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Sample records for anisum foeniculum vulgare

  1. Randomized clinical trial of a phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, and Cassia augustifolia for chronic constipation.

    PubMed

    Picon, Paulo D; Picon, Rafael V; Costa, Andry F; Sander, Guilherme B; Amaral, Karine M; Aboy, Ana L; Henriques, Amélia T

    2010-04-30

    A phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum L., Foeniculum vulgare Miller, Sambucus nigra L., and Cassia augustifolia is largely used in Brazil for the treatment of constipation. However, the laxative efficacy of the compound has never been tested in a randomized clinical trial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the product. This randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled, single-blinded trial included 20 patients presenting with chronic constipation according to the criteria of the American Association of Gastroenterology. The order of treatments was counterbalanced across subjects: half of the subjects received the phytotherapic compound for a 5-day period, whereas the other half received placebo for the same period. Both treatment periods were separated by a 9-day washout period followed by the reverse treatment for another 5-day period. The primary endpoint was colonic transit time (CTT), measured radiologically. Secondary endpoints included number of evacuations per day, perception of bowel function, adverse effects, and quality of life. Mean CTT assessed by X ray was 15.7 hours (95%CI 11.1-20.2) in the active treatment period and 42.3 hours (95%CI 33.5-51.1) during the placebo treatment (p < 0.001). Number of evacuations per day increased during the use of active tea; significant differences were observed as of the second day of treatment (p < 0.001). Patient perception of bowel function was improved (p < 0.01), but quality of life did not show significant differences among the study periods. Except for a small reduction in serum potassium levels during the active treatment, no significant differences were observed in terms of adverse effects throughout the study period. The findings of this randomized controlled trial allow to conclude that the phytotherapic compound assessed has laxative efficacy and is a safe alternative option for the treatment of constipation. ClinicalTrial.gov NCT00872430.

  2. Randomized clinical trial of a phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, and Cassia augustifolia for chronic constipation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum L., Foeniculum vulgare Miller, Sambucus nigra L., and Cassia augustifolia is largely used in Brazil for the treatment of constipation. However, the laxative efficacy of the compound has never been tested in a randomized clinical trial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the product. Methods This randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled, single-blinded trial included 20 patients presenting with chronic constipation according to the criteria of the American Association of Gastroenterology. The order of treatments was counterbalanced across subjects: half of the subjects received the phytotherapic compound for a 5-day period, whereas the other half received placebo for the same period. Both treatment periods were separated by a 9-day washout period followed by the reverse treatment for another 5-day period. The primary endpoint was colonic transit time (CTT), measured radiologically. Secondary endpoints included number of evacuations per day, perception of bowel function, adverse effects, and quality of life. Results Mean CTT assessed by X ray was 15.7 hours (95%CI 11.1-20.2) in the active treatment period and 42.3 hours (95%CI 33.5-51.1) during the placebo treatment (p < 0.001). Number of evacuations per day increased during the use of active tea; significant differences were observed as of the second day of treatment (p < 0.001). Patient perception of bowel function was improved (p < 0.01), but quality of life did not show significant differences among the study periods. Except for a small reduction in serum potassium levels during the active treatment, no significant differences were observed in terms of adverse effects throughout the study period. Conclusions The findings of this randomized controlled trial allow to conclude that the phytotherapic compound assessed has laxative efficacy and is a safe alternative option for the treatment of constipation. Trial

  3. Foeniculum vulgare essential oils: chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Cruz, Cláudia; Faleiro, Leonor; Simões, Mariana T F; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G

    2010-02-01

    The essential oils from Foeniculum vulgare commercial aerial parts and fruits were isolated by hydrodistillation, with different distillation times (30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h), and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The antioxidant ability was estimated using four distinct methods. Antibacterial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method. Remarkable differences, and worrying from the quality and safety point of view, were detected in the essential oils. trans-Anethole (31-36%), alpha-pinene (14-20%) and limonene (11-13%) were the main components of the essentials oil isolated from F. vulgare dried aerial parts, whereas methyl chavicol (= estragole) (79-88%) was dominant in the fruit oils. With the DPPH method the plant oils showed better antioxidant activity than the fruits oils. With the TBARS method and at higher concentrations, fennel essential oils showed a pro-oxidant activity. None of the oils showed a hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity > 50%, but they showed an ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase. The essential oils showed a very low antimicrobial activity. In general, the essential oils isolated during 2 h were as effective, from the biological activity point of view, as those isolated during 3 h.

  4. Method for attaining fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) seed oil fractions with different composition and antioxidant capacity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) is cultivated for its seeds and foliage, which contain essential oil. We hypothesized that the collection of fennel seed oil at different time points during the distillation process may result in fennel oil with distinct composition and bioactivity. We collected ess...

  5. Method for obtaining three products with different properties from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of distillation time (DT; 15-1080 min) on yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seed essential oil (EO) as well as on the yield, composition, and properties of lipids extracted from steam-distilled fenne...

  6. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A Review of Its Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Contemporary Application, and Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vainav V.; Bandivdekar, Atmaram H.

    2014-01-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future clinical uses. PMID:25162032

  7. Salinity impact on yield, water use, mineral and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The experimental study was carried out to determine the effects of salinity on water consumption, plant height, fresh and seed yields, biomass production, ion accumulation and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) under greenhouse conditions. The experiment was conducted with a ...

  8. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: a review of its botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, contemporary application, and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Badgujar, Shamkant B; Patel, Vainav V; Bandivdekar, Atmaram H

    2014-01-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future clinical uses.

  9. [Analysis on changes of chemical compounds in different samples of fried Foeniculum vulgare].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Li, Zhen; Tian, Shuge; Ma, Li

    2009-04-01

    To analysis the changes of chemical compounds in fried Foeniculum vulgare. Cleaned F. vulgare were fried with honey, Pharbitis nil, salt solution, vinegar, wine and bran, respectively, according to different Chinese medicine frying theories. Different volatile ingredints were extracted from fried products, and their contents and physical constants were detected. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for analyzing the changes of chemical compounds in different samples of fried F. vulgare. The experimental results showed that the content of volatile oil in F. vulgare decreased after been fried. Among these effective ingredients in fried samples, trans-anethole was the ingredient of the maximum content, and the contents of all twenty-four ingredinets had changed. Furthermore, other eighteen compounds were created; Among them, linalylacetate, farnesene, p-allyiphenyl aromatic oxide, menthone, and hexyl octanoate were detected firstly in F. vulgare. GC-MS is effective to fleetly analyse the frying changes of herbs flectly.

  10. Comparison of the volatile composition of wild fennel samples (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) from central Spain.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Maroto, M Consuelo; Pérez-Coello, M Soledad; Esteban, Joaquín; Sanz, Jesús

    2006-09-06

    Comparison of the volatile composition of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) has been carried out using direct thermal desorption (DTD) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Forty-two wild fennel stem samples were collected in two different geographical areas of Central Spain. DTD allowed a high recovery of volatiles from small sample sizes without thermal decomposition. trans-Anethole was the main volatile compound for most cases, although a high variability was found among samples, showing clear phytochemical differences.

  11. Screening, Purification and Characterization of Anionic Antimicrobial Proteins from Foeniculum Vulgare.

    PubMed

    Al Akeel, Raid; Mateen, Ayesha; Syed, Rabbani; Alyousef, Abdullah A; Shaik, Mohammed Rafi

    2017-04-08

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill., commonly called fennel, is a medicinal plant belonging to the Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) family, and is used in traditional medicine. Antibacterial peptides were isolated using sodium phosphate citrate buffer and, for extraction, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) buffer with pH 6, have been employed and antimicrobial activity tested against four reference strains. The extracted protein was subjected to 3 kDa dialysis and separation was carried out by DEAE-ion exchange chromatography and further proteins were identified by 2D gel electrophoresis. The results of Foeniculum vulgare elutes obtained from DEAE-ion exchange chromatography were tested for antibacterial activity. Elute 3 shows the highest antibacterial activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a diameter of a zone of inhibition of 16 mm and IC50 value 25.02 (mcg/mL). Based on the findings of the wide usage in treatment of various ailments and day-to-day life, Foeniculum vulgare seeds were used in the present research and have shown promising antibacterial effects, which requires further proteomic research to authenticate the role of the anticipated proteins.

  12. Medicinal properties of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. in traditional Iranian medicine and modern phytotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Roja; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams

    2013-01-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (F. vulgare), commonly known as Fennel, is a popular medicinal plant with various pharmacological activities mentioned in traditional Iranian medicine (TIM) and modern phytotherapy such as antioxidant, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, bronchodilatory, estrogenic, diuretic, lithontripic, galactogogue, emmenagogue, antithrombotic, hypotensive, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, memory enhancing, and antimutagenic activities. No serious adverse events were recorded after ingestion of F. vulgare except some cases of allergic reactions. The estrogenic activity of F. vulgare brings some side effects such as decrease in protein concentration and acid and alkaline phosphatase in male genital organs, increase in weight of mammary glands and reproductive organs in women and premature thelarche in girls. However, no evidence of teratogenicity was recorded, it is better not to use F. vulgare during pregnancy due to its estrogenic activity. Because of inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the pharmacokinetic parameters of drugs mainly metabolized by this isozyme may be affected by F. vulgare. In addition, a significant interaction between cyprofloxacin and F. vulgare was demonstrated. The aim of current paper is to review pharmacological properties, toxicity and adverse events, and drug interactions of vulgare and brings conclusive results about the use of this plant in men, women and during pregnancy.

  13. Effects of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on chickens highly infected with Eimeria tenella (Phylum Apicomplexa)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intensive poultry production systems depend on chemoprophylaxis with anticoccidial drugs to combat infection. A floor-pen study was conducted to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on Eimeria tenella infection. Five experimental groups were established: negative control (untreated, unchallenged); positive control (untreated, challenged); a group medicated with 125 ppm lasalocid and challenged; a group medicated with A. annua leaf powder at 1.5% in feed and challenged; and a group treated with the mixed oils of A. annua and Foeniculum vulgare in equal parts, 7.5% in water and challenged. The effects of A. annua and oil extract of A. annua + F. vulgare on E. tenella infection were assessed by clinical signs, mortality, fecal oocyst output, faeces, lesion score, weight gain, and feed conversion. Results Clinical signs were noticed only in three chickens from the lasalocid group, six from the A. annua group, and nine from the A. annua + F. vulgare group, but were present in 19 infected chickens from the positive control group. Bloody diarrhea was registered in only two chickens from A. annua group, but in 17 chickens from the positive control group. Mortality also occurred in the positive control group (7/20). Chickens treated with A. annua had a significant reduction in faecal oocysts (95.6%; P = 0.027) and in lesion score (56.3%; P = 0.005) when compared to the positive control. At the end of experiment, chickens treated with A. annua leaf powder had the highest body weight gain (68.2 g/day), after the negative control group, and the best feed conversion (1.85) among all experimental groups. Conclusions Our results suggest that A. annua leaf powder (Aa-p), at 1.5% of the daily diet post-infection, can be a valuable alternative for synthetic coccidiostats, such as lasalocid. PMID:24731599

  14. Effects of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on chickens highly infected with Eimeria tenella (phylum Apicomplexa).

    PubMed

    Drăgan, Liviu; Györke, Adriana; Ferreira, Jorge F S; Pop, Ioan A; Dunca, Ioan; Drăgan, Maria; Mircean, Viorica; Dan, Iosif; Cozma, Vasile

    2014-04-15

    Intensive poultry production systems depend on chemoprophylaxis with anticoccidial drugs to combat infection. A floor-pen study was conducted to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on Eimeria tenella infection. Five experimental groups were established: negative control (untreated, unchallenged); positive control (untreated, challenged); a group medicated with 125 ppm lasalocid and challenged; a group medicated with A. annua leaf powder at 1.5% in feed and challenged; and a group treated with the mixed oils of A. annua and Foeniculum vulgare in equal parts, 7.5% in water and challenged. The effects of A. annua and oil extract of A. annua + F. vulgare on E. tenella infection were assessed by clinical signs, mortality, fecal oocyst output, faeces, lesion score, weight gain, and feed conversion. Clinical signs were noticed only in three chickens from the lasalocid group, six from the A. annua group, and nine from the A. annua + F. vulgare group, but were present in 19 infected chickens from the positive control group. Bloody diarrhea was registered in only two chickens from A. annua group, but in 17 chickens from the positive control group. Mortality also occurred in the positive control group (7/20). Chickens treated with A. annua had a significant reduction in faecal oocysts (95.6%; P = 0.027) and in lesion score (56.3%; P = 0.005) when compared to the positive control. At the end of experiment, chickens treated with A. annua leaf powder had the highest body weight gain (68.2 g/day), after the negative control group, and the best feed conversion (1.85) among all experimental groups. Our results suggest that A. annua leaf powder (Aa-p), at 1.5% of the daily diet post-infection, can be a valuable alternative for synthetic coccidiostats, such as lasalocid.

