer length and time scales in molecular simulations. It is realized by constraining degrees of freedom or by coarse-graining the system. When evaluating the accuracy of a dimensional reduction, there is a practical challenge: the models yield vectors with different lengths, making a comparison by calculating their dot product impossible. This article investigates mapping procedures for normal mode analysis. We first review a horizontal mapping procedure for the reduced Hessian techniques, which projects out degrees of freedom. We then design a vertical mapping procedure for the "implosion" of the all-atom (AA) Hessian to a coarse-grained scale that is based upon vibrational subsystem analysis. This latter method derives both effective force constants and an effective kinetic tensor. Next, a series of metrics is presented for comparison across different scales, where special attention is given to proper mass-weighting. The dimension-dependent metrics, which require prior mapping for proper evaluation, are frequencies, overlap of normal mode vectors, probability similarity, Hessian similarity, collectivity of modes, and thermal fluctuations. The dimension-independent metrics are shape derivatives, elastic modulus, vibrational free energy differences, heat capacity, and projection on a predefined basis set. The power of these metrics to distinguish between reasonable and unreasonable models is tested on a toy alpha helix system and a globular protein; both are represented at several scales: the AA scale, a Gō-like model, a canonical elastic network model, and a network model with intentionally unphysical force constants.
On the second law of thermodynamics: The significance of coarse-graining and the role of decoherence
Noorbala, Mahdiyar
2014-12-15
We take up the question why the initial entropy in the universe was small, in the context of evolution of the entropy of a classical system. We note that coarse-graining is an important aspect of entropy evaluation which can reverse the direction of the increase in entropy, i.e., the direction of thermodynamic arrow of time. Then we investigate the role of decoherence in the selection of coarse-graining and explain how to compute entropy for a decohered classical system. Finally, we argue that the requirement of low initial entropy imposes constraints on the decoherence process.
Grahnen, Johan A; Kubelka, Jan; Liberles, David A
2011-08-01
For high-throughput structural genomic and evolutionary bioinformatics approaches, there is a clear need for fast methods to evaluate substitutions structurally. Coarse-grained methods are both powerful and fast, and a coarse-grained approach to position the substituted side chains is presented. Through the application of a coarse-grained method, a speed-up on the single- residue replacement, of at least sevenfold is achieved compared with modern all-atom approaches. At the same time, this approach maintains a small median RMSD from the leading all-atom approach (as measured in coarse-grained space), and predicts the conformation of point mutants with similar accuracy and generates biologically realistic side chain angles. This method is also substantially more predictable in its run time, making it useful for high-throughput studies of protein structural evolution. To demonstrate the utility of this method, it has been implemented in a forward simulation of sequences threaded through the SH2 domains, with selective pressures to fold and bind specifically. The relative substitution rates across the protein structure and at the binding interface are reflective of those observed in SH2 domain evolution. The algorithm has been implemented in C++, with the source code and binaries (currently supported for Linux systems) freely available as SARA at http://www.wyomingbioinformatics.org/LiberlesGroup/SARA .
Wan, X.L.; Wei, R.; Wu, K.M.
2010-07-15
The microstructure of acicular ferrite and its formation for the grain refinement of coarse-grained region of heat-affected zone of high strength low-alloy bainite steels were studied using three-dimensional reconstruction technique. Crystallographic grain size was analyzed by means of electron backscatter diffraction. It was revealed that the microstructure in the coarse-grained region of the heat-affected zone consisted of predominantly bainite packets and a small proportion of acicular ferrite. Acicular ferrite was of lath or plate-like rather than needle or rod-like morphology. Tempering of the coarse-grained region of heat-affected zone showed that the acicular ferrite was more stable than the bainite, indicating that the acicular ferrite was formed prior to bainite. The acicular ferrite laths or plates divided the prior austenite grains into smaller and separate regions, and confining the bainite transformed at lower temperatures in the smaller regions and hence leading to the grain refinement in the coarse-grained region of the heat-affected zone.
2013-01-01
Maximum Likelihood (ML) optimization schemes are widely used for parameter inference. They maximize the likelihood of some experimentally observed data, with respect to the model parameters iteratively, following the gradient of the logarithm of the likelihood. Here, we employ a ML inference scheme to infer a generalizable, physics-based coarse-grained protein model (which includes Go̅-like biasing terms to stabilize secondary structure elements in room-temperature simulations), using native conformations of a training set of proteins as the observed data. Contrastive divergence, a novel statistical machine learning technique, is used to efficiently approximate the direction of the gradient ascent, which enables the use of a large training set of proteins. Unlike previous work, the generalizability of the protein model allows the folding of peptides and a protein (protein G) which are not part of the training set. We compare the same force field with different van der Waals (vdW) potential forms: a hard cutoff model, and a Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential with vdW parameters inferred or adopted from the CHARMM or AMBER force fields. Simulations of peptides and protein G show that the LJ model with inferred parameters outperforms the hard cutoff potential, which is consistent with previous observations. Simulations using the LJ potential with inferred vdW parameters also outperforms the protein models with adopted vdW parameter values, demonstrating that model parameters generally cannot be used with force fields with different energy functions. The software is available at https://sites.google.com/site/crankite/. PMID:24683370
Improved Coarse-Grained Modeling of Cholesterol-Containing Lipid Bilayers
Daily, Michael D.; Olsen, Brett N.; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Ory, Daniel S.; Baker, Nathan A.
2014-03-24
In mammalian cells cholesterol is essential for membrane function, but in excess can be cytototoxic. The cellular response to acute cholesterol loading involves biophysical-based mechanisms that regulate cholesterol levels, through modulation of the “activity” or accessibility of cholesterol to extra-membrane acceptors. Experiments and united atom (UA) simulations show that at high concentrations of cholesterol, lipid bilayers thin significantly and cholesterol availability to external acceptors increases substantially. Such cholesterol activation is critical to its trafficking within cells. Here we aim to reduce the computational cost to enable simulation of large and complex systems involved in cholesterol regulation, such as those including oxysterols and cholesterol-sensing proteins. To accomplish this, we have modified the published MARTINI coarse-grained force field to improve its predictions of cholesterol-induced changes in both macroscopic and microscopic properties of membranes. Most notably, MARTINI fails to capture both the (macroscopic) area condensation and membrane thickening seen at less than 30% cholesterol and the thinning seen above 40% cholesterol. The thinning at high concentration is critical to cholesterol activation. Microscopic properties of interest include cholesterol-cholesterol radial distribution functions (RDFs), tilt angle, and accessible surface area. First, we develop an “angle-corrected” model wherein we modify the coarse-grained bond angle potentials based on atomistic simulations. This modification significantly improves prediction of macroscopic properties, most notably the thickening/thinning behavior, and also slightly improves microscopic property prediction relative to MARTINI. Second, we add to the angle correction a “volume correction” by also adjusting phospholipid bond lengths to achieve a more accurate volume per molecule. The angle + volume correction substantially further improves the quantitative
Multi-scale coarse-graining of non-conservative interactions in molecular liquids
Izvekov, Sergei Rice, Betsy M.
2014-03-14
A new bottom-up procedure for constructing non-conservative (dissipative and stochastic) interactions for dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) models is described and applied to perform hierarchical coarse-graining of a polar molecular liquid (nitromethane). The distant-dependent radial and shear frictions in functional-free form are derived consistently with a chosen form for conservative interactions by matching two-body force-velocity and three-body velocity-velocity correlations along the microscopic trajectories of the centroids of Voronoi cells (clusters), which represent the dissipative particles within the DPD description. The Voronoi tessellation is achieved by application of the K-means clustering algorithm at regular time intervals. Consistently with a notion of many-body DPD, the conservative interactions are determined through the multi-scale coarse-graining (MS-CG) method, which naturally implements a pairwise decomposition of the microscopic free energy. A hierarchy of MS-CG/DPD models starting with one molecule per Voronoi cell and up to 64 molecules per cell is derived. The radial contribution to the friction appears to be dominant for all models. As the Voronoi cell sizes increase, the dissipative forces rapidly become confined to the first coordination shell. For Voronoi cells of two and more molecules the time dependence of the velocity autocorrelation function becomes monotonic and well reproduced by the respective MS-CG/DPD models. A comparative analysis of force and velocity correlations in the atomistic and CG ensembles indicates Markovian behavior with as low as two molecules per dissipative particle. The models with one and two molecules per Voronoi cell yield transport properties (diffusion and shear viscosity) that are in good agreement with the atomistic data. The coarser models produce slower dynamics that can be appreciably attributed to unaccounted dissipation introduced by regular Voronoi re-partitioning as well as by larger
First-principles theory, coarse-grained models, and simulations of ferroelectrics.
Waghmare, Umesh V
2014-11-18
large-scale simulations while capturing the relevant microscopic interactions quantitatively. In this Account, we first summarize the insights obtained into chemical mechanisms of ferroelectricity using first-principles DFT calculations. We then discuss the principles of construction of first-principles model Hamiltonians for ferroelectric phase transitions in perovskite oxides, which involve coarse-graining in time domain by integrating out high frequency phonons. Molecular dynamics simulations of the resulting model are shown to give quantitative predictions of material-specific ferroelectric transition behavior in bulk as well as nanoscale ferroelectric structures. A free energy landscape obtained through coarse-graining in real-space provides deeper understanding of ferroelectric transitions, domains, and states with inhomogeneous order and points out the key role of microscopic coupling between phonons and strain. We conclude with a discussion of the multiscale modeling strategy elucidated here and its application to other materials such as shape memory alloys.
First-principles theory, coarse-grained models, and simulations of ferroelectrics.
Waghmare, Umesh V
2014-11-18
large-scale simulations while capturing the relevant microscopic interactions quantitatively. In this Account, we first summarize the insights obtained into chemical mechanisms of ferroelectricity using first-principles DFT calculations. We then discuss the principles of construction of first-principles model Hamiltonians for ferroelectric phase transitions in perovskite oxides, which involve coarse-graining in time domain by integrating out high frequency phonons. Molecular dynamics simulations of the resulting model are shown to give quantitative predictions of material-specific ferroelectric transition behavior in bulk as well as nanoscale ferroelectric structures. A free energy landscape obtained through coarse-graining in real-space provides deeper understanding of ferroelectric transitions, domains, and states with inhomogeneous order and points out the key role of microscopic coupling between phonons and strain. We conclude with a discussion of the multiscale modeling strategy elucidated here and its application to other materials such as shape memory alloys. PMID:25361389
Coarse-grained Simulations of Chemical Oscillation in Lattice Brusselator System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rao, Ting; Zhang, Zhen; Hou, Zhong-huai; Xin, Hou-wen
2011-08-01
The oscillation behavior of a two-dimension lattice-gas Brusselator model was investigated. We have adopted a coarse-grained kinetic Monte Carlo (CG-KMC) procedure, where m×m microscopic lattice sites are grouped together to form a CG cell, upon which CG processes take place with well-defined CG rates. Such a CG approach almost fails if the CG rates are obtained by a simple local mean field (s-LMF) approximation, due to the ignorance of correlation among adjcent cells resulting from the trimolecular reaction in this nonlinear system. By proper incorporating such boundary effects, thus introduce the so-called b-LMF CG approach. Extensive numerical simulations demonstrate that the b-LMF method can reproduce the oscillation behavior of the system quite well, given that the diffusion constant is not too small. In addition, the deviation from the KMC results reaches a nearly zero minimum level at an intermediate cell size, which lies in between the effective diffusion length and the minimal size required to sustain a well-defined temporal oscillation.
Characterizing DNA Star-Tile-Based Nanostructures Using a Coarse-Grained Model.
Schreck, John S; Romano, Flavio; Zimmer, Matthew H; Louis, Ard A; Doye, Jonathan P K
2016-04-26
We use oxDNA, a coarse-grained model of DNA at the nucleotide level, to simulate large nanoprisms that are composed of multi-arm star tiles, in which the size of bulge loops that have been incorporated into the tile design is used to control the flexibility of the tiles. The oxDNA model predicts equilibrium structures for several different nanoprism designs that are in excellent agreement with the experimental structures as measured by cryoTEM. In particular we reproduce the chiral twisting of the top and bottom faces of the nanoprisms, as the bulge sizes in these structures are varied due to the greater flexibility of larger bulges. We are also able to follow how the properties of the star tiles evolve as the prisms are assembled. Individual star tiles are very flexible, but their structures become increasingly well-defined and rigid as they are incorporated into larger assemblies. oxDNA also finds that the experimentally observed prisms are more stable than their inverted counterparts, but interestingly this preference for the arms of the tiles to bend in a given direction only emerges after they are part of larger assemblies. These results show the potential for oxDNA to provide detailed structural insight as well as to predict the properties of DNA nanostructures and hence to aid rational design in DNA nanotechnology. PMID:27010928
Characterizing DNA Star-Tile-Based Nanostructures Using a Coarse-Grained Model.
Schreck, John S; Romano, Flavio; Zimmer, Matthew H; Louis, Ard A; Doye, Jonathan P K
2016-04-26
We use oxDNA, a coarse-grained model of DNA at the nucleotide level, to simulate large nanoprisms that are composed of multi-arm star tiles, in which the size of bulge loops that have been incorporated into the tile design is used to control the flexibility of the tiles. The oxDNA model predicts equilibrium structures for several different nanoprism designs that are in excellent agreement with the experimental structures as measured by cryoTEM. In particular we reproduce the chiral twisting of the top and bottom faces of the nanoprisms, as the bulge sizes in these structures are varied due to the greater flexibility of larger bulges. We are also able to follow how the properties of the star tiles evolve as the prisms are assembled. Individual star tiles are very flexible, but their structures become increasingly well-defined and rigid as they are incorporated into larger assemblies. oxDNA also finds that the experimentally observed prisms are more stable than their inverted counterparts, but interestingly this preference for the arms of the tiles to bend in a given direction only emerges after they are part of larger assemblies. These results show the potential for oxDNA to provide detailed structural insight as well as to predict the properties of DNA nanostructures and hence to aid rational design in DNA nanotechnology.
Coarse-grain molecular dynamics study of fullerene transport across a cell membrane.
Sridhar, Akshay; Srikanth, Bharath; Kumar, Amit; Dasmahapatra, Ashok Kumar
2015-07-14
The study of the ability of drug molecules to enter cells through the membrane is of vital importance in the field of drug delivery. In cases where the transport of the drug molecules through the membrane is not easily accomplishable, other carrier molecules are used. Spherical fullerene molecules have been postulated as potential carriers of highly hydrophilic drugs across the plasma membrane. Here, we report the coarse-grain molecular dynamics study of the translocation of C60 fullerene and its derivatives across a cell membrane modeled as a 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine bilayer. Simulation results indicate that pristine fullerene molecules enter the bilayer quickly and reside within it. The addition of polar functionalized groups makes the fullerenes less likely to reside within the bilayer but increases their residence time in bulk water. Addition of polar functional groups to one half of the fullerene surface, in effect creating a Janus particle, offers the most promise in developing fullerene models that can achieve complete translocation through the membrane bilayer.
Computer simulation of strength and ductility of nanotwin-strengthened coarse-grained metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, X.; Ji, R.; Weng, G. J.; Zhu, L. L.; Lu, J.
2014-10-01
The superior strength-ductility combination in nanotwin (NT)-strengthened metals has provided a new potential for optimizing the mechanical properties of coarse-grained (CG) metals. In this paper computer simulations based on the mechanism-based strain gradient plasticity and the Johnson-Cook failure criterion have been carried out to uncover the critical factors that serve to provide this dual function. Our results indicate that both the distribution characteristics of the NT regions and the constitutive relations of the NT phase can have a significant impact on the strength and ductility of the CG Cu strengthened by the NT regions. In particular, twin spacing, distribution characteristics such as arrangement, shape and orientation, together with volume fraction of the NT regions, can all have significant effects. Along the way, we also discovered that microcrack initiation, coalescence and deflection constituted the entire failure process. Significant insights into the morphology of NT regions that could deliver superior strength and ductility combination for CG metals have been established.
Coarse-grained simulations of poly(propylene imine) dendrimers in solution.
Smeijers, A F; Markvoort, A J; Pieterse, K; Hilbers, P A J
2016-02-21
The behavior of poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers in concentrated solutions has been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations containing up to a thousand PPI dendrimers of generation 4 or 5 in explicit water. To deal with large system sizes and time scales required to study the solutions over a wide range of dendrimer concentrations, a previously published coarse-grained model was applied. Simulation results on the radius of gyration, structure factor, intermolecular spacing, dendrimer interpenetration, and water penetration are compared with available experimental data, providing a clear concentration dependent molecular picture of PPI dendrimers. It is shown that with increasing concentration the dendrimer volume diminishes accompanied by a reduction of internalized water, ultimately resulting in solvent filled cavities between stacked dendrimers. Concurrently dendrimer interpenetration increases only slightly, leaving each dendrimer a separate entity also at high concentrations. Moreover, we compare apparent structure factors, as calculated in experimental studies relying on the decoupling approximation and the constant atomic form factor assumption, with directly computed structure factors. We demonstrate that these already diverge at rather low concentrations, not because of small changes in form factor, but rather because the decoupling approximation fails as monomer positions of separate dendrimers become correlated at concentrations well below the overlap concentration. PMID:26896998
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilie, Ioana M.; den Otter, Wouter K.; Briels, Wim J.
2016-02-01
Particles in simulations are traditionally endowed with fixed interactions. While this is appropriate for particles representing atoms or molecules, objects with significant internal dynamics—like sequences of amino acids or even an entire protein—are poorly modelled by invariable particles. We develop a highly coarse grained polymorph patchy particle with the ultimate aim of simulating proteins as chains of particles at the secondary structure level. Conformational changes, e.g., a transition between disordered and β-sheet states, are accommodated by internal coordinates that determine the shape and interaction characteristics of the particles. The internal coordinates, as well as the particle positions and orientations, are propagated by Brownian Dynamics in response to their local environment. As an example of the potential offered by polymorph particles, we model the amyloidogenic intrinsically disordered protein α-synuclein, involved in Parkinson's disease, as a single particle with two internal states. The simulations yield oligomers of particles in the disordered state and fibrils of particles in the "misfolded" cross-β-sheet state. The aggregation dynamics is complex, as aggregates can form by a direct nucleation-and-growth mechanism and by two-step-nucleation through conversions between the two cluster types. The aggregation dynamics is complex, with fibrils formed by direct nucleation-and-growth, by two-step-nucleation through the conversion of an oligomer and by auto-catalysis of this conversion.
Coarse-grained model of water diffusion and proton conductivity in hydrated polyelectrolyte membrane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Ming-Tsung; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V.
2016-01-01
Using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), we simulate nanoscale segregation, water diffusion, and proton conductivity in hydrated sulfonated polystyrene (sPS). We employ a novel model [Lee et al. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 11(9), 4395-4403 (2015)] that incorporates protonation/deprotonation equilibria into DPD simulations. The polymer and water are modeled by coarse-grained beads interacting via short-range soft repulsion and smeared charge electrostatic potentials. The proton is introduced as a separate charged bead that forms dissociable Morse bonds with the base beads representing water and sulfonate anions. Morse bond formation and breakup artificially mimics the Grotthuss mechanism of proton hopping between the bases. The DPD model is parameterized by matching the proton mobility in bulk water, dissociation constant of benzenesulfonic acid, and liquid-liquid equilibrium of water-ethylbenzene solutions. The DPD simulations semi-quantitatively predict nanoscale segregation in the hydrated sPS into hydrophobic and hydrophilic subphases, water self-diffusion, and proton mobility. As the hydration level increases, the hydrophilic subphase exhibits a percolation transition from isolated water clusters to a 3D network. The analysis of hydrophilic subphase connectivity and water diffusion demonstrates the importance of the dynamic percolation effect of formation and breakup of temporary junctions between water clusters. The proposed DPD model qualitatively predicts the ratio of proton to water self-diffusion and its dependence on the hydration level that is in reasonable agreement with experiments.
Lee, Ming-Tsung; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V
2016-01-01
Using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), we simulate nanoscale segregation, water diffusion, and proton conductivity in hydrated sulfonated polystyrene (sPS). We employ a novel model [Lee et al. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 11(9), 4395-4403 (2015)] that incorporates protonation/deprotonation equilibria into DPD simulations. The polymer and water are modeled by coarse-grained beads interacting via short-range soft repulsion and smeared charge electrostatic potentials. The proton is introduced as a separate charged bead that forms dissociable Morse bonds with the base beads representing water and sulfonate anions. Morse bond formation and breakup artificially mimics the Grotthuss mechanism of proton hopping between the bases. The DPD model is parameterized by matching the proton mobility in bulk water, dissociation constant of benzenesulfonic acid, and liquid-liquid equilibrium of water-ethylbenzene solutions. The DPD simulations semi-quantitatively predict nanoscale segregation in the hydrated sPS into hydrophobic and hydrophilic subphases, water self-diffusion, and proton mobility. As the hydration level increases, the hydrophilic subphase exhibits a percolation transition from isolated water clusters to a 3D network. The analysis of hydrophilic subphase connectivity and water diffusion demonstrates the importance of the dynamic percolation effect of formation and breakup of temporary junctions between water clusters. The proposed DPD model qualitatively predicts the ratio of proton to water self-diffusion and its dependence on the hydration level that is in reasonable agreement with experiments. PMID:26747818
Comparison of thermodynamic properties of coarse-grained and atomic-level simulation models.
Baron, Riccardo; Trzesniak, Daniel; de Vries, Alex H; Elsener, Andreas; Marrink, Siewert J; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F
2007-02-19
Thermodynamic data are often used to calibrate or test amomic-level (AL) force fields for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In contrast, the majority of coarse-grained (CG) force fields do not rely extensively on thermodynamic quantities. Recently, a CG force field for lipids, hydrocarbons, ions, and water, in which approximately four non-hydrogen atoms are mapped onto one interaction site, has been proposed and applied to study various aspects of lipid systems. To date, no extensive investigation of its capability to describe salvation thermodynamics has been undertaken. In the present study, a detailed picture of vaporization, solvation, and phase-partitioning thermodynamics for liquid hydrocarbons and water was obtained at CG and AL resolutions, in order to compare the two types or models and evaluate their ability to describe thermodynamic properties in the temperature range between 263 and 343 K. Both CG and AL models capture the experimental dependence of the thermodynamic properties on the temperature, albeit a systematically weaker dependence is found for the CG model. Moreover, deviations are found for solvation thermodynamics and for the corresponding enthalpy-entropy compensation for the CG model. Particularly water/oil repulsion seems to be overestimated. However, the results suggest that the thermodynamic properties considered should be reproducible by a CG model provided it is reparametrized on the basis of these liquid-phase properties.
Coarse-graining polymer solutions: A critical appraisal of single- and multi-site models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Adamo, G.; Menichetti, R.; Pelissetto, A.; Pierleoni, C.
2015-09-01
We critically discuss and review the general ideas behind single- and multi-site coarse-grained (CG) models as applied to macromolecular solutions in the dilute and semi-dilute regime. We first consider single-site models with zero-density and density-dependent pair potentials. We highlight advantages and limitations of each option in reproducing the thermodynamic behavior and the large-scale structure of the underlying reference model. As a case study we consider solutions of linear homopolymers in a solvent of variable quality. Secondly, we extend the discussion to multi-component systems presenting, as a test case, results for mixtures of colloids and polymers. Specifically, we found the CG model with zero-density potentials to be unable to predict fluid-fluid demixing in a reasonable range of densities for mixtures of colloids and polymers of equal size. For larger colloids, the polymer volume fractions at which phase separation occurs are largely overestimated. CG models with density-dependent potentials are somewhat less accurate than models with zero-density potentials in reproducing the thermodynamics of the system and, although they present a phase separation, they significantly underestimate the polymer volume fractions along the binodal. Finally, we discuss a general multi-site strategy, which is thermodynamically consistent and fully transferable with the number of sites, and that allows us to overcome most of the limitations discussed for single-site models.
Yu, Qin; Jiang, Yanyao; Wang, Jian
2015-04-07
Using electron backscatter diffraction, the microstructural features of tension–compression–tension (T–C–T) tertiary twins are studied in coarse-grained pure polycrystalline magnesium subjected to monotonic compression along the extrusion direction in ambient air. T–C–T tertiary twins are developed due to the formation of a compression–tension double twin inside a primary tension twin. All the observed T–C–T twin variants are of T_{i}C_{j}T_{j} type. T_{i}C_{i+1}T_{i+1} (or T_{i}C_{i–1}T_{i–1}) variants are observed more frequently than T_{i}C_{i+2}T_{i+2} (or T_{i}C_{i–2}T_{i–2}) variants. Moreover, the number of tertiary twin lamellae increases with the applied compressive strain.
Spreading of a Unilamellar Liposome on Charged Substrates: A Coarse-Grained Molecular Simulation.
Kong, Xian; Lu, Diannan; Wu, Jianzhong; Liu, Zheng
2016-04-19
Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) are able to accommodate membrane proteins useful for diverse biomimetic applications. Although liposome spreading represents a common procedure for preparation of SLBs, the underlying mechanism is not yet fully understood, particularly from a molecular perspective. The present study examines the effects of the substrate charge on unilamellar liposome spreading on the basis of molecular dynamics simulations for a coarse-grained model of the solvent and lipid molecules. Liposome transformation into a lipid bilayer of different microscopic structures suggests three types of kinetic pathways depending on the substrate charge density, that is, top-receding, parachute, and parachute with wormholes. Each pathway leads to a unique distribution of the lipid molecules and thereby distinctive properties of SLBs. An increase of the substrate charge density results in a magnified asymmetry of the SLBs in terms of the ratio of charged lipids, parallel surface movements, and the distribution of lipid molecules. While the lipid mobility in the proximal layer is strongly correlated with the substrate potential, the dynamics of lipid molecules in the distal monolayer is similar to that of a freestanding lipid bilayer. For liposome spreading on a highly charged surface, wormhole formation promotes lipid exchange between the SLB monolayers thus reduces the asymmetry on the number density of lipid molecules, the lipid order parameter, and the monolayer thickness. The simulation results reveal the important regulatory role of electrostatic interactions on liposome spreading and the properties of SLBs.
A coarse-grained model for the simulations of biomolecular interactions in cellular environments
Xie, Zhong-Ru; Chen, Jiawen; Wu, Yinghao
2014-02-07
The interactions of bio-molecules constitute the key steps of cellular functions. However, in vivo binding properties differ significantly from their in vitro measurements due to the heterogeneity of cellular environments. Here we introduce a coarse-grained model based on rigid-body representation to study how factors such as cellular crowding and membrane confinement affect molecular binding. The macroscopic parameters such as the equilibrium constant and the kinetic rate constant are calibrated by adjusting the microscopic coefficients used in the numerical simulations. By changing these model parameters that are experimentally approachable, we are able to study the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of molecular binding, as well as the effects caused by specific cellular environments. We investigate the volumetric effects of crowded intracellular space on bio-molecular diffusion and diffusion-limited reactions. Furthermore, the binding constants of membrane proteins are currently difficult to measure. We provide quantitative estimations about how the binding of membrane proteins deviates from soluble proteins under different degrees of membrane confinements. The simulation results provide biological insights to the functions of membrane receptors on cell surfaces. Overall, our studies establish a connection between the details of molecular interactions and the heterogeneity of cellular environments.
Stanzione, Francesca; Jayaraman, Arthi
2016-05-01
In-silico design of polymeric biomaterials requires molecular dynamics (MD) simulations that retain essential atomistic/molecular details (e.g., explicit water around the biofunctional macromolecule) while simultaneously achieving large length and time scales pertinent to macroscale function. Such large-scale atomistically detailed macromolecular MD simulations with explicit solvent representation are computationally expensive. One way to overcome this limitation is to use an adaptive resolution scheme (AdResS) in which the explicit solvent molecules dynamically adopt either atomistic or coarse-grained resolution depending on their location (e.g., near or far from the macromolecule) in the system. In this study we present the feasibility and the limitations of AdResS methodology for studying polyethylene glycol (PEG) in adaptive resolution water, for varying PEG length and architecture. We first validate the AdResS methodology for such systems, by comparing PEG and solvent structure with that from all-atom simulations. We elucidate the role of the atomistic zone size and the need for calculating thermodynamic force correction within this AdResS approach to correctly reproduce the structure of PEG and water. Lastly, by varying the PEG length and architecture, we study the hydration of PEG, and the effect of PEG architectures on the structural properties of water. Changing the architecture of PEG from linear to multiarm star, we observe reduction in the solvent accessible surface area of the PEG, and an increase in the order of water molecules in the hydration shells. PMID:27108869
The discrete-continuum connection in dislocation dynamics: I. Time coarse graining of cross slip
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Shengxu; Belak, James; El-Azab, Anter
2016-10-01
A recent continuum dislocation dynamics formalism (Xia and El-Azab 2015 Model. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 23 055009) has been enriched by incorporating an improved cross slip model. 3D discrete dislocation dynamics simulations were used to collect cross slip rate data in the form of time series that were analysed to estimate the correlation time for cross slip, which was subsequently used as a time scale for local window averaging of the collected cross slip rate data. This time averaging filters out the cross slip rate fluctuations over time intervals less than the correlation time, thus resulting in relatively smoother time series for the cross slip rates. The coarse grained series were further cast in the form of smooth trends with superposed fluctuations and implemented in continuum dislocation dynamics simulations using a Monte Carlo scheme. This approach resulted in a significant improvement of the predicted stress–strain response and a more realistic dislocation cell structure evolution. The similitude law for the average cell size evolution with inverse of stress, however, remains unaffected by the cross slip rates used in continuum dislocation dynamics.
Chondrule remelting: Evidence from coarse-grained chondrule rims and compound chondrules
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubin, A. E.; Krot, A. N.
