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Sample records for anisotropic p-f mixing

  1. Relativistic anisotropic models for compact star with equation of state p = f(ρ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, S. K.; Gupta, Y. K.; Dayanandan, Baiju; Jasim, M. K.; Al-Jamel, Ahmed

    We present new anisotropic models for Buchdahl [H. A. Buchdahl, Phys. Rev. 116 (1959) 1027.] type perfect fluid solution. For this purpose, we started with metric potential eλ same as Buchdahl [H. A. Buchdahl, Phys. Rev. 116 (1959) 1027.] and eν is monotonically increasing function as suggested by Lake [K. Lake, Phys. Rev. D 67 (2003) 104015]. After that we determine the new pressure anisotropy factor Δ with the help of both the metric potentials eλ and eν and propose new well behaved general solution for anisotropic fluid distribution. The physical quantities like energy density, radial and tangential pressures, velocity of sound and redshift etc. are positive and finite inside the compact star. In this connection, we have studied the stability of the models, which is most vital one and also we determined the equation of state p = f(ρ) for the realistic compact star models. It is noted that the mass and radius of our models can represent the structure of realistic astrophysical objects such as Her X-1 and RXJ 1856-37.

  2. Phase transition of two-dimensional doped mixed-spin anisotropic ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ai-Yuan; Wu, Zhi-Min; Cui, Yu-Ting; Qin, Guo-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The two-dimensional doped mixed-spin anisotropic ferromagnets is investigated by means of the double-time Green's function based on the random phase approximation and Anderson-Callen's decoupling approximation. The analytic expressions of the critical temperature and the high-temperature zero-field susceptibility are obtained. The phase diagrams in which the critical temperature, the reorientation temperature and the reorientation magnetic field are shown as a function of single-ion anisotropic parameter are discussed.

  3. Steady dissolution rate due to convective mixing in anisotropic porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Christopher P.; Ennis-King, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    Enhanced dissolution of CO2 into a saline aquifer due to convective mixing is an important physical process for the secure long-term storage of significant quantities of CO2. Numerical simulations have previously shown that the dissolution rate of CO2 into reservoir brine will stabilise after a certain time period, with only small oscillations about a long-term average. A theoretical estimate for this average long-term mass flux in an isotropic homogeneous reservoir has previously appeared in the literature. In this paper, an estimate for the steady dissolution rate in anisotropic homogenous porous media is developed using a simple theoretical argument. Detailed numerical simulations confirm that the steady dissolution rate scales as (kvkh) 1 / 2 in an anisotropic homogeneous porous media, where kv and kh are the vertical and horizontal permeabilities, respectively. The scaling is also shown to be appropriate for heterogeneous models where vertical heterogeneity is introduced by including a random distribution of impermeable barriers.

  4. Ground-State Phases of Anisotropic Mixed Diamond Chains with Spins 1 and 1/2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hida, Kazuo

    2014-11-01

    The ground-state phases of anisotropic mixed diamond chains with spins 1 and 1/2 are investigated. Both single-site and exchange anisotropies are considered. We find the phases consisting of an array of uncorrelated spin-1 clusters separated by singlet dimers. Except in the simplest case where the cluster consists of a single S = 1 spin, this type of ground state breaks the translational symmetry spontaneously. Although the mechanism leading to this type of ground state is the same as that in the isotropic case, it is nonmagnetic or paramagnetic depending on the competition between two types of anisotropy. We also find the Néel, period-doubled Néel, Haldane, and large-D phases, where the ground state is a single spin cluster of infinite size equivalent to the spin-1 Heisenberg chain with alternating anisotropies. The ground-state phase diagrams are determined for typical sets of parameters by numerical analysis. In various limiting cases, the ground-state phase diagrams are determined analytically. The low-temperature behaviors of magnetic susceptibility and entropy are investigated to distinguish each phase by observable quantities. The relationship of the present model with the anisotropic rung-alternating ladder with spin-1/2 is also discussed.

  5. Mixing-Induced Anisotropic Correlations in Molecular Crystalline Systems: Rationalizing the Behavior of Organic Semiconductor Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broch, Katharina; Aufderheide, Antje; Novak, Jiri; Hinderhofer, Alexander; Gerlach, Alexander; Banerjee, Rupak; Schreiber, Frank

    2013-03-01

    Binary mixtures of organic semiconductors (OSCs) have recently become an important field of research, as they find applications in opto-electronic devices. In these systems, the mixing (intermixing vs. phase separation) and ordering behavior is crucial, since it affects the optical and electronic properties. We present a comprehensive study of binary mixtures of the three prototypical OSCs pentacene (PEN), perfluoropentacene (PFP) and diindenoperlyene (DIP) in all possible combinations. Using X-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction we investigate the stuctural properties of the mixed films as well as their impact on the optical spectra obtained by spectroscopic ellipsometry. For PEN:DIP we find an anisotropic ordering behavior, comparable to that observed in some liquid crystals, which is fundamentally new for OSCs. The influence of sterical compatibility and the strength of the intermolecular interactions on the mixing and ordering behavior in the different blends will be discussed by extending a conventional mean-field model. Finally, we discuss general rules for the targeted preparation of blends of OSCs.

  6. Estimation of anisotropic factor and turbulent mixing rate in rod bundles based on the flow pulsation phenomenon

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.; Park, G.C.

    1997-03-01

    The anisotropic turbulent diffusion and the turbulent mixing phenomena in rod bundle flow fields are studied. The former is a distinguishing feature of the flow through rod bundles, and the latter is essential to the subchannel thermal-hydraulic analysis. On the basis of the flow pulsation, which is suggested as a main process of turbulent mixing, scale relations for principal parameters such as the anisotropic factor and mixing rate are derived. To obtain a scale relation for the anisotropic factor, eddy viscosities are classified into isotropic and flow pulsation parts. Scales of each part are estimated using the scale analysis method. For the purpose of determining the length and velocity scales of the pulsating flow, a hypothetical circulating flow with a period corresponding to the frequency of the pulsation is assumed. The scale relation is compared with the experimental data and shows good agreement both with respect to trend and magnitude for various geometries. Thus, it is concluded that the flow pulsation is a significant contributor to the strong anisotropy in the rod bundle flow field. Also, the mixing rate is predicted by estimating the effective mixing velocity. The estimated mixing rate is transformed into well-known dimensionless numbers, which are compared with the experimental data and with correlations to verify the predictability.

  7. Mixed models and reduction method for dynamic analysis of anisotropic shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K.; Peters, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    A time-domain computational procedure is presented for predicting the dynamic response of laminated anisotropic shells. The two key elements of the procedure are: (1) use of mixed finite element models having independent interpolation (shape) functions for stress resultants and generalized displacements for the spatial discretization of the shell, with the stress resultants allowed to be discontinuous at interelement boundaries; and (2) use of a dynamic reduction method, with the global approximation vectors consisting of the static solution and an orthogonal set of Lanczos vectors. The dynamic reduction is accomplished by means of successive application of the finite element method and the classical Rayleigh-Ritz technique. The finite element method is first used to generate the global approximation vectors. Then the Rayleigh-Ritz technique is used to generate a reduced system of ordinary differential equations in the amplitudes of these modes. The temporal integration of the reduced differential equations is performed by using an explicit half-station central difference scheme (Leap-frog method). The effectiveness of the proposed procedure is demonstrated by means of a numerical example and its advantages over reduction methods used with the displacement formulation are discussed.

  8. Two-wave mixing of orthogonally polarized waves via anisotropic dynamic gratings in erbium-doped optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Serguei; Hernández, Eliseo; Plata, Marcos

    2005-06-01

    We report on observations of transient two-wave mixing (TWM) of orthogonally polarized waves counterpropagating through an Er-doped single-mode optical fiber. Experiments were performed in a 2-m-long moderately birefringent (with beat length ~2 cm) Er-doped fiber without optical pumping at the laser wavelength 1549 nm. The transient TWM signal observed for crossed linear polarizations of the recording waves oriented along two orthogonal birefringence axes of the fiber (i.e., for the interference pattern with spatially modulated state of light polarization only) proved to be approximately half of that observed for parallel polarizations. Direct measurements of the transient polarization hole-burning effect (i.e., that observed for fast switching of the input light linear polarization between two orthogonal orientations of the doped fiber birefringence axes) allow us to attribute formation of the corresponding anisotropic dynamic grating to this effect.

  9. Mixed classical-quantum simulation of vibro-rotational absorption spectra of HCl diluted in dense Ar: Anisotropic interaction and the Q-branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Antonio; Pérez, Justo

    2015-10-01

    We have developed a mixed classical-quantum dynamical simulation of HCl diluted in dense Ar in which both the rotation and vibration of the diatomic molecule are treated from a quantum point of view while the remaining translational degree of freedoms of the diatomic and solvent atoms, are treated classically. We have calculated the spectral density of the fundamental band and the rotational absorption coefficient of HCl in Ar at different thermodynamic conditions and we have compared them with the available experimental data. Unlike our previous simulation works on HCl in Ar, in this study we treat the diatomic vibration explicitly, so we can carry out a detailed theoretical-experimental comparative analysis of the spectral profiles. We have considered different models for the HCl-Ar binary anisotropic interaction, founding also different predictions for the absorption line shape, in one case with the presence of the central Q-branch observed in the experimental spectrum, and in another case with the absence of such spectral component. We have found that the theoretical Q-branch noticeably depends on the characteristic of the different anisotropic diatomic-solvent potentials proposed in the literature.

  10. Anisotropic universe with anisotropic sources

    SciTech Connect

    Aluri, Pavan K.; Panda, Sukanta; Sharma, Manabendra; Thakur, Snigdha E-mail: sukanta@iiserb.ac.in E-mail: snigdha@iiserb.ac.in

    2013-12-01

    We analyze the state space of a Bianchi-I universe with anisotropic sources. Here we consider an extended state space which includes null geodesics in this background. The evolution equations for all the state observables are derived. Dynamical systems approach is used to study the evolution of these equations. The asymptotic stable fixed points for all the evolution equations are found. We also check our analytic results with numerical analysis of these dynamical equations. The evolution of the state observables are studied both in cosmic time and using a dimensionless time variable. Then we repeat the same analysis with a more realistic scenario, adding the isotropic (dust like dark) matter and a cosmological constant (dark energy) to our anisotropic sources, to study their co-evolution. The universe now approaches a de Sitter space asymptotically dominated by the cosmological constant. The cosmic microwave background anisotropy maps due to shear are also generated in this scenario, assuming that the universe contains anisotropic matter along with the usual (dark) matter and vacuum (dark) energy since decoupling. We find that they contribute dominantly to the CMB quadrupole. We also constrain the current level of anisotropy and also search for any cosmic preferred axis present in the data. We use the Union 2 Supernovae data to this extent. An anisotropy axis close to the mirror symmetry axis seen in the cosmic microwave background data from Planck probe is found.

  11. Granular Segregation with Anisotropic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, Tim

    2005-11-01

    The results from experimental investigations of horizontally vibrated mixtures of anisotropic poppy seeds and long chains of linked spheres will be presented. A critical packing fraction was observed to be required to initiate a transition to segregation. The average size of the resulting patterns was measured and the concentration ratio of the mixtures was varied by changing the number of chains present in the mixtures. A change in the order of the transition, from second to first order with associated hysteresis, was observed as the chain number was reduced. This gave rise to three distinct regions of behaviour: segregated, mixed and a bi-stable state.

  12. Impacts of P-f & Q-V Droop Control on MicroGrids Transient Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao-xia, Xiao; Hong-wei, Fang

    Impacts of P-f & Q-V droop control on MicroGrid transient stability was investigated with a wind unit of asynchronous generator in the MicroGrid. The system frequency stability was explored when the motor load starts and its load power changes, and faults of different types and different locations occurs. The simulations were done by PSCAD/EMTDC.

  13. Anisotropic Artificial Impedance Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarfoth, Ryan Gordon

    Anisotropic artificial impedance surfaces are a group of planar materials that can be modeled by the tensor impedance boundary condition. This boundary condition relates the electric and magnetic field components on a surface using a 2x2 tensor. The advantage of using the tensor impedance boundary condition, and by extension anisotropic artificial impedance surfaces, is that the method allows large and complex structures to be modeled quickly and accurately using a planar boundary condition. This thesis presents the theory of anisotropic impedance surfaces and multiple applications. Anisotropic impedance surfaces are a generalization of scalar impedance surfaces. Unlike the scalar version, anisotropic impedance surfaces have material properties that are dependent on the polarization and wave vector of electromagnetic radiation that interacts with the surface. This allows anisotropic impedance surfaces to be used for applications that scalar surfaces cannot achieve. Three of these applications are presented in this thesis. The first is an anisotropic surface wave waveguide which allows propagation in one direction, but passes radiation in the orthogonal direction without reflection. The second application is a surface wave beam shifter which splits a surface wave beam in two directions and reduces the scattering from an object placed on the surface. The third application is a patterned surface which can alter the scattered radiation pattern of a rectangular shape. For each application, anisotropic impedance surfaces are constructed using periodic unit cells. These unit cells are designed to give the desired surface impedance characteristics by modifying a patterned metallic patch on a grounded dielectric substrate. Multiple unit cell geometries are analyzed in order to find the setup with the best performance in terms of impedance characteristics and frequency bandwidth.

  14. Anisotropic Nanoparticles and Anisotropic Surface Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Nathan D; Vartanian, Ariane M; Abadeer, Nardine S; Grzincic, Elissa M; Jacob, Lisa M; Lin, Wayne; Li, Ji; Dennison, Jordan M; Hinman, Joshua G; Murphy, Catherine J

    2016-02-18

    Anisotropic nanoparticles are powerful building blocks for materials engineering. Unusual properties emerge with added anisotropy-often to an extraordinary degree-enabling countless new applications. For bottom-up assembly, anisotropy is crucial for programmability; isotropic particles lack directional interactions and can self-assemble only by basic packing rules. Anisotropic particles have long fascinated scientists, and their properties and assembly behavior have been the subjects of many theoretical studies over the years. However, only recently has experiment caught up with theory. We have begun to witness tremendous diversity in the synthesis of nanoparticles with controlled anisotropy. In this Perspective, we highlight the synthetic achievements that have galvanized the field, presenting a comprehensive discussion of the mechanisms and products of both seed-mediated and alternative growth methods. We also address recent breakthroughs and challenges in regiospecific functionalization, which is the next frontier in exploiting nanoparticle anisotropy.

  15. Anisotropic ray trace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Wai Sze Tiffany

    Optical components made of anisotropic materials, such as crystal polarizers and crystal waveplates, are widely used in many complex optical system, such as display systems, microlithography, biomedical imaging and many other optical systems, and induce more complex aberrations than optical components made of isotropic materials. The goal of this dissertation is to accurately simulate the performance of optical systems with anisotropic materials using polarization ray trace. This work extends the polarization ray tracing calculus to incorporate ray tracing through anisotropic materials, including uniaxial, biaxial and optically active materials. The 3D polarization ray tracing calculus is an invaluable tool for analyzing polarization properties of an optical system. The 3x3 polarization ray tracing P matrix developed for anisotropic ray trace assists tracking the 3D polarization transformations along a ray path with series of surfaces in an optical system. To better represent the anisotropic light-matter interactions, the definition of the P matrix is generalized to incorporate not only the polarization change at a refraction/reflection interface, but also the induced optical phase accumulation as light propagates through the anisotropic medium. This enables realistic modeling of crystalline polarization elements, such as crystal waveplates and crystal polarizers. The wavefront and polarization aberrations of these anisotropic components are more complex than those of isotropic optical components and can be evaluated from the resultant P matrix for each eigen-wavefront as well as for the overall image. One incident ray refracting or reflecting into an anisotropic medium produces two eigenpolarizations or eigenmodes propagating in different directions. The associated ray parameters of these modes necessary for the anisotropic ray trace are described in Chapter 2. The algorithms to calculate the P matrix from these ray parameters are described in Chapter 3 for

  16. Anisotropic contrast optical microscope.

    PubMed

    Peev, D; Hofmann, T; Kananizadeh, N; Beeram, S; Rodriguez, E; Wimer, S; Rodenhausen, K B; Herzinger, C M; Kasputis, T; Pfaunmiller, E; Nguyen, A; Korlacki, R; Pannier, A; Li, Y; Schubert, E; Hage, D; Schubert, M

    2016-11-01

    An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent, or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. These images are obtained from sets of multiple images obtained under various polarizer, analyzer, and compensator settings. Up to 16 independent Mueller matrix images can be obtained, while our current setup is limited to 11 images normalized by the unpolarized intensity. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by measuring lithographically defined micro-patterned anisotropic filters, and we quantify the adsorption of an organic self-assembled monolayer film onto the anisotropic filter. Comparison with an isotropic glass slide demonstrates the image enhancement obtained by our method over microscopy without the use of an anisotropic filter. In our current instrument, we estimate the limit of detection for organic volumetric mass within the object plane of ≈49 fg within ≈7 × 7 μm(2) object surface area. Compared to a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation instrumentation, where contemporary limits require a total load of ≈500 pg for detection, the instrumentation demonstrated here improves

  17. Anisotropic contrast optical microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peev, D.; Hofmann, T.; Kananizadeh, N.; Beeram, S.; Rodriguez, E.; Wimer, S.; Rodenhausen, K. B.; Herzinger, C. M.; Kasputis, T.; Pfaunmiller, E.; Nguyen, A.; Korlacki, R.; Pannier, A.; Li, Y.; Schubert, E.; Hage, D.; Schubert, M.

    2016-11-01

    An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent, or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. These images are obtained from sets of multiple images obtained under various polarizer, analyzer, and compensator settings. Up to 16 independent Mueller matrix images can be obtained, while our current setup is limited to 11 images normalized by the unpolarized intensity. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by measuring lithographically defined micro-patterned anisotropic filters, and we quantify the adsorption of an organic self-assembled monolayer film onto the anisotropic filter. Comparison with an isotropic glass slide demonstrates the image enhancement obtained by our method over microscopy without the use of an anisotropic filter. In our current instrument, we estimate the limit of detection for organic volumetric mass within the object plane of ≈49 fg within ≈7 × 7 μm2 object surface area. Compared to a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation instrumentation, where contemporary limits require a total load of ≈500 pg for detection, the instrumentation demonstrated here improves

  18. Anisotropic eddy viscosity models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carati, D.; Cabot, W.

    1996-01-01

    A general discussion on the structure of the eddy viscosity tensor in anisotropic flows is presented. The systematic use of tensor symmetries and flow symmetries is shown to reduce drastically the number of independent parameters needed to describe the rank 4 eddy viscosity tensor. The possibility of using Onsager symmetries for simplifying further the eddy viscosity is discussed explicitly for the axisymmetric geometry.

  19. Anisotropic resistivity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herwanger, J. V.; Pain, C. C.; Binley, A.; de Oliveira, C. R. E.; Worthington, M. H.

    2004-08-01

    Geophysical tomographic techniques have the potential to remotely detect and characterize geological features, such as fractures and spatially varying lithologies, by their response to signals passed through these features. Anisotropic behaviour in many geological materials necessitates the generalization of tomographic methods to include anisotropic material properties in order to attain high-quality images of the subsurface. In this paper, we present a finite element (FE) based direct-current electrical inversion method to reconstruct the conductivity tensor at each node point of a FE mesh from electrical resistance measurements. The inverse problem is formulated as a functional optimization and the non-uniqueness of the electrical inverse problem is overcome by adding penalty terms for structure and anisotropy. We use a modified Levenberg-Marquardt method for the functional optimization and the resulting set of linear equation is solved using pre-conditioned conjugate gradients. The method is tested using both synthetic and field experiments in cross-well geometry. The acquisition geometry for both experiments uses a cross-well experiment at a hard-rock test site in Cornwall, southwest England. Two wells, spaced at 25.7 m, were equipped with electrodes at a 1 m spacing at depths from 21-108 m and data were gathered in pole-pole geometry. The test synthetic model consists of a strongly anisotropic and conductive body underlain by an isotropic resistive formation. Beneath the resistive formation, the model comprises a moderately anisotropic and moderately conductive half-space, intersected by an isotropic conductive layer. This model geometry was derived from the interpretation of a seismic tomogram and available geological logs and the conductivity values are based on observed conductivities. We use the test model to confirm the ability of the inversion scheme to recover the (known) true model. We find that all key features of the model are recovered. However

  20. Fractures in anisotropic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Siyi

    Rocks may be composed of layers and contain fracture sets that cause the hydraulic, mechanical and seismic properties of a rock to be anisotropic. Coexisting fractures and layers in rock give rise to competing mechanisms of anisotropy. For example: (1) at low fracture stiffness, apparent shear-wave anisotropy induced by matrix layering can be masked or enhanced by the presence of a fracture, depending on the fracture orientation with respect to layering, and (2) compressional-wave guided modes generated by parallel fractures can also mask the presence of matrix layerings for particular fracture orientations and fracture specific stiffness. This report focuses on two anisotropic sources that are widely encountered in rock engineering: fractures (mechanical discontinuity) and matrix layering (impedance discontinuity), by investigating: (1) matrix property characterization, i.e., to determine elastic constants in anisotropic solids, (2) interface wave behavior in single-fractured anisotropic media, (3) compressional wave guided modes in parallel-fractured anisotropic media (single fracture orientation) and (4) the elastic response of orthogonal fracture networks. Elastic constants of a medium are required to understand and quantify wave propagation in anisotropic media but are affected by fractures and matrix properties. Experimental observations and analytical analysis demonstrate that behaviors of both fracture interface waves and compressional-wave guided modes for fractures in anisotropic media, are affected by fracture specific stiffness (controlled by external stresses), signal frequency and relative orientation between layerings in the matrix and fractures. A fractured layered medium exhibits: (1) fracture-dominated anisotropy when the fractures are weakly coupled; (2) isotropic behavior when fractures delay waves that are usually fast in a layered medium; and (3) matrix-dominated anisotropy when the fractures are closed and no longer delay the signal. The

  1. Parallel Anisotropic Tetrahedral Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Darmofal, David L.

    2008-01-01

    An adaptive method that robustly produces high aspect ratio tetrahedra to a general 3D metric specification without introducing hybrid semi-structured regions is presented. The elemental operators and higher-level logic is described with their respective domain-decomposed parallelizations. An anisotropic tetrahedral grid adaptation scheme is demonstrated for 1000-1 stretching for a simple cube geometry. This form of adaptation is applicable to more complex domain boundaries via a cut-cell approach as demonstrated by a parallel 3D supersonic simulation of a complex fighter aircraft. To avoid the assumptions and approximations required to form a metric to specify adaptation, an approach is introduced that directly evaluates interpolation error. The grid is adapted to reduce and equidistribute this interpolation error calculation without the use of an intervening anisotropic metric. Direct interpolation error adaptation is illustrated for 1D and 3D domains.

  2. Anisotropic Total Variation Filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Grasmair, Markus; Lenzen, Frank

    2010-12-15

    Total variation regularization and anisotropic filtering have been established as standard methods for image denoising because of their ability to detect and keep prominent edges in the data. Both methods, however, introduce artifacts: In the case of anisotropic filtering, the preservation of edges comes at the cost of the creation of additional structures out of noise; total variation regularization, on the other hand, suffers from the stair-casing effect, which leads to gradual contrast changes in homogeneous objects, especially near curved edges and corners. In order to circumvent these drawbacks, we propose to combine the two regularization techniques. To that end we replace the isotropic TV semi-norm by an anisotropic term that mirrors the directional structure of either the noisy original data or the smoothed image. We provide a detailed existence theory for our regularization method by using the concept of relaxation. The numerical examples concluding the paper show that the proposed introduction of an anisotropy to TV regularization indeed leads to improved denoising: the stair-casing effect is reduced while at the same time the creation of artifacts is suppressed.

  3. pF3D Simulations of SBS and SRS in NIF Hohlraum Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Steven; Strozzi, David; Amendt, Peter; Chapman, Thomas; Hopkins, Laura; Kritcher, Andrea; Sepke, Scott

    2016-10-01

    We present simulations of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) for NIF experiments using high foot pulses in cylindrical hohlraums and for low foot pulses in rugby-shaped hohlraums. We use pF3D, a massively-parallel, paraxial-envelope laser plasma interaction code, with plasma profiles obtained from the radiation-hydrodynamics codes Lasnex and HYDRA. We compare the simulations to experimental data for SBS and SRS power and spectrum. We also show simulated SRS and SBS intensities at the target chamber wall and report the fraction of the backscattered light that passes through and misses the lenses. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Release number LLNL-ABS-697482.

  4. On the relativistic anisotropic configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shojai, F.; Kohandel, M.; Stepanian, A.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we study anisotropic spherical polytropes within the framework of general relativity. Using the anisotropic Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations, we explore the relativistic anisotropic Lane-Emden equations. We find how the anisotropic pressure affects the boundary conditions of these equations. Also we argue that the behavior of physical quantities near the center of star changes in the presence of anisotropy. For constant density, a class of exact solution is derived with the aid of a new ansatz and its physical properties are discussed.

  5. Mathematical simulation of a steady process of anisotropic filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badriev, I. B.; Banderov, V. V.; Pankratova, O. V.; Shangaraeva, A. I.

    2016-11-01

    This article discusses the methods of approximate solution of mixed variational inequalities with operators of monotone type. The functional, which is included in this variational inequality, is separable, in other words, it is the sum of a number of nondifferentiable functionals. These variational inequalities appear, in particular, in the description of steady incompressible filtration processes of highly viscous fluids in anisotropic medium.

  6. Anisotropic uniqueness classes for a degenerate parabolic equation

    SciTech Connect

    Vil'danova, V F; Mukminov, F Kh

    2013-11-30

    Anisotropic uniqueness classes of Tacklind type are identified for a degenerate linear parabolic equation of the second order in an unbounded domain. The Cauchy problem and mixed problems with boundary conditions of the first and third type are considered. Bibliography: 18 titles.

  7. High anisotropic pitch

    SciTech Connect

    Dickakian, G. B.

    1985-11-05

    An improved process for preparing an optically anisotropic pitch which comprises heating a pitch feed material at a temperature within the range of about 350/sup 0/ C. to 450/sup 0/ C. while passing an inert gas therethrough at a rate of at least 2.5 SCFH/lb of pitch feed material and agitating said pitch feed material at a stirrer rate of from about 500 to 600 rpm to obtain an essentially 100% mesophase pitch product suitable for carbon production.

  8. Anisotropic spinfoam cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rennert, Julian; Sloan, David

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of a homogeneous, anisotropic universe are investigated within the context of spinfoam cosmology. Transition amplitudes are calculated for a graph consisting of a single node and three links—the ‘Daisy graph’—probing the behaviour a classical Bianchi I spacetime. It is shown further how the use of such single node graphs gives rise to a simplification of states such that all orders in the spin expansion can be calculated, indicating that it is the vertex expansion that contains information about quantum dynamics.

  9. Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Kleban, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo

    2016-10-12

    In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with “flat” (including toroidal) and “open” (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are “flat” or “open”. Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with “flat” or “open” topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.

  10. Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleban, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo

    2016-10-01

    In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with ``flat'' (including toroidal) and ``open'' (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are ``flat'' or ``open''. Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with ``flat'' or ``open'' topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.

  11. Anisotropic Particles in Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voth, Greg A.; Soldati, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Anisotropic particles are common in many industrial and natural turbulent flows. When these particles are small and neutrally buoyant, they follow Lagrangian trajectories while exhibiting rich orientational dynamics from the coupling of their rotation to the velocity gradients of the turbulence field. This system has proven to be a fascinating application of the fundamental properties of velocity gradients in turbulence. When particles are not neutrally buoyant, they experience preferential concentration and very different preferential alignment than neutrally buoyant tracer particles. A vast proportion of the parameter range of anisotropic particles in turbulence is still unexplored, with most existing research focusing on the simple foundational cases of axisymmetric ellipsoids at low concentrations in homogeneous isotropic turbulence and in turbulent channel flow. Numerical simulations and experiments have recently developed a fairly comprehensive picture of alignment and rotation in these cases, and they provide an essential foundation for addressing more complex problems of practical importance. Macroscopic effects of nonspherical particle dynamics include preferential concentration in coherent structures and drag reduction by fiber suspensions. We review the models used to describe nonspherical particle motion, along with numerical and experimental methods for measuring particle dynamics.

  12. Anisotropic power-law inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro; Watanabe, Masa-aki E-mail: jiro@tap.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2010-12-01

    We study an inflationary scenario in supergravity model with a gauge kinetic function. We find exact anisotropic power-law inflationary solutions when both the potential function for an inflaton and the gauge kinetic function are exponential type. The dynamical system analysis tells us that the anisotropic power-law inflation is an attractor for a large parameter region.

  13. Cystic fibrosis in Afro-Brazilians: XK haplotypes analysis supports the European origin of p.F508del mutation.

    PubMed

    de Souza, D A S; Faucz, F R; de Alexandre, R B; Santana, M A; de Souza, E L S; Reis, F J C; Pereira-Ferrari, L; Sotomaior, V S; Culpi, L; Phillips, J A; Raskin, S

    2017-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common autosomal recessive disorder, being the p.F508del the most frequent mutation. Also, a nearby restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) named XK (KM19 and XV2C) is non-randomly associated with specific CF alleles. Our aim was to analyze the occurrence of the p.F508del mutation and XK haplotypes in Afro-Brazilians CF patients and controls, since these data is available for the other two main ethnic groups found in Brazil (Euro-Brazilians and Brazilian Amerindians), contributing for the whole comprehension of these haplotypes in the Brazilian population. A total of 103 patients and 54 controls were studied. PCR and PCR-RFLP methodologies were used to identify the presence of the p.F508del and the XK haplotype in the subjects. The combined data show that 84.2% of p.F508del mutation is associated with haplotype B and only 15.8% with haplotype A; no other haplotypes were found to be associated with this mutation. Our data suggest that the occurrence of p.F508del mutation and haplotype B in Afro-Brazilian patients occurs probably due to admixture with Euro-descendants. Therefore this mutation and haplotype could be used as a admixture marker.

  14. Neutron Skins and Halo Orbits in the s d and p f Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnard, J.; Lenzi, S. M.; Zuker, A. P.

    2016-05-01

    The strong dependence of Coulomb energies on nuclear radii makes it possible to extract the latter from calculations of the former. The resulting estimates of neutron skins indicate that two mechanisms are involved. The first one—isovector monopole polarizability—amounts to noting that when a particle is added to a system it drives the radii of neutrons and protons in different directions, tending to equalize the radii of both fluids independently of the neutron excess. This mechanism is well understood and the Duflo-Zuker (small) neutron skin values derived 14 years ago are consistent with recent measures and estimates. The alternative mechanism involves halo orbits whose huge sizes tend to make the neutron skins larger and have a subtle influence on the radial behavior of s d and p f shell nuclei. In particular, they account for the sudden rise in the isotope shifts of nuclei beyond N =28 and the near constancy of radii in the A =40 - 56 region. This mechanism, detected here for the first time, is not well understood and may well go beyond the Efimov physics usually associated with halo orbits.

  15. Anisotropic Kepler and anisotropic two fixed centres problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, Andrzej J.; Przybylska, Maria; Szumiński, Wojciech

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we show that the anisotropic Kepler problem is dynamically equivalent to a system of two point masses which move in perpendicular lines (or planes) and interact according to Newton's law of universal gravitation. Moreover, we prove that generalised version of anisotropic Kepler problem as well as anisotropic two centres problem are non-integrable. This was achieved thanks to investigation of differential Galois groups of variational equations along certain particular solutions. Properties of these groups yield very strong necessary integrability conditions.

  16. Thermodynamics of anisotropic branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, Daniel; Fernández, Daniel; Patiño, Leonardo; Trancanelli, Diego

    2016-11-01

    We study the thermodynamics of flavor D7-branes embedded in an anisotropic black brane solution of type IIB supergravity. The flavor branes undergo a phase transition between a `Minkowski embedding', in which they lie outside of the horizon, and a `black hole embedding', in which they fall into the horizon. This transition depends on the black hole temperature, its degree of anisotropy, and the mass of the flavor degrees of freedom. It happens either at a critical temperature or at a critical anisotropy. A general lesson we learn from this analysis is that the anisotropy, in this particular realization, induces similar effects as the temperature. In particular, increasing the anisotropy bends the branes more and more into the horizon. Moreover, we observe that the transition becomes smoother for higher anisotropies.

  17. Optical trapping of anisotropic nanocylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bareil, Paul B.; Sheng, Yunlong

    2013-09-01

    The T-matrix method with the Vector Spherical Wave Function (VSWF) expansions represents some difficulties for computing optical scattering of anisotropic particles. As the divergence of the electric field is nonzero in the anisotropic medium and the VSWFs do not satisfy the anisotropic wave equations one questioned whether the VSWFs are still a suitable basis in the anisotropic medium. We made a systematic and careful review on the vector basis functions and the VSWFs. We found that a field vector in Euclidean space can be decomposed to triplet vectors {L, M, N}, which as non-coplanar. Especially, the vector L is designed to represent non-zero divergence component of the vector solution, so that the VSWF basis is sufficiently general to represent the solutions of the anisotropic wave equation. The mathematical proof can be that when the anisotropic wave equations is solved in the Fourier space, the solution is expanded in the basis of the plan waves with angular spectrum amplitude distributions. The plane waves constitute an orthogonal and complete set for the anisotropic solutions. Furthermore, the plane waves are expanded into the VSWF basis. These two-step expansions are equivalent to the one-step direct expansion of the anisotropic solution to the VSWF basis. We used direct VSWF expansion, along with the point-matching method in the T-matrix, and applied the boundary condition to the normal components displacement field in order to compute the stress and the related forces and torques and to show the mechanism of the optical trap of the anisotropic nano-cylinders.

  18. Effects of nonuniform acceptance in anisotropic flow measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Voloshin, Sergei

    2008-03-15

    The applicability of anisotropic flow measurement techniques and their extension for detectors with nonuniform azimuthal acceptance are discussed. Considering anisotropic flow measurements with two and three (mixed harmonic) azimuthal correlations we introduce a set of observables based on the x and y components of the event flow vector. These observables provide independent measures of anisotropic flow and can be used to test the self-consistency of the analysis. Based on these observables we propose a technique that explicitly takes into account the effects of nonuniform detector acceptance. Within this approach the acceptance corrections, as well as parameters that define the method applicability, can be determined directly from experimental data. For practical purposes a brief summary of the method is provided at the end.

  19. An Investigation of the Reliability of the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration (P-F) Study, Children's Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenzweig, Saul

    1978-01-01

    Data are presented on the retest and split-half reliability of the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration (P-F) Study, Children's Form, for two groups of subjects (aged 10-11 and 12-13), each group tested twice at an interval of three months. Reliability by retest was consistently higher than by the split-half method. (Author/CTM)

  20. Vortex dynamics in anisotropic traps

    SciTech Connect

    McEndoo, S.; Busch, Th.

    2010-07-15

    We investigate the dynamics of linear vortex lattices in anisotropic traps in two dimensions and show that the interplay between the rotation and the anisotropy leads to a rich but highly regular dynamics.

  1. Actuation performances of anisotropic gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardinocchi, P.; Teresi, L.

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the actuation performances of anisotropic gels driven by mechanical and chemical stimuli, in terms of both deformation processes and stroke-curves, and distinguished between the fast response of gels before diffusion starts and the asymptotic response attained at the steady state. We also showed as the range of forces that an anisotropic hydrogel can exert when constrained is especially wide; indeed, changing fiber orientation allows us to induce shear as well as transversely isotropic extensions.

  2. Anisotropic assembly and pattern formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Brecht, James H.; Uminsky, David T.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the role of anisotropy in two classes of individual-based models for self-organization, collective behavior and self-assembly. We accomplish this via first-order dynamical systems of pairwise interacting particles that incorporate anisotropic interactions. At a continuum level, these models represent the natural anisotropic variants of the well-known aggregation equation. We leverage this framework to analyze the impact of anisotropic effects upon the self-assembly of co-dimension one equilibrium structures, such as micelles and vesicles. Our analytical results reveal the regularizing effect of anisotropy, and isolate the contexts in which anisotropic effects are necessary to achieve dynamical stability of co-dimension one structures. Our results therefore place theoretical limits on when anisotropic effects can be safely neglected. We also explore whether anisotropic effects suffice to induce pattern formation in such particle systems. We conclude with brief numerical studies that highlight various aspects of the models we introduce, elucidate their phase structure and partially validate the analysis we provide.

  3. Investigating the Effects of Anisotropic Mass Transport on Dendrite Growth in High Energy Density Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Jinwang; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Ferris, Kim F.; Ryan, Emily M.

    2016-01-01

    Dendrite formation on the electrode surface of high energy density lithium (Li) batteries causes safety problems and limits their applications. Suppressing dendrite growth could significantly improve Li battery performance. Dendrite growth and morphology is a function of the mixing in the electrolyte near the anode interface. Most research into dendrites in batteries focuses on dendrite formation in isotropic electrolytes (i.e., electrolytes with isotropic diffusion coefficient). In this work, an anisotropic diffusion reaction model is developed to study the anisotropic mixing effect on dendrite growth in Li batteries. The model uses a Lagrangian particle-based method to model dendrite growth in an anisotropic electrolyte solution. The model is verified by comparing the numerical simulation results with analytical solutions, and its accuracy is shown to be better than previous particle-based anisotropic diffusion models. Several parametric studies of dendrite growth in an anisotropic electrolyte are performed and the results demonstrate the effects of anisotropic transport on dendrite growth and morphology, and show the possible advantages of anisotropic electrolytes for dendrite suppression.

  4. Suspended Solid-state Membranes on Glass Chips with Sub 1-pF Capacitance for Biomolecule Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balan, Adrian; Chien, Chen-Chi; Engelke, Rebecca; Drndić, Marija

    2015-12-01

    Solid-state membranes are finding use in many applications in nanoelectronics and nanomedicine, from single molecule sensors to water filtration, and yet many of their electronics applications are limited by the relatively high current noise and low bandwidth stemming from the relatively high capacitance (>10 pF) of the membrane chips. To address this problem, we devised an integrated fabrication process to grow and define circular silicon nitride membranes on glass chips that successfully lower the chip capacitance to below 1 pF. We use these devices to demonstrate low-noise, high-bandwidth DNA translocation measurements. We also make use of this versatile, low-capacitance platform to suspend other thin, two-dimensional membrane such as graphene.

  5. Final report on COOMET key comparison of capacitance at 100 pF (COOMET.EM-S4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velychko, O.; Akhamadov, O.

    2017-01-01

    An intercomparison of capacitance at 100 pF has taken place within the framework of COOMET. The intercomparison, piloted by State Enterprise 'Ukrmetrteststandard'-UMTS (Ukraine), has involved seven laboratories, including one who is a member of another regional metrological organization-APMP (NMIJ/AIST, Japan). The results presented in this report appear to show that there are significant differences between some laboratories' representations of the farad. However, the agreement demonstrated by the intercomparison provides confidence in maintaining traceability for the capacitance at 100 pF. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  6. Suspended Solid-state Membranes on Glass Chips with Sub 1-pF Capacitance for Biomolecule Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Chen-Chi; Balan, Adrian; Engelke, Rebecca; Drndic, Marija

    Solid-state membranes are finding use in many applications in nanoelectronics and nanomedicine, from single molecule sensors to water filtration, and yet many of their electronics applications are limited by the current noise and low bandwidth stemming from the relatively high capacitance (more than 10 pF) of the membrane chips. To address this problem, we devised an integrated fabrication process to grow and define circular silicon nitride membranes on glass chips that successfully lower the chip capacitance to below 1 pF. We use these devices to demonstrate low-noise, high-bandwidth DNA translocation measurements. We also make use of this versatile, low-capacitance platform to suspend other thin, two-dimensional membranes such as graphene.

  7. Light propagation through anisotropic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Toselli, Italo; Agrawal, Brij; Restaino, Sergio

    2011-03-01

    A wealth of experimental data has shown that atmospheric turbulence can be anisotropic; in this case, a Kolmogorov spectrum does not describe well the atmospheric turbulence statistics. In this paper, we show a quantitative analysis of anisotropic turbulence by using a non-Kolmogorov power spectrum with an anisotropic coefficient. The spectrum we use does not include the inner and outer scales, it is valid only inside the inertial subrange, and it has a power-law slope that can be different from a Kolmogorov one. Using this power spectrum, in the weak turbulence condition, we analyze the impact of the power-law variations α on the long-term beam spread and scintillation index for several anisotropic coefficient values ς. We consider only horizontal propagation across the turbulence cells, assuming circular symmetry is maintained on the orthogonal plane to the propagation direction. We conclude that the anisotropic coefficient influences both the long-term beam spread and the scintillation index by the factor ς(2-α).

  8. Cystic fibrosis mutations for p.F508del compound heterozygotes predict sweat chloride levels and pancreatic sufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sebro, R; Levy, H; Schneck, K; Dimmock, D; Raby, BA; Cannon, CL; Broeckel, U; Risch, NJ

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a monogenetic disease with a complex phenotype. Over 1500 mutations in the CFTR gene have been identified; however, the p.F508del mutation is most common. There has been limited correlation between the CFTR mutation genotype and the disease phenotypes. We evaluated the non-p.F508del mutation of 108 p.F508del compound heterozygotes using the biological classification method, Grantham and Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant (SIFT) scores to assess whether these scoring systems correlated with sweat chloride levels, pancreatic sufficiency, predicted FEV1, and risk of infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the last year. Mutations predicted to be ‘mild’ by the biological classification method are associated with more normal sweat chloride levels (p < 0.001), pancreatic sufficiency (p < 0.001) and decreased risk of infection with Pseudomonas in the last year (p = 0.014). Lower Grantham scores are associated with more normal sweat chloride levels (p < 0.001), and pancreatic sufficiency (p = 0.014). Higher SIFT scores are associated with more normal sweat chloride levels (p < 0.001) and pancreatic sufficiency (p = 0.011). There was no association between pulmonary function measured by predicted FEV1 and the biological classification (p = 0.98), Grantham (p = 0.28) or SIFT scores (p = 0.62), which suggests the pulmonary disease related to CF may involve other modifier genes and environmental factors. PMID:22035343

  9. Fluctuation relations for anisotropic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villavicencio-Sanchez, R.; Harris, R. J.; Touchette, H.

    2014-02-01

    Currents of particles or energy in driven non-equilibrium steady states are known to satisfy certain symmetries, referred to as fluctuation relations, determining the ratio of the probabilities of positive fluctuations to negative ones. A generalization of these fluctuation relations has been proposed recently for extended non-equilibrium systems of dimension greater than one, assuming, crucially, that they are isotropic (Hurtado P. I., Pérez-Espigares C., del Pozo J. J. and Garrido P. L., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 108 (2011) 7704). Here we relax this assumption and derive a fluctuation relation for d-dimensional systems having anisotropic bulk driving rates. We test the validity of this anisotropic fluctuation relation by calculating the particle current fluctuations in the 2d anisotropic zero-range process, using both exact and fluctuating hydrodynamic approaches.

  10. The role of anisotropic expansion for pulmonary acinar aerosol deposition

    PubMed Central

    Hofemeier, Philipp; Sznitman, Josué

    2016-01-01

    Lung deformations at the local pulmonary acinar scale are intrinsically anisotropic. Despite progress in imaging modalities, the true heterogeneous nature of acinar expansion during breathing remains controversial, where our understanding of inhaled aerosol deposition still widely emanates from studies under self-similar, isotropic wall motions. Building on recent 3D models of multi-generation acinar networks, we explore in numerical simulations how different hypothesized scenarios of anisotropic expansion influence deposition outcomes of inhaled aerosols in the acinar depths. While the broader range of particles acknowledged to reach the acinar region (dp = 0.005–5.0 μm) are largely unaffected by the details of anisotropic expansion under tidal breathing, our results suggest nevertheless that anisotropy modulates the deposition sites and fractions for a narrow band of sub-micron particles (dp ~ 0.5–0.75 μm), where the fate of aerosols is greatly intertwined with local convective flows. Our findings underscore how intrinsic aerosol motion (i.e. diffusion, sedimentation) undermines the role of anisotropic wall expansion that is often attributed in determining aerosol mixing and acinar deposition. PMID:27614613

  11. A Novel SRY Gene Mutation p.F109L in a 46,XY Female with Complete Gonadal Dysgenesis.

    PubMed

    Andonova, Silvia; Robeva, Ralitsa; Sirakov, Milko; Mainhard, Karela; Tomova, Analia; Ledig, Susanne; Kumanov, Philip; Savov, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis (CGD) is a disorder of sexual development that can result from different mutations in genes associated with sex determination. Patients are phenotypically females, and the disease is often diagnosed in late adolescence because of delayed puberty. Here, we present the clinical and molecular data of a 46,XY female CGD patient with gonadoblastoma with dysgerminoma and incidentally found inherited thrombophilia. The clinical significance of the described de novo SRY gene mutation c.325T>C (p.F109L) is discussed. This case report supports the critical role of the HGM domain in the SRY gene and the need of a multidisciplinary approach for CGD patients.

  12. Role of the P-F bond in fluoride-promoted aqueous VX hydrolysis: an experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Marciano, Daniele; Columbus, Ishay; Elias, Shlomi; Goldvaser, Michael; Shoshanim, Ofir; Ashkenazi, Nissan; Zafrani, Yossi

    2012-11-16

    Following our ongoing studies on the reactivity of the fluoride ion toward organophosphorus compounds, we established that the extremely toxic and environmentally persistent chemical warfare agent VX (O-ethyl S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothioate) is exclusively and rapidly degraded to the nontoxic product EMPA (ethyl methylphosphonic acid) even in dilute aqueous solutions of fluoride. The unique role of the P-F bond formation in the reaction mechanism was explored using both experimental and computational mechanistic studies. In most cases, the "G-analogue" (O-ethyl methylphosphonofluoridate, Et-G) was observed as an intermediate. Noteworthy and of practical importance is the fact that the toxic side product desethyl-VX, which is formed in substantial quantities during the slow degradation of VX in unbuffered water, is completely avoided in the presence of fluoride. A computational study on a VX-model, O,S-diethyl methylphosphonothioate (1), clarifies the distinctive tendency of aqueous fluoride ions to react with such organophosphorus compounds. The facility of the degradation process even in dilute fluoride solutions is due to the increased reactivity of fluoride, which is caused by the significant low activation barrier for the P-F bond formation. In addition, the unique nucleophilicity of fluoride versus hydroxide toward VX, in contrast to their relative basicity, is discussed. Although the reaction outcomes were similar, much slower reaction rates were observed experimentally for the VX-model (1) in comparison to VX.

  13. Final report on COOMET key comparison of capacitance at 10 pF (COOMET.EM-K4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velychko, O.; Akhamadov, O.

    2017-01-01

    An intercomparison of capacitance at 10 pF has taken place within the framework of COOMET. The intercomparison, piloted by State Enterprise 'Ukrmetrteststandard'-UMTS (Ukraine), has involved seven laboratories, including one who is a member of another regional metrological organization-APMP (NMIJ/AIST, Japan). The results presented in this report appear to show that there are significant differences between some laboratories' representations of the farad. However, the agreement demonstrated by the intercomparison provides confidence in maintaining traceability for the capacitance at 10 pF. Proposed to link the results from this key comparison to the CCEM-K4 comparison. VNIIM (Russia) and PTB (Germany) are linking NMIs as far as they participated in CCEM-K4. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  14. Yield surfaces for anisotropic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, J. D.; Thacker, B. H.

    2000-04-01

    Aerospace systems are incorporating composite materials into their structures. The composite materials are often anisotropic in mechanical response due to their geometric layout. For many years, the failure surfaces of anisotropic materials were thought to be characterizable by a quadratic function in the stress, referred to as a Tsai-Wu yield surface, or, in a more restrictive form, a Tsai-Hill yield surface. Such a representation does not work for materials that are strong in two directions and weak in one direction, which is the case of most interest since it represents fiber/epoxy composite plates. This paper demonstrates the impossibility of modeling the failure surface with either the Tsai-Wu or Tsai-Hill failure surfaces. A yield surface is presented based on the lemniscate, which is quartic in the stress. This new yield surface addresses the case of strong in two directions and weak in one.

  15. Anisotropic ripple deformation in phosphorene

    DOE PAGES

    Kou, Liangzhi; Ma, Yandong; Smith, Sean C.; ...

    2015-04-07

    Here, two-dimensional materials tend to become crumpled according to the Mermin-Wagner theorem, and the resulting ripple deformation may significantly influence electronic properties as observed in graphene and MoS2. Here, we unveil by first-principles calculations a new, highly anisotropic ripple pattern in phosphorene, a monolayer black phosphorus, where compression-induced ripple deformation occurs only along the zigzag direction in the strain range up to 10%, but not the armchair direction. This direction-selective ripple deformation mode in phosphorene stems from its puckered structure with coupled hinge-like bonding configurations and the resulting anisotropic Poisson ratio. We also construct an analytical model using classical elasticitymore » theory for ripple deformation in phosphorene under arbitrary strain. The present results offer new insights into the mechanisms governing the structural and electronic properties of phosphorene crucial to its device applications.« less

  16. Anisotropic ripple deformation in phosphorene

    SciTech Connect

    Kou, Liangzhi; Ma, Yandong; Smith, Sean C.; Chen, Changfeng

    2015-04-07

    Here, two-dimensional materials tend to become crumpled according to the Mermin-Wagner theorem, and the resulting ripple deformation may significantly influence electronic properties as observed in graphene and MoS2. Here, we unveil by first-principles calculations a new, highly anisotropic ripple pattern in phosphorene, a monolayer black phosphorus, where compression-induced ripple deformation occurs only along the zigzag direction in the strain range up to 10%, but not the armchair direction. This direction-selective ripple deformation mode in phosphorene stems from its puckered structure with coupled hinge-like bonding configurations and the resulting anisotropic Poisson ratio. We also construct an analytical model using classical elasticity theory for ripple deformation in phosphorene under arbitrary strain. The present results offer new insights into the mechanisms governing the structural and electronic properties of phosphorene crucial to its device applications.

  17. Anisotropic Ripple Deformation in Phosphorene.

    PubMed

    Kou, Liangzhi; Ma, Yandong; Smith, Sean C; Chen, Changfeng

    2015-05-07

    Two-dimensional materials tend to become crumpled according to the Mermin-Wagner theorem, and the resulting ripple deformation may significantly influence electronic properties as observed in graphene and MoS2. Here, we unveil by first-principles calculations a new, highly anisotropic ripple pattern in phosphorene, a monolayer black phosphorus, where compression-induced ripple deformation occurs only along the zigzag direction in the strain range up to 10%, but not the armchair direction. This direction-selective ripple deformation mode in phosphorene stems from its puckered structure with coupled hinge-like bonding configurations and the resulting anisotropic Poisson ratio. We also construct an analytical model using classical elasticity theory for ripple deformation in phosphorene under arbitrary strain. The present results offer new insights into the mechanisms governing the structural and electronic properties of phosphorene crucial to its device applications.

  18. Slotted Antenna with Anisotropic Covering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-06

    08-2015 Publication Slotted Antenna with Anisotropic Covering David A. Tonn et al Naval Under Warfare Center Division, Newport 1176 Howell St...NUWC 300055 Distribution A An antenna includes a tubular, conductive radiator having a longitudinal slot formed therein from a first end of the...conductive radiator to a second end of the conductive radiator. An antenna feed can be joined to the conductive radiator adjacent to and across the slot

  19. Yield Surfaces for Anisotropic Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, J. D.; Thacker, B. H.

    1999-06-01

    Modern aerospace systems are incorporating composite materials into their structures. Often, the composite materials are anisotropic in their mechanical response due to the geometric layout of fibers. For many years, the failure surfaces of anisotropic materials were thought to be characterizable by a quadratic function in the stress, often referred to as a Tsai-Wu yield surface, or, in a more restrictive form, a Tsai-Hill yield surface. Such a representation does not work for materials that are strong in two directions and weak in one direction, which, unfortunately, is the case of most interest since it represents most composite plates. This paper demonstrates the impossibility of modeling the failure surface with both the Tsai-Wu and Tsai-Hill failure surfaces. We then present a yield surface based on the lemniscate, which is quartic in the stress. This new yield surface addresses the case of strong in two directions and weak in one. Calculations with a fragment impacting a composite plate modeled with the new yield surface are presented. Modifications of the yield surface are presented to allow, in a limited way, materials that are both anisotropic and have differing strengths in tension and compression.

  20. Viscoacoustic anisotropic full waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Yingming; Li, Zhenchun; Huang, Jianping; Li, Jinli

    2017-01-01

    A viscoacoustic vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) quasi-differential wave equation, which takes account for both the viscosity and anisotropy of media, is proposed for wavefield simulation in this study. The finite difference method is used to solve the equations, for which the attenuation terms are solved in the wavenumber domain, and all remaining terms in the time-space domain. To stabilize the adjoint wavefield, robust regularization operators are applied to the wave equation to eliminate the high-frequency component of the numerical noise produced during the backward propagation of the viscoacoustic wavefield. Based on these strategies, we derive the corresponding gradient formula and implement a viscoacoustic VTI full waveform inversion (FWI). Numerical tests verify that our proposed viscoacoustic VTI FWI can produce accurate and stable inversion results for viscoacoustic VTI data sets. In addition, we test our method's sensitivity to velocity, Q, and anisotropic parameters. Our results show that the sensitivity to velocity is much higher than that to Q and anisotropic parameters. As such, our proposed method can produce acceptable inversion results as long as the Q and anisotropic parameters are within predefined thresholds.

  1. Constitutive Equation for Anisotropic Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazacu, O.

    2006-12-01

    In many rocks, due to the existence of well-defined fabric elements such as bedding, layering, foliation or lamination planes, or due to the existence of linear structures, anisotropy can be important. The symmetries most frequently encountered are: transverse isotropy and orthotropy. By adopting both theoretical and experimental approaches, many authors have investigated the effect of the presence within the rock of pronounced anisotropic feature on the mechanical behavior in the elastic regime and on strength properties. Fewer attempts however have been made to capture the anisotropy of rocks in the plastic range. In this paper an elastic/viscoplastic non-associated constitutive equation for an initially transversely isotropic material is presented. The model captures the observed dependency of the elastic moduli on the stress state. The limit of the elastic domain is given by an yield function whose expression is a priori unknown and is determined from data. The basic assumption adopted is that the type of anisotropy of the rock does not change during the deformation process. The anisotropy is thus described by a fourth order tensor invariant with respect to any transformation belonging to the symmetry group of the material. This tensor is assumed to be constant: it does not depend on time nor on deformation; A is involved in the expression of the flow rule, of the yield function, and of the failure criterion in the form of a transformed stress tensor. The components of the anisotropic tensor A are determined from the compressive strengths in conjunction with an anisotropic short- term failure The irreversibility is supposed to be due to transient creep, the irreversible stress work per unit volume being considered as hardening parameter. The adequacy of the model is demonstrated by applying it to a stratified sedimentary rock, Tournemire shale.

  2. Signature of anisotropic bubble collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Salem, Michael P.

    2010-09-15

    Our universe may have formed via bubble nucleation in an eternally inflating background. Furthermore, the background may have a compact dimension--the modulus of which tunnels out of a metastable minimum during bubble nucleation--which subsequently grows to become one of our three large spatial dimensions. When in this scenario our bubble universe collides with other ones like it, the collision geometry is constrained by the reduced symmetry of the tunneling instanton. While the regions affected by such bubble collisions still appear (to leading order) as disks in an observer's sky, the centers of these disks all lie on a single great circle, providing a distinct signature of anisotropic bubble nucleation.

  3. Anisotropic inflation from vector impurity

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Sugumi; Kimura, Masashi; Soda, Jiro; Yokoyama, Shuichiro E-mail: mkimura@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp E-mail: shu@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2008-08-15

    We study an inflationary scenario with a vector impurity. We show that the universe undergoes anisotropic inflationary expansion due to a preferred direction determined by the vector. Using the slow roll approximation, we find a formula for determining the anisotropy of the inflationary universe. We discuss possible observable predictions of this scenario. In particular, it is stressed that primordial gravitational waves can be induced from curvature perturbations. Hence, even in low scale inflation, a sizable amount of primordial gravitational waves may be produced during inflation.

  4. Light Propagation through Anisotropic Turbulence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Kolmogorov stratospheric turbulence on star image motion,” Proc. SPIE 3126, 113–123 (1997). 5. B. E . Stribling, B. M . Welsh, and M . C. Roggemann...746407 (2009). 10. M . Chang, C. O. Font, F. Santiago, Y. Luna, E . Roura, and S. Restaino, “Marine environment optical propagation measure- ments,” Proc...Anisotropic factor as a function of alpha for several zeta values. Toselli et al. Vol. 28, No. 3 / March 2011 / J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 487 14. M . S

  5. Anisotropic non-Fermi liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sur, Shouvik; Lee, Sung-Sik

    2016-11-01

    We study non-Fermi-liquid states that arise at the quantum critical points associated with the spin density wave (SDW) and charge density wave (CDW) transitions in metals with twofold rotational symmetry. We use the dimensional regularization scheme, where a one-dimensional Fermi surface is embedded in (3 -ɛ ) -dimensional momentum space. In three dimensions, quasilocal marginal Fermi liquids arise both at the SDW and CDW critical points: the speed of the collective mode along the ordering wave vector is logarithmically renormalized to zero compared to that of Fermi velocity. Below three dimensions, however, the SDW and CDW critical points exhibit drastically different behaviors. At the SDW critical point, a stable anisotropic non-Fermi-liquid state is realized for small ɛ , where not only time but also different spatial coordinates develop distinct anomalous dimensions. The non-Fermi liquid exhibits an emergent algebraic nesting as the patches of Fermi surface are deformed into a universal power-law shape near the hot spots. Due to the anisotropic scaling, the energy of incoherent spin fluctuations disperse with different power laws in different momentum directions. At the CDW critical point, on the other hand, the perturbative expansion breaks down immediately below three dimensions as the interaction renormalizes the speed of charge fluctuations to zero within a finite renormalization group scale through a two-loop effect. The difference originates from the fact that the vertex correction antiscreens the coupling at the SDW critical point whereas it screens at the CDW critical point.

