Relativistic anisotropic models for compact star with equation of state p = f(ρ)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maurya, S. K.; Gupta, Y. K.; Dayanandan, Baiju; Jasim, M. K.; Al-Jamel, Ahmed
We present new anisotropic models for Buchdahl [H. A. Buchdahl, Phys. Rev. 116 (1959) 1027.] type perfect fluid solution. For this purpose, we started with metric potential eλ same as Buchdahl [H. A. Buchdahl, Phys. Rev. 116 (1959) 1027.] and eν is monotonically increasing function as suggested by Lake [K. Lake, Phys. Rev. D 67 (2003) 104015]. After that we determine the new pressure anisotropy factor Δ with the help of both the metric potentials eλ and eν and propose new well behaved general solution for anisotropic fluid distribution. The physical quantities like energy density, radial and tangential pressures, velocity of sound and redshift etc. are positive and finite inside the compact star. In this connection, we have studied the stability of the models, which is most vital one and also we determined the equation of state p = f(ρ) for the realistic compact star models. It is noted that the mass and radius of our models can represent the structure of realistic astrophysical objects such as Her X-1 and RXJ 1856-37.
Phase transition of two-dimensional doped mixed-spin anisotropic ferromagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Ai-Yuan; Wu, Zhi-Min; Cui, Yu-Ting; Qin, Guo-Ping
2015-01-01
The two-dimensional doped mixed-spin anisotropic ferromagnets is investigated by means of the double-time Green's function based on the random phase approximation and Anderson-Callen's decoupling approximation. The analytic expressions of the critical temperature and the high-temperature zero-field susceptibility are obtained. The phase diagrams in which the critical temperature, the reorientation temperature and the reorientation magnetic field are shown as a function of single-ion anisotropic parameter are discussed.
Steady dissolution rate due to convective mixing in anisotropic porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Green, Christopher P.; Ennis-King, Jonathan
2014-11-01
Enhanced dissolution of CO2 into a saline aquifer due to convective mixing is an important physical process for the secure long-term storage of significant quantities of CO2. Numerical simulations have previously shown that the dissolution rate of CO2 into reservoir brine will stabilise after a certain time period, with only small oscillations about a long-term average. A theoretical estimate for this average long-term mass flux in an isotropic homogeneous reservoir has previously appeared in the literature. In this paper, an estimate for the steady dissolution rate in anisotropic homogenous porous media is developed using a simple theoretical argument. Detailed numerical simulations confirm that the steady dissolution rate scales as (kvkh) 1 / 2 in an anisotropic homogeneous porous media, where kv and kh are the vertical and horizontal permeabilities, respectively. The scaling is also shown to be appropriate for heterogeneous models where vertical heterogeneity is introduced by including a random distribution of impermeable barriers.
Ground-State Phases of Anisotropic Mixed Diamond Chains with Spins 1 and 1/2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hida, Kazuo
2014-11-01
The ground-state phases of anisotropic mixed diamond chains with spins 1 and 1/2 are investigated. Both single-site and exchange anisotropies are considered. We find the phases consisting of an array of uncorrelated spin-1 clusters separated by singlet dimers. Except in the simplest case where the cluster consists of a single S = 1 spin, this type of ground state breaks the translational symmetry spontaneously. Although the mechanism leading to this type of ground state is the same as that in the isotropic case, it is nonmagnetic or paramagnetic depending on the competition between two types of anisotropy. We also find the Néel, period-doubled Néel, Haldane, and large-D phases, where the ground state is a single spin cluster of infinite size equivalent to the spin-1 Heisenberg chain with alternating anisotropies. The ground-state phase diagrams are determined for typical sets of parameters by numerical analysis. In various limiting cases, the ground-state phase diagrams are determined analytically. The low-temperature behaviors of magnetic susceptibility and entropy are investigated to distinguish each phase by observable quantities. The relationship of the present model with the anisotropic rung-alternating ladder with spin-1/2 is also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broch, Katharina; Aufderheide, Antje; Novak, Jiri; Hinderhofer, Alexander; Gerlach, Alexander; Banerjee, Rupak; Schreiber, Frank
2013-03-01
Binary mixtures of organic semiconductors (OSCs) have recently become an important field of research, as they find applications in opto-electronic devices. In these systems, the mixing (intermixing vs. phase separation) and ordering behavior is crucial, since it affects the optical and electronic properties. We present a comprehensive study of binary mixtures of the three prototypical OSCs pentacene (PEN), perfluoropentacene (PFP) and diindenoperlyene (DIP) in all possible combinations. Using X-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction we investigate the stuctural properties of the mixed films as well as their impact on the optical spectra obtained by spectroscopic ellipsometry. For PEN:DIP we find an anisotropic ordering behavior, comparable to that observed in some liquid crystals, which is fundamentally new for OSCs. The influence of sterical compatibility and the strength of the intermolecular interactions on the mixing and ordering behavior in the different blends will be discussed by extending a conventional mean-field model. Finally, we discuss general rules for the targeted preparation of blends of OSCs.
Kim, S.; Park, G.C.
1997-03-01
The anisotropic turbulent diffusion and the turbulent mixing phenomena in rod bundle flow fields are studied. The former is a distinguishing feature of the flow through rod bundles, and the latter is essential to the subchannel thermal-hydraulic analysis. On the basis of the flow pulsation, which is suggested as a main process of turbulent mixing, scale relations for principal parameters such as the anisotropic factor and mixing rate are derived. To obtain a scale relation for the anisotropic factor, eddy viscosities are classified into isotropic and flow pulsation parts. Scales of each part are estimated using the scale analysis method. For the purpose of determining the length and velocity scales of the pulsating flow, a hypothetical circulating flow with a period corresponding to the frequency of the pulsation is assumed. The scale relation is compared with the experimental data and shows good agreement both with respect to trend and magnitude for various geometries. Thus, it is concluded that the flow pulsation is a significant contributor to the strong anisotropy in the rod bundle flow field. Also, the mixing rate is predicted by estimating the effective mixing velocity. The estimated mixing rate is transformed into well-known dimensionless numbers, which are compared with the experimental data and with correlations to verify the predictability.
Mixed models and reduction method for dynamic analysis of anisotropic shells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, A. K.; Peters, J. M.
1985-01-01
A time-domain computational procedure is presented for predicting the dynamic response of laminated anisotropic shells. The two key elements of the procedure are: (1) use of mixed finite element models having independent interpolation (shape) functions for stress resultants and generalized displacements for the spatial discretization of the shell, with the stress resultants allowed to be discontinuous at interelement boundaries; and (2) use of a dynamic reduction method, with the global approximation vectors consisting of the static solution and an orthogonal set of Lanczos vectors. The dynamic reduction is accomplished by means of successive application of the finite element method and the classical Rayleigh-Ritz technique. The finite element method is first used to generate the global approximation vectors. Then the Rayleigh-Ritz technique is used to generate a reduced system of ordinary differential equations in the amplitudes of these modes. The temporal integration of the reduced differential equations is performed by using an explicit half-station central difference scheme (Leap-frog method). The effectiveness of the proposed procedure is demonstrated by means of a numerical example and its advantages over reduction methods used with the displacement formulation are discussed.
Mixed models and reduction method for dynamic analysis of anisotropic shells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, A. K.; Peters, J. M.
1985-01-01
A time-domain computational procedure is presented for predicting the dynamic response of laminated anisotropic shells. The two key elements of the procedure are: (1) use of mixed finite element models having independent interpolation (shape) functions for stress resultants and generalized displacements for the spatial discretization of the shell, with the stress resultants allowed to be discontinuous at interelement boundaries; and (2) use of a dynamic reduction method, with the global approximation vectors consisting of the static solution and an orthogonal set of Lanczos vectors. The dynamic reduction is accomplished by means of successive application of the finite element method and the classical Rayleigh-Ritz technique. The finite element method is first used to generate the global approximation vectors. Then the Rayleigh-Ritz technique is used to generate a reduced system of ordinary differential equations in the amplitudes of these modes. The temporal integration of the reduced differential equations is performed by using an explicit half-station central difference scheme (Leap-frog method). The effectiveness of the proposed procedure is demonstrated by means of a numerical example and its advantages over reduction methods used with the displacement formulation are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stepanov, Serguei; Hernández, Eliseo; Plata, Marcos
2005-06-01
We report on observations of transient two-wave mixing (TWM) of orthogonally polarized waves counterpropagating through an Er-doped single-mode optical fiber. Experiments were performed in a 2-m-long moderately birefringent (with beat length ~2 cm) Er-doped fiber without optical pumping at the laser wavelength 1549 nm. The transient TWM signal observed for crossed linear polarizations of the recording waves oriented along two orthogonal birefringence axes of the fiber (i.e., for the interference pattern with spatially modulated state of light polarization only) proved to be approximately half of that observed for parallel polarizations. Direct measurements of the transient polarization hole-burning effect (i.e., that observed for fast switching of the input light linear polarization between two orthogonal orientations of the doped fiber birefringence axes) allow us to attribute formation of the corresponding anisotropic dynamic grating to this effect.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mudunuru, M. K.; Karra, S.; Nakshatrala, K. B.
2016-12-01
Fundamental to enhancement and control of the macroscopic spreading, mixing, and dilution of solute plumes in porous media structures is the topology of flow field and underlying heterogeneity and anisotropy contrast of porous media. Traditionally, in literature, the main focus was limited to the shearing effects of flow field (i.e., flow has zero helical density, meaning that flow is always perpendicular to vorticity vector) on scalar mixing [2]. However, the combined effect of anisotropy of the porous media and the helical structure (or chaotic nature) of the flow field on the species reactive-transport and mixing has been rarely studied. Recently, it has been experimentally shown that there is an irrefutable evidence that chaotic advection and helical flows are inherent in porous media flows [1,2]. In this poster presentation, we present a non-intrusive physics-based model-order reduction framework to quantify the effects of species mixing in-terms of reduced-order models (ROMs) and scaling laws. The ROM framework is constructed based on the recent advancements in non-negative formulations for reactive-transport in heterogeneous anisotropic porous media [3] and non-intrusive ROM methods [4]. The objective is to generate computationally efficient and accurate ROMs for species mixing for different values of input data and reactive-transport model parameters. This is achieved by using multiple ROMs, which is a way to determine the robustness of the proposed framework. Sensitivity analysis is performed to identify the important parameters. Representative numerical examples from reactive-transport are presented to illustrate the importance of the proposed ROMs to accurately describe mixing process in porous media. [1] Lester, Metcalfe, and Trefry, "Is chaotic advection inherent to porous media flow?," PRL, 2013. [2] Ye, Chiogna, Cirpka, Grathwohl, and Rolle, "Experimental evidence of helical flow in porous media," PRL, 2015. [3] Mudunuru, and Nakshatrala, "On
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Padilla, Antonio; Pérez, Justo
2015-10-01
We have developed a mixed classical-quantum dynamical simulation of HCl diluted in dense Ar in which both the rotation and vibration of the diatomic molecule are treated from a quantum point of view while the remaining translational degree of freedoms of the diatomic and solvent atoms, are treated classically. We have calculated the spectral density of the fundamental band and the rotational absorption coefficient of HCl in Ar at different thermodynamic conditions and we have compared them with the available experimental data. Unlike our previous simulation works on HCl in Ar, in this study we treat the diatomic vibration explicitly, so we can carry out a detailed theoretical-experimental comparative analysis of the spectral profiles. We have considered different models for the HCl-Ar binary anisotropic interaction, founding also different predictions for the absorption line shape, in one case with the presence of the central Q-branch observed in the experimental spectrum, and in another case with the absence of such spectral component. We have found that the theoretical Q-branch noticeably depends on the characteristic of the different anisotropic diatomic-solvent potentials proposed in the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barazanchy, Darun; Giurgiutiu, Victor
2016-04-01
A unified approach was formulated to predict guided-wave propagation in a material regardless its degree of anisotropy, thereby having one solution method for both isotropic and anisotropic material. The unified approach was based on the coupled eigenvalue problem derived from Chirstoffels equation for a lamina. The eigenvalue problem yielded a set of eigenvalues, and corresponding eigenvectors that were used to obtain the stress-displacement matrix. The dispersion curves were obtained by applying the traction free boundary conditions to the stress-displacement matrix, and searching for sign changes in the complex determinant of the matrix. To search for sign changes, hence the velocity-wavenumber pairs which yielded a solution to the problem, the real and imaginary part of the complex determinant had to change sign simultaneously. A phase angle approach was, therefore, developed and successfully applied. A refinement algorithm was applied to refine the accuracy of the solution without increasing the computational time significantly. A high accuracy was required to calculated the correct partial-wave participation factors. The obtained partial-wave participation factors were used to calculate the modeshape through the thickness for each velocity-wavenumber pair. To identify the different wave types, A0, S0, SHS0, SHA0, a modeshape identification was applied successfully. The unified approach was evaluated for hybrid aerospace composites. In addition, the two most common solution methods: (i) the global matrix method; and (ii) the transfer matrix method were applied, and a comparative study between the different methods was performed.
p.F508del in a heterogeneous cystic fibrosis population from Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Vidigal, P V T; Reis, F J C; Boson, W L M; De Marco, L A; Brasileiro-Filho, G
2008-08-01
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal recessive disease of the Caucasian population. Among the various CF mutations, p.F508del is the most frequent, accounting for two-thirds of the global CF chromosomes, although showing great variability among populations. We have studied 115 unrelated CF patients from a mixed population of Minas Gerais (Brazil). To evaluate part of the DNA sequence of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, blood DNA was obtained and PCR was performed using two pairs of primers that anneal to exons 10 and 24 of the CFTR gene. The PCR product was then submitted to automatic sequencing using the ABI PRISM 310 Genetic Analyzer. The p.F508del mutation was found in 50 (21.7%) of 230 unrelated CF alleles. Fifteen (13.0%) patients were homozygous for this mutation, while 20 (17.4%) were heterozygous; the remaining 80 (69.6%) patients did not carry the p.F508del mutation. Exon 24 sequence had no change in 75 (65.2%) patients, 21 (18.3%) had the sequence variation 4521G/A, 11 (9.6%) had a not yet described sequence variation 4407T/A and 8 (7.0%) patients had both sequence variations (4521G/A and 4407T/A). The polymorphism 4407T/A results in an amino acid modification from aspartic acid to glutamic acid, which will probably have no function effect in CFTR. This low p.F508del prevalence can be due to the variable ethnic origin of this population from Minas Gerais, which may have a high diversity of CF rare mutations.
Anisotropic universe with anisotropic sources
Aluri, Pavan K.; Panda, Sukanta; Sharma, Manabendra; Thakur, Snigdha E-mail: sukanta@iiserb.ac.in E-mail: snigdha@iiserb.ac.in
2013-12-01
We analyze the state space of a Bianchi-I universe with anisotropic sources. Here we consider an extended state space which includes null geodesics in this background. The evolution equations for all the state observables are derived. Dynamical systems approach is used to study the evolution of these equations. The asymptotic stable fixed points for all the evolution equations are found. We also check our analytic results with numerical analysis of these dynamical equations. The evolution of the state observables are studied both in cosmic time and using a dimensionless time variable. Then we repeat the same analysis with a more realistic scenario, adding the isotropic (dust like dark) matter and a cosmological constant (dark energy) to our anisotropic sources, to study their co-evolution. The universe now approaches a de Sitter space asymptotically dominated by the cosmological constant. The cosmic microwave background anisotropy maps due to shear are also generated in this scenario, assuming that the universe contains anisotropic matter along with the usual (dark) matter and vacuum (dark) energy since decoupling. We find that they contribute dominantly to the CMB quadrupole. We also constrain the current level of anisotropy and also search for any cosmic preferred axis present in the data. We use the Union 2 Supernovae data to this extent. An anisotropy axis close to the mirror symmetry axis seen in the cosmic microwave background data from Planck probe is found.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, I. G.; Di Iorio, D.; Lavelle, J. W.
2016-02-01
A large eddy simulation of a deep-sea hydrothermal plume in a time-variable cross flow, parameterized with anisotropic eddy viscosities and diffusivities, is developed to simulate turbulent flow characteristics. The turbulent dissipation rates for kinetic energy (ɛ) and thermal variance (ɛθ) is approximated by computing the Reynolds averaged sub-grid scale turbulent production from shear and buoyancy (ɛ=P-B) and from temperature fluxes (ɛθ=Pθ) respectively. The model is tuned to represent the mean flow and turbulent observations of the hydrothermal plume properties at Dante within the Main Endeavour vent field (MEF) at the Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge using specialized acoustic instrumentation. The model takes into account realistic background stratification, and vent exit fluid heat and flow transport. The turbulent kinetic energy and thermal dissipation rates reach their maximum near the vent. Shear production dominates over buoyancy production of turbulent kinetic energy. The model is used to derive several important scalings with cross flows that are relevant to understanding plume impact on the ocean. These scalings include maximum plume rise height and turbulent diffusivity and their variability with cross flow speeds.
Granular Segregation with Anisotropic Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sykes, Tim
2005-11-01
The results from experimental investigations of horizontally vibrated mixtures of anisotropic poppy seeds and long chains of linked spheres will be presented. A critical packing fraction was observed to be required to initiate a transition to segregation. The average size of the resulting patterns was measured and the concentration ratio of the mixtures was varied by changing the number of chains present in the mixtures. A change in the order of the transition, from second to first order with associated hysteresis, was observed as the chain number was reduced. This gave rise to three distinct regions of behaviour: segregated, mixed and a bi-stable state.
The family of anisotropically scaled equatorial waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
RamíRez GutiéRrez, Enver; da Silva Dias, Pedro Leite; Raupp, Carlos; Bonatti, Jose Paulo
2011-04-01
In the present work we introduce the family of anisotropic equatorial waves. This family corresponds to equatorial waves at intermediate states between the shallow water and the long wave approximation model. The new family is obtained by using anisotropic time/space scalings on the linearized, unforced and inviscid shallow water model. It is shown that the anisotropic equatorial waves tend to the solutions of the long wave model in one extreme and to the shallow water model solutions in the other extreme of the parameter dependency. Thus, the problem associated with the completeness of the long wave model solutions can be asymptotically addressed. The anisotropic dispersion relation is computed and, in addition to the typical dependency on the equivalent depth, meridional quantum number and zonal wavenumber, it also depends on the anisotropy between both zonal to meridional space and velocity scales as well as the fast to slow time scales ratio. For magnitudes of the scales compatible with those of the tropical region, both mixed Rossby-gravity and inertio-gravity waves are shifted to a moderately higher frequency and, consequently, not filtered out. This draws attention to the fact that, for completeness of the long wave like solutions, it is necessary to include both the anisotropic mixed Rossby-gravity and inertio-gravity waves. Furthermore, the connection of slow and fast manifolds (distinguishing feature of equatorial dynamics) is preserved, though modified for the equatorial anisotropy parameters used δ ∈ < 1]. New possibilities of horizontal and vertical scale nonlinear interactions are allowed. Thus, the anisotropic shallow water model is of fundamental importance for understanding multiscale atmosphere and ocean dynamics in the tropics.
Final report: COOMET supplementary comparison of capacitance at 10 pF and 100 pF (COOMET.EM-S13)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velychko, Oleh; Shevkun, Sergii
2015-01-01
An intercomparison of 10 pF and 100 pF capacitance standards has taken place within the framework of COOMET. The intercomparison, piloted by State Enterprise 'Ukrmetrteststandard'—UMTS (Ukraine), has involved tree laboratories, including one who is a member of another regional metrological organization—EURAMET (GUM, Poland). The results presented in this report appear to show that there are significant differences between some laboratories' representations of the farad. However, the agreement demonstrated by the intercomparison provides confidence in maintaining traceability for the farad either via a calculable capacitor or via the quantum Hall reference standard of the BIPM. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).
Impacts of P-f & Q-V Droop Control on MicroGrids Transient Stability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao-xia, Xiao; Hong-wei, Fang
Impacts of P-f & Q-V droop control on MicroGrid transient stability was investigated with a wind unit of asynchronous generator in the MicroGrid. The system frequency stability was explored when the motor load starts and its load power changes, and faults of different types and different locations occurs. The simulations were done by PSCAD/EMTDC.
Anisotropic Artificial Impedance Surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quarfoth, Ryan Gordon
Anisotropic artificial impedance surfaces are a group of planar materials that can be modeled by the tensor impedance boundary condition. This boundary condition relates the electric and magnetic field components on a surface using a 2x2 tensor. The advantage of using the tensor impedance boundary condition, and by extension anisotropic artificial impedance surfaces, is that the method allows large and complex structures to be modeled quickly and accurately using a planar boundary condition. This thesis presents the theory of anisotropic impedance surfaces and multiple applications. Anisotropic impedance surfaces are a generalization of scalar impedance surfaces. Unlike the scalar version, anisotropic impedance surfaces have material properties that are dependent on the polarization and wave vector of electromagnetic radiation that interacts with the surface. This allows anisotropic impedance surfaces to be used for applications that scalar surfaces cannot achieve. Three of these applications are presented in this thesis. The first is an anisotropic surface wave waveguide which allows propagation in one direction, but passes radiation in the orthogonal direction without reflection. The second application is a surface wave beam shifter which splits a surface wave beam in two directions and reduces the scattering from an object placed on the surface. The third application is a patterned surface which can alter the scattered radiation pattern of a rectangular shape. For each application, anisotropic impedance surfaces are constructed using periodic unit cells. These unit cells are designed to give the desired surface impedance characteristics by modifying a patterned metallic patch on a grounded dielectric substrate. Multiple unit cell geometries are analyzed in order to find the setup with the best performance in terms of impedance characteristics and frequency bandwidth.
Anisotropic Nanoparticles and Anisotropic Surface Chemistry.
Burrows, Nathan D; Vartanian, Ariane M; Abadeer, Nardine S; Grzincic, Elissa M; Jacob, Lisa M; Lin, Wayne; Li, Ji; Dennison, Jordan M; Hinman, Joshua G; Murphy, Catherine J
2016-02-18
Anisotropic nanoparticles are powerful building blocks for materials engineering. Unusual properties emerge with added anisotropy-often to an extraordinary degree-enabling countless new applications. For bottom-up assembly, anisotropy is crucial for programmability; isotropic particles lack directional interactions and can self-assemble only by basic packing rules. Anisotropic particles have long fascinated scientists, and their properties and assembly behavior have been the subjects of many theoretical studies over the years. However, only recently has experiment caught up with theory. We have begun to witness tremendous diversity in the synthesis of nanoparticles with controlled anisotropy. In this Perspective, we highlight the synthetic achievements that have galvanized the field, presenting a comprehensive discussion of the mechanisms and products of both seed-mediated and alternative growth methods. We also address recent breakthroughs and challenges in regiospecific functionalization, which is the next frontier in exploiting nanoparticle anisotropy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lam, Wai Sze Tiffany
Optical components made of anisotropic materials, such as crystal polarizers and crystal waveplates, are widely used in many complex optical system, such as display systems, microlithography, biomedical imaging and many other optical systems, and induce more complex aberrations than optical components made of isotropic materials. The goal of this dissertation is to accurately simulate the performance of optical systems with anisotropic materials using polarization ray trace. This work extends the polarization ray tracing calculus to incorporate ray tracing through anisotropic materials, including uniaxial, biaxial and optically active materials. The 3D polarization ray tracing calculus is an invaluable tool for analyzing polarization properties of an optical system. The 3x3 polarization ray tracing P matrix developed for anisotropic ray trace assists tracking the 3D polarization transformations along a ray path with series of surfaces in an optical system. To better represent the anisotropic light-matter interactions, the definition of the P matrix is generalized to incorporate not only the polarization change at a refraction/reflection interface, but also the induced optical phase accumulation as light propagates through the anisotropic medium. This enables realistic modeling of crystalline polarization elements, such as crystal waveplates and crystal polarizers. The wavefront and polarization aberrations of these anisotropic components are more complex than those of isotropic optical components and can be evaluated from the resultant P matrix for each eigen-wavefront as well as for the overall image. One incident ray refracting or reflecting into an anisotropic medium produces two eigenpolarizations or eigenmodes propagating in different directions. The associated ray parameters of these modes necessary for the anisotropic ray trace are described in Chapter 2. The algorithms to calculate the P matrix from these ray parameters are described in Chapter 3 for
Anisotropic contrast optical microscope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peev, D.; Hofmann, T.; Kananizadeh, N.; Beeram, S.; Rodriguez, E.; Wimer, S.; Rodenhausen, K. B.; Herzinger, C. M.; Kasputis, T.; Pfaunmiller, E.; Nguyen, A.; Korlacki, R.; Pannier, A.; Li, Y.; Schubert, E.; Hage, D.; Schubert, M.
2016-11-01
An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent, or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. These images are obtained from sets of multiple images obtained under various polarizer, analyzer, and compensator settings. Up to 16 independent Mueller matrix images can be obtained, while our current setup is limited to 11 images normalized by the unpolarized intensity. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by measuring lithographically defined micro-patterned anisotropic filters, and we quantify the adsorption of an organic self-assembled monolayer film onto the anisotropic filter. Comparison with an isotropic glass slide demonstrates the image enhancement obtained by our method over microscopy without the use of an anisotropic filter. In our current instrument, we estimate the limit of detection for organic volumetric mass within the object plane of ≈49 fg within ≈7 × 7 μm2 object surface area. Compared to a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation instrumentation, where contemporary limits require a total load of ≈500 pg for detection, the instrumentation demonstrated here improves
Molecular anisotropic magnetoresistance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Otte, Fabian; Heinze, Stefan; Mokrousov, Yuriy
2015-12-01
Using density functional theory calculations, we demonstrate that the effect of anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) can be enhanced by orders of magnitude with respect to conventional bulk ferromagnets in junctions containing molecules sandwiched between ferromagnetic leads. We study ballistic transport in metal-benzene complexes contacted by 3 d transition-metal wires. We show that a gigantic AMR can arise from spin-orbit coupling effects in the leads, drastically enhanced by orbital-symmetry filtering properties of the molecules. We further discuss how this molecular anisotropic magnetoresistance (MAMR) can be tuned by the proper choice of materials and their electronic properties.
Anisotropic contrast optical microscope.
Peev, D; Hofmann, T; Kananizadeh, N; Beeram, S; Rodriguez, E; Wimer, S; Rodenhausen, K B; Herzinger, C M; Kasputis, T; Pfaunmiller, E; Nguyen, A; Korlacki, R; Pannier, A; Li, Y; Schubert, E; Hage, D; Schubert, M
2016-11-01
An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent, or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. These images are obtained from sets of multiple images obtained under various polarizer, analyzer, and compensator settings. Up to 16 independent Mueller matrix images can be obtained, while our current setup is limited to 11 images normalized by the unpolarized intensity. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by measuring lithographically defined micro-patterned anisotropic filters, and we quantify the adsorption of an organic self-assembled monolayer film onto the anisotropic filter. Comparison with an isotropic glass slide demonstrates the image enhancement obtained by our method over microscopy without the use of an anisotropic filter. In our current instrument, we estimate the limit of detection for organic volumetric mass within the object plane of ≈49 fg within ≈7 × 7 μm(2) object surface area. Compared to a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation instrumentation, where contemporary limits require a total load of ≈500 pg for detection, the instrumentation demonstrated here improves
Anisotropic eddy viscosity models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carati, D.; Cabot, W.
1996-01-01
A general discussion on the structure of the eddy viscosity tensor in anisotropic flows is presented. The systematic use of tensor symmetries and flow symmetries is shown to reduce drastically the number of independent parameters needed to describe the rank 4 eddy viscosity tensor. The possibility of using Onsager symmetries for simplifying further the eddy viscosity is discussed explicitly for the axisymmetric geometry.
pF3D Simulations of Large Outer-Beam Brillouin Scattering from NIF Rugby Hohlraums
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Langer, Steven; Strozzi, David; Chapman, Thomas; Amendt, Peter
2015-11-01
We assess the cause of large outer-beam stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in a NIF shot with a rugby-shaped hohlraum, which has less wall surface loss and thus higher x-ray drive than a cylindrical hohlraum of the same radius. This shot differed from a prior rugby shot with low SBS in three ways: outer beam pointing, split-pointing of the four beams within each outer-beam quadruplet, and a small amount of neon added to the hohlraum helium fill gas. We use pF3D, a massively-parallel, paraxial-envelope laser plasma interaction code, with plasma profiles from the radiation-hydrodynamics code Lasnex. We determine which change between the two shots increased the SBS by adding them one at a time to the simulations. We compare the simulations to experimental data for total SBS power, its spatial distribution at the lens, and the SBS spectrum. For each shot, we use profiles from Lasnex simulations with and without a model for mix at the hohlraum wall-gas interface. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Release number LLNL-ABS-674893.
Fractures in anisotropic media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shao, Siyi
Rocks may be composed of layers and contain fracture sets that cause the hydraulic, mechanical and seismic properties of a rock to be anisotropic. Coexisting fractures and layers in rock give rise to competing mechanisms of anisotropy. For example: (1) at low fracture stiffness, apparent shear-wave anisotropy induced by matrix layering can be masked or enhanced by the presence of a fracture, depending on the fracture orientation with respect to layering, and (2) compressional-wave guided modes generated by parallel fractures can also mask the presence of matrix layerings for particular fracture orientations and fracture specific stiffness. This report focuses on two anisotropic sources that are widely encountered in rock engineering: fractures (mechanical discontinuity) and matrix layering (impedance discontinuity), by investigating: (1) matrix property characterization, i.e., to determine elastic constants in anisotropic solids, (2) interface wave behavior in single-fractured anisotropic media, (3) compressional wave guided modes in parallel-fractured anisotropic media (single fracture orientation) and (4) the elastic response of orthogonal fracture networks. Elastic constants of a medium are required to understand and quantify wave propagation in anisotropic media but are affected by fractures and matrix properties. Experimental observations and analytical analysis demonstrate that behaviors of both fracture interface waves and compressional-wave guided modes for fractures in anisotropic media, are affected by fracture specific stiffness (controlled by external stresses), signal frequency and relative orientation between layerings in the matrix and fractures. A fractured layered medium exhibits: (1) fracture-dominated anisotropy when the fractures are weakly coupled; (2) isotropic behavior when fractures delay waves that are usually fast in a layered medium; and (3) matrix-dominated anisotropy when the fractures are closed and no longer delay the signal. The
Parallel Anisotropic Tetrahedral Adaptation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, Michael A.; Darmofal, David L.
2008-01-01
An adaptive method that robustly produces high aspect ratio tetrahedra to a general 3D metric specification without introducing hybrid semi-structured regions is presented. The elemental operators and higher-level logic is described with their respective domain-decomposed parallelizations. An anisotropic tetrahedral grid adaptation scheme is demonstrated for 1000-1 stretching for a simple cube geometry. This form of adaptation is applicable to more complex domain boundaries via a cut-cell approach as demonstrated by a parallel 3D supersonic simulation of a complex fighter aircraft. To avoid the assumptions and approximations required to form a metric to specify adaptation, an approach is introduced that directly evaluates interpolation error. The grid is adapted to reduce and equidistribute this interpolation error calculation without the use of an intervening anisotropic metric. Direct interpolation error adaptation is illustrated for 1D and 3D domains.
Anisotropic Total Variation Filtering
Grasmair, Markus; Lenzen, Frank
2010-12-15
Total variation regularization and anisotropic filtering have been established as standard methods for image denoising because of their ability to detect and keep prominent edges in the data. Both methods, however, introduce artifacts: In the case of anisotropic filtering, the preservation of edges comes at the cost of the creation of additional structures out of noise; total variation regularization, on the other hand, suffers from the stair-casing effect, which leads to gradual contrast changes in homogeneous objects, especially near curved edges and corners. In order to circumvent these drawbacks, we propose to combine the two regularization techniques. To that end we replace the isotropic TV semi-norm by an anisotropic term that mirrors the directional structure of either the noisy original data or the smoothed image. We provide a detailed existence theory for our regularization method by using the concept of relaxation. The numerical examples concluding the paper show that the proposed introduction of an anisotropy to TV regularization indeed leads to improved denoising: the stair-casing effect is reduced while at the same time the creation of artifacts is suppressed.
Chaotic Growth with the Logistic Model of P.-F. Verhulst
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pastijn, Hugo
Pierre-François Verhulst was born 200 years ago. After a short biography of P.-F. Verhulst in which the link with the Royal Military Academy in Brussels is emphasized, the early history of the so-called "Logistic Model" is described. The relationship with older growth models is discussed, and the motivation of Verhulst to introduce different kinds of limited growth models is presented. The (re-)discovery of the chaotic behaviour of the discrete version of this logistic model in the late previous century is reminded. We conclude by referring to some generalizations of the logistic model, which were used to describe growth and diffusion processes in the context of technological innovation, and for which the author studied the chaotic behaviour by means of a series of computer experiments, performed in the eighties of last century by means of the then emerging "micro-computer" technology.
pF3D Simulations of SBS and SRS in NIF Hohlraum Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Langer, Steven; Strozzi, David; Amendt, Peter; Chapman, Thomas; Hopkins, Laura; Kritcher, Andrea; Sepke, Scott
2016-10-01
We present simulations of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) for NIF experiments using high foot pulses in cylindrical hohlraums and for low foot pulses in rugby-shaped hohlraums. We use pF3D, a massively-parallel, paraxial-envelope laser plasma interaction code, with plasma profiles obtained from the radiation-hydrodynamics codes Lasnex and HYDRA. We compare the simulations to experimental data for SBS and SRS power and spectrum. We also show simulated SRS and SBS intensities at the target chamber wall and report the fraction of the backscattered light that passes through and misses the lenses. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Release number LLNL-ABS-697482.
Anisotropic Weyl symmetry and cosmology
Moon, Taeyoon; Oh, Phillial; Sohn, Jongsu E-mail: ploh@skku.edu
2010-11-01
We construct an anisotropic Weyl invariant theory in the ADM formalism and discuss its cosmological consequences. It extends the original anisotropic Weyl invariance of Hořava-Lifshitz gravity using an extra scalar field. The action is invariant under the anisotropic transformations of the space and time metric components with an arbitrary value of the critical exponent z. One of the interesting features is that the cosmological constant term maintains the anisotropic symmetry for z = −3. We also include the cosmological fluid and show that it can preserve the anisotropic Weyl invariance if the equation of state satisfies P = zρ/3. Then, we study cosmology of the Einstein-Hilbert-anisotropic Weyl (EHaW) action including the cosmological fluid, both with or without anisotropic Weyl invariance. The correlation of the critical exponent z and the equation of state parameter ω-bar provides a new perspective of the cosmology. It is also shown that the EHaW action admits a late time accelerating universe for an arbitrary value of z when the anisotropic conformal invariance is broken, and the anisotropic conformal scalar field is interpreted as a possible source of dark energy.
On the relativistic anisotropic configurations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shojai, F.; Kohandel, M.; Stepanian, A.
2016-06-01
In this paper we study anisotropic spherical polytropes within the framework of general relativity. Using the anisotropic Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations, we explore the relativistic anisotropic Lane-Emden equations. We find how the anisotropic pressure affects the boundary conditions of these equations. Also we argue that the behavior of physical quantities near the center of star changes in the presence of anisotropy. For constant density, a class of exact solution is derived with the aid of a new ansatz and its physical properties are discussed.
Mathematical simulation of a steady process of anisotropic filtration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Badriev, I. B.; Banderov, V. V.; Pankratova, O. V.; Shangaraeva, A. I.
2016-11-01
This article discusses the methods of approximate solution of mixed variational inequalities with operators of monotone type. The functional, which is included in this variational inequality, is separable, in other words, it is the sum of a number of nondifferentiable functionals. These variational inequalities appear, in particular, in the description of steady incompressible filtration processes of highly viscous fluids in anisotropic medium.
Anisotropic uniqueness classes for a degenerate parabolic equation
Vil'danova, V F; Mukminov, F Kh
2013-11-30
Anisotropic uniqueness classes of Tacklind type are identified for a degenerate linear parabolic equation of the second order in an unbounded domain. The Cauchy problem and mixed problems with boundary conditions of the first and third type are considered. Bibliography: 18 titles.
Anisotropic multiple bounce models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bacalhau, Anna Paula; Peter, Patrick; Vitenti, Sandro D. P.
2017-07-01
We analyze the Galileon ghost condensate implementation of a bouncing cosmological model in the presence of a non-negligible anisotropic stress. We exhibit its structure, which we find to be far richer than previously thought. In particular, even restricting attention to a single set of underlying microscopic parameters, we obtain, numerically, many qualitatively different regimes: depending on the initial conditions on the scalar field leading the dynamics of the Universe, the contraction phase can evolve directly towards a singularity, avoid it by bouncing once, or even bounce many times before settling into an ever-expanding phase. We clarify the behavior of the anisotropies in these various situations.
Dickakian, G. B.
1985-11-05
An improved process for preparing an optically anisotropic pitch which comprises heating a pitch feed material at a temperature within the range of about 350/sup 0/ C. to 450/sup 0/ C. while passing an inert gas therethrough at a rate of at least 2.5 SCFH/lb of pitch feed material and agitating said pitch feed material at a stirrer rate of from about 500 to 600 rpm to obtain an essentially 100% mesophase pitch product suitable for carbon production.
Anisotropic spinfoam cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rennert, Julian; Sloan, David
2014-01-01
The dynamics of a homogeneous, anisotropic universe are investigated within the context of spinfoam cosmology. Transition amplitudes are calculated for a graph consisting of a single node and three links—the ‘Daisy graph’—probing the behaviour a classical Bianchi I spacetime. It is shown further how the use of such single node graphs gives rise to a simplification of states such that all orders in the spin expansion can be calculated, indicating that it is the vertex expansion that contains information about quantum dynamics.
Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleban, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo
2016-10-01
In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with ``flat'' (including toroidal) and ``open'' (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are ``flat'' or ``open''. Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with ``flat'' or ``open'' topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.
Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology
Kleban, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo
2016-10-12
In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with “flat” (including toroidal) and “open” (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are “flat” or “open”. Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with “flat” or “open” topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.
Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology
Kleban, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo
2016-10-12
In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here in this paper, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with "flat'' (including toroidal) and "open'' (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarilymore » large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are "flat" or "open". Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with "flat'' or "open" topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.« less
Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology
Kleban, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo
2016-10-12
In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here in this paper, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with "flat'' (including toroidal) and "open'' (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are "flat" or "open". Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with "flat'' or "open" topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.
Anisotropic Particles in Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voth, Greg A.; Soldati, Alfredo
2017-01-01
Anisotropic particles are common in many industrial and natural turbulent flows. When these particles are small and neutrally buoyant, they follow Lagrangian trajectories while exhibiting rich orientational dynamics from the coupling of their rotation to the velocity gradients of the turbulence field. This system has proven to be a fascinating application of the fundamental properties of velocity gradients in turbulence. When particles are not neutrally buoyant, they experience preferential concentration and very different preferential alignment than neutrally buoyant tracer particles. A vast proportion of the parameter range of anisotropic particles in turbulence is still unexplored, with most existing research focusing on the simple foundational cases of axisymmetric ellipsoids at low concentrations in homogeneous isotropic turbulence and in turbulent channel flow. Numerical simulations and experiments have recently developed a fairly comprehensive picture of alignment and rotation in these cases, and they provide an essential foundation for addressing more complex problems of practical importance. Macroscopic effects of nonspherical particle dynamics include preferential concentration in coherent structures and drag reduction by fiber suspensions. We review the models used to describe nonspherical particle motion, along with numerical and experimental methods for measuring particle dynamics.
Anisotropic power-law inflation
Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro; Watanabe, Masa-aki E-mail: jiro@tap.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp
2010-12-01
We study an inflationary scenario in supergravity model with a gauge kinetic function. We find exact anisotropic power-law inflationary solutions when both the potential function for an inflaton and the gauge kinetic function are exponential type. The dynamical system analysis tells us that the anisotropic power-law inflation is an attractor for a large parameter region.
Neutron Skins and Halo Orbits in the s d and p f Shells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonnard, J.; Lenzi, S. M.; Zuker, A. P.
2016-05-01
The strong dependence of Coulomb energies on nuclear radii makes it possible to extract the latter from calculations of the former. The resulting estimates of neutron skins indicate that two mechanisms are involved. The first one—isovector monopole polarizability—amounts to noting that when a particle is added to a system it drives the radii of neutrons and protons in different directions, tending to equalize the radii of both fluids independently of the neutron excess. This mechanism is well understood and the Duflo-Zuker (small) neutron skin values derived 14 years ago are consistent with recent measures and estimates. The alternative mechanism involves halo orbits whose huge sizes tend to make the neutron skins larger and have a subtle influence on the radial behavior of s d and p f shell nuclei. In particular, they account for the sudden rise in the isotope shifts of nuclei beyond N =28 and the near constancy of radii in the A =40 - 56 region. This mechanism, detected here for the first time, is not well understood and may well go beyond the Efimov physics usually associated with halo orbits.
de Souza, D A S; Faucz, F R; de Alexandre, R B; Santana, M A; de Souza, E L S; Reis, F J C; Pereira-Ferrari, L; Sotomaior, V S; Culpi, L; Phillips, J A; Raskin, S
2017-02-01
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common autosomal recessive disorder, being the p.F508del the most frequent mutation. Also, a nearby restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) named XK (KM19 and XV2C) is non-randomly associated with specific CF alleles. Our aim was to analyze the occurrence of the p.F508del mutation and XK haplotypes in Afro-Brazilians CF patients and controls, since these data is available for the other two main ethnic groups found in Brazil (Euro-Brazilians and Brazilian Amerindians), contributing for the whole comprehension of these haplotypes in the Brazilian population. A total of 103 patients and 54 controls were studied. PCR and PCR-RFLP methodologies were used to identify the presence of the p.F508del and the XK haplotype in the subjects. The combined data show that 84.2% of p.F508del mutation is associated with haplotype B and only 15.8% with haplotype A; no other haplotypes were found to be associated with this mutation. Our data suggest that the occurrence of p.F508del mutation and haplotype B in Afro-Brazilian patients occurs probably due to admixture with Euro-descendants. Therefore this mutation and haplotype could be used as a admixture marker.
Anisotropic Kepler and anisotropic two fixed centres problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maciejewski, Andrzej J.; Przybylska, Maria; Szumiński, Wojciech
2017-02-01
In this paper we show that the anisotropic Kepler problem is dynamically equivalent to a system of two point masses which move in perpendicular lines (or planes) and interact according to Newton's law of universal gravitation. Moreover, we prove that generalised version of anisotropic Kepler problem as well as anisotropic two centres problem are non-integrable. This was achieved thanks to investigation of differential Galois groups of variational equations along certain particular solutions. Properties of these groups yield very strong necessary integrability conditions.
Thermodynamics of anisotropic branes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ávila, Daniel; Fernández, Daniel; Patiño, Leonardo; Trancanelli, Diego
2016-11-01
We study the thermodynamics of flavor D7-branes embedded in an anisotropic black brane solution of type IIB supergravity. The flavor branes undergo a phase transition between a `Minkowski embedding', in which they lie outside of the horizon, and a `black hole embedding', in which they fall into the horizon. This transition depends on the black hole temperature, its degree of anisotropy, and the mass of the flavor degrees of freedom. It happens either at a critical temperature or at a critical anisotropy. A general lesson we learn from this analysis is that the anisotropy, in this particular realization, induces similar effects as the temperature. In particular, increasing the anisotropy bends the branes more and more into the horizon. Moreover, we observe that the transition becomes smoother for higher anisotropies.
Optical trapping of anisotropic nanocylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bareil, Paul B.; Sheng, Yunlong
2013-09-01
The T-matrix method with the Vector Spherical Wave Function (VSWF) expansions represents some difficulties for computing optical scattering of anisotropic particles. As the divergence of the electric field is nonzero in the anisotropic medium and the VSWFs do not satisfy the anisotropic wave equations one questioned whether the VSWFs are still a suitable basis in the anisotropic medium. We made a systematic and careful review on the vector basis functions and the VSWFs. We found that a field vector in Euclidean space can be decomposed to triplet vectors {L, M, N}, which as non-coplanar. Especially, the vector L is designed to represent non-zero divergence component of the vector solution, so that the VSWF basis is sufficiently general to represent the solutions of the anisotropic wave equation. The mathematical proof can be that when the anisotropic wave equations is solved in the Fourier space, the solution is expanded in the basis of the plan waves with angular spectrum amplitude distributions. The plane waves constitute an orthogonal and complete set for the anisotropic solutions. Furthermore, the plane waves are expanded into the VSWF basis. These two-step expansions are equivalent to the one-step direct expansion of the anisotropic solution to the VSWF basis. We used direct VSWF expansion, along with the point-matching method in the T-matrix, and applied the boundary condition to the normal components displacement field in order to compute the stress and the related forces and torques and to show the mechanism of the optical trap of the anisotropic nano-cylinders.
Effects of nonuniform acceptance in anisotropic flow measurements
Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Voloshin, Sergei
2008-03-15
The applicability of anisotropic flow measurement techniques and their extension for detectors with nonuniform azimuthal acceptance are discussed. Considering anisotropic flow measurements with two and three (mixed harmonic) azimuthal correlations we introduce a set of observables based on the x and y components of the event flow vector. These observables provide independent measures of anisotropic flow and can be used to test the self-consistency of the analysis. Based on these observables we propose a technique that explicitly takes into account the effects of nonuniform detector acceptance. Within this approach the acceptance corrections, as well as parameters that define the method applicability, can be determined directly from experimental data. For practical purposes a brief summary of the method is provided at the end.
Vortex dynamics in anisotropic traps
McEndoo, S.; Busch, Th.
2010-07-15
We investigate the dynamics of linear vortex lattices in anisotropic traps in two dimensions and show that the interplay between the rotation and the anisotropy leads to a rich but highly regular dynamics.
Cracking on anisotropic neutron stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Setiawan, A. M.; Sulaksono, A.
2017-07-01
We study the effect of cracking of a local anisotropic neutron star (NS) due to small density fluctuations. It is assumed that the neutron star core consists of leptons, nucleons and hyperons. The relativistic mean field model is used to describe the core of equation of state (EOS). For the crust, we use the EOS introduced by Miyatsu et al. [1]. Furthermore, two models are used to describe pressure anisotropic in neutron star matter. One is proposed by Doneva-Yazadjiev (DY) [2] and the other is proposed by Herrera-Barreto (HB) [3]. The anisotropic parameter of DY and HB models are adjusted in order the predicted maximum mass compatible to the mass of PSR J1614-2230 [4] and PSR J0348+0432 [5]. We have found that cracking can potentially present in the region close to the neutron star surface. The instability due cracking is quite sensitive to the NS mass and anisotropic parameter used.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rosenzweig, Saul
1978-01-01
Data are presented on the retest and split-half reliability of the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration (P-F) Study, Children's Form, for two groups of subjects (aged 10-11 and 12-13), each group tested twice at an interval of three months. Reliability by retest was consistently higher than by the split-half method. (Author/CTM)
Actuation performances of anisotropic gels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nardinocchi, P.; Teresi, L.
2016-12-01
We investigated the actuation performances of anisotropic gels driven by mechanical and chemical stimuli, in terms of both deformation processes and stroke-curves, and distinguished between the fast response of gels before diffusion starts and the asymptotic response attained at the steady state. We also showed as the range of forces that an anisotropic hydrogel can exert when constrained is especially wide; indeed, changing fiber orientation allows us to induce shear as well as transversely isotropic extensions.
Anisotropic assembly and pattern formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
von Brecht, James H.; Uminsky, David T.
2017-01-01
We investigate the role of anisotropy in two classes of individual-based models for self-organization, collective behavior and self-assembly. We accomplish this via first-order dynamical systems of pairwise interacting particles that incorporate anisotropic interactions. At a continuum level, these models represent the natural anisotropic variants of the well-known aggregation equation. We leverage this framework to analyze the impact of anisotropic effects upon the self-assembly of co-dimension one equilibrium structures, such as micelles and vesicles. Our analytical results reveal the regularizing effect of anisotropy, and isolate the contexts in which anisotropic effects are necessary to achieve dynamical stability of co-dimension one structures. Our results therefore place theoretical limits on when anisotropic effects can be safely neglected. We also explore whether anisotropic effects suffice to induce pattern formation in such particle systems. We conclude with brief numerical studies that highlight various aspects of the models we introduce, elucidate their phase structure and partially validate the analysis we provide.
Tan, Jinwang; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Ferris, Kim F.; Ryan, Emily M.
2016-01-01
Dendrite formation on the electrode surface of high energy density lithium (Li) batteries causes safety problems and limits their applications. Suppressing dendrite growth could significantly improve Li battery performance. Dendrite growth and morphology is a function of the mixing in the electrolyte near the anode interface. Most research into dendrites in batteries focuses on dendrite formation in isotropic electrolytes (i.e., electrolytes with isotropic diffusion coefficient). In this work, an anisotropic diffusion reaction model is developed to study the anisotropic mixing effect on dendrite growth in Li batteries. The model uses a Lagrangian particle-based method to model dendrite growth in an anisotropic electrolyte solution. The model is verified by comparing the numerical simulation results with analytical solutions, and its accuracy is shown to be better than previous particle-based anisotropic diffusion models. Several parametric studies of dendrite growth in an anisotropic electrolyte are performed and the results demonstrate the effects of anisotropic transport on dendrite growth and morphology, and show the possible advantages of anisotropic electrolytes for dendrite suppression.
Light propagation through anisotropic turbulence.
Toselli, Italo; Agrawal, Brij; Restaino, Sergio
2011-03-01
A wealth of experimental data has shown that atmospheric turbulence can be anisotropic; in this case, a Kolmogorov spectrum does not describe well the atmospheric turbulence statistics. In this paper, we show a quantitative analysis of anisotropic turbulence by using a non-Kolmogorov power spectrum with an anisotropic coefficient. The spectrum we use does not include the inner and outer scales, it is valid only inside the inertial subrange, and it has a power-law slope that can be different from a Kolmogorov one. Using this power spectrum, in the weak turbulence condition, we analyze the impact of the power-law variations α on the long-term beam spread and scintillation index for several anisotropic coefficient values ς. We consider only horizontal propagation across the turbulence cells, assuming circular symmetry is maintained on the orthogonal plane to the propagation direction. We conclude that the anisotropic coefficient influences both the long-term beam spread and the scintillation index by the factor ς(2-α).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balan, Adrian; Chien, Chen-Chi; Engelke, Rebecca; Drndić, Marija
2015-12-01
Solid-state membranes are finding use in many applications in nanoelectronics and nanomedicine, from single molecule sensors to water filtration, and yet many of their electronics applications are limited by the relatively high current noise and low bandwidth stemming from the relatively high capacitance (>10 pF) of the membrane chips. To address this problem, we devised an integrated fabrication process to grow and define circular silicon nitride membranes on glass chips that successfully lower the chip capacitance to below 1 pF. We use these devices to demonstrate low-noise, high-bandwidth DNA translocation measurements. We also make use of this versatile, low-capacitance platform to suspend other thin, two-dimensional membrane such as graphene.
Final report on COOMET key comparison of capacitance at 100 pF (COOMET.EM-S4)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velychko, O.; Akhamadov, O.
2017-01-01
An intercomparison of capacitance at 100 pF has taken place within the framework of COOMET. The intercomparison, piloted by State Enterprise 'Ukrmetrteststandard'-UMTS (Ukraine), has involved seven laboratories, including one who is a member of another regional metrological organization-APMP (NMIJ/AIST, Japan). The results presented in this report appear to show that there are significant differences between some laboratories' representations of the farad. However, the agreement demonstrated by the intercomparison provides confidence in maintaining traceability for the capacitance at 100 pF. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chien, Chen-Chi; Balan, Adrian; Engelke, Rebecca; Drndic, Marija
Solid-state membranes are finding use in many applications in nanoelectronics and nanomedicine, from single molecule sensors to water filtration, and yet many of their electronics applications are limited by the current noise and low bandwidth stemming from the relatively high capacitance (more than 10 pF) of the membrane chips. To address this problem, we devised an integrated fabrication process to grow and define circular silicon nitride membranes on glass chips that successfully lower the chip capacitance to below 1 pF. We use these devices to demonstrate low-noise, high-bandwidth DNA translocation measurements. We also make use of this versatile, low-capacitance platform to suspend other thin, two-dimensional membranes such as graphene.
Sebro, R; Levy, H; Schneck, K; Dimmock, D; Raby, BA; Cannon, CL; Broeckel, U; Risch, NJ
2014-01-01
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a monogenetic disease with a complex phenotype. Over 1500 mutations in the CFTR gene have been identified; however, the p.F508del mutation is most common. There has been limited correlation between the CFTR mutation genotype and the disease phenotypes. We evaluated the non-p.F508del mutation of 108 p.F508del compound heterozygotes using the biological classification method, Grantham and Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant (SIFT) scores to assess whether these scoring systems correlated with sweat chloride levels, pancreatic sufficiency, predicted FEV1, and risk of infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the last year. Mutations predicted to be ‘mild’ by the biological classification method are associated with more normal sweat chloride levels (p < 0.001), pancreatic sufficiency (p < 0.001) and decreased risk of infection with Pseudomonas in the last year (p = 0.014). Lower Grantham scores are associated with more normal sweat chloride levels (p < 0.001), and pancreatic sufficiency (p = 0.014). Higher SIFT scores are associated with more normal sweat chloride levels (p < 0.001) and pancreatic sufficiency (p = 0.011). There was no association between pulmonary function measured by predicted FEV1 and the biological classification (p = 0.98), Grantham (p = 0.28) or SIFT scores (p = 0.62), which suggests the pulmonary disease related to CF may involve other modifier genes and environmental factors. PMID:22035343
Anisotropic lattice models of electrolytes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobelev, Vladimir; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.
2002-11-01
Systems of charged particles on anisotropic three-dimensional lattices are investigated theoretically using Debye-Huckel theory. It is found that the thermodynamics of these systems strongly depends on the degree of anisotropy. For weakly anisotropic simple cubic lattices, the results indicate the existence of order-disorder phase transitions and a tricritical point, while the possibility of low-density gas-liquid coexistence is suppressed. For strongly anisotropic lattices this picture changes dramatically: The low-density gas-liquid phase separation reappears and the phase diagram exhibits critical, tricritical, and triple points. For body-centered lattices, the low-density gas-liquid phase coexistence is suppressed for all degrees of anisotropy. These results show that the effect of anisotropy in lattice models of electrolytes amounts to reduction of spatial dimensionality.
Fluctuation relations for anisotropic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villavicencio-Sanchez, R.; Harris, R. J.; Touchette, H.
2014-02-01
Currents of particles or energy in driven non-equilibrium steady states are known to satisfy certain symmetries, referred to as fluctuation relations, determining the ratio of the probabilities of positive fluctuations to negative ones. A generalization of these fluctuation relations has been proposed recently for extended non-equilibrium systems of dimension greater than one, assuming, crucially, that they are isotropic (Hurtado P. I., Pérez-Espigares C., del Pozo J. J. and Garrido P. L., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 108 (2011) 7704). Here we relax this assumption and derive a fluctuation relation for d-dimensional systems having anisotropic bulk driving rates. We test the validity of this anisotropic fluctuation relation by calculating the particle current fluctuations in the 2d anisotropic zero-range process, using both exact and fluctuating hydrodynamic approaches.
Anisotropically structured magnetic aerogel monoliths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heiligtag, Florian J.; Airaghi Leccardi, Marta J. I.; Erdem, Derya; Süess, Martin J.; Niederberger, Markus
2014-10-01
Texturing of magnetic ceramics and composites by aligning and fixing of colloidal particles in a magnetic field is a powerful strategy to induce anisotropic chemical, physical and especially mechanical properties into bulk materials. If porosity could be introduced, anisotropically structured magnetic materials would be the perfect supports for magnetic separations in biotechnology or for magnetic field-assisted chemical reactions. Aerogels, combining high porosity with nanoscale structural features, offer an exceptionally large surface area, but they are difficult to magnetically texture. Here we present the preparation of anatase-magnetite aerogel monoliths via the assembly of preformed nanocrystallites. Different approaches are proposed to produce macroscopic bodies with gradient-like magnetic segmentation or with strongly anisotropic magnetic texture.Texturing of magnetic ceramics and composites by aligning and fixing of colloidal particles in a magnetic field is a powerful strategy to induce anisotropic chemical, physical and especially mechanical properties into bulk materials. If porosity could be introduced, anisotropically structured magnetic materials would be the perfect supports for magnetic separations in biotechnology or for magnetic field-assisted chemical reactions. Aerogels, combining high porosity with nanoscale structural features, offer an exceptionally large surface area, but they are difficult to magnetically texture. Here we present the preparation of anatase-magnetite aerogel monoliths via the assembly of preformed nanocrystallites. Different approaches are proposed to produce macroscopic bodies with gradient-like magnetic segmentation or with strongly anisotropic magnetic texture. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Digital photographs of dispersions and gels with different water-to-ethanol ratios; magnetic measurements of an anatase aerogel containing 0.25 mol% Fe3O4 nanoparticles; XRD patterns of the iron oxide and
The role of anisotropic expansion for pulmonary acinar aerosol deposition
Hofemeier, Philipp; Sznitman, Josué
2016-01-01
Lung deformations at the local pulmonary acinar scale are intrinsically anisotropic. Despite progress in imaging modalities, the true heterogeneous nature of acinar expansion during breathing remains controversial, where our understanding of inhaled aerosol deposition still widely emanates from studies under self-similar, isotropic wall motions. Building on recent 3D models of multi-generation acinar networks, we explore in numerical simulations how different hypothesized scenarios of anisotropic expansion influence deposition outcomes of inhaled aerosols in the acinar depths. While the broader range of particles acknowledged to reach the acinar region (dp = 0.005–5.0 μm) are largely unaffected by the details of anisotropic expansion under tidal breathing, our results suggest nevertheless that anisotropy modulates the deposition sites and fractions for a narrow band of sub-micron particles (dp ~ 0.5–0.75 μm), where the fate of aerosols is greatly intertwined with local convective flows. Our findings underscore how intrinsic aerosol motion (i.e. diffusion, sedimentation) undermines the role of anisotropic wall expansion that is often attributed in determining aerosol mixing and acinar deposition. PMID:27614613
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Frankel, Edward
Traditional grading was replaced with the Honors-Pass-Fail (H-P-F) grading system in graduate education courses at Herbert H. Lehman College in the fall 1971 semester. The purpose of that action was to determine if the H-P-F system might differentiate more effectively between exceptional and average student achievement. The general findings of the…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pouget, J. P.; Foury-Leylekian, P.; Petit, S.; Hennion, B.; Coulon, C.; Bourbonnais, C.