1994-01-01
The meteorites that best preserve the nebular record are the type 3 ordinary (OC) and carbonaceous chondrites; their major components include chondrules and chondrule fragments, refractory and mafic inclusions, FeO-rich silicate matrix material. Many chondrules are surrounded by nms; these can be divided into two major types: (1) fine-grained rims, which are composed of matrix material; and (2) igneous or coarse-grained rims, which have igneous textures and larger, less-ferroan mafic silicate grains. Fine-grained rims surround most of the chondrules in the least-equilibrated type 3 ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites. They were most likely derived via collapse of clumps of nebular dust that accreted around coarse objects such as chondrules and inclusions. Coarse-grined or igneous rims surround approximately 10% of the chondrules in type 3 OC and approximately 50% of the chondrules in CV3 chondrites as well as some chondrule fragments and isolated mineral grains. They probably formed by partly melting finer-grained dust-rich precursors and admixed chondrule fragments.
Markegard, Cade B; Fu, Iris W; Reddy, K Anki; Nguyen, Hung D
2015-02-01
A novel coarse-grained model is developed to elucidate thermodynamics and kinetic mechanisms of DNA self-assembly. It accounts for sequence and solvent conditions to capture key experimental results such as sequence-dependent thermal property and salt-dependent persistence length of ssDNA and dsDNA. Moreover, constant-temperature simulations on two single strands of a homogeneous sequence show two main mechanisms of hybridization: a slow slithering mechanism and a one-order faster zippering mechanism. Furthermore, large-scale simulations at a high DNA strand concentration demonstrate that DNA self-assembly is a robust and enthalpically driven process in which the formation of double helices is deciphered to occur via multiple self-assembly pathways including the strand displacement mechanism. However, sequence plays an important role in shifting the majority of one pathway over the others and controlling size distribution of self-assembled aggregates. This study yields a complex picture on the role of sequence on programmable self-assembly and demonstrates a promising simulation tool that is suitable for studies in DNA nanotechnology. PMID:25581253
Role of neutral lipids in tear fluid lipid layer: coarse-grained simulation study.
Telenius, Jelena; Koivuniemi, Artturi; Kulovesi, Pipsa; Holopainen, Juha M; Vattulainen, Ilpo
2012-12-11
Tear fluid lipid layer (TFLL) residing at the air-water interface of tears has been recognized to play an important role in the development of dry eye syndrome. Yet, the composition, structure, and mechanical properties of TFLL are only partly known. Here, we report results of coarse-grained simulations of a lipid layer comprising phospholipids, free fatty acids, cholesteryl esters, and triglycerides at the air-water interface to shed light on the properties of TFLL. We consider structural as well as dynamical properties of the lipid layer as a function of surface pressure. Simulations revealed that neutral lipids reside heterogeneously between phospholipids at relatively low pressures but form a separate hydrophobic phase with increasing surface pressure, transforming the initial lipid monolayer to a two-layered structure. When the model of TFLL was compared to a one-component phospholipid monolayer system, we found drastic differences in both structural and dynamical properties that explain the prominent role of neutral lipids as stabilizers of the TFLL. Based on our results, we suggest that neutral lipids are able to increase the stability of the TFLL by modulating its dynamical and structural behavior, which is important for the proper function of tear film. PMID:23151187
Orellana, Laura; Yoluk, Ozge; Carrillo, Oliver; Orozco, Modesto; Lindahl, Erik
2016-01-01
Protein conformational changes are at the heart of cell functions, from signalling to ion transport. However, the transient nature of the intermediates along transition pathways hampers their experimental detection, making the underlying mechanisms elusive. Here we retrieve dynamic information on the actual transition routes from principal component analysis (PCA) of structurally-rich ensembles and, in combination with coarse-grained simulations, explore the conformational landscapes of five well-studied proteins. Modelling them as elastic networks in a hybrid elastic-network Brownian dynamics simulation (eBDIMS), we generate trajectories connecting stable end-states that spontaneously sample the crystallographic motions, predicting the structures of known intermediates along the paths. We also show that the explored non-linear routes can delimit the lowest energy passages between end-states sampled by atomistic molecular dynamics. The integrative methodology presented here provides a powerful framework to extract and expand dynamic pathway information from the Protein Data Bank, as well as to validate sampling methods in general. PMID:27578633
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glukhova, O. E.; Kolesnikova, A. S.; Grishina, O. A.; Slepchenkov, M. M.
2015-03-01
At the present time actual task of the modern materials is the creation of biodegradable biocompatible composite materials possessing high strength properties for medical purposes. One of the most promising biomaterials from a position of creation on their basis super strong nanofibres is chitosan. The aim of this work is a theoretical study of the structural features and physico-mechanical properties of biocomposite materials based on chitosan and carbon nanostructures. As matrix nanocomposite we considered various carbon nano-objects, namely carbon nanotubes and graphene. Using the developed original software complex KVAZAR we built atomistic and coarse-grained models of the biocomposite material. To identify regularities of influence of the configuration of the carbon matrix on the mechanical and electronic properties of biocomposite we carried out a series of numerical experiments using a classical algorithm of molecular dynamics and semi-empirical methods. The obtained results allow us to suggest that the generated biocomposite based on chitosan and carbon nanostructures has high stability and strength characteristics. Such materials can be used in biomedicine as a base material for creating of artificial limbs.
Detecting synchronization clusters in multivariate time series via coarse-graining of Markov chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allefeld, Carsten; Bialonski, Stephan
2007-12-01
Synchronization cluster analysis is an approach to the detection of underlying structures in data sets of multivariate time series, starting from a matrix R of bivariate synchronization indices. A previous method utilized the eigenvectors of R for cluster identification, analogous to several recent attempts at group identification using eigenvectors of the correlation matrix. All of these approaches assumed a one-to-one correspondence of dominant eigenvectors and clusters, which has however been shown to be wrong in important cases. We clarify the usefulness of eigenvalue decomposition for synchronization cluster analysis by translating the problem into the language of stochastic processes, and derive an enhanced clustering method harnessing recent insights from the coarse-graining of finite-state Markov processes. We illustrate the operation of our method using a simulated system of coupled Lorenz oscillators, and we demonstrate its superior performance over the previous approach. Finally we investigate the question of robustness of the algorithm against small sample size, which is important with regard to field applications.
Supra-Atomic Coarse-Grained GROMOS Force Field for Aliphatic Hydrocarbons in the Liquid Phase.
Eichenberger, Andreas P; Huang, Wei; Riniker, Sereina; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F
2015-07-14
A supra-atomic coarse-grained (CG) force field for liquid n-alkanes is presented. The model was calibrated using experimental thermodynamic data and structural as well as energetic properties for 14 n-alkanes as obtained from atomistic fine-grained (FG) simulations of the corresponding hydrocarbons using the GROMOS 45A3 biomolecular force field. A variation of the nonbonded force-field parameters obtained from mapping the FG interactions onto the CG degrees of freedom to fit the density and heat of vaporization to experimental values turned out to be mandatory for a correct reproduction of these data by the CG model, while the bonded force-field parameters for the CG model could be obtained from a Boltzmann-weighted fit with some variations with respect to the corresponding properties from the FG simulations mapped onto the CG degrees of freedom. The model presents 6 different CG bead types, for bead sizes from 2 to 4 distinguishing between terminal and nonterminal beads within an alkane chain (end or middle). It contains different nonbonded Lennard-Jones parameters for the interaction of CG alkanes with CG water. The CG alkane model was further tested by comparing predictions of the excess free energy, the self-diffusion constant, surface tension, isothermal compressibility, heat capacity, thermal expansion coefficient, and shear viscosity for n-alkanes to experimental values. The CG model offers a thermodynamically calibrated basis for the development of CG models of lipids.
Orellana, Laura; Yoluk, Ozge; Carrillo, Oliver; Orozco, Modesto; Lindahl, Erik
2016-01-01
Protein conformational changes are at the heart of cell functions, from signalling to ion transport. However, the transient nature of the intermediates along transition pathways hampers their experimental detection, making the underlying mechanisms elusive. Here we retrieve dynamic information on the actual transition routes from principal component analysis (PCA) of structurally-rich ensembles and, in combination with coarse-grained simulations, explore the conformational landscapes of five well-studied proteins. Modelling them as elastic networks in a hybrid elastic-network Brownian dynamics simulation (eBDIMS), we generate trajectories connecting stable end-states that spontaneously sample the crystallographic motions, predicting the structures of known intermediates along the paths. We also show that the explored non-linear routes can delimit the lowest energy passages between end-states sampled by atomistic molecular dynamics. The integrative methodology presented here provides a powerful framework to extract and expand dynamic pathway information from the Protein Data Bank, as well as to validate sampling methods in general. PMID:27578633
Lee, Ming-Tsung; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V
2016-01-01
Using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), we simulate nanoscale segregation, water diffusion, and proton conductivity in hydrated sulfonated polystyrene (sPS). We employ a novel model [Lee et al. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 11(9), 4395-4403 (2015)] that incorporates protonation/deprotonation equilibria into DPD simulations. The polymer and water are modeled by coarse-grained beads interacting via short-range soft repulsion and smeared charge electrostatic potentials. The proton is introduced as a separate charged bead that forms dissociable Morse bonds with the base beads representing water and sulfonate anions. Morse bond formation and breakup artificially mimics the Grotthuss mechanism of proton hopping between the bases. The DPD model is parameterized by matching the proton mobility in bulk water, dissociation constant of benzenesulfonic acid, and liquid-liquid equilibrium of water-ethylbenzene solutions. The DPD simulations semi-quantitatively predict nanoscale segregation in the hydrated sPS into hydrophobic and hydrophilic subphases, water self-diffusion, and proton mobility. As the hydration level increases, the hydrophilic subphase exhibits a percolation transition from isolated water clusters to a 3D network. The analysis of hydrophilic subphase connectivity and water diffusion demonstrates the importance of the dynamic percolation effect of formation and breakup of temporary junctions between water clusters. The proposed DPD model qualitatively predicts the ratio of proton to water self-diffusion and its dependence on the hydration level that is in reasonable agreement with experiments.
Nawae, Wanapinun; Hannongbua, Supa; Ruengjitchatchawalya, Marasri
2014-01-01
Kalata B1 has been demonstrated to have bioactivity relating to membrane disruption. In this study, we conducted coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to gain further insight into kB1 bioactivity. The simulations were performed at various concentrations of kB1 to capture the overall progression of its activity. Two configurations of kB1 oligomers, termed tower-like and wall-like clusters, were detected. The conjugation between the wall-like oligomers resulted in the formation of a ring-like hollow in the kB1 cluster on the membrane surface. Our results indicated that the molecules of kB1 were trapped at the membrane-water interface. The interfacial membrane binding of kB1 induced a positive membrane curvature, and the lipids were eventually extracted from the membrane through the kB1 ring-like hollow into the space inside the kB1 cluster. These findings provide an alternative view of the mechanism of kB1 bioactivity that corresponds with the concept of an interfacial bioactivity model. PMID:24492660
Coarse-Grained Structure-Based Model for RNA-Protein Complexes Developed by Fluctuation Matching.
Hori, Naoto; Takada, Shoji
2012-09-11
RNA and RNA-protein complexes have recently been intensively studied in experiments, but the corresponding molecular simulation work is much less abundant, primarily due to its large system size and the long time scale involved. Here, to overcome these bottlenecks, we develop a coarse-grained (CG) structure-based simulation model for RNA and RNA-protein complexes and test it for several molecular systems. The CG model for RNA contains three particles per nucleotide, each for phosphate, sugar, and a base. Focusing on RNA molecules that fold to well-defined native structures, we employed a structure-based potential, which is similar to the Go-like potential successfully used in CG modeling of proteins. In addition, we tested three means to approximate electrostatic interactions. Many parameters involved in the CG potential were determined via a multiscale method: We matched the native fluctuation of the CG model with that by all-atom simulations for 16 RNA molecules and 10 RNA-protein complexes, from which we derived a generic set of CG parameters. We show that the derived parameters can reproduce native fluctuations well for four RNA and two RNA-protein complexes. For tRNA, the native fluctuation in solution includes large-amplitude motions that reach conformations nearly corresponding to the hybrid state P/E and EF-Tu-bound state A/T seen in the complexes with ribosome. Finally, large-amplitude modes of ribosome are briefly described.
Introducing improved structural properties and salt dependence into a coarse-grained model of DNA
Snodin, Benedict E. K. Mosayebi, Majid; Schreck, John S.; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P. K.; Randisi, Ferdinando; Šulc, Petr; Ouldridge, Thomas E.; Tsukanov, Roman; Nir, Eyal; Louis, Ard A.
2015-06-21
We introduce an extended version of oxDNA, a coarse-grained model of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) designed to capture the thermodynamic, structural, and mechanical properties of single- and double-stranded DNA. By including explicit major and minor grooves and by slightly modifying the coaxial stacking and backbone-backbone interactions, we improve the ability of the model to treat large (kilobase-pair) structures, such as DNA origami, which are sensitive to these geometric features. Further, we extend the model, which was previously parameterised to just one salt concentration ([Na{sup +}] = 0.5M), so that it can be used for a range of salt concentrations including those corresponding to physiological conditions. Finally, we use new experimental data to parameterise the oxDNA potential so that consecutive adenine bases stack with a different strength to consecutive thymine bases, a feature which allows a more accurate treatment of systems where the flexibility of single-stranded regions is important. We illustrate the new possibilities opened up by the updated model, oxDNA2, by presenting results from simulations of the structure of large DNA objects and by using the model to investigate some salt-dependent properties of DNA.
The Effect of Tethers on Artificial Cell Membranes: A Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics Study
Hoiles, William; Gupta, Rini; Cornell, Bruce; Krishnamurthy, Vikram
2016-01-01
Tethered bilayer lipid membranes (tBLMs) provide a stable platform for modeling the dynamics and order of biological membranes where the tethers mimic the cytoskeletal supports present in biological cell membranes. In this paper coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) is applied to study the effects of tethers on lipid membrane properties. Using results from the CGMD model and the overdamped Fokker-Planck equation, we show that the diffusion tensor and particle density of water in the tBLM is spatially dependent. Further, it is shown that the membrane thickness, lipid diffusion, defect density, free energy of lipid flip-flop, and membrane dielectric permittivity are all dependent on the tether density. The numerically computed results from the CGMD model are in agreement with the experimentally measured results from tBLMs containing different tether densities and lipids derived from Archaebacteria. Additionally, using experimental measurements from Escherichia coli bacteria and Saccharomyces Cerevisiae yeast tethered membranes, we illustrate how previous molecular dynamics results can be combined with the proposed model to estimate the dielectric permittivity and defect density of these membranes as a function of tether density. PMID:27736860
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rudzinski, J. F.; Bereau, T.
2016-07-01
The parametrization of coarse-grained (CG) simulation models for molecular systems often aims at reproducing static properties alone. The reduced molecular friction of the CG representation usually results in faster, albeit inconsistent, dynamics. In this work, we rely on Markov state models to simultaneously characterize the static and kinetic properties of two CG peptide force fields—one top-down and one bottom-up. Instead of a rigorous evolution of CG dynamics (e.g., using a generalized Langevin equation), we attempt to improve the description of kinetics by simply altering the existing CG models, which employ standard Langevin dynamics. By varying masses and relevant force-field parameters, we can improve the timescale separation of the slow kinetic processes, achieve a more consistent ratio of mean-first-passage times between metastable states, and refine the relative free-energies between these states. Importantly, we show that the incorporation of kinetic information into a structure-based parametrization improves the description of the helix-coil transition sampled by a minimal CG model. While structure-based models understabilize the helical state, kinetic constraints help identify CG models that improve the ratio of forward/backward timescales by effectively hindering the sampling of spurious conformational intermediate states.
Algorithm for simulation of quantum many-body dynamics using dynamical coarse-graining
Khasin, M.; Kosloff, R.
2010-04-15
An algorithm for simulation of quantum many-body dynamics having su(2) spectrum-generating algebra is developed. The algorithm is based on the idea of dynamical coarse-graining. The original unitary dynamics of the target observables--the elements of the spectrum-generating algebra--is simulated by a surrogate open-system dynamics, which can be interpreted as weak measurement of the target observables, performed on the evolving system. The open-system state can be represented by a mixture of pure states, localized in the phase space. The localization reduces the scaling of the computational resources with the Hilbert-space dimension n by factor n{sup 3/2}(ln n){sup -1} compared to conventional sparse-matrix methods. The guidelines for the choice of parameters for the simulation are presented and the scaling of the computational resources with the Hilbert-space dimension of the system is estimated. The algorithm is applied to the simulation of the dynamics of systems of 2x10{sup 4} and 2x10{sup 6} cold atoms in a double-well trap, described by the two-site Bose-Hubbard model.
Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of the tensile behavior of a thermosetting polymer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Shaorui; Qu, Jianmin
2014-07-01
Using a previously developed coarse-grained model, we conducted large-scale (˜85×85×85nm3) molecular dynamics simulations of uniaxial-strain deformation to study the tensile behavior of an epoxy molding compound, epoxy phenol novolacs (EPN) bisphenol A (BPA). Under the uniaxial-strain deformation, the material is found to exhibit cavity nucleation and growth, followed by stretching of the ligaments separated by the cavities, until the ultimate failure through ligament scissions. The nucleation sites of cavities are rather random and the subsequent cavity growth accounts for much (87%) of the volumetric change during the uniaxial-strain deformation. Ultimate failure of the materials occurs when the cavity volume fraction reaches ˜60%. During the entire deformation process, polymer strands in the network are continuously extended to their linear states and broken in the postyielding strain hardening stage. When most of the strands are stretched to their taut configurations, rapid scission of a large number of strands occurs within a small strain increment, which eventually leads to fracture. Finally, through extensive numerical simulations of various loading conditions in addition to uniaxial strain, we find that yielding of the EPN-BPA can be described by the pressure-modified von Mises yield criterion.
REACH Coarse-Grained Normal Mode Analysis of Protein Dimer Interaction Dynamics
Moritsugu, Kei; Kurkal-Siebert, Vandana; Smith, Jeremy C.
2009-01-01
Abstract The REACH (realistic extension algorithm via covariance Hessian) coarse-grained biomolecular simulation method is a self-consistent multiscale approach directly mapping atomistic molecular dynamics simulation results onto a residue-scale model. Here, REACH is applied to calculate the dynamics of protein-protein interactions. The intra- and intermolecular fluctuations and the intermolecular vibrational densities of states derived from atomistic molecular dynamics are well reproduced by the REACH normal modes. The phonon dispersion relations derived from the REACH lattice dynamics model of crystalline ribonuclease A are also in satisfactory agreement with the corresponding all-atom results. The REACH model demonstrates that increasing dimer interaction strength decreases the translational and rotational intermolecular vibrational amplitudes, while their vibrational frequencies are relatively unaffected. A comparative study of functionally interacting biological dimers with crystal dimers, which are formed artificially via crystallization, reveals a relation between their static structures and the interprotein dynamics: i.e., the consequence of the extensive interfaces of biological dimers is reduction of the intermonomer translational and rotational amplitudes, but not the frequencies. PMID:19686664
Region-Oriented Placement Algorithm for Coarse-Grained Power-Gating FPGA Architecture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ce; Dong, Yiping; Watanabe, Takahiro
An FPGA plays an essential role in industrial products due to its fast, stable and flexible features. But the power consumption of FPGAs used in portable devices is one of critical issues. Top-down hierarchical design method is commonly used in both ASIC and FPGA design. But, in the case where plural modules are integrated in an FPGA and some of them might be in sleep-mode, current FPGA architecture cannot be fully effective. In this paper, coarse-grained power gating FPGA architecture is proposed where a whole area of an FPGA is partitioned into several regions and power supply is controlled for each region, so that modules in sleep mode can be effectively power-off. We also propose a region oriented FPGA placement algorithm fitted to this user's hierarchical design based on VPR[1]. Simulation results show that this proposed method could reduce power consumption of FPGA by 38% on average by setting unused modules or regions in sleep mode.
Bridging Enzymatic Structure Function via Mechanics: A Coarse-Grain Approach.
Sacquin-Mora, S
2016-01-01
Flexibility is a central aspect of protein function, and ligand binding in enzymes involves a wide range of structural changes, ranging from large-scale domain movements to small loop or side-chain rearrangements. In order to understand how the mechanical properties of enzymes, and the mechanical variations that are induced by ligand binding, relate to enzymatic activity, we carried out coarse-grain Brownian dynamics simulations on a set of enzymes whose structures in the unbound and ligand-bound forms are available in the Protein Data Bank. Our results show that enzymes are remarkably heterogeneous objects from a mechanical point of view and that the local rigidity of individual residues is tightly connected to their part in the protein's overall structure and function. The systematic comparison of the rigidity of enzymes in their unbound and bound forms highlights the fact that small conformational changes can induce large mechanical effects, leading to either more or less flexibility depending on the enzyme's architecture and the location of its ligand-biding site. These mechanical variations target a limited number of specific residues that occupy key locations for enzymatic activity, and our approach thus offers a mean to detect perturbation-sensitive sites in enzymes, where the addition or removal of a few interactions will lead to important changes in the proteins internal dynamics. PMID:27497169
Application-specific coarse-grained reconfigurable array: architecture and design methodology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Li; Liu, Dongpei; Zhang, Jianfeng; Liu, Hengzhu
2015-06-01
Coarse-grained reconfigurable arrays (CGRAs) have shown potential for application in embedded systems in recent years. Numerous reconfigurable processing elements (PEs) in CGRAs provide flexibility while maintaining high performance by exploring different levels of parallelism. However, a difference remains between the CGRA and the application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). Some application domains, such as software-defined radios (SDRs), require flexibility with performance demand increases. More effective CGRA architectures are expected to be developed. Customisation of a CGRA according to its application can improve performance and efficiency. This study proposes an application-specific CGRA architecture template composed of generic PEs (GPEs) and special PEs (SPEs). The hardware of the SPE can be customised to accelerate specific computational patterns. An automatic design methodology that includes pattern identification and application-specific function unit generation is also presented. A mapping algorithm based on ant colony optimisation is provided. Experimental results on the SDR target domain show that compared with other ordinary and application-specific reconfigurable architectures, the CGRA generated by the proposed method performs more efficiently for given applications.
Universal and non-universal features in coarse-grained models of flow in disordered solids.
Nicolas, Alexandre; Martens, Kirsten; Bocquet, Lydéric; Barrat, Jean-Louis
2014-07-14
We study the two-dimensional (2D) shear flow of amorphous solids within variants of an elastoplastic model, paying particular attention to spatial correlations and time fluctuations of, e.g., local stresses. The model is based on the local alternation between an elastic regime and plastic events during which the local stress is redistributed. The importance of a fully tensorial description of the stress and of the inclusion of (coarse-grained) convection in the model is investigated; scalar and tensorial models yield similar results, while convection enhances fluctuations and breaks the spurious symmetry between the flow and velocity gradient directions, for instance when shear localisation is observed. Besides, correlation lengths measured with diverse protocols are discussed. One class of such correlation lengths simply scale with the spacing between homogeneously distributed, simultaneous plastic events. This leads to a scaling of the correlation length with the shear rate as γ̇(-1/2) in 2D in the athermal regime, regardless of the details of the model. The radius of the cooperative disk, defined as the near-field region in which plastic events induce a stress redistribution that is not amenable to a mean-field treatment, notably follows this scaling. On the other hand, the cooperative volume measured from the four-point stress susceptibility and its dependence on the system size and the shear rate are model-dependent.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van den Wildenberg, Siet; Tourin, Arnaud; Jia, Xiaoping
2016-08-01
We measure the consequences of elastic heterogeneities in confined granular layers using long-wavelength sound velocity determination. By progressively decreasing the coarse-graining length w, which is determined here by the sample size L, we measure the standard deviation of the longitudinal sound velocity δ VL and the packing density ϕ, normalized by their ensemble-averaged values. We find that the relative fluctuations in V L and ϕ increase when w is decreased. Importantly, we observe that decreasing the confining pressure P or using nonspherical particles leads to an important increase of the fluctuations in δ V_L/\\bar{V_L} . We conduct simulations of sound propagation in 2D hexagonal packings with contact-stiffness disorder to mimic the inhomogeneous contact networks. The sound velocity fluctuations of coherent longitudinal waves increase either with decreasing the sample size or with increasing the elastic disorder related to confining pressure, in consistency with the experiments. Our experimental observations thus support the scenario of a pressure-dependent mesoscopic length ξ∼10d (at P∼200 \\text{kPa} ), below which the continuum elasticity breaks down, likely due to the large spatial fluctuation of the shear modulus δ G/\\bar{G} ∼ 5δ V_L/\\bar{V_L}>20% .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peters, Andrew J.; Lawson, Richard A.; Nation, Benjamin D.; Ludovice, Peter J.; Henderson, Clifford L.
2016-01-01
State-of-the-art block copolymer (BCP)-directed self-assembly (DSA) methods still yield defect densities orders of magnitude higher than is necessary in semiconductor fabrication despite free-energy calculations that suggest equilibrium defect densities are much lower than is necessary for economic fabrication. This disparity suggests that the main problem may lie in the kinetics of defect removal. This work uses a coarse-grained model to study the rates, pathways, and dependencies of healing a common defect to give insight into the fundamental processes that control defect healing and give guidance on optimal process conditions for BCP-DSA. It is found that bulk simulations yield an exponential drop in defect heal rate above χN˜30. Thin films show no change in rate associated with the energy barrier below χN˜50, significantly higher than the χN values found previously for self-consistent field theory studies that neglect fluctuations. Above χN˜50, the simulations show an increase in energy barrier scaling with 1/2 to 1/3 of the bulk systems. This is because thin films always begin healing at the free interface or the BCP-underlayer interface, where the increased A-B contact area associated with the transition state is minimized, while the infinitely thick films cannot begin healing at an interface.
Dalgicdir, Cahit; Sensoy, Ozge; Sayar, Mehmet; Peter, Christine
2013-12-21
One of the major challenges in the development of coarse grained (CG) simulation models that aim at biomolecular structure formation processes is the correct representation of an environment-driven conformational change, for example, a folding/unfolding event upon interaction with an interface or upon aggregation. In the present study, we investigate this transferability challenge for a CG model using the example of diphenylalanine. This dipeptide displays a transition from a trans-like to a cis-like conformation upon aggregation as well as upon transfer from bulk water to the cyclohexane/water interface. Here, we show that one can construct a single CG model that can reproduce both the bulk and interface conformational behavior and the segregation between hydrophobic/hydrophilic medium. While the general strategy to obtain nonbonded interactions in the present CG model is to reproduce solvation free energies of small molecules representing the CG beads in the respective solvents, the success of the model strongly depends on nontrivial decisions one has to make to capture the delicate balance between the bonded and nonbonded interactions. In particular, we found that the peptide's conformational behavior is qualitatively affected by the cyclohexane/water interaction potential, an interaction that does not directly involve the peptide at all but merely influences the properties of the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface. Furthermore, we show that a small modification to improve the structural/conformational properties of the CG model could dramatically alter the thermodynamic properties.
Protein secondary-structure description with a coarse-grained model.
Kneller, Gerald R; Hinsen, Konrad
2015-07-01
A coarse-grained geometrical model for protein secondary-structure description and analysis is presented which uses only the positions of the C(α) atoms. A space curve connecting these positions by piecewise polynomial interpolation is constructed and the folding of the protein backbone is described by a succession of screw motions linking the Frenet frames at consecutive C(α) positions. Using the ASTRAL subset of the SCOPe database of protein structures, thresholds are derived for the screw parameters of secondary-structure elements and demonstrate that the latter can be reliably assigned on the basis of a C(α) model. For this purpose, a comparative study with the widely used DSSP (Define Secondary Structure of Proteins) algorithm was performed and it was shown that the parameter distribution corresponding to the ensemble of all pure C(α) structures in the RCSB Protein Data Bank matches that of the ASTRAL database. It is expected that this approach will be useful in the development of structure-refinement techniques for low-resolution data. PMID:26143913
Bieler, Noah S.; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.; Frenkel, Daan; Vácha, Robert
2012-01-01
The pre-fibrillar stages of amyloid formation have been implicated in cellular toxicity, but have proved to be challenging to study directly in experiments and simulations. Rational strategies to suppress the formation of toxic amyloid oligomers require a better understanding of the mechanisms by which they are generated. We report Dynamical Monte Carlo simulations that allow us to study the early stages of amyloid formation. We use a generic, coarse-grained model of an amyloidogenic peptide that has two internal states: the first one representing the soluble random coil structure and the second one the -sheet conformation. We find that this system exhibits a propensity towards fibrillar self-assembly following the formation of a critical nucleus. Our calculations establish connections between the early nucleation events and the kinetic information available in the later stages of the aggregation process that are commonly probed in experiments. We analyze the kinetic behaviour in our simulations within the framework of the theory of classical nucleated polymerisation, and are able to connect the structural events at the early stages in amyloid growth with the resulting macroscopic observables such as the effective nucleus size. Furthermore, the free-energy landscapes that emerge from these simulations allow us to identify pertinent properties of the monomeric state that could be targeted to suppress oligomer formation. PMID:23071427
Morphologies of charged diblock copolymers simulated with a neutral coarse-grained model.
Pantano, Diego A; Klein, Michael L; Discher, Dennis E; Moore, Preston B
2011-04-28
We present the results of coarse grained molecular dynamics simulation using a charge free model that is able to capture different regions of the morphological phase diagram of charged diblock copolymers. Specifically, we were able to reproduce many phases of the poly(acrylic acid)-(1,4)-polybutadiene (PAA-PBA) diblock copolymer, Ca(2+) and water systems as a function of pH and calcium concentration with short-range LJ type potentials. The morphologies observed range from bilayers to cylinders to spherical micelles. Such polyanionic/cationic amphiphiles in water typically present multiple challenges for molecular simulations, particularly due to the many charge interactions that are long ranged and computationally costly. Further, it is precisely these interactions that are thought to modulate large amphiphile assemblies of interest such as lipid rafts. However, our model is able to reproduce different morphologies due to pH and with or without the addition of Ca(2+) as well as the lateral phase segregation and the domain registration observed in neutral and charged diblock copolymer mixtures. The results suggest that the overall effect of charges is a local structural rearrangement that renormalizes the steric repulsion between the headgroups. This simple model, which is devoid of charges, is able to reproduce the complex phase diagram and can be used to investigate collective phenomena in these charged systems such as domain formation and registration or colocalization of lipid rafts across bilayer leaflets.