  6. Discrete vortices on anisotropic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gui-Hua; Wang, Hong-Cheng; Chen, Zi-Fa

    2015-08-01

    We consider the effects of anisotropy on two types of localized states with topological charges equal to 1 in two-dimensional nonlinear lattices, using the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation as a paradigm model. We find that on-site-centered vortices with different propagation constants are not globally stable, and that upper and lower boundaries of the propagation constant exist. The region between these two boundaries is the domain outside of which the on-site-centered vortices are unstable. This region decreases in size as the anisotropy parameter is gradually increased. We also consider off-site-centered vortices on anisotropic lattices, which are unstable on this lattice type and either transform into stable quadrupoles or collapse. We find that the transformation of off-sitecentered vortices into quadrupoles, which occurs on anisotropic lattices, cannot occur on isotropic lattices. In the quadrupole case, a propagation-constant region also exists, outside of which the localized states cannot stably exist. The influence of anisotropy on this region is almost identical to its effects on the on-site-centered vortex case.

  7. Postbuckling of laminated anisotropic panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffrey, Glenda L.

    1987-01-01

    A two-part study of the buckling and postbuckling of laminated anisotropic plates with bending-extensional coupling is presented. The first part involves the development and application of a modified Rayleigh-Ritz analysis technique. Modifications made to the classical technique can be grouped into three areas. First, known symmetries of anisotropic panels are exploited in the selection of approximation functions. Second, a reduced basis technique based on these same symmetries is applied in the linear range. Finally, geometric boundary conditions are enforced via an exterior penalty function approach, rather than relying on choice of approximation functions to satisfy these boundary conditions. Numerical results are presented for both the linear and nonlinear range, with additional studies made to determine the effect of variation in penalty parameter and number of basis vectors. In the second part, six panels possessing anisotropy and bending-extensional coupling are tested. Detailed comparisons are made between experiment and finite element results in order to gain insight into the postbuckling and failure characteristics of such panels. The panels are constructed using two different lamination sequences, and panels with three different aspect ratios were constructed for each lamination sequence.

  8. Anisotropic water reorientation around ions.

    PubMed

    Tielrooij, K J; van der Post, S T; Hunger, J; Bonn, M; Bakker, H J

    2011-11-03

    We study the reorientation dynamics of water molecules around ions using terahertz dielectric relaxation spectroscopy and polarization-resolved femtosecond infrared pump-probe spectroscopy. The results are discussed in relation to the ion-specific Hofmeister series and the concomitant "structure-making" and "structure-breaking" effects of ions on water. We show that when a dissolved salt consists of a strongly hydrated ion with a weakly hydrated counterion the reorientation of water molecules around the strongly hydrated ion is anisotropic, in the sense that differently charged ions affect reorientation along different molecular axes: cations mainly slow the reorientation dynamics of the water dipole vectors, and anions mainly slow down the reorientation dynamics of the hydroxyl group that points toward the anion. In both cases, motion along only one molecular axis is impeded, so that the hydration shell is best described as semirigid. In this semirigid hydration picture, water molecules in the first hydration shell show anisotropic reorientation, whereas water molecules outside the first hydration shell remain unaffected. The inferred anisotropy in molecular motion explains why terahertz dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, which probes dipolar relaxation, is more sensitive to cation hydration effects while femtosecond infrared pump-probe spectroscopy, which is sensitive to reorientation of hydroxyl groups, is more sensitive to anion hydration effects. We also show that dissolution of CsI-a salt for which both cation and anion are weakly hydrated-has little effect on water reorientation dynamics, with hydration water displaying dynamics that are similar to those in bulk water.

  9. Recent progress in anisotropic hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Michael

    2017-03-01

    The quark-gluon plasma created in a relativistic heavy-ion collisions possesses a sizable pressure anisotropy in the local rest frame at very early times after the initial nuclear impact and this anisotropy only slowly relaxes as the system evolves. In a kinetic theory picture, this translates into the existence of sizable momentum-space anisotropies in the underlying partonic distribution functions, < pL2> ≪ < pT2>. In such cases, it is better to reorganize the hydrodynamical expansion by taking into account momentum-space anisotropies at leading-order in the expansion instead of as a perturbative correction to an isotropic distribution. The resulting anisotropic hydrodynamics framework has been shown to more accurately describe the dynamics of rapidly expanding systems such as the quark-gluon plasma. In this proceedings contribution, I review the basic ideas of anisotropic hydrodynamics, recent progress, and present a few preliminary phenomenological predictions for identified particle spectra and elliptic flow.

  10. Characterization of anisotropic acoustic metamaterial slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jun Hyeong; Lee, Hyung Jin; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-01-01

    In an anisotropic acoustic metamaterial, the off-diagonal components of its effective mass density tensor should be considered in order to describe the anisotropic behavior produced by arbitrarily shaped inclusions. However, few studies have been carried out to characterize anisotropic acoustic metamaterials. In this paper, we propose a method that uses the non-diagonal effective mass density tensor to determine the behavior of anisotropic acoustic metamaterials. Our method accurately evaluates the effective properties of anisotropic acoustic metamaterials by separately dealing with slabs made of single and multiple unit cells along the thickness direction. To determine the effective properties, the reflection and transmission coefficients of an acoustic metamaterial slab are calculated, and then the wave vectors inside of the slab are determined using these coefficients. The effective material properties are finally determined by utilizing the spatial dispersion relation of the anisotropic acoustic metamaterial. Since the dispersion relation of an anisotropic acoustic metamaterial is explicitly used, its effective properties can be easily determined by only using a limited number of normal and oblique plane wave incidences into a metamaterial slab, unlike existing approaches requiring a large number of wave incidences. The validity of the proposed method is verified by conducting wave simulations for anisotropic acoustic metamaterial slabs with Z-shaped elastic inclusions of tilted principal material axes.

  11. Anisotropic Magnus Force in Type-II Superconductors with Planar Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monroy, Ricardo Vega; Gomez, Eliceo Cortés

    2015-02-01

    The effect of planar defects on the Magnus force in type-II superconductors is studied. It is shown that the deformation of the vortex due to the presence of a planar defect leads to a local decrease in the mean free path of electrons in the vortex. This effect reduces the effective Magnus coefficient in normal direction to the planar defect, leading to an anisotropic regime of the Hall effect. The presented developments here can qualitatively explain experimental observations of the anisotropic Hall effect in high- T c superconductors in the mixed state.

  12. Anisotropic Charge Distribution and Anisotropic van der Waals Radius Leading to Intriguing Anisotropic Noncovalent Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hahn; Van Dung Doan; Cho, Woo Jong; Madhav, Miriyala Vijay; Kim, Kwang S.

    2014-01-01

    Although group (IV–VII) nonmetallic elements do not favor interacting with anionic species, there are counterexamples including the halogen bond. Such binding is known to be related to the charge deficiency because of the adjacent atom's electron withdrawing effect, which creates σ/π-holes at the bond-ends. However, a completely opposite behavior is exhibited by N2 and O2, which have electrostatically positive/negative character around cylindrical-bond-surface/bond-ends. Inspired by this, here we elucidate the unusual features and origin of the anisotropic noncovalent interactions in the ground and excited states of the 2nd and 3rd row elements belonging to groups IV–VII. The anisotropy in charge distributions and van der Waals radii of atoms in such molecular systems are scrutinized. This provides an understanding of their unusual molecular configuration, binding and recognition modes involved in new types of molecular assembling and engineering. This work would lead to the design of intriguing molecular systems exploiting anisotropic noncovalent interactions. PMID:25059645

  13. Anisotropic grid adaptation in LES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toosi, Siavash; Larsson, Johan

    2016-11-01

    The modeling errors depend directly on the grid (or filter) spacing in turbulence-resolving simulations (LES, DNS, DES, etc), and are typically at least as significant as the numerical errors. This makes adaptive grid-refinement complicated, since it prevents the estimation of the local error sources through numerical analysis. The present work attempts to address this difficulty with a physics-based error-source indicator that accounts for the anisotropy in the smallest resolved scales, which can thus be used to drive an anisotropic grid-adaptation process. The proposed error indicator is assessed on a sequence of problems, including turbulent channel flow and flows in more complex geometries. The formulation is geometrically general and applicable to complex geometries.

  14. Anisotropic invariance in minisuperspace models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagoya, Javier; Sabido, Miguel

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we introduce invariance under anisotropic transformations to cosmology. This invariance is one of the key ingredients of the theory of quantum gravity at a Lifshitz point put forward by Hořava. We find that this new symmetry in the minisuperspace introduces characteristics to the model that can be relevant in the ultraviolet regime. For example, by canonical quantization we find a Schrödinger-type equation which avoids the problem of frozen time in quantum cosmology. For simple cases we obtain solutions to this quantum equation in a Kantowski-Sachs (KS) minisuperspace. At the classical level, we study KS and Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies, obtaining modifications to the solutions of general relativity that can be relevant in the early Universe.

  15. Modeling of Anisotropic Inelastic Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Nikkel, D.J.; Nath, D.S.; Brown, A.A.; Casey, J.

    2000-02-25

    An experimental capability, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), is being used to study the yield behavior of elastic-plastic materials. The objective of our research is to develop better constitutive equations for polycrystalline metals. We are experimentally determining the multidimensional yield surface of the material, both in its initial state and as it evolves during large inelastic deformations. These experiments provide a more complete picture of material behavior than can be obtained from traditional uniaxial tests. Experimental results show that actual material response can differ significantly from that predicted by simple idealized models. These results are being used to develop improved constitutive models of anisotropic plasticity for use in continuum computer codes.

  16. Anisotropic decomposition of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pravica, Michael; Quine, Zachary; Romano, Edward; Bajar, Sean; Yulga, Brian; Yang Wenge; Hooks, Daniel

    2007-12-12

    Using a white x-ray synchrotron beam, we have dynamically studied radiation-induced decomposition in single crystalline PETN and TATB. By monitoring the integrated intensity of selected diffraction spots via a CCD x-ray camera as a function of time, we have found that the decomposition rate varies dramatically depending upon the orientation of the crystalline axes relative to polarized x-ray beam and for differing diffracting conditions (spots) within the same crystalline orientation. We suggest that this effect is due to Compton scattering of the polarized x-rays with electron clouds that is dependent upon their relative orientation. This novel effect may yield valuable insight regarding anisotropic detonation sensitivity in energetic materials such as PETN.

  17. Anisotropic microstructure near the sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, W. A.; Grall, R. R.; Spangler, S. R.; Sakurai, T.; Harmon, J. K.

    1996-07-01

    Radio scattering observations provide a means of measuring a two-dimensional projection of the three-dimensional spatial spectrum of electron density, i.e., in the plane perpendicular to the line of sight. Earlier observations have shown that the microstructure at scales of the order of 10 km becomes highly field-aligned inside of 10 Rsolar [Armstrong et al., 1990]. Earlier work has also shown that density fluctuations at scales larger than 1000 km have a Kolmogorov spectrum, whereas the smaller scale structure has a flatter spectrum and is considerably enhanced above the Kolmogorov ``background'' [Coles et al., 1991]. Here we present new observations made during 1990 and 1992. These confirm the earlier work, which was restricted to one source on a few days, but they suggest that the anisotropy changes abruptly near 6 Rsolar which was not clear in the earlier data. The axial ratio measurements are shown on Figure 1 below. The new observations were made with a more uniform sampling of the spatial plane. They show that contours of constant correlation are elliptical. This is apparently inconsistent with the spatial correlation of the ISEE-3 magnetic field which shows a ``Maltese Cross'' shape [Matthaeus et al., 1990]. However this inconsistency may be only apparent: the magnetic field and density correlations need not have the same shape; the scale of the magnetic field correlations is at least 4 orders of magnitude larger; they are much further from the sun; and they are point measurements whereas ours are path-integrated. We also made two simultaneous measurements, at 10 Rsolar, of the anisotropy on scales of 200 to 4000 km. Significant anisotropy was seen on the smaller scales, but the larger scale structure was essentially isotropic. This suggests that the process responsible for the anisotropic microstructure is independent of the larger scale isotropic turbulence. It is then tempting to speculate that the damping of this anisotropic process inside of 6 Rsolar

  18. Anisotropic elliptical dichroism and influence of imperfection of circular polarization upon anisotropic circular dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Wakabayashi, Masamitsu; Yokojima, Satoshi; Fukaminato, Tuyoshi; Ohtani, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Shinichiro

    2015-04-21

    In spite of the importance of anisotropic circular dichroism, in practice, it is difficult to get rid of the artifacts that arise from the imperfection of the circular polarization. Undesirable linear dichroism, interference of two orthogonal polarization states, and linear birefringence prevent us from making accurate measurements. We propose a theoretical method for evaluating the contributions of the first two, which are thought to be the main artifacts when specimens are not thick enough. Using the time-dependent perturbation theory and taking into account the direction of light propagation toward an orientationally fixed molecule, we formulated the transition probability of systems perturbed by arbitrarily polarized light and the absorption difference associated with two kinds of polarized light. We also formulated, as an extension of the dissymmetry factor of circular dichroism, a newly defined dissymmetry factor associated with two arbitrary polarization states. Furthermore, we considered a mixed-state of photon ensemble in which polarization states distribute at a certain width around a certain average. Although the purity of polarization and ellipticity does not correspond immediately, by considering the mixed state it is possible to treat them consistently. We used quantum statistical mechanics to describe the absorption difference for two kinds of photon ensembles and applied the consequent formula to examine the reported experimental results of single-molecule chiroptical responses under discussion in the recent past. The artifacts are theoretically suggested to be sensitive to the incident direction of elliptically polarized light and to the oriented systems, the ellipticity, and the orientation of ellipse. The mixed state has little, if any, effect when the polarization state distribution is narrow.

  19. A novel mutation of p.F32I in GJA8 in human dominant congenital cataracts

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Feng-Tao; Yang, Fa-Yu; Yang, Ye-Qin; Ge, Xiang-Lian; Chen, Ding; Zhang, Liu; Yu, Xin-Ping; Gu, Feng; Zhu, Yi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    AIM To identify a causative mutation in a three-generation family with autosomal dominant congenital total cataract and dissect the molecular consequence of the identified mutation. METHODS Clinical and ophthalmological examinations were performed on the affected and unaffected family members. Mutation were screened in recruited family members by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the two reported genes (CRYAA and GJA8) which were linked to human total cataracts and direct sequencing of the PCR product. The molecular consequences of the identified mutation was dissected. The plasmids carrying wild-type and mutant mouse ORF of Gja8, coding for connexin 50 (Cx50), were generated and ectopic expressed in 293 cells. Recombinant protein expression and cellular localization of recombinated Cx50 were assessed by confocal microscopy. RESULTS Clinical and ophthalmological examinations were performed on the affected and unaffected family members. Mutation were screened in recruited family members by PCR of the two reported genes (CRYAA and GJA8) which were linked to human total cataracts and direct sequencing of the PCR product. The molecular consequences of the identified mutation was dissected. The plasmids carrying wild-type and mutant mouse ORF of Gja8, coding for Cx50, were generated and ectopic expressed in 293 cells. Recombinant protein expression and cellular localization of recombinated Cx50 were assessed by confocal microscopy. CONCLUSION This study has identified a novel cataract mutation in GJA8, which adds a novel mutation to the existing spectrum of Cx50 mutations with cataract. The molecular consequences of p.F32I mutation in GJA8 exclude instability and the mislocalization of mutant Cx50 protein. PMID:27990357

  20. Finite-volume scheme for anisotropic diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Es, Bram van; Koren, Barry; Blank, Hugo J. de

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we apply a special finite-volume scheme, limited to smooth temperature distributions and Cartesian grids, to test the importance of connectivity of the finite volumes. The area of application is nuclear fusion plasma with field line aligned temperature gradients and extreme anisotropy. We apply the scheme to the anisotropic heat-conduction equation, and compare its results with those of existing finite-volume schemes for anisotropic diffusion. Also, we introduce a general model adaptation of the steady diffusion equation for extremely anisotropic diffusion problems with closed field lines.

  1. Shaped beam scattering by an anisotropic particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Huayong; Huang, Zhixiang; Wu, Xianliang

    2017-03-01

    An exact semi-analytical solution to the electromagnetic scattering from an optically anisotropic particle illuminated by an arbitrarily shaped beam is proposed. The scattered fields and fields within the anisotropic particle are expanded in terms of spherical vector wave functions. The unknown expansion coefficients are determined by using the boundary conditions and the method of moments scheme. For incidence of a Gaussian beam, zero-order Bessel beam and Hertzian electric dipole radiation, numerical results of the normalized differential scattering cross section are given to a uniaxial, gyrotropic anisotropic spheroid and circular cylinder of finite length. The scattering properties are analyzed concisely.

  2. Anisotropic inflation in Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Lahiri, Sayantani

    2016-09-19

    We study anisotropic inflation with Gauss-Bonnet correction in presence of a massless vector field. In this scenario, exact anisotropic power-law inflation is realized when the inflaton potential, gauge coupling function and the Gauss-Bonnet coupling are exponential functions. We show that anisotropy becomes proportional to two slow-roll parameters of the theory and hence gets enhanced in presence of quadratic curvature corrections. The stability analysis reveals that anisotropic power-law solutions remain stable over a substantially large parameter region.

  3. Seismic source theory in stratified anisotropic media

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Menahem, A.; Sena, A.G.

    1990-09-10

    First, the authors obtain an explicit representation of the spectral elastodynamic Green`s tensor in general homogeneous anisotropic media as a sum of three integrals over the corresponding three slowness surfaces. The multidimensional stationary phase principle is then applied to derive an asymptotic approximation at the far field. In the case of azimuthally isotropic media, they offer an alternative representation of the Green`s tensor and its ensuing displacements fields in the form of an exact Hankel transform over the horizontal wave number variable. The total field is specified here in terms of two potentials: an SH potential and a mixed quasi-transverse/quasi-longitudinal potential, both of which assume the role of two scalar Green`s functions. The availability of the Green`s tensor in analytical form enables one to obtain readily numerical solutions for a wide selection of media and sources. It is shown that the radiation field of an explosion has the following new features: (1) Quasi-transverse waves are created with four and eight lobe patterns; (2) quasi-longitudinal waves are generated for the collatitudinal displacement with four lobe patterns; (3) the energy ratio SV/P may reach the value of 20 for more than 50% of the azimuths in crustal structures such as tuff and shales; and (4) radiation patterns for vertical shear waves are created which are indistinguishable from corresponding waves produced by earthquake faults. The formalism allows the authors to establish a Haskell-type matrix algorithm for a multilayered azimuthally isotropic half-space, which enables them to calculate body waves and surface waves in real-earth crustal models.

  4. Anisotropic wettability on imprinted hierarchical structures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengxiang; Low, Hong Yee

    2007-07-03

    A series of two-level hierarchical structures on polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were fabricated using sequential nanoimprinting lithography (NIL). The hierarchical structures consist of micrometer and sub-micrometer scale grating imprinted with varying orientations. Through water contact angle measurements, these surface hierarchical structures showed a wide range of anisotropic wettabilities on PMMA and PS, with PMMA having an anisotropic wettability from 6 degrees to 54 degrees and PS having an anisotropic wettability from 8 degrees to 32 degrees. At the same time, the water contact angle of PMMA and PS can be tuned to nearly 120 degrees without modifying the surface chemistry. A tunable anisotropic wettability is beneficial for applications where controlling the direction of liquid flow is important, such as in microfluidic devices.

  5. On the anisotropic elastic properties of hydroxyapatite.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J. L.; Ukraincik, K.

    1971-01-01

    Experimental measurements of the isotropic elastic moduli on polycrystalline specimens of hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite are compared with elastic constants measured directly from single crystals of fluorapatite in order to derive a set of pseudo single crystal elastic constants for hydroxyapatite. The stiffness coefficients thus derived are given. The anisotropic and isotropic elastic properties are then computed and compared with similar properties derived from experimental observations of the anisotropic behavior of bone.

  6. Phase space analysis in anisotropic optical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, Ana Leonor; Chumakov, Sergey M.; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo

    1995-01-01

    From the minimal action principle follows the Hamilton equations of evolution for geometric optical rays in anisotropic media. As in classical mechanics of velocity-dependent potentials, the velocity and the canonical momentum are not parallel, but differ by an anisotropy vector potential, similar to that of linear electromagnetism. Descartes' well known diagram for refraction is generalized and a factorization theorem holds for interfaces between two anisotropic media.

  7. Inflation in anisotropic scalar-tensor theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pimentel, Luis O.; Stein-Schabes, Jaime

    1988-01-01

    The existence of an inflationary phase in anisotropic Scalar-Tensor Theories is investigated by means of a conformal transformation that allows us to rewrite these theories as gravity minimally coupled to a scalar field with a nontrivial potential. The explicit form of the potential is then used and the No Hair Theorem concludes that there is an inflationary phase in all open or flat anisotropic spacetimes in these theories. Several examples are constructed where the effect becomes manifest.

  8. Spin precession in anisotropic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raes, B.; Cummings, A. W.; Bonell, F.; Costache, M. V.; Sierra, J. F.; Roche, S.; Valenzuela, S. O.

    2017-02-01

    We generalize the diffusive model for spin injection and detection in nonlocal spin structures to account for spin precession under an applied magnetic field in an anisotropic medium, for which the spin lifetime is not unique and depends on the spin orientation. We demonstrate that the spin precession (Hanle) line shape is strongly dependent on the degree of anisotropy and on the orientation of the magnetic field. In particular, we show that the anisotropy of the spin lifetime can be extracted from the measured spin signal, after dephasing in an oblique magnetic field, by using an analytical formula with a single fitting parameter. Alternatively, after identifying the fingerprints associated with the anisotropy, we propose a simple scaling of the Hanle line shapes at specific magnetic field orientations that results in a universal curve only in the isotropic case. The deviation from the universal curve can be used as a complementary means of quantifying the anisotropy by direct comparison with the solution of our generalized model. Finally, we applied our model to graphene devices and find that the spin relaxation for graphene on silicon oxide is isotropic within our experimental resolution.

  9. Magnetospheric equilibrium with anisotropic pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z.

    1991-07-01

    Self-consistent magnetospheric equilibrium with anisotropic pressure is obtained by employing an iterative metric method for solving the inverse equilibrium equation in an optimal flux coordinate system. A method of determining plasma parallel and perpendicular pressures from either analytic particle distribution or particle distribution measured along the satellite's path is presented. The numerical results of axisymmetric magnetospheric equilibrium including the effects of finite beta, pressure anisotropy, and boundary conditions are presented for a bi-Maxwellian particle distribution. For the isotropic pressure cases, the finite beta effect produces an outward expansion of the constant magnetic flux surfaces in relation to the dipole field lines, and along the magnetic field the toroidal ring current is maximum at the magnetic equator. The effect of pressure anisotropy is found to further expand the flux surfaces outward. Along the magnetic field lines the westward ring current can be peak away from the equator due to an eastward current contribution resulting from pressure anisotropy. As pressure anisotropy increases, the peak westward current can become more singular. The outer boundary flux surface has significant effect on the magnetospheric equilibrium. For the outer flux boundary resembling dayside compressed flux surface due to solar wind pressure, the deformation of the magnetic field can be quite different from that for the outer flux boundary resembling the tail-like surface. 23 refs., 17 figs.

  10. Subsurface Stress Fields in FCC Single Crystal Anisotropic Contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arakere, Nagaraj K.; Knudsen, Erik; Swanson, Gregory R.; Duke, Gregory; Ham-Battista, Gilda

    2004-01-01

    Single crystal superalloy turbine blades used in high pressure turbomachinery are subject to conditions of high temperature, triaxial steady and alternating stresses, fretting stresses in the blade attachment and damper contact locations, and exposure to high-pressure hydrogen. The blades are also subjected to extreme variations in temperature during start-up and shutdown transients. The most prevalent high cycle fatigue (HCF) failure modes observed in these blades during operation include crystallographic crack initiation/propagation on octahedral planes, and non-crystallographic initiation with crystallographic growth. Numerous cases of crack initiation and crack propagation at the blade leading edge tip, blade attachment regions, and damper contact locations have been documented. Understanding crack initiation/propagation under mixed-mode loading conditions is critical for establishing a systematic procedure for evaluating HCF life of single crystal turbine blades. This paper presents analytical and numerical techniques for evaluating two and three dimensional subsurface stress fields in anisotropic contacts. The subsurface stress results are required for evaluating contact fatigue life at damper contacts and dovetail attachment regions in single crystal nickel-base superalloy turbine blades. An analytical procedure is presented for evaluating the subsurface stresses in the elastic half-space, based on the adaptation of a stress function method outlined by Lekhnitskii. Numerical results are presented for cylindrical and spherical anisotropic contacts, using finite element analysis (FEA). Effects of crystal orientation on stress response and fatigue life are examined. Obtaining accurate subsurface stress results for anisotropic single crystal contact problems require extremely refined three-dimensional (3-D) finite element grids, especially in the edge of contact region. Obtaining resolved shear stresses (RSS) on the principal slip planes also involves

  11. Stress and vibraton analyses of anisotropic shells of revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Peters, Jeanne M.

    1988-01-01

    An efficient computational strategy is presented for reducing the cost of the stress and free vibration analyses of laminated anisotropic shells of revolution. The analytical formulation is based on a form of the Sanders-Budiansky shell theory including the effects of both the transverse shear deformation and the laminated anisotropic material response. The fundamental unknowns consist of the eight strain components, the eight stress resultants and the five generalized displacements of the shell. Each of the shell variables is expressed in terms of trigonometric functions (Fourier series) in the circumferential co-ordinate, and a three-field mixed finite element model is used for the discretization in the meridional direction. The shell response associated with a range of Fourier harmonics is approximated by a linear combination of a few global approximation vectors, which are generated at a particular value of the Fourier harmonic, within that range. The full equations of the finite element model are solved for only a single Fourier harmonic, and the response corresponding to the other Fourier harmonics is generated using a reduced system of equations with considerably fewer degrees of freedom.

  12. Anisotropic particle synthesis inside droplet templates on superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Vinayak; García, Antonio A; Marquez, Manuel; Velev, Orlin D

    2010-01-18

    We demonstrate how droplet templates dispensed on superhydrophobic substrates can be used to fabricate both shape-anisotropic ("doughnut") and composition-anisotropic ("patchy magnetic") supraparticles. The macroscopic shape of the closely-packed particle assemblies is guided by the droplet meniscus. Aqueous droplets of monodisperse microsphere suspensions dispensed on the substrates initially acquire near-spherical shape due to a high contact angle. During the solvent evaporation, however, silica suspension droplets undergo shape transitions (concaving) guiding the structure of the final assemblies into doughnut supraparticles. Composition anisotropy is achieved by drying a droplet containing a mixed suspension of latex and magnetic nanoparticles, while exposing it to magnetic field gradients. Depending on the pattern of the magnetic fields, the magnetic nanoparticles segregate into single, bilateral, or trilateral, patched spherical supraparticles. The physical effects leading to the development of anisotropy are discussed. Unlike the conventional wet self-assembly (WSA) methods where the final structures need to be extracted from the liquid environment, this efficient one-step procedure produces ready to use "dry" supraparticles.

  13. Subsurface Stress Fields In Single Crystal (Anisotropic) Contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arakere, Nagaraj K.; Knudsen, Erik C.; Duke, Greg; Battista, Gilda; Swanson, Greg

    2004-01-01

    Single crystal superalloy turbine blades used in high pressure turbomachinery are subject to conditions of high temperature, triaxial steady and alternating stresses, fretting stresses in the blade attachment and damper contact locations, and exposure to high-pressure hydrogen. The blades are also subjected to extreme variations in temperature during start-up and shutdown transients. The most prevalent HCF failure modes observed in these blades during operation include crystallographic crack initiation/propagation on octahedral planes, and noncrystallographic initiation with crystallographic growth. Numerous cases of crack initiation and crack propagation at the blade leading edge tip, blade attachment regions, and damper contact locations have been documented. Understanding crack initiation/propagation under mixed-mode loading conditions is critical for establishing a systematic procedure for evaluating HCF life of single crystal turbine blades. This paper presents analytical and numerical techniques for evaluating two and three dimensional subsurface stress fields in anisotropic contacts. The subsurface stress results are required for evaluating contact fatigue life at damper contacts and dovetail attachment regions in single crystal nickel-base superalloy turbine blades. An analytical procedure is , presented, for evaluating the subsurface stresses in the elastic half-space, using a complex potential method outlined by Lekhnitskii. Numerical results are presented for cylindrical and spherical anisotropic contacts, using finite element analysis. Effects of crystal orientation on stress response and fatigue life are examined.

  14. Anisotropic nanomaterials: structure, growth, assembly, and functions

    PubMed Central

    Sajanlal, Panikkanvalappil R.; Sreeprasad, Theruvakkattil S.; Samal, Akshaya K.; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive knowledge over the shape of nanomaterials is a critical factor in designing devices with desired functions. Due to this reason, systematic efforts have been made to synthesize materials of diverse shape in the nanoscale regime. Anisotropic nanomaterials are a class of materials in which their properties are direction-dependent and more than one structural parameter is needed to describe them. Their unique and fine-tuned physical and chemical properties make them ideal candidates for devising new applications. In addition, the assembly of ordered one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) arrays of anisotropic nanoparticles brings novel properties into the resulting system, which would be entirely different from the properties of individual nanoparticles. This review presents an overview of current research in the area of anisotropic nanomaterials in general and noble metal nanoparticles in particular. We begin with an introduction to the advancements in this area followed by general aspects of the growth of anisotropic nanoparticles. Then we describe several important synthetic protocols for making anisotropic nanomaterials, followed by a summary of their assemblies, and conclude with major applications. PMID:22110867

  15. Anisotropic nanomaterials: structure, growth, assembly, and functions.

    PubMed

    Sajanlal, Panikkanvalappil R; Sreeprasad, Theruvakkattil S; Samal, Akshaya K; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive knowledge over the shape of nanomaterials is a critical factor in designing devices with desired functions. Due to this reason, systematic efforts have been made to synthesize materials of diverse shape in the nanoscale regime. Anisotropic nanomaterials are a class of materials in which their properties are direction-dependent and more than one structural parameter is needed to describe them. Their unique and fine-tuned physical and chemical properties make them ideal candidates for devising new applications. In addition, the assembly of ordered one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) arrays of anisotropic nanoparticles brings novel properties into the resulting system, which would be entirely different from the properties of individual nanoparticles. This review presents an overview of current research in the area of anisotropic nanomaterials in general and noble metal nanoparticles in particular. We begin with an introduction to the advancements in this area followed by general aspects of the growth of anisotropic nanoparticles. Then we describe several important synthetic protocols for making anisotropic nanomaterials, followed by a summary of their assemblies, and conclude with major applications.

  16. Matter sourced anisotropic stress for dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Baorong; Lu, Jianbo; Xu, Lixin

    2014-11-01

    Usually a dark energy as a perfect fluid is characterized by the ratio of pressure to energy density (w =p /ρ ) and the ratio of their perturbations in its rest frame (cs2=δ p /δ ρ ). However, a dark energy would have other characteristics beyond its equation of state and the effective speed of sound. Here the extra property is the anisotropic stress sourced by matter as a simple extension to the perfect fluid model. At the background level, this anisotropic stress is zero with respect to the cosmological principle, but not at the first-order perturbation. We tested the viability of the existence of this kind of anisotropic stress by using the currently available cosmic observations through the geometrical and dynamical measurements. Using the Markov-chain Monte Carlo method, we found that the upper bounds on the anisotropic stress which enters into the summation of the Newtonian potentials should be of the order O (1 0-3)Δm . We did not find any strong evidence for the existence of this matter-sourced anisotropic stress, even in the 1 σ region.

  17. Quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics for central collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alqahtani, Mubarak; Nopoush, Mohammad; Strickland, Michael

    2017-03-01

    We use quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics to study an azimuthally symmetric boost-invariant quark-gluon plasma including the effects of both shear and bulk viscosities. In quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics, a single finite-temperature quasiparticle mass is introduced and fit to the lattice data in order to implement a realistic equation of state (EoS). We compare results obtained by using the quasiparticle method with the standard method of imposing the EoS in anisotropic hydrodynamics and viscous hydrodynamics. Using these three methods, we extract the primordial particle spectra, total number of charged particles, and average transverse momentum for various values of the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio η /s . We find that the three methods agree well for small shear viscosity to entropy density ratio η /s , but differ at large η /s , with the standard anisotropic EoS method showing suppressed production at low transverse-momentum compared with the other two methods considered. Finally, we demonstrate explicitly that, when using standard viscous hydrodynamics, the bulk-viscous correction can drive the primordial particle spectra negative at large pT. Such behavior is not seen in either anisotropic hydrodynamics approach, irrespective of the value of η /s .

  18. SU(3) lattice gauge autocorrelations with anisotropic action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Terrence; Nenkov, Constantine; Peardon, Mike

    1997-02-01

    We report results of autocorrelation measurements in pure SU(3) lattice gauge theory. The computations are performed on the CONVEX SPP1200 parallel platform within the CANOPY programming environment. The focus of our analysis is on typical autocorrelation times and optimization of the mixing ratio between overrelaxation and pseudo-heatbath sweeps for generating gauge field configurations. We study second order tadpole-improved approximation of the Wilson action in the gluon sector, which offers the advantage on smaller lattices (8 3 × 16 and 6 3 × 12 - 30). We also make use of anisotropic lattices, with temporal lattice spacing smaller than the spatial spacing, which prove useful for calculating noisy correlation functions with large spatial lattice discretization (of the order of 0.4 fm).

  19. Particle dynamics during the transition from isotropic to anisotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chung-Min; Gylfason, Armann; Toschi, Federico

    2016-11-01

    Turbulent fluctuations play an important role on the dynamics of particles in turbulence, enhancing their dispersion and mixing. In recent years the statistical properties of particles in several statistically stationary turbulent flows have been the subject of many numerical and experimental studies. In many natural and industrial environments, however, one deals with turbulence in a transient state. As a prototype system, we investigate the transition from an isotropic to an anisotropic flow, namely looking at the influence of a developing mean flow on the dynamics of particles. We simulate, via direct numerical simulation, stationary homogeneous and isotropic turbulence and then suddenly impose a mean shear or strain. This allows us to quantify the effects of the mean flow on particle dynamics in these transient periods. Preliminary results on single particle properties, such as velocities and accelerations will be reported.

  20. Raman spectroscopy evidence of domain walls in the organic electronic ferroelectrics (TMTTF) 2X (X =Sb F6,As F6,P F6 )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Świetlik, Roman; Barszcz, Bolesław; Pustogow, Andrej; Dressel, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Charge ordering in the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductors (TMTTF) 2X (X =Sb F6,As F6,P F6 ) was studied by using Raman spectroscopy. In the charge-ordered phase three vibrational features related to the ring breathing mode ν10(ag) of neutral (TMTT F0 ) and ionized (TMTT F+0.5 and TMTT F+1 ) are observed at about 503, 507, and 526 c m-1 , respectively. The bands of donor molecules with charge +0.5 e are assigned to ferroelectric domains while the bands of neutral and fully ionized molecules to domain walls. The shape of the band at about 526 c m-1 , attributed to the charged domain walls (molecules with charge +1 e ), reveals important differences between salts, i.e., indicates the presence of relaxor ferroelectricity which is well seen in (TMTTF) 2P F6 .

  1. Magnetization of anisotropic Type II superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, R.G.

    1989-04-10

    Peculiarities of magnetization of anisotropic type II superconductors are of considerable interest in view of the discovery of high-T/sub c/ superconductors characterized by strongly asymmetric layered structure. Specifics of the penetration of magnetic flux into an anisotropic type II superconductor were discussed in the literature. This analysis gave the distribution of induction in an isolated vortex, its energy, and critical magnetic field H/sub c1/. However, the magnetization curve of anisotropic superconductors was not considered. This paper deals with the magnetic moment of uniaxial London superconductor in the interval H/sub c1/ /le/ H/sub 0/ << H/sub c2/, where H/sub 0/ is the external magnetic field strength.

  2. Leith diffusion model for homogeneous anisotropic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Robert; Clark, Timothy T.; Kurien, Susan

    2016-07-19

    Here, a proposal for a spectral closure model for homogeneous anisotropic turbulence. The systematic development begins by closing the third-order correlation describing nonlinear interactions by an anisotropic generalization of the Leith diffusion model for isotropic turbulence. The correlation tensor is then decomposed into a tensorially isotropic part, or directional anisotropy, and a trace-free remainder, or polarization anisotropy. The directional and polarization components are then decomposed using irreducible representations of the SO(3) symmetry group. Under the ansatz that the decomposition is truncated at quadratic order, evolution equations are derived for the directional and polarization pieces of the correlation tensor. Here, numerical simulation of the model equations for a freely decaying anisotropic flow illustrate the non-trivial effects of spectral dependencies on the different return-to-isotropy rates of the directional and polarization contributions.

  3. Leith diffusion model for homogeneous anisotropic turbulence

    DOE PAGES

    Rubinstein, Robert; Clark, Timothy T.; Kurien, Susan

    2016-07-19

    Here, a proposal for a spectral closure model for homogeneous anisotropic turbulence. The systematic development begins by closing the third-order correlation describing nonlinear interactions by an anisotropic generalization of the Leith diffusion model for isotropic turbulence. The correlation tensor is then decomposed into a tensorially isotropic part, or directional anisotropy, and a trace-free remainder, or polarization anisotropy. The directional and polarization components are then decomposed using irreducible representations of the SO(3) symmetry group. Under the ansatz that the decomposition is truncated at quadratic order, evolution equations are derived for the directional and polarization pieces of the correlation tensor. Here, numericalmore » simulation of the model equations for a freely decaying anisotropic flow illustrate the non-trivial effects of spectral dependencies on the different return-to-isotropy rates of the directional and polarization contributions.« less

  4. Anisotropic Failure Modeling for HY-100 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harstad, E. N.; Maudlin, P. J.; McKirgan, J. B.

    2004-07-01

    HY-100 steel is a material that behaves isotropically in the elastic and plastic region and acts anisotropically in failure. Since HY-100 is a ductile metal, a more gradual failure process is observed as opposed to the nearly instantaneous failure in brittle materials. We extend our elasto-plastic-damage constitutive model by including of a decohesion model to describe material behavior between the onset of failure and fracture. We also develop an anisotropic failure surface to account for directionality in material failure. Both the anisotropic failure and decohesion models have been implemented into a finite element code, where the effects of these models are studied in a uniaxial stress simulations, a plate impact simulations, and a quasistatic notched round bar tensile test simulations.

  5. Gravitational stresses in anisotropic rock masses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amadei, B.; Savage, W.Z.; Swolfs, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents closed-form solutions for the stress field induced by gravity in anisotropic rock masses. These rocks are assumed to be laterally restrained and are modelled as a homogeneous, orthotropic or transversely isotropic, linearly elastic material. The analysis, constrained by the thermodynamic requirement that strain energy be positive definite, gives the following important result: inclusion of anisotropy broadens the range of permissible values of gravity-induced horizontal stresses. In fact, for some ranges of anisotropic rock properties, it is thermodynamically admissible for gravity-induced horizontal stresses to exceed the vertical stress component; this is not possible for the classical isotropic solution. Specific examples are presented to explore the nature of the gravity-induced stress field in anisotropic rocks and its dependence on the type, degree and orientation of anisotropy with respect to the horizontal ground surface. ?? 1987.

  6. Azimuthally Anisotropic 3D Velocity Continuation

    DOE PAGES

    Burnett, William; Fomel, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    We extend time-domain velocity continuation to the zero-offset 3D azimuthally anisotropic case. Velocity continuation describes how a seismic image changes given a change in migration velocity. This description turns out to be of a wave propagation process, in which images change along a velocity axis. In the anisotropic case, the velocity model is multiparameter. Therefore, anisotropic image propagation is multidimensional. We use a three-parameter slowness model, which is related to azimuthal variations in velocity, as well as their principal directions. This information is useful for fracture and reservoir characterization from seismic data. We provide synthetic diffraction imaging examples to illustratemore » the concept and potential applications of azimuthal velocity continuation and to analyze the impulse response of the 3D velocity continuation operator.« less

  7. Leith diffusion model for homogeneous anisotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinstein, Robert; Clark, Timothy; Kurien, Susan

    2016-11-01

    A new spectral closure model for homogeneous anisotropic turbulence is proposed. The systematic development begins by closing the third-order correlation describing nonlinear interactions by an anisotropic generalization of the Leith diffusion model for isotropic turbulence. The correlation tensor is then decomposed into a tensorially isotropic part, or directional anisotropy, and a trace-free remainder, or polarization anisotropy. The directional and polarization components are then decomposed using irreducible representations of the SO(3) symmetry group. Under the ansatz that the decomposition is truncated at quadratic order, evolution equations are derived for the directional and polarization pieces of the correlation tensor. Numerical simulation of the model equations for a freely decaying anisotropic flow illustrate the non-trivial effects of spectral dependencies on the different return-to-isotropy rates of the directional and polarization contributions.

  8. Anisotropic Hanle line shape via magnetothermoelectric phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, K. S.; Dejene, F. K.; van Wees, B. J.; Vera-Marun, I. J.

    2016-11-01

    We observe anisotropic Hanle line shape with unequal in-plane and out-of-plane nonlocal signals for spin precession measurements carried out on lateral metallic spin valves with transparent interfaces. The conventional interpretation for this anisotropy corresponds to unequal spin relaxation times for in-plane and out-of-plane spin orientations as for the case of two-dimensional materials like graphene, but it is unexpected in a polycrystalline metallic channel. Systematic measurements as a function of temperature and channel length, combined with both analytical and numerical thermoelectric transport models, demonstrate that the anisotropy in the Hanle line shape is magnetothermal in origin, caused by the anisotropic modulation of the Peltier and Seebeck coefficients of the ferromagnetic electrodes. Our results call for the consideration of such magnetothermoelectric effects in the study of anisotropic spin relaxation.

  9. Foam front propagation in anisotropic oil reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Grassia, P; Torres-Ulloa, C; Berres, S; Mas-Hernández, E; Shokri, N

    2016-04-01

    The pressure-driven growth model is considered, describing the motion of a foam front through an oil reservoir during foam improved oil recovery, foam being formed as gas advances into an initially liquid-filled reservoir. In the model, the foam front is represented by a set of so-called "material points" that track the advance of gas into the liquid-filled region. According to the model, the shape of the foam front is prone to develop concave sharply curved concavities, where the orientation of the front changes rapidly over a small spatial distance: these are referred to as "concave corners". These concave corners need to be propagated differently from the material points on the foam front itself. Typically the corner must move faster than those material points, otherwise spurious numerical artifacts develop in the computed shape of the front. A propagation rule or "speed up" rule is derived for the concave corners, which is shown to be sensitive to the level of anisotropy in the permeability of the reservoir and also sensitive to the orientation of the corners themselves. In particular if a corner in an anisotropic reservoir were to be propagated according to an isotropic speed up rule, this might not be sufficient to suppress spurious numerical artifacts, at least for certain orientations of the corner. On the other hand, systems that are both heterogeneous and anisotropic tend to be well behaved numerically, regardless of whether one uses the isotropic or anisotropic speed up rule for corners. This comes about because, in the heterogeneous and anisotropic case, the orientation of the corner is such that the "correct" anisotropic speed is just very slightly less than the "incorrect" isotropic one. The anisotropic rule does however manage to keep the corner very slightly sharper than the isotropic rule does.

  10. An Anisotropic Multiphysics Model for Intervertebral Disk

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xin; Zhu, Qiaoqiao; Gu, Weiyong

    2016-01-01

    Intervertebral disk (IVD) is the largest avascular structure in human body, consisting of three types of charged hydrated soft tissues. Its mechanical behavior is nonlinear and anisotropic, due mainly to nonlinear interactions among different constituents within tissues. In this study, a more realistic anisotropic multiphysics model was developed based on the continuum mixture theory and employed to characterize the couplings of multiple physical fields in the IVD. Numerical simulations demonstrate that this model is capable of systematically predicting the mechanical and electrochemical signals within the disk under various loading conditions, which is essential in understanding the mechanobiology of IVD. PMID:27099402

  11. Directional wetting in anisotropic inverse opals.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Katherine R; Vogel, Nicolas; Burgess, Ian B; Perry, Carole C; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2014-07-01

    Porous materials display interesting transport phenomena due to restricted motion of fluids within the nano- to microscale voids. Here, we investigate how liquid wetting in highly ordered inverse opals is affected by anisotropy in pore geometry. We compare samples with different degrees of pore asphericity and find different wetting patterns depending on the pore shape. Highly anisotropic structures are infiltrated more easily than their isotropic counterparts. Further, the wetting of anisotropic inverse opals is directional, with liquids filling from the side more easily. This effect is supported by percolation simulations as well as direct observations of wetting using time-resolved optical microscopy.

  12. Optical Activity of Anisotropic Achiral Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Verbiest, T.; Kauranen, M.; Van Rompaey, Y.; Persoons, A. |

    1996-08-01

    Anisotropic achiral surfaces respond differently to left- and right-hand circularly polarized light. This occurs when the orientation of the surface with respect to an otherwise achiral experimental setup makes the total geometry chiral. Such optical activity is demonstrated in second-harmonic generation from an anisotropic thin molecular film. The circular-difference response reverses sign as the handedness of the geometry is reversed and vanishes when the setup possesses a mirror plane. The results are explained within the electric-dipole-allowed second-order surface nonlinearity. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  13. On cracking of charged anisotropic polytropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azam, M.; Mardan, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Recently in [1], the role of electromagnetic field on the cracking of spherical polytropes has been investigated without perturbing charge parameter explicitly. In this study, we have examined the occurrence of cracking of anisotropic spherical polytropes through perturbing parameters like anisotropic pressure, energy density and charge. We consider two different types of polytropes in this study. We discuss the occurrence of cracking in two different ways (i) by perturbing polytropic constant, anisotropy and charge parameter (ii) by perturbing polytropic index, anisotropy and charge parameter for each case. We conclude that cracking appears for a wide range of parameters in both cases. Also, our results are reduced to [2] in the absence of charge.

  14. Inverse moments equilibria for helical anisotropic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, W. A.; Hirshman, S. P.; Depassier, M. C.

    1987-11-01

    An energy functional is devised for magnetic confinement schemes that have anisotropic plasma pressure. The minimization of this energy functional is demonstrated to reproduce components of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) force balance relation in systems with helical symmetry. An iterative steepest descent procedure is applied to the Fourier moments of the inverse magnetic flux coordinates to minimize the total energy and thus generate anisotropic pressure MHD equilibria. Applications to straight ELMO Snaky Torus (NTIS Document No. DE-84002406) configurations that have a magnetic well on the outermost flux surfaces have been obtained.

  15. Raman Tensor Formalism for Optically Anisotropic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Kranert, Christian; Sturm, Chris; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger; Grundmann, Marius

    2016-03-25

    We present a formalism for calculating the Raman scattering intensity dependent on the polarization configuration for optically anisotropic crystals. It can be applied to crystals of arbitrary orientation and crystal symmetry measured in normal incidence backscattering geometry. The classical Raman tensor formalism cannot be used for optically anisotropic materials due to birefringence causing the polarization within the crystal to be depth dependent. We show that in the limit of averaging over a sufficiently large scattering depth, the observed Raman intensities converge and can be described by an effective Raman tensor given here. Full agreement with experimental results for uniaxial and biaxial crystals is demonstrated.

  16. Evolution of multidimensional flat anisotropic cosmological models

    SciTech Connect

    Beloborodov, A. ); Demianski, M. Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics , Universita di Roma I, La Sapienza, Rome ); Ivanov, P.; Polnarev, A.G. )

    1993-07-15

    We study the dynamics of a flat multidimensional anisotropic cosmological model filled with an anisotropic fluidlike medium. By an appropriate choice of variables, the dynamical equations reduce to a two-dimensional dynamical system. We present a detailed analysis of the time evolution of this system and the conditions of the existence of spacetime singularities. We investigate the conditions under which violent, exponential, and power-law inflation is possible. We show that dimensional reduction cannot proceed by anti-inflation (rapid contraction of internal space). Our model indicates that it is very difficult to achieve dimensional reduction by classical means.

  17. Differential matrix formalism for depolarizing anisotropic media.

    PubMed

    Ossikovski, Razvigor

    2011-06-15

    Azzam's differential matrix formalism [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1756 (1978)], originally developed for longitudinally inhomogeneous anisotropic nondepolarizing media, is extended to include depolarizing media. The generalization is physically interpreted in terms of means and uncertainties of the elementary optical properties of the medium, as well as of three anisotropy absorption parameters introduced to describe the depolarization. The formalism results in a particularly simple mathematical procedure for the retrieval of the elementary properties of a generally depolarizing anisotropic medium, assumed to be globally homogeneous, from its experimental Mueller matrix. The approach is illustrated on literature data and the conditions of its validity are identified and discussed.

  18. Phase Field Modeling of Directional Fracture in Anisotropic Polycrystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    ARL-RP-0518 ● FEBRUARY 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Phase Field Modeling of Directional Fracture in Anisotropic Polycrystals...0518 ● FEBRUARY 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Phase Field Modeling of Directional Fracture in Anisotropic Polycrystals by JD Clayton...

  19. Magnetic fields in mixed neutron-star-plus-wormhole systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aringazin, Ascar; Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Folomeev, Vladimir; Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta E-mail: v.dzhunushaliev@gmail.com E-mail: b.kleihaus@uni-oldenburg.de

    2015-04-01

    We consider mixed configurations consisting of a wormhole filled by a strongly magnetized isotropic or anisotropic neutron fluid. The nontrivial topology of the spacetime is allowed by the presence of exotic matter. By comparing these configurations with ordinary magnetized neutron stars, we clarify the question of how the presence of the nontrivial topology influences the magnetic field distribution inside the fluid. In the case of an anisotropic fluid, we find new solutions describing configurations, where the maximum of the fluid density is shifted from the center. A linear stability analysis shows that these mixed configurations are unstable.

  20. An Engineered Anisotropic Nanofilm with Unidirectional Wetting Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    ARTICLES PUBLISHED ONLINE: 10 OCTOBER 2010 | DOI: 10.1038/NMAT2864 An engineered anisotropic nanofilm with unidirectional wetting properties Niranjan...body3. Engineering synthetic materials with such anisotropic adhesive properties has led to advances in digitalmicrofluidic devices5,6 andmedicine7,8...The anisotropic wetting properties of existing engineered surfaces are derived either from spatial gradients (for example, temperature, surface

  1. Data-driven imaging in anisotropic media

    SciTech Connect

    Volker, Arno; Hunter, Alan

    2012-05-17

    Anisotropic materials are being used increasingly in high performance industrial applications, particularly in the aeronautical and nuclear industries. Some important examples of these materials are composites, single-crystal and heavy-grained metals. Ultrasonic array imaging in these materials requires exact knowledge of the anisotropic material properties. Without this information, the images can be adversely affected, causing a reduction in defect detection and characterization performance. The imaging operation can be formulated in two consecutive and reciprocal focusing steps, i.e., focusing the sources and then focusing the receivers. Applying just one of these focusing steps yields an interesting intermediate domain. The resulting common focus point gather (CFP-gather) can be interpreted to determine the propagation operator. After focusing the sources, the observed travel-time in the CFP-gather describes the propagation from the focus point to the receivers. If the correct propagation operator is used, the measured travel-times should be the same as the time-reversed focusing operator due to reciprocity. This makes it possible to iteratively update the focusing operator using the data only and allows the material to be imaged without explicit knowledge of the anisotropic material parameters. Furthermore, the determined propagation operator can also be used to invert for the anisotropic medium parameters. This paper details the proposed technique and demonstrates its use on simulated array data from a specimen of Inconel single-crystal alloy commonly used in the aeronautical and nuclear industries.

  2. Vibrations and stresses in layered anisotropic cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, G. P.; Gupta, B. P.

    1976-01-01

    An equation describing the radial displacement in a k layered anisotropic cylinder was obtained. The cylinders are initially unstressed but are subjected to either a time dependent normal stress or a displacement at the external boundaries of the laminate. The solution is obtained by utilizing the Vodicka orthogonalization technique. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the procedure.

  3. Thermal D mesons from anisotropic lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Aoife; Skullerud, Jon-Ivar

    2017-03-01

    We present results for correlators and spectral functions of open charm mesons using 2+1 flavours of clover fermions on anisotropic lattices. The D mesons are found to dissociate close to the deconfinement crossover temperature Tc. Our preliminary results suggest a shift in the thermal D meson mass below Tc. Mesons containing strange quarks exhibit smaller thermal modifications than those containing light quarks.

  4. Anisotropic MHD model and some solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, V. D.; Dzhalilov, N. S.

    2010-09-15

    MHD waves and instabilities in a collisionless anisotropic-pressure plasma are analyzed in an anisotropic MHD model based on the 16-moment approximation, and the results are found to agree well with those obtained in the low-frequency limit of the kinetic model. It is shown that accounting for heat fluxes leads to an asymmetry in the phase velocities of the wave modes with respect to the heat flux direction and also to a strong interaction between the modes, especially between the backward ones (those that propagate in a direction opposite to that of the heat flux). A correct description of the mirror instability is given. The resonant interaction of three backward modes-fast acoustic, fast magnetosonic, and slow acoustic-under the conditions for the onset of the classical firehose instability triggers a new type of instability the growth rate of which is faster than the maximum growth rate of the conventional firehose instability. The results prove that, in contrast to the familiar Chew-Goldberger-Low approximate model, the anisotropic MHD approach provides a correct description of the large-scale dynamics of collisionless anisotropic plasmas (such as solar corona, solar wind, and ionospheric and magnetospheric plasmas).

  5. A generalized anisotropic deformation formulation for geomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Z.; Rougier, Esteban; Knight, E. E.; Munjiza, A.; Viswanathan, H.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the combined finite-discrete element method (FDEM) has been applied to analyze the deformation of anisotropic geomaterials. In the most general case geomaterials are both non-homogeneous and non-isotropic. With the aim of addressing anisotropic material problems, improved 2D FDEM formulations have been developed. These formulations feature the unified hypo-hyper elastic approach combined with a multiplicative decomposition-based selective integration for volumetric and shear deformation modes. This approach is significantly different from the co-rotational formulations typically encountered in finite element codes. Unlike the co-rotational formulation, the multiplicative decomposition-based formulation naturally decomposes deformation into translation, rotation, plastic stretches, elastic stretches, volumetric stretches, shear stretches, etc. This approach can be implemented for a whole family of finite elements from solids to shells and membranes. This novel 2D FDEM based material formulation was designed in such a way that the anisotropic properties of the solid can be specified in a cell by cell basis, therefore enabling the user to seed these anisotropic properties following any type of spatial variation, for example, following a curvilinear path. In addition, due to the selective integration, there are no problems with volumetric or shear locking with any type of finite element employed.

  6. THEORY OF COMPTON SCATTERING BY ANISOTROPIC ELECTRONS

    SciTech Connect

    Poutanen, Juri; Vurm, Indrek E-mail: indrek.vurm@oulu.f

    2010-08-15

    Compton scattering plays an important role in various astrophysical objects such as accreting black holes and neutron stars, pulsars, relativistic jets, and clusters of galaxies, as well as the early universe. In most of the calculations, it is assumed that the electrons have isotropic angular distribution in some frame. However, there are situations where the anisotropy may be significant due to the bulk motions, or where there is anisotropic cooling by synchrotron radiation or an anisotropic source of seed soft photons. Here we develop an analytical theory of Compton scattering by anisotropic distribution of electrons that can significantly simplify the calculations. Assuming that the electron angular distribution can be represented by a second-order polynomial over the cosine of some angle (dipole and quadrupole anisotropies), we integrate the exact Klein-Nishina cross section over the angles. Exact analytical and approximate formulae valid for any photon and electron energies are derived for the redistribution functions describing Compton scattering of photons with arbitrary angular distribution by anisotropic electrons. The analytical expressions for the corresponding photon scattering cross section on such electrons, as well as the mean energy of scattered photons, its dispersion, and radiation pressure force are also derived. We apply the developed formalism to the accurate calculations of the thermal and kinematic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effects for arbitrary electron distributions.

  7. Examination of the role of the O14(α,p)F17 reaction rate in type-I x-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, J.; He, J. J.; Parikh, A.; Xu, S. W.; Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Ma, P.; Su, J.; Wang, H. W.; Nakao, T.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Teranishi, T.; Hahn, K. I.; Moon, J. Y.; Jung, H. S.; Hashimoto, T.; Chen, A. A.; Irvine, D.; Lee, C. S.; Kubono, S.

    2014-08-01

    The O14(α,p)F17 reaction is one of the key reactions involved in the breakout from the hot-CNO cycle to the rp-process in type-I x-ray bursts (XRBs). The resonant properties in the compound nucleus Ne18 have been investigated through resonant elastic scattering of F17+p. The radioactive F17 beam was separated by the Center for Nuclear Study radioactive ion beam separator (CRIB) and bombarded a thick H2 gas target at 3.6 MeV/nucleon. The recoiling light particles were measured by three ΔE-E silicon telescopes at laboratory angles of θlab≈3∘,10∘, and 18∘. Five resonances at Ex=6.15, 6.28, 6.35, 6.85, and 7.05 MeV were observed in the excitation functions, and their spin-parities have been determined based on an R-matrix analysis. In particular, Jπ=1- was firmly assigned to the 6.15-MeV state which dominates the thermonuclear O14(α ,p)F17 rate below 2 GK. As well, a possible new excited state in Ne18 was observed at Ex=6.85±0.11 MeV with tentative J =0 assignment. This state could be the analog state of the 6.880 MeV (0-) level in the mirror nucleus O18, or a bandhead state (0+) of the six-particle four-hole (6p-4h) band. A new thermonuclear O14(α ,p)F17 rate has been determined, and the astrophysical impact of multiple recent rates has been examined using an XRB model. Contrary to previous expectations, we find only a modest impact on predicted nuclear energy generation rates from using reaction rates differing by up to several orders of magnitude.

  8. Vortex Dynamics in Anisotropic Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steel, David Gordon

    Measurements of the ac screening response and resistance of superconducting Bi_2Sr _2CaCu_2O _8 (BSCCO) crystals have been used to probe the dynamics of the magnetic flux lines within the mixed state as a function of frequency, temperature, and applied dc field. For the particular range of temperature and magnetic field in which measurements were made, the systematic behavior of the observed dissipation peak in the screening response is consistent with electromagnetic skin size effects rather than a phase transition. According to microscopic theories of the interaction between the flux lines and a driving ac field, such a skin size effect is expected for the case when the vortex motion is diffusive in nature. However, diffusive motion is inconsistent with simple activation models that use a single value for the pinning energy (derived from direct measurement of the dc resistance). This contradiction suggests a distribution of pinning energies within the sample. Interlayer vortex decoupling has been directly observed as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field using electronic transport perpendicular to the layers in synthetic amorphous MoGe/Ge multilayer samples. Perpendicular transport has been shown to be a far more sensitive measure of the phase coupling between layers than in-plane properties. Below the decoupling temperature T_{D} the resistivity anisotropy collapses and striking nonlinearities appear in the perpendicular current-voltage behavior, which are not observed in parallel transport. A crossover in behavior is also observed at a field H _{x}, in accordance with theory. The data suggest the presence of a phase transition into a state with finite in-plane resistivity. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.).