  15. Effects of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on on chickens highly infected with Eimeria tenella (Phylum Apicomplexa)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Intensive poultry production systems depend on chemoprophylaxis with anticoccidial drugs to combat infection. A floor-pen study was conducted to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on Eimeria tenella infection. Five experimental groups were establi...

  16. Depolymerized carrageenan ameliorates growth, physiological attributes, essential oil yield and active constituents of Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, Nadeem; Khan, M Masroor A; Moinuddin; Idrees, Mohd; Khan, Zeba H; Ali, Akbar; Varshney, Lalit

    2012-09-01

    Irradiated carrageenan (IC) elicits an array of plant defense responses and biological activities in plants. An experiment was carried out in the naturally illuminated conditions of net house in order to assess the effects of foliar spray of IC on agricultural performance of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), which is a high-value essential oil bearing medicinal crop used in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. There were applied four IC concentrations (40, 60, 80 and 100 mg L(-1)) as foliar sprays. Application of IC significantly improved the growth attributes, physiological and biochemical parameters, essential oil yield and the contents of main components of essential oil of fennel. IC applied at 80 mg L(-1) enhanced these parameters maximally. Unirradiated carrageenan and deionized water had no effect on the attributes studied. Moreover, GLC analysis revealed a significant increase in the components of essential oil, viz. fenchone (4.48-7.82%) and anethole (78.38-86.08%) compared to the control.

  17. Antihirsutism activity of Fennel (fruits of Foeniculum vulgare) extract. A double-blind placebo controlled study.

    PubMed

    Javidnia, K; Dastgheib, L; Mohammadi Samani, S; Nasiri, A

    2003-01-01

    Idiopathic hirsutism is defined as the occurrence of excessive male pattern hair growth in women who have a normal ovulatory menstrual cycle and normal levels of serum androgens. It may be a disorder of peripheral androgen metabolism. In this study we evaluated the clinical response of idiopathic hirsutism to topical Fennel extract. Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare, is a plant, which has been used as an estrogenic agent. The ethanolic extract of Fennel was obtained by using a soxhlete apparatus. In a double blind study, 38 patients were treated with creams containing 1%, 2% of Fennel extract and placebo. Hair diameter was measured and rate of growth was considered. The efficacy of treatment with the cream containing 2% Fennel is better than the cream containing 1% Fennel and these two were more potent than placebo. The mean values of hair diameter reduction was 7.8%, 18.3% and -0.5% for patients receiving the creams containing 1%, 2% and 0% (placebo) respectively.

  18. Antimycobacterial activity of constituents from Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce grown in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Esquivel-Ferriño, Patricia C; Favela-Hernández, Juan Manuel J; Garza-González, Elvira; Waksman, Noemí; Ríos, María Yolanda; del Rayo Camacho-Corona, María

    2012-07-13

    Bioassay guided fractionation of an antimycobacterial extract of Foeniculum vulgare var dulce (Apiaceae) led to the isolation and characterization of 5-hydroxyfurano-coumarin. The chemical structure of this compound was elucidated by 1H and 13C (1D and 2D) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In addition, the active fractions were analyzed by GC-MS and seventy eight compounds were identified; the major compounds were 1,3-benzenediol, 1-methoxycyclohexene, o-cymene, sorbic acid, 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, estragole, limonene-10-ol and 3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one. Twenty compounds identified in the active fractions were tested against one sensitive and three MDR strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the Alamar Blue microassay. Compounds that showed some degree of antimycobacterial activity against all strains tested were the following: linoleic acid (MIC 100 µg/mL), oleic acid (MIC 100 µg/mL), 1,3-benzenediol (MIC 100-200 µg/mL), undecanal (MIC 50-200 µg/mL), and 2,4-undecadienal (MIC 25-50 µg/mL), the last being the most active compound. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of 5-hydroxy-furanocoumarin in F. vulgare.

  19. Anthelmintic effects of the essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Apiaceae) against Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Kamila A L; de Melo, Nathalya I; Aguiar, Daniela P; de Oliveira, Pollyanna F; Groppo, Milton; da Silva Filho, Ademar A; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Cunha, Wilson R; Tavares, Denise C; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Crotti, Antônio E M

    2015-07-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae), known as fennel, is a widespread aromatic herbaceous plant, and its essential oil is used as additive in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and perfume industries. The in vitro antischistosomal activity and cytotoxic effects against V79 cells of the essential oil of F. vulgare cultivated in southeastern Brazil (FV-EO) was investigated. The FV-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. (E)-Anethole (69.8%) and limonene (22.5%) were identified as the major constituents. Its anthelmintic activity against Schistosoma mansoni was evaluated at concentrations of 10, 50, and 100 μg/ml, and it was found to be active against adult S. mansoni worms, although it was less effective than the positive control praziquantel (PZQ) in terms of separation of the coupled pairs, mortality, and decreased motor activity. However, FV-EO elicited an interesting dose-dependent reduction in the number of S. mansoni eggs. On their own, (E)-anethole and the limonene enantiomers were much less effective than FV-EO and PZQ. An XTT-cytotoxicity-based assay evidenced no FV-EO cytotoxicity against V79 cells. In summary, FV-EO displayed moderate in vitro schistosomicidal activity against adult S. mansoni worms, exerted remarkable inhibitory effects on the egg development, and was of low toxicity.

  20. Supercritical CO₂ extraction of volatile oils from Sardinian Foeniculum vulgare ssp. vulgare (Apiaceae): chemical composition and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Piras, Alessandra; Falconieri, Danilo; Porcedda, Silvia; Marongiu, Bruno; Gonçalves, Maria José; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Ligia

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results on the composition and antifungal effect of volatile extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Sardinian wild fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and by hydrodistillation (HD). The extracts were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for qualitative composition and gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector to establish the percentage of constituents. The main components were fenchone (7.1% vs. 8.8%), estragole (34.9% vs. 42.6%) and (E)-anethole (24.6% vs. 43.4%) in the SFE and HD extract, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were measured according to the reference Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth macrodilution protocols. Minimum lethal concentrations were determined by subsequent subculturing of the same cell suspensions in solid medium. The essential oil was more active against Candida albicans, whereas the supercritical fluid extract possesses higher activity against Candida guillermondii and Cryptococcus neoformans, with MIC values of 0.32 μL/mL.

  1. Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurinder J; Arora, Daljit S

    2009-08-06

    Anethum graveolens Linn., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Trachyspermum ammi L. are widely used traditional medicinal plants to treat various ailments. To provide a scientific basis to traditional uses of these plants, their aqueous and organic seed extracts, as well as isolated phytoconstituents were evaluated for their antibacterial potential. Antibacterial activity of aqueous and organic seed extracts was assessed using agar diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration and viable cell count studies; and their antibacterial effect was compared with some standard antibiotics. The presence of major phytoconstituents was detected qualitatively and quantitatively. The isolated phytoconstituents were subjected to disc diffusion assay to ascertain their antibacterial effect. Hot water and acetone seed extracts showed considerably good antibacterial activity against all the bacteria except Klebsiella pneumoniae and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimum inhibitory concentration for aqueous and acetone seed extracts ranged from 20-80 mg/ml and 5-15 mg/ml respectively. Viable cell count studies revealed the bactericidal nature of the seed extracts. Statistical analysis proved the better/equal efficacy of some of these seed extracts as compared to standard antibiotics. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of 2.80 - 4.23% alkaloids, 8.58 - 15.06% flavonoids, 19.71 - 27.77% tannins, 0.55-0.70% saponins and cardiac glycosides. Antibacterial efficacy shown by these plants provides a scientific basis and thus, validates their traditional uses as homemade remedies. Isolation and purification of different phytochemicals may further yield significant antibacterial agents.

  2. Distinguishing Foeniculum vulgare fruit from two adulterants by combination of microscopy and GC-MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Dong; Mao, Wen-Wen; Zhou, Ping; Li, Ping; Li, Hui-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Foeniculum vulgare fruit (FVF) is a widely used traditional medicine. However, two adulterants, namely Anethum graveolens fruit (AGF) and Cuminum cyminum fruit (CCF), have been found in use as FVF in China owing to similar appearance and odor. For the purpose of accurate differentiation of the three herbal medicines, extensive anatomical examination and chemical profiling were conducted. Using light microscopy and fluorescence microscopy, the macroscopic and microscopic features of the three species were compared. It was found that some microscopic characteristics, including transverse shape of mericarp, presence or absence of reticulate cells and non-glandular hairs, as well as fluorescence of endocarp, were of diagnostic significance. Moreover, essential oils were qualitatively and semi-quantitatively analyzed using GC-MS. The analytical results indicated significant chemical variations in different species: in FVF, trans-anethole (83.20%) was the predominant volatile compound followed by estragole (5.03%) and limonene (3.45%), while in AGF, the first, second and third compounds with highest content were carvone (42.58%), apiol (20.76%) and limonene (20.32%), and in CCF were cuminlaldehyde (36.00%), 2-caren-10-al (23.25%) and γ-terpinene (9.65%), respectively. In conclusion, the proposed light microscopy coupled with fluorescence microscopy and/or GC-MS analysis allowed successful distinguishing FVF from AGF and CCF.

  3. Cytotoxicity of syringin and 4-methoxycinnamyl alcohol isolated from Foeniculum vulgare on selected human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lall, Namrita; Kishore, Navneet; Binneman, Brigitte; Twilley, Danielle; van de Venter, Maryna; du Plessis-Stoman, Debbie; Boukes, Gerhardt; Hussein, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the cytotoxic effect of seven plant extracts and the isolated compounds - syringin and 4-methoxycinnamyl alcohol - on cancerous and non-cancerous cells. The ethanol extract of Foeniculum vulgare was found to exhibit the most significant toxicity with an IC50 value of 19.97 μg/mL on HeLa cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of two compounds, syringin (1) and 4-methoxycinnamyl alcohol (2). Both compounds showed toxicity against MCF-7, HeLa and DU145 cancer cell line. The results showed that compound 2 showed high toxicity against all the cancer cell lines with IC50 values of 14.24, 7.82 and 22.10 μg/mL, respectively. 4-Methoxycinnamyl alcohol also showed no apoptotic effect in cell cycle analysis after 48 h at a concentration of 10 μg/mL. However, DNA fragmentation study revealed that necrosis took place at a concentration of 10 μg/mL after 48 h exposure.

  4. Essential oil composition of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. fruits from pharmacies in different countries.

    PubMed

    Raal, Ain; Orav, Anne; Arak, Elmar

    2012-01-01

    Variations in the essential oil composition of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. commercial fruits obtained from retail pharmacies in Estonia, Norway, Austria and Moldova and from a spice shop in Turkey were determined using capillary GC techniques. The essential oil content of all the samples was 5-51 mL kg(-1) and between 22 and 51 mL kg(-1) in fennel fruits bought from pharmacies. A total of 34 compounds were identified. The major component was trans-anethole (34.8-82.0%); the other principal compounds in oils were fenchone (1.6-22.8%), estragole (2.4-17.0%), limonene (0.8-16.5%), and cis-anethole (0.1-8.6%). The yield of essential oil (5.0 mL kg(-1)) and content of trans-anethole was very low (34.8%) in the Turkish spice sample. Maximum yield of essential oil was found in fennel from Norway and Austria (50.7 and 50.5 mL kg(-1), respectively); these samples were rich in fenchone (21.2% and 22.8%), but contained less trans-anethole (64.6-63.7) than samples from Estonia and Moldova (82.0% and 80.9%). The typical samples of sweet fennel (bought from Estonia and Moldova) and bitter fennel (from Norway and Austria) were found to conform completely or partially to EP standards, although fennel type was always not marked on the packages.

  5. Inhibition of aldose reductase and anti-cataract action of trans-anethole isolated from Foeniculum vulgare Mill. fruits.