2017-07-01
One-dimensional (1D) conductors such as Bechgaard and Fabre salts are a prototypal example of correlated systems where the phase diagram is controlled by sizable electron-electron repulsions. In deuterated (TMTTF) 2P F6 , where this interaction achieves charge localization at ambient pressure on donor stacks, magnetostructural coupling plays a decisive role to stabilize a spin-Peierls (SPs) ground state at TSP=13 K . In this paper, we present the first inelastic neutron scattering investigation of SP magnetic excitations in organics. Our paper reveals the presence above TSP of sizable critical fluctuations leading to the formation of a pseudogap in the 1D antiferromagnetic (AF) S =1 /2 magnetic excitation spectrum of the donor stack, concomitant with the local formation of singlet of paired spins into dimers below TSPMF≈40 K . In addition, the inelastic neutron scattering investigation allows us also to probe the SP critical lattice dynamics and to show that at ambient pressure these dynamics are of relaxation or order-disorder type. Below TSP, our paper reveals the emergence of a two gap SP magnetic excitation spectrum towards a well-defined S =1 magnon mode and a continuum of two excitations, as theoretically predicted. Our measurements allow us to locate the ambient pressure SP phase of (TMTTF) 2P F6 in the classical (adiabatic) limit close to the classical/quantum crossover line. Then we provide arguments suggesting that pressurized (TMTTF) 2P F6 shifts to the quantum (antiadiabatic) SP gapped phase, which ends in a quantum critical point allowing the stabilization of an AF phase that competes with superconductivity at higher pressure. Finally, we propose that the magnetostructural coupling mechanism in the Fabre salts is caused by dimer charge/spin fluctuations driven by the coupling of donors with anions.
A Novel SRY Gene Mutation p.F109L in a 46,XY Female with Complete Gonadal Dysgenesis.
Andonova, Silvia; Robeva, Ralitsa; Sirakov, Milko; Mainhard, Karela; Tomova, Analia; Ledig, Susanne; Kumanov, Philip; Savov, Alexey
2015-01-01
46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis (CGD) is a disorder of sexual development that can result from different mutations in genes associated with sex determination. Patients are phenotypically females, and the disease is often diagnosed in late adolescence because of delayed puberty. Here, we present the clinical and molecular data of a 46,XY female CGD patient with gonadoblastoma with dysgerminoma and incidentally found inherited thrombophilia. The clinical significance of the described de novo SRY gene mutation c.325T>C (p.F109L) is discussed. This case report supports the critical role of the HGM domain in the SRY gene and the need of a multidisciplinary approach for CGD patients.
Marciano, Daniele; Columbus, Ishay; Elias, Shlomi; Goldvaser, Michael; Shoshanim, Ofir; Ashkenazi, Nissan; Zafrani, Yossi
2012-11-16
Following our ongoing studies on the reactivity of the fluoride ion toward organophosphorus compounds, we established that the extremely toxic and environmentally persistent chemical warfare agent VX (O-ethyl S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothioate) is exclusively and rapidly degraded to the nontoxic product EMPA (ethyl methylphosphonic acid) even in dilute aqueous solutions of fluoride. The unique role of the P-F bond formation in the reaction mechanism was explored using both experimental and computational mechanistic studies. In most cases, the "G-analogue" (O-ethyl methylphosphonofluoridate, Et-G) was observed as an intermediate. Noteworthy and of practical importance is the fact that the toxic side product desethyl-VX, which is formed in substantial quantities during the slow degradation of VX in unbuffered water, is completely avoided in the presence of fluoride. A computational study on a VX-model, O,S-diethyl methylphosphonothioate (1), clarifies the distinctive tendency of aqueous fluoride ions to react with such organophosphorus compounds. The facility of the degradation process even in dilute fluoride solutions is due to the increased reactivity of fluoride, which is caused by the significant low activation barrier for the P-F bond formation. In addition, the unique nucleophilicity of fluoride versus hydroxide toward VX, in contrast to their relative basicity, is discussed. Although the reaction outcomes were similar, much slower reaction rates were observed experimentally for the VX-model (1) in comparison to VX.
Final report on COOMET key comparison of capacitance at 10 pF (COOMET.EM-K4)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velychko, O.; Akhamadov, O.
2017-01-01
An intercomparison of capacitance at 10 pF has taken place within the framework of COOMET. The intercomparison, piloted by State Enterprise 'Ukrmetrteststandard'-UMTS (Ukraine), has involved seven laboratories, including one who is a member of another regional metrological organization-APMP (NMIJ/AIST, Japan). The results presented in this report appear to show that there are significant differences between some laboratories' representations of the farad. However, the agreement demonstrated by the intercomparison provides confidence in maintaining traceability for the capacitance at 10 pF. Proposed to link the results from this key comparison to the CCEM-K4 comparison. VNIIM (Russia) and PTB (Germany) are linking NMIs as far as they participated in CCEM-K4. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).
Anisotropic ripple deformation in phosphorene
Kou, Liangzhi; Ma, Yandong; Smith, Sean C.; Chen, Changfeng
2015-04-07
Here, two-dimensional materials tend to become crumpled according to the Mermin-Wagner theorem, and the resulting ripple deformation may significantly influence electronic properties as observed in graphene and MoS_{2}. Here, we unveil by first-principles calculations a new, highly anisotropic ripple pattern in phosphorene, a monolayer black phosphorus, where compression-induced ripple deformation occurs only along the zigzag direction in the strain range up to 10%, but not the armchair direction. This direction-selective ripple deformation mode in phosphorene stems from its puckered structure with coupled hinge-like bonding configurations and the resulting anisotropic Poisson ratio. We also construct an analytical model using classical elasticity theory for ripple deformation in phosphorene under arbitrary strain. The present results offer new insights into the mechanisms governing the structural and electronic properties of phosphorene crucial to its device applications.
Anisotropic ripple deformation in phosphorene
Kou, Liangzhi; Ma, Yandong; Smith, Sean C.; ...
2015-04-07
Here, two-dimensional materials tend to become crumpled according to the Mermin-Wagner theorem, and the resulting ripple deformation may significantly influence electronic properties as observed in graphene and MoS2. Here, we unveil by first-principles calculations a new, highly anisotropic ripple pattern in phosphorene, a monolayer black phosphorus, where compression-induced ripple deformation occurs only along the zigzag direction in the strain range up to 10%, but not the armchair direction. This direction-selective ripple deformation mode in phosphorene stems from its puckered structure with coupled hinge-like bonding configurations and the resulting anisotropic Poisson ratio. We also construct an analytical model using classical elasticitymore » theory for ripple deformation in phosphorene under arbitrary strain. The present results offer new insights into the mechanisms governing the structural and electronic properties of phosphorene crucial to its device applications.« less
Yield surfaces for anisotropic plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walker, J. D.; Thacker, B. H.
2000-04-01
Aerospace systems are incorporating composite materials into their structures. The composite materials are often anisotropic in mechanical response due to their geometric layout. For many years, the failure surfaces of anisotropic materials were thought to be characterizable by a quadratic function in the stress, referred to as a Tsai-Wu yield surface, or, in a more restrictive form, a Tsai-Hill yield surface. Such a representation does not work for materials that are strong in two directions and weak in one direction, which is the case of most interest since it represents fiber/epoxy composite plates. This paper demonstrates the impossibility of modeling the failure surface with either the Tsai-Wu or Tsai-Hill failure surfaces. A yield surface is presented based on the lemniscate, which is quartic in the stress. This new yield surface addresses the case of strong in two directions and weak in one.
Conductivity in an anisotropic background
Lee, Bum-Hoon; Nam, Siyoung; Pang, Da-Wei; Park, Chanyong
2011-03-15
By using the gauge/gravity duality, we investigate the dual field theories of the anisotropic backgrounds, which are exact solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with a Liouville potential. When we turn on the bulk gauge field fluctuation A{sub x} with a nontrivial dilaton coupling, the AC conductivity of this dual field theory is proportional to the frequency with an exponent depending on parameters of the anisotropic background. In some parameter regions, we find that this conductivity can have the negative exponent like the strange metal. In addition, we also investigate another U(1) gauge field fluctuation, which is not coupled with a dilaton field. We classify all possible conductivities of this system and find that the exponent of the conductivity is always positive.
Anisotropic Ripple Deformation in Phosphorene.
Kou, Liangzhi; Ma, Yandong; Smith, Sean C; Chen, Changfeng
2015-05-07
Two-dimensional materials tend to become crumpled according to the Mermin-Wagner theorem, and the resulting ripple deformation may significantly influence electronic properties as observed in graphene and MoS2. Here, we unveil by first-principles calculations a new, highly anisotropic ripple pattern in phosphorene, a monolayer black phosphorus, where compression-induced ripple deformation occurs only along the zigzag direction in the strain range up to 10%, but not the armchair direction. This direction-selective ripple deformation mode in phosphorene stems from its puckered structure with coupled hinge-like bonding configurations and the resulting anisotropic Poisson ratio. We also construct an analytical model using classical elasticity theory for ripple deformation in phosphorene under arbitrary strain. The present results offer new insights into the mechanisms governing the structural and electronic properties of phosphorene crucial to its device applications.
Cracking in charged anisotropic cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharif, M.; Sadiq, Sobia
2017-06-01
In this paper, we study the stability of static charged anisotropic cylindrically symmetric compact object through cracking. The Einstein-Maxwell field equations and conservation equation are formulated. We then apply local density perturbation and study the behavior of force distribution function. Finally, the cracking is explored for two models satisfying specific form of Chaplygin equation of state. It is found that these models exhibit cracking and the instability increases as the value of charge parameter is increased.
Viscoacoustic anisotropic full waveform inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qu, Yingming; Li, Zhenchun; Huang, Jianping; Li, Jinli
2017-01-01
A viscoacoustic vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) quasi-differential wave equation, which takes account for both the viscosity and anisotropy of media, is proposed for wavefield simulation in this study. The finite difference method is used to solve the equations, for which the attenuation terms are solved in the wavenumber domain, and all remaining terms in the time-space domain. To stabilize the adjoint wavefield, robust regularization operators are applied to the wave equation to eliminate the high-frequency component of the numerical noise produced during the backward propagation of the viscoacoustic wavefield. Based on these strategies, we derive the corresponding gradient formula and implement a viscoacoustic VTI full waveform inversion (FWI). Numerical tests verify that our proposed viscoacoustic VTI FWI can produce accurate and stable inversion results for viscoacoustic VTI data sets. In addition, we test our method's sensitivity to velocity, Q, and anisotropic parameters. Our results show that the sensitivity to velocity is much higher than that to Q and anisotropic parameters. As such, our proposed method can produce acceptable inversion results as long as the Q and anisotropic parameters are within predefined thresholds.
Yield Surfaces for Anisotropic Plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walker, J. D.; Thacker, B. H.
1999-06-01
Modern aerospace systems are incorporating composite materials into their structures. Often, the composite materials are anisotropic in their mechanical response due to the geometric layout of fibers. For many years, the failure surfaces of anisotropic materials were thought to be characterizable by a quadratic function in the stress, often referred to as a Tsai-Wu yield surface, or, in a more restrictive form, a Tsai-Hill yield surface. Such a representation does not work for materials that are strong in two directions and weak in one direction, which, unfortunately, is the case of most interest since it represents most composite plates. This paper demonstrates the impossibility of modeling the failure surface with both the Tsai-Wu and Tsai-Hill failure surfaces. We then present a yield surface based on the lemniscate, which is quartic in the stress. This new yield surface addresses the case of strong in two directions and weak in one. Calculations with a fragment impacting a composite plate modeled with the new yield surface are presented. Modifications of the yield surface are presented to allow, in a limited way, materials that are both anisotropic and have differing strengths in tension and compression.
Anisotropic characterization of magnetorheological materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dohmen, E.; Modler, N.; Gude, M.
2017-06-01
For the development of energy efficient lightweight parts novel function integrating materials are needed. Concerning this field of application magnetorheological (MR) fluids, MR elastomers and MR composites are promising materials allowing the adjustment of mechanical properties by an external magnetic field. A key issue for operating such structures in praxis is the magneto-mechanical description. Most rheological properties are gathered at laboratory conditions for high magnetic flux densities and a single field direction, which does not correspond to real praxis conditions. Although anisotropic formation of superstructures can be observed in MR suspensions (Fig. 1) or experimenters intentionally polymerize MR elastomers with anisotropic superstructures these MR materials are usually described in an external magnetic field as uniform, isotropic materials. This is due to missing possibilities for experimentally measuring field angle dependent properties and ways of distinguishing between material properties and frictional effects. Just a few scientific works experimentally investigated the influence of different field angles (Ambacher et al., 1992; Grants et al., 1990; Kuzhir et al., 2003) [1-3] or the influence of surface roughness on the shear behaviour of magnetic fluids (Tang and Conrad, 1996) [4]. The aim of this work is the introduction of a novel field angle cell allowing the determination of anisotropic mechanical properties for various MR materials depending on the applied magnetic field angle.
Sun, Lei; Wu, Mao-Sen; He, Chen-Yang
2010-04-01
The ferric iron absorption is one of the most important limiting factors of bacterial growth of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. It has been previously speculated that r p f F xoo might be involved in the ferric iron metabolism of the pathogen. In the present study, deltar p f F xoo, a gene deletion mutant, was generated from the wild-type strain PXO99A of Xoo through the homologous recombination, and Fe content was assayed using flame atomic absorption in PXO99A and deltar p f F xoo. The results indicated that the recovery was 99.7% and the relative standard deviation was 1.89 under optimized AAS operating conditions. The increase in Fe absorption in PXO99A and deltar p f F xoo was observed with the increasing time. However, the ferric content of deltar p f F xoo was significantly lower than that of PXO99A (P < 0.05). It is suggested that r p f F xoo is involved in iron metabolism in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.
Constitutive Equation for Anisotropic Rock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cazacu, O.
2006-12-01
In many rocks, due to the existence of well-defined fabric elements such as bedding, layering, foliation or lamination planes, or due to the existence of linear structures, anisotropy can be important. The symmetries most frequently encountered are: transverse isotropy and orthotropy. By adopting both theoretical and experimental approaches, many authors have investigated the effect of the presence within the rock of pronounced anisotropic feature on the mechanical behavior in the elastic regime and on strength properties. Fewer attempts however have been made to capture the anisotropy of rocks in the plastic range. In this paper an elastic/viscoplastic non-associated constitutive equation for an initially transversely isotropic material is presented. The model captures the observed dependency of the elastic moduli on the stress state. The limit of the elastic domain is given by an yield function whose expression is a priori unknown and is determined from data. The basic assumption adopted is that the type of anisotropy of the rock does not change during the deformation process. The anisotropy is thus described by a fourth order tensor invariant with respect to any transformation belonging to the symmetry group of the material. This tensor is assumed to be constant: it does not depend on time nor on deformation; A is involved in the expression of the flow rule, of the yield function, and of the failure criterion in the form of a transformed stress tensor. The components of the anisotropic tensor A are determined from the compressive strengths in conjunction with an anisotropic short- term failure The irreversibility is supposed to be due to transient creep, the irreversible stress work per unit volume being considered as hardening parameter. The adequacy of the model is demonstrated by applying it to a stratified sedimentary rock, Tournemire shale.
Anisotropic inflation from vector impurity
Kanno, Sugumi; Kimura, Masashi; Soda, Jiro; Yokoyama, Shuichiro E-mail: mkimura@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp E-mail: shu@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp
2008-08-15
We study an inflationary scenario with a vector impurity. We show that the universe undergoes anisotropic inflationary expansion due to a preferred direction determined by the vector. Using the slow roll approximation, we find a formula for determining the anisotropy of the inflationary universe. We discuss possible observable predictions of this scenario. In particular, it is stressed that primordial gravitational waves can be induced from curvature perturbations. Hence, even in low scale inflation, a sizable amount of primordial gravitational waves may be produced during inflation.
Anisotropic Geometrodynamics in Cosmological Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siparov, Sergey
2010-10-01
Anisotropic geometrodynamics (AGD) is the GRT modification that takes into account the dependence of metric on the velocities of the sources which follows from the equivalence principle and from the inseparability of the field equations and geodesics equations. The AGD provides the explanation for the flat character of the rotation curves of spiral galaxies, for Tully-Fisher law, for some specific features of globular clusters behavior and for the essential excess of the observable gravitational lens effect over the predicted one. Neither dark matter nor arbitrary change of dynamics equations as in known approaches appears to be needed. Important cosmological consequences are discussed.
Light Propagation through Anisotropic Turbulence
2011-03-01
Kolmogorov stratospheric turbulence on star image motion,” Proc. SPIE 3126, 113–123 (1997). 5. B. E . Stribling, B. M . Welsh, and M . C. Roggemann...746407 (2009). 10. M . Chang, C. O. Font, F. Santiago, Y. Luna, E . Roura, and S. Restaino, “Marine environment optical propagation measure- ments,” Proc...Anisotropic factor as a function of alpha for several zeta values. Toselli et al. Vol. 28, No. 3 / March 2011 / J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 487 14. M . S
Signature of anisotropic bubble collisions
Salem, Michael P.
2010-09-15
Our universe may have formed via bubble nucleation in an eternally inflating background. Furthermore, the background may have a compact dimension--the modulus of which tunnels out of a metastable minimum during bubble nucleation--which subsequently grows to become one of our three large spatial dimensions. When in this scenario our bubble universe collides with other ones like it, the collision geometry is constrained by the reduced symmetry of the tunneling instanton. While the regions affected by such bubble collisions still appear (to leading order) as disks in an observer's sky, the centers of these disks all lie on a single great circle, providing a distinct signature of anisotropic bubble nucleation.
Anisotropic water reorientation around ions.
Tielrooij, K J; van der Post, S T; Hunger, J; Bonn, M; Bakker, H J
2011-11-03
We study the reorientation dynamics of water molecules around ions using terahertz dielectric relaxation spectroscopy and polarization-resolved femtosecond infrared pump-probe spectroscopy. The results are discussed in relation to the ion-specific Hofmeister series and the concomitant "structure-making" and "structure-breaking" effects of ions on water. We show that when a dissolved salt consists of a strongly hydrated ion with a weakly hydrated counterion the reorientation of water molecules around the strongly hydrated ion is anisotropic, in the sense that differently charged ions affect reorientation along different molecular axes: cations mainly slow the reorientation dynamics of the water dipole vectors, and anions mainly slow down the reorientation dynamics of the hydroxyl group that points toward the anion. In both cases, motion along only one molecular axis is impeded, so that the hydration shell is best described as semirigid. In this semirigid hydration picture, water molecules in the first hydration shell show anisotropic reorientation, whereas water molecules outside the first hydration shell remain unaffected. The inferred anisotropy in molecular motion explains why terahertz dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, which probes dipolar relaxation, is more sensitive to cation hydration effects while femtosecond infrared pump-probe spectroscopy, which is sensitive to reorientation of hydroxyl groups, is more sensitive to anion hydration effects. We also show that dissolution of CsI-a salt for which both cation and anion are weakly hydrated-has little effect on water reorientation dynamics, with hydration water displaying dynamics that are similar to those in bulk water.
Anisotropic Plasticity of BN Nanotubes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Madhu, Menon; Srivastava, Deepak; Woo, Alex (Technical Monitor)
1999-01-01
Plastic collapse of compressed BN nanotubes are investigated and compared with carbon nanotubes of similar nature. Using a generalized tight-binding molecular dynamics (GTBMD) method for system containing B, N and C atoms we compute stiffness and plastic collapse of BN and C nanotubes under axial compression. For small compressional strain, BN nanotubes are found to be about 92% as stiff as similar C nanotubes. Due to BN bond buckling effect, however, the elastic limit of BN nanotubes is found to be more than C nanotubes. A route to plasticity is explored in which we find that at elastic limit the accumulated strain is released by a local plastic deformation of the nanotube. The mechanism of strain release and the resulting plastic deformation, however. are anisotropic in nature. The strain is released preferentially towards N as leading edge of a buckled BN bond and the tube, compressed at both ends, plastically collapses preferentially towards one end. Details of the anisotropic plasticity and prospective applications will be discussed in this presentation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sur, Shouvik; Lee, Sung-Sik
2016-11-01
We study non-Fermi-liquid states that arise at the quantum critical points associated with the spin density wave (SDW) and charge density wave (CDW) transitions in metals with twofold rotational symmetry. We use the dimensional regularization scheme, where a one-dimensional Fermi surface is embedded in (3 -ɛ ) -dimensional momentum space. In three dimensions, quasilocal marginal Fermi liquids arise both at the SDW and CDW critical points: the speed of the collective mode along the ordering wave vector is logarithmically renormalized to zero compared to that of Fermi velocity. Below three dimensions, however, the SDW and CDW critical points exhibit drastically different behaviors. At the SDW critical point, a stable anisotropic non-Fermi-liquid state is realized for small ɛ , where not only time but also different spatial coordinates develop distinct anomalous dimensions. The non-Fermi liquid exhibits an emergent algebraic nesting as the patches of Fermi surface are deformed into a universal power-law shape near the hot spots. Due to the anisotropic scaling, the energy of incoherent spin fluctuations disperse with different power laws in different momentum directions. At the CDW critical point, on the other hand, the perturbative expansion breaks down immediately below three dimensions as the interaction renormalizes the speed of charge fluctuations to zero within a finite renormalization group scale through a two-loop effect. The difference originates from the fact that the vertex correction antiscreens the coupling at the SDW critical point whereas it screens at the CDW critical point.
Recent progress in anisotropic hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strickland, Michael
2017-03-01
The quark-gluon plasma created in a relativistic heavy-ion collisions possesses a sizable pressure anisotropy in the local rest frame at very early times after the initial nuclear impact and this anisotropy only slowly relaxes as the system evolves. In a kinetic theory picture, this translates into the existence of sizable momentum-space anisotropies in the underlying partonic distribution functions, < pL2> ≪ < pT2>. In such cases, it is better to reorganize the hydrodynamical expansion by taking into account momentum-space anisotropies at leading-order in the expansion instead of as a perturbative correction to an isotropic distribution. The resulting anisotropic hydrodynamics framework has been shown to more accurately describe the dynamics of rapidly expanding systems such as the quark-gluon plasma. In this proceedings contribution, I review the basic ideas of anisotropic hydrodynamics, recent progress, and present a few preliminary phenomenological predictions for identified particle spectra and elliptic flow.
Postbuckling of laminated anisotropic panels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jeffrey, Glenda L.
1987-01-01
A two-part study of the buckling and postbuckling of laminated anisotropic plates with bending-extensional coupling is presented. The first part involves the development and application of a modified Rayleigh-Ritz analysis technique. Modifications made to the classical technique can be grouped into three areas. First, known symmetries of anisotropic panels are exploited in the selection of approximation functions. Second, a reduced basis technique based on these same symmetries is applied in the linear range. Finally, geometric boundary conditions are enforced via an exterior penalty function approach, rather than relying on choice of approximation functions to satisfy these boundary conditions. Numerical results are presented for both the linear and nonlinear range, with additional studies made to determine the effect of variation in penalty parameter and number of basis vectors. In the second part, six panels possessing anisotropy and bending-extensional coupling are tested. Detailed comparisons are made between experiment and finite element results in order to gain insight into the postbuckling and failure characteristics of such panels. The panels are constructed using two different lamination sequences, and panels with three different aspect ratios were constructed for each lamination sequence.
Characterization of anisotropic acoustic metamaterial slabs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Jun Hyeong; Lee, Hyung Jin; Kim, Yoon Young
2016-01-01
In an anisotropic acoustic metamaterial, the off-diagonal components of its effective mass density tensor should be considered in order to describe the anisotropic behavior produced by arbitrarily shaped inclusions. However, few studies have been carried out to characterize anisotropic acoustic metamaterials. In this paper, we propose a method that uses the non-diagonal effective mass density tensor to determine the behavior of anisotropic acoustic metamaterials. Our method accurately evaluates the effective properties of anisotropic acoustic metamaterials by separately dealing with slabs made of single and multiple unit cells along the thickness direction. To determine the effective properties, the reflection and transmission coefficients of an acoustic metamaterial slab are calculated, and then the wave vectors inside of the slab are determined using these coefficients. The effective material properties are finally determined by utilizing the spatial dispersion relation of the anisotropic acoustic metamaterial. Since the dispersion relation of an anisotropic acoustic metamaterial is explicitly used, its effective properties can be easily determined by only using a limited number of normal and oblique plane wave incidences into a metamaterial slab, unlike existing approaches requiring a large number of wave incidences. The validity of the proposed method is verified by conducting wave simulations for anisotropic acoustic metamaterial slabs with Z-shaped elastic inclusions of tilted principal material axes.
Kim, Hahn; Van Dung Doan; Cho, Woo Jong; Madhav, Miriyala Vijay; Kim, Kwang S.
2014-01-01
Although group (IV–VII) nonmetallic elements do not favor interacting with anionic species, there are counterexamples including the halogen bond. Such binding is known to be related to the charge deficiency because of the adjacent atom's electron withdrawing effect, which creates σ/π-holes at the bond-ends. However, a completely opposite behavior is exhibited by N2 and O2, which have electrostatically positive/negative character around cylindrical-bond-surface/bond-ends. Inspired by this, here we elucidate the unusual features and origin of the anisotropic noncovalent interactions in the ground and excited states of the 2nd and 3rd row elements belonging to groups IV–VII. The anisotropy in charge distributions and van der Waals radii of atoms in such molecular systems are scrutinized. This provides an understanding of their unusual molecular configuration, binding and recognition modes involved in new types of molecular assembling and engineering. This work would lead to the design of intriguing molecular systems exploiting anisotropic noncovalent interactions. PMID:25059645
Anisotropic Magnus Force in Type-II Superconductors with Planar Defects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monroy, Ricardo Vega; Gomez, Eliceo Cortés
2015-02-01
The effect of planar defects on the Magnus force in type-II superconductors is studied. It is shown that the deformation of the vortex due to the presence of a planar defect leads to a local decrease in the mean free path of electrons in the vortex. This effect reduces the effective Magnus coefficient in normal direction to the planar defect, leading to an anisotropic regime of the Hall effect. The presented developments here can qualitatively explain experimental observations of the anisotropic Hall effect in high- T c superconductors in the mixed state.
Anisotropic invariance in minisuperspace models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chagoya, Javier; Sabido, Miguel
2016-06-01
In this paper we introduce invariance under anisotropic transformations to cosmology. This invariance is one of the key ingredients of the theory of quantum gravity at a Lifshitz point put forward by Hořava. We find that this new symmetry in the minisuperspace introduces characteristics to the model that can be relevant in the ultraviolet regime. For example, by canonical quantization we find a Schrödinger-type equation which avoids the problem of frozen time in quantum cosmology. For simple cases we obtain solutions to this quantum equation in a Kantowski-Sachs (KS) minisuperspace. At the classical level, we study KS and Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies, obtaining modifications to the solutions of general relativity that can be relevant in the early Universe.
Anisotropic Decomposition of Energetic Materials
Pravica, Michael; Quine, Zachary; Romano, Edward; Bajar, Sean; Yulga, Brian; Yang, Wenge; Hooks, Daniel
2008-01-17
Using a white x-ray synchrotron beam, we have dynamically studied radiation-induced decomposition in single crystalline PETN and TATB. By monitoring the integrated intensity of selected diffraction spots via a CCD x-ray camera as a function of time, we have found that the decomposition rate varies dramatically depending upon the orientation of the crystalline axes relative to polarized x-ray beam and for differing diffracting conditions (spots) within the same crystalline orientation. We suggest that this effect is due to Compton scattering of the polarized x-rays with electron clouds that is dependent upon their relative orientation. This novel effect may yield valuable insight regarding anisotropic detonation sensitivity in energetic materials such as PETN.
Anisotropic decomposition of energetic materials
Pravica, Michael; Quine, Zachary; Romano, Edward; Bajar, Sean; Yulga, Brian; Yang Wenge; Hooks, Daniel
2007-12-12
Using a white x-ray synchrotron beam, we have dynamically studied radiation-induced decomposition in single crystalline PETN and TATB. By monitoring the integrated intensity of selected diffraction spots via a CCD x-ray camera as a function of time, we have found that the decomposition rate varies dramatically depending upon the orientation of the crystalline axes relative to polarized x-ray beam and for differing diffracting conditions (spots) within the same crystalline orientation. We suggest that this effect is due to Compton scattering of the polarized x-rays with electron clouds that is dependent upon their relative orientation. This novel effect may yield valuable insight regarding anisotropic detonation sensitivity in energetic materials such as PETN.
Anisotropic grid adaptation in LES
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toosi, Siavash; Larsson, Johan
2016-11-01
The modeling errors depend directly on the grid (or filter) spacing in turbulence-resolving simulations (LES, DNS, DES, etc), and are typically at least as significant as the numerical errors. This makes adaptive grid-refinement complicated, since it prevents the estimation of the local error sources through numerical analysis. The present work attempts to address this difficulty with a physics-based error-source indicator that accounts for the anisotropy in the smallest resolved scales, which can thus be used to drive an anisotropic grid-adaptation process. The proposed error indicator is assessed on a sequence of problems, including turbulent channel flow and flows in more complex geometries. The formulation is geometrically general and applicable to complex geometries.
Mechanics of anisotropic spring networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, T.; Schwarz, J. M.; Das, Moumita
2014-12-01
We construct and analyze a model for a disordered linear spring network with anisotropy. The modeling is motivated by, for example, granular systems, nematic elastomers, and ultimately cytoskeletal networks exhibiting some underlying anisotropy. The model consists of a triangular lattice with two different bond occupation probabilities, px and py, for the linear springs. We develop an effective medium theory (EMT) to describe the network elasticity as a function of px and py. We find that the onset of rigidity in the EMT agrees with Maxwell constraint counting. We also find beyond linear behavior in the shear and bulk modulus as a function of occupation probability in the rigid phase for small strains, which differs from the isotropic case. We compare our EMT with numerical simulations to find rather good agreement. Finally, we discuss the implications of extending the reach of effective medium theory as well as draw connections with prior work on both anisotropic and isotropic spring networks.
Modeling of Anisotropic Inelastic Behavior
Nikkel, D.J.; Nath, D.S.; Brown, A.A.; Casey, J.
2000-02-25
An experimental capability, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), is being used to study the yield behavior of elastic-plastic materials. The objective of our research is to develop better constitutive equations for polycrystalline metals. We are experimentally determining the multidimensional yield surface of the material, both in its initial state and as it evolves during large inelastic deformations. These experiments provide a more complete picture of material behavior than can be obtained from traditional uniaxial tests. Experimental results show that actual material response can differ significantly from that predicted by simple idealized models. These results are being used to develop improved constitutive models of anisotropic plasticity for use in continuum computer codes.
Thermodynamics of soft anisotropic interfaces.
Rey, Alejandro D
2004-01-22
The Gibbs-Duhem equation for interfaces between nematic liquid crystals and isotropic fluids is formulated and shown to be a generic equation for soft anisotropic surfaces. The one-to-one correspondence between the nematic and crystalline surface Gibbs-Duhem equations is established. Consistency between the surface Gibbs-Duhem equation and the classical equations of interfacial nematostatics is shown. Using a phase space that takes into account thermodynamics, liquid crystalline order, and geometric variables, the generalized nematic surface Gibbs-Duhem equation reveals the presence of couplings between shape, adsorption, temperature, and average molecular orientation. Merging the thermodynamic analysis with nematostatics results in a model for morphactancy, that is, adsorption-induced interfacial shape selection. The specific roles of gradient bulk Frank elasticity, interfacial tension, and anchoring energy are elucidated by analyzing particular paths in the thermodynamic-geometric phase space.
Anisotropic microstructure near the sun
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coles, W. A.; Grall, R. R.; Spangler, S. R.; Sakurai, T.; Harmon, J. K.
1996-07-01
Radio scattering observations provide a means of measuring a two-dimensional projection of the three-dimensional spatial spectrum of electron density, i.e., in the plane perpendicular to the line of sight. Earlier observations have shown that the microstructure at scales of the order of 10 km becomes highly field-aligned inside of 10 Rsolar [Armstrong et al., 1990]. Earlier work has also shown that density fluctuations at scales larger than 1000 km have a Kolmogorov spectrum, whereas the smaller scale structure has a flatter spectrum and is considerably enhanced above the Kolmogorov ``background'' [Coles et al., 1991]. Here we present new observations made during 1990 and 1992. These confirm the earlier work, which was restricted to one source on a few days, but they suggest that the anisotropy changes abruptly near 6 Rsolar which was not clear in the earlier data. The axial ratio measurements are shown on Figure 1 below. The new observations were made with a more uniform sampling of the spatial plane. They show that contours of constant correlation are elliptical. This is apparently inconsistent with the spatial correlation of the ISEE-3 magnetic field which shows a ``Maltese Cross'' shape [Matthaeus et al., 1990]. However this inconsistency may be only apparent: the magnetic field and density correlations need not have the same shape; the scale of the magnetic field correlations is at least 4 orders of magnitude larger; they are much further from the sun; and they are point measurements whereas ours are path-integrated. We also made two simultaneous measurements, at 10 Rsolar, of the anisotropy on scales of 200 to 4000 km. Significant anisotropy was seen on the smaller scales, but the larger scale structure was essentially isotropic. This suggests that the process responsible for the anisotropic microstructure is independent of the larger scale isotropic turbulence. It is then tempting to speculate that the damping of this anisotropic process inside of 6 Rsolar
Wakabayashi, Masamitsu; Yokojima, Satoshi; Fukaminato, Tuyoshi; Ohtani, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Shinichiro
2015-04-21
In spite of the importance of anisotropic circular dichroism, in practice, it is difficult to get rid of the artifacts that arise from the imperfection of the circular polarization. Undesirable linear dichroism, interference of two orthogonal polarization states, and linear birefringence prevent us from making accurate measurements. We propose a theoretical method for evaluating the contributions of the first two, which are thought to be the main artifacts when specimens are not thick enough. Using the time-dependent perturbation theory and taking into account the direction of light propagation toward an orientationally fixed molecule, we formulated the transition probability of systems perturbed by arbitrarily polarized light and the absorption difference associated with two kinds of polarized light. We also formulated, as an extension of the dissymmetry factor of circular dichroism, a newly defined dissymmetry factor associated with two arbitrary polarization states. Furthermore, we considered a mixed-state of photon ensemble in which polarization states distribute at a certain width around a certain average. Although the purity of polarization and ellipticity does not correspond immediately, by considering the mixed state it is possible to treat them consistently. We used quantum statistical mechanics to describe the absorption difference for two kinds of photon ensembles and applied the consequent formula to examine the reported experimental results of single-molecule chiroptical responses under discussion in the recent past. The artifacts are theoretically suggested to be sensitive to the incident direction of elliptically polarized light and to the oriented systems, the ellipticity, and the orientation of ellipse. The mixed state has little, if any, effect when the polarization state distribution is narrow.
Wakabayashi, Masamitsu; Yokojima, Satoshi; Fukaminato, Tuyoshi; Ohtani, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Shinichiro
2015-04-21
In spite of the importance of anisotropic circular dichroism, in practice, it is difficult to get rid of the artifacts that arise from the imperfection of the circular polarization. Undesirable linear dichroism, interference of two orthogonal polarization states, and linear birefringence prevent us from making accurate measurements. We propose a theoretical method for evaluating the contributions of the first two, which are thought to be the main artifacts when specimens are not thick enough. Using the time-dependent perturbation theory and taking into account the direction of light propagation toward an orientationally fixed molecule, we formulated the transition probability of systems perturbed by arbitrarily polarized light and the absorption difference associated with two kinds of polarized light. We also formulated, as an extension of the dissymmetry factor of circular dichroism, a newly defined dissymmetry factor associated with two arbitrary polarization states. Furthermore, we considered a mixed-state of photon ensemble in which polarization states distribute at a certain width around a certain average. Although the purity of polarization and ellipticity does not correspond immediately, by considering the mixed state it is possible to treat them consistently. We used quantum statistical mechanics to describe the absorption difference for two kinds of photon ensembles and applied the consequent formula to examine the reported experimental results of single-molecule chiroptical responses under discussion in the recent past. The artifacts are theoretically suggested to be sensitive to the incident direction of elliptically polarized light and to the oriented systems, the ellipticity, and the orientation of ellipse. The mixed state has little, if any, effect when the polarization state distribution is narrow.
A novel mutation of p.F32I in GJA8 in human dominant congenital cataracts
Dang, Feng-Tao; Yang, Fa-Yu; Yang, Ye-Qin; Ge, Xiang-Lian; Chen, Ding; Zhang, Liu; Yu, Xin-Ping; Gu, Feng; Zhu, Yi-Hua
2016-01-01
AIM To identify a causative mutation in a three-generation family with autosomal dominant congenital total cataract and dissect the molecular consequence of the identified mutation. METHODS Clinical and ophthalmological examinations were performed on the affected and unaffected family members. Mutation were screened in recruited family members by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the two reported genes (CRYAA and GJA8) which were linked to human total cataracts and direct sequencing of the PCR product. The molecular consequences of the identified mutation was dissected. The plasmids carrying wild-type and mutant mouse ORF of Gja8, coding for connexin 50 (Cx50), were generated and ectopic expressed in 293 cells. Recombinant protein expression and cellular localization of recombinated Cx50 were assessed by confocal microscopy. RESULTS Clinical and ophthalmological examinations were performed on the affected and unaffected family members. Mutation were screened in recruited family members by PCR of the two reported genes (CRYAA and GJA8) which were linked to human total cataracts and direct sequencing of the PCR product. The molecular consequences of the identified mutation was dissected. The plasmids carrying wild-type and mutant mouse ORF of Gja8, coding for Cx50, were generated and ectopic expressed in 293 cells. Recombinant protein expression and cellular localization of recombinated Cx50 were assessed by confocal microscopy. CONCLUSION This study has identified a novel cataract mutation in GJA8, which adds a novel mutation to the existing spectrum of Cx50 mutations with cataract. The molecular consequences of p.F32I mutation in GJA8 exclude instability and the mislocalization of mutant Cx50 protein. PMID:27990357
Anisotropic inflation in Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Lahiri, Sayantani
2016-09-19
We study anisotropic inflation with Gauss-Bonnet correction in presence of a massless vector field. In this scenario, exact anisotropic power-law inflation is realized when the inflaton potential, gauge coupling function and the Gauss-Bonnet coupling are exponential functions. We show that anisotropy becomes proportional to two slow-roll parameters of the theory and hence gets enhanced in presence of quadratic curvature corrections. The stability analysis reveals that anisotropic power-law solutions remain stable over a substantially large parameter region.
Shaped beam scattering by an anisotropic particle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Huayong; Huang, Zhixiang; Wu, Xianliang
2017-03-01
An exact semi-analytical solution to the electromagnetic scattering from an optically anisotropic particle illuminated by an arbitrarily shaped beam is proposed. The scattered fields and fields within the anisotropic particle are expanded in terms of spherical vector wave functions. The unknown expansion coefficients are determined by using the boundary conditions and the method of moments scheme. For incidence of a Gaussian beam, zero-order Bessel beam and Hertzian electric dipole radiation, numerical results of the normalized differential scattering cross section are given to a uniaxial, gyrotropic anisotropic spheroid and circular cylinder of finite length. The scattering properties are analyzed concisely.
Finite-volume scheme for anisotropic diffusion
Es, Bram van; Koren, Barry; Blank, Hugo J. de
2016-02-01
In this paper, we apply a special finite-volume scheme, limited to smooth temperature distributions and Cartesian grids, to test the importance of connectivity of the finite volumes. The area of application is nuclear fusion plasma with field line aligned temperature gradients and extreme anisotropy. We apply the scheme to the anisotropic heat-conduction equation, and compare its results with those of existing finite-volume schemes for anisotropic diffusion. Also, we introduce a general model adaptation of the steady diffusion equation for extremely anisotropic diffusion problems with closed field lines.
Anisotropic superfluidity in a dipolar Bose gas.
Ticknor, Christopher; Wilson, Ryan M; Bohn, John L
2011-02-11
We study the superfluid character of a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate (DBEC) in a quasi-two dimensional geometry. We consider the dipole polarization to have some nonzero projection into the plane of the condensate so that the effective interaction is anisotropic in this plane, yielding an anisotropic dispersion relation. By performing direct numerical simulations of a probe moving through the DBEC, we observe the sudden onset of drag or creation of vortex-antivortex pairs at critical velocities that depend strongly on the direction of the probe's motion. This anisotropy emerges because of the anisotropic manifestation of a rotonlike mode in the system.
Anisotropic Superfluidity in a Dipolar Bose Gas
Ticknor, Christopher; Wilson, Ryan M.; Bohn, John L.
2011-02-11
We study the superfluid character of a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate (DBEC) in a quasi-two dimensional geometry. We consider the dipole polarization to have some nonzero projection into the plane of the condensate so that the effective interaction is anisotropic in this plane, yielding an anisotropic dispersion relation. By performing direct numerical simulations of a probe moving through the DBEC, we observe the sudden onset of drag or creation of vortex-antivortex pairs at critical velocities that depend strongly on the direction of the probe's motion. This anisotropy emerges because of the anisotropic manifestation of a rotonlike mode in the system.
Seismic source theory in stratified anisotropic media
Ben-Menahem, A.; Sena, A.G.
1990-09-10
First, the authors obtain an explicit representation of the spectral elastodynamic Green`s tensor in general homogeneous anisotropic media as a sum of three integrals over the corresponding three slowness surfaces. The multidimensional stationary phase principle is then applied to derive an asymptotic approximation at the far field. In the case of azimuthally isotropic media, they offer an alternative representation of the Green`s tensor and its ensuing displacements fields in the form of an exact Hankel transform over the horizontal wave number variable. The total field is specified here in terms of two potentials: an SH potential and a mixed quasi-transverse/quasi-longitudinal potential, both of which assume the role of two scalar Green`s functions. The availability of the Green`s tensor in analytical form enables one to obtain readily numerical solutions for a wide selection of media and sources. It is shown that the radiation field of an explosion has the following new features: (1) Quasi-transverse waves are created with four and eight lobe patterns; (2) quasi-longitudinal waves are generated for the collatitudinal displacement with four lobe patterns; (3) the energy ratio SV/P may reach the value of 20 for more than 50% of the azimuths in crustal structures such as tuff and shales; and (4) radiation patterns for vertical shear waves are created which are indistinguishable from corresponding waves produced by earthquake faults. The formalism allows the authors to establish a Haskell-type matrix algorithm for a multilayered azimuthally isotropic half-space, which enables them to calculate body waves and surface waves in real-earth crustal models.
Negative refraction in anisotropic composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chui, S. T.
2004-03-01
Left-handed materials (LHM) are materials in which the direction of wave propagation S is opposite to the wave vector k . S <0 .[1,2,3] LHM exhibit nagative refraction. Experiments have been carried out on a medium consisting of arrays of metallic rings and wrires.[3] An example of a different class of anisotropic left-handed materials are metallic magnetic granular composites. Based on the effective medium approximation, we show that by incorporating metallic magnetic nanoparticles into an appropriate insulating matrix, it may be possible to prepare a composite medium of low eddy current loss which is left-handed for electromagnetic waves propagating in some special direction and polarization in a frequency region near the ferromagnetic resonance frequency.[4,5] This composite may be easier to make on an industrial scale. In addition, its physical properties may be easily tuned by rotating the magnetization locally. The physics involved seems to be different from the original argument.[1,2] In our argument[5], the imaginary part of the dielectric constant of the metal is much larger than the real part, opposite to the original argument. In anisotropic materials so that some of the susceptibilities are negative, the criterion for LHM may not be the same as that for negative refraction.[6] Ansiotropic materials exhibit a richer manifold of anomlous behaviour[6,7,8] and offers more flexibility in apllications.[8] More recently it was found that negative refraction can occur in anisotropic materials where all the susceptibilities are positive.[9] We found that the range of applicability of this effect is much larger than originally thought.[10] S. T. Chui was supported in part by the Office of Naval Research, by the Army Research Laboratory through the Center of Composite Materials at the University of Delaware, by DARPA and by the NSF. [1] J.B.Pendry, A.J.Holden, W.J.Stewart, and I.Youngs, Phys. Rev. Lett 76, 4773 (1996). [2] V.G.Veselago, Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509
Anisotropic wettability on imprinted hierarchical structures.
Zhang, Fengxiang; Low, Hong Yee
2007-07-03
A series of two-level hierarchical structures on polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were fabricated using sequential nanoimprinting lithography (NIL). The hierarchical structures consist of micrometer and sub-micrometer scale grating imprinted with varying orientations. Through water contact angle measurements, these surface hierarchical structures showed a wide range of anisotropic wettabilities on PMMA and PS, with PMMA having an anisotropic wettability from 6 degrees to 54 degrees and PS having an anisotropic wettability from 8 degrees to 32 degrees. At the same time, the water contact angle of PMMA and PS can be tuned to nearly 120 degrees without modifying the surface chemistry. A tunable anisotropic wettability is beneficial for applications where controlling the direction of liquid flow is important, such as in microfluidic devices.
Inflation in anisotropic scalar-tensor theories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pimentel, Luis O.; Stein-Schabes, Jaime
1988-01-01
The existence of an inflationary phase in anisotropic Scalar-Tensor Theories is investigated by means of a conformal transformation that allows us to rewrite these theories as gravity minimally coupled to a scalar field with a nontrivial potential. The explicit form of the potential is then used and the No Hair Theorem concludes that there is an inflationary phase in all open or flat anisotropic spacetimes in these theories. Several examples are constructed where the effect becomes manifest.
Anisotropic Interactions between Cold Rydberg Atoms
2015-09-28
AFRL-AFOSR-CL-TR-2015-0002 Anisotropic interactions between cold Rydberg atoms Luis Marcassa INSTITUTO DE FISICA DE SAO CARLOS Final Report 09/28...34Anisotropic Interactions Between Cold Rydberg Atoms " 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0434 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...processes in an atomic sample trapped in a CO2 optical dipole trap. The process was investigated as a function of: i) atomic density; ii) dc electric
Phase space analysis in anisotropic optical systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rivera, Ana Leonor; Chumakov, Sergey M.; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo
1995-01-01
From the minimal action principle follows the Hamilton equations of evolution for geometric optical rays in anisotropic media. As in classical mechanics of velocity-dependent potentials, the velocity and the canonical momentum are not parallel, but differ by an anisotropy vector potential, similar to that of linear electromagnetism. Descartes' well known diagram for refraction is generalized and a factorization theorem holds for interfaces between two anisotropic media.
On the anisotropic elastic properties of hydroxyapatite.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, J. L.; Ukraincik, K.
1971-01-01
Experimental measurements of the isotropic elastic moduli on polycrystalline specimens of hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite are compared with elastic constants measured directly from single crystals of fluorapatite in order to derive a set of pseudo single crystal elastic constants for hydroxyapatite. The stiffness coefficients thus derived are given. The anisotropic and isotropic elastic properties are then computed and compared with similar properties derived from experimental observations of the anisotropic behavior of bone.
SAR Segmentation using Anisotropic Diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Intajag, Sathit; Tipsuwanporn, Vittaya; Cheevasuwit, Fusak
Speckle effects are commonly observed in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The human eye is capable of deriving meaningful information from SAR images; however, an automatic or semi-automatic processing algorithm has difficulty in distinguishing objects in the images because of noise effects present in those images. This paper presents a segmentation method for SAR images, which employs an anisotropic diffusion algorithm. In the proposed scheme, a SAR image is transformed into a logarithmic domain where the diffusion process is used to grow homogeneous regions in the noise environment until the regions reach some criteria for homogeneity; consequently, the segmented image in the logarithm domain is converted to the intensity domain by an exponential function. To grow homogeneous regions the adaptive diffusion method is introduced with a tensor technique in which tensor data are varied with the neighboring pixels. The diffusion algorithm will stop itself by a standard deviation divided by the mean, which is provided according to the homogeneity criteria. Results are shown on both synthetic and satellite SAR images. The evaluation of the proposed method employs the theoretical gain of equivalent numbers of looks (ENL).
Magnetospheric equilibrium with anisotropic pressure
Cheng, C.Z.
1991-07-01
Self-consistent magnetospheric equilibrium with anisotropic pressure is obtained by employing an iterative metric method for solving the inverse equilibrium equation in an optimal flux coordinate system. A method of determining plasma parallel and perpendicular pressures from either analytic particle distribution or particle distribution measured along the satellite's path is presented. The numerical results of axisymmetric magnetospheric equilibrium including the effects of finite beta, pressure anisotropy, and boundary conditions are presented for a bi-Maxwellian particle distribution. For the isotropic pressure cases, the finite beta effect produces an outward expansion of the constant magnetic flux surfaces in relation to the dipole field lines, and along the magnetic field the toroidal ring current is maximum at the magnetic equator. The effect of pressure anisotropy is found to further expand the flux surfaces outward. Along the magnetic field lines the westward ring current can be peak away from the equator due to an eastward current contribution resulting from pressure anisotropy. As pressure anisotropy increases, the peak westward current can become more singular. The outer boundary flux surface has significant effect on the magnetospheric equilibrium. For the outer flux boundary resembling dayside compressed flux surface due to solar wind pressure, the deformation of the magnetic field can be quite different from that for the outer flux boundary resembling the tail-like surface. 23 refs., 17 figs.
Spin precession in anisotropic media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raes, B.; Cummings, A. W.; Bonell, F.; Costache, M. V.; Sierra, J. F.; Roche, S.; Valenzuela, S. O.
2017-02-01
We generalize the diffusive model for spin injection and detection in nonlocal spin structures to account for spin precession under an applied magnetic field in an anisotropic medium, for which the spin lifetime is not unique and depends on the spin orientation. We demonstrate that the spin precession (Hanle) line shape is strongly dependent on the degree of anisotropy and on the orientation of the magnetic field. In particular, we show that the anisotropy of the spin lifetime can be extracted from the measured spin signal, after dephasing in an oblique magnetic field, by using an analytical formula with a single fitting parameter. Alternatively, after identifying the fingerprints associated with the anisotropy, we propose a simple scaling of the Hanle line shapes at specific magnetic field orientations that results in a universal curve only in the isotropic case. The deviation from the universal curve can be used as a complementary means of quantifying the anisotropy by direct comparison with the solution of our generalized model. Finally, we applied our model to graphene devices and find that the spin relaxation for graphene on silicon oxide is isotropic within our experimental resolution.
SAW imaging in anisotropic media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, M.; Sharples, S. D.; Somekh, M. G.
2000-05-01
We have developed a non-contact laser ultrasound SAW microscope operating at 82 MHz and harmonics thereof, which is capable of rapid image acquisition. Conventional acoustic microscopy is largely immune to the effects of aberration because of the very short acoustic path length that is imposed by the presence of the couplant. The couplant also limits the sensitivity of contacting acoustic microscopy. In laser ultrasound systems the absence of couplant means that longer path lengths are possible but the anisotropy and grain structure of the material can aberrate the passage of the acoustic wave limiting the performance of the system and producing acoustic speckle. We show that even weakly aberrating materials (e.g. aluminum) can produce significant speckle effects. We present experimental non-contacting imaging results on isotropic and textured anisotropic samples; together with simulated images. The results demonstrate that the speckle statistics of the experimental and simulated results agree well; thus demonstrating the cause of the speckle in the experimental images. We demonstrate how a wavefront sensor and adaptation of the optical excitation profile offers a solution to the problem of texture in non-contacting SAW imaging. Finally, we discuss how some material properties may be inferred from the speckle.
Subsurface Stress Fields in FCC Single Crystal Anisotropic Contacts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arakere, Nagaraj K.; Knudsen, Erik; Swanson, Gregory R.; Duke, Gregory; Ham-Battista, Gilda
2004-01-01
Single crystal superalloy turbine blades used in high pressure turbomachinery are subject to conditions of high temperature, triaxial steady and alternating stresses, fretting stresses in the blade attachment and damper contact locations, and exposure to high-pressure hydrogen. The blades are also subjected to extreme variations in temperature during start-up and shutdown transients. The most prevalent high cycle fatigue (HCF) failure modes observed in these blades during operation include crystallographic crack initiation/propagation on octahedral planes, and non-crystallographic initiation with crystallographic growth. Numerous cases of crack initiation and crack propagation at the blade leading edge tip, blade attachment regions, and damper contact locations have been documented. Understanding crack initiation/propagation under mixed-mode loading conditions is critical for establishing a systematic procedure for evaluating HCF life of single crystal turbine blades. This paper presents analytical and numerical techniques for evaluating two and three dimensional subsurface stress fields in anisotropic contacts. The subsurface stress results are required for evaluating contact fatigue life at damper contacts and dovetail attachment regions in single crystal nickel-base superalloy turbine blades. An analytical procedure is presented for evaluating the subsurface stresses in the elastic half-space, based on the adaptation of a stress function method outlined by Lekhnitskii. Numerical results are presented for cylindrical and spherical anisotropic contacts, using finite element analysis (FEA). Effects of crystal orientation on stress response and fatigue life are examined. Obtaining accurate subsurface stress results for anisotropic single crystal contact problems require extremely refined three-dimensional (3-D) finite element grids, especially in the edge of contact region. Obtaining resolved shear stresses (RSS) on the principal slip planes also involves
Stress and vibraton analyses of anisotropic shells of revolution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, Ahmed K.; Peters, Jeanne M.
1988-01-01
An efficient computational strategy is presented for reducing the cost of the stress and free vibration analyses of laminated anisotropic shells of revolution. The analytical formulation is based on a form of the Sanders-Budiansky shell theory including the effects of both the transverse shear deformation and the laminated anisotropic material response. The fundamental unknowns consist of the eight strain components, the eight stress resultants and the five generalized displacements of the shell. Each of the shell variables is expressed in terms of trigonometric functions (Fourier series) in the circumferential co-ordinate, and a three-field mixed finite element model is used for the discretization in the meridional direction. The shell response associated with a range of Fourier harmonics is approximated by a linear combination of a few global approximation vectors, which are generated at a particular value of the Fourier harmonic, within that range. The full equations of the finite element model are solved for only a single Fourier harmonic, and the response corresponding to the other Fourier harmonics is generated using a reduced system of equations with considerably fewer degrees of freedom.
Anisotropic particle synthesis inside droplet templates on superhydrophobic surfaces.
Rastogi, Vinayak; García, Antonio A; Marquez, Manuel; Velev, Orlin D
2010-01-18
We demonstrate how droplet templates dispensed on superhydrophobic substrates can be used to fabricate both shape-anisotropic ("doughnut") and composition-anisotropic ("patchy magnetic") supraparticles. The macroscopic shape of the closely-packed particle assemblies is guided by the droplet meniscus. Aqueous droplets of monodisperse microsphere suspensions dispensed on the substrates initially acquire near-spherical shape due to a high contact angle. During the solvent evaporation, however, silica suspension droplets undergo shape transitions (concaving) guiding the structure of the final assemblies into doughnut supraparticles. Composition anisotropy is achieved by drying a droplet containing a mixed suspension of latex and magnetic nanoparticles, while exposing it to magnetic field gradients. Depending on the pattern of the magnetic fields, the magnetic nanoparticles segregate into single, bilateral, or trilateral, patched spherical supraparticles. The physical effects leading to the development of anisotropy are discussed. Unlike the conventional wet self-assembly (WSA) methods where the final structures need to be extracted from the liquid environment, this efficient one-step procedure produces ready to use "dry" supraparticles. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Subsurface Stress Fields In Single Crystal (Anisotropic) Contacts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arakere, Nagaraj K.; Knudsen, Erik C.; Duke, Greg; Battista, Gilda; Swanson, Greg
2004-01-01
Single crystal superalloy turbine blades used in high pressure turbomachinery are subject to conditions of high temperature, triaxial steady and alternating stresses, fretting stresses in the blade attachment and damper contact locations, and exposure to high-pressure hydrogen. The blades are also subjected to extreme variations in temperature during start-up and shutdown transients. The most prevalent HCF failure modes observed in these blades during operation include crystallographic crack initiation/propagation on octahedral planes, and noncrystallographic initiation with crystallographic growth. Numerous cases of crack initiation and crack propagation at the blade leading edge tip, blade attachment regions, and damper contact locations have been documented. Understanding crack initiation/propagation under mixed-mode loading conditions is critical for establishing a systematic procedure for evaluating HCF life of single crystal turbine blades. This paper presents analytical and numerical techniques for evaluating two and three dimensional subsurface stress fields in anisotropic contacts. The subsurface stress results are required for evaluating contact fatigue life at damper contacts and dovetail attachment regions in single crystal nickel-base superalloy turbine blades. An analytical procedure is , presented, for evaluating the subsurface stresses in the elastic half-space, using a complex potential method outlined by Lekhnitskii. Numerical results are presented for cylindrical and spherical anisotropic contacts, using finite element analysis. Effects of crystal orientation on stress response and fatigue life are examined.
Flow shapes and higher harmonics in anisotropic transverse collective flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Argintaru, Danut; Besliu, Calin; Jipa, Alexandru; Esanu, Tiberiu; Baban, Valerica; Cherciu, Madalin; Grossu, Valeriu
2017-01-01
In this paper we show that by using a jet-finder algorithm (the Anti- kT one) on UrQMD/C simulated (Au+Au at 4, 10 and 15A GeV) collisions, we can identify different flow shape structures (single flow stream events, two flow streams events, three flow streams events, etc.) and order the bulk of events in equivalence flow shape classes. Considering these flow streams as the main directions of anisotropic transverse flow, we show that the Fourier coefficients vn of anisotropic flow are better emphasized when we analyze the different event flow shape classes than when the events are mixed. Also, if we do not know the real orientation of the reaction plane, we can use as reference the Flow stream 1 -the main particle flow stream -orientation (Ψ_{Flowstream 1}) to highlight the initial shape of the participant nuclear matter in a central to peripheral collision, and the orientation of the participant plane of order n.
Stress and vibraton analyses of anisotropic shells of revolution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, Ahmed K.; Peters, Jeanne M.