Spreading of a Unilamellar Liposome on Charged Substrates: A Coarse-Grained Molecular Simulation.
Kong, Xian; Lu, Diannan; Wu, Jianzhong; Liu, Zheng
2016-04-19
Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) are able to accommodate membrane proteins useful for diverse biomimetic applications. Although liposome spreading represents a common procedure for preparation of SLBs, the underlying mechanism is not yet fully understood, particularly from a molecular perspective. The present study examines the effects of the substrate charge on unilamellar liposome spreading on the basis of molecular dynamics simulations for a coarse-grained model of the solvent and lipid molecules. Liposome transformation into a lipid bilayer of different microscopic structures suggests three types of kinetic pathways depending on the substrate charge density, that is, top-receding, parachute, and parachute with wormholes. Each pathway leads to a unique distribution of the lipid molecules and thereby distinctive properties of SLBs. An increase of the substrate charge density results in a magnified asymmetry of the SLBs in terms of the ratio of charged lipids, parallel surface movements, and the distribution of lipid molecules. While the lipid mobility in the proximal layer is strongly correlated with the substrate potential, the dynamics of lipid molecules in the distal monolayer is similar to that of a freestanding lipid bilayer. For liposome spreading on a highly charged surface, wormhole formation promotes lipid exchange between the SLB monolayers thus reduces the asymmetry on the number density of lipid molecules, the lipid order parameter, and the monolayer thickness. The simulation results reveal the important regulatory role of electrostatic interactions on liposome spreading and the properties of SLBs. PMID:27019394
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orellana, Laura; Yoluk, Ozge; Carrillo, Oliver; Orozco, Modesto; Lindahl, Erik
2016-08-01
Protein conformational changes are at the heart of cell functions, from signalling to ion transport. However, the transient nature of the intermediates along transition pathways hampers their experimental detection, making the underlying mechanisms elusive. Here we retrieve dynamic information on the actual transition routes from principal component analysis (PCA) of structurally-rich ensembles and, in combination with coarse-grained simulations, explore the conformational landscapes of five well-studied proteins. Modelling them as elastic networks in a hybrid elastic-network Brownian dynamics simulation (eBDIMS), we generate trajectories connecting stable end-states that spontaneously sample the crystallographic motions, predicting the structures of known intermediates along the paths. We also show that the explored non-linear routes can delimit the lowest energy passages between end-states sampled by atomistic molecular dynamics. The integrative methodology presented here provides a powerful framework to extract and expand dynamic pathway information from the Protein Data Bank, as well as to validate sampling methods in general.
Path Integral Coarse-Graining Replica Exchange Method for Enhanced Sampling.
Peng, Yuxing; Cao, Zhen; Zhou, Ruhong; Voth, Gregory A
2014-09-01
An enhanced conformational space sampling method is developed that utilizes replica exchange molecular dynamics between a set of imaginary time Feynman path integral replicas, each having an increasing degree of contraction (or coarse-graining) of the quasi-particle or "polymer beads" in the evaluation of the isomorphic ring-polymer potential energy terms. However, there is no contraction of beads in the effectively harmonic kinetic energy terms. The final replica in this procedure is the fully contracted one in which the potential energy is evaluated only at the centroid of the beads-and hence it is the classical distribution in the centroid variable-while the initial replica has the full degree (or even a heightened degree, if desired) of quantum delocalization and tunneling in the physical potential by the polymer necklace beads. The exchange between the different ring-polymer ensembles is governed by the Metropolis criteria to guarantee detailed balance. The method is applied successfully to several model systems, ranging from one-dimensional prototype rough energy landscape models having analytical solutions to the more realistic alanine dipeptide. A detailed comparison with the classical temperature-based replica exchange method shows an improved efficiency of this new method in the classical conformational space sampling due to coupling with the fictitious path integral (quantum) replicas. PMID:26588508
Derivation of coarse-grained potentials via multistate iterative Boltzmann inversion
Moore, Timothy C.; Iacovella, Christopher R. E-mail: christopher.r.iacovella@vanderbilt.edu; McCabe, Clare E-mail: christopher.r.iacovella@vanderbilt.edu
2014-06-14
In this work, an extension is proposed to the standard iterative Boltzmann inversion (IBI) method used to derive coarse-grained potentials. It is shown that the inclusion of target data from multiple states yields a less state-dependent potential, and is thus better suited to simulate systems over a range of thermodynamic states than the standard IBI method. The inclusion of target data from multiple states forces the algorithm to sample regions of potential phase space that match the radial distribution function at multiple state points, thus producing a derived potential that is more representative of the underlying interactions. It is shown that the algorithm is able to converge to the true potential for a system where the underlying potential is known. It is also shown that potentials derived via the proposed method better predict the behavior of n-alkane chains than those derived via the standard IBI method. Additionally, through the examination of alkane monolayers, it is shown that the relative weight given to each state in the fitting procedure can impact bulk system properties, allowing the potentials to be further tuned in order to match the properties of reference atomistic and/or experimental systems.
A Coarse-Grained Model for Thermoresponsive Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbott, Lauren J.; Stevens, Mark J.
Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) is a thermoresponsive polymer that undergoes a phase transition at its lower critical solution temperature (LCST). Although atomistic simulations have been effective to study PNIPAM single chains in solution, they are limited in reaching longer length- and time-scales. In this work, a coarse-grained (CG) model is developed for PNIPAM that captures its thermoresponsive behavior. Nonbonded parameters are fit to experimental thermodynamic data, with minor adjustments to provide better agreement with radial distribution functions from atomistic simulations. Bonded parameters are fit to probability distributions from atomistic simulations using multi-centered Gaussian-based potentials. The temperature-dependent potentials derived for the CG model in this work properly capture the coil-globule transition of PNIPAM single chains and yield a chain-length dependence consistent with atomistic simulations and experiment. The self-assembly of PNIPAM surfactants is also explored. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
A coarse-grain force field for RDX: Density dependent and energy conserving.
Moore, Joshua D; Barnes, Brian C; Izvekov, Sergei; Lísal, Martin; Sellers, Michael S; Taylor, DeCarlos E; Brennan, John K
2016-03-14
We describe the development of a density-dependent transferable coarse-grain model of crystalline hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine (RDX) that can be used with the energy conserving dissipative particle dynamics method. The model is an extension of a recently reported one-site model of RDX that was developed by using a force-matching method. The density-dependent forces in that original model are provided through an interpolation scheme that poorly conserves energy. The development of the new model presented in this work first involved a multi-objective procedure to improve the structural and thermodynamic properties of the previous model, followed by the inclusion of the density dependency via a conservative form of the force field that conserves energy. The new model accurately predicts the density, structure, pressure-volume isotherm, bulk modulus, and elastic constants of the RDX crystal at ambient pressure and exhibits transferability to a liquid phase at melt conditions. PMID:26979691
PSII-LHCII supercomplex organizations in photosynthetic membrane by coarse-grained simulation.
Lee, Cheng-Kuang; Pao, Chun-Wei; Smit, Berend
2015-03-12
Green plant photosystem II (PSII) and light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) in the stacked grana regions of thylakoid membranes can self-organize into various PSII-LHCII supercomplexes with crystalline or fluid-like supramolecular structures to adjust themselves with external stimuli such as high/low light and temperatures, rendering tunable solar light absorption spectrum and photosynthesis efficiencies. However, the mechanisms controlling the PSII-LHCII supercomplex organizations remain elusive. In this work, we constructed a coarse-grained (CG) model of the thylakoid membrane including lipid molecules and a PSII-LHCII supercomplex considering association/dissociation of moderately bound-LHCIIs. The CG interaction between CG beads were constructed based on electron microscope (EM) experimental results, and we were able to simulate the PSII-LHCII supramolecular organization of a 500 × 500 nm(2) thylakoid membrane, which is compatible with experiments. Our CGMD simulations can successfully reproduce order structures of PSII-LHCII supercomplexes under various protein packing fractions, free-LHCII:PSII ratios, and temperatures, thereby providing insights into mechanisms leading to PSII-LHCII supercomplex organizations in photosynthetic membranes.
Extension of 239+240Pu sediment geochronology to coarse-grained marine sediments
Kuehl, Steven A.; Ketterer, Michael E.; Miselis, Jennifer L.
2012-01-01
Sediment geochronology of coastal sedimentary environments dominated by sand has been extremely limited because concentrations of natural and bomb-fallout radionuclides are often below the limit of measurement using standard techniques. ICP-MS analyses of 239+240Pu from two sites representative of traditionally challenging (i.e., low concentration) environments provide a "proof of concept" and demonstrate a new application for bomb-fallout radiotracers in the study of sandy shelf-seabed dynamics. A kasten core from the New Zealand shelf in the Southern Hemisphere (low fallout), and a vibracore from the sandy nearshore of North Carolina (low particle surface area) both reveal measurable 239+240Pu activities at depth. In the case of the New Zealand site, independently verified steady-state sedimentation results in a 239+240Pu profile that mimics the expected atmospheric fallout. The depth profile of 239+240Pu in the North Carolina core is more uniform, indicating significant sediment resuspension, which would be expected in this energetic nearshore environment. This study, for the first time, demonstrates the utility of 239+240Pu in the study of sandy environments, significantly extending the application of bomb-fallout isotopes to coarse-grained sediments, which compose the majority of nearshore regions.
A Coarse Grained Model for Methylcellulose: Spontaneous Ring Formation at Elevated Temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Wenjun; Larson, Ronald
Methylcellulose (MC) is widely used as food additives and pharma applications, where its thermo-reversible gelation behavior plays an important role. To date the gelation mechanism is not well understood, and therefore attracts great research interest. In this study, we adopted coarse-grained (CG) molecular dynamics simulations to model the MC chains, including the homopolymers and random copolymers that models commercial METHOCEL A, in an implicit water environment, where each MC monomer modeled with a single bead. The simulations are carried using a LAMMPS program. We parameterized our CG model using the radial distribution functions from atomistic simulations of short MC oligomers, extrapolating the results to long chains. We used dissociation free energy to validate our CG model against the atomistic model. The CG model captured the effects of monomer substitution type and temperature from the atomistic simulations. We applied this CG model to simulate single chains up to 1000 monomers long and obtained persistence lengths that are close to those determined from experiment. We observed the chain collapse transition for random copolymer at 600 monomers long at 50C. The chain collapsed into a stable ring structure with outer diameter around 14nm, which appears to be a precursor to the fibril structure observed in the methylcellulose gel observed by Lodge et al. in the recent studies. Our CG model can be extended to other MC derivatives for studying the interaction between these polymers and small molecules, such as hydrophobic drugs.
Rolfe, Bryan A.; Chun, Jaehun; Joo, Yong L.
2013-09-05
Recent experimental work has shown that polymeric micelles can template nanoparticles via interstitial sites in shear-ordered micelle solutions. In the current study, we report simulation results based on a coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) model of a solvent/polymer/nanoparticle system. Our results demonstrate the importance of polymer concentration and the micelle corona length in 2D shear-ordering of neat block copolymer solutions. Although our results do not show strong 3D ordering during shear, we find that cessation of shear allows the system to relax into a 3D configuration of greater order than without shear. It is further shown that this post-shear relaxation is strongly dependent on the length of the micelle corona. For the first time, we demonstrate the presence and importance of a flow disturbance surrounding micelles in simple shear flow at moderate Péclet numbers. This disturbance is similar to what is observed around simulated star polymers and ellipsoids. The extent of the flow disturbance increases as expected with a longer micelle corona length. It is further suggested that without proper consideration of these dynamics, a stable nanoparticle configuration would be difficult to obtain.
Large-scale structural transitions in supercoiled DNA revealed by coarse-grained simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krajina, Brad; Spakowitz, Andrew
Topological constraints, such as DNA supercoiling, play an integral role in genomic regulation and organization in living systems. However, physical understanding of the principles that underlie DNA structure and organization at biologically-relevant length-scales remains a formidable challenge. We develop a coarse-grained simulation approach for predicting equilibrium conformations of supercoiled DNA. With this approach, we study the conformational transitions that arise due to supercoiling across the full range of supercoiling densities that are commonly explored by living systems. Simulations of ring DNA molecules with lengths up to the scale of topological domains in the E. coli chromosome (~10 kilobases) reveal large-scale structural transitions elicited by supercoiling, resulting in 3 supercoiling conformational regimes: chiral coils, extended plectonemes, and branched hyper-supercoils. These results capture the non-monotonic relationship of size versus degree of supercoiling observed in experimental sedimentation studies of supercoiled DNA, and our results provide a physical explanation of the structural transitions underlying this behavior.
A coarse-grained generalized second law for holographic conformal field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bunting, William; Fu, Zicao; Marolf, Donald
2016-03-01
We consider the universal sector of a d\\gt 2 dimensional large-N strongly interacting holographic CFT on a black hole spacetime background B. When our CFT d is coupled to dynamical Einstein-Hilbert gravity with Newton constant G d , the combined system can be shown to satisfy a version of the thermodynamic generalized second law (GSL) at leading order in G d . The quantity {S}{CFT}+\\frac{A({H}B,{perturbed})}{4{G}d} is non-decreasing, where A({H}B,{perturbed}) is the (time-dependent) area of the new event horizon in the coupled theory. Our S CFT is the notion of (coarse-grained) CFT entropy outside the black hole given by causal holographic information—a quantity in turn defined in the AdS{}d+1 dual by the renormalized area {A}{ren}({H}{{bulk}}) of a corresponding bulk causal horizon. A corollary is that the fine-grained GSL must hold for finite processes taken as a whole, though local decreases of the fine-grained generalized entropy are not obviously forbidden. Another corollary, given by setting {G}d=0, states that no finite process taken as a whole can increase the renormalized free energy F={E}{out}-{{TS}}{CFT}-{{Ω }}J, with T,{{Ω }} constants set by {H}B. This latter corollary constitutes a 2nd law for appropriate non-compact AdS event horizons.
Spiske, M.; Jaffe, B.E.
2009-01-01
Storms and associated surges are major coast-shaping processes. Nevertheless, no typical sequences for storm surge deposits in different coastal settings have been established. This study interprets a coarse-grained hurricane ridge deposit on the island of Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles. The sequence was deposited during Hurricane Lenny in November 1999. Insight is gained into the hydrodynamics of surge flow by interpreting textural trends, particle imbrication, and deposit geometry. Vertical textural variations, caused by time-dependent hydrodynamic changes, were used to subdivide the deposit into depositional units that correspond to different stages of the surge, such as setup, peak, and return flow. Particle size and imbrication trends and geometry of the units reflect landward bed-load transport of components during the setup, a nondirectional flow with sediment falling out of suspension during the peak, and a seaward bedload transport during the return flow. Formation of a ridge during setup affected the texture of the return flow unit. Changing angles of imbrication reflect alternating flow velocities during each phase. Normal grading during setup and inverse grading during return flow are caused by decelerating and accelerating flow, respectively. Hence, the interpreted deposit seems to represent the first described complete hurricane surge sequence from a carbonate environment. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.
Coding coarse grained polymer model for LAMMPS and its application to polymer crystallization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Chuanfu; Sommer, Jens-Uwe
2009-08-01
We present a patch code for LAMMPS to implement a coarse grained (CG) model of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). LAMMPS is a powerful molecular dynamics (MD) simulator developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Our patch code implements tabulated angular potential and Lennard-Jones-9-6 (LJ96) style interaction for PVA. Benefited from the excellent parallel efficiency of LAMMPS, our patch code is suitable for large-scale simulations. This CG-PVA code is used to study polymer crystallization, which is a long-standing unsolved problem in polymer physics. By using parallel computing, cooling and heating processes for long chains are simulated. The results show that chain-folded structures resembling the lamellae of polymer crystals are formed during the cooling process. The evolution of the static structure factor during the crystallization transition indicates that long-range density order appears before local crystalline packing. This is consistent with some experimental observations by small/wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS). During the heating process, it is found that the crystalline regions are still growing until they are fully melted, which can be confirmed by the evolution both of the static structure factor and average stem length formed by the chains. This two-stage behavior indicates that melting of polymer crystals is far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Our results concur with various experiments. It is the first time that such growth/reorganization behavior is clearly observed by MD simulations. Our code can be easily used to model other type of polymers by providing a file containing the tabulated angle potential data and a set of appropriate parameters. Program summaryProgram title: lammps-cgpva Catalogue identifier: AEDE_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEDE_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU's GPL No. of lines in distributed program
The impact of resolution upon entropy and information in coarse-grained models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foley, Thomas T.; Shell, M. Scott; Noid, W. G.
2015-12-01
By eliminating unnecessary degrees of freedom, coarse-grained (CG) models tremendously facilitate numerical calculations and theoretical analyses of complex phenomena. However, their success critically depends upon the representation of the system and the effective potential that governs the CG degrees of freedom. This work investigates the relationship between the CG representation and the many-body potential of mean force (PMF), W, which is the appropriate effective potential for a CG model that exactly preserves the structural and thermodynamic properties of a given high resolution model. In particular, we investigate the entropic component of the PMF and its dependence upon the CG resolution. This entropic component, SW, is a configuration-dependent relative entropy that determines the temperature dependence of W. As a direct consequence of eliminating high resolution details from the CG model, the coarsening process transfers configurational entropy and information from the configuration space into SW. In order to further investigate these general results, we consider the popular Gaussian Network Model (GNM) for protein conformational fluctuations. We analytically derive the exact PMF for the GNM as a function of the CG representation. In the case of the GNM, -TSW is a positive, configuration-independent term that depends upon the temperature, the complexity of the protein interaction network, and the details of the CG representation. This entropic term demonstrates similar behavior for seven model proteins and also suggests, in each case, that certain resolutions provide a more efficient description of protein fluctuations. These results may provide general insight into the role of resolution for determining the information content, thermodynamic properties, and transferability of CG models. Ultimately, they may lead to a rigorous and systematic framework for optimizing the representation of CG models.
Mechanics of severing for large microtubule complexes revealed by coarse-grained simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Theisen, Kelly E.; Desai, Neha J.; Volski, Allison M.; Dima, Ruxandra I.
2013-09-01
We investigate the mechanical behavior of microtubule (MT) protofilaments under the action of bending forces, ramped up linearly in time, to provide insight into the severing of MTs by microtubule associated proteins (MAPs). We used the self-organized polymer model which employs a coarse-grained description of the protein chain and ran Brownian dynamics simulations accelerated on graphics processing units that allow us to follow the dynamics of a MT system on experimental timescales. Our study focused on the role played in the MT depolymerization dynamics by the inter-tubulin contacts a protofilament experiences when embedded in the MT lattice, and the number of binding sites of MAPs on MTs. We found that proteins inducing breaking of MTs must have at least three attachment points on any tubulin dimer from an isolated protofilament. In contrast, two points of contact would suffice when dimers are located in an intact MT lattice, in accord with experimental findings on MT severing proteins. Our results show that confinement of a protofilament in the MT lattice leads to a drastic reduction in the energy required for the removal of tubulin dimers, due to the drastic reduction in entropy. We further showed that there are differences in the energetic requirements based on the location of the dimer to be removed by severing. Comparing the energy of tubulin dimers removal revealed by our simulations with the amount of energy resulting from one ATP hydrolysis, which is the source of energy for all MAPs, we provided strong evidence for the experimental finding that severing proteins do not bind uniformly along the MT wall.
The impact of resolution upon entropy and information in coarse-grained models
Foley, Thomas T.; Shell, M. Scott; Noid, W. G.
2015-12-28
By eliminating unnecessary degrees of freedom, coarse-grained (CG) models tremendously facilitate numerical calculations and theoretical analyses of complex phenomena. However, their success critically depends upon the representation of the system and the effective potential that governs the CG degrees of freedom. This work investigates the relationship between the CG representation and the many-body potential of mean force (PMF), W, which is the appropriate effective potential for a CG model that exactly preserves the structural and thermodynamic properties of a given high resolution model. In particular, we investigate the entropic component of the PMF and its dependence upon the CG resolution. This entropic component, S{sub W}, is a configuration-dependent relative entropy that determines the temperature dependence of W. As a direct consequence of eliminating high resolution details from the CG model, the coarsening process transfers configurational entropy and information from the configuration space into S{sub W}. In order to further investigate these general results, we consider the popular Gaussian Network Model (GNM) for protein conformational fluctuations. We analytically derive the exact PMF for the GNM as a function of the CG representation. In the case of the GNM, −TS{sub W} is a positive, configuration-independent term that depends upon the temperature, the complexity of the protein interaction network, and the details of the CG representation. This entropic term demonstrates similar behavior for seven model proteins and also suggests, in each case, that certain resolutions provide a more efficient description of protein fluctuations. These results may provide general insight into the role of resolution for determining the information content, thermodynamic properties, and transferability of CG models. Ultimately, they may lead to a rigorous and systematic framework for optimizing the representation of CG models.
A Coarse-Grained Model for Polyglutamine Aggregation Modulated by Amphipathic Flanking Sequences
Ruff, Kiersten M.; Khan, Siddique J.; Pappu, Rohit V.
2014-01-01
The aggregation of proteins with expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) tracts is directly relevant to the formation of neuronal intranuclear inclusions in Huntington’s disease. In vitro studies have uncovered the effects of flanking sequences as modulators of the driving forces and mechanisms of polyQ aggregation in sequence segments associated with HD. Specifically, a seventeen-residue amphipathic stretch (N17) that is directly N-terminal to the polyQ tract in huntingtin decreases the overall solubility, destabilizes nonfibrillar aggregates, and accelerates fibril formation. Published results from atomistic simulations showed that the N17 module reduces the frequency of intermolecular association. Our reanalysis of these simulation results demonstrates that the N17 module also reduces interchain entanglements between polyQ domains. These two effects, which are observed on the smallest lengthscales, are incorporated into phenomenological pair potentials and used in coarse-grained Brownian dynamics simulations to investigate their impact on large-scale aggregation. We analyze the results from Brownian dynamics simulations using the framework of diffusion-limited cluster aggregation. When entanglements prevail, which is true in the absence of N17, small spherical clusters and large linear aggregates form on distinct timescales, in accord with in vitro experiments. Conversely, when entanglements are quenched and a barrier to intermolecular associations is introduced, both of which are attributable to N17, the timescales for forming small species and large linear aggregates become similar. Therefore, the combination of a reduction of interchain entanglements through homopolymeric polyQ and barriers to intermolecular associations appears to be sufficient for providing a minimalist phenomenological rationalization of in vitro observations regarding the effects of N17 on polyQ aggregation. PMID:25185558
De novo inference of protein function from coarse-grained dynamics.
Bhadra, Pratiti; Pal, Debnath
2014-10-01
Inference of molecular function of proteins is the fundamental task in the quest for understanding cellular processes. The task is getting increasingly difficult with thousands of new proteins discovered each day. The difficulty arises primarily due to lack of high-throughput experimental technique for assessing protein molecular function, a lacunae that computational approaches are trying hard to fill. The latter too faces a major bottleneck in absence of clear evidence based on evolutionary information. Here we propose a de novo approach to annotate protein molecular function through structural dynamics match for a pair of segments from two dissimilar proteins, which may share even <10% sequence identity. To screen these matches, corresponding 1 µs coarse-grained (CG) molecular dynamics trajectories were used to compute normalized root-mean-square-fluctuation graphs and select mobile segments, which were, thereafter, matched for all pairs using unweighted three-dimensional autocorrelation vectors. Our in-house custom-built forcefield (FF), extensively validated against dynamics information obtained from experimental nuclear magnetic resonance data, was specifically used to generate the CG dynamics trajectories. The test for correspondence of dynamics-signature of protein segments and function revealed 87% true positive rate and 93.5% true negative rate, on a dataset of 60 experimentally validated proteins, including moonlighting proteins and those with novel functional motifs. A random test against 315 unique fold/function proteins for a negative test gave >99% true recall. A blind prediction on a novel protein appears consistent with additional evidences retrieved therein. This is the first proof-of-principle of generalized use of structural dynamics for inferring protein molecular function leveraging our custom-made CG FF, useful to all.
Energy-efficient specialization of functional units in a Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Array
Van Essen, B; Panda, R; Wood, A; Ebeling, C; Hauck, S
2010-12-01
Functional units provide the backbone of any spatial accelerator by providing the computing resources. The desire for having rich and expensive functional units is in tension with producing a regular and energy-efficient computing fabric. This paper explores the design trade-off between complex, universal functional units and simpler, limited functional units. We show that a modest amount of specialization reduces the area-delay-energy product of an optimized architecture to 0.86x a baseline architecture. Furthermore, we provide a design guideline that allows an architect to customize the contents of the computing fabric just by examining the profile of benchmarks within the application domains. Functional units are the core of compute-intensive spatial accelerators. They perform the computation of interest with support from local storage and communication structures. Ideally, the functional units will provide rich functionality, supporting operations ranging from simple addition, to fused multiply-adds, to advanced transcendental functions and domain specific operations like add-compare-select. However, the total opportunity cost to support the more complex operations is a function of the cost of the hardware, the rate of occurrence of the operation in the application domain, and the inefficiency of emulating the operation with simpler operators. Examples of operations that are typically emulated in spatial accelerators are division and trigonometric functions, which can be solved using table-lookup based algorithms and the CORDIC algorithm. One reason to avoid having direct hardware support for complex operations in a tiled architecture like a Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Array (CGRA) is that the expensive hardware will typically need to be replicated in some or all of the architecture's tiles. Tiled architecture are designed such that their tiles are either homogeneous or heterogeneous. Homogeneous architectures are simpler to design but heterogeneous
Collu, Francesca; Spiga, Enrico; Lorenz, Christian D.; Fraternali, Franca
2015-01-01
Membrane fusion is critical to eukaryotic cellular function and crucial to the entry of enveloped viruses such as influenza and human immunodeficiency virus. Influenza viral entry in the host cell is mediated by a 20–23 amino acid long sequence, called the fusion peptide (FP). Recently, possible structures for the fusion peptide (ranging from an inverted V shaped α-helical structure to an α-helical hairpin, or to a complete α-helix) and their implication in the membrane fusion initiation have been proposed. Despite the large number of studies devoted to the structure of the FP, the mechanism of action of this peptide remains unclear with several mechanisms having been suggested, including the induction of local disorder, promoting membrane curvature, and/or altering local membrane composition. In recent years, several research groups have employed atomistic and/or coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the matter. In all previous works, the behavior of a single FP monomer was studied, while in this manuscript, we use a simplified model of a tripeptide (TP) monomer of FP (TFP) instead of a single FP monomer because each Influenza Hemagglutinin contains three FP molecules in the biological system. In this manuscript we report findings targeted at understanding the fusogenic properties and the collective behavior of these trimers of FP peptides on a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine model membrane. Here we show how the TFP monomers self-assemble into differently sized oligomers in the presence of the membrane. We measure the perturbation to the structure of the phospholipid membrane caused by the presence of these TFP oligomers. Our work (i) shows how self-assembly of TFP in the presence of the membrane induces non negligible deformation to the membrane and (ii) could be a useful starting point to stimulate discussion and further work targeted to fusion pore formation. PMID:26636093
Role of Ionic Clusters in Dynamics of Ionomer Melts: From Atomistic to Coarse Grained Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agrawal, Anupriya
Ionomers, polymers decorated with ionizable groups, have found application in numerous technologies where ionic transport is required. The ionic groups associate into random clusters resulting in substantial effect on structure, dynamics and transport of these materials. The effects of topology, size and dynamics of these aggregates however remain an open question. Here we probe cluster formation correlated with polymer dynamics through a model system of randomly sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) melts with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations over a broad time and length scales ranging from that within the ionic clusters through polymer segmental dynamics to the motion of the entire molecules. The cluster evolution was probed by fully atomistic studies. We find ladder-like aggregates that transform to globule-like with increasing the dielectric constant of media for sodium neutralized SPS. With increasing dielectric constant, the size of the aggregates decrease and their number increases. Concurrently, the mobility of the polymer increases. The counterion radius and valency affect both morphology and dynamics as is evident in the calculated static and dynamic structure factors. It is further manifested in the results of viscosity obtained through non-equilibrium molecular dynamics technique. Finally, to access larger length scales a three bead coarse-grained model to describe sulfonated styrene that we have developed will be discussed in view of the outstanding challenges in ionic polymers. Supported in part by DOE Grant No. DE-SC007908. This work was carried out in collaboration with Dvora Perahia and Gary Grest while I was a postdoc at Clemson University. I gratefully acknowledge both of them for their support and encouragement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freeman, Gordon Samuel
DNA is of central importance in biology as it is responsible for carrying, copying, and translating the genetic code into the building blocks that comprise life. In order to accomplish these tasks, the DNA molecule must be versatile and robust. Indeed, the underlying molecular interactions that allow DNA to execute these tasks are complex and their origins are only beginning to be understood. While experiments are able to elucidate many key biophysical phenomena, there remain many unanswered questions. Molecular simulation is able to shed light on phenomena at the molecular scale and provide information that is missing from experimental views of DNA behavior. In this dissertation I use state-of-the-art coarse-grained DNA models to address two key problems. In the first, metadynamics calculations are employed to uncover the free energy surface of two complimentary DNA strands. This free energy surface takes on the appearance of a hybridization funnel and reveals candidates for intermediate states in the hybridization of short DNA oligomers. Such short oligomers are important building blocks for DNA-driven self-assembly and the mechanism of hybridization in this regime is not well understood. The second problem is that of nucleosome formation. Nucleosomes are the fundamental subunit of genome compaction in the nucleus of a cell. As such, nucleosomes are a key epigenetic factor and affect gene expression and the ability of DNA-binding proteins to locate and bind to the appropriate position in the genome. However, the factors that drive nucleosome positioning are not well understood. While DNA sequence is known to affect nucleosome formation, the mechanism by which it does so has not been established and a number of hypotheses explaining this sequence-dependence exist in the literature. I demonstrate that DNA shape dominates this process with contributions arising from both intrinsic DNA curvature as well as DNA-protein interactions driven by sequence
Coarse-grained molecular dynamics modeling of the kinetics of lamellar BCP defect annealing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peters, Andrew J.; Lawson, Richard A.; Nation, Benjamin D.; Ludovice, Peter J.; Henderson, Clifford L.