    PubMed

    Dongare, Vandana; Kulkarni, Chaitanya; Kondawar, Manish; Magdum, Chandrakant; Haldavnekar, Vivek; Arvindekar, Akalpita

    2012-05-01

    Foeniculum vulgare fruits are routinely consumed for their carminative and mouth freshening effect. The plant was evaluated for aldose reductase inhibition and anti-diabetic action. Bioguided fractionation using silica gel column chromatography, HPLC, and GC-MS analysis revealed trans-anethole as the bioactive constituent possessing potent aldose reductase inhibitory action, with an IC50 value of 3.8μg/ml. Prolonged treatment with the pet ether fraction of the F. vulgare distillate demonstrated improvement in blood glucose, lipid profile, glycated haemoglobin and other parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Trans-anethole could effectively show anti-cataract activity through the increase in soluble lens protein, reduced glutathione, catalase and SOD activity on in vitro incubation of the eye lens with 55mM glucose. Trans-anethole demonstrated noncompetitive to mixed type of inhibition of lens aldose reductase using Lineweaver Burk plot.

  6. Comparative essential oil composition and antifungal effect of bitter fennel (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) fruit oils obtained during different vegetation.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Chalchat, Jean-Claude; Arslan, Derya; Ateş, Ayşe; Unver, Ahmet

    2006-01-01

    The chemical composition of the flower and unripe and ripe fruits from fennel (bitter) (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) has been examined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main identified components of the flower and unripe and ripe fruit oils were estragole (53.08%, 56.11%, and 61.08%), fenchone (13.53%, 19.18%, and 23.46%), and alpha-phellandrene (5.77%, 3.30%, and 0.72%), respectively. Minor qualitative and major quantitative variations for some compounds of essential oils were determined with respect to the different parts of F. vulgare. The oils exerted varying levels of antifungal effects on the experimental mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum, and Rhizoctonia solani. The 40 ppm concentrations of fennel oils showed inhibitory effect against mycelial growth of A. alternaria, whereas 10 ppm levels were ineffective. The analyses show that fennel oils exhibited different degrees of fungistatic activity depending on the doses.

  7. Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Gurinder J; Arora, Daljit S

    2009-01-01

    Background Anethum graveolens Linn., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Trachyspermum ammi L. are widely used traditional medicinal plants to treat various ailments. To provide a scientific basis to traditional uses of these plants, their aqueous and organic seed extracts, as well as isolated phytoconstituents were evaluated for their antibacterial potential. Methods Antibacterial activity of aqueous and organic seed extracts was assessed using agar diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration and viable cell count studies; and their antibacterial effect was compared with some standard antibiotics. The presence of major phytoconstituents was detected qualitatively and quantitatively. The isolated phytoconstituents were subjected to disc diffusion assay to ascertain their antibacterial effect. Results Hot water and acetone seed extracts showed considerably good antibacterial activity against all the bacteria except Klebsiella pneumoniae and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimum inhibitory concentration for aqueous and acetone seed extracts ranged from 20–80 mg/ml and 5–15 mg/ml respectively. Viable cell count studies revealed the bactericidal nature of the seed extracts. Statistical analysis proved the better/equal efficacy of some of these seed extracts as compared to standard antibiotics. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of 2.80 – 4.23% alkaloids, 8.58 – 15.06% flavonoids, 19.71 – 27.77% tannins, 0.55–0.70% saponins and cardiac glycosides. Conclusion Antibacterial efficacy shown by these plants provides a scientific basis and thus, validates their traditional uses as homemade remedies. Isolation and purification of different phytochemicals may further yield significant antibacterial agents. PMID:19656417

  8. Native plant recovery in study plots after fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) control on Santa Cruz Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Power, Paula; Stanley, Thomas R.; Cowan, Clark; Robertson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the California Channel Islands and supports a diverse and unique flora which includes 9 federally listed species. Sheep, cattle, and pigs, introduced to the island in the mid-1800s, disturbed the soil, browsed native vegetation, and facilitated the spread of exotic invasive plants. Recent removal of introduced herbivores on the island led to the release of invasive fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), which expanded to become the dominant vegetation in some areas and has impeded the recovery of some native plant communities. In 2007, Channel Islands National Park initiated a program to control fennel using triclopyr on the eastern 10% of the island. We established replicate paired plots (seeded and nonseeded) at Scorpion Anchorage and Smugglers Cove, where notably dense fennel infestations (>10% cover) occurred, to evaluate the effectiveness of native seed augmentation following fennel removal. Five years after fennel removal, vegetative cover increased as litter and bare ground cover decreased significantly (P < 0.0001) on both plot types. Vegetation cover of both native and other (nonfennel) exotic species increased at Scorpion Anchorage in both seeded and nonseeded plots. At Smugglers Cove, exotic cover decreased significantly (P = 0.0001) as native cover comprised of Eriogonum arborescensand Leptosyne gigantea increased significantly (P < 0.0001) in seeded plots only. Nonseeded plots at Smugglers Cove were dominated by exotic annual grasses, primarily Avena barbata. The data indicate that seeding with appropriate native seed is a critical step in restoration following fennel control in areas where the native seed bank is depauperate.

  9. Contact and fumigant activities of constituents of Foeniculum vulgare fruit against three coleopteran stored-product insects.

    PubMed

    Kim, D H; Ahn, Y J

    2001-03-01

    The insecticidal activities of materials derived from the fruit of fennel, Foeniculum vulgare, against adults of Sitophilus oryzae, Callosobruchus chinensis and Lasioderma serricorne were examined using direct contact application and fumigation methods. The biologically active constituents of the Foeniculum fruits were characterized as the phenylpropenes (E)-anethole and estragole, and the monoterpene (+)-fenchone, by spectroscopic analysis. Responses varied with insect species, compound, dose and exposure time. In a filter paper diffusion test, estragole at 0.168 mg cm-2 caused 91% mortality to S oryzae adults within 1 day after treatment (DAT), whereas (+)-fenchone and (E)-anethole gave over 90% mortality at 2 and 4 DAT, respectively. Against C chinensis adults, all test compounds revealed potent insecticidal activities at 0.021 mg cm-2 at 2 DAT. Against L serricorne adults at 0.105 mg cm-2, (E)-anethole gave 100% mortality at 1 DAT, whereas 90 and 60% mortality at 4 DAT was achieved with estragole and (+)-fenchone, respectively. In a fumigation test, the compounds were much more effective against adults of S oryzae, C chinensis and L serricorne in closed cups than in open ones, indicating that the insecticidal activity of test compounds was largely attributable to fumigant action. As naturally occurring insect-control agents, the F vulgare fruit-derived materials described could be useful for managing field populations of S oryzae, C chinensis and L serricorne.

  10. Distillation time modifies essential oil yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill).

    PubMed

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Horgan, Thomas; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an essential oil crop grown worldwide for production of essential oil, as medicinal or as culinary herb. The essential oil is extracted via steam distillation either from the whole aboveground biomass (herb) or from fennel fruits (seed). The hypothesis of this study was that distillation time (DT) can modify fennel oil yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of the oil. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of eight DT (1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 min) on fennel herb essential oil. Fennel essential oil yield (content) reached a maximum of 0.68% at 160 min DT. The concentration of trans-anethole (32.6-59.4% range in the oil) was low at 1.25 min DT, and increased with an increase of the DT. Alpha-phelandrene (0.9-10.5% range) was the lowest at 1.25 min DT and higher at 10, 80, and 160 min DT. Alpha-pinene (7.1-12.4% range) and beta-pinene (0.95-1.64% range) were higher in the shortest DT and the lowest at 80 min DT. Myrcene (0.93-1.95% range), delta-3-carene (2.1-3.7% range), cis-ocimene (0-0.23% range), and gamma-terpinene (0.22-2.67% range) were the lowest at 1.25 min DT and the highest at 160 min DT. In contrast, the concentrations of paracymene (0.68-5.97% range), fenchone (9.8-22.7% range), camphor (0.21-0.51% range), and cis-anethole (0.14-4.66% range) were highest at shorter DT (1.25-5 min DT) and the lowest at the longer DT (80-160 min DT). Fennel oils from the 20 and 160 min DT had higher antioxidant capacity than the fennel oil obtained at 1.25 min DT. DT can be used to obtain fennel essential oil with differential composition. DT must be reported when reporting essential oil content and composition of fennel essential oil. The results from this study may be used to compare reports in which different DT to extract essential oil from fennel biomass were used.

  11. Seed germination of medicinal plant, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill), as affected by different priming techniques.

    PubMed

    Tahaei, Amirreza; Soleymani, Ali; Shams, Majid

    2016-09-01

    Reduced seed germination is among the most important factors adversely affecting crop stand and subsequent plant growth. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an important medicinal plant with poor seed germination rate, occasionally. It is accordingly pertinent to find methods which can enhance fennel seed germination and remove the barriers of dormancy breaking. The present experiments studied the effects of two different priming (cold moist stratification and osmopriming) and 14 dormancy breaking techniques (hormonal, osmopriming, biopriming, chemical priming, and hydropriming) on the seed germination and seedling growth of two different fennel genotypes under growth chamber conditions. In the first and second experiment, the priming techniques including the time lengths of cold moist stratification (0, 15, 30, and 45 days) and the concentrations of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000, osmopriming at -0.99, -1.35, and -2.33 MPa) were used as the main plots. However, in both experiments, the dormancy breaking techniques and fennel genotypes were factorially combined and used as the subplots. Different seed- and seedling-related parameters including germination (%), plumule, radicle and seedling length, average germination time, rate and homogeneity of germination, and seed vigor index were determined. Both priming techniques were efficient on the enhancement of seed germination and seedling growth. Among the dormancy breaking techniques, Aminol Forte (biopriming), kadostim (biopriming), benzyl adenine + kinetin (biopriming), distilled water (hydropriming), gibberellin + kinetin (hormonal priming), and benzyl adenine + kinetin + gibberellin (biopriming) were the most effective ones. The related concentrations were equal to 100 mg/l, 10(-5) M, and 0.4 %. The fennel genotypes reacted significantly different under priming conditions. It is possible to enhance seed germination and seedling growth of fennel using priming and dormancy breaking

  12. Comparison of Scolicidal Effects of Amphotricin B, Silver Nanoparticles,_and Foeniculum vulgare Mill on Hydatid Cysts Protoscoleces

    PubMed Central

    LASHKARIZADEH, Mohammad Reza; ASGARIPOUR, Keivan; SAEDI DEZAKI, Ebrahim; FASIHI HARANDI, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgery is the preferred treatment for hydatid cyst (cystic echinococcosis, CE). At present, various scolicidal agents have been used for inactivation of protoscoleces during surgery, but they are associated with adverse side effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the scolicidal effects of amphotricin B, Silver nano particles, Foeniculum vulgare Mill, essential oil and hypertonic saline against protoscoleces of hydatid cyst on an in vitro model. Methods: Protoscoleces were aseptically aspirated from the naturally infected livers of sheep and goats. Various concentrations of AmB (2.5–20 mg/ml), Ag-NPs (0.5–4 mg/ml), F. vulgare essential oil (0.125–1 mg/ml) and hypertonic saline (10–20%) were used for 5–60 min. Eosin exclusion test was used to determine the viability of protoscoleces. Results: Maximum protoscolicidal effect of AmB and Ag-NPs was found at concentrations of 20 and 4 mg/mL, resulting in only 82.3% and 71.6% of the protoscoleces after 60 min of incubation, respectively. In contrast, F. vulgare essential oil at concentration of 1 mg/ml and hypertonic saline 20% killed 100% protoscoleces after 5 and 10 min of exposure, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicated weak scolicidal activity of AmB and Ag-NPs; whereas F. vulgare essential oil had potent scolicidal activity against protoscoleces of hydatid cyst that revealed the potential of F. vulgare as a natural source for the production of new scolicidal agent for use in hydatid cyst surgery. However, further studies will be needed to confirm these results by checking the essential oil and its active component in the in vivo model. PMID:26246818

  13. Near-infrared analysis of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller) on different spectrometers--basic considerations for a reliable network.

    PubMed

    Steuer, Boris; Schulz, Hartwig

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy and transferability of near-infrared (NIR) calibrations for estimating the content and composition of the volatile fraction in fennel fruits (Foeniculum vulgare Miller) as an example of medicinal and spice plants. A master calibration with spectra obtained on a scanning monochromator was generated using 345 samples from three different harvests (1997-1999). A subset of 70 samples from 1999 was also measured on a dispersive grating and a scanning diode array system to gain an insight into the influence of sample presentation and scanning techniques. For all instruments, calibrations with standard errors in the range of the reference method were achieved. Furthermore the influence of storage on NIR spectra and, additionally, the potential of transferring spectra between both scanning monochromators was studied.