1988-01-01
An efficient computational strategy is presented for reducing the cost of the stress and free vibration analyses of laminated anisotropic shells of revolution. The analytical formulation is based on a form of the Sanders-Budiansky shell theory including the effects of both the transverse shear deformation and the laminated anisotropic material response. The fundamental unknowns consist of the eight strain components, the eight stress resultants and the five generalized displacements of the shell. Each of the shell variables is expressed in terms of trigonometric functions (Fourier series) in the circumferential co-ordinate, and a three-field mixed finite element model is used for the discretization in the meridional direction. The shell response associated with a range of Fourier harmonics is approximated by a linear combination of a few global approximation vectors, which are generated at a particular value of the Fourier harmonic, within that range. The full equations of the finite element model are solved for only a single Fourier harmonic, and the response corresponding to the other Fourier harmonics is generated using a reduced system of equations with considerably fewer degrees of freedom.
Anisotropic nanomaterials: structure, growth, assembly, and functions
Sajanlal, Panikkanvalappil R.; Sreeprasad, Theruvakkattil S.; Samal, Akshaya K.; Pradeep, Thalappil
2011-01-01
Comprehensive knowledge over the shape of nanomaterials is a critical factor in designing devices with desired functions. Due to this reason, systematic efforts have been made to synthesize materials of diverse shape in the nanoscale regime. Anisotropic nanomaterials are a class of materials in which their properties are direction-dependent and more than one structural parameter is needed to describe them. Their unique and fine-tuned physical and chemical properties make them ideal candidates for devising new applications. In addition, the assembly of ordered one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) arrays of anisotropic nanoparticles brings novel properties into the resulting system, which would be entirely different from the properties of individual nanoparticles. This review presents an overview of current research in the area of anisotropic nanomaterials in general and noble metal nanoparticles in particular. We begin with an introduction to the advancements in this area followed by general aspects of the growth of anisotropic nanoparticles. Then we describe several important synthetic protocols for making anisotropic nanomaterials, followed by a summary of their assemblies, and conclude with major applications. PMID:22110867
Anisotropic nanomaterials: structure, growth, assembly, and functions.
Sajanlal, Panikkanvalappil R; Sreeprasad, Theruvakkattil S; Samal, Akshaya K; Pradeep, Thalappil
2011-01-01
Comprehensive knowledge over the shape of nanomaterials is a critical factor in designing devices with desired functions. Due to this reason, systematic efforts have been made to synthesize materials of diverse shape in the nanoscale regime. Anisotropic nanomaterials are a class of materials in which their properties are direction-dependent and more than one structural parameter is needed to describe them. Their unique and fine-tuned physical and chemical properties make them ideal candidates for devising new applications. In addition, the assembly of ordered one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) arrays of anisotropic nanoparticles brings novel properties into the resulting system, which would be entirely different from the properties of individual nanoparticles. This review presents an overview of current research in the area of anisotropic nanomaterials in general and noble metal nanoparticles in particular. We begin with an introduction to the advancements in this area followed by general aspects of the growth of anisotropic nanoparticles. Then we describe several important synthetic protocols for making anisotropic nanomaterials, followed by a summary of their assemblies, and conclude with major applications.
Quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics for central collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alqahtani, Mubarak; Nopoush, Mohammad; Strickland, Michael
2017-03-01
We use quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics to study an azimuthally symmetric boost-invariant quark-gluon plasma including the effects of both shear and bulk viscosities. In quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics, a single finite-temperature quasiparticle mass is introduced and fit to the lattice data in order to implement a realistic equation of state (EoS). We compare results obtained by using the quasiparticle method with the standard method of imposing the EoS in anisotropic hydrodynamics and viscous hydrodynamics. Using these three methods, we extract the primordial particle spectra, total number of charged particles, and average transverse momentum for various values of the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio η /s . We find that the three methods agree well for small shear viscosity to entropy density ratio η /s , but differ at large η /s , with the standard anisotropic EoS method showing suppressed production at low transverse-momentum compared with the other two methods considered. Finally, we demonstrate explicitly that, when using standard viscous hydrodynamics, the bulk-viscous correction can drive the primordial particle spectra negative at large pT. Such behavior is not seen in either anisotropic hydrodynamics approach, irrespective of the value of η /s .
Matter sourced anisotropic stress for dark energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Baorong; Lu, Jianbo; Xu, Lixin
2014-11-01
Usually a dark energy as a perfect fluid is characterized by the ratio of pressure to energy density (w =p /ρ ) and the ratio of their perturbations in its rest frame (cs2=δ p /δ ρ ). However, a dark energy would have other characteristics beyond its equation of state and the effective speed of sound. Here the extra property is the anisotropic stress sourced by matter as a simple extension to the perfect fluid model. At the background level, this anisotropic stress is zero with respect to the cosmological principle, but not at the first-order perturbation. We tested the viability of the existence of this kind of anisotropic stress by using the currently available cosmic observations through the geometrical and dynamical measurements. Using the Markov-chain Monte Carlo method, we found that the upper bounds on the anisotropic stress which enters into the summation of the Newtonian potentials should be of the order O (1 0-3)Δm . We did not find any strong evidence for the existence of this matter-sourced anisotropic stress, even in the 1 σ region.
Facile thermolysis synthesis of CuInS2 nanocrystals with tunable anisotropic shape and structure.
Bao, Ningzhong; Qiu, Xinmin; Wang, Yu-Hsiang A; Zhou, Ziyou; Lu, Xiaohua; Grimes, Craig A; Gupta, Arunava
2011-09-07
Monodisperse CuInS(2) nanocrystals are produced by injecting mixed metal-oleate precursors into hot organic solvents containing the dissolved sulphur sources. A better understanding of the formation mechanism of CuInS(2) has enabled us to tailor anisotropic shapes in the form of triangular-pyramid, circular cone, and bullet-like rods with tunable crystal phases by varying the synthetic conditions. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011
Anisotropic Shear Dispersion Parameterization for Mesoscale Eddy Transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reckinger, S. J.; Fox-Kemper, B.
2016-02-01
The effects of mesoscale eddies are universally treated isotropically in general circulation models. However, the processes that the parameterization approximates, such as shear dispersion, typically have strongly anisotropic characteristics. The Gent-McWilliams/Redi mesoscale eddy parameterization is extended for anisotropy and tested using 1-degree Community Earth System Model (CESM) simulations. The sensitivity of the model to anisotropy includes a reduction of temperature and salinity biases, a deepening of the southern ocean mixed-layer depth, and improved ventilation of biogeochemical tracers, particularly in oxygen minimum zones. The parameterization is further extended to include the effects of unresolved shear dispersion, which sets the strength and direction of anisotropy. The shear dispersion parameterization is similar to drifter observations in spatial distribution of diffusivity and high-resolution model diagnosis in the distribution of eddy flux orientation.
SU(3) lattice gauge autocorrelations with anisotropic action
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Draper, Terrence; Nenkov, Constantine; Peardon, Mike
1997-02-01
We report results of autocorrelation measurements in pure SU(3) lattice gauge theory. The computations are performed on the CONVEX SPP1200 parallel platform within the CANOPY programming environment. The focus of our analysis is on typical autocorrelation times and optimization of the mixing ratio between overrelaxation and pseudo-heatbath sweeps for generating gauge field configurations. We study second order tadpole-improved approximation of the Wilson action in the gluon sector, which offers the advantage on smaller lattices (8 3 × 16 and 6 3 × 12 - 30). We also make use of anisotropic lattices, with temporal lattice spacing smaller than the spatial spacing, which prove useful for calculating noisy correlation functions with large spatial lattice discretization (of the order of 0.4 fm).
Particle dynamics during the transition from isotropic to anisotropic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Chung-Min; Gylfason, Armann; Toschi, Federico
2016-11-01
Turbulent fluctuations play an important role on the dynamics of particles in turbulence, enhancing their dispersion and mixing. In recent years the statistical properties of particles in several statistically stationary turbulent flows have been the subject of many numerical and experimental studies. In many natural and industrial environments, however, one deals with turbulence in a transient state. As a prototype system, we investigate the transition from an isotropic to an anisotropic flow, namely looking at the influence of a developing mean flow on the dynamics of particles. We simulate, via direct numerical simulation, stationary homogeneous and isotropic turbulence and then suddenly impose a mean shear or strain. This allows us to quantify the effects of the mean flow on particle dynamics in these transient periods. Preliminary results on single particle properties, such as velocities and accelerations will be reported.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Świetlik, Roman; Barszcz, Bolesław; Pustogow, Andrej; Dressel, Martin
2017-02-01
Charge ordering in the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductors (TMTTF) 2X (X =Sb F6,As F6,P F6 ) was studied by using Raman spectroscopy. In the charge-ordered phase three vibrational features related to the ring breathing mode ν10(ag) of neutral (TMTT F0 ) and ionized (TMTT F+0.5 and TMTT F+1 ) are observed at about 503, 507, and 526 c m-1 , respectively. The bands of donor molecules with charge +0.5 e are assigned to ferroelectric domains while the bands of neutral and fully ionized molecules to domain walls. The shape of the band at about 526 c m-1 , attributed to the charged domain walls (molecules with charge +1 e ), reveals important differences between salts, i.e., indicates the presence of relaxor ferroelectricity which is well seen in (TMTTF) 2P F6 .
Leith diffusion model for homogeneous anisotropic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rubinstein, Robert; Clark, Timothy; Kurien, Susan
2016-11-01
A new spectral closure model for homogeneous anisotropic turbulence is proposed. The systematic development begins by closing the third-order correlation describing nonlinear interactions by an anisotropic generalization of the Leith diffusion model for isotropic turbulence. The correlation tensor is then decomposed into a tensorially isotropic part, or directional anisotropy, and a trace-free remainder, or polarization anisotropy. The directional and polarization components are then decomposed using irreducible representations of the SO(3) symmetry group. Under the ansatz that the decomposition is truncated at quadratic order, evolution equations are derived for the directional and polarization pieces of the correlation tensor. Numerical simulation of the model equations for a freely decaying anisotropic flow illustrate the non-trivial effects of spectral dependencies on the different return-to-isotropy rates of the directional and polarization contributions.
Leith diffusion model for homogeneous anisotropic turbulence
Rubinstein, Robert; Clark, Timothy T.; Kurien, Susan
2017-06-01
Here, a proposal for a spectral closure model for homogeneous anisotropic turbulence. The systematic development begins by closing the third-order correlation describing nonlinear interactions by an anisotropic generalization of the Leith diffusion model for isotropic turbulence. The correlation tensor is then decomposed into a tensorially isotropic part, or directional anisotropy, and a trace-free remainder, or polarization anisotropy. The directional and polarization components are then decomposed using irreducible representations of the SO(3) symmetry group. Under the ansatz that the decomposition is truncated at quadratic order, evolution equations are derived for the directional and polarization pieces of the correlation tensor. Here, numericalmore » simulation of the model equations for a freely decaying anisotropic flow illustrate the non-trivial effects of spectral dependencies on the different return-to-isotropy rates of the directional and polarization contributions.« less
Elliptical-anisotropic eikonal phase velocity tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Ridder, S. A. L.; Biondi, B. L.; Nichols, D.
2015-02-01
We formulated an anisotropic eikonal tomography approach for phase velocities based on a two-dimensional elliptical-anisotropic wave equation. We can fit the parameters of the ellipse directly from measured first-order traveltime surface gradients and constrain these parameters to vary smoothly over space. The method is applied to Scholte waves in virtual seismic sources from stations in the Life of Field Seismic Ocean Bottom Cable array installed over the Ekofisk field. The fast directions of the azimuthally anisotropic Scholte wave velocities form a large circular pattern over the Ekofisk field. This pattern dominates the Scholte wave phase velocities at Ekofisk between 0.7 and 1.1 Hz. It results from the overburden stress state and from seafloor subsidence induced by decades of hydrocarbon extraction.
Generalized Fractional Derivative Anisotropic Viscoelastic Characterization
Hilton, Harry H.
2012-01-01
Isotropic linear and nonlinear fractional derivative constitutive relations are formulated and examined in terms of many parameter generalized Kelvin models and are analytically extended to cover general anisotropic homogeneous or non-homogeneous as well as functionally graded viscoelastic material behavior. Equivalent integral constitutive relations, which are computationally more powerful, are derived from fractional differential ones and the associated anisotropic temperature-moisture-degree-of-cure shift functions and reduced times are established. Approximate Fourier transform inversions for fractional derivative relations are formulated and their accuracy is evaluated. The efficacy of integer and fractional derivative constitutive relations is compared and the preferential use of either characterization in analyzing isotropic and anisotropic real materials must be examined on a case-by-case basis. Approximate protocols for curve fitting analytical fractional derivative results to experimental data are formulated and evaluated. PMID:28817038
Azimuthally Anisotropic 3D Velocity Continuation
Burnett, William; Fomel, Sergey
2011-01-01
We extend time-domain velocity continuation to the zero-offset 3D azimuthally anisotropic case. Velocity continuation describes how a seismic image changes given a change in migration velocity. This description turns out to be of a wave propagation process, in which images change along a velocity axis. In the anisotropic case, the velocity model is multiparameter. Therefore, anisotropic image propagation is multidimensional. We use a three-parameter slowness model, which is related to azimuthal variations in velocity, as well as their principal directions. This information is useful for fracture and reservoir characterization from seismic data. We provide synthetic diffraction imaging examples to illustratemore » the concept and potential applications of azimuthal velocity continuation and to analyze the impulse response of the 3D velocity continuation operator.« less
Elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, En-Bo; Gu, Guo-Qing; Poon, Ying-Ming
2010-09-01
Effective elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites, whose spherically anisotropic piezoelectric inclusions are embedded in an infinite non-piezoelectric matrix, are theoretically investigated. Analytical solutions for the elastic displacements and the electric potentials under a uniform external strain are derived exactly. Taking into account of the coupling effects of elasticity, permittivity and piezoelectricity, the formula is derived for estimating the effective elastic properties based on the average field theory in the dilute limit. An elastic response mechanism is revealed, in which the effective elastic properties increase as inclusion piezoelectric properties increase and inclusion dielectric properties decrease. Moreover, a piezoelectric response mechanism, of which the effective piezoelectric response vanishes due to the symmetry of spherically anisotropic composite, is also disclosed.
Gravitational stresses in anisotropic rock masses
Amadei, B.; Savage, W.Z.; Swolfs, H.S.
1987-01-01
This paper presents closed-form solutions for the stress field induced by gravity in anisotropic rock masses. These rocks are assumed to be laterally restrained and are modelled as a homogeneous, orthotropic or transversely isotropic, linearly elastic material. The analysis, constrained by the thermodynamic requirement that strain energy be positive definite, gives the following important result: inclusion of anisotropy broadens the range of permissible values of gravity-induced horizontal stresses. In fact, for some ranges of anisotropic rock properties, it is thermodynamically admissible for gravity-induced horizontal stresses to exceed the vertical stress component; this is not possible for the classical isotropic solution. Specific examples are presented to explore the nature of the gravity-induced stress field in anisotropic rocks and its dependence on the type, degree and orientation of anisotropy with respect to the horizontal ground surface. ?? 1987.
Magnetization of anisotropic Type II superconductors
Mints, R.G.
1989-04-10
Peculiarities of magnetization of anisotropic type II superconductors are of considerable interest in view of the discovery of high-T/sub c/ superconductors characterized by strongly asymmetric layered structure. Specifics of the penetration of magnetic flux into an anisotropic type II superconductor were discussed in the literature. This analysis gave the distribution of induction in an isolated vortex, its energy, and critical magnetic field H/sub c1/. However, the magnetization curve of anisotropic superconductors was not considered. This paper deals with the magnetic moment of uniaxial London superconductor in the interval H/sub c1/ /le/ H/sub 0/ << H/sub c2/, where H/sub 0/ is the external magnetic field strength.
Anisotropic Failure Modeling for HY-100 Steel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harstad, E. N.; Maudlin, P. J.; McKirgan, J. B.
2004-07-01
HY-100 steel is a material that behaves isotropically in the elastic and plastic region and acts anisotropically in failure. Since HY-100 is a ductile metal, a more gradual failure process is observed as opposed to the nearly instantaneous failure in brittle materials. We extend our elasto-plastic-damage constitutive model by including of a decohesion model to describe material behavior between the onset of failure and fracture. We also develop an anisotropic failure surface to account for directionality in material failure. Both the anisotropic failure and decohesion models have been implemented into a finite element code, where the effects of these models are studied in a uniaxial stress simulations, a plate impact simulations, and a quasistatic notched round bar tensile test simulations.
Infrared properties of an anisotropically stirred fluid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubinstein, Robert; Barton, J. Michael
1987-01-01
A renormalization group is developed for the Navier-Stokes equations driven by an anisotropically correlated random stirring force. The stirring force generates homogeneous turbulence with a preferred direction. The force correlation is the sum of a small anisotropic perturbation and an isotropic correlation chosen, so that the fixed point of renormalization group has a k exp -5/3 energy spectrum. Fixed points for the anisotropic correlation are found near this isotropic fixed point. Two types of anisotropy are analyzed. when the additional stirring is in the plane perpendicular to the preferred direction, the renormalized viscosity is increased. When it is aligned with the preferred direction, the viscosity is decreased. A possible connection with the inverse energy cascade of two-dimensional turbulence is discussed.
Leith diffusion model for homogeneous anisotropic turbulence
Rubinstein, Robert; Clark, Timothy T.; Kurien, Susan
2016-07-19
Here, a proposal for a spectral closure model for homogeneous anisotropic turbulence. The systematic development begins by closing the third-order correlation describing nonlinear interactions by an anisotropic generalization of the Leith diffusion model for isotropic turbulence. The correlation tensor is then decomposed into a tensorially isotropic part, or directional anisotropy, and a trace-free remainder, or polarization anisotropy. The directional and polarization components are then decomposed using irreducible representations of the SO(3) symmetry group. Under the ansatz that the decomposition is truncated at quadratic order, evolution equations are derived for the directional and polarization pieces of the correlation tensor. Here, numerical simulation of the model equations for a freely decaying anisotropic flow illustrate the non-trivial effects of spectral dependencies on the different return-to-isotropy rates of the directional and polarization contributions.
Isotropic versus anisotropic modeling of photorefractive solitons.
Belić, M R; Vujić, D; Stepken, A; Kaiser, F; Calvo, G F; Agulló-López, F; Carrascosa, M
2002-06-01
The question of the isotropic versus anisotropic modeling of incoherent spatial screening solitons in photorefractive crystals is addressed by a careful theoretical and numerical analysis. Isotropic, or local, models allow for an extended spiraling of two interacting scalar solitons, and for a prolonged propagation of vortex vector solitons, whereas anisotropic, nonlocal, models prevent such phenomena. In the context of Kukhtarev's material equations, the difference in behavior is traced to the continuity equation for the current density. We further show that neither an indefinite spiraling of two solitons nor stable propagation of vortex vector solitons is generally possible in both isotropic and anisotropic models. Such systems do not conserve angular momentum, even in the case of an isotropic change in the index of refraction.
Forming Limits for Anisotropic Sheet Metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Youngsuk; Kim, Chul; Lee, Sangryong; Won, Sungyeun; Hwang, Sangmoo
Most failures of ductile materials in metal forming processes occurred due to material damage evolution-void nucleation, growth and coalescence. In this paper, modified version of Gurson-Tvergaard's yield function in conjunction with the Hosford's non-quadratic anisotropic yield criterion is studied to clarify the plastic deformation characteristic of voided anisotropic sheet metals. The void growth of an anisotropic sheet under biaxial tensile loading and damage effect of void growth on forming limits of sheet metals are investigated. Also the characteristic length defining the neck geometry is introduced in M-K model to incorporate the effect of triaxial stress in necked region on forming limits. The forming limits theoretically predicted are compared with some experimental data. Satisfactory agreement was obtained between the predictions and experimental data.
Anisotropic Hanle line shape via magnetothermoelectric phenomena
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, K. S.; Dejene, F. K.; van Wees, B. J.; Vera-Marun, I. J.
2016-11-01
We observe anisotropic Hanle line shape with unequal in-plane and out-of-plane nonlocal signals for spin precession measurements carried out on lateral metallic spin valves with transparent interfaces. The conventional interpretation for this anisotropy corresponds to unequal spin relaxation times for in-plane and out-of-plane spin orientations as for the case of two-dimensional materials like graphene, but it is unexpected in a polycrystalline metallic channel. Systematic measurements as a function of temperature and channel length, combined with both analytical and numerical thermoelectric transport models, demonstrate that the anisotropy in the Hanle line shape is magnetothermal in origin, caused by the anisotropic modulation of the Peltier and Seebeck coefficients of the ferromagnetic electrodes. Our results call for the consideration of such magnetothermoelectric effects in the study of anisotropic spin relaxation.
Modeling Geodynamic Mobility of Anisotropic Lithosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perry-Houts, J.; Karlstrom, L.
2016-12-01
The lithosphere is often idealized as a linear, or plastic layer overlying a Newtonian half-space. This approach has led to many insights into lithospheric foundering that include Rayligh-Taylor drips, slab-style delaminations, and small scale convection in the asthenosphere. More recent work has begun to quantify the effect of anisotropic lithosphere viscosity on these same phenomena. Anisotropic viscosity may come about due to stratigraphic deposition in the upper crust, dike/sill emplacement in the mid crust, or volcanic underplating at the Moho related to arcs or plumes. Anisotropic viscosity is also observed in the mantle, due to preferential orientation of olivine grains during flow. Here we extend the work of Lev & Hager (2008) on modeling anisotropic lithospheric foundering to investigate the effects of anisotropic regions which vary in size, magnitude, and orientation. We have extended Aspect, a modern geodynamic finite element code with a large developer and user base, to model exotic constitutive laws with an arbitrary fourth order tensor in place of the viscosity term. We further implement a material model to represent a transverse isotropic medium, such as is expected in a layered, or fractured lithosphere. We have validated our implementation against previous results, and analytic solutions, reproducing the result that horizontally oriented anisotropy tends to inhibit drips, and produce longer-wavelength instabilities. We expect that increased lateral extent of anisotropic regions will exaggerate this effect, to a limit at which the effect will plateau. Varying lithosphere thickness, and mantle anisotropy anisotropy may produce similar behavior. The implications of this effect are significant to lithospheric foundering beneath arcs and hotspots, possibly influencing the recycling of eclogite, production of silicic magmas, and dynamic topography.
Foam front propagation in anisotropic oil reservoirs.
Grassia, P; Torres-Ulloa, C; Berres, S; Mas-Hernández, E; Shokri, N
2016-04-01
The pressure-driven growth model is considered, describing the motion of a foam front through an oil reservoir during foam improved oil recovery, foam being formed as gas advances into an initially liquid-filled reservoir. In the model, the foam front is represented by a set of so-called "material points" that track the advance of gas into the liquid-filled region. According to the model, the shape of the foam front is prone to develop concave sharply curved concavities, where the orientation of the front changes rapidly over a small spatial distance: these are referred to as "concave corners". These concave corners need to be propagated differently from the material points on the foam front itself. Typically the corner must move faster than those material points, otherwise spurious numerical artifacts develop in the computed shape of the front. A propagation rule or "speed up" rule is derived for the concave corners, which is shown to be sensitive to the level of anisotropy in the permeability of the reservoir and also sensitive to the orientation of the corners themselves. In particular if a corner in an anisotropic reservoir were to be propagated according to an isotropic speed up rule, this might not be sufficient to suppress spurious numerical artifacts, at least for certain orientations of the corner. On the other hand, systems that are both heterogeneous and anisotropic tend to be well behaved numerically, regardless of whether one uses the isotropic or anisotropic speed up rule for corners. This comes about because, in the heterogeneous and anisotropic case, the orientation of the corner is such that the "correct" anisotropic speed is just very slightly less than the "incorrect" isotropic one. The anisotropic rule does however manage to keep the corner very slightly sharper than the isotropic rule does.
An Anisotropic Multiphysics Model for Intervertebral Disk
Gao, Xin; Zhu, Qiaoqiao; Gu, Weiyong
2016-01-01
Intervertebral disk (IVD) is the largest avascular structure in human body, consisting of three types of charged hydrated soft tissues. Its mechanical behavior is nonlinear and anisotropic, due mainly to nonlinear interactions among different constituents within tissues. In this study, a more realistic anisotropic multiphysics model was developed based on the continuum mixture theory and employed to characterize the couplings of multiple physical fields in the IVD. Numerical simulations demonstrate that this model is capable of systematically predicting the mechanical and electrochemical signals within the disk under various loading conditions, which is essential in understanding the mechanobiology of IVD. PMID:27099402
Evolution of multidimensional flat anisotropic cosmological models
Beloborodov, A. ); Demianski, M. Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics , Universita di Roma I, La Sapienza, Rome ); Ivanov, P.; Polnarev, A.G. )
1993-07-15
We study the dynamics of a flat multidimensional anisotropic cosmological model filled with an anisotropic fluidlike medium. By an appropriate choice of variables, the dynamical equations reduce to a two-dimensional dynamical system. We present a detailed analysis of the time evolution of this system and the conditions of the existence of spacetime singularities. We investigate the conditions under which violent, exponential, and power-law inflation is possible. We show that dimensional reduction cannot proceed by anti-inflation (rapid contraction of internal space). Our model indicates that it is very difficult to achieve dimensional reduction by classical means.
Inverse moments equilibria for helical anisotropic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooper, W. A.; Hirshman, S. P.; Depassier, M. C.
1987-11-01
An energy functional is devised for magnetic confinement schemes that have anisotropic plasma pressure. The minimization of this energy functional is demonstrated to reproduce components of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) force balance relation in systems with helical symmetry. An iterative steepest descent procedure is applied to the Fourier moments of the inverse magnetic flux coordinates to minimize the total energy and thus generate anisotropic pressure MHD equilibria. Applications to straight ELMO Snaky Torus (NTIS Document No. DE-84002406) configurations that have a magnetic well on the outermost flux surfaces have been obtained.
On cracking of charged anisotropic polytropes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azam, M.; Mardan, S. A.
2017-01-01
Recently in [1], the role of electromagnetic field on the cracking of spherical polytropes has been investigated without perturbing charge parameter explicitly. In this study, we have examined the occurrence of cracking of anisotropic spherical polytropes through perturbing parameters like anisotropic pressure, energy density and charge. We consider two different types of polytropes in this study. We discuss the occurrence of cracking in two different ways (i) by perturbing polytropic constant, anisotropy and charge parameter (ii) by perturbing polytropic index, anisotropy and charge parameter for each case. We conclude that cracking appears for a wide range of parameters in both cases. Also, our results are reduced to [2] in the absence of charge.
Raman Tensor Formalism for Optically Anisotropic Crystals.
Kranert, Christian; Sturm, Chris; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger; Grundmann, Marius
2016-03-25
We present a formalism for calculating the Raman scattering intensity dependent on the polarization configuration for optically anisotropic crystals. It can be applied to crystals of arbitrary orientation and crystal symmetry measured in normal incidence backscattering geometry. The classical Raman tensor formalism cannot be used for optically anisotropic materials due to birefringence causing the polarization within the crystal to be depth dependent. We show that in the limit of averaging over a sufficiently large scattering depth, the observed Raman intensities converge and can be described by an effective Raman tensor given here. Full agreement with experimental results for uniaxial and biaxial crystals is demonstrated.
Optical Activity of Anisotropic Achiral Surfaces
Verbiest, T.; Kauranen, M.; Van Rompaey, Y.; Persoons, A. |
1996-08-01
Anisotropic achiral surfaces respond differently to left- and right-hand circularly polarized light. This occurs when the orientation of the surface with respect to an otherwise achiral experimental setup makes the total geometry chiral. Such optical activity is demonstrated in second-harmonic generation from an anisotropic thin molecular film. The circular-difference response reverses sign as the handedness of the geometry is reversed and vanishes when the setup possesses a mirror plane. The results are explained within the electric-dipole-allowed second-order surface nonlinearity. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Directional wetting in anisotropic inverse opals.
Phillips, Katherine R; Vogel, Nicolas; Burgess, Ian B; Perry, Carole C; Aizenberg, Joanna
2014-07-01
Porous materials display interesting transport phenomena due to restricted motion of fluids within the nano- to microscale voids. Here, we investigate how liquid wetting in highly ordered inverse opals is affected by anisotropy in pore geometry. We compare samples with different degrees of pore asphericity and find different wetting patterns depending on the pore shape. Highly anisotropic structures are infiltrated more easily than their isotropic counterparts. Further, the wetting of anisotropic inverse opals is directional, with liquids filling from the side more easily. This effect is supported by percolation simulations as well as direct observations of wetting using time-resolved optical microscopy.
Anisotropic superconductors in tilted magnetic fields
Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Glatz, A.; Koshelev, A. E.; Welp, U.; Kwok, W. K.
2015-06-01
We present images of magnetic flux structures in a single crystal of YBa2Cu3O7-d during remagnetization by fields tilted from the basal plane of the crystal. Depending on the magnitude and angle of the applied field we observe anisotropic flux penetration along and across the in-plane field component and emergence of vortex instabilities resulting in modulated flux distributions. We associate the observed patterns with flux cutting effects and with tilted vortex structures intrinsic for layered superconductors. Time dependent Ginzburg-Landau simulations show preferential vortex motion across the c-axis and reveal the flux structure evolution in anisotropic superconductors under tilted magnetic fields.
Differential matrix formalism for depolarizing anisotropic media.
Ossikovski, Razvigor
2011-06-15
Azzam's differential matrix formalism [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1756 (1978)], originally developed for longitudinally inhomogeneous anisotropic nondepolarizing media, is extended to include depolarizing media. The generalization is physically interpreted in terms of means and uncertainties of the elementary optical properties of the medium, as well as of three anisotropy absorption parameters introduced to describe the depolarization. The formalism results in a particularly simple mathematical procedure for the retrieval of the elementary properties of a generally depolarizing anisotropic medium, assumed to be globally homogeneous, from its experimental Mueller matrix. The approach is illustrated on literature data and the conditions of its validity are identified and discussed.
Active Colloids in Isotropic and Anisotropic Electrolytes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Chenhui
Electrically driven flows of fluids with respect to solid surfaces (electro-osmosis) and transport of particles in fluids (electrophoresis), collectively called electrokinetics, is a technologically important area of modern science. In this thesis, we study the electrokinetic phenomena in both isotropic and anisotropic fluids. A necessary condition of electrokinetics is separation of electric charges in space. In classic linear electrokinetics, with an isotropic electrolyte such as water, the charges are separated through dissociation of ionic groups at the solid-fluid interface; presence of the electric field is not required. In the nonlinear electrokinetics, the charges are separated with the assistance of the electric field. In the so-called induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO) the electric field separates charges near strongly polarizable surfaces such as metals. We establish the patterns of electro-osmotic velocities caused by nonlinear ICEO around an immobilized metallic and Janus (metallic-dielectric) spheres placed in water. In the case of the Janus particles, the flows are asymmetric, which results in pumping of water around the particle if it is immobilized, or in electrophoresis is the particle is free. When the isotropic electrolyte such as water is replaced with a LC electrolyte, the mechanism of the field-assisted charge separation becomes very different. Namely, the charges are separated at the director gradients, thanks to the anisotropy of electric conductivity and dielectric permittivity of the LC. These distortions can be created by the colloidal particles placed in the LC. We demonstrate the occurrence of nonlinear LC-enabled electro-osmosis (LCEO) by studying the flow patterns around colloidal spheres with different surface anchoring. LCEO velocities grow with the square of the electric field, which allows one to use an AC field to drive steady flows and to avoid electrode damage. Director distortions needed to trigger the LCEO can also be
Synthetic control of the size, shape, and polydispersity of anisotropic silica colloids
Murphy, Ryan P.; Hong, Kunlun; Wagner, Norman J.
2017-09-01
The particle size and shape determine the microstructure and rheological properties of colloidal suspensions. This work aims to further control the size, shape, and polydispersity of anisotropic silica colloids, to reduce particle size, and to provide additional mechanistic insights on a prevalent, water-in-oil emulsion synthesis method. Key findings show that the dimensions of anisotropic silica particles can be systematically varied by approximately fivefold, with a limiting minimum particle size (D ≈ 60 nm, L ≈ 300 nm) obtained from emulsions with excess polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and sodium citrate. The synthesis conditions are identified and discussed for which the emulsion composition, temperature,more » sonication, polymer entanglements, mixing, and other perturbations may induce or mitigate emulsion instabilities, citrate precipitation, a competing mechanism of templated growth, termination of anisotropic growth, irregular silica structures, and fiber formation. An improved mechanistic understanding will expand the roadmap for rational design and synthetic control of anisotropic colloids using sol-gel silica chemistry confined within water-in-oil emulsions.« less
An Engineered Anisotropic Nanofilm with Unidirectional Wetting Properties
2010-01-01
ARTICLES PUBLISHED ONLINE: 10 OCTOBER 2010 | DOI: 10.1038/NMAT2864 An engineered anisotropic nanofilm with unidirectional wetting properties Niranjan...body3. Engineering synthetic materials with such anisotropic adhesive properties has led to advances in digitalmicrofluidic devices5,6 andmedicine7,8...The anisotropic wetting properties of existing engineered surfaces are derived either from spatial gradients (for example, temperature, surface
Data-driven imaging in anisotropic media
Volker, Arno; Hunter, Alan
2012-05-17
Anisotropic materials are being used increasingly in high performance industrial applications, particularly in the aeronautical and nuclear industries. Some important examples of these materials are composites, single-crystal and heavy-grained metals. Ultrasonic array imaging in these materials requires exact knowledge of the anisotropic material properties. Without this information, the images can be adversely affected, causing a reduction in defect detection and characterization performance. The imaging operation can be formulated in two consecutive and reciprocal focusing steps, i.e., focusing the sources and then focusing the receivers. Applying just one of these focusing steps yields an interesting intermediate domain. The resulting common focus point gather (CFP-gather) can be interpreted to determine the propagation operator. After focusing the sources, the observed travel-time in the CFP-gather describes the propagation from the focus point to the receivers. If the correct propagation operator is used, the measured travel-times should be the same as the time-reversed focusing operator due to reciprocity. This makes it possible to iteratively update the focusing operator using the data only and allows the material to be imaged without explicit knowledge of the anisotropic material parameters. Furthermore, the determined propagation operator can also be used to invert for the anisotropic medium parameters. This paper details the proposed technique and demonstrates its use on simulated array data from a specimen of Inconel single-crystal alloy commonly used in the aeronautical and nuclear industries.
Thermal D mesons from anisotropic lattice QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelly, Aoife; Skullerud, Jon-Ivar
2017-03-01
We present results for correlators and spectral functions of open charm mesons using 2+1 flavours of clover fermions on anisotropic lattices. The D mesons are found to dissociate close to the deconfinement crossover temperature Tc. Our preliminary results suggest a shift in the thermal D meson mass below Tc. Mesons containing strange quarks exhibit smaller thermal modifications than those containing light quarks.
Casimir interactions for anisotropic magnetodielectric metamaterials
Da Rosa, Felipe S; Dalvit, Diego A; Milonni, Peter W
2008-01-01
We extend our previous work on the generalization of the Casimir-Lifshitz theory to treat anisotropic magnetodielectric media, focusing on the forces between metals and magnetodielectric metamaterials and on the possibility of inferring magnetic effects by measurements of these forces.
Purpose-Built Anisotropic Metal Oxide Nanomaterials
2001-01-01
Proceedings Volume 635. Anisotropic Nanoparticles - Synthesis , Characterization and Applications To order the complete compilation report, use...for instance, to the oxidation of sedimentary organic matter [11]. In its various allotropic forms, iron oxides and oxyhydroxides represent important...16-18] and photocatalysts [19], for magnetic storage devices, cathodes for primary and secondary batteries [20], chemical flame suppressant [21] and
Wave propagation in anisotropic layered composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braga, Arthur Martins Barbosa
1990-08-01
The propagation of harmonic waves in laminated anisotropic composites is investigated. The analysis is carried out within the framework of the linear theory of elasticity. Two basic geometries are considered, namely, layered half-spaces and infinite laminated plates. The method employed in the description of the wave motion in the anisotropic composites is based on Stroh's sextic matrix formalism for anisotropic elasticity. An extension of this formalism to periodic media, in conjunction with Floquet's theorem, is applied when the layers are disposed periodically. The 'in vacuo' free motions of laminated composites are investigated. Particular attention is paid to Rayleigh and Rayleigh-Lamb wave propagation in layered media. The dynamic interaction of laminated composites with a surrounding acoustic fluid is also investigated. The concept of surface impedance tensor is introduced. It is shown that, for harmonic motions, this rank-two tensor completely characterizes the solid surface in contact with the fluid. An algorithm for the numerical computation of the surface impedance tensor of anisotropic layered composites is presented. This algorithm is numerically stable for a wide range of frequencies. Special attention is paid to the subsonic Sholte-Gogoladze-like wave, which propagates unattenuated along the planar fluid/solid interface.
Vibrations and stresses in layered anisotropic cylinders
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mulholland, G. P.; Gupta, B. P.
1976-01-01
An equation describing the radial displacement in a k layered anisotropic cylinder was obtained. The cylinders are initially unstressed but are subjected to either a time dependent normal stress or a displacement at the external boundaries of the laminate. The solution is obtained by utilizing the Vodicka orthogonalization technique. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the procedure.
THEORY OF COMPTON SCATTERING BY ANISOTROPIC ELECTRONS
Poutanen, Juri; Vurm, Indrek E-mail: indrek.vurm@oulu.f
2010-08-15
Compton scattering plays an important role in various astrophysical objects such as accreting black holes and neutron stars, pulsars, relativistic jets, and clusters of galaxies, as well as the early universe. In most of the calculations, it is assumed that the electrons have isotropic angular distribution in some frame. However, there are situations where the anisotropy may be significant due to the bulk motions, or where there is anisotropic cooling by synchrotron radiation or an anisotropic source of seed soft photons. Here we develop an analytical theory of Compton scattering by anisotropic distribution of electrons that can significantly simplify the calculations. Assuming that the electron angular distribution can be represented by a second-order polynomial over the cosine of some angle (dipole and quadrupole anisotropies), we integrate the exact Klein-Nishina cross section over the angles. Exact analytical and approximate formulae valid for any photon and electron energies are derived for the redistribution functions describing Compton scattering of photons with arbitrary angular distribution by anisotropic electrons. The analytical expressions for the corresponding photon scattering cross section on such electrons, as well as the mean energy of scattered photons, its dispersion, and radiation pressure force are also derived. We apply the developed formalism to the accurate calculations of the thermal and kinematic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effects for arbitrary electron distributions.
Anisotropic MHD model and some solutions
Kuznetsov, V. D.; Dzhalilov, N. S.
2010-09-15
MHD waves and instabilities in a collisionless anisotropic-pressure plasma are analyzed in an anisotropic MHD model based on the 16-moment approximation, and the results are found to agree well with those obtained in the low-frequency limit of the kinetic model. It is shown that accounting for heat fluxes leads to an asymmetry in the phase velocities of the wave modes with respect to the heat flux direction and also to a strong interaction between the modes, especially between the backward ones (those that propagate in a direction opposite to that of the heat flux). A correct description of the mirror instability is given. The resonant interaction of three backward modes-fast acoustic, fast magnetosonic, and slow acoustic-under the conditions for the onset of the classical firehose instability triggers a new type of instability the growth rate of which is faster than the maximum growth rate of the conventional firehose instability. The results prove that, in contrast to the familiar Chew-Goldberger-Low approximate model, the anisotropic MHD approach provides a correct description of the large-scale dynamics of collisionless anisotropic plasmas (such as solar corona, solar wind, and ionospheric and magnetospheric plasmas).
Magnetic fields in mixed neutron-star-plus-wormhole systems
Aringazin, Ascar; Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Folomeev, Vladimir; Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta E-mail: v.dzhunushaliev@gmail.com E-mail: b.kleihaus@uni-oldenburg.de
2015-04-01
We consider mixed configurations consisting of a wormhole filled by a strongly magnetized isotropic or anisotropic neutron fluid. The nontrivial topology of the spacetime is allowed by the presence of exotic matter. By comparing these configurations with ordinary magnetized neutron stars, we clarify the question of how the presence of the nontrivial topology influences the magnetic field distribution inside the fluid. In the case of an anisotropic fluid, we find new solutions describing configurations, where the maximum of the fluid density is shifted from the center. A linear stability analysis shows that these mixed configurations are unstable.
Elliptical silicon arrays with anisotropic optical and wetting properties.
Wang, Tieqiang; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Junhu; Wang, Xianzhe; Zhang, Xuemin; Zhang, Xun; Zhu, Difu; Hao, Yudong; Ren, Zhiyu; Yang, Bai
2010-08-17
We demonstrate a facile etching method to fabricate silicon elliptical pillar arrays (Si-EPAs) with unique anisotropic optical and wetting characters using polystyrene elliptical hemisphere arrays (EHAs) as mask. The EHAs were fabricated via a modified micromolding method. By varying the experimental conditions in the fabrication process, the morphology of the resulting microstructures can be controlled exactly. Because of the anisotropic morphology of the elliptical pillar, the Si-EPA shows unique anisotropic properties, such as anisotropic surface reflection and anisotropic wetting property. Additionally, through oblique evaporation deposition of Au and selective chemical modification to turn the elliptical pillars into "Janus" elliptical pillars, the "Janus" Si-EPA shows more peculiar anisotropic properties owing to the further increased asymmetry. We believe that the Si-EPAs will have potential applications in anisotropic optical and electronic devices.
Ruszkowski, M.; Lee, D.; Parrish, I.; Oh, S. Peng E-mail: dongwook@flash.uchicago.edu E-mail: iparrish@astro.berkeley.edu
2011-10-20
The intracluster medium (ICM) has been suggested to be buoyantly unstable in the presence of magnetic field and anisotropic thermal conduction. We perform first cosmological simulations of galaxy cluster formation that simultaneously include magnetic fields, radiative cooling, and anisotropic thermal conduction. In isolated and idealized cluster models, the magnetothermal instability (MTI) tends to reorient the magnetic fields radially whenever the temperature gradient points in the direction opposite to gravitational acceleration. Using cosmological simulations of cluster formation we detect radial bias in the velocity and magnetic fields. Such radial bias is consistent with either the inhomogeneous radial gas flows due to substructures or residual MTI-driven field rearrangements that are expected even in the presence of turbulence. Although disentangling the two scenarios is challenging, we do not detect excess bias in the runs that include anisotropic thermal conduction. The anisotropy effect is potentially detectable via radio polarization measurements with LOFAR and the Square Kilometer Array and future X-ray spectroscopic studies with the International X-ray Observatory. We demonstrate that radiative cooling boosts the amplification of the magnetic field by about two orders of magnitude beyond what is expected in the non-radiative cases. This effect is caused by the compression of the gas and frozen-in magnetic field as it accumulates in the cluster center. At z = 0 the field is amplified by a factor of about 10{sup 6} compared to the uniform magnetic field that evolved due to the universal expansion alone. Interestingly, the runs that include both radiative cooling and thermal conduction exhibit stronger magnetic field amplification than purely radiative runs. In these cases, buoyant restoring forces depend on the temperature gradients rather than the steeper entropy gradients. Thus, the ICM is more easily mixed and the winding up of the frozen-in magnetic
Vortex Dynamics in Anisotropic Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steel, David Gordon
Measurements of the ac screening response and resistance of superconducting Bi_2Sr _2CaCu_2O _8 (BSCCO) crystals have been used to probe the dynamics of the magnetic flux lines within the mixed state as a function of frequency, temperature, and applied dc field. For the particular range of temperature and magnetic field in which measurements were made, the systematic behavior of the observed dissipation peak in the screening response is consistent with electromagnetic skin size effects rather than a phase transition. According to microscopic theories of the interaction between the flux lines and a driving ac field, such a skin size effect is expected for the case when the vortex motion is diffusive in nature. However, diffusive motion is inconsistent with simple activation models that use a single value for the pinning energy (derived from direct measurement of the dc resistance). This contradiction suggests a distribution of pinning energies within the sample. Interlayer vortex decoupling has been directly observed as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field using electronic transport perpendicular to the layers in synthetic amorphous MoGe/Ge multilayer samples. Perpendicular transport has been shown to be a far more sensitive measure of the phase coupling between layers than in-plane properties. Below the decoupling temperature T_{D} the resistivity anisotropy collapses and striking nonlinearities appear in the perpendicular current-voltage behavior, which are not observed in parallel transport. A crossover in behavior is also observed at a field H _{x}, in accordance with theory. The data suggest the presence of a phase transition into a state with finite in-plane resistivity. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.).
Oligonucleotide-Functionalized Anisotropic Gold Nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, Matthew Robert
In this thesis, we describe the properties of oligonucleotide-functionalized gold colloids under the unique set of conditions where the particles are geometrically anisotropic and have nanometer-scale dimensions. While nearly two decades of previous work elucidated numerous unexpected and emergent phenomena arising from the combination of inorganic nanoparticles with surface-bound DNA strands, virtually nothing was known about how these properties are altered when the shape of the nanoparticle core is chosen to be non-spherical. In particular, we are interested in understanding, and ultimately controlling, the ways in which these DNA-conjugated anisotropic nanostructures interact when their attraction is governed by programmable DNA hybridization events. Chapter 1 introduces the field of DNA-based materials assembly by discussing how nanoscale building blocks which present rigid, directional interactions can be thought of as possessing artificial versions of the familiar chemical principles of "bonds" and "valency". In chapter 2 we explore the fundamental interparticle binding thermodynamics of DNA-functionalized spherical and anisotropic nanoparticles, which reveals enormous preferences for collective ligand interactions occurring between flat surfaces over those that occur between curved surfaces. Using these insights, chapter 3 demonstrates that when syntheses produce mixtures of different nanoparticle shapes, the tailorable nature of DNA-mediated interparticle association can be used to selectively crystallize and purify the desired anisotropic nanostructure products, leaving spherical impurity particles behind. Chapter 4 leverages the principle that the flat facets of anisotropic particles generate directional DNA-based hybridization interactions to assemble a variety of tailorable nanoparticle superlattices whose symmetry and dimensionality are a direct consequence of the shape of the nanoparticle building block used in their construction. Chapter 5 explores
Anisotropic electronic states in the fractional quantum Hall regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciftja, Orion
2017-05-01
Recent experiments indicate the presence of new anisotropic fractional quantum Hall states at regimes not anticipated before. These experiments raise many fundamental questions regarding the inner nature of the electronic system that leads to such anisotropic states. Interplay between electron mass anisotropy and electron-electron correlation effects in a magnetic field can create a rich variety of possibilities. Several anisotropic electronic states ranging from anisotropic quantum Hall liquids to anisotropic Wigner solids may stabilize due to such effects. The electron mass anisotropy in a two-dimensional electron gas effectively leads to an anisotropic Coulomb interaction potential between electrons. An anisotropic interaction potential may strongly influence the stability of various quantum phases that are close in energy since the overall stability of an electronic system is very sensitive to local order. As a result there is a possibility that various anisotropic electronic phases may emerge even in the lowest Landau level in regimes where one would not expect them. In this work we study the state with filling factor 1/6 in the lowest Landau level, a state which is very close to the critical filling factor where the liquid-solid transition takes place. We investigate whether an anisotropic Coulomb interaction potential is able to stabilize an anisotropic electronic liquid state at this filling factor. We describe such an anisotropic state by means of a liquid crystalline wave function with broken rotational symmetry which can be adiabatically connected to the actual wave function for the corresponding isotropic phase. We perform quantum Monte Carlo simulations in a disk geometry to study the properties of the anisotropic electronic liquid state under consideration. The findings indicate stability of liquid crystalline order in presence of an anisotropic Coulomb interaction potential. The results are consistent with the existence of an anisotropic electronic
Anisotropic N=4 Super-Yang-Mills Plasma and Its Instabilities
Mateos, David; Trancanelli, Diego
2011-09-02
We present a type-IIB supergravity solution dual to a spatially anisotropic finite-temperature N=4 super-Yang-Mills plasma. The solution is static and completely regular. The full geometry can be viewed as a renormalization group flow from an ultraviolet anti-de Sitter geometry to an infrared Lifshitz-like geometry. The anisotropy can be equivalently understood as resulting from a position-dependent {theta} term or from a nonzero number density of dissolved D7-branes. The holographic stress tensor is conserved and anisotropic. The presence of a conformal anomaly plays an important role in the thermodynamics. The phase diagram exhibits homogeneous and inhomogeneous (i.e., mixed) phases. In some regions the homogeneous phase displays instabilities reminiscent of those of weakly coupled plasmas. We comment on similarities with QCD at finite baryon density and with the phenomenon of cavitation.
Coarse-grained depletion potentials for anisotropic colloids: Application to lock-and-key systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Law, Clement; Ashton, Douglas J.; Wilding, Nigel B.; Jack, Robert L.
2016-08-01
When colloids are mixed with a depletant such as a non-adsorbing polymer, one observes attractive effective interactions between the colloidal particles. If these particles are anisotropic, analysis of these effective interactions is challenging in general. We present a method for inference of approximate (coarse-grained) effective interaction potentials between such anisotropic particles. Using the example of indented (lock-and-key) colloids, we show how numerical solutions can be used to integrate out the (hard sphere) depletant, leading to a depletion potential that accurately characterises the effective interactions. The accuracy of the method is based on matching of contributions to the second virial coefficient of the colloids. The simplest version of our method yields a piecewise-constant effective potential; we also show how this scheme can be generalised to other functional forms, where appropriate.
Solutions to higher-order anisotropic parabolic equations in unbounded domains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozhevnikova, L. M.; Leont'ev, A. A.
2014-01-01
The paper is devoted to a certain class of doubly nonlinear higher-order anisotropic parabolic equations. Using Galerkin approximations it is proved that the first mixed problem with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition has a strong solution in the cylinder D=(0,\\infty)\\times\\Omega, where \\Omega\\subset R^n, n\\geq 3, is an unbounded domain. When the initial function has compact support the highest possible rate of decay of this solution as t\\to \\infty is found. An upper estimate characterizing the decay of the solution is established, which is close to the lower estimate if the domain is sufficiently 'narrow'. The same authors have previously obtained results of this type for second order anisotropic parabolic equations. Bibliography: 29 titles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campos, L. Q. Costa; Apolinario, S. W. S.
2015-01-01
We implement Brownian dynamics to investigate the static properties of colloidal particles confined anisotropically and interacting via a potential which can be tailored in a repulsive-attractive-respulsive fashion as the interparticle distance increases. A diverse number of structural phases are self-assembled, which were classified according to two aspects, that is, their macroscopic and microscopic patterns. Concerning the microscopic phases we found the quasicrystalline, triangular, square, and mixed orderings, where this latter is a combination of square and triangular cells in a 3 ×2 proportion, i.e., the so-called (33,42) Archimedian lattice. On the macroscopic level the system could self-organize in a compact or perforated single cluster surrounded or not by fringes. All the structural phases are summarized in detailed phases diagrams, which clearly show that the different phases are extended as the confinement potential becomes more anisotropic.
Solutions to higher-order anisotropic parabolic equations in unbounded domains
Kozhevnikova, L M; Leont'ev, A A
2014-01-31
The paper is devoted to a certain class of doubly nonlinear higher-order anisotropic parabolic equations. Using Galerkin approximations it is proved that the first mixed problem with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition has a strong solution in the cylinder D=(0,∞)×Ω, where Ω⊂R{sup n}, n≥3, is an unbounded domain. When the initial function has compact support the highest possible rate of decay of this solution as t→∞ is found. An upper estimate characterizing the decay of the solution is established, which is close to the lower estimate if the domain is sufficiently 'narrow'. The same authors have previously obtained results of this type for second order anisotropic parabolic equations. Bibliography: 29 titles.
Petersen, Michael B; Grigoriadou, Maria; Koutroumpe, Maria; Kokotas, Haris
2012-07-01
Non-syndromic hearing loss is one of the most common hereditary determined diseases in human, and the disease is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. Mutations in the GJB2 gene, encoding connexin 26 (Cx26), are a major cause of non-syndromic recessive hearing impairment in many countries and are largely dependent on ethnic groups. Due to the high frequency of the c.35delG GJB2 mutation in the Greek population, we have previously suggested that Greek patients with sensorineural, non-syndromic deafness should be tested for the c.35delG mutation and the coding region of the GJB2 gene should be sequenced in c.35delG heterozygotes. Here we present on the clinical and molecular genetic evaluation of a family suffering from prelingual, sensorineural, non-syndromic deafness. A novel c.247_249delTTC (p.F83del) GJB2 mutation was detected in compound heterozygosity with the c.35delG GJB2 mutation in the proband and was later confirmed in the father, while the mother was homozygous for the c.35delG GJB2 mutation. We conclude that compound heterozygosity of the novel c.247_249delTTC (p.F83del) and the c.35delG mutations in the GJB2 gene was the cause of deafness in the proband and his father.
Hirokawa, K.; Sado, T.; Kubo, S.; Kamisaku, H.; Utsuyama, M.
1986-11-01
The regeneration and persistence of host- and donor-derived T cells were examined in the thymus as well as the spleen of mouse radiation bone marrow chimeras of two semiallogeneic combinations (F1----P, P----F1) with different Thy-1 markers on T cells of donor and host origins. An unexpectedly large number of host-type T cells were recovered from the spleens of F1----P chimeras, amounting to as high as 45 and 25% of total T cells at 6 and 14 weeks after bone marrow transplantation (BMT), respectively. To the contrary, the residual host-type T cells in the spleens of P----F1 chimeras disappeared quickly, resulting in less than 0.1% of total T cells at 6 weeks after BMT. It was also revealed that the number of host-type T cells in the spleens of F1----P chimeras decreased in proportion to increase of radiation dose given to the recipients.
Anisotropic singularities in modified gravity models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Figueiró, Michele Ferraz; Saa, Alberto
2009-09-01
We show that the common singularities present in generic modified gravity models governed by actions of the type S=∫d4x-gf(R,ϕ,X), with X=-(1)/(2)gab∂aϕ∂bϕ, are essentially the same anisotropic instabilities associated to the hypersurface F(ϕ)=0 in the case of a nonminimal coupling of the type F(ϕ)R, enlightening the physical origin of such singularities that typically arise in rather complex and cumbersome inhomogeneous perturbation analyses. We show, moreover, that such anisotropic instabilities typically give rise to dynamically unavoidable singularities, precluding completely the possibility of having physically viable models for which the hypersurface (∂f)/(∂R)=0 is attained. Some examples are explicitly discussed.
Birefringent light propagation on anisotropic cosmological backgrounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asenjo, Felipe A.; Hojman, Sergio A.
2017-08-01
Exact electromagnetic wave solutions to Maxwell equations on anisotropic Bianchi I cosmological spacetime backgrounds are studied. The waves evolving on Bianchi I spacetimes exhibit birefringence (associated with linear polarization) and dispersion. The particular case of a vacuum-dominated anisotropic Universe, which reproduces a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe (for late times)—while, for earlier times, it matches a Kasner Universe—is studied. The electromagnetic waves do not, in general, follow null geodesics. This produces a modification of the cosmological redshift, which is then dependent on light polarization, its dispersion, and its non-null geodesic behavior. New results presented here may help to tackle some issues related to the "horizon" problem.
Rainbow metric from quantum gravity: Anisotropic cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Assanioussi, Mehdi; Dapor, Andrea
2017-03-01
In this paper we present a construction of effective cosmological models which describe the propagation of a massive quantum scalar field on a quantum anisotropic cosmological spacetime. Each obtained effective model is represented by a rainbow metric in which particles of distinct momenta propagate on different classical geometries. Our analysis shows that upon certain assumptions and conditions on the parameters determining such anisotropic models, we surprisingly obtain a unique deformation parameter β in the modified dispersion relation of the modes, hence, inducing an isotropic deformation despite the general starting considerations. We then ensure the recovery of the dispersion relation realized in the isotropic case, studied in [M. Assanioussi, A. Dapor, and J. Lewandowski, Phys. Lett. B 751, 302 (2015), 10.1016/j.physletb.2015.10.043], when some proper symmetry constraints are imposed, and we estimate the value of the deformation parameter for this case in loop quantum cosmology context.
Method of caustics for anisotropic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rossmanith, H. P.
1991-12-01
During the past 25 years the optical method of caustics has matured to a very powerful tool for application in fracture mechanics for the determination of stress intensity factors or the J- integral, in contact mechanics for the determination of contact forces, etc. The technique is applicable to two-dimensional static or dynamic problems and works for any kind of stress- strain relationship. The method displays its full power when employed in conjunction with interactive numerical data reduction and evaluation procedures. Recently, the industrial application of high strength-low weight composite materials has boomed. Application of the method of caustics to anisotropic materials requires the development of the theoretical background. This contribution focuses on the theoretical development of the method of caustics and its applicability to anisotropic materials.
Nonorthogonal polarisation eigenstates in anisotropic cavities
Mamaev, Yu A; Khandokhin, Pavel A
2011-06-30
The Jones matrix method is used to analyse the polarisation eigenmodes of a solid-state laser with an anisotropic Fabry - Perot cavity containing amplitude and phase anisotropic elements. The results demonstrate that, when the axes of these elements do not coincide, the eigenpolarisations become elliptical and nonorthogonal. The ellipticities and azimuths of the polarisation modes and the magnitude and phase of the nonorthogonality parameter are determined as functions of polariser angle at different relationships between the amplitude and phase anisotropies, and the effect is shown to be strongest at a polariser angle of 45{sup 0}. There is critical phase anisotropy, dependent on amplitude anisotropy, at which the magnitude of the nonorthogonality parameter and ellipticity of the polarisation modes approach unity. (resonators)
Fluctuations in a Primordial Anisotropic ERA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novello, Mário; de Freitas, Luciane R.
The primordial Universe is treated in terms of a nonperfect fluid configuration endowed with an anisotropic expansion. The deGennes-Landau mechanism of phase transition acts as a very efficient process to provide the elimination of the previous anisotropy and to set the universe in the current isotropic FRW stage. The entropy produced, as a consequence of the phase transition, depends on the strength of the previous shear. We suggest the hypothesis that the germinal perturbations that will grow into the observed system of galaxies occurring in the anisotropic era. We present a model to deal with this idea that provides a power spectrum of fluctuations of the form δ 2k ˜ 1/(a +bk2). We compare this prediction of our model to the current knowledge on the galaxy formation process.