  9. Oligonucleotide-Functionalized Anisotropic Gold Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Matthew Robert

    In this thesis, we describe the properties of oligonucleotide-functionalized gold colloids under the unique set of conditions where the particles are geometrically anisotropic and have nanometer-scale dimensions. While nearly two decades of previous work elucidated numerous unexpected and emergent phenomena arising from the combination of inorganic nanoparticles with surface-bound DNA strands, virtually nothing was known about how these properties are altered when the shape of the nanoparticle core is chosen to be non-spherical. In particular, we are interested in understanding, and ultimately controlling, the ways in which these DNA-conjugated anisotropic nanostructures interact when their attraction is governed by programmable DNA hybridization events. Chapter 1 introduces the field of DNA-based materials assembly by discussing how nanoscale building blocks which present rigid, directional interactions can be thought of as possessing artificial versions of the familiar chemical principles of "bonds" and "valency". In chapter 2 we explore the fundamental interparticle binding thermodynamics of DNA-functionalized spherical and anisotropic nanoparticles, which reveals enormous preferences for collective ligand interactions occurring between flat surfaces over those that occur between curved surfaces. Using these insights, chapter 3 demonstrates that when syntheses produce mixtures of different nanoparticle shapes, the tailorable nature of DNA-mediated interparticle association can be used to selectively crystallize and purify the desired anisotropic nanostructure products, leaving spherical impurity particles behind. Chapter 4 leverages the principle that the flat facets of anisotropic particles generate directional DNA-based hybridization interactions to assemble a variety of tailorable nanoparticle superlattices whose symmetry and dimensionality are a direct consequence of the shape of the nanoparticle building block used in their construction. Chapter 5 explores

  10. Solutions to higher-order anisotropic parabolic equations in unbounded domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhevnikova, L. M.; Leont'ev, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    The paper is devoted to a certain class of doubly nonlinear higher-order anisotropic parabolic equations. Using Galerkin approximations it is proved that the first mixed problem with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition has a strong solution in the cylinder D=(0,\\infty)\\times\\Omega, where \\Omega\\subset R^n, n\\geq 3, is an unbounded domain. When the initial function has compact support the highest possible rate of decay of this solution as t\\to \\infty is found. An upper estimate characterizing the decay of the solution is established, which is close to the lower estimate if the domain is sufficiently 'narrow'. The same authors have previously obtained results of this type for second order anisotropic parabolic equations. Bibliography: 29 titles.

  11. Coarse-grained depletion potentials for anisotropic colloids: Application to lock-and-key systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Clement; Ashton, Douglas J.; Wilding, Nigel B.; Jack, Robert L.

    2016-08-01

    When colloids are mixed with a depletant such as a non-adsorbing polymer, one observes attractive effective interactions between the colloidal particles. If these particles are anisotropic, analysis of these effective interactions is challenging in general. We present a method for inference of approximate (coarse-grained) effective interaction potentials between such anisotropic particles. Using the example of indented (lock-and-key) colloids, we show how numerical solutions can be used to integrate out the (hard sphere) depletant, leading to a depletion potential that accurately characterises the effective interactions. The accuracy of the method is based on matching of contributions to the second virial coefficient of the colloids. The simplest version of our method yields a piecewise-constant effective potential; we also show how this scheme can be generalised to other functional forms, where appropriate.

  12. Solutions to higher-order anisotropic parabolic equations in unbounded domains

    SciTech Connect

    Kozhevnikova, L M; Leont'ev, A A

    2014-01-31

    The paper is devoted to a certain class of doubly nonlinear higher-order anisotropic parabolic equations. Using Galerkin approximations it is proved that the first mixed problem with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition has a strong solution in the cylinder D=(0,∞)×Ω, where Ω⊂R{sup n}, n≥3, is an unbounded domain. When the initial function has compact support the highest possible rate of decay of this solution as t→∞ is found. An upper estimate characterizing the decay of the solution is established, which is close to the lower estimate if the domain is sufficiently 'narrow'. The same authors have previously obtained results of this type for second order anisotropic parabolic equations. Bibliography: 29 titles.

  13. Structural orderings of anisotropically confined colloids interacting via a quasi-square-well potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, L. Q. Costa; Apolinario, S. W. S.

    2015-01-01

    We implement Brownian dynamics to investigate the static properties of colloidal particles confined anisotropically and interacting via a potential which can be tailored in a repulsive-attractive-respulsive fashion as the interparticle distance increases. A diverse number of structural phases are self-assembled, which were classified according to two aspects, that is, their macroscopic and microscopic patterns. Concerning the microscopic phases we found the quasicrystalline, triangular, square, and mixed orderings, where this latter is a combination of square and triangular cells in a 3 ×2 proportion, i.e., the so-called (33,42) Archimedian lattice. On the macroscopic level the system could self-organize in a compact or perforated single cluster surrounded or not by fringes. All the structural phases are summarized in detailed phases diagrams, which clearly show that the different phases are extended as the confinement potential becomes more anisotropic.

  14. Anisotropic N=4 Super-Yang-Mills Plasma and Its Instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mateos, David; Trancanelli, Diego

    2011-09-02

    We present a type-IIB supergravity solution dual to a spatially anisotropic finite-temperature N=4 super-Yang-Mills plasma. The solution is static and completely regular. The full geometry can be viewed as a renormalization group flow from an ultraviolet anti-de Sitter geometry to an infrared Lifshitz-like geometry. The anisotropy can be equivalently understood as resulting from a position-dependent {theta} term or from a nonzero number density of dissolved D7-branes. The holographic stress tensor is conserved and anisotropic. The presence of a conformal anomaly plays an important role in the thermodynamics. The phase diagram exhibits homogeneous and inhomogeneous (i.e., mixed) phases. In some regions the homogeneous phase displays instabilities reminiscent of those of weakly coupled plasmas. We comment on similarities with QCD at finite baryon density and with the phenomenon of cavitation.

  15. Contrasting feature in the repopulation of host-type T cells in the spleens of F1----P and P----F1 radiation bone marrow chimeras

    SciTech Connect

    Hirokawa, K.; Sado, T.; Kubo, S.; Kamisaku, H.; Utsuyama, M.

    1986-11-01

    The regeneration and persistence of host- and donor-derived T cells were examined in the thymus as well as the spleen of mouse radiation bone marrow chimeras of two semiallogeneic combinations (F1----P, P----F1) with different Thy-1 markers on T cells of donor and host origins. An unexpectedly large number of host-type T cells were recovered from the spleens of F1----P chimeras, amounting to as high as 45 and 25% of total T cells at 6 and 14 weeks after bone marrow transplantation (BMT), respectively. To the contrary, the residual host-type T cells in the spleens of P----F1 chimeras disappeared quickly, resulting in less than 0.1% of total T cells at 6 weeks after BMT. It was also revealed that the number of host-type T cells in the spleens of F1----P chimeras decreased in proportion to increase of radiation dose given to the recipients.

  16. The novel c.247_249delTTC (p.F83del) GJB2 mutation in a family with prelingual sensorineural deafness.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Michael B; Grigoriadou, Maria; Koutroumpe, Maria; Kokotas, Haris

    2012-07-01

    Non-syndromic hearing loss is one of the most common hereditary determined diseases in human, and the disease is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. Mutations in the GJB2 gene, encoding connexin 26 (Cx26), are a major cause of non-syndromic recessive hearing impairment in many countries and are largely dependent on ethnic groups. Due to the high frequency of the c.35delG GJB2 mutation in the Greek population, we have previously suggested that Greek patients with sensorineural, non-syndromic deafness should be tested for the c.35delG mutation and the coding region of the GJB2 gene should be sequenced in c.35delG heterozygotes. Here we present on the clinical and molecular genetic evaluation of a family suffering from prelingual, sensorineural, non-syndromic deafness. A novel c.247_249delTTC (p.F83del) GJB2 mutation was detected in compound heterozygosity with the c.35delG GJB2 mutation in the proband and was later confirmed in the father, while the mother was homozygous for the c.35delG GJB2 mutation. We conclude that compound heterozygosity of the novel c.247_249delTTC (p.F83del) and the c.35delG mutations in the GJB2 gene was the cause of deafness in the proband and his father.

  17. Rainbow metric from quantum gravity: Anisotropic cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assanioussi, Mehdi; Dapor, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we present a construction of effective cosmological models which describe the propagation of a massive quantum scalar field on a quantum anisotropic cosmological spacetime. Each obtained effective model is represented by a rainbow metric in which particles of distinct momenta propagate on different classical geometries. Our analysis shows that upon certain assumptions and conditions on the parameters determining such anisotropic models, we surprisingly obtain a unique deformation parameter β in the modified dispersion relation of the modes, hence, inducing an isotropic deformation despite the general starting considerations. We then ensure the recovery of the dispersion relation realized in the isotropic case, studied in [M. Assanioussi, A. Dapor, and J. Lewandowski, Phys. Lett. B 751, 302 (2015), 10.1016/j.physletb.2015.10.043], when some proper symmetry constraints are imposed, and we estimate the value of the deformation parameter for this case in loop quantum cosmology context.

  18. Nonminimal coupling in anisotropic teleparallel inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedi, Habib; Wright, Matthew; Abbassi, Amir M.

    2017-03-01

    We study an anisotropic inflationary scenario in teleparallel gravity. We consider a model where the inflaton is nonminimally coupled both to torsion and a vector field, which can lead to anisotropic inflation. In the weak-coupling limit, our results coincide with the results obtained in the general relativistic framework. However, in the strong-coupling regime of the Jordan frame, we show that the anisotropy shear to expansion ratio is a constant, and can be much larger than the slow-roll parameter. Applying a conformal transformation we then work in the Einstein frame, which in teleparallel gravity introduces a different form of coupling between the inflaton and torsion. In this frame we show that in the strong coupling regime the anisotropy shear to expansion ratio is a different constant, that can be made suitably small.

  19. Formation of Anisotropic Block Copolymer Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, Chya Yan; Shull, Kenneth; Henderson, Kevin; Joester, Derk

    2011-03-01

    Anisotropic, fibrillar gels are important in a variety of processes. Biomineralization is one example, where the mineralization process often occurs within a matrix of collagen or chitin fibers that trap the mineral precursors and direct the mineralization process. We wish to replicate this type of behavior within block copolymer gels. Particularly, we are interested in employing gels composed of cylindrical micelles, which are anisotropic and closely mimic biological fibers. Micelle geometry is controlled in our system by manipulating the ratio of molecular weights of the two blocks and by controlling the detailed thermal processing history of the copolymer solutions. Small-Angle X-ray Scattering and Dynamic Light Scattering are used to determine the temperature dependence of the gel formation process. Initial experiments are based on a thermally-reversible alcohol-soluble system, that can be subsequently converted to a water soluble system by hydrolysis of a poly(t-butyl methacrylate) block to a poly (methacrylic acid) block. MRSEC.

  20. Fluctuations in a Primordial Anisotropic ERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novello, Mário; de Freitas, Luciane R.

    The primordial Universe is treated in terms of a nonperfect fluid configuration endowed with an anisotropic expansion. The deGennes-Landau mechanism of phase transition acts as a very efficient process to provide the elimination of the previous anisotropy and to set the universe in the current isotropic FRW stage. The entropy produced, as a consequence of the phase transition, depends on the strength of the previous shear. We suggest the hypothesis that the germinal perturbations that will grow into the observed system of galaxies occurring in the anisotropic era. We present a model to deal with this idea that provides a power spectrum of fluctuations of the form δ 2k ˜ 1/(a +bk2). We compare this prediction of our model to the current knowledge on the galaxy formation process.

  1. Wireless energy transfer between anisotropic metamaterials shells

    SciTech Connect

    Díaz-Rubio, Ana; Carbonell, Jorge; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2014-06-15

    The behavior of strongly coupled Radial Photonic Crystals shells is investigated as a potential alternative to transfer electromagnetic energy wirelessly. These sub-wavelength resonant microstructures, which are based on anisotropic metamaterials, can produce efficient coupling phenomena due to their high quality factor. A configuration of selected constitutive parameters (permittivity and permeability) is analyzed in terms of its resonant characteristics. The coupling to loss ratio between two coupled resonators is calculated as a function of distance, the maximum (in excess of 300) is obtained when the shells are separated by three times their radius. Under practical conditions an 83% of maximum power transfer has been also estimated. -- Highlights: •Anisotropic metamaterial shells exhibit high quality factors and sub-wavelength size. •Exchange of electromagnetic energy between shells with high efficiency is analyzed. •Strong coupling is supported with high wireless transfer efficiency. •End-to-end energy transfer efficiencies higher than 83% can be predicted.

  2. The Impact of Anisotropic Error Correlation Modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swinbank, R.; Riishojgaard, L. P.; Menard, R.

    1999-01-01

    Most data assimilation systems assume isotropic forecast error correlations, but results from two dimensional Kalman Filter experiments indicate that the correlations can be far from isotropic. In this paper we use a simple two-dimensional data assimilation system, which analyses trace chemical species such as ozone, to assess different approaches to modelling the error correlations. We compare assimilation results using isotropic correlations with results obtained using different approaches to modelling anisotropic correlations: first, using correlations based on the concentrations of the trace chemicals, and secondly using an advective correlation model. We show that these relatively cheap ways of modelling anisotropic correlations give objectively better results than using isotropic correlations. We discuss the possible extension of these approaches to a full 3-D meteorological data assimilation system.

  3. Nonorthogonal polarisation eigenstates in anisotropic cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Mamaev, Yu A; Khandokhin, Pavel A

    2011-06-30

    The Jones matrix method is used to analyse the polarisation eigenmodes of a solid-state laser with an anisotropic Fabry - Perot cavity containing amplitude and phase anisotropic elements. The results demonstrate that, when the axes of these elements do not coincide, the eigenpolarisations become elliptical and nonorthogonal. The ellipticities and azimuths of the polarisation modes and the magnitude and phase of the nonorthogonality parameter are determined as functions of polariser angle at different relationships between the amplitude and phase anisotropies, and the effect is shown to be strongest at a polariser angle of 45{sup 0}. There is critical phase anisotropy, dependent on amplitude anisotropy, at which the magnitude of the nonorthogonality parameter and ellipticity of the polarisation modes approach unity. (resonators)

  4. Anisotropic singularities in modified gravity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiró, Michele Ferraz; Saa, Alberto

    2009-09-01

    We show that the common singularities present in generic modified gravity models governed by actions of the type S=∫d4x-gf(R,ϕ,X), with X=-(1)/(2)gab∂aϕ∂bϕ, are essentially the same anisotropic instabilities associated to the hypersurface F(ϕ)=0 in the case of a nonminimal coupling of the type F(ϕ)R, enlightening the physical origin of such singularities that typically arise in rather complex and cumbersome inhomogeneous perturbation analyses. We show, moreover, that such anisotropic instabilities typically give rise to dynamically unavoidable singularities, precluding completely the possibility of having physically viable models for which the hypersurface (∂f)/(∂R)=0 is attained. Some examples are explicitly discussed.

  5. Method of caustics for anisotropic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossmanith, H. P.

    1991-12-01

    During the past 25 years the optical method of caustics has matured to a very powerful tool for application in fracture mechanics for the determination of stress intensity factors or the J- integral, in contact mechanics for the determination of contact forces, etc. The technique is applicable to two-dimensional static or dynamic problems and works for any kind of stress- strain relationship. The method displays its full power when employed in conjunction with interactive numerical data reduction and evaluation procedures. Recently, the industrial application of high strength-low weight composite materials has boomed. Application of the method of caustics to anisotropic materials requires the development of the theoretical background. This contribution focuses on the theoretical development of the method of caustics and its applicability to anisotropic materials.

  6. Cosmological signatures of anisotropic spatial curvature

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Thiago S.; Marugán, Guillermo A. Mena; Carneiro, Saulo E-mail: mena@iem.cfmac.csic.es

    2015-07-01

    If one is willing to give up the cherished hypothesis of spatial isotropy, many interesting cosmological models can be developed beyond the simple anisotropically expanding scenarios. One interesting possibility is presented by shear-free models in which the anisotropy emerges at the level of the curvature of the homogeneous spatial sections, whereas the expansion is dictated by a single scale factor. We show that such models represent viable alternatives to describe the large-scale structure of the inflationary universe, leading to a kinematically equivalent Sachs-Wolfe effect. Through the definition of a complete set of spatial eigenfunctions we compute the two-point correlation function of scalar perturbations in these models. In addition, we show how such scenarios would modify the spectrum of the CMB assuming that the observations take place in a small patch of a universe with anisotropic curvature.

  7. Effect of inflation on anisotropic cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, L.G.; Stein-Schabes, J.A.

    1986-03-01

    The effects of anisotropic cosmologies on inflation are studied. By properly formulating the field equations it is possible to show that any model that undergoes sufficient inflation will become isotropic on scales greater than the horizon today. Furthermore, we shall show that it takes a very long time for anisotropies to become visible in the observable part of the Universe. It is interesting to note that the time scale will be independent of the Bianchi Model and of the initial anisotropy. 6 refs.

  8. Anisotropic cosmological solutions in massive vector theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2016-11-01

    In beyond-generalized Proca theories including the extension to theories higher than second order, we study the role of a spatial component v of a massive vector field on the anisotropic cosmological background. We show that, as in the case of the isotropic cosmological background, there is no additional ghostly degrees of freedom associated with the Ostrogradski instability. In second-order generalized Proca theories we find the existence of anisotropic solutions on which the ratio between the anisotropic expansion rate Σ and the isotropic expansion rate H remains nearly constant in the radiation-dominated epoch. In the regime where Σ/H is constant, the spatial vector component v works as a dark radiation with the equation of state close to 1/3. During the matter era, the ratio Σ/H decreases with the decrease of v. As long as the conditions |Σ| ll H and v2 ll phi2 are satisfied around the onset of late-time cosmic acceleration, where phi is the temporal vector component, we find that the solutions approach the isotropic de Sitter fixed point (Σ = 0 = v) in accordance with the cosmic no-hair conjecture. In the presence of v and Σ the early evolution of the dark energy equation of state wDE in the radiation era is different from that in the isotropic case, but the approach to the isotropic value wDE(iso) typically occurs at redshifts z much larger than 1. Thus, apart from the existence of dark radiation, the anisotropic cosmological dynamics at low redshifts is similar to that in isotropic generalized Proca theories. In beyond-generalized Proca theories the only consistent solution to avoid the divergence of a determinant of the dynamical system corresponds to v = 0, so Σ always decreases in time.

  9. Anisotropic conducting films for electromagnetic radiation applications

    DOEpatents

    Cavallo, Francesca; Lagally, Max G.; Rojas-Delgado, Richard

    2015-06-16

    Electronic devices for the generation of electromagnetic radiation are provided. Also provided are methods for using the devices to generate electromagnetic radiation. The radiation sources include an anisotropic electrically conducting thin film that is characterized by a periodically varying charge carrier mobility in the plane of the film. The periodic variation in carrier mobility gives rise to a spatially varying electric field, which produces electromagnetic radiation as charged particles pass through the film.

  10. Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity of Exfoliated Black Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyejin; Wood, Joshua D; Ryder, Christopher R; Hersam, Mark C; Cahill, David G

    2015-12-22

    The anisotropic thermal conductivity of passivated black phosphorus (BP), a reactive two-dimensional material with strong in-plane anisotropy, is ascertained. The room-temperature thermal conductivity for three crystalline axes of exfoliated BP is measured by time-domain thermo-reflectance. The thermal conductivity along the zigzag direction is ≈2.5 times higher than that of the armchair direction.

  11. Probabilistic Anisotropic Failure Criteria for Composite Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    worksheets were based on Microsoft Excel software. 55 55 ’. 2.’ 𔃼..’. -.. ’-,’€’.’’.’ :2.,2..’..’.2.’.’.,’.." .𔃼.. .2...analytically described the failure cri - terion and probabilistic failure states of a anisotropic composite in a combined stress state. Strength...APPENDIX F RELIABILITY/FAILURE FUNCTION WORKSHEET ........... 76 APPENDIX G PERCENTILE STRENGTH WORKSHEET ....................... 80 LIST OF

  12. Observational signatures of anisotropic inflationary models

    SciTech Connect

    Ohashi, Junko; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Soda, Jiro E-mail: jiro@phys.sci.kobe-u.ac.jp

    2013-12-01

    We study observational signatures of two classes of anisotropic inflationary models in which an inflaton field couples to (i) a vector kinetic term F{sub μν}F{sup μν} and (ii) a two-form kinetic term H{sub μνλ}H{sup μνλ}. We compute the corrections from the anisotropic sources to the power spectrum of gravitational waves as well as the two-point cross correlation between scalar and tensor perturbations. The signs of the anisotropic parameter g{sub *} are different depending on the vector and the two-form models, but the statistical anisotropies generally lead to a suppressed tensor-to-scalar ratio r and a smaller scalar spectral index n{sub s} in both models. In the light of the recent Planck bounds of n{sub s} and r, we place observational constraints on several different inflaton potentials such as those in chaotic and natural inflation in the presence of anisotropic interactions. In the two-form model we also find that there is no cross correlation between scalar and tensor perturbations, while in the vector model the cross correlation does not vanish. The non-linear estimator f{sub NL} of scalar non-Gaussianities in the two-form model is generally smaller than that in the vector model for the same orders of |g{sub *}|, so that the former is easier to be compatible with observational bounds of non-Gaussianities than the latter.

  13. Symmetry analysis for anisotropic field theories

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, Lorena; Vergara, J. David

    2012-08-24

    The purpose of this paper is to study with the help of Noether's theorem the symmetries of anisotropic actions for arbitrary fields which generally depend on higher order spatial derivatives, and to find the corresponding current densities and the Noether charges. We study in particular scale invariance and consider the cases of higher derivative extensions of the scalar field, electrodynamics and Chern-Simons theory.

  14. Perspectives of anisotropic flow measurements at NICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotkikh, V. L.; Lokhtin, I. P.; Malinina, L. V.; Petrushanko, S. V.; Snigirev, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    High-accuracy and high-luminosity measurements of anisotropic flow for various hadron types over full NICA energy range will provide important constraints on the early dynamics of heavy-ion reactions under the conditions where a first-order quark-hadron phase transition may occur. The statistical reach for elliptic flow measurements at NICA is estimated with HYDJET++ heavy-ion event generator.

  15. Multidimensional reaction rate theory with anisotropic diffusion.

    PubMed

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M; Szabo, Attila; Greives, Nicholas; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2014-11-28

    An analytical expression is derived for the rate constant that describes diffusive transitions between two deep wells of a multidimensional potential. The expression, in contrast to the Kramers-Langer formula for the rate constant, is valid even when the diffusion is highly anisotropic. Our approach is based on a variational principle for the reactive flux and uses a trial function for the splitting probability or commitor. The theoretical result is validated by Brownian dynamics simulations.

  16. Longitudinal fluctuations and decorrelation of anisotropic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Long-Gang; Petersen, Hannah; Qin, Guang-You; Roy, Victor; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the decorrelation of 2nd and 3rd order anisotropic flow for charged particles in two different pseudo rapidity (η) windows by varying the pseudo rapidity gap, in an event-by-event (3+1)D ideal hydrodynamic model, with fluctuating initial conditions from A Multi-Phase Transport (AMPT) model. We visualize the parton distribution at initial state for Pb+Pb collisions at LHC and Au+Au collisions at RHIC, and demonstrate the longitudinal fluctuations originating from the asymmetry between forward and backward going participants, the fluctuations of the string length and the fluctuations due to finite number of partons at different beam energies. The decorrelation of anisotropic flow of final hadrons with large η gaps is found to originate from the spatial decorrelation along the longitudinal direction in the AMPT initial conditions through hydrodynamic evolution. The agreement between our results and recent CMS data in most centralities suggests that the string-like mechanism of initial parton production in AMPT model captures the initial longitudinal fluctuation that is responsible for the measured decorrelation of anisotropic flow in Pb+Pb collisions at LHC. Our predictions for Au+Au collisions at the highest RHIC energy show stronger longitudinal decorrelation than at LHC, indicating larger longitudinal fluctuations at lower beam energies.

  17. Anisotropic representations for superresolution of hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, Edward H.; Czaja, Wojciech; Murphy, James M.; Weinberg, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    We develop a method for superresolution based on anisotropic harmonic analysis. Our ambition is to efficiently increase the resolution of an image without blurring or introducing artifacts, and without integrating additional information, such as sub-pixel shifts of the same image at lower resolutions or multimodal images of the same scene. The approach developed in this article is based on analysis of the directional features present in the image that is to be superesolved. The harmonic analytic technique of shearlets is implemented in order to efficiently capture the directional information present in the image, which is then used to provide smooth, accurate images at higher resolutions. Our algorithm is compared to both a recent anisotropic technique based on frame theory and circulant matrices,1 as well as to the standard superresolution method of bicubic interpolation. We evaluate our algorithm on synthetic test images, as well as a hyperspectral image. Our results indicate the superior performance of anisotropic methods, when compared to standard bicubic interpolation.

  18. Active Damping Using Distributed Anisotropic Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiller, Noah H.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Quinones, Juan D.; Wier, Nathan C.

    2010-01-01

    A helicopter structure experiences substantial high-frequency mechanical excitation from powertrain components such as gearboxes and drive shafts. The resulting structure-borne vibration excites the windows which then radiate sound into the passenger cabin. In many cases the radiated sound power can be reduced by adding damping. This can be accomplished using passive or active approaches. Passive treatments such as constrained layer damping tend to reduce window transparency. Therefore this paper focuses on an active approach utilizing compact decentralized control units distributed around the perimeter of the window. Each control unit consists of a triangularly shaped piezoelectric actuator, a miniature accelerometer, and analog electronics. Earlier work has shown that this type of system can increase damping up to approximately 1 kHz. However at higher frequencies the mismatch between the distributed actuator and the point sensor caused control spillover. This paper describes new anisotropic actuators that can be used to improve the bandwidth of the control system. The anisotropic actuators are composed of piezoelectric material sandwiched between interdigitated electrodes, which enables the application of the electric field in a preferred in-plane direction. When shaped correctly the anisotropic actuators outperform traditional isotropic actuators by reducing the mismatch between the distributed actuator and point sensor at high frequencies. Testing performed on a Plexiglas panel, representative of a helicopter window, shows that the control units can increase damping at low frequencies. However high frequency performance was still limited due to the flexible boundary conditions present on the test structure.

  19. Anisotropic materials appearance analysis using ellipsoidal mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filip, Jiří; Vávra, Radomír.

    2015-03-01

    Many real-world materials exhibit significant changes in appearance when rotated along a surface normal. The presence of this behavior is often referred to as visual anisotropy. Anisotropic appearance of spatially homogeneous materials is commonly characterized by a four-dimensional BRDF. Unfortunately, due to simplicity most past research has been devoted to three dimensional isotropic BRDFs. In this paper, we introduce an innovative, fast, and inexpensive image-based approach to detect the extent of anisotropy, its main axes and width of corresponding anisotropic highlights. The method does not rely on any moving parts and uses only an off-the-shelf ellipsoidal reflector with a compact camera. We analyze our findings with a material microgeometry scan, and present how results correspond to the microstructure of individual threads in a particular fabric. We show that knowledge of a material's anisotropic behavior can be effectively used in order to design a material-dependent sampling pattern so as the material's BRDF could be measured much more precisely in the same amount of time using a common gonioreflectometer.

  20. Anisotropic hydrodynamics for conformal Gubser flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Michael; Nopoush, Mohammad; Ryblewski, Radoslaw

    2016-12-01

    In this proceedings contribution, we review the exact solution of the anisotropic hydrodynamics equations for a system subject to Gubser flow. For this purpose, we use the leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics equations which assume that the distribution function is ellipsoidally symmetric in local-rest-frame momentum. We then prove that the SO(3)q symmetry in de Sitter space constrains the anisotropy tensor to be of spheroidal form with only one independent anisotropy parameter remaining. As a consequence, the exact solution reduces to the problem of solving two coupled non-linear differential equations. We show that, in the limit that the relaxation time goes to zero, one obtains Gubser's ideal hydrodynamic solution and, in the limit that the relaxation time goes to infinity, one obtains the exact free streaming solution obtained originally by Denicol et al. For finite relaxation time, we solve the equations numerically and compare to the exact solution of the relaxation-time-approximation Boltzmann equation subject to Gubser flow. Using this as our standard, we find that anisotropic hydrodynamics describes the spatio-temporal evolution of the system better than all currently known dissipative hydrodynamics approaches.

  1. Anisotropic impedance surfaces for enhanced antenna isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miragliotta, Joseph A.; Shrekenhamer, David; Sievenpiper, Daniel F.

    2015-09-01

    Anisotropic impedance surfaces, which include metasurfaces and high impedance surfaces (HIS), can be designed to control the amplitude and propagation direction of surface electromagnetic waves and are an effective means to enhance the isolation between antennas that share a common ground plane. To date, the majority of metastructures that have been designed for antenna isolation have relied on an isotropic distribution of unit cells that possess a stop band that inhibits the propagation of surface waves between neighboring antennas. A less common approach to isolation has been through the design of a metasurface that enables the re-direction of surface waves away from the location of the antenna structure, which effectively limits the coupling. In this paper, we discuss results from our computational investigation associated with improving antenna isolation through the use of an anisotropic metastructure. Simulated results associated with the isolation performance of two simple, but similar, anisotropic structures are compared to the corresponding results from a broadband magnetic radar absorbing materials (magRAM).

  2. ARTc: Anisotropic reflectivity and transmissivity calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malehmir, Reza; Schmitt, Douglas R.

    2016-08-01

    While seismic anisotropy is known to exist within the Earth's crust and even deeper, isotropic or even highly symmetric elastic anisotropic assumptions for seismic imaging is an over-simplification which may create artifacts in the image, target mis-positioning and hence flawed interpretation. In this paper, we have developed the ARTc algorithm to solve reflectivity, transmissivity as well as velocity and particle polarization in the most general case of elastic anisotropy. This algorithm is able to provide reflectivity solution from the boundary between two anisotropic slabs with arbitrary symmetry and orientation up to triclinic. To achieve this, the algorithm solves full elastic wave equation to find polarization, slowness and amplitude of all six wave-modes generated from the incident plane-wave and welded interface. In the first step to calculate the reflectivity, the algorithm solves properties of the incident wave such as particle polarization and slowness. After calculation of the direction of generated waves, the algorithm solves their respective slowness and particle polarization. With this information, the algorithm then solves a system of equations incorporating the imposed boundary conditions to arrive at the scattered wave amplitudes, and thus reflectivity and transmissivity. Reflectivity results as well as slowness and polarization are then tested in complex computational anisotropic models to ensure their accuracy and reliability. ARTc is coded in MATLAB ® and bundled with an interactive GUI and bash script to run on single or multi-processor computers.

  3. Anisotropic halo model: implementation and numerical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgró, Mario A.; Paz, Dante J.; Merchán, Manuel

    2013-07-01

    In the present work, we extend the classic halo model for the large-scale matter distribution including a triaxial model for the halo profiles and their alignments. In particular, we derive general expressions for the halo-matter cross-correlation function. In addition, by numerical integration, we obtain instances of the cross-correlation function depending on the directions given by halo shape axes. These functions are called anisotropic cross-correlations. With the aim of comparing our theoretical results with the simulations, we compute averaged anisotropic correlations in cones with their symmetry axis along each shape direction of the centre halo. From these comparisons we characterize and quantify the alignment of dark matter haloes on the Λcold dark matter context by means of the presented anisotropic halo model. Since our model requires multidimensional integral computation we implement a Monte Carlo method on GPU hardware which allows us to increase the precision of the results and it improves the performance of the computation.

  4. Quasiparticle equation of state for anisotropic hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alqahtani, Mubarak; Nopoush, Mohammad; Strickland, Michael

    2015-11-01

    We present a new method for imposing a realistic equation of state in anisotropic hydrodynamics. The method relies on the introduction of a single finite-temperature quasiparticle mass which is fit to lattice data. By taking moments of the Boltzmann equation, we obtain a set of coupled partial differential equations which can be used to describe the 3+1-dimensional (3+1d) spacetime evolution of an anisotropic relativistic system. We then specialize to the case of a 0+1d system undergoing boost-invariant Bjorken expansion and subject to the relaxation-time approximation collisional kernel. Using this setup, we compare results obtained using the new quasiparticle equation of state method with those obtained using the standard method for imposing the equation of state in anisotropic hydrodynamics. We demonstrate that the temperature evolution obtained using the two methods is nearly identical and that there are only small differences in the pressure anisotropy. However, we find that there are significant differences in the evolution of the bulk pressure correction.

  5. Anisotropic Self-Assembly of Nanoparticle Amphiphiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanat

    2009-03-01

    It is easy to understand the self-assembly of particles having anisotropic shapes or interactions, such as Co nanoparticles or proteins, into highly extended structures. However, there is no experimentally established strategy for creating anisotropic structures from common spherical nanoparticles. We demonstrate that spherical nanoparticles, uniformly grafted with macromolecules, robustly self-assemble into a range of anisotropic superstructures when they are dispersed in the corresponding homopolymer matrix. This phenomenon is driven by the microphase separation between the inorganic nanoparticles and the (organic) polymeric chains grafted to their surfaces in a fashion similar to block copolymers. This microphase separation driven particle self-assembly provides a unique means of controlling the global nanoparticle dispersion state in polymer nanocomposites. The relationship between the state of particle dispersion and nanocomposite properties can thus be critically examined, and in particular we focus on the mechanical reinforcement afforded when particles are added to polymers. Grafted nanoparticles are thus versatile building blocks for creating tunable and functional particle superstructures with significant practical applications. With Pinar Akcora, Hongjun Liu, Yu Li, Brian Benicewicz, Linda Schadler, Thanos Panagiotopoulos, Jack Douglas, P. Thiyagarajan and Ralph Colby.

  6. Anisotropic and Hierarchical Porosity in Multifunctional Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtner, Aaron Zev

    The performance of multifunctional porous ceramics is often hindered by the seemingly contradictory effects of porosity on both mechanical and non-structural properties and yet a sufficient body of knowledge linking microstructure to these properties does not exist. Using a combination of tailored anisotropic and hierarchical materials, these disparate effects may be reconciled. In this project, a systematic investigation of the processing, characterization and properties of anisotropic and isotropic hierarchically porous ceramics was conducted. The system chosen was a composite ceramic intended as the cathode for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Comprehensive processing investigations led to the development of approaches to make hierarchical, anisotropic porous microstructures using directional freeze-casting of well dispersed slurries. The effect of all the important processing parameters was investigated. This resulted in an ability to tailor and control the important microstructural features including the scale of the microstructure, the macropore size and total porosity. Comparable isotropic porous ceramics were also processed using fugitive pore formers. A suite of characterization techniques including x-ray tomography and 3-D sectional scanning electron micrographs (FIB-SEM) was used to characterize and quantify the green and partially sintered microstructures. The effect of sintering temperature on the microstructure was quantified and discrete element simulations (DEM) were used to explain the experimental observations. Finally, the comprehensive mechanical properties, at room temperature, were investigated, experimentally and using DEM, for the different microstructures.

  7. Efficient Anisotropic Filtering of Diffusion Tensor Images

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qing; Anderson, Adam W.; Gore, John C.; Ding, Zhaohua

    2009-01-01

    To improve the accuracy of structural and architectural characterization of living tissue with diffusion tensor imaging, an efficient smoothing algorithm is presented for reducing noise in diffusion tensor images. The algorithm is based on anisotropic diffusion filtering, which allows both image detail preservation and noise reduction. However, traditional numerical schemes for anisotropic filtering have the drawback of inefficiency and inaccuracy due to their poor stability and first order time accuracy. To address this, an unconditionally stable and second order time accuracy semi-implicit Craig-Sneyd scheme is adapted in our anisotropic filtering. By using large step size, unconditional stability allows this scheme to take much fewer iterations and thus less computation time than the explicit scheme to achieve a certain degree of smoothing. Second order time accuracy makes the algorithm reduce noise more effectively than a first order scheme with the same total iteration time. Both the efficiency and effectiveness are quantitatively evaluated based on synthetic and in vivo human brain diffusion tensor images, and these tests demonstrate that our algorithm is an efficient and effective tool for denoising diffusion tensor images. PMID:20061113

  8. Textured silicon nitride: processing and anisotropic properties

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xinwen; Sakka, Yoshio

    2008-01-01

    Textured silicon nitride (Si3N4) has been intensively studied over the past 15 years because of its use for achieving its superthermal and mechanical properties. In this review we present the fundamental aspects of the processing and anisotropic properties of textured Si3N4, with emphasis on the anisotropic and abnormal grain growth of β-Si3N4, texture structure and texture analysis, processing methods and anisotropic properties. On the basis of the texturing mechanisms, the processing methods described in this article have been classified into two types: hot-working (HW) and templated grain growth (TGG). The HW method includes the hot-pressing, hot-forging and sinter-forging techniques, and the TGG method includes the cold-pressing, extrusion, tape-casting and strong magnetic field alignment techniques for β-Si3N4 seed crystals. Each processing technique is thoroughly discussed in terms of theoretical models and experimental data, including the texturing mechanisms and the factors affecting texture development. Also, methods of synthesizing the rodlike β-Si3N4 single crystals are presented. Various anisotropic properties of textured Si3N4 and their origins are thoroughly described and discussed, such as hardness, elastic modulus, bending strength, fracture toughness, fracture energy, creep behavior, tribological and wear behavior, erosion behavior, contact damage behavior and thermal conductivity. Models are analyzed to determine the thermal anisotropy by considering the intrinsic thermal anisotropy, degree of orientation and various microstructure factors. Textured porous Si3N4 with a unique microstructure composed of oriented elongated β-Si3N4 and anisotropic pores is also described for the first time, with emphasis on its unique mechanical and thermal-mechanical properties. Moreover, as an important related material, textured α-Sialon is also reviewed, because the presence of elongated α-Sialon grains allows the production of textured α-Sialon using the

  9. Textured silicon nitride: processing and anisotropic properties.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinwen; Sakka, Yoshio

    2008-07-01

    Textured silicon nitride (Si3N4) has been intensively studied over the past 15 years because of its use for achieving its superthermal and mechanical properties. In this review we present the fundamental aspects of the processing and anisotropic properties of textured Si3N4, with emphasis on the anisotropic and abnormal grain growth of β-Si3N4, texture structure and texture analysis, processing methods and anisotropic properties. On the basis of the texturing mechanisms, the processing methods described in this article have been classified into two types: hot-working (HW) and templated grain growth (TGG). The HW method includes the hot-pressing, hot-forging and sinter-forging techniques, and the TGG method includes the cold-pressing, extrusion, tape-casting and strong magnetic field alignment techniques for β-Si3N4 seed crystals. Each processing technique is thoroughly discussed in terms of theoretical models and experimental data, including the texturing mechanisms and the factors affecting texture development. Also, methods of synthesizing the rodlike β-Si3N4 single crystals are presented. Various anisotropic properties of textured Si3N4 and their origins are thoroughly described and discussed, such as hardness, elastic modulus, bending strength, fracture toughness, fracture energy, creep behavior, tribological and wear behavior, erosion behavior, contact damage behavior and thermal conductivity. Models are analyzed to determine the thermal anisotropy by considering the intrinsic thermal anisotropy, degree of orientation and various microstructure factors. Textured porous Si3N4 with a unique microstructure composed of oriented elongated β-Si3N4 and anisotropic pores is also described for the first time, with emphasis on its unique mechanical and thermal-mechanical properties. Moreover, as an important related material, textured α-Sialon is also reviewed, because the presence of elongated α-Sialon grains allows the production of textured α-Sialon using the

  10. Large scale anisotropic bias from primordial non-Gaussianity

    SciTech Connect

    Baghram, Shant; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein E-mail: mh.namjoo@ipm.ir

    2013-08-01

    In this work we study the large scale structure bias in models of anisotropic inflation. We use the Peak Background Splitting method in Excursion Set Theory to find the scale-dependent bias. We show that the amplitude of the bias is modified by a direction-dependent factor. In the specific anisotropic inflation model which we study, the scale-dependent bias vanishes at leading order when the long wavelength mode in squeezed limit is aligned with the anisotropic direction in the sky. We also extend the scale-dependent bias formulation to the general situations with primordial anisotropy. We find some selection rules indicating that some specific parts of a generic anisotropic bispectrum is picked up by the bias parameter. We argue that the anisotropic bias is mainly sourced by the angle between the anisotropic direction and the long wavelength mode in the squeezed limit.

  11. Grooved organogel surfaces towards anisotropic sliding of water droplets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengchao; Liu, Hongliang; Meng, Jingxin; Yang, Gao; Liu, Xueli; Wang, Shutao; Jiang, Lei

    2014-05-21

    Periodic micro-grooved organogel surfaces can easily realize the anisotropic sliding of water droplets attributing to the formed slippery water/oil/solid interface. Different from the existing anisotropic surfaces, this novel surface provides a versatile candidate for the anisotropic sliding of water droplets and might present a promising way for the easy manipulation of liquid droplets for water collection, liquid-directional transportation, and microfluidics.

  12. Mutations in Danish patients with long QT syndrome and the identification of a large founder family with p.F29L in KCNH2

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a cardiac ion channelopathy which presents clinically with palpitations, syncope or sudden death. More than 700 LQTS-causing mutations have been identified in 13 genes, all of which encode proteins involved in the execution of the cardiac action potential. The most frequently affected genes, covering > 90% of cases, are KCNQ1, KCNH2 and SCN5A. Methods We describe 64 different mutations in 70 unrelated Danish families using a routine five-gene screen, comprising KCNQ1, KCNH2 and SCN5A as well as KCNE1 and KCNE2. Results Twenty-two mutations were found in KCNQ1, 28 in KCNH2, 9 in SCN5A, 3 in KCNE1 and 2 in KCNE2. Twenty-six of these have only been described in the Danish population and 18 are novel. One double heterozygote (1.4% of families) was found. A founder mutation, p.F29L in KCNH2, was identified in 5 “unrelated” families. Disease association, in 31.2% of cases, was based on the type of mutation identified (nonsense, insertion/deletion, frameshift or splice-site). Functional data was available for 22.7% of the missense mutations. None of the mutations were found in 364 Danish alleles and only three, all functionally characterised, were recorded in the Exome Variation Server, albeit at a frequency of < 1:1000. Conclusion The genetic etiology of LQTS in Denmark is similar to that found in other populations. A large founder family with p.F29L in KCNH2 was identified. In 48.4% of the mutations disease causation was based on mutation type or functional analysis. PMID:24606995

  13. Mixed Dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Lewy bodies , What Is Alzheimer's? NIA-Funded Memory & Aging Project Reveals Mixed Dementia Common Data from ... commonly with Alzheimer's disease. For example, in the Memory and Aging Project study involving long-term cognitive ...

  14. Computation of Large Anisotropic Seismic Heterogeneities (CLASH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beucler, Éric; Montagner, Jean-Paul

    2006-05-01

    A general tomographic technique is designed in order (i) to operate in anisotropic media; (ii) to account for the uneven seismic sampling and (iii) to handle massive data sets in a reasonable computing time. One modus operandi to compute a 3-D body wave velocity model relies on surface wave phase velocity measurements. An intermediate step, shared by other approaches, consists in translating, for each period of a given mode branch, the phase velocities integrated along ray paths into local velocity perturbations. To this end, we develop a method, which accounts for the azimuthal anisotropy in its comprehensive form. The weakly non-linear forward problem allows to use a conjugate gradient optimization. The Earth's surface is regularly discretized and the partial derivatives are assigned to the individual grid points. Possible lack of lateral resolution, due to the inescapable uneven ray path coverage, is taken into account through the a priori covariances on parameters with laterally variable correlation lengths. This method allows to efficiently separate the 2ψ and the 4ψ anisotropic effects from the isotropic perturbations. Fundamental mode and overtone phase velocity maps, derived with real Rayleigh wave data sets, are presented and compared with previous maps. The isotropic models concur well with the results of Trampert & Woodhouse. Large 4ψ heterogeneities are located in the tectonically active regions and over the continental lithospheres such as North America, Antarctica or Australia. At various periods, a significant 4ψ signature is correlated with the Hawaii hotspot track. Finally, concurring with the conclusions of Trampert & Woodhouse, our phase velocity maps show that Rayleigh wave data sets do need both 2ψ and 4ψ anisotropic terms.

  15. Anisotropic polyurethane magnetorheological elastomer prepared through in situ polycondensation under a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jinkui; Gong, Xinglong; Fan, Yanceng; Xia, Hesheng

    2010-10-01

    Highly filled polytetramethylene ether glycol (PTMEG)-based polyurethane (PU) magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) with anisotropic structure and good mechanical properties were prepared. The difficulty in dispersion and orientation of iron particles in the PU elastomer was overcome by ball milling mixing and further in situ one-step polycondensation under a magnetic field. The microstructure and properties of the composite were characterized in detail. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that a chain-like structure of carbonyl iron was formed in the PU matrix after orientation under a magnetic field of 1.2 T. The aligned chain-like structure of carbonyl iron in PU greatly enhanced the thermal conductivity, the compression properties and the magnetorheological (MR) effect of anisotropic PU MREs compared to that of the isotropic one. When the test frequency is 1 Hz, the maximum absolute and relative MR effect of anisotropic PU MREs with 26 wt% hard segment and 70 wt% carbonyl iron were ~ 1.3 MPa and ~ 21%, respectively.

  16. Anisotropic mode-dependent damage of cortical bone using the extended finite element method (XFEM).

    PubMed

    Feerick, Emer M; Liu, Xiangyi Cheryl; McGarry, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Anisotropic damage initiation criteria were developed for extended finite element method (XFEM) prediction of crack initiation and propagation in cortical bone. This anisotropic damage model was shown to accurately predict the dependence of crack propagation patterns and fracture toughness on mode mixity and on osteon orientations, as observed experimentally. Four initiation criteria were developed to define crack trajectories relative to osteon orientations and max principal stress for single and mixed mode fracture. Alternate failure strengths for tensile and compressive loading were defined to simulate the asymmetric failure of cortical bone. The dependence of cortical bone elasticity and failure properties on osteon orientation is analogous to the dependence of composite properties on fibre orientation. Hence, three of the criteria developed in the present study were based upon the Hashin damage criteria. The fourth criterion developed was defined in terms of the max principal stress. This criterion initiated off axis crack growth perpendicular to the direction of the max principal stress. The unique set of parameters calibrated accurately predicted; (i) the relationship between fracture energy and osteon alignment, (ii) the alternate crack patterns for both varying osteon orientations and loading angle. Application of the developed anisotropic damage models to cortical bone screw pullout highlights the potential application for orthopaedic device design evaluation.

  17. Generalized anisotropic turbulence spectra and applications in the optical waves' propagation through anisotropic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Cui, Linyan; Xue, Bindang; Zhou, Fugen

    2015-11-16

    Theoretical and experimental investigations have shown that the atmospheric turbulence exhibits both anisotropic and non-Kolmogorov properties. In this work, two theoretical atmosphere refractive-index fluctuations spectral models are derived for optical waves propagating through anisotropic non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence. They consider simultaneously the finite turbulence inner and outer scales and the asymmetric property of turbulence eddies in the orthogonal xy-plane throughout the path. Two anisotropy factors which parameterize the asymmetry of turbulence eddies in both horizontal and vertical directions are introduced in the orthogonal xy-plane, so that the circular symmetry assumption of turbulence eddies in the xy-plane is no longer required. Deviations from the classic 11/3 power law behavior in the spectrum model are also allowed by assuming power law value variations between 3 and 4. Based on the derived anisotropic spectral model and the Rytov approximation theory, expressions for the variance of angle of arrival (AOA) fluctuations are derived for optical plane and spherical waves propagating through weak anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence. Calculations are performed to analyze the derived spectral models and the variance of AOA fluctuations.

  18. Chromo-natural model in anisotropic background

    SciTech Connect

    Maleknejad, Azadeh; Erfani, Encieh E-mail: eerfani@ipm.ir

    2014-03-01

    In this work we study the chromo-natural inflation model in the anisotropic setup. Initiating inflation from Bianchi type-I cosmology, we analyze the system thoroughly during the slow-roll inflation, from both analytical and numerical points of view. We show that the isotropic FRW inflation is an attractor of the system. In other words, anisotropies are damped within few e-folds and the chromo-natural model respects the cosmic no-hair conjecture. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in the slow-roll limit, the anisotropies in both chromo-natural and gauge-flation models share the same dynamics.

  19. Anisotropic Tribological Properties of Silicon Carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    The anisotropic friction, deformation and fracture behavior of single crystal silicon carbide surfaces were investigated in two categories. The categories were called adhesive and abrasive wear processes, respectively. In the adhesive wear process, the adhesion, friction and wear of silicon carbide were markedly dependent on crystallographic orientation. The force to reestablish the shearing fracture of adhesive bond at the interface between silicon carbide and metal was the lowest in the preferred orientation of silicon carbide slip system. The fracturing of silicon carbide occurred near the adhesive bond to metal and it was due to primary cleavages of both prismatic (10(-1)0) and basal (0001) planes.

  20. Local thermodynamics of a magnetized, anisotropic plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hazeltine, R. D.; Mahajan, S. M.; Morrison, P. J.

    2013-02-15

    An expression for the internal energy of a fluid element in a weakly coupled, magnetized, anisotropic plasma is derived from first principles. The result is a function of entropy, particle density and magnetic field, and as such plays the role of a thermodynamic potential: it determines in principle all thermodynamic properties of the fluid element. In particular it provides equations of state for the magnetized plasma. The derivation uses familiar fluid equations, a few elements of kinetic theory, the MHD version of Faraday's law, and certain familiar stability and regularity conditions.

  1. Laminated anisotropic reinforced plastic plates and shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korolev, V. I.

    1981-01-01

    Basic technical theories and engineering calculation equations for anisotropic plates and shells made of rigid reinforced plastics, mainly laminated fiberglass, are presented and discussed. Solutions are given for many problems of design of structural plates and shells, including curved sections and tanks, as well as two chapters on selection of the optimum materials, are given. Accounting for interlayer shearing and transverse separation, which are new engineering properties, are discussed. Application of the results obtained to thin three ply plates and shells wth a light elastic filler is presented and discussed.

  2. Multichannel image regularization using anisotropic geodesic filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Grazzini, Jacopo A

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends a recent image-dependent regularization approach introduced in aiming at edge-preserving smoothing. For that purpose, geodesic distances equipped with a Riemannian metric need to be estimated in local neighbourhoods. By deriving an appropriate metric from the gradient structure tensor, the associated geodesic paths are constrained to follow salient features in images. Following, we design a generalized anisotropic geodesic filter; incorporating not only a measure of the edge strength, like in the original method, but also further directional information about the image structures. The proposed filter is particularly efficient at smoothing heterogeneous areas while preserving relevant structures in multichannel images.

  3. Creating an anisotropic plasma resistivity with waves

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch, N.J.; Boozer, A.H.

    1980-05-01

    An anisotropic plasma resistivity may be created by preferential heating of electrons traveling in one direction. This can result in a steady-state toroidal current in a tokamak even in the absence of net wave momentum. In fact, at high wave phase velocities, the current associated with the change in resistivity is greater than that associated with net momentum input. An immediate implication is that other waves, such as electron cyclotron waves, may be competitive with lower-hybrid waves as a means for generating current. An analytical expression is derived for the current generated per power dissipated which agrees remarkably well with numerical calculations.

  4. Anisotropic elasticity of experimental colloidal Wigner crystals.

    PubMed

    Russell, Emily R; Spaepen, Frans; Weitz, David A

    2015-03-01

    Colloidal particles interacting via a long-range repulsion can, in contrast to hard-sphere systems, exhibit crystalline ordering at low volume fraction. Here we experimentally investigate the structure and properties of such "colloidal Wigner crystals." We find a body-centered-cubic crystalline phase at volume fractions of ϕ≳15%, which exhibits large fluctuations of individual particles from their average positions. We determine the three independent crystalline elastic constants and find that these crystals are very compliant and highly anisotropic.

  5. Multidimensional Gravitational Model with Anisotropic Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigorieva, O. A.; Sharov, G. S.

    2013-08-01

    We consider the gravitational model with additional spatial dimensions and anisotropic pressure which is nonzero only in these dimensions. Cosmological solutions of the Einstein equations in this model include accelerated expansion of the universe at late stage of its evolution and dynamical compactification of extra dimensions. This model describes observational data for Type Ia supernovae on the level or better than the ΛCDM model. We analyze two equations of state resulting in different predictions for further evolution, but in both variants the acceleration epoch is finite.

  6. Watertight Anisotropic Surface Meshing Using Quadrilateral Patches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haimes, Robert; Aftosmis, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a simple technique for generating anisotropic surface triangulations using unstructured quadrilaterals when the CAD entity can be mapped to a logical rectangle. Watertightness and geometric quality measures are maintained and are consistent with the CAPRI default tessellator. These triangulations can match user specified criteria for chord-height tolerance, neighbor triangle dihedral angle, and maximum triangle side length. This discrete representation has hooks back to the owning geometry and therefore can be used in conjunction with these entities to allow for easy enhancement or modification of the tessellation suitable for grid generation or other downstream applications.

  7. Staggered Fermion Thermodynamics using Anisotropic Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levkova, L.

    2003-05-01

    Numerical simulations of full QCD on anisotropic lattices provide a convenient way to study QCD thermodynamics with fixed physics scales and reduced lattice spacing errors. We report results from calculations with 2-flavors of dynamical fermions where all bare parameters and hence the physics scales are kept constant while the temperature is changed in small steps by varying only the number of the time slices. The results from a series of zero-temperature scale setting simulations are used to determine the Karsch coefficients and the equation of state at finite temperatures.

  8. Capillary interactions between anisotropic colloidal particles.

    PubMed

    Loudet, J C; Alsayed, A M; Zhang, J; Yodh, A G

    2005-01-14

    We report on the behavior of micron-sized prolate ellipsoids trapped at an oil-water interface. The particles experience strong, anisotropic, and long-ranged attractive capillary interactions which greatly exceed the thermal energy k(B)T. Depending on surface chemistry, the particles aggregate into open structures or chains. Using video microscopy, we extract the pair interaction potential between ellipsoids and show it exhibits a power law behavior over the length scales probed. Our observations can be explained using recent calculations, if we describe the interfacial ellipsoids as capillary quadrupoles.

  9. Anisotropic fiber alignment in composite structures

    DOEpatents

    Graham, Alan L.; Mondy, Lisa A.; Guell, David C.

    1993-01-01

    High strength material composite structures are formed with oriented fibers to provide controlled anisotropic fibers. Fibers suspended in non-dilute concentrations (e.g., up to 20 volume percent for fibers having an aspect ratio of 20) in a selected medium are oriented by moving an axially spaced array of elements in the direction of desired fiber alignment. The array elements are generally perpendicular to the desired orientation. The suspension medium may also include sphere-like particles where the resulting material is a ceramic.

  10. Subsurface Stress Fields in Single Crystal (Anisotropic) Contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arakere, Nagaraj K.

    2003-01-01

    Single crystal superalloy turbine blades used in high pressure turbomachinery are subject to conditions of high temperature, triaxial steady and fatigue stresses, fretting stresses in the blade attachment and damper contact locations, and exposure to high-pressure hydrogen. The blades are also subjected to extreme variations in temperature during start-up and shutdown transients. The most prevalent HCF failure modes observed in these blades during operation include crystallographic crack initiation/propagation on octahedral planes, and noncrystallographic initiation with crystallographic growth. Numerous cases of crack initiation and crack propagation at the blade leading edge tip, blade attachment regions, and damper contact locations have been documented. Understanding crack initiation/propagation under mixed-mode loading conditions is critical for establishing a systematic procedure for evaluating HCF life of single crystal turbine blades. Techniques for evaluating two and three dimensional subsurface stress fields in anisotropic contacts are presented in this report. Figure 1 shows typical damper contact locations in a turbine blade. The subsurface stress results are used for evaluating contact fatigue life at damper contacts and dovetail attachment regions in single crystal nickel-base superalloy turbine blades.

  11. Anisotropic hydraulic permeability in compressed articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Reynaud, Boris; Quinn, Thomas M

    2006-01-01

    The extent to which articular cartilage hydraulic permeability is anisotropic is largely unknown, despite its importance for understanding mechanisms of joint lubrication, load bearing, transport phenomena, and mechanotransduction. We developed and applied new techniques for the direct measurement of hydraulic permeability within statically compressed adult bovine cartilage explant disks, dissected such that disk axes were perpendicular to the articular surface. Applied pressure gradients were kept small to minimize flow-induced matrix compaction, and fluid outflows were measured by observation of a meniscus in a glass capillary under a microscope. Explant disk geometry under radially unconfined axial compression was measured by direct microscopic observation. Pressure, flow, and geometry data were input to a finite element model where hydraulic permeabilities in the disk axial and radial directions were determined. At less than 10% static compression, near free-swelling conditions, hydraulic permeability was nearly isotropic, with values corresponding to those of previous studies. With increasing static compression, hydraulic permeability decreased, but the radially directed permeability decreased more dramatically than the axially directed permeability such that strong anisotropy (a 10-fold difference between axial and radial directions) in the hydraulic permeability tensor was evident for static compression of 20-40%. Results correspond well with predictions of a previous microstructurally-based model for effects of tissue mechanical deformations on glycosaminoglycan architecture and cartilage hydraulic permeability. Findings inform understanding of structure-function relationships in cartilage matrix, and suggest several biomechanical roles for compression-induced anisotropic hydraulic permeability in articular cartilage.

  12. Shear waves in acoustic anisotropic media

    SciTech Connect

    Grechka, Vladimir; Zhang, Linbin; Rector, James W.