  14. Investigation of the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and apoptosis-inducing effects of estragole isolated from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Villarini, Milena; Pagiotti, Rita; Dominici, Luca; Fatigoni, Cristina; Vannini, Samuele; Levorato, Sara; Moretti, Massimo

    2014-04-25

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate, in the HepG2 human hepatoma cell line, the in vitro cytotoxic, genotoxic, and apoptotic activities of estragole (1), contained in the essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) and suspected to induce hepatic tumors in susceptible strains of mice. Toward this end, an MTT cytotoxicity assay, a trypan blue dye exclusion test, a double-staining (acridine orange and DAPI) fluorescence viability assay, a single-cell microgel-electrophoresis (comet) assay, a mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) assay, and a DNA fragmentation analysis were conducted. In terms of potential genotoxic effects, the comet assay indicated that estragole (1) was not able to induce DNA damage nor apoptosis under the experimental conditions used.

  15. Effect of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi Essential Oils on the Growth and Mycotoxins Production by Aspergillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Debella, Asfaw

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth, and mycotoxin production. In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils were carried out on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Plant materials were hydrodistilled for 4-5 h in Clevenger apparatus. 0.25 μL/mL, 0.5 μL/mL, 1 μL/mL, 2 μL/mL, and 4 μL/mL concentrations of each essential oil were prepared in 0.1% Tween 80 (V/V). T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 μL/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 μL/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting toxin production from A. niger and A. flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 μL/mL, respectively. C. martinii, F. vulgare, and T. ammi oils as antifungals were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5336.297 μL/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity. In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by Aspergillus species. PMID:26904653

  16. Study of anticancer and antibacterial activities of Foeniculum vulgare, Justicia adhatoda and Urtica dioica as natural curatives.

    PubMed

    Batool, R; Salahuddin, H; Mahmood, T; Ismail, M

    2017-09-30

    High-throughput technologies, such as synthetic biology and genomics have paved new paths for discovery and utility of medicinally beneficial plants. Bioactive molecules isolated from different plants have significantly higher biological activities. The present study was done to analyze antibacterial potential of some medicinal plants against multi drug resistant (MDR) pathogens and anticancer effect against MCF-7 cell line. Methanolic and ethanolic extracts were tested for their antibacterial activity by disc diffusion method against six MDR bacterial strains and for cytotoxicity evaluation by MTT assay. Ethanolic extracts of the three tested plants exhibited growth inhibitory effect against Klebsiella pneumonia, Serratia marcescens and Methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was more resistant to all extracts as its growth was least inhibited by the extracts of all tested plants. Ethanol extract of Foeniculum vulgare exhibited significant inhibition of cancer cells proliferation. Methanol extract of Justicia adhatoda also showed considerable inhibition of cancer cells. Future studies must converge on detailed investigation of modes of action of extracts of tested plants.

  17. Investigation of antimutagenic potential of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil on cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Pankaj; Tripathi, Rina; Patel, Rakesh K; Pancholi, Shyam S

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the protective effects of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) essential oil (FEO) against genotoxicity induced by cyclophosphamide (CP). Mice bone marrow chromosomal aberration (CA), micronucleus, and sperm abnormality assays were employed to measure genotoxicity and cytotoxicity, respectively. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the liver were also investigated spectrophotometrically. Animals were administered two different doses of FEO (1 and 2 mL/kg) continuously for 3 days at intervals of 24 hours by the oral route before tissue sampling. The results showed that CP produced a significant increase in the average percentage of aberrant metaphases and CAs, excluding gap and micronuclei formation in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs), produced cytotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells, and induced abnormal sperms in the male germ line. CP also markedly inhibited the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH and increased MDA content. Pretreatments with FEO significantly inhibited the frequencies of aberrant metaphases, CAs, micronuclei formation, and cytotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells induced by CP and also produced a significant reduction of abnormal sperm and antagonized the reduction of CP-induced SOD, CAT, and GSH activities and inhibited increased MDA content in the liver. FEO inhibits genotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by CP.

  18. Outbreak of fatal nitrate toxicosis associated with consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare) in cattle farmed in Campania region (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Costagliola, Alessandro; Roperto, Franco; Benedetto, Domenico; Anastasio, Aniello; Marrone, Raffaele; Perillo, Antonella; Russo, Valeria; Papparella, Serenella; Paciello, Orlando

    2014-05-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are toxicants that have become increasingly significant environmental chemicals. Increase in environmental distribution of nitrogenous compounds, especially in surface and ground water, has been attributed to the intensive use of nitrate as agricultural fertilizers and to increasing amounts of nitrogenous wastes produced by municipalities, industries, and feedlots. The purpose of this study is to illustrate a fatal nitrate toxicosis in cattle associated with the consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare). Fifteen cows from the same farm suddenly developed weakness, muscular tremors, respiratory distress, and finally convulsions. The affected animals died within 24 to 48 h from the onset of the clinical signs. Five cows underwent a complete post-mortem examination. In all examined animals, gross lesions included presence of dark unclotted blood around the nostrils and the anal region, moderate inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and brown discoloration of the skeletal muscles and kidneys. The histological examination showed tubular degeneration and congestion of glomerular vessels in the kidney. Toxicological analysis detected nitrates at 4 672.2 ppm in the fennels used to feed the animals. The source of exposure to nitrates was identified in the fennels. The fennels were grown in a polluted area of the Campania region in southern Italy and distributed in a public market for human consumption. The waste from the sale of the fennels was fed to the cows. The accumulation of nitrates in some vegetables poses a risk not only for animal health but also for human and environmental safety.

  19. Effect of planting date and spacing on growth and yield of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) under irrigated conditions.

    PubMed

    Al-Dalain, Saddam Aref; Abdel-Ghani, Adel H; Al-Dala'een, Jawad A; Thalaen, Haditha A

    2012-12-01

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) plant is a medicinal aromatic herb and belongs to Apiaceae family. It has a rich nutritional value and has many medicinal usages. Very limited information is available in the literature about fennel cultivation and production practices. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the effect of planting date and plant spacing and their interactive effects on yield, yield components and growth of Fennel under irrigation. Three planting dates (Oct. 1st, Nov. 1st and Dec. 1st) and four plant spacings (10, 20, 30 and 40 cm with constant row width, 60 cm) were used. Fruit yield was significantly (p<0.05) influenced by plant spacing and planting date and their interaction. Early planting significantly increased the fruit yield combined with higher number of branches per plant, number of umbrella per plant, number of fruit per plant and plant height. The percentage of increases in Oct. 1st were 34.4 and 32.2% in fruit and biological yield respectively compared with Dec. 1st. Harvest index and thousand fruit weight was not significantly affected by planting date. Increase plant spacing to 30 cm led to more than 15% increase in fruit and biological yield. The early planting date with 30 cm plant spacing resulted in higher fruit (4136 kg ha(-1)) and biological yield (10,114 kg ha(-1)).

  20. Effects of Piriformospora indica and Sebacina vermifera on growth and yield of essential oil in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Dolatabadi, Hossein Kari; Goltapeh, Ebrahim Mohammadi; Jaimand, Kamkar; Rohani, Neda; Varma, Ajit

    2011-02-01

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a very important plant in the family of Apiaceae. Effects of inoculation of two endophytic fungi (Piriformospora indica and Sebacina vermifera) in growth, yield and composition of the essential oil of fennel (F. vulgare) were evaluated in pot cultures. Dry fruits were ground with an electric grinder and oil was extracted by hydrodistillation, and their composition was determined by GC/MS. In pot experiment, the maximum dry weight of the green tissue and root and plant height were obtained with P. indica, and maximum number of umbels per plant and dry weight of 1000 fruits were produced with S. vermifera. The P. indica and S. vermifera inoculation significantly increased oil yield as compared to non-inoculated control plants. GC and GC/MS studies revealed that the level of anethole was increased with P. indica and S. vermifera.

  1. The Effect of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Foeniculum vulgare Mill on Leukocytes and Hematological Tests in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Kooti, Wesam; Bazvand, Maryam; Ghasemi Boroon, Maryam; Amirzargar, Ashraf; Afrisham, Reza; Afzalzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Ashtary-Larky, Damoon; Jalali, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medicinal plants have a long history in treating blood disorders, which is one of the most common problems in today's advanced world. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a medicinal plant with a high content of polyphenols and has antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of fennel on some hematological indices in male rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, thirty male Wistar rats were divided into six groups (five rats in each group). The first group (control) did not receive any dose; the second group (sham) received 1 mL normal saline (extraction solvent); and the experimental groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively received 1 mL hydro alcoholic extract of fennel in four doses of 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg of body weight every 48 hours for 30 days by gavage. One day after the last gavage following induction of anesthesia and taking blood from the heart of rats, measurement of red and white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit and tests of bleeding and coagulation time (CT) were performed. The data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA test using SPSS15 software. Results: Fennel increased mean RBC (7.54 ± 0.53 × 106) and WBC (5.89 ± 0.78 × 103) values, especially at a dose of 250 mg/mL and CT (2.45 ± 0.20) at a dose of 500mg/mL compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Fennel increased red and white blood cells probably due to the presence of polyphenols and antioxidant activity of fennel and reduced negative effects of free radicals on blood cells. PMID:25866717

  2. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. increases cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration and inhibits store-operated Ca(2+) entry in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Han, A Young; Lee, Hui Su; Seol, Geun Hee

    2016-12-01

    This study assessed the effects of essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel oil) and of trans-anethole, the main component of fennel oil, on extracellular Ca(2+)-induced store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) into vascular endothelial (EA) cells and their mechanisms of action. Components of fennel oil were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) in EA cells was determined using Fura-2 fluorescence. In the presence of extracellular Ca(2+), fennel oil significantly increased [Ca(2+)]c in EA cells; this increase was significantly inhibited by the Ca(2+) channel blockers La(3+) and nifedipine. In contrast, fennel oil induced [Ca(2+)]c was significantly lower in Ca(2+)-free solution, suggesting that fennel oil increases [Ca(2+)]c mainly by enhancing Ca(2+) influx into EA cells. [Ca(2+)]c mobilization by trans-anethole was similar to that of fennel oil. Moreover, SOCE was suppressed by fennel oil and trans-anethole. SOCE was also attenuated by lanthanum (La(3+)), a non-selective cation channel (NSC) blocker; 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borane (2-APB), an inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) receptor inhibitor and SOCE blocker; and U73122, an inhibitor of phospholipase C (PLC). Further, SOCE was more strongly inhibited by La(3+) plus fennel oil or trans-anethole than by La(3+) alone. These findings suggest that fennel oil and trans-anethole significantly inhibit SOCE-induced [Ca(2+)]c increase in vascular endothelial cells and that these reactions may be mediated by NSC, IP3-dependent Ca(2+) mobilization, and PLC activation.

  3. Larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of Foeniculum vulgare essential oils from Portugal and Cape Verde.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Diara Kady; Matosc, Olivia; Novoa, Maria Teresa; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Delgado, Manuel; Moiteiro, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Dengue is a potentially fatal mosquito-borne infection with 50 million cases per year and 2.5 billion people vulnerable to the disease. This major public health problem has recurrent epidemics in Latin America and occurred recently in Cape Verde and Madeira Island. The lack of anti-viral treatment or vaccine makes the control of mosquito vectors a high option to prevent virus transmission. Essential oil (EO) constituents can affect insect's behaviour, being potentially effective in pest control. The present study evaluated the potential use of Foenicultm vulgare (fennel) EO in the control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. EOs isolated from fennel aerial parts collected in Cape Verde and from a commercial fennel EO of Portugal were analysed by NMR, GC and GC-MS. trans-Anethole (32 and 30%, respectively), limonene (28 and 18%, respectively) and fenchone (10% in both cases) were the main compounds identified in the EOs isolated from fennel from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. The larvicidal activity of the EOs and its major constituents were evaluated, using WHO procedures, against third instar larvae ofAe. aegypti for 24 h. Pure compounds, such as limonene isomers, were also assayed. The lethal concentrations LC50, C90 and LC99 were determined by probit analysis using mortality rates of bioassays. A 99% mortality of Ae. aegypti larvae was estimated at 37.1 and 52.4 µL L-1 of fennel EOs from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. Bioassays showed that fennel EOs from both countries displayed strong larvicidal effect against Ae. aegypti, the Cape Verde EO being as active as one of its major constituents, (-)-limonene.