2015-03-01
Directed self-assembly of block copolymers (BCPs) is a process that has received great interest in the field of nanomanufacturing in the past decade, and great strides towards forming high quality aligned patterns have been made. But state of the art methods still yield defectivities orders of magnitude higher than is necessary in semi-conductor fabrication even though free energy calculations suggest that equilibrium defectivities are much lower than is necessary for economic semi-conductor fabrication. This disparity suggests that the main problem may lie in the kinetics of defect removal. This work uses a coarse-grained model to study the rates, pathways, and dependencies of healing a common defect to give insight into the fundamental processes that control defect healing and give guidance on optimal process conditions for BCP-DSA. It is found that infinitely thick films yield an exponential drop in defect heal rate above χN ~ 30. Below χN ~ 30, the rate of transport was similar to the rate at which the transition state was reached so that the overall rate changed only slightly. The energy barrier in periodic simulations increased with 0.31 χN on average. Thin film simulations show no change in rate associated with the energy barrier below χN ~ 50, and then show an increase in energy barrier scaling with 0.16χN. Thin film simulations always begin to heal at either the free interface or the BCP-underlayer interface where the increased A-B contact area associated with the transition state will be minimized, while the infinitely thick films must start healing in the bulk where the A-B contact area is increased. It is also found that cooperative chain movement is required for the defect to start healing.
Validating a Coarse-Grained Potential Energy Function through Protein Loop Modelling
MacDonald, James T.; Kelley, Lawrence A.; Freemont, Paul S.
2013-01-01
Coarse-grained (CG) methods for sampling protein conformational space have the potential to increase computational efficiency by reducing the degrees of freedom. The gain in computational efficiency of CG methods often comes at the expense of non-protein like local conformational features. This could cause problems when transitioning to full atom models in a hierarchical framework. Here, a CG potential energy function was validated by applying it to the problem of loop prediction. A novel method to sample the conformational space of backbone atoms was benchmarked using a standard test set consisting of 351 distinct loops. This method used a sequence-independent CG potential energy function representing the protein using -carbon positions only and sampling conformations with a Monte Carlo simulated annealing based protocol. Backbone atoms were added using a method previously described and then gradient minimised in the Rosetta force field. Despite the CG potential energy function being sequence-independent, the method performed similarly to methods that explicitly use either fragments of known protein backbones with similar sequences or residue-specific /-maps to restrict the search space. The method was also able to predict with sub-Angstrom accuracy two out of seven loops from recently solved crystal structures of proteins with low sequence and structure similarity to previously deposited structures in the PDB. The ability to sample realistic loop conformations directly from a potential energy function enables the incorporation of additional geometric restraints and the use of more advanced sampling methods in a way that is not possible to do easily with fragment replacement methods and also enable multi-scale simulations for protein design and protein structure prediction. These restraints could be derived from experimental data or could be design restraints in the case of computational protein design. C++ source code is available for download from http
Experimental deformation of coarse-grained rock salt to high strain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Linckens, J.; Zulauf, G.; Hammer, J.
2016-08-01
The processes and deformation mechanisms (e.g., dislocation creep, pressure solution, grain boundary sliding, and recrystallization) of rock salt are still a matter of debate. In order to fill this gap, high strain constriction experiments at 345°C, atmospheric pressure and a strain rate of 10-7 s-1 have been conducted on natural halite cuboids (60 × 60 × 45 mm) from the Morsleben mine of Northern Germany. Most samples were almost single crystals and contain a small amount of smaller grains (10-26%). The grain boundaries are decorated with fluid inclusions. The experiments were stopped at different final strains (ɛy = z of 10, 20, 30, and 40%) corresponding to a maximum strain (ɛx) range of 20-170%. The halite is deformed by dislocation creep, and the size of developed subgrains corresponds to the applied stress. The combined Schmid factor and subgrain boundary analysis indicate that slip was largely accommodated by the {110} < 110 > slip systems, with possible minor contribution by slip on the {100} < 110 > slip systems. Some of the deformed samples show evidence of grain boundary migration. In addition, subgrains with small misorientations form that result in large cumulative misorientations within a single grain (>40°). However, no subgrain rotation recrystallization is observed (i.e., misorientation angles are <10°). All the experiments show strain hardening, suggesting that recrystallization by grain boundary migration was not extensive and did not reset the microstructure. The experiments show that high finite strain in coarse-grained relatively dry rock salt can be accommodated by dislocation creep, without extensive dynamic recrystallization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flechsig, Holger
2016-02-01
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are integral membrane proteins which mediate the exchange of diverse substrates across membranes powered by ATP molecules. Our understanding of their activity is still hampered since the conformational dynamics underlying the operation of such proteins cannot yet be resolved in detailed molecular dynamics studies. Here a coarse grained model which allows to mimic binding of nucleotides and follow subsequent conformational motions of full-length transporter structures in computer simulations is proposed and implemented. To justify its explanatory quality, the model is first applied to the maltose transporter system for which multiple conformations are known and we find that the model predictions agree remarkably well with the experimental data. For the MalK subunit the switching from open to the closed dimer configuration upon ATP binding is reproduced and, moreover, for the full-length maltose transporter, progression from inward-facing to the outward-facing state is correctly obtained. For the heme transporter HmuUV, for which only the free structure could yet be determined, the model was then applied to predict nucleotide-induced conformational motions. Upon binding of ATP-mimicking ligands the structure changed from a conformation in which the nucleotide-binding domains formed an open shape, to a conformation in which they were found in tight contact, while, at the same time, a pronounced rotation of the transmembrane domains was observed. This finding is supported by normal mode analysis, and, comparison with structural data of the homologous vitamin B12 transporter BtuCD suggests that the observed rotation mechanism may contribute a common functional aspect for this class of ABC transporters. Although in HmuuV noticeable rearrangement of essential transmembrane helices was detected, there are no indications from our simulations that ATP binding alone may facilitate propagation of substrate molecules in this transporter
Wu, Zhe; Cui, Qiang; Yethiraj, Arun
2013-10-10
An important puzzle in membrane biophysics is the difference in the behaviors of lysine (Lys) and arginine (Arg) based peptides at the membrane. For example, the translocation of poly-Arg is orders of magnitude faster than that of poly-Lys. Recent experimental work suggests that much of the difference can be inferred from the phase behavior of peptide/lipid mixtures. At similar concentrations, mixtures of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids display different phases in the presence of these polypeptides, with a bicontinuous phase observed with poly-Arg peptides and an inverted hexagonal phase observed with poly-Lys peptides. Here we show that simulations with the coarse-grained (CG) BMW-MARTINI model reproduce the experimental results. An analysis using atomistic and CG models reveals that electrostatic and glycerol-peptide interactions play a crucial role in determining the phase behavior of peptide-lipid mixtures, with the difference between Arg and Lys arising from the stronger interactions of the former with lipid glycerols. In other words, the multivalent nature of the guanidinium group allows Arg to simultaneously interact with both phosphate and glycerol groups, while Lys engages solely with phosphate; this feature of amino acid/lipid interactions has not been emphasized in previous studies. The Arg peptides colocalize with PS in regions of high negative Gaussian curvature and stabilize the bicontinuous phase. Decreasing the strength of either the electrostatic interactions or the peptide-glycerol interactions causes the inverted hexagonal phase to become more stable. The results highlight the utility of CG models for the investigation of phase behavior but also emphasize the subtlety of the phenomena, with small changes in specific interactions leading to qualitatively different phases. PMID:24024591
Optimization of an Elastic Network Augmented Coarse Grained Model to Study CCMV Capsid Deformation
Globisch, Christoph; Krishnamani, Venkatramanan; Deserno, Markus; Peter, Christine
2013-01-01
The major protective coat of most viruses is a highly symmetric protein capsid that forms spontaneously from many copies of identical proteins. Structural and mechanical properties of such capsids, as well as their self-assembly process, have been studied experimentally and theoretically, including modeling efforts by computer simulations on various scales. Atomistic models include specific details of local protein binding but are limited in system size and accessible time, while coarse grained (CG) models do get access to longer time and length scales but often lack the specific local interactions. Multi-scale models aim at bridging this gap by systematically connecting different levels of resolution. Here, a CG model for CCMV (Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus), a virus with an icosahedral shell of 180 identical protein monomers, is developed, where parameters are derived from atomistic simulations of capsid protein dimers in aqueous solution. In particular, a new method is introduced to combine the MARTINI CG model with a supportive elastic network based on structural fluctuations of individual monomers. In the parametrization process, both network connectivity and strength are optimized. This elastic-network optimized CG model, which solely relies on atomistic data of small units (dimers), is able to correctly predict inter-protein conformational flexibility and properties of larger capsid fragments of 20 and more subunits. Furthermore, it is shown that this CG model reproduces experimental (Atomic Force Microscopy) indentation measurements of the entire viral capsid. Thus it is shown that one obvious goal for hierarchical modeling, namely predicting mechanical properties of larger protein complexes from models that are carefully parametrized on elastic properties of smaller units, is achievable. PMID:23613730
Multi-scale morphology in self-assembly of peptides to proteins via a coarse-grain model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pandey, Ras; Farmer, Barry
2015-03-01
Self-organizing structures of short peptides (6-7 residues) and proteins (136 residues) are studied by a coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulation. Peptides and proteins are described by coarse-grained chains of residues whose interactions are described by a knowledge-based residue-residue interaction potential that captures the compositional specificity. Large-scale computer simulations are performed to study the structural evolution e.g. aggregation, network, etc. at a range of temperatures and concentrations. A number of local and global physical quantities including structure factor are examined. We find that the residue interactions, concentration, and size of chains are very important in modulating the structure of emerging morphologies in the specified temperature range. Estimates are provided for the effective (fractal) dimension of the assembly over various length scales as a function of temperature. This work is supported by the Air Force Research Laboratory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Dechang; Liu, Ming S.; Ji, Baohua; Hwang, Kehchih; Huang, Yonggang
2009-06-01
Binding dynamics and pathways of ligands or inhibitors to target proteins are challenging both experimental and theoretical biologists. A dynamics understanding of inhibitors interacting with protein is essential for the design of novel potent drugs. In this work we applied a coarse-grained molecular dynamics method for simulating inhibitors entering the binding cavity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease (PR). It shows that the coarse-grained dynamics, consistent with the experimental results, can capture the essential molecular dynamics of various inhibitors binding into PR. The primary driving force for the binding processes is the nonbond interaction between inhibitors and PR. The size and topology of inhibitors and the interacting strength between inhibitors and PR have great influence on the binding mode and processes. The interaction strength between the PR and various inhibitors is also analyzed by atomistic molecular mechanics and Poisson-Boltzmann solvation area method.
Characterization of grain boundary impedances in fine- and coarse-grained CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, Timothy B.; Sinclair, Derek C.; West, Anthony R.
2006-03-01
The influence of electrode material, dc bias, and pellet thickness on the electrical properties of fine- and coarse-grained CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics has been investigated using impedance spectroscopy. The low frequency arc observed in Z* plots near room temperature is independent of the electron work function of the metal electrode. It shows significant variation with dc bias and pellet thickness for coarse-grained ceramics, but no such variations for fine-grained ceramics. The results demonstrate the importance of ceramic microstructure in controlling the electrical properties of CCTO ceramics and support the internal barrier layer capacitor (IBLC) model of Schottky barriers at the grain boundaries between semiconducting grains. The IBLC model explains the high permittivity and nonlinear current-voltage characteristics commonly reported for CCTO ceramics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poursina, Mohammad; Anderson, Kurt S.
2014-08-01
This paper presents a novel algorithm to approximate the long-range electrostatic potential field in the Cartesian coordinates applicable to 3D coarse-grained simulations of biopolymers. In such models, coarse-grained clusters are formed via treating groups of atoms as rigid and/or flexible bodies connected together via kinematic joints. Therefore, multibody dynamic techniques are used to form and solve the equations of motion of such coarse-grained systems. In this article, the approximations for the potential fields due to the interaction between a highly negatively/positively charged pseudo-atom and charged particles, as well as the interaction between clusters of charged particles, are presented. These approximations are expressed in terms of physical and geometrical properties of the bodies such as the entire charge, the location of the center of charge, and the pseudo-inertia tensor about the center of charge of the clusters. Further, a novel substructuring scheme is introduced to implement the presented far-field potential evaluations in a binary tree framework as opposed to the existing quadtree and octree strategies of implementing fast multipole method. Using the presented Lagrangian grids, the electrostatic potential is recursively calculated via sweeping two passes: assembly and disassembly. In the assembly pass, adjacent charged bodies are combined together to form new clusters. Then, the potential field of each cluster due to its interaction with faraway resulting clusters is recursively calculated in the disassembly pass. The method is highly compatible with multibody dynamic schemes to model coarse-grained biopolymers. Since the proposed method takes advantage of constant physical and geometrical properties of rigid clusters, improvement in the overall computational cost is observed comparing to the tradition application of fast multipole method.
Dunn, Nicholas J. H.; Noid, W. G.
2015-12-28
The present work investigates the capability of bottom-up coarse-graining (CG) methods for accurately modeling both structural and thermodynamic properties of all-atom (AA) models for molecular liquids. In particular, we consider 1, 2, and 3-site CG models for heptane, as well as 1 and 3-site CG models for toluene. For each model, we employ the multiscale coarse-graining method to determine interaction potentials that optimally approximate the configuration dependence of the many-body potential of mean force (PMF). We employ a previously developed “pressure-matching” variational principle to determine a volume-dependent contribution to the potential, U{sub V}(V), that approximates the volume-dependence of the PMF. We demonstrate that the resulting CG models describe AA density fluctuations with qualitative, but not quantitative, accuracy. Accordingly, we develop a self-consistent approach for further optimizing U{sub V}, such that the CG models accurately reproduce the equilibrium density, compressibility, and average pressure of the AA models, although the CG models still significantly underestimate the atomic pressure fluctuations. Additionally, by comparing this array of models that accurately describe the structure and thermodynamic pressure of heptane and toluene at a range of different resolutions, we investigate the impact of bottom-up coarse-graining upon thermodynamic properties. In particular, we demonstrate that U{sub V} accounts for the reduced cohesion in the CG models. Finally, we observe that bottom-up coarse-graining introduces subtle correlations between the resolution, the cohesive energy density, and the “simplicity” of the model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dunn, Nicholas J. H.; Noid, W. G.
2015-12-01
The present work investigates the capability of bottom-up coarse-graining (CG) methods for accurately modeling both structural and thermodynamic properties of all-atom (AA) models for molecular liquids. In particular, we consider 1, 2, and 3-site CG models for heptane, as well as 1 and 3-site CG models for toluene. For each model, we employ the multiscale coarse-graining method to determine interaction potentials that optimally approximate the configuration dependence of the many-body potential of mean force (PMF). We employ a previously developed "pressure-matching" variational principle to determine a volume-dependent contribution to the potential, UV(V), that approximates the volume-dependence of the PMF. We demonstrate that the resulting CG models describe AA density fluctuations with qualitative, but not quantitative, accuracy. Accordingly, we develop a self-consistent approach for further optimizing UV, such that the CG models accurately reproduce the equilibrium density, compressibility, and average pressure of the AA models, although the CG models still significantly underestimate the atomic pressure fluctuations. Additionally, by comparing this array of models that accurately describe the structure and thermodynamic pressure of heptane and toluene at a range of different resolutions, we investigate the impact of bottom-up coarse-graining upon thermodynamic properties. In particular, we demonstrate that UV accounts for the reduced cohesion in the CG models. Finally, we observe that bottom-up coarse-graining introduces subtle correlations between the resolution, the cohesive energy density, and the "simplicity" of the model.
Anderson, Michael T.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.
2003-12-18
Pacific Northwest Laboratory is evaluating the capabilities and limitations of phased array (PA) technology to detect service-type flaws in coarse-grained austenitic piping structures. The work is being sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Research. This paper presents initial work involving the use of PA technology to determine the effectiveness of detecting and accurately characterizing flaws on the far-side of austenitic piping welds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhen; Bian, Xin; Yang, Xiu; Karniadakis, George Em
2016-07-01
We construct effective coarse-grained (CG) models for polymeric fluids by employing two coarse-graining strategies. The first one is a forward-coarse-graining procedure by the Mori-Zwanzig (MZ) projection while the other one applies a reverse-coarse-graining procedure, such as the iterative Boltzmann inversion (IBI) and the stochastic parametric optimization (SPO). More specifically, we perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of star polymer melts to provide the atomistic fields to be coarse-grained. Each molecule of a star polymer with internal degrees of freedom is coarsened into a single CG particle and the effective interactions between CG particles can be either evaluated directly from microscopic dynamics based on the MZ formalism, or obtained by the reverse methods, i.e., IBI and SPO. The forward procedure has no free parameters to tune and recovers the MD system faithfully. For the reverse procedure, we find that the parameters in CG models cannot be selected arbitrarily. If the free parameters are properly defined, the reverse CG procedure also yields an accurate effective potential. Moreover, we explain how an aggressive coarse-graining procedure introduces the many-body effect, which makes the pairwise potential invalid for the same system at densities away from the training point. From this work, general guidelines for coarse-graining of polymeric fluids can be drawn.
Shen, Lin; Yang, Weitao
2016-04-12
We developed a new multiresolution method that spans three levels of resolution with quantum mechanical, atomistic molecular mechanical, and coarse-grained models. The resolution-adapted all-atom and coarse-grained water model, in which an all-atom structural description of the entire system is maintained during the simulations, is combined with the ab initio quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics method. We apply this model to calculate the redox potentials of the aqueous ruthenium and iron complexes by using the fractional number of electrons approach and thermodynamic integration simulations. The redox potentials are recovered in excellent accordance with the experimental data. The speed-up of the hybrid all-atom and coarse-grained water model renders it computationally more attractive. The accuracy depends on the hybrid all-atom and coarse-grained water model used in the combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical method. We have used another multiresolution model, in which an atomic-level layer of water molecules around redox center is solvated in supramolecular coarse-grained waters for the redox potential calculations. Compared with the experimental data, this alternative multilayer model leads to less accurate results when used with the coarse-grained polarizable MARTINI water or big multipole water model for the coarse-grained layer.
Li, Zhen; Bian, Xin; Yang, Xiu; Karniadakis, George Em
2016-07-28
We construct effective coarse-grained (CG) models for polymeric fluids by employing two coarse-graining strategies. The first one is a forward-coarse-graining procedure by the Mori-Zwanzig (MZ) projection while the other one applies a reverse-coarse-graining procedure, such as the iterative Boltzmann inversion (IBI) and the stochastic parametric optimization (SPO). More specifically, we perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of star polymer melts to provide the atomistic fields to be coarse-grained. Each molecule of a star polymer with internal degrees of freedom is coarsened into a single CG particle and the effective interactions between CG particles can be either evaluated directly from microscopic dynamics based on the MZ formalism, or obtained by the reverse methods, i.e., IBI and SPO. The forward procedure has no free parameters to tune and recovers the MD system faithfully. For the reverse procedure, we find that the parameters in CG models cannot be selected arbitrarily. If the free parameters are properly defined, the reverse CG procedure also yields an accurate effective potential. Moreover, we explain how an aggressive coarse-graining procedure introduces the many-body effect, which makes the pairwise potential invalid for the same system at densities away from the training point. From this work, general guidelines for coarse-graining of polymeric fluids can be drawn. PMID:27475343
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sellers, Michael; Lisal, Martin; Schweigert, Igor; Larentzos, James; Brennan, John
2015-06-01
In discrete particle simulations, when an atomistic model is coarse-grained, a trade-off is made: a boost in computational speed for a reduction in accuracy. Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) methods help to recover accuracy in viscous and thermal properties, while giving back a small amount of computational speed. One of the most notable extensions of DPD has been the introduction of chemical reactivity, called DPD-RX. Today, pairing the current evolution of DPD-RX with a coarse-grained potential and its chemical decomposition reactions allows for the simulation of the shock behavior of energetic materials at a timescale faster than an atomistic counterpart. In 2007, Maillet et al. introduced implicit chemical reactivity in DPD through the concept of particle reactors and simulated the decomposition of liquid nitromethane. We have recently extended the DPD-RX method and have applied it to solid hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) under shock conditions using a recently developed single-site coarse-grain model and a reduced RDX decomposition mechanism. A description of the methods used to simulate RDX and its tranition to hot product gases within DPD-RX will be presented. Additionally, examples of the effect of microstructure on shock behavior will be shown. Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited.
Hadley, Kevin R.; McCabe, Clare
2010-01-01
Developing accurate models of water for use in computer simulations is important for the study of many chemical and biological systems, including lipid bilayer self-assembly. The large temporal and spatial scales needed to study such self-assembly have led to the development and application of coarse-grained models for the lipid-lipid, lipid-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions. Unfortunately, popular center-of-mass-based coarse-graining techniques are limited to modeling water with one-water per bead. In this work, we have utilized the K-means algorithm to determine the optimal clustering of waters to allow the mapping of multiple waters to single coarse-grained beads. Through the study of a simple mixture between water and an amphiphilic solute (1-pentanol), we find a 4-water bead model has the optimal balance between computational efficiency and accurate solvation and structural properties when compared to water models ranging from 1 to 9 waters per bead. The 4-water model was subsequently utilized in studies of the solvation of hexadecanoic acid and the structure, as measured via radial distribution functions, for the hydrophobic tails and the bulk water phase were found to agree well with experimental data and their atomistic targets. PMID:20230012
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanyal, Tanmoy; Shell, M. Scott
2016-07-01
Bottom-up multiscale techniques are frequently used to develop coarse-grained (CG) models for simulations at extended length and time scales but are often limited by a compromise between computational efficiency and accuracy. The conventional approach to CG nonbonded interactions uses pair potentials which, while computationally efficient, can neglect the inherently multibody contributions of the local environment of a site to its energy, due to degrees of freedom that were coarse-grained out. This effect often causes the CG potential to depend strongly on the overall system density, composition, or other properties, which limits its transferability to states other than the one at which it was parameterized. Here, we propose to incorporate multibody effects into CG potentials through additional nonbonded terms, beyond pair interactions, that depend in a mean-field manner on local densities of different atomic species. This approach is analogous to embedded atom and bond-order models that seek to capture multibody electronic effects in metallic systems. We show that the relative entropy coarse-graining framework offers a systematic route to parameterizing such local density potentials. We then characterize this approach in the development of implicit solvation strategies for interactions between model hydrophobes in an aqueous environment.
Riniker, Sereina; Eichenberger, Andreas P; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F
2012-08-01
Simulation of the dynamics of a protein in aqueous solution using an atomic model for both the protein and the many water molecules is still computationally extremely demanding considering the time scale of protein motions. The use of supra-atomic or supra-molecular coarse-grained (CG) models may enhance the computational efficiency, but inevitably at the cost of reduced accuracy. Coarse-graining solvent degrees of freedom is likely to yield a favourable balance between reduced accuracy and enhanced computational speed. Here, the use of a supra-molecular coarse-grained water model that largely preserves the thermodynamic and dielectric properties of atomic level fine-grained (FG) water in molecular dynamics simulations of an atomic model for four proteins is investigated. The results of using an FG, a CG, an implicit, or a vacuum solvent environment of the four proteins are compared, and for hen egg-white lysozyme a comparison to NMR data is made. The mixed-grained simulations do not show large differences compared to the FG atomic level simulations, apart from an increased tendency to form hydrogen bonds between long side chains, which is due to the reduced ability of the supra-molecular CG beads that represent five FG water molecules to make solvent-protein hydrogen bonds. But, the mixed-grained simulations are at least an order of magnitude faster than the atomic level ones.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiese, Kay Jörg
2016-04-01
We derive and study two different formalisms used for nonequilibrium processes: the coherent-state path integral, and an effective, coarse-grained stochastic equation of motion. We first study the coherent-state path integral and the corresponding field theory, using the annihilation process A +A →A as an example. The field theory contains counterintuitive quartic vertices. We show how they can be interpreted in terms of a first-passage problem. Reformulating the coherent-state path integral as a stochastic equation of motion, the noise generically becomes imaginary. This renders it not only difficult to interpret, but leads to convergence problems at finite times. We then show how alternatively an effective coarse-grained stochastic equation of motion with real noise can be constructed. The procedure is similar in spirit to the derivation of the mean-field approximation for the Ising model, and the ensuing construction of its effective field theory. We finally apply our findings to stochastic Manna sandpiles. We show that the coherent-state path integral is inappropriate, or at least inconvenient. As an alternative, we derive and solve its mean-field approximation, which we then use to construct a coarse-grained stochastic equation of motion with real noise.
Majumder, Manoj K; S, Ramkumar; Mahajan, Dhiraj K; Basu, Sumit
2010-01-01
Simulation of the deformation of polymers below their glass transition through molecular dynamics provides an useful route to correlate their molecular architecture to deformation behavior. However, present computational capabilities severely restrict the time and length scales that can be simulated when detailed models of these macromolecules are used. Coarse-graining techniques for macromolecular structures intend to make bigger and longer simulations possible by grouping atoms into superatoms and devising ways of determining reasonable force fields for the superatoms in a manner that retains essential macromolecular features relevant to the process under study but jettisons unnecessary details. In this work we systematically develop a coarse-graining scheme aimed at simulating uniaxial stress-strain behavior of polymers below their glass transition. The scheme involves a two step process of obtaining the coarse grained force field parameters above glass transition. This seems to be enough to obtain "faithful" stress-strain responses after quenching to below the glass transition temperature. We apply the scheme developed to a commercially important polymer polystyrene, derive its complete force field parameters and thus demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garrido, J. M.; Algaba, J.; Míguez, J. M.; Mendiboure, B.; Moreno-Ventas Bravo, A. I.; Piñeiro, M. M.; Blas, F. J.
2016-04-01
We have determined the interfacial properties of tetrahydrofuran (THF) from direct simulation of the vapor-liquid interface. The molecules are modeled using six different molecular models, three of them based on the united-atom approach and the other three based on a coarse-grained (CG) approach. In the first case, THF is modeled using the transferable parameters potential functions approach proposed by Chandrasekhar and Jorgensen [J. Chem. Phys. 77, 5073 (1982)] and a new parametrization of the TraPPE force fields for cyclic alkanes and ethers [S. J. Keasler et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 115, 11234 (2012)]. In both cases, dispersive and coulombic intermolecular interactions are explicitly taken into account. In the second case, THF is modeled as a single sphere, a diatomic molecule, and a ring formed from three Mie monomers according to the SAFT-γ Mie top-down approach [V. Papaioannou et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 054107 (2014)]. Simulations were performed in the molecular dynamics canonical ensemble and the vapor-liquid surface tension is evaluated from the normal and tangential components of the pressure tensor along the simulation box. In addition to the surface tension, we have also obtained density profiles, coexistence densities, critical temperature, density, and pressure, and interfacial thickness as functions of temperature, paying special attention to the comparison between the estimations obtained from different models and literature experimental data. The simulation results obtained from the three CG models as described by the SAFT-γ Mie approach are able to predict accurately the vapor-liquid phase envelope of THF, in excellent agreement with estimations obtained from TraPPE model and experimental data in the whole range of coexistence. However, Chandrasekhar and Jorgensen model presents significant deviations from experimental results. We also compare the predictions for surface tension as obtained from simulation results for all the models with
Temperature-sensitive nanogels in the presence of salt: explicit coarse-grained simulations.