Anisotropic stellar models admitting conformal motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Ayan; Banerjee, Sumita; Hansraj, Sudan; Ovgun, Ali
2017-04-01
We address the problem of finding static and spherically symmetric anisotropic compact stars in general relativity that admit conformal motions. The study is framed in the language of f( R) gravity theory in order to expose opportunity for further study in the more general theory. Exact solutions of compact stars are found under the assumption that spherically symmetric spacetimes admit conformal motion with anisotropic matter distribution in nature. In this work, two cases have been studied for the existence of such solutions: first, we consider the model given by f(R)=R and then f(R)=aR+b . Finally, specific characteristics and physical properties have been explored analytically along with graphical representations for conformally symmetric compact stars in f( R) gravity.
Anisotropic properties of tracheal smooth muscle tissue.
Sarma, P A; Pidaparti, R M; Meiss, R A
2003-04-01
The anisotropic (directional-dependent) properties of contracting tracheal smooth muscle tissue are estimated from a computational model based on the experimental data of length-dependent stiffness. The area changes are obtained at different muscle lengths from experiments in which stimulated muscle undergoes unrestricted shortening. Then, through an interative process, the anisotropic properties are estimated by matching the area changes obtained from the finite element analysis to those derived from the experiments. The results obtained indicate that the anisotropy ratio (longitudinal stiffness to transverse stiffness) is about 4 when the smooth muscle undergoes 70% strain shortening, indicating that the transverse stiffness reduces as the longitudinal stiffness increases. It was found through a sensitivity analysis from the simulation model that the longitudinal stiffness and the in-plane shear modulus are not very sensitive as compared to major Poisson's ratio to the area changes of the muscle tissue. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Optical sharper focusing in an anisotropic crystal.
Wang, Sicong; Xie, Xiangsheng; Gu, Min; Zhou, Jianying
2015-06-01
Optical super-resolution technique through tight focusing is a widely used technique to image material samples with anisotropic optical properties. The knowledge of the field distribution of a tightly focused beam in anisotropic media is both scientifically interesting and technologically important. In this paper, the optical properties of a uniaxial crystal with the optic axis perpendicular to the interface under a tight focusing configuration are studied with rigorous theoretical and numerical analysis. The significant effect of the Poynting vector on the focal position introduces an obvious displacement of the focal spot formed by the extraordinary waves (e-ray). Moreover, a sharper focus with a lateral size of 0.22λ is obtained as a result of the effective separation of the ordinary waves (o-ray) and the e-ray. It provides a new tool to fabricate optical structures with higher resolutions than that in an isotropic medium through the far-field method.
Performance comparison of fundamental anisotropic diffusion algorithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bayraktar, Bulent; Analoui, Mostafa
2004-05-01
Anisotropic diffusion (AD), first introduced by Perona and Malik (PM), provides image enhancement a strong benefit as it favors intra-region over inter-region smoothing. Early updates on the original PM algorithm focused on the cures for its drawbacks. Later some authors provided their own versions of AD techniques with a wide variety of applications. We surveyed the pros and cons of many fundamental AD techniques. To put our purpose into perspective, we compared the performances of fundamental AD algorithms to simple traditional filters and to more sophisticated tools such as wavelets. Visual inspection and two mathematical criteria are used for performance comparison: Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and universal image quality index (UIQI). We believe that a good overview of its simplicity and power will show the rightful reason of so much interest in anisotropic diffusion since its introduction.
Nonminimal coupling in anisotropic teleparallel inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abedi, Habib; Wright, Matthew; Abbassi, Amir M.
2017-03-01
We study an anisotropic inflationary scenario in teleparallel gravity. We consider a model where the inflaton is nonminimally coupled both to torsion and a vector field, which can lead to anisotropic inflation. In the weak-coupling limit, our results coincide with the results obtained in the general relativistic framework. However, in the strong-coupling regime of the Jordan frame, we show that the anisotropy shear to expansion ratio is a constant, and can be much larger than the slow-roll parameter. Applying a conformal transformation we then work in the Einstein frame, which in teleparallel gravity introduces a different form of coupling between the inflaton and torsion. In this frame we show that in the strong coupling regime the anisotropy shear to expansion ratio is a different constant, that can be made suitably small.
Anisotropic hydrodynamic function of dense confined colloids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nygârd, Kim; Buitenhuis, Johan; Kagias, Matias; Jefimovs, Konstantins; Zontone, Federico; Chushkin, Yuriy
2017-06-01
Dense colloidal dispersions exhibit complex wave-vector-dependent diffusion, which is controlled by both direct particle interactions and indirect nonadditive hydrodynamic interactions mediated by the solvent. In bulk the hydrodynamic interactions are probed routinely, but in confined geometries their studies have been hitherto hindered by additional complications due to confining walls. Here we solve this issue by combining high-energy x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and small-angle x-ray-scattering experiments on colloid-filled microfluidic channels to yield the confined fluid's hydrodynamic function in the short-time limit. Most importantly, we find the confined fluid to exhibit a strongly anisotropic hydrodynamic function, similar to its anisotropic structure factor. This observation is important in order to guide future theoretical research.
Formation of Anisotropic Block Copolymer Gels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liaw, Chya Yan; Shull, Kenneth; Henderson, Kevin; Joester, Derk
2011-03-01
Anisotropic, fibrillar gels are important in a variety of processes. Biomineralization is one example, where the mineralization process often occurs within a matrix of collagen or chitin fibers that trap the mineral precursors and direct the mineralization process. We wish to replicate this type of behavior within block copolymer gels. Particularly, we are interested in employing gels composed of cylindrical micelles, which are anisotropic and closely mimic biological fibers. Micelle geometry is controlled in our system by manipulating the ratio of molecular weights of the two blocks and by controlling the detailed thermal processing history of the copolymer solutions. Small-Angle X-ray Scattering and Dynamic Light Scattering are used to determine the temperature dependence of the gel formation process. Initial experiments are based on a thermally-reversible alcohol-soluble system, that can be subsequently converted to a water soluble system by hydrolysis of a poly(t-butyl methacrylate) block to a poly (methacrylic acid) block. MRSEC.
Wireless energy transfer between anisotropic metamaterials shells
Díaz-Rubio, Ana; Carbonell, Jorge; Sánchez-Dehesa, José
2014-06-15
The behavior of strongly coupled Radial Photonic Crystals shells is investigated as a potential alternative to transfer electromagnetic energy wirelessly. These sub-wavelength resonant microstructures, which are based on anisotropic metamaterials, can produce efficient coupling phenomena due to their high quality factor. A configuration of selected constitutive parameters (permittivity and permeability) is analyzed in terms of its resonant characteristics. The coupling to loss ratio between two coupled resonators is calculated as a function of distance, the maximum (in excess of 300) is obtained when the shells are separated by three times their radius. Under practical conditions an 83% of maximum power transfer has been also estimated. -- Highlights: •Anisotropic metamaterial shells exhibit high quality factors and sub-wavelength size. •Exchange of electromagnetic energy between shells with high efficiency is analyzed. •Strong coupling is supported with high wireless transfer efficiency. •End-to-end energy transfer efficiencies higher than 83% can be predicted.
The Impact of Anisotropic Error Correlation Modelling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swinbank, R.; Riishojgaard, L. P.; Menard, R.
1999-01-01
Most data assimilation systems assume isotropic forecast error correlations, but results from two dimensional Kalman Filter experiments indicate that the correlations can be far from isotropic. In this paper we use a simple two-dimensional data assimilation system, which analyses trace chemical species such as ozone, to assess different approaches to modelling the error correlations. We compare assimilation results using isotropic correlations with results obtained using different approaches to modelling anisotropic correlations: first, using correlations based on the concentrations of the trace chemicals, and secondly using an advective correlation model. We show that these relatively cheap ways of modelling anisotropic correlations give objectively better results than using isotropic correlations. We discuss the possible extension of these approaches to a full 3-D meteorological data assimilation system.
Modeling anisotropic magnetoresistance in layered antiferromagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, D. L. R.; Pinheiro, F. A.; Velev, J.; Chshiev, M.; Castro, J. d.'Albuquerque e.; Lacroix, C.
2017-06-01
We have investigated the electronic transport and the anisotropic magnetoresistance in systems consisting of pairs of antiferromagnetically aligned layers separated by a non-magnetic layer, across which an antiferromagnetic coupling between the double layers is established. Calculations have been performed within the framework of the tight-binding model, taking into account the exchange coupling within the ferromagnetic layers and the Rashba spin-orbit interaction. Conductivities have been evaluated in the ballistic regime, based on Kubo formula. We have systematically studied the dependence of the conductivity and of the anisotropic magnetoresistance on several material and structural parameters, such as the orientation of the magnetic moments relative to the crystalline axis, band filling, out-of-plane hopping and spin-orbit parameter.
Cosmological signatures of anisotropic spatial curvature
Pereira, Thiago S.; Marugán, Guillermo A. Mena; Carneiro, Saulo E-mail: mena@iem.cfmac.csic.es
2015-07-01
If one is willing to give up the cherished hypothesis of spatial isotropy, many interesting cosmological models can be developed beyond the simple anisotropically expanding scenarios. One interesting possibility is presented by shear-free models in which the anisotropy emerges at the level of the curvature of the homogeneous spatial sections, whereas the expansion is dictated by a single scale factor. We show that such models represent viable alternatives to describe the large-scale structure of the inflationary universe, leading to a kinematically equivalent Sachs-Wolfe effect. Through the definition of a complete set of spatial eigenfunctions we compute the two-point correlation function of scalar perturbations in these models. In addition, we show how such scenarios would modify the spectrum of the CMB assuming that the observations take place in a small patch of a universe with anisotropic curvature.
Thermodynamics of soft anisotropic contact lines.
Rey, Alejandro D
2004-08-01
Contact lines arising from the intersection of interfaces between liquids and nematic liquid crystals are representative models of soft anisotropic contact lines. This paper presents the thermodynamics of soft anisotropic contact lines and the derivation of the one dimensional (1D) Gibbs-Duhem adsorption equation. Consistency between the 1D Gibbs-Duhem equation and the classical equations of lineal nematostatics is shown. Using a phase space that takes into account thermodynamics, liquid crystalline order, and geometric variables, the generalized nematic line Gibbs-Duhem equation reveals the presence of couplings between curvature, torsion, adsorption, temperature, and average molecular orientation. Merging the thermodynamic analysis with nematostatics results in a model for contact line shape and orientation selection. The ability of an adsorbed solute to orient the director and to bend and twist the contact line is predicted. The thermodynamic origin of preferred orientation at a straight contact line is established.
Observation of an Anisotropic Wigner Crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yang; Hasdemir, S.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.; Baldwin, K. W.; Shayegan, M.
2016-09-01
We report a new correlated phase of two-dimensional charged carriers in high magnetic fields, manifested by an anisotropic insulating behavior at low temperatures. It appears in a large range of low Landau level fillings 1 /3 ≲ν ≲2 /3 in hole systems confined to wide GaAs quantum wells when the sample is tilted in magnetic field to an intermediate angle. The parallel field component (B∥) leads to a crossing of the lowest two Landau levels, and an elongated hole wave function in the direction of B∥. Under these conditions, the in-plane resistance exhibits an insulating behavior, with the resistance along B∥ about 10 times smaller than the resistance perpendicular to B∥. We interpret this anisotropic insulating phase as a two-component, striped Wigner crystal.
Symmetry analysis for anisotropic field theories
Parra, Lorena; Vergara, J. David
2012-08-24
The purpose of this paper is to study with the help of Noether's theorem the symmetries of anisotropic actions for arbitrary fields which generally depend on higher order spatial derivatives, and to find the corresponding current densities and the Noether charges. We study in particular scale invariance and consider the cases of higher derivative extensions of the scalar field, electrodynamics and Chern-Simons theory.
Continuous Observability for the Anisotropic Maxwell System
Eller, Matthias M.
2007-03-15
A boundary observability inequality for the homogeneous Maxwell system with variable, anisotropic coefficients is proved. The result implies uniqueness for an ill-posed Cauchy problem for Maxwell's system. Both results are so far known only in the special case of isotropic coefficients, i.e., when Maxwell's system reduces to a vector wave equation. Here the analysis has been carried out for the first-order system directly without references to the wave equation.
Slotted Antenna with Anisotropic Magnetic Loading
2016-07-26
10 SLOTTED ANTENNA WITH ANISOTROPIC MAGNETIC LOADING STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured...therefor. CROSS REFERENCE TO OTHER PATENT APPLICATIONS [0002] None. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION (1) Field of the Invention [0003] The present invention ...of the VSWR curve, and modest bandwidth in each passband. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION [0006] It is a first object of the present invention to provide
Anisotropic cosmological solutions in massive vector theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji
2016-11-01
In beyond-generalized Proca theories including the extension to theories higher than second order, we study the role of a spatial component v of a massive vector field on the anisotropic cosmological background. We show that, as in the case of the isotropic cosmological background, there is no additional ghostly degrees of freedom associated with the Ostrogradski instability. In second-order generalized Proca theories we find the existence of anisotropic solutions on which the ratio between the anisotropic expansion rate Σ and the isotropic expansion rate H remains nearly constant in the radiation-dominated epoch. In the regime where Σ/H is constant, the spatial vector component v works as a dark radiation with the equation of state close to 1/3. During the matter era, the ratio Σ/H decreases with the decrease of v. As long as the conditions |Σ| ll H and v2 ll phi2 are satisfied around the onset of late-time cosmic acceleration, where phi is the temporal vector component, we find that the solutions approach the isotropic de Sitter fixed point (Σ = 0 = v) in accordance with the cosmic no-hair conjecture. In the presence of v and Σ the early evolution of the dark energy equation of state wDE in the radiation era is different from that in the isotropic case, but the approach to the isotropic value wDE(iso) typically occurs at redshifts z much larger than 1. Thus, apart from the existence of dark radiation, the anisotropic cosmological dynamics at low redshifts is similar to that in isotropic generalized Proca theories. In beyond-generalized Proca theories the only consistent solution to avoid the divergence of a determinant of the dynamical system corresponds to v = 0, so Σ always decreases in time.
Probabilistic Anisotropic Failure Criteria for Composite Materials.
1987-12-01
worksheets were based on Microsoft Excel software. 55 55 ’. 2.’ ..’. -.. ’-,’€’.’’.’ :2.,2..’..’.2.’.’.,’.." ... .2...analytically described the failure cri - terion and probabilistic failure states of a anisotropic composite in a combined stress state. Strength...APPENDIX F RELIABILITY/FAILURE FUNCTION WORKSHEET ........... 76 APPENDIX G PERCENTILE STRENGTH WORKSHEET ....................... 80 LIST OF
Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity of Exfoliated Black Phosphorus.
Jang, Hyejin; Wood, Joshua D; Ryder, Christopher R; Hersam, Mark C; Cahill, David G
2015-12-22
The anisotropic thermal conductivity of passivated black phosphorus (BP), a reactive two-dimensional material with strong in-plane anisotropy, is ascertained. The room-temperature thermal conductivity for three crystalline axes of exfoliated BP is measured by time-domain thermo-reflectance. The thermal conductivity along the zigzag direction is ≈2.5 times higher than that of the armchair direction.
Observational signatures of anisotropic inflationary models
Ohashi, Junko; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Soda, Jiro E-mail: jiro@phys.sci.kobe-u.ac.jp
2013-12-01
We study observational signatures of two classes of anisotropic inflationary models in which an inflaton field couples to (i) a vector kinetic term F{sub μν}F{sup μν} and (ii) a two-form kinetic term H{sub μνλ}H{sup μνλ}. We compute the corrections from the anisotropic sources to the power spectrum of gravitational waves as well as the two-point cross correlation between scalar and tensor perturbations. The signs of the anisotropic parameter g{sub *} are different depending on the vector and the two-form models, but the statistical anisotropies generally lead to a suppressed tensor-to-scalar ratio r and a smaller scalar spectral index n{sub s} in both models. In the light of the recent Planck bounds of n{sub s} and r, we place observational constraints on several different inflaton potentials such as those in chaotic and natural inflation in the presence of anisotropic interactions. In the two-form model we also find that there is no cross correlation between scalar and tensor perturbations, while in the vector model the cross correlation does not vanish. The non-linear estimator f{sub NL} of scalar non-Gaussianities in the two-form model is generally smaller than that in the vector model for the same orders of |g{sub *}|, so that the former is easier to be compatible with observational bounds of non-Gaussianities than the latter.
Anisotropic conducting films for electromagnetic radiation applications
Cavallo, Francesca; Lagally, Max G.; Rojas-Delgado, Richard
2015-06-16
Electronic devices for the generation of electromagnetic radiation are provided. Also provided are methods for using the devices to generate electromagnetic radiation. The radiation sources include an anisotropic electrically conducting thin film that is characterized by a periodically varying charge carrier mobility in the plane of the film. The periodic variation in carrier mobility gives rise to a spatially varying electric field, which produces electromagnetic radiation as charged particles pass through the film.
A viscoplastic theory for anisotropic materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nouailhas, D.; Freed, A. D.
1992-01-01
The purpose of this work is the development of a unified, cyclic, viscoplastic model for anisotropic materials. The first part of the paper presents the foundations of the model in the framework of thermodynamics with internal variables. The second part considers the particular case of cubic symmetry, and addresses the cyclic behavior of a nickel-base single-crystal superalloy, CMSX-2, at high temperature (950 C).
Multidimensional reaction rate theory with anisotropic diffusion.
Berezhkovskii, Alexander M; Szabo, Attila; Greives, Nicholas; Zhou, Huan-Xiang
2014-11-28
An analytical expression is derived for the rate constant that describes diffusive transitions between two deep wells of a multidimensional potential. The expression, in contrast to the Kramers-Langer formula for the rate constant, is valid even when the diffusion is highly anisotropic. Our approach is based on a variational principle for the reactive flux and uses a trial function for the splitting probability or commitor. The theoretical result is validated by Brownian dynamics simulations.
Perspectives of anisotropic flow measurements at NICA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korotkikh, V. L.; Lokhtin, I. P.; Malinina, L. V.; Petrushanko, S. V.; Snigirev, A. M.
2016-08-01
High-accuracy and high-luminosity measurements of anisotropic flow for various hadron types over full NICA energy range will provide important constraints on the early dynamics of heavy-ion reactions under the conditions where a first-order quark-hadron phase transition may occur. The statistical reach for elliptic flow measurements at NICA is estimated with HYDJET++ heavy-ion event generator.
Effect of inflation on anisotropic cosmologies
Jensen, L.G.; Stein-Schabes, J.A.
1986-03-01
The effects of anisotropic cosmologies on inflation are studied. By properly formulating the field equations it is possible to show that any model that undergoes sufficient inflation will become isotropic on scales greater than the horizon today. Furthermore, we shall show that it takes a very long time for anisotropies to become visible in the observable part of the Universe. It is interesting to note that the time scale will be independent of the Bianchi Model and of the initial anisotropy. 6 refs.
Solute mixing regulates heterogeneity of mineral precipitation in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cil, Mehmet B.; Xie, Minwei; Packman, Aaron I.; Buscarnera, Giuseppe
2017-07-01
Synchrotron X-ray microtomography was used to track the spatiotemporal evolution of mineral precipitation and the consequent alteration of the pore structure. Column experiments were conducted by injecting CaCl2 and NaHCO3 solutions into granular porous media either as a premixed supersaturated solution (external mixing) or as separate solutions that mixed within the specimen (internal mixing). The two mixing modes produced distinct mineral growth patterns. While internal mixing promoted transverse heterogeneity with precipitation at the mixing zone, external mixing favored relatively homogeneous precipitation along the flow direction. The impact of precipitation on pore water flow and permeability was assessed via 3-D flow simulations, which indicated anisotropic permeability evolution for both mixing modes. Under both mixing modes, precipitation decreased the median pore size and increased the skewness of the pore size distribution. Such similar pore-scale evolution patterns suggest that the clogging of individual pores depends primarily on local supersaturation state and pore geometry.
ARTc: Anisotropic reflectivity and transmissivity calculator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malehmir, Reza; Schmitt, Douglas R.
2016-08-01
While seismic anisotropy is known to exist within the Earth's crust and even deeper, isotropic or even highly symmetric elastic anisotropic assumptions for seismic imaging is an over-simplification which may create artifacts in the image, target mis-positioning and hence flawed interpretation. In this paper, we have developed the ARTc algorithm to solve reflectivity, transmissivity as well as velocity and particle polarization in the most general case of elastic anisotropy. This algorithm is able to provide reflectivity solution from the boundary between two anisotropic slabs with arbitrary symmetry and orientation up to triclinic. To achieve this, the algorithm solves full elastic wave equation to find polarization, slowness and amplitude of all six wave-modes generated from the incident plane-wave and welded interface. In the first step to calculate the reflectivity, the algorithm solves properties of the incident wave such as particle polarization and slowness. After calculation of the direction of generated waves, the algorithm solves their respective slowness and particle polarization. With this information, the algorithm then solves a system of equations incorporating the imposed boundary conditions to arrive at the scattered wave amplitudes, and thus reflectivity and transmissivity. Reflectivity results as well as slowness and polarization are then tested in complex computational anisotropic models to ensure their accuracy and reliability. ARTc is coded in MATLAB ® and bundled with an interactive GUI and bash script to run on single or multi-processor computers.
Active Damping Using Distributed Anisotropic Actuators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schiller, Noah H.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Quinones, Juan D.; Wier, Nathan C.
2010-01-01
A helicopter structure experiences substantial high-frequency mechanical excitation from powertrain components such as gearboxes and drive shafts. The resulting structure-borne vibration excites the windows which then radiate sound into the passenger cabin. In many cases the radiated sound power can be reduced by adding damping. This can be accomplished using passive or active approaches. Passive treatments such as constrained layer damping tend to reduce window transparency. Therefore this paper focuses on an active approach utilizing compact decentralized control units distributed around the perimeter of the window. Each control unit consists of a triangularly shaped piezoelectric actuator, a miniature accelerometer, and analog electronics. Earlier work has shown that this type of system can increase damping up to approximately 1 kHz. However at higher frequencies the mismatch between the distributed actuator and the point sensor caused control spillover. This paper describes new anisotropic actuators that can be used to improve the bandwidth of the control system. The anisotropic actuators are composed of piezoelectric material sandwiched between interdigitated electrodes, which enables the application of the electric field in a preferred in-plane direction. When shaped correctly the anisotropic actuators outperform traditional isotropic actuators by reducing the mismatch between the distributed actuator and point sensor at high frequencies. Testing performed on a Plexiglas panel, representative of a helicopter window, shows that the control units can increase damping at low frequencies. However high frequency performance was still limited due to the flexible boundary conditions present on the test structure.
Anisotropic hydrodynamics for conformal Gubser flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strickland, Michael; Nopoush, Mohammad; Ryblewski, Radoslaw
2016-12-01
In this proceedings contribution, we review the exact solution of the anisotropic hydrodynamics equations for a system subject to Gubser flow. For this purpose, we use the leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics equations which assume that the distribution function is ellipsoidally symmetric in local-rest-frame momentum. We then prove that the SO(3)q symmetry in de Sitter space constrains the anisotropy tensor to be of spheroidal form with only one independent anisotropy parameter remaining. As a consequence, the exact solution reduces to the problem of solving two coupled non-linear differential equations. We show that, in the limit that the relaxation time goes to zero, one obtains Gubser's ideal hydrodynamic solution and, in the limit that the relaxation time goes to infinity, one obtains the exact free streaming solution obtained originally by Denicol et al. For finite relaxation time, we solve the equations numerically and compare to the exact solution of the relaxation-time-approximation Boltzmann equation subject to Gubser flow. Using this as our standard, we find that anisotropic hydrodynamics describes the spatio-temporal evolution of the system better than all currently known dissipative hydrodynamics approaches.
Anisotropic impedance surfaces for enhanced antenna isolation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miragliotta, Joseph A.; Shrekenhamer, David; Sievenpiper, Daniel F.
2015-09-01
Anisotropic impedance surfaces, which include metasurfaces and high impedance surfaces (HIS), can be designed to control the amplitude and propagation direction of surface electromagnetic waves and are an effective means to enhance the isolation between antennas that share a common ground plane. To date, the majority of metastructures that have been designed for antenna isolation have relied on an isotropic distribution of unit cells that possess a stop band that inhibits the propagation of surface waves between neighboring antennas. A less common approach to isolation has been through the design of a metasurface that enables the re-direction of surface waves away from the location of the antenna structure, which effectively limits the coupling. In this paper, we discuss results from our computational investigation associated with improving antenna isolation through the use of an anisotropic metastructure. Simulated results associated with the isolation performance of two simple, but similar, anisotropic structures are compared to the corresponding results from a broadband magnetic radar absorbing materials (magRAM).
Shock capturing by anisotropic diffusion oscillation reduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, G. W.
2002-04-01
This paper introduces an anisotropic diffusion oscillation reduction (ADOR) scheme for shock wave computations. The connection is made between digital image processing, in particular, image edge detection, and numerical shock capturing. Indeed, numerical shock capturing can be formulated on the lines of iterative digital edge detection. Various anisotropic diffusion and super diffusion operators originated from image edge detection are proposed for the treatment of hyperbolic conservation laws and near-hyperbolic hydrodynamic equations of change. The similarity between anisotropic diffusion and artificial viscosity is discussed. Physical origins and mathematical properties of the artificial viscosity are analyzed from the point of view of kinetic theory. A form of pressure tensor is derived from the first principles of the quantum mechanics. Quantum kinetic theory is utilized to arrive at macroscopic transport equations from the microscopic theory. Macroscopic symmetry is used to simplify pressure tensor expressions. The latter provides a basis for the design of artificial viscosity. The ADOR approach is validated by using (inviscid) Burgers' equation, the gas tube problems, the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation and the Euler equation. Both standard central difference schemes and a discrete singular convolution algorithm are utilized to illustrate the approach. Results are compared with those of third-order upwind scheme and essentially non-oscillatory (ENO) scheme.
Monotonic solution of heterogeneous anisotropic diffusion problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aricò, Costanza; Tucciarelli, Tullio
2013-11-01
Anisotropic problems arise in various areas of science and engineering, for example groundwater transport and petroleum reservoir simulations. The pure diffusive anisotropic time-dependent transport problem is solved on a finite number of nodes, that are selected inside and on the boundary of the given domain, along with possible internal boundaries connecting some of the nodes. An unstructured triangular mesh, that attains the Generalized Anisotropic Delaunay condition for all the triangle sides, is automatically generated by properly connecting all the nodes, starting from an arbitrary initial one. The control volume of each node is the closed polygon given by the union of the midpoint of each side with the “anisotropic” circumcentre of each final triangle. A structure of the flux across the control volume sides similar to the standard Galerkin Finite Element scheme is derived. A special treatment of the flux computation, mainly based on edge swaps of the initial mesh triangles, is proposed in order to obtain a stiffness M-matrix system that guarantees the monotonicity of the solution. The proposed scheme is tested using several literature tests and the results are compared with analytical solutions, as well as with the results of other algorithms, in terms of convergence order. Computational costs are also investigated.
Anisotropic representations for superresolution of hyperspectral data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bosch, Edward H.; Czaja, Wojciech; Murphy, James M.; Weinberg, Daniel
2015-05-01
We develop a method for superresolution based on anisotropic harmonic analysis. Our ambition is to efficiently increase the resolution of an image without blurring or introducing artifacts, and without integrating additional information, such as sub-pixel shifts of the same image at lower resolutions or multimodal images of the same scene. The approach developed in this article is based on analysis of the directional features present in the image that is to be superesolved. The harmonic analytic technique of shearlets is implemented in order to efficiently capture the directional information present in the image, which is then used to provide smooth, accurate images at higher resolutions. Our algorithm is compared to both a recent anisotropic technique based on frame theory and circulant matrices,1 as well as to the standard superresolution method of bicubic interpolation. We evaluate our algorithm on synthetic test images, as well as a hyperspectral image. Our results indicate the superior performance of anisotropic methods, when compared to standard bicubic interpolation.
Waveguide structures in anisotropic nonlinear crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Da; Hong, Pengda; Meissner, Helmuth E.
2017-02-01
We report on the design and manufacturing parameters of waveguiding structures of anisotropic nonlinear crystals that are employed for harmonic conversions, using Adhesive-Free Bonding (AFB®). This technology enables a full range of predetermined refractive index differences that are essential for the design of single mode or low-mode propagation with high efficiency in anisotropic nonlinear crystals which in turn results in compact frequency conversion systems. Examples of nonlinear optical waveguides include periodically bonded walk-off corrected nonlinear optical waveguides and periodically poled waveguide components, such as lithium triborate (LBO), beta barium borate (β-BBO), lithium niobate (LN), potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP), zinc germanium phosphide (ZGP) and silver selenogallate (AGSE). Simulation of planar LN waveguide shows that when the electric field vector E lies in the k-c plane, the power flow is directed precisely along the propagation direction, demonstrating waveguiding effect in the planar waveguide. Employment of anisotropic nonlinear optical waveguides, for example in combination with AFB® crystalline fiber waveguides (CFW), provides access to the design of a number of novel high power and high efficiency light sources spanning the range of wavelengths from deep ultraviolet (as short as 200 nm) to mid-infrared (as long as about 18 μm). To our knowledge, the technique is the only generally applicable one because most often there are no compatible cladding crystals available to nonlinear optical cores, especially not with an engineer-able refractive index difference and large mode area.
Anisotropic and Hierarchical Porosity in Multifunctional Ceramics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lichtner, Aaron Zev
The performance of multifunctional porous ceramics is often hindered by the seemingly contradictory effects of porosity on both mechanical and non-structural properties and yet a sufficient body of knowledge linking microstructure to these properties does not exist. Using a combination of tailored anisotropic and hierarchical materials, these disparate effects may be reconciled. In this project, a systematic investigation of the processing, characterization and properties of anisotropic and isotropic hierarchically porous ceramics was conducted. The system chosen was a composite ceramic intended as the cathode for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Comprehensive processing investigations led to the development of approaches to make hierarchical, anisotropic porous microstructures using directional freeze-casting of well dispersed slurries. The effect of all the important processing parameters was investigated. This resulted in an ability to tailor and control the important microstructural features including the scale of the microstructure, the macropore size and total porosity. Comparable isotropic porous ceramics were also processed using fugitive pore formers. A suite of characterization techniques including x-ray tomography and 3-D sectional scanning electron micrographs (FIB-SEM) was used to characterize and quantify the green and partially sintered microstructures. The effect of sintering temperature on the microstructure was quantified and discrete element simulations (DEM) were used to explain the experimental observations. Finally, the comprehensive mechanical properties, at room temperature, were investigated, experimentally and using DEM, for the different microstructures.
Longitudinal fluctuations and decorrelation of anisotropic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pang, Long-Gang; Petersen, Hannah; Qin, Guang-You; Roy, Victor; Wang, Xin-Nian
2016-12-01
We investigate the decorrelation of 2nd and 3rd order anisotropic flow for charged particles in two different pseudo rapidity (η) windows by varying the pseudo rapidity gap, in an event-by-event (3+1)D ideal hydrodynamic model, with fluctuating initial conditions from A Multi-Phase Transport (AMPT) model. We visualize the parton distribution at initial state for Pb+Pb collisions at LHC and Au+Au collisions at RHIC, and demonstrate the longitudinal fluctuations originating from the asymmetry between forward and backward going participants, the fluctuations of the string length and the fluctuations due to finite number of partons at different beam energies. The decorrelation of anisotropic flow of final hadrons with large η gaps is found to originate from the spatial decorrelation along the longitudinal direction in the AMPT initial conditions through hydrodynamic evolution. The agreement between our results and recent CMS data in most centralities suggests that the string-like mechanism of initial parton production in AMPT model captures the initial longitudinal fluctuation that is responsible for the measured decorrelation of anisotropic flow in Pb+Pb collisions at LHC. Our predictions for Au+Au collisions at the highest RHIC energy show stronger longitudinal decorrelation than at LHC, indicating larger longitudinal fluctuations at lower beam energies.
Anisotropic halo model: implementation and numerical results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sgró, Mario A.; Paz, Dante J.; Merchán, Manuel
2013-07-01
In the present work, we extend the classic halo model for the large-scale matter distribution including a triaxial model for the halo profiles and their alignments. In particular, we derive general expressions for the halo-matter cross-correlation function. In addition, by numerical integration, we obtain instances of the cross-correlation function depending on the directions given by halo shape axes. These functions are called anisotropic cross-correlations. With the aim of comparing our theoretical results with the simulations, we compute averaged anisotropic correlations in cones with their symmetry axis along each shape direction of the centre halo. From these comparisons we characterize and quantify the alignment of dark matter haloes on the Λcold dark matter context by means of the presented anisotropic halo model. Since our model requires multidimensional integral computation we implement a Monte Carlo method on GPU hardware which allows us to increase the precision of the results and it improves the performance of the computation.
Anisotropic Self-Assembly of Nanoparticle Amphiphiles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Sanat
2009-03-01
It is easy to understand the self-assembly of particles having anisotropic shapes or interactions, such as Co nanoparticles or proteins, into highly extended structures. However, there is no experimentally established strategy for creating anisotropic structures from common spherical nanoparticles. We demonstrate that spherical nanoparticles, uniformly grafted with macromolecules, robustly self-assemble into a range of anisotropic superstructures when they are dispersed in the corresponding homopolymer matrix. This phenomenon is driven by the microphase separation between the inorganic nanoparticles and the (organic) polymeric chains grafted to their surfaces in a fashion similar to block copolymers. This microphase separation driven particle self-assembly provides a unique means of controlling the global nanoparticle dispersion state in polymer nanocomposites. The relationship between the state of particle dispersion and nanocomposite properties can thus be critically examined, and in particular we focus on the mechanical reinforcement afforded when particles are added to polymers. Grafted nanoparticles are thus versatile building blocks for creating tunable and functional particle superstructures with significant practical applications. With Pinar Akcora, Hongjun Liu, Yu Li, Brian Benicewicz, Linda Schadler, Thanos Panagiotopoulos, Jack Douglas, P. Thiyagarajan and Ralph Colby.
Anisotropic materials appearance analysis using ellipsoidal mirror
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filip, Jiří; Vávra, Radomír.
2015-03-01
Many real-world materials exhibit significant changes in appearance when rotated along a surface normal. The presence of this behavior is often referred to as visual anisotropy. Anisotropic appearance of spatially homogeneous materials is commonly characterized by a four-dimensional BRDF. Unfortunately, due to simplicity most past research has been devoted to three dimensional isotropic BRDFs. In this paper, we introduce an innovative, fast, and inexpensive image-based approach to detect the extent of anisotropy, its main axes and width of corresponding anisotropic highlights. The method does not rely on any moving parts and uses only an off-the-shelf ellipsoidal reflector with a compact camera. We analyze our findings with a material microgeometry scan, and present how results correspond to the microstructure of individual threads in a particular fabric. We show that knowledge of a material's anisotropic behavior can be effectively used in order to design a material-dependent sampling pattern so as the material's BRDF could be measured much more precisely in the same amount of time using a common gonioreflectometer.
Efficient Anisotropic Filtering of Diffusion Tensor Images
Xu, Qing; Anderson, Adam W.; Gore, John C.; Ding, Zhaohua
2009-01-01
To improve the accuracy of structural and architectural characterization of living tissue with diffusion tensor imaging, an efficient smoothing algorithm is presented for reducing noise in diffusion tensor images. The algorithm is based on anisotropic diffusion filtering, which allows both image detail preservation and noise reduction. However, traditional numerical schemes for anisotropic filtering have the drawback of inefficiency and inaccuracy due to their poor stability and first order time accuracy. To address this, an unconditionally stable and second order time accuracy semi-implicit Craig-Sneyd scheme is adapted in our anisotropic filtering. By using large step size, unconditional stability allows this scheme to take much fewer iterations and thus less computation time than the explicit scheme to achieve a certain degree of smoothing. Second order time accuracy makes the algorithm reduce noise more effectively than a first order scheme with the same total iteration time. Both the efficiency and effectiveness are quantitatively evaluated based on synthetic and in vivo human brain diffusion tensor images, and these tests demonstrate that our algorithm is an efficient and effective tool for denoising diffusion tensor images. PMID:20061113
Textured silicon nitride: processing and anisotropic properties
Zhu, Xinwen; Sakka, Yoshio
2008-01-01
Textured silicon nitride (Si3N4) has been intensively studied over the past 15 years because of its use for achieving its superthermal and mechanical properties. In this review we present the fundamental aspects of the processing and anisotropic properties of textured Si3N4, with emphasis on the anisotropic and abnormal grain growth of β-Si3N4, texture structure and texture analysis, processing methods and anisotropic properties. On the basis of the texturing mechanisms, the processing methods described in this article have been classified into two types: hot-working (HW) and templated grain growth (TGG). The HW method includes the hot-pressing, hot-forging and sinter-forging techniques, and the TGG method includes the cold-pressing, extrusion, tape-casting and strong magnetic field alignment techniques for β-Si3N4 seed crystals. Each processing technique is thoroughly discussed in terms of theoretical models and experimental data, including the texturing mechanisms and the factors affecting texture development. Also, methods of synthesizing the rodlike β-Si3N4 single crystals are presented. Various anisotropic properties of textured Si3N4 and their origins are thoroughly described and discussed, such as hardness, elastic modulus, bending strength, fracture toughness, fracture energy, creep behavior, tribological and wear behavior, erosion behavior, contact damage behavior and thermal conductivity. Models are analyzed to determine the thermal anisotropy by considering the intrinsic thermal anisotropy, degree of orientation and various microstructure factors. Textured porous Si3N4 with a unique microstructure composed of oriented elongated β-Si3N4 and anisotropic pores is also described for the first time, with emphasis on its unique mechanical and thermal-mechanical properties. Moreover, as an important related material, textured α-Sialon is also reviewed, because the presence of elongated α-Sialon grains allows the production of textured α-Sialon using the
Textured silicon nitride: processing and anisotropic properties.
Zhu, Xinwen; Sakka, Yoshio
2008-07-01
Textured silicon nitride (Si3N4) has been intensively studied over the past 15 years because of its use for achieving its superthermal and mechanical properties. In this review we present the fundamental aspects of the processing and anisotropic properties of textured Si3N4, with emphasis on the anisotropic and abnormal grain growth of β-Si3N4, texture structure and texture analysis, processing methods and anisotropic properties. On the basis of the texturing mechanisms, the processing methods described in this article have been classified into two types: hot-working (HW) and templated grain growth (TGG). The HW method includes the hot-pressing, hot-forging and sinter-forging techniques, and the TGG method includes the cold-pressing, extrusion, tape-casting and strong magnetic field alignment techniques for β-Si3N4 seed crystals. Each processing technique is thoroughly discussed in terms of theoretical models and experimental data, including the texturing mechanisms and the factors affecting texture development. Also, methods of synthesizing the rodlike β-Si3N4 single crystals are presented. Various anisotropic properties of textured Si3N4 and their origins are thoroughly described and discussed, such as hardness, elastic modulus, bending strength, fracture toughness, fracture energy, creep behavior, tribological and wear behavior, erosion behavior, contact damage behavior and thermal conductivity. Models are analyzed to determine the thermal anisotropy by considering the intrinsic thermal anisotropy, degree of orientation and various microstructure factors. Textured porous Si3N4 with a unique microstructure composed of oriented elongated β-Si3N4 and anisotropic pores is also described for the first time, with emphasis on its unique mechanical and thermal-mechanical properties. Moreover, as an important related material, textured α-Sialon is also reviewed, because the presence of elongated α-Sialon grains allows the production of textured α-Sialon using the
Large scale anisotropic bias from primordial non-Gaussianity
Baghram, Shant; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein E-mail: mh.namjoo@ipm.ir
2013-08-01
In this work we study the large scale structure bias in models of anisotropic inflation. We use the Peak Background Splitting method in Excursion Set Theory to find the scale-dependent bias. We show that the amplitude of the bias is modified by a direction-dependent factor. In the specific anisotropic inflation model which we study, the scale-dependent bias vanishes at leading order when the long wavelength mode in squeezed limit is aligned with the anisotropic direction in the sky. We also extend the scale-dependent bias formulation to the general situations with primordial anisotropy. We find some selection rules indicating that some specific parts of a generic anisotropic bispectrum is picked up by the bias parameter. We argue that the anisotropic bias is mainly sourced by the angle between the anisotropic direction and the long wavelength mode in the squeezed limit.
Influence of anisotropic white matter modeling on EEG source localization.
Cuartas-Morales, E; Cardenas-Pena, D; Castellanos-Dominguez, G
2014-01-01
We study the influence of the anisotropic white matter within the ElectroEncephaloGraphy source localization problem. To this end, we consider three cases of the anisotropic white matter modeled in two concrete cases: by fixed or variable ratio. We extract information about highly anisotropic areas of the white matter from real Diffusion Weighted Imaging data. To validate the compared anisotropic models, we introduce the localization dipole and orientation errors. Obtained results show that the white matter model with a fixed anisotropic ratio leads to values of dipole localization error close to 1cm and may be enough in those cases avoiding localized analysis of neural brain activity. In contrast, modeling based on the anisotropic variable rate assumption becomes important in tasks regarding analysis and localization of deep sources neighboring the white matter tissue.
Grooved organogel surfaces towards anisotropic sliding of water droplets.
Zhang, Pengchao; Liu, Hongliang; Meng, Jingxin; Yang, Gao; Liu, Xueli; Wang, Shutao; Jiang, Lei
2014-05-21
Periodic micro-grooved organogel surfaces can easily realize the anisotropic sliding of water droplets attributing to the formed slippery water/oil/solid interface. Different from the existing anisotropic surfaces, this novel surface provides a versatile candidate for the anisotropic sliding of water droplets and might present a promising way for the easy manipulation of liquid droplets for water collection, liquid-directional transportation, and microfluidics.
2014-01-01
Background Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a cardiac ion channelopathy which presents clinically with palpitations, syncope or sudden death. More than 700 LQTS-causing mutations have been identified in 13 genes, all of which encode proteins involved in the execution of the cardiac action potential. The most frequently affected genes, covering > 90% of cases, are KCNQ1, KCNH2 and SCN5A. Methods We describe 64 different mutations in 70 unrelated Danish families using a routine five-gene screen, comprising KCNQ1, KCNH2 and SCN5A as well as KCNE1 and KCNE2. Results Twenty-two mutations were found in KCNQ1, 28 in KCNH2, 9 in SCN5A, 3 in KCNE1 and 2 in KCNE2. Twenty-six of these have only been described in the Danish population and 18 are novel. One double heterozygote (1.4% of families) was found. A founder mutation, p.F29L in KCNH2, was identified in 5 “unrelated” families. Disease association, in 31.2% of cases, was based on the type of mutation identified (nonsense, insertion/deletion, frameshift or splice-site). Functional data was available for 22.7% of the missense mutations. None of the mutations were found in 364 Danish alleles and only three, all functionally characterised, were recorded in the Exome Variation Server, albeit at a frequency of < 1:1000. Conclusion The genetic etiology of LQTS in Denmark is similar to that found in other populations. A large founder family with p.F29L in KCNH2 was identified. In 48.4% of the mutations disease causation was based on mutation type or functional analysis. PMID:24606995
Optimal illusion and invisibility of multilayered anisotropic cylinders and spheres.
Zhang, Lin; Shi, Yan; Liang, Chang-Hong
2016-10-03
In this paper, full-wave electromagnetic scattering theory is employed to investigate illusion and invisibility of inhomogeneous anisotropic cylinders and spheres. With the use of a shell designed according to Mie series theory for multiple piecewise anisotropic layers, radar cross section (RCS) of the coated inhomogeneous anisotropic object can be dramatically reduced or disguised as another object in the long-wavelength limit. With the suitable adjustment of the anisotropy parameters of the shell, optimal illusion and invisibility characteristics of the coated inhomogeneous anisotropic object can be achieved. Details of theoretical analysis and numerical examples are presented to validate the proposed methodology.
Retrieval procedure of effective conductivity for plasmonic resonant anisotropic metasurface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yermakov, O. Y.; Porubaev, F.; Bogdanov, A. A.; Samusev, A. K.; Iorsh, I. V.
2017-09-01
In this work we introduce the effective surface conductivity retrieval procedure in order to describe the properties of plasmonic resonant anisotropic metasurface consisting of plasmonic elliptical nanodisks.
Stability conditions for the Bianchi type II anisotropically inflating universes
Kao, W.F.; Lin, Ing-Chen E-mail: g9522528@oz.nthu.edu.tw
2009-01-15
Stability conditions for a class of anisotropically inflating solutions in the Bianchi type II background space are shown explicitly in this paper. These inflating solutions were known to break the cosmic no-hair theorem such that they do not approach the de Sitter universe at large times. It can be shown that unstable modes of the anisotropic perturbations always exist for this class of expanding solutions. As a result, we show that these set of anisotropically expanding solutions are unstable against anisotropic perturbations in the Bianchi type II space.
Computation of Large Anisotropic Seismic Heterogeneities (CLASH)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beucler, Éric; Montagner, Jean-Paul
2006-05-01
A general tomographic technique is designed in order (i) to operate in anisotropic media; (ii) to account for the uneven seismic sampling and (iii) to handle massive data sets in a reasonable computing time. One modus operandi to compute a 3-D body wave velocity model relies on surface wave phase velocity measurements. An intermediate step, shared by other approaches, consists in translating, for each period of a given mode branch, the phase velocities integrated along ray paths into local velocity perturbations. To this end, we develop a method, which accounts for the azimuthal anisotropy in its comprehensive form. The weakly non-linear forward problem allows to use a conjugate gradient optimization. The Earth's surface is regularly discretized and the partial derivatives are assigned to the individual grid points. Possible lack of lateral resolution, due to the inescapable uneven ray path coverage, is taken into account through the a priori covariances on parameters with laterally variable correlation lengths. This method allows to efficiently separate the 2ψ and the 4ψ anisotropic effects from the isotropic perturbations. Fundamental mode and overtone phase velocity maps, derived with real Rayleigh wave data sets, are presented and compared with previous maps. The isotropic models concur well with the results of Trampert & Woodhouse. Large 4ψ heterogeneities are located in the tectonically active regions and over the continental lithospheres such as North America, Antarctica or Australia. At various periods, a significant 4ψ signature is correlated with the Hawaii hotspot track. Finally, concurring with the conclusions of Trampert & Woodhouse, our phase velocity maps show that Rayleigh wave data sets do need both 2ψ and 4ψ anisotropic terms.
Cui, Linyan; Xue, Bindang; Zhou, Fugen
2015-11-16
Theoretical and experimental investigations have shown that the atmospheric turbulence exhibits both anisotropic and non-Kolmogorov properties. In this work, two theoretical atmosphere refractive-index fluctuations spectral models are derived for optical waves propagating through anisotropic non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence. They consider simultaneously the finite turbulence inner and outer scales and the asymmetric property of turbulence eddies in the orthogonal xy-plane throughout the path. Two anisotropy factors which parameterize the asymmetry of turbulence eddies in both horizontal and vertical directions are introduced in the orthogonal xy-plane, so that the circular symmetry assumption of turbulence eddies in the xy-plane is no longer required. Deviations from the classic 11/3 power law behavior in the spectrum model are also allowed by assuming power law value variations between 3 and 4. Based on the derived anisotropic spectral model and the Rytov approximation theory, expressions for the variance of angle of arrival (AOA) fluctuations are derived for optical plane and spherical waves propagating through weak anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence. Calculations are performed to analyze the derived spectral models and the variance of AOA fluctuations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Jinkui; Gong, Xinglong; Fan, Yanceng; Xia, Hesheng
2010-10-01
Highly filled polytetramethylene ether glycol (PTMEG)-based polyurethane (PU) magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) with anisotropic structure and good mechanical properties were prepared. The difficulty in dispersion and orientation of iron particles in the PU elastomer was overcome by ball milling mixing and further in situ one-step polycondensation under a magnetic field. The microstructure and properties of the composite were characterized in detail. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that a chain-like structure of carbonyl iron was formed in the PU matrix after orientation under a magnetic field of 1.2 T. The aligned chain-like structure of carbonyl iron in PU greatly enhanced the thermal conductivity, the compression properties and the magnetorheological (MR) effect of anisotropic PU MREs compared to that of the isotropic one. When the test frequency is 1 Hz, the maximum absolute and relative MR effect of anisotropic PU MREs with 26 wt% hard segment and 70 wt% carbonyl iron were ~ 1.3 MPa and ~ 21%, respectively.
Anisotropic mode-dependent damage of cortical bone using the extended finite element method (XFEM).
Feerick, Emer M; Liu, Xiangyi Cheryl; McGarry, Patrick
2013-04-01
Anisotropic damage initiation criteria were developed for extended finite element method (XFEM) prediction of crack initiation and propagation in cortical bone. This anisotropic damage model was shown to accurately predict the dependence of crack propagation patterns and fracture toughness on mode mixity and on osteon orientations, as observed experimentally. Four initiation criteria were developed to define crack trajectories relative to osteon orientations and max principal stress for single and mixed mode fracture. Alternate failure strengths for tensile and compressive loading were defined to simulate the asymmetric failure of cortical bone. The dependence of cortical bone elasticity and failure properties on osteon orientation is analogous to the dependence of composite properties on fibre orientation. Hence, three of the criteria developed in the present study were based upon the Hashin damage criteria. The fourth criterion developed was defined in terms of the max principal stress. This criterion initiated off axis crack growth perpendicular to the direction of the max principal stress. The unique set of parameters calibrated accurately predicted; (i) the relationship between fracture energy and osteon alignment, (ii) the alternate crack patterns for both varying osteon orientations and loading angle. Application of the developed anisotropic damage models to cortical bone screw pullout highlights the potential application for orthopaedic device design evaluation.
Direct Template Approach for the Formation of (Anisotropic shape) Hollow Silicate Microparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rivera Virtudazo, R. V.; Watanabe, H.; Shirai, T.; Fuji, M.; Takahashi, M.
2011-10-01
Non-uniform bulk or surface morphology of hollow particles has been an emerging interest because of the potential applications involving chemical storage, delivery and self-assembly for novel functional materials. There had been reports that experimental anisotropic (non-uniform) particles are much more difficult than synthesizing particles with uniform bulk and surface. Hence, this study reported a simple direct approach for the formation of unique hollow anisotropic amorphous silicate microparticles (10 to 20 μm). This was successfully prepared at room temperature via hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), with ammonia water (NH4OH) as catalyst, ethanol (EtOH) and inorganic micro-size calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as template. The molar ratio used was 1.88:28.85:1:2.85 (CaCO3: EtOH: TEOS: NH4OH), mixed/stirred (at room temperature for 2 h), then filtered/washed by ethanol/water, after then dried and acid treated (3.0 mole/L) to obtained a micro-sized hollow SiO2 particles. This simple approach for the formation of unique anisotropic shape hollow silicate micro-sized particles can be a good alternative for a possible application as large porous carrier for nanoparticles (large drug delivery (LPP's)).
Generalised model for anisotropic compact stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maurya, S. K.; Gupta, Y. K.; Ray, Saibal; Deb, Debabrata
2016-12-01
In the present investigation an exact generalised model for anisotropic compact stars of embedding class 1 is sought with a general relativistic background. The generic solutions are verified by exploring different physical aspects, viz. energy conditions, mass-radius relation, stability of the models, in connection to their validity. It is observed that the model presented here for compact stars is compatible with all these physical tests and thus physically acceptable as far as the compact star candidates RXJ 1856-37, SAX J 1808.4-3658 ( SS1) and SAX J 1808.4-3658 ( SS2) are concerned.
Chromo-natural model in anisotropic background
Maleknejad, Azadeh; Erfani, Encieh E-mail: eerfani@ipm.ir
2014-03-01
In this work we study the chromo-natural inflation model in the anisotropic setup. Initiating inflation from Bianchi type-I cosmology, we analyze the system thoroughly during the slow-roll inflation, from both analytical and numerical points of view. We show that the isotropic FRW inflation is an attractor of the system. In other words, anisotropies are damped within few e-folds and the chromo-natural model respects the cosmic no-hair conjecture. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in the slow-roll limit, the anisotropies in both chromo-natural and gauge-flation models share the same dynamics.
Local thermodynamics of a magnetized, anisotropic plasma
Hazeltine, R. D.; Mahajan, S. M.; Morrison, P. J.
2013-02-15
An expression for the internal energy of a fluid element in a weakly coupled, magnetized, anisotropic plasma is derived from first principles. The result is a function of entropy, particle density and magnetic field, and as such plays the role of a thermodynamic potential: it determines in principle all thermodynamic properties of the fluid element. In particular it provides equations of state for the magnetized plasma. The derivation uses familiar fluid equations, a few elements of kinetic theory, the MHD version of Faraday's law, and certain familiar stability and regularity conditions.
Anisotropic thermal expansion of strontium barium niobate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qadri, Syed B.; Bellotti, Jeffrey A.; Garzarella, Anthony; Wu, Dong Ho
2005-06-01
Strontium barium niobate is a tungsten-bronze ferroelectric crystal having a tetragonal unit cell. Low-temperature x-ray diffraction studies were performed on a single crystal of Sr0.75Ba0.25Nb2O6 to determine the thermal expansivity along the a- and c-axes. Negative thermal expansion was observed along the c direction while a positive thermal expansion was measured along the a axis. The anisotropic thermal expansion behavior is explained as arising due to the geometry of the crystal structure.
Superscattering pattern shaping for radially anisotropic nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wei
2017-08-01
We achieve efficient shaping of superscattering by radially anisotropic nanowires relying on resonant multipolar interferences. It is shown that the radial anisotropy of refractive index can be employed to resonantly overlap electric and magnetic multipoles of various orders, and as a result, effective superscattering with different engineered angular patterns can be obtained. We further demonstrate that such superscattering shaping relying on unusual radial anisotropy parameters can be directly realized with isotropic multilayered nanowires, which may shed new light on much fundamental research and various applications related to scattering particles.
Capillary interactions between anisotropic colloidal particles.
Loudet, J C; Alsayed, A M; Zhang, J; Yodh, A G
2005-01-14
We report on the behavior of micron-sized prolate ellipsoids trapped at an oil-water interface. The particles experience strong, anisotropic, and long-ranged attractive capillary interactions which greatly exceed the thermal energy k(B)T. Depending on surface chemistry, the particles aggregate into open structures or chains. Using video microscopy, we extract the pair interaction potential between ellipsoids and show it exhibits a power law behavior over the length scales probed. Our observations can be explained using recent calculations, if we describe the interfacial ellipsoids as capillary quadrupoles.
Anisotropic Tribological Properties of Silicon Carbide
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.
1980-01-01
The anisotropic friction, deformation and fracture behavior of single crystal silicon carbide surfaces were investigated in two categories. The categories were called adhesive and abrasive wear processes, respectively. In the adhesive wear process, the adhesion, friction and wear of silicon carbide were markedly dependent on crystallographic orientation. The force to reestablish the shearing fracture of adhesive bond at the interface between silicon carbide and metal was the lowest in the preferred orientation of silicon carbide slip system. The fracturing of silicon carbide occurred near the adhesive bond to metal and it was due to primary cleavages of both prismatic (10(-1)0) and basal (0001) planes.
Creating an anisotropic plasma resistivity with waves
Fisch, N.J.; Boozer, A.H.
1980-05-01
An anisotropic plasma resistivity may be created by preferential heating of electrons traveling in one direction. This can result in a steady-state toroidal current in a tokamak even in the absence of net wave momentum. In fact, at high wave phase velocities, the current associated with the change in resistivity is greater than that associated with net momentum input. An immediate implication is that other waves, such as electron cyclotron waves, may be competitive with lower-hybrid waves as a means for generating current. An analytical expression is derived for the current generated per power dissipated which agrees remarkably well with numerical calculations.
Watertight Anisotropic Surface Meshing Using Quadrilateral Patches
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haimes, Robert; Aftosmis, Michael J.
2004-01-01
This paper presents a simple technique for generating anisotropic surface triangulations using unstructured quadrilaterals when the CAD entity can be mapped to a logical rectangle. Watertightness and geometric quality measures are maintained and are consistent with the CAPRI default tessellator. These triangulations can match user specified criteria for chord-height tolerance, neighbor triangle dihedral angle, and maximum triangle side length. This discrete representation has hooks back to the owning geometry and therefore can be used in conjunction with these entities to allow for easy enhancement or modification of the tessellation suitable for grid generation or other downstream applications.
Multidimensional Gravitational Model with Anisotropic Pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigorieva, O. A.; Sharov, G. S.
2013-08-01
We consider the gravitational model with additional spatial dimensions and anisotropic pressure which is nonzero only in these dimensions. Cosmological solutions of the Einstein equations in this model include accelerated expansion of the universe at late stage of its evolution and dynamical compactification of extra dimensions. This model describes observational data for Type Ia supernovae on the level or better than the ΛCDM model. We analyze two equations of state resulting in different predictions for further evolution, but in both variants the acceleration epoch is finite.
Laminated anisotropic reinforced plastic plates and shells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Korolev, V. I.
1981-01-01
Basic technical theories and engineering calculation equations for anisotropic plates and shells made of rigid reinforced plastics, mainly laminated fiberglass, are presented and discussed. Solutions are given for many problems of design of structural plates and shells, including curved sections and tanks, as well as two chapters on selection of the optimum materials, are given. Accounting for interlayer shearing and transverse separation, which are new engineering properties, are discussed. Application of the results obtained to thin three ply plates and shells wth a light elastic filler is presented and discussed.
Staggered Fermion Thermodynamics using Anisotropic Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levkova, L.
2003-05-01
Numerical simulations of full QCD on anisotropic lattices provide a convenient way to study QCD thermodynamics with fixed physics scales and reduced lattice spacing errors. We report results from calculations with 2-flavors of dynamical fermions where all bare parameters and hence the physics scales are kept constant while the temperature is changed in small steps by varying only the number of the time slices. The results from a series of zero-temperature scale setting simulations are used to determine the Karsch coefficients and the equation of state at finite temperatures.