  4. A biomimetic synthesis of stable gold nanoparticles derived from aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare seeds and evaluation of their catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Manoj Kumar; Kataria, Jyoti; Sharma, Shweta

    2017-08-01

    A facile biomimetic approach for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using aqueous extract of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seeds have been reported in this article. The seeds of F. vulgare are rich in various plant secondary metabolites (phytochemicals) such as polyphenolic acids, flavonoids, and saponins. The phytochemicals of F. vulgare seeds play dual role of reducing and stabilizing agents. The formation of gold nanoparticles was evidenced from the appearance of intense purple color at room temperature with λ max around 550 nm in the UV-Vis absorption spectra. The stable AuNPs were further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. The synthesized nanoparticles were observed to be polydispersed, spherical and ranged from 10 to 30 nm with an average size of 20 ± 2 nm, as obtained from TEM images. The catalytic activity of gold nanoparticles was investigated by studying the reduction of anthropogenic dyes such as methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (Rh-B) with sodium borohydride. Results showed the possible applications of biogenic AuNPs in environment related problems.

  5. Sublethal Effects of Essential Oils From Eucalyptus staigeriana (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiales: Laminaceae), and Foeniculum vulgare (Apiales: Apiaceae) on the Biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Lopes, F S C; Barbosa, D R S; Breda, M O; Dutra, K A; Guedes, C A; Navarro, D M A F; Teixeira, A A C

    2016-04-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest of maize, Zea mays L. Its control is often achieved through repeated applications per season of insecticides, which may lead to adverse effects on the ecosystem. Thus, the study of alternative methods with less environmental impact has expanded to include the use of essential oils. These oils are products of the secondary metabolism in plants, and their insecticidal activity has been widely demonstrated in populations of many pest insects. This study evaluated the insecticidal activities of essential oils from Eucalyptus staigeriana, Ocimum gratissimum, and Foeniculum vulgare on Spodoptera frugiperda. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profiles and contact toxicity of these oils as well as their sublethal effects on larvae and reproductive parameters in adults were evaluated. All three oils had sublethal effects on S. frugiperda; however, the oil of O. gratissimum showed the best results at all doses tested. These essential oils may have promise for control of S. frugiperda.

  6. Assessment of free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Nandini; Chatterjee, Sreemoyee

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation of biomolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids results in generation of free radicals in an organism which is the major cause of onset of various degenerative diseases. Antioxidants scavenge these free radicals, thereby protecting the cell from damage. The present study was designed to examine the free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of traditionally used spices Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel). The aqueous, methanolic, and acetonic extracts of T. ammi and F. vulgare seeds were prepared using soxhlet extraction assembly and subjected to qualitative and quantitative estimation of phytochemical constituents. Free radical scavenging potential was investigated using standard methods, namely, DPPH radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay along with the protection against oxidative DNA damage. The results stated that acetonic seed extracts (AAcSE and FAcSE) of both the spices possessed comparatively high amount of total phenolics whereas methanolic seed extracts (AMSE and FMSE) were found to have highest amount of total flavonoids. At 1 mg/mL concentration, highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was shown by FMSE (96.2%), AAcSE was recorded with highest FRAP value (2270.27 ± 0.005 μmol/L), and all the seed extracts have been shown to mitigate the damage induced by Fenton reaction on calf thymus DNA. Therefore, the study suggests that T. ammi and F. vulgare seed extracts could contribute as a highly significant bioresource of antioxidants to be used in our day-to-day life and in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  7. Assessment of Free Radical Scavenging Potential and Oxidative DNA Damage Preventive Activity of Trachyspermum ammi L. (Carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel) Seed Extracts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation of biomolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids results in generation of free radicals in an organism which is the major cause of onset of various degenerative diseases. Antioxidants scavenge these free radicals, thereby protecting the cell from damage. The present study was designed to examine the free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of traditionally used spices Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel). The aqueous, methanolic, and acetonic extracts of T. ammi and F. vulgare seeds were prepared using soxhlet extraction assembly and subjected to qualitative and quantitative estimation of phytochemical constituents. Free radical scavenging potential was investigated using standard methods, namely, DPPH radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay along with the protection against oxidative DNA damage. The results stated that acetonic seed extracts (AAcSE and FAcSE) of both the spices possessed comparatively high amount of total phenolics whereas methanolic seed extracts (AMSE and FMSE) were found to have highest amount of total flavonoids. At 1 mg/mL concentration, highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was shown by FMSE (96.2%), AAcSE was recorded with highest FRAP value (2270.27 ± 0.005 μmol/L), and all the seed extracts have been shown to mitigate the damage induced by Fenton reaction on calf thymus DNA. Therefore, the study suggests that T. ammi and F. vulgare seed extracts could contribute as a highly significant bioresource of antioxidants to be used in our day-to-day life and in food and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:25143939

  8. Evaluation of the essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare Mill (fennel) fruits extracted by three different extraction methods by GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Hammouda, Faiza M; Saleh, Mahmoud A; Abdel-Azim, Nahla S; Shams, Khaled A; Ismail, Shams I; Shahat, Abdelaaty A; Saleh, Ibrahim A

    2014-01-01

    Hydrodistillation (HD) and steam-distillation, or solvent extraction methods of essential oils have some disadvantages like thermal decomposition of extracts, its contamination with solvent or solvent residues and the pollution of residual vegetal material with solvent which can be also an environmental problem. Thus, new green techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction and microwave assisted techniques, are potential solutions to overcome these disadvantages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare subsp. Piperitum fruits extracted by three different extraction methods viz. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and hydro-distillation (HD) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results revealed that both MAE and SFE enhanced the extraction efficiency of the interested components. MAE gave the highest yield of oil as well as higher percentage of Fenchone (28%), whereas SFE gave the highest percentage of anethol (72%). Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) not only enhanced the essential oil extraction but also saved time, reduced the solvents use and produced, ecologically, green technologies.

  9. Volatile components and key odorants of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) oil extracts obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Maroto, M Consuelo; Díaz-Maroto Hidalgo, Ignacio Javier; Sánchez-Palomo, Eva; Pérez-Coello, M Soledad

    2005-06-29

    Volatile oil extracts of fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and thyme leaves (Thymus vulgaris L.) were obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In general, fennel oil extracted by SDE and SFE showed similar compositions, with trans-anethole, estragole, and fenchone as the main components. In contrast, thymol and p-cymene, the most abundant compounds in thyme leaves, showed big differences, with generally higher amounts of monoterpenes obtained by SDE. However, in this case, the differences between the extracts were higher. Key odorants of fennel seeds determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) showed similar patterns when applying SDE and SFE. trans-Anethole (anise, licorice), estragole (anise, licorice, sweet), fenchone (mint, camphor, warm), and 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom) were the most intense odor compounds detected in fennel extracts. Thymol and carvacrol, with oregano, thyme, and spicy notes, were identified as key compounds contributing to the aroma of thyme leaves.

  10. Chemomodulatory action of Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel) on skin and forestomach papillomagenesis, enzymes associated with xenobiotic metabolism and antioxidant status in murine model system.

    PubMed

    Singh, B; Kale, R K

    2008-12-01

    The chemopreventive effect of different doses of test diet of Foeniculum vulgare Mill (Fennel) seeds was examined on DMBA-induced skin and B(a)P-induced forestomach papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Fennel seeds exhibiting a significant reduction in the skin and the forestomach tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity as compared to the control group. Further, biochemical assays showed a significant increase in the content/activities of phase I enzymes especially in the case of 6% test diet. A concomitant increase in the activities of the phase II enzymes were observed with all the doses of test diet under study. A significant enhancement in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were observed especially at 4% and 6% test diets of Fennel. Glyoxalase I activity and the content of reduced glutathione were significantly elevated. Expectedly, the levels of peroxidative damage along with lactate dehydrogenase activity, exhibited a significant reduction at all three doses of test diets. These findings were indicative of chemopreventive potential of Fennel against carcinogenesis.

  11. Inhibition on human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 by constituents of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare): identification and characterization of a mechanism-based inactivator.

    PubMed

    Subehan; Zaidi, Syed F H; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2007-12-12

    Fennel, a seed of Foeniculum vulgare, is used as a culinary spice and traditional medicine. The methanolic extract of fennel showed a characteristic of mechanism-based inactivation on erythromycin N-demethylation mediated by human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). The present study was conducted to identify the fennel constituent having the inhibition. Thirteen compounds have been isolated from a methanol extract of fennel and tested for their inhibition on CYP3A4. Among them, 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) showed the strongest inhibition with an IC50 value of 18.3 microM and a mixed type of inhibition. In addition, with the preincubation time of 20 min only 5-MOP showed preincubation time dependency; the IC50 value decreased from 18.3 microM with a preincubation time of 0 min to 4.6 microM with a preincubation time of 20 min. Further investigation on 5-MOP showed the characteristics of time-dependent inhibition, requirement of NADPH, lack of protecting effect of nucleophiles, and recovery of CYP3A4 activity by the competitive inhibitor. This result suggests that the inhibitory activity of CYP3A4 by 5-MOP was a mechanism-based inactivation. The kinetic parameter for mechanism-based inactivation was characterized by a KI value of 15.0 microM and a kinact value of 0.098 min(-1).

  12. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice through ERK-dependent NF-κB Activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hui Su; Kang, Purum; Kim, Ka Young; Seol, Geun Hee

    2015-03-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) is used to flavor food, in cosmetics, as an antioxidant, and to treat microbial, diabetic and common inflammation. No study to date, however, has assessed the anti-inflammatory effects of fennel in experimental models of inflammation. The aims of this study were to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of fennel in model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury. Mice were randomly assigned to seven groups (n=7~10). In five groups, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with 1% Tween 80-saline (vehicle), fennel (125, 250, 500µl/kg), or dexamethasone (1 mg/kg), followed 1 h later by intratracheal instillation of LPS (1.5 mg/kg). In two groups, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with vehicle or fennel (250µl/kg), followed 1 h later by intratracheal instillation of sterile saline. Mice were sacrificed 4 h later, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissues were obtained. Fennel significantly and dose-dependently reduced LDH activity and immune cell numbers in LPS treated mice. In addition fennel effectively suppressed the LPS-induced increases in the production of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, with 500µl/kg fennel showing maximal reduction. Fennel also significantly and dose-dependently reduced the activity of the proinflammatory mediator matrix metalloproteinase 9 and the immune modulator nitric oxide (NO). Assessments of the involvement of the MAPK signaling pathway showed that fennel significantly decreased the LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK. Fennel effectively blocked the inflammatory processes induced by LPS, by regulating pro-inflammatory cytokine production, transcription factors, and NO.

  13. Chemical compositions and antibacterial effects of essential oils of Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum), bay laurel (Laurus nobilis), Spanish lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.), and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) on common foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Dadalioglu, Itir; Evrendilek, Gulsun Akdemir

    2004-12-29

    Chemical compositions and inhibitory effects of essential oils of Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz & P. H. Davis), bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), Spanish lavender (Lavandula stoechas subsp. stoechas L.), and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus were determined. After the essential oils were applied on the foodborne pathogens at doses of 0 (control), 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 80 microL/mL, the resultant numbers of cells surviving were counted. Results revealed that all essential oils exhibited a very strong antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria (P < 0.05). Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry analyses revealed that carvacrol (68.23%), 1,8-cineole (60.72%), fenchone (55.79%), and trans-anethole (85.63%) were the predominant constituents in Turkish oregano, bay laurel, Spanish lavender, and fennel essential oils, respectively.

  14. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. subsp. piperitum) florets, a traditional culinary spice in Italy: evaluation of phenolics and volatiles in local populations, and comparison with the composition of other plant parts.

    PubMed

    Ferioli, Federico; Giambanelli, Elisa; D'Antuono, L Filippo

    2017-05-13

    Wild fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. subsp. piperitum) florets are used as a typical spice in central and southern Italy. Although fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), belonging to the Apiaceae (syn. Umbelliferae) family, is a well-known vegetable and aromatic plant, whose main phytochemical compounds have been extensively analysed and investigated as flavouring agents and for their putative health promoting functions, its florets have not been specifically considered up to now. Therefore, the volatile and phenolic composition of florets from an Italian wild fennel crop was determined at different developmental stages, and compared to that of leaves and fruits. Moreover, florets of nine Italian wild fennel populations of different geographical origin from northern-central Italy were also analysed. The total phenolic amount increased from leaves to florets, reaching its highest value in early florets, at 58 012 mg kg(-1) of dry matter (DM), then constantly decreased in fruits. In florets of wild populations, phenolics ranged from 6666 to 43 368 mg kg(-1) DM. The total amount of volatile compounds was more than twice higher in florets (21 449 mg kg(-1) DM) than in leaves (10 470 mg kg(-1) DM), reaching its highest value in fruits (50 533 mg kg(-1) DM). Estragole and trans-anethole were the main compounds of the volatile fraction. Total volatiles ranged from 24 367 to 60 468 mg kg(-1) DM in florets of local populations. Significant changes in the total amount and profile of both phenolic and volatile compounds occurred during plant development. The consistent increase of estragole at later developmental stages supported the claim of different sensory properties of florets and fruits. Geographical origin significantly affected phenolic and volatile composition of wild fennel florets. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Direct somatic embryogenesis from protoplasts of Foeniculum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Miura, Y; Tabata, M

    1986-08-01

    Protoplasts prepared from an embryogenic cell suspension culture of fennel gave rise to somatic embryoids directly through unequal cell divisions of enlarged, ellipsoidal cells, when embedded in hormone-free LS agarose medium. On the other hand, protoplasts embedded in LS agarose medium containing 2,4-D and kinetin proliferated through unpolarized cell divisions to form calli, which gave somatic embryoids on the surface upon transfer onto the same medium. In either case, somatic embryoids germinated to develop into normal plantlets when cultured on hormone-free LS agar medium under illumination.