    2003-01-02

    Acoustic transversely isotropic (TI) media are defined by artificially setting the shear-wave velocity in the direction of symmetry axis, VS0, to zero. Contrary to conventional wisdom that equating VS0 = 0 eliminates shear waves, we demonstrate their presence and examine their properties. Specifically, we show that SV-waves generally have finite nonzero phase and group velocities in acoustic TI media. In fact, these waves have been observed in full waveform modeling, but apparently they were not understood and labeled as numerical artifacts. Acoustic TI media are characterized by extreme, in some sense infinite strength of anisotropy. It makes the following unusual wave phenomena possible: (1) there are propagation directions, where the SV-ray is orthogonal to the corresponding wavefront normal, (2) the SV-wave whose ray propagates along the symmetry axis is polarized parallel to the P-wave propagating in the same direction, (3) P-wave singularities, that is, directions where P- and SV -wave phase velocities coincide might exist in acoustic TI media. We also briefly discuss some aspects of wave propagation in low-symmetry acoustic anisotropic models. Extreme anisotropy in those media creates bizarre phase- and group-velocity surfaces that might bring intellectual delight to an anisotropic guru.

  13. Anisotropic swelling behavior of the cornea.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Toyoaki; Ikeda, Hitoe; Idota, Naokazu; Motokawa, Ryuhei; Hara, Yoshiaki; Annaka, Masahiko

    2009-12-24

    The phase equilibrium property and structural and dynamical properties of pig cornea were studied by macroscopic observation of swelling behavior, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) under various conditions. It was found that the corneal gel collapses into a compact state isotropically or anisotropically depending on the external conditions. The corneal gel collapses uniformly into a compact state at a temperature above 55 degrees C because of the denaturation of collagen, whereas it collapses along an axis parallel to the optic axis with increasing NaCl concentration. Anisotropic deswelling was also observed during desiccation. SAXS measurements revealed that the periodicity of the collagen fiber of the cornea does not change even at higher NaCl concentration, which indicates that hydration and dehydration resulting from changes in salt concentration simply cause swelling and deswelling of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG), which is located between the regular two-dimensional lattices of collagen fibers, which obliges the change in thickness. From observations of the dynamics of light scattered by the corneal gel, intensity autocorrelation functions that revealed two independent diffusion coefficients were obtained. Divergent behavior in the measured total scattered light intensities and diffusion coefficients with varying temperature was observed. That is, a slowing of the dynamic modes accompanied by increased "static" scattered intensities was observed. This is indicative of the occurrence of a phase transition as a function of temperature.

  14. New formulation of leading order anisotropic hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, Leonardo

    2015-05-01

    Anisotropic hydrodynamics is a reorganization of the relativistic hydrodynamics expansion, with the leading order already containing substantial momentum-space anisotropies. The latter are a cause of concern in the traditional viscous hydrodynamics, since large momentum anisotropies generated in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions are not consistent with the hypothesis of small deviations from an isotropic background, i.e., from the local equilibrium distribution. We discuss the leading order of the expansion, presenting a new formulation for the (1+1)- dimensional case, namely, for the longitudinally boost invariant and cylindrically symmetric flow. This new approach is consistent with the well established framework of Israel and Stewart in the close to equilibrium limit (where we expect viscous hydrodynamics to work well). If we consider the (0+1)-dimensional case, that is, transversally homogeneous and longitudinally boost invariant flow, the new form of anisotropic hydrodynamics leads to better agreement with known solutions of the Boltzmann equation than the previous formulations, especially when we consider massive particles.

  15. Building an anisotropic meniscus with zonal variations.

    PubMed

    Higashioka, Michael M; Chen, Justin A; Hu, Jerry C; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2014-01-01

    Toward addressing the difficult problems of knee meniscus regeneration, a self-assembling process has been used to re-create the native morphology and matrix properties. A significant problem in such attempts is the recapitulation of the distinct zones of the meniscus, the inner, more cartilaginous and the outer, more fibrocartilaginous zones. In this study, an anisotropic and zonally variant meniscus was produced by self-assembly of the inner meniscus (100% chondrocytes) followed by cell seeding the outer meniscus (coculture of chondrocytes and meniscus cells). After 4 weeks in culture, the engineered, inner meniscus exhibited a 42% increase in both instantaneous and relaxation moduli and a 62% increase in GAG/DW, as compared to the outer meniscus. In contrast, the circumferential tensile modulus and collagen/DW of the outer zone was 101% and 129% higher, respectively, than the values measured for the inner zone. Furthermore, there was no difference in the radial tensile modulus between the control and zonal engineered menisci, suggesting that the inner and outer zones of the engineered zonal menisci successfully integrated. These data demonstrate that not only can biomechanical and biochemical properties be engineered to differ by the zone, but they can also recapitulate the anisotropic behavior of the knee meniscus.

  16. Radial stability of anisotropic strange quark stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbañil, José D. V.; Malheiro, M.

    2016-11-01

    The influence of the anisotropy in the equilibrium and stability of strange stars is investigated through the numerical solution of the hydrostatic equilibrium equation and the radial oscillation equation, both modified from their original version to include this effect. The strange matter inside the quark stars is described by the MIT bag model equation of state. For the anisotropy two different kinds of local anisotropic σ = pt-pr are considered, where pt and pr are respectively the tangential and the radial pressure: one that is null at the star's surface defined by pr(R) = 0, and one that is nonnull at the surface, namely, σs = 0 and σs ≠ 0. In the case σs = 0, the maximum mass value and the zero frequency of oscillation are found at the same central energy density, indicating that the maximum mass marks the onset of the instability. For the case σs ≠ 0, we show that the maximum mass point and the zero frequency of oscillation coincide in the same central energy density value only in a sequence of equilibrium configurations with the same value of σs. Thus, the stability star regions are determined always by the condition dM/dρc > 0 only when the tangential pressure is maintained fixed at the star surface's pt(R). These results are also quite important to analyze the stability of other anisotropic compact objects such as neutron stars, boson stars and gravastars.

  17. Atomic transport in ion mixed Pd/Co bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, K. H.; Jang, H. G.; Song, J. H.; Woo, J. J.; Choi, B. S.; Jeong, K.; Whang, C. N.

    1993-06-01

    Isotropic and anisotropic atomic transport in an ion beam mixed Pd/Co bilayer have been studied from the shifts of a marker layer in Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. A thin layer of Au (1 nm) was embedded as a marker at the interface between Pd and Co layers. 80 keV Ar + was used to irradiate the marker sample at 90K. The Pd/Co system shows near isotropic atomic transport ( JPd/ JCo = 0.86) due to the thermal spike effect. We present a simple relationship between the ration of atomic fluxes induced by ion mixing and the activation energies for the normal impurity diffusion of constituents in a bilayer to describe quantitatively the isotropic and anisotropic atomic transport in thermal spike induced ion mixing. Thermal spike induced atomic transport is closely related with the activation energy for normal impurity diffusion.

  18. Anisotropic artificial substrates for microwave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahvarpour, Attieh

    The perfect electromagnetic conductor (PEMC) boundary is a novel fundamental electromagnetic concept. It is a generalized description of the electromagnetic boundary conditions including the perfect electric conductor (PEC) and the perfect magnetic conductor (PMC) and due to its fundamental properties, it has the potential of enabling several electromagnetic applications. However, the PEMC boundaries concept had remained at the theoretical level and has not been practically realized. Therefore, motivated by the importance of this electromagnetic fundamental concept and its potential applications, the first contribution of this thesis is focused on the practical implementation of the PEMC boundaries by exploiting Faraday rotation principle and ground reflection in the ferrite materials which are intrinsically anisotropic. As a result, this thesis reports the first practical approach for the realization of PEMC boundaries. A generalized scattering matrix (GSM) is used for the analysis of the grounded-ferrite PEMC boundaries structure. As an application of the PEMC boundaries, a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) waveguide is experimentally demonstrated using grounded ferrite PMC (as particular case of the PEMC boundaries) side walls. Perfect electromagnetic conductor boundaries may find applications in various types of sensors, reflectors, polarization convertors and polarization-based radio frequency identifiers. Leaky-wave antennas perform as high directivity and frequency beam scanning antennas and as a result they enable applications in radar, point-to-point communications and MIMO systems. The second contribution of this thesis is introducing and analysing a novel broadband and highly directive two-dimensional leaky-wave antenna. This antenna operates differently in the lower and higher frequency ranges. Toward its lower frequencies, it allows full-space conical-beam scanning while at higher frequencies, it provides fixed-beam radiation (at a designable angle

  19. Anisotropic superfluidity in a dipolar Bose gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ticknor, Christopher; Wilson, Ryan M; Bohn, John L

    2010-11-04

    so that the in-plane interaction is anisotropic. By induding repulsive contact interactions to ensure a stable system, we perform direct numeric simulations of an obstacle moving through the system in directions parallel and perpendicular to the tilt of the dipoles. We observe a distinct anisotropic superfluid response in these cases, both for dissipation into quasipartides and topological excitations (vortices), in the form of an anisotropic critical velocity that is larger in the direction of the dipole tilt than in the perpendicular direction. Interestingly, we find that, while the roton displays an anisotropic character, the speed of sound in the systrm is isotropic. Thus, we characterize the DBEC as an fmisotropic superfluid while illuminating the crucial role that the roton plays in this anisotropic behavior.

  20. Optical isotropy at terahertz frequencies using anisotropic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, In-Sung; Sohn, Ik-Bu; Kang, Chul; Kee, Chul-Sik; Yang, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Joong Wook

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate optically isotropic filters in the terahertz (THz) frequency range using structurally anisotropic metamaterials. The proposed metamaterials with two-dimensional arrangements of anisotropic H-shaped apertures show polarization-independent transmission due to the combined effects of the dipole resonances of resonators and antennas. Our results may offer the potential for the design and realization of versatile THz devices and systems.

  1. Holographic Wilson loops in anisotropic quark-gluon plasma.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageev, Dmitry

    2016-10-01

    The nonequilibrium properties of the anisotropic quark-gluon plasma are condidered from the holographic viewpoint. Lifshitz-like solution is considered as a holographic dual of anisotropic QGP. The black brane formation in such background is considered as a thermalization in dual theory. As a probe of thermalization we consider rectangular spatial Wilson loops with different orientation.

  2. Method for anisotropic etching in the manufacture of semiconductor devices

    DOEpatents

    Koontz, Steven L.; Cross, Jon B.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrocarbon polymer coatings used in microelectronic manufacturing processes are anisotropically etched by atomic oxygen beams (translational energies of 0.2-20 eV, preferably 1-10 eV). Etching with hyperthermal (kinetic energy>1 eV) oxygen atom species obtains highly anisotropic etching with sharp boundaries between etched and mask-protected areas.

  3. Method for anisotropic etching in the manufacture of semiconductor devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor); Cross, Jon B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Hydrocarbon polymer coatings used in microelectronic manufacturing processes are anisotropically etched by hyperthermal atomic oxygen beams (translational energies of 0.2 to 20 eV, preferably 1 to 10 eV). Etching with hyperthermal oxygen atom species obtains highly anisotropic etching with sharp boundaries between etched and mask protected areas.

  4. Ion mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteson, S.; Nicolet, M.-A.

    1983-01-01

    Recent experimental studies of the ion-mixing phenomenon are summarized. Ion mixing is differentiated from ion implantation and shown to be a useful technique for overcoming the sputter-dependent limitations of implantation processes. The fundamental physical principles of ion/solid interactions are explored. The basic experimental configurations currently in use are characterized: bilayered samples, multilayered samples, and samples with a thin marker layer. A table listing the binary systems (metal-semiconductor or metal-metal) which have been investigated using each configuration is presented. Results are discussed, and some sample data are plotted. The prospects for future application of ion mixing to the alteration of solid surface properties are considered. Practical applications are seen as restricted by economic considerations to the production of small, expensive components or to fields (such as the semiconductor industry) which already have facilities for ion implantation.

  5. Structural transitions of the vortex lattice in anisotropic superconductors and fingering instability of electron droplets in an inhomogeneous magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klironomos, Alexios

    I present a derivation of the nondispersive elastic moduli for the vortex lattice within the anisotropic Ginzburg-Landau model. I derive an extension of the virial theorem for superconductivity for anisotropic superconductors, with the anisotropy arising from s-d mixing or an anisotropic Fermi surface. The structural transition from rhombic to square vortex lattice is studied within this model along with the effects of thermal fluctuations on the structural transition. The reentrant transition from square to rhombic vortex lattice for high fields and the instability with respect to rigid rotations of the vortex lattice, predicted by calculations within the nonlocal London model, are also present in the anisotropic Ginzburg-Landau model. I also study the fingering of an electron droplet in a special Quantum Hall regime, where electrostatic forces are weak. Performing Monte Carlo simulations I study the growth and fingering of the electron droplet in an inhomogeneous magnetic field as the number of electrons is increased. I expand on recent theoretical results and find excellent agreement between my simulations and the theoretical predictions.

  6. Anisotropic Self-Assembly of Hairy Inorganic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yi, Chenglin; Zhang, Shaoyi; Webb, Kyle Thomas; Nie, Zhihong

    2017-01-17

    Current interest in functional assemblies of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) stems from their collective properties and diverse applications ranging from nanomedicines to optically active metamaterials. Coating the surface of NPs with polymers allows for tailoring of the interactions between NPs to assemble them into hybrid nanocomposites with targeted architectures. This class of building blocks is termed "hairy" inorganic NPs (HINPs). Regiospecific attachment of polymers has been used to achieve directional interactions for HINP assembly. However, to date anisotropic surface functionalization of NPs still remains a challenge. This Account provides a review of the recent progress in the self-assembly of isotropically functionalized HINPs in both the condensed state and aqueous solution as well as the applications of assembled structures in such areas as biomedical imaging and therapy. It aims to provide fundamental mechanistic insights into the correlation between structural characteristics and self-assembly behaviors of HINPs, with an emphasis on HINPs made from NPs grafted with linear block copolymer (BCP) brushes. The key to the anisotropic self-assembly of these HINPs is the generation of directional interactions between HINPs by designing the surrounding medium (e.g., polymer matrix) or engineering the surface chemistry of the HINPs. First, HINPs can self-assemble into a variety of 1D, 2D, or 3D nanostructures with a nonisotropic local arrangement of NPs in films. Although a template is not always required, a polymer matrix (BCPs or supramolecules) can be used to assist the assembly of HINPs to form hybrid architectures. The interactions between brushes of neighboring HINPs or between HINPs and the polymer matrix can be modulated by varying the grafting density and length of one or multiple types of polymers on the surface of the NPs. Second, the rational design of deformable brushes of BCP or mixed homopolymer tethers on HINPs enables the anisotropic assembly

  7. Estimating anisotropic diffusion of neutrons near the boundary of a pebble bed random system

    SciTech Connect

    Vasques, R.

    2013-07-01

    Due to the arrangement of the pebbles in a Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) core, if a neutron is located close to a boundary wall, its path length probability distribution function in directions of flight parallel to the wall is significantly different than in other directions. Hence, anisotropic diffusion of neutrons near the boundaries arises. We describe an analysis of neutron transport in a simplified 3-D pebble bed random system, in which we investigate the anisotropic diffusion of neutrons born near one of the system's boundary walls. While this simplified system does not model the actual physical process that takes place near the boundaries of a PBR core, the present work paves the road to a formulation that may enable more accurate diffusion simulations of such problems to be performed in the future. Monte Carlo codes have been developed for (i) deriving realizations of the 3-D random system, and (ii) performing 3-D neutron transport inside the heterogeneous model; numerical results are presented for three different choices of parameters. These numerical results are used to assess the accuracy of estimates for the mean-squared displacement of neutrons obtained with the diffusion approximations of the Atomic Mix Model and of the recently introduced [1] Non-Classical Theory with angular-dependent path length distribution. The Non-Classical Theory makes use of a Generalized Linear Boltzmann Equation in which the locations of the scattering centers in the system are correlated and the distance to collision is not exponentially distributed. We show that the results predicted using the Non-Classical Theory successfully model the anisotropic behavior of the neutrons in the random system, and more closely agree with experiment than the results predicted by the Atomic Mix Model. (authors)

  8. Structure/function studies of resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) and phenol-formaldehyde (P-F) copolymer ion-exchange resins

    SciTech Connect

    Hubler, T.L.; Franz, J.A.; Shaw, W.J.; Hogan, M.O.; Hallen, R.T.; Brown, G.N.; Linehan, J.C.

    1996-09-01

    he U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site was established to produce plutonium for the U.S. defense mission. Over the course of decades, hazardous, toxic, and radioactive chemical wastes were generated and disposed of in a variety of ways including storage in underground tanks. An estimated 180 million tons of high-level radioactive wastes are stored in 177 underground storage tanks. During production of fissile plutonium, large quantities of 90Sr and 137CS were produced. The high abundance and intermediate length half- lives of these fission products are the reason that effort is directed toward selective removal of these radionuclides from the bulk waste stream before final tank waste disposal is effected. Economically, it is desirable to remove the highly radioactive fraction of the tank waste for vitrification. Ion-exchange technology is being evaluated for removing cesium from Hanford Site waste tanks. This report summarizes data and analysis performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)for both resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) and phenol-formaldehyde (P-F) resins and relates their observed differences in performance and chemical stability to their structure. The experimental approach used to characterize the resins was conducted using primarily two types of data: batch distribution coefficients (Kds) and solid-state 13C NMR. Comparison of these data for a particular resin allowed correlation of resin performance to resin structure. Additional characterization techniques included solid-state 19F NMR, and elemental analyses.

  9. Computation of Anisotropic Bi-Material Interfacial Fracture Parameters and Delamination Creteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, W-T.; Wang, L.; Atluri, S. N.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the recent developments in methodologies for the evaluation of the integrity and durability of composite structures, including i) the establishment of a stress-intensity-factor based fracture criterion for bimaterial interfacial cracks in anisotropic materials (see Sec. 2); ii) the development of a virtual crack closure integral method for the evaluation of the mixed-mode stress intensity factors for a bimaterial interfacial crack (see Sec. 3). Analytical and numerical results show that the proposed fracture criterion is a better fracture criterion than the total energy release rate criterion in the characterization of the bimaterial interfacial cracks. The proposed virtual crack closure integral method is an efficient and accurate numerical method for the evaluation of mixed-mode stress intensity factors.

  10. Increasing Black Hole Feedback-induced Quenching with Anisotropic Thermal Conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Rahul; Vogelsberger, Mark; Pfrommer, Christoph; Weinberger, Rainer; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars; Puchwein, Ewald; Pakmor, Rüdiger

    2017-03-01

    Feedback from central supermassive black holes is often invoked to explain the low star formation rates (SFRs) in the massive galaxies at the centers of galaxy clusters. However, the detailed physics of the coupling of the injected feedback energy with the intracluster medium (ICM) is still unclear. Using high-resolution magnetohydrodynamic cosmological simulations of galaxy cluster formation, we investigate the role of anisotropic thermal conduction in shaping the thermodynamic structure of clusters, and in particular, in modifying the impact of black hole feedback. Stratified anisotropically conducting plasmas are formally always unstable, and thus more prone to mixing, an expectation borne out by our results. The increased mixing efficiently isotropizes the injected feedback energy, which in turn significantly improves the coupling between the feedback energy and the ICM. This facilitates an earlier disruption of the cool-core, reduces the SFR by more than an order of magnitude, and results in earlier quenching despite an overall lower amount of feedback energy injected into the cluster core. With conduction, the metallicity gradients and dispersions are lowered, aligning them better with observational constraints. These results highlight the important role of thermal conduction in establishing and maintaining the quiescence of massive galaxies.

  11. Constitutive modeling of inelastic anisotropic material response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stouffer, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    A constitutive equation was developed to predict the inelastic thermomechanical response of single crystal turbine blades. These equations are essential for developing accurate finite element models of hot section components and contribute significantly to the understanding and prediction of crack initiation and propagation. The method used was limited to unified state variable constitutive equations. Two approaches to developing an anisotropic constitutive equation were reviewed. One approach was to apply the Stouffer-Bodner representation for deformation induced anisotropy to materials with an initial anisotropy such as single crystals. The second approach was to determine the global inelastic strain rate from the contribution of the slip in each of the possible crystallographic slip systems. A three dimensional finite element is being developed with a variable constitutive equation link that can be used for constitutive equation development and to predict the response of an experiment using the actual specimen geometry and loading conditions.

  12. Observable effects of anisotropic bubble nucleation

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Salem, Michael P. E-mail: salem@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu

    2010-07-01

    Our universe may have formed via bubble nucleation in an eternally-inflating background. Furthermore, the background may have a compact dimension — the modulus of which tunnels out of a metastable minimum during bubble nucleation — which subsequently grows to become one of our three large spatial dimensions. Then the reduced symmetry of the background is equivalent to anisotropic initial conditions in our bubble universe. We compute the inflationary spectrum in such a scenario and, as a first step toward understanding the effects of anisotropy, project it onto spherical harmonics. The resulting spectrum exhibits anomalous multipole correlations, their relative amplitude set by the present curvature parameter, which appear to extend to arbitrarily large multipole moments. This raises the possibility of future detection, if slow-roll inflation does not last too long within our bubble. A full understanding of the observational signal must account for the effects of background anisotropy on photon free streaming, and is left to future work.

  13. GVF-based anisotropic diffusion models.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongchuan; Chua, Chin-Seng

    2006-06-01

    In this paper, the gradient vector flow fields are introduced in image restoration. Within the context of flow fields, the shock filter, mean curvature flow, and Perona-Malik equation are reformulated. Many advantages over the original models can be obtained; these include numerical stability, large capture range, and high-order derivative estimation. In addition, a fairing process is introduced in the anisotropic diffusion, which contains a fourth-order derivative and is reformulated as the intrinsic Laplacian of curvature under the level set framework. By applying this fairing process, the shape boundaries will become more apparent. In order to overcome numerical errors, the intrinsic Laplacian of curvature is computed from the gradient vector flow fields instead of the observed images.

  14. Anisotropic compact stars in Karmarkar spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton Singh, Ksh.; Pant, Neeraj; Govender, M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a new class of solutions to the Einstein field equations for an anisotropic matter distribution in which the interior space-time obeys the Karmarkar condition. The necessary and sufficient condition required for a spherically symmetric space-time to be of Class One reduces the gravitational behavior of the model to a single metric function. By assuming a physically viable form for the grr metric potential we obtain an exact solution of the Einstein field equations which is free from any singularities and satisfies all the physical criteria. We use this solution to predict the masses and radii of well-known compact objects such as Cen X-3, PSR J0348+0432, PSR B0943+10 and XTE J1739-285.

  15. Anisotropic Absorption of Pure Spin Currents.

    PubMed

    Baker, A A; Figueroa, A I; Love, C J; Cavill, S A; Hesjedal, T; van der Laan, G

    2016-01-29

    Spin transfer in magnetic multilayers offers the possibility of ultrafast, low-power device operation. We report a study of spin pumping in spin valves, demonstrating that a strong anisotropy of spin pumping from the source layer can be induced by an angular dependence of the total Gilbert damping parameter, α, in the spin sink layer. Using lab- and synchrotron-based ferromagnetic resonance, we show that an in-plane variation of damping in a crystalline Co_{50}Fe_{50} layer leads to an anisotropic α in a polycrystalline Ni_{81}Fe_{19} layer. This anisotropy is suppressed above the spin diffusion length in Cr, which is found to be 8 nm, and is independent of static exchange coupling in the spin valve. These results offer a valuable insight into the transmission and absorption of spin currents, and a mechanism by which enhanced spin torques and angular control may be realized for next-generation spintronic devices.

  16. Particle Behavior at Anisotropically Curved Liquid Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnnis, Kathleen; Zeng, Chuan; Davidovitch, Benny; Dinsmore, Anthony; Russell, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    A particle bound to an anisotropically curved liquid interface, such as a cylinder or catenoid, cannot maintain a constant contact angle without deforming the interface. Theory suggests that the particles will experience a force that depends on the interfacial shape and migrate to minimize the total interfacial energy. To test these predictions, particles were deposited on top of liquid semi-cylinders of ionic liquid or melted polystyrene confined on chemically patterned surfaces. Particles were also deposited on liquid catenoid structures created by placing a melted polymer film under an electric field. The location of the particles on these structures was observed by optical, confocal, and scanning electron microscopy. The implications for the directed assembly of particles and stability of Pickering emulsions are also discussed.

  17. Turbulent Output-Based Anisotropic Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Carlson, Jan-Renee

    2010-01-01

    Controlling discretization error is a remaining challenge for computational fluid dynamics simulation. Grid adaptation is applied to reduce estimated discretization error in drag or pressure integral output functions. To enable application to high O(10(exp 7)) Reynolds number turbulent flows, a hybrid approach is utilized that freezes the near-wall boundary layer grids and adapts the grid away from the no slip boundaries. The hybrid approach is not applicable to problems with under resolved initial boundary layer grids, but is a powerful technique for problems with important off-body anisotropic features. Supersonic nozzle plume, turbulent flat plate, and shock-boundary layer interaction examples are presented with comparisons to experimental measurements of pressure and velocity. Adapted grids are produced that resolve off-body features in locations that are not known a priori.

  18. Anisotropic Absorption of Pure Spin Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. A.; Figueroa, A. I.; Love, C. J.; Cavill, S. A.; Hesjedal, T.; van der Laan, G.

    2016-01-01

    Spin transfer in magnetic multilayers offers the possibility of ultrafast, low-power device operation. We report a study of spin pumping in spin valves, demonstrating that a strong anisotropy of spin pumping from the source layer can be induced by an angular dependence of the total Gilbert damping parameter, α , in the spin sink layer. Using lab- and synchrotron-based ferromagnetic resonance, we show that an in-plane variation of damping in a crystalline Co50 Fe50 layer leads to an anisotropic α in a polycrystalline Ni81 Fe19 layer. This anisotropy is suppressed above the spin diffusion length in Cr, which is found to be 8 nm, and is independent of static exchange coupling in the spin valve. These results offer a valuable insight into the transmission and absorption of spin currents, and a mechanism by which enhanced spin torques and angular control may be realized for next-generation spintronic devices.

  19. Far field expansion for anisotropic wave equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hariharan, S. I.; Hagstrom, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    A necessary ingredient for the numerical simulation of many time dependent phenomena in acoustics and aerodynamics is the imposition of accurate radiation conditions at artificial boundaries. The asymptotic analysis of propagating waves provides a rational approach to the development of such conditions. A far field asymptotic expansion of solutions of anisotropic wave equations is derived. This generalizes the well known Friedlander expansion for the standard wave operator. The expansion is used to derive a hierarchy of radiation conditions of increasing accuracy. Two numerical experiments are given to illustrate the utility of this approach. The first application is the study of unsteady vortical disturbances impinging on a flat plate; the second is the simulation of inviscid flow past an impulsively started cylinder.

  20. Correlation energy of anisotropic quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Yan; Loos, Pierre-Francois; Gill, Peter M. W.

    2011-09-15

    We study the D-dimensional high-density correlation energy E{sub c} of the singlet ground state of two electrons confined by a harmonic potential with Coulombic repulsion. We allow the harmonic potential to be anisotropic and examine the behavior of E{sub c} as a function of the anisotropy {alpha}{sup -1}. In particular, we are interested in the limit where the anisotropy goes to infinity ({alpha}{yields}0) and the electrons are restricted to a lower-dimensional space. We show that tuning the value of {alpha} from 0 to 1 allows a smooth dimensional interpolation and we demonstrate that the usual model, in which a quantum dot is treated as a two-dimensional system, is inappropriate. Finally, we provide a simple function which reproduces the behavior of E{sub c} over the entire range of {alpha}.

  1. Highly Anisotropic Dirac Fermions in Square Graphynes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L Z; Wang, Z F; Wang, Zhiming M; Du, S X; Gao, H-J; Liu, Feng

    2015-08-06

    We predict a family of 2D carbon (C) allotropes, square graphynes (S-graphynes) that exhibit highly anisotropic Dirac fermions, using first-principle calculations within density functional theory. They have a square unit-cell containing two sizes of square C rings. The equal-energy contour of their 3D band structure shows a crescent shape, and the Dirac crescent has varying Fermi velocities from 0.6 × 10(5) to 7.2 × 10(5) m/s along different k directions. Near the Fermi level, the Dirac crescent can be nicely expressed by an extended 2D Dirac model Hamiltonian. Furthermore, tight-binding band fitting reveals that the Dirac crescent originates from the next-nearest-neighbor interactions between C atoms. S-graphynes may be used to build new 2D electronic devices taking advantages of their highly directional charge transport.

  2. An Anisotropic Hardening Model for Springback Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Danielle; Xia, Z. Cedric

    2005-08-05

    As more Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) are heavily used for automotive body structures and closures panels, accurate springback prediction for these components becomes more challenging because of their rapid hardening characteristics and ability to sustain even higher stresses. In this paper, a modified Mroz hardening model is proposed to capture realistic Bauschinger effect at reverse loading, such as when material passes through die radii or drawbead during sheet metal forming process. This model accounts for material anisotropic yield surface and nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening behavior. Material tension/compression test data are used to accurately represent Bauschinger effect. The effectiveness of the model is demonstrated by comparison of numerical and experimental springback results for a DP600 straight U-channel test.

  3. Anisotropic star on pseudo-spheroidal spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratanpal, B. S.; Thomas, V. O.; Pandya, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    A new class of exact solutions of Einstein's field equations representing anisotropic distribution of matter on pseudo-spheroidal spacetime is obtained. The parameters appearing in the model are restricted through physical requirements of the model. It is found that the models given in the present work is compatible with observational data of a wide variety of compact objects like 4U 1820-30, PSR J1903+327, 4U 1608-52, Vela X-1, PSR J1614-2230, SMC X-4, Cen X-3. A particular model of pulsar PSR J1614-2230 is studied in detail and found that it satisfies all physical requirements needed for physically acceptable model.

  4. Adiabatic theory for anisotropic cold molecule collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlak, Mariusz; Shagam, Yuval; Narevicius, Edvardas; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2015-08-21

    We developed an adiabatic theory for cold anisotropic collisions between slow atoms and cold molecules. It enables us to investigate the importance of the couplings between the projection states of the rotational motion of the atom about the molecular axis of the diatom. We tested our theory using the recent results from the Penning ionization reaction experiment {sup 4}He(1s2s {sup 3}S) + HD(1s{sup 2}) → {sup 4}He(1s{sup 2}) + HD{sup +}(1s) + e{sup −} [Lavert-Ofir et al., Nat. Chem. 6, 332 (2014)] and demonstrated that the couplings have strong effect on positions of shape resonances. The theory we derived provides cross sections which are in a very good agreement with the experimental findings.

  5. Effects of anisotropic heat conduction on solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, J. A.; Viskanta, R.

    1989-01-01

    Two-dimensional solidification influenced by anisotropic heat conduction has been considered. The interfacial energy balance was derived to account for the heat transfer in one direction (x or y) depending on the temperature gradient in both the x and y directions. A parametric study was made to determine the effects of the Stefan number, aspect ratio, initial superheat, and thermal conductivity ratios on the solidification rate. Because of the imposed boundary conditions, the interface became skewed and sometimes was not a straight line between the interface position at the upper and lower adiabatic walls (spatially nonlinear along the height). This skewness depends on the thermal conductivity ratio k(yy)/k(yx). The nonlinearity of the interface is influenced by the solidification rate, aspect ratio, and k(yy/k(yx).

  6. Standing shear waves in anisotropic viscoelastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krit, T.; Golubkova, I.; Andreev, V.

    2015-10-01

    We studied standing shear waves in anisotropic resonator represented by a rectangular parallelepiped (layer) fixed without slipping between two wooden plates of finite mass. The viscoelastic layer with edges of 70 mm × 40 mm × 15 mm was made of a rubber-like polymer plastisol with rubber bands inside. The bands were placed vertical between the top and the bottom plate. Mechanical properties of the plastisol itself were carefully measured previously. It was found that plastisol shows a cubic nonlinear behavior, i.e. the stress-strain curve could be represented as: σ = μɛ + βμɛ3, where ɛ stands for shear strain and σ is an applied shear stress. The value of shear modulus μ depends on frequency and was found to be several kilopascals which is common for such soft solids. Nonlinear parameter β is frequency dependent too and varies in range from tenths to unity at 1-100 Hz frequency range, decreasing with frequency growth. Stretching the rubber bands inside the layer leads to change of elastic properties in resonator. Such effect could be noticed due to frequency response of the resonator. The numerical model of the resonator was based on finite elements method (FEM) and performed in MatLab. The resonator was cut in hundreds of right triangular prisms. Each prism was provided with viscoelastic properties of the layer except for the top prisms provided with the wooden plate properties and the prisms at the site of the rubber bands provided with the rubber properties. The boundary conditions on each prism satisfied the requirements that resonator is inseparable and all its boundaries but bottom are free. The bottom boundary was set to move horizontally with constant acceleration amplitude. It was shown numerically that the resonator shows anisotropic behavior expressed in different frequency response to oscillations applied to a bottom boundary in different directions.

  7. Enhancement of non-resonant dielectric cloaks using anisotropic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Takezawa, Akihiro Kitamura, Mitsuru

    2014-01-15

    Cloaking techniques conceal objects by controlling the flow of electromagnetic waves to minimize scattering. Herein, the effectiveness of homogenized anisotropic materials in non-resonant dielectric multilayer cloaking is studied. Because existing multilayer cloaking by isotropic materials can be regarded as homogenous anisotropic cloaking from a macroscopic view, anisotropic materials can be efficiently designed through optimization of their physical properties. Anisotropic properties can be realized in two-phase composites if the physical properties of the material are within appropriate bounds. The optimized anisotropic physical properties are identified by a numerical optimization technique based on a full-wave simulation using the finite element method. The cloaking performance measured by the total scattering width is improved by about 2.8% and 25% in eight- and three-layer cylindrical cloaking materials, respectively, compared with multilayer cloaking by isotropic materials. In all cloaking examples, the optimized microstructures of the two-phase composites are identified as the simple lamination of two materials, which maximizes the anisotropy. The same performance as published for eight-layer cloaking by isotropic materials is achieved by three-layer cloaking using the anisotropic material. Cloaking with an approximately 50% reduction of total scattering width is achieved even in an octagonal object. Since the cloaking effect can be realized using just a few layers of the laminated anisotropic dielectric composite, this may have an advantage in the mass production of cloaking devices.

  8. Lateral Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    apl.uw.edu/dasaro LONG-TERM GOALS I seek to understand the processes controlling lateral mixing in the ocean, particularly at the submesoscale ...APPROACH During AESOP, Lee and D’Asaro pioneered an innovative approach to measuring submesoscale structure in strong fronts. An adaptive measurement...injection of potential vorticity and scalars is predicted to create an intense ‘ submesoscale soup’ of high small-scale variance. The combination of small

  9. Lateral Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-08

    to mesoscale forcing. APPROACH Figure 1: MVP system deployed from stern of R/V Endeavor in Sargasso Sea . 1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for...integrative efforts with other sea -going investigators and numerical modelers. The Lateral Mixing Experiment project was an ideal opportunity to...2011 I also participated in the sea -going part of this project, taking my group on the R/V Endeavor in June 2011. Our role was to sample around the

  10. Lateral Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    ocean as it responds to mesoscale forcing. APPROACH Figure 1: MVP system deployed from stern of R/V Endeavor in Sargasso Sea . My approach for...therefore requires integrative efforts with other sea -going investigators and numerical modelers. The Lateral Mixing Experiment project was an ideal...also participated in the sea -going part of this project, taking my group on the R/V Endeavor in June 2011. Our role was to sample around the center of

  11. Anisotropic transport in modulation doped quantum well structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radulescu, D. C.; Wicks, G. W.; Schaff, W. J.; Calawa, A. R.; Eastman, L. F.

    1987-01-01

    The degree of anisotropy in the anisotropic electron transport that has been observed in GaAs modulation-doped quantum wells grown by MBE on Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)As is related to the thickness and growth parameters of this substrate, which is grown just prior to the inverted interface. It is presently observed that the inverted interface has an anisotropic roughness which affects the 77 K low field electron transport parallel to the interface, and gives rise to anisotropic electron scattering in the GaAs modulation-doped quantum well.

  12. Vortex liquid crystals in anisotropic type II superconductors.

    PubMed

    Carlson, E W; Castro Neto, A H; Campbell, D K

    2003-02-28

    In an isotropic type II superconductor in a moderate magnetic field, the transition to the normal state occurs by vortex lattice melting. In certain anisotropic cases, the vortices acquire elongated cross sections and interactions. Systems of anisotropic, interacting constituents generally exhibit liquid crystalline phases. We examine the possibility of a two step melting in homogeneous type II superconductors with anisotropic superfluid stiffness from a vortex lattice into first a vortex smectic and then a vortex nematic at high temperature and magnetic field. We find that fluctuations of the ordered phase favor an instability to an intermediate smectic-A in the absence of intrinsic pinning.

  13. Renormalized anisotropic exchange for representing heat assisted magnetic recording media

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, Yipeng; Liu, Zengyuan; Victora, R. H.

    2015-05-07

    Anisotropic exchange has been incorporated in a description of magnetic recording media near the Curie temperature, as would be found during heat assisted magnetic recording. The new parameters were found using a cost function that minimized the difference between atomistic properties and those of renormalized spin blocks. Interestingly, the anisotropic exchange description at 1.5 nm discretization yields very similar switching and magnetization behavior to that found at 1.2 nm (and below) discretization for the previous isotropic exchange. This suggests that the increased accuracy of anisotropic exchange may also reduce the computational cost during simulation.

  14. Conformal anisotropic mechanics and the Horava dispersion relation

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, Juan M.; Cuesta, Vladimir; Garcia, J. Antonio; Vergara, J. David

    2010-03-15

    In this paper we implement scale anisotropic transformations between space and time in classical mechanics. The resulting system is consistent with the dispersion relation of Horava gravity [P. Horava, Phys. Rev. D 79, 084008 (2009)]. Also, we show that our model is a generalization of the conformal mechanics of Alfaro, Fubini, and Furlan. For an arbitrary dynamical exponent we construct the dynamical symmetries that correspond to the Schroedinger algebra. Furthermore, we obtain the Boltzmann distribution for a gas of free particles compatible with anisotropic scaling transformations and compare our result with the corresponding thermodynamics of the recent anisotropic black branes proposed in the literature.

  15. Anisotropic Nanomechanics of Boron Nitride Nanotubes: Nanostructured "Skin" Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Menon, Madhu; Cho, KyeongJae

    2000-01-01

    The stiffness and plasticity of boron nitride nanotubes are investigated using generalized tight-binding molecular dynamics and ab-initio total energy methods. Due to boron-nitride BN bond buckling effects, compressed zigzag BN nanotubes are found to undergo novel anisotropic strain release followed by anisotropic plastic buckling. The strain is preferentially released towards N atoms in the rotated BN bonds. The tubes buckle anisotropically towards only one end when uniaxially compressed from both. A "skin-effect" model of smart nanocomposite materials is proposed which will localize the structural damage towards the 'skin' or surface side of the material.

  16. Anisotropic nature of radially strained metal tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Julie N.

    Metal pipes are sometimes swaged by a metal cone to enlarge them, which increases the strain in the material. The amount of strain is important because it affects the burst and collapse strength. Burst strength is the amount of internal pressure that a pipe can withstand before failure, while collapse strength is the amount of external pressure that a pipe can withstand before failure. If the burst or collapse strengths are exceeded, the pipe may fracture, causing critical failure. Such an event could cost the owners and their customers millions of dollars in clean up, repair, and lost time, in addition to the potential environmental damage. Therefore, a reliable way of estimating the burst and collapse strength of strained pipe is desired and valuable. The sponsor currently rates strained pipes using the properties of raw steel, because those properties are easily measured (for example, yield strength). In the past, the engineers assumed that the metal would be work-hardened when swaged, so that yield strength would increase. However, swaging introduces anisotropic strain, which may decrease the yield strength. This study measured the yield strength of strained material in the transverse and axial direction and compared them to raw material, to determine the amount of anisotropy. This information will be used to more accurately determine burst and collapse ratings for strained pipes. More accurate ratings mean safer products, which will minimize risk for the sponsor's customers. Since the strained metal has a higher yield strength than the raw material, using the raw yield strength to calculate burst and collapse ratings is a conservative method. The metal has even higher yield strength after strain aging, which indicates that the stresses are relieved. Even with the 12% anisotropy in the strained and 9% anisotropy in the strain aged specimens, the raw yield strengths are lower and therefore more conservative. I recommend that the sponsor continue using the raw

  17. Fabrication of anisotropic multifunctional colloidal carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerri, Huda A.

    The field of colloidal assembly has grown tremendously in recent years, although the direct or template-assisted methods used to fabricate complex colloidal constructions from monodisperse micro- and nanoparticles have been generally demonstrated on model materials. In this work, novel core particle syntheses, particle functionalizations and bottom-up assembly techniques are presented to create functional colloidal devices. Using particle lithography, high-information colloidal vectors have been developed and modified with imaging and targeting agents. Localized nanoscale patches have been reliably positioned on microparticles to serve as foundations for further chemical or physical modifications. Site-specific placement of RGD targeting ligands has been achieved in these lithographed patches. Preferential uptake of these targeted vectors by RGD-specific 3T3 fibroblasts was verified using confocal laser scanning microscopy. A transition was made from the functionalization of model imaging core particles to the lithography of colloidal cartridges, in an effort to construct colloidal syringes with specialized, programmable release profiles. A variety of functional, pH-sensitive fluorescent cores were engineered to respond to solution conditions. When triggered, the diverse composite core microparticles and reservoir microcapsules released embedded fluorescent moieties such as dye molecules, and fluorophore-conjugated nanoparticles. The microcapsules, created using layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte deposition on sacrificial templates, were selectively modified with a robust coating. The pH-responsive anisotropic reservoir microcapsules were extremely stable in solution, and exhibited a "Lazarus" functionality of rehydrating to their original state following desiccation. A snapshot of focused-release of core constituents through the lone opening in colloidal monotremes has been obtained by anisotropically-functionalizing degradable cores with barrier shells. Additionally

  18. Borehole Deformation and Failure in Anisotropic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaede, Oliver; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus; Lumley, David

    2010-05-01

    Borehole breakouts develop due to compressive shear failure along the borehole wall and subsequent spalling of near wellbore rock. These compressive shear failures can occur during drilling and lead to a borehole enlargement in the direction of the minimum horizontal stress. In order to investigate the initiation of borehole breakouts in anisotropic media a numerical analysis of the borehole deformation has been performed. The numerical model is based on an extensive geophysical and geomechanical dataset, provided by BHP Billiton Petroleum. This dataset was established during the development and production phase of an oil reservoir on the North West Shelf, Western Australia. The aim of this study is to estimate the severity of the influence of anisotropy on the breakout process. It is proposed that there is a hierarchy among the possible influences on the breakout process: 1. The regional stress field has a first order effect on the borehole breakout direction. 2. This is followed by a preferential fracture direction or anisotropic failure criterion of the medium. 3. And finally the elastic anisotropy of the medium affecting the local stress field around the borehole. A clear separation of these influences through methods of observation is not always trivial. Firstly, the preferential fracture direction and the elastic anisotropy, at least to some degree, are functions of the regional stress field. Secondly, most of the knowledge we have about the regional stress field in relatively aseismic regions is inferred from borehole breakout data. Therefore a numerical simulation is chosen as a method of study. Material properties like elastic anisotropy or failure criterion and even their dependency on the stress field can easily be manipulated. This geophysical and geomechanical data is used to populate the numerical model. The regional stress field is implemented as a boundary condition. The commercial Finite Element package ABAQUS is used to obtain the stress / strain

  19. Anisotropic ionic conductivities in lyotropic supramolecular liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Huang, Youju; Cong, Yuanhua; Li, Junjun; Wang, Daoliang; Zhang, Jingtuo; Xu, Lu; Li, Weili; Li, Liangbin; Pan, Guoqiang; Yang, Chuanlu

    2009-12-28

    The designed aromatic amide discotic molecule with sulfonic acid groups at its periphery exhibits a hexagonal supramolecular columnar liquid crystalline phase, which leads to the achievement of anisotropic ionic conductivity through macroscopically aligning the ionic channels.

  20. Anisotropic stress and stability in modified gravity models

    SciTech Connect

    Saltas, Ippocratis D.; Kunz, Martin

    2011-03-15

    The existence of anisotropic stress of a purely geometrical origin seems to be a characteristic of higher order gravity models, and has been suggested as a probe to test these models observationally, for example, in weak lensing experiments. In this paper, we seek to find a class of higher order gravity models of f(R,G) type that would give us a zero anisotropic stress and study the consequences for the viability of the actual model. For the special case of a de Sitter background, we identify a subclass of models with the desired property. We also find a direct link between anisotropic stress and the stability of the model as well as the presence of extra degrees of freedom, which seems to be a general feature of higher order gravity models. Particularly, setting the anisotropic stress equal to zero for a de Sitter background leads to a singularity that makes it impossible to reach the de Sitter evolution.

  1. Autofocus imaging: Experimental results in an anisotropic austenitic weld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Drinkwater, B. W.; Wilcox, P. D.; Hunter, A.

    2012-05-01

    The quality of an ultrasonic array image, especially for anisotropic material, depends on accurate information about acoustic properties. Inaccuracy of acoustic properties causes image degradation, e.g., blurring, errors in locating of reflectors and introduction of artifacts. In this paper, for an anisotropic austenitic steel weld, an autofocus imaging technique is presented. The array data from a series of beacons is captured and then used to statistically extract anisotropic weld properties by using a Monte-Carlo inversion approach. The beacon and imaging systems are realized using two separated arrays; one acts as a series of beacons and the other images these beacons. Key to the Monte-Carlo inversion scheme is a fast forward model of wave propagation in the anisotropic weld and this is based on the Dijkstra algorithm. Using this autofocus approach a measured weld map was extracted from an austenitic weld and used to reduce location errors, initially greater than 6mm, to less than 1mm.

  2. An engineered anisotropic nanofilm with unidirectional wetting properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malvadkar, Niranjan A.; Hancock, Matthew J.; Sekeroglu, Koray; Dressick, Walter J.; Demirel, Melik C.

    2010-12-01

    Anisotropic textured surfaces allow water striders to walk on water, butterflies to shed water from their wings and plants to trap insects and pollen. Capturing these natural features in biomimetic surfaces is an active area of research. Here, we report an engineered nanofilm, composed of an array of poly(p-xylylene) nanorods, which demonstrates anisotropic wetting behaviour by means of a pin-release droplet ratchet mechanism. Droplet retention forces in the pin and release directions differ by up to 80μN, which is over ten times greater than the values reported for other engineered anisotropic surfaces. The nanofilm provides a microscale smooth surface on which to transport microlitre droplets, and is also relatively easy to synthesize by a bottom-up vapour-phase technique. An accompanying comprehensive model successfully describes the film's anisotropic wetting behaviour as a function of measurable film morphology parameters.

  3. Schwarz alternating methods for anisotropic problems with prolate spheroid boundaries.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhenlong; Du, Qikui; Liu, Baoqing

    2016-01-01

    The Schwarz alternating algorithm, which is based on natural boundary element method, is constructed for solving the exterior anisotropic problem in the three-dimension domain. The anisotropic problem is transformed into harmonic problem by using the coordinate transformation. Correspondingly, the algorithm is also changed. Continually, we analysis the convergence and the error estimate of the algorithm. Meanwhile, we give the contraction factor for the convergence. Finally, some numerical examples are computed to show the efficiency of this algorithm.

  4. On the electrodynamics of Josephson effect in anisotropic superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    Specificities of Josephson effect electrodynamics in anisotropic superconductors are of considerable interest for the study of high temperature superconductors with strongly anisotropic layered structure. In this paper the authors give the calculation for the tunnel Josephson contact of an isolated vortex, the law of dispersion of its low-amplitude oscillations, the critical field H/sub cl/ for the penetration of magnetic flux, and the maximum current across a rectangular contact.

  5. Anisotropic Bianchi types VIII and IX locally rotationally symmetric cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Assad, M.J.D.; Soares, I.D.

    1983-10-15

    We present a class of exact cosmological solutions of Einstein-Maxwell equations, which are anisotropic and spatially homogeneous of Bianchi types VIII and IX, and class IIIb in the Stewart-Ellis classification of locally rotationally symmetric models. If we take the electromagnetic field equal to zero, a class of Bianchi types VIII/IX spatially homogeneous anisotropic cosmological solutions with perfect fluid is obtained.

  6. Enhanced Raman Scattering on In-plane Anisotropic Layered Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Liang, Liangbo; Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G.; ...

    2015-11-19

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on two-dimensional (2D) layered materials has provided a unique platform to study the chemical mechanism (CM) of the enhancement due to its natural separation from electromagnetic enhancement. The CM stems from the basic charge interactions between the substrate and molecules. Despite the extensive studies of the energy alignment between 2D materials and molecules, an understanding of how the electronic properties of the substrate are explicitly involved in the charge interaction is still unclear. Lately, a new group of 2D layered materials with anisotropic structure, including orthorhombic black phosphorus (BP) and triclinic rhenium disulphide (ReS2), has attractedmore » great interest due to their unique anisotropic electrical and optical properties. Herein, we report a unique anisotropic Raman enhancement on few-layered BP and ReS2 using copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules as a Raman probe, which is absent on isotropic graphene and h-BN. According to detailed Raman tensor analysis and density functional theory calculations, anisotropic charge interactions due to the anisotropic carrier mobilities of the 2D materials are responsible for the angular dependence of the Raman enhancement. Our findings not only provide new insights into the CM process in SERS, but also open up new avenues for the exploration and application of the electronic properties of anisotropic 2D layered materials.« less

  7. Enhanced Raman Scattering on In-plane Anisotropic Layered Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Liangbo; Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Ling, Xi; Lin, Jingjing; Zhang, Shuqing; Mao, Nannan; Zhang, Na; Tong, Lianming; Zhang, Jin

    2015-11-19

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on two-dimensional (2D) layered materials has provided a unique platform to study the chemical mechanism (CM) of the enhancement due to its natural separation from electromagnetic enhancement. The CM stems from the basic charge interactions between the substrate and molecules. Despite the extensive studies of the energy alignment between 2D materials and molecules, an understanding of how the electronic properties of the substrate are explicitly involved in the charge interaction is still unclear. Lately, a new group of 2D layered materials with anisotropic structure, including orthorhombic black phosphorus (BP) and triclinic rhenium disulphide (ReS2), has attracted great interest due to their unique anisotropic electrical and optical properties. Herein, we report a unique anisotropic Raman enhancement on few-layered BP and ReS2 using copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules as a Raman probe, which is absent on isotropic graphene and h-BN. According to detailed Raman tensor analysis and density functional theory calculations, anisotropic charge interactions due to the anisotropic carrier mobilities of the 2D materials are responsible for the angular dependence of the Raman enhancement. Our findings not only provide new insights into the CM process in SERS, but also open up new avenues for the exploration and application of the electronic properties of anisotropic 2D layered materials.

  8. Production and characterization of anisotropic particles from biodegradable materials.

    PubMed

    Romanski, Francis S; Winkler, Jennifer S; Riccobene, Ryan C; Tomassone, M Silvina

    2012-02-28

    In recent years, production and characterization of anisotropic particles has become of interest in a wide range of scientific fields including polymer chemistry, drug delivery, electronics, energy, and nanotechnology. In this work, we demonstrate a novel formulation for production of anisotropic particles via an internal phase separation of biodegradable components. Specifically, binary mixtures of biodegradable polymers poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), polycaprolactone, and biodegradable lipid Precirol (glyceryl palmitostearate) were dissolved in dichloromethane, emulsified, and prepared into anisotropic particles using a modified solvent evaporation technique. During the slow evaporation process the components self-assembled into anisotropic particles with distinct morphologies. Polymer/polymer formulations resulted in compartmentalized anisotropic heterodimer particles, while polymer/lipid combinations yielded "ice cream cone" shaped particles. It was found that addition of certain active pharmaceuticals resulted in an altered, pox-like segregation at the particle surface of polymer/polymer formulations. The anisotropic nature of the particles was subsequently characterized using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, zeta potential, electrophoresis, and X-ray diffraction. Successful formulations presented here may potentially be employed as multicompartmental drug carriers with staggered drug release rates or alternatively as a colloidal excipient for an arsenal of pharmaceutical applications.

  9. Cosmic anisotropic doomsday in Bianchi type I universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldo, Mauricio; Cid, Antonella; Labraña, Pedro; Mella, Patricio

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we study finite time future singularities in anisotropic Bianchi type I models. It is shown that there exist future singularities similar to Big Rip ones (which appear in the framework of phantom Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies). Specifically, in an ellipsoidal anisotropic scenario or in a fully anisotropic scenario, the three directional and average scale factors may diverge at a finite future time, together with energy densities and anisotropic pressures. We call these singularities "Anisotropic Big Rip Singularities." We show that there also exist Bianchi type I models filled with matter, where one or two directional scale factors may diverge. Another type of future anisotropic singularities is shown to be present in vacuum cosmologies, i.e., Kasner spacetimes. These singularities are induced by the shear scalar, which also blows up at a finite time. We call such a singularity "Vacuum Rip." In this case one directional scale factor blows up, while the other two and average scale factors tend to zero.

  10. Anisotropic emission of neutral atoms: evidence of an anisotropic Rydberg sheath in nanoplasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeev, R.; Madhu Trivikram, T.; Rishad, K. P. M.; Krishnamurthy, M.

    2015-02-01

    Intense laser-produced plasma is a complex amalgam of ions, electrons and atoms both in ground and excited states. Little is known about the spatial composition of the excited states that are an integral part of most gaseous or cluster plasma. In cluster-plasma, Rydberg excitations change the charge composition of the ions through charge transfer reactions and shape the angular distributions. Here, we demonstrate a non-invasive technique that reveals the anisotropic Rydberg excited cluster sheath by measuring anisotropy in fast neutral atoms. The sheath is stronger in the direction of light polarization and the enhanced charge transfer by the excited clusters results in larger neutralization.

  11. Anisotropic reflectance from turbid media. I. Theory.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Magnus; Edström, Per

    2010-05-01

    It is shown that the intensity of light reflected from plane-parallel turbid media is anisotropic in all situations encountered in practice. The anisotropy, in the form of higher intensity at large polar angles, increases when the amount of near-surface bulk scattering is increased, which dominates in optically thin and highly absorbing media. The only situation with isotropic intensity is when a non-absorbing infinitely thick medium is illuminated diffusely. This is the only case where the Kubelka-Munk model gives exact results and there exists an exact translation between Kubelka-Munk and general radiative transfer. This also means that a bulk scattering perfect diffusor does not exist. Angle-resolved models are thus crucial for a correct understanding of light scattering in turbid media. The results are derived using simulations and analytical calculations. It is also shown that there exists an optimal angle for directional detection that minimizes the error introduced when using the Kubelka-Munk model to interpret reflectance measurements with diffuse illumination.

  12. Entanglement in the Anisotropic Kondo Necklace Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Arenas, J. J.; Franco, R.; Silva-Valencia, J.

    We study the entanglement in the one-dimensional Kondo necklace model with exact diagonalization, calculating the concurrence as a function of the Kondo coupling J and an anisotropy η in the interaction between conduction spins, and we review some results previously obtained in the limiting cases η = 0 and 1. We observe that as J increases, localized and conduction spins get more entangled, while neighboring conduction spins diminish their concurrence; localized spins require a minimum concurrence between conduction spins to be entangled. The anisotropy η diminishes the entanglement for neighboring spins when it increases, driving the system to the Ising limit η = 1 where conduction spins are not entangled. We observe that the concurrence does not give information about the quantum phase transition in the anisotropic Kondo necklace model (between a Kondo singlet and an antiferromagnetic state), but calculating the von Neumann block entropy with the density matrix renormalization group in a chain of 100 sites for the Ising limit indicates that this quantity is useful for locating the quantum critical point.

  13. Discrete solitons and vortices on anisotropic lattices.

    PubMed

    Kevrekidis, P G; Frantzeskakis, D J; Carretero-González, R; Malomed, B A; Bishop, A R

    2005-10-01

    We consider the effects of anisotropy on solitons of various types in two-dimensional nonlinear lattices, using the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation as a paradigm model. For fundamental solitons, we develop a variational approximation that predicts that broad quasicontinuum solitons are unstable, while their strongly anisotropic counterparts are stable. By means of numerical methods, it is found that, in the general case, the fundamental solitons and simplest on-site-centered vortex solitons ("vortex crosses") feature enhanced or reduced stability areas, depending on the strength of the anisotropy. More surprising is the effect of anisotropy on the so-called "super-symmetric" intersite-centered vortices ("vortex squares"), with the topological charge equal to the square's size : we predict in an analytical form by means of the Lyapunov-Schmidt theory, and confirm by numerical results, that arbitrarily weak anisotropy results in dramatic changes in the stability and dynamics in comparison with the degenerate, in this case, isotropic, limit.

  14. Zonal flows in tokamaks with anisotropic pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Haijun

    2014-04-15

    Zonal flows (ZFs) in a tokamak plasma with anisotropic pressure are investigated. The dynamics of perpendicular and parallel pressures are determined by the Chew-Goldberger-Low double equations and low-β condition is adopted, where β is the ratio of plasma pressure to the magnetic field pressure. The dispersion relation is analytically derived and illustrates two branches of ZFs. The low frequency zonal flow (LFZF) branch becomes unstable when χ, the ratio of the perpendicular pressure to the parallel one, is greater than a threshold value χ{sub c}, which is about 3.8. In the stable region, its frequency increases first and then decreases with increasing χ. For χ = 1, the frequency of LFZF agrees well with the experimental observation. For the instability, the growth rate of LFZF increases with χ. The geodesic acoustic mode branch is shown to be always stable with a frequency increasing with χ. The safety factor is shown to diminish the frequencies of both branches or the growth rate of LFZF.

  15. Thermoelectric Figure of Merit in Anisotropic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bies, W.; Radtke, R. J.; Ehrenreich, H.

    1998-03-01

    General expressions for the electrical conductivity, thermopower, and electronic thermal conductivity are derived for anisotropic materials including their full tensorial character and properly treating the effects of the sample boundaries. The thermoelectric figure of merit ZT constructed from these quantities is proved to be maximal only when the electric field (in thermoelectric coolers) or thermal gradient (in power generators) is applied along the direction of highest conductivity. Fields applied along directions for which the conductivity tensor is non-diagonal induce transverse electric fields and thermal gradients which may be larger in magnitude than the applied fields. These fields reduce ZT below that expected from anisotropy alone. Numerical results are presented for bulk n-type Bi_2Te3 and quantum well and quantum wire geometries using semiclassical transport theory in the effective mass and relaxation time approximations. The effects of multi-valley conduction and confinement-induced splitting of the valley degeneracy are included. Surprisingly, this model predicts generally that the thermopower and hence ZT are independent of the direction of the applied fields in the limit of vanishing lattice thermal conductivity.