Multichannel image regularization using anisotropic geodesic filtering
Grazzini, Jacopo A
2010-01-01
This paper extends a recent image-dependent regularization approach introduced in aiming at edge-preserving smoothing. For that purpose, geodesic distances equipped with a Riemannian metric need to be estimated in local neighbourhoods. By deriving an appropriate metric from the gradient structure tensor, the associated geodesic paths are constrained to follow salient features in images. Following, we design a generalized anisotropic geodesic filter; incorporating not only a measure of the edge strength, like in the original method, but also further directional information about the image structures. The proposed filter is particularly efficient at smoothing heterogeneous areas while preserving relevant structures in multichannel images.
Tunable anisotropic thermal conduction in graphane nanoribbons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Dengfeng; Xu, Yong; Chen, Xiaobin; Li, Bolin; Duan, Wenhui
2014-04-01
Graphane and graphene are both two-dimensional materials but of different bonding configurations, which can result in distinct thermal conduction properties. We simulate thermal conduction in graphane nanoribbons (GANRs) using the nonequilibrium Green's function method. We find anisotropic thermal conduction in GANRs, with zigzag GANRs giving higher thermal conductance than armchair ones. Compared to the graphene counterparts, GANRs show lower ballistic thermal conductance and stronger thermal conductance anisotropy. Furthermore, hydrogen vacancies of GANRs considerably suppress thermal conduction, accompanied by enhanced thermal conductance anisotropy. The tunable thermal conduction, realized by controlling the ribbon width, edge shape, and hydrogen vacancy concentration of GANRs, could be useful for thermal management and thermoelectric applications.
Anisotropic fiber alignment in composite structures
Graham, Alan L.; Mondy, Lisa A.; Guell, David C.
1993-01-01
High strength material composite structures are formed with oriented fibers to provide controlled anisotropic fibers. Fibers suspended in non-dilute concentrations (e.g., up to 20 volume percent for fibers having an aspect ratio of 20) in a selected medium are oriented by moving an axially spaced array of elements in the direction of desired fiber alignment. The array elements are generally perpendicular to the desired orientation. The suspension medium may also include sphere-like particles where the resulting material is a ceramic.
Anisotropic bond percolation in two dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arovas, D.; Bhatt, R. N.; Shapiro, B.
1983-08-01
A new single-parameter renormalization-group equation is formulated for anisotropic bond percolation in two dimensions using a position-space renormalization approach. The new equation yields the exact critical line px+py=1 within both the Migdal-Kadanoff decimation and cell renormalization schemes. For large anisotropy, however, an additional critical line appears leading to a spurious divergence in the correlation-length critical exponent. An alternative scheme, which does not preserve the exact critical surface, but yields a correlation-length exponent relatively independent of anisotropy, is also examined.
Temperature and polarization patterns in anisotropic cosmologies
Sung, Rockhee; Coles, Peter E-mail: Peter.Coles@astro.cf.ac.uk
2011-06-01
We study the coherent temperature and polarization patterns produced in homogeneous but anisotropic cosmological models. We show results for all Bianchi types with a Friedman-Robertson-Walker limit (i.e. Types I, V, VII{sub 0}, VII{sub h} and IX) to illustrate the range of possible behaviour. We discuss the role of spatial curvature, shear and rotation in the geodesic equations for each model and establish some basic results concerning the symmetries of the patterns produced. We also give examples of the time-evolution of these patterns in terms of the Stokes parameters I, Q and U.
Anisotropic elasticity of experimental colloidal Wigner crystals.
Russell, Emily R; Spaepen, Frans; Weitz, David A
2015-03-01
Colloidal particles interacting via a long-range repulsion can, in contrast to hard-sphere systems, exhibit crystalline ordering at low volume fraction. Here we experimentally investigate the structure and properties of such "colloidal Wigner crystals." We find a body-centered-cubic crystalline phase at volume fractions of ϕ≳15%, which exhibits large fluctuations of individual particles from their average positions. We determine the three independent crystalline elastic constants and find that these crystals are very compliant and highly anisotropic.
Subsurface Stress Fields in Single Crystal (Anisotropic) Contacts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arakere, Nagaraj K.
2003-01-01
Single crystal superalloy turbine blades used in high pressure turbomachinery are subject to conditions of high temperature, triaxial steady and fatigue stresses, fretting stresses in the blade attachment and damper contact locations, and exposure to high-pressure hydrogen. The blades are also subjected to extreme variations in temperature during start-up and shutdown transients. The most prevalent HCF failure modes observed in these blades during operation include crystallographic crack initiation/propagation on octahedral planes, and noncrystallographic initiation with crystallographic growth. Numerous cases of crack initiation and crack propagation at the blade leading edge tip, blade attachment regions, and damper contact locations have been documented. Understanding crack initiation/propagation under mixed-mode loading conditions is critical for establishing a systematic procedure for evaluating HCF life of single crystal turbine blades. Techniques for evaluating two and three dimensional subsurface stress fields in anisotropic contacts are presented in this report. Figure 1 shows typical damper contact locations in a turbine blade. The subsurface stress results are used for evaluating contact fatigue life at damper contacts and dovetail attachment regions in single crystal nickel-base superalloy turbine blades.
Diffusion, Dispersion, and Uncertainty in Anisotropic Fractal Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monnig, N. D.; Benson, D. A.
2007-12-01
Motivated by field measurements of aquifer hydraulic conductivity (K), recent techniques were developed to construct anisotropic fractal random fields, in which the scaling, or self-similarity parameter, varies with direction and is defined by a matrix. Ensemble numerical results are analyzed for solute transport through these 2-D "operator-scaling" fractional Brownian motion (fBm) ln(K) fields. Contrary to some analytic stochastic theories for monofractal K fields, the plume growth rates never exceed Mercado's (1967) purely stratified aquifer growth rate of plume apparent dispersivity proportional to mean distance. Apparent super-stratified growth must be the result of other demonstrable factors, such as initial plume size. The addition of large local dispersion and diffusion does not significantly change the effective longitudinal dispersivity of the plumes. In the presence of significant local dispersion or diffusion, the concentration coefficient of variation CV={σc}/{\\langle c \\rangle} remains large at the leading edge of the plumes. This indicates that even with considerable mixing due to dispersion or diffusion, there is still substantial uncertainty in the leading edge of a plume moving in fractal porous media.
Building an anisotropic meniscus with zonal variations.
Higashioka, Michael M; Chen, Justin A; Hu, Jerry C; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A
2014-01-01
Toward addressing the difficult problems of knee meniscus regeneration, a self-assembling process has been used to re-create the native morphology and matrix properties. A significant problem in such attempts is the recapitulation of the distinct zones of the meniscus, the inner, more cartilaginous and the outer, more fibrocartilaginous zones. In this study, an anisotropic and zonally variant meniscus was produced by self-assembly of the inner meniscus (100% chondrocytes) followed by cell seeding the outer meniscus (coculture of chondrocytes and meniscus cells). After 4 weeks in culture, the engineered, inner meniscus exhibited a 42% increase in both instantaneous and relaxation moduli and a 62% increase in GAG/DW, as compared to the outer meniscus. In contrast, the circumferential tensile modulus and collagen/DW of the outer zone was 101% and 129% higher, respectively, than the values measured for the inner zone. Furthermore, there was no difference in the radial tensile modulus between the control and zonal engineered menisci, suggesting that the inner and outer zones of the engineered zonal menisci successfully integrated. These data demonstrate that not only can biomechanical and biochemical properties be engineered to differ by the zone, but they can also recapitulate the anisotropic behavior of the knee meniscus.
Dynamic Smagorinsky model on anisotropic grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scotti, A.; Meneveau, C.; Fatica, M.
1996-01-01
Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of complex-geometry flows often involves highly anisotropic meshes. To examine the performance of the dynamic Smagorinsky model in a controlled fashion on such grids, simulations of forced isotropic turbulence are performed using highly anisotropic discretizations. The resulting model coefficients are compared with a theoretical prediction (Scotti et al., 1993). Two extreme cases are considered: pancake-like grids, for which two directions are poorly resolved compared to the third, and pencil-like grids, where one direction is poorly resolved when compared to the other two. For pancake-like grids the dynamic model yields the results expected from the theory (increasing coefficient with increasing aspect ratio), whereas for pencil-like grids the dynamic model does not agree with the theoretical prediction (with detrimental effects only on smallest resolved scales). A possible explanation of the departure is attempted, and it is shown that the problem may be circumvented by using an isotropic test-filter at larger scales. Overall, all models considered give good large-scale results, confirming the general robustness of the dynamic and eddy-viscosity models. But in all cases, the predictions were poor for scales smaller than that of the worst resolved direction.
New formulation of leading order anisotropic hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tinti, Leonardo
2015-05-01
Anisotropic hydrodynamics is a reorganization of the relativistic hydrodynamics expansion, with the leading order already containing substantial momentum-space anisotropies. The latter are a cause of concern in the traditional viscous hydrodynamics, since large momentum anisotropies generated in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions are not consistent with the hypothesis of small deviations from an isotropic background, i.e., from the local equilibrium distribution. We discuss the leading order of the expansion, presenting a new formulation for the (1+1)- dimensional case, namely, for the longitudinally boost invariant and cylindrically symmetric flow. This new approach is consistent with the well established framework of Israel and Stewart in the close to equilibrium limit (where we expect viscous hydrodynamics to work well). If we consider the (0+1)-dimensional case, that is, transversally homogeneous and longitudinally boost invariant flow, the new form of anisotropic hydrodynamics leads to better agreement with known solutions of the Boltzmann equation than the previous formulations, especially when we consider massive particles.
Radial stability of anisotropic strange quark stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arbañil, José D. V.; Malheiro, M.
2016-11-01
The influence of the anisotropy in the equilibrium and stability of strange stars is investigated through the numerical solution of the hydrostatic equilibrium equation and the radial oscillation equation, both modified from their original version to include this effect. The strange matter inside the quark stars is described by the MIT bag model equation of state. For the anisotropy two different kinds of local anisotropic σ = pt-pr are considered, where pt and pr are respectively the tangential and the radial pressure: one that is null at the star's surface defined by pr(R) = 0, and one that is nonnull at the surface, namely, σs = 0 and σs ≠ 0. In the case σs = 0, the maximum mass value and the zero frequency of oscillation are found at the same central energy density, indicating that the maximum mass marks the onset of the instability. For the case σs ≠ 0, we show that the maximum mass point and the zero frequency of oscillation coincide in the same central energy density value only in a sequence of equilibrium configurations with the same value of σs. Thus, the stability star regions are determined always by the condition dM/dρc > 0 only when the tangential pressure is maintained fixed at the star surface's pt(R). These results are also quite important to analyze the stability of other anisotropic compact objects such as neutron stars, boson stars and gravastars.
Gravothermal catastrophe in anisotropic spherical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magliocchetti, Manuela; Pucacco, Giuseppe; Vesperini, Enrico
1998-11-01
In this paper we investigate the gravothermal instability of spherical stellar systems endowed with a radially anisotropic velocity distribution. We focus our attention on the effects of anisotropy on the conditions for the onset of instability and in particular we study the dependence of the spatial structure of critical models on the amount of anisotropy present in a system. The investigation has been carried out by the method of linear series which has already been used in the past to study the gravothermal instability of isotropic systems._ We consider models described by King, Wilson and Woolley-Dickens distribution functions. In the case of King and Woolley-Dickens models, our results show that, for quite a wide range of the amount of anisotropy in the system, the critical value of the concentration of the system (defined as the ratio of the tidal to the King core radius of the system) is approximately constant and equal to the corresponding value for isotropic systems. Only for very anisotropic systems does the critical value of the concentration start to change and it decreases significantly as the anisotropy increases and penetrates the inner parts of the system. For Wilson models the decrease of the concentration of critical models is preceded by an intermediate regime in which critical concentration increases, reaches a maximum and then starts to decrease. The critical value of the central potential always decreases as the anisotropy increases.
Anisotropic polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel for cardiovascular applications.
Millon, L E; Mohammadi, H; Wan, W K
2006-11-01
Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is a hydrophilic polymer with various characteristics desired for biomedical applications and can be transformed into a solid hydrogel by physical crosslinking, using a low-temperature thermal cycling process. As with most polymeric materials, the mechanical properties of the resultant PVA are isotropic, as oppose to most soft tissues, which are anisotropic. The objective of this research is to develop a PVA-based hydrogel that not only mimics the nonlinear mechanical properties displayed by cardiovascular tissues, but also their anisotropic behavior. By applying a controlled strain to the PVA samples, while undergoing low-temperature thermal cycling, we were able to create oriented mechanical properties in PVA hydrogels. The oriented stress-strain properties of porcine aorta were matched simultaneously by a PVA hydrogel prepared (10% PVA, cycle 3, 75% initial strain). This novel technique allows the controlled introduction of anisotropy to PVA hydrogel, and gives a broad range of control of its mechanical properties, for specific medical device applications. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Shear waves in acoustic anisotropic media
Grechka, Vladimir; Zhang, Linbin; Rector, James W.
2003-01-02
Acoustic transversely isotropic (TI) media are defined by artificially setting the shear-wave velocity in the direction of symmetry axis, VS0, to zero. Contrary to conventional wisdom that equating VS0 = 0 eliminates shear waves, we demonstrate their presence and examine their properties. Specifically, we show that SV-waves generally have finite nonzero phase and group velocities in acoustic TI media. In fact, these waves have been observed in full waveform modeling, but apparently they were not understood and labeled as numerical artifacts. Acoustic TI media are characterized by extreme, in some sense infinite strength of anisotropy. It makes the following unusual wave phenomena possible: (1) there are propagation directions, where the SV-ray is orthogonal to the corresponding wavefront normal, (2) the SV-wave whose ray propagates along the symmetry axis is polarized parallel to the P-wave propagating in the same direction, (3) P-wave singularities, that is, directions where P- and SV -wave phase velocities coincide might exist in acoustic TI media. We also briefly discuss some aspects of wave propagation in low-symmetry acoustic anisotropic models. Extreme anisotropy in those media creates bizarre phase- and group-velocity surfaces that might bring intellectual delight to an anisotropic guru.
Finite-difference schemes for anisotropic diffusion
Es, Bram van; Koren, Barry; Blank, Hugo J. de
2014-09-01
In fusion plasmas diffusion tensors are extremely anisotropic due to the high temperature and large magnetic field strength. This causes diffusion, heat conduction, and viscous momentum loss, to effectively be aligned with the magnetic field lines. This alignment leads to different values for the respective diffusive coefficients in the magnetic field direction and in the perpendicular direction, to the extent that heat diffusion coefficients can be up to 10{sup 12} times larger in the parallel direction than in the perpendicular direction. This anisotropy puts stringent requirements on the numerical methods used to approximate the MHD-equations since any misalignment of the grid may cause the perpendicular diffusion to be polluted by the numerical error in approximating the parallel diffusion. Currently the common approach is to apply magnetic field-aligned coordinates, an approach that automatically takes care of the directionality of the diffusive coefficients. This approach runs into problems at x-points and at points where there is magnetic re-connection, since this causes local non-alignment. It is therefore useful to consider numerical schemes that are tolerant to the misalignment of the grid with the magnetic field lines, both to improve existing methods and to help open the possibility of applying regular non-aligned grids. To investigate this, in this paper several discretization schemes are developed and applied to the anisotropic heat diffusion equation on a non-aligned grid.
Anisotropic hydraulic permeability in compressed articular cartilage.
Reynaud, Boris; Quinn, Thomas M
2006-01-01
The extent to which articular cartilage hydraulic permeability is anisotropic is largely unknown, despite its importance for understanding mechanisms of joint lubrication, load bearing, transport phenomena, and mechanotransduction. We developed and applied new techniques for the direct measurement of hydraulic permeability within statically compressed adult bovine cartilage explant disks, dissected such that disk axes were perpendicular to the articular surface. Applied pressure gradients were kept small to minimize flow-induced matrix compaction, and fluid outflows were measured by observation of a meniscus in a glass capillary under a microscope. Explant disk geometry under radially unconfined axial compression was measured by direct microscopic observation. Pressure, flow, and geometry data were input to a finite element model where hydraulic permeabilities in the disk axial and radial directions were determined. At less than 10% static compression, near free-swelling conditions, hydraulic permeability was nearly isotropic, with values corresponding to those of previous studies. With increasing static compression, hydraulic permeability decreased, but the radially directed permeability decreased more dramatically than the axially directed permeability such that strong anisotropy (a 10-fold difference between axial and radial directions) in the hydraulic permeability tensor was evident for static compression of 20-40%. Results correspond well with predictions of a previous microstructurally-based model for effects of tissue mechanical deformations on glycosaminoglycan architecture and cartilage hydraulic permeability. Findings inform understanding of structure-function relationships in cartilage matrix, and suggest several biomechanical roles for compression-induced anisotropic hydraulic permeability in articular cartilage.
Sheet Metal Formability Analysis for Anisotropic Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stoughton, Thomas B.; Yoon, Jeong Whan
2004-06-01
Sheet metal formability is conventionally assessed in a two dimensional plot of principal strains or stresses in comparison to a forming limit curve. This method implicitly assumes that the forming limit is isotropic in the plane of the sheet, an assumption that is intrinsically inconsistent with the use of material models that are anisotropic. Since the trend today is to utilize models with full anisotropy in order to more accurately capture the physics of material behavior, the issue of anisotropy of forming limits must also be addressed. The challenge is that the forming limit is no longer defined by a curve but requires the definition of a surface in strain or stress space, and therefore it is no longer appropriate to view these limits with the convenience of the conventional two dimensional diagrams. Furthermore, recent developments in the characterization of sheet forming limits under nonproportional loading suggest that is advantageous to view forming limit behavior in terms of stresses rather than strains, a view that is adopted in this paper. A solution to the challenge of assessing formability for an anisotropic material is proposed and illustrated using an analysis of the 2-Stage Forming Benchmark highlighted in the Numisheet '99 Conference.
Anisotropic swelling behavior of the cornea.
Matsuura, Toyoaki; Ikeda, Hitoe; Idota, Naokazu; Motokawa, Ryuhei; Hara, Yoshiaki; Annaka, Masahiko
2009-12-24
The phase equilibrium property and structural and dynamical properties of pig cornea were studied by macroscopic observation of swelling behavior, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) under various conditions. It was found that the corneal gel collapses into a compact state isotropically or anisotropically depending on the external conditions. The corneal gel collapses uniformly into a compact state at a temperature above 55 degrees C because of the denaturation of collagen, whereas it collapses along an axis parallel to the optic axis with increasing NaCl concentration. Anisotropic deswelling was also observed during desiccation. SAXS measurements revealed that the periodicity of the collagen fiber of the cornea does not change even at higher NaCl concentration, which indicates that hydration and dehydration resulting from changes in salt concentration simply cause swelling and deswelling of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG), which is located between the regular two-dimensional lattices of collagen fibers, which obliges the change in thickness. From observations of the dynamics of light scattered by the corneal gel, intensity autocorrelation functions that revealed two independent diffusion coefficients were obtained. Divergent behavior in the measured total scattered light intensities and diffusion coefficients with varying temperature was observed. That is, a slowing of the dynamic modes accompanied by increased "static" scattered intensities was observed. This is indicative of the occurrence of a phase transition as a function of temperature.
Anisotropic diffusion phantoms based on microcapillaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vellmer, Sebastian; Edelhoff, Daniel; Suter, Dieter; Maximov, Ivan I.
2017-06-01
Diffusion MRI is an efficient and widely used technique for the investigation of tissue structure and organisation in vivo. Multiple phenomenological and biophysical diffusion models are intensively exploited for the analysis of the diffusion experiments. However, the verification of the applied diffusion models remains challenging. In order to provide a ;gold standard; and to assess the accuracy of the derived parameters and the limitations of the diffusion models, anisotropic diffusion phantoms with well known architecture are demanded. In the present work we built four anisotropic diffusion phantoms consisting of hollow microcapillaries with very small inner diameters of 5, 10 and 20 μ m and outer diameters of 90 and 150 μ m. For testing the suitability of these phantoms, we performed diffusion measurements on all of them and evaluated the resulting data with a set of popular diffusion models, such as diffusion tensor and diffusion kurtosis imaging, a two compartment model with intra- and extra-capillary water spaces using bi-exponential fitting, and time-dependent diffusion coefficients in Mitra's limit. The perspectives and limitations of these diffusion phantoms are presented and discussed.
Anisotropic superfluidity in a dipolar Bose gas
Ticknor, Christopher; Wilson, Ryan M; Bohn, John L
2010-11-04
so that the in-plane interaction is anisotropic. By induding repulsive contact interactions to ensure a stable system, we perform direct numeric simulations of an obstacle moving through the system in directions parallel and perpendicular to the tilt of the dipoles. We observe a distinct anisotropic superfluid response in these cases, both for dissipation into quasipartides and topological excitations (vortices), in the form of an anisotropic critical velocity that is larger in the direction of the dipole tilt than in the perpendicular direction. Interestingly, we find that, while the roton displays an anisotropic character, the speed of sound in the systrm is isotropic. Thus, we characterize the DBEC as an fmisotropic superfluid while illuminating the crucial role that the roton plays in this anisotropic behavior.
Anisotropic artificial substrates for microwave applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahvarpour, Attieh
The perfect electromagnetic conductor (PEMC) boundary is a novel fundamental electromagnetic concept. It is a generalized description of the electromagnetic boundary conditions including the perfect electric conductor (PEC) and the perfect magnetic conductor (PMC) and due to its fundamental properties, it has the potential of enabling several electromagnetic applications. However, the PEMC boundaries concept had remained at the theoretical level and has not been practically realized. Therefore, motivated by the importance of this electromagnetic fundamental concept and its potential applications, the first contribution of this thesis is focused on the practical implementation of the PEMC boundaries by exploiting Faraday rotation principle and ground reflection in the ferrite materials which are intrinsically anisotropic. As a result, this thesis reports the first practical approach for the realization of PEMC boundaries. A generalized scattering matrix (GSM) is used for the analysis of the grounded-ferrite PEMC boundaries structure. As an application of the PEMC boundaries, a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) waveguide is experimentally demonstrated using grounded ferrite PMC (as particular case of the PEMC boundaries) side walls. Perfect electromagnetic conductor boundaries may find applications in various types of sensors, reflectors, polarization convertors and polarization-based radio frequency identifiers. Leaky-wave antennas perform as high directivity and frequency beam scanning antennas and as a result they enable applications in radar, point-to-point communications and MIMO systems. The second contribution of this thesis is introducing and analysing a novel broadband and highly directive two-dimensional leaky-wave antenna. This antenna operates differently in the lower and higher frequency ranges. Toward its lower frequencies, it allows full-space conical-beam scanning while at higher frequencies, it provides fixed-beam radiation (at a designable angle
Holographic Wilson loops in anisotropic quark-gluon plasma.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ageev, Dmitry
2016-10-01
The nonequilibrium properties of the anisotropic quark-gluon plasma are condidered from the holographic viewpoint. Lifshitz-like solution is considered as a holographic dual of anisotropic QGP. The black brane formation in such background is considered as a thermalization in dual theory. As a probe of thermalization we consider rectangular spatial Wilson loops with different orientation.
Method for anisotropic etching in the manufacture of semiconductor devices
Koontz, Steven L.; Cross, Jon B.
1993-01-01
Hydrocarbon polymer coatings used in microelectronic manufacturing processes are anisotropically etched by atomic oxygen beams (translational energies of 0.2-20 eV, preferably 1-10 eV). Etching with hyperthermal (kinetic energy>1 eV) oxygen atom species obtains highly anisotropic etching with sharp boundaries between etched and mask-protected areas.
Anisotropic microporous supports impregnated with polymeric ion-exchange materials
Friesen, Dwayne; Babcock, Walter C.; Tuttle, Mark
1985-05-07
Novel ion-exchange media are disclosed, the media comprising polymeric anisotropic microporous supports containing polymeric ion-exchange or ion-complexing materials. The supports are anisotropic, having small exterior pores and larger interior pores, and are preferably in the form of beads, fibers and sheets.
Anisotropic microporous supports impregnated with polymeric ion-exchange materials
Friesen, D.; Babcock, W.C.; Tuttle, M.
1985-05-07
Novel ion-exchange media are disclosed, the media comprising polymeric anisotropic microporous supports containing polymeric ion-exchange or ion-complexing materials. The supports are anisotropic, having small exterior pores and larger interior pores, and are preferably in the form of beads, fibers and sheets. 5 figs.
Optical isotropy at terahertz frequencies using anisotropic metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, In-Sung; Sohn, Ik-Bu; Kang, Chul; Kee, Chul-Sik; Yang, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Joong Wook
2016-07-01
We demonstrate optically isotropic filters in the terahertz (THz) frequency range using structurally anisotropic metamaterials. The proposed metamaterials with two-dimensional arrangements of anisotropic H-shaped apertures show polarization-independent transmission due to the combined effects of the dipole resonances of resonators and antennas. Our results may offer the potential for the design and realization of versatile THz devices and systems.
Behavioral analysis of anisotropic diffusion in image processing.
You, Y L; Xu, W; Tannenbaum, A; Kaveh, M
1996-01-01
In this paper, we analyze the behavior of the anisotropic diffusion model of Perona and Malik (1990). The main idea is to express the anisotropic diffusion equation as coming from a certain optimization problem, so its behavior can be analyzed based on the shape of the corresponding energy surface. We show that anisotropic diffusion is the steepest descent method for solving an energy minimization problem. It is demonstrated that an anisotropic diffusion is well posed when there exists a unique global minimum for the energy functional and that the ill posedness of a certain anisotropic diffusion is caused by the fact that its energy functional has an infinite number of global minima that are dense in the image space. We give a sufficient condition for an anisotropic diffusion to be well posed and a sufficient and necessary condition for it to be ill posed due to the dense global minima. The mechanism of smoothing and edge enhancement of anisotropic diffusion is illustrated through a particular orthogonal decomposition of the diffusion operator into two parts: one that diffuses tangentially to the edges and therefore acts as an anisotropic smoothing operator, and the other that flows normally to the edges and thus acts as an enhancement operator.
Symmetric periodic solutions of the anisotropic Manev problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santoprete, Manuele
2002-06-01
We consider the Manev potential in an anisotropic space, i.e., such that the force acts differently in each direction. Using a generalization of the Poincaré continuation method we study the existence of periodic solutions for weak anisotropy. In particular we find that the symmetric periodic orbits of the Manev system are perturbed to periodic orbits in the anisotropic problem.
Method for anisotropic etching in the manufacture of semiconductor devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor); Cross, Jon B. (Inventor)
1993-01-01
Hydrocarbon polymer coatings used in microelectronic manufacturing processes are anisotropically etched by hyperthermal atomic oxygen beams (translational energies of 0.2 to 20 eV, preferably 1 to 10 eV). Etching with hyperthermal oxygen atom species obtains highly anisotropic etching with sharp boundaries between etched and mask protected areas.
... community Use our Virtual Library Treatment and outcomes back to top Because most people with mixed dementia are diagnosed with a single type of dementia, physicians often base their prescribing decisions on the type of dementia ...
Anisotropic conductivity imaging with MREIT using equipotential projection algorithm.
Değirmenci, Evren; Eyüboğlu, B Murat
2007-12-21
Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) combines magnetic flux or current density measurements obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surface potential measurements to reconstruct images of true conductivity with high spatial resolution. Most of the biological tissues have anisotropic conductivity; therefore, anisotropy should be taken into account in conductivity image reconstruction. Almost all of the MREIT reconstruction algorithms proposed to date assume isotropic conductivity distribution. In this study, a novel MREIT image reconstruction algorithm is proposed to image anisotropic conductivity. Relative anisotropic conductivity values are reconstructed iteratively, using only current density measurements without any potential measurement. In order to obtain true conductivity values, only either one potential or conductivity measurement is sufficient to determine a scaling factor. The proposed technique is evaluated on simulated data for isotropic and anisotropic conductivity distributions, with and without measurement noise. Simulation results show that the images of both anisotropic and isotropic conductivity distributions can be reconstructed successfully.
Atomic transport in ion mixed Pd/Co bilayer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chae, K. H.; Jang, H. G.; Song, J. H.; Woo, J. J.; Choi, B. S.; Jeong, K.; Whang, C. N.
1993-06-01
Isotropic and anisotropic atomic transport in an ion beam mixed Pd/Co bilayer have been studied from the shifts of a marker layer in Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. A thin layer of Au (1 nm) was embedded as a marker at the interface between Pd and Co layers. 80 keV Ar + was used to irradiate the marker sample at 90K. The Pd/Co system shows near isotropic atomic transport ( JPd/ JCo = 0.86) due to the thermal spike effect. We present a simple relationship between the ration of atomic fluxes induced by ion mixing and the activation energies for the normal impurity diffusion of constituents in a bilayer to describe quantitatively the isotropic and anisotropic atomic transport in thermal spike induced ion mixing. Thermal spike induced atomic transport is closely related with the activation energy for normal impurity diffusion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klironomos, Alexios
I present a derivation of the nondispersive elastic moduli for the vortex lattice within the anisotropic Ginzburg-Landau model. I derive an extension of the virial theorem for superconductivity for anisotropic superconductors, with the anisotropy arising from s-d mixing or an anisotropic Fermi surface. The structural transition from rhombic to square vortex lattice is studied within this model along with the effects of thermal fluctuations on the structural transition. The reentrant transition from square to rhombic vortex lattice for high fields and the instability with respect to rigid rotations of the vortex lattice, predicted by calculations within the nonlocal London model, are also present in the anisotropic Ginzburg-Landau model. I also study the fingering of an electron droplet in a special Quantum Hall regime, where electrostatic forces are weak. Performing Monte Carlo simulations I study the growth and fingering of the electron droplet in an inhomogeneous magnetic field as the number of electrons is increased. I expand on recent theoretical results and find excellent agreement between my simulations and the theoretical predictions.
Anisotropic Self-Assembly of Hairy Inorganic Nanoparticles.
Yi, Chenglin; Zhang, Shaoyi; Webb, Kyle Thomas; Nie, Zhihong
2017-01-17
Current interest in functional assemblies of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) stems from their collective properties and diverse applications ranging from nanomedicines to optically active metamaterials. Coating the surface of NPs with polymers allows for tailoring of the interactions between NPs to assemble them into hybrid nanocomposites with targeted architectures. This class of building blocks is termed "hairy" inorganic NPs (HINPs). Regiospecific attachment of polymers has been used to achieve directional interactions for HINP assembly. However, to date anisotropic surface functionalization of NPs still remains a challenge. This Account provides a review of the recent progress in the self-assembly of isotropically functionalized HINPs in both the condensed state and aqueous solution as well as the applications of assembled structures in such areas as biomedical imaging and therapy. It aims to provide fundamental mechanistic insights into the correlation between structural characteristics and self-assembly behaviors of HINPs, with an emphasis on HINPs made from NPs grafted with linear block copolymer (BCP) brushes. The key to the anisotropic self-assembly of these HINPs is the generation of directional interactions between HINPs by designing the surrounding medium (e.g., polymer matrix) or engineering the surface chemistry of the HINPs. First, HINPs can self-assemble into a variety of 1D, 2D, or 3D nanostructures with a nonisotropic local arrangement of NPs in films. Although a template is not always required, a polymer matrix (BCPs or supramolecules) can be used to assist the assembly of HINPs to form hybrid architectures. The interactions between brushes of neighboring HINPs or between HINPs and the polymer matrix can be modulated by varying the grafting density and length of one or multiple types of polymers on the surface of the NPs. Second, the rational design of deformable brushes of BCP or mixed homopolymer tethers on HINPs enables the anisotropic assembly
Hubler, T.L.; Franz, J.A.; Shaw, W.J.; Hogan, M.O.; Hallen, R.T.; Brown, G.N.; Linehan, J.C.
1996-09-01
he U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site was established to produce plutonium for the U.S. defense mission. Over the course of decades, hazardous, toxic, and radioactive chemical wastes were generated and disposed of in a variety of ways including storage in underground tanks. An estimated 180 million tons of high-level radioactive wastes are stored in 177 underground storage tanks. During production of fissile plutonium, large quantities of 90Sr and 137CS were produced. The high abundance and intermediate length half- lives of these fission products are the reason that effort is directed toward selective removal of these radionuclides from the bulk waste stream before final tank waste disposal is effected. Economically, it is desirable to remove the highly radioactive fraction of the tank waste for vitrification. Ion-exchange technology is being evaluated for removing cesium from Hanford Site waste tanks. This report summarizes data and analysis performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)for both resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) and phenol-formaldehyde (P-F) resins and relates their observed differences in performance and chemical stability to their structure. The experimental approach used to characterize the resins was conducted using primarily two types of data: batch distribution coefficients (Kds) and solid-state 13C NMR. Comparison of these data for a particular resin allowed correlation of resin performance to resin structure. Additional characterization techniques included solid-state 19F NMR, and elemental analyses.
Arnold, Nicole; Bertermann, Rüdiger; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias; Braunschweig, Holger; Drisch, Michael; Finze, Maik; Hupp, Florian; Poater, Jordi; Sprenger, Jan A P
2017-05-02
The reaction of PF5 with [(Cy3 P)2 Pt] gave the PF3 complex trans-[(Cy3 P)2 PtF(PF3 )][PF6 ], which was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this reaction is the first example of the oxidative addition of a P-F bond to a transition metal and is a rare example of an activation of a main-group-element-fluorine bond by a metal. Relativistic DFT calculations showed that the formation of the Lewis pair [(Cy3 P)2 Pt→PF5 ], which was not observed even at low temperatures, represents the initial step of the reaction. From this key intermediate, the cation trans-[(Cy3 P)2 PtF(PF3 )](+) was furnished by a two-step mechanism involving, successively, a second and a third PF5 molecule. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Estimating anisotropic diffusion of neutrons near the boundary of a pebble bed random system
Vasques, R.
2013-07-01
Due to the arrangement of the pebbles in a Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) core, if a neutron is located close to a boundary wall, its path length probability distribution function in directions of flight parallel to the wall is significantly different than in other directions. Hence, anisotropic diffusion of neutrons near the boundaries arises. We describe an analysis of neutron transport in a simplified 3-D pebble bed random system, in which we investigate the anisotropic diffusion of neutrons born near one of the system's boundary walls. While this simplified system does not model the actual physical process that takes place near the boundaries of a PBR core, the present work paves the road to a formulation that may enable more accurate diffusion simulations of such problems to be performed in the future. Monte Carlo codes have been developed for (i) deriving realizations of the 3-D random system, and (ii) performing 3-D neutron transport inside the heterogeneous model; numerical results are presented for three different choices of parameters. These numerical results are used to assess the accuracy of estimates for the mean-squared displacement of neutrons obtained with the diffusion approximations of the Atomic Mix Model and of the recently introduced [1] Non-Classical Theory with angular-dependent path length distribution. The Non-Classical Theory makes use of a Generalized Linear Boltzmann Equation in which the locations of the scattering centers in the system are correlated and the distance to collision is not exponentially distributed. We show that the results predicted using the Non-Classical Theory successfully model the anisotropic behavior of the neutrons in the random system, and more closely agree with experiment than the results predicted by the Atomic Mix Model. (authors)
Constitutive modeling of inelastic anisotropic material response
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stouffer, D. C.
1984-01-01
A constitutive equation was developed to predict the inelastic thermomechanical response of single crystal turbine blades. These equations are essential for developing accurate finite element models of hot section components and contribute significantly to the understanding and prediction of crack initiation and propagation. The method used was limited to unified state variable constitutive equations. Two approaches to developing an anisotropic constitutive equation were reviewed. One approach was to apply the Stouffer-Bodner representation for deformation induced anisotropy to materials with an initial anisotropy such as single crystals. The second approach was to determine the global inelastic strain rate from the contribution of the slip in each of the possible crystallographic slip systems. A three dimensional finite element is being developed with a variable constitutive equation link that can be used for constitutive equation development and to predict the response of an experiment using the actual specimen geometry and loading conditions.
GVF-based anisotropic diffusion models.
Yu, Hongchuan; Chua, Chin-Seng
2006-06-01
In this paper, the gradient vector flow fields are introduced in image restoration. Within the context of flow fields, the shock filter, mean curvature flow, and Perona-Malik equation are reformulated. Many advantages over the original models can be obtained; these include numerical stability, large capture range, and high-order derivative estimation. In addition, a fairing process is introduced in the anisotropic diffusion, which contains a fourth-order derivative and is reformulated as the intrinsic Laplacian of curvature under the level set framework. By applying this fairing process, the shape boundaries will become more apparent. In order to overcome numerical errors, the intrinsic Laplacian of curvature is computed from the gradient vector flow fields instead of the observed images.
Adiabatic theory for anisotropic cold molecule collisions
Pawlak, Mariusz; Shagam, Yuval; Narevicius, Edvardas; Moiseyev, Nimrod
2015-08-21
We developed an adiabatic theory for cold anisotropic collisions between slow atoms and cold molecules. It enables us to investigate the importance of the couplings between the projection states of the rotational motion of the atom about the molecular axis of the diatom. We tested our theory using the recent results from the Penning ionization reaction experiment {sup 4}He(1s2s {sup 3}S) + HD(1s{sup 2}) → {sup 4}He(1s{sup 2}) + HD{sup +}(1s) + e{sup −} [Lavert-Ofir et al., Nat. Chem. 6, 332 (2014)] and demonstrated that the couplings have strong effect on positions of shape resonances. The theory we derived provides cross sections which are in a very good agreement with the experimental findings.
Anisotropic criteria for the type of superconductivity
Kogan, Vladimir G; Prozorov, Ruslan
2014-08-01
The classical criterion for classification of superconductors as type I or type II based on the isotropic Ginzburg-Landau theory is generalized to arbitrary temperatures for materials with anisotropic Fermi surfaces and order parameters. We argue that the relevant quantity for this classification is the ratio of the upper and thermodynamic critical fields Hc2/Hc, rather than the traditional ratio of the penetration depth and the coherence length λ/ξ. Even in the isotropic case, Hc2/Hc coincides with 2√λ/ξ only at the critical temperature Tc and they differ as T decreases, the long-known fact. Anisotropies of Fermi surfaces and order parameters may amplify this difference and render false the criterion based on the value of κ=λ/ξ.
Correlation energy of anisotropic quantum dots
Zhao Yan; Loos, Pierre-Francois; Gill, Peter M. W.
2011-09-15
We study the D-dimensional high-density correlation energy E{sub c} of the singlet ground state of two electrons confined by a harmonic potential with Coulombic repulsion. We allow the harmonic potential to be anisotropic and examine the behavior of E{sub c} as a function of the anisotropy {alpha}{sup -1}. In particular, we are interested in the limit where the anisotropy goes to infinity ({alpha}{yields}0) and the electrons are restricted to a lower-dimensional space. We show that tuning the value of {alpha} from 0 to 1 allows a smooth dimensional interpolation and we demonstrate that the usual model, in which a quantum dot is treated as a two-dimensional system, is inappropriate. Finally, we provide a simple function which reproduces the behavior of E{sub c} over the entire range of {alpha}.
Model for the anisotropic reentry of albedo
Koenig, P.J.
1981-02-01
The trajectory-tracing technique was used to obtain the angles of incidence, and hence 'intensities,' of negatively charged 0.88-GV particles reentrant at Palestine, Texas. Splash albedo trajectories were traced from the conjugate point, and also from Palestine itself, for those trajectories that were unable to complete a full gyration before reentry into the shadow cone at Palestine. Both isotropic and anisotropic ejection configurations were used at these two locations. These simulations predict a north-south anisotropy (hence also a zenithal anisotropy) for reentrant albedo, with a dearth of trajectories incident from the south. The anisotropy is large enough to explain experimentally determined north-south anisotropies for lower-energy particles, as observed by other groups in the Northern Hemisphere. The results are in agreement with measurements and simulations previously obtained in the Southern Hemisphere.
An Anisotropic Hardening Model for Springback Prediction
Zeng, Danielle; Xia, Z. Cedric
2005-08-05
As more Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) are heavily used for automotive body structures and closures panels, accurate springback prediction for these components becomes more challenging because of their rapid hardening characteristics and ability to sustain even higher stresses. In this paper, a modified Mroz hardening model is proposed to capture realistic Bauschinger effect at reverse loading, such as when material passes through die radii or drawbead during sheet metal forming process. This model accounts for material anisotropic yield surface and nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening behavior. Material tension/compression test data are used to accurately represent Bauschinger effect. The effectiveness of the model is demonstrated by comparison of numerical and experimental springback results for a DP600 straight U-channel test.
Highly Anisotropic Dirac Fermions in Square Graphynes.
Zhang, L Z; Wang, Z F; Wang, Zhiming M; Du, S X; Gao, H-J; Liu, Feng
2015-08-06
We predict a family of 2D carbon (C) allotropes, square graphynes (S-graphynes) that exhibit highly anisotropic Dirac fermions, using first-principle calculations within density functional theory. They have a square unit-cell containing two sizes of square C rings. The equal-energy contour of their 3D band structure shows a crescent shape, and the Dirac crescent has varying Fermi velocities from 0.6 × 10(5) to 7.2 × 10(5) m/s along different k directions. Near the Fermi level, the Dirac crescent can be nicely expressed by an extended 2D Dirac model Hamiltonian. Furthermore, tight-binding band fitting reveals that the Dirac crescent originates from the next-nearest-neighbor interactions between C atoms. S-graphynes may be used to build new 2D electronic devices taking advantages of their highly directional charge transport.
Anisotropic Absorption of Pure Spin Currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baker, A. A.; Figueroa, A. I.; Love, C. J.; Cavill, S. A.; Hesjedal, T.; van der Laan, G.
2016-01-01
Spin transfer in magnetic multilayers offers the possibility of ultrafast, low-power device operation. We report a study of spin pumping in spin valves, demonstrating that a strong anisotropy of spin pumping from the source layer can be induced by an angular dependence of the total Gilbert damping parameter, α , in the spin sink layer. Using lab- and synchrotron-based ferromagnetic resonance, we show that an in-plane variation of damping in a crystalline Co50 Fe50 layer leads to an anisotropic α in a polycrystalline Ni81 Fe19 layer. This anisotropy is suppressed above the spin diffusion length in Cr, which is found to be 8 nm, and is independent of static exchange coupling in the spin valve. These results offer a valuable insight into the transmission and absorption of spin currents, and a mechanism by which enhanced spin torques and angular control may be realized for next-generation spintronic devices.
Particle Behavior at Anisotropically Curved Liquid Interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McEnnis, Kathleen; Zeng, Chuan; Davidovitch, Benny; Dinsmore, Anthony; Russell, Thomas
2011-03-01
A particle bound to an anisotropically curved liquid interface, such as a cylinder or catenoid, cannot maintain a constant contact angle without deforming the interface. Theory suggests that the particles will experience a force that depends on the interfacial shape and migrate to minimize the total interfacial energy. To test these predictions, particles were deposited on top of liquid semi-cylinders of ionic liquid or melted polystyrene confined on chemically patterned surfaces. Particles were also deposited on liquid catenoid structures created by placing a melted polymer film under an electric field. The location of the particles on these structures was observed by optical, confocal, and scanning electron microscopy. The implications for the directed assembly of particles and stability of Pickering emulsions are also discussed.
Disordered spherical bead packs are anisotropic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schröder-Turk, G. E.; Mickel, W.; Schröter, M.; Delaney, G. W.; Saadatfar, M.; Senden, T. J.; Mecke, K.; Aste, T.
2010-05-01
Investigating how tightly objects pack space is a long-standing problem, with relevance for many disciplines from discrete mathematics to the theory of glasses. Here we report on the fundamental yet so far overlooked geometric property that disordered mono-disperse spherical bead packs have significant local structural anisotropy manifest in the shape of the free space associated with each bead. Jammed disordered packings from several types of experiments and simulations reveal very similar values of the cell anisotropy, showing a linear decrease with packing fraction. Strong deviations from this trend are observed for unjammed configurations and for partially crystalline packings above 64%. These findings suggest an inherent geometrical reason why, in disordered packings, anisotropic shapes can fill space more efficiently than spheres, and have implications for packing effects in non-spherical liquid crystals, foams and structural glasses.
Translation correlations in anisotropically scattering media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Judkewitz, Benjamin; Horstmeyer, Roarke; Vellekoop, Ivo M.; Papadopoulos, Ioannis N.; Yang, Changhuei
2015-08-01
Controlling light propagation across scattering media by wavefront shaping holds great promise for a wide range of communications and imaging applications. But, finding the right shape for the wavefront is a challenge when the mapping between input and output scattered wavefronts (that is, the transmission matrix) is not known. Correlations in transmission matrices, especially the so-called memory effect, have been exploited to address this limitation. However, the traditional memory effect applies to thin scattering layers at a distance from the target, which precludes its use within thick scattering media, such as fog and biological tissue. Here, we theoretically predict and experimentally verify new transmission matrix correlations within thick anisotropically scattering media, with important implications for biomedical imaging and adaptive optics.
Anisotropic star on pseudo-spheroidal spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ratanpal, B. S.; Thomas, V. O.; Pandya, D. M.
2016-02-01
A new class of exact solutions of Einstein's field equations representing anisotropic distribution of matter on pseudo-spheroidal spacetime is obtained. The parameters appearing in the model are restricted through physical requirements of the model. It is found that the models given in the present work is compatible with observational data of a wide variety of compact objects like 4U 1820-30, PSR J1903+327, 4U 1608-52, Vela X-1, PSR J1614-2230, SMC X-4, Cen X-3. A particular model of pulsar PSR J1614-2230 is studied in detail and found that it satisfies all physical requirements needed for physically acceptable model.
Far field expansion for anisotropic wave equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hariharan, S. I.; Hagstrom, Thomas
1989-01-01
A necessary ingredient for the numerical simulation of many time dependent phenomena in acoustics and aerodynamics is the imposition of accurate radiation conditions at artificial boundaries. The asymptotic analysis of propagating waves provides a rational approach to the development of such conditions. A far field asymptotic expansion of solutions of anisotropic wave equations is derived. This generalizes the well known Friedlander expansion for the standard wave operator. The expansion is used to derive a hierarchy of radiation conditions of increasing accuracy. Two numerical experiments are given to illustrate the utility of this approach. The first application is the study of unsteady vortical disturbances impinging on a flat plate; the second is the simulation of inviscid flow past an impulsively started cylinder.
Anisotropic Particle Acceleration in Relativistic Shear Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boettcher, Markus; Liang, Edison P.; Fu, Wen
2017-08-01
We present results of Particle in Cell (PIC) simulations of relativistic shear layers as relevant to the relativistic jets of acive galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. We study the self-generation of electro-magnetic fields and particle acceleration for various different plasma compositions (electron-ion vs. electron-positron pair vs. hybrid). Special emphasis is placed on the angular distribution of accelerated particles. We find that electron-ion shear layers lead to highly anisotropic particle distributions in the frame of the fast-moving inner spine. The beaming pattern of the highest-energy particles is much narrower than the characteristic beaming angle of 1/Gamma resulting from relativistic aberration of a co-moving isotropic distribution. This may pose a possible solution to the Lorentz-Factor crisis in blazars and explain very hard X-ray / soft gamma-ray spectra of some gamma-ray bursts.
Anisotropic compact stars in Karmarkar spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Newton Singh, Ksh.; Pant, Neeraj; Govender, M.
2017-01-01
We present a new class of solutions to the Einstein field equations for an anisotropic matter distribution in which the interior space-time obeys the Karmarkar condition. The necessary and sufficient condition required for a spherically symmetric space-time to be of Class One reduces the gravitational behavior of the model to a single metric function. By assuming a physically viable form for the grr metric potential we obtain an exact solution of the Einstein field equations which is free from any singularities and satisfies all the physical criteria. We use this solution to predict the masses and radii of well-known compact objects such as Cen X-3, PSR J0348+0432, PSR B0943+10 and XTE J1739-285.
Observable effects of anisotropic bubble nucleation
Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Salem, Michael P. E-mail: salem@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu
2010-07-01
Our universe may have formed via bubble nucleation in an eternally-inflating background. Furthermore, the background may have a compact dimension — the modulus of which tunnels out of a metastable minimum during bubble nucleation — which subsequently grows to become one of our three large spatial dimensions. Then the reduced symmetry of the background is equivalent to anisotropic initial conditions in our bubble universe. We compute the inflationary spectrum in such a scenario and, as a first step toward understanding the effects of anisotropy, project it onto spherical harmonics. The resulting spectrum exhibits anomalous multipole correlations, their relative amplitude set by the present curvature parameter, which appear to extend to arbitrarily large multipole moments. This raises the possibility of future detection, if slow-roll inflation does not last too long within our bubble. A full understanding of the observational signal must account for the effects of background anisotropy on photon free streaming, and is left to future work.
A FDM anisotropic formulation for EEG simulation.
Bruno, P; Hyttinen, J; Inchingolo, P; Magrofuoco, A; Mininel, S; Vatta, F
2006-01-01
Accurate head modeling is required to properly simulate bioelectric phenomena in 3-D as well as to estimate the 3-D bioelectric activity starting from superficial bioelectric measurements and 3-D imaging. Aiming to build an accurate and realistic representation of the volume conductor of the head, also the anisotropy of head tissues should be taken into account. In this paper we describe a new finite-difference method (FDM) formulation which accounts for anisotropy of the various head tissues. Our proposal, being based on FDM, derives the head model directly from patient's specific clinical images. We present here the details of the numerical formulation and the method validation by comparing our numerical proposal and known analytical results using a multi-shell anisotropic head model with skull anisotropy. Furthermore, we analyzed also different numerical grid refinement and EEG source characteristics. The comparison with previously developed FDM methods shows a good performance of the proposed method.
Turbulent Output-Based Anisotropic Adaptation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, Michael A.; Carlson, Jan-Renee
2010-01-01
Controlling discretization error is a remaining challenge for computational fluid dynamics simulation. Grid adaptation is applied to reduce estimated discretization error in drag or pressure integral output functions. To enable application to high O(10(exp 7)) Reynolds number turbulent flows, a hybrid approach is utilized that freezes the near-wall boundary layer grids and adapts the grid away from the no slip boundaries. The hybrid approach is not applicable to problems with under resolved initial boundary layer grids, but is a powerful technique for problems with important off-body anisotropic features. Supersonic nozzle plume, turbulent flat plate, and shock-boundary layer interaction examples are presented with comparisons to experimental measurements of pressure and velocity. Adapted grids are produced that resolve off-body features in locations that are not known a priori.
Anisotropic Shock Propagation in Single Crystals
Eggert, J; Hicks, D; Celliers, P; Bradley, D; Cox, J; Unites, W; Collins, G; McWilliams, R; Jeanloz, R; Bruygoo, S; Loubeyre, P
2005-05-26
Most single-crystal shock experiments have been performed in high-symmetry directions while the nature of shock propagation in low-symmetry directions remains relatively unstudied. It is well known that small-amplitude, linear acoustic waves propagating in low-symmetry directions can focus and/or form caustics (Wolfe, 1995). In this report we provide evidence for similar focusing behavior in nonlinear (shock) waves propagating in single crystals of silicon and diamond. Using intense lasers, we have driven non-planar (divergent geometry) shock waves through single-crystals of silicon or diamond and into an isotropic backing plate. On recovery of the backing plates we observe a depression showing evidence of anisotropic plastic strain with well-defined crystallographic registration. We observe 4-, 2-, and 3-fold symmetric impressions for [100], [110], and [111] oriented crystals respectively.
Effects of anisotropic heat conduction on solidification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weaver, J. A.; Viskanta, R.
1989-01-01
Two-dimensional solidification influenced by anisotropic heat conduction has been considered. The interfacial energy balance was derived to account for the heat transfer in one direction (x or y) depending on the temperature gradient in both the x and y directions. A parametric study was made to determine the effects of the Stefan number, aspect ratio, initial superheat, and thermal conductivity ratios on the solidification rate. Because of the imposed boundary conditions, the interface became skewed and sometimes was not a straight line between the interface position at the upper and lower adiabatic walls (spatially nonlinear along the height). This skewness depends on the thermal conductivity ratio k(yy)/k(yx). The nonlinearity of the interface is influenced by the solidification rate, aspect ratio, and k(yy/k(yx).
Thermohaline instability in anisotropic porous media
Tyvand, P.A.
1980-04-01
The onset of thermohaline convection in a horizontal porous layer is investigated theoretically. The layer is homogeneous, anisotropic, and of infinite horizontal extent. Horizontal isotropy with respect to permeability, thermal diffusivity, and solute diffusivity is assumed. For porous media with thermally insulating solid matrices the stability diagram has the same shape as in the case of isotropy. The critical wave number is constant and equal to that of the one-component case. For thermally conducting matrices, new features may occur. The locus of the direct mode in the stability diagram may not be a straight line, and the corresponding wave number may be nonconstant. The initiation of salt fingers is studied by linear theory. It seems that the width of salt fingers is influenced by anisotropy in the diffusivities. Anisotrophy may or may not favor salt fingers, depending on a dimensionless diffusion parameter being greater than or less than one. 12 references.
Increasing Black Hole Feedback-induced Quenching with Anisotropic Thermal Conduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kannan, Rahul; Vogelsberger, Mark; Pfrommer, Christoph; Weinberger, Rainer; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars; Puchwein, Ewald; Pakmor, Rüdiger
2017-03-01
Feedback from central supermassive black holes is often invoked to explain the low star formation rates (SFRs) in the massive galaxies at the centers of galaxy clusters. However, the detailed physics of the coupling of the injected feedback energy with the intracluster medium (ICM) is still unclear. Using high-resolution magnetohydrodynamic cosmological simulations of galaxy cluster formation, we investigate the role of anisotropic thermal conduction in shaping the thermodynamic structure of clusters, and in particular, in modifying the impact of black hole feedback. Stratified anisotropically conducting plasmas are formally always unstable, and thus more prone to mixing, an expectation borne out by our results. The increased mixing efficiently isotropizes the injected feedback energy, which in turn significantly improves the coupling between the feedback energy and the ICM. This facilitates an earlier disruption of the cool-core, reduces the SFR by more than an order of magnitude, and results in earlier quenching despite an overall lower amount of feedback energy injected into the cluster core. With conduction, the metallicity gradients and dispersions are lowered, aligning them better with observational constraints. These results highlight the important role of thermal conduction in establishing and maintaining the quiescence of massive galaxies.
Control of anisotropic interactions with microwaves in ultracold NaK molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Zoe; Loh, Huanqian; Park, Jee Woo; Will, Sebastian; Zwierlein, Martin
2016-05-01
Ultracold polar molecules offer long range anisotropic interactions, which can provide access to novel phases of condensed matter physics. The recent creation of fermionic NaK polar molecules in the ground hyperfine-rovibronic state, which is chemically stable, demonstrates an important step towards the study of new dipolar physics. To engineer dipolar interactions between molecules with large electric dipole moments, one can apply microwaves to mix the lowest and first excited rotational states. Hyperfine interaction in the first excited rotational state mixes nuclear spin and rotation, leading to states with rich character, which we map out by performing microwave spectroscopy. The admixed hyperfine character serves as a tool to engineer wide ranges of ``magic'' trap polarization angles, at which the lowest and first excited rotational states have matching polarizabilities. Finally, we demonstrate that we can access large dipole moments by coherently dressing the molecules with microwaves.
Computation of Anisotropic Bi-Material Interfacial Fracture Parameters and Delamination Creteria
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chow, W-T.; Wang, L.; Atluri, S. N.
1998-01-01
This report documents the recent developments in methodologies for the evaluation of the integrity and durability of composite structures, including i) the establishment of a stress-intensity-factor based fracture criterion for bimaterial interfacial cracks in anisotropic materials (see Sec. 2); ii) the development of a virtual crack closure integral method for the evaluation of the mixed-mode stress intensity factors for a bimaterial interfacial crack (see Sec. 3). Analytical and numerical results show that the proposed fracture criterion is a better fracture criterion than the total energy release rate criterion in the characterization of the bimaterial interfacial cracks. The proposed virtual crack closure integral method is an efficient and accurate numerical method for the evaluation of mixed-mode stress intensity factors.
On characterization of anisotropic plant protein structures.
Krintiras, Georgios A; Göbel, Jesse; Bouwman, Wim G; van der Goot, Atze Jan; Stefanidis, Georgios D
2014-12-01
In this paper, a set of complementary techniques was used to characterize surface and bulk structures of an anisotropic Soy Protein Isolate (SPI)-vital wheat gluten blend after it was subjected to heat and simple shear flow in a Couette Cell. The structured biopolymer blend can form a basis for a meat replacer. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy provided a detailed view of structure formation over the visible surfaces of the SPI-gluten blend. Protein orientation in the direction of the flow was evident and fibrous formation appeared to exist on the macro- and micro-scale. Furthermore, according to texture analysis, the structured biopolymer obtained from the Couette Cell after processing at 95 °C and 30 RPM for 15 min has high tensile stress and strain anisotropy indices (∼2 and ∼1.8, respectively), comparable to those of raw meat (beef). The novel element in this work is the use of the neutron refraction method, utilizing spin-echo small angle neutron scattering (SESANS), to provide a look inside the anisotropic biopolymer blend complementing the characterization provided by the standard techniques above. With SESANS, it is possible to quantify the number of fibre layers and the orientation distribution of fibres. For a specimen thickness of 5 mm, the obtained number of fibre layers was 36 ± 4 and the standard deviation of the orientation distribution was 0.66 ± 0.04 radians. The calculated thickness of one layer of fibres was 138 μm, in line with SEM inspection.
Standing shear waves in anisotropic viscoelastic media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krit, T.; Golubkova, I.; Andreev, V.
2015-10-01
We studied standing shear waves in anisotropic resonator represented by a rectangular parallelepiped (layer) fixed without slipping between two wooden plates of finite mass. The viscoelastic layer with edges of 70 mm × 40 mm × 15 mm was made of a rubber-like polymer plastisol with rubber bands inside. The bands were placed vertical between the top and the bottom plate. Mechanical properties of the plastisol itself were carefully measured previously. It was found that plastisol shows a cubic nonlinear behavior, i.e. the stress-strain curve could be represented as: σ = μɛ + βμɛ3, where ɛ stands for shear strain and σ is an applied shear stress. The value of shear modulus μ depends on frequency and was found to be several kilopascals which is common for such soft solids. Nonlinear parameter β is frequency dependent too and varies in range from tenths to unity at 1-100 Hz frequency range, decreasing with frequency growth. Stretching the rubber bands inside the layer leads to change of elastic properties in resonator. Such effect could be noticed due to frequency response of the resonator. The numerical model of the resonator was based on finite elements method (FEM) and performed in MatLab. The resonator was cut in hundreds of right triangular prisms. Each prism was provided with viscoelastic properties of the layer except for the top prisms provided with the wooden plate properties and the prisms at the site of the rubber bands provided with the rubber properties. The boundary conditions on each prism satisfied the requirements that resonator is inseparable and all its boundaries but bottom are free. The bottom boundary was set to move horizontally with constant acceleration amplitude. It was shown numerically that the resonator shows anisotropic behavior expressed in different frequency response to oscillations applied to a bottom boundary in different directions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Matteson, S.; Nicolet, M.-A.