  16. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) provides antioxidant protection for boar semen cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Malo, C; Gil, L; Cano, R; González, N; Luño, V

    2012-05-01

    Boar semen is extremely vulnerable to cold shock and it is also sensitive to peroxidation due to the high content of unsaturated fatty acids in the plasma membrane. Antioxidants exert a protective effect on the plasma membrane of frozen boar sperm. Fennel has been shown to contain antioxidant substances. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of fennel added to the freezing extender on boar semen quality and lipid peroxidation after thawing. Semen collected from four boars was cryopreserved in lactose-egg-yolk extender or in the same extender with varying concentration of fennel essences: low (LF); medium (MF); high (HF). Analysis of data clearly indicated that higher concentrations of fennel produced significant improvement in total motility. Moreover, when fennel was included in the extender, a dose-dependent tendency to increase sperm viability was observed. In contrast, the addition of fennel had no effect on acrosome integrity or hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) compared with the control. Malondialdehyde (MDA) formation decreased significantly in fennel groups, yielding similar results for MF and HF. Fennel seems a new antioxidant for use in sperm cryopreservation, but its particular effects on sperm physiology must be further studied, especially the causes of motility stimulation and its effect on lipoxidation.

  17. Vulgar Music and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Rock music, rap, and heavy metal are all forms of vulgar music. Vulgarity refers to actions and communication that are "common, noisy, and gross," and are "untranscendent." A technological society is a vulgar society in its base of materialism and exclusive concern with power. Its excessive rationality produces a need for escape, for ecstasy, for…

  18. Vulgar Music and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Rock music, rap, and heavy metal are all forms of vulgar music. Vulgarity refers to actions and communication that are "common, noisy, and gross," and are "untranscendent." A technological society is a vulgar society in its base of materialism and exclusive concern with power. Its excessive rationality produces a need for escape, for ecstasy, for…

  19. Anisucoumaramide, a Bioactive Coumarin from Clausena anisum-olens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun-Song; Li, Bi-Tao; Liu, Shi-Xi; Wen, Zheng-Qi; Yang, Jing-Hua; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Hao, Xiao-Jiang

    2017-04-28

    A new coumarin, anisucoumaramide (1), and a new δ-truxinate derivative, anisumic acid (2), were isolated from Clausena anisum-olens. Their structures were elucidated from extensive NMR and MS data. The absolute configurations of the coumarins were assigned using the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism data. Anisucoumaramide (1) represents the first example of a naturally occurring coumarin of which the terpenoidal side chain does not comply with the biosynthesis isoprene rule due to the presence of an unprecedented acetamido motif directly connected with the terpenoidal side chain. The δ-truxinate derivative was isolated from Clausena species for the first time. Compound 1 showed high selectivity for the MAO-B isoenzyme and inhibitory activity in the nanomolar range. Putative biosynthesis pathways toward 1 and 2 are proposed.

  20. Review of Pharmacological Properties and Chemical Constituents of Pimpinella anisum

    PubMed Central

    Shojaii, Asie; Abdollahi Fard, Mehri

    2012-01-01

    Pimpinella anisum (anise), belonging to Umbelliferae family, is an aromatic plant which has been used In Iranian traditional medicine (especially its fruits) as carminative, aromatic, disinfectant, and galactagogue. Because the wide traditional usage of Pimpinella anisum for treatment of diseases, in this review published scientific reports about the composition and pharmacological properties of this plant were collected with electronic literature search of GoogleScholar, PubMed, Sciencedirect, Scopus, and SID from 1970 to 2011. So far, different studies were performed on aniseeds and various properties such as antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, muscle relaxant, analgesic and anticonvulsant activity as well as different effects on gastrointestinal system have been reported of aniseeds. It can also reduce morphine dependence and has beneficial effects on dysmenorrhea and menopausal hot flashes in women. In diabetic patients, aniseeds showed hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect and reduce lipid peroxidation. The most important compounds of aniseeds essential oil were trans-anetole, estragole, γ-hymachalen, para-anisaldehyde and methyl cavicol. Due to broad spectrum of pharmacological effects, and very few clinical studies of Pimpinella anisum, more clinical trials are recommended to evaluate the beneficial effects of this plant in human models and synthesis of new drugs from the active ingredients of this plant in future. PMID:22848853

  1. Review of Pharmacological Properties and Chemical Constituents of Pimpinella anisum.

    PubMed

    Shojaii, Asie; Abdollahi Fard, Mehri

    2012-01-01

    Pimpinella anisum (anise), belonging to Umbelliferae family, is an aromatic plant which has been used In Iranian traditional medicine (especially its fruits) as carminative, aromatic, disinfectant, and galactagogue. Because the wide traditional usage of Pimpinella anisum for treatment of diseases, in this review published scientific reports about the composition and pharmacological properties of this plant were collected with electronic literature search of GoogleScholar, PubMed, Sciencedirect, Scopus, and SID from 1970 to 2011. So far, different studies were performed on aniseeds and various properties such as antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, muscle relaxant, analgesic and anticonvulsant activity as well as different effects on gastrointestinal system have been reported of aniseeds. It can also reduce morphine dependence and has beneficial effects on dysmenorrhea and menopausal hot flashes in women. In diabetic patients, aniseeds showed hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect and reduce lipid peroxidation. The most important compounds of aniseeds essential oil were trans-anetole, estragole, γ-hymachalen, para-anisaldehyde and methyl cavicol. Due to broad spectrum of pharmacological effects, and very few clinical studies of Pimpinella anisum, more clinical trials are recommended to evaluate the beneficial effects of this plant in human models and synthesis of new drugs from the active ingredients of this plant in future.

  2. The Sublime and the Vulgar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swann, Karen

    1990-01-01

    Explores how Edmund Burke's discourse on the sublime helps illuminate attacks on the vulgarization of culture (as typified by Allan Bloom), both for the presumedly "vulgar" reader and for the champions of high culture. (MG)

  3. Levels of major and trace elements in fennel (Foeniculum vulgari Mill.) fruits cultivated in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Endalamaw, Feleke Demissie; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) is one of the precious spices. Almost all parts of fennel plant are edible. The herb is used as carminative, digestive, diuretic, cosmetic and medicine. A 0.5 g of the oven dried fennel fruit and soil samples were digested by wet-digestion method. The levels of selected elements (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Co, Zn, Ni, Cd and Pb) were determined in sweet fennel fruit (Foeniculum vulgari Mill.) and soil from Addis Ababa (Central Ethiopia) and Gojjam (Northern West Ethiopia) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The elemental concentrations (μg/g) in fennel fruit were: Ca (20,500-23,000), Mg (1,310-3,460), Fe (1,140-1,900), Mn (31-51), Cu (24-103), Cr (91-98), Co (26-71), Zn (37-45), Ni (19-24), and Cd (1.6-1.9) while in the soil were: Ca (1,440-1,780), Mg (1,260-3,310), Fe (26,900-28,000), Mn (1,460-1,980), Cu (51-101), Cr (127-141), Co (54-143), Zn (99-104), Ni (98-161), and Cd (1.7-2.9). Pb was below the method detection limit in both the fennel fruit and soil. The Ethiopian fennel fruits are rich in Ca and Mg and other essential elements (Fe, Cu, Co and Zn) and can be used as good supplement for human being in particularly for children and pregnant women. The toxic element Cd is at trace level and Pb is not detected in the fennel fruit. Thus, Ethiopian fennel fruits are safe for human consumption.

  4. Phytotoxicity and stimulatory impacts of nanosized and bulk titanium dioxide on fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill).

    PubMed

    Feizi, Hassan; Kamali, Maryam; Jafari, Leila; Rezvani Moghaddam, Parviz

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the this study was to compare concentrations of nanosized TiO2 at 0, 5, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg L(-1) with bulk TiO2 for phytotoxic and stimulatory effects on fennel seed germination and early growth stage. After 14 d of seed incubation, germination percentage highly improved following exposure to 60 ppm nanosized TiO2. Similar positive effects occurred in terms of shoot dry weight and germination rate. Application of bulk TiO2 particles in 40 ppm concentration greatly decreased shoot biomass up to 50% compared to the control. Application of 40 ppm nanosized TiO2 treatment improved mean germination time by 31.8% in comparison to the untreated control. In addition, low and intermediate concentrations of nanosized TiO2 enhanced indices such as germination value, vigor index and mean daily germination. In general, there was a considerable response by fennel seed to nanosized TiO2 presenting the possibility of a new approach to overcome problems with seed germination in some plant species, particularly medicinal plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioguided isolation and identification of the nonvolatile antioxidant compounds from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) waste.

    PubMed

    Parejo, Irene; Viladomat, Francesc; Bastida, Jaume; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Burillo, Jesús; Codina, Carles

    2004-04-07

    A bioguided isolation of an aqueous extract of fennel waste led to the isolation of 12 major phenolic compounds. Liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC/UV/APCI-MS) combined with spectroscopic methods (NMR) was used for compound identification. Radical scavenging activity was tested using three methods: DPPH*, superoxide nitro-blue tetrazolium hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase, and *OH/luminol chemiluminescence. In addition to products described in the literature, eight antioxidant compounds were isolated and identified for the first time in fennel: 3-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-caffeoylquinic acid, 1,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, rosmarinic acid, eriodictyol-7-O-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, and kaempferol-3-O-glucoside. The structures of eriodictyol-7-O-rutinoside and quercetin-3-O-glucuronide were completely elucidated by two-dimensional NMR experiments. The isolated compounds exhibited a strong antiradical scavenging activity, which may contribute to the interpretation of the pharmacological effects of fennel.

  6. Exchangeable sodium induced changes in yield, water relation and cation composition of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill).

    PubMed

    Garg, V K; Singh, P K; Pushpangadan, P

    2005-06-01

    A pot experiment was conducted with the objectives to assess the adaptation potential of fennel crop grown at 10, 20, 25, 35 and 40 ESP (exchangeable sodium percentage) levels. Results showed that the rate of seed germination, plant growth including branching pattern, umbels per plant and 1000 test seed weight were adversely affected by sodic soils. Assuming that fifty percent reduction in seed yield and Na+/K+ ratio in leaf tissue as an index of alkali tolerance revealed that fennel was tolerant up to 25 ESP. The cell sap pH and EC reflected optimum osmoticum maintenance to withstand sodicity stress at this level and beyond this leaf water potential decreased (negatively) more to impede water uptake.

  7. Sage (Salvia officinalis) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) improve cryopreserved boar epididymal semen quality study.

    PubMed

    Monton, A; Gil, L; Malo, C; Olaciregui, M; Gonzalez, N; de Blas, I

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fennel and sage extracts and the influence of the egg yolk source (fresh or pasteurized) on the success of freezing boar epididymal spermatozoa. In experiment 1, epididymal sperm was recovered by flushing and cryopreserved in a lactose-egg yolk solution supplemented with various concentrations (10, 5 and 2.5 g/L) of sage or fennel. Sperm quality was evaluated (motility, viability, HOST and acrosome integrity) at 0 h and 2 h after thawing. Fennel 10 g/L and sage 5 g/L and control (no extracts) were selected for experiment 2 which also compared fresh or pasteurized egg yolk in the freezing extender and measured DNA integrity of the frozen sperm. Results showed that the interaction between fennel and sage antioxidants with fresh egg yolk significantly improved post thaw sperm quality and protected boar epididymal spermatozoa from cryopreservation damage as a result of oxidative stress.

  8. Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the essential oils of Portuguese Foeniculum vulgare fruits.