Quesada-Pérez, Manuel; Ahualli, Silvia; Martín-Molina, Alberto
2014-09-28
In this work, coarse-grained simulations of two charged thermo-shrinking nanogels (with degrees of ionization of 0.125 and 0.250) in the presence of 1:1 and 3:1 electrolytes have been explicitly performed through the bead-spring model of polyelectrolyte. In a first set of simulations, salt concentrations for 1:1 and 3:1 electrolytes ranged from 1 to 100 mM and from 0.167 to 16.7 mM, respectively, whereas temperature remained fixed at a value for which hydrophobic forces were negligible in our case (288 K). The sizes of swollen nanogels are smaller when trivalent cations are present, but they do not change significantly in the range of concentrations of 3:1 electrolyte studied here. It should be also stressed that trivalent cations neutralize the nanogel charge more efficiently. According to these results the electrostatic repulsion plays an important role. In a second set of simulations, the temperature varied from 288 to 333 K to study the effect of salt on the thermal response when hydrophobic forces are not negligible. For the nanogels with the lowest degree of ionization, the behavior of the radius with increasing the temperature can be described by a sigmoid function, which shifts towards lower temperatures in the presence of salt. This shift is more clearly observed for trivalent cations, even at low concentrations. For the nanogels with the highest degree of ionization, the effect of additional electrolyte is also noticeable. In this case, hydrophobic forces are not the only responsible for their shrinkage in the presence of trivalent cations. The surface electrostatic potential and the concentration of salt cations inside the nanogel have been computed from simulations and a modified Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) cell model. The thermosensitivity in size have certain influence on the sensitivity of these properties to temperature changes. The rich behavior of the surface electrostatic potential and the uptake of salt cations are successfully predicted by the
An adaptive coarse graining method for signal transduction in three dimensions
Archuleta, Michelle N.; McDermott, Jason E.; Edwards, Jeremy S.; Resat, Haluk
2013-01-01
The spatio-temporal landscape of the plasma membrane regulates activation and signal transduction of membrane bound receptors by restricting their two-dimensional mobility and by inducing receptor clustering. This regulation also extends to complex formation between receptors and adaptor proteins, which are the intermediate signaling molecules involved in cellular signaling that relay the received cues from cell surface to cytoplasm and eventually to the nucleus. Although their investigation poses challenging technical difficulties, there is a crucial need to understand the impact of the receptor diffusivity, clustering, and spatial heterogeneity, and of receptor-adaptor protein complex formation on the cellular signal transduction patterns. Building upon our earlier studies, we have developed an adaptive coarse-grained Monte Carlo method that can be used to investigate the role of diffusion, clustering and membrane corralling on receptor association and receptor-adaptor protein complex formation dynamics in three dimensions. The new Monte Carlo lattice based approach allowed us to introduce spatial resolution on the 2-D plasma membrane and to model the cytoplasm in three-dimensions. Being a multi-resolution approach, our new method makes it possible to represent various parts of the cellular system at different levels of detail and enabled us to utilize the locally homogeneous assumption when justified (e.g., cytoplasmic region away from the cell membrane) and avoid its use when high spatial resolution is needed (e.g., cell membrane and cytoplasmic region near the membrane) while keeping the required computational complexity manageable. Our results have shown that diffusion has a significant impact on receptor-receptor dimerization and receptor-adaptor protein complex formation kinetics. We have observed an “adaptor protein hopping” mechanism where the receptor binding proteins may hop between receptors to form short-lived transient complexes. This increased
Garrido, J M; Algaba, J; Míguez, J M; Mendiboure, B; Moreno-Ventas Bravo, A I; Piñeiro, M M; Blas, F J
2016-04-14
We have determined the interfacial properties of tetrahydrofuran (THF) from direct simulation of the vapor-liquid interface. The molecules are modeled using six different molecular models, three of them based on the united-atom approach and the other three based on a coarse-grained (CG) approach. In the first case, THF is modeled using the transferable parameters potential functions approach proposed by Chandrasekhar and Jorgensen [J. Chem. Phys. 77, 5073 (1982)] and a new parametrization of the TraPPE force fields for cyclic alkanes and ethers [S. J. Keasler et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 115, 11234 (2012)]. In both cases, dispersive and coulombic intermolecular interactions are explicitly taken into account. In the second case, THF is modeled as a single sphere, a diatomic molecule, and a ring formed from three Mie monomers according to the SAFT-γ Mie top-down approach [V. Papaioannou et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 054107 (2014)]. Simulations were performed in the molecular dynamics canonical ensemble and the vapor-liquid surface tension is evaluated from the normal and tangential components of the pressure tensor along the simulation box. In addition to the surface tension, we have also obtained density profiles, coexistence densities, critical temperature, density, and pressure, and interfacial thickness as functions of temperature, paying special attention to the comparison between the estimations obtained from different models and literature experimental data. The simulation results obtained from the three CG models as described by the SAFT-γ Mie approach are able to predict accurately the vapor-liquid phase envelope of THF, in excellent agreement with estimations obtained from TraPPE model and experimental data in the whole range of coexistence. However, Chandrasekhar and Jorgensen model presents significant deviations from experimental results. We also compare the predictions for surface tension as obtained from simulation results for all the models with
Modeling Structural Dynamics of Biomolecular Complexes by Coarse-Grained Molecular Simulations.
Takada, Shoji; Kanada, Ryo; Tan, Cheng; Terakawa, Tsuyoshi; Li, Wenfei; Kenzaki, Hiroo
2015-12-15
Due to hierarchic nature of biomolecular systems, their computational modeling calls for multiscale approaches, in which coarse-grained (CG) simulations are used to address long-time dynamics of large systems. Here, we review recent developments and applications of CG modeling methods, focusing on our methods primarily for proteins, DNA, and their complexes. These methods have been implemented in the CG biomolecular simulator, CafeMol. Our CG model has resolution such that ∼10 non-hydrogen atoms are grouped into one CG particle on average. For proteins, each amino acid is represented by one CG particle. For DNA, one nucleotide is simplified by three CG particles, representing sugar, phosphate, and base. The protein modeling is based on the idea that proteins have a globally funnel-like energy landscape, which is encoded in the structure-based potential energy function. We first describe two representative minimal models of proteins, called the elastic network model and the classic Go̅ model. We then present a more elaborate protein model, which extends the minimal model to incorporate sequence and context dependent local flexibility and nonlocal contacts. For DNA, we describe a model developed by de Pablo's group that was tuned to well reproduce sequence-dependent structural and thermodynamic experimental data for single- and double-stranded DNAs. Protein-DNA interactions are modeled either by the structure-based term for specific cases or by electrostatic and excluded volume terms for nonspecific cases. We also discuss the time scale mapping in CG molecular dynamics simulations. While the apparent single time step of our CGMD is about 10 times larger than that in the fully atomistic molecular dynamics for small-scale dynamics, large-scale motions can be further accelerated by two-orders of magnitude with the use of CG model and a low friction constant in Langevin dynamics. Next, we present four examples of applications. First, the classic Go̅ model was used to
Temperature-sensitive nanogels in the presence of salt: explicit coarse-grained simulations.
Quesada-Pérez, Manuel; Ahualli, Silvia; Martín-Molina, Alberto
2014-09-28
In this work, coarse-grained simulations of two charged thermo-shrinking nanogels (with degrees of ionization of 0.125 and 0.250) in the presence of 1:1 and 3:1 electrolytes have been explicitly performed through the bead-spring model of polyelectrolyte. In a first set of simulations, salt concentrations for 1:1 and 3:1 electrolytes ranged from 1 to 100 mM and from 0.167 to 16.7 mM, respectively, whereas temperature remained fixed at a value for which hydrophobic forces were negligible in our case (288 K). The sizes of swollen nanogels are smaller when trivalent cations are present, but they do not change significantly in the range of concentrations of 3:1 electrolyte studied here. It should be also stressed that trivalent cations neutralize the nanogel charge more efficiently. According to these results the electrostatic repulsion plays an important role. In a second set of simulations, the temperature varied from 288 to 333 K to study the effect of salt on the thermal response when hydrophobic forces are not negligible. For the nanogels with the lowest degree of ionization, the behavior of the radius with increasing the temperature can be described by a sigmoid function, which shifts towards lower temperatures in the presence of salt. This shift is more clearly observed for trivalent cations, even at low concentrations. For the nanogels with the highest degree of ionization, the effect of additional electrolyte is also noticeable. In this case, hydrophobic forces are not the only responsible for their shrinkage in the presence of trivalent cations. The surface electrostatic potential and the concentration of salt cations inside the nanogel have been computed from simulations and a modified Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) cell model. The thermosensitivity in size have certain influence on the sensitivity of these properties to temperature changes. The rich behavior of the surface electrostatic potential and the uptake of salt cations are successfully predicted by the
Alan, Bartow J.
1990-01-01
The Cuyama basin, located in the southern Coast Ranges of California southwest of the San Andreas fault, developed early in the history of the San Andreas transform system. The Miocene marine basin formed in a transtensional setting along a dextral strike-slip fault of the transform system following Oligocene non-marine basin formation in an extensional setting. The lower and middle Miocene Vaqueros Formation in the northwestern part of the basin, which represents the first of two transgressive-regressive cycles, is described here in terms of nine facies in two broad facies groups. The 400-m-thick Soda Lake Shale Member (of the Vaqueros) comprises deep-basin and starved-basin facies. A thin transgressive facies occurs locally at the base of the formation. The overlying Painted Rock Sandstone Member (of the Vaqueros), which is more than 2200 m thick and consists mostly of coarse-grained sandstone and pebbly sandstone, constitutes a delta complex of prodelta, slope channel, delta front, tide-influenced distributary channel, interdistributary bay, and fluvial channel facies. The basinal depositional system consisted of turbidite mud and sand, and hemipelagic and pelagic sediments of the basinal facies deposited in a rapidly subsiding basin. The delta depositional system consisted of the delta complex facies that prograded into the deep basin and had a steep prodelta slope that extended to bathyal depths. The delta is inferred to be a mixed fluvial-wave-dominated fan delta, analogous in its delta-front morphology and processes to a fjord delta, in which coarse sediment delivered to the delta front by braided streams was transported down the prodelta slope into deep water by sediment gravity flows. Transgression and rapid deepening of the basin in the early Miocene coincided with rapid tectonic subsidence. Deepening culminated with deposition of a starved-basin facies or condensed section at the time of maximum transgression, which was followed by the beginning of a
Concurrent Multiscale Simulation at Finite Temperature: Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics
Rudd, R E
2004-01-22
With the advent of nanotechnology, predictive simulations of nanoscale systems have become in great demand. In some cases nanoscale systems can be simulated directly at the level of atoms. The atomistic techniques used range from models based on a quantum mechanical treatment of the electronic bonds to those based on more empirical descriptions of the interatomic forces. In many cases, however, even nanoscale systems are too big for a purely atomistic approach, typically because the nanoscale device is coupled to its surroundings, and it is necessary to simulate the entire system comprising billions of atoms. A well-known example is the growth of nanoscale epitaxial quantum dots in which the size, shape and location of the dot is affected by the elastic strain developed in a large volume of the substrate as well as the local atomic bonding. The natural solution is to model the surroundings with a more coarse-grained description, suitable for the intrinsically longer length scale. The challenge then is to develop the computational methodology suitable for this kind of concurrent multiscale modeling, one in which the simulated length scale can be changed smoothly and seamlessly from one region of the simulation to another while maintaining the fidelity of the relevant mechanics, dynamics and thermodynamics. The realization that Nature has different relevant length scales goes back at least as far as Democritus. Some 24 centuries ago he put forward the idea that solid matter is comprised ultimately at small scales by a fundamental constituent that he termed an atom. Implicit in his philosophy was the idea that an understanding of the atom would lead to a more robust understanding of the macroscopic world around us. In the intervening period, of course, not only has the science of this atomistic picture been put on a sound footing through the inventions of chemistry, the discovery of the nucleus and the development of quantum mechanics and modern condensed matter
Temperature-sensitive nanogels in the presence of salt: Explicit coarse-grained simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quesada-Pérez, Manuel; Ahualli, Silvia; Martín-Molina, Alberto
2014-09-01
In this work, coarse-grained simulations of two charged thermo-shrinking nanogels (with degrees of ionization of 0.125 and 0.250) in the presence of 1:1 and 3:1 electrolytes have been explicitly performed through the bead-spring model of polyelectrolyte. In a first set of simulations, salt concentrations for 1:1 and 3:1 electrolytes ranged from 1 to 100 mM and from 0.167 to 16.7 mM, respectively, whereas temperature remained fixed at a value for which hydrophobic forces were negligible in our case (288 K). The sizes of swollen nanogels are smaller when trivalent cations are present, but they do not change significantly in the range of concentrations of 3:1 electrolyte studied here. It should be also stressed that trivalent cations neutralize the nanogel charge more efficiently. According to these results the electrostatic repulsion plays an important role. In a second set of simulations, the temperature varied from 288 to 333 K to study the effect of salt on the thermal response when hydrophobic forces are not negligible. For the nanogels with the lowest degree of ionization, the behavior of the radius with increasing the temperature can be described by a sigmoid function, which shifts towards lower temperatures in the presence of salt. This shift is more clearly observed for trivalent cations, even at low concentrations. For the nanogels with the highest degree of ionization, the effect of additional electrolyte is also noticeable. In this case, hydrophobic forces are not the only responsible for their shrinkage in the presence of trivalent cations. The surface electrostatic potential and the concentration of salt cations inside the nanogel have been computed from simulations and a modified Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) cell model. The thermosensitivity in size have certain influence on the sensitivity of these properties to temperature changes. The rich behavior of the surface electrostatic potential and the uptake of salt cations are successfully predicted by the
Aramoon, Amin; Breitzman, Timothy D; Woodward, Christopher; El-Awady, Jaafar A
2016-09-01
In this work, a coarse-grained model is developed for highly cross-linked bisphenol A diglycidyl ether epoxy resin with diaminobutane hardener. In this model, all conformationally relevant coarse-grained degrees of freedom are accounted for by sampling over the free-energy surfaces of the atomic structures using quantum mechanical simulations. The interaction potentials between nonbonded coarse-grained particles are optimized to accurately predict the experimentally measured density and glass-transition temperature of the system. In addition, a new curing algorithm is also developed to model the creation of highly cross-linked epoxy networks. In this algorithm, to create a highly cross-linked network, the reactants are redistributed from regions with an excessive number of reactive molecules to regions with a lower number of reactants to increase the chances of cross-linking. This new algorithm also dynamically controls the rate of cross-linking at each local region to ensure uniformity of the resulting network. The curing simulation conducted using this algorithm is able to develop polymeric networks having a higher average degree of cross-linking, which is more uniform throughout the simulation cell as compared to that in the networks cured using other curing algorithms. The predicted gel point from the current curing algorithm is in the acceptable theoretical and experimental range of measured values. Also, the resulting cross-linked microstructure shows a volume shrinkage of 5%, which is close to the experimentally measured volume shrinkage of the cured epoxy. Finally, the thermal expansion coefficients of materials in the glassy and rubbery states show good agreement with the experimental values.
Aramoon, Amin; Breitzman, Timothy D; Woodward, Christopher; El-Awady, Jaafar A
2016-09-01
In this work, a coarse-grained model is developed for highly cross-linked bisphenol A diglycidyl ether epoxy resin with diaminobutane hardener. In this model, all conformationally relevant coarse-grained degrees of freedom are accounted for by sampling over the free-energy surfaces of the atomic structures using quantum mechanical simulations. The interaction potentials between nonbonded coarse-grained particles are optimized to accurately predict the experimentally measured density and glass-transition temperature of the system. In addition, a new curing algorithm is also developed to model the creation of highly cross-linked epoxy networks. In this algorithm, to create a highly cross-linked network, the reactants are redistributed from regions with an excessive number of reactive molecules to regions with a lower number of reactants to increase the chances of cross-linking. This new algorithm also dynamically controls the rate of cross-linking at each local region to ensure uniformity of the resulting network. The curing simulation conducted using this algorithm is able to develop polymeric networks having a higher average degree of cross-linking, which is more uniform throughout the simulation cell as compared to that in the networks cured using other curing algorithms. The predicted gel point from the current curing algorithm is in the acceptable theoretical and experimental range of measured values. Also, the resulting cross-linked microstructure shows a volume shrinkage of 5%, which is close to the experimentally measured volume shrinkage of the cured epoxy. Finally, the thermal expansion coefficients of materials in the glassy and rubbery states show good agreement with the experimental values. PMID:27504803
D’Adamo, Giuseppe; Pelissetto, Andrea; Pierleoni, Carlo
2014-12-28
A coarse-graining strategy, previously developed for polymer solutions, is extended here to mixtures of linear polymers and hard-sphere colloids. In this approach, groups of monomers are mapped onto a single pseudoatom (a blob) and the effective blob-blob interactions are obtained by requiring the model to reproduce some large-scale structural properties in the zero-density limit. We show that an accurate parametrization of the polymer-colloid interactions is obtained by simply introducing pair potentials between blobs and colloids. For the coarse-grained (CG) model in which polymers are modelled as four-blob chains (tetramers), the pair potentials are determined by means of the iterative Boltzmann inversion scheme, taking full-monomer (FM) pair correlation functions at zero-density as targets. For a larger number n of blobs, pair potentials are determined by using a simple transferability assumption based on the polymer self-similarity. We validate the model by comparing its predictions with full-monomer results for the interfacial properties of polymer solutions in the presence of a single colloid and for thermodynamic and structural properties in the homogeneous phase at finite polymer and colloid density. The tetramer model is quite accurate for q ≲ 1 (q=R{sup ^}{sub g}/R{sub c}, where R{sup ^}{sub g} is the zero-density polymer radius of gyration and R{sub c} is the colloid radius) and reasonably good also for q = 2. For q = 2, an accurate coarse-grained description is obtained by using the n = 10 blob model. We also compare our results with those obtained by using single-blob models with state-dependent potentials.
Mantha, Sriteja; Yethiraj, Arun
2015-08-27
Polymer solutions present a significant computational challenge because chemical realism on small length scales can be important, but the polymer molecules are very large. In polyelectrolyte solutions, there is often the additional complexity that the molecules consist of hydrophobic and charged groups, which makes an accurate treatment of the solvent, water, crucial. One route to achieve this balance is through coarse-grained models where several atoms on a monomer are grouped into one interaction site. In this work, we develop a coarse grained (CG) model for sodium polystyrenesulfonate (NaPSS) in water using a methodology consistent with the MARTINI coarse-graining philosophy, where four heavy atoms are grouped into one CG site. We consider two models for water: polarizable MARTINI (POL) and big multipole water (BMW). In each case, interaction parameters for the polymer sites are obtained by matching the potential of mean force between two monomers to results of atomistic simulations. The force field based on the POL water provides a more reasonable description of polymer properties than that based on the BMW water. We study the properties of single chains using the POL force field. Fully sulfonated chains are rodlike (i.e., the root-mean-square radius of gyration, Rg, scales linearly with degree of polymerization, N). When the fraction of sulfonation, f, is 0.25 or less, the chain collapses into a cylindrical globule. For f = 0.5, pearl-necklace conformations are observed when every second monomer is sulfonated. The lifetime of a counterion around a polymer is on the order of 100 ps, suggesting that there is no counterion condensation. The model is computationally feasible and should allow one to study the effect of local chemistry on the properties of polymers in aqueous solution. PMID:26047770
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odoh, S.; Saylor, J. E.; Higuera-Diaz, C.; Lapen, T. J.; Copeland, P.
2015-12-01
Progradation of coarse clastic material into distal foreland basins has been attributed to both 1) enhanced sediment production during rapid tectonic exhumation and 2) sediment reworking during tectonic quiescence. The Floresta and Medina basins in the Eastern Cordillera record deposition of alternating coarse- and fine-grained clastic strata in medial and distal (respectively) Cenozoic foreland basins. The Medina Basin records the continued eastward progradation of the deformation front in the Neogene. We use detrital zircon U-Pb (ZPb) and (U-Th)/He (ZHe) analyses from the Paleogene Floresta Basin and the entire Cenozoic Medina Basin record to evaluate the effects of episodic thrust-belt exhumation and wide-spread deposition of coarse-grained sediments in the adjacent foreland basin. Both ZPb and ZHe systems are applied to individual grains (double dating) to constrain source area and up-section variations in exhumation rates. Changes in exhumation rate or introduction of new sediment sources are recorded as changes in lag time (ZHe age - depositional age). Analysis of 6 samples from the Floresta Basin shows a decrease in lag time during deposition of the coarse-grained middle Eocene Picacho Formation and upper Paleocene Socha Sandstone suggesting that Paleogene deposition of coarse-grained intervals in this medial location corresponds to an increase in exhumation rate. However, initial results from the Medina basin are less clear as there is evidence for Paleocene volcanic input but no clear evidence for thrust-belt related sediment until the Oligocene-early Miocene. We interpret the evidence for different sediment sources for Eocene strata in the axial Eastern Cordillera (Floresta) versus the Eastern foothills (Medina) as indicative of separation of these two regions by an emergent forebulge. Exhumation rate and granularity appear to be inversely correlated in post-Oligocene strata, though confirmation of initial interpretations awaits larger samples sizes
A combined coarse-grained and all-atom simulation of TRPV1 channel gating and heat activation
Qin, Feng
2015-01-01
The transient receptor potential (TRP) channels act as key sensors of various chemical and physical stimuli in eukaryotic cells. Despite years of study, the molecular mechanisms of TRP channel activation remain unclear. To elucidate the structural, dynamic, and energetic basis of gating in TRPV1 (a founding member of the TRPV subfamily), we performed coarse-grained modeling and all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation based on the recently solved high resolution structures of the open and closed form of TRPV1. Our coarse-grained normal mode analysis captures two key modes of collective motions involved in the TRPV1 gating transition, featuring a quaternary twist motion of the transmembrane domains (TMDs) relative to the intracellular domains (ICDs). Our transition pathway modeling predicts a sequence of structural movements that propagate from the ICDs to the TMDs via key interface domains (including the membrane proximal domain and the C-terminal domain), leading to sequential opening of the selectivity filter followed by the lower gate in the channel pore (confirmed by modeling conformational changes induced by the activation of ICDs). The above findings of coarse-grained modeling are robust to perturbation by lipids. Finally, our MD simulation of the ICD identifies key residues that contribute differently to the nonpolar energy of the open and closed state, and these residues are predicted to control the temperature sensitivity of TRPV1 gating. These computational predictions offer new insights to the mechanism for heat activation of TRPV1 gating, and will guide our future electrophysiology and mutagenesis studies. PMID:25918362
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Higuchi, Yuji; Kubo, Momoji
2016-06-01
We study fracture processes of amorphous and semicrystalline polymers with a coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation. In the amorphous state, the stress caused by strain mainly arises from the loss of the attractive interaction in the voids. However, in semicrystalline polymers, the elongation of bonding is the dominant factor and it causes much more stress than that in an amorphous state. This is because growth of the voids is prevented by the amorphous regions and it is difficult to relax the folded polymers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, J.; Chang, T.; Yi, S.; Hong, S.
2012-12-01
We tested the applicability of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating to fine- and coarse-grained quartz from the western coastal sediments of the Korean Peninsula. Twenty six samples were collected from 43-m-long core sediments, which contain two tidal deposits stratigraphically separated by a yellow, semi-consolidated mud layer and a gravel layer. A single aliquot regenerative dose (SAR) procedure was applied to chemically purified quartz grains of different grain sizes (4-11 and 90-212 μm diameter). The fine grain (4-11μm) OSL shows much higher saturation characteristic doses than those of the coarse grain (90-212 μm) OSL. The growth curves of the fine grain OSL show linear growth with dose up to ~800 Gy, whereas the those of the coarse grain OSL show an early saturated growth curve pattern (below 300 Gy). The OSL signal from the fine grain shows a quartz-dominated signal. On the other hand, OSL signals from coarse grain still contain a contribution from feldspars even after repeated chemical treatments. The De values are in agreement between the fine- and coarse-grained OSL in the upper part (0-15 m depth), but those of the lower part (>15 m) sediments are not. In the lower part, the De values of the fine grain are much higher (>400 Gy) than those from the coarse grain (<250 Gy). The ages obtained using fine grain are consistent with those from coarse grain for the upper part, but for the lower core samples ages based on fine grain OSL become progressively larger than those based on coarse grain. The fine grain ages are considered to be more accurate than the coarse grain ages, because they are not affected by signal saturation in this age range. Also, feldspar contamination may give rise to underestimation of the ages from the coarse grain OSL. Our results indicate that the ages obtained using fine-grained quartz can be old back to the Eemian. The major parts containing two tidal deposits have been deposited during the Holocene and MIS 5, with a
Non-Markovian coarse-grained modeling of polymeric fluids based on the Mori-Zwanzig formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhen; Bian, Xin; Li, Xiantao; Karniadakis, George
The Mori-Zwanzig formalism for coarse-graining a complex dynamical system typically introduces memory effects. The Markovian assumption of delta-correlated fluctuating forces is often employed to simplify the formulation of coarse-grained (CG) models and numerical implementations. However, when the time scales of a system are not clearly separated, the memory effects become strong and the Markovian assumption becomes inaccurate. To this end, we incorporate memory effects into CG modeling by preserving non-Markovian interactions between CG variables based on the Mori-Zwanzig formalism. For a specific example, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of star polymer melts are performed while the corresponding CG system is defined by grouping many bonded atoms into single clusters. Then, the effective interactions between CG clusters as well as the memory kernel are obtained from the MD simulations. The constructed CG force field with a memory kernel leads to a non-Markovian dissipative particle dynamics (NM-DPD). Quantitative comparisons on both static and dynamic properties between the CG models with Markovian and non-Markovian approximations will be presented. Supported by the DOE Center on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials (CM4) and an INCITE grant.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poursina, Mohammad; Anderson, Kurt S.
2013-03-01
In this paper, a scheme for the canonical ensemble simulation of the coarse-grained articulated polymers is discussed. In this coarse-graining strategy, different subdomains of the system are considered as rigid and/or flexible bodies connected to each other via kinematic joints instead of stiff, but elastic bonds. Herein, the temperature of the simulation is controlled by a Nosé-Hoover thermostat. The dynamics of this feedback control system in the context of multibody dynamics may be represented and solved using traditional methods with computational complexity of O(n3) where n denotes the number of degrees of freedom of the system. In this paper, we extend the divide-and-conquer algorithm (DCA), and apply it to constant temperature molecular simulations. The DCA in its original form uses spatial forces to formulate the equations of motion. The Generalized-DCA applied here properly accommodates the thermostat generalized forces (from the thermostat), which control the temperature of the simulation, in the equations of motion. This algorithm can be implemented in serial and parallel with computational complexity of O(n) and O(logn), respectively.
Shi, Ya-Zhou; Wang, Feng-Hua; Wu, Yuan-Yan; Tan, Zhi-Jie
2014-09-14
To bridge the gap between the sequences and 3-dimensional (3D) structures of RNAs, some computational models have been proposed for predicting RNA 3D structures. However, the existed models seldom consider the conditions departing from the room/body temperature and high salt (1M NaCl), and thus generally hardly predict the thermodynamics and salt effect. In this study, we propose a coarse-grained model with implicit salt for RNAs to predict 3D structures, stability, and salt effect. Combined with Monte Carlo simulated annealing algorithm and a coarse-grained force field, the model folds 46 tested RNAs (≤45 nt) including pseudoknots into their native-like structures from their sequences, with an overall mean RMSD of 3.5 Å and an overall minimum RMSD of 1.9 Å from the experimental structures. For 30 RNA hairpins, the present model also gives the reliable predictions for the stability and salt effect with the mean deviation ∼ 1.0 °C of melting temperatures, as compared with the extensive experimental data. In addition, the model could provide the ensemble of possible 3D structures for a short RNA at a given temperature/salt condition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Endres, Stephan; van Hees, Hendrik; Bleicher, Marcus
2016-08-01
Dilepton production in heavy-ion collisions at collider energies—i.e., for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)—is studied within an approach that uses coarse-grained transport simulations to calculate thermal dilepton emission applying in-medium spectral functions from hadronic many-body theory and partonic production rates based on lattice calculations. The microscopic output from the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) model is hereby put on a grid of space-time cells, which makes it possible to extract the local temperature and chemical potential in each cell via an equation of state. The resulting dilepton spectra are in good agreement with the experimental results for the range of energies available at RHIC, √{sN N}=19.6 -200 GeV . The comparison of the data with the outcome from the coarse-grained UrQMD simulations shows that the newest measurements by the PHENIX and STAR Collaborations are consistent and that the low-mass spectra can be described by a cocktail of hadronic decay contributions together with thermal emission from broadened vector-meson spectral functions and from the quark-gluon plasma phase. Predictions for dilepton results at LHC energies show no significant change of the spectra as compared to RHIC, but a higher fraction of thermal contribution and harder slopes of the transverse-momentum distributions owing to the higher temperatures and flow obtained.
Khatri, Bhavin S.; Goldstein, Richard A.
2015-01-01
Speciation is fundamental to understanding the huge diversity of life on Earth. Although still controversial, empirical evidence suggests that the rate of speciation is larger for smaller populations. Here, we explore a biophysical model of speciation by developing a simple coarse-grained theory of transcription factor-DNA binding and how their co-evolution in two geographically isolated lineages leads to incompatibilities. To develop a tractable analytical theory, we derive a Smoluchowski equation for the dynamics of binding energy evolution that accounts for the fact that natural selection acts on phenotypes, but variation arises from mutations in sequences; the Smoluchowski equation includes selection due to both gradients in fitness and gradients in sequence entropy, which is the logarithm of the number of sequences that correspond to a particular binding energy. This simple consideration predicts that smaller populations develop incompatibilities more quickly in the weak mutation regime; this trend arises as sequence entropy poises smaller populations closer to incompatible regions of phenotype space. These results suggest a generic coarse-grained approach to evolutionary stochastic dynamics, allowing realistic modelling at the phenotypic level. PMID:25936759
2015-01-01
Many commonly used coarse-grained models for proteins are based on simplified interaction sites and consequently may suffer from significant limitations, such as the inability to properly model protein secondary structure without the addition of restraints. Recent work on a benzene fluid (LettieriS.; ZuckermanD. M.J. Comput. Chem.2012, 33, 268−27522120971) suggested an alternative strategy of tabulating and smoothing fully atomistic orientation-dependent interactions among rigid molecules or fragments. Here we report our initial efforts to apply this approach to the polar and covalent interactions intrinsic to polypeptides. We divide proteins into nearly rigid fragments, construct distance and orientation-dependent tables of the atomistic interaction energies between those fragments, and apply potential energy smoothing techniques to those tables. The amount of smoothing can be adjusted to give coarse-grained models that range from the underlying atomistic force field all the way to a bead-like coarse-grained model. For a moderate amount of smoothing, the method is able to preserve about 70–90% of the α-helical structure while providing a factor of 3–10 improvement in sampling per unit computation time (depending on how sampling is measured). For a greater amount of smoothing, multiple folding–unfolding transitions of the peptide were observed, along with a factor of 10–100 improvement in sampling per unit computation time, although the time spent in the unfolded state was increased compared with less smoothed simulations. For a β hairpin, secondary structure is also preserved, albeit for a narrower range of the smoothing parameter and, consequently, for a more modest improvement in sampling. We have also applied the new method in a “resolution exchange” setting, in which each replica runs a Monte Carlo simulation with a different degree of smoothing. We obtain exchange rates that compare favorably to our previous efforts at resolution exchange
Li, Tong; Gu, YuanTong
2014-04-15
As all-atom molecular dynamics method is limited by its enormous computational cost, various coarse-grained strategies have been developed to extend the length scale of soft matters in the modeling of mechanical behaviors. However, the classical thermostat algorithm in highly coarse-grained molecular dynamics method would underestimate the thermodynamic behaviors of soft matters (e.g. microfilaments in cells), which can weaken the ability of materials to overcome local energy traps in granular modeling. Based on all-atom molecular dynamics modeling of microfilament fragments (G-actin clusters), a new stochastic thermostat algorithm is developed to retain the representation of thermodynamic properties of microfilaments at extra coarse-grained level. The accuracy of this stochastic thermostat algorithm is validated by all-atom MD simulation. This new stochastic thermostat algorithm provides an efficient way to investigate the thermomechanical properties of large-scale soft matters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Tong; Gu, YuanTong
2014-04-01
As all-atom molecular dynamics method is limited by its enormous computational cost, various coarse-grained strategies have been developed to extend the length scale of soft matters in the modeling of mechanical behaviors. However, the classical thermostat algorithm in highly coarse-grained molecular dynamics method would underestimate the thermodynamic behaviors of soft matters (e.g. microfilaments in cells), which can weaken the ability of materials to overcome local energy traps in granular modeling. Based on all-atom molecular dynamics modeling of microfilament fragments (G-actin clusters), a new stochastic thermostat algorithm is developed to retain the representation of thermodynamic properties of microfilaments at extra coarse-grained level. The accuracy of this stochastic thermostat algorithm is validated by all-atom MD simulation. This new stochastic thermostat algorithm provides an efficient way to investigate the thermomechanical properties of large-scale soft matters.