1983-01-01
Recent experimental studies of the ion-mixing phenomenon are summarized. Ion mixing is differentiated from ion implantation and shown to be a useful technique for overcoming the sputter-dependent limitations of implantation processes. The fundamental physical principles of ion/solid interactions are explored. The basic experimental configurations currently in use are characterized: bilayered samples, multilayered samples, and samples with a thin marker layer. A table listing the binary systems (metal-semiconductor or metal-metal) which have been investigated using each configuration is presented. Results are discussed, and some sample data are plotted. The prospects for future application of ion mixing to the alteration of solid surface properties are considered. Practical applications are seen as restricted by economic considerations to the production of small, expensive components or to fields (such as the semiconductor industry) which already have facilities for ion implantation.
Enhancement of non-resonant dielectric cloaks using anisotropic composites
Takezawa, Akihiro Kitamura, Mitsuru
2014-01-15
Cloaking techniques conceal objects by controlling the flow of electromagnetic waves to minimize scattering. Herein, the effectiveness of homogenized anisotropic materials in non-resonant dielectric multilayer cloaking is studied. Because existing multilayer cloaking by isotropic materials can be regarded as homogenous anisotropic cloaking from a macroscopic view, anisotropic materials can be efficiently designed through optimization of their physical properties. Anisotropic properties can be realized in two-phase composites if the physical properties of the material are within appropriate bounds. The optimized anisotropic physical properties are identified by a numerical optimization technique based on a full-wave simulation using the finite element method. The cloaking performance measured by the total scattering width is improved by about 2.8% and 25% in eight- and three-layer cylindrical cloaking materials, respectively, compared with multilayer cloaking by isotropic materials. In all cloaking examples, the optimized microstructures of the two-phase composites are identified as the simple lamination of two materials, which maximizes the anisotropy. The same performance as published for eight-layer cloaking by isotropic materials is achieved by three-layer cloaking using the anisotropic material. Cloaking with an approximately 50% reduction of total scattering width is achieved even in an octagonal object. Since the cloaking effect can be realized using just a few layers of the laminated anisotropic dielectric composite, this may have an advantage in the mass production of cloaking devices.
Tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance driven by magnetic phase transition.
Chen, X Z; Feng, J F; Wang, Z C; Zhang, J; Zhong, X Y; Song, C; Jin, L; Zhang, B; Li, F; Jiang, M; Tan, Y Z; Zhou, X J; Shi, G Y; Zhou, X F; Han, X D; Mao, S C; Chen, Y H; Han, X F; Pan, F
2017-09-06
The independent control of two magnetic electrodes and spin-coherent transport in magnetic tunnel junctions are strictly required for tunneling magnetoresistance, while junctions with only one ferromagnetic electrode exhibit tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance dependent on the anisotropic density of states with no room temperature performance so far. Here, we report an alternative approach to obtaining tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance in α'-FeRh-based junctions driven by the magnetic phase transition of α'-FeRh and resultantly large variation of the density of states in the vicinity of MgO tunneling barrier, referred to as phase transition tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance. The junctions with only one α'-FeRh magnetic electrode show a magnetoresistance ratio up to 20% at room temperature. Both the polarity and magnitude of the phase transition tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance can be modulated by interfacial engineering at the α'-FeRh/MgO interface. Besides the fundamental significance, our finding might add a different dimension to magnetic random access memory and antiferromagnet spintronics.Tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance is promising for next generation memory devices but limited by the low efficiency and functioning temperature. Here the authors achieved 20% tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance at room temperature in magnetic tunnel junctions with one α'-FeRh magnetic electrode.
Anisotropic Nanomechanics of Boron Nitride Nanotubes: Nanostructured "Skin" Effect
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srivastava, Deepak; Menon, Madhu; Cho, KyeongJae
2000-01-01
The stiffness and plasticity of boron nitride nanotubes are investigated using generalized tight-binding molecular dynamics and ab-initio total energy methods. Due to boron-nitride BN bond buckling effects, compressed zigzag BN nanotubes are found to undergo novel anisotropic strain release followed by anisotropic plastic buckling. The strain is preferentially released towards N atoms in the rotated BN bonds. The tubes buckle anisotropically towards only one end when uniaxially compressed from both. A "skin-effect" model of smart nanocomposite materials is proposed which will localize the structural damage towards the 'skin' or surface side of the material.
Conformal anisotropic mechanics and the Horava dispersion relation
Romero, Juan M.; Cuesta, Vladimir; Garcia, J. Antonio; Vergara, J. David
2010-03-15
In this paper we implement scale anisotropic transformations between space and time in classical mechanics. The resulting system is consistent with the dispersion relation of Horava gravity [P. Horava, Phys. Rev. D 79, 084008 (2009)]. Also, we show that our model is a generalization of the conformal mechanics of Alfaro, Fubini, and Furlan. For an arbitrary dynamical exponent we construct the dynamical symmetries that correspond to the Schroedinger algebra. Furthermore, we obtain the Boltzmann distribution for a gas of free particles compatible with anisotropic scaling transformations and compare our result with the corresponding thermodynamics of the recent anisotropic black branes proposed in the literature.
Renormalized anisotropic exchange for representing heat assisted magnetic recording media
Jiao, Yipeng; Liu, Zengyuan; Victora, R. H.
2015-05-07
Anisotropic exchange has been incorporated in a description of magnetic recording media near the Curie temperature, as would be found during heat assisted magnetic recording. The new parameters were found using a cost function that minimized the difference between atomistic properties and those of renormalized spin blocks. Interestingly, the anisotropic exchange description at 1.5 nm discretization yields very similar switching and magnetization behavior to that found at 1.2 nm (and below) discretization for the previous isotropic exchange. This suggests that the increased accuracy of anisotropic exchange may also reduce the computational cost during simulation.
Vortex liquid crystals in anisotropic type II superconductors.
Carlson, E W; Castro Neto, A H; Campbell, D K
2003-02-28
In an isotropic type II superconductor in a moderate magnetic field, the transition to the normal state occurs by vortex lattice melting. In certain anisotropic cases, the vortices acquire elongated cross sections and interactions. Systems of anisotropic, interacting constituents generally exhibit liquid crystalline phases. We examine the possibility of a two step melting in homogeneous type II superconductors with anisotropic superfluid stiffness from a vortex lattice into first a vortex smectic and then a vortex nematic at high temperature and magnetic field. We find that fluctuations of the ordered phase favor an instability to an intermediate smectic-A in the absence of intrinsic pinning.
Anisotropic transport in modulation doped quantum well structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Radulescu, D. C.; Wicks, G. W.; Schaff, W. J.; Calawa, A. R.; Eastman, L. F.
1987-01-01
The degree of anisotropy in the anisotropic electron transport that has been observed in GaAs modulation-doped quantum wells grown by MBE on Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)As is related to the thickness and growth parameters of this substrate, which is grown just prior to the inverted interface. It is presently observed that the inverted interface has an anisotropic roughness which affects the 77 K low field electron transport parallel to the interface, and gives rise to anisotropic electron scattering in the GaAs modulation-doped quantum well.
Anisotropic spectral modeling for unstably stratified homogeneous turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Briard, Antoine; Iyer, Manasa; Gomez, Thomas
2017-04-01
In this work, a spectral model is derived to investigate numerically unstably stratified homogeneous turbulence (USHT) at large Reynolds numbers. The modeling relies on an earlier work for passive scalar dynamics [Briard et al., J. Fluid Mech. 799, 159 (2016), 10.1017/jfm.2016.362] and can handle both shear and mean scalar gradients. The extension of this model to the case of active scalar dynamics is the main theoretical contribution of this paper. This spectral modeling is then applied at large Reynolds numbers to analyze the scaling of the kinetic energy, scalar variance, and scalar flux spectra and to study as well the temporal evolution of the mixing parameter, the Froude number, and some anisotropy indicators in USHT. A theoretical prediction for the exponential growth rate of the kinetic energy, associated with our model equations, is derived and assessed numerically. Throughout the validation part, results are compared with an analogous approach, restricted to axisymmetric turbulence, which is more accurate in term of anisotropy description, but also much more costly in terms of computational resources [Burlot et al., J. Fluid Mech. 765, 17 (2015), 10.1017/jfm.2014.726]. It is notably shown that our model can qualitatively recover all the features of the USHT dynamics, with good quantitative agreement on some specific aspects. In addition, some remarks are proposed to point out the similarities and differences between the physics of USHT, shear flows, and passive scalar dynamics with a mean gradient, the two latter configurations having been addressed previously with the same closure. Moreover, it is shown that the anisotropic part of the pressure spectrum in USHT scales in k-11 /3 in the inertial range, similarly to the one in shear flows. Finally, at large Schmidt numbers, a different spectral range is found for the scalar flux: It first scales in k-3 around the Kolmogorov scale and then further in k-1 in the viscous-convective range.
Anisotropic nature of radially strained metal tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strickland, Julie N.
Metal pipes are sometimes swaged by a metal cone to enlarge them, which increases the strain in the material. The amount of strain is important because it affects the burst and collapse strength. Burst strength is the amount of internal pressure that a pipe can withstand before failure, while collapse strength is the amount of external pressure that a pipe can withstand before failure. If the burst or collapse strengths are exceeded, the pipe may fracture, causing critical failure. Such an event could cost the owners and their customers millions of dollars in clean up, repair, and lost time, in addition to the potential environmental damage. Therefore, a reliable way of estimating the burst and collapse strength of strained pipe is desired and valuable. The sponsor currently rates strained pipes using the properties of raw steel, because those properties are easily measured (for example, yield strength). In the past, the engineers assumed that the metal would be work-hardened when swaged, so that yield strength would increase. However, swaging introduces anisotropic strain, which may decrease the yield strength. This study measured the yield strength of strained material in the transverse and axial direction and compared them to raw material, to determine the amount of anisotropy. This information will be used to more accurately determine burst and collapse ratings for strained pipes. More accurate ratings mean safer products, which will minimize risk for the sponsor's customers. Since the strained metal has a higher yield strength than the raw material, using the raw yield strength to calculate burst and collapse ratings is a conservative method. The metal has even higher yield strength after strain aging, which indicates that the stresses are relieved. Even with the 12% anisotropy in the strained and 9% anisotropy in the strain aged specimens, the raw yield strengths are lower and therefore more conservative. I recommend that the sponsor continue using the raw
Reinterpreting aircraft measurements in anisotropic scaling turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lovejoy, S.; Tuck, A. F.; Schertzer, D.; Hovde, S. J.
2009-07-01
Due to both systematic and turbulent induced vertical fluctuations, the interpretation of atmospheric aircraft measurements requires a theory of turbulence. Until now virtually all the relevant theories have been isotropic or "quasi isotropic" in the sense that their exponents are the same in all directions. However almost all the available data on the vertical structure shows that it is scaling but with exponents different from the horizontal: the turbulence is scaling but anisotropic. In this paper, we show how such turbulence can lead to spurious breaks in the scaling and to the spurious appearance of the vertical scaling exponent at large horizontal lags. We demonstrate this using 16 legs of Gulfstream 4 aircraft near the top of the troposphere following isobars each between 500 and 3200 km in length. First we show that over wide ranges of scale, the horizontal spectra of the aircraft altitude are nearly k-5/3. In addition, we show that the altitude and pressure fluctuations along these fractal trajectories have a high degree of coherence with the measured wind (especially with its longitudinal component). There is also a strong phase relation between the altitude, pressure and wind fluctuations; for scales less than ≍40 km (on average) the wind fluctuations lead the pressure and altitude, whereas for larger scales, the pressure fluctuations leads the wind. At the same transition scale, there is a break in the wind spectrum which we argue is caused by the aircraft starting to accurately follow isobars at the larger scales. In comparison, the temperature and humidity have low coherencies and phases and there are no apparent scale breaks, reinforcing the hypothesis that it is the aircraft trajectory that is causally linked to the scale breaks in the wind measurements. Using spectra and structure functions for the wind, we then estimate their exponents (β, H) at small (5/3, 1/3) and large scales (2.4, 0.73). The latter being very close to those estimated by
Borehole Deformation and Failure in Anisotropic Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaede, Oliver; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus; Lumley, David
2010-05-01
Borehole breakouts develop due to compressive shear failure along the borehole wall and subsequent spalling of near wellbore rock. These compressive shear failures can occur during drilling and lead to a borehole enlargement in the direction of the minimum horizontal stress. In order to investigate the initiation of borehole breakouts in anisotropic media a numerical analysis of the borehole deformation has been performed. The numerical model is based on an extensive geophysical and geomechanical dataset, provided by BHP Billiton Petroleum. This dataset was established during the development and production phase of an oil reservoir on the North West Shelf, Western Australia. The aim of this study is to estimate the severity of the influence of anisotropy on the breakout process. It is proposed that there is a hierarchy among the possible influences on the breakout process: 1. The regional stress field has a first order effect on the borehole breakout direction. 2. This is followed by a preferential fracture direction or anisotropic failure criterion of the medium. 3. And finally the elastic anisotropy of the medium affecting the local stress field around the borehole. A clear separation of these influences through methods of observation is not always trivial. Firstly, the preferential fracture direction and the elastic anisotropy, at least to some degree, are functions of the regional stress field. Secondly, most of the knowledge we have about the regional stress field in relatively aseismic regions is inferred from borehole breakout data. Therefore a numerical simulation is chosen as a method of study. Material properties like elastic anisotropy or failure criterion and even their dependency on the stress field can easily be manipulated. This geophysical and geomechanical data is used to populate the numerical model. The regional stress field is implemented as a boundary condition. The commercial Finite Element package ABAQUS is used to obtain the stress / strain
Fabrication of anisotropic multifunctional colloidal carriers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jerri, Huda A.
The field of colloidal assembly has grown tremendously in recent years, although the direct or template-assisted methods used to fabricate complex colloidal constructions from monodisperse micro- and nanoparticles have been generally demonstrated on model materials. In this work, novel core particle syntheses, particle functionalizations and bottom-up assembly techniques are presented to create functional colloidal devices. Using particle lithography, high-information colloidal vectors have been developed and modified with imaging and targeting agents. Localized nanoscale patches have been reliably positioned on microparticles to serve as foundations for further chemical or physical modifications. Site-specific placement of RGD targeting ligands has been achieved in these lithographed patches. Preferential uptake of these targeted vectors by RGD-specific 3T3 fibroblasts was verified using confocal laser scanning microscopy. A transition was made from the functionalization of model imaging core particles to the lithography of colloidal cartridges, in an effort to construct colloidal syringes with specialized, programmable release profiles. A variety of functional, pH-sensitive fluorescent cores were engineered to respond to solution conditions. When triggered, the diverse composite core microparticles and reservoir microcapsules released embedded fluorescent moieties such as dye molecules, and fluorophore-conjugated nanoparticles. The microcapsules, created using layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte deposition on sacrificial templates, were selectively modified with a robust coating. The pH-responsive anisotropic reservoir microcapsules were extremely stable in solution, and exhibited a "Lazarus" functionality of rehydrating to their original state following desiccation. A snapshot of focused-release of core constituents through the lone opening in colloidal monotremes has been obtained by anisotropically-functionalizing degradable cores with barrier shells. Additionally
Reinterpreting aircraft measurements in anisotropic scaling turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lovejoy, S.; Tuck, A. F.; Schertzer, D.; Hovde, S. J.
2009-02-01
Due to unavoidable vertical fluctuations, the interpretation of atmospheric aircraft measurements requires a theory of turbulence. Until now virtually all the relevant theories have been isotropic. However almost all the available data on the vertical structure shows that it is scaling but with exponents different from the horizontal: the turbulence is anisotropic not isotropic. In this paper, we show how this can lead to spurious breaks in the scaling and to the spurious appearance of the vertical scaling exponent at large horizontal lags. We demonstrate this using 16 legs of Gulfstream 4 tropospheric data following isobars each between 500 and 3200 km in length. First we show that the horizontal spectra of the aircraft altitude are nearly k-5/3 (although smoothed by aircraft intertia at scales <3 km). In addition, we show that the altitude and pressure fluctuations along these fractal trajectories have a high degree of coherence with the measured wind (especially with its longitudinal component). There is also a strong phase relation between the altitude, pressure and wind fluctuations with all of these effects occurring over the entire range of scales so that the trajectories influence the wind measurements over large ranges of scale. In comparison, the temperature and humidity have no apparent scale breaks and the corresponding coherencies and phases are low reinforcing the hypothesis that it is the aircraft trajectory that is causally linked to the scale breaks in the wind measurements. Using spectra and structure functions we then estimate the small and large scale exponents finding that they are close to the Kolmogorov values (5/3, 1/3) and the vertical values (2.4, 0.73) respectively (for the spectral and real space scaling exponents (β, H)) the latter are close to those estimated by drop sondes (2.4, 0.75) in the vertical direction. In addition, for each leg we estimate the energy flux, the sphero-scale and the critical transition scale. The latter varies
Reinterpreting aircraft measurements in anisotropic scaling turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lovejoy, S.; Tuck, A. F.; Schertzer, D.
2009-04-01
Due to unavoidable vertical fluctuations, the interpretation of atmospheric aircraft measurements requires a theory of turbulence. Until now virtually all the relevant theories have been isotropic. However almost all the available data on the vertical structure shows that it is scaling but with exponents different from the horizontal: the turbulence is anisotropic not isotropic. In this paper, we show how this can lead to spurious breaks in the scaling and to the spurious appearance of the vertical scaling exponent at large horizontal lags. We demonstrate this using 16 legs of Gulfstream 4 tropospheric data following isobars each between 500 and 3200 km in length. First we show that the horizontal spectra of the aircraft altitude are nearly k-5/3 (although smoothed by aircraft inertia at scales < 3 km). In addition, we show that the altitude and pressure fluctuations along these fractal trajectories have a high degree of coherence with the measured wind (especially with its longitudinal component). There is also a strong phase relation between the altitude, pressure and wind fluctuations with all of these effects occurring over the entire range of scales so that the trajectories influence the wind measurements over large ranges of scale. In comparison, the temperature and humidity have no apparent scale breaks and the corresponding coherencies and phases are low reinforcing the hypothesis that it is the aircraft trajectory is causally linked to the scale breaks. Using spectra and structure functions we then estimate the small and large scale exponents finding that they are close to the Kolmogorov values (5/3, 1/3) and the vertical values (2.4, 0.73) (for respectively the spectral and real space scaling exponents (β, H)) which are close to those estimated by drop sondes (2.4, 0.75) in the vertical direction. In addition, for each leg we estimate the energy flux, the sphero-scale and the critical transition scale. The latter varies quite widely from scales of
Generalized Pseudopotentials for the Anisotropic Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Bo; Hu, Zi-Xiang; Lee, Ching Hua; Papić, Z.
2017-04-01
We generalize the notion of Haldane pseudopotentials to anisotropic fractional quantum Hall (FQH) systems that are physically realized, e.g., in tilted magnetic field experiments or anisotropic band structures. This formalism allows us to expand any translation-invariant interaction over a complete basis, and directly reveals the intrinsic metric of incompressible FQH fluids. We show that purely anisotropic pseudopotentials give rise to new types of bound states for small particle clusters in the infinite plane, and can be used as a diagnostic of FQH nematic order. We also demonstrate that generalized pseudopotentials quantify the anisotropic contribution to the effective interaction potential, which can be particularly large in models of fractional Chern insulators.
Modelling of anisotropic compact stars of embedding class one
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhar, Piyali; Maurya, S. K.; Gupta, Y. K.; Manna, Tuhina
2016-10-01
In the present article, we have constructed static anisotropic compact star models of Einstein field equations for the spherical symmetric metric of embedding class one. By assuming the particular form of the metric function ν, we have solved the Einstein field equations for anisotropic matter distribution. The anisotropic models represent the realistic compact objects such as SAX J 1808.4-3658 (SS1), Her X-1, Vela X-12, PSR J1614-2230 and Cen X-3. We have reported our results in details for the compact star Her X-1 on the ground of physical properties such as pressure, density, velocity of sound, energy conditions, TOV equation and red-shift etc. Along with these, we have also discussed about the stability of the compact star models. Finally we made a comparison between our anisotropic stars with the realistic objects on the key aspects as central density, central pressure, compactness and surface red-shift.
An engineered anisotropic nanofilm with unidirectional wetting properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malvadkar, Niranjan A.; Hancock, Matthew J.; Sekeroglu, Koray; Dressick, Walter J.; Demirel, Melik C.
2010-12-01
Anisotropic textured surfaces allow water striders to walk on water, butterflies to shed water from their wings and plants to trap insects and pollen. Capturing these natural features in biomimetic surfaces is an active area of research. Here, we report an engineered nanofilm, composed of an array of poly(p-xylylene) nanorods, which demonstrates anisotropic wetting behaviour by means of a pin-release droplet ratchet mechanism. Droplet retention forces in the pin and release directions differ by up to 80μN, which is over ten times greater than the values reported for other engineered anisotropic surfaces. The nanofilm provides a microscale smooth surface on which to transport microlitre droplets, and is also relatively easy to synthesize by a bottom-up vapour-phase technique. An accompanying comprehensive model successfully describes the film's anisotropic wetting behaviour as a function of measurable film morphology parameters.
Autofocus imaging: Experimental results in an anisotropic austenitic weld
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, J.; Drinkwater, B. W.; Wilcox, P. D.; Hunter, A.
2012-05-01
The quality of an ultrasonic array image, especially for anisotropic material, depends on accurate information about acoustic properties. Inaccuracy of acoustic properties causes image degradation, e.g., blurring, errors in locating of reflectors and introduction of artifacts. In this paper, for an anisotropic austenitic steel weld, an autofocus imaging technique is presented. The array data from a series of beacons is captured and then used to statistically extract anisotropic weld properties by using a Monte-Carlo inversion approach. The beacon and imaging systems are realized using two separated arrays; one acts as a series of beacons and the other images these beacons. Key to the Monte-Carlo inversion scheme is a fast forward model of wave propagation in the anisotropic weld and this is based on the Dijkstra algorithm. Using this autofocus approach a measured weld map was extracted from an austenitic weld and used to reduce location errors, initially greater than 6mm, to less than 1mm.
Anisotropic stress and stability in modified gravity models
Saltas, Ippocratis D.; Kunz, Martin
2011-03-15
The existence of anisotropic stress of a purely geometrical origin seems to be a characteristic of higher order gravity models, and has been suggested as a probe to test these models observationally, for example, in weak lensing experiments. In this paper, we seek to find a class of higher order gravity models of f(R,G) type that would give us a zero anisotropic stress and study the consequences for the viability of the actual model. For the special case of a de Sitter background, we identify a subclass of models with the desired property. We also find a direct link between anisotropic stress and the stability of the model as well as the presence of extra degrees of freedom, which seems to be a general feature of higher order gravity models. Particularly, setting the anisotropic stress equal to zero for a de Sitter background leads to a singularity that makes it impossible to reach the de Sitter evolution.
Liquid Crystal Elastomer Actuators from Anisotropic Porous Polymer Template.
Wang, Qian; Yu, Li; Yu, Meina; Zhao, Dongyu; Song, Ping; Chi, Hun; Guo, Lin; Yang, Huai
2017-08-01
Controlling self-assembly behaviors of liquid crystals is a fundamental issue for designing them as intelligent actuators. Here, anisotropic porous polyvinylidene fluoride film is utilized as a template to induce homogeneous alignment of liquid crystals. The mechanism of liquid crystal alignment induced by anisotropic porous polyvinylidene fluoride film is illustrated based on the relationship between the alignment behavior of liquid crystals and surface microstructure of anisotropic polyvinylidene fluoride film. Liquid crystal elastomer actuators with fast responsiveness, large strain change, and reversible actuation behaviors are achieved by the photopolymerization of liquid crystal monomer in liquid crystal cells coated with anisotropic porous films. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Novel anisotropic engineered cardiac tissues: studies of electrical propagation.
Bursac, Nenad; Loo, Yihua; Leong, Kam; Tung, Leslie
2007-10-05
The goal of this study was to engineer cardiac tissue constructs with uniformly anisotropic architecture, and to evaluate their electrical function using multi-site optical mapping of cell membrane potentials. Anisotropic polymer scaffolds made by leaching of aligned sucrose templates were seeded with neonatal rat cardiac cells and cultured in rotating bioreactors for 6-14 days. Cells aligned and interconnected inside the scaffolds and when stimulated by a point electrode, supported macroscopically continuous, anisotropic impulse propagation. By culture day 14, the ratio of conduction velocities along vs. across cardiac fibers reached a value of 2, similar to that in native neonatal ventricles, while action potential duration and maximum capture rate, respectively, decreased to 120ms and increased to approximately 5Hz. The shorter culture time and larger scaffold thickness were associated with increased incidence of sustained reentrant arrhythmias. In summary, this study is the first successful attempt to engineer a cm(2)-size, functional anisotropic cardiac tissue patch.
An engineered anisotropic nanofilm with unidirectional wetting properties.
Malvadkar, Niranjan A; Hancock, Matthew J; Sekeroglu, Koray; Dressick, Walter J; Demirel, Melik C
2010-12-01
Anisotropic textured surfaces allow water striders to walk on water, butterflies to shed water from their wings and plants to trap insects and pollen. Capturing these natural features in biomimetic surfaces is an active area of research. Here, we report an engineered nanofilm, composed of an array of poly(p-xylylene) nanorods, which demonstrates anisotropic wetting behaviour by means of a pin-release droplet ratchet mechanism. Droplet retention forces in the pin and release directions differ by up to 80 μN, which is over ten times greater than the values reported for other engineered anisotropic surfaces. The nanofilm provides a microscale smooth surface on which to transport microlitre droplets, and is also relatively easy to synthesize by a bottom-up vapour-phase technique. An accompanying comprehensive model successfully describes the film's anisotropic wetting behaviour as a function of measurable film morphology parameters.
Anisotropic ionic conductivities in lyotropic supramolecular liquid crystals.
Huang, Youju; Cong, Yuanhua; Li, Junjun; Wang, Daoliang; Zhang, Jingtuo; Xu, Lu; Li, Weili; Li, Liangbin; Pan, Guoqiang; Yang, Chuanlu
2009-12-28
The designed aromatic amide discotic molecule with sulfonic acid groups at its periphery exhibits a hexagonal supramolecular columnar liquid crystalline phase, which leads to the achievement of anisotropic ionic conductivity through macroscopically aligning the ionic channels.
Hydrodynamic cavitation in Stokes flow of anisotropic fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stieger, Tillmann; Agha, Hakam; Schoen, Martin; Mazza, Marco G.; Sengupta, Anupam
2017-05-01
Cavitation, the nucleation of vapour in liquids, is ubiquitous in fluid dynamics, and is often implicated in a myriad of industrial and biomedical applications. Although extensively studied in isotropic liquids, corresponding investigations in anisotropic liquids are largely lacking. Here, by combining liquid crystal microfluidic experiments, nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical arguments, we report flow-induced cavitation in an anisotropic fluid. The cavitation domain nucleates due to sudden pressure drop upon flow past a cylindrical obstacle within a microchannel. For an anisotropic fluid, the inception and growth of the cavitation domain ensued in the Stokes regime, while no cavitation was observed in isotropic liquids flowing under similar hydrodynamic parameters. Using simulations we identify a critical value of the Reynolds number for cavitation inception that scales inversely with the order parameter of the fluid. Strikingly, the critical Reynolds number for anisotropic fluids can be 50% lower than that of isotropic fluids.
Cyclotron motion of a charged particle with anisotropic mass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciftja, Orion; Livingston, Victoria; Thomas, Elsa
2017-05-01
The cyclotron motion of a charged particle subject to a uniform magnetic field is thoroughly described in many classical physics textbooks. Although the assumption of a particle with isotropic mass is taken for granted in classical physics, a key concept in condensed matter physics is that of particles with an effective anisotropic mass, such as electrons in the context of band structure studies of solids. Since some exposure to the concept of anisotropic mass is important within the framework of classical physics, here we consider the cyclotron motion of a charged particle with anisotropic mass in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. The exact solution of this problem exposes a broad audience of readers to concepts in condensed matter physics that are rarely mentioned within the framework of classical physics. Key ideas on the topic are illustrated in a pedagogical way by considering specific examples that show how an anisotropic mass modifies the cyclotron motion of a charged particle.
Variational bounds on the effective moduli of anisotropic composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milton, Graeme W.; Kohn, Robert V.
THE VRITIONAL inequalities of Hashin and Shtrikman are transformed to a simple and concise form. They are used to bound the effective conductivity tensor σ∗ of an anisotropic composite made from an arbitrary number of possibly anisotropic phases, and to bound the effective elasticity tensor C∗ of an anisotropic mixture of two well-ordered isotropic materials. The bounds depend on the conductivities and elastic moduli of the components and their respective volume fractions. When the components are isotropic the conductivity bounds, which constrain the eigenvalues of σ∗, include those previously obtained by Hashin and Shtrikman, Murat and Tartar, and Lurie and Cherkaev. Our approach can also be used in the context of linear elasticity to derive bounds on C∗ for composites comprised of an arbitrary number of anisotropic phases. For two-component composites our bounds are tighter than those obtained by Kantor and Bergman and by Francfort and Murat, and are attained by sequentially layered laminate materials.
2011-09-30
ocean as it responds to mesoscale forcing. APPROACH Figure 1: MVP system deployed from stern of R/V Endeavor in Sargasso Sea . My approach for...therefore requires integrative efforts with other sea -going investigators and numerical modelers. The Lateral Mixing Experiment project was an ideal...also participated in the sea -going part of this project, taking my group on the R/V Endeavor in June 2011. Our role was to sample around the center of
Schwarz alternating methods for anisotropic problems with prolate spheroid boundaries.
Dai, Zhenlong; Du, Qikui; Liu, Baoqing
2016-01-01
The Schwarz alternating algorithm, which is based on natural boundary element method, is constructed for solving the exterior anisotropic problem in the three-dimension domain. The anisotropic problem is transformed into harmonic problem by using the coordinate transformation. Correspondingly, the algorithm is also changed. Continually, we analysis the convergence and the error estimate of the algorithm. Meanwhile, we give the contraction factor for the convergence. Finally, some numerical examples are computed to show the efficiency of this algorithm.
On the electrodynamics of Josephson effect in anisotropic superconductors
Mints, R.G.
1989-01-01
Specificities of Josephson effect electrodynamics in anisotropic superconductors are of considerable interest for the study of high temperature superconductors with strongly anisotropic layered structure. In this paper the authors give the calculation for the tunnel Josephson contact of an isolated vortex, the law of dispersion of its low-amplitude oscillations, the critical field H/sub cl/ for the penetration of magnetic flux, and the maximum current across a rectangular contact.
Multi-Material Anisotropic Friction Wheels for Omnidirectional Ground Vehicles
2010-10-01
Multi-material Anisotropic Friction Wheels for Omnidirectional Ground Vehicles Genya Ishigami*1, Jim Overholt*2, Karl Iagnemma*3 *1 Institute...Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 USA Abstract: In this paper, a novel omnidirectional vehicle with anisotropic friction wheels is presented...proposed wheel enables a vehicle to realize omnidirectional motion (i.e. the vehicle can move any direction within the plane—forward, back, or
Anisotropic Bianchi types VIII and IX locally rotationally symmetric cosmologies
Assad, M.J.D.; Soares, I.D.
1983-10-15
We present a class of exact cosmological solutions of Einstein-Maxwell equations, which are anisotropic and spatially homogeneous of Bianchi types VIII and IX, and class IIIb in the Stewart-Ellis classification of locally rotationally symmetric models. If we take the electromagnetic field equal to zero, a class of Bianchi types VIII/IX spatially homogeneous anisotropic cosmological solutions with perfect fluid is obtained.
Cosmic anisotropic doomsday in Bianchi type I universes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cataldo, Mauricio; Cid, Antonella; Labraña, Pedro; Mella, Patricio
2016-11-01
In this paper we study finite time future singularities in anisotropic Bianchi type I models. It is shown that there exist future singularities similar to Big Rip ones (which appear in the framework of phantom Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies). Specifically, in an ellipsoidal anisotropic scenario or in a fully anisotropic scenario, the three directional and average scale factors may diverge at a finite future time, together with energy densities and anisotropic pressures. We call these singularities "Anisotropic Big Rip Singularities." We show that there also exist Bianchi type I models filled with matter, where one or two directional scale factors may diverge. Another type of future anisotropic singularities is shown to be present in vacuum cosmologies, i.e., Kasner spacetimes. These singularities are induced by the shear scalar, which also blows up at a finite time. We call such a singularity "Vacuum Rip." In this case one directional scale factor blows up, while the other two and average scale factors tend to zero.
Production and characterization of anisotropic particles from biodegradable materials.
Romanski, Francis S; Winkler, Jennifer S; Riccobene, Ryan C; Tomassone, M Silvina
2012-02-28
In recent years, production and characterization of anisotropic particles has become of interest in a wide range of scientific fields including polymer chemistry, drug delivery, electronics, energy, and nanotechnology. In this work, we demonstrate a novel formulation for production of anisotropic particles via an internal phase separation of biodegradable components. Specifically, binary mixtures of biodegradable polymers poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), polycaprolactone, and biodegradable lipid Precirol (glyceryl palmitostearate) were dissolved in dichloromethane, emulsified, and prepared into anisotropic particles using a modified solvent evaporation technique. During the slow evaporation process the components self-assembled into anisotropic particles with distinct morphologies. Polymer/polymer formulations resulted in compartmentalized anisotropic heterodimer particles, while polymer/lipid combinations yielded "ice cream cone" shaped particles. It was found that addition of certain active pharmaceuticals resulted in an altered, pox-like segregation at the particle surface of polymer/polymer formulations. The anisotropic nature of the particles was subsequently characterized using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, zeta potential, electrophoresis, and X-ray diffraction. Successful formulations presented here may potentially be employed as multicompartmental drug carriers with staggered drug release rates or alternatively as a colloidal excipient for an arsenal of pharmaceutical applications.
Enhanced Raman Scattering on In-plane Anisotropic Layered Materials
Liang, Liangbo; Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G.; ...
2015-11-19
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on two-dimensional (2D) layered materials has provided a unique platform to study the chemical mechanism (CM) of the enhancement due to its natural separation from electromagnetic enhancement. The CM stems from the basic charge interactions between the substrate and molecules. Despite the extensive studies of the energy alignment between 2D materials and molecules, an understanding of how the electronic properties of the substrate are explicitly involved in the charge interaction is still unclear. Lately, a new group of 2D layered materials with anisotropic structure, including orthorhombic black phosphorus (BP) and triclinic rhenium disulphide (ReS2), has attractedmore » great interest due to their unique anisotropic electrical and optical properties. Herein, we report a unique anisotropic Raman enhancement on few-layered BP and ReS2 using copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules as a Raman probe, which is absent on isotropic graphene and h-BN. According to detailed Raman tensor analysis and density functional theory calculations, anisotropic charge interactions due to the anisotropic carrier mobilities of the 2D materials are responsible for the angular dependence of the Raman enhancement. Our findings not only provide new insights into the CM process in SERS, but also open up new avenues for the exploration and application of the electronic properties of anisotropic 2D layered materials.« less
Anisotropic reinforcement of acute anteroapical infarcts improves pump function.
Fomovsky, Gregory M; Clark, Samantha A; Parker, Katherine M; Ailawadi, Gorav; Holmes, Jeffrey W
2012-07-01
We hypothesize that a therapy that improves left ventricular (LV) pump function early after infarction should decrease the need for compensation through sympathetic activation and dilation, thereby reducing the risk of developing heart failure. The mechanical properties of healing myocardial infarcts are an important determinant of LV function, yet improving function by altering infarct properties has proven unexpectedly difficult. Using a computational model, we recently predicted that stiffening a large anterior infarct anisotropically (in only one direction) would improve LV function, whereas isotropic stiffening, the focus of previous studies and therapies, would not. The goal of this study was to test the novel strategy of anisotropic infarct reinforcement. We tested the effects of anisotropic infarct reinforcement in 10 open-chest dogs with large anteroapical infarcts that depressed LV pump function. We measured regional mechanics, LV volumes, and cardiac output at a range of preloads at baseline, 45 minutes after coronary ligation (ischemia), and 30 minutes later, after surgical reinforcement in the longitudinal direction (anisotropic). Ischemia shifted the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship and cardiac output curves rightward, decreasing cardiac output at matched end-diastolic pressure by 44%. Anisotropic reinforcement significantly improved systolic function without impairing diastolic function, recovering half the deficit in overall LV function. We conclude that anisotropic reinforcement is a promising new approach to improving LV function after a large myocardial infarction.
Enhanced Raman Scattering on In-plane Anisotropic Layered Materials
Liang, Liangbo; Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Ling, Xi; Lin, Jingjing; Zhang, Shuqing; Mao, Nannan; Zhang, Na; Tong, Lianming; Zhang, Jin
2015-11-19
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on two-dimensional (2D) layered materials has provided a unique platform to study the chemical mechanism (CM) of the enhancement due to its natural separation from electromagnetic enhancement. The CM stems from the basic charge interactions between the substrate and molecules. Despite the extensive studies of the energy alignment between 2D materials and molecules, an understanding of how the electronic properties of the substrate are explicitly involved in the charge interaction is still unclear. Lately, a new group of 2D layered materials with anisotropic structure, including orthorhombic black phosphorus (BP) and triclinic rhenium disulphide (ReS2), has attracted great interest due to their unique anisotropic electrical and optical properties. Herein, we report a unique anisotropic Raman enhancement on few-layered BP and ReS2 using copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules as a Raman probe, which is absent on isotropic graphene and h-BN. According to detailed Raman tensor analysis and density functional theory calculations, anisotropic charge interactions due to the anisotropic carrier mobilities of the 2D materials are responsible for the angular dependence of the Raman enhancement. Our findings not only provide new insights into the CM process in SERS, but also open up new avenues for the exploration and application of the electronic properties of anisotropic 2D layered materials.
Anisotropic emission of neutral atoms: evidence of an anisotropic Rydberg sheath in nanoplasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajeev, R.; Madhu Trivikram, T.; Rishad, K. P. M.; Krishnamurthy, M.
2015-02-01
Intense laser-produced plasma is a complex amalgam of ions, electrons and atoms both in ground and excited states. Little is known about the spatial composition of the excited states that are an integral part of most gaseous or cluster plasma. In cluster-plasma, Rydberg excitations change the charge composition of the ions through charge transfer reactions and shape the angular distributions. Here, we demonstrate a non-invasive technique that reveals the anisotropic Rydberg excited cluster sheath by measuring anisotropy in fast neutral atoms. The sheath is stronger in the direction of light polarization and the enhanced charge transfer by the excited clusters results in larger neutralization.
Anisotropic lattice distortions in biogenic aragonite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pokroy, Boaz; Quintana, John P.; Caspi, El'ad N.; Berner, Alex; Zolotoyabko, Emil
2004-12-01
Composite biogenic materials produced by organisms have a complicated design on a nanometre scale. An outstanding example of organic-inorganic composites is provided by mollusc seashells, whose superior mechanical properties are due to their multi-level crystalline hierarchy and the presence of a small amount (0.1-5 wt%) of organic molecules. The presence of organic molecules, among other characteristics, can influence the coherence length for X-ray scattering in biogenic crystals. Here we show the results of synchrotron high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction measurements in biogenic and non-biogenic (geological) aragonite crystals. On applying the Rietveld refinement procedure to the high-resolution diffraction spectra, we were able to extract the aragonite lattice parameters with an accuracy of 10 p.p.m. As a result, we found anisotropic lattice distortions in biogenic aragonite relative to the geological sample, maximum distortion being 0.1% along the c axis of the orthorhombic unit cell. The organic molecules could be a source of these structural distortions in biogenic crystals. This finding may be important to the general understanding of the biomineralization process and the development of bio-inspired 'smart' materials.
Ductile Fracture Initiation of Anisotropic Metal Sheets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Liang; Li, Shuhui; He, Ji
2017-07-01
The objective of this research is to investigate the influence of material plastic anisotropy on ductile fracture in the strain space under the assumption of plane stress state for sheet metals. For convenient application, a simple expression is formulated by the method of total strain theory under the assumption of proportional loading. The Hill 1948 quadratic anisotropic yield model and isotropic hardening flow rule are adopted to describe the plastic response of the material. The Mohr-Coulomb model is revisited to describe the ductile fracture in the stress space. Besides, the fracture locus for DP590 in different loading directions is obtained by experiments. Four different types of tensile test specimens, including classical dog bone, flat with cutouts, flat with center holes and pure shear, are performed to fracture. All these specimens are prepared with their longitudinal axis inclined with the angle of 0°, 45°, and 90° to the rolling direction, respectively. A 3D digital image correlation system is used in this study to measure the anisotropy parameter r 0, r 45, r 90 and the equivalent strains to fracture for all the tests. The results show that the material plastic anisotropy has a remarkable influence on the fracture locus in the strain space and can be predicted accurately by the simple expression proposed in this study.
Details of tetrahedral anisotropic mesh adaptation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjerg; Gorman, Gerard
2016-04-01
We have implemented tetrahedral anisotropic mesh adaptation using the local operations of coarsening, swapping, refinement and smoothing in MATLAB without the use of any for- N loops, i.e. the script is fully vectorised. In the process of doing so, we have made three observations related to details of the implementation: 1. restricting refinement to a single edge split per element not only simplifies the code, it also improves mesh quality, 2. face to edge swapping is unnecessary, and 3. optimising for the Vassilevski functional tends to give a little higher value for the mean condition number functional than optimising for the condition number functional directly. These observations have been made for a uniform and a radial shock metric field, both starting from a structured mesh in a cube. Finally, we compare two coarsening techniques and demonstrate the importance of applying smoothing in the mesh adaptation loop. The results pertain to a unit cube geometry, but we also show the effect of corners and edges by applying the implementation in a spherical geometry.
Thermoelectric Figure of Merit in Anisotropic Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bies, W.; Radtke, R. J.; Ehrenreich, H.
1998-03-01
General expressions for the electrical conductivity, thermopower, and electronic thermal conductivity are derived for anisotropic materials including their full tensorial character and properly treating the effects of the sample boundaries. The thermoelectric figure of merit ZT constructed from these quantities is proved to be maximal only when the electric field (in thermoelectric coolers) or thermal gradient (in power generators) is applied along the direction of highest conductivity. Fields applied along directions for which the conductivity tensor is non-diagonal induce transverse electric fields and thermal gradients which may be larger in magnitude than the applied fields. These fields reduce ZT below that expected from anisotropy alone. Numerical results are presented for bulk n-type Bi_2Te3 and quantum well and quantum wire geometries using semiclassical transport theory in the effective mass and relaxation time approximations. The effects of multi-valley conduction and confinement-induced splitting of the valley degeneracy are included. Surprisingly, this model predicts generally that the thermopower and hence ZT are independent of the direction of the applied fields in the limit of vanishing lattice thermal conductivity.
Anisotropic Expansion of the Black Hole Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Tianxi
2009-01-01
Recently, Zhang proposed a new cosmological model called black hole universe. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and grew up through a supermassive black hole with billion solar masses to the present state of temperature and density with hundred billion-trillion solar masses due to continuously inhaling matter from its outside. The structure of the entire space is similarly hierarchical or layered and the evolution is iterative. In each of iteration a universe passes through birth, growth, and death. The entire life of a universe roughly divides into three periods with different rates of expansion: slowly growing child universe, fast expanding adult universe, and gradually dying aged universe. When one universe expands to die out, a new universe grows up from its inside. On the AAS 211th meeting, the black hole universe model was shown to be consistent with Mach's principle, observations, and Einstein's general relativity. This new cosmological model can explain the cosmic microwave background radiation, quasars, and element abundances with the well-developed physics. Dark energy is not required for the universe to accelerate. Inflation is not necessary because the black hole universe does not have the horizon problem. In this presentation, the author will explain why the expansion of the universe is anisotropic as shown by the observed anisotropy of the Hubble constant. He will also compare the significant differences between the black hole universe and the big bang cosmology.
Polar motion under anisotropic random load
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsurkis, I. Ya.; Kuchai, M. S.; Sinyukhina, S. V.
2014-01-01
The probabilistic approach to the description of the Chandler wobble is expanded to the case of anisotropic random load. The polar motion is treated as a two-dimensional (2D) Markov process—the solution of the Liouville equation—with discrete time. It is shown that with a sufficiently large time step Δ, the polar motion can be considered as an isotropic process irrespective of the particular ratio between the eigenvalues of the diffusion matrix, which characterizes the right-hand side of this equation (random load). The problem of reaching the boundary of the domain [ E min, E max] by the energy of the pole E( t) = x {1/2}+ x {2/2} is considered. With a time step Δ of 1 year and the length of the time series of the observations N = 150, the correction for anisotropy to the total probability P* of a drop by a factor of five in the amplitude of the Chandler wobble A = √ E does not exceed 10-2, and the probability P* is above 0.3 (if the Q-factor of the mantle is below 500). Thus, it is demonstrated that the observed variations in amplitude A( t) can be explained in the context of the probabilistic approach without hypothesizing the isotropy of the random load.
Anisotropic multicluster model in light nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gijón, A.; Gálvez, F. J.; Arias de Saavedra, F.; Buendía, E.
2016-06-01
Multicluster models consider that the nucleons can be moving around different centers in the nuclei. These models have been widely used to describe light nuclei but always considering that the mean field is composed of isotropic harmonic oscillators with different centers. In this work, we propose an extension of these models by using anisotropic harmonic oscillators. The strengths of these oscillators, the distance among the different centers and the disposition of the nucleons inside every cluster are free parameters which have been fixed using the variational criterion. All the one-body and two-body matrix elements have been analytically calculated. Only a numerical integration on the Euler angles is needed to carry out the projection on the values of the total spin of the state and its third component. We have studied the ground state and the first excited states of 8Be, 12C and 10Be getting good results for the energies. The disposition of the nucleons in the different clusters have also been analyzed by using projection on the different Cartesian planes getting much more information than when the radial one-body density is used.
Broadband polarization conversion with anisotropic plasmonic metasurfaces.
Cao, Wei; Yang, Xiaodong; Gao, Jie
2017-08-18
Metasurfaces offer exciting opportunities that enable precise control of light propagation, optical intensity, phase and polarization. Plasmonic metasurface based quarter-wave plates have been recently studied to realize the conversion between linear polarization and circular polarization. However, it is still quite challenging to directly measure the birefringent phase retardation introduced by metasurface wave plates with a reliable technique. Here, we report a high-performance broadband metasurface quarter-wave plate made of anisotropic T-shaped plasmonic antennas in near-infrared wavelength range, where the achromatic nearly 90° transmitted phase retardation through the metasurface is precisely characterized with an optical vortex based interferometric approach. Based on the measured transmission amplitude and phase of two orthogonal linear polarization components, nearly unit degree of linear polarization is extracted from the Stokes parameters, indicating excellent broadband polarization conversion between linearly and circularly polarized light through the metasurface. Our results will be an important step forward in the advancement of integrated metasurface devices for polarization conversion and beam manipulation, structured light control, as well as new spectroscopic and interferometric techniques for metasurface characterization.
Entanglement in the Anisotropic Kondo Necklace Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mendoza-Arenas, J. J.; Franco, R.; Silva-Valencia, J.
We study the entanglement in the one-dimensional Kondo necklace model with exact diagonalization, calculating the concurrence as a function of the Kondo coupling J and an anisotropy η in the interaction between conduction spins, and we review some results previously obtained in the limiting cases η = 0 and 1. We observe that as J increases, localized and conduction spins get more entangled, while neighboring conduction spins diminish their concurrence; localized spins require a minimum concurrence between conduction spins to be entangled. The anisotropy η diminishes the entanglement for neighboring spins when it increases, driving the system to the Ising limit η = 1 where conduction spins are not entangled. We observe that the concurrence does not give information about the quantum phase transition in the anisotropic Kondo necklace model (between a Kondo singlet and an antiferromagnetic state), but calculating the von Neumann block entropy with the density matrix renormalization group in a chain of 100 sites for the Ising limit indicates that this quantity is useful for locating the quantum critical point.
Zonal flows in tokamaks with anisotropic pressure
Ren, Haijun
2014-04-15
Zonal flows (ZFs) in a tokamak plasma with anisotropic pressure are investigated. The dynamics of perpendicular and parallel pressures are determined by the Chew-Goldberger-Low double equations and low-β condition is adopted, where β is the ratio of plasma pressure to the magnetic field pressure. The dispersion relation is analytically derived and illustrates two branches of ZFs. The low frequency zonal flow (LFZF) branch becomes unstable when χ, the ratio of the perpendicular pressure to the parallel one, is greater than a threshold value χ{sub c}, which is about 3.8. In the stable region, its frequency increases first and then decreases with increasing χ. For χ = 1, the frequency of LFZF agrees well with the experimental observation. For the instability, the growth rate of LFZF increases with χ. The geodesic acoustic mode branch is shown to be always stable with a frequency increasing with χ. The safety factor is shown to diminish the frequencies of both branches or the growth rate of LFZF.
Minkowski tensors of anisotropic spatial structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schröder-Turk, G. E.; Mickel, W.; Kapfer, S. C.; Schaller, F. M.; Breidenbach, B.; Hug, D.; Mecke, K.
2013-08-01
This paper describes the theoretical foundation of and explicit algorithms for a novel approach to morphology and anisotropy analysis of complex spatial structure using tensor-valued Minkowski functionals, the so-called Minkowski tensors. Minkowski tensors are generalizations of the well-known scalar Minkowski functionals and are explicitly sensitive to anisotropic aspects of morphology, relevant for example for elastic moduli or permeability of microstructured materials. Here we derive explicit linear-time algorithms to compute these tensorial measures for three-dimensional shapes. These apply to representations of any object that can be represented by a triangulation of its bounding surface; their application is illustrated for the polyhedral Voronoi cellular complexes of jammed sphere configurations and for triangulations of a biopolymer fibre network obtained by confocal microscopy. The paper further bridges the substantial notational and conceptual gap between the different but equivalent approaches to scalar or tensorial Minkowski functionals in mathematics and in physics, hence making the mathematical measure theoretic formalism more readily accessible for future application in the physical sciences.
Singularity-free anisotropic strange quintessence star
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhar, Piyali
2015-04-01
Present paper provides a new model of anisotropic strange star corresponding to the exterior Schwarzschild metric. The Einstein field equations have been solved by utilizing the Krori-Barua (KB) ansatz (Krori and Barua in J. Phys. A, Math. Gen. 8:508, 1975) in presence of quintessence field characterized by a parameter ω q with . The obtained solutions are free from central singularity. Our model is potentially stable. The numerical values of mass of the different strange stars SAXJ1808.4-3658(SS1) (radius=7.07 km), 4U1820-30 (radius=10 km), Vela X-12 (radius=9.99 km), PSR J 1614-2230 (radius=10.3 km) obtained from our model is very close to the observational data that confirms the validity of our proposed model. The interior solution is also matched to the exterior Schwarzschild spacetime in presence of thin shell where negative surface pressure is required to hold the thin shell against collapsing.
Anisotropic universe with magnetized dark energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goswami, G. K.; Dewangan, R. N.; Yadav, Anil Kumar
2016-04-01
In the present work we have searched the existence of the late time acceleration of the Universe filled with cosmic fluid and uniform magnetic field as source of matter in anisotropic Heckmann-Schucking space-time. The observed acceleration of universe has been explained by introducing a positive cosmological constant Λ in the Einstein's field equation which is mathematically equivalent to vacuum energy with equation of state (EOS) parameter set equal to -1. The present values of the matter and the dark energy parameters (Ωm)0 & (Ω_{Λ})0 are estimated in view of the latest 287 high red shift (0.3 ≤ z ≤1.4) SN Ia supernova data's of observed apparent magnitude along with their possible error taken from Union 2.1 compilation. It is found that the best fit value for (Ωm)0 & (Ω_{Λ})0 are 0.2820 & 0.7177 respectively which are in good agreement with recent astrophysical observations in the latest surveys like WMAP [2001-2013], Planck [latest 2015] & BOSS. Various physical parameters such as the matter and dark energy densities, the present age of the universe and deceleration parameter have been obtained on the basis of the values of (Ωm)0 & (Ω_{Λ})0. Also we have estimated that the acceleration would have begun in the past at z = 0.71131 ˜6.2334 Gyrs before from present.
Colloidal aggregation and dynamics in anisotropic fluids
Mondiot, Frédéric; Botet, Robert; Snabre, Patrick; Mondain-Monval, Olivier; Loudet, Jean-Christophe
2014-01-01
We present experiments and numerical simulations to investigate the collective behavior of submicrometer-sized particles immersed in a nematic micellar solution. We use latex spheres with diameters ranging from 190 to 780 nm and study their aggregation properties due to the interplay of the various colloidal forces at work in the system. We found that the morphology of aggregates strongly depends on the particle size, with evidence for two distinct regimes: the biggest inclusions clump together within minutes into either compact clusters or V-like structures that are completely consistent with attractive elastic interactions. On the contrary, the smallest particles form chains elongated along the nematic axis, within comparable timescales. In this regime, Monte Carlo simulations, based on a modified diffusion-limited cluster aggregation model, strongly suggest that the anisotropic rotational Brownian motion of the clusters combined with short-range depletion interactions dominate the system coarsening; elastic interactions no longer prevail. The simulations reproduce the sharp transition between the two regimes on increasing the particle size. We provide reasonable estimates to interpret our data and propose a likely scenario for colloidal aggregation. These results emphasize the growing importance of the diffusion of species at suboptical-wavelength scales and raise a number of fundamental issues. PMID:24715727
P wave anisotropic tomography of the Alps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hua, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Dapeng; Xu, Yixian
2017-06-01
The first tomographic images of P wave azimuthal and radial anisotropies in the crust and upper mantle beneath the Alps are determined by joint inversions of arrival time data of local earthquakes and teleseismic events. Our results show the south dipping European plate with a high-velocity (high-V) anomaly beneath the western central Alps and the north dipping Adriatic plate with a high-V anomaly beneath the Eastern Alps, indicating that the subduction polarity changes along the strike of the Alps. The P wave azimuthal anisotropy is characterized by mountain chain-parallel fast-velocity directions (FVDs) in the western central Alps and NE-SW FVDs in the Eastern Alps, which may be caused by mantle flow induced by the slab subductions. Our results reveal a negative radial anisotropy (i.e., Vph < Vpv) within the subducting slabs and a positive radial anisotropy (i.e., Vph > Vpv) in the low-velocity mantle wedge, which may reflect the subvertical plate subduction and its induced mantle flow. The results of anisotropic tomography provide important new information on the complex mantle structure and dynamics of the Alps and adjacent regions.
Anisotropic reflectance from turbid media. I. Theory.
Neuman, Magnus; Edström, Per
2010-05-01
It is shown that the intensity of light reflected from plane-parallel turbid media is anisotropic in all situations encountered in practice. The anisotropy, in the form of higher intensity at large polar angles, increases when the amount of near-surface bulk scattering is increased, which dominates in optically thin and highly absorbing media. The only situation with isotropic intensity is when a non-absorbing infinitely thick medium is illuminated diffusely. This is the only case where the Kubelka-Munk model gives exact results and there exists an exact translation between Kubelka-Munk and general radiative transfer. This also means that a bulk scattering perfect diffusor does not exist. Angle-resolved models are thus crucial for a correct understanding of light scattering in turbid media. The results are derived using simulations and analytical calculations. It is also shown that there exists an optimal angle for directional detection that minimizes the error introduced when using the Kubelka-Munk model to interpret reflectance measurements with diffuse illumination.
Zonal flows in tokamaks with anisotropic pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Haijun
2014-04-01
Zonal flows (ZFs) in a tokamak plasma with anisotropic pressure are investigated. The dynamics of perpendicular and parallel pressures are determined by the Chew-Goldberger-Low double equations and low-β condition is adopted, where β is the ratio of plasma pressure to the magnetic field pressure. The dispersion relation is analytically derived and illustrates two branches of ZFs. The low frequency zonal flow (LFZF) branch becomes unstable when χ, the ratio of the perpendicular pressure to the parallel one, is greater than a threshold value χc, which is about 3.8. In the stable region, its frequency increases first and then decreases with increasing χ. For χ = 1, the frequency of LFZF agrees well with the experimental observation. For the instability, the growth rate of LFZF increases with χ. The geodesic acoustic mode branch is shown to be always stable with a frequency increasing with χ. The safety factor is shown to diminish the frequencies of both branches or the growth rate of LFZF.
Anisotropic damage effects in masonry walls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Massart, T.; Bouillard, P.; Geers, M. G. D.; Peerlings, R. H. J.
2003-03-01
This paper refers to the characterization of plane masonry behaviour under the assumption of plane stress. Masonry may be seen as a two-phase (bricks and mortar) periodic anisotropic material with complex macroscopic behaviour due to the possible occurrence of cracking in each of the phases. Non-linear constitutive equations have thus to be used in order to realistically represent masonry structures. Most existing macroscopic models defined for such materials are by essence phenomenological. This leads to weakly motivated frameworks and rather complex models, especially if one wants to account for material symmetry evolution due to cracking. The aim of this paper is to identify a simple set of damage mechanics variables for the constituents that could be used in homogenization procedures to infer the overall behaviour of the material from its mesostructural features (geometrical arrangement and mechanical properties of the constituents). Based on unit cell computations, it is shown that scalar damage mesomodels allow to obtain realistic damage patterns encountered in experiments. Results suggest that at the meso-scale, it is possible to use a scalar damage model for the individual phases which naturally leads to the desired anisotropy evolution into the macroscopic descriptions. This macroscopic anisotropy evolution is illustrated using a numerical homogenization procedure to identify the degraded stiffness associated to damage patterns. The influence of variations in the constituent characteristics is also correctly captured as illustrated for some of the loading schemes.
Coefficient adaptive triangulation for strongly anisotropic problems
D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.; Donato, J.M.