    PubMed

    Mota, Ana S; Martins, M Rosário; Arantes, Sílvia; Lopes, Violeta R; Bettencourt, Eliseu; Pombal, Sofia; Gomes, Arlindo C; Silva, Lúcia A

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from fruits of six fennel accessions collected from wild populations occurring in the centre and south of Portugal. Composition of essential oils was established by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The obtained yields of the essential oils were found to vary greatly in the range of 1.1 to 2.9% (v/w) and the chemical composition varied with the region of collection. A total of 16 compounds were identified. The main compounds were fenchone (16.9 - 34.7%), estragole (2.5 - 66.0%) and trans-anethole (7.9 - 77.7%). The percentages of these three main compounds were used to determine the relationship between the different oil samples and to group them into four different chemotypes: anethole/fenchone; anethole; estragole and anethole/estragole. Antifungal activity of essential oils was evaluated against six food spoilage fungi: Aspergillus niger, A. japonicus, A. oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizophus oryzae and R. stolonifer. Antibacterial activity was assessed against three Gram-positive strains: Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 and S. aureus ATCC 28213; and against six Gram-negative strains: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922; Morganella morganii LFG 08; Proteus mirabilis LFG 04; Salmonella enteritidis LFG 05; S. entiritidis serovar typhimurium LFG 06 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 by the disc diffusion agar method; the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the broth macro-dilution method. The MIC values varied from 62.5 (E. coli ATCC 25922) to 2000 µmL (P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853).

  9. Antioxidant and anticarcinogenic effects of methanolic extract and volatile oil of fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Ragaa Hosny; El-Bastawesy, Amal Mohamad; Abdel-Monem, Mohamad Gamil; Noor, Assmaa Mahmoud; Al-Mehdar, Hussain Abdel Rahman; Sharawy, Sabry Mohamad; El-Merzabani, Mahmuod Mohamad

    2011-09-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of fennel seed methanolic extract (FSME) for its antioxidant, cytotoxic, and antitumor activities and for its capacity to serve as a nontoxic radioprotector in Swiss albino mice. We also assessed the natural antioxidant compounds of FSME for use in industrial application. Cytotoxic activity of FSME was evaluated in a mouse model of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and on different types of human cell lines in vitro. The safety and optimum dose of FSME were determined. FSME, 100 mg/kg, was injected intraperitoneally into mice bearing EAC before the mice were exposed to three 2-Gy doses of gamma irradiation. After 30 days, mice were fasted for 18 hours and then sacrificed to observe the lifespan of EAC-bearing hosts. Malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase activity, glutathione content, and total protein in serum, liver tissue, and ascitic fluid were determined. Iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin, and ferritin were also evaluated in serum. The data showed the presence of different types of compounds in FSME, such as flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, phenols, and sterols; estragole (71.099%) was the predominant alcohol, gallic acid was the phenolic compound (18.895%), and L-limonene was the most prevalent monoterpene hydrocarbon (11.967%). The mean±standard deviation 50% inhibitory concentrations were 50±0.03 μg/mL for the MCF7 breast cancer cell line and 48±022 μg/mL for the Hepg-2 liver cancer cell line. The significant increase in MDA levels and the significant decrease in catalase activity and glutathione content in liver and tumor tissue in mice bearing EAC were ameliorated after FSME administration. In contrast, total protein content was increased in ascitic fluid. Serum iron was inversely proportional to the levels of ferritin and transferrin and total iron-binding capacity. Administration of FSME before irradiation exerted a cytoprotective effect against gamma irradiation, as manifested by a restoration of the MDA level, catalase activity, and GSH content to near-normal levels. In conclusion, FSME may have remarkable anticancer potential against a breast cancer cell line (MCF7) and liver cancer cell line (Hepg-2). It also showed strong free radical-scavenging activity (100%). Thus, FSME may reduce oxidative stress and protect mouse cells from damage caused by reactive oxygen species. In addition, it could be used as a safe, effective, and easily accessible source of natural antioxidants to improve the oxidative stability of fatty foods during storage. FSME also exhibited an antitumor effect by modulating lipid peroxidation and augmenting the antioxidant defense system in EAC-bearing mice with or without exposure to radiation.

  10. Intake of selected bioactive compounds from plant food supplements containing fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) among Finnish consumers.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, Liisa; Salmenhaara, Maija; Isoniemi, Merja; Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Finglas, Paul; Plumb, Jenny; Tuominen, Pirkko; Savela, Kirsti

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the intake of selected bioactive compounds from fennel-containing plant food supplements (PFS) among Finnish consumers. The estimated average intake of estragole was 0.20mg/d, of trans-anethole 1.15mg/d, of rosmarinic acid 0.09mg/d, of p-coumaric acid 0.0068mg/d, of kaempferol 0.0034mg/d, of luteolin 0.0525μg/d, of quercetin 0.0246mg/d, of matairesinol 0.0066μg/d and of lignans 0.0412μg/d. The intakes of kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin, matairesinol and lignans from PFS were low in comparison with their dietary supply. The intake of estragole was usually moderate, but a heavy consumption of PFS may lead to a high intake of estragole. The intake of trans-anethole did not exceed the acceptable daily intake, but PFS should be taken into account when assessing the total exposure. To our knowledge, this study provided the first intake estimates of trans-anethole, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid in human populations.

  11. Pimpinella anisum L. ethanolic extract ameliorates the gentamicin- induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Changizi-Ashtiyani, Saeed; Seddigh, Amirhassan; Najafi, Houshang; Hossaini, Nasser; Avan, Amir; Akbary, Ahmad; Manian, Mostafa; Nedaeinia, Reza

    2017-02-01

    Gentamicin (GM) is one of the commonest causes of drug-induced nephrotoxicity. Moreover, oxidative stress plays an important role in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. The current study aimed to explore the antioxidant and protective effects of Pimpinella anisum (P. anisum) on the alleviation of GM-induced damage. Forty male wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, sham that was administrated normal saline orally and intraperitoneally (i.p.), GM that received 100 mg/kg bw/day i.p., GM and ethanolic extract of P. anisum that was administrated at an oral dose of 300 mg/kg bw/day for 8 days. Creatinine, Na(+) , K(+) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were measured. The levels of ferric-reducing-antioxidant-power (FRAP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured to evaluate the oxidative stress induced by GM. Kidney tissues were stained to determine the degree of tissue damage. The plasma levels of creatinine, BUN, MDA and the absolute excretion of sodium and potassium were increased in the GM group, while FRAP level was reduced compared to the sham group. In addition, congestion of renal Vessels and tubular cell necrosis was observed. We found that 300 mg/kg bw/day P. anisum significantly reduced the plasma concentrations of renal function markers in the group receiving GM (P < 0.05). Additionally, gentamicin-induced tubule damage was improved by P. anisum. We demonstrated the potential therapeutic impact of P. anisum to attenuate GM-induced nephrotoxicity. Therefore, the simultaneous use of ethanolic extract of P. anisum during GM administration is recommended to reduce its nephrotoxicity effects. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  12. Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pimpinella anisum L. seeds on milk production in rats.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Abedzadeh, Shirin; Taghiabadi, Elahe

    2014-08-01

    Pimpinella anisum L. (P. anisum) is used as a galactagogue in traditional medicine; hence, the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. anisum seeds on milk production in rats was evaluated. The milk production was assessed by measuring the pups' weights during the suckling period. The intraperitoneal LD(50) values of P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts were 4.93 and 3.77 g/kg, respectively. The aqueous (1 g/kg) and ethanolic extracts (1 g/kg) increased the milk production significantly (p < 0.001), with about 68.1% and 81% more milk being produced, respectively, than in the control group. The pups gained weight during the study period with the aqueous (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p < 0.05) and ethanolic (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p < 0.01) extracts. Thus, P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts can increase milk production in rats. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Characteristics of fatty acids and essential oil from sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. dulce) and bitter fennel fruits (F. vulgare Mill. var. vulgare) growing in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Coşge, Belgin; Kiralan, Mustafa; Gürbüz, Bilal

    2008-01-01

    Oil content in sweet and bitter fennels was obtained 12.22% and 14.41%, respectively. The C(18:1 c6), C(18:2), C(18:1 c9) and C(16:0) acids corresponding to approximately 97% of total oil was recorded as principal fatty acids. The ratios of essential oil from sweet and bitter fennels were found similar (average 3.00%). trans-Anethole, estragole and fenchone were found to be the main constituents in both fennels. The compound with the highest value in the two oil samples was trans-anethole as 95.25% (sweet) and 75.13% (bitter). While estragole was found in bitter fennel oil in a remarkable amount (15.51%), sweet fennel oil contained small amounts of estragole (2.87%). Fenchone was found <1% in sweet and approximately 5% in bitter fennel. p-Anisaldehyde in bitter fennel essential oil, and alpha-pinene and gamma-terpinene in sweet fennel essential oil were not recorded, and these compounds were found very low or <1%.

  14. Anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of Pimpinella anisum in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Karimzadeh, Fariba; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Mangeng, Diana; Alavi, Hassan; Hassanzadeh, Gholam Reza; Bayat, Mohamad; Jafarian, Maryam; Kazemi, Hadi; Gorji, Ali

    2012-06-18

    Essential oil of Pimpinella anisum L. Apiaceae (anise oil) has been widely used in traditional Persian medicine to treat a variety of diseases, including some neurological disorders. This study was aimed to test the possible anti-seizure and anti-hypoxia effects of anise oil. The effects of different concentrations of anise oil were tested on seizure attacks induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) injection and neuronal hypoxia induced by oxygen withdrawal as well as on production of dark neurons and induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in in vivo and in vitro experimental models of rat brain. Anise oil significantly prolonged the latency of seizure attacks and reduced the amplitude and duration of epileptiform burst discharges induced by injection of intraperitoneal PTZ. In addition, anise oil significantly inhibited production of dark neurons in different regions of the brain in epileptic rats. Anise oil also significantly enhanced the duration of the appearance of anoxic terminal negativity induced by oxygen withdrawal and inhibited induction of LTP in hippocampal slices. Our data indicate the anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of anise oil, likely via inhibition of synaptic plasticity. Further evaluation of anise oil to use in the treatment of neurological disorders is suggested.

  15. Anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of Pimpinella anisum in rat brain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Essential oil of Pimpinella anisum L. Apiaceae (anise oil) has been widely used in traditional Persian medicine to treat a variety of diseases, including some neurological disorders. This study was aimed to test the possible anti-seizure and anti-hypoxia effects of anise oil. Methods The effects of different concentrations of anise oil were tested on seizure attacks induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) injection and neuronal hypoxia induced by oxygen withdrawal as well as on production of dark neurons and induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in in vivo and in vitro experimental models of rat brain. Results Anise oil significantly prolonged the latency of seizure attacks and reduced the amplitude and duration of epileptiform burst discharges induced by injection of intraperitoneal PTZ. In addition, anise oil significantly inhibited production of dark neurons in different regions of the brain in epileptic rats. Anise oil also significantly enhanced the duration of the appearance of anoxic terminal negativity induced by oxygen withdrawal and inhibited induction of LTP in hippocampal slices. Conclusions Our data indicate the anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of anise oil, likely via inhibition of synaptic plasticity. Further evaluation of anise oil to use in the treatment of neurological disorders is suggested. PMID:22709243

  16. Synergistic antibacterial activity between Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts.

    PubMed

    Al-Bayati, Firas A

    2008-03-28

    Essential oils (EOs) and methanol extracts obtained from aerial parts of Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum seeds were evaluated for their single and combined antibacterial activities against nine Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The essential oils and methanol extracts revealed promising antibacterial activities against most pathogens using broth microdilution method. Maximum activity of Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts (MIC 15.6 and 62.5mug/ml) were observed against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Proteus vulgaris. Combinations of essential oils and methanol extracts showed an additive action against most tested pathogens especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  17. Antiviral and immunostimulating effects of lignin-carbohydrate-protein complexes from Pimpinella anisum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Bum; Yamagishi, Chihiro; Hayashi, Kyoko; Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2011-01-01

    Three antiviral and immunostimulating substances (LC1, LC2 and LC3) were isolated from a hot water extract of seeds of Pimpinella anisum by combination of anion-exchange, gel filtration and hydrophobic interaction column chromatographies. Chemical and spectroscopic analyses revealed them to be lignin-carbohydrate-protein complexes. These lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCs) showed antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and -2), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and measles virus. LCs were also found to interfere with virus adsorption to the host cell surface and directly inactivate viruses. Furthermore, they enhanced nitric oxide (NO) production by inducing iNOS mRNA and protein expression in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. The induced mRNA expression of cytokines including IL-1β and IL-10 was also apparent. These results suggest that the lignin-carbohydrate-protein complexes from P. anisum possessed potency as functional food ingredients against infectious diseases.