  16. Polar motion under anisotropic random load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurkis, I. Ya.; Kuchai, M. S.; Sinyukhina, S. V.

    2014-01-01

    The probabilistic approach to the description of the Chandler wobble is expanded to the case of anisotropic random load. The polar motion is treated as a two-dimensional (2D) Markov process—the solution of the Liouville equation—with discrete time. It is shown that with a sufficiently large time step Δ, the polar motion can be considered as an isotropic process irrespective of the particular ratio between the eigenvalues of the diffusion matrix, which characterizes the right-hand side of this equation (random load). The problem of reaching the boundary of the domain [ E min, E max] by the energy of the pole E( t) = x {1/2}+ x {2/2} is considered. With a time step Δ of 1 year and the length of the time series of the observations N = 150, the correction for anisotropy to the total probability P* of a drop by a factor of five in the amplitude of the Chandler wobble A = √ E does not exceed 10-2, and the probability P* is above 0.3 (if the Q-factor of the mantle is below 500). Thus, it is demonstrated that the observed variations in amplitude A( t) can be explained in the context of the probabilistic approach without hypothesizing the isotropy of the random load.

  17. Details of tetrahedral anisotropic mesh adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjerg; Gorman, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    We have implemented tetrahedral anisotropic mesh adaptation using the local operations of coarsening, swapping, refinement and smoothing in MATLAB without the use of any for- N loops, i.e. the script is fully vectorised. In the process of doing so, we have made three observations related to details of the implementation: 1. restricting refinement to a single edge split per element not only simplifies the code, it also improves mesh quality, 2. face to edge swapping is unnecessary, and 3. optimising for the Vassilevski functional tends to give a little higher value for the mean condition number functional than optimising for the condition number functional directly. These observations have been made for a uniform and a radial shock metric field, both starting from a structured mesh in a cube. Finally, we compare two coarsening techniques and demonstrate the importance of applying smoothing in the mesh adaptation loop. The results pertain to a unit cube geometry, but we also show the effect of corners and edges by applying the implementation in a spherical geometry.

  18. Zonal flows in tokamaks with anisotropic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Haijun

    2014-04-01

    Zonal flows (ZFs) in a tokamak plasma with anisotropic pressure are investigated. The dynamics of perpendicular and parallel pressures are determined by the Chew-Goldberger-Low double equations and low-β condition is adopted, where β is the ratio of plasma pressure to the magnetic field pressure. The dispersion relation is analytically derived and illustrates two branches of ZFs. The low frequency zonal flow (LFZF) branch becomes unstable when χ, the ratio of the perpendicular pressure to the parallel one, is greater than a threshold value χc, which is about 3.8. In the stable region, its frequency increases first and then decreases with increasing χ. For χ = 1, the frequency of LFZF agrees well with the experimental observation. For the instability, the growth rate of LFZF increases with χ. The geodesic acoustic mode branch is shown to be always stable with a frequency increasing with χ. The safety factor is shown to diminish the frequencies of both branches or the growth rate of LFZF.

  19. Singularity-free anisotropic strange quintessence star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhar, Piyali

    2015-04-01

    Present paper provides a new model of anisotropic strange star corresponding to the exterior Schwarzschild metric. The Einstein field equations have been solved by utilizing the Krori-Barua (KB) ansatz (Krori and Barua in J. Phys. A, Math. Gen. 8:508, 1975) in presence of quintessence field characterized by a parameter ω q with . The obtained solutions are free from central singularity. Our model is potentially stable. The numerical values of mass of the different strange stars SAXJ1808.4-3658(SS1) (radius=7.07 km), 4U1820-30 (radius=10 km), Vela X-12 (radius=9.99 km), PSR J 1614-2230 (radius=10.3 km) obtained from our model is very close to the observational data that confirms the validity of our proposed model. The interior solution is also matched to the exterior Schwarzschild spacetime in presence of thin shell where negative surface pressure is required to hold the thin shell against collapsing.

  20. Colloidal aggregation and dynamics in anisotropic fluids

    PubMed Central

    Mondiot, Frédéric; Botet, Robert; Snabre, Patrick; Mondain-Monval, Olivier; Loudet, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    We present experiments and numerical simulations to investigate the collective behavior of submicrometer-sized particles immersed in a nematic micellar solution. We use latex spheres with diameters ranging from 190 to 780 nm and study their aggregation properties due to the interplay of the various colloidal forces at work in the system. We found that the morphology of aggregates strongly depends on the particle size, with evidence for two distinct regimes: the biggest inclusions clump together within minutes into either compact clusters or V-like structures that are completely consistent with attractive elastic interactions. On the contrary, the smallest particles form chains elongated along the nematic axis, within comparable timescales. In this regime, Monte Carlo simulations, based on a modified diffusion-limited cluster aggregation model, strongly suggest that the anisotropic rotational Brownian motion of the clusters combined with short-range depletion interactions dominate the system coarsening; elastic interactions no longer prevail. The simulations reproduce the sharp transition between the two regimes on increasing the particle size. We provide reasonable estimates to interpret our data and propose a likely scenario for colloidal aggregation. These results emphasize the growing importance of the diffusion of species at suboptical-wavelength scales and raise a number of fundamental issues. PMID:24715727

  1. Coefficient adaptive triangulation for strongly anisotropic problems

    SciTech Connect

    D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.; Donato, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Second order elliptic partial differential equations arise in many important applications, including flow through porous media, heat conduction, the distribution of electrical or magnetic potential. The prototype is the Laplace problem, which in discrete form produces a coefficient matrix that is relatively easy to solve in a regular domain. However, the presence of anisotropy produces a matrix whose condition number is increased, making the resulting linear system more difficult to solve. In this work, we take the anisotropy into account in the discretization by mapping each anisotropic region into a ``stretched`` coordinate space in which the anisotropy is removed. The region is then uniformly triangulated, and the resulting triangulation mapped back to the original space. The effect is to generate long slender triangles that are oriented in the direction of ``preferred flow.`` Slender triangles are generally regarded as numerically undesirable since they tend to cause poor conditioning; however, our triangulation has the effect of producing effective isotropy, thus improving the condition number of the resulting coefficient matrix.

  2. Anisotropic lattice distortions in biogenic aragonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokroy, Boaz; Quintana, John P.; Caspi, El'ad N.; Berner, Alex; Zolotoyabko, Emil

    2004-12-01

    Composite biogenic materials produced by organisms have a complicated design on a nanometre scale. An outstanding example of organic-inorganic composites is provided by mollusc seashells, whose superior mechanical properties are due to their multi-level crystalline hierarchy and the presence of a small amount (0.1-5 wt%) of organic molecules. The presence of organic molecules, among other characteristics, can influence the coherence length for X-ray scattering in biogenic crystals. Here we show the results of synchrotron high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction measurements in biogenic and non-biogenic (geological) aragonite crystals. On applying the Rietveld refinement procedure to the high-resolution diffraction spectra, we were able to extract the aragonite lattice parameters with an accuracy of 10 p.p.m. As a result, we found anisotropic lattice distortions in biogenic aragonite relative to the geological sample, maximum distortion being 0.1% along the c axis of the orthorhombic unit cell. The organic molecules could be a source of these structural distortions in biogenic crystals. This finding may be important to the general understanding of the biomineralization process and the development of bio-inspired 'smart' materials.

  3. Anisotropic damage effects in masonry walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massart, T.; Bouillard, P.; Geers, M. G. D.; Peerlings, R. H. J.

    2003-03-01

    This paper refers to the characterization of plane masonry behaviour under the assumption of plane stress. Masonry may be seen as a two-phase (bricks and mortar) periodic anisotropic material with complex macroscopic behaviour due to the possible occurrence of cracking in each of the phases. Non-linear constitutive equations have thus to be used in order to realistically represent masonry structures. Most existing macroscopic models defined for such materials are by essence phenomenological. This leads to weakly motivated frameworks and rather complex models, especially if one wants to account for material symmetry evolution due to cracking. The aim of this paper is to identify a simple set of damage mechanics variables for the constituents that could be used in homogenization procedures to infer the overall behaviour of the material from its mesostructural features (geometrical arrangement and mechanical properties of the constituents). Based on unit cell computations, it is shown that scalar damage mesomodels allow to obtain realistic damage patterns encountered in experiments. Results suggest that at the meso-scale, it is possible to use a scalar damage model for the individual phases which naturally leads to the desired anisotropy evolution into the macroscopic descriptions. This macroscopic anisotropy evolution is illustrated using a numerical homogenization procedure to identify the degraded stiffness associated to damage patterns. The influence of variations in the constituent characteristics is also correctly captured as illustrated for some of the loading schemes.

  4. A local anisotropic adaptive algorithm for the solution of low-Mach transient combustion problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpio, Jaime; Prieto, Juan Luis; Vera, Marcos

    2016-02-01

    A novel numerical algorithm for the simulation of transient combustion problems at low Mach and moderately high Reynolds numbers is presented. These problems are often characterized by the existence of a large disparity of length and time scales, resulting in the development of directional flow features, such as slender jets, boundary layers, mixing layers, or flame fronts. This makes local anisotropic adaptive techniques quite advantageous computationally. In this work we propose a local anisotropic refinement algorithm using, for the spatial discretization, unstructured triangular elements in a finite element framework. For the time integration, the problem is formulated in the context of semi-Lagrangian schemes, introducing the semi-Lagrange-Galerkin (SLG) technique as a better alternative to the classical semi-Lagrangian (SL) interpolation. The good performance of the numerical algorithm is illustrated by solving a canonical laminar combustion problem: the flame/vortex interaction. First, a premixed methane-air flame/vortex interaction with simplified transport and chemistry description (Test I) is considered. Results are found to be in excellent agreement with those in the literature, proving the superior performance of the SLG scheme when compared with the classical SL technique, and the advantage of using anisotropic adaptation instead of uniform meshes or isotropic mesh refinement. As a more realistic example, we then conduct simulations of non-premixed hydrogen-air flame/vortex interactions (Test II) using a more complex combustion model which involves state-of-the-art transport and chemical kinetics. In addition to the analysis of the numerical features, this second example allows us to perform a satisfactory comparison with experimental visualizations taken from the literature.

  5. Fracture Interface Waves in an Anisotropic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.; Shao, S.; Abell, B.

    2011-12-01

    The detection of fractures in an anisotropic medium is complicated by discreet modes that are guided or confined by fractures and that travel with velocities close (~92%) to the shear wave velocity. For instance, fractures can mask the presence of textural anisotropy in a rock, and can increase the apparent shear wave velocity anisotropy. In this study, we examine how fracture interface waves affect the interpretation of shear wave velocities for two orthogonal polarizations propagating parallel to the layers. Samples with textural anisotropy measuring 100 x 100 x 100 mm were fabricated from garolite, an epoxy - cloth laminate, with layer thickness on the order of 0.5 mm. Three fracture samples were created with: (1) a fracture oriented parallel to layering, (2) a fracture oriented perpendicular to layering, and (3) two intersecting orthogonal fractures. An intact sample without fractures was used a standard. A seismic array, consisting of source and receiver arrays, was used to perform full waveform measurements. Each array contained two compressional and five shear wave piezoelectric contact transducers with a central frequency of 1 MHz. Shear wave transducers were polarized both perpendicular and parallel to the layering as well as to the fracture. Measurements were made for a range of stresses (0.4 - 4MPa). When the shear wave was polarized parallel to a fracture, the shear wave traveled at the bulk shear velocity respective to the layering. However, when the shear wave was polarized perpendicular to a fracture, the measured velocity ranged between the Rayleigh wave velocity at low stress and the bulk shear wave at high stress. The shear wave velocities perpendicular and parallel to the layering (propagation direction parallel to the layers) were ~1500 m/s and ~1600 m/s, respectively, in the intact sample. However, in the fractured samples, the observed shear wave anisotropy depended on the stress and fracture orientation relative to the layering. When the

  6. Bromide (Br-) ion-mediated synthesis of anisotropic palladium nanocrystals by laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navas, M. P.; Soni, R. K.

    2016-12-01

    Anisotropic growth of Pd nanoparticles in bromine (Br) containing solution has been studied by pulsed laser ablation. For size and shape control different solutions like water, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) (anionic surfactant), and (Br-) ion containing cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) (cationic surfactant) and electrolyte (KBr) were used. In laser ablation surrounding liquid plays a dominant role in controlling size and directional growth. Absorption spectra of as-generated Pd nanoparticles undergo modification with time in different solutions due to Br- ion-mediated directional growth. In water and SDS quasi-spherical and spherical Pd nanoparticles with mean size of 14 and 8 nm, respectively, and in CTAB decahedron and icosahedron shape Pd nanocrystals with mean size 65 nm were observed. When strong Br- ion source KBr was used sharp edged cuboid shaped large Pd nanoparticles were observed. Surface energy modification due to preferential chemisorption of Br- ions onto {100} planes of Pd resulted in formation anisotropic Pd nanostructures enclosed with {100} planes. The nanocubes exhibit broad plasmon resonance around 250-280 nm. Further, size of nanocuboids were controlled by using mixed solutions of KBr with SDS and CTAB for tunable plasmon resonance wavelength from 230 to 550 nm.

  7. Spectral element method for band structures of two-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ma; Liu, Qing Huo; Li, Zhibing

    2009-02-01

    A spectral element method (SEM) is proposed for the accurate calculation of band structures of two-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystals. It uses Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre polynomials as the basis functions in the finite-element framework with curvilinear quadrilateral elements. Coordination mapping is introduced to make the curved quadrilateral elements conformal with the problem geometry. Mixed order basis functions are used in the vector SEM for full vector calculation. The numerical convergence speed of the method is investigated with both square and triangular lattices, and with isotropic and in-plane anisotropic media. It is shown that this method has spectral accuracy, i.e., the numerical error decreases exponentially with the order of basis functions. With only four points per wavelength, the SEM can achieve a numerical error smaller than 0.1%. The full vector calculation method can suppress all spurious modes with nonzero eigenvalues, thus making it easy to filter out real modes. It is thus demonstrated that the SEM is an efficient alternative method for accurate determination of band structures of two-dimensional photonic crystals.

  8. Spectral element method for band structures of two-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ma; Liu, Qing Huo; Li, Zhibing

    2009-02-01

    A spectral element method (SEM) is proposed for the accurate calculation of band structures of two-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystals. It uses Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre polynomials as the basis functions in the finite-element framework with curvilinear quadrilateral elements. Coordination mapping is introduced to make the curved quadrilateral elements conformal with the problem geometry. Mixed order basis functions are used in the vector SEM for full vector calculation. The numerical convergence speed of the method is investigated with both square and triangular lattices, and with isotropic and in-plane anisotropic media. It is shown that this method has spectral accuracy, i.e., the numerical error decreases exponentially with the order of basis functions. With only four points per wavelength, the SEM can achieve a numerical error smaller than 0.1%. The full vector calculation method can suppress all spurious modes with nonzero eigenvalues, thus making it easy to filter out real modes. It is thus demonstrated that the SEM is an efficient alternative method for accurate determination of band structures of two-dimensional photonic crystals.

  9. MOSSFRAC: An anisotropic 3D fracture model

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, W C; Levatin, J L

    2006-08-14

    Despite the intense effort for nearly half a century to construct detailed numerical models of plastic flow and plastic damage accumulation, models for describing fracture, an equally important damage mechanism still cannot describe basic fracture phenomena. Typical fracture models set the stress tensor to zero for tensile fracture and set the deviatoric stress tensor to zero for compressive fracture. One consequence is that the simple case of the tensile fracture of a cylinder under combined compressive radial and tensile axial loads is not modeled correctly. The experimental result is a cylinder that can support compressive radial loads, but no axial load, whereas, the typical numerical result is a cylinder with all stresses equal to zero. This incorrect modeling of fracture locally also has a global effect, because material that is fracturing produces stress release waves, which propagate from the fracture and influence the surrounding material. Consequently, it would be useful to have a model that can describe the stress relief and the resulting anisotropy due to fracture. MOSSFRAC is a material model that simulates three-dimensional tensile and shear fracture in initially isotropic elastic-plastic materials, although its framework is also amenable to initially anisotropic materials. It differs from other models by accounting for the effects of cracks on the constitutive response of the material, so that the previously described experiment, as well as complicated fracture scenarios are simulated more accurately. The model is implemented currently in the LLNL hydrocodes DYNA3D, PARADYN, and ALE3D. The purpose of this technical note is to present a complete qualitative description of the model and quantitative descriptions of salient features.

  10. Anisotropic surface chemistry of crystalline pharmaceutical solids.

    PubMed

    Heng, Jerry Y Y; Bismarck, Alexander; Williams, Daryl R

    2006-10-06

    The purpose of this study was to establish the link between the wetting behavior of crystalline pharmaceutical solids and the localized surface chemistry. A range of conventional wetting techniques were evaluated and compared with a novel experimental approach: sessile drop contact angle measurements on the individual facets of macroscopic (>1 cm) single crystals. Conventional measurement techniques for determining surface energetics such as capillary rise and sessile drops on powder compacts were found not to provide reliable results. When the macroscopic crystal approach was used, major differences for advancing contact angles, theta(a), of water were observed-as low as 16 degrees on facet (001) and as high as 68 degrees on facet (010) of form I paracetamol. theta(a) trends were in excellent agreement with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy surface composition and known crystallographic structures, suggesting a direct relationship to the local surface chemistry. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) was further used to probe the surface properties of milled and unmilled samples, as a function of particle size. IGC experiments confirmed that milling exposes the weakest attachment energy facet, with increasing dominance as particle size is reduced. The weakest attachment energy facet was also found to exhibit the highest theta(a) for water and to be the most hydrophobic facet. This anisotropic wetting behavior was established for a range of crystalline systems: paracetamol polymorphs, aspirin, and ibuprofen racemates. theta(a) was found to be very sensitive to the local surface chemistry. It is proposed that the hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of facets reflects the presence of functional groups at surfaces to form hydrogen bonds with external molecules.

  11. Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy of Anisotropic Shale Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, L. M.; van Wijk, K.

    2014-12-01

    Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) is a technique that can be used to determine the elastic properties of geological core samples. The resonant frequencies of the sample are measured and the elastic tensor inverted for by the non-linear Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. It is a non-destructive method that allows the complete elastic tensor to be calculated from a single measurement and can provide important attenuation information. Many crustal rocks are anisotropic and can often be described by a hexagonal model of symmetry, where the sample has a single axis of rotational symmetry with perpendicular isotropic planes. Geological samples are often cylindrical and cut parallel or perpendicular to the layering (termed horizontal or vertical transverse isotropy respectively). The two situations cannot be treated by a single model and have substantially different resonant spectra. We have added functionality to existing forward and inverse codes to account for both situations. It is important to be able to deal with the two subsets of hexagonal symmetry because by using mutually perpendicular samples from the same rock complementary information can be obtained and more accurate results achieved than is possible with a single core. Shale formations consist of thin layered sequences of aligned microscopic clay platelets, which are responsible for the inherent anisotropy of shales, and can be described by a hexagonal symmetry model. RUS is used to determine the complete elastic tensor of two shale samples. When measured using RUS at frequencies on the order of 104 Hz and with time-of-flight methods with a dominant frequency an order of magnitude higher the elastic properties display frequency dispersion.

  12. Mixed cryoglobulinemia

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Clodoveo

    2008-01-01

    Mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC), type II and type III, refers to the presence of circulating cryoprecipitable immune complexes in the serum and manifests clinically by a classical triad of purpura, weakness and arthralgias. It is considered to be a rare disorder, but its true prevalence remains unknown. The disease is more common in Southern Europe than in Northern Europe or Northern America. The prevalence of 'essential' MC is reported as approximately 1:100,000 (with a female-to-male ratio 3:1), but this term is now used to refer to a minority of MC patients only. MC is characterized by variable organ involvement including skin lesions (orthostatic purpura, ulcers), chronic hepatitis, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, peripheral neuropathy, diffuse vasculitis, and, less frequently, interstitial lung involvement and endocrine disorders. Some patients may develop lymphatic and hepatic malignancies, usually as a late complication. MC may be associated with numerous infectious or immunological diseases. When isolated, MC may represent a distinct disease, the so-called 'essential' MC. The etiopathogenesis of MC is not completely understood. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is suggested to play a causative role, with the contribution of genetic and/or environmental factors. Moreover, MC may be associated with other infectious agents or immunological disorders, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or primary Sjögren's syndrome. Diagnosis is based on clinical and laboratory findings. Circulating mixed cryoglobulins, low C4 levels and orthostatic skin purpura are the hallmarks of the disease. Leukocytoclastic vasculitis involving medium- and, more often, small-sized blood vessels is the typical pathological finding, easily detectable by means of skin biopsy of recent vasculitic lesions. Differential diagnoses include a wide range of systemic, infectious and neoplastic disorders, mainly autoimmune hepatitis, Sjögren's syndrome, polyarthritis, and B

  13. Spectral Modeling of Sub-Mesoscale Mixing Processes in the Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-30

    Anisotropic turbulence and internal waves in stably stratified flows (QNSE theory). International conference “Turbulent mixing and beyond,” the Abdus ... Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, August 17-26, 2007, Trieste, Italy. RESULTS As mentioned in the previous section, we have

  14. Generation and characterization of anisotropic microstructures in rare earth-iron-boron alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oster, Nathaniel

    The automotive industry is currently being directed toward electrification of their fleets. In order to provide these hybrid or electric vehicles, lightweight high torque electric motors are needed. Permanent magnet (PM) brushless motors have been identified as the preferred motors for these applications. In order to effectively provide these motors, cost-effective high strength PMs are needed. The use of polymer bonded PMs is one method to reduce processing costs, but performance is decreased unless anisotropic PMs can be formed. New processing methods to form anisotropic mixed rare earth (MRE)-iron-boron PM particulate were studied in this work. Two primary processing routes were identified and investigated: controlled devitrification through application of uniaxial pressure and rapid directional solidification utilizing a segregating additive. In addition, further control of the melt-spinning process was achieved through control of wheel surface temperature and finish. Controlled devitrification was found to produce an anisotropic, nanocrystalline microstructure, as observed through TEM and XRD studies. A high defect density within the structure, unprecedented in RE2Fe14B microstructures, was observed. It is surmised that the defects cause soft magnetic behavior. Stabilization of a columnar, textured microstructure was achieved through the utilization of moderate wheel speeds during melt-spinning, in combination with minor additions of Ag to the alloy. The texture was seen to be altered from that typically seen in RE2Fe14B alloys melt-spun at low-to-moderate wheel speeds. It was observed that this occurs through a modification in the solidification pathway, catalyzed by the addition of Ag. In addition to the altered texture, the presence of fine precipitates within the matrix and varying interdendritic phases was observed. Alteration of wheel surface temperature and surface finish was seen to have significant effects on the ability to form amorphous material in

  15. Optical correlation using isotropic and anisotropic self diffraction using photorefractive material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buranasiri, Prathan

    For two incident optical beams at different angles of incidence, a photorefractive cerium doped barium titanate crystal can facilitate different configurations of self-diffraction into higher orders. These configurations can be classified as isotropic and anisotropic, co-directional and contra-directional. Sometimes, a higher order resulting from an incident diverging object beam may comprise a converging beam, which then has the property of phase conjugation. Photorefractive fanning plays an important role in all these self-diffraction configurations. In this dissertation, we first explore the first higher order generated by forward three wave mixing. Only one higher order is observed when one of the incident beams is perpendicular to the surface of incidence. Not only the energy transfer via the first order grating has been observed but the energy transfer via the second order grating has been observed as well. With the angle between two incident beams less than 0.015 radians, the second configuration of self-diffraction has been investigated. With this configuration, codirectional isotropic self-diffraction (CODIS) and contradirectional isotropic self diffraction (CONDIS) have been observed. Phase conjugated beams which are responsible for CONDIS are the composite of mutual pumped phase conjugate (MPPC) and self pumped phase conjugate (SPPC). Due to the fanning effect, CONDIS usually forms before CODAS. In general, energy transfer between incident beams and CONDIS and CODIS occurs via first order and higher order gratings. For certain large but specific angles between the two incident extraordinarily polarized beams, it is possible to obtain anisotropic self-diffraction into ordinarily polarized higher orders. This third configuration for self-diffraction, called codirectional anisotropic self-diffraction (CODAS), can be generated most efficiently for the Bragg-matched case, although we have also observed CODAS with Bragg mismatch. In addition, CODAS has been

  16. Enhanced performance of solar cells with optimized surface recombination and efficient photon capturing via anisotropic-etching of black silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H. Y.; Peng, Y. E-mail: py@usst.edu.cn; Hong, M.; Zhang, Y. B.; Cai, Bin; Zhu, Y. M.; Yuan, G. D. E-mail: py@usst.edu.cn; Zhang, Y.; Liu, Z. Q.; Wang, J. X.; Li, J. M.

    2014-05-12

    We report an enhanced conversion efficiency of femtosecond-laser treated silicon solar cells by surface modification of anisotropic-etching. The etching improves minority carrier lifetime inside modified black silicon area substantially; moreover, after the etching, an inverted pyramids/upright pyramids mixed texture surface is obtained, which shows better photon capturing capability than that of conventional pyramid texture. Combing of these two merits, the reformed solar cells show higher conversion efficiency than that of conventional pyramid textured cells. This work presents a way for fabricating high performance silicon solar cells, which can be easily applied to mass-production.

  17. Anisotropic Solution Adaptive Unstructured Grid Generation Using AFLR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcum, David L.

    2007-01-01

    An existing volume grid generation procedure, AFLR3, was successfully modified to generate anisotropic tetrahedral elements using a directional metric transformation defined at source nodes. The procedure can be coupled with a solver and an error estimator as part of an overall anisotropic solution adaptation methodology. It is suitable for use with an error estimator based on an adjoint, optimization, sensitivity derivative, or related approach. This offers many advantages, including more efficient point placement along with robust and efficient error estimation. It also serves as a framework for true grid optimization wherein error estimation and computational resources can be used as cost functions to determine the optimal point distribution. Within AFLR3 the metric transformation is implemented using a set of transformation vectors and associated aspect ratios. The modified overall procedure is presented along with details of the anisotropic transformation implementation. Multiple two-and three-dimensional examples are also presented that demonstrate the capability of the modified AFLR procedure to generate anisotropic elements using a set of source nodes with anisotropic transformation metrics. The example cases presented use moderate levels of anisotropy and result in usable element quality. Future testing with various flow solvers and methods for obtaining transformation metric information is needed to determine practical limits and evaluate the efficacy of the overall approach.

  18. Anisotropic diffusion in mesh-free numerical magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Philip F.

    2017-04-01

    We extend recently developed mesh-free Lagrangian methods for numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) to arbitrary anisotropic diffusion equations, including: passive scalar diffusion, Spitzer-Braginskii conduction and viscosity, cosmic ray diffusion/streaming, anisotropic radiation transport, non-ideal MHD (Ohmic resistivity, ambipolar diffusion, the Hall effect) and turbulent 'eddy diffusion'. We study these as implemented in the code GIZMO for both new meshless finite-volume Godunov schemes (MFM/MFV). We show that the MFM/MFV methods are accurate and stable even with noisy fields and irregular particle arrangements, and recover the correct behaviour even in arbitrarily anisotropic cases. They are competitive with state-of-the-art AMR/moving-mesh methods, and can correctly treat anisotropic diffusion-driven instabilities (e.g. the MTI and HBI, Hall MRI). We also develop a new scheme for stabilizing anisotropic tensor-valued fluxes with high-order gradient estimators and non-linear flux limiters, which is trivially generalized to AMR/moving-mesh codes. We also present applications of some of these improvements for SPH, in the form of a new integral-Godunov SPH formulation that adopts a moving-least squares gradient estimator and introduces a flux-limited Riemann problem between particles.

  19. Weibel Instability Driven by Spatially Anisotropic Density Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Sara; Ohira, Yutaka

    2016-07-01

    Observations of afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) suggest that post-shock magnetic fields are strongly amplified to about 100 times the shock-compressed value. The Weibel instability appears to play an important role in generating the magnetic field. However, recent simulations of collisionless shocks in homogeneous plasmas show that the magnetic field generated by the Weibel instability rapidly decays. There must be some density fluctuations in interstellar and circumstellar media. The density fluctuations are anisotropically compressed in the downstream region of relativistic shocks. In this paper, we study the Weibel instability in electron-positron plasmas with spatially anisotropic density distributions by means of two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. We find that large magnetic fields are maintained for a longer time by the Weibel instability driven by spatially anisotropic density structure. Particles anisotropically escape from the high density region, so that a temperature anisotropy is generated and the Weibel instability becomes unstable. Our simulation results suggest that the Weibel instability driven by an anisotropic density structure can generate sufficiently large magnetic fields and they can cover sufficiently large regions to explain the afterglow emission of GRBs.

  20. What is the Brillouin zone of an anisotropic photonic crystal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivarajah, P.; Maznev, A. A.; Ofori-Okai, B. K.; Nelson, K. A.

    2016-02-01

    The concept of the Brillouin zone (BZ) in relation to a photonic crystal fabricated in an optically anisotropic material is explored both experimentally and theoretically. In experiment we used femtosecond laser pulses to excite THz polaritons and image their propagation in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate photonic crystal (PhC) slabs. We directly measured the dispersion relation inside PhCs and observed that the lowest band gap expected to form at the BZ boundary forms inside the BZ in the anisotropic lithium niobate PhC. Our analysis shows that in an anisotropic material the BZ—defined as the Wigner-Seitz cell in the reciprocal lattice—is no longer bounded by Bragg planes and thus does not conform to the original definition of the BZ by Brillouin. We construct an alternative Brillouin zone defined by Bragg planes and show its utility in identifying features of the dispersion bands. We show that for an anisotropic two-dimensional PhC without dispersion, the Bragg plane BZ can be constructed by applying the Wigner-Seitz method to a stretched or compressed reciprocal lattice. We also show that in the presence of the dispersion in the underlying material or in a slab waveguide, the Bragg planes are generally represented by curved surfaces rather than planes. The concept of constructing a BZ with Bragg planes should prove useful in understanding the formation of dispersion bands in anisotropic PhCs and in selectively tailoring their optical properties.

  1. Anisotropic third-moment estimates of the energy cascade in solar wind turbulence using multispacecraft data.

    PubMed

    Osman, K T; Wan, M; Matthaeus, W H; Weygand, J M; Dasso, S

    2011-10-14

    The first direct determination of the inertial range energy cascade rate, using an anisotropic form of Yaglom's law for magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, is obtained in the solar wind with multispacecraft measurements. The two-point mixed third-order structure functions of Elsässer fluctuations are integrated over a sphere in magnetic field-aligned coordinates, and the result is consistent with a linear scaling. Therefore, volume integrated heating and cascade rates are obtained that, unlike previous studies, make only limited assumptions about the underlying spectral geometry of solar wind turbulence. These results confirm the turbulent nature of magnetic and velocity field fluctuations in the low frequency limit, and could supply the energy necessary to account for the nonadiabatic heating of the solar wind.

  2. Guiding of vortices under competing isotropic and anisotropic pinning conditions: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soroka, Oleksiy K.; Shklovskij, Valerij A.; Huth, Michael

    2007-07-01

    The influence of tailored anisotropic pinning sites on the nonlinear resistivity tensor in the mixed state of epitaxial thin films of niobium was studied by electronic transport measurements and accompanying theoretical modeling. The thin films were prepared by physical vapor deposition of niobium onto faceted α -alumina substrates. The resistivity tensor of the films was determined in the limit of small current densities at various temperatures close to the critical temperature and in different magnetic fields. In these experiments, the angle between the current and the facet ridges of the substrates was set at five fixed angles between 0° and 90°. Perfect guiding of the vortices along the facet ridges was observed over a wide parameter range. The measured resistivities were in good quantitative agreement with the predictions of the employed stochastic modeling approach.

  3. Bicritical universality of the anisotropic Heisenberg model in a crystal field.

    PubMed

    Freire, R T S; Plascak, J A

    2015-03-01

    The bicritical properties of the three-dimensional classical anisotropic Heisenberg model in a crystal field are investigated through extensive Monte Carlo simulations on a simple cubic lattice, using Metropolis and Wolff algorithms. Field-mixing and multidimensional histogram techniques were employed in order to compute the probability distribution function of the extensive conjugate variables of interest and, using finite-size scaling analysis, the first-order transition line of the model was precisely located. The fourth-order cumulant of the order parameter was then calculated along this line and the bicritical point located with good precision from the cumulant crossings. The bicritical properties of this point were further investigated through the measurement of the universal probability distribution function of the order parameter. The results lead us to conclude that the studied bicritical point belongs in fact to the three-dimensional Heisenberg universality class.

  4. Anisotropic Self-Assembly of Citrate-Coated Gold Nanoparticles on Fluidic Liposomes.

    PubMed

    Sugikawa, Kouta; Kadota, Tatsuya; Yasuhara, Kazuma; Ikeda, Atsushi

    2016-03-14

    The behavior of self-assembly processes of nanoscale particles on plasma membranes can reveal mechanisms of important biofunctions and/or intractable diseases. Self-assembly of citrate-coated gold nanoparticles (cAuNPs) on liposomes was investigated. The adsorbed cAuNPs were initially fixed on the liposome surfaces and did not self-assemble below the phospholipid phase transition temperature (Tm ). In contrast, anisotropic cAuNP self-assembly was observed upon heating of the composite above the Tm, where the phospholipids became fluid. The number of self-assembled NPs is conveniently controlled by the initial mixing ratio of cAuNPs and liposomes. Gold nanoparticle protecting agents strongly affected the self-assembly process on the fluidic membrane.

  5. Anisotropic imaging performance in breast tomosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Badano, Aldo; Kyprianou, Iacovos S; Jennings, Robert J; Sempau, Josep

    2007-11-01

    We describe the anisotropy in imaging performance caused by oblique x-ray incidence in indirect detectors for breast tomosynthesis based on columnar scintillator screens. We use MANTIS, a freely available combined x-ray, electron, and optical Monte Carlo transport package which models the indirect detection processes in columnar screens, interaction by interaction. The code has been previously validated against published optical distributions. In this article, initial validation results are provided concerning the blur for particular designs of phosphor screens for which some details with respect to the columnar geometry are available from scanning electron microscopy. The polyenergetic x-ray spectrum utilized comes from a database of experimental data for three different anode/filter/kVp combinations: Mo/Mo at 28 kVp, Rh/Rh at 28 kVp, and W/Al at 42 kVp. The x-ray spectra were then filtered with breast tissue (3, 4, and 6 cm thickness), compression paddle, and support base, according to the oblique paths determined by the incidence angle. The composition of the breast tissue was 50%/50% adipose/glandular tissue mass ratio. Results are reported on the pulse-height statistics of the light output and on spatial blur, expressed as the response of the detector to a pencil beam with a certain incidence angle. Results suggest that the response is nonsymmetrical and that the resolution properties of a tomosynthesis system vary significantly with the angle of x-ray incidence. In contrast, it is found that the noise due to the variability in the number of light photons detected per primary x-ray interaction changes only a few percent. The anisotropy in the response is not less in screens with absorptive backings while the noise introduced by variations in the depth-dependent light output and optical transport is larger. The results suggest that anisotropic imaging performance across the detector area can be incorporated into reconstruction algorithms for improving the image

  6. Anisotropic shrinkage characteristics of tape cast alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patwardhan, Jaideep Suresh

    Dimensional control during sintering is a major issue in ceramics processing to avoid high post-sintering costs associated with machining of the fired ceramic part to desired tolerances and dimensions. Ceramic forming processes such as tape casting, injection molding, and extrusion involve shear of anisotropic particles resulting in preferential alignment of the particles in the green body. This preferential alignment causes directionality in mechanical, electrical, optical, and magnetic properties and most importantly warpage or distortion during sintering. A large effort has been devoted to synthesizing ceramic green bodies with minimal density gradients and uniform packing and modeling the sintering behavior evolution but little effort has been devoted to characterizing orientation of particles and the effect of preferential alignment on sintering shrinkage anisotropy. A systematic study was initiated to study the effect of processing variables such as shear rate, solids loading, temperature, and binder content on aqueous tape cast alumina. Three different alumina systems: A16-SG, Baikowski RC-UFX DBM and RC-LS DBM were investigated. Aqueous tapes of high solids loading alumina (56 vol. %) were tape cast at various speeds and thicknesses and assuming plane Couette flow a shear rate regime of 21--270 s-1 was investigated. Higher shear rates and high solids loading resulted in higher in-plane anisotropy whereas the anisotropy in the thickness direction was higher for low solids loading systems. The anisotropy was found to be fairly constant above a certain critical shear rate (˜100 s-1) irrespective of the temperature and the solids loading and this correlated with the viscosity-shear rate relationship of the cast slips. The higher shrinkage anisotropy in the thickness direction for the low solids loading systems (35 and 45 vol. %) was attributed to the higher amount of organics in the slip required to sustain the suitable viscosity for tape casting and

  7. Dynamic Scaling of Island-size Distribution on Anisotropic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Maozhi; Wang, E. G.; Liu, Banggui; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2002-03-01

    Dynamic scaling of island-size distribution on isotropic and anisotropic surfaces in submonolayer growth is systematically studied using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. It is found that the island-size distribution in anisotropic submonolayer growth exhibits a general dynamic scaling behavior. An analytic expression is proposed for the scaling function, and is compared with the simulation results. This scaling function not only improves previous results for the isotropic growth (1), but also describes the scaling behavior of the island-size distribution in anisotropic submonolayer growth very well (2). 1. J. G. Amar and F. Family, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2066 (1995). 2. M. Z. Li, E. G. Wang, B. G. Liu, and Z. Y. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. (submitted).

  8. Geodesic acoustic mode in anisotropic plasma with heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Haijun

    2015-10-01

    Geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) in an anisotropic tokamak plasma is investigated in fluid approximation. The collisionless anisotropic plasma is described within the 16-momentum magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluid closure model, which takes into account not only the pressure anisotropy but also the anisotropic heat flux. It is shown that the GAM frequency agrees better with the kinetic result than the standard Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) MHD model. When zeroing the anisotropy, the 16-momentum result is identical with the kinetic one to the order of 1/q2, while the CGL result agrees with the kinetic result only on the leading order. The discrepancies between the results of the CGL fluid model and the kinetic theory are well removed by considering the heat flux effect in the fluid approximation.

  9. A hybrid-stress finite element for linear anisotropic elasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fly, Gerald W.; Oden, J. Tinsley; Pearson, Mark L.

    1988-01-01

    Standard assumed displacement finite elements with anisotropic material properties perform poorly in complex stress fields such as combined bending and shear and combined bending and torsion. A set of three dimensional hybrid-stress brick elements were developed with fully anisotropic material properties. Both eight-node and twenty-node bricks were developed based on the symmetry group theory of Punch and Atluri. An eight-node brick was also developed using complete polynomials and stress basis functions and reducing the order of the resulting stress parameter matrix by applying equilibrium constraints and stress compatibility constraints. Here the stress compatibility constraints must be formulated assuming anisotropic material properties. The performance of these elements was examined in numerical examples covering a broad range of stress distributions. The stress predictions show significant improvement over the assumed displacement elements but the calculation time is increased.

  10. Anisotropic Smoothing Improves DT-MRI-Based Muscle Fiber Tractography

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Amanda K. W.; Ding, Zhaohua; Elder, Christopher P.; Towse, Theodore F.; Damon, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effect of anisotropic smoothing on fiber tracking measures, including pennation angle, fiber tract length, and fiber tract number in the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle in healthy subjects using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI). Materials and Methods 3T DW-MRI data were used for muscle fiber tractography in the MG of healthy subjects. Anisotropic smoothing was applied at three levels (5%, 10%, 15%), and pennation angle, tract length, fiber tract number, fractional anisotropy, and principal eigenvector orientation were quantified for each smoothing level. Results Fiber tract length increased with pre-fiber tracking smoothing, and local heterogeneities in fiber direction were reduced. However, pennation angle was not affected by smoothing. Conclusion Modest anisotropic smoothing (10%) improved fiber-tracking results, while preserving structural features. PMID:26010830

  11. Anisotropic Electron Tail Generation during Tearing Mode Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DuBois, Ami M.; Almagri, Abdulgader F.; Anderson, Jay K.; Den Hartog, Daniel J.; Lee, John David; Sarff, John S.

    2017-02-01

    The first experimental evidence of anisotropic electron energization during magnetic reconnection that favors a direction perpendicular to the guide magnetic field in a toroidal, magnetically confined plasma is reported in this Letter. Magnetic reconnection plays an important role in particle heating, energization, and transport in space and laboratory plasmas. In toroidal devices like the Madison Symmetric Torus, discrete magnetic reconnection events release large amounts of energy from the equilibrium magnetic field. Fast x-ray measurements imply a non-Maxwellian, anisotropic energetic electron tail is formed at the time of reconnection. The tail is well described by a power-law energy dependence. The expected bremsstrahlung from an electron distribution with an anisotropic energetic tail (v⊥>v∥ ) spatially localized in the core region is consistent with x-ray emission measurements. A turbulent process related to tearing fluctuations is the most likely cause for the energetic electron tail formation.

  12. Geodesic acoustic mode in anisotropic plasma with heat flux

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Haijun

    2015-10-15

    Geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) in an anisotropic tokamak plasma is investigated in fluid approximation. The collisionless anisotropic plasma is described within the 16-momentum magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluid closure model, which takes into account not only the pressure anisotropy but also the anisotropic heat flux. It is shown that the GAM frequency agrees better with the kinetic result than the standard Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) MHD model. When zeroing the anisotropy, the 16-momentum result is identical with the kinetic one to the order of 1/q{sup 2}, while the CGL result agrees with the kinetic result only on the leading order. The discrepancies between the results of the CGL fluid model and the kinetic theory are well removed by considering the heat flux effect in the fluid approximation.

  13. Hemispherical anisotropic patterns of the Earth’s inner core

    PubMed Central

    Mattesini, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    It has been shown that the Earth’s inner core has an axisymmetric anisotropic structure with seismic waves traveling ∼3% faster along polar paths than along equatorial directions. Hemispherical anisotropic patterns of the solid Earth’s core are rather complex, and the commonly used hexagonal-close-packed iron phase might be insufficient to account for seismological observations. We show that the data we collected are in good agreement with the presence of two anisotropically specular east and west core hemispheres. The detected travel-time anomalies can only be disclosed by a lattice-preferred orientation of a body-centered-cubic iron aggregate, having a fraction of their [111] crystal axes parallel to the Earth’s rotation axis. This is compelling evidence for the presence of a body-centered-cubic Fe phase at the top of the Earth’s inner core. PMID:20457937

  14. Anomalously large anisotropic magnetoresistance in a perovskite manganite.

    PubMed

    Li, Run-Wei; Wang, Huabing; Wang, Xuewen; Yu, X Z; Matsui, Y; Cheng, Zhao-Hua; Shen, Bao-Gen; Plummer, E Ward; Zhang, Jiandi

    2009-08-25

    The signature of correlated electron materials (CEMs) is the coupling between spin, charge, orbital and lattice resulting in exotic functionality. This complexity is directly responsible for their tunability. We demonstrate here that the broken symmetry, through cubic to orthorhombic distortion in the lattice structure in a prototype manganite single crystal, La(0.69)Ca(0.31)MnO(3), leads to an anisotropic magneto-elastic response to an external field, and consequently to remarkable magneto-transport behavior. An anomalous anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) effect occurs close to the metal-insulator transition (MIT) in the system, showing a direct correlation with the anisotropic field-tuned MIT in the system and can be understood by means of a simple phenomenological model. A small crystalline anisotropy stimulates a "colossal" AMR near the MIT phase boundary of the system, thus revealing the intimate interplay between magneto- and electronic-crystalline couplings.

  15. Hemispherical anisotropic patterns of the Earth's inner core.

    PubMed

    Mattesini, Maurizio; Belonoshko, Anatoly B; Buforn, Elisa; Ramírez, María; Simak, Sergei I; Udías, Agustín; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2010-05-25

    It has been shown that the Earth's inner core has an axisymmetric anisotropic structure with seismic waves traveling approximately 3% faster along polar paths than along equatorial directions. Hemispherical anisotropic patterns of the solid Earth's core are rather complex, and the commonly used hexagonal-close-packed iron phase might be insufficient to account for seismological observations. We show that the data we collected are in good agreement with the presence of two anisotropically specular east and west core hemispheres. The detected travel-time anomalies can only be disclosed by a lattice-preferred orientation of a body-centered-cubic iron aggregate, having a fraction of their [111] crystal axes parallel to the Earth's rotation axis. This is compelling evidence for the presence of a body-centered-cubic Fe phase at the top of the Earth's inner core.

  16. Self-force on dislocation segments in anisotropic crystals.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, S P; Aubry, S

    2010-07-28

    A dislocation segment in a crystal experiences a 'self-force', by virtue of the orientation dependence of its elastic energy. If the crystal is elastically isotropic, this force is manifested as a couple acting to rotate the segment toward the lower energy of the pure screw orientation (i.e. acting to align the dislocation line with its Burgers vector). If the crystal is anisotropic, there are additional contributions to the couple, arising from the more complex energy landscape of the lattice itself. These effects can strongly influence the dynamic evolution of dislocation networks, and via their governing role in dislocation multiplication phenomena, control plastic flow in metals. In this paper we develop a model for dislocation self-forces in a general anisotropic crystal, and briefly consider the technologically important example of α-iron, which becomes increasingly anisotropic as the temperature approaches that of the α-γ phase transition at 912 °C.

  17. Anisotropic light scattering of individual sickle red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngchan; Higgins, John M.; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Suresh, Subra; Park, YongKeun

    2012-04-01

    We present the anisotropic light scattering of individual red blood cells (RBCs) from a patient with sickle cell disease (SCD). To measure light scattering spectra along two independent axes of elongated-shaped sickle RBCs with arbitrary orientation, we introduce the anisotropic Fourier transform light scattering (aFTLS) technique and measured both the static and dynamic anisotropic light scattering. We observed strong anisotropy in light scattering patterns of elongated-shaped sickle RBCs along its major axes using static aFTLS. Dynamic aFTLS analysis reveals the significantly altered biophysical properties in individual sickle RBCs. These results provide evidence that effective viscosity and elasticity of sickle RBCs are significantly different from those of the healthy RBCs.

  18. Modeling anisotropic Maxwell-Jüttner distributions: derivation and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livadiotis, George

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we develop a model for the anisotropic Maxwell-Jüttner distribution and examine its properties. First, we provide the characteristic conditions that the modeling of consistent and well-defined anisotropic Maxwell-Jüttner distributions needs to fulfill. Then, we examine several models, showing their possible advantages and/or failures in accordance to these conditions. We derive a consistent model, and examine its properties and its connection with thermodynamics. We show that the temperature equals the average of the directional temperature-like components, as it holds for the classical, anisotropic Maxwell distribution. We also derive the internal energy and Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy, where we show that both are maximized for zero anisotropy, that is, the isotropic Maxwell-Jüttner distribution.

  19. Measurement of Anisotropic Mechanical Properties of the Tectorial Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavara, N.; Chadwick, R. S.

    2009-02-01

    The tectorial membrane (TM) in the cochlea is an anisotropic tissue with a key role in hearing. The TM's structural andmechanical anisotropy is provided by oriented collagen bundles about 1 micron thick. Here we report the three elastic moduli that characterize the TM, as well as the novel technique used to measure the mechanical properties of an anisotropic material. We have measured mechanical anisotropy by combining Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and optical tracking of microspheres. The surface Green's tensor for an incompressible anisotropic material was then used to compute the elastic moduli from imposed forces and the resulting surface deformations. Our results suggest a critical role of TM's strong anisotropy by enhancing the cochlear amplifier.

  20. Vacuum self similar anisotropic cosmologies in F( R)-gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostolopoulos, Pantelis S.

    2017-04-01

    The implications from the existence of a proper Homothetic Vector Field on the dynamics of vacuum anisotropic models in F( R) gravitational theory are studied. The fact that every Spatially Homogeneous vacuum model is equivalent, formally, with a "flux"-free anisotropic fluid model in standard gravity and the induced power-law form of the functional F( R) due to self-similarity enable us to close the system of equations. We found some new exact anisotropic solutions that arise as fixed points in the associated dynamical system. The non-existence of Kasner-like (Bianchi type I) solutions in proper F( R)-gravity (i.e. R≠ 0) strengthens the belief that curvature corrections will prevent the shear influence into the past thus permitting an isotropic singularity. We also discuss certain issues regarding the lack of vacuum models of type III, IV, VIIh in comparison with the corresponding results in standard gravity.

  1. Q -factor enhancement in all-dielectric anisotropic nanoresonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2016-11-01

    It is proposed and demonstrated that the Q factor of optical resonators can be significantly enhanced by introducing an extra anisotropic cladding. We study the optical resonances of all-dielectric core-shell nanoresonators and show that radially anisotropic claddings can be employed to squeeze more energy into the core area, leading to stronger light confinement and thus significant Q -factor enhancement. We further demonstrate that the required homogenous claddings of unusual anisotropy parameters can be realized through all-dielectric multilayered isotropic structures. It is expected that the mechanism we have revealed not only offers extra flexibilities of resonance manipulations for conventional dielectric structures, but also may shed new light onto investigations into unconventional nanostructures consisting of two-dimensional materials that are intrinsically highly anisotropic.

  2. Anisotropic viscoelastic models in large deformation for architectured membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebouah, Marie; Chagnon, Gregory; Heuillet, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Due to the industrial elaboration process, membranes can have an in-plane anisotropic mechanical behaviour. In this paper, anisotropic membranes elaborated with two different materials were developed either by calendering or by inducing a force in one direction during the process. Experimental tests are developed to measure the differences of mechanical behaviour for both materials in different in-plane properties: stiffness, viscoelasticity and stress-softening. A uniaxial formulation is developed, and a homogenisation by means of a sphere unit approach is used to propose a three-dimensional formulation to represent the materials behaviour. An evolution of the mechanical parameters, depending on the direction, is imposed to reproduce the anisotropic behaviour of the materials. Comparison with experimental data highlights very promising results.

  3. Magnetic alignment of plant cell microfibrils and their anisotropic elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimura, Yuu; Sakaida, Hidetaka; Iino, Masaaki

    2010-06-01

    The magnetic alignment of microfibrils on a single regenerated plant cell surface subjected to magnetic fields and its anisotropic cell surface area expansivity modulus (area modulus) were studied. The magnetic alignment around the equator of the cell (the polar axis parallel to the magnetic field) was confirmed by a 2-dim Fourier analysis of images from a scanning electron microscope, and these were expressed by a theoretical magnetic order parameter for anisotropic relative magnetic permeability of 3×10-27, while the microfibrils near the pole did not show any such magnetic alignment. The magnetic field anisotropically stiffened the cell surface. The stiffness around the equator was greater than that around the pole. The magnetic field dependences of the area modulus agreed with the mechanical model.

  4. Shear-free anisotropic cosmological models in {f (R)} gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abebe, Amare; Momeni, Davood; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2016-04-01

    We study a class of shear-free, homogeneous but anisotropic cosmological models with imperfect matter sources in the context of f( R) gravity. We show that the anisotropic stresses are related to the electric part of the Weyl tensor in such a way that they balance each other. We also show that within the class of orthogonal f( R) models, small perturbations of shear are damped, and that the electric part of the Weyl tensor and the anisotropic stress tensor decay with the expansion as well as the heat flux of the curvature fluid. Specializing in locally rotationally symmetric spacetimes in orthonormal frames, we examine the late-time behaviour of the de Sitter universe in f( R) gravity. For the Starobinsky model of f( R), we study the evolutionary behavior of the Universe by numerically integrating the Friedmann equation, where the initial conditions for the expansion, acceleration and jerk parameters are taken from observational data.

  5. Well behaved anisotropic compact star models in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasim, M. K.; Maurya, S. K.; Gupta, Y. K.; Dayanandan, B.

    2016-11-01

    Anisotropic compact star models have been constructed by assuming a particular form of a metric function e^{λ}. We solved the Einstein field equations for determining the metric function e^{ν}. For this purpose we have assumed a physically valid expression of radial pressure (pr). The obtained anisotropic compact star model is representing the realistic compact objects such as PSR 1937 +21. We have done an extensive study about physical parameters for anisotropic models and found that these parameters are well behaved throughout inside the star. Along with these we have also determined the equation of state for compact star which gives the radial pressure is purely the function of density i.e. pr=f(ρ).

  6. Isotropic and anisotropic bouncing cosmologies in Palatini gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Barragan, Carlos; Olmo, Gonzalo J.

    2010-10-15

    We study isotropic and anisotropic (Bianchi I) cosmologies in Palatini f(R) and f(R,R{sub {mu}{nu}R}{sup {mu}{nu}}) theories of gravity with a perfect fluid and consider the existence of nonsingular bouncing solutions in the early universe. We find that all f(R) models with isotropic bouncing solutions develop shear singularities in the anisotropic case. On the contrary, the simple quadratic model R+aR{sup 2}/R{sub P}+R{sub {mu}{nu}R}{sup {mu}{nu}/}R{sub P} exhibits regular bouncing solutions in both isotropic and anisotropic cases for a wide range of equations of state, including dust (for a<0) and radiation (for arbitrary a). It thus represents a purely gravitational solution to the big bang singularity and anisotropy problems of general relativity without the need for exotic (w>1) sources of matter/energy or extra degrees of freedom.

  7. Anisotropic superconductivity driven by kinematic interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. A.

    2000-11-01

    We have analysed the effect of kinematic pairing on the symmetry of superconducting order parameter for a square lattice in the frame of the strongly correlated Hubbard model. It is argued that in the first perturbation order the kinematic interaction renormalizes the Hubbard-I dispersions and provides at low doping the mixed singlet (s + s*)-wave superconductivity, giving way at higher doping to the triplet p-wave superconductivity. The obtained phase diagram depends only on the hopping integral parameter. The influence of the Coulomb repulsion on the kinematic superconducting pairing has been estimated. The (s + s*)-wave gap and the thermodynamic critical magnetic field have been derived.

  8. Dynamics of anisotropic universe in f(G) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamir, M. Farasat

    2017-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate anisotropic universe in f(G) gravity. Locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I cosmological model is considered for this purpose. First, some exact solutions with a well-known form of f(G) model are explored. In particular, two solutions are reported for the analysis. Secondly, we discuss the energy conditions for the model under consideration. The viability of the model is investigated via graphical analysis using the present day values of cosmological parameters. The strong energy condition is violated which shows that anisotropic universe in f(G) gravity supports the phenomenon of expansion of universe.

  9. Anisotropic. cap alpha. -emission of on-line separated isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Wouters, J.; Vandeplassche, D.; van Walle, E.; Severijns, N.; Van Haverbeke, J.; Vanneste, L.

    1987-12-10

    The technical realization of particle detection at very low temperatures (4K) has made it possible to study for the first time the anisotropic ..cap alpha..-decay of oriented nuclei which have been produced, separated and implanted on line. The measured ..cap alpha..-angular distributions reveal surprising new results on nuclear aspects as well as in solid state physics. The nuclear structure information from these data questions the older ..cap alpha..-decay theoretical interpretation and urges for a reaxamination of the earliest work on anisotropic ..cap alpha..-decay.

  10. Lectin sensitized anisotropic silver nanoparticles for detection of some bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Vardan K; Bazukyan, Inga L

    2013-03-05

    A method of bacteria detection by sensitized anisotropic silver nanoparticles is presented. Anisotropic silver nanoparticles with two bands of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) are prepared and sensitized with potato lectin. These nanoparticles are able to detect three bacterial species: Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. The interaction of these bacteria with such nanoparticles induces drastic changes in optical spectra of nanoparticles that are correlated with bacteria titer. The maximal sensitivity is observed for S. aureus (up to 1.5×10(4) mL(-1)).

  11. Synthesis of borophenes: Anisotropic, two-dimensional boron polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Mannix, Andrew J; Zhou, Xiang-Feng; Kiraly, Brian; Wood, Joshua D; Alducin, Diego; Myers, Benjamin D; Liu, Xiaolong; Fisher, Brandon L; Santiago, Ulises; Guest, Jeffrey R; Yacaman, Miguel Jose; Ponce, Arturo; Oganov, Artem R; Hersam, Mark C; Guisinger, Nathan P

    2015-12-18

    At the atomic-cluster scale, pure boron is markedly similar to carbon, forming simple planar molecules and cage-like fullerenes. Theoretical studies predict that two-dimensional (2D) boron sheets will adopt an atomic configuration similar to that of boron atomic clusters. We synthesized atomically thin, crystalline 2D boron sheets (i.e., borophene) on silver surfaces under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. Atomic-scale characterization, supported by theoretical calculations, revealed structures reminiscent of fused boron clusters with multiple scales of anisotropic, out-of-plane buckling. Unlike bulk boron allotropes, borophene shows metallic characteristics that are consistent with predictions of a highly anisotropic, 2D metal.

  12. Three-parameter AVO crossplotting in anisotropic media

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, H.; Castagna, J.P.; Brown, R.L.; Ramos, A.C.B.

    2001-01-01

    Amplitude versus offset (AVO) interpretation can be facilitated by crossplotting AVO intercept (A), gradient (B), and curvature (C) terms. However, anisotropy, which exists in the real world, usually complicates AVO analysis. Recognizing anisotropic behavior on AVO crossplots can help avoid AVO interpretation errors. Using a modification to a three-term (A, B, and C) approximation to the exact anisotropic reflection coefficients for transversely isotropic media, we find that anisotropy has a nonlinear effect on an A versus C crossplot yet causes slope changes and differing intercepts on A versus B or C crossplots. Empirical corrections that result in more accurate crossplot interpretation are introduced for specific circumstances.

  13. Stopping power of an electron gas with anisotropic temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khelemelia, O. V.; Kholodov, R. I.