1996-01-01
Second order elliptic partial differential equations arise in many important applications, including flow through porous media, heat conduction, the distribution of electrical or magnetic potential. The prototype is the Laplace problem, which in discrete form produces a coefficient matrix that is relatively easy to solve in a regular domain. However, the presence of anisotropy produces a matrix whose condition number is increased, making the resulting linear system more difficult to solve. In this work, we take the anisotropy into account in the discretization by mapping each anisotropic region into a ``stretched`` coordinate space in which the anisotropy is removed. The region is then uniformly triangulated, and the resulting triangulation mapped back to the original space. The effect is to generate long slender triangles that are oriented in the direction of ``preferred flow.`` Slender triangles are generally regarded as numerically undesirable since they tend to cause poor conditioning; however, our triangulation has the effect of producing effective isotropy, thus improving the condition number of the resulting coefficient matrix.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Günay, Mehmet; Hakioğlu, Tuğrul; Hüseyin Sömek, Hasan
2017-03-01
In noncentrosymmetric superconductors (NCSs), the inversion symmetry (IS) is most commonly broken by an antisymmetric spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Removing the spin degeneracy and splitting the Fermi surface (FS) into two branches. A two component condensate is then produced mixing an even singlet and an odd triplet. When the triplet and the singlet strengths are comparable, the pair potential can have rich nodes. The angular line nodes (ALNs) are associated with the point group symmetries of the anisotropic lattice structure and they are widely studied in the literature. When the anisotropy is weak, other types of nodes can be present which then affect differently the low temperature properties. Here, we focus on the weakly anisotropic NCSs and the line nodes which survive in the limit of full isotropy. We study the topology of these radial line nodes (RLNs) and show that it is characterized by the Z2 index similar to the quantum-spin-Hall Insulators. From the thermodynamic perspective, the RLNs cause, even in the topological phases, an exponentially suppressed low temperature behaviour which can be mistaken by nodeless s-wave pairing, thus, providing an explanation to a number of recent experiments with contraversial pairing symmetries. In the rare case when the RLN is on the Fermi surface, the exponential suppression is replaced by a linear temperature dependence. The RLNs are difficult to detect, and for this reason, they may have escaped experimental attention. We demonstrate that Andreev conductance measurements with clean interfaces can efficiently identify the weakly anisotropic (WA) conditions where the RLNs are expected to be found.
A local anisotropic adaptive algorithm for the solution of low-Mach transient combustion problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carpio, Jaime; Prieto, Juan Luis; Vera, Marcos
2016-02-01
A novel numerical algorithm for the simulation of transient combustion problems at low Mach and moderately high Reynolds numbers is presented. These problems are often characterized by the existence of a large disparity of length and time scales, resulting in the development of directional flow features, such as slender jets, boundary layers, mixing layers, or flame fronts. This makes local anisotropic adaptive techniques quite advantageous computationally. In this work we propose a local anisotropic refinement algorithm using, for the spatial discretization, unstructured triangular elements in a finite element framework. For the time integration, the problem is formulated in the context of semi-Lagrangian schemes, introducing the semi-Lagrange-Galerkin (SLG) technique as a better alternative to the classical semi-Lagrangian (SL) interpolation. The good performance of the numerical algorithm is illustrated by solving a canonical laminar combustion problem: the flame/vortex interaction. First, a premixed methane-air flame/vortex interaction with simplified transport and chemistry description (Test I) is considered. Results are found to be in excellent agreement with those in the literature, proving the superior performance of the SLG scheme when compared with the classical SL technique, and the advantage of using anisotropic adaptation instead of uniform meshes or isotropic mesh refinement. As a more realistic example, we then conduct simulations of non-premixed hydrogen-air flame/vortex interactions (Test II) using a more complex combustion model which involves state-of-the-art transport and chemical kinetics. In addition to the analysis of the numerical features, this second example allows us to perform a satisfactory comparison with experimental visualizations taken from the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kundin, Julia; Ajmal Choudhary, Muhammad
2017-07-01
In this article, we present the recent advances in the development of the anisotropic phase-field crystal (APFC) model. These advances are important in basic researches for multiferroic and thermoelectric materials with anisotropic crystal lattices and in thin-film applications. We start by providing a general description of the model derived in our previous studies based on the crystal symmetry and the microscopic dynamical density functional theory for anisotropic interactions and show that there exist only two possible degrees of freedom for the anisotropic lattices which are described by two independent parameters. New findings concerning the applications of the APFC model for the estimation of the elastic modules of anisotropic systems including sheared and stretched lattices as well as for the investigation of the heterogeneous thin film growth are described. The simulation results demonstrate the strong dependency of the misfit dislocation formation during the film growth on the anisotropy and reveal the asymmetric behavior in the cases of positive and negative misfits. We also present the development of the amplitude representation for the full APFC model of two orientation variants and show the relationship between the wave vectors and the base angles of the anisotropic lattices.
Fracture Interface Waves in an Anisotropic Medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.; Shao, S.; Abell, B.
2011-12-01
The detection of fractures in an anisotropic medium is complicated by discreet modes that are guided or confined by fractures and that travel with velocities close (~92%) to the shear wave velocity. For instance, fractures can mask the presence of textural anisotropy in a rock, and can increase the apparent shear wave velocity anisotropy. In this study, we examine how fracture interface waves affect the interpretation of shear wave velocities for two orthogonal polarizations propagating parallel to the layers. Samples with textural anisotropy measuring 100 x 100 x 100 mm were fabricated from garolite, an epoxy - cloth laminate, with layer thickness on the order of 0.5 mm. Three fracture samples were created with: (1) a fracture oriented parallel to layering, (2) a fracture oriented perpendicular to layering, and (3) two intersecting orthogonal fractures. An intact sample without fractures was used a standard. A seismic array, consisting of source and receiver arrays, was used to perform full waveform measurements. Each array contained two compressional and five shear wave piezoelectric contact transducers with a central frequency of 1 MHz. Shear wave transducers were polarized both perpendicular and parallel to the layering as well as to the fracture. Measurements were made for a range of stresses (0.4 - 4MPa). When the shear wave was polarized parallel to a fracture, the shear wave traveled at the bulk shear velocity respective to the layering. However, when the shear wave was polarized perpendicular to a fracture, the measured velocity ranged between the Rayleigh wave velocity at low stress and the bulk shear wave at high stress. The shear wave velocities perpendicular and parallel to the layering (propagation direction parallel to the layers) were ~1500 m/s and ~1600 m/s, respectively, in the intact sample. However, in the fractured samples, the observed shear wave anisotropy depended on the stress and fracture orientation relative to the layering. When the
PIV anisotropic denoising using uncertainty quantification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wieneke, B.
2017-08-01
Recently, progress has been made to reliably compute uncertainty estimates for each velocity vector in planar flow fields measured with 2D-or stereo-PIV. This information can be used for a post-processing denoising scheme to reduce errors by a spatial averaging scheme preserving true flow fluctuations. Starting with a 5 × 5 vector kernel, a second-order 2D-polynomial function is fitted to the flow field. Vectors just outside will be included in the filter kernel if they lie within the uncertainty band around the fitted function. Repeating this procedure, vectors are added in all directions until the true flow field can no longer be approximated by the second-order polynomial function. The center vector is then replaced by the value of the fitted function. The final shape and size of the filter kernel automatically adjusts to local flow gradients in an optimal way preserving true velocity fluctuations above the noise level. This anisotropic denoising scheme is validated first on synthetic vector fields varying spatial wavelengths of the flow field and noise levels relative to the fluctuation amplitude. For wavelengths larger than 5-7 times the spatial resolution, a noise reduction factor of 2-4 is achieved significantly increasing the velocity dynamic range. For large noise levels above 50% of the flow fluctuation, the denoising scheme can no longer distinguish between true flow fluctuations and noise. Finally, it is shown that the procedure performs well for typical experimental PIV vector fields. It provides an effective alternative to more complicated adaptive PIV algorithms optimizing interrogation window sizes and shapes based on seeding density, local flow gradients, and other criteria.
Anisotropic surface chemistry of crystalline pharmaceutical solids.
Heng, Jerry Y Y; Bismarck, Alexander; Williams, Daryl R
2006-10-06
The purpose of this study was to establish the link between the wetting behavior of crystalline pharmaceutical solids and the localized surface chemistry. A range of conventional wetting techniques were evaluated and compared with a novel experimental approach: sessile drop contact angle measurements on the individual facets of macroscopic (>1 cm) single crystals. Conventional measurement techniques for determining surface energetics such as capillary rise and sessile drops on powder compacts were found not to provide reliable results. When the macroscopic crystal approach was used, major differences for advancing contact angles, theta(a), of water were observed-as low as 16 degrees on facet (001) and as high as 68 degrees on facet (010) of form I paracetamol. theta(a) trends were in excellent agreement with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy surface composition and known crystallographic structures, suggesting a direct relationship to the local surface chemistry. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) was further used to probe the surface properties of milled and unmilled samples, as a function of particle size. IGC experiments confirmed that milling exposes the weakest attachment energy facet, with increasing dominance as particle size is reduced. The weakest attachment energy facet was also found to exhibit the highest theta(a) for water and to be the most hydrophobic facet. This anisotropic wetting behavior was established for a range of crystalline systems: paracetamol polymorphs, aspirin, and ibuprofen racemates. theta(a) was found to be very sensitive to the local surface chemistry. It is proposed that the hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of facets reflects the presence of functional groups at surfaces to form hydrogen bonds with external molecules.
MOSSFRAC: An anisotropic 3D fracture model
Moss, W C; Levatin, J L
2006-08-14
Despite the intense effort for nearly half a century to construct detailed numerical models of plastic flow and plastic damage accumulation, models for describing fracture, an equally important damage mechanism still cannot describe basic fracture phenomena. Typical fracture models set the stress tensor to zero for tensile fracture and set the deviatoric stress tensor to zero for compressive fracture. One consequence is that the simple case of the tensile fracture of a cylinder under combined compressive radial and tensile axial loads is not modeled correctly. The experimental result is a cylinder that can support compressive radial loads, but no axial load, whereas, the typical numerical result is a cylinder with all stresses equal to zero. This incorrect modeling of fracture locally also has a global effect, because material that is fracturing produces stress release waves, which propagate from the fracture and influence the surrounding material. Consequently, it would be useful to have a model that can describe the stress relief and the resulting anisotropy due to fracture. MOSSFRAC is a material model that simulates three-dimensional tensile and shear fracture in initially isotropic elastic-plastic materials, although its framework is also amenable to initially anisotropic materials. It differs from other models by accounting for the effects of cracks on the constitutive response of the material, so that the previously described experiment, as well as complicated fracture scenarios are simulated more accurately. The model is implemented currently in the LLNL hydrocodes DYNA3D, PARADYN, and ALE3D. The purpose of this technical note is to present a complete qualitative description of the model and quantitative descriptions of salient features.
Bromide (Br-) ion-mediated synthesis of anisotropic palladium nanocrystals by laser ablation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Navas, M. P.; Soni, R. K.
2016-12-01
Anisotropic growth of Pd nanoparticles in bromine (Br) containing solution has been studied by pulsed laser ablation. For size and shape control different solutions like water, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) (anionic surfactant), and (Br-) ion containing cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) (cationic surfactant) and electrolyte (KBr) were used. In laser ablation surrounding liquid plays a dominant role in controlling size and directional growth. Absorption spectra of as-generated Pd nanoparticles undergo modification with time in different solutions due to Br- ion-mediated directional growth. In water and SDS quasi-spherical and spherical Pd nanoparticles with mean size of 14 and 8 nm, respectively, and in CTAB decahedron and icosahedron shape Pd nanocrystals with mean size 65 nm were observed. When strong Br- ion source KBr was used sharp edged cuboid shaped large Pd nanoparticles were observed. Surface energy modification due to preferential chemisorption of Br- ions onto {100} planes of Pd resulted in formation anisotropic Pd nanostructures enclosed with {100} planes. The nanocubes exhibit broad plasmon resonance around 250-280 nm. Further, size of nanocuboids were controlled by using mixed solutions of KBr with SDS and CTAB for tunable plasmon resonance wavelength from 230 to 550 nm.
Spectral element method for band structures of two-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystals.
Luo, Ma; Liu, Qing Huo; Li, Zhibing
2009-02-01
A spectral element method (SEM) is proposed for the accurate calculation of band structures of two-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystals. It uses Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre polynomials as the basis functions in the finite-element framework with curvilinear quadrilateral elements. Coordination mapping is introduced to make the curved quadrilateral elements conformal with the problem geometry. Mixed order basis functions are used in the vector SEM for full vector calculation. The numerical convergence speed of the method is investigated with both square and triangular lattices, and with isotropic and in-plane anisotropic media. It is shown that this method has spectral accuracy, i.e., the numerical error decreases exponentially with the order of basis functions. With only four points per wavelength, the SEM can achieve a numerical error smaller than 0.1%. The full vector calculation method can suppress all spurious modes with nonzero eigenvalues, thus making it easy to filter out real modes. It is thus demonstrated that the SEM is an efficient alternative method for accurate determination of band structures of two-dimensional photonic crystals.
Spectral element method for band structures of two-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Ma; Liu, Qing Huo; Li, Zhibing
2009-02-01
A spectral element method (SEM) is proposed for the accurate calculation of band structures of two-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystals. It uses Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre polynomials as the basis functions in the finite-element framework with curvilinear quadrilateral elements. Coordination mapping is introduced to make the curved quadrilateral elements conformal with the problem geometry. Mixed order basis functions are used in the vector SEM for full vector calculation. The numerical convergence speed of the method is investigated with both square and triangular lattices, and with isotropic and in-plane anisotropic media. It is shown that this method has spectral accuracy, i.e., the numerical error decreases exponentially with the order of basis functions. With only four points per wavelength, the SEM can achieve a numerical error smaller than 0.1%. The full vector calculation method can suppress all spurious modes with nonzero eigenvalues, thus making it easy to filter out real modes. It is thus demonstrated that the SEM is an efficient alternative method for accurate determination of band structures of two-dimensional photonic crystals.
Generation and characterization of anisotropic microstructures in rare earth-iron-boron alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oster, Nathaniel
The automotive industry is currently being directed toward electrification of their fleets. In order to provide these hybrid or electric vehicles, lightweight high torque electric motors are needed. Permanent magnet (PM) brushless motors have been identified as the preferred motors for these applications. In order to effectively provide these motors, cost-effective high strength PMs are needed. The use of polymer bonded PMs is one method to reduce processing costs, but performance is decreased unless anisotropic PMs can be formed. New processing methods to form anisotropic mixed rare earth (MRE)-iron-boron PM particulate were studied in this work. Two primary processing routes were identified and investigated: controlled devitrification through application of uniaxial pressure and rapid directional solidification utilizing a segregating additive. In addition, further control of the melt-spinning process was achieved through control of wheel surface temperature and finish. Controlled devitrification was found to produce an anisotropic, nanocrystalline microstructure, as observed through TEM and XRD studies. A high defect density within the structure, unprecedented in RE2Fe14B microstructures, was observed. It is surmised that the defects cause soft magnetic behavior. Stabilization of a columnar, textured microstructure was achieved through the utilization of moderate wheel speeds during melt-spinning, in combination with minor additions of Ag to the alloy. The texture was seen to be altered from that typically seen in RE2Fe14B alloys melt-spun at low-to-moderate wheel speeds. It was observed that this occurs through a modification in the solidification pathway, catalyzed by the addition of Ag. In addition to the altered texture, the presence of fine precipitates within the matrix and varying interdendritic phases was observed. Alteration of wheel surface temperature and surface finish was seen to have significant effects on the ability to form amorphous material in
Optical correlation using isotropic and anisotropic self diffraction using photorefractive material
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buranasiri, Prathan
For two incident optical beams at different angles of incidence, a photorefractive cerium doped barium titanate crystal can facilitate different configurations of self-diffraction into higher orders. These configurations can be classified as isotropic and anisotropic, co-directional and contra-directional. Sometimes, a higher order resulting from an incident diverging object beam may comprise a converging beam, which then has the property of phase conjugation. Photorefractive fanning plays an important role in all these self-diffraction configurations. In this dissertation, we first explore the first higher order generated by forward three wave mixing. Only one higher order is observed when one of the incident beams is perpendicular to the surface of incidence. Not only the energy transfer via the first order grating has been observed but the energy transfer via the second order grating has been observed as well. With the angle between two incident beams less than 0.015 radians, the second configuration of self-diffraction has been investigated. With this configuration, codirectional isotropic self-diffraction (CODIS) and contradirectional isotropic self diffraction (CONDIS) have been observed. Phase conjugated beams which are responsible for CONDIS are the composite of mutual pumped phase conjugate (MPPC) and self pumped phase conjugate (SPPC). Due to the fanning effect, CONDIS usually forms before CODAS. In general, energy transfer between incident beams and CONDIS and CODIS occurs via first order and higher order gratings. For certain large but specific angles between the two incident extraordinarily polarized beams, it is possible to obtain anisotropic self-diffraction into ordinarily polarized higher orders. This third configuration for self-diffraction, called codirectional anisotropic self-diffraction (CODAS), can be generated most efficiently for the Bragg-matched case, although we have also observed CODAS with Bragg mismatch. In addition, CODAS has been
Weibel Instability Driven by Spatially Anisotropic Density Structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomita, Sara; Ohira, Yutaka
2016-07-01
Observations of afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) suggest that post-shock magnetic fields are strongly amplified to about 100 times the shock-compressed value. The Weibel instability appears to play an important role in generating the magnetic field. However, recent simulations of collisionless shocks in homogeneous plasmas show that the magnetic field generated by the Weibel instability rapidly decays. There must be some density fluctuations in interstellar and circumstellar media. The density fluctuations are anisotropically compressed in the downstream region of relativistic shocks. In this paper, we study the Weibel instability in electron-positron plasmas with spatially anisotropic density distributions by means of two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. We find that large magnetic fields are maintained for a longer time by the Weibel instability driven by spatially anisotropic density structure. Particles anisotropically escape from the high density region, so that a temperature anisotropy is generated and the Weibel instability becomes unstable. Our simulation results suggest that the Weibel instability driven by an anisotropic density structure can generate sufficiently large magnetic fields and they can cover sufficiently large regions to explain the afterglow emission of GRBs.
Anisotropic Solution Adaptive Unstructured Grid Generation Using AFLR
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marcum, David L.
2007-01-01
An existing volume grid generation procedure, AFLR3, was successfully modified to generate anisotropic tetrahedral elements using a directional metric transformation defined at source nodes. The procedure can be coupled with a solver and an error estimator as part of an overall anisotropic solution adaptation methodology. It is suitable for use with an error estimator based on an adjoint, optimization, sensitivity derivative, or related approach. This offers many advantages, including more efficient point placement along with robust and efficient error estimation. It also serves as a framework for true grid optimization wherein error estimation and computational resources can be used as cost functions to determine the optimal point distribution. Within AFLR3 the metric transformation is implemented using a set of transformation vectors and associated aspect ratios. The modified overall procedure is presented along with details of the anisotropic transformation implementation. Multiple two-and three-dimensional examples are also presented that demonstrate the capability of the modified AFLR procedure to generate anisotropic elements using a set of source nodes with anisotropic transformation metrics. The example cases presented use moderate levels of anisotropy and result in usable element quality. Future testing with various flow solvers and methods for obtaining transformation metric information is needed to determine practical limits and evaluate the efficacy of the overall approach.
Anisotropic diffusion in mesh-free numerical magnetohydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hopkins, Philip F.
2017-04-01
We extend recently developed mesh-free Lagrangian methods for numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) to arbitrary anisotropic diffusion equations, including: passive scalar diffusion, Spitzer-Braginskii conduction and viscosity, cosmic ray diffusion/streaming, anisotropic radiation transport, non-ideal MHD (Ohmic resistivity, ambipolar diffusion, the Hall effect) and turbulent 'eddy diffusion'. We study these as implemented in the code GIZMO for both new meshless finite-volume Godunov schemes (MFM/MFV). We show that the MFM/MFV methods are accurate and stable even with noisy fields and irregular particle arrangements, and recover the correct behaviour even in arbitrarily anisotropic cases. They are competitive with state-of-the-art AMR/moving-mesh methods, and can correctly treat anisotropic diffusion-driven instabilities (e.g. the MTI and HBI, Hall MRI). We also develop a new scheme for stabilizing anisotropic tensor-valued fluxes with high-order gradient estimators and non-linear flux limiters, which is trivially generalized to AMR/moving-mesh codes. We also present applications of some of these improvements for SPH, in the form of a new integral-Godunov SPH formulation that adopts a moving-least squares gradient estimator and introduces a flux-limited Riemann problem between particles.
What is the Brillouin zone of an anisotropic photonic crystal?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sivarajah, P.; Maznev, A. A.; Ofori-Okai, B. K.; Nelson, K. A.
2016-02-01
The concept of the Brillouin zone (BZ) in relation to a photonic crystal fabricated in an optically anisotropic material is explored both experimentally and theoretically. In experiment we used femtosecond laser pulses to excite THz polaritons and image their propagation in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate photonic crystal (PhC) slabs. We directly measured the dispersion relation inside PhCs and observed that the lowest band gap expected to form at the BZ boundary forms inside the BZ in the anisotropic lithium niobate PhC. Our analysis shows that in an anisotropic material the BZ—defined as the Wigner-Seitz cell in the reciprocal lattice—is no longer bounded by Bragg planes and thus does not conform to the original definition of the BZ by Brillouin. We construct an alternative Brillouin zone defined by Bragg planes and show its utility in identifying features of the dispersion bands. We show that for an anisotropic two-dimensional PhC without dispersion, the Bragg plane BZ can be constructed by applying the Wigner-Seitz method to a stretched or compressed reciprocal lattice. We also show that in the presence of the dispersion in the underlying material or in a slab waveguide, the Bragg planes are generally represented by curved surfaces rather than planes. The concept of constructing a BZ with Bragg planes should prove useful in understanding the formation of dispersion bands in anisotropic PhCs and in selectively tailoring their optical properties.
Enhanced Raman Scattering on In-Plane Anisotropic Layered Materials.
Lin, Jingjing; Liang, Liangbo; Ling, Xi; Zhang, Shuqing; Mao, Nannan; Zhang, Na; Sumpter, Bobby G; Meunier, Vincent; Tong, Lianming; Zhang, Jin
2015-12-16
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on two-dimensional (2D) layered materials has provided a unique platform to study the chemical mechanism (CM) of the enhancement due to its natural separation from electromagnetic enhancement. The CM stems from the charge interactions between the substrate and molecules. Despite the extensive studies of the energy alignment between 2D materials and molecules, an understanding of how the electronic properties of the substrate are explicitly involved in the charge interaction is still unclear. Lately, a new group of 2D layered materials with anisotropic structures, including orthorhombic black phosphorus (BP) and triclinic rhenium disulfide (ReS2), has attracted great interest due to their unique anisotropic electrical and optical properties. Herein, we report a unique anisotropic Raman enhancement on few-layered BP and ReS2 using copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules as a Raman probe, which is absent on isotropic graphene and h-BN. According to detailed Raman tensor analysis and density functional theory calculations, anisotropic charge interactions between the 2D materials and molecules are responsible for the angular dependence of the Raman enhancement. Our findings not only provide new insights into the CM process in SERS, but also open up new avenues for the exploration and application of the electronic properties of anisotropic 2D layered materials.
Chen, H. Y.; Peng, Y. E-mail: py@usst.edu.cn; Hong, M.; Zhang, Y. B.; Cai, Bin; Zhu, Y. M.; Yuan, G. D. E-mail: py@usst.edu.cn; Zhang, Y.; Liu, Z. Q.; Wang, J. X.; Li, J. M.
2014-05-12
We report an enhanced conversion efficiency of femtosecond-laser treated silicon solar cells by surface modification of anisotropic-etching. The etching improves minority carrier lifetime inside modified black silicon area substantially; moreover, after the etching, an inverted pyramids/upright pyramids mixed texture surface is obtained, which shows better photon capturing capability than that of conventional pyramid texture. Combing of these two merits, the reformed solar cells show higher conversion efficiency than that of conventional pyramid textured cells. This work presents a way for fabricating high performance silicon solar cells, which can be easily applied to mass-production.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soroka, Oleksiy K.; Shklovskij, Valerij A.; Huth, Michael
2007-07-01
The influence of tailored anisotropic pinning sites on the nonlinear resistivity tensor in the mixed state of epitaxial thin films of niobium was studied by electronic transport measurements and accompanying theoretical modeling. The thin films were prepared by physical vapor deposition of niobium onto faceted α -alumina substrates. The resistivity tensor of the films was determined in the limit of small current densities at various temperatures close to the critical temperature and in different magnetic fields. In these experiments, the angle between the current and the facet ridges of the substrates was set at five fixed angles between 0° and 90°. Perfect guiding of the vortices along the facet ridges was observed over a wide parameter range. The measured resistivities were in good quantitative agreement with the predictions of the employed stochastic modeling approach.
Bicritical universality of the anisotropic Heisenberg model in a crystal field.
Freire, R T S; Plascak, J A
2015-03-01
The bicritical properties of the three-dimensional classical anisotropic Heisenberg model in a crystal field are investigated through extensive Monte Carlo simulations on a simple cubic lattice, using Metropolis and Wolff algorithms. Field-mixing and multidimensional histogram techniques were employed in order to compute the probability distribution function of the extensive conjugate variables of interest and, using finite-size scaling analysis, the first-order transition line of the model was precisely located. The fourth-order cumulant of the order parameter was then calculated along this line and the bicritical point located with good precision from the cumulant crossings. The bicritical properties of this point were further investigated through the measurement of the universal probability distribution function of the order parameter. The results lead us to conclude that the studied bicritical point belongs in fact to the three-dimensional Heisenberg universality class.
Osman, K T; Wan, M; Matthaeus, W H; Weygand, J M; Dasso, S
2011-10-14
The first direct determination of the inertial range energy cascade rate, using an anisotropic form of Yaglom's law for magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, is obtained in the solar wind with multispacecraft measurements. The two-point mixed third-order structure functions of Elsässer fluctuations are integrated over a sphere in magnetic field-aligned coordinates, and the result is consistent with a linear scaling. Therefore, volume integrated heating and cascade rates are obtained that, unlike previous studies, make only limited assumptions about the underlying spectral geometry of solar wind turbulence. These results confirm the turbulent nature of magnetic and velocity field fluctuations in the low frequency limit, and could supply the energy necessary to account for the nonadiabatic heating of the solar wind.
Anisotropic Self-Assembly of Citrate-Coated Gold Nanoparticles on Fluidic Liposomes.
Sugikawa, Kouta; Kadota, Tatsuya; Yasuhara, Kazuma; Ikeda, Atsushi
2016-03-14
The behavior of self-assembly processes of nanoscale particles on plasma membranes can reveal mechanisms of important biofunctions and/or intractable diseases. Self-assembly of citrate-coated gold nanoparticles (cAuNPs) on liposomes was investigated. The adsorbed cAuNPs were initially fixed on the liposome surfaces and did not self-assemble below the phospholipid phase transition temperature (Tm ). In contrast, anisotropic cAuNP self-assembly was observed upon heating of the composite above the Tm, where the phospholipids became fluid. The number of self-assembled NPs is conveniently controlled by the initial mixing ratio of cAuNPs and liposomes. Gold nanoparticle protecting agents strongly affected the self-assembly process on the fluidic membrane.
Anisotropic shrinkage characteristics of tape cast alumina
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patwardhan, Jaideep Suresh
Dimensional control during sintering is a major issue in ceramics processing to avoid high post-sintering costs associated with machining of the fired ceramic part to desired tolerances and dimensions. Ceramic forming processes such as tape casting, injection molding, and extrusion involve shear of anisotropic particles resulting in preferential alignment of the particles in the green body. This preferential alignment causes directionality in mechanical, electrical, optical, and magnetic properties and most importantly warpage or distortion during sintering. A large effort has been devoted to synthesizing ceramic green bodies with minimal density gradients and uniform packing and modeling the sintering behavior evolution but little effort has been devoted to characterizing orientation of particles and the effect of preferential alignment on sintering shrinkage anisotropy. A systematic study was initiated to study the effect of processing variables such as shear rate, solids loading, temperature, and binder content on aqueous tape cast alumina. Three different alumina systems: A16-SG, Baikowski RC-UFX DBM and RC-LS DBM were investigated. Aqueous tapes of high solids loading alumina (56 vol. %) were tape cast at various speeds and thicknesses and assuming plane Couette flow a shear rate regime of 21--270 s-1 was investigated. Higher shear rates and high solids loading resulted in higher in-plane anisotropy whereas the anisotropy in the thickness direction was higher for low solids loading systems. The anisotropy was found to be fairly constant above a certain critical shear rate (˜100 s-1) irrespective of the temperature and the solids loading and this correlated with the viscosity-shear rate relationship of the cast slips. The higher shrinkage anisotropy in the thickness direction for the low solids loading systems (35 and 45 vol. %) was attributed to the higher amount of organics in the slip required to sustain the suitable viscosity for tape casting and
Anisotropic imaging performance in breast tomosynthesis.
Badano, Aldo; Kyprianou, Iacovos S; Jennings, Robert J; Sempau, Josep
2007-11-01
We describe the anisotropy in imaging performance caused by oblique x-ray incidence in indirect detectors for breast tomosynthesis based on columnar scintillator screens. We use MANTIS, a freely available combined x-ray, electron, and optical Monte Carlo transport package which models the indirect detection processes in columnar screens, interaction by interaction. The code has been previously validated against published optical distributions. In this article, initial validation results are provided concerning the blur for particular designs of phosphor screens for which some details with respect to the columnar geometry are available from scanning electron microscopy. The polyenergetic x-ray spectrum utilized comes from a database of experimental data for three different anode/filter/kVp combinations: Mo/Mo at 28 kVp, Rh/Rh at 28 kVp, and W/Al at 42 kVp. The x-ray spectra were then filtered with breast tissue (3, 4, and 6 cm thickness), compression paddle, and support base, according to the oblique paths determined by the incidence angle. The composition of the breast tissue was 50%/50% adipose/glandular tissue mass ratio. Results are reported on the pulse-height statistics of the light output and on spatial blur, expressed as the response of the detector to a pencil beam with a certain incidence angle. Results suggest that the response is nonsymmetrical and that the resolution properties of a tomosynthesis system vary significantly with the angle of x-ray incidence. In contrast, it is found that the noise due to the variability in the number of light photons detected per primary x-ray interaction changes only a few percent. The anisotropy in the response is not less in screens with absorptive backings while the noise introduced by variations in the depth-dependent light output and optical transport is larger. The results suggest that anisotropic imaging performance across the detector area can be incorporated into reconstruction algorithms for improving the image
Effects of magnetic field on anisotropic temperature relaxation
Dong Chao; Ren Haijun; Cai Huishan; Li Ding
2013-03-15
In a strongly magnetized plasma, where the particles' thermal gyro-radii are smaller than the Debye length, the magnetic field greatly affects the plasma's relaxation processes. The expressions for the time rates of change of the electron and ion parallel and perpendicular temperatures are obtained and calculated analytically for small anisotropies through considering binary collisions between charged particles in the presence of a uniform magnetic field by using perturbation theory. Based on these expressions, the effects of the magnetic field on the relaxation of anisotropic electron and ion temperatures due to electron-electron collisions, ion-ion collisions, and electron-ion collisions are investigated. Consequently, the relaxation times of anisotropic electron and ion temperatures to isotropy are calculated. It is shown that electron-ion collisions can affect the relaxation of an anisotropic ion distribution in the strong magnetic field.
A hybrid-stress finite element for linear anisotropic elasticity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fly, Gerald W.; Oden, J. Tinsley; Pearson, Mark L.
1988-01-01
Standard assumed displacement finite elements with anisotropic material properties perform poorly in complex stress fields such as combined bending and shear and combined bending and torsion. A set of three dimensional hybrid-stress brick elements were developed with fully anisotropic material properties. Both eight-node and twenty-node bricks were developed based on the symmetry group theory of Punch and Atluri. An eight-node brick was also developed using complete polynomials and stress basis functions and reducing the order of the resulting stress parameter matrix by applying equilibrium constraints and stress compatibility constraints. Here the stress compatibility constraints must be formulated assuming anisotropic material properties. The performance of these elements was examined in numerical examples covering a broad range of stress distributions. The stress predictions show significant improvement over the assumed displacement elements but the calculation time is increased.
Vacuum self similar anisotropic cosmologies in F( R)-gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apostolopoulos, Pantelis S.
2017-04-01
The implications from the existence of a proper Homothetic Vector Field on the dynamics of vacuum anisotropic models in F( R) gravitational theory are studied. The fact that every Spatially Homogeneous vacuum model is equivalent, formally, with a "flux"-free anisotropic fluid model in standard gravity and the induced power-law form of the functional F( R) due to self-similarity enable us to close the system of equations. We found some new exact anisotropic solutions that arise as fixed points in the associated dynamical system. The non-existence of Kasner-like (Bianchi type I) solutions in proper F( R)-gravity (i.e. R≠ 0) strengthens the belief that curvature corrections will prevent the shear influence into the past thus permitting an isotropic singularity. We also discuss certain issues regarding the lack of vacuum models of type III, IV, VIIh in comparison with the corresponding results in standard gravity.
Geodesic acoustic mode in anisotropic plasma with heat flux
Ren, Haijun
2015-10-15
Geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) in an anisotropic tokamak plasma is investigated in fluid approximation. The collisionless anisotropic plasma is described within the 16-momentum magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluid closure model, which takes into account not only the pressure anisotropy but also the anisotropic heat flux. It is shown that the GAM frequency agrees better with the kinetic result than the standard Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) MHD model. When zeroing the anisotropy, the 16-momentum result is identical with the kinetic one to the order of 1/q{sup 2}, while the CGL result agrees with the kinetic result only on the leading order. The discrepancies between the results of the CGL fluid model and the kinetic theory are well removed by considering the heat flux effect in the fluid approximation.
Anomalously large anisotropic magnetoresistance in a perovskite manganite.
Li, Run-Wei; Wang, Huabing; Wang, Xuewen; Yu, X Z; Matsui, Y; Cheng, Zhao-Hua; Shen, Bao-Gen; Plummer, E Ward; Zhang, Jiandi
2009-08-25
The signature of correlated electron materials (CEMs) is the coupling between spin, charge, orbital and lattice resulting in exotic functionality. This complexity is directly responsible for their tunability. We demonstrate here that the broken symmetry, through cubic to orthorhombic distortion in the lattice structure in a prototype manganite single crystal, La(0.69)Ca(0.31)MnO(3), leads to an anisotropic magneto-elastic response to an external field, and consequently to remarkable magneto-transport behavior. An anomalous anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) effect occurs close to the metal-insulator transition (MIT) in the system, showing a direct correlation with the anisotropic field-tuned MIT in the system and can be understood by means of a simple phenomenological model. A small crystalline anisotropy stimulates a "colossal" AMR near the MIT phase boundary of the system, thus revealing the intimate interplay between magneto- and electronic-crystalline couplings.
Isotropic and anisotropic bouncing cosmologies in Palatini gravity
Barragan, Carlos; Olmo, Gonzalo J.
2010-10-15
We study isotropic and anisotropic (Bianchi I) cosmologies in Palatini f(R) and f(R,R{sub {mu}{nu}R}{sup {mu}{nu}}) theories of gravity with a perfect fluid and consider the existence of nonsingular bouncing solutions in the early universe. We find that all f(R) models with isotropic bouncing solutions develop shear singularities in the anisotropic case. On the contrary, the simple quadratic model R+aR{sup 2}/R{sub P}+R{sub {mu}{nu}R}{sup {mu}{nu}/}R{sub P} exhibits regular bouncing solutions in both isotropic and anisotropic cases for a wide range of equations of state, including dust (for a<0) and radiation (for arbitrary a). It thus represents a purely gravitational solution to the big bang singularity and anisotropy problems of general relativity without the need for exotic (w>1) sources of matter/energy or extra degrees of freedom.
Hemispherical Anisotropic Patterns of the Earth's Inner Core
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mattesini, M.; Belonoshko, A. B.; Buforn, E.; Ramirez, M.; Simak, S. I.; Udias, A.; Mao, H.; Ahuja, R.
2010-12-01
It has been shown that the Earth's inner core has an axisymmetric anisotropic structure with seismic waves travelling ˜3% faster along polar paths than along equatorial directions. However, hemispherical anisotropic patterns of solid Earth's core are rather complex, and the commonly used hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) iron phase might be insufficient to account for seismological observations. We show that the data we collected are in good agreement with the presence of two anisotropically specular east and west core hemispheres. The detected travel-time anomalies can only be disclosed by a lattice preferred orientation of a body-centered-cubic iron aggregate (bcc), having a fraction of their [111] crystal axes parallel to the Earth's rotation axis. This is a compelling evidence for the presence of a body-centered-cubic Fe phase at the top 100 km of the Earth's inner core.
Modeling anisotropic Maxwell-Jüttner distributions: derivation and properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Livadiotis, George
2016-12-01
In this paper we develop a model for the anisotropic Maxwell-Jüttner distribution and examine its properties. First, we provide the characteristic conditions that the modeling of consistent and well-defined anisotropic Maxwell-Jüttner distributions needs to fulfill. Then, we examine several models, showing their possible advantages and/or failures in accordance to these conditions. We derive a consistent model, and examine its properties and its connection with thermodynamics. We show that the temperature equals the average of the directional temperature-like components, as it holds for the classical, anisotropic Maxwell distribution. We also derive the internal energy and Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy, where we show that both are maximized for zero anisotropy, that is, the isotropic Maxwell-Jüttner distribution.
Anisotropic Smoothing Improves DT-MRI-Based Muscle Fiber Tractography
Buck, Amanda K. W.; Ding, Zhaohua; Elder, Christopher P.; Towse, Theodore F.; Damon, Bruce M.
2015-01-01
Purpose To assess the effect of anisotropic smoothing on fiber tracking measures, including pennation angle, fiber tract length, and fiber tract number in the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle in healthy subjects using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI). Materials and Methods 3T DW-MRI data were used for muscle fiber tractography in the MG of healthy subjects. Anisotropic smoothing was applied at three levels (5%, 10%, 15%), and pennation angle, tract length, fiber tract number, fractional anisotropy, and principal eigenvector orientation were quantified for each smoothing level. Results Fiber tract length increased with pre-fiber tracking smoothing, and local heterogeneities in fiber direction were reduced. However, pennation angle was not affected by smoothing. Conclusion Modest anisotropic smoothing (10%) improved fiber-tracking results, while preserving structural features. PMID:26010830
Anomalously large anisotropic magnetoresistance in a perovskite manganite
Li, Run-Wei; Wang, Huabing; Wang, Xuewen; Yu, X. Z.; Matsui, Y.; Cheng, Zhao-Hua; Shen, Bao-Gen; Plummer, E. Ward; Zhang, Jiandi
2009-01-01
The signature of correlated electron materials (CEMs) is the coupling between spin, charge, orbital and lattice resulting in exotic functionality. This complexity is directly responsible for their tunability. We demonstrate here that the broken symmetry, through cubic to orthorhombic distortion in the lattice structure in a prototype manganite single crystal, La0.69Ca0.31MnO3, leads to an anisotropic magneto-elastic response to an external field, and consequently to remarkable magneto-transport behavior. An anomalous anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) effect occurs close to the metal-insulator transition (MIT) in the system, showing a direct correlation with the anisotropic field-tuned MIT in the system and can be understood by means of a simple phenomenological model. A small crystalline anisotropy stimulates a “colossal” AMR near the MIT phase boundary of the system, thus revealing the intimate interplay between magneto- and electronic-crystalline couplings. PMID:19706504
Dynamic Scaling of Island-size Distribution on Anisotropic Surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Maozhi; Wang, E. G.; Liu, Banggui; Zhang, Zhenyu
2002-03-01
Dynamic scaling of island-size distribution on isotropic and anisotropic surfaces in submonolayer growth is systematically studied using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. It is found that the island-size distribution in anisotropic submonolayer growth exhibits a general dynamic scaling behavior. An analytic expression is proposed for the scaling function, and is compared with the simulation results. This scaling function not only improves previous results for the isotropic growth (1), but also describes the scaling behavior of the island-size distribution in anisotropic submonolayer growth very well (2). 1. J. G. Amar and F. Family, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2066 (1995). 2. M. Z. Li, E. G. Wang, B. G. Liu, and Z. Y. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. (submitted).
Hemispherical anisotropic patterns of the Earth’s inner core
Mattesini, Maurizio
2010-01-01
It has been shown that the Earth’s inner core has an axisymmetric anisotropic structure with seismic waves traveling ∼3% faster along polar paths than along equatorial directions. Hemispherical anisotropic patterns of the solid Earth’s core are rather complex, and the commonly used hexagonal-close-packed iron phase might be insufficient to account for seismological observations. We show that the data we collected are in good agreement with the presence of two anisotropically specular east and west core hemispheres. The detected travel-time anomalies can only be disclosed by a lattice-preferred orientation of a body-centered-cubic iron aggregate, having a fraction of their [111] crystal axes parallel to the Earth’s rotation axis. This is compelling evidence for the presence of a body-centered-cubic Fe phase at the top of the Earth’s inner core. PMID:20457937
Self-force on dislocation segments in anisotropic crystals.
Fitzgerald, S P; Aubry, S
2010-07-28
A dislocation segment in a crystal experiences a 'self-force', by virtue of the orientation dependence of its elastic energy. If the crystal is elastically isotropic, this force is manifested as a couple acting to rotate the segment toward the lower energy of the pure screw orientation (i.e. acting to align the dislocation line with its Burgers vector). If the crystal is anisotropic, there are additional contributions to the couple, arising from the more complex energy landscape of the lattice itself. These effects can strongly influence the dynamic evolution of dislocation networks, and via their governing role in dislocation multiplication phenomena, control plastic flow in metals. In this paper we develop a model for dislocation self-forces in a general anisotropic crystal, and briefly consider the technologically important example of α-iron, which becomes increasingly anisotropic as the temperature approaches that of the α-γ phase transition at 912 °C.
Anisotropic Electron Tail Generation during Tearing Mode Magnetic Reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
DuBois, Ami M.; Almagri, Abdulgader F.; Anderson, Jay K.; Den Hartog, Daniel J.; Lee, John David; Sarff, John S.
2017-02-01
The first experimental evidence of anisotropic electron energization during magnetic reconnection that favors a direction perpendicular to the guide magnetic field in a toroidal, magnetically confined plasma is reported in this Letter. Magnetic reconnection plays an important role in particle heating, energization, and transport in space and laboratory plasmas. In toroidal devices like the Madison Symmetric Torus, discrete magnetic reconnection events release large amounts of energy from the equilibrium magnetic field. Fast x-ray measurements imply a non-Maxwellian, anisotropic energetic electron tail is formed at the time of reconnection. The tail is well described by a power-law energy dependence. The expected bremsstrahlung from an electron distribution with an anisotropic energetic tail (v⊥>v∥ ) spatially localized in the core region is consistent with x-ray emission measurements. A turbulent process related to tearing fluctuations is the most likely cause for the energetic electron tail formation.
Geodesic acoustic mode in anisotropic plasma with heat flux
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Haijun
2015-10-01
Geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) in an anisotropic tokamak plasma is investigated in fluid approximation. The collisionless anisotropic plasma is described within the 16-momentum magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluid closure model, which takes into account not only the pressure anisotropy but also the anisotropic heat flux. It is shown that the GAM frequency agrees better with the kinetic result than the standard Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) MHD model. When zeroing the anisotropy, the 16-momentum result is identical with the kinetic one to the order of 1/q2, while the CGL result agrees with the kinetic result only on the leading order. The discrepancies between the results of the CGL fluid model and the kinetic theory are well removed by considering the heat flux effect in the fluid approximation.
Modeling of charged anisotropic compact stars in general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dayanandan, Baiju; Maurya, S. K.; T, Smitha T.
2017-06-01
A charged compact star model has been determined for anisotropic fluid distribution. We have solved the Einstein-Maxwell field equations to construct the charged compact star model by using the radial pressure, the metric function e^{λ} and the electric charge function. The generic charged anisotropic solution is verified by exploring different physical conditions like causality condition, mass-radius relation and stability of the solution (via the adiabatic index, TOV equations and the Herrera cracking concept). It is observed that the present charged anisotropic compact star model is compatible with the star PSR 1937+21. Moreover, we also presented the EOS ρ = f(p) for the present charged compact star model.
Stochastic Loewner evolution relates anomalous diffusion and anisotropic percolation.
Credidio, Heitor F; Moreira, André A; Herrmann, Hans J; Andrade, José S
2016-04-01
We disclose the origin of anisotropic percolation perimeters in terms of the stochastic Loewner evolution (SLE) process. Precisely, our results from extensive numerical simulations indicate that the perimeters of multilayered and directed percolation clusters at criticality are the scaling limits of the Loewner evolution of an anomalous Brownian motion, being superdiffusive and subdiffusive, respectively. The connection between anomalous diffusion and fractal anisotropy is further tested by using long-range power-law correlated time series (fractional Brownian motion) as the driving functions in the evolution process. The fact that the resulting traces are distinctively anisotropic corroborates our hypothesis. Under the conceptual framework of SLE, our study therefore reveals different perspectives for mathematical and physical interpretations of non-Markovian processes in terms of anisotropic paths at criticality and vice versa.
Well behaved anisotropic compact star models in general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jasim, M. K.; Maurya, S. K.; Gupta, Y. K.; Dayanandan, B.
2016-11-01
Anisotropic compact star models have been constructed by assuming a particular form of a metric function e^{λ}. We solved the Einstein field equations for determining the metric function e^{ν}. For this purpose we have assumed a physically valid expression of radial pressure (pr). The obtained anisotropic compact star model is representing the realistic compact objects such as PSR 1937 +21. We have done an extensive study about physical parameters for anisotropic models and found that these parameters are well behaved throughout inside the star. Along with these we have also determined the equation of state for compact star which gives the radial pressure is purely the function of density i.e. pr=f(ρ).
Shear-free anisotropic cosmological models in {f (R)} gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abebe, Amare; Momeni, Davood; Myrzakulov, Ratbay
2016-04-01
We study a class of shear-free, homogeneous but anisotropic cosmological models with imperfect matter sources in the context of f( R) gravity. We show that the anisotropic stresses are related to the electric part of the Weyl tensor in such a way that they balance each other. We also show that within the class of orthogonal f( R) models, small perturbations of shear are damped, and that the electric part of the Weyl tensor and the anisotropic stress tensor decay with the expansion as well as the heat flux of the curvature fluid. Specializing in locally rotationally symmetric spacetimes in orthonormal frames, we examine the late-time behaviour of the de Sitter universe in f( R) gravity. For the Starobinsky model of f( R), we study the evolutionary behavior of the Universe by numerically integrating the Friedmann equation, where the initial conditions for the expansion, acceleration and jerk parameters are taken from observational data.
Anisotropic light scattering of individual sickle red blood cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Youngchan; Higgins, John M.; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Suresh, Subra; Park, YongKeun
2012-04-01
We present the anisotropic light scattering of individual red blood cells (RBCs) from a patient with sickle cell disease (SCD). To measure light scattering spectra along two independent axes of elongated-shaped sickle RBCs with arbitrary orientation, we introduce the anisotropic Fourier transform light scattering (aFTLS) technique and measured both the static and dynamic anisotropic light scattering. We observed strong anisotropy in light scattering patterns of elongated-shaped sickle RBCs along its major axes using static aFTLS. Dynamic aFTLS analysis reveals the significantly altered biophysical properties in individual sickle RBCs. These results provide evidence that effective viscosity and elasticity of sickle RBCs are significantly different from those of the healthy RBCs.
Q -factor enhancement in all-dielectric anisotropic nanoresonators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wei; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Kivshar, Yuri S.
2016-11-01
It is proposed and demonstrated that the Q factor of optical resonators can be significantly enhanced by introducing an extra anisotropic cladding. We study the optical resonances of all-dielectric core-shell nanoresonators and show that radially anisotropic claddings can be employed to squeeze more energy into the core area, leading to stronger light confinement and thus significant Q -factor enhancement. We further demonstrate that the required homogenous claddings of unusual anisotropy parameters can be realized through all-dielectric multilayered isotropic structures. It is expected that the mechanism we have revealed not only offers extra flexibilities of resonance manipulations for conventional dielectric structures, but also may shed new light onto investigations into unconventional nanostructures consisting of two-dimensional materials that are intrinsically highly anisotropic.
Measurement of Anisotropic Mechanical Properties of the Tectorial Membrane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gavara, N.; Chadwick, R. S.
2009-02-01
The tectorial membrane (TM) in the cochlea is an anisotropic tissue with a key role in hearing. The TM's structural andmechanical anisotropy is provided by oriented collagen bundles about 1 micron thick. Here we report the three elastic moduli that characterize the TM, as well as the novel technique used to measure the mechanical properties of an anisotropic material. We have measured mechanical anisotropy by combining Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and optical tracking of microspheres. The surface Green's tensor for an incompressible anisotropic material was then used to compute the elastic moduli from imposed forces and the resulting surface deformations. Our results suggest a critical role of TM's strong anisotropy by enhancing the cochlear amplifier.
Ordered Self-Similar Patterns in Anisotropic Stochastic Growth.
Yao, Zhenwei; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica
2016-07-07
We propose an anisotropic stochastic growth model to rationalize the anisotropic self-assembly of supramolecules to form elongated two-dimensional ribbon structures in a recent experiment. The model exhibits distinct growth scenarios that are critically controlled by the ratio of the transverse and the longitudinal growth rate. In the regime of suppressed transverse growth, the model generates the experimentally observed elongated structures through layer-by-layer growing. We further observe the convergence of rough clusters toward smooth regular elliptic patterns by averaging over a number of independent growth processes. Remarkably, these resulting elliptic clusters are self-similar in each instantaneous moment in the growth process. Statistical analysis suggests that the realization of such ordered patterns does not rely on the delicate coordination of different parts in the cluster growth. The self-similarity phenomenon derived from this idealized model may have wider implications, notably in the designed clustering of various elementary building blocks with anisotropic interactions.
Hemispherical anisotropic patterns of the Earth's inner core.
Mattesini, Maurizio; Belonoshko, Anatoly B; Buforn, Elisa; Ramírez, María; Simak, Sergei I; Udías, Agustín; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Ahuja, Rajeev
2010-05-25
It has been shown that the Earth's inner core has an axisymmetric anisotropic structure with seismic waves traveling approximately 3% faster along polar paths than along equatorial directions. Hemispherical anisotropic patterns of the solid Earth's core are rather complex, and the commonly used hexagonal-close-packed iron phase might be insufficient to account for seismological observations. We show that the data we collected are in good agreement with the presence of two anisotropically specular east and west core hemispheres. The detected travel-time anomalies can only be disclosed by a lattice-preferred orientation of a body-centered-cubic iron aggregate, having a fraction of their [111] crystal axes parallel to the Earth's rotation axis. This is compelling evidence for the presence of a body-centered-cubic Fe phase at the top of the Earth's inner core.
Ferri, Clodoveo
2008-01-01
Mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC), type II and type III, refers to the presence of circulating cryoprecipitable immune complexes in the serum and manifests clinically by a classical triad of purpura, weakness and arthralgias. It is considered to be a rare disorder, but its true prevalence remains unknown. The disease is more common in Southern Europe than in Northern Europe or Northern America. The prevalence of 'essential' MC is reported as approximately 1:100,000 (with a female-to-male ratio 3:1), but this term is now used to refer to a minority of MC patients only. MC is characterized by variable organ involvement including skin lesions (orthostatic purpura, ulcers), chronic hepatitis, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, peripheral neuropathy, diffuse vasculitis, and, less frequently, interstitial lung involvement and endocrine disorders. Some patients may develop lymphatic and hepatic malignancies, usually as a late complication. MC may be associated with numerous infectious or immunological diseases. When isolated, MC may represent a distinct disease, the so-called 'essential' MC. The etiopathogenesis of MC is not completely understood. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is suggested to play a causative role, with the contribution of genetic and/or environmental factors. Moreover, MC may be associated with other infectious agents or immunological disorders, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or primary Sjögren's syndrome. Diagnosis is based on clinical and laboratory findings. Circulating mixed cryoglobulins, low C4 levels and orthostatic skin purpura are the hallmarks of the disease. Leukocytoclastic vasculitis involving medium- and, more often, small-sized blood vessels is the typical pathological finding, easily detectable by means of skin biopsy of recent vasculitic lesions. Differential diagnoses include a wide range of systemic, infectious and neoplastic disorders, mainly autoimmune hepatitis, Sjögren's syndrome, polyarthritis, and B
Ferri, Clodoveo
2008-09-16
Mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC), type II and type III, refers to the presence of circulating cryoprecipitable immune complexes in the serum and manifests clinically by a classical triad of purpura, weakness and arthralgias. It is considered to be a rare disorder, but its true prevalence remains unknown. The disease is more common in Southern Europe than in Northern Europe or Northern America. The prevalence of 'essential' MC is reported as approximately 1:100,000 (with a female-to-male ratio 3:1), but this term is now used to refer to a minority of MC patients only. MC is characterized by variable organ involvement including skin lesions (orthostatic purpura, ulcers), chronic hepatitis, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, peripheral neuropathy, diffuse vasculitis, and, less frequently, interstitial lung involvement and endocrine disorders. Some patients may develop lymphatic and hepatic malignancies, usually as a late complication. MC may be associated with numerous infectious or immunological diseases. When isolated, MC may represent a distinct disease, the so-called 'essential' MC. The etiopathogenesis of MC is not completely understood. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is suggested to play a causative role, with the contribution of genetic and/or environmental factors. Moreover, MC may be associated with other infectious agents or immunological disorders, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or primary Sjögren's syndrome. Diagnosis is based on clinical and laboratory findings. Circulating mixed cryoglobulins, low C4 levels and orthostatic skin purpura are the hallmarks of the disease. Leukocytoclastic vasculitis involving medium- and, more often, small-sized blood vessels is the typical pathological finding, easily detectable by means of skin biopsy of recent vasculitic lesions. Differential diagnoses include a wide range of systemic, infectious and neoplastic disorders, mainly autoimmune hepatitis, Sjögren's syndrome, polyarthritis, and B
Anisotropic superconductivity driven by kinematic interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, V. A.
2000-11-01
We have analysed the effect of kinematic pairing on the symmetry of superconducting order parameter for a square lattice in the frame of the strongly correlated Hubbard model. It is argued that in the first perturbation order the kinematic interaction renormalizes the Hubbard-I dispersions and provides at low doping the mixed singlet (s + s*)-wave superconductivity, giving way at higher doping to the triplet p-wave superconductivity. The obtained phase diagram depends only on the hopping integral parameter. The influence of the Coulomb repulsion on the kinematic superconducting pairing has been estimated. The (s + s*)-wave gap and the thermodynamic critical magnetic field have been derived.
All spherically symmetric charged anisotropic solutions for compact stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maurya, S. K.; Gupta, Y. K.; Ray, Saibal
2017-06-01
In the present paper we develop an algorithm for all spherically symmetric anisotropic charged fluid distributions. Considering a new source function ν (r) we find a set of solutions which is physically well behaved and represents compact stellar models. A detailed study specifically shows that the models actually correspond to strange stars in terms of their mass and radius. In this connection we investigate several physical properties like energy conditions, stability, mass-radius ratio, electric charge content, anisotropic nature and surface redshift through graphical plots and mathematical calculations. All the features from these studies are in excellent agreement with the already available evidence in theory as well as observations.
MHz gravitational waves from short-term anisotropic inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro
2016-04-01
We reveal the universality of short-term anisotropic inflation. As a demonstration, we study inflation with an exponential type gauge kinetic function which is ubiquitous in models obtained by dimensional reduction from higher dimensional fundamental theory. It turns out that an anisotropic inflation universally takes place in the later stage of conventional inflation. Remarkably, we find that primordial gravitational waves with a peak amplitude around 10-26~ 10-27 are copiously produced in high-frequency bands 10 MHz~100 MHz. If we could detect such gravitational waves in future, we would be able to probe higher dimensional fundamental theory.
Anisotropic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert models of dissipation in qubits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crowley, Philip J. D.; Green, A. G.
2016-12-01
We derive a microscopic model for dissipative dynamics in a system of mutually interacting qubits coupled to a thermal bath that generalizes the dissipative model of Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert to the case of anisotropic bath couplings. We show that the dissipation acts to bias the quantum trajectories towards a reduced phase space. This model applies to a system of superconducting flux qubits whose coupling to the environment is necessarily anisotropic. We study the model in the context of the D-Wave computing device and show that the form of environmental coupling in this case produces dynamics that are closely related to several models proposed on phenomenological grounds.
MHz gravitational waves from short-term anisotropic inflation
Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro
2016-04-18
We reveal the universality of short-term anisotropic inflation. As a demonstration, we study inflation with an exponential type gauge kinetic function which is ubiquitous in models obtained by dimensional reduction from higher dimensional fundamental theory. It turns out that an anisotropic inflation universally takes place in the later stage of conventional inflation. Remarkably, we find that primordial gravitational waves with a peak amplitude around 10{sup −26}∼10{sup −27} are copiously produced in high-frequency bands 10 MHz∼100 MHz. If we could detect such gravitational waves in future, we would be able to probe higher dimensional fundamental theory.
Anisotropic Liquid Microcapsules from Biomimetic Self-Folding Polymer Films.
Zakharchenko, Svetlana; Ionov, Leonid
2015-06-17
We demonstrated a novel approach for the fabrication of anisotropic capsules with liquid content using biomimetic self-folding thermoresponsive polymer films. The behavior of self-folding films is very similar to actuation in plants, where nonhomogenous swelling results in complex movements such as twisting, bending, or folding. This approach allows the design of anisotropic liquid capsules with rodlike and dumbbell-like morphologies. We found that these capsules are able to assemble into different complex structures, such as nematic-like one and 3D network depending on their morphology.
Highly anisotropic effective dielectric functions of silver nanoparticle arrays.