He, XiaoCong; Lin, Min; Sha, BaoYong; Feng, ShangSheng; Shi, XingHua; Qu, ZhiGuo; Xu, Feng
2015-01-01
Understanding interactions between cell-penetrating peptides and biomembrane under tension can help improve drug delivery and elucidate mechanisms underlying fundamental cellular events. As far as the effect of membrane tension on translocation, it is generally thought that tension should disorder the membrane structure and weaken its strength, thereby facilitating penetration. However, our coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation results showed that membrane tension can restrain polyarginine translocation across the asymmetric membrane and that this effect increases with increasing membrane tension. We also analyzed the structural properties and lipid topology of the tensed membrane to explain the phenomena. Simulation results provide important molecular information on the potential translocation mechanism of peptides across the asymmetric membrane under tension as well as new insights in drug and gene delivery. PMID:26235300
Structure and dynamics of Ebola virus matrix protein VP40 by a coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pandey, Ras; Farmer, Barry
Ebola virus matrix protein VP40 (consisting of 326 residues) plays a critical role in viral assembly and its functions such as regulation of viral transcription, packaging, and budding of mature virions into the plasma membrane of infected cells. How does the protein VP40 go through structural evolution during the viral life cycle remains an open question? Using a coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulation we investigate the structural evolution of VP40 as a function of temperature with the input of a knowledge-based residue-residue interaction. A number local and global physical quantities (e.g. mobility profile, contact map, radius of gyration, structure factor) are analyzed with our large-scale simulations. Our preliminary data show that the structure of the protein evolves through different state with well-defined morphologies which can be identified and quantified via a detailed analysis of structure factor.
Korotin, D M; Bartkowski, S; Kurmaev, E Z; Borchers, C; Müller, M; Neumann, M; Gunderov, D V; Valiev, R Z; Cholakh, S O
2012-10-01
XPS measurements of coarse-grained and nanostructured nitinol (Ni(50.2)Ti(49.8)) before and after chemical treatment in hydrofluoric acid (40% HF, 1 min) are presented. The nanostructured state, providing the excellent mechanical properties of nitinol, is achieved by severe plastic deformation. The near-surface layers of nitinol were studied by XPS depth profiling. According to the obtained results, a chemical treatment in hydrofluoric acid reduces the thickness of the protective TiO(2) oxide layer and induces a nickel release from the nitinol surface and an arsenic contamination, and can therefore not be recommended as conditioning to increase the roughness of NiTi-implants. A detailed evaluation of the resulting toxicological risks is given.
Li, Xiaoxu; Gao, Lianghui; Fang, Weihai
2016-01-01
In this article, a new set of parameters compatible with the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) force field is developed for phospholipids. The coarse-grained (CG) models of these molecules are constructed by mapping four heavy atoms and their attached hydrogen atoms to one bead. The beads are divided into types distinguished by charge type, polarizability, and hydrogen-bonding capacity. First, we derive the relationship between the DPD repulsive force and Flory-Huggins χ-parameters based on this four-to-one CG mapping scheme. Then, we optimize the DPD force parameters for phospholipids. The feasibility of this model is demonstrated by simulating the structural and thermodynamic properties of lipid bilayer membranes, including the membrane thickness, the area per lipid, the lipid tail orientation, the bending rigidity, the rupture behavior, and the potential of mean force for lipid flip-flop. PMID:27137463
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Gui-long; Zhang, Yong-hong; Huang, Shi-ping
2012-04-01
Using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations based on Gay-Berne potential model, we have simulated the cooling process of liquid n-butanol. A new set of GB parameters are obtained by fitting the results of density functional theory calculations. The simulations are carried out in the range of 290-50 K with temperature decrements of 10 K. The cooling characteristics are determined on the basis of the variations of the density, the potential energy and orientational order parameter with temperature, whose slopes all show discontinuity. Both the radial distribution function curves and the second-rank orientational correlation function curves exhibit splitting in the second peak. Using the discontinuous change of these thermodynamic and structure properties, we obtain the glass transition at an estimate of temperature Tg=120±10 K, which is in good agreement with experimental results 110±1 K.
Cruz, Victor L; Ramos, Javier; Melo, Manuel N; Martinez-Salazar, Javier
2013-11-01
Bacteriocin AS-48 is a membrane-interacting peptide that acts as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Prior Nuclear Magnetic Resonance experiments and the high resolution crystal structure of AS-48 have suggested a mechanism for the molecular activity of AS-48 whereby the peptide undergoes transition from a water-soluble to a membrane-bound state upon membrane binding. To help interpret experimental results, we here simulate the molecular dynamics of this binding mechanism at the coarse-grained level. By simulating the self-assembly of the peptide, we predict induction by the bacteriocin of different pore types consistent with a "leaky slit" model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Häring, J. M.; Walz, C.; Szamel, G.; Fuchs, M.
2015-11-01
The isothermal compressibility of a general crystal is analyzed within classical density functional theory. Our approach can be used for homogeneous and unstrained crystals containing an arbitrarily high density of local defects. We start by coarse-graining the microscopic particle density and then obtain the long-wavelength limits of the correlation functions of elasticity theory and the thermodynamic derivatives. We explicitly show that the long-wavelength limit of the microscopic density correlation function differs from the isothermal compressibility. We apply our theory to crystals consisting of soft particles which can multiply occupy lattice sites ("cluster crystals"). The multiple occupancy results in a strong local disorder over an extended range of temperatures. We determine the cluster crystals' isothermal compressibility, the fluctuations of the lattice occupation numbers and their correlation functions, and the dispersion relations. We also discuss their low-temperature phase diagram.
Li, Xiaoxu; Gao, Lianghui; Fang, Weihai
2016-01-01
In this article, a new set of parameters compatible with the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) force field is developed for phospholipids. The coarse-grained (CG) models of these molecules are constructed by mapping four heavy atoms and their attached hydrogen atoms to one bead. The beads are divided into types distinguished by charge type, polarizability, and hydrogen-bonding capacity. First, we derive the relationship between the DPD repulsive force and Flory-Huggins χ-parameters based on this four-to-one CG mapping scheme. Then, we optimize the DPD force parameters for phospholipids. The feasibility of this model is demonstrated by simulating the structural and thermodynamic properties of lipid bilayer membranes, including the membrane thickness, the area per lipid, the lipid tail orientation, the bending rigidity, the rupture behavior, and the potential of mean force for lipid flip-flop. PMID:27137463
Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Hathaway, John E.; Anderson, Michael T.
2012-04-16
A sound field beam mapping exercise was conducted to further understand the effects of coarse grained microstructures found in CASS materials on phased array ultrasonic wave propagation. Laboratory measurements were made on three CASS specimens with different microstructures; the specimens were polished and etched to reveal measurable grain sizes, shapes and orientations. Three longitudinal, phased array probes were fixed on a specimen's outside diameter with the sound field directed toward one end (face) of the pipe segment over a fixed range of angles. A point receiver was raster scanned over the surface of the specimen face generating a sound field image. A slice of CASS material was then removed from the specimen end and the beam mapping exercise repeated. The sound fields acquired were analyzed for spot size, coherency, and beam redirection. Analyses were conducted between the resulting sound fields and the microstructural characteristics of each specimen.
Darré, Leonardo; Machado, Matías Rodrigo; Brandner, Astrid Febe; González, Humberto Carlos; Ferreira, Sebastián; Pantano, Sergio
2015-02-10
Modeling of macromolecular structures and interactions represents an important challenge for computational biology, involving different time and length scales. However, this task can be facilitated through the use of coarse-grained (CG) models, which reduce the number of degrees of freedom and allow efficient exploration of complex conformational spaces. This article presents a new CG protein model named SIRAH, developed to work with explicit solvent and to capture sequence, temperature, and ionic strength effects in a topologically unbiased manner. SIRAH is implemented in GROMACS, and interactions are calculated using a standard pairwise Hamiltonian for classical molecular dynamics simulations. We present a set of simulations that test the capability of SIRAH to produce a qualitatively correct solvation on different amino acids, hydrophilic/hydrophobic interactions, and long-range electrostatic recognition leading to spontaneous association of unstructured peptides and stable structures of single polypeptides and protein-protein complexes. PMID:26575407
Bereau, Tristan; Wang, Zun-Jing; Deserno, Markus
2014-01-01
Interfacial systems are at the core of fascinating phenomena in many disciplines, such as biochemistry, soft-matter physics, and food science. However, the parametrization of accurate, reliable, and consistent coarse-grained (CG) models for systems at interfaces remains a challenging endeavor. In the present work, we explore to what extent two independently developed solvent-free CG models of peptides and lipids—of different mapping schemes, parametrization methods, target functions, and validation criteria—can be combined by only tuning the cross-interactions. Our results show that the cross-parametrization can reproduce a number of structural properties of membrane peptides (for example, tilt and hydrophobic mismatch), in agreement with existing peptide-lipid CG force fields. We find encouraging results for two challenging biophysical problems: (i) membrane pore formation mediated by the cooperative action of several antimicrobial peptides, and (ii) the insertion and folding of the helix-forming peptide WALP23 in the membrane. PMID:24655203
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bereau, Tristan; Wang, Zun-Jing; Deserno, Markus
2014-03-01
Interfacial systems are at the core of fascinating phenomena in many disciplines, such as biochemistry, soft-matter physics, and food science. However, the parametrization of accurate, reliable, and consistent coarse-grained (CG) models for systems at interfaces remains a challenging endeavor. In the present work, we explore to what extent two independently developed solvent-free CG models of peptides and lipids—of different mapping schemes, parametrization methods, target functions, and validation criteria—can be combined by only tuning the cross-interactions. Our results show that the cross-parametrization can reproduce a number of structural properties of membrane peptides (for example, tilt and hydrophobic mismatch), in agreement with existing peptide-lipid CG force fields. We find encouraging results for two challenging biophysical problems: (i) membrane pore formation mediated by the cooperative action of several antimicrobial peptides, and (ii) the insertion and folding of the helix-forming peptide WALP23 in the membrane.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pizzirusso, Antonio; Brasiello, Antonio; De Nicola, Antonio; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Milano, Giuseppe
2015-12-01
The first simulation study of the crystallisation of a binary mixture of triglycerides using molecular dynamics simulations is reported. Coarse-grained models of tristearin (SSS) and tripalmitin (PPP) molecules have been considered. The models have been preliminarily tested in the crystallisation of pure SSS and PPP systems. Two different quenching procedures have been tested and their performances have been analysed. The structures obtained from the crystallisation procedures show a high orientation order and a high content of molecules in the tuning fork conformation, comparable with the crystalline α phase. The behaviour of melting temperatures for the α phase of the mixture SSS/PPP obtained from the simulations is in qualitative agreement with the behaviour that was experimentally determined.
McCarty, J.; Clark, A. J.; Copperman, J.; Guenza, M. G.
2014-05-28
Structural and thermodynamic consistency of coarse-graining models across multiple length scales is essential for the predictive role of multi-scale modeling and molecular dynamic simulations that use mesoscale descriptions. Our approach is a coarse-grained model based on integral equation theory, which can represent polymer chains at variable levels of chemical details. The model is analytical and depends on molecular and thermodynamic parameters of the system under study, as well as on the direct correlation function in the k → 0 limit, c{sub 0}. A numerical solution to the PRISM integral equations is used to determine c{sub 0}, by adjusting the value of the effective hard sphere diameter, d{sub HS}, to agree with the predicted equation of state. This single quantity parameterizes the coarse-grained potential, which is used to perform mesoscale simulations that are directly compared with atomistic-level simulations of the same system. We test our coarse-graining formalism by comparing structural correlations, isothermal compressibility, equation of state, Helmholtz and Gibbs free energies, and potential energy and entropy using both united atom and coarse-grained descriptions. We find quantitative agreement between the analytical formalism for the thermodynamic properties, and the results of Molecular Dynamics simulations, independent of the chosen level of representation. In the mesoscale description, the potential energy of the soft-particle interaction becomes a free energy in the coarse-grained coordinates which preserves the excess free energy from an ideal gas across all levels of description. The structural consistency between the united-atom and mesoscale descriptions means the relative entropy between descriptions has been minimized without any variational optimization parameters. The approach is general and applicable to any polymeric system in different thermodynamic conditions.
Okazaki, Kei-ichi; Sato, Takato; Takano, Mitsunori
2012-05-30
Association of protein molecules constitutes the basis for the interaction network in a cell. Despite its fundamental importance, the thermodynamic aspect of protein-protein binding, particularly the issues relating to the entropy change upon binding, remains elusive. The binding of actin and myosin, which are vital proteins in motility, is a typical example, in which two different binding mechanisms have been argued: the binding affinity increases with increasing temperature and with decreasing salt-concentration, indicating the entropy-driven binding and the enthalpy-driven binding, respectively. How can these thermodynamically different binding mechanisms coexist? To address this question, which is of general importance in understanding protein-protein bindings, we conducted an in silico titration of the actin-myosin system by molecular dynamics simulation using a residue-level coarse-grained model, with particular focus on the role of the electrostatic interaction. We found a good agreement between in silico and in vitro experiments on the salt-concentration dependence and the temperature dependence of the binding affinity. We then figured out how the two binding mechanisms can coexist: the enthalpy (due to electrostatic interaction between actin and myosin) provides the basal binding affinity, and the entropy (due to the orientational disorder of water molecules) enhances it at higher temperatures. In addition, we analyzed the actin-myosin complex structures observed during the simulation and obtained a variety of weak-binding complex structures, among which were found an unusual binding mode suggested by an earlier experiment and precursor structures of the strong-binding complex proposed by electron microscopy. These results collectively indicate the potential capability of a residue-level coarse-grained model to simulate the association-dissociation dynamics (particularly for transient weak-bindings) exhibited by larger and more complicated systems, as in a
Cysarz, Dirk; Edelhauser, Friedrich; Javorka, Michal; Montano, Nicola; Porta, Alberto
2015-01-01
Coarse graining of physiological time series such as the cardiac interbeat interval series by means of a symbolic transformation retains information about dynamical properties of the underlying system and complements standard measures of heart rate variability. The transformations of the original time series to the coarse grained symbolic series usually lead to a non-uniform occurrence of the different symbols, i.e. some symbols appear more often than others influencing the results of the subsequent symbolic series analysis. Here, we defined a transformation procedure to assure that each symbol appears with equal probability using a short alphabet {0,1,2,3} and a long alphabet {0,1,2,3,4,5}. The procedure was applied to the cardiac interbeat interval series RRi of 17 healthy subjects obtained during graded head-up tilt testing. The symbolic dynamics is analyzed by means of the occurrence of short sequences (`words') of length 3. The occurrence of words is grouped according to words without variations of the symbols (0V%), one variation (1V%), two like variations (2LV%) and two unlike variations (2UV%). Linear regression analysis with respect to tilt angle showed that for the short alphabet 0V% increased with increasing tilt angle whereas 1V%, 2LV% and 2UV% decreased. For the long alphabet 0V%, and 1V% increased with increasing tilt angle whereas 2LV% and 2UV% decreased. These results were slightly better compared to the results from non-uniform symbolic transformations reflecting the deviation from the mean. In conclusion, the symbolic transformation assuring the appearance of symbols with equal probability is capable of reflecting changes of the cardiac autonomic nervous system during graded head-up tilt. Furthermore, the transformation is independent of the time series' distribution. PMID:26736256
Mognetti, B M; Virnau, P; Yelash, L; Paul, W; Binder, K; Müller, M; MacDowell, L G
2009-03-28
In this paper we investigate the phase diagram of pure dipolar substances and their mixtures with short alkanes, using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of simplified coarse-grained models. Recently, an efficient coarse-grained model for simple quadrupolar molecules, based on a Lennard-Jones (LJ) interaction plus a spherically averaged quadrupolar potential, has been shown to be successful in predicting single-component and mixture phase diagrams. Motivated by these results, we investigate the phase diagrams of simple dipolar molecules (and their mixtures with alkanes) using a spherically averaged potential. First, we test the model on pure components. A generalized (state-dependent) mapping procedure allows us to recycle Monte Carlo results of the simple Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential. Considering ammonia, nitrous oxide, and hydrogen sulfide, we generally observe improvements in the single-component phase diagram compared to a pure LJ description, but also some discrepancies in the coexistence pressure near the critical point and in the liquid branch of the coexistence densities well below criticality. In addition, we present results for mixtures. We consider mixtures of ammonia (NH3) with methane (CH4), nonane (C9H20) and hexadecane (C16H34)--for which experimental results are available--and compare the predictions from this modeling ansatz with predictions from simple LJ models. We also present results for the hydrogen sulfide-pentane mixture (H2S and C5H12) for which big discrepancies between simulations and experiments are present. Possible explanations for these discrepancies and limitations of the modeling are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, D.; You, K.; Borgfeldt, T.; Flemings, P. B.; DiCarlo, D. A.; Kneafsey, T. J.
2015-12-01
We generate methane hydrate in the laboratory in a coarse-grained, brine-saturated, vertically-oriented sample through gas injection. The sample (5.125 inch length; 2 inch diameter; 0.383 porosity) was initially pressurized to 12.24 MPa (1775 psi), cooled to 1 degree Celsius, and saturated with a 7 wt% NaBr solution. A syringe pump was filled with methane gas and connected to the top of the sample at a constant pressure. Another pump was used to withdraw brine from the base of the sample at a constant rate (0.003 mL/min), pulling methane into the sample and initiating hydrate formation. Based on mass balance calculations, derived from the mass of water withdrawn and the mass of methane consumed, the bulk saturations of water, hydrate, and gas reached final values of 0.683, 0.278, and 0.038, respectively. The computed-tomography (CT) scans confirm a downward-propagating low density front, which we interpret as the front of the region where hydrate is forming and free gas is replacing withdrawn water. Assuming that hydrate formation and gas presence is limited to the region behind this front increases the hydrate and gas saturations to 0.452 and 0.062, respectively. Additional analysis of the CT scans indicates a heterogeneous distribution of gas, hydrate, and water within the core and provides insight into hydrate formation behavior and the thermodynamic state of hydrate in gas-rich, coarse-grained systems.
2013-01-01
Background Obtaining atomic-scale information about large-amplitude conformational transitions in proteins is a challenging problem for both experimental and computational methods. Such information is, however, important for understanding the mechanisms of interaction of many proteins. Methods This paper presents a computationally efficient approach, combining methods originating from robotics and computational biophysics, to model protein conformational transitions. The ability of normal mode analysis to predict directions of collective, large-amplitude motions is applied to bias the conformational exploration performed by a motion planning algorithm. To reduce the dimension of the problem, normal modes are computed for a coarse-grained elastic network model built on short fragments of three residues. Nevertheless, the validity of intermediate conformations is checked using the all-atom model, which is accurately reconstructed from the coarse-grained one using closed-form inverse kinematics. Results Tests on a set of ten proteins demonstrate the ability of the method to model conformational transitions of proteins within a few hours of computing time on a single processor. These results also show that the computing time scales linearly with the protein size, independently of the protein topology. Further experiments on adenylate kinase show that main features of the transition between the open and closed conformations of this protein are well captured in the computed path. Conclusions The proposed method enables the simulation of large-amplitude conformational transitions in proteins using very few computational resources. The resulting paths are a first approximation that can directly provide important information on the molecular mechanisms involved in the conformational transition. This approximation can be subsequently refined and analyzed using state-of-the-art energy models and molecular modeling methods. PMID:24564964
Coarse-grained and fine-grained parallel optimization for real-time en-face OCT imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kapinchev, Konstantin; Bradu, Adrian; Barnes, Frederick; Podoleanu, Adrian
2016-03-01
This paper presents parallel optimizations in the en-face (C-scan) optical coherence tomography (OCT) display. Compared with the cross-sectional (B-scan) imagery, the production of en-face images is more computationally demanding, due to the increased size of the data handled by the digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms. A sequential implementation of the DSP leads to a limited number of real-time generated en-face images. There are OCT applications, where simultaneous production of large number of en-face images from multiple depths is required, such as real-time diagnostics and monitoring of surgery and ablation. In sequential computing, this requirement leads to a significant increase of the time to process the data and to generate the images. As a result, the processing time exceeds the acquisition time and the image generation is not in real-time. In these cases, not producing en-face images in real-time makes the OCT system ineffective. Parallel optimization of the DSP algorithms provides a solution to this problem. Coarse-grained central processing unit (CPU) based and fine-grained graphics processing unit (GPU) based parallel implementations of the conventional Fourier domain (CFD) OCT method and the Master-Slave Interferometry (MSI) OCT method are studied. In the coarse-grained CPU implementation, each parallel thread processes the whole OCT frame and generates a single en-face image. The corresponding fine-grained GPU implementation launches one parallel thread for every data point from the OCT frame and thus achieves maximum parallelism. The performance and scalability of the CPU-based and GPU-based parallel approaches are analyzed and compared. The quality and the resolution of the images generated by the CFD method and the MSI method are also discussed and compared.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Oliveira, Tiago E.; Netz, Paulo A.; Kremer, Kurt; Junghans, Christoph; Mukherji, Debashish
2016-05-01
We present a coarse-graining strategy that we test for aqueous mixtures. The method uses pair-wise cumulative coordination as a target function within an iterative Boltzmann inversion (IBI) like protocol. We name this method coordination iterative Boltzmann inversion ( C -IBI). While the underlying coarse-grained model is still structure based and, thus, preserves pair-wise solution structure, our method also reproduces solvation thermodynamics of binary and/or ternary mixtures. Additionally, we observe much faster convergence within C -IBI compared to IBI. To validate the robustness, we apply C -IBI to study test cases of solvation thermodynamics of aqueous urea and a triglycine solvation in aqueous urea.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dudarev, E. F.; Pochivalova, G. P.; Kolobov, Yu. R.; Bakach, G. P.; Skosyrskii, A. B.; Zhorovkov, M. F.; Goraynov, А. А.
2013-10-01
The results of an experimental investigation of the effect of mechanical-thermal treatment of submicrocrystalline and coarse-grained titanium on the deformation behavior in the stage of microplastic deformation at room and elevated temperatures are reported. The structural factors giving rise to the flowstress changes in the stage of microplastic deformation as a result of mechanical-thermal treatment are discussed. The general tendencies and special features of the effect of annealing and testing temperatures on the deformation behavior and flow stress in the first and second stages of microplastic deformation of submicrocrystalline and coarse-grained titanium subjected to large plastic deformation at 295 K are clarified.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morshed, Khandakar; Dasi, Lakshmi
2013-11-01
We study the variations in two-point correlation functions and second-order structure functions in the strongly anisotropic turbulent flow past a backward facing step. Time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements were performed in a stationary turbulent flow past a backward facing step at Reynolds numbers 13,600, 9,000, and 5,500 based on the maximum velocity and step size. Measurements revealed a strongly anisotropic large-scale flow with an intense turbulent free-shear layer downstream of the step. Comparison among local two-point correlation functions and second-order structure functions at varying locations within the measurement domain reveals a mechanistic relationship between the magnitude of mean flow deformation field and the spatial organization of the two-point statistics in 360 degrees. It is shown that the local spatial variation in rms velocity significantly induces local anisotropy at arbitrarily small length scales.
Data-driven coarse graining in action: Modeling and prediction of complex systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krumscheid, S.; Pradas, M.; Pavliotis, G. A.; Kalliadasis, S.
2015-10-01
In many physical, technological, social, and economic applications, one is commonly faced with the task of estimating statistical properties, such as mean first passage times of a temporal continuous process, from empirical data (experimental observations). Typically, however, an accurate and reliable estimation of such properties directly from the data alone is not possible as the time series is often too short, or the particular phenomenon of interest is only rarely observed. We propose here a theoretical-computational framework which provides us with a systematic and rational estimation of statistical quantities of a given temporal process, such as waiting times between subsequent bursts of activity in intermittent signals. Our framework is illustrated with applications from real-world data sets, ranging from marine biology to paleoclimatic data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polettini, Matteo
2014-09-01
We introduce the Fisher information in the basis of decay modes of Markovian dynamics, arguing that it encodes important information about the behavior of nonequilibrium systems. In particular we generalize an orthonormality relation between decay eigenmodes of detailed balanced systems to normal generators that commute with their time-reversal. Viewing such modes as tangent vectors to the manifold of statistical distributions, we relate the result to the choice of a coordinate patch that makes the Fisher-Rao metric Euclidean at the steady distribution, realizing a sort of statistical equivalence principle. We then classify nonequilibrium systems according to their spectrum, showing that a degenerate Fisher matrix is the signature of the insurgence of a class of dynamical phase transitions between nonequilibrium regimes, characterized by level crossing and power-law decay in time of suitable order parameters. An important consequence is that normal systems cannot manifest critical behavior. Finally, we study the Fisher matrix of systems with time-scale separation.
Coarse-grained simulations of vortex dynamics and transition in complex high-Re flows
Grinstein, Fernando F
2011-01-21
prohibitively expensive in the foreseeable future for most practical flows of interest at moderate-to-high Reynolds number (Re). On the other end of the simulation spectrum are the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approaches - which model the turbulent effects. In the coarsegrained large eddy simulation (LES) strategies, the large energy containing structures are resolved, the smaller structures are filtered out, and unresolved SGS effects are modeled. By necessity - rather than choice, LES effectively becomes the intermediate approach between DNS and RANS. Extensive work has demonstrated that predictive simulations of turbulent velocity fields are possible using a particular LES denoted implicit LES (ILES), using the class of nonoscillatory finite-volume (NFV) numerical algorithms. Use of the modified equation as framework for theoretical analysis, demonstrates that leading truncation tenns associated with NFV methods provide implicit SGS models of mixed anisotropic type and regularized motion of discrete observables. Tests in fundamental applications ranging from canonical to very complex flows indicate that ILES is competitive with conventional LES in the LES realm proper - flows driven by large scale features. High-Re flows are vortex dominated and governed by short convective timescales compared to those of diffusion, and kinematically characterized at the smallest scales by slender worm vortices with insignificant internal structure. This motivates nominally inviscid ILES methods capable of capturing the high-Re dissipation dynamics and of handling vortices as shocks in shock capturing schemes. Depending on flow regimes, initial conditions, and resolution, additional modeling may be needed to emulate SGS driven physics, such as backscatter, chemical reaction, material mixing, and near-wall flow-dynamics - where typically-intertwined SGS/SPG issues need to be addressed. A major research focus is recognizing when additional explicit models and/or numerical treatments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lobanova, Olga; Avendaño, Carlos; Lafitte, Thomas; Müller, Erich A.; Jackson, George
2015-05-01
In this work, we develop coarse-grained (CG) force fields for water, where the effective CG intermolecular interactions between particles are estimated from an accurate description of the macroscopic experimental vapour-liquid equilibria data by means of a molecular-based equation of state. The statistical associating fluid theory for Mie (generalised Lennard-Jones) potentials of variable range (SAFT-VR Mie) is used to parameterise spherically symmetrical (isotropic) force fields for water. The resulting SAFT-γ CG models are based on the Mie (8-6) form with size and energy parameters that are temperature dependent; the latter dependence is a consequence of the angle averaging of the directional polar interactions present in water. At the simplest level of CG where a water molecule is represented as a single bead, it is well known that an isotropic potential cannot be used to accurately reproduce all of the thermodynamic properties of water simultaneously. In order to address this deficiency, we propose two CG potential models of water based on a faithful description of different target properties over a wide range of temperatures: our CGW1-vle model is parameterised to match the saturated-liquid density and vapour pressure; our other CGW1-ift model is parameterised to match the saturated-liquid density and vapour-liquid interfacial tension. A higher level of CG corresponding to two water molecules per CG bead is also considered: the corresponding CGW2-bio model is developed to reproduce the saturated-liquid density and vapour-liquid interfacial tension in the physiological temperature range, and is particularly suitable for the large-scale simulation of bio-molecular systems. A critical comparison of the phase equilibrium and transport properties of the proposed force fields is made with the more traditional atomistic models.