    2016-04-01

    A general theory of motion of a heavy charged particle in the electron gas with an anisotropic velocity distribution is developed within the quantum-field method. The analytical expressions for the dielectric susceptibility and the stopping power of the electron gas differs in no way from well-known classic formulas in the approximation of large and small velocities. Stopping power of the electron gas with anisotropic temperature in the framework of the quantum-field method is numerically calculated for an arbitrary angle between directions of the motion of the projectile particle and the electron beam. The results of the numerical calculations are compared with the dielectric model approach.

  14. Anisotropic magnetotransport in Dirac-Weyl magnetic junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ominato, Yuya; Kobayashi, Koji; Nomura, Kentaro

    2017-02-01

    We theoretically study the anisotropic magnetotransport in Dirac-Weyl magnetic junctions where a doped ferromagnetic Weyl semimetal is sandwiched between doped Dirac semimetals. We calculate the conductance using the Landauer formula and find that the system exhibits extraordinarily large anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). The AMR depends on the ratio of the Fermi energy to the strength of the exchange interaction. The origin of the AMR is the shift of the Fermi surface in the Weyl semimetal, and the mechanism is completely different from the conventional AMR originating from the spin dependent scattering and the spin-orbit interaction.

  15. Tunable waveguide bends with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhao-xian; Chen, Ze-guo; Ming, Yang; Wu, Ying; Lu, Yan-qing

    2016-02-01

    We design tunable waveguide bends filled with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials to achieve a nearly perfect bending effect. The anisotropic properties of the metamaterials can be described by the effective medium theory. The nearly perfect bending effect is demonstrated by finite element simulations of various structures with different bending curvatures and shapes. This effect is attributed to zero effective permittivity along the direction of propagation and matched effective impedance at the interfaces between the bending part and the dielectric waveguides. We envisage that the design will be applicable in the far-infrared and terahertz frequency ranges owing to the tunable dielectric responses of graphene.

  16. Anisotropic diffraction of bulk acoustic wave beams in lithium niobate.

    PubMed

    Naumenko, Natalya F; Chizhikov, Sergey I; Molchanov, Vladimir Ya; Yushkov, Konstantin B

    2015-12-01

    The formalism of planar diffraction tensor was applied to the analysis of anisotropy of bulk acoustic wave diffraction and to build a full map of anisotropic diffractional coefficients for three bulk acoustic wave modes propagating in lithium niobate. For arbitrary propagation direction the diffractional coefficients derived allow estimation of ultrasonic beam divergence in far-field. Analysis of obtained data revealed that the maxima of acousto-optic figure of merit for anisotropic diffraction in the YZ plane correspond to moderate diffractional spreading of the beams exceeding isotropic diffraction 2-3 times.

  17. The traces of anisotropic dark energy in light of Planck

    SciTech Connect

    Cardona, Wilmar; Kunz, Martin; Hollenstein, Lukas E-mail: lukas.hollenstein@zhaw.ch

    2014-07-01

    We study a dark energy model with non-zero anisotropic stress, either linked to the dark energy density or to the dark matter density. We compute approximate solutions that allow to characterise the behaviour of the dark energy model and to assess the stability of the perturbations. We also determine the current limits on such an anisotropic stress from the cosmic microwave background data by the Planck satellite, and derive the corresponding constraints on the modified growth parameters like the growth index, the effective Newton's constant and the gravitational slip.

  18. MHz gravitational waves from short-term anisotropic inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro

    2016-04-18

    We reveal the universality of short-term anisotropic inflation. As a demonstration, we study inflation with an exponential type gauge kinetic function which is ubiquitous in models obtained by dimensional reduction from higher dimensional fundamental theory. It turns out that an anisotropic inflation universally takes place in the later stage of conventional inflation. Remarkably, we find that primordial gravitational waves with a peak amplitude around 10{sup −26}∼10{sup −27} are copiously produced in high-frequency bands 10 MHz∼100 MHz. If we could detect such gravitational waves in future, we would be able to probe higher dimensional fundamental theory.

  19. An Analysis of Charged Anisotropic Star with de Sitter Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Kanika; Ali, Nawsad

    2016-02-01

    We propose a model for charged anisotropic star in de Sitter spacetime. We have taken Krori and Barua (J. Phys. A, Math. Gen. 8, 508, 1975) metric in de Sitter spacetime with non-zero cosmological constant. The model is free from singularity. We incorporate the existence of the cosmological constant on a small scale to study the structure of anisotropic charged star. To solve the Einstein-Maxwell field equations we assume the relation between the radial and transverse pressure as p t - p r = g q( r)2 r 2 (where g is a non-zero positive constant). The physical conditions inside the stellar model are also discussed.

  20. Anisotropic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert models of dissipation in qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, Philip J. D.; Green, A. G.

    2016-12-01

    We derive a microscopic model for dissipative dynamics in a system of mutually interacting qubits coupled to a thermal bath that generalizes the dissipative model of Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert to the case of anisotropic bath couplings. We show that the dissipation acts to bias the quantum trajectories towards a reduced phase space. This model applies to a system of superconducting flux qubits whose coupling to the environment is necessarily anisotropic. We study the model in the context of the D-Wave computing device and show that the form of environmental coupling in this case produces dynamics that are closely related to several models proposed on phenomenological grounds.

  1. Anisotropic Liquid Microcapsules from Biomimetic Self-Folding Polymer Films.

    PubMed

    Zakharchenko, Svetlana; Ionov, Leonid

    2015-06-17

    We demonstrated a novel approach for the fabrication of anisotropic capsules with liquid content using biomimetic self-folding thermoresponsive polymer films. The behavior of self-folding films is very similar to actuation in plants, where nonhomogenous swelling results in complex movements such as twisting, bending, or folding. This approach allows the design of anisotropic liquid capsules with rodlike and dumbbell-like morphologies. We found that these capsules are able to assemble into different complex structures, such as nematic-like one and 3D network depending on their morphology.

  2. MHz gravitational waves from short-term anisotropic inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro

    2016-04-01

    We reveal the universality of short-term anisotropic inflation. As a demonstration, we study inflation with an exponential type gauge kinetic function which is ubiquitous in models obtained by dimensional reduction from higher dimensional fundamental theory. It turns out that an anisotropic inflation universally takes place in the later stage of conventional inflation. Remarkably, we find that primordial gravitational waves with a peak amplitude around 10-26~ 10-27 are copiously produced in high-frequency bands 10 MHz~100 MHz. If we could detect such gravitational waves in future, we would be able to probe higher dimensional fundamental theory.

  3. Highly anisotropic effective dielectric functions of silver nanoparticle arrays.

    PubMed

    Oates, Thomas W H; Ranjan, Mukesh; Facsko, Stefan; Arwin, Hans

    2011-01-31

    Variable-angle and Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry are used to determine the effective dielectric tensors of random and aligned silver nanoparticles and nanorods thin films. Randomly arranged particles are uniaxially anisotropic while aligned particles are biaxially anisotropic, with the anisotropy predominantly at the plasmonic resonances. The strong resonances in nanorod arrays result in the real part of the effective in-plane permittivities being opposite in sign over a significant range in the visible, suggesting the potential to design materials that display tunable negative-refraction. A structural tilt in the particle arrays results in monoclinic dielectric properties.

  4. Anisotropic Second Harmonic Generation at Single Crystal Metal Surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kexiang, He.

    The work in this thesis comprises a set of experiments designed to study the anisotropic spatial dependence of second harmonic generation (SHG) from the surface of single crystal metals. The anisotropic dependence of reflected SHG from Al_2O_3 Al(111) interface was studied. The isotropic dependence of the SHG signal is used to probe the structural symmetry of the Al_2O_3Al(111) interface. For P- and S-polarized laser light incident at a fixed angle of 45^circ, the intensities of S- and P-polarized components of SHG signal were measured as a function of rotation angle during rotation of the surface about its normal. Anisotropic SHG studies were also performed on high Miller index surface of Al(331) and on a Al surface cut at 22.5^ circ with respect to the Al(111) surface. For the Al(331) surface, the anisotropic dependence of the SHG signal was measured for both the S- and P-polarized signals under both S- and P-polarized laser excitation. The anisotropy of the SHG from Al(331) were fit with theory using the assumption that symmetry is retained for this surface at the metal oxide-metal interface. Existing theory is used to derive the theoretical expressions predicting the anisotropic dependence of SHG from Al(331). The SHG probe was also used to follow pulsed laser annealing (PLA) of the Al_2O_3/Al(111) interface from on a chemically polished Al(111) surface. Using P-polarized pump laser light, the P-polarized SHG signal exhibits three equally spaced, equal intensity maxima during a single complete rotation of Al_2O _3/Al(111) interface about the interface normal. Annealing of the interface is found to occur when the P-polarized 1064nm pump laser light has an incident peak power of 11 times 10 ^6W/cm^2 per pulse. The intensity of the P-polarized 532nm SHG signal generated in reflection from this annealed interface exhibits a reduced anisotropic component in the SHG signal. Measurements of the anisotropic SHG signal from ionized beam deposited Al thin-films on Si(111

  5. Lagrangian and Eulerian statistics in homogeneous, anisotropic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Kartik; Bonaccorso, Fabio; Toschi, Federico; Biferale, Luca

    2016-11-01

    We report results from highly resolved direct numerical simulations of anisotropic homogeneous flows using up to 20483 collocations points. We examine a turbulent Kolmogorov flow with randomly correlated phases in order to recover space homogeneity on average. We present Eulerian and Lagrangian measurements concerning the universality of isotropic and anisotropic contributions using a systematic decomposition based on the eigenfunctions of the SO (3) group of rotations in three dimensions. Additionally, we discuss absolute dispersion statistics of particles in flows subjected to different large-scale anisotropies. ERC ADG NewTURB 2013.

  6. Mechanics of anisotropic plates and shells - A new look at an old subject

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, A. K.

    1992-07-01

    A number of aspects of the mechanics of anisotropic plates and shells are discussed. The topics covered include computational models of anisotropic plates and shells, consequences of anisotropy on deformation couplings, symmetry types, stress concentrations and edge effects, and importance of transverse shear deformation; recent applications and recent advances in the modeling and analysis of anisotropic plates and shells; and new research directions.

  7. Deformation, fatigue and fracture behavior of two cast anisotropic superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milligan, Walter W.; Huron, Eric S.; Antolovich, Stephen D.

    1987-01-01

    Tensile and low cycle fatigue (LCF) tests were conducted on two cast anisotropic superalloys. The effects of temperature, strain rate and stress range were investigated. Deformation behavior was extensively characterized and modeled. LCF and fracture behavior were studied and correlated with deformation behavior.

  8. Symmetry algebra of a generalized anisotropic harmonic oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castanos, O.; Lopez-Pena, R.

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that the symmetry Lie algebra of a quantum system with accidental degeneracy can be obtained by means of the Noether's theorem. The procedure is illustrated by considering a generalized anisotropic two dimensional harmonic oscillator, which can have an infinite set of states with the same energy characterized by an u(1,1) Lie algebra.

  9. Quark–gluon plasma phenomenology from anisotropic lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Skullerud, Jon-Ivar; Kelly, Aoife; Aarts, Gert; Allton, Chris; Amato, Alessandro; Evans, P. Wynne M.; Hands, Simon; Burnier, Yannis; Giudice, Pietro; Harris, Tim; Ryan, Sinéad M.; Kim, Seyong; Lombardo, Maria Paola; Oktay, Mehmet B.; Rothkopf, Alexander

    2016-01-22

    The FASTSUM collaboration has been carrying out simulations of N{sub f} = 2 + 1 QCD at nonzero temperature in the fixed-scale approach using anisotropic lattices. Here we present the status of these studies, including recent results for electrical conductivity and charge diffusion, and heavy quarkonium (charm and beauty) physics.

  10. Cluster variation studies of the anisotropic exchange interaction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, T. C.; Chen, H. H.

    The cluster variation method is applied to study critical properties of the Potts-like ferromagnetic anisotropic exchange interaction model. Phase transition temperatures, order parameter discontinuities and latent heats of the model on the triangular and the fcc lattices are determined by the triangle approximation; and those on the square and the sc lattices are determined by the square approximation.

  11. Propagation characteristics of an extremely anisotropic metamaterial loaded helical guide.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Dushyant K; Pathak, Surya K

    2016-12-26

    In this study, we report slow wave propagation characteristics of an extremely anisotropic metamaterial loaded helical guide (EAMLHG). An analytical expression has been theoretically derived and numerically computed to get exact solutions of all possible guided modes of propagation. Anisotropy is defined in terms of positive longitudinal permittivity (ϵz > 0) and negatives transverse permittivity value (ϵt < 0). The waveguide supports hybrid (HE) mode propagation and possesses characteristics of backward wave (BW) mode, forward wave (FW) mode, zero-group velocity and mode-degeneracy. The large value of effective index of BW mode and mode-degeneracy mechanism leads to slowing and trapping of electromagnetic (EM) wave. Closed-form guided mode energy propagation expressions has been also derived and computed which exhibits zero power flow at mode degeneracy point. A comparative study is also carried out between extremely anisotropic metamaterial helical waveguide (EAMLHG) and conventional extremely anisotropic metamaterial cylindrical guide (EAMCG), which reveals enhanced slow wave behaviour. Engineering feasible design and analysis is also presented by combining alternate disks of silver and glass as an extremely anisotropic medium which exhibits lossy and dispersive properties. This type of waveguide can find applications as a filter, phase shifter, and delay lines in microwave to THz applications and, as an optical buffer in optoelectronics applications.

  12. Noncommutative anisotropic oscillator in a homogeneous magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, D.; Roy, P.

    2017-02-01

    We study anisotropic oscillator in the presence of a homogeneous magnetic field and other related systems in the noncommutative plane. Energy values as function of the noncommutative parameter θ and the magnetic field B have been obtained. Some features of the spectrum, for example, formation of energy bands etc. have been examined. The effect of anisotropy on the energy levels has also been discussed.

  13. Hedgehogs in a three-dimensional anisotropic spin system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsson, Thordur

    1983-06-01

    We study a continuum version of a classical anisotropic spin model in three dimensions with three component spins. We prove the existence of topological defects, called hedgehogs, which are analogous to the vortices in the two-dimensional xy-model and have a logarithmically divergent action. Bounds for the interaction energy of a hedgehog and an antihedgehog are derived.

  14. Seismic Gradiometry using Ambient Seismic Noise in an Anisotropic Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ridder, S. A. L.; Curtis, A.

    2017-02-01

    We introduce a wavefield gradiometry technique to estimate both isotropic and anisotropic local medium characteristics from short recordings of seismic signals by inverting a wave equation. The method exploits the information in the spatial gradients of a seismic wavefield that are calculated using dense deployments of seismic arrays. The application of the method uses the surface wave energy in the ambient seismic field. To estimate isotropic and anisotropic medium properties we invert an elliptically anisotropic wave equation. The spatial derivatives of the recorded wavefield are evaluated by calculating finite differences over nearby recordings, which introduces a systematic anisotropic error. A two step approach corrects this error: finite difference stencils are first calibrated, then the output of the wave-equation inversion is corrected using the linearized impulse response to the inverted velocity anomaly. We test the procedure on ambient seismic noise recorded in a large and dense ocean bottom cable array installed over Ekofisk field. The estimated azimuthal anisotropy forms a circular geometry around the production-induced subsidence bowl. This conforms with results from studies employing controlled sources, and with interferometry correlating long records of seismic noise. Yet in this example, the results where obtained using only a few minutes of ambient seismic noise.

  15. Scale disparity and spectral transfer in anisotropic numerical turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, YE; Yeung, P. K.; Brasseur, James G.

    1994-01-01

    To study the effect of cancellations within long-range interactions on local isotropy at the small scales, we calculate explicitly the degree of cancellation in distant interactions in the simulations of Yeung & Brasseur and Yeung, Brasseur & Wang using the single scale disparity parameter 's' developed by Zhou. In the simulations, initially isotropic simulated turbulence was subjected to coherent anisotropic forcing at the large scales and the smallest scales were found to become anisotropic as a consequence of direct large-small scale couplings. We find that the marginally distant interactions in the simulation do not cancel out under summation and that the development of small-scale anisotropy is indeed a direct consequence of the distant triadic group, as argued by Yeung, et. al. A reduction of anisotropy at later times occurs as a result of the isotropizing influences of more local energy-cascading triadic interactions. Nevertheless, the local-to-nonlocal triadic group persists as an isotropizing influence at later times. We find that, whereas long-range interactions, in general, contribute little to net energy transfer into or out of a high wavenumber shell k, the anisotropic transfer of component energy within the shell increases with increasing scale separations. These results are consistent with results by Zhou, and Brasseur & Wei, and suggest that the anisotropizing influences of long range interactions should persist to higher Reynolds numbers. The residual effect of the forced distant group in this low-Reynolds number simulation is found to be forward cascading, on average.

  16. Leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics for central collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nopoush, Mohammad; Strickland, Michael; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Bazow, Dennis; Heinz, Ulrich; Martinez, Mauricio

    2015-10-01

    We use leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics to study an azimuthally symmetric boost-invariant quark-gluon plasma. We impose a realistic lattice-based equation of state and perform self-consistent anisotropic freeze-out to hadronic degrees of freedom. We then compare our results for the full spatiotemporal evolution of the quark-gluon plasma and its subsequent freeze-out to results obtained using 1+1D Israel-Stewart second-order viscous hydrodynamics. We find that for small shear viscosities, 4 π η /s ˜1 , the two methods agree well for nucleus-nucleus collisions; however, for large-shear-viscosity-to-entropy-density ratios or proton-nucleus collisions we find important corrections to the Israel-Stewart results for the final particle spectra and the total number of charged particles. Finally, we demonstrate that the total number of charged particles produced is a monotonically increasing function of 4 π η /s in Israel-Stewart viscous hydrodynamics, whereas in anisotropic hydrodynamics it has a maximum at 4 π η /s ˜10 . For all 4 π η /s >0 , we find that for Pb-Pb collisions Israel-Stewart viscous hydrodynamics predicts more dissipative particle production than anisotropic hydrodynamics.

  17. All static spherically symmetric anisotropic solutions of Einstein's equations

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, L.; Di Prisco, A.; Ospino, J.

    2008-01-15

    An algorithm recently presented by Lake to obtain all static spherically symmetric perfect fluid solutions is extended to the case of locally anisotropic fluids (principal stresses unequal). As expected, the new formalism requires the knowledge of two functions (instead of one) to generate all possible solutions. To illustrate the method some known cases are recovered.

  18. Switch isotropic/anisotropic wettability via dual-scale rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yang; Jiang, Chengyu; Wang, Shengkun; Ma, Zhibo; Yuan, Weizheng

    2014-10-01

    It is the first time to demonstrate the comparison of isotropic/anisotropic wettability between dual-scale micro-nano-rods and single-scale micro-rods. Inspired by the natural structures of rice leaf, a series of micro-nano-rods and micro-rods with different geometric parameters were fabricated using micro-fabrication technology. Experimental measured apparent contact angles and advancing and receding contact angles from orthogonal orientations were characterized. The difference of contact angles from orthogonal orientation on dual-scale rods was much smaller than those on single-scale rods in both static and dynamic situation. It indicated that the dual-scale micro-nano-rods showed isotropic wettability, while single-scale micro-rods showed anisotropic wettability. The switch of isotropic/anisotropic wettability could be illustrated by different wetting state and contact line moving. It offers a facial way to switch isotropic/anisotropic wettability of the surface via dual-scale or single-scale structure.

  19. Mixing and diffusion in intermittent overturning turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redondo, Jose M.; Mahjoub, Otman B.; Gonzalez-Nieto, Pilar L.; Lawry, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    of scales. The method involving the multi-fractal dimension measurements is much more elaborated and seems to have a better theoretical justification in the sense that it is possible that different concentrations showing different fractal dimensions may be due to different levels of intermittency (and thus different spectra, which are not generally in equilibrium as dscribed by[9,10]. Using topological descriptors we can establish now a theoretical baseline pattern for the turbulence behaviour that is reflected in the different structures (volume fraction, velocity, vorticity, helicity) we can thus obtain a classification relating D3 and the integral of the different fractal dimensions D2 for different levels of scalar (volume fraction reaction intensity or temperature). [5,8,11] Vorticity evolution is more smooth and quite different than that of volume fraction or density and these seem also different for the RT and RM instability driven mixing showing a wider range of even higher mixing efficiencies 0- 0.66 Thanks to European Union project ERBIC15-CT96-0111 Multi-scale complex fluid flows and interfacial phenomena (PITN-GA-2008-214919). ERCOFTAC and GenCat. grant 2001SGR00221. [1] Mahjoub O.B., Redondo J.M. and Babiano A. (2000) Hyerarchy flux in nonhomogeneous flows in Turbulent diffusion in the environment Eds. Redondo J.M. and Babiano A. 249-260. . [2] Dalziel, S. B.,(1994) Perturbations and coherent flow in Rayleigh-Taylor instability: in 4th International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, ed. P. F. Linden, D. L. Youngs, & S. B. Dalziel; 32-41. [3] Linden, P. F., Redondo, J. M., and Youngs, D. (1994) Molecular mixing in Rayleigh-Taylor instability, J. Fluid Mech. 265, 97-124 [4] Vindel, J.M., Yague, C. and Redondo, J.M. Nuovo Cimento (2008) 31, [5]Redondo J.M. (1993) Fractal models of density interfaces. Wavelets, Fractals and Fourier transforms. (Eds.) M. Farge, J.C.R. Hunt and J.C. Vassilicos. 353-370. IMA number 43, Clarendon Press

  20. Resistivity inversion in 2-D anisotropic media: numerical experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiese, Timothy; Greenhalgh, Stewart; Zhou, Bing; Greenhalgh, Mark; Marescot, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    Many rocks and layered/fractured sequences have a clearly expressed electrical anisotropy although it is rare in practice to incorporate anisotropy into resistivity inversion. In this contribution, we present a series of 2.5-D synthetic inversion experiments for various electrode configurations and 2-D anisotropic models. We examine and compare the image reconstructions obtained using the correct anisotropic inversion code with those obtained using the false but widely used isotropic assumption. Superior reconstruction in terms of reduced data misfit, true anomaly shape and position, and anisotropic background parameters were obtained when the correct anisotropic assumption was employed for medium to high coefficients of anisotropy. However, for low coefficient values the isotropic assumption produced better-quality results. When an erroneous isotropic inversion is performed on medium to high level anisotropic data, the images are dominated by patterns of banded artefacts and high data misfits. Various pole-pole, pole-dipole and dipole-dipole data sets were investigated and evaluated for the accuracy of the inversion result. The eigenvalue spectra of the pseudo-Hessian matrix and the formal resolution matrix were also computed to determine the information content and goodness of the results. We also present a data selection strategy based on high sensitivity measurements which drastically reduces the number of data to be inverted but still produces comparable results to that of the comprehensive data set. Inversion was carried out using transversely isotropic model parameters described in two different co-ordinate frames for the conductivity tensor, namely Cartesian versus natural or eigenframe. The Cartesian frame provided a more stable inversion product. This can be simply explained from inspection of the eigenspectra of the pseudo-Hessian matrix for the two model descriptions.

  1. Anisotropic thermal conduction with magnetic fields in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arth, Alexander; Dolag, Klaus; Beck, Alexander; Petkova, Margarita; Lesch, Harald

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic fields play an important role for the propagation and diffusion of charged particles, which are responsible for thermal conduction. In this poster, we present an implementation of thermal conduction including the anisotropic effects of magnetic fields for smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). The anisotropic thermal conduction is mainly proceeding parallel to magnetic fields and suppressed perpendicular to the fields. We derive the SPH formalism for the anisotropic heat transport and solve the corresponding equation with an implicit conjugate gradient scheme. We discuss several issues of unphysical heat transport in the cases of extreme ansiotropies or unmagnetized regions and present possible numerical workarounds. We implement our algorithm into the cosmological simulation code GADGET and study its behaviour in several test cases. In general, we reproduce the analytical solutions of our idealised test problems, and obtain good results in cosmological simulations of galaxy cluster formations. Within galaxy clusters, the anisotropic conduction produces a net heat transport similar to an isotropic Spitzer conduction model with low efficiency. In contrast to isotropic conduction our new formalism allows small-scale structure in the temperature distribution to remain stable, because of their decoupling caused by magnetic field lines. Compared to observations, strong isotropic conduction leads to an oversmoothed temperature distribution within clusters, while the results obtained with anisotropic thermal conduction reproduce the observed temperature fluctuations well. A proper treatment of heat transport is crucial especially in the outskirts of clusters and also in high density regions. It's connection to the local dynamical state of the cluster also might contribute to the observed bimodal distribution of cool core and non cool core clusters. Our new scheme significantly advances the modelling of thermal conduction in numerical simulations and overall gives

  2. Viscous inclusions in anisotropic materials: Theoretical development and perspective applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Dazhi

    2016-12-01

    Theories and numerical solutions for a viscous ellipsoid in an infinite anisotropic viscous medium subjected to far-field homogeneous deformation lie at the heart of self-consistent homogenization models and multiscale simulations of texture and fabric development in Earth's lithosphere. There is considerable literature on ellipsoid inclusions, focused on anisotropic elastic materials, published in multi-disciplinary fields. To make this body of work more accessible as well as to advance viscous inclusion studies, an effort is made here to summarize recent advances and to further develop formally more explicit and, where possible, analytic solutions for incompressible viscous materials. The point-force concept and equivalent inclusion method of Eshelby are used together with the Green function approach. This leads to generalized equations for ellipsoid inclusion behaviors in anisotropic materials. In the particular case of isotropic materials, the new mathematical development here enables the use of existing methods for elastic materials to get solutions for corresponding viscous inclusion problems efficiently and accurately. A 2D formulation is also presented for elliptic cylinders in plane-straining flows of anisotropic materials, using the same Green function method that is adopted for 3D inclusions. The 2D formulation is benchmarked with existing analytic solutions. A reconnaissance investigation to compare the behaviors of 2D elliptic inclusions and triaxial ellipsoids in a matrix of planar anisotropy undergoing far-field plane-straining flows suggests that conclusions drawn from 2D cannot be applied to 3D in anisotropic cases. The application of the viscous inclusion theory to the rheologically heterogeneous and non-linear lithosphere is discussed. By regarding a heterogeneous element as an ellipsoidal inclusion embedded in a hypothetical homogeneous equivalent matrix whose effective rheology is obtained through micromechanical homogenization and assuming

  3. Illuminating heterogeneous anisotropic upper mantle: testing a new anisotropic teleseismic body-wave tomography code - part II: Inversion mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munzarova, Helena; Plomerova, Jaroslava; Kissling, Edi

    2015-04-01

    Considering only isotropic wave propagation and neglecting anisotropy in teleseismic tomography studies is a simplification obviously incongruous with current understanding of the mantle-lithosphere plate dynamics. Furthermore, in solely isotropic high-resolution tomography results, potentially significant artefacts (i.e., amplitude and/or geometry distortions of 3D velocity heterogeneities) may result from such neglect. Therefore, we have undertaken to develop a code for anisotropic teleseismic tomography (AniTomo), which will allow us to invert the relative P-wave travel time residuals simultaneously for coupled isotropic-anisotropic P-wave velocity models of the upper mantle. To accomplish that, we have modified frequently-used isotropic teleseismic tomography code Telinv (e.g., Weiland et al., JGR, 1995; Lippitsch, JGR, 2003; Karousova et al., GJI, 2013). Apart from isotropic velocity heterogeneities, a weak hexagonal anisotropy is assumed as well to be responsible for the observed P-wave travel-time residuals. Moreover, no limitations to orientation of the symmetry axis are prescribed in the code. We allow a search for anisotropy oriented generally in 3D, which represents a unique approach among recent trials that otherwise incorporate only azimuthal anisotopy into the body-wave tomography. The presented code for retrieving anisotropy in 3D thus enables its direct applications to datasets from tectonically diverse regions. In this contribution, we outline the theoretical background of the AniTomo anisotropic tomography code. We parameterize the mantle lithosphere and asthenosphere with an orthogonal grid of nodes with various values of isotropic velocities, as well as of strength and orientation of anisotropy in 3D, which is defined by azimuth and inclination of either fast or slow symmetry axis of the hexagonal approximation of the media. Careful testing of the new code on synthetics, concentrating on code functionality, strength and weaknesses, is a

  4. Incidence of cystic fibrosis in five different states of Brazil as determined by screening of p.F508del, mutation at the CFTR gene in newborns and patients.

    PubMed

    Raskin, Salmo; Pereira-Ferrari, Lilian; Reis, Francisco Caldeira; Abreu, Fernando; Marostica, Paulo; Rozov, Tatiana; Cardieri, Joselina; Ludwig, Norberto; Valentin, Lairton; Rosario-Filho, Nelson Augusto; Camargo Neto, Eurico; Lewis, Eduardo; Giugliani, Roberto; Diniz, Edna Maria Albuquerque; Culpi, Lodercio; Phillip, John Atlas; Chakraborty, Ranajit

    2008-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common single-gene defects in European descent populations with an incidence of about 1 in every 2500 live births and carrier frequency of approximately 1 in 25. The most common mutation at the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene is a deletion (p.F508del) of the phenylalanine codon 508; its frequency, however, is not the same throughout the world. The purpose of this paper is to document an application of a two-tier survey design in different states of Brazil, from which regional differences of the incidence of CF and frequency of CF-causing mutation(s) carriers can be for the first time estimated. We present data on genotype distributions in reference to p.F508del mutation in samples of newborns, adult controls and CF patients from five Brazilian states, in which a total of 2683 newborns born to Brazilian white parents and 500 African-Brazilians adult controls were screened, as well as 300 CF patients (262 European descents and 38 African descents) were genotyped. Our results suggest that the CF-incidence in different parts of Brazil may differ by almost 20-fold. For the five different states as a whole, nearly 48% of the CF-alleles carry the p.F508del mutation, which places the estimates of disease incidence and carrier frequencies for the Brazilian European descents as 1 in 7576 live births and 2.3%, respectively. The implications for prevention of CF and other rare Mendelian diseases through such surveys of mutation screening are discussed.

  5. Modeling of ductile deformation in anisotropic rocks with slip surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowski, Marcin

    2013-04-01

    Flanking structures and sheath folds can develop in layered rocks due to flow perturbation around slip surfaces in shear zones (Exner and Dabrowski, 2010; Reber et al., submitted). Mechanical anisotropy of the host rock has been shown to play a major role in determining the slip rate and the flow pattern around it (Kocher and Mancktelow, 2006; Fletcher, 2011). In addition, anisotropic fluids such as ductile foliated rocks have a 'memory' of deformation due to evolving microstructure. For example, the rotation of a rigid circular inclusion embedded in a layered host in layer-parallel shear results in the structural reorganization around it, which leads to the modification of the flow pattern in the host and in consequence to a massive reduction of the inclusion rotation rate (Dabrowski and Schmid, 2011). Willis (1964) derived an analytical elastic solution for an elliptical inclusion in a homogeneous anisotropic matrix subject to a uniform load in the far field. The solution can be reduced to the case of an incompressible viscous medium. The case of an arbitrarily oriented inviscid slit under shear parallel to the principal axis of anisotropy can be obtained by reducing it even further. Although derived for the initial state of homogeneous planar anisotropy, the solution provides useful insights into the large deformation behavior of the system. In this study, I will use different models and numerical modeling techniques to assess the impact of mechanical anisotropy and structural development on the perturbing flow around an inviscid slit (slip surface) embedded in a host comprising discrete isotropic layers in layer-parallel simple shear. In the limit of thin layers (the number of layers intercepting the slit tends to infinity), the host is modeled as an anisotropic fluid. The anisotropic viscosity is determined by the bulk anisotropic viscosity of the layered system. The layering is initially planar or equivalently the anisotropy is initially homogeneous. Both non

  6. A locally conservative non-negative finite element formulation for anisotropic advective-diffusive-reactive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudunuru, M. K.; Shabouei, M.; Nakshatrala, K.

    2015-12-01

    . Several representative numerical examples are discussed to illustrate the importance of the proposed numerical formulations to accurately describe various aspects of mixing process in chaotic flows and to simulate transport in highly heterogeneous anisotropic media.

  7. Magnetotelluric inversion for anisotropic conductivities in layered media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pek, Josef; Santos, Fernando A. M.

    2006-10-01

    Electrical anisotropy in the Earth's crust and upper mantle has recently gained attention as a significant linking factor between electrical models and underlying structural and tectonic patterns. This interest has also motivated new methodological studies into the modelling and inversion for electrically anisotropic structures. We present an algorithm for the inversion of magnetotelluric data over layered anisotropic conductors which is a straightforward extension of the standard Occam 1-D inversion to anisotropic models. Owing to the essential limitation of magnetotellurics to resolve the complete conductivity tensor, we formulate the inversion for azimuthal anisotropy only. We treat the non-linear inverse problem as a multi-criterion minimization of the structure complexity, data misfit and anisotropy. To constrain the structure complexity, we employ the standard roughness penalty as well as non-quadratic penalties of the total variation and gradient support type that produce more focused model sections and thus conform better to the idea about sharp, non-diffuse boundaries of anisotropic structures in the Earth. Application of the anisotropy penalty is crucial for suppressing spurious anisotropy in the inverse models. We use a 2-D extension of the heuristic L-curve method to estimate the quasi-optimal penalty weights. With two non-linear iteration solvers, specifically the reweighted conjugate gradient method and the lagged diffusivity iteration, we can arrive at the minimum of the target functional, for one selected pair of regularization weights, typically after a few tens of iteration steps. To demonstrate the inverse solution, we present two simple yet not completely trivial synthetic examples, the first one based on data generated by a model with two anisotropic layers with discordant strikes, and the other showing possible misinterpretations in case a 1-D inversion with anisotropy is formally applied to data produced by simple 2-D block structures. Field

  8. Constraining crustal anisotropy: The anisotropic H-κ stacking technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, James

    2014-05-01

    Measuring anisotropy in the crust and mantle is commonly performed to make inferences on crust/upper mantle deformation, tectonic history or the presence of fluids. However, separating the contribution of the crust and mantle to the anisotropic signature remains a challenge. This is because common seismic techniques to determine anisotropy (e.g., SKS splitting, surface waves) lack the resolution to distinguish between the two, particular in regions where deep crustal earthquakes are lacking. Receiver functions offer the chance to determine anisotropy in the crust alone, offering both the depth resolution that shear-wave splitting lacks and the lateral resolution that surface waves are unable to provide. Here I present a new anisotropic H-κ stacking technique which constrains anisotropy in the crust. I show that in a medium with horizontally transverse isotropy a strong variation in κ (VP-to-VS ratio) with back azimuth is present which characterises the anisotropic medium. In a vertically transverse isotropic medium no variation in κ with back azimuth is observed, but κ is increased across all back azimuths. While, these results show that estimates of κ are more difficult to relate to composition than previously thought, they offer the opportunity to constrain anisotropy in the crust. Based on these observations I develop a new anisotropic H-κ stacking technique which inverts H-κ data for anisotropy. I apply these new techniques to data from the Afar Depression, Ethiopia and extend the technique to invert for melt induced anisotropy solving for melt fraction, aspect ratio and orientation of melt inclusions. I show that melt is stored in interconnected stacked sills in the lower crust, which likely supply the recent volcanic eruptions and dike intrusions. The crustal anisotropic signal can explain much of the SKS-splitting results, suggesting minimal influence from the mantle. This results show that it is essential to consider anisotropy when performing H

  9. Newton–Hooke-type symmetry of anisotropic oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, P.M.; Horvathy, P.A.; Andrzejewski, K.; Gonera, J.; Kosiński, P.

    2013-06-15

    Rotation-less Newton–Hooke-type symmetry, found recently in the Hill problem, and instrumental for explaining the center-of-mass decomposition, is generalized to an arbitrary anisotropic oscillator in the plane. Conversely, the latter system is shown, by the orbit method, to be the most general one with such a symmetry. Full Newton–Hooke symmetry is recovered in the isotropic case. Star escape from a galaxy is studied as an application. -- Highlights: ► Rotation-less Newton–Hooke (NH) symmetry is generalized to an arbitrary anisotropic oscillator. ► The orbit method is used to find the most general case for rotation-less NH symmetry. ► The NH symmetry is decomposed into Heisenberg algebras based on chiral decomposition.

  10. Anisotropic zero-index waveguide with arbitrary shapes

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jie; Lai, Yun

    2014-01-01

    We design a series of waveguides composed of uniform anisotropic epsilon-near-zero media. Unlike normal waveguides in which the transmission rate strongly depends on the width and the boundary shape, such waveguides can achieve high transmission with almost arbitrary width and boundary shapes, leading to applications such as unusual waveguides, wave expanders and compressors, splitters, bends, and devices with combined purposes. The physical origin of such high transmission can be explained by using transformation optics and the condition for total transmission is derived. Numerical simulations with multilayers consisting of dielectric and negative-permittivity materials proved our theory. Our work provides a unified physical picture for waveguide structures based on anisotropic epsilon-near-zero media. PMID:25070679

  11. Dirac directional emission in anisotropic zero refractive index photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    He, Xin-Tao; Zhong, Yao-Nan; Zhou, You; Zhong, Zhi-Chao; Dong, Jian-Wen

    2015-08-14

    A certain class of photonic crystals with conical dispersion is known to behave as isotropic zero-refractive-index medium. However, the discrete building blocks in such photonic crystals are limited to construct multidirectional devices, even for high-symmetric photonic crystals. Here, we show multidirectional emission from low-symmetric photonic crystals with semi-Dirac dispersion at the zone center. We demonstrate that such low-symmetric photonic crystal can be considered as an effective anisotropic zero-refractive-index medium, as long as there is only one propagation mode near Dirac frequency. Four kinds of Dirac multidirectional emitters are achieved with the channel numbers of five, seven, eleven, and thirteen, respectively. Spatial power combination for such kind of Dirac directional emitter is also verified even when multiple sources are randomly placed in the anisotropic zero-refractive-index photonic crystal.

  12. Anisotropic thermal conductivity of thin polycrystalline oxide samples

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, A.; Boussois, K.; Nait-Ali, B.; Smith, D. S.; Blanchart, P.

    2013-11-15

    This paper reports about the development of a modified laser-flash technique and relation to measure the in-plane thermal diffusivity of thin polycrystalline oxide samples. Thermal conductivity is then calculated with the product of diffusivity, specific heat and density. Design and operating features for evaluating in-plane thermal conductivities are described. The technique is advantageous as thin samples are not glued together to measure in-plane thermal conductivities like earlier methods reported in literature. The approach was employed to study anisotropic thermal conductivity in alumina sheet, textured kaolin ceramics and montmorillonite. Since it is rare to find in-plane thermal conductivity values for such anisotropic thin samples in literature, this technique offers a useful variant to existing techniques.

  13. Generalized method for retrieving effective parameters of anisotropic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Castanié, A; Mercier, J-F; Félix, S; Maurel, A

    2014-12-01

    Electromagnetic or acoustic metamaterials can be described in terms of equivalent effective, in general anisotropic, media and several techniques exist to determine the effective permeability and permittivity (or effective mass density and bulk modulus in the context of acoustics). Among these techniques, retrieval methods use the measured reflection and transmission coefficients (or scattering coefficients) for waves incident on a metamaterial slab containing few unit cells. Until now, anisotropic effective slabs have been considered in the literature but they are limited to the case where one of the axes of anisotropy is aligned with the slab interface. We propose an extension to arbitrary orientations of the principal axes of anisotropy and oblique incidence. The retrieval method is illustrated in the electromagnetic case for layered media, and in the acoustic case for array of tilted elliptical particles.

  14. Transport equations for multicomponent anisotropic space plasmas - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barakat, A. R.; Schunk, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    An attempt is made to present a unified approach to the study of transport phenomena in multicomponent anisotropic space plasmas. In particular, a system of generalized transport equations is presented that can be applied to widely different plasma flow conditions. The generalized transport equations can describe subsonic and supersonic flows, collision-dominated and collisionless flows, plasma flows in rapidly changing magnetic field configurations, multicomponent plasma flows with large temperature differences between the interacting species, and plasma flows that contain anisotropic temperature distributions. In addition, if Maxwell's equations of electricity and magnetism are added to the system of transport equations, they can be used to model electrostatic shocks, double layers, and magnetic merging processes. These transport equations also contain terms which act to regulate both the heat flow and temperature anisotropy, processes which appear to be operating in the solar wind.

  15. Shortcut to Adiabaticity for an Anisotropic Gas Containing Quantum Defects.

    PubMed

    Papoular, D J; Stringari, S

    2015-07-10

    We present a shortcut to adiabaticity (STA) protocol applicable to 3D unitary Fermi gases and 2D weakly interacting Bose gases containing defects such as vortices or solitons. Our protocol relies on a new class of exact scaling solutions in the presence of anisotropic time-dependent harmonic traps. It connects stationary states in initial and final traps having the same frequency ratios. The resulting scaling laws exhibit a universal form and also apply to the classical Boltzmann gas. The duration of the STA can be made very short so as to realize a quantum quench from one stationary state to another. When applied to an anisotropically trapped superfluid gas, the STA conserves the shape of the quantum defects hosted by the cloud, thereby acting like a perfect microscope, which sharply contrasts with their strong distortion occurring during the free expansion of the cloud.

  16. Anisotropic electronic conduction in stacked two-dimensional titanium carbide

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Tao; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Jiemin; Li, Zhaojin; Hu, Minmin; Tan, Jun; Hou, Pengxiang; Li, Feng; Wang, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    Stacked two-dimensional titanium carbide is an emerging conductive material for electrochemical energy storage which requires an understanding of the intrinsic electronic conduction. Here we report the electronic conduction properties of stacked Ti3C2T2 (T = OH, O, F) with two distinct stacking sequences (Bernal and simple hexagonal). On the basis of first-principles calculations and energy band theory analysis, both stacking sequences give rise to metallic conduction with Ti 3d electrons contributing most to the conduction. The conduction is also significantly anisotropic due to the fact that the effective masses of carriers including electrons and holes are remarkably direction-dependent. Such an anisotropic electronic conduction is evidenced by the I−V curves of an individual Ti3C2T2 particulate, which demonstrates that the in-plane electrical conduction is at least one order of magnitude higher than that vertical to the basal plane. PMID:26548439

  17. Tilted anisotropic Dirac cones in partially hydrogenated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hong-Yan; Cuamba, Armindo S.; Lin, Shih-Yang; Hao, Lei; Wang, Rui; Li, Hai; Zhao, YuanYuan; Ting, C. S.

    2016-11-01

    By means of first-principles calculations, we predict a partially hydrogenated graphene system, C6H2 , and find the one in A B -trans configuration is a Dirac material with a tilted anisotropic Dirac cone electronic structure. Different from graphene, in which the Dirac points are located at K and K' and the Fermi surfaces are circular with doping, the A B -trans C6H2 exhibits Dirac points located on the lines from Γ to M with quasielliptical Fermi surfaces when doped. Around the Dirac point, the Fermi velocity varies along different directions. Therefore, the propagation of charge carriers in this system is highly anisotropic, creating a new tunability for novel transport properties.

  18. Strong anisotropic thermal conductivity of monolayer WTe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jinlong; Chen, Yani; Han, Zheng; Li, Wu

    2016-12-01

    Tungsten ditelluride (WTe2) has attracted increasing attention due to its large magnetoresistance and pressure-induced superconductivity. In this work, we investigate the thermal conductivity (κ) of monolayer WTe2 by performing first-principles calculations, and find strong anisotropic κ with predicted room-temperature values of 9 and 20 W m-1 K-1 along two principal lattice directions, respectively. Such strong anisotropy suggests the importance of orientation when engineering thermal-related applications based on WTe2. The anisotropy of κ is attributed to the in-plane linear acoustic phonon branches, while the out-of-plane quadratic acoustic phonon branch is almost isotropic. The size dependence of κ shows that the size effect can persists up to 10 μm, and the anisotropy decreases with decreasing sample size due to the suppression of low-frequency anisotropic phonons by boundary scattering.

  19. Propagation of electromagnetic stochastic beams in anisotropic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Yao, Min; Toselli, Italo; Korotkova, Olga

    2014-12-29

    The effects of anisotropic, non-Kolmogorov turbulence on propagating stochastic electromagnetic beam-like fields are discussed for the first time. The atmosphere of interest can be found above the boundary layer, at high (more than 2 km above the ground) altitudes where the energy distribution among the turbulent eddies might not satisfy the classic assumption represented by the famous 11/3 Kolmogorov's power law, and the anisotropy in the direction orthogonal to the Earth surface is possibly present. Our analysis focuses on the classic electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model beams but can either be readily reduced to scalar and/or coherent beams or generalized to other beam classes. In particular, we explore the effects of the anisotropic parameter on the spectral density, the spectral degree of coherence and on the spectral degree of polarization of the beam.

  20. Anisotropic Elastic Resonance Scattering model for the Neutron Transport equation

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed Ouisloumen; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Shadi Z. Ghrayeb

    2014-11-24

    The resonance scattering transfer cross-section has been reformulated to account for anisotropic scattering in the center-of-mass of the neutron-nucleus system. The main innovation over previous implementations is the relaxation of the ubiquitous assumption of isotropic scattering in the center-of-mass and the actual effective use of scattering angle distributions from evaluated nuclear data files in the computation of the angular moments of the resonant scattering kernels. The formulas for the high order anisotropic moments in the laboratory system are also derived. A multi-group numerical formulation is derived and implemented into a module incorporated within the NJOY nuclear data processing code. An ultra-fine energy mesh cross section library was generated using these new theoretical models and then was used for fuel assembly calculations with the PARAGON lattice physics code. The results obtained indicate a strong effect of this new model on reactivity, multi-group fluxes and isotopic inventory during depletion.

  1. Deep Tunnel in Transversely Anisotropic Rock with Groundwater Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobet, Antonio

    2016-12-01

    Closed-form solutions for the stresses and deformations induced in the ground and tunnel liner are provided for a deep tunnel in a transversely anisotropic elastic rock, with anisotropic permeability, when subjected to groundwater seepage. Complex variable theory and conformal mapping are used to obtain the solutions; additional complex functions, necessary to prevent multiple solutions of the displacements, are included. The analytical solutions are verified by comparing their results from those of a finite element method. Simplified formulations are presented for tunnels with a perfectly flexible and completely incompressible liner. A spreadsheet is included that can be used to obtain stresses and displacements of the liner due to groundwater flow and far-field geostatic stresses.

  2. Anisotropic stress correlations in two-dimensional liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Bin; Iwashita, Takuya; Egami, Takeshi

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the presence of anisotropic stress correlations in the simulated 2D liquids. Whereas the temporal correlation of macroscopic shear stress is known to contribute to viscosity via the Green-Kubo formula, the general question regarding angular dependence of the spatial correlation among atomic level stresses in liquids without external shear has not been explored. Besides the apparent anisotropicity with well-defined symmetry, we found that the characteristic length of shear stress correlation depends on temperature and follows the power law, suggesting divergence around the glass transition temperature. The anisotropy of the stress correlations can be explained in terms of the inclusion model by Eshelby, based upon which we suggest that the mismatch between the atom and its nearest neighbor cage produces the atomic level stress as well as the long-range stress fields.

  3. Pattern formation in skyrmionic materials with anisotropic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagemeister, Julian; Vedmedenko, Elena Y.; Wiesendanger, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic Skyrmions have attracted broad attention during recent years because they are regarded as promising candidates as bits of information in novel data storage devices. A broad range of theoretical and experimental investigations have been conducted with the consideration of axisymmetric Skyrmions in isotropic environments. However, one naturally observes a huge variety of anisotropic behavior in many experimentally relevant materials. In the present work, we investigate the influence of anisotropic environments onto the formation and behavior of the noncollinear spin states of skyrmionic materials by means of Monte Carlo calculations. We find skyrmionic textures which are far from having an axisymmetric shape. Furthermore, we show the possibility to employ periodic modulations of the environment to create skyrmionic tracks.

  4. Random optical beam propagation in anisotropic turbulence along horizontal links.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Korotkova, Olga

    2016-10-17

    Considerable amount of data has been collected in the past asserting that atmospheric turbulence has regions where it exhibits anisotropic statistics. For instance, it is known that the fluctuations in the refractive index within the first meter above the ground are typically stronger in the vertical direction compared with those in the horizontal directions. We have investigated the second-order statistical properties of a Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beam traversing anisotropic atmospheric turbulence along a horizontal path. Analytical expression is rigorously derived for the cross-spectral density function of a GSM beam. It is shown that the spread of the beam and its coherence properties become different in two transverse directions due to anisotropy. In the limiting case when the source coherence width becomes infinite our results reduce to those for Gaussian beam propagation. Source partial coherence is shown to mitigate anisotropy at sub-kilometer distances.

  5. Anisotropic stress correlations in two-dimensional liquids

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Bin; Iwashita, Takuya; Egami, Takeshi

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the presence of anisotropic stress correlations in the simulated 2D liquids. Whereas the temporal correlation of macroscopic shear stress is known to contribute to viscosity via the Green-Kubo formula, the general question regarding angular dependence of the spatial correlation among atomic level stresses in liquids without external shear has not been explored. Besides the apparent anisotropicity with well-defined symmetry, we found that the characteristic length of shear stress correlation depends on temperature and follows the power law, suggesting divergence around the glass transition temperature. The anisotropy of the stress correlations can be explained in termsmore » of the inclusion model by Eshelby, based upon which we suggest that the mismatch between the atom and its nearest neighbor cage produces the atomic level stress as well as the long-range stress fields.« less

  6. Dynamic pressure-shear loading of materials using anisotropic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhabildas, L. C.; Swegle, J. W.

    1980-09-01

    An experimental technique is described which uses anisotropic crystals to generate dynamic pressure-shear loading in materials. The coupled longitudinal and shear motion generated upon planar impact of the anisotropic crystal can be transmitted into a specimen bonded to the rear surface of the crystal, and monitored using velocity interferometer techniques. Test results using y-cut quartz generators and x-cut quartz and y-cut quartz samples indicate that shear stresses up to 0.35 GPa can be transmitted across epoxy-bonded interfaces. The technique has been successfully used to detect a 0.2 GPa shear wave in 6061-T6 aluminum at 0.7 GPa longitudinal stress. The shear wave velocity profiles have an accuracy of ±12%. The use of longer delay legs in the interferometer is suggested to improve the accuracy. Results obtained in this investigation are compared with numerical solutions obtained using the finite-difference wave propagation code TOODY.

  7. Life prediction and constitutive models for anisotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    The intent of this program is to develop a basic understanding of cyclic creep-fatigue deformation mechanisms and damage accumulation, a capability for reliable life prediction, and the ability to model the constitutive behavior of anisotropic single crystal (SC) and directionally solidified or recrystallized (DSR) comprise the program, and the work breakdown for each option reflects a distinct concern for two classes of anisotropic materials, SC and DSR materials, at temperatures encountered in the primary gas path (airfoil temperatures), and at temperatures typical of the blade root attachment and shank area. Work directed toward the higher temperature area of concern in the primary gas path includes effects of coatings on the behavior and properties of the materials of interest. The blade root attachment work areas will address the effects of stress concentrations associated with attachment features.

  8. Anisotropic electronic conduction in stacked two-dimensional titanium carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Tao; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Jiemin; Li, Zhaojin; Hu, Minmin; Tan, Jun; Hou, Pengxiang; Li, Feng; Wang, Xiaohui

    2015-11-01

    Stacked two-dimensional titanium carbide is an emerging conductive material for electrochemical energy storage which requires an understanding of the intrinsic electronic conduction. Here we report the electronic conduction properties of stacked Ti3C2T2 (T = OH, O, F) with two distinct stacking sequences (Bernal and simple hexagonal). On the basis of first-principles calculations and energy band theory analysis, both stacking sequences give rise to metallic conduction with Ti 3d electrons contributing most to the conduction. The conduction is also significantly anisotropic due to the fact that the effective masses of carriers including electrons and holes are remarkably direction-dependent. Such an anisotropic electronic conduction is evidenced by the I-V curves of an individual Ti3C2T2 particulate, which demonstrates that the in-plane electrical conduction is at least one order of magnitude higher than that vertical to the basal plane.

  9. Dynamics of anisotropic power-law f( R) cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamir, M. F.

    2016-12-01

    Modified theories of gravity have attracted much attention of the researchers in the recent years. In particular, the f( R) theory has been investigated extensively due to important f( R) gravity models in cosmological contexts. This paper is devoted to exploring an anisotropic universe in metric f( R) gravity. A locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I cosmological model is considered for this purpose. Exact solutions of modified field equations are obtained for a well-known f( R) gravity model. The energy conditions are also discussed for the model under consideration. The viability of the model is investigated via graphical analysis using the present-day values of cosmological parameters. The model satisfies null energy, weak energy, and dominant energy conditions for a particular range of the anisotropy parameter while the strong energy condition is violated, which shows that the anisotropic universe in f( R) gravity supports the crucial issue of accelerated expansion of the universe.

  10. Local deposition of anisotropic nanoparticles using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM).

    PubMed

    Fedorov, Roman G; Mandler, Daniel

    2013-02-28

    We demonstrate localized electrodeposition of anisotropic metal nanoobjects, namely Au nanorods (GNR), on indium tin oxide (ITO) using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). A gold microelectrode was the source of the gold ions whereby double pulse chronoamperometry was employed to generate initially Au seeds which were further grown under controlled conditions. The distance between the microelectrode and the ITO surface as well as the different experimental parameters (electrodeposition regime, solution composition and temperature) were optimized to produce faceted gold seeds with the required characteristics (size and distribution). Colloidal chemical synthesis was successfully exploited for better understanding the role of the surfactant and different additives in breaking the crystallographic symmetry and anisotropic growth of GNR. Experiments performed in a conventional three-electrode cell revealed the most appropriate electrochemical conditions allowing high yield synthesis of nanorods with well-defined shape as well as nanocubes and bipyramids.

  11. On anisotropic versions of three-dimensional pentamode metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadic, Muamer; Bückmann, Tiemo; Schittny, Robert; Wegener, Martin

    2013-02-01

    Pentamode materials are artificial solids with elastic properties that approximate those of isotropic liquids. The corresponding three-dimensional mechanical metamaterials or ‘meta-liquids’ have recently been fabricated. In contrast to normal liquids, anisotropic meta-liquids are also possible—a prerequisite for realizing many of the envisioned transformation-elastodynamics architectures. Here, we study several possibilities theoretically for introducing intentional anisotropy into three-dimensional pentamode metamaterials. In static continuum mechanics, the transition from anti-auxetic pentamode materials to auxetics is possible. Near this transition, in the dynamic case, approximately uniaxial versions of pentamode metamaterials deliver anisotropic longitudinal-wave phase velocities different by nearly a factor of 10 for realistically accessible microstructure parameters.

  12. String-fluid transition in systems with aligned anisotropic interactions.

    PubMed

    Brandt, P C; Ivlev, A V; Morfill, G E

    2010-06-21

    Systems with aligned anisotropic interactions between particles exhibit numerous phase transitions. A remarkable example of the fluid phase transition occurring in such systems is the formation of particle strings--the so-called "string" or "chain" fluids. We employ an approach based on the Ornstein-Zernike (OZ) equation, which allows us to calculate structural properties of fluids with aligned anisotropic interactions. We show that the string-fluid transition can be associated with the bifurcation of the "isotropic" correlation length into two distinct scales which characterize the longitudinal and transverse order in string fluids and, hence, may be used as a fingerprint of this transition. The comparison of the proposed OZ theory with the Monte Carlo simulations reveals fairly good agreement.

  13. Lifting a large object from an anisotropic porous bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Timir; Raja Sekhar, G. P.

    2016-09-01

    An analytical study of two dimensional problem of lifting an object from the top of a fully saturated rigid porous bed is discussed. It is assumed that the porous bed is anisotropic in nature. The flow within the gap region between the object and the porous bed is assumed to be governed by Stokes equation while the flow within the porous bed is governed by Brinkman equation. The breakout phenomenon for different kinds of soil is reported. The effect of mechanical properties like anisotropic permeability, grain diameter size, and porosity on streamlines, velocity, and force is analyzed. Relevant comparison with C. C. Mei, R. W. Yeung, and K. F. Liu ["Lifting a large object from a porous bed," J. Fluid. Mech. 152, 203-215 (1985)] and Y. Chang, L. H. Huang and F. P. Y. Yang ["Two-dimensional lift-up problem for a rigid porous bed," Phys. Fluids, 27, 053101 (2015)] is done.

  14. Anisotropic Migdal-Eliashberg theory using Wannier functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margine, Elena; Giustino, Feliciano

    2013-03-01

    We combine the fully anisotropic Migdal-Eliashberg theory with electron-phonon interpolation based on maximally-localized Wannier functions, in order to perform reliable and highly accurate calculations of the anisotropic temperature-dependent superconducting gap and critical temperature of conventional superconductors. Compared with the widely used McMillan approximation, our methodology yields a more comprehensive and detailed description of superconducting properties, and is especially relevant for the study of layered or low-dimensional systems as well as systems with complex Fermi surfaces. In order to validate our method, implemented within the EPW package, we perform calculations on two prototypical superconductors, Pb and MgB2, and obtain good agreement with previous studies. This work was funded by Marie Curie IEF project FP7-PEOPLE-2009-IEF-252586.

  15. A crossover in anisotropic nanomechanochemistry of van der Waals crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Shimamura, Kohei; Misawa, Masaaki; Li, Ying; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya; Shimojo, Fuyuki

    2015-12-07

    In nanoscale mechanochemistry, mechanical forces selectively break covalent bonds to essentially control chemical reactions. An archetype is anisotropic detonation of layered energetic molecular crystals bonded by van der Waals (vdW) interactions. Here, quantum molecular dynamics simulations reveal a crossover of anisotropic nanomechanochemistry of vdW crystal. Within 10{sup −13} s from the passage of shock front, lateral collision produces NO{sub 2} via twisting and bending of nitro-groups and the resulting inverse Jahn-Teller effect, which is mediated by strong intra-layer hydrogen bonds. Subsequently, as we transition from heterogeneous to homogeneous mechanochemical regimes around 10{sup −12} s, shock normal to multilayers becomes more reactive, producing H{sub 2}O assisted by inter-layer N-N bond formation. These time-resolved results provide much needed atomistic understanding of nanomechanochemistry that underlies a wider range of technologies.

  16. Lattice-Boltzmann hydrodynamics of anisotropic active matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, Joost; Menke, Henri; Mathijssen, Arnold J. T. M.; Fabritius, Marc; Holm, Christian; Shendruk, Tyler N.