Oates, Thomas W H; Ranjan, Mukesh; Facsko, Stefan; Arwin, Hans
2011-01-31
Variable-angle and Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry are used to determine the effective dielectric tensors of random and aligned silver nanoparticles and nanorods thin films. Randomly arranged particles are uniaxially anisotropic while aligned particles are biaxially anisotropic, with the anisotropy predominantly at the plasmonic resonances. The strong resonances in nanorod arrays result in the real part of the effective in-plane permittivities being opposite in sign over a significant range in the visible, suggesting the potential to design materials that display tunable negative-refraction. A structural tilt in the particle arrays results in monoclinic dielectric properties.
Understanding nanoparticle-mediated nucleation pathways of anisotropic nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laramy, Christine R.; Fong, Lam-Kiu; Jones, Matthew R.; O'Brien, Matthew N.; Schatz, George C.; Mirkin, Chad A.
2017-09-01
Several seed-mediated syntheses of low symmetry anisotropic nanoparticles yield broad product distributions with multiple defect structures. This observation challenges the role of the nanoparticle precursor as a seed for certain syntheses and suggests the possibility of alternate nucleation pathways. Herein, we report a method to probe the role of the nanoparticle precursor in anisotropic nanoparticle nucleation with compositional and structural 'labels' to track their fate. We use the synthesis of gold triangular nanoprisms (Au TPs) as a model system. We propose a mechanism in which, rather than acting as a template, the nanoparticle precursor catalyzes homogenous nucleation of Au TPs.
The traces of anisotropic dark energy in light of Planck
Cardona, Wilmar; Kunz, Martin; Hollenstein, Lukas E-mail: lukas.hollenstein@zhaw.ch
2014-07-01
We study a dark energy model with non-zero anisotropic stress, either linked to the dark energy density or to the dark matter density. We compute approximate solutions that allow to characterise the behaviour of the dark energy model and to assess the stability of the perturbations. We also determine the current limits on such an anisotropic stress from the cosmic microwave background data by the Planck satellite, and derive the corresponding constraints on the modified growth parameters like the growth index, the effective Newton's constant and the gravitational slip.
Stopping power of an electron gas with anisotropic temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khelemelia, O. V.; Kholodov, R. I.
2016-04-01
A general theory of motion of a heavy charged particle in the electron gas with an anisotropic velocity distribution is developed within the quantum-field method. The analytical expressions for the dielectric susceptibility and the stopping power of the electron gas differs in no way from well-known classic formulas in the approximation of large and small velocities. Stopping power of the electron gas with anisotropic temperature in the framework of the quantum-field method is numerically calculated for an arbitrary angle between directions of the motion of the projectile particle and the electron beam. The results of the numerical calculations are compared with the dielectric model approach.
Anisotropic subvoxel-smooth conduction model for bioelectromagnetism analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Zhi Zhu; Liu, Jing
2016-01-01
The bioelectric conduction model plays a key role in bioelectromagnetism analysis, such as solving electromagnetic forward and inverse problems. This paper is aimed to develop an anisotropic subvoxel-smooth conduction model (ASCM) to characterize the electrical conductivity tensor jump across the tissue interface, which is derived based on the interfacial continuity condition with asymptotic analysis method. This conduction model is furthermore combined with finite volume method to improve the numerical accuracy for solving electromagnetic forward problem. The performance of ASCM for electrical potential analysis is verified by comparison with analytic solution. The method is also applied to investigate the effect of anisotropic conduction on EEG analysis in a realistic human head model.
Anisotropic magnetotransport in Dirac-Weyl magnetic junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ominato, Yuya; Kobayashi, Koji; Nomura, Kentaro
2017-02-01
We theoretically study the anisotropic magnetotransport in Dirac-Weyl magnetic junctions where a doped ferromagnetic Weyl semimetal is sandwiched between doped Dirac semimetals. We calculate the conductance using the Landauer formula and find that the system exhibits extraordinarily large anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). The AMR depends on the ratio of the Fermi energy to the strength of the exchange interaction. The origin of the AMR is the shift of the Fermi surface in the Weyl semimetal, and the mechanism is completely different from the conventional AMR originating from the spin dependent scattering and the spin-orbit interaction.
Validation of homogeneous anisotropic hardening approach based on crystal plasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeong, Youngung; Barlat, Frédéric; Tomé, Carlos; Wen, Wei
2016-10-01
The current study investigates constitutive models at two different scales: 1) the micromechanical crystal plasticity framework using a dislocation density-based hardening model [1, 2]; 2) macroscale constitutive model based on a yield function that evolves according to the homogeneous anisotropic hardening (HAH) model [3, 4]. The polycrystalline aggregate, tuned for a low-carbon steel, is used to calculate the evolution of the yield surface during monotonic uniaxial tension. The results of the crystal plasticity model are used to train the anisotropic yield function and HAH parameters to demonstrate the flexibility of the macroscale constitutive approach. Through comparison between the two models, an improved rule for the HAH model is suggested.
Synthesis of Borophene: Anisotropic, Two-Dimensional Boron Allotrope
Mannix, Andrew J.; Zhou, Xiang-Feng; Kiraly, Brian T.; Wood, Joshua D.; Alducin, Diego; Meyers, Benjamin; Liu, Xiaolong; Fisher, Brandon L.; Santiago, Ulises; Guest, Jeffrey R.; Yacaman, Miguel; Ponce, Artura; oganov, artem R; Hersam, Mark C.; Guisinger, N. P.
2015-12-18
At the atomic-cluster scale, pure boron is markedly similar to carbon, forming simple planar molecules and cage-like fullerenes. Theoretical studies predict that two-dimensional (2D) boron sheets will adopt an atomic configuration similar to that of boron atomic clusters. We synthesized atomically thin, crystalline 2D boron sheets (i.e., borophene) on silver surfaces under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. Atomic-scale characterization, supported by theoretical calculations, revealed structures reminiscent of fused boron clusters with multiple scales of anisotropic, out-of-plane buckling. Unlike bulk boron allotropes, borophene shows metallic characteristics that are consistent with predictions of a highly anisotropic, 2D metal.
An Analysis of Charged Anisotropic Star with de Sitter Spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Kanika; Ali, Nawsad
2016-02-01
We propose a model for charged anisotropic star in de Sitter spacetime. We have taken Krori and Barua (J. Phys. A, Math. Gen. 8, 508, 1975) metric in de Sitter spacetime with non-zero cosmological constant. The model is free from singularity. We incorporate the existence of the cosmological constant on a small scale to study the structure of anisotropic charged star. To solve the Einstein-Maxwell field equations we assume the relation between the radial and transverse pressure as p t - p r = g q( r)2 r 2 (where g is a non-zero positive constant). The physical conditions inside the stellar model are also discussed.
Anisotropic. cap alpha. -emission of on-line separated isotopes
Wouters, J.; Vandeplassche, D.; van Walle, E.; Severijns, N.; Van Haverbeke, J.; Vanneste, L.
1987-12-10
The technical realization of particle detection at very low temperatures (4K) has made it possible to study for the first time the anisotropic ..cap alpha..-decay of oriented nuclei which have been produced, separated and implanted on line. The measured ..cap alpha..-angular distributions reveal surprising new results on nuclear aspects as well as in solid state physics. The nuclear structure information from these data questions the older ..cap alpha..-decay theoretical interpretation and urges for a reaxamination of the earliest work on anisotropic ..cap alpha..-decay.
Tunable waveguide bends with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhao-xian; Chen, Ze-guo; Ming, Yang; Wu, Ying; Lu, Yan-qing
2016-02-01
We design tunable waveguide bends filled with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials to achieve a nearly perfect bending effect. The anisotropic properties of the metamaterials can be described by the effective medium theory. The nearly perfect bending effect is demonstrated by finite element simulations of various structures with different bending curvatures and shapes. This effect is attributed to zero effective permittivity along the direction of propagation and matched effective impedance at the interfaces between the bending part and the dielectric waveguides. We envisage that the design will be applicable in the far-infrared and terahertz frequency ranges owing to the tunable dielectric responses of graphene.
Dynamics of anisotropic universe in f(G) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shamir, M. Farasat
2017-04-01
The main objective of this paper is to investigate anisotropic universe in f(G) gravity. Locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I cosmological model is considered for this purpose. First, some exact solutions with a well-known form of f(G) model are explored. In particular, two solutions are reported for the analysis. Secondly, we discuss the energy conditions for the model under consideration. The viability of the model is investigated via graphical analysis using the present day values of cosmological parameters. The strong energy condition is violated which shows that anisotropic universe in f(G) gravity supports the phenomenon of expansion of universe.
Three-parameter AVO crossplotting in anisotropic media
Chen, H.; Castagna, J.P.; Brown, R.L.; Ramos, A.C.B.
2001-01-01
Amplitude versus offset (AVO) interpretation can be facilitated by crossplotting AVO intercept (A), gradient (B), and curvature (C) terms. However, anisotropy, which exists in the real world, usually complicates AVO analysis. Recognizing anisotropic behavior on AVO crossplots can help avoid AVO interpretation errors. Using a modification to a three-term (A, B, and C) approximation to the exact anisotropic reflection coefficients for transversely isotropic media, we find that anisotropy has a nonlinear effect on an A versus C crossplot yet causes slope changes and differing intercepts on A versus B or C crossplots. Empirical corrections that result in more accurate crossplot interpretation are introduced for specific circumstances.
Lectin sensitized anisotropic silver nanoparticles for detection of some bacteria.
Gasparyan, Vardan K; Bazukyan, Inga L
2013-03-05
A method of bacteria detection by sensitized anisotropic silver nanoparticles is presented. Anisotropic silver nanoparticles with two bands of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) are prepared and sensitized with potato lectin. These nanoparticles are able to detect three bacterial species: Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. The interaction of these bacteria with such nanoparticles induces drastic changes in optical spectra of nanoparticles that are correlated with bacteria titer. The maximal sensitivity is observed for S. aureus (up to 1.5×10(4) mL(-1)).
Anisotropic diffraction of bulk acoustic wave beams in lithium niobate.
Naumenko, Natalya F; Chizhikov, Sergey I; Molchanov, Vladimir Ya; Yushkov, Konstantin B
2015-12-01
The formalism of planar diffraction tensor was applied to the analysis of anisotropy of bulk acoustic wave diffraction and to build a full map of anisotropic diffractional coefficients for three bulk acoustic wave modes propagating in lithium niobate. For arbitrary propagation direction the diffractional coefficients derived allow estimation of ultrasonic beam divergence in far-field. Analysis of obtained data revealed that the maxima of acousto-optic figure of merit for anisotropic diffraction in the YZ plane correspond to moderate diffractional spreading of the beams exceeding isotropic diffraction 2-3 times.
Anisotropic Second Harmonic Generation at Single Crystal Metal Surfaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kexiang, He.
The work in this thesis comprises a set of experiments designed to study the anisotropic spatial dependence of second harmonic generation (SHG) from the surface of single crystal metals. The anisotropic dependence of reflected SHG from Al_2O_3 Al(111) interface was studied. The isotropic dependence of the SHG signal is used to probe the structural symmetry of the Al_2O_3Al(111) interface. For P- and S-polarized laser light incident at a fixed angle of 45^circ, the intensities of S- and P-polarized components of SHG signal were measured as a function of rotation angle during rotation of the surface about its normal. Anisotropic SHG studies were also performed on high Miller index surface of Al(331) and on a Al surface cut at 22.5^ circ with respect to the Al(111) surface. For the Al(331) surface, the anisotropic dependence of the SHG signal was measured for both the S- and P-polarized signals under both S- and P-polarized laser excitation. The anisotropy of the SHG from Al(331) were fit with theory using the assumption that symmetry is retained for this surface at the metal oxide-metal interface. Existing theory is used to derive the theoretical expressions predicting the anisotropic dependence of SHG from Al(331). The SHG probe was also used to follow pulsed laser annealing (PLA) of the Al_2O_3/Al(111) interface from on a chemically polished Al(111) surface. Using P-polarized pump laser light, the P-polarized SHG signal exhibits three equally spaced, equal intensity maxima during a single complete rotation of Al_2O _3/Al(111) interface about the interface normal. Annealing of the interface is found to occur when the P-polarized 1064nm pump laser light has an incident peak power of 11 times 10 ^6W/cm^2 per pulse. The intensity of the P-polarized 532nm SHG signal generated in reflection from this annealed interface exhibits a reduced anisotropic component in the SHG signal. Measurements of the anisotropic SHG signal from ionized beam deposited Al thin-films on Si(111
Lagrangian and Eulerian statistics in homogeneous, anisotropic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iyer, Kartik; Bonaccorso, Fabio; Toschi, Federico; Biferale, Luca
2016-11-01
We report results from highly resolved direct numerical simulations of anisotropic homogeneous flows using up to 20483 collocations points. We examine a turbulent Kolmogorov flow with randomly correlated phases in order to recover space homogeneity on average. We present Eulerian and Lagrangian measurements concerning the universality of isotropic and anisotropic contributions using a systematic decomposition based on the eigenfunctions of the SO (3) group of rotations in three dimensions. Additionally, we discuss absolute dispersion statistics of particles in flows subjected to different large-scale anisotropies. ERC ADG NewTURB 2013.
Furusawa, Kazuya; Sato, Shoichi; Masumoto, Jyun-ichi; Hanazaki, Yohei; Maki, Yasuyuki; Dobashi, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Takao; Fukui, Akimasa; Sasaki, Naoki
2012-01-09
We have found that dialysis of 5 mg/mL collagen solution into the phosphate solution with a pH of 7.1 and an ionic strength of 151 mM [corrected] at 25 °C results in a collagen gel with a birefringence and tubular pores aligned parallel to the growth direction of the gel. The time course of averaged diameter of tubular pores during the anisotropic gelation was expressed by a power law with an exponent of 1/3, suggesting that the formation of tubular pores is attributed to a spinodal decomposition-like phase separation. Small angle light scattering patterns and high resolution confocal laser scanning microscope images of the anisotropic collagen gel suggested that the collagen fibrils are aligned perpendicular to the growth direction of the gel. The positional dependence of the order parameter of the collagen fibrils showed that the anisotropic collagen gel has an orientation gradient.
Filippov, V. V.; Bormontov, E. N.
2013-07-15
A macroscopic model of the Hall effects and magnetoresistance in anisotropic semiconductor wafers is developed. The results obtained by solving the electrodynamic boundary problem allow the potential and eddy currents in anisotropic semiconductors to be calculated at different current-contact locations, depending on the parameters of the sample material's anisotropy. The results of this study are of great practical importance for investigating the physical properties of anisotropic semiconductors and simulating the electron-transport phenomena in devices based on anisotropic semiconductors.
Jones, Stacy; Pramanik, Avijit; Sweet, Carrie; Keyes, Anthony; Begum, Salma; Vangra, Aruna; Yu, Hongtal; Fu, Peter P; Ray, Paresh Chandra
2017-01-02
This review summarizes recent advances on design strategies for shape-controlled anisotropic gold nanoparticles. Detailed chemical mechanism has been discussed to understand the anisotropic growth. The effect of various chemical parameters and surface facets for the formation of different shaped anisotropic nanoparticles have been addressed.
Mechanics of anisotropic plates and shells - A new look at an old subject
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noor, A. K.
1992-07-01
A number of aspects of the mechanics of anisotropic plates and shells are discussed. The topics covered include computational models of anisotropic plates and shells, consequences of anisotropy on deformation couplings, symmetry types, stress concentrations and edge effects, and importance of transverse shear deformation; recent applications and recent advances in the modeling and analysis of anisotropic plates and shells; and new research directions.
Quark–gluon plasma phenomenology from anisotropic lattice QCD
Skullerud, Jon-Ivar; Kelly, Aoife; Aarts, Gert; Allton, Chris; Amato, Alessandro; Evans, P. Wynne M.; Hands, Simon; Burnier, Yannis; Giudice, Pietro; Harris, Tim; Ryan, Sinéad M.; Kim, Seyong; Lombardo, Maria Paola; Oktay, Mehmet B.; Rothkopf, Alexander
2016-01-22
The FASTSUM collaboration has been carrying out simulations of N{sub f} = 2 + 1 QCD at nonzero temperature in the fixed-scale approach using anisotropic lattices. Here we present the status of these studies, including recent results for electrical conductivity and charge diffusion, and heavy quarkonium (charm and beauty) physics.
Hedgehogs in a three-dimensional anisotropic spin system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jonsson, Thordur
1983-06-01
We study a continuum version of a classical anisotropic spin model in three dimensions with three component spins. We prove the existence of topological defects, called hedgehogs, which are analogous to the vortices in the two-dimensional xy-model and have a logarithmically divergent action. Bounds for the interaction energy of a hedgehog and an antihedgehog are derived.
Deformation, fatigue and fracture behavior of two cast anisotropic superalloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Milligan, Walter W.; Huron, Eric S.; Antolovich, Stephen D.
1987-01-01
Tensile and low cycle fatigue (LCF) tests were conducted on two cast anisotropic superalloys. The effects of temperature, strain rate and stress range were investigated. Deformation behavior was extensively characterized and modeled. LCF and fracture behavior were studied and correlated with deformation behavior.
Switch isotropic/anisotropic wettability via dual-scale rods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Yang; Jiang, Chengyu; Wang, Shengkun; Ma, Zhibo; Yuan, Weizheng
2014-10-01
It is the first time to demonstrate the comparison of isotropic/anisotropic wettability between dual-scale micro-nano-rods and single-scale micro-rods. Inspired by the natural structures of rice leaf, a series of micro-nano-rods and micro-rods with different geometric parameters were fabricated using micro-fabrication technology. Experimental measured apparent contact angles and advancing and receding contact angles from orthogonal orientations were characterized. The difference of contact angles from orthogonal orientation on dual-scale rods was much smaller than those on single-scale rods in both static and dynamic situation. It indicated that the dual-scale micro-nano-rods showed isotropic wettability, while single-scale micro-rods showed anisotropic wettability. The switch of isotropic/anisotropic wettability could be illustrated by different wetting state and contact line moving. It offers a facial way to switch isotropic/anisotropic wettability of the surface via dual-scale or single-scale structure.
Leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics for central collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nopoush, Mohammad; Strickland, Michael; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Bazow, Dennis; Heinz, Ulrich; Martinez, Mauricio
2015-10-01
We use leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics to study an azimuthally symmetric boost-invariant quark-gluon plasma. We impose a realistic lattice-based equation of state and perform self-consistent anisotropic freeze-out to hadronic degrees of freedom. We then compare our results for the full spatiotemporal evolution of the quark-gluon plasma and its subsequent freeze-out to results obtained using 1+1D Israel-Stewart second-order viscous hydrodynamics. We find that for small shear viscosities, 4 π η /s ˜1 , the two methods agree well for nucleus-nucleus collisions; however, for large-shear-viscosity-to-entropy-density ratios or proton-nucleus collisions we find important corrections to the Israel-Stewart results for the final particle spectra and the total number of charged particles. Finally, we demonstrate that the total number of charged particles produced is a monotonically increasing function of 4 π η /s in Israel-Stewart viscous hydrodynamics, whereas in anisotropic hydrodynamics it has a maximum at 4 π η /s ˜10 . For all 4 π η /s >0 , we find that for Pb-Pb collisions Israel-Stewart viscous hydrodynamics predicts more dissipative particle production than anisotropic hydrodynamics.
Deformation, fatigue and fracture behavior of two cast anisotropic superalloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Milligan, Walter W.; Huron, Eric S.; Antolovich, Stephen D.
1987-01-01
Tensile and low cycle fatigue (LCF) tests were conducted on two cast anisotropic superalloys. The effects of temperature, strain rate and stress range were investigated. Deformation behavior was extensively characterized and modeled. LCF and fracture behavior were studied and correlated with deformation behavior.
Symmetry algebra of a generalized anisotropic harmonic oscillator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Castanos, O.; Lopez-Pena, R.
1993-01-01
It is shown that the symmetry Lie algebra of a quantum system with accidental degeneracy can be obtained by means of the Noether's theorem. The procedure is illustrated by considering a generalized anisotropic two dimensional harmonic oscillator, which can have an infinite set of states with the same energy characterized by an u(1,1) Lie algebra.
All static spherically symmetric anisotropic solutions of Einstein's equations
Herrera, L.; Di Prisco, A.; Ospino, J.
2008-01-15
An algorithm recently presented by Lake to obtain all static spherically symmetric perfect fluid solutions is extended to the case of locally anisotropic fluids (principal stresses unequal). As expected, the new formalism requires the knowledge of two functions (instead of one) to generate all possible solutions. To illustrate the method some known cases are recovered.
Properties and evolution of anisotropic structures in collisionless plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karimov, A. R.; Yu, M. Y.; Stenflo, L.
2016-10-01
A new class of exact electrostatic solutions of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations based on the Jeans's theorem is proposed for studying the evolution and properties of two-dimensional anisotropic plasmas that are far from thermodynamic equilibrium. In particular, the free expansion of a slab of electron-ion plasma into vacuum is investigated.
Propagation characteristics of an extremely anisotropic metamaterial loaded helical guide.
Sharma, Dushyant K; Pathak, Surya K
2016-12-26
In this study, we report slow wave propagation characteristics of an extremely anisotropic metamaterial loaded helical guide (EAMLHG). An analytical expression has been theoretically derived and numerically computed to get exact solutions of all possible guided modes of propagation. Anisotropy is defined in terms of positive longitudinal permittivity (ϵz > 0) and negatives transverse permittivity value (ϵt < 0). The waveguide supports hybrid (HE) mode propagation and possesses characteristics of backward wave (BW) mode, forward wave (FW) mode, zero-group velocity and mode-degeneracy. The large value of effective index of BW mode and mode-degeneracy mechanism leads to slowing and trapping of electromagnetic (EM) wave. Closed-form guided mode energy propagation expressions has been also derived and computed which exhibits zero power flow at mode degeneracy point. A comparative study is also carried out between extremely anisotropic metamaterial helical waveguide (EAMLHG) and conventional extremely anisotropic metamaterial cylindrical guide (EAMCG), which reveals enhanced slow wave behaviour. Engineering feasible design and analysis is also presented by combining alternate disks of silver and glass as an extremely anisotropic medium which exhibits lossy and dispersive properties. This type of waveguide can find applications as a filter, phase shifter, and delay lines in microwave to THz applications and, as an optical buffer in optoelectronics applications.
Seismic Gradiometry using Ambient Seismic Noise in an Anisotropic Earth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Ridder, S. A. L.; Curtis, A.
2017-02-01
We introduce a wavefield gradiometry technique to estimate both isotropic and anisotropic local medium characteristics from short recordings of seismic signals by inverting a wave equation. The method exploits the information in the spatial gradients of a seismic wavefield that are calculated using dense deployments of seismic arrays. The application of the method uses the surface wave energy in the ambient seismic field. To estimate isotropic and anisotropic medium properties we invert an elliptically anisotropic wave equation. The spatial derivatives of the recorded wavefield are evaluated by calculating finite differences over nearby recordings, which introduces a systematic anisotropic error. A two step approach corrects this error: finite difference stencils are first calibrated, then the output of the wave-equation inversion is corrected using the linearized impulse response to the inverted velocity anomaly. We test the procedure on ambient seismic noise recorded in a large and dense ocean bottom cable array installed over Ekofisk field. The estimated azimuthal anisotropy forms a circular geometry around the production-induced subsidence bowl. This conforms with results from studies employing controlled sources, and with interferometry correlating long records of seismic noise. Yet in this example, the results where obtained using only a few minutes of ambient seismic noise.
Anisotropic oxygen plasma etching of colloidal particles in electrospun fibers.
Ding, Tao; Tian, Ye; Liang, Kui; Clays, Koen; Song, Kai; Yang, Guoqiang; Tung, Chen-Ho
2011-02-28
Oxygen plasma etching of electrospun polymer fibers containing spherical colloids is presented as a new approach towards anisotropic colloidal nanoparticles. The detailed morphology of the resulting nanoparticles can be precisely controlled in a continuous way. The same approach is also amenable to prepare inorganic nanoparticles with double-sided patches.
Polarization conversion-based molecular sensing using anisotropic plasmonic metasurfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verre, R.; Maccaferri, N.; Fleischer, K.; Svedendahl, M.; Odebo Länk, N.; Dmitriev, A.; Vavassori, P.; Shvets, I. V.; Käll, M.
2016-05-01
Anisotropic media induce changes in the polarization state of transmitted and reflected light. Here we combine this effect with the refractive index sensitivity typical of plasmonic nanoparticles to experimentally demonstrate self-referenced single wavelength refractometric sensing based on polarization conversion. We fabricated anisotropic plasmonic metasurfaces composed of gold dimers and, as a proof of principle, measured the changes in the rotation of light polarization induced by biomolecular adsorption with a surface sensitivity of 0.2 ng cm-2. We demonstrate the possibility of miniaturized sensing and we show that experimental results can be reproduced by analytical theory. Various ways to increase the sensitivity and applicability of the sensing scheme are discussed.Anisotropic media induce changes in the polarization state of transmitted and reflected light. Here we combine this effect with the refractive index sensitivity typical of plasmonic nanoparticles to experimentally demonstrate self-referenced single wavelength refractometric sensing based on polarization conversion. We fabricated anisotropic plasmonic metasurfaces composed of gold dimers and, as a proof of principle, measured the changes in the rotation of light polarization induced by biomolecular adsorption with a surface sensitivity of 0.2 ng cm-2. We demonstrate the possibility of miniaturized sensing and we show that experimental results can be reproduced by analytical theory. Various ways to increase the sensitivity and applicability of the sensing scheme are discussed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01336h
Scale disparity and spectral transfer in anisotropic numerical turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhou, YE; Yeung, P. K.; Brasseur, James G.
1994-01-01
To study the effect of cancellations within long-range interactions on local isotropy at the small scales, we calculate explicitly the degree of cancellation in distant interactions in the simulations of Yeung & Brasseur and Yeung, Brasseur & Wang using the single scale disparity parameter 's' developed by Zhou. In the simulations, initially isotropic simulated turbulence was subjected to coherent anisotropic forcing at the large scales and the smallest scales were found to become anisotropic as a consequence of direct large-small scale couplings. We find that the marginally distant interactions in the simulation do not cancel out under summation and that the development of small-scale anisotropy is indeed a direct consequence of the distant triadic group, as argued by Yeung, et. al. A reduction of anisotropy at later times occurs as a result of the isotropizing influences of more local energy-cascading triadic interactions. Nevertheless, the local-to-nonlocal triadic group persists as an isotropizing influence at later times. We find that, whereas long-range interactions, in general, contribute little to net energy transfer into or out of a high wavenumber shell k, the anisotropic transfer of component energy within the shell increases with increasing scale separations. These results are consistent with results by Zhou, and Brasseur & Wei, and suggest that the anisotropizing influences of long range interactions should persist to higher Reynolds numbers. The residual effect of the forced distant group in this low-Reynolds number simulation is found to be forward cascading, on average.
Noncommutative anisotropic oscillator in a homogeneous magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nath, D.; Roy, P.
2017-02-01
We study anisotropic oscillator in the presence of a homogeneous magnetic field and other related systems in the noncommutative plane. Energy values as function of the noncommutative parameter θ and the magnetic field B have been obtained. Some features of the spectrum, for example, formation of energy bands etc. have been examined. The effect of anisotropy on the energy levels has also been discussed.
Seismic gradiometry using ambient seismic noise in an anisotropic Earth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Ridder, S. A. L.; Curtis, A.
2017-05-01
We introduce a wavefield gradiometry technique to estimate both isotropic and anisotropic local medium characteristics from short recordings of seismic signals by inverting a wave equation. The method exploits the information in the spatial gradients of a seismic wavefield that are calculated using dense deployments of seismic arrays. The application of the method uses the surface wave energy in the ambient seismic field. To estimate isotropic and anisotropic medium properties we invert an elliptically anisotropic wave equation. The spatial derivatives of the recorded wavefield are evaluated by calculating finite differences over nearby recordings, which introduces a systematic anisotropic error. A two-step approach corrects this error: finite difference stencils are first calibrated, then the output of the wave-equation inversion is corrected using the linearized impulse response to the inverted velocity anomaly. We test the procedure on ambient seismic noise recorded in a large and dense ocean bottom cable array installed over Ekofisk field. The estimated azimuthal anisotropy forms a circular geometry around the production-induced subsidence bowl. This conforms with results from studies employing controlled sources, and with interferometry correlating long records of seismic noise. Yet in this example, the results were obtained using only a few minutes of ambient seismic noise.
Cluster variation studies of the anisotropic exchange interaction model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, T. C.; Chen, H. H.
The cluster variation method is applied to study critical properties of the Potts-like ferromagnetic anisotropic exchange interaction model. Phase transition temperatures, order parameter discontinuities and latent heats of the model on the triangular and the fcc lattices are determined by the triangle approximation; and those on the square and the sc lattices are determined by the square approximation.
Scattering and Radiation from Anisotropic, Lossy Bodies of Revolution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Epp, L.; Hoppe, D.; Chinn, G.; Lee, J.
1994-01-01
The scattered fields from axisymmetric problems containing lossy dielectrics and an anisotropic media characterized by a lossless permeability tensor are found by the Hybrid Symmetric Finite Element (HSFEM) method. This method, recently applied to lossless ferrite objects, is applied to a lossy dielectric sphere. Extension of this method to scattering from cylindrical horns is discussed.
High-order anisotropic diffraction in photoreflective crystals
Temple, D.A.; Warde, C.
1988-08-01
High-order anisotropic diffraction and anisotropic self-diffraction in barium titanate (BaTiO/sub 3/), strontium barium niobate (Sr/sub x/Ba/sub 1-//sub x/Nb/sub 2/O/sub 6/, or SBN), and barium strontium potassium sodium niobate (Ba/sub 2//sub -//sub x/Sr/sub x/K/sub 1-//sub y/Na/sub y/Nb/sub 5/O/sub 15/, or BSKNN) have been observed: up to fourth order in BaTiO/sub 3/ and SBN and up to fifth order in BSKNN. It is shown that the scattered beams arising from anisotropic self-diffraction are composed of multiple orders. To model anisotropic diffraction, high-order terms have been included in Kukhtarev's solution of the transport equations for diffusion-dominated transport. Light-induced grating decay rates and diffraction efficiencies were measured as a function of grating vector and modulation index for the first three orders in BaTiO/sub 3/ and were found to be in good agreement with the model.
Theoretical studies of anisotropic energy transport in TATB crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kroonblawd, Matthew; Sewell, Thomas
2015-06-01
Anisotropic thermal transport properties were determined theoretically for single crystals of the insensitive explosive 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) using molecular dynamics. TATB exhibits a graphitic-like layered packing structure with a two-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network within, but not between, the molecule-thick layers that comprise the crystal. Anisotropic thermal conductivity coefficients were determined for initially defect-free and defective TATB crystals at various temperatures and pressures, and direction-dependent relaxation of idealized hot spots was studied. The room temperature, atmospheric pressure thermal conductivity for TATB is predicted to be generally greater and more anisotropic than the thermal conductivities of other molecular explosives; conduction within the layers is at least 68% greater than conduction between them. The phonon mean free path length is predicted to be less than 1 nm. Decreases in thermal conductivity induced by molecular vacancy defects are also anisotropic and exhibit a linear dependence on defect density. Results from the hot-spot relaxation simulations were compared with and fit to an analytical solution for the one-dimensional continuum heat equation by treating the thermal diffusivity as a parameter. Validity of the continuum heat equation predictions for TATB is assessed for length scales below 20 nm.
Anisotropic bond percolation by position-space renormalization group
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Oliveira, Paulo Murilo
1982-02-01
We present a position-space renormalization-group procedure for the anisotropic bond-percolation problem in a square lattice. We use a kind of cell which preserves the geometrical features of the whole lattice, including duality. In this manner, the whole phase diagram and the dimensionality crossover exponent (both are exactly known) are reproduced for any scaling factor.
Anisotropic adaptive finite element method for modelling blood flow.
Müller, J; Sahni, O; Li, X; Jansen, K E; Shephard, M S; Taylor, C A
2005-10-01
In this study, we present an adaptive anisotropic finite element method (FEM) and demonstrate how computational efficiency can be increased when applying the method to the simulation of blood flow in the cardiovascular system. We use the SUPG formulation for the transient 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations which are discretised by linear finite elements for both the pressure and the velocity field. Given the pulsatile nature of the flow in blood vessels we have pursued adaptivity based on the average flow over a cardiac cycle. Error indicators are derived to define an anisotropic mesh metric field. Mesh modification algorithms are used to anisotropically adapt the mesh according to the desired size field. We demonstrate the efficiency of the method by first applying it to pulsatile flow in a straight cylindrical vessel and then to a porcine aorta with a stenosis bypassed by a graft. We demonstrate that the use of an anisotropic adaptive FEM can result in an order of magnitude reduction in computing time with no loss of accuracy compared to analyses obtained with uniform meshes.
Anisotropic thermal conduction with magnetic fields in galaxy clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arth, Alexander; Dolag, Klaus; Beck, Alexander; Petkova, Margarita; Lesch, Harald
2015-08-01
Magnetic fields play an important role for the propagation and diffusion of charged particles, which are responsible for thermal conduction. In this poster, we present an implementation of thermal conduction including the anisotropic effects of magnetic fields for smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). The anisotropic thermal conduction is mainly proceeding parallel to magnetic fields and suppressed perpendicular to the fields. We derive the SPH formalism for the anisotropic heat transport and solve the corresponding equation with an implicit conjugate gradient scheme. We discuss several issues of unphysical heat transport in the cases of extreme ansiotropies or unmagnetized regions and present possible numerical workarounds. We implement our algorithm into the cosmological simulation code GADGET and study its behaviour in several test cases. In general, we reproduce the analytical solutions of our idealised test problems, and obtain good results in cosmological simulations of galaxy cluster formations. Within galaxy clusters, the anisotropic conduction produces a net heat transport similar to an isotropic Spitzer conduction model with low efficiency. In contrast to isotropic conduction our new formalism allows small-scale structure in the temperature distribution to remain stable, because of their decoupling caused by magnetic field lines. Compared to observations, strong isotropic conduction leads to an oversmoothed temperature distribution within clusters, while the results obtained with anisotropic thermal conduction reproduce the observed temperature fluctuations well. A proper treatment of heat transport is crucial especially in the outskirts of clusters and also in high density regions. It's connection to the local dynamical state of the cluster also might contribute to the observed bimodal distribution of cool core and non cool core clusters. Our new scheme significantly advances the modelling of thermal conduction in numerical simulations and overall gives
Viscous inclusions in anisotropic materials: Theoretical development and perspective applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Dazhi
2016-12-01
Theories and numerical solutions for a viscous ellipsoid in an infinite anisotropic viscous medium subjected to far-field homogeneous deformation lie at the heart of self-consistent homogenization models and multiscale simulations of texture and fabric development in Earth's lithosphere. There is considerable literature on ellipsoid inclusions, focused on anisotropic elastic materials, published in multi-disciplinary fields. To make this body of work more accessible as well as to advance viscous inclusion studies, an effort is made here to summarize recent advances and to further develop formally more explicit and, where possible, analytic solutions for incompressible viscous materials. The point-force concept and equivalent inclusion method of Eshelby are used together with the Green function approach. This leads to generalized equations for ellipsoid inclusion behaviors in anisotropic materials. In the particular case of isotropic materials, the new mathematical development here enables the use of existing methods for elastic materials to get solutions for corresponding viscous inclusion problems efficiently and accurately. A 2D formulation is also presented for elliptic cylinders in plane-straining flows of anisotropic materials, using the same Green function method that is adopted for 3D inclusions. The 2D formulation is benchmarked with existing analytic solutions. A reconnaissance investigation to compare the behaviors of 2D elliptic inclusions and triaxial ellipsoids in a matrix of planar anisotropy undergoing far-field plane-straining flows suggests that conclusions drawn from 2D cannot be applied to 3D in anisotropic cases. The application of the viscous inclusion theory to the rheologically heterogeneous and non-linear lithosphere is discussed. By regarding a heterogeneous element as an ellipsoidal inclusion embedded in a hypothetical homogeneous equivalent matrix whose effective rheology is obtained through micromechanical homogenization and assuming
Resistivity inversion in 2-D anisotropic media: numerical experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiese, Timothy; Greenhalgh, Stewart; Zhou, Bing; Greenhalgh, Mark; Marescot, Laurent
2015-04-01
Many rocks and layered/fractured sequences have a clearly expressed electrical anisotropy although it is rare in practice to incorporate anisotropy into resistivity inversion. In this contribution, we present a series of 2.5-D synthetic inversion experiments for various electrode configurations and 2-D anisotropic models. We examine and compare the image reconstructions obtained using the correct anisotropic inversion code with those obtained using the false but widely used isotropic assumption. Superior reconstruction in terms of reduced data misfit, true anomaly shape and position, and anisotropic background parameters were obtained when the correct anisotropic assumption was employed for medium to high coefficients of anisotropy. However, for low coefficient values the isotropic assumption produced better-quality results. When an erroneous isotropic inversion is performed on medium to high level anisotropic data, the images are dominated by patterns of banded artefacts and high data misfits. Various pole-pole, pole-dipole and dipole-dipole data sets were investigated and evaluated for the accuracy of the inversion result. The eigenvalue spectra of the pseudo-Hessian matrix and the formal resolution matrix were also computed to determine the information content and goodness of the results. We also present a data selection strategy based on high sensitivity measurements which drastically reduces the number of data to be inverted but still produces comparable results to that of the comprehensive data set. Inversion was carried out using transversely isotropic model parameters described in two different co-ordinate frames for the conductivity tensor, namely Cartesian versus natural or eigenframe. The Cartesian frame provided a more stable inversion product. This can be simply explained from inspection of the eigenspectra of the pseudo-Hessian matrix for the two model descriptions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munzarova, Helena; Plomerova, Jaroslava; Kissling, Edi
2015-04-01
Considering only isotropic wave propagation and neglecting anisotropy in teleseismic tomography studies is a simplification obviously incongruous with current understanding of the mantle-lithosphere plate dynamics. Furthermore, in solely isotropic high-resolution tomography results, potentially significant artefacts (i.e., amplitude and/or geometry distortions of 3D velocity heterogeneities) may result from such neglect. Therefore, we have undertaken to develop a code for anisotropic teleseismic tomography (AniTomo), which will allow us to invert the relative P-wave travel time residuals simultaneously for coupled isotropic-anisotropic P-wave velocity models of the upper mantle. To accomplish that, we have modified frequently-used isotropic teleseismic tomography code Telinv (e.g., Weiland et al., JGR, 1995; Lippitsch, JGR, 2003; Karousova et al., GJI, 2013). Apart from isotropic velocity heterogeneities, a weak hexagonal anisotropy is assumed as well to be responsible for the observed P-wave travel-time residuals. Moreover, no limitations to orientation of the symmetry axis are prescribed in the code. We allow a search for anisotropy oriented generally in 3D, which represents a unique approach among recent trials that otherwise incorporate only azimuthal anisotopy into the body-wave tomography. The presented code for retrieving anisotropy in 3D thus enables its direct applications to datasets from tectonically diverse regions. In this contribution, we outline the theoretical background of the AniTomo anisotropic tomography code. We parameterize the mantle lithosphere and asthenosphere with an orthogonal grid of nodes with various values of isotropic velocities, as well as of strength and orientation of anisotropy in 3D, which is defined by azimuth and inclination of either fast or slow symmetry axis of the hexagonal approximation of the media. Careful testing of the new code on synthetics, concentrating on code functionality, strength and weaknesses, is a
Modeling of ductile deformation in anisotropic rocks with slip surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dabrowski, Marcin
2013-04-01
Flanking structures and sheath folds can develop in layered rocks due to flow perturbation around slip surfaces in shear zones (Exner and Dabrowski, 2010; Reber et al., submitted). Mechanical anisotropy of the host rock has been shown to play a major role in determining the slip rate and the flow pattern around it (Kocher and Mancktelow, 2006; Fletcher, 2011). In addition, anisotropic fluids such as ductile foliated rocks have a 'memory' of deformation due to evolving microstructure. For example, the rotation of a rigid circular inclusion embedded in a layered host in layer-parallel shear results in the structural reorganization around it, which leads to the modification of the flow pattern in the host and in consequence to a massive reduction of the inclusion rotation rate (Dabrowski and Schmid, 2011). Willis (1964) derived an analytical elastic solution for an elliptical inclusion in a homogeneous anisotropic matrix subject to a uniform load in the far field. The solution can be reduced to the case of an incompressible viscous medium. The case of an arbitrarily oriented inviscid slit under shear parallel to the principal axis of anisotropy can be obtained by reducing it even further. Although derived for the initial state of homogeneous planar anisotropy, the solution provides useful insights into the large deformation behavior of the system. In this study, I will use different models and numerical modeling techniques to assess the impact of mechanical anisotropy and structural development on the perturbing flow around an inviscid slit (slip surface) embedded in a host comprising discrete isotropic layers in layer-parallel simple shear. In the limit of thin layers (the number of layers intercepting the slit tends to infinity), the host is modeled as an anisotropic fluid. The anisotropic viscosity is determined by the bulk anisotropic viscosity of the layered system. The layering is initially planar or equivalently the anisotropy is initially homogeneous. Both non
Raskin, Salmo; Pereira-Ferrari, Lilian; Reis, Francisco Caldeira; Abreu, Fernando; Marostica, Paulo; Rozov, Tatiana; Cardieri, Joselina; Ludwig, Norberto; Valentin, Lairton; Rosario-Filho, Nelson Augusto; Camargo Neto, Eurico; Lewis, Eduardo; Giugliani, Roberto; Diniz, Edna Maria Albuquerque; Culpi, Lodercio; Phillip, John Atlas; Chakraborty, Ranajit
2008-01-01
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common single-gene defects in European descent populations with an incidence of about 1 in every 2500 live births and carrier frequency of approximately 1 in 25. The most common mutation at the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene is a deletion (p.F508del) of the phenylalanine codon 508; its frequency, however, is not the same throughout the world. The purpose of this paper is to document an application of a two-tier survey design in different states of Brazil, from which regional differences of the incidence of CF and frequency of CF-causing mutation(s) carriers can be for the first time estimated. We present data on genotype distributions in reference to p.F508del mutation in samples of newborns, adult controls and CF patients from five Brazilian states, in which a total of 2683 newborns born to Brazilian white parents and 500 African-Brazilians adult controls were screened, as well as 300 CF patients (262 European descents and 38 African descents) were genotyped. Our results suggest that the CF-incidence in different parts of Brazil may differ by almost 20-fold. For the five different states as a whole, nearly 48% of the CF-alleles carry the p.F508del mutation, which places the estimates of disease incidence and carrier frequencies for the Brazilian European descents as 1 in 7576 live births and 2.3%, respectively. The implications for prevention of CF and other rare Mendelian diseases through such surveys of mutation screening are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mudunuru, M. K.; Shabouei, M.; Nakshatrala, K.
2015-12-01
. Several representative numerical examples are discussed to illustrate the importance of the proposed numerical formulations to accurately describe various aspects of mixing process in chaotic flows and to simulate transport in highly heterogeneous anisotropic media.
Magnetotelluric inversion for anisotropic conductivities in layered media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pek, Josef; Santos, Fernando A. M.
2006-10-01
Electrical anisotropy in the Earth's crust and upper mantle has recently gained attention as a significant linking factor between electrical models and underlying structural and tectonic patterns. This interest has also motivated new methodological studies into the modelling and inversion for electrically anisotropic structures. We present an algorithm for the inversion of magnetotelluric data over layered anisotropic conductors which is a straightforward extension of the standard Occam 1-D inversion to anisotropic models. Owing to the essential limitation of magnetotellurics to resolve the complete conductivity tensor, we formulate the inversion for azimuthal anisotropy only. We treat the non-linear inverse problem as a multi-criterion minimization of the structure complexity, data misfit and anisotropy. To constrain the structure complexity, we employ the standard roughness penalty as well as non-quadratic penalties of the total variation and gradient support type that produce more focused model sections and thus conform better to the idea about sharp, non-diffuse boundaries of anisotropic structures in the Earth. Application of the anisotropy penalty is crucial for suppressing spurious anisotropy in the inverse models. We use a 2-D extension of the heuristic L-curve method to estimate the quasi-optimal penalty weights. With two non-linear iteration solvers, specifically the reweighted conjugate gradient method and the lagged diffusivity iteration, we can arrive at the minimum of the target functional, for one selected pair of regularization weights, typically after a few tens of iteration steps. To demonstrate the inverse solution, we present two simple yet not completely trivial synthetic examples, the first one based on data generated by a model with two anisotropic layers with discordant strikes, and the other showing possible misinterpretations in case a 1-D inversion with anisotropy is formally applied to data produced by simple 2-D block structures. Field
Constraining crustal anisotropy: The anisotropic H-κ stacking technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hammond, James
2014-05-01
Measuring anisotropy in the crust and mantle is commonly performed to make inferences on crust/upper mantle deformation, tectonic history or the presence of fluids. However, separating the contribution of the crust and mantle to the anisotropic signature remains a challenge. This is because common seismic techniques to determine anisotropy (e.g., SKS splitting, surface waves) lack the resolution to distinguish between the two, particular in regions where deep crustal earthquakes are lacking. Receiver functions offer the chance to determine anisotropy in the crust alone, offering both the depth resolution that shear-wave splitting lacks and the lateral resolution that surface waves are unable to provide. Here I present a new anisotropic H-κ stacking technique which constrains anisotropy in the crust. I show that in a medium with horizontally transverse isotropy a strong variation in κ (VP-to-VS ratio) with back azimuth is present which characterises the anisotropic medium. In a vertically transverse isotropic medium no variation in κ with back azimuth is observed, but κ is increased across all back azimuths. While, these results show that estimates of κ are more difficult to relate to composition than previously thought, they offer the opportunity to constrain anisotropy in the crust. Based on these observations I develop a new anisotropic H-κ stacking technique which inverts H-κ data for anisotropy. I apply these new techniques to data from the Afar Depression, Ethiopia and extend the technique to invert for melt induced anisotropy solving for melt fraction, aspect ratio and orientation of melt inclusions. I show that melt is stored in interconnected stacked sills in the lower crust, which likely supply the recent volcanic eruptions and dike intrusions. The crustal anisotropic signal can explain much of the SKS-splitting results, suggesting minimal influence from the mantle. This results show that it is essential to consider anisotropy when performing H
Mixing and diffusion in intermittent overturning turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Redondo, Jose M.; Mahjoub, Otman B.; Gonzalez-Nieto, Pilar L.; Lawry, Andrew
2014-05-01
of scales. The method involving the multi-fractal dimension measurements is much more elaborated and seems to have a better theoretical justification in the sense that it is possible that different concentrations showing different fractal dimensions may be due to different levels of intermittency (and thus different spectra, which are not generally in equilibrium as dscribed by[9,10]. Using topological descriptors we can establish now a theoretical baseline pattern for the turbulence behaviour that is reflected in the different structures (volume fraction, velocity, vorticity, helicity) we can thus obtain a classification relating D3 and the integral of the different fractal dimensions D2 for different levels of scalar (volume fraction reaction intensity or temperature). [5,8,11] Vorticity evolution is more smooth and quite different than that of volume fraction or density and these seem also different for the RT and RM instability driven mixing showing a wider range of even higher mixing efficiencies 0- 0.66 Thanks to European Union project ERBIC15-CT96-0111 Multi-scale complex fluid flows and interfacial phenomena (PITN-GA-2008-214919). ERCOFTAC and GenCat. grant 2001SGR00221. [1] Mahjoub O.B., Redondo J.M. and Babiano A. (2000) Hyerarchy flux in nonhomogeneous flows in Turbulent diffusion in the environment Eds. Redondo J.M. and Babiano A. 249-260. . [2] Dalziel, S. B.,(1994) Perturbations and coherent flow in Rayleigh-Taylor instability: in 4th International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, ed. P. F. Linden, D. L. Youngs, & S. B. Dalziel; 32-41. [3] Linden, P. F., Redondo, J. M., and Youngs, D. (1994) Molecular mixing in Rayleigh-Taylor instability, J. Fluid Mech. 265, 97-124 [4] Vindel, J.M., Yague, C. and Redondo, J.M. Nuovo Cimento (2008) 31, [5]Redondo J.M. (1993) Fractal models of density interfaces. Wavelets, Fractals and Fourier transforms. (Eds.) M. Farge, J.C.R. Hunt and J.C. Vassilicos. 353-370. IMA number 43, Clarendon Press
On anisotropic versions of three-dimensional pentamode metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kadic, Muamer; Bückmann, Tiemo; Schittny, Robert; Wegener, Martin
2013-02-01
Pentamode materials are artificial solids with elastic properties that approximate those of isotropic liquids. The corresponding three-dimensional mechanical metamaterials or ‘meta-liquids’ have recently been fabricated. In contrast to normal liquids, anisotropic meta-liquids are also possible—a prerequisite for realizing many of the envisioned transformation-elastodynamics architectures. Here, we study several possibilities theoretically for introducing intentional anisotropy into three-dimensional pentamode metamaterials. In static continuum mechanics, the transition from anti-auxetic pentamode materials to auxetics is possible. Near this transition, in the dynamic case, approximately uniaxial versions of pentamode metamaterials deliver anisotropic longitudinal-wave phase velocities different by nearly a factor of 10 for realistically accessible microstructure parameters.
A crossover in anisotropic nanomechanochemistry of van der Waals crystals
Shimamura, Kohei; Misawa, Masaaki; Li, Ying; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya; Shimojo, Fuyuki
2015-12-07
In nanoscale mechanochemistry, mechanical forces selectively break covalent bonds to essentially control chemical reactions. An archetype is anisotropic detonation of layered energetic molecular crystals bonded by van der Waals (vdW) interactions. Here, quantum molecular dynamics simulations reveal a crossover of anisotropic nanomechanochemistry of vdW crystal. Within 10{sup −13} s from the passage of shock front, lateral collision produces NO{sub 2} via twisting and bending of nitro-groups and the resulting inverse Jahn-Teller effect, which is mediated by strong intra-layer hydrogen bonds. Subsequently, as we transition from heterogeneous to homogeneous mechanochemical regimes around 10{sup −12} s, shock normal to multilayers becomes more reactive, producing H{sub 2}O assisted by inter-layer N-N bond formation. These time-resolved results provide much needed atomistic understanding of nanomechanochemistry that underlies a wider range of technologies.
String-fluid transition in systems with aligned anisotropic interactions.
Brandt, P C; Ivlev, A V; Morfill, G E
2010-06-21
Systems with aligned anisotropic interactions between particles exhibit numerous phase transitions. A remarkable example of the fluid phase transition occurring in such systems is the formation of particle strings--the so-called "string" or "chain" fluids. We employ an approach based on the Ornstein-Zernike (OZ) equation, which allows us to calculate structural properties of fluids with aligned anisotropic interactions. We show that the string-fluid transition can be associated with the bifurcation of the "isotropic" correlation length into two distinct scales which characterize the longitudinal and transverse order in string fluids and, hence, may be used as a fingerprint of this transition. The comparison of the proposed OZ theory with the Monte Carlo simulations reveals fairly good agreement.
Local deposition of anisotropic nanoparticles using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM).
Fedorov, Roman G; Mandler, Daniel
2013-02-28
We demonstrate localized electrodeposition of anisotropic metal nanoobjects, namely Au nanorods (GNR), on indium tin oxide (ITO) using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). A gold microelectrode was the source of the gold ions whereby double pulse chronoamperometry was employed to generate initially Au seeds which were further grown under controlled conditions. The distance between the microelectrode and the ITO surface as well as the different experimental parameters (electrodeposition regime, solution composition and temperature) were optimized to produce faceted gold seeds with the required characteristics (size and distribution). Colloidal chemical synthesis was successfully exploited for better understanding the role of the surfactant and different additives in breaking the crystallographic symmetry and anisotropic growth of GNR. Experiments performed in a conventional three-electrode cell revealed the most appropriate electrochemical conditions allowing high yield synthesis of nanorods with well-defined shape as well as nanocubes and bipyramids.
Lifting a large object from an anisotropic porous bed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karmakar, Timir; Raja Sekhar, G. P.
2016-09-01
An analytical study of two dimensional problem of lifting an object from the top of a fully saturated rigid porous bed is discussed. It is assumed that the porous bed is anisotropic in nature. The flow within the gap region between the object and the porous bed is assumed to be governed by Stokes equation while the flow within the porous bed is governed by Brinkman equation. The breakout phenomenon for different kinds of soil is reported. The effect of mechanical properties like anisotropic permeability, grain diameter size, and porosity on streamlines, velocity, and force is analyzed. Relevant comparison with C. C. Mei, R. W. Yeung, and K. F. Liu ["Lifting a large object from a porous bed," J. Fluid. Mech. 152, 203-215 (1985)] and Y. Chang, L. H. Huang and F. P. Y. Yang ["Two-dimensional lift-up problem for a rigid porous bed," Phys. Fluids, 27, 053101 (2015)] is done.
Transport equations for multicomponent anisotropic space plasmas - A review
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barakat, A. R.; Schunk, R. W.
1982-01-01
An attempt is made to present a unified approach to the study of transport phenomena in multicomponent anisotropic space plasmas. In particular, a system of generalized transport equations is presented that can be applied to widely different plasma flow conditions. The generalized transport equations can describe subsonic and supersonic flows, collision-dominated and collisionless flows, plasma flows in rapidly changing magnetic field configurations, multicomponent plasma flows with large temperature differences between the interacting species, and plasma flows that contain anisotropic temperature distributions. In addition, if Maxwell's equations of electricity and magnetism are added to the system of transport equations, they can be used to model electrostatic shocks, double layers, and magnetic merging processes. These transport equations also contain terms which act to regulate both the heat flow and temperature anisotropy, processes which appear to be operating in the solar wind.
Random optical beam propagation in anisotropic turbulence along horizontal links.
Wang, Fei; Korotkova, Olga
2016-10-17
Considerable amount of data has been collected in the past asserting that atmospheric turbulence has regions where it exhibits anisotropic statistics. For instance, it is known that the fluctuations in the refractive index within the first meter above the ground are typically stronger in the vertical direction compared with those in the horizontal directions. We have investigated the second-order statistical properties of a Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beam traversing anisotropic atmospheric turbulence along a horizontal path. Analytical expression is rigorously derived for the cross-spectral density function of a GSM beam. It is shown that the spread of the beam and its coherence properties become different in two transverse directions due to anisotropy. In the limiting case when the source coherence width becomes infinite our results reduce to those for Gaussian beam propagation. Source partial coherence is shown to mitigate anisotropy at sub-kilometer distances.
Anisotropic Local Correlations and Dynamics in a Relaxor Ferroelectric
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takenaka, Hiroyuki; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.
2013-04-01
Relaxor ferroelectrics have been a focus of intense attention due to their anomalous properties, and understanding the structure and dynamics of relaxors has been one of the long-standing challenges in solid-state physics. We investigate the local structure and dynamics in 75%PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-25%PbTiO3 using molecular dynamics simulations and the dynamic pair distribution function technique. We show that relaxor transitions can be described by local order parameters. The relaxor phase is characterized by the presence of highly anisotropic correlations between the local cation displacements that resemble the hydrogen bond network in water. This contradicts the current model of polar nanoregion inside a nonpolar matrix. We therefore suggest a new model of a homogeneous random network of anisotropically coupled dipoles.
Prediction of the point of impact in an anisotropic plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koabaz, M.; Hajzargarbashi, T.; Kundu, T.; Deschamps, M.
2011-01-01
Locating the point of impact of a foreign object in a plate is important for continuous health monitoring of structures. A new method based on an optimization scheme has been recently proposed to locate the point of impact in anisotropic plates by analyzing the times of arrival of the ultrasonic signals at the passive sensors attached to the plate. Following this optimization based technique, in this paper the impact point on an anisotropic plate is predicted from the acoustic emission data. Experiments are carried out with a carbon-epoxy plate where the impact point is modeled by an acoustic source. A Parallel Pre-stressed Actuator (PPA) is used as the acoustic source and the acoustic signals at different locations are received by adhesively bonded acoustic sensors. The source point is then predicted and compared with its actual location. Related theory is also presented in the paper.
Dynamics of anisotropic power-law f( R) cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shamir, M. F.
2016-12-01
Modified theories of gravity have attracted much attention of the researchers in the recent years. In particular, the f( R) theory has been investigated extensively due to important f( R) gravity models in cosmological contexts. This paper is devoted to exploring an anisotropic universe in metric f( R) gravity. A locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I cosmological model is considered for this purpose. Exact solutions of modified field equations are obtained for a well-known f( R) gravity model. The energy conditions are also discussed for the model under consideration. The viability of the model is investigated via graphical analysis using the present-day values of cosmological parameters. The model satisfies null energy, weak energy, and dominant energy conditions for a particular range of the anisotropy parameter while the strong energy condition is violated, which shows that the anisotropic universe in f( R) gravity supports the crucial issue of accelerated expansion of the universe.
Deep Tunnel in Transversely Anisotropic Rock with Groundwater Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bobet, Antonio
2016-12-01
Closed-form solutions for the stresses and deformations induced in the ground and tunnel liner are provided for a deep tunnel in a transversely anisotropic elastic rock, with anisotropic permeability, when subjected to groundwater seepage. Complex variable theory and conformal mapping are used to obtain the solutions; additional complex functions, necessary to prevent multiple solutions of the displacements, are included. The analytical solutions are verified by comparing their results from those of a finite element method. Simplified formulations are presented for tunnels with a perfectly flexible and completely incompressible liner. A spreadsheet is included that can be used to obtain stresses and displacements of the liner due to groundwater flow and far-field geostatic stresses.
Anisotropic stress correlations in two-dimensional liquids
Wu, Bin; Iwashita, Takuya; Egami, Takeshi
2015-03-01
In this paper we demonstrate the presence of anisotropic stress correlations in the simulated 2D liquids. Whereas the temporal correlation of macroscopic shear stress is known to contribute to viscosity via the Green-Kubo formula, the general question regarding angular dependence of the spatial correlation among atomic level stresses in liquids without external shear has not been explored. Besides the apparent anisotropicity with well-defined symmetry, we found that the characteristic length of shear stress correlation depends on temperature and follows the power law, suggesting divergence around the glass transition temperature. The anisotropy of the stress correlations can be explained in termsmore » of the inclusion model by Eshelby, based upon which we suggest that the mismatch between the atom and its nearest neighbor cage produces the atomic level stress as well as the long-range stress fields.« less