Forte, Esther; Haslam, Andrew J; Jackson, George; Müller, Erich A
2014-09-28
The use of effective fluid-surface potentials, in which the full positional dependence is replaced by a dependence only on the distance from the surface of the solid, is common practice as a route to reduce the complexity of evaluating adsorption of fluids on substrates. Conceptually this is equivalent to replacing the detailed description of the discrete molecular nature by a coarse-grained description in which the solid is represented by a continuous (structureless) surface. These effective fluid-surface potentials are essential in the development of theories for surface adsorption, and they provide a means to reduce the computational cost associated with the molecular simulation of the system. The main purpose of the present contribution is to emphasise the necessity of using an adequate averaging procedure to obtain effective fluid-surface potentials. A simple unweighted average of the configurational energy is commonly employed, resulting in effective potentials that are temperature independent. We describe here a procedure to develop free-energy-averaged effective fluid-surface potentials retaining the important temperature dependence of the coarse-grained interaction between the particle and the surface. Although the approach is general in nature, we assess the merits of free-energy-averaged potentials for the adsorption of methane on graphene and graphite, making appropriate comparisons with the description obtained with the more traditional temperature-independent potentials. Additionally, we develop effective fluid-surface potentials for crystalline faces of monolayer and multilayer homogeneous and heterogeneous fcc lattices based on the Lennard-Jones (12-6) pair potential, and compute the corresponding adsorption isotherms of Lennard-Jones fluids on these surfaces using Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations. The adequacy of the two different options to obtain effective fluid-surface potentials (a free-energy-based versus a simple unweighted
Chikayama, Eisuke; Suto, Michitaka; Nishihara, Takashi; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Hirayama, Takashi; Kikuchi, Jun
2008-01-01
Background Metabolic phenotyping has become an important ‘bird's-eye-view’ technology which can be applied to higher organisms, such as model plant and animal systems in the post-genomics and proteomics era. Although genotyping technology has expanded greatly over the past decade, metabolic phenotyping has languished due to the difficulty of ‘top-down’ chemical analyses. Here, we describe a systematic NMR methodology for stable isotope-labeling and analysis of metabolite mixtures in plant and animal systems. Methodology/Principal Findings The analysis method includes a stable isotope labeling technique for use in living organisms; a systematic method for simultaneously identifying a large number of metabolites by using a newly developed HSQC-based metabolite chemical shift database combined with heteronuclear multidimensional NMR spectroscopy; Principal Components Analysis; and a visualization method using a coarse-grained overview of the metabolic system. The database contains more than 1000 1H and 13C chemical shifts corresponding to 142 metabolites measured under identical physicochemical conditions. Using the stable isotope labeling technique in Arabidopsis T87 cultured cells and Bombyx mori, we systematically detected >450 HSQC peaks in each 13C-HSQC spectrum derived from model plant, Arabidopsis T87 cultured cells and the invertebrate animal model Bombyx mori. Furthermore, for the first time, efficient 13C labeling has allowed reliable signal assignment using analytical separation techniques such as 3D HCCH-COSY spectra in higher organism extracts. Conclusions/Significance Overall physiological changes could be detected and categorized in relation to a critical developmental phase change in B. mori by coarse-grained representations in which the organization of metabolic pathways related to a specific developmental phase was visualized on the basis of constituent changes of 56 identified metabolites. Based on the observed intensities of 13C atoms of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Catling, David C.; Moore, Jeffrey M.
2003-10-01
The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft has detected deposits of coarse-grained, gray crystalline hematite in Sinus Meridiani, Aram Chaos, and Vallis Marineris. We argue that the key to the origin of gray hematite is that it requires crystallization at temperatures in excess of about 100 °C. We discuss thermal crystallization (1) as diagenesis at a depth of a few kilometers of sediments originally formed in low-temperature waters, or (2) as precipitation from hydrothermal solution. In Aram Chaos, a combination of TES data, Mars Orbiter Camera images, and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topography suggests that high concentrations of hematite were formed in planar strata and have since been exposed by erosion of an overlying light-toned, caprock. Lesser concentrations of hematite are found adjacent to these strata at lower elevations, which we interpret as perhaps due to accumulation from physical weathering. The topography and the collapsed nature of the chaotic terrain favor a hydrothermally charged aquifer as the original setting where the hematite formed. Concentration of iron into such an ore-like body would be chemically favored by saline, Cl-rich hydrothermal fluids. An alternative sedimentary origin requires post-depositional burial to a depth of ˜3-5 km to induce thermally driven recrystallization of fine-grained iron oxides to coarse-grained hematite. This depth of burial and re-exposure is difficult to reconcile with commonly inferred martian geological processes. However, shallow burial accompanied by post-burial hydrothermal activity remains plausible. When the hematite regions originally formed, redox balance requires that much hydrogen must have been evolved to complement the extensive oxidation. Finally, we suggest that the coexistence of several factors required to form the gray hematite deposits would have produced a favorable environment for primitive life on early Mars, if it ever existed. These
Koland, John G
2014-01-01
Upon the ligand-dependent dimerization of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), the intrinsic protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity of one receptor monomer is activated, and the dimeric receptor undergoes self-phosphorylation at any of eight candidate phosphorylation sites (P-sites) in either of the two C-terminal (CT) domains. While the structures of the extracellular ligand binding and intracellular PTK domains are known, that of the ∼225-amino acid CT domain is not, presumably because it is disordered. Receptor phosphorylation on CT domain P-sites is critical in signaling because of the binding of specific signaling effector molecules to individual phosphorylated P-sites. To investigate how the combination of conventional substrate recognition and the unique topological factors involved in the CT domain self-phosphorylation reaction lead to selectivity in P-site phosphorylation, we performed coarse-grained molecular simulations of the P-site/catalytic site binding reactions that precede EGFR self-phosphorylation events. Our results indicate that self-phosphorylation of the dimeric EGFR, although generally believed to occur in trans, may well occur with a similar efficiency in cis, with the P-sites of both receptor monomers being phosphorylated to a similar extent. An exception was the case of the most kinase-proximal P-site-992, the catalytic site binding of which occurred exclusively in cis via an intramolecular reaction. We discovered that the in cis interaction of P-site-992 with the catalytic site was facilitated by a cleft between the N-terminal and C-terminal lobes of the PTK domain that allows the short CT domain sequence tethering P-site-992 to the PTK core to reach the catalytic site. Our work provides several new mechanistic insights into the EGFR self-phosphorylation reaction, and demonstrates the potential of coarse-grained molecular simulation approaches for investigating the complexities of self-phosphorylation in molecules such as EGFR
Jacobson, Liam C; Kirby, Robert M; Molinero, Valeria
2014-07-17
Coarse-grained models are becoming increasingly popular due to their ability to access time and length scales that are prohibitively expensive with atomistic models. However, as a result of decreasing the degrees of freedom, coarse-grained models often have diminished accuracy, representability, and transferability compared with their finer grained counterparts. Uncertainty quantification (UQ) can help alleviate this challenge by providing an efficient and accurate method to evaluate the effect of model parameters on the properties of the system. This method is useful in finding parameter sets that fit the model to several experimental properties simultaneously. In this work we use UQ as a tool for the evaluation and optimization of a coarse-grained model. We efficiently sample the five-dimensional parameter space of the coarse-grained monatomic water (mW) model to determine what parameter sets best reproduce experimental thermodynamic, structural and dynamical properties of water. Generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) was used to reconstruct the analytical surfaces of density, enthalpy of vaporization, radial and angular distribution functions, and diffusivity of liquid water as a function of the input parameters. With these surfaces, we evaluated the sensitivity of these properties to perturbations of the model input parameters and the accuracy and representability of the coarse-grained models. In particular, we investigated what is the optimum length scale of the water-water interactions needed to reproduce the properties of liquid water with a monatomic model with two- and three-body interactions. We found that there is an optimum cutoff length of 4.3 Å, barely longer than the size of the first neighbor shell in water. As cutoffs deviate from this optimum value, the ability of the model to simultaneously reproduce the structure and thermodynamics is severely diminished.
Lopez Villaverde, Eduardo; Robert, Sébastien; Prada, Claire
2016-07-01
In the present work, the Synthetic Transmit Aperture (STA) imaging is combined with the Decomposition of the Time Reversal Operator (DORT) method to image a coarse grained austenitic-ferritic steel using a contact transducer array. The highly heterogeneous structure of this material produces a strong scattering noise in ultrasound images. Furthermore, the surface waves guided along the array interfere with the bulk waves backscattered by defects. In order to overcome these problems, the DORT method is applied before calculating images with the STA algorithm. The method consists in analyzing in the frequency domain the singular values and singular vectors of the full array transfer matrix. This paper first presents an analysis of the singular values of different waves contained in the data acquisition, which facilitates the identification of the subspace associated with the surface guided waves for filtering operations. Then, a filtered matrix is defined where the contribution of structural noise and guided waves are reduced. Finally, in the time domain, the STA algorithm is applied to this matrix in order to calculate an image with reduced structural noise. Experiments demonstrate that this filtering improves the signal-to-noise ratio by more than 12 dB in comparison with the STA image before filtering. PMID:27475176
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spiriti, Justin; Zuckerman, Daniel M.
2015-12-01
Traditional coarse-graining based on a reduced number of interaction sites often entails a significant sacrifice of chemical accuracy. As an alternative, we present a method for simulating large systems composed of interacting macromolecules using an energy tabulation strategy previously devised for small rigid molecules or molecular fragments [S. Lettieri and D. M. Zuckerman, J. Comput. Chem. 33, 268-275 (2012); J. Spiriti and D. M. Zuckerman, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 5161-5177 (2014)]. We treat proteins as rigid and construct distance and orientation-dependent tables of the interaction energy between them. Arbitrarily detailed interactions may be incorporated into the tables, but as a proof-of-principle, we tabulate a simple α-carbon Gō-like model for interactions between dimeric subunits of the hepatitis B viral capsid. This model is significantly more structurally realistic than previous models used in capsid assembly studies. We are able to increase the speed of Monte Carlo simulations by a factor of up to 6700 compared to simulations without tables, with only minimal further loss in accuracy. To obtain further enhancement of sampling, we combine tabulation with the weighted ensemble (WE) method, in which multiple parallel simulations are occasionally replicated or pruned in order to sample targeted regions of a reaction coordinate space. In the initial study reported here, WE is able to yield pathways of the final ˜25% of the assembly process.
Langeloth, Michael; Böhm, Michael C.; Müller-Plathe, Florian; Sugii, Taisuke
2015-12-28
We investigate the volumetric glass transition temperature T{sub g} in epoxy thermosets by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The epoxy thermosets consist of the resin bisphenol A diglycidyl ether and the hardener diethylenetriamine. A structure based coarse-grained (CG) force field has been derived using iterative Boltzmann inversion in order to facilitate simulations of larger length scales. We observe that T{sub g} increases clearly with the degree of cross-linking for all-atomistic (AA) and CG simulations. The transition T{sub g} in CG simulations of uncured mixtures is much lower than in AA-simulations due to the soft nature of the CG potentials, but increases all the more with the formation of rigid cross-links. Additional simulations of the CG mixtures in contact with a surface show the existence of an interphase region of about 3 nm thickness in which the network properties deviate significantly from the bulk. In accordance to experimental studies, we observe that T{sub g} is reduced in this interphase region and gradually increases to its bulk value with distance from the surface. The present study shows that the glass transition is a local phenomenon that depends on the network structure in the immediate environment.
Xu, Liang; Chen, Yonggang; Wang, Xiaojuan
2014-08-01
The identification of a secondary nucleation pathway in the early aggregation of amyloid peptides suggests that the generation of toxic oligomers involves both monomers and preformed fibril seeds. To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism, a set of one-pot coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations was performed to investigate the self-assembly of amyloid β peptides in the presence of fibril seeds. It was observed that fibril seeds alone randomly assemble into an elongated protofibril, whereas monomers alone form an elongated globular oligomer with various morphologies. In the mixture of monomers and fibril seeds, both the self-assembly of monomers into small oligomers and the association of monomers and oligomers on the surface of fibril seeds are primarily driven by hydrophobic interactions. The cooperativity of conformational selection and competition leads to different binding propensity of two hydrophobic surfaces of fibril seeds. The molecular architecture of the final aggregate shows that the fibril seeds establish the elongated framework, and oligomers cover them. Oligomers exposed to the solvent are less compact and unstable and can be disassociated from the fibril seeds, providing an origin for oligomers generated from the secondary nucleation pathway.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Yan; Wei, Guanghong; Derreumaux, Philippe
2012-07-01
Characterizing the early formed oligomeric intermediates of amyloid peptides is of particular interest due to their links with neurodegenerative diseases. Here we study the NNQQ peptide, known to display parallel β-strands in amyloid fibrils by x-ray microcrystallography, and investigate the structural, thermodynamical, and dynamical properties of 20 NNQQ peptides using molecular dynamics and replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations coupled to a coarse-grained force field. All simulations are initiated from randomized and fully dispersed monomeric conformations. Our simulations reveal that the phase transition is characterized by a change in the oligomer and β-sheet size distributions and the percentage of mixed parallel/antiparallel β-strands when the sheets are formed. At all temperatures, however, the fraction of parallel β-strands remains low, though there are many association/fragmentation events. This work and a growing body of computational studies provide strong evidence that the critical nucleus goes beyond 20 chains and reordering of the β-strands occurs in larger oligomers.
Lenoci, Leonardo; Camp, Philip J
2006-08-01
The self-assembly of model peptides is studied using Brownian dynamics computer simulations. A coarse-grained, bead-spring model is designed to mimic silaffins, small peptides implicated in the biomineralization of certain silica diatom skeletons and observed to promote the formation of amorphous silica nanospheres in vitro. The primary characteristics of the silaffin are a 15 amino acid hydrophilic backbone and two modified lysine residues near the ends of the backbone carrying long polyamine chains. In the simulations, the model peptides self-assemble to form spherical clusters, networks of strands, or bicontinuous structures, depending on the peptide concentration and effective temperature. The results indicate that over a broad range of volume fractions (0.05-25%) the characteristic structural lengthscales fall in the range 12-45 nm. On this basis, we suggest that self-assembled structures act as either nucleation points or scaffolds for the deposition of 10-100 nm silica-peptide building blocks from which diatom skeletons and synthetic nanospheres are constructed.
A strain-based model for mechanical hemolysis based on a coarse-grained red blood cell model.
Ezzeldin, Hussein M; de Tullio, Marco D; Vanella, Marcos; Solares, Santiago D; Balaras, Elias
2015-06-01
Mechanical hemolysis is a major concern in the design of cardiovascular devices, such as prosthetic heart valves and ventricular assist devices. The primary cause of mechanical hemolysis is the impact of the device on the local blood flow, which exposes blood elements to non-physiologic conditions. The majority of existing hemolysis models correlate red blood cell (RBC) damage to the imposed fluid shear stress and exposure time. Only recently more realistic, strain-based models have been proposed, where the RBC's response to the imposed hydrodynamic loading is accounted for. In the present work we extend strain-based models by introducing a high-fidelity representation of RBCs, which is based on existing coarse-grained particle dynamics approach. We report a series of numerical experiments in simple shear flows of increasing complexity, to illuminate the basic differences between existing models and establish their accuracy in comparison to the high-fidelity RBC approach. We also consider a practical configuration, where the flow through an artificial heart valve is computed. Our results shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of each approach and identify the key gaps that should be addressed in the development of new models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shihu; Larson, Ronald G.; Ginzburg, Valeriy V.
2015-03-01
We parameterize a coarse-grained (CG) model using implicit water for a model Hydrophobic Ethoxylated Urethane (HEUR) composed of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) endcapped with hydrocarbon tails. Our model matches predictions using a CG Martini model with explicit water for PEO in water. We illustrate the strong adsorption of PEO onto hydrocarbon surfaces in water and obtain parameters for PEO at hydrocarbon/water interfaces. As a validation, we simulate the self-assembly of alkyl poly(ethylene glycol) surfactants and observe the transition from a lamellar phase to cylindrical micelles upon varying EO length, a result in agreement with previous studies. Lastly, we study the adsorption of HEURs onto hydrophobic surfaces. We observe bridge formation between two surfaces, interconnected flower-like micelles and their subsequent adsorption, in equilibrated systems. We discuss the influence of hydrophobe length and HEUR volume fraction on the adsorption process and the equilibrium adsorption. These results provide important insights for HEURs adsorption and are useful for comparisons with Self-Consistent Field Theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghobadi, Ahmadreza F.; Jayaraman, Arthi
2015-03-01
Gene delivery involves successful transfection of therapeutic DNA by a vector into target cells and protein expression of that genetic material. Viral vectors are effective at gene delivery but elicit harmful immunogenic responses, thus motivating ongoing research on non-viral transfection agents. Cationic polymers are a promising class of non-viral vectors due to their low immugenic responses and low toxicity, and their ability to bind to the polyanionic DNA backbone to form a polycation-DNA complex (polyplex) that is then internalized in the target cell. While past studies have shown many polycations with differing DNA transfection efficacies, there is a need for general design guidelines that can relate the molecular features of the polycation to its DNA transfection efficiency. Using atomistic and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations we connect polycation design to polycation-DNA binding and experimentally observed transfection efficiency. Specifically in this presentation we will discuss our recent work looking into the effect of incorporating zwitterions into lysine based polycations on the resulting polyplex structure, shape, surface charge density and stability of DNA-polycation complexes.
Gawthorpe, R.L. ); Hurst, J.M.; Sladen, C.P. )
1990-07-01
The Miocene Abu Alaqa Group, exposed on the eastern side of the Gulf of Suez, contains a series of coarse-grained delta deposits located in the hanging wall of the northwest-trending East Margin fault zone. Seven major fan sequences have been identified. The first three fan sequences are aggradational and cover an area of less than 2 km{sup 2}. The sequences are dominated by pebble/boulder conglomerates, with predominantly sigmoidal, high-angle clinoforms (between 15 and 25{degree}) as much as 150 m high. These fan sequences represent talus cones and fan deltas, which were probably deposited during activity on the fault zone and are situated at transfer segments. The other four fan sequences are predominantly progradational, consisting of mixed carbonate-siliciclastic braid deltas with local reefs. They are less than 30 m high, have low-angle clinoforms (< 15{degree}), and cover an area as large as 30 km{sup 2}. These fan sequences were deposited during a phase of tectonic quiescence when sedimentary and eustatic mechanisms determined sand-body geometry. These fan deltas and braid deltas may form hydrocarbon traps in the subsurface and create localized reservoirs. The rapid facies change into basinal fines creates an excellent lateral stratigraphic seal, but vertical and lateral seals across the fault zone generally are not well developed. 8 figs.
Coarse-grained treatment of the self-assembly of colloids suspended in a nematic host phase.
Püschel-Schlotthauer, Sergej; Stieger, Tillmann; Melle, Michael; Mazza, Marco G; Schoen, Martin
2016-01-14
The complex interplay of molecular scale effects, nonlinearities in the orientational field and long-range elastic forces makes liquid-crystal physics very challenging. A consistent way to extract information from the microscopic, molecular scale up to the meso- and macroscopic scale is still missing. Here, we develop a hybrid procedure that bridges this gap by combining extensive Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, a local Landau-de Gennes theory, classical density functional theory, and finite-size scaling theory. As a test case to demonstrate the power and validity of our novel approach we study the effective interaction among colloids with Boojum defect topology immersed in a nematic liquid crystal. In particular, at sufficiently small separations colloids attract each other if the angle between their center-of-mass distance vector and the far-field nematic director is about 30°. Using the effective potential in coarse-grained two-dimensional MC simulations we show that self-assembled structures formed by the colloids are in excellent agreement with experimental data. PMID:26477506
Marze, Sébastien
2014-01-01
The digestion of lipophilic nutrients and micronutrients requires numerous and simultaneous processes of chemical, physical and biological nature. Studying these processes experimentally is challenging, explaining why there is only little information about the mechanisms and interactions involved. Nevertheless, the bioaccessibility of lipophilic micronutrients is poorly understood so new investigation approaches are needed, all the more when digestion of lipophilic nutrients is also involved. In this article, the development of a coarse-grained simulation with no adjustable parameter is reported, enabling the study of the chemical and physical processes controlling bioaccessibility in such systems. The intestinal digestion of a droplet of a pure triglyceride containing a lipophilic vitamin was simulated to obtain their bioaccessibility kinetics (via lipolysis and/or solubilization in bile salt). The parameters examined here were the type of triglyceride, the type of vitamin, the digestive fluid amount, the droplet size, and different digestion conditions reflecting the in vitro or in vivo cases. Among these structure and composition parameters, the type of triglyceride and the digestion conditions had the greatest effects on bioaccessibility. An interplay between triglyceride digestion and micronutrient bioaccessibility kinetics was evidenced, highlighting the roles of the different parameters, in agreement with the experimental literature. This new approach is shown to be relevant to both nutrition and pharmacology.
Kapoor, Abhijeet; Travesset, Alex
2014-03-01
We develop an intermediate resolution model, where the backbone is modeled with atomic resolution but the side chain with a single bead, by extending our previous model (Proteins (2013) DOI: 10.1002/prot.24269) to properly include proline, preproline residues and backbone rigidity. Starting from random configurations, the model properly folds 19 proteins (including a mutant 2A3D sequence) into native states containing β sheet, α helix, and mixed α/β. As a further test, the stability of H-RAS (a 169 residue protein, critical in many signaling pathways) is investigated: The protein is stable, with excellent agreement with experimental B-factors. Despite that proteins containing only α helices fold to their native state at lower backbone rigidity, and other limitations, which we discuss thoroughly, the model provides a reliable description of the dynamics as compared with all atom simulations, but does not constrain secondary structures as it is typically the case in more coarse-grained models. Further implications are described.
Sereda, Yuriy V.; Ortoleva, Peter J.
2014-04-07
A closed kinetic equation for the single-particle density of a viscous simple liquid is derived using a variational method for the Liouville equation and a coarse-grained mean-field (CGMF) ansatz. The CGMF ansatz is based on the notion that during the characteristic time of deformation a given particle interacts with many others so that it experiences an average interaction. A trial function for the N-particle probability density is constructed using a multiscale perturbation method and the CGMF ansatz is applied to it. The multiscale perturbation scheme is based on the ratio of the average nearest-neighbor atom distance to the total size of the assembly. A constraint on the initial condition is discovered which guarantees that the kinetic equation is mass-conserving and closed in the single-particle density. The kinetic equation has much of the character of the Vlasov equation except that true viscous, and not Landau, damping is accounted for. The theory captures condensation kinetics and takes much of the character of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in the weak-gradient short-range force limit.
Kawamoto, Shuhei; Klein, Michael L; Shinoda, Wataru
2015-12-28
The effects of membrane curvature on the free energy barrier for membrane fusion have been investigated using coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CG-MD) simulations, assuming that fusion takes place through a stalk intermediate. Free energy barriers were estimated for stalk formation as well as for fusion pore formation using the guiding potential method. Specifically, the three different geometries of two apposed membranes were considered: vesicle-vesicle, vesicle-planar, and planar-planar membranes. The free energy barriers for the resulting fusion were found to depend importantly on the fusing membrane geometries; the lowest barrier was obtained for vesicular membranes. Further, lipid sorting was observed in fusion of the mixed membranes of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine and dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE). Specifically, DOPE molecules were found to assemble around the stalk to support the highly negative curved membrane surface. A consistent result for lipid sorting was observed when a simple continuum model (CM) was used, where the Helfrich energy and mixing entropy of the lipids were taken into account. However, the CM predicts a much higher free energy barrier than found using CG-MD. This discrepancy originates from the conformational changes of lipids, which were not considered in the CM. The results of the CG-MD simulations reveal that a large conformational change in the lipid takes place around the stalk region, which results in a reduction of free energy barriers along the stalk mechanism of membrane fusion.
Kawamoto, Shuhei; Shinoda, Wataru; Klein, Michael L.
2015-12-28
The effects of membrane curvature on the free energy barrier for membrane fusion have been investigated using coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CG-MD) simulations, assuming that fusion takes place through a stalk intermediate. Free energy barriers were estimated for stalk formation as well as for fusion pore formation using the guiding potential method. Specifically, the three different geometries of two apposed membranes were considered: vesicle–vesicle, vesicle–planar, and planar–planar membranes. The free energy barriers for the resulting fusion were found to depend importantly on the fusing membrane geometries; the lowest barrier was obtained for vesicular membranes. Further, lipid sorting was observed in fusion of the mixed membranes of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine and dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE). Specifically, DOPE molecules were found to assemble around the stalk to support the highly negative curved membrane surface. A consistent result for lipid sorting was observed when a simple continuum model (CM) was used, where the Helfrich energy and mixing entropy of the lipids were taken into account. However, the CM predicts a much higher free energy barrier than found using CG-MD. This discrepancy originates from the conformational changes of lipids, which were not considered in the CM. The results of the CG-MD simulations reveal that a large conformational change in the lipid takes place around the stalk region, which results in a reduction of free energy barriers along the stalk mechanism of membrane fusion.
Zaccone, A; Terentjev, I; Herling, T W; Knowles, T P J; Aleksandrova, A; Terentjev, E M
2016-09-14
While a significant body of investigations have been focused on the process of protein self-assembly, much less is understood about the reverse process of a filament breaking due to thermal motion into smaller fragments, or depolymerization of subunits from the filament ends. Indirect evidence for actin and amyloid filament fragmentation has been reported, although the phenomenon has never been directly observed either experimentally or in simulations. Here we report the direct observation of filament depolymerization and breakup in a minimal, calibrated model of coarse-grained molecular simulation. We quantify the orders of magnitude by which the depolymerization rate from the filament ends koff is larger than fragmentation rate k- and establish the law koff/k- = exp[(ε‖ - ε⊥)/kBT] = exp[0.5ε/kBT], which accounts for the topology and energy of bonds holding the filament together. This mechanism and the order-of-magnitude predictions are well supported by direct experimental measurements of depolymerization of insulin amyloid filaments. PMID:27634278
Knott, Michael; Best, Robert B.
2014-05-07
Many proteins undergo a conformational transition upon binding to their cognate binding partner, with intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) providing an extreme example in which a folding transition occurs. However, it is often not clear whether this occurs via an “induced fit” or “conformational selection” mechanism, or via some intermediate scenario. In the first case, transient encounters with the binding partner favour transitions to the bound structure before the two proteins dissociate, while in the second the bound structure must be selected from a subset of unbound structures which are in the correct state for binding, because transient encounters of the incorrect conformation with the binding partner are most likely to result in dissociation. A particularly interesting situation involves those intrinsically disordered proteins which can bind to different binding partners in different conformations. We have devised a multi-state coarse-grained simulation model which is able to capture the binding of IDPs in alternate conformations, and by applying it to the binding of nuclear coactivator binding domain (NCBD) to either ACTR or IRF-3 we are able to determine the binding mechanism. By all measures, the binding of NCBD to either binding partner appears to occur via an induced fit mechanism. Nonetheless, we also show how a scenario closer to conformational selection could arise by choosing an alternative non-binding structure for NCBD.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baschnagel, J.; Binder, K.; Paul, W.; Laso, M.; Suter, U. W.; Batoulis, I.; Jilge, W.; Bürger, T.
1991-10-01
Coarse-grained models for linear flexible polymers are constructed defining effective segments by taking together n successive chemical monomers of a polymer chain, for n=1,2,3,... . The distribution function Pn(l) for the length l of such effective segments is studied as well as the distribution function Pn(ϑ) of the angle between successive effective segments. If n is large enough, all these distribution functions tend towards universal limiting functions. For small n, information on chemical structure and effective potentials for the various degrees of freedom of the polymer chains is still preserved. Using polyethylene (PE) as one example, it is shown that these distribution functions for small n depend somewhat on the choice of the model for the effective potential (and the degrees of freedom included). Bisphenol-A-polycarbonate (BPA-PC) as a second example, serves to study to which extent these distribution functions Pn(l) and Pn(ϑ) differ for chemically different polymers, such as PE and BPA-PC. Consequences for the molecular modeling of polymeric materials are briefly discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacDermaid, Christopher M.; Kashyap, Hemant K.; DeVane, Russell H.; Shinoda, Wataru; Klauda, Jeffery B.; Klein, Michael L.; Fiorin, Giacomo
2015-12-01
The architecture of a biological membrane hinges upon the fundamental fact that its properties are determined by more than the sum of its individual components. Studies on model membranes have shown the need to characterize in molecular detail how properties such as thickness, fluidity, and macroscopic bending rigidity are regulated by the interactions between individual molecules in a non-trivial fashion. Simulation-based approaches are invaluable to this purpose but are typically limited to short sampling times and model systems that are often smaller than the required properties. To alleviate both limitations, the use of coarse-grained (CG) models is nowadays an established computational strategy. We here present a new CG force field for cholesterol, which was developed by using measured properties of small molecules, and can be used in combination with our previously developed force field for phospholipids. The new model performs with precision comparable to atomistic force fields in predicting the properties of cholesterol-rich phospholipid bilayers, including area per lipid, bilayer thickness, tail order parameter, increase in bending rigidity, and propensity to form liquid-ordered domains in ternary mixtures. We suggest the use of this model to quantify the impact of cholesterol on macroscopic properties and on microscopic phenomena involving localization and trafficking of lipids and proteins on cellular membranes.
Debnath, Ananya; Wiegand, Sabine; Paulsen, Harald; Kremer, Kurt; Peter, Christine
2015-09-14
The correct interplay of interactions between protein, pigment and lipid molecules is highly relevant for our understanding of the association behavior of the light harvesting complex (LHCII) of green plants. To cover the relevant time and length scales in this multicomponent system, a multi-scale simulation ansatz is employed that subsequently uses a classical all atomistic (AA) model to derive a suitable coarse grained (CG) model which can be backmapped into the AA resolution, aiming for a seamless conversion between two scales. Such an approach requires a faithful description of not only the protein and lipid components, but also the interaction functions for the indispensable pigment molecules, chlorophyll b and chlorophyll a (referred to as chl b/chl a). In this paper we develop a CG model for chl b and chl a in a dipalmitoylphosphatidyl choline (DPPC) bilayer system. The structural properties and the distribution behavior of chl within the lipid bilayer in the CG simulations are consistent with those of AA reference simulations. The non-bonded potentials are parameterized such that they fit to the thermodynamics based MARTINI force-field for the lipid bilayer and the protein. The CG simulation shows chl aggregation in the lipid bilayer which is supported by fluorescence quenching experiments. It is shown that the derived chl model is well suited for CG simulations of stable, structurally consistent, trimeric LHCII and can in the future be used to study their large scale aggregation behavior.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeidman, Benjamin D.; Lu, Ning; Wu, David T.