    2016-04-01

    A plethora of active matter models exist that describe the behavior of self-propelled particles (or swimmers), both with and without hydrodynamics. However, there are few studies that consider shape-anisotropic swimmers and include hydrodynamic interactions. Here, we introduce a simple method to simulate self-propelled colloids interacting hydrodynamically in a viscous medium using the lattice-Boltzmann technique. Our model is based on raspberry-type viscous coupling and a force/counter-force formalism, which ensures that the system is force free. We consider several anisotropic shapes and characterize their hydrodynamic multipolar flow field. We demonstrate that shape-anisotropy can lead to the presence of a strong quadrupole and octupole moments, in addition to the principle dipole moment. The ability to simulate and characterize these higher-order moments will prove crucial for understanding the behavior of model swimmers in confining geometries.

  17. The caustics method in the contact problems of anisotropic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakić, A.; Semenski, D.; Jecić, S.

    2010-06-01

    Regions with high stress gradients represent critical zones of engineering structures such as crack tip or vicinity of the contact zone. The optical method of caustics is one of the few experimental methods which provide applicable results in these locations. This method was originally developed for crack-tip measurements of stress intensity factors and J-integral for isotropic and then for anisotropic materials. Subsequently, it was extended to contact problems where the size and shape of caustics on the screen are related to the amount and the inclination of loading force. Here, the method of caustics is extended to the analysis of contact problems for mechanically anisotropic materials. This makes the caustics method widely applicable to the analysis of any high stress gradient locations in a structure.

  18. Anisotropic electronic conduction in stacked two-dimensional titanium carbide.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tao; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Jiemin; Li, Zhaojin; Hu, Minmin; Tan, Jun; Hou, Pengxiang; Li, Feng; Wang, Xiaohui

    2015-11-09

    Stacked two-dimensional titanium carbide is an emerging conductive material for electrochemical energy storage which requires an understanding of the intrinsic electronic conduction. Here we report the electronic conduction properties of stacked Ti3C2T2 (T = OH, O, F) with two distinct stacking sequences (Bernal and simple hexagonal). On the basis of first-principles calculations and energy band theory analysis, both stacking sequences give rise to metallic conduction with Ti 3d electrons contributing most to the conduction. The conduction is also significantly anisotropic due to the fact that the effective masses of carriers including electrons and holes are remarkably direction-dependent. Such an anisotropic electronic conduction is evidenced by the I-V curves of an individual Ti3C2T2 particulate, which demonstrates that the in-plane electrical conduction is at least one order of magnitude higher than that vertical to the basal plane.

  19. Anisotropic capillary barrier for waste site surface covers

    DOEpatents

    Stormont, J.C.

    1996-08-27

    Waste sites are capped or covered upon closure. The cover structure incorporates a number of different layers each having a contributory function. One such layer is the barrier layer. Traditionally the barriers have been compacted soil and geosynthetics. These types of barriers have not been successfully implemented in unsaturated ground conditions like those found in dry climates. Capillary barriers have been proposed as barrier layers in dry environments, but the divergence length of these barriers has been found to be inadequate. An alternative to the capillary barrier is a anisotropic capillary barrier. An anisotropic capillary barrier has an increased divergence length which results in more water being diverted laterally preventing the majority of water from percolating in a downward direction through the barrier. 10 figs.

  20. A Reformulation of Nonlinear Anisotropic Elasticity for Impact Physics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    Polycrystals. International Journal of Plasticity 2003, 19, 1401–1444. 26. Clayton, J. D.; McDowell, D. L. Homogenized Finite Elastoplasticity and Damage ...Materials and Technology 2002, 124, 302– 313. 25. Clayton, J. D.; McDowell, D. L. A Multiscale Multiplicative Decomposition for Elastoplasticity of...29. Clayton, J. D. Continuum Multiscale Modeling of Finite Deformation Plasticity and Anisotropic Damage in Polycrystals. Theoretical and Applied

  1. Stopping light by an air waveguide with anisotropic metamaterial cladding.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tian; Zhao, Junming; Feng, Yijun

    2009-01-05

    We present a detailed study of oscillating modes in a slab waveguide with air core and anisotropic metamaterial cladding. It is shown that, under specific dielectric configurations, slow and even stopped electromagnetic wave can be supported by such an air waveguide. We propose a linearly tapped waveguide structure that could lead the propagating light to a complete standstill. Both the theoretical analysis and the proposed waveguide have been validated by full-wave simulation based on finite-difference time-domain method.

  2. Highly Sensitive Flexible Magnetic Sensor Based on Anisotropic Magnetoresistance Effect.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiguang; Wang, Xinjun; Li, Menghui; Gao, Yuan; Hu, Zhongqiang; Nan, Tianxiang; Liang, Xianfeng; Chen, Huaihao; Yang, Jia; Cash, Syd; Sun, Nian-Xiang

    2016-11-01

    A highly sensitive flexible magnetic sensor based on the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect is fabricated. A limit of detection of 150 nT is observed and excellent deformation stability is achieved after wrapping of the flexible sensor, with bending radii down to 5 mm. The flexible AMR sensor is used to read a magnetic pattern with a thickness of 10 μm that is formed by ferrite magnetic inks.

  3. Anisotropic 2D Materials for Tunable Hyperbolic Plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Nemilentsau, Andrei; Low, Tony; Hanson, George

    2016-02-12

    Motivated by the recent emergence of a new class of anisotropic 2D materials, we examine their electromagnetic modes and demonstrate that a broad class of the materials can host highly directional hyperbolic plasmons. Their propagation direction can be manipulated on the spot by gate doping, enabling hyperbolic beam reflection, refraction, and bending. The realization of these natural 2D hyperbolic media opens up a new avenue in dynamic control of hyperbolic plasmons not possible in the 3D version.

  4. Evaluation of a hybrid, anisotropic, multilayered, quadrilateral finite element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, J. C.; Blackburn, C. L.

    1978-01-01

    A multilayered finite element with bending-extensional coupling is evaluated for: (1) buckling of general laminated plates; (2) thermal stresses of laminated plates cured at elevated temperatures; (3) displacements of a bimetallic beam; and (4) displacement and stresses of a single-cell box beam with warped cover panels. Also, displacements and stresses for flat and spherical orthotropic and anisotropic segments are compared with results from higher order plate and shell finite-element analyses.

  5. Deformation modeling and constitutive modeling for anisotropic superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milligan, Walter W.; Antolovich, Stephen D.

    1989-01-01

    A study of deformation mechanisms in the single crystal superalloy PWA 1480 was conducted. Monotonic and cyclic tests were conducted from 20 to 1093 C. Both (001) and near-(123) crystals were tested, at strain rates of 0.5 and 50 percent/minute. The deformation behavior could be grouped into two temperature regimes: low temperatures, below 760 C; and high temperatures, above 820 to 950 C depending on the strain rate. At low temperatures, the mechanical behavior was very anisotropic. An orientation dependent CRSS, a tension-compression asymmetry, and anisotropic strain hardening were all observed. The material was deformed by planar octahedral slip. The anisotropic properties were correlated with the ease of cube cross-slip, as well as the number of active slip systems. At high temperatures, the material was isotropic, and deformed by homogeneous gamma by-pass. It was found that the temperature dependence of the formation of superlattice-intrinsic stacking faults was responsible for the local minimum in the CRSS of this alloy at 400 C. It was proposed that the cube cross-slip process must be reversible. This was used to explain the reversible tension-compression asymmetry, and was used to study models of cross-slip. As a result, the cross-slip model proposed by Paidar, Pope and Vitek was found to be consistent with the proposed slip reversibility. The results were related to anisotropic viscoplastic constitutive models. The model proposed by Walter and Jordan was found to be capable of modeling all aspects of the material anisotropy. Temperature and strain rate boundaries for the model were proposed, and guidelines for numerical experiments were proposed.

  6. Inverse source problem in an anisotropic medium by boundary measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Badia, Abdellatif

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, we consider an inverse source problem for an anisotropic elliptic equation, from boundary measurements. A uniqueness result is established and a local Lipshitz stability, for a linear combination of monopolar and dipolar sources, is discussed. Assuming the number of dipoles bounded by a given integer M, we propose an algebraic algorithm which allows us to estimate the number, the locations and the moments of dipoles. Using special functions, we propose a global Lipschitz stability estimate for dipolar sources.

  7. Time-independent Anisotropic Plastic Behavior by Mechanical Subelement Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, T. H. H.

    1983-01-01

    The paper describes a procedure for modelling the anisotropic elastic-plastic behavior of metals in plane stress state by the mechanical sub-layer model. In this model the stress-strain curves along the longitudinal and transverse directions are represented by short smooth segments which are considered as piecewise linear for simplicity. The model is incorporated in a finite element analysis program which is based on the assumed stress hybrid element and the iscoplasticity-theory.

  8. Efficient light propagation for multiple anisotropic volume scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N. |

    1993-12-01

    Realistic rendering of participating media like clouds requires multiple anisotropic light scattering. This paper presents a propagation approximation for light scattered into M direction bins, which reduces the ``ray effect`` problem in the traditional ``discrete ordinates`` method. For a volume of n{sup 3} elements, it takes O(M n{sup 3} log n + M{sup 2} n{sup 3}) time and O(M n{sup 3}) space.

  9. Anisotropic scaling and generalized conformal invariance at Lifshitz points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkel, Malte; Pleimling, Michel

    2002-08-01

    A new variant of the Wolff cluster algorithm is proposed for simulating systems with competing interactions. This method is used in a high-precision study of the Lifshitz point of the 3D ANNNI model. At the Lifshitz point, several critical exponents are found and the anisotropic scaling of the correlators is verified. The functional form of the two-point correlators is shown to be consistent with the predictions of generalized conformal invariance.

  10. Obtaining anisotropic velocity data for proper depth seismic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Egerev, Sergey; Yushin, Victor; Ovchinnikov, Oleg; Dubinsky, Vladimir; Patterson, Doug

    2012-05-24

    The paper deals with the problem of obtaining anisotropic velocity data due to continuous acoustic impedance-based measurements while scanning in the axial direction along the walls of the borehole. Diagrams of full conductivity of the piezoceramic transducer were used to derive anisotropy parameters of the rock sample. The measurements are aimed to support accurate depth imaging of seismic data. Understanding these common anisotropy effects is important when interpreting data where it is present.

  11. Effects of momentum conservation on the analysis of anisotropic flow

    SciTech Connect

    Borghini, N.; Dinh, P.M.; Ollitrault, J.-Y.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Voloshin, S.A.

    2002-02-05

    We present a general method for taking into account correlations due to momentum conservation in the analysis of anisotropic flow. Momentum conservation mostly affects the first harmonic in azimuthal distributions, i.e., directed flow. It also modifies higher harmonics, for instance elliptic flow, when they are measured with respect to a first harmonic event plane such as one determined with the standard transverse momentum method. Our method is illustrated by application to NA49 data on pion directed flow.

  12. Anisotropic Turbulence and Protostellar Feedback in Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Charles Edward

    I investigate the decay and regeneration of turbulence in molecular clouds and the resulting star formation in those clouds in the presence of protostellar feedback. Studies of turbulence generally only consider isotropic turbulence, while the turbulence in molecular clouds may be anisotropic. I perform a series of simulations of anisotropic turbulence and measure its decay rate. I find that anisotropic turbulence decays slower than isotropic turbulence. When I break the velocity dispersion into isotropic and anisotropic components, I find the decay time is the crossing time of the isotropic component, which can be much slower than the total velocity dispersion. As part of this study, I present a measure of anisotropy that can be calculated in observations of molecular clouds. I also investigate the effects of compression on turbulence. This is motivated by the need to replenish turbulent energy. Using a series of simulations of contracting turbulence, I find that turbulence behaves as a monatomic ideal gas under isotropic compression. I also find that compression in a single direction imparts energy to that direction, but does not transfer that energy to the other two directions. Finally, I perform a series of high resolution star formation simulations with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) including hydrodynamics, gravity, radiation, protostellar outflows and protostellar luminosity. The simulations provide a self-consistent story of star formation, all while matching observations. The matched observations include the masses of both stars and prestellar cores, the clustering of cores and the luminosity function of protostars. In this story of star formation, cores form on the Jeans length of the host cloud. Each core forms a central star or binary, but also fragments repeatedly down 0.05 M⊙ stars. The stellar radiation prevents fragmentation below this mass scale, but is not important on larger scales. The protostellar outflows eject 2/3 of the incoming mass

  13. Anisotropic Mesoscale Eddy Transport in Ocean General Circulation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckinger, S. J.; Fox-Kemper, B.; Bachman, S.; Bryan, F.; Dennis, J.; Danabasoglu, G.

    2014-12-01

    Modern climate models are limited to coarse-resolution representations of large-scale ocean circulation that rely on parameterizations for mesoscale eddies. The effects of eddies are typically introduced by relating subgrid eddy fluxes to the resolved gradients of buoyancy or other tracers, where the proportionality is, in general, governed by an eddy transport tensor. The symmetric part of the tensor, which represents the diffusive effects of mesoscale eddies, is universally treated isotropically in general circulation models. Thus, only a single parameter, namely the eddy diffusivity, is used at each spatial and temporal location to impart the influence of mesoscale eddies on the resolved flow. However, the diffusive processes that the parameterization approximates, such as shear dispersion, potential vorticity barriers, oceanic turbulence, and instabilities, typically have strongly anisotropic characteristics. Generalizing the eddy diffusivity tensor for anisotropy extends the number of parameters to three: a major diffusivity, a minor diffusivity, and the principal axis of alignment. The Community Earth System Model (CESM) with the anisotropic eddy parameterization is used to test various choices for the newly introduced parameters, which are motivated by observations and the eddy transport tensor diagnosed from high resolution simulations. Simply setting the ratio of major to minor diffusivities to a value of five globally, while aligning the major axis along the flow direction, improves biogeochemical tracer ventilation and reduces global temperature and salinity biases. These effects can be improved even further by parameterizing the anisotropic transport mechanisms in the ocean.

  14. Anisotropic mesoscale eddy transport in ocean general circulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckinger, Scott; Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Bachman, Scott; Bryan, Frank; Dennis, John; Danabasoglu, Gokhan

    2014-11-01

    In modern climate models, the effects of oceanic mesoscale eddies are introduced by relating subgrid eddy fluxes to the resolved gradients of buoyancy or other tracers, where the proportionality is, in general, governed by an eddy transport tensor. The symmetric part of the tensor, which represents the diffusive effects of mesoscale eddies, is universally treated isotropically. However, the diffusive processes that the parameterization approximates, such as shear dispersion and potential vorticity barriers, typically have strongly anisotropic characteristics. Generalizing the eddy diffusivity tensor for anisotropy extends the number of parameters from one to three: major diffusivity, minor diffusivity, and alignment. The Community Earth System Model (CESM) with the anisotropic eddy parameterization is used to test various choices for the parameters, which are motivated by observations and the eddy transport tensor diagnosed from high resolution simulations. Simply setting the ratio of major to minor diffusivities to a value of five globally, while aligning the major axis along the flow direction, improves biogeochemical tracer ventilation and reduces temperature and salinity biases. These effects can be improved by parameterizing the oceanic anisotropic transport mechanisms.

  15. Polaron dynamics in anisotropic Holstein-Peierls systems.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro Junior, Luiz Antonio; Stafström, Sven

    2017-02-01

    Polaron dynamics in anisotropic organic molecular semiconductors is theoretically investigated and simulated in the framework of a semi-classical Holstein-Peierls model. Our computational protocol is presented and applied to studies of a two-dimensional molecular crystal. The intermolecular (Peierls) parameters for a particular crystal direction are systematically changed in order to study the effect of anisotropy in the system. The usefulness of this methodology is highlighted by studying the polaron dynamics on a picosecond timescale, which provides a microscopic insight into the influence of the interplay between different intramolecular parameters on the charge transport mechanism. Our results show that the polaron mobility is substantially reduced in going from an anisotropic to an isotropic relationship between the Peierls parameters for different directions in the crystal. Interestingly, the molecular charge distribution presents three different signatures corresponding to a one-dimensional polaron, a two-dimensional polaron, and an intermediate state for which the polaron localization depends on the degree of anisotropy. Importantly, the two-dimensional polaron, which is present in the essentially isotropic system, is immobile whereas the other two types of polarons are mobile. This, in order for polaron transport to occur in a two-dimensional molecular based system, this system has to be anisotropic.

  16. Generalization of the H - κ stacking method to anisotropic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaviani, Ayoub; Rümpker, Georg

    2015-04-01

    The effect of anisotropy on the estimates of crustal thickness H and average bulk vP/vS-ratio κ can be significant in the presence of strong seismic anisotropy. Here we extend the stacking approach of Zhu and Kanamori (2000) to include all twenty P-to-S converted phases and their crustal reverberations that are generated in the anisotropic case - instead of only five phases in the isotropic case. The ray-based algorithm of Frederiksen and Bostock (2000) is used to calculate the amplitude and arrival time of each phase. Synthetic tests are performed to investigate the feasibility and robustness of the stacking approach. For simplicity, we assume hexagonal symmetry and a horizontal symmetry axis but more general anisotropy may be considered. The tests reveal that the estimates of H and κ can be significantly affected by the presence of crustal anisotropy. We verify the feasibility of the stacking approach for real data by applying the method to examples from three different tectonic regions. The results show that the anisotropic stacking scheme presented here can provide much better constraints on the estimation of H and κ in comparison to the isotropic stacking. The anisotropic stacking can also help to resolve ambiguities in the determination of H and κ when several maxima of stacked receiver-function amplitudes arise in cases of complex crustal structure.

  17. Modified anisotropic diffusion for image smoothing and enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhong; Whitaker, Ross T.

    2001-05-01

    This paper discusses an improved nonlinear filtering approach based on anisotropic diffusion technique. This modified anisotropic diffusion method smooths along curve directions, i.e. the directions of level sets. The upwind scheme for level set is used to solve the diffusion equation. Compared with the conventional anisotropic diffusion, which depends only on the local gradient of intensities of the processed image, this modified scheme overcomes the defect of indefinite edge enhancement associated with Perona-Malik model while depressing noises in a better performance. Moreover, a multi-scale diffusion technique is applied to limit blurring by the presence of edges as measured at the scale of interest, so that accurate information about boundaries of objects could be preserved and small details that fall below the scale of interest be removed. Then an extension into vector-valued diffusion is also presented in this paper, which is capable of smoothing small objects while maintaining boundaries information in vector-valued images. Experiments on gray-scale and color images demonstrate the efficacy of this method in image smoothing as well as image enhancement.

  18. Azimuthal τ-p analysis in anisotropic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sil, Samik; Sen, Mrinal K.

    2008-11-01

    For the purpose of transversely isotropic (TI) normal moveout (NMO) correction, we propose analysis of plane wave transformed azimuthal gathers, interactively using a single azimuth data at a time and a new delay time equation (developed in this paper), which is a function of two parameters at each azimuth. Results from independently estimated multi-azimuth gathers, then, can be combined to estimate stiffness or Thomsen coefficients. Azimuthal τ-p analysis also avoids numerical ray tracing, resulting in a rapid algorithm. We demonstrate the applicability of our method using a set of P-wave synthetic seismograms from a multilayered medium, consisting of isotropic and HTI layers. Azimuth-dependent anisotropy parameters are derived by delay time fitting and NMO correction. The reflections from the bottom interface of an isotropic layer with an anisotropic overburden show apparent anisotropic traveltime behaviour, which is easily accounted for by our layer-stripping based azimuthal NMO analysis. Unlike the previous approximate HTI NMO correction equation, this equation performs better NMO correction for the HTI medium and is also applicable to the VTI medium. Presence of only two reduced parameters in the equation helps the anisotropic parameter estimation become less ambiguous.

  19. Isothermal anisotropic magnetoresistance in antiferromagnetic metallic IrMn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galceran, R.; Fina, I.; Cisneros-Fernández, J.; Bozzo, B.; Frontera, C.; López-Mir, L.; Deniz, H.; Park, K.-W.; Park, B.-G.; Balcells, Ll.; Martí, X.; Jungwirth, T.; Martínez, B.

    2016-10-01

    Antiferromagnetic spintronics is an emerging field; antiferromagnets can improve the functionalities of ferromagnets with higher response times, and having the information shielded against external magnetic field. Moreover, a large list of aniferromagnetic semiconductors and metals with Néel temperatures above room temperature exists. In the present manuscript, we persevere in the quest for the limits of how large can anisotropic magnetoresistance be in antiferromagnetic materials with very large spin-orbit coupling. We selected IrMn as a prime example of first-class moment (Mn) and spin-orbit (Ir) combination. Isothermal magnetotransport measurements in an antiferromagnetic-metal(IrMn)/ferromagnetic-insulator thin film bilayer have been performed. The metal/insulator structure with magnetic coupling between both layers allows the measurement of the modulation of the transport properties exclusively in the antiferromagnetic layer. Anisotropic magnetoresistance as large as 0.15% has been found, which is much larger than that for a bare IrMn layer. Interestingly, it has been observed that anisotropic magnetoresistance is strongly influenced by the field cooling conditions, signaling the dependence of the found response on the formation of domains at the magnetic ordering temperature.

  20. Isothermal anisotropic magnetoresistance in antiferromagnetic metallic IrMn

    PubMed Central

    Galceran, R.; Fina, I.; Cisneros-Fernández, J.; Bozzo, B.; Frontera, C.; López-Mir, L.; Deniz, H.; Park, K.-W.; Park, B.-G.; Balcells, Ll.; Martí, X.; Jungwirth, T.; Martínez, B.

    2016-01-01

    Antiferromagnetic spintronics is an emerging field; antiferromagnets can improve the functionalities of ferromagnets with higher response times, and having the information shielded against external magnetic field. Moreover, a large list of aniferromagnetic semiconductors and metals with Néel temperatures above room temperature exists. In the present manuscript, we persevere in the quest for the limits of how large can anisotropic magnetoresistance be in antiferromagnetic materials with very large spin-orbit coupling. We selected IrMn as a prime example of first-class moment (Mn) and spin-orbit (Ir) combination. Isothermal magnetotransport measurements in an antiferromagnetic-metal(IrMn)/ferromagnetic-insulator thin film bilayer have been performed. The metal/insulator structure with magnetic coupling between both layers allows the measurement of the modulation of the transport properties exclusively in the antiferromagnetic layer. Anisotropic magnetoresistance as large as 0.15% has been found, which is much larger than that for a bare IrMn layer. Interestingly, it has been observed that anisotropic magnetoresistance is strongly influenced by the field cooling conditions, signaling the dependence of the found response on the formation of domains at the magnetic ordering temperature. PMID:27762278

  1. Symmetry constraints during the development of anisotropic spinodal patterns

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Muñoz, Luis; del Campo, Adolfo; Fernández, José F.

    2016-01-01

    Spinodal decomposition is a phase-separation phenomenon occurring at non-equilibrium conditions. In isotropic materials, it is expected to improve the physical properties, in which modulated structures arise from a single system of spinodal waves. However, in anisotropic materials this process is controversial and not very well understood. Here, we report anisotropic spinodal decomposition patterns in single crystals of K-rich feldspar with macroscopic monoclinic 2/m symmetry. The periodicity of the spinodal waves at ~450 nm produces a blue iridescence, typical of the gemstone moonstone. Stripe patterns in the (010) plane, labyrinthine patterns in the (100) plane, and coexistence of the two patterns in the (110) plane are first resolved by scanning Rayleigh scattering microscopy. Two orthogonal systems of spinodal waves with the same periodicity are derived from the features and orientations of the patterns on the crystal surfaces. The orthogonality of the waves is related to the perpendicularity of the binary axis and the mirror plane. Thus, the spinodal patterns must be controlled by symmetry constraints during phase separation at early stages. Unusual and new properties could be developed in other anisotropic materials by thermal treatment inducing two orthogonal systems of periodic spinodal waves. PMID:26860067

  2. Anisotropic elliptic optical fibers. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Soon Ahm

    1991-01-01

    The exact characteristic equation for an anisotropic elliptic optical fiber is obtained for odd and even hybrid modes in terms of infinite determinants utilizing Mathieu and modified Mathieu functions. A simplified characteristic equation is obtained by applying the weakly guiding approximation such that the difference in the refractive indices of the core and the cladding is small. The simplified characteristic equation is used to compute the normalized guide wavelength for an elliptical fiber. When the anisotropic parameter is equal to unity, the results are compared with the previous research and they are in close agreement. For a fixed value normalized cross-section area or major axis, the normalized guide wavelength lambda/lambda(sub 0) for an anisotropic elliptic fiber is small for the larger value of anisotropy. This condition indicates that more energy is carried inside of the fiber. However, the geometry and anisotropy of the fiber have a smaller effect when the normalized cross-section area is very small or very large.

  3. Identifying heterogeneous anisotropic properties in cerebral aneurysms: a pointwise approach.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuefeng; Raghavan, Madhavan L; Lu, Jia

    2011-04-01

    The traditional approaches of estimating heterogeneous properties in a soft tissue structure using optimization-based inverse methods often face difficulties because of the large number of unknowns to be simultaneously determined. This article proposes a new method for identifying the heterogeneous anisotropic nonlinear elastic properties in cerebral aneurysms. In this method, the local properties are determined directly from the pointwise stress-strain data, thus avoiding the need for simultaneously optimizing for the property values at all points/regions in the aneurysm. The stress distributions needed for a pointwise identification are computed using an inverse elastostatic method without invoking the material properties in question. This paradigm is tested numerically through simulated inflation tests on an image-based cerebral aneurysm sac. The wall tissue is modeled as an eight-ply laminate whose constitutive behavior is described by an anisotropic hyperelastic strain energy function containing four parameters. The parameters are assumed to vary continuously in the sac. Deformed configurations generated from forward finite element analysis are taken as input to inversely establish the parameter distributions. The delineated and the assigned distributions are in excellent agreement. A forward verification is conducted by comparing the displacement solutions obtained from the delineated and the assigned material parameters at a different pressure. The deviations in nodal displacements are found to be within 0.2% in most part of the sac. The study highlights some distinct features of the proposed method, and demonstrates the feasibility of organ level identification of the distributive anisotropic nonlinear properties in cerebral aneurysms.

  4. Tuning particle geometry of chemically anisotropic dumbbell-shaped colloids.

    PubMed

    van Ravensteijn, Bas G P; Kegel, Willem K

    2017-03-15

    Chemically anisotropic dumbbell-shaped colloids are prepared starting from cross-linked polymer seed particles coated with a chlorinated outer layer. These chlorinated seeds are swollen with monomer. Subsequently, a liquid protrusion is formed on the surface of the seed particle by phase separation between the monomer and the swollen polymer network. Solidification of these liquid lobes by polymerization leads to the desired dumbbell-shaped colloids. The chlorine groups remain confined on the seed lobe of the particles, ensuring chemical anisotropy of the resulting particles. Exploiting the asymmetric distribution of the chemically reactive surface chlorine groups allows for site-specific surface modifications. Here we show that the geometry of the resulting chemically anisotropic dumbbells can be systematically tuned by a number of experimental parameters including the volume of styrene by which the seeds are swollen, the cross-link density of the chlorinated seeds and chemical composition/thickness of the chlorinated coating deposited on the seed particles. Being able to control the particle geometry, and therefore the Janus balance of these chemically anisotropic particles, provides a promising starting point for the synthesis of sophisticated building blocks for future (self-assembly) studies.

  5. Anisotropic Transverse Stress in Calcite and Sapphire Measured Using Birefringence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tear, Gareth R.; Chapman, David J.; Eakins, Daniel E.; Proud, William G.

    2015-06-01

    Many significant geological minerals have anisotropic crystal structures leading to material properties that are anisotropic, including compressive elastic behaviour. A non-invasive approach to investigate the directional dependence of transverse stress in these materials during shock compression would supplement current understanding. As many geological minerals are transparent and hence optically anisotropic, measuring the change in birefringence induced by transverse stress in the material offers the possibility of a fast, non-invasive approach to probe transverse behaviour. Shock compression experiments have been performed on a-cut calcite and a-cut sapphire for strain rates of order 105 s-1 and up to longitudinal stresses of 2 GPa for calcite and 12 GPa for sapphire. We present measured changes in birefringence for these materials under shock compression, comparing with current and past literature as well as an in house optical model. The authors would like to thank Mr Steve Johnson and Mr David Pittman for technical support. The Institute of Shock Physics acknowledges the continued support of AWE and Imperial College London.

  6. Optical anisotropic-dielectric response of mercuric iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, H.; Johs, B.; James, R.B.

    1997-10-01

    Anisotropic optical properties of mercuric iodide (HgI{sub 2}) were studied by variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE). Angular-dependent polarized reflectance and transmittance at three special optical-axis configurations, concerning the uniaxial anisotropic nature of the crystal, were derived to facilitate the VASE analysis. Two surface orientations of this tetragonal crystal were selected, i.e., an a-plane and a c-plane sample. Room-temperature multiple-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements from both samples with three different optical configurations along with polarized transmission measurements were jointly analyzed by the VASE analysis through multiple-sample, multiple-model methods. Anisotropic dielectric functions of single-crystal HgI{sub 2}, {var_epsilon}{sub {perpendicular}}({omega}) and {var_epsilon}{sub {parallel}}({omega}), for optical electric-field vector oriented perpendicular and parallel to the c axis, respectively, were obtained in the range 1.24{endash}5.1 eV. Different absorption energy-band edges, at room temperature, were observed from the ordinary and extraordinary dielectric responses at 2.25 and 2.43 eV, respectively. This is consistent with the results related to the optical transitions between the conduction band and the heavy- and light-hole valence band indicated by theoretical studies. A surface model related to the surface roughness and defects of HgI{sub 2} was established and characterized by the VASE analysis. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. DNA-nanoparticle superlattices formed from anisotropic building blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Matthew R.; Macfarlane, Robert John; Lee, Byeongdu; Zhang, Jian; Young, Kaylie L.; Senesi, Andrew J.; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2010-10-03

    Directional bonding interactions in solid-state atomic lattices dictate the unique symmetries of atomic crystals, resulting in a diverse and complex assortment of three-dimensional structures that exhibit a wide variety of material properties. Methods to create analogous nanoparticle superlattices are beginning to be realized, but the concept of anisotropy is still largely underdeveloped in most particle assembly schemes. Some examples provide interesting methods to take advantage of anisotropic effects, but most are able to make only small clusters or lattices that are limited in crystallinity and especially in lattice parameter programmability. Anisotropic nanoparticles can be used to impart directional bonding interactions on the nanoscale, both through face-selective functionalization of the particle with recognition elements to introduce the concept of valency, and through anisotropic interactions resulting from particle shape. In this work, we examine the concept of inherent shape-directed crystallization in the context of DNA-mediated nanoparticle assembly. Importantly, we show how the anisotropy of these particles can be used to synthesize one-, two- and three-dimensional structures that cannot be made through the assembly of spherical particles.

  8. Influence of copper foil polycrystalline structure on graphene anisotropic etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Kamal P.; Mahyavanshi, Rakesh D.; Kalita, Golap; Tanemura, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Anisotropic etching of graphene and other two dimensional materials is an important tool to understand the growth process as well as enabling fabrication of various well-defined structures. Here, we reveal the influence of copper foil polycrystalline structure on anisotropic etching process of as-synthesized graphene. Graphene crystals were synthesized on the polycrystalline Cu foil by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) system. Microscopic analysis shows difference in shape, size and stripes alignment of graphene crystals with dissimilar nucleation within closure vicinity of neighboring Cu grains. Post-growth etching of such graphene crystals also significantly affected by the crystallographic nature of Cu grains as observed by the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis. Hexagonal hole formation with anisotropic etching is observed to be independent of the stripes and wrinkles in the synthesized graphene. We also observed variation in etched pattern of the graphene depending on the base Cu grain orientations, attributing to difference in nucleation and growth process. The findings can facilitate to understand the nature of microscopic etched pattern depending on metal catalyst crystallographic structure.

  9. Anisotropic parameter estimation using velocity variation with offset analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Herawati, I.; Saladin, M.; Pranowo, W.; Winardhie, S.; Priyono, A.

    2013-09-09

    Seismic anisotropy is defined as velocity dependent upon angle or offset. Knowledge about anisotropy effect on seismic data is important in amplitude analysis, stacking process and time to depth conversion. Due to this anisotropic effect, reflector can not be flattened using single velocity based on hyperbolic moveout equation. Therefore, after normal moveout correction, there will still be residual moveout that relates to velocity information. This research aims to obtain anisotropic parameters, ε and δ, using two proposed methods. The first method is called velocity variation with offset (VVO) which is based on simplification of weak anisotropy equation. In VVO method, velocity at each offset is calculated and plotted to obtain vertical velocity and parameter δ. The second method is inversion method using linear approach where vertical velocity, δ, and ε is estimated simultaneously. Both methods are tested on synthetic models using ray-tracing forward modelling. Results show that δ value can be estimated appropriately using both methods. Meanwhile, inversion based method give better estimation for obtaining ε value. This study shows that estimation on anisotropic parameters rely on the accuracy of normal moveout velocity, residual moveout and offset to angle transformation.

  10. Multitracing anisotropic non-Gaussianity with galaxy shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisari, Nora Elisa; Dvorkin, Cora; Schmidt, Fabian; Spergel, David N.

    2016-12-01

    Correlations between intrinsic galaxy shapes on large scales arise due to the effect of the tidal field of the large-scale structure. Anisotropic primordial non-Gaussianity induces a distinct scale-dependent imprint in these tidal alignments on large scales. Motivated by the observational finding that the alignment strength of luminous red galaxies depends on how galaxy shapes are measured, we study the use of two different shape estimators as a multitracer probe of intrinsic alignments. We show, by means of a Fisher analysis, that this technique promises a significant improvement on anisotropic non-Gaussianity constraints over a single-tracer method. For future weak lensing surveys, the uncertainty in the anisotropic non-Gaussianity parameter, A2, is forecast to be σ (A2)≈50 , ˜40 % smaller than currently available constraints from the bispectrum of the cosmic microwave background. This corresponds to an improvement of a factor of 4-5 over the uncertainty from a single-tracer analysis.

  11. Analyzing spinodal decomposition of an anisotropic fluid mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruhn, Thomas; Pogorelov, Evgeny; Seiferling, Felix; Emmerich, Heike

    2017-02-01

    Spinodal decomposition leads to spontaneous fluctuations of the local concentration. In the early stage, the resulting pattern provides explicit information about the material properties of the mixture. In the case of two isotropic fluids, the static structure factor shows the characteristic ring shape. If one component is a liquid crystal, the pattern is typically anisotropic and the structure factor is more complex. Using numerical methods, we investigate how structure factors can be used to extract information about material properties like the diffusion constant or the isotropic and the anisotropic contributions to the interfacial tension. The method is based on momenta taken from structure factors in the early stage of the spinodal demixing. We perform phase field calculations for an isotropic and an anisotropic spinodal decomposition. A comparison of the extracted results with analytic values is made. The calculations show that linear modes dominate in the beginning of the growth process, while non-linear modes grow monotonously in the region of the k-space for which damping is predicted by the linearized theory. As long as non-linear modes are small enough, linearized theory can be applied to extract material properties from the structure factor.

  12. The TT, TB, EB and BB correlations in anisotropic inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xingang; Emami, Razieh; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Wang, Yi E-mail: emami@ipm.ir E-mail: yw366@cam.ac.uk

    2014-08-01

    The ongoing and future experiments will measure the B-mode from different sky coverage and frequency bands, with the potential to reveal non-trivial features in polarization map. In this work we study the TT, TB, EB and BB correlations associated with the B-mode polarization of CMB map in models of charged anisotropic inflation. The model contains a chaotic-type large field complex inflaton which is charged under the U(1) gauge field. We calculate the statistical anisotropies generated in the power spectra of the curvature perturbation, the tensor perturbation and their cross-correlation. It is shown that the asymmetry in tensor power spectrum is a very sensitive probe of the gauge coupling. While the level of statistical anisotropy in temperature power spectrum can be small and satisfy the observational bounds, the interactions from the gauge coupling can induce large directional dependence in tensor modes. This will leave interesting anisotropic fingerprints in various correlations involving the B-mode polarization such as the TB cross-correlation which may be detected in upcoming Planck polarization data. In addition, the TT correlation receives an anisotropic contribution from the tensor sector which naturally decays after l ∼> 100. We expect that the mechanism of using tensor sector to induce asymmetry at low l to be generic which can also be applied to address other low l CMB anomalies.

  13. Dip-moveout processing by Fourier transform in anisotropic media

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.; Tsvankin, I.

    1994-12-01

    Conventional dip-moveout (DMO) processing is designed for isotropic media and cannot handle angle-dependent velocity. The authors show that Hale`s isotropic DMO algorithm remains valid for elliptical anisotropy but may lead to serious errors for non-elliptical transversely isotropic models, even if velocity anisotropy is moderate. Here, they present an extension of Hale`s constant-velocity DMO method to anisotropic media. The DMO operator, to be applied to normal-moveout (NMO) corrected data, is based on the analytic expression for NMO velocity for dipping reflectors given by Tsvankin (1995a). Since the anisotropic DMO depends on the elastic parameters of the medium, it should be preceded by an inversion procedure designed to obtain the NMO velocity as a function of ray parameter. Another complication introduced by anisotropy is the influence of nonhyperbolic moveout not accounted for in the DMO operator. However, for spreads typical in conventional acquisition design, deviations from hyperbolic moveout for P-waves are not significant. Impulse responses and synthetic examples for typical transversely isotropic models with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of this DMO technique. Once the inversion step has been completed, the NMO-DMO sequence does not take any more computing time than that for the generic Hale`s method in isotropic media. Their anisotropic DMO operator is not limited to VTI media; it can be applied in the same fashion in symmetry planes of more complicated models such as orthorhombic.

  14. Computational Study of Subdural Cortical Stimulation: Effects of Simulating Anisotropic Conductivity on Activation of Cortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyeon; Kim, Donghyeon; Jun, Sung Chan

    2015-01-01

    Subdural cortical stimulation (SuCS) is an appealing method in the treatment of neurological disorders, and computational modeling studies of SuCS have been applied to determine the optimal design for electrotherapy. To achieve a better understanding of computational modeling on the stimulation effects of SuCS, the influence of anisotropic white matter conductivity on the activation of cortical neurons was investigated in a realistic head model. In this paper, we constructed pyramidal neuronal models (layers 3 and 5) that showed primary excitation of the corticospinal tract, and an anatomically realistic head model reflecting complex brain geometry. The anisotropic information was acquired from diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) and then applied to the white matter at various ratios of anisotropic conductivity. First, we compared the isotropic and anisotropic models; compared to the isotropic model, the anisotropic model showed that neurons were activated in the deeper bank during cathodal stimulation and in the wider crown during anodal stimulation. Second, several popular anisotropic principles were adapted to investigate the effects of variations in anisotropic information. We observed that excitation thresholds varied with anisotropic principles, especially with anodal stimulation. Overall, incorporating anisotropic conductivity into the anatomically realistic head model is critical for accurate estimation of neuronal responses; however, caution should be used in the selection of anisotropic information. PMID:26057524

  15. A robust anisotropic hyperelastic formulation for the modelling of soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Nolan, D R; Gower, A L; Destrade, M; Ogden, R W; McGarry, J P

    2014-11-01

    The Holzapfel-Gasser-Ogden (HGO) model for anisotropic hyperelastic behaviour of collagen fibre reinforced materials was initially developed to describe the elastic properties of arterial tissue, but is now used extensively for modelling a variety of soft biological tissues. Such materials can be regarded as incompressible, and when the incompressibility condition is adopted the strain energy Ψ of the HGO model is a function of one isotropic and two anisotropic deformation invariants. A compressible form (HGO-C model) is widely used in finite element simulations whereby the isotropic part of Ψ is decoupled into volumetric and isochoric parts and the anisotropic part of Ψ is expressed in terms of isochoric invariants. Here, by using three simple deformations (pure dilatation, pure shear and uniaxial stretch), we demonstrate that the compressible HGO-C formulation does not correctly model compressible anisotropic material behaviour, because the anisotropic component of the model is insensitive to volumetric deformation due to the use of isochoric anisotropic invariants. In order to correctly model compressible anisotropic behaviour we present a modified anisotropic (MA) model, whereby the full anisotropic invariants are used, so that a volumetric anisotropic contribution is represented. The MA model correctly predicts an anisotropic response to hydrostatic tensile loading, whereby a sphere deforms into an ellipsoid. It also computes the correct anisotropic stress state for pure shear and uniaxial deformations. To look at more practical applications, we developed a finite element user-defined material subroutine for the simulation of stent deployment in a slightly compressible artery. Significantly higher stress triaxiality and arterial compliance are computed when the full anisotropic invariants are used (MA model) instead of the isochoric form (HGO-C model).

  16. Theory of elastic wave propagation in anisotropic film on anisotropic substrate: TiN film on single-crystal Si.

    PubMed

    Tewary, V K

    2002-09-01

    The delta-function representation of the elastodynamic Green's function is used to derive an expression for the elastic wave forms on the surface of an anisotropic thin film on an anisotropic substrate due to a point or a line source located at the surface of the film. The dispersion relation for surface acoustic waves (SAWs) is obtained from the poles of the Green's function. A computationally efficient algorithm is formulated to obtain the elastic constants and the density of the film from the SAW dispersion data. The theory is used to analyze measured SAW dispersion relations in a titanium nitride film on silicon. The analysis yields values of the elastic constants and the density of the film. Excellent agreement is obtained between the theoretical and experimental dispersion results. Calculated wave forms for the surface wave due to a pulsed line source on the surface of the film are reported.

  17. Mixing in astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, Christopher Lee

    2011-01-07

    Turbulent mixing plays a vital role in many fields in astronomy. Here I review a few of these sites, discuss the importance of this turbulent mixing and the techniques used by astrophysicists to solve these problems.

  18. Mixing in explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-12-01

    Explosions always contain embedded turbulent mixing regions, for example: boundary layers, shear layers, wall jets, and unstable interfaces. Described here is one particular example of the latter, namely, the turbulent mixing occurring in the fireball of an HE-driven blast wave. The evolution of the turbulent mixing was studied via two-dimensional numerical simulations of the convective mixing processes on an adaptive mesh. Vorticity was generated on the fireball interface by baroclinic effects. The interface was unstable, and rapidly evolved into a turbulent mixing layer. Four phases of mixing were observed: (1) a strong blast wave phase; (2) and implosion phase; (3) a reshocking phase; and (4) an asymptotic mixing phase. The flowfield was azimuthally averaged to evaluate the mean and r.m.s. fluctuation profiles across the mixing layer. The vorticity decayed due to a cascade process. This caused the corresponding enstrophy parameter to increase linearly with time -- in agreement with homogeneous turbulence calculations of G.K. Batchelor.

  19. Mixed methods research.

    PubMed

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Hickman, Louise

    2015-04-08

    Mixed methods research involves the use of qualitative and quantitative data in a single research project. It represents an alternative methodological approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which enables nurse researchers to explore complex phenomena in detail. This article provides a practical overview of mixed methods research and its application in nursing, to guide the novice researcher considering a mixed methods research project.

  20. Reversible collapse of insoluble monolayers: new insights on the influence of the anisotropic line tension of the domain.

    PubMed

    González-Delgado, Antonio M; Pérez-Morales, Marta; Giner-Casares, Juan J; Muñoz, Eulogia; Martín-Romero, María T; Camacho, Luis

    2009-10-08

    In this paper, we study the collapse of a mixed insoluble monolayer formed by a cationic matrix, dioctadecyl-dimethylammonium bromide (DOMA), and a tetra-anionic porphyrin, tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (TSPP), in a molar ratio TSPP/DOMA = 1:4. During the collapse of this system, we visualized the formation of circular domains consisting exclusively of trilayer, although the domains coalescence was not observed. The coexistence of trilayer and monolayer at the final step of the collapse cannot be interpreted exclusively in terms of a thermodynamic phase equilibrium, intervening as an additional factor the anisotropic line tension of the domain. A high line tension implies a high resistance to the domain deformation, and the anisotropy of the line tension implies the lack of coalescence between these domains, which has been experimentally observed by Brewster angle microscopy for us. Under these circumstances, the domains of collapsed material could enclose monolayer regions where the local surface pressure drops thus stopping the collapse process. The collapse of the TSPP/DOMA system is reversible, that is, the return of the three-dimensional material to the monolayer fits into a simple kinetics according to the nucleation-growth-collision theory. As for the collapse, the reverse process is also affected by the line tension of the domains. This paper relates the high line tension and the anisotropic line tension of a given domains with the reversible nature of the collapse process.

  1. Formation of anisotropic Tl-1212, Tl-2212, Tl-1223 and Tl-2223 particles using aerosol flow reacted powders

    SciTech Connect

    Paranthaman, M.; Goyal, A.; Heatherly, D.E.; Kroeger, D.M.

    1994-12-31

    Highly anisotropic particles of Tl-1212, Tl-2212, Tl-1223 and Tl-2223 superconductors were grown. The Tl-free precursor powders with the compositions Ba{sub 1}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}Ag{sub 0.37}O{sub 6} and Ba{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}Ag{sub 0.37}O{sub 7} were prepared using an aerosol flow reactor. These precursor powders were then post-annealed in 0.1 atm oxygen at 700 C for 4h to reduce the carbon present and mixed with Tl{sub 2}O{sub 3} (typical composition of Tl{sub x}; x = 0.6--1.0). The Tl-containing powders were heated in sealed gold tubes between 650--890 C for various times. X-ray diffraction showed that the Tl-2212 and Tl-2223 phases were stable over a wide range of temperatures. Scanning electron microscopy showed evidence for the presence of high aspect-ratio particles. These highly anisotropic particles may be of interest for the preparation of powder-in-tube and other powder deposited conductors, for current leads, and for grain alignment studies.

  2. Low-Profile UHF Antenna Design Based on an Anisotropic Transverse Resonance Condition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    Low-Profile UHF Antenna Design Based on an Anisotropic Transverse Resonance Condition by Gregory Mitchell and Wasyl Wasylkiwskyj ARL-TR...2014 Low-Profile UHF Antenna Design Based on an Anisotropic Transverse Resonance Condition Gregory Mitchell and Wasyl Wasylkiwskyj Sensors...DATES COVERED (From - To) 01/2014–06/2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Low-Profile UHF Antenna Design Based on an Anisotropic Transverse Resonance

  3. Field Evaluation of the ICT Malaria P.f/P.v Immunochromatographic Test for Detection of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in Patients with a Presumptive Clinical Diagnosis of Malaria in Eastern Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Tjitra, Emiliana; Suprianto, Sri; Dyer, Mary; Currie, Bart J.; Anstey, Nicholas M.

    1999-01-01

    In areas such as eastern Indonesia where both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax occur, rapid antigen detection tests for malaria need to be able to detect both species. We evaluated the new combined P. falciparum-P. vivax immunochromatographic test (ICT Malaria P.f/P.v.) in Radamata Primary Health Centre, Sumba, Indonesia, from February to May 1998 with 560 symptomatic adults and children with a presumptive clinical diagnosis of malaria. Blinded microscopy was used as the “gold standard,” with all discordant and 20% of concordant results cross-checked blindly. Only 50% of those with a presumptive clinical diagnosis of malaria were parasitemic. The ICT Malaria P.f/P.v immunochromatographic test was sensitive (95.5%) and specific (89.8%) for the diagnosis of falciparum malaria, with a positive predictive value (PPV) and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 88.1 and 96.2%, respectively. HRP2 and panmalarial antigen line intensities were associated with parasitemia density for both species. Although the specificity and NPV for the diagnosis of vivax malaria were 94.8 and 98.2%, respectively, the overall sensitivity (75%) and PPV (50%) for the diagnosis of vivax malaria were less than the desirable levels. The sensitivity for the diagnosis of P. vivax malaria was 96% with parasitemias of >500/μl but only 29% with parasitemias of <500/μl. Nevertheless, compared with the test with HRP2 alone, use of the combined antigen detection test would reduce the rate of undertreatment from 14.7 to 3.6% for microscopy-positive patients, and this would be at the expense of only a modest increase in the rate of overtreatment of microscopy-negative patients from 7.1 to 15.4%. Cost remains a major obstacle to widespread use in areas of endemicity. PMID:10405377

  4. Field evaluation of the ICT malaria P.f/P.v immunochromatographic test for detection of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in patients with a presumptive clinical diagnosis of malaria in eastern Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Tjitra, E; Suprianto, S; Dyer, M; Currie, B J; Anstey, N M

    1999-08-01

    In areas such as eastern Indonesia where both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax occur, rapid antigen detection tests for malaria need to be able to detect both species. We evaluated the new combined P. falciparum-P. vivax immunochromatographic test (ICT Malaria P.f/P.v.) in Radamata Primary Health Centre, Sumba, Indonesia, from February to May 1998 with 560 symptomatic adults and children with a presumptive clinical diagnosis of malaria. Blinded microscopy was used as the "gold standard," with all discordant and 20% of concordant results cross-checked blindly. Only 50% of those with a presumptive clinical diagnosis of malaria were parasitemic. The ICT Malaria P.f/P.v immunochromatographic test was sensitive (95. 5%) and specific (89.8%) for the diagnosis of falciparum malaria, with a positive predictive value (PPV) and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 88.1 and 96.2%, respectively. HRP2 and panmalarial antigen line intensities were associated with parasitemia density for both species. Although the specificity and NPV for the diagnosis of vivax malaria were 94.8 and 98.2%, respectively, the overall sensitivity (75%) and PPV (50%) for the diagnosis of vivax malaria were less than the desirable levels. The sensitivity for the diagnosis of P. vivax malaria was 96% with parasitemias of >500/microl but only 29% with parasitemias of <500/microl. Nevertheless, compared with the test with HRP2 alone, use of the combined antigen detection test would reduce the rate of undertreatment from 14.7 to 3.6% for microscopy-positive patients, and this would be at the expense of only a modest increase in the rate of overtreatment of microscopy-negative patients from 7.1 to 15. 4%. Cost remains a major obstacle to widespread use in areas of endemicity.

  5. The FN method for anisotropic scattering in neutron transport theory: the critical slab problem.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gülecyüz, M. C.; Tezcan, C.

    1996-08-01

    The FN method which has been applied to many physical problems for isotropic and anisotropic scattering in neutron transport theory is extended for problems for extremely anisotropic scattering. This method depends on the Placzek lemma and the use of the infinite medium Green's function. Here the Green's function for extremely anisotropic scattering which was expressed as a combination of the Green's functions for isotropic scattering is used to solve the critical slab problem. It is shown that the criticality condition is in agreement with the one obtained previously by reducing the transport equation for anisotropic scattering to isotropic scattering and solving using the FN method.

  6. Propagation of partially coherent twisted anisotropic Gaussian Schell-model beams in dispersive and absorbing media.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yangjian; Lin, Qiang; Ge, Di

    2002-10-01

    By adopting a new tensor method, we derived an analytical propagation formula for the cross-spectral density of partially coherent twisted anisotropic Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beams through dispersive and absorbing media. Using the derived formula, we studied the evolution properties and spectrum properties of twisted anisotropic GSM beams in dispersive and absorbing media. The results show that the dispersive and absorbing media have strong influences on the propagation properties of twisted anisotropic GSM beams and their spectrum evolution. Our method provides a simple and convenient way to study the propagation of twisted anisotropic GSM beams in media with complex refractive index.

  7. The Initial State of a Primordial Anisotropic Stage of Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Minamitsuji, Masato

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the possibility that the inflationary period in the early universe was preceded by a primordial stage of strong anisotropy. In particular we focus on the simplest model of this kind, where the spacetime is described by a non-singular Kasner solution that quickly evolves into an isotropic de Sitter space, the so-called Kasner-de Sitter solution. The initial Big Bang singularity is replaced, in this case, by a horizon. We show that the extension of this metric to the region behind the horizon contains a timelike singularity which will be visible by cosmological observers. This makes it impossible to have a reliable prediction of the quantum state of the cosmological perturbations in the region of interest. In this paper we consider the possibility that this Kasner-de Sitter universe is obtained as a result of a quantum tunneling process effectively substituting the region behind the horizon by an anisotropic parent vacuum state, namely a 1+1 dimensional spacetime compactified over an internal flat torus, T2, which we take it to be of the form de Sitter2 × T2 or Minkowski2 × T2. As a first approximation to understand the effects of this anisotropic initial state, we compute the power spectrum of a massless scalar field in these backgrounds. In both cases, the spectrum converges at small scales to the isotropic scale invariant form and only present important deviations from it at the largest possible scales. We find that the decompactification scenario from M2 × T2 leads to a suppressed and slightly anisotropic power spectrum at large scales which could be related to some of the anomalies present in the current CMB data. On the other hand, the spectrum of the universe with a dS2 × T2 parent vacuum presents an enhancement in power at large scales not consistent with observations.

  8. Numerical modeling of anisotropic fiber bundle behavior in oxygenators.

    PubMed

    Bhavsar, Sonya S; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2011-11-01

    Prediction of flow patterns through oxygenator fiber bundles can allow shape optimization so that efficient gas exchange occurs with minimal thrombus formation and hemolysis. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations can be used to predict three-dimensional flow velocities and flow distribution from spatially dependent variables and they allow estimations of erythrocyte residence time within the fiber bundle. This study builds upon previous work to develop an accurate numerical model for oxygenators, which would allow for accelerated iterations in oxygenator shape and diffuser plate design optimization. Hollow fiber flow channels were developed to permit experimental calculation of fluid permeability in two directions: main flow along the hollow fiber and perpendicular to the hollow fibers. Commercial software was used to develop three-dimensional CFD models of the experimental flow channels and an anisotropic porous media model for oxygenators from these experimental results. The oxygenator model was used to predict pressure loss throughout the device, visualize blood distribution within the fiber bundle, and estimate erythrocyte residence time within the bundle. Experimental flow channels measurements produced a streamwise permeability of 1.143e(-8) m(2) and transverse permeability of 2.385e(-9) m(2) . These permeabilities, coupled with previous work with volume porosity, were used to develop the numerical model of anisotropic behavior through porous fiber bundles, which indicated a more uniform flow field throughout the oxygenator. Incorporation of known anisotropic fiber bundle behavior in previous numerical models more accurately represents fluid behavior through an oxygenator fiber bundle. CFD coupled with experimental validation can produce a powerful tool for oxygenator design and development.

  9. Stability of the anisotropically inflating Bianchi type VI expanding solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, W. F.; Lin, Ing-Chen

    2011-03-15

    A special class of the Bianchi type VI expanding solutions was speculated to break the cosmic no-hair theorem that will not approach the late-time de Sitter solution. We will show that an unstable mode always exists when the perturbation of the field equations is applied to the system. In addition to a model-independent perturbation formula, a simplification is also achieved by the introduction of a {delta}R=0 solution good for quadratic models in all Bianchi spaces. The result shows that this special class of anisotropically expanding solutions is unstable.

  10. Exact anisotropic viscous fluid solutions of Einstein's equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goenner, H. F. M.; Kowalewski, F.

    1989-05-01

    A method for obtaining anisotropic, rotationless viscous fluid matter solutions of Bianchi type I and Segré type [1, 111] with the barotropic equation of state is presented. Solutions for which the anisotropy decreases exponentially or with a power law as well as solutions with average Hubble parameterH ˜t -1 are discussed. Also, a class of solutions with constant anisotropy and Bianchi type VIh is found. The dominant energy condition holds and the transport coefficients show the right sign.

  11. Collision statistics for random flights with anisotropic scattering and absorption.

    PubMed

    Zoia, A; Dumonteil, E; Mazzolo, A

    2011-12-01

    For a broad class of random walks with anisotropic scattering kernels and absorption, we derive explicit formulas that allow expressing the moments of the collision number n(V) performed in a volume V as a function of the particle equilibrium distribution. Our results apply to arbitrary domains V and boundary conditions, and allow assessing the hitting statistics for systems where the typical displacements are comparable to the domain size, so that the diffusion limit is possibly not attained. An example is discussed for one-dimensional random flights with exponential displacements, where analytical calculations can be carried out.

  12. Anisotropic etching of Al by a directed Cl2 flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Efremow, N. N.; Geis, M. W.; Mountain, R. W.; Lincoln, G. A.; Randall, J. N.

    1986-01-01

    A new Al etching technique is described that uses an ion beam from a Kaufman ion source and a directed Cl2 flux. The ion beam is used primarily to remove the native oxide and to allow the Cl2 to spontaneously react with the Al film forming volatile Al2Cl6. By controlling both the flux equivalent pressure of Cl2 and the ion beam current, this etching technique makes possible the anisotropic etching of Al with etch rates from 100 nm/min to nearly 10 microns/min with a high degree of selectivity.

  13. Forward and Backward Precession of a Vertical Anisotropically Supported Rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muszynska, A.

    1996-04-01

    This paper presents the analytical and experimental study of a vertical, overhung imbalanced rotor supported by flexible, anisotropic bearings. The results show that existence of imbalance and shaft bow causes the synchronous forced precession of the rotor to be forward (below the first value of split balance resonance and above the second value of the split balance resonance) or backward (between the two values of the split resonance). This phenomenon is classical. The new result consists of exploring the existence of forward precession of the inboard and midspan rotor sections while the outboard disk is precessing backward. The sensitivity analysis shows which system parameters are mainly responsible for this apparently bizarre phenomenon.

  14. Anisotropic molecular hopping at the solid-nematic interface.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Saonti; Nelson, Nathaniel; Schwartz, Daniel K

    2015-10-21

    Single molecule tracking was used to observe intermittent and anisotropic molecular motion at the solid-nematic interface. Although the interfacial diffusion was dramatically slower than self-diffusion in the nematic, the diffusion anisotropy was the same at the interface and in bulk, supporting the desorption-mediated mechanism of interfacial diffusion, where molecules sample the physical properties of the vicinal fluid phase during flights, and the magnitude of the interfacial diffusion coefficient is primarily determined by the distribution of waiting times between flights.

  15. Optical ptychographic microscopy for quantitative anisotropic phase imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, N.; Cadenazzi, G.; Nugent, K. A.; Abbey, B.