2016-05-01
The effects of path-dependent wetting and drying manifest themselves in many types of physical systems, including nanomaterials, biological systems, and porous media such as soil. It is desirable to better understand how these hysteretic macroscopic properties result from a complex interplay between gasses, liquids, and solids at the pore scale. Coarse-Grained Monte Carlo (CGMC) is an appealing approach to model these phenomena in complex pore spaces, including ones determined experimentally. We present two-dimensional CGMC simulations of wetting and drying in two systems with pore spaces determined by sections from micro X-ray computed tomography: a system of randomly distributed spheres and a system of Ottawa sand. Results for the phase distribution, water uptake, and matric suction when corrected for extending to three dimensions show excellent agreement with experimental measurements on the same systems. This supports the hypothesis that CGMC can generate metastable configurations representative of experimental hysteresis and can also be used to predict hysteretic constitutive properties of particular experimental systems, given pore space images.
Shinoda, Wataru; DeVane, Russell; Klein, Michael L.
2010-01-01
A new coarse-grained (CG) intermolecular force field is presented for a series of zwitterionic lipids. The model is an extension of our previous work on nonionic surfactants and is designed to reproduce experimental surface/interfacial properties as well as distribution functions from all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Using simple functional forms, the force field parameters are optimized for multiple lipid molecules, simultaneously. The resulting CG lipid bilayers have reasonable molecular areas, chain order parameters, and elastic properties. The computed surface pressure vs. area (π-A) curve for a DPPC monolayer demonstrates a significant improvement over the previous CG models. The DPPC monolayer has a longer persistence length than a PEG lipid monolayer, exhibiting a long-lived curved monolayer surface under negative tension. The bud ejected from an oversaturated DPPC monolayer has a large bicelle-like structure, which is different from the micellar bud formed from an oversaturated PEG lipid monolayer. We have successfully observed vesicle formation during CG-MD simulations, starting from an aggregate of DMPC molecules. Depending on the aggregate size, the lipid assembly spontaneously transforms into a closed vesicle or a bicelle. None of the various intermediate structures between these extremes seem to be stable. An attempt to observe fusion of two vesicles through the application of an external adhesion force was not successful. The present CG force field also supports stable multi-lamellar DMPC vesicles. PMID:20438090
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sliozberg, Yelena; Chantawansri, Tanya
2014-11-01
Traumatic Brain Injury is a major health issue that is hard to diagnose since it often occurs without signs of external injuries. While it is well known that exposure of biological cells to shock waves causes damage to the cell membrane, it is currently unknown by which mechanisms damage is caused, and how it depends on physical parameters such as shock wave velocity, shock pulse duration, or shock pulse shape. In this computational study, we use a coarse-grained model of the lipid vesicle as a generic model of a cell membrane to elucidate the general principles of the cellular damage induced by the shock wave direct passage through the cranium. Results indicate that the extent of the liposome compression does not strongly depend on the pressure pulse and that liposome extension is very sensitive to the change in the negative pressure phase. The structural integrity of the vesicle is altered as pores form in the lipid membrane at overall pressure impulses generated by supersonic shock waves, which are greater than 5 Pa.s at single or repetitive exposure. Consequently, these permeability changes may lead to changes in the influx of sodium, potassium, and calcium ions.
de los Santos, Francisco; Franzese, Giancarlo
2011-12-01
We study, by Monte Carlo simulations, a coarse-grained model of a water monolayer between hydrophobic walls at partial hydration, with a wall-to-wall distance of about 0.5 nm. We analyze how the diffusion constant parallel to the walls, D(∥), changes and correlates to the phase diagram of the system. We find a locus of D(∥) maxima and a locus of D(∥) minima along isotherms, with lines of constant D(∥) resembling the melting line of bulk water. The two loci of D(∥) extrema envelope the line of temperatures of density maxima at constant P. We show how these loci are related to the anomalous volume behavior due to the hydrogen bonds. At much lower T, confined water becomes subdiffusive, and we discuss how this behavior is a consequence of the increased correlations among water molecules when the hydrogen bond network develops. Within the subdiffusive region, although translations are largely hampered, we observe that the hydrogen bond network can equilibrate, and its rearrangement is responsible for the appearance of density minima along isobars. We clarify that the minima are not necessarily related to the saturation of the hydrogen bond network.
Davtyan, Aram; Schafer, Nicholas P.; Zheng, Weihua; Clementi, Cecilia; Wolynes, Peter G.; Papoian, Garegin A.
2012-01-01
The Associative memory, Water mediated, Structure and Energy Model (AWSEM) is a coarse-grained protein force field. AWSEM contains physically motivated terms, such as hydrogen bonding, as well as a bioinformatically based local structure biasing term, which efficiently takes into account many-body effects that are modulated by the local sequence. When combined with appropriate local or global alignments to choose memories, AWSEM can be used to perform de novo protein structure prediction. Herein we present structure prediction results for a particular choice of local sequence alignment method based on short residue sequences called fragments. We demonstrate the model’s structure prediction capabilities for three levels of global homology between the target sequence and those proteins used for local structure biasing, all of which assume that the structure of the target sequence is not known. When there are no homologs in the database of structures used for local structure biasing, AWSEM calculations produce structural predictions that are somewhat improved compared with prior works using related approaches. The inclusion of a small number of structures from homologous sequences improves structure prediction only marginally but when the fragment search is restricted to only homologous sequences, AWSEM can perform high resolution structure prediction and can be used for kinetics and dynamics studies. PMID:22545654
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyu, Justin; Andrianarijaona, V. M.
2016-05-01
The causes of the misfolding of prion protein -i.e. the transformation of PrPC to PrPSc - have not been clearly elucidated. Many studies have focused on identifying possible chemical conditions, such as pH, temperature and chemical denaturation, that may trigger the pathological transformation of prion proteins (Weiwei Tao, Gwonchan Yoon, Penghui Cao, `` β-sheet-like formation during the mechanical unfolding of prion protein'', The Journal of Chemical Physics, 2015, 143, 125101). Here, we attempt to calculate the ionization energies of the prion protein, which will be able to shed light onto the possible causes of the misfolding. We plan on using the coarse-grain method which allows for a more feasible calculation time by means of approximation. We believe that by being able to approximate the ionization potential, particularly that of the regions known to form stable β-strands of the PrPSc form, the possible sources of denaturation, be it chemical or mechanical, may be narrowed down.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghobadi, Ahmadreza F.; Jayaraman, Arthi
DNA hybridization is the basis of various bio-nano technologies, such as DNA origami and assembly of DNA-functionalized nanoparticles. A hybridized double stranded (ds) DNA is formed when complementary nucleobases on hybridizing strands exhibit specific and directional hydrogen bonds through canonical Watson-Crick base-pairing interactions. In recent years, the need for cheaper alternatives and significant synthetic advances have driven design of DNA mimics with new backbone chemistries. However, a fundamental understanding of how these backbone modifications in the oligo-nucleic acids impact the hybridization and melting behavior of the duplex is still lacking. In this talk, we present our recent findings on impact of varying backbone chemistry on hybridization of oligo-nucleic acid duplexes. We use coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to isolate the effect of strand flexibility, electrostatic interactions and nucleobase spacing on the melting curves for duplexes with various strand sequences and concentrations. Since conjugation of oligo-nucleic acids with polymers serve as building blocks for thermo-responsive polymer networks and gels, we also present the effect of such conjugation on hybridization thermodynamics and polymer conformation.
Sukenik, Shahar; Sapir, Liel; Harries, Daniel
2015-12-01
Stabilizing osmolytes are known to impact the process of amyloid aggregation, often altering aggregation kinetics. Recent evidence further suggests that osmolytes modify the peptide conformational dynamics, as well as change the physical characteristics of assembling amyloid fibrils. To resolve how these variations emerge on the molecular level, we simulated the initial aggregation steps of an amyloid-forming peptide in the presence and absence of the osmolyte sorbitol, a naturally occurring polyol. To this end, a coarse-grained force field was extended and implemented to access larger aggregate sizes and longer time scales. The force field optimization procedure placed emphasis on calibrating the solution thermodynamics of sorbitol, the aggregating peptide in its monomeric form, and the interaction of both of these components with each other and with water. Our simulations show a difference in aggregation kinetics and structural parameters in the presence of sorbitol compared to water, which qualitatively agree well with our experimentally resolved aggregation kinetics of the same peptide. The kinetic changes induced by sorbitol can be traced in our simulations to changes in monomer conformations resulting from osmolyte presence. These translate into changes in peptide conformations within the aggregated clusters and into differences in rates of monomer nucleation and of association to formed fibrils. We find that, compared to pure water as solvent, the presence of sorbitol induces formation of more aggregates each containing fewer peptides, with an increased tendency toward parallel interpeptide contacts. PMID:26587669
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Langeloth, Michael; Sugii, Taisuke; Böhm, Michael C.; Müller-Plathe, Florian
2015-12-01
We investigate the volumetric glass transition temperature Tg in epoxy thermosets by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The epoxy thermosets consist of the resin bisphenol A diglycidyl ether and the hardener diethylenetriamine. A structure based coarse-grained (CG) force field has been derived using iterative Boltzmann inversion in order to facilitate simulations of larger length scales. We observe that Tg increases clearly with the degree of cross-linking for all-atomistic (AA) and CG simulations. The transition Tg in CG simulations of uncured mixtures is much lower than in AA-simulations due to the soft nature of the CG potentials, but increases all the more with the formation of rigid cross-links. Additional simulations of the CG mixtures in contact with a surface show the existence of an interphase region of about 3 nm thickness in which the network properties deviate significantly from the bulk. In accordance to experimental studies, we observe that Tg is reduced in this interphase region and gradually increases to its bulk value with distance from the surface. The present study shows that the glass transition is a local phenomenon that depends on the network structure in the immediate environment.
Ando, Tadashi; Skolnick, Jeffrey
2014-12-01
DNA binding proteins efficiently search for their cognitive sites on long genomic DNA by combining 3D diffusion and 1D diffusion (sliding) along the DNA. Recent experimental results and theoretical analyses revealed that the proteins show a rotation-coupled sliding along DNA helical pitch. Here, we performed Brownian dynamics simulations using newly developed coarse-grained protein and DNA models for evaluating how hydrodynamic interactions between the protein and DNA molecules, binding affinity of the protein to DNA, and DNA fluctuations affect the one dimensional diffusion of the protein on the DNA. Our results indicate that intermolecular hydrodynamic interactions reduce 1D diffusivity by 30%. On the other hand, structural fluctuations of DNA give rise to steric collisions between the CG-proteins and DNA, resulting in faster 1D sliding of the protein. Proteins with low binding affinities consistent with experimental estimates of non-specific DNA binding show hopping along the CG-DNA. This hopping significantly increases sliding speed. These simulation studies provide additional insights into the mechanism of how DNA binding proteins find their target sites on the genome.
Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Coble, Jamie B.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Anderson, Michael T.
2012-09-01
A sound field beam mapping exercise was conducted to assist in understanding the effects of coarse-grained microstructures found in cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) materials on acoustic longitudinal wave propagation. Ultrasonic laboratory measurements were made on three specimens representing four different grain structures. Phased array (PA) probes were fixed on each specimen surface and excited in the longitudinal mode at specific angles while a point receiver was scanned in a raster pattern over the end of the specimen, generating a transmitted sound field image. Three probes operating at nominal frequencies of 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0 MHz were used. A 6.4 mm (0.25-in.) thick slice was removed from the specimen end and beam mapping was repeated three times, yielding four full sets of beam images. Data were collected both with a constant part path for each configuration (probe, specimen and slice, angle, etc.) and with a variable part path (fixed position on the surface). The base specimens and slices were then polished and etched to reveal measureable grain microstructures that were compared to the sound field interactions and scattering effects seen in the collected data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaccone, A.; Terentjev, I.; Herling, T. W.; Knowles, T. P. J.; Aleksandrova, A.; Terentjev, E. M.
2016-09-01
While a significant body of investigations have been focused on the process of protein self-assembly, much less is understood about the reverse process of a filament breaking due to thermal motion into smaller fragments, or depolymerization of subunits from the filament ends. Indirect evidence for actin and amyloid filament fragmentation has been reported, although the phenomenon has never been directly observed either experimentally or in simulations. Here we report the direct observation of filament depolymerization and breakup in a minimal, calibrated model of coarse-grained molecular simulation. We quantify the orders of magnitude by which the depolymerization rate from the filament ends koff is larger than fragmentation rate k- and establish the law koff/k- = exp[(ɛ‖ - ɛ⊥)/kBT] = exp[0.5ɛ/kBT], which accounts for the topology and energy of bonds holding the filament together. This mechanism and the order-of-magnitude predictions are well supported by direct experimental measurements of depolymerization of insulin amyloid filaments.
Hirschaut, D.W.; Dingler, J.R.
1982-01-01
Monastery Beach, Carmel, California is a pocket beach that sits within 200 m of the head of Carmel Submarine Canyon. Coarse to very coarse sand covers both the beach and adjacent shelf; in the latter area incoming waves have shaped the sand into large oscillation ripples. The accessibility of this area and a variable wave climate produce a unique opportunity to study large-scale coarse-grained ripples in a high-energy environment. These ripples, which only occur in very coarse sand, form under the intense, wave-generated currents that exist during storm conditions. Once formed, these ripples do not significantly change under lower energy waves. On three separate occasions scuba divers measured ripples and collected sand samples from ripple crests near fixed reference stakes along three transects. Ripple wavelength and grain size decreased with an increase in water depth. Sediment sorting was best closest to the surf zone and poorest at the rim of Carmel Canyon. Cobbles and gravel observed in ripple troughs represent lag deposits. Carmel Canyon refracts waves approaching Monastery Beach such that wave energy is focused towards the northern and southern portions of the beach, leaving the central part of the beach lower in energy. This energy distribution causes spatial variations in the ripples and grain sizes with the shortest wavelengths and smallest grain sizes being in the central part of the shelf.
MacDermaid, Christopher M. Klein, Michael L.; Fiorin, Giacomo; Kashyap, Hemant K.; DeVane, Russell H.; Shinoda, Wataru; Klauda, Jeffery B.
2015-12-28
The architecture of a biological membrane hinges upon the fundamental fact that its properties are determined by more than the sum of its individual components. Studies on model membranes have shown the need to characterize in molecular detail how properties such as thickness, fluidity, and macroscopic bending rigidity are regulated by the interactions between individual molecules in a non-trivial fashion. Simulation-based approaches are invaluable to this purpose but are typically limited to short sampling times and model systems that are often smaller than the required properties. To alleviate both limitations, the use of coarse-grained (CG) models is nowadays an established computational strategy. We here present a new CG force field for cholesterol, which was developed by using measured properties of small molecules, and can be used in combination with our previously developed force field for phospholipids. The new model performs with precision comparable to atomistic force fields in predicting the properties of cholesterol-rich phospholipid bilayers, including area per lipid, bilayer thickness, tail order parameter, increase in bending rigidity, and propensity to form liquid-ordered domains in ternary mixtures. We suggest the use of this model to quantify the impact of cholesterol on macroscopic properties and on microscopic phenomena involving localization and trafficking of lipids and proteins on cellular membranes.
Zhang, Peng; Gao, Chao; Zhang, Na; Slepian, Marvin J.; Deng, Yuefan; Bluestein, Danny
2014-01-01
We developed a multiscale particle-based model of platelets, to study the transport dynamics of shear stresses between the surrounding fluid and the platelet membrane. This model facilitates a more accurate prediction of the activation potential of platelets by viscous shear stresses - one of the major mechanisms leading to thrombus formation in cardiovascular diseases and in prosthetic cardiovascular devices. The interface of the model couples coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) with dissipative particle dynamics (DPD). The CGMD handles individual platelets while the DPD models the macroscopic transport of blood plasma in vessels. A hybrid force field is formulated for establishing a functional interface between the platelet membrane and the surrounding fluid, in which the microstructural changes of platelets may respond to the extracellular viscous shear stresses transferred to them. The interaction between the two systems preserves dynamic properties of the flowing platelets, such as the flipping motion. Using this multiscale particle-based approach, we have further studied the effects of the platelet elastic modulus by comparing the action of the flow-induced shear stresses on rigid and deformable platelet models. The results indicate that neglecting the platelet deformability may overestimate the stress on the platelet membrane, which in turn may lead to erroneous predictions of the platelet activation under viscous shear flow conditions. This particle-based fluid-structure interaction multiscale model offers for the first time a computationally feasible approach for simulating deformable platelets interacting with viscous blood flow, aimed at predicting flow induced platelet activation by using a highly resolved mapping of the stress distribution on the platelet membrane under dynamic flow conditions. PMID:25530818
Shelley, Michael; McLaughlin, David
2002-01-01
We present a reduction of a large-scale network model of visual cortex developed by McLaughlin, Shapley, Shelley, and Wielaard. The reduction is from many integrate-and-fire neurons to a spatially coarse-grained system for firing rates of neuronal subpopulations. It accounts explicitly for spatially varying architecture, ordered cortical maps (such as orientation preference) that vary regularly across the cortical layer, and disordered cortical maps (such as spatial phase preference or stochastic input conductances) that may vary widely from cortical neuron to cortical neuron. The result of the reduction is a set of nonlinear spatiotemporal integral equations for "phase-averaged" firing rates of neuronal subpopulations across the model cortex, derived asymptotically from the full model without the addition of any extra phenomological constants. This reduced system is used to study the response of the model to drifting grating stimuli-where it is shown to be useful for numerical investigations that reproduce, at far less computational cost, the salient features of the point-neuron network and for analytical investigations that unveil cortical mechanisms behind the responses observed in the simulations of the large-scale computational model. For example, the reduced equations clearly show (1) phase averaging as the source of the time-invariance of cortico-cortical conductances, (2) the mechanisms in the model for higher firing rates and better orientation selectivity of simple cells which are near pinwheel centers, (3) the effects of the length-scales of cortico-cortical coupling, and (4) the role of noise in improving the contrast invariance of orientation selectivity. PMID:12053156
Jeong, Jay I; Jang, Yunho; Kim, Moon K
2006-01-01
A sparser but more efficient connection rule (called a bond-cutoff method) for a simplified alpha-carbon coarse-grained elastic network model is presented. One of conventional connection rules for elastic network models is the distance-cutoff method, where virtual springs connect an alpha-carbon with all neighbor alpha-carbons within predefined distance-cutoff value. However, though the maximum interaction distance between alpha-carbons is reported as 7 angstroms, this cutoff value can make the elastic network unstable in many cases of protein structures. Thus, a larger cutoff value (>11 angstroms) is often used to establish a stable elastic network model in previous researches. To overcome this problem, a connection rule for backbone model is proposed, which satisfies the minimum condition to stabilize an elastic network. Based on the backbone connections, each type of chemical interactions is considered and added to the elastic network model: disulfide bonds, hydrogen bonds, and salt-bridges. In addition, the van der Waals forces between alpha-carbons are modeled by using the distance-cutoff method. With the proposed connection rule, one can make an elastic network model with less than 7 angstroms distance cutoff, which can reveal protein flexibility more sharply. Moreover, the normal modes from the new elastic network model can reflect conformational changes of a given protein better than ones by the distance-cutoff method. This method can save the computational cost when calculating normal modes of a given protein structure, because it can reduce the total number of connections. As a validation, six example proteins are tested. Computational times and the overlap values between the conformational change and infinitesimal motion calculated by normal mode analysis are presented. Those animations are also available at UMass Morph Server (http://biomechanics.ecs.umass.edu/umms.html).
Xie, Jinchuan; Lin, Jianfeng; Wang, Yu; Li, Mei; Zhang, Jihong; Zhou, Xiaohua; He, Yifeng
2015-01-01
The fate and transport of colloidal contaminants in natural media are complicated by physicochemical properties of the contaminants and heterogeneous characteristics of the media. Size and charge exclusion are two key microscopic mechanisms dominating macroscopic transport velocities. Faster velocities of colloid-associated actinides than that of (3)H2O were consistently indicated in many studies. However, dissociation/dissolution of these sorbed actinides (e.g., Pu and Np), caused by their redox reactions on mineral surfaces, possibly occurred under certain chemical conditions. How this dissolution is related to transport velocities remains unanswered. In this study, aging of the colloid-associated Pu (pseudo-colloid) at room temperature and transport through the saturated coarse-grained granites were performed to study whether Pu could exhibit slower velocity than that of (3)H2O (UPu/UT <1). The results show that oxidative dissolution of Pu(IV) associated with the surfaces of colloidal granite particles took place during the aging period. The relative velocity of UPu/UT declined from 1.06 (unaged) to 0.745 (135 d) over time. Size exclusion limited to the uncharged nano-sized particles could not explain such observed UPu/UT <1. Therefore, the decline in UPu/UT was ascribed to the presence of electrostatic attraction between the negatively charged wall of granite pore channels and the Pu(V)O2(+), as evidenced by increasing Pu(V)O2(+) concentrations in the suspensions aged in sealed vessels. As a result of this attraction, Pu(V)O2(+) was excluded from the domain closer to the centerline of pore channels. This reveals that charge exclusion played a more important role in dominating UPu than the size exclusion under the specific conditions, where oxidative dissolution of colloid-associated Pu(IV) was observed in the aged suspensions. PMID:25462640
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Hang; Han, Wei; Ma, Wen; Schulten, Klaus
2015-12-01
Parkinson's disease, originating from the intrinsically disordered peptide α-synuclein, is a common neurodegenerative disorder that affects more than 5% of the population above age 85. It remains unclear how α-synuclein monomers undergo conformational changes leading to aggregation and formation of fibrils characteristic for the disease. In the present study, we perform molecular dynamics simulations (over 180 μs in aggregated time) using a hybrid-resolution model, Proteins with Atomic details in Coarse-grained Environment (PACE), to characterize in atomic detail structural ensembles of wild type and mutant monomeric α-synuclein in aqueous solution. The simulations reproduce structural properties of α-synuclein characterized in experiments, such as secondary structure content, long-range contacts, chemical shifts, and 3J(HNHCα)-coupling constants. Most notably, the simulations reveal that a short fragment encompassing region 38-53, adjacent to the non-amyloid-β component region, exhibits a high probability of forming a β-hairpin; this fragment, when isolated from the remainder of α-synuclein, fluctuates frequently into its β-hairpin conformation. Two disease-prone mutations, namely, A30P and A53T, significantly accelerate the formation of a β-hairpin in the stated fragment. We conclude that the formation of a β-hairpin in region 38-53 is a key event during α-synuclein aggregation. We predict further that the G47V mutation impedes the formation of a turn in the β-hairpin and slows down β-hairpin formation, thereby retarding α-synuclein aggregation.
Breitsprecher, Konrad; Košovan, Peter; Holm, Christian
2014-07-16
We introduce a hierarchy of generic coarse-grained models of ionic liquids of increasing complexity. We use them in molecular dynamics simulations to study the differential capacitance of a capacitor consisting of an ionic liquid between two planar electrodes. The primary goal is to explain the complex dependence of the differential capacitance Cd on the electrode potential U in simple terms, e.g. in terms of the size and valency of the ions. For this purpose we introduce the symmetric model A, which qualitatively reproduces the Cd(U) dependence predicted by the mean-field theory but also reveals strong quantitative deviations. We further introduce size asymmetry in model A by increasing the cation size. In model B we vary the cation valency, keeping the sizes of both ions constant. We show that simultaneous increases in size and valency may compensate for each other, leading to a Cd(U) very similar to that for the symmetric case. We interpret distinct features in Cd(U) on the basis of the density profiles of the ions and charge density profiles. We focus on the first two ion layers at the electrode, and demonstrate that the polarization of the ionic liquid proceeds through replacement of one ion type by the other, in contrast to the simple increase in ion concentrations typical for dilute systems. The understanding gained for the simple models serves as a reference for interpretation of complex effects of ion size, valency and shape. This is carried through in part II (a separate article) where we show how the planar shape of ions in model C brings new features to the Cd(U) curve and also to the polarization mechanism.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mustafa, Ghulam; Nandekar, Prajwal P.; Yu, Xiaofeng; Wade, Rebecca C.
2015-12-01
An important step in the simulation of a membrane protein in a phospholipid bilayer is the correct immersion of the protein in the bilayer. Crystal structures are determined without the bilayer. Particularly for proteins with monotopic domains, it can be unclear how deeply and in which orientation the protein is being inserted in the membrane. We have previously developed a procedure combining coarse-grain (CG) with all-atom (AA) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to insert and simulate a cytochrome P450 (CYP) possessing an N-terminal transmembrane helix connected by a flexible linker region to a globular domain that dips into the membrane. The CG simulations provide a computationally efficient means to explore different orientations and conformations of the CYP in the membrane. Converged configurations obtained in the CG simulations are then refined in AA simulations. Here, we tested different variants of the MARTINI CG model, differing in the water model, the treatment of long-range non-bonded interactions, and the implementation (GROMACS 4.5.5 vs 5.0.4), for this purpose. We examined the behavior of the models for simulating a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) bilayer in water and for the immersion of CYP3A4 in a POPC bilayer, and compared the CG-MD results with the previously reported experimental and simulation results. We also tested the methodology on a set of four other CYPs. Finally, we propose an optimized protocol for modeling such protein-membrane systems that provides the most plausible configurations and is computationally efficient; this incorporates the standard non-polar water model and the GROMACS 5.0.4 implementation with a reaction field treatment of long-range interactions.
Yu, Hang; Ma, Wen; Han, Wei; Schulten, Klaus
2015-12-28
Parkinson’s disease, originating from the intrinsically disordered peptide α-synuclein, is a common neurodegenerative disorder that affects more than 5% of the population above age 85. It remains unclear how α-synuclein monomers undergo conformational changes leading to aggregation and formation of fibrils characteristic for the disease. In the present study, we perform molecular dynamics simulations (over 180 μs in aggregated time) using a hybrid-resolution model, Proteins with Atomic details in Coarse-grained Environment (PACE), to characterize in atomic detail structural ensembles of wild type and mutant monomeric α-synuclein in aqueous solution. The simulations reproduce structural properties of α-synuclein characterized in experiments, such as secondary structure content, long-range contacts, chemical shifts, and {sup 3}J(H{sub N}H{sub C{sub α}})-coupling constants. Most notably, the simulations reveal that a short fragment encompassing region 38-53, adjacent to the non-amyloid-β component region, exhibits a high probability of forming a β-hairpin; this fragment, when isolated from the remainder of α-synuclein, fluctuates frequently into its β-hairpin conformation. Two disease-prone mutations, namely, A30P and A53T, significantly accelerate the formation of a β-hairpin in the stated fragment. We conclude that the formation of a β-hairpin in region 38-53 is a key event during α-synuclein aggregation. We predict further that the G47V mutation impedes the formation of a turn in the β-hairpin and slows down β-hairpin formation, thereby retarding α-synuclein aggregation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rasmussen, D.; Foreman, B.; Fricke, H. C.
2015-12-01
The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is a rapid interval of global warming that occurred ~56 Ma. The PETM is characterized by an abrupt increase in mean annual temperature and decreased latitudinal temperature gradient. Resulting circulation changes likely modified the hydrologic cycle impacting spatiotemporal distribution of rainfall, fluvial sedimentation, and continental runoff. The goal of this study is to evaluate PETM global warming as an allogenic forcing on fluvial systems in the Huerfano Basin in southern Colorado as a point of comparison to other Laramide basins. Huerfano Basin is a Laramide structural basin comprising the northernmost extension of the Raton Basin. Huerfano Basin is located to the south and east of previously identified PETM records in the Bighorn, Axehandle, and Piceance basins. Alluvial deposits of the Poison Canyon and Cuchara formations are exposed along the western basin margin and are of known Paleocene-Eocene age. Depauperate biostratigraphic data place the Paleocene-Eocene boundary near the contact between the two formations. Globally, the PETM is identifiable by a distinctive negative carbon isotope excursion in terrestrial and marine strata. In the Huerfano Basin, initial bulk organic carbon isotope analyses presented herein yield isotope ratios suggestive of other terrestrial records. A prominent basal conglomerate in the Cuchara Formation is approximately coeval with the isotope excursion values. These observations suggest sedimentation in Huerfano Basin responded similarly to Bighorn and Piceance basins as the PETM generated pulses of coarse-grained alluvial lithofacies. However, the grain-sizes mobilized in Huerfano Basin are significantly coarser. Potentially this reflects the proximity to the Mississippi Embayment, the primary moisture source at the time. Overall this southern locality will allow systematic geographic comparisons in the hydrologic cycle response to the PETM in North America.
Mustafa, Ghulam E-mail: rebecca.wade@h-its.org; Nandekar, Prajwal P.; Yu, Xiaofeng; Wade, Rebecca C. E-mail: rebecca.wade@h-its.org
2015-12-28
An important step in the simulation of a membrane protein in a phospholipid bilayer is the correct immersion of the protein in the bilayer. Crystal structures are determined without the bilayer. Particularly for proteins with monotopic domains, it can be unclear how deeply and in which orientation the protein is being inserted in the membrane. We have previously developed a procedure combining coarse-grain (CG) with all-atom (AA) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to insert and simulate a cytochrome P450 (CYP) possessing an N-terminal transmembrane helix connected by a flexible linker region to a globular domain that dips into the membrane. The CG simulations provide a computationally efficient means to explore different orientations and conformations of the CYP in the membrane. Converged configurations obtained in the CG simulations are then refined in AA simulations. Here, we tested different variants of the MARTINI CG model, differing in the water model, the treatment of long-range non-bonded interactions, and the implementation (GROMACS 4.5.5 vs 5.0.4), for this purpose. We examined the behavior of the models for simulating a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) bilayer in water and for the immersion of CYP3A4 in a POPC bilayer, and compared the CG-MD results with the previously reported experimental and simulation results. We also tested the methodology on a set of four other CYPs. Finally, we propose an optimized protocol for modeling such protein-membrane systems that provides the most plausible configurations and is computationally efficient; this incorporates the standard non-polar water model and the GROMACS 5.0.4 implementation with a reaction field treatment of long-range interactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Wenjun
2012-04-01
This study aims to model a minimal dynein motor domain capable of motor function, which consists of the linker domain, six AAA+ modules (AAA1-AAA6), coiled coil stalk, and C-te