    2016-12-01

    Ptychography has recently been adapted for the recovery of the complete Jones matrix of an anisotropic specimen, using a vectorial form of the Ptychographic Iterative Engine (vPIE) for a set of linearly polarized probes. Here we show that this method can be applied to the recovery of the in-plane components of the elastic strain tensor in a diametrically compressed disc. The advantages and disadvantages of vPIE for the recovery of strain information from `real-world' samples is discussed as well as the potential for this approach to be applied to the characterization of the mechanical properties of optically transparent materials

  16. Truncated Connectivities in a Highly Supercritical Anisotropic Percolation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couto, Rodrigo G.; de Lima, Bernardo N. B.; Sanchis, Rémy

    2013-12-01

    We consider an anisotropic bond percolation model on , with p=( p h , p v )∈[0,1]2, p v > p h , and declare each horizontal (respectively vertical) edge of to be open with probability p h (respectively p v ), and otherwise closed, independently of all other edges. Let with 0< x 1< x 2, and . It is natural to ask how the two point connectivity function behaves, and whether anisotropy in percolation probabilities implies the strict inequality . In this note we give an affirmative answer in the highly supercritical regime.

  17. Theory of anisotropic whispering-gallery-mode resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Ornigotti, Marco

    2011-07-15

    An analytic solution for a uniaxial spherical resonator is presented using the method of Debye potentials. This serves as a starting point for the calculation of whispering gallery modes (WGMs) in such a resonator. Suitable approximations for the radial functions are discussed in order to best characterize WGMs. The characteristic equation and its asymptotic expansion for the anisotropic case is also discussed, and an analytic formula with a precision of the order O[{nu}{sup -1}] is also given. Our careful treatment of both boundary conditions and asymptotic expansions makes the present work a particularly suitable platform for a quantum theory of whispering gallery resonators.

  18. Mean first-passage time of an anisotropic diffusive searcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levernier, N.; Bénichou, O.; Voituriez, R.

    2017-01-01

    We consider an anisotropic needle-like Brownian particle with nematic symmetry confined in a 2D domain. For this system, the coupling of translational and rotational diffusion makes the process \\mathbf{x}(t) of the positions of the particle non Markovian. Using scaling arguments, a Gaussian approximation and numerical methods, we determine the mean first passage time < \\mathbf{T}> of the particle to a target of radius a and show in particular that < \\mathbf{T}> ∼ {{a}-1/2} for a\\to 0 , in contrast with the classical logarithmic divergence obtained in the case of an isotropic 2D Brownian particle.

  19. Simulations of slow bars in anisotropic disk systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. A.; Sotnikova, N. Ya.; Koshkin, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    The instability of anisotropic disk systems with elongated stellar orbits has been investigated. N-body generalized polytropic models of stellar disks have been constructed. They are shown to be unstable with respect to the bar formation at any degree of anisotropy. This result differs from the results of the studies of such models by other authors. The bar pattern speed and amplitude have been found. The initial distribution of precession rates and the adiabatic invariants of stellar orbits have been calculated. A bar is shown to be formed in such systems due to the radial orbit instability.

  20. Anisotropic alpha emission from on-line separated isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Wouters, J.; Vandeplassche, D.; van Walle, E.; Severijns, N.; Vanneste, L.

    1986-05-05

    A systematic on-line nuclear-orientation study of heavy isotopes using anisotropic ..cap alpha.. emission is reported for the first time. The anisotrophies recorded for /sup 199/At, /sup 201/At, and /sup 203/At are remarkably pronounced and strongly varying. At lower neutron number the ..cap alpha.. particles are more preferentially emitted perpendicularly to the nuclear-spin direction. This may be interpreted in terms of the high sensitivity of the ..cap alpha..-emission probability to changes in the nuclear shape.

  1. On the drift magnetosonic waves in anisotropic low beta plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Naim, Hafsa; Bashir, M. F.; Murtaza, G.

    2014-10-15

    A generalized dispersion relation of obliquely propagating drift magnetosonic waves is derived by using the gyrokinetic theory for anisotropic low beta plasmas. The stability analysis applicable to a wide range of plasma parameters is performed to understand the stabilization mechanism of the drift magnetosonic instability and the estimation of the growth rate is also presented. It is noted that the growth rate of the drift instability enhances for small anisotropy (A{sub e,i} = T{sub ⊥e,i}/T{sub ∥e,i} < 1) whereas it is suppressed for large anisotropy (A{sub e,i} > 1)

  2. Determination of the hydrodynamic friction matrix for various anisotropic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Daniela; Wittkowksi, Raphael; Löwen, Hartmut; Pine, David

    2013-03-01

    The relationship between the shape of a colloidal particle and its Brownian motion can be captured by the hydrodynamic friction matrix. It fully describes the translational and rotational diffusion along the particle's main axes as well as the coupling between rotational and translational diffusion. We observed a wide variety of anisotropic colloidal particles with confocal microscopy and calculated the hydrodynamic friction matrix from the particle trajectories. We find that symmetries in the particle shape are reflected in the entries of the friction matrix. We compare our experimentally obtained results with numerical simulations and theoretical predictions. Financial support through a Rubicon grant by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research.

  3. Angular dependence of anisotropic magnetoresistance in magnetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Steven S.-L.; Zhang, Shufeng

    2014-05-01

    Anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR), whose physical origin is attributed to the combination of spin dependent scattering and spin orbital coupling (SOC), usually displays simple angular dependence for polycrystalline ferromagnetic metals. By including generic spin dependent scattering and spin Hall (SH) terms in the Ohm's law, we explicitly show that various magneto-transport phenomena such as anomalous Hall (AH), SH, planar Hall (PH) and AMR could be quantitatively related for bulk polycrystalline ferromagnetic metals. We also discuss how AMR angular dependence is affected by the presence of interfacial SOC in magnetic layered structure.

  4. Anisotropic Expansion of a Thermal Dipolar Bose Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y.; Sykes, A. G.; Burdick, N. Q.; DiSciacca, J. M.; Petrov, D. S.; Lev, B. L.

    2016-10-01

    We report on the anisotropic expansion of ultracold bosonic dysprosium gases at temperatures above quantum degeneracy and develop a quantitative theory to describe this behavior. The theory expresses the postexpansion aspect ratio in terms of temperature and microscopic collisional properties by incorporating Hartree-Fock mean-field interactions, hydrodynamic effects, and Bose-enhancement factors. Our results extend the utility of expansion imaging by providing accurate thermometry for dipolar thermal Bose gases. Furthermore, we present a simple method to determine scattering lengths in dipolar gases, including near a Feshbach resonance, through observation of thermal gas expansion.

  5. Strongly anisotropic wetting on one-dimensional nanopatterned surfaces.

    PubMed

    Xia, Deying; Brueck, S R J

    2008-09-01

    This communication reports strongly anisotropic wetting behavior on one-dimensional nanopatterned surfaces. Contact angles, degree of anisotropy, and droplet distortion are measured on micro- and nanopatterned surfaces fabricated with interference lithography. Both the degree of anisotropy and the droplet distortion are extremely high as compared with previous reports because of the well-defined nanostructural morphology. The surface is manipulated to tune with the wetting from hydrophobic to hydrophilic while retaining the structural wetting anisotropy with a simple silica nanoparticle overcoat. The wetting mechanisms are discussed. Potential applications in microfluidic devices and evaporation-induced pattern formation are demonstrated.

  6. Barkhausen avalanches in anisotropic ferromagnets with 180 degrees domain walls

    PubMed

    Tadic; Nowak

    2000-04-01

    We show that Barkhausen noise in two-dimensional disordered ferromagnets with extended domain walls is characterized by the avalanche size exponent tau(s)=1.54 at low disorder. With increasing disorder the characteristic domain size is reduced relative to the system size due to nucleation of new domains and a dynamic phase transition occurs to the scaling behavior with tau(s)=1.30. The exponents decrease at finite driving rate. The results agree with recently observed behavior in amorphous Metglas and Fe-Co-B ribbons when the applied anisotropic stress is varied.

  7. Spin Relaxation in Kondo Lattice Systems with Anisotropic Kondo Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, S. I.; Kutuzov, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    We study the influence of the Kondo effect on the spin relaxation in systems with anisotropic Kondo interaction at temperatures both high and low as compared with the static magnetic field. In the absence of the Kondo effect, the electron spin resonance linewidth is not narrowed in the whole temperature range due to the high anisotropy of the Kondo interaction. The Kondo effect leads to the universal energy scale, which regulates the temperature and magnetic field dependence of different kinetic coefficients and results in a mutual cancelation of their singular parts in a collective spin mode.

  8. Bottomonia suppression in an anisotropic quark-gluon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryblewski, Radoslaw

    2017-03-01

    A brief review of recent studies on suppression of bottomonia in an anisotropic quark-gluon plasma created in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC is presented. A reasonable agreement between the model predictions for the inclusive RAA suppression factor and the preliminary CMS experimental data is found. The values of the shear viscosity to the entropy density ratio extracted from the comparison with the data lie between one and two times the gauge/gravity duality lower bound. These values agree very well with the fluid dynamical fits to the light hadron correlation data and confirm that the quark-gluon plasma is a nearly-perfect fluid.

  9. Ferroelectric control of anisotropic damping in multiferroic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Ning; Berakdar, Jamal; Jia, Chenglong

    2015-10-01

    The magnetoelectric effect on nonlocal magnetization dynamics is theoretically investigated in normal-metal/ferroelectric-insulator/ferromagnetic tunnel junctions. In addition to the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI) originating from loss of parity symmetry at the interfaces, the topology of interfacial spiral spins triggered by ferroelectric polarization acts with an effective SOI that is electrically controllable. These spin-dependent interactions result in an anisotropic Gilbert damping with C2 v symmetry. The findings are of a direct relevance for the utilization of composite multiferroics for devices that rely on electrically controlled magnetic switching.

  10. Anisotropic inflation with non-abelian gauge kinetic function

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, Keiju; Soda, Jiro E-mail: jiro@tap.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2011-06-01

    We study an anisotropic inflation model with a gauge kinetic function for a non-abelian gauge field. We find that, in contrast to abelian models, the anisotropy can be either a prolate or an oblate type, which could lead to a different prediction from abelian models for the statistical anisotropy in the power spectrum of cosmological fluctuations. During a reheating phase, we find chaotic behaviour of the non-abelian gauge field which is caused by the nonlinear self-coupling of the gauge field. We compute a Lyapunov exponent of the chaos which turns out to be uncorrelated with the anisotropy.

  11. Anisotropic Expansion of a Thermal Dipolar Bose Gas.

    PubMed

    Tang, Y; Sykes, A G; Burdick, N Q; DiSciacca, J M; Petrov, D S; Lev, B L

    2016-10-07

    We report on the anisotropic expansion of ultracold bosonic dysprosium gases at temperatures above quantum degeneracy and develop a quantitative theory to describe this behavior. The theory expresses the postexpansion aspect ratio in terms of temperature and microscopic collisional properties by incorporating Hartree-Fock mean-field interactions, hydrodynamic effects, and Bose-enhancement factors. Our results extend the utility of expansion imaging by providing accurate thermometry for dipolar thermal Bose gases. Furthermore, we present a simple method to determine scattering lengths in dipolar gases, including near a Feshbach resonance, through observation of thermal gas expansion.

  12. Classical and semirelativistic magnetohydrodynamics with anisotropic ion pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xing; Tóth, Gábor; Sokolov, Igor V.; Gombosi, Tamas I.

    2012-05-01

    We study the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations with anisotropic ion pressure and isotropic electron pressure under both the classical and semirelativistic approximations in order to develop a numerical model. The dispersion relation as well as the characteristic wave speeds are derived. In addition to the exact wave speed solutions, we also provide efficient approximate formulas for the semirelativistic magnetosonic speeds. The equations are discretized with the Rusanov and Harten-Lax-van Leer numerical schemes and implemented into the BATS-R-US MHD code. We perform a set of verification tests.

  13. Interface modes at step edges of media with anisotropic dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toedt, Jan-Niklas; Mansfeld, Sebastian; Mellem, Daniel; Hansen, Wolfgang; Heitmann, Detlef; Mendach, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy data are presented that illustrate the refraction and total reflection of spin waves in a Ni80Fe20 film at a film-thickness step. In our experiments spin waves are excited with microwaves on coplanar wave guides. By changing the orientation of an externally applied magnetic field, we can manipulate the group velocity of the wave and hence control the angle of incidence on the step. An interface mode bound at the step is observed, when the magnetic field vector is perpendicular to the step. We point out the general conditions under which such interface modes can be expected in media with strongly anisotropic dispersion.

  14. An anisotropic subgrid stress model for high aspect ratio grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Robert; Haering, Sigfried

    2016-11-01

    Standard algebraic eddy viscosity subgrid stress models are formulated based on scalar measures of the local grid, and implicitly assume that the resolution is isotropic. However, complex simulation domains and computational costs associated with problems of engineering interest often necessitate grids with high aspect ratio cells. We present an anisotropic extension of Metias and Lesieur's structure function subgrid stress model. Unlike existing algebraic SGS models, this model is constructed directly through the composition of resolution and resolved turbulence anisotropy. Comparisons with filtered DNS of forced isotropic homogeneous turbulence show the model to significantly outperform general isotropic SGS models with increasing resolution anisotropy.

  15. Creep Behavior of Anisotropic Functionally Graded Rotating Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rattan, Minto; Chamoli, Neeraj; Singh, Satya Bir; Gupta, Nishi

    2013-08-01

    The creep behavior of an anisotropic rotating disc of functionally gradient material (FGM) has been investigated in the present study using Hill's yield criteria and the creep behavior in this case is assumed to follow Sherby's constitutive model. The stress and strain rate distributions are calculated for disc having different types of anisotropy and the results obtained are compared graphically. It is concluded that the anisotropy of the material has a significant effect on the creep behavior of the FGM disc. It is also observed that the FGM disc shows better creep behavior than the non-FGM disc.

  16. Anisotropic phantom to calibrate high-q diffusion MRI methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komlosh, M. E.; Benjamini, D.; Barnett, A. S.; Schram, V.; Horkay, F.; Avram, A. V.; Basser, P. J.

    2017-02-01

    A silicon oil-filled glass capillary array is proposed as an anisotropic diffusion MRI phantom. Together with a computational/theoretical pipeline these provide a gold standard for calibrating and validating high-q diffusion MRI experiments. The phantom was used to test high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) and double pulsed-field gradient (d-PFG) MRI acquisition schemes. MRI-based predictions of microcapillary diameter using both acquisition schemes were compared with results from optical microscopy. This phantom design can be used for quality control and quality assurance purposes and for testing and validating proposed microstructure imaging experiments and the processing pipelines used to analyze them.

  17. Two-flavor QCD thermodynamics using anisotropic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levkova, Ludmila; Manke, Thomas; Mawhinney, Robert

    2006-04-01

    Numerical simulations of full QCD on anisotropic lattices provide a convenient way to study QCD thermodynamics with fixed physics scales and reduced lattice spacing errors. We report results from calculations with two flavors of dynamical staggered fermions, where all bare parameters and the renormalized anisotropy are kept constant and the temperature is changed in small steps by varying only the number of time slices. Including results from zero-temperature scale-setting simulations, which determine the Karsch coefficients, allows for the calculation of the equation of state at finite temperatures.

  18. Anisotropic Phases of Superfluid 3He in Compressed Aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. I. A.; Zimmerman, A. M.; Pollanen, J.; Collett, C. A.; Halperin, W. P.

    2015-03-01

    It has been shown that the relative stabilities of various superfluid states of 3He can be influenced by anisotropy in a silica aerogel framework. We prepared a suite of aerogel samples compressed up to 30% for which we performed pulsed NMR on 3He imbibed within the aerogel. We identified A and B phases and determined their magnetic field-temperature phase diagrams as a function of strain. From these results, we infer that the B phase is distorted by negative strain forming an anisotropic superfluid state more stable than the A phase.

  19. Channeling of Branched Flow in Weakly Scattering Anisotropic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degueldre, Henri; Metzger, Jakob J.; Schultheis, Erik; Fleischmann, Ragnar

    2017-01-01

    When waves propagate through weakly scattering but correlated, disordered environments they are randomly focused into pronounced branchlike structures, a phenomenon referred to as branched flow, which has been studied in a wide range of isotropic random media. In many natural environments, however, the fluctuations of the random medium typically show pronounced anisotropies. A prominent example is the focusing of tsunami waves by the anisotropic structure of the ocean floor topography. We study the influence of anisotropy on such natural focusing events and find a strong and nonintuitive dependence on the propagation angle which we explain by semiclassical theory.

  20. Spectroscopy of intraband optical transitions in anisotropic semiconductor nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkov, Vadim K.; Baimuratov, Anvar S.; Rukhlenko, Ivan D.; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.

    2013-09-01

    We propose a new type of optical spectroscopy of anisotropic semiconductor nanocrystals, which is based on the welldeveloped stationary pump-probe technique, where the pump and probe fields are absorbed upon, respectively, interband and intraband transitions of the nanocrystals' electronic subsystem. We develop a general theory of intraband absorption based on the density matrix formalism. This theory can be applied to study degenerate eigenstates of electrons in semiconductor nanocrystals of different shapes and dimentions. We demonstrate that the angular dependence of intraband absorption by nonspherical nanocrystals enables investigating their shape and orientation, as well as the symmetry of quantum states excited by the probe field and selection rules of electronic transitions.

  1. Angular dependence of anisotropic magnetoresistance in magnetic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Steven S.-L. Zhang, Shufeng

    2014-05-07

    Anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR), whose physical origin is attributed to the combination of spin dependent scattering and spin orbital coupling (SOC), usually displays simple angular dependence for polycrystalline ferromagnetic metals. By including generic spin dependent scattering and spin Hall (SH) terms in the Ohm's law, we explicitly show that various magneto-transport phenomena such as anomalous Hall (AH), SH, planar Hall (PH) and AMR could be quantitatively related for bulk polycrystalline ferromagnetic metals. We also discuss how AMR angular dependence is affected by the presence of interfacial SOC in magnetic layered structure.

  2. Diffusion and multiple anisotropic scattering for global illumination in clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N L; Schussman, G; Miyazaki, R; Iwasaki, K; Nishita, T

    2003-10-14

    The diffusion method is a good approximation inside the dense core of a cloud, but not at the more tenuous boundary regions. Also, it breaks down in regions where the density of scattering droplets is zero. We have enhanced it by using hardware cell projection volume rendering at cloud border voxels to account for the straight line light transport across these empty regions. We have also used this hardware volume rendering at key voxels in the low-density boundary regions to account for the multiple anisotropic scattering of the environment.

  3. Chemical phase analysis of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Bharti, Amardeep Goyal, Navdeep; Singh, Suman; Singla, M. L.

    2015-08-28

    Noble-metal nanoparticles are of great interest because of its broad applications almost in every stream (i.e. biology, chemistry and engineering) due to their unique size/shape dependant properties. In this paper, chemical phase of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) has been investigated via fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). These nanaoparticles were synthesized by seed-growth method controlled by urea and dextrose results to highly stable 12-20 nm particle size revealed by zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

  4. Shearing expansion-free spherical anisotropic fluid evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, L.; Santos, N. O.; Wang Anzhong

    2008-10-15

    Spherically symmetric expansion-free distributions are systematically studied. The entire set of field equations and junction conditions are presented for a general distribution of dissipative anisotropic fluid (principal stresses unequal), and the expansion-free condition is integrated. In order to understand the physical meaning of expansion-free motion, two different definitions for the radial velocity of a fluid element are discussed. It is shown that the appearance of a cavity is inevitable in the expansion-free evolution. The nondissipative case is considered in detail, and the Skripkin model is recovered.

  5. Anisotropic Scaling and Generalized Conformal Invariance at Lifshitz Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleimling, Michel; Henkel, Malte

    2001-09-01

    The behaviour of the 3D axial next-nearest-neighbor Ising model at the uniaxial Lifshitz point is studied using Monte Carlo techniques. A new variant of the Wolff cluster algorithm permits the analysis of systems far larger than in previous studies. The Lifshitz point critical exponents are α = 0.18(2), β = 0.238(5), and γ = 1.36(3). Data for the spin-spin correlation function are shown to be consistent with the explicit scaling function derived from the assumption of local scale invariance, which is a generalization of conformal invariance to the anisotropic scaling at the Lifshitz point.

  6. Anisotropic scaling and generalized conformal invariance at Lifshitz points.

    PubMed

    Pleimling, M; Henkel, M

    2001-09-17

    The behaviour of the 3D axial next-nearest-neighbor Ising model at the uniaxial Lifshitz point is studied using Monte Carlo techniques. A new variant of the Wolff cluster algorithm permits the analysis of systems far larger than in previous studies. The Lifshitz point critical exponents are alpha = 0.18(2), beta = 0.238(5), and gamma = 1.36(3). Data for the spin-spin correlation function are shown to be consistent with the explicit scaling function derived from the assumption of local scale invariance, which is a generalization of conformal invariance to the anisotropic scaling at the Lifshitz point.

  7. First analysis of anisotropic flow with Lee-Yang zeros

    SciTech Connect

    Bastid, N.; Barret, V.; Crochet, P.; Dupieux, P.; Lopez, X.; Basrak, Z.; Caplar, R.; Delalija, M.; Gaspariae, I.; Korolija, M.

    2005-07-01

    We report on the first analysis of directed and elliptic flow with the new method of Lee-Yang zeros. Experimental data are presented for Ru+Ru reactions at 1.69A GeV measured with the FOPI detector at SIS/GSI. The results obtained with several methods, based on the event-plane reconstruction, on Lee-Yang zeros, and on multiparticle cumulants (up to fifth order) applied for the first time at SIS energies, are compared. They show conclusive evidence that azimuthal correlations between nucleons and composite particles at this energy are largely dominated by anisotropic flow.

  8. Dissipative gravitational collapse of an (an)isotropic star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Shyam; Sharma, Ranjan; Paul, Bikash Chandra; Deb, Rumi

    2016-03-01

    We develop a framework to study the effects of pressure anisotropy on the evolution of a collapsing star dissipating energy in the form of radial heat flux. In this construction, the star begins its collapse from an initial static configuration described by Paul and Deb (Astrophys. Space Sci. 354:421, 2014) solution in the presence (or absence) of anisotropic stresses. The form of the initial static solution, which is a generalization of Pant and Sah (Phys. Rev. D 32:1538, 1985) model, complies with all the requirements of a realistic star and provides a simple method to analyze the impacts of anisotropy onto the collapse.

  9. Anisotropic force ellipsoid based multi-axis motion optimization of machine tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Fangyu; Yan, Rong; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jianzhong; Li, Bin

    2012-09-01

    The existing research of the motion optimization of multi-axis machine tools is mainly based on geometric and kinematic constraints, which aim at obtaining minimum-time trajectories and finding obstacle-free paths. In motion optimization, the stiffness characteristics of the whole machining system, including machine tool and cutter, are not considered. The paper presents a new method to establish a general stiffness model of multi-axis machining system. An analytical stiffness model is established by Jacobi and point transformation matrix method. Based on the stiffness model, feed-direction stiffness index is calculated by the intersection of force ellipsoid and the cutting feed direction at the cutter tip. The stiffness index can help analyze the stiffness performance of the whole machining system in the available workspace. Based on the analysis of the stiffness performance, multi-axis motion optimization along tool paths is accomplished by mixed programming using Matlab and Visual C++. The effectiveness of the motion optimization method is verified by the experimental research about the machining performance of a 7-axis 5-linkage machine tool. The proposed research showed that machining stability and production efficiency can be improved by multi-axis motion optimization based on the anisotropic force ellipsoid of the whole machining system.

  10. Spectral element method for band structures of three-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ma; Liu, Qing Huo

    2009-11-01

    A spectral element method (SEM) is introduced for accurate calculation of band structures of three-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystals. The method is based on the finite-element framework with curvilinear hexahedral elements. Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre polynomials are used to construct the basis functions. In order to suppress spurious modes, mixed-order vector basis functions are employed and the Bloch periodic boundary condition is imposed into the basis functions with tangential components at the boundary by multiplying a Bloch phase factor. The fields and coordinates in the curvilinear hexahedral elements are mapped to the reference domain by covariant mapping, which preserves the continuity of tangential components of the field. Numerical results show that the SEM has exponential convergence for both square-lattice and triangular-lattice photonic crystals. The sampling density as small as 3.4 points per wavelength can achieve accuracy as high as 99.9%. The band structures of several modified woodpile photonic crystals are calculated by using the SEM.

  11. Spectral element method for band structures of three-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ma; Liu, Qing Huo

    2009-11-01

    A spectral element method (SEM) is introduced for accurate calculation of band structures of three-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystals. The method is based on the finite-element framework with curvilinear hexahedral elements. Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre polynomials are used to construct the basis functions. In order to suppress spurious modes, mixed-order vector basis functions are employed and the Bloch periodic boundary condition is imposed into the basis functions with tangential components at the boundary by multiplying a Bloch phase factor. The fields and coordinates in the curvilinear hexahedral elements are mapped to the reference domain by covariant mapping, which preserves the continuity of tangential components of the field. Numerical results show that the SEM has exponential convergence for both square-lattice and triangular-lattice photonic crystals. The sampling density as small as 3.4 points per wavelength can achieve accuracy as high as 99.9%. The band structures of several modified woodpile photonic crystals are calculated by using the SEM.

  12. Mixtures of anisotropic and spherical colloids: Phase behavior, confinement, percolation phenomena and kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, T.; Dorosz, S.; Radu, M.; Mathew, M.; Jungblut, S.; Binder, K.

    2013-11-01

    Purely entropic systems such as suspensions of hard rods, platelets and spheres show rich phase behavior. Rods and platelets have successfully been used as models to predict the equilibrium properties of liquid crystals for several decades. Over the past years hard particle models have also been studied in the context of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, in particular regarding the glass transition, jamming, sedimentation and crystallization. Recently suspensions of hard anisotropic particles also moved into the focus of materials scientists who work on conducting soft matter composites. An insulating polymer resin that is mixed with conductive filler particles becomes conductive when the filler percolates. In this context the mathematical topic of connectivity percolation finds an application in modern nano-technology. In this article, we briefly review recent work on the phase behavior, confinement effects, percolation transition and phase transition kinetics in hard particle models. In the first part, we discuss the effects that particle anisotropy and depletion have on the percolation transition. In the second part, we present results on the kinetics of the liquid-to-crystal transition in suspensions of spheres and of ellipsoids.

  13. Investigation of the Barriers of Blocking of Magnetization In Strongly Anisotropic SMM By Ab Initio Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chibotaru, Liviu; Ungur, Liviu

    2012-02-01

    A large amount of data concerning the blocking barriers of reversal of magnetization in various complexes with strongly anisotropic metal ions (Ln^III, Co^II) became recently available. Understanding the mechanisms of formation of these barriers is of primary importance for an efficient design of Ln-based single-molecule magnet (SMM) and represents a challenging task for the theory. Here an ab initio based approach for the investigation of blocking barriers will be presented. The methodology will be applied for the construction of the blocking barriers and the understanding of the variation of SMM properties in the series of mixed 3d-4f trinuclear complexes Co-Ln-Co, Ln=Gd, Tb, Dy. In particular, the reasons for a more pronounced SMM behavior manifested by the gadolinium complex will be elucidated. Another example is a recently synthesized Dy3 complex, for which the origin of magnetization steps in the hysteresis loops will be explained. [4pt] [1] T. Yamaguchi, J.-P. Costes, Y. Kishima, M. Kojima, Y. Sunatsuki, N. Br'efuel, J.-P. Tuchagues, L. Vendier, W. Wernsdorfer Inorg. Chem. 2010, 49, 9125--9135.

  14. An insight into the role of hydraulic history on the volume changes of anisotropic clayey soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Enrique; Jommi, Cristina

    2008-05-01

    Volume changes of natural and compacted soils induced by changes in their water content have many practical implications in the service life of earth dams, river and canal embankments, and waste disposal facilities. An insight into the overall strain response of a clayey soil upon gradual wetting and drying is provided here. Experimental data coming from oedometer and isotropic tests under suction and net stress control are presented for a compacted clay with an initial anisotropic fabric, highlighting the relevant role played by the hydraulic path on collapse, swelling, and shrinkage strains. Irreversible strains could be observed after wetting-drying paths and the subsequent drying-wetting cycle. Both stress and hydraulic histories play a role in the evolution of the directional fabric of clayey soils. The experimental data could be reproduced with a rather simple elastic-plastic constitutive model with a mixed isotropic-rotational hardening, previously conceived for saturated soils. The model is extended to unsaturated conditions by substituting the saturated effective stress with a measure of the average stress acting on the soil skeleton and by introducing generalized hardening rules governed by both plastic strains and degree of saturation. Coupling between the mechanical and the hydraulic behavior is provided by the water retention curve, in which degree of saturation is adopted as a useful measure of the soil water content.

  15. Anisotropic etching of amorphous perfluoropolymer films in oxygen-based inductively coupled plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Takao; Akagi, Takanori; Ichiki, Takanori

    2009-01-01

    An amorphous perfluoropolymer, "Cytop™" (Asahi Glass Co., Ltd.), is a preferable material for the fabrication of micro total analysis system devices because of its superior optical transparency over a wide wavelength range and low refractive index of 1.34, which is almost the same as that of water, as well as excellent chemical stability. To establish the precise microfabrication technology for this unique resin, the dry etching of the amorphous perfluoropolymer in Ar/O2 low-pressure inductively coupled plasma has been studied. A relatively high etch rate of approximately 6.3 μm/min at maximum and highly anisotropic etched features was attained. Plasma measurements by a single Langmuir probe technique and actinometry revealed that etching is dominated by ion-assisted surface desorption above a 10% O2 mixing ratio, whereas the supply of active oxygen species is the rate-limiting process below 10%. Moreover, angled x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements of an etched trench pattern revealed that a high anisotropy is attributed to the formation of a carbon-rich sidewall protection layer.

  16. Prestack seismic data regularization using a time-variant anisotropic Radon transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xiangbo; Yu, Shuang; Wang, Shengchao

    2016-08-01

    The Radon transform (RT) has been widely used in seismic data processing. In this paper, we develop a sparse time-variant anisotropic Radon transform (ART) to regularize and interpolate the prestack seismic data. By introducing the anelliptical parameter η, the ART has a more accurate integral path than other widely used RTs, which produces a better energy-focused Radon panel in the case of a vertical transverse isotropy VTI medium or seismic gather with a large moveout. To promote the sparsity of the Radon panel, the RT is realized as a l 1-l 2 norm inversion problem, and the fast iterative shrinkage thresholding algorithm is imposed to solve this sparsity-constrained inversion problem. Compared with the time-invariant parabolic RT in the mixed frequency-time domain and time-variant hyperbolic RT, the reconstructed result of the ART has the best performance and the least reconstruction error in a general synthetic VTI medium. Another field marine example further demonstrates that the ART is effective and robust for prestack seismic data regularization.

  17. Angular Control of a Hybrid Magnetic Metamolecule Using Anisotropic FeCo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, S. A.; Maple, L. C.; Stenning, G. B. G.; Hesjedal, T.; van der Laan, G.; Bowden, G. J.

    2015-11-01

    By coupling magnetic elements to metamaterials, hybrid metamolecules can be created with useful properties such as photon-magnon mode mixing. Here, we present results for a split-ring resonator (SRR) placed in close proximity to a thin crystalline film of magnetically hard FeCo. Eddy-current shielding is suppressed by patterning the FeCo into 100 -μ m disks. At the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) condition of FeCo, photon-magnon coupling strengths of 5% are observed. Altogether, three distinct features are presented and discussed: (i) remanent magnets allow FMR to be performed in a near-zero field, partially eliminating the need for applied fields; (ii) the anisotropic FMR permits angular control over hybrid SRR and FMR resonances; and (iii) the in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization of FeCo opens the door to "magnetically configurable metamaterials" in real time. Finally, a special study is presented of how best to excite the numerous transverse magnetic and electric modes of the SRR by using near-field excitation from a coplanar waveguide.

  18. Rheology of dense suspensions of shape anisotropic particles designed to show pH-sensitive anisotropic pair potentials.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tianying; Zukoski, Charles F

    2012-09-19

    Here we investigate the flow properties of suspensions of dicolloidal particles composed of interpenetrating spheres where one sphere is rich in polystyrene and the second is rich in poly 2-vinyl pyridine. The synthesis method is designed to create both anisotropic shape and anisotropic interaction potentials that should lead to head to tail clustering. These particles are referred to as copolymer dicolloids (CDCs). The viscoelastic properties of stable and gelled suspensions of CDC particles are compared with analogs composed of homopolymer dicolloids (HDCs), having the same shape but not displaying the anisotropic attractions. After coating the particles with a nonionic surfactant to minimize van der Waals attractions, the flow properties of glassy and gelled suspensions of CDCs and HDCs are studied as a function of volume fraction, ionic strength and pH. Suspensions of HDC particles display a high kinetic arrest volume fraction (φ(g) > 0.5) over a wide range of pH and ionic strength up to [I]=0.5 M, demonstrating that the particles experience repulsive or weakly attractive pair potentials. Suspensions of CDC particles behave in a similar manner at high or low pH when [I]=0.001 M, but gel at a volume fraction of φ(g) < 0.3 and display anomalously large elastic moduli at and above the gel transition point for intermediate pH or for pH=9 when [I]=0.5 M. The gelation processes for the CDC particles are reversible by adjusting the solution pH. Interaction potential anisotropy is evident in the processes, during which the CDC particles yield on increasing oscillatory strain.

  19. Anisotropic magnetostrictive metal-polymer composites for functional devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiseleva, T. Yu.; Zholudev, S. I.; Il'inykh, I. A.; Novakova, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    New metal-polymer composites based on mechanochemically synthesized magnetostrictive Fe-Ga phase particles with dimensions of up to 2 μm dispersed and spatially oriented in a polymer matrix have been studied. The polymer matrix for spatial anisotropic stabilization of particles was represented by modified polyurethane (PU). An increase in the magnetostrictive effect was achieved by directed orientation of particles in a magnetic field applied during polymerization of the PU matrix. The spatial anisotropy of the composite has been studied by the methods of conversion Mössbauer spectroscopy with resonant X-ray detection and scanning electron microscopy. It is shown that the mechanochemical synthesis is an effective method of obtaining particles with microstress-enhanced magnetostriction. The use of these particles for the formation of a functional elastomer composite provides a material with significant magnetostrictive effect, which can be several-fold increased due to orientation of particles in an applied magnetic field. The obtained anisotropic magnetostrictive composite is a promising material for the creation of smart functional components of positioning systems, attenuators, and sensors.

  20. Spin noise in the anisotropic central spin model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackmann, Johannes; Anders, Frithjof B.

    2014-01-01

    Spin-noise measurements can serve as a direct probe for the microscopic decoherence mechanism of an electronic spin in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). We have calculated the spin-noise spectrum in the anisotropic central spin model using a Chebyshev expansion technique which exactly accounts for the dynamics up to an arbitrary long but fixed time in a finite-size system. In the isotropic case, describing QD charge with a single electron, the short-time dynamics is in good agreement with quasistatic approximations for the thermodynamic limit. The spin-noise spectrum, however, shows strong deviations at low frequencies with a power-law behavior of ω-3/4 corresponding to a t-1/4 decay at intermediate and long times. In the Ising limit, applicable to QDs with heavy-hole spins, the spin-noise spectrum exhibits a threshold behavior of (ω-ωL)-1/2 above the Larmor frequency ωL=gμBB. In the generic anisotropic central spin model we have found a crossover from a Gaussian type of spin-noise spectrum to a more Ising-type spectrum with increasing anisotropy in a finite magnetic field. In order to make contact with experiments, we present ensemble averaged spin-noise spectra for QD ensembles charged with single electrons or holes. The Gaussian-type noise spectrum evolves to a more Lorentzian shape spectrum with increasing spread of characteristic time scales and g factors of the individual QDs.

  1. Accurate modelling of anisotropic effects in austenitic stainless steel welds

    SciTech Connect

    Nowers, O. D.; Duxbury, D. J.; Drinkwater, B. W.

    2014-02-18

    The ultrasonic inspection of austenitic steel welds is challenging due to the formation of highly anisotropic and heterogeneous structures post-welding. This is due to the intrinsic crystallographic structure of austenitic steel, driving the formation of dendritic grain structures on cooling. The anisotropy is manifested as both a ‘steering’ of the ultrasonic beam and the back-scatter of energy due to the macroscopic granular structure of the weld. However, the quantitative effects and relative impacts of these phenomena are not well-understood. A semi-analytical simulation framework has been developed to allow the study of anisotropic effects in austenitic stainless steel welds. Frequency-dependent scatterers are allocated to a weld-region to approximate the coarse grain-structures observed within austenitic welds and imaged using a simulated array. The simulated A-scans are compared against an equivalent experimental setup demonstrating excellent agreement of the Signal to Noise (S/N) ratio. Comparison of images of the simulated and experimental data generated using the Total Focusing Method (TFM) indicate a prominent layered effect in the simulated data. A superior grain allocation routine is required to improve upon this.

  2. Laser Generated Anisotropic Drives for Radiation Transport Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanier, N. E.; Kline, J. K.; Hager, J. D.

    2013-10-01

    Many astrophysical phenomena are studied in the laboratory by developing a scaled platform whose energy drive is produced via a laser or pulsed power facility. The push to reach more energetic regimes often results in radiation drives that diverge from well-behaved Lambertian Planckian sources. In these cases, typical diffusive radiation flow models can break down. A new platform, that deliberately generates a well-characterized non-Planckian, anisotropic source, has been developed for the OMEGA laser. The resulting data will help validate more complex computational transport schemes like Sn or implicit Monte-Carlo (IMC) models. The platform contains a SiO2 foam mounted on a half-hohlraum. Anisotropy is achieved by inserting an obstruction of either a singular round aperture or annular ring between the foam and hohlraum. In addition, a thin beryllium layer delays the thermal component of the drive while the higher energy M-shell radiation propagates unhindered. The result is a highly non-Planckian, anisotropic, supersonic drive that eventually transitions to sub-sonic. Spectroscopic measurements constrain the source anisotropy, magnitude, and spectral content. Moreover, the Marshak position coupled with spectroscopic absorption measurements quantify the foam's internal energy.

  3. Accurately simulating anisotropic thermal conduction on a moving mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Rahul; Springel, Volker; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Marinacci, Federico; Vogelsberger, Mark

    2016-05-01

    We present a novel implementation of an extremum preserving anisotropic diffusion solver for thermal conduction on the unstructured moving Voronoi mesh of the AREPO code. The method relies on splitting the one-sided facet fluxes into normal and oblique components, with the oblique fluxes being limited such that the total flux is both locally conservative and extremum preserving. The approach makes use of harmonic averaging points and a simple, robust interpolation scheme that works well for strong heterogeneous and anisotropic diffusion problems. Moreover, the required discretization stencil is small. Efficient fully implicit and semi-implicit time integration schemes are also implemented. We perform several numerical tests that evaluate the stability and accuracy of the scheme, including applications such as point explosions with heat conduction and calculations of convective instabilities in conducting plasmas. The new implementation is suitable for studying important astrophysical phenomena, such as the conductive heat transport in galaxy clusters, the evolution of supernova remnants, or the distribution of heat from black hole-driven jets into the intracluster medium.

  4. Electromagnetic fluctuations for anisotropic media and the generalized Kirchhoff's law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Kwok, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the polarimetric emission parameters for anisotropic media are derived using the generalized Kirchhoff's law for media with a uniform temperature and the fluctuation-dissipation theory for media with a temperature profile. Both finite-size objects and half-space media are considered. When the object has a uniform temperature across its body, the Kirchhoff's law, based on the condition of energy conservation in thermal equilibrium is generalized to obtain the emission parameters of an anisotropic medium, which can be interpreted as the absorptivity or the absorption cross section of the complementary object with a permittivity that is the transpose of the original object. When the medium has a nonuniform temperature distribution, the fluctuation-dissipation theory is applied for deriving the covariances between vector components of the thermal currents and, consequently, the covariances of the polarizations of electric fields radiated by the thermal currents. To verify the formulas derived from the fluctuation-dissipation theory, we let the temperature of the object be a constant and show that the results reduce to those obtained from the generalized Kirchhoff's law.

  5. Mimicking static anisotropic fluid spheres in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Ngampitipan, Tritos; Visser, Matt

    2016-11-01

    We argue that an arbitrary general relativistic static anisotropic fluid sphere, (static and spherically symmetric but with transverse pressure not equal to radial pressure), can nevertheless be successfully mimicked by suitable linear combinations of theoretically attractive and quite simple classical matter: a classical (charged) isotropic perfect fluid, a classical electromagnetic field and a classical (minimally coupled) scalar field. While the most general decomposition is not unique, a preferred minimal decomposition can be constructed that is unique. We show how the classical energy conditions for the anisotropic fluid sphere can be related to energy conditions for the isotropic perfect fluid, electromagnetic field, and scalar field components of the model. Furthermore, we show how this decomposition relates to the distribution of both electric charge density and scalar charge density throughout the model. The generalized TOV equation implies that the perfect fluid component in this model is automatically in internal equilibrium, with pressure forces, electric forces, and scalar forces balancing the gravitational pseudo-force. Consequently, we can build theoretically attractive matter models that can be used to mimic almost any static spherically symmetric spacetime.

  6. Seismic receiver function interpretation: Ps splitting or anisotropic underplating?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhen; Park, Jeffrey

    2017-03-01

    Crustal anisotropy is crucial to understanding the evolutionary history of Earth's lithosphere. Shear wave splitting of Moho P-to-S converted phases in receiver functions (RFs) have been often used to study crustal anisotropy. Harmonic variation of Moho Ps phases in delay times are used to infer splitting parameters of averaged anisotropy in the crust. However, crustal anisotropy may distribute at various levels within the crust due to complex deformational processes. Layered anisotropy requires careful investigation of the distribution of anisotropy before interpreting Moho Ps splitting. In this study, we show results from stations ARU in Russia, KIP in the Hawaiian Islands and LSA in Tibetan Plateau, where layered anisotropy is constrained well by intracrust Ps conversions at high frequencies using a harmonic-decomposition technique. Anisotropic velocity models are inferred by forward-modeling decomposed RF waveforms. We suggest that the harmonic variation of Moho Ps phases should always be investigated to check for anisotropic layering using RFs with frequency content above 1 Hz, rather than simply reporting averaged anisotropy of the whole crust.

  7. Imaging Anisotropic Layering with Bayesian Inversion of Multiple Data Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodin, T.; Leiva, J.; Romanowicz, B. A.; Maupin, V.; Yuan, H.

    2015-12-01

    Anisotropic images of the upper-mantle are usually obtained by analyzing different types of seismic observables, such as surface wave dispersion curves or waveforms, SKS splitting data, or receiver functions. These different data types sample different volumes of the earth, they are sensitive to separate length-scales, and hence are associated with various levels of uncertainties. They are traditionally interpreted separately, and often result in incompatible models. We present a Bayesian inversion approach to jointly invert these different data types. Seismograms for SKS and P phases are directly inverted, thus avoiding intermediate processing steps such as numerical deconvolution or computation of splitting parameters. Probabilistic 1D profiles are obtained with a transdimensional Markov chain Monte Carlo scheme, in which the number of layers, as well as the presence or absence of anisotropy in each layer, are treated as unknown parameters. In this way, seismic anisotropy is only introduced if required by the data. The algorithm is used to resolve both isotropic and anisotropic layering down to a depth of 350 km beneath two seismic stations in North America in two different tectonic settings: the stable Canadian shield (station FFC), and the tectonically active southern Basin and Range Province (station TA-214A). In both cases, the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary is clearly visible, and marked by a change in direction of the fast axis of anisotropy. Our study confirms that azimuthal anisotropy is a powerful tool for detecting layering in the upper mantle.

  8. Confined, Oriented, and Electrically Anisotropic Graphene Wrinkles on Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shikai; Gao, Enlai; Wang, Yanlei; Sen, Soumyo; Sreenivasan, Sreeprasad Theruvakkattil; Behura, Sanjay; Král, Petr; Xu, Zhiping; Berry, Vikas

    2016-09-27

    Curvature-induced dipole moment and orbital rehybridization in graphene wrinkles modify its electrical properties and induces transport anisotropy. Current wrinkling processes are based on contraction of the entire substrate and do not produce confined or directed wrinkles. Here we show that selective desiccation of a bacterium under impermeable and flexible graphene via a flap-valve operation produces axially aligned graphene wrinkles of wavelength 32.4-34.3 nm, consistent with modified Föppl-von Kármán mechanics (confinement ∼0.7 × 4 μm(2)). Further, an electrophoretically oriented bacterial device with confined wrinkles aligned with van der Pauw electrodes was fabricated and exhibited an anisotropic transport barrier (ΔE = 1.69 meV). Theoretical models were developed to describe the wrinkle formation mechanism. The results obtained show bio-induced production of confined, well-oriented, and electrically anisotropic graphene wrinkles, which can be applied in electronics, bioelectromechanics, and strain patterning.

  9. Circumferential gap propagation in an anisotropic elastic bacterial sacculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taneja, Swadhin; Levitan, Benjamin A.; Rutenberg, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    We have modeled stress concentration around small gaps in anisotropic elastic sheets, corresponding to the peptidoglycan sacculus of bacterial cells, under loading corresponding to the effects of turgor pressure in rod-shaped bacteria. We find that under normal conditions the stress concentration is insufficient to mechanically rupture bacteria, even for gaps up to a micron in length. We then explored the effects of stress-dependent smart autolysins, as hypothesized by A. L. Koch [Adv. Microb. Physiol. 24, 301 (1983), 10.1016/S0065-2911(08)60388-4; Res. Microbiol. 141, 529 (1990), 10.1016/0923-2508(90)90017-K]. We show that the measured anisotropic elasticity of the peptidoglycan (PG) sacculus can lead to stable circumferential propagation of small gaps in the sacculus. This is consistent with the recent observation of circumferential propagation of PG-associated MreB patches in rod-shaped bacteria. We also find a bistable regime of both circumferential and axial gap propagation, which agrees with behavior reported in cytoskeletal mutants of B. subtilis. We conclude that the elastic anisotropies of a bacterial sacculus, as characterized experimentally, may be relevant for maintaining rod-shaped bacterial growth.

  10. An optimal nonorthogonal separation of the anisotropic Gaussian convolution filter.

    PubMed

    Lampert, Christoph H; Wirjadi, Oliver

    2006-11-01

    We give an analytical and geometrical treatment of what it means to separate a Gaussian kernel along arbitrary axes in R(n), and we present a separation scheme that allows us to efficiently implement anisotropic Gaussian convolution filters for data of arbitrary dimensionality. Based on our previous analysis we show that this scheme is optimal with regard to the number of memory accesses and interpolation operations needed. The proposed method relies on nonorthogonal convolution axes and works completely in image space. Thus, it avoids the need for a fast Fourier transform (FFT)-subroutine. Depending on the accuracy and speed requirements, different interpolation schemes and methods to implement the one-dimensional Gaussian (finite impulse response and infinite impulse response) can be integrated. Special emphasis is put on analyzing the performance and accuracy of the new method. In particular, we show that without any special optimization of the source code, it can perform anisotropic Gaussian filtering faster than methods relying on the FFT.

  11. Anisotropic thermal conductivity in epoxy-bonded magnetocaloric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weise, Bruno; Sellschopp, Kai; Bierdel, Marius; Funk, Alexander; Bobeth, Manfred; Krautz, Maria; Waske, Anja

    2016-09-01

    Thermal management is one of the crucial issues in the development of magnetocaloric refrigeration technology for application. In order to ensure optimal exploitation of the materials "primary" properties, such as entropy change and temperature lift, thermal properties (and other "secondary" properties) play an important role. In magnetocaloric composites, which show an increased cycling stability in comparison to their bulk counterparts, thermal properties are strongly determined by the geometric arrangement of the corresponding components. In the first part of this paper, the inner structure of a polymer-bonded La(Fe, Co, Si)13-composite was studied by X-ray computed tomography. Based on this 3D data, a numerical study along all three spatial directions revealed anisotropic thermal conductivity of the composite: Due to the preparation process, the long-axis of the magnetocaloric particles is aligned along the xy plane which is why the in-plane thermal conductivity is larger than the thermal conductivity along the z-axis. Further, the study is expanded to a second aspect devoted to the influence of particle distribution and alignment within the polymer matrix. Based on an equivalent ellipsoids model to describe the inner structure of the composite, numerical simulation of the thermal conductivity in different particle arrangements and orientation distributions were performed. This paper evaluates the possibilities of microstructural design for inducing and adjusting anisotropic thermal conductivity in magnetocaloric composites.

  12. Surface and defect morphologies in anisotropic elastic and piezoelectric solids

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Huajian; Barnett, D.M.

    1996-12-31

    The authors investigate issues related to the equilibrium and stability of surface and line defect morphologies in both piezoelectric and anisotropic elastic solids. Following their previous efforts which established that mechanical stresses in purely elastic solids can promote instability of an initially flat surface with respect to surface roughening, they show that the (initially flat) interface between two dissimilar piezoelectric solids can be unstable when subjected to coupled electromechanical loading. Quite recent cross-sectional observations of electrodeposited thin films by Japanese and British researchers provide experimental confirmation of these predictions. The authors also investigate the occurrence of equilibrium arrangements (zero Peach-Koehler force arrangements) of line defects (dislocations) in anisotropic elastic crystals in the absence of externally applied stresses. Contrary to prevailing opinion, equilibrium arrangements of dislocations under no externally applied stresses appear to be the rule rather than the exception. The existence of such {open_quotes}zero stress arrangements{close_quotes} is fundamental to developing micromechanical models of plastically deforming solids.

  13. Anisotropic Polymer Conformations in Aligned SWCNT/PS Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Wei-Shao; Composto, Russell; Clarke, Nigel; Winey, Karen

    2015-03-01

    In our previous study of isotropic SWCNT/polystyrene (PS) nanocomposites, we found that the polymer radius of gyration (Rg) increases and the SWCNT mesh size decreases with increasing SWCNT concentration. Here, we investigate the effect of aligning SWCNTs on Rg and the SWNCT mesh. SWCNT alignment was accomplished by melt fiber spinning or extrusion, and small angle neutron scattering was used to probe the structure. As expected, SWCNT alignment produces anisotropic meshes. Below 2 wt% SWCNT, no significant change in Rg is observed and Rg parallel and perpendicular to the direction of SWCNT alignment are comparable. More interestingly, at higher wt% SWCNT the polymer conformations are anisotropic with a larger Rg perpendicular to the SWCNT than along the SWCNT. For example, with 6 wt% SWCNT, the Rg perpendicular to the SWCNT is ~ 15% larger than parallel to the SWNCT. This anisotropy in the polymer conformation becomes more prominent at higher SWCNT concentrations, perhaps because at higher SWCNT concentrations the distribution of mesh shifts to smaller meshes (<2Rg) so that a single polymer chain interacts with multiple SWCNTs. Implications of this finding will be discussed. National Science Foundation DMR-12-10379.

  14. Seismic receiver function interpretation: Ps splitting or anisotropic underplating?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhen; Park, Jeffrey

    2016-12-01

    Crustal anisotropy is crucial to understanding the evolutionary history of Earth's lithosphere. Shear-wave splitting of Moho P-to-S converted phases in receiver functions have been often used to study crustal anisotropy. Harmonic variation of Moho Ps phases in delay times are used to infer splitting parameters of averaged anisotropy in the crust. However, crustal anisotropy may distribute at various levels within the crust due to complex deformational processes. Layered anisotropy requires careful investigation of the distribution of anisotropy before interpreting Moho Ps splitting. In this study, we show results from stations ARU in Russia, KIP in the Hawaiian Islands and LSA in Tibetan Plateau, where layered anisotropy is constrained well by intra-crust Ps conversions at high frequencies using a harmonic-decomposition technique. Anisotropic velocity models are inferred by forward-modeling decomposed RF waveforms. We suggest that the harmonic variation of Moho Ps phases should always be investigated to check for anisotropic layering using RFs with frequency content above 1 Hz, rather than simply reporting averaged anisotropy of the whole crust.

  15. Effect of topological defects and curvature on anisotropic crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azadi, Amir; Grason, Gregory M.

    2015-03-01

    The equilibrium shapes and symmetries of crystals are vestiges of the physical principles underlying their formation. We perform particle-based simulations guided by analytical analysis to investigate the structure of crystalline domains on curved substrates, a focus on the impact of topological defects on domain morphology. We find at low area fraction, as has been argued previously, that isotropic crystal growth with relatively compact domains generates large curvature-induced strains accommodated by relative ductile interactions, while the formation of anisotropic ribbon-like structures with lower-curvature induced stresses, introduces a larger line tension cost, and is thus favored for brittle crystals. Our results show that for ductile crystals with large surface coverage, appearance of stable topological defects precludes the formation of anisotropic, ribbon domains. However branch-like structures with large interfacial area are stable for certain values of intermediate curvature and crystalline ductility. These processes are guided by the interplay between elastic shape instability, defects, and curvature, where pattern formations are not related to kinetic instabilities.

  16. Gaussian covariance matrices for anisotropic galaxy clustering measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieb, Jan Niklas; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of the redshift-space galaxy clustering have been a prolific source of cosmological information in recent years. Accurate covariance estimates are an essential step for the validation of galaxy clustering models of the redshift-space two-point statistics. Usually, only a limited set of accurate N-body simulations is available. Thus, assessing the data covariance is not possible or only leads to a noisy estimate. Further, relying on simulated realizations of the survey data means that tests of the cosmology dependence of the covariance are expensive. With these points in mind, this work presents a simple theoretical model for the linear covariance of anisotropic galaxy clustering observations with synthetic catalogues. Considering the Legendre moments (`multipoles') of the two-point statistics and projections into wide bins of the line-of-sight parameter (`clustering wedges'), we describe the modelling of the covariance for these anisotropic clustering measurements for galaxy samples with a trivial geometry in the case of a Gaussian approximation of the clustering likelihood. As main result of this paper, we give the explicit formulae for Fourier and configuration space covariance matrices. To validate our model, we create synthetic halo occupation distribution galaxy catalogues by populating the haloes of an ensemble of large-volume N-body simulations. Using linear and non-linear input power spectra, we find very good agreement between the model predictions and the measurements on the synthetic catalogues in the quasi-linear regime.

  17. Level Set Approach to Anisotropic Wet Etching of Silicon

    PubMed Central

    Radjenović, Branislav; Radmilović-Radjenović, Marija; Mitrić, Miodrag

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a methodology for the three dimensional (3D) modeling and simulation of the profile evolution during anisotropic wet etching of silicon based on the level set method is presented. Etching rate anisotropy in silicon is modeled taking into account full silicon symmetry properties, by means of the interpolation technique using experimentally obtained values for the etching rates along thirteen principal and high index directions in KOH solutions. The resulting level set equations are solved using an open source implementation of the sparse field method (ITK library, developed in medical image processing community), extended for the case of non-convex Hamiltonians. Simulation results for some interesting initial 3D shapes, as well as some more practical examples illustrating anisotropic etching simulation in the presence of masks (simple square aperture mask, convex corner undercutting and convex corner compensation, formation of suspended structures) are shown also. The obtained results show that level set method can be used as an effective tool for wet etching process modeling, and that is a viable alternative to the Cellular Automata method which now prevails in the simulations of the wet etching process. PMID:22399916

  18. Formation of magnetically anisotropic composite films at low magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazi Zahedi, Maryam; Ennen, Inga; Marchi, Sophie; Barthel, Markus J.; Hütten, Andreas; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Fragouli, Despina

    2017-04-01

    We present a straightforward two-step technique for the fabrication of poly (methyl methacrylate) composites with embedded aligned magnetic chains. First, ferromagnetic microwires are realized in a poly (methyl methacrylate) solution by assembling iron nanoparticles in a methyl methacrylate solution under heat in an external magnetic field of 160 mT. The simultaneous thermal polymerization of the monomer throughout the wires is responsible for their permanent linkage and stability. Next, the polymer solution containing the randomly dispersed microwires is casted on a solid substrate in the presence of a low magnetic field (20–40 mT) which induces the final alignment of the microwires into long magnetic chains upon evaporation of the solvent. We prove that the presence of the nanoparticles assembled in the form of microwires is a key factor for the formation of the anisotropic films under low magnetic fields. In fact, such low fields are not capable of driving and assembling dispersed magnetic nanoparticles in the same type of polymer solutions. Hence, this innovative approach can be utilized for the synthesis of magnetically anisotropic nanocomposite films at low magnetic fields.

  19. Anisotropic Thermal Behavior of Silicone Polymer, DC 745

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Jillian Cathleen; Torres, Joseph Angelo; Volz, Heather Michelle; Gallegos, Jennifer Marie; Yang, Dali

    2016-09-02

    In material applications, it is important to understand how polymeric materials behave in the various environments they may encounter. One factor governing polymer behavior is processing history. Differences in fabrication will result in parts with varied or even unintended properties. In this work, the thermal expansion behavior of silicone DC 745 is studied. Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) is used to determine changes in sample dimension resulting from changes in temperature. This technique can measure thermal events such as the linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), melting, glass transitions, cure shrinkage, and internal relaxations. Using a thermomechanical analyzer (Q400 TMA), it is determined that DC 745 expands anisotropically when heated. This means that the material has a different CTE depending upon which direction is being measured. In this study, TMA experiments were designed in order to confirm anisotropic thermal behavior in multiple DC 745 samples of various ages and lots. TMA parameters such as temperature ramp rate, preload force, and temperature range were optimized in order to ensure the most accurate and useful data. A better understanding of the thermal expansion of DC 745 will allow for more accurate modeling of systems using this material.

  20. Buckling behavior of long anisotropic plates subjected to combined loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    A parametric study is presented of the buckling behavior of infinitely long symmetrically laminated anisotropic plates subjected to combined loads. The study focuses on the interaction of a subcritical (stable) secondary loading state of constant magnitude and a primary destabilizing load that is increased in magnitude until buckling occurs. The loads, considered in this report are uniform axial compression, pure in-plane bending, transverse tension and compression, and shear. Results are presented that were obtained by using a special purpose nondimensional analysis that is well suited for parametric studies of clamped and simply supported plates. In particular, results are presented for a +/- 45(sub S) graphite-epoxy laminate that is highly anisotropic and representative of a laminate used for spacecraft applications. In addition, generic buckling-design charts are presented for a wide range of nondimensional parameters that are applicable to a broad class of laminate constructions. These results show the general behavioral trends of specially orthotropic plates and the effects of flexural anisotropy on plates subjected to various combined loading conditions. An important finding of the present study is that the effects of flexural anisotropy on the buckling resistance of a plate can be significantly more important for plates subjected to combined loads than for plates subjected to single-component loads.