  18. Extraction of essential oil from Pimpinella anisum using supercritical carbon dioxide and comparison with hydrodistillation.

    PubMed

    Yamini, Yadollah; Bahramifar, Nader; Sefidkon, Fatemeh; Saharkhiz, Mohamad Jamal; Salamifar, Ehsan

    2008-02-15

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of essential oil from Pimpinella anisum, using carbon dioxide as a solvent is presented in this work. An orthogonal array design OA9 (3(4)) was applied to select the optimum extraction condition. The effects of pressure, temperature, dynamic extraction time and methanol volume on the extraction efficiency were investigated by the three-level orthogonal array design. Results show that pressure has a significant effect on the extraction efficiency. The extract obtained from P. anisum by using supercritical fluid extraction was compared with the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation, considering both quantity and quality of the product. SFE products were found to be of markedly different composition, compared with the corresponding hydrodistilated oil. The total amount of extractable substances obtained in SFE (7.5%) is higher than that obtained by hydrodistillation (3.1%) and SFE is faster than hydrodistillation method.

  19. Allelopathic Plants. Hordeum vulgare L.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an annual cereal and one of the first agricultural crops to be domesticated. It is a versatile crop and is broadly used as a food grain for human consumption, malt source for brewing, and feed grain for livestock. On-farm crop uses include pasture, a hay and silage sou...

  20. Screening of antioxidant properties of seven Umbelliferae fruits from Iran.

    PubMed

    Nickavar, Bahman; Abolhasani, Farideh Al-Sadat

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidative activities (IC(50)) of ethanol extracts from seven Umbelliferae fruits (Bunium persicum, Coriandrum sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare, Heracleum persicum, Pimpinella anisum and Trachyspermum copticum) have been studied by the DPPH (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging test. All the studied extracts showed antioxidant capability and P. anisum extract exhibited the strongest activity. The scavenging activity of the extracts in decreasing order was: P. anisum> T. copticum> C. cyminum> F. vulgare > or = B. persicum > or = C. sativum> H. persicum. The extracts were also investigated regarding their total flavonoid contents by the AlCl3 technique. The decreasing order of the flavonoid content of the extracts was: C. cyminum > T. copticum> P. anisum > or = H. persicum > or = B. persicum > or = F. vulgare > or = C. sativum. However, a favorable correlation was not found between the antioxidant activity and the total flavonoid content of the extracts. As well, the most active extract (i.e. P. anisum) was partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate to yield three organic fractions together with the remaining aqueous fraction. The antioxidative activities (IP%) and flavonoid contents of the fractions were also determined. The ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the highest activity and content. A positive correlation was found between the antioxidant potency and flavonoid content of the fractions.

  1. Evaluation of antidepressant-like effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pimpinella anisum fruit in mice.

    PubMed

    Shahamat, Zahra; Abbasi-Maleki, Saeid; Mohammadi Motamed, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Pimpinella anisum (P. anisum ) has different pharmacological properties such as anticonvulsant, analgesic, tranquilizer, antidepressant and anti-anxiety effects. In this study the antidepressant-like effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. anisum fruit in mice was investigated. Forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were used to determine the antidepressant effects of P. anisum (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) fruit extracts. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) and imipramine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) were used as standard drugs. All the three doses of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (except 50 mg/kg of aqueous extract in FST) significantly and dose-dependently reduced the immobility times in both FST and TST. All doses of extracts increased the swimming time dose-dependently, without any significant change in climbing time. In addition, all doses of ethanolic extract reduced immobility times and increased swimming time insignificantly higher than aqueous extract. But, the two extracts decreased the duration of climbing time similarly. Fluoxetine and imipramine decreased immobility time in both tests. Fluoxetine increased the swimming time without modifying climbing time. In contrast, imipramine increased climbing time without any significant change in swimming time. The results of this study suggest that P. anisum possesses an antidepressant-like activity similar to that of fluoxetine, which has a potential clinical value for application in the management of depression.

  2. Ameliorative effect of Pimpinella anisum oil on immunohistochemical and ultrastuctural changes of cerebellum of albino rats induced by aspartame.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Hamid, Manal; Gallaly, Sanaa Rida

    2014-05-01

    The study aims to investigate the protective effect of Pimpinella anisum oil on aspartame (ASP) which resulted in cerebellar changes. The rats were divided into four equal groups: Group 1: (control group): served as control animals. Group 2: control P. anisum oil received .5 mL/kg/d/b wt. once daily. Group 3 (ASP group): received daily 250 mg/kg/b wt. of ASP dissolved in distilled water and given orally to the animals by intra-gastric tube for 2 months. Group 4: received .5 mL/kg/b wt. of prophylactic P. anisum oil once daily, followed by ASP after 2 h for 2 months. The histopathological approach revealed marked changes in the Purkinje cells, myleinated nerve fibers and granular cells of ASP-treated animals. Some of these cells appeared with deeply stained cytoplasm. Ultrastructural examination showed Purkinje cells with dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum and condensed mitochondria. Granular cells appeared with less c nuclei and surrounded by dissolution of most Mossy rosettes structures. Most myelinated nerve fibers showed thickening of myelinated sheath and others showed splitting of their myelin sheath. The histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural alterations were much less observed in concomitant use of P. anisum oil with ASP. Cerebellar cortex is considered target areas of ASP neurotoxicity, while P. anisum oil, when used in combination with ASP displays a protective action against neurotoxicity.

  3. Evaluation of antidepressant-like effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pimpinella anisum fruit in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shahamat, Zahra; Abbasi-Maleki, Saeid; Mohammadi Motamed, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Pimpinella anisum (P. anisum) has different pharmacological properties such as anticonvulsant, analgesic, tranquilizer, antidepressant and anti-anxiety effects. In this study the antidepressant-like effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. anisum fruit in mice was investigated. Materials and Methods: Forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were used to determine the antidepressant effects of P. anisum (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) fruit extracts. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) and imipramine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) were used as standard drugs. Results: All the three doses of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (except 50 mg/kg of aqueous extract in FST) significantly and dose-dependently reduced the immobility times in both FST and TST. All doses of extracts increased the swimming time dose-dependently, without any significant change in climbing time. In addition, all doses of ethanolic extract reduced immobility times and increased swimming time insignificantly higher than aqueous extract. But, the two extracts decreased the duration of climbing time similarly. Fluoxetine and imipramine decreased immobility time in both tests. Fluoxetine increased the swimming time without modifying climbing time. In contrast, imipramine increased climbing time without any significant change in swimming time. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that P. anisum possesses an antidepressant-like activity similar to that of fluoxetine, which has a potential clinical value for application in the management of depression. PMID:27462555

  4. Phytotoxic activities of Mediterranean essential oils.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; Frei, Fernando; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2010-06-14

    Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae), Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae). The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation.

  5. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of anethole-rich oil from leaves of selected varieties of fennel [Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ssp. vulgare var. azoricum (Mill.) Thell].

    PubMed

    Senatore, Felice; Oliviero, Filomena; Scandolera, Elia; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Roscigno, Graziana; Zaccardelli, Massimo; De Falco, Enrica

    2013-10-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oils obtained from the leaves of two different cultivars of Florence fennel cropped under three different fertilization treatments (Control not fertilized; Mineral Fertilization; Compost from Municipal Solid Wastes) have been analyzed. All the oils were characterized by high anethole concentration and some showed also a good percentage of limonene. Thus, the leaves of Florence fennel, which are agricultural wastes, could be used for the recovery of anethole to be used for its flavoring and biomedical properties. The antimicrobial activity expressed by assays on the examined oils indicates an appreciable effect, generally higher on Gram-positive bacteria. The various samples of Florence fennel analyzed did not show any results with FRAP test. The DPPH test showed a weak capacity of the samples to catch the free radicals from the solution, attributable to their content in anethole.

  6. The Study on the Effects of Pimpinella anisum on Relief and Recurrence of Menopausal Hot Flashes.

    PubMed

    Nahidi, Fatemeh; Kariman, Nourossadat; Simbar, Masoumeh; Mojab, Faraz

    2012-01-01

    With respect to the high incidence of hot flash in postmenopausal women and the controversies regarding its treatment, this double-blind clinical trial was conducted to determine the effects of Pimpinella anisum on hot flashes in these women referring to rural and urban health centers of Qazvin Province in 2009. Seventy-two women with hot flashes were randomly selected according to the predetermined criteria and divided into two experimental and control groups. Their medical records at health centers were used for sampling. Each woman in the experimental group took a capsule containing 330 mg Pimpinella anisum 3 times a day while in the control group, women took 3 capsules, each containing 330 mg potato starch, over 4 weeks and after that, they were following up for 4 weeks. Before taking the capsules, they were assessed for 2 weeks about the frequency and severity of hot flashes. Data were collected through a questionnaire and an information form. Content validity method was used for validity of the tools. ANOVA and Student›s t-test were applied for statistical analysis. In the experimental group, the frequency and severity of hot flashes before the treatment were 4.21% and 56.21% and, after that, were 1.06% and 14.44% at the end of the fourth week respectively. No change was found in the frequency and severity of hot flashes in the control group. The frequency and severity of hot flashes was decreased during 4 weeks of follow up period. P. anisum is effective on the frequency and severity of hot flashes in postmenopausal women.

  7. The Study on the Effects of Pimpinella anisum on Relief and Recurrence of Menopausal Hot Flashes

    PubMed Central

    Nahidi, Fatemeh; Kariman, Nourossadat; Simbar, Masoumeh; Mojab, Faraz

    2012-01-01

    With respect to the high incidence of hot flash in postmenopausal women and the controversies regarding its treatment, this double-blind clinical trial was conducted to determine the effects of Pimpinella anisum on hot flashes in these women referring to rural and urban health centers of Qazvin Province in 2009. Seventy-two women with hot flashes were randomly selected according to the predetermined criteria and divided into two experimental and control groups. Their medical records at health centers were used for sampling. Each woman in the experimental group took a capsule containing 330 mg Pimpinella anisum 3 times a day while in the control group, women took 3 capsules, each containing 330 mg potato starch, over 4 weeks and after that, they were following up for 4 weeks. Before taking the capsules, they were assessed for 2 weeks about the frequency and severity of hot flashes. Data were collected through a questionnaire and an information form. Content validity method was used for validity of the tools. ANOVA and Student›s t-test were applied for statistical analysis. In the experimental group, the frequency and severity of hot flashes before the treatment were 4.21% and 56.21% and, after that, were 1.06% and 14.44% at the end of the fourth week respectively. No change was found in the frequency and severity of hot flashes in the control group. The frequency and severity of hot flashes was decreased during 4 weeks of follow up period. P. anisum is effective on the frequency and severity of hot flashes in postmenopausal women. PMID:24250540

  8. Lipid-lowering property of Clausena anisum-olens in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Anbel M; Tan, Mario A; Apostol, Jovencio M

    2017-12-01

    Clausena anisum-olens (Blanco) Merr. (Rutaceae) is a medicinal shrub which has been reported to have various pharmacological uses. No study regarding the effects of C. anisum-olens on cholesterol-lowering has been reported. The effects of the ethanol extract of C. anisum-olens leaves on the cholesterol level of hypercholesterolemic rats were evaluated. Acute oral toxicity of the extract (175, 550 and 2000 mg/kg) was determined using female Sprague-Dawley rats, as described in OECD 425 Main test guidelines. The lipid-lowering assay utilized 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into five groups (A-E). Triton X-100 was administered to induce hypercholesterolemia. After hypercholesterolemia induction, oral treatment of Atorvastatin and crude ethanol extract was given daily to the treatment groups for 14 days. The total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL were determined before induction, after induction, after first week of treatment and after second week of treatment. Acute oral toxicity showed the crude extract is nontoxic up to 2000 mg/kg. The lipid-lowering assay indicated reduction of serum cholesterol (87.21 ± 5.10 mg/dL), triglycerides (58.09 ± 4.10 mg/dL) and LDL (27.82 ± 4.11 mg/dL) for 200 mg/kw extract. Reduction in serum cholesterol (74.72 ± 3.64 mg/dL), triglycerides (52.79 ± 2.98 mg/dL) and LDL (12.06 ± 5.51 mg/dL) were observed for 400 mg/kg group. The result is comparable to Atorvastatin, which showed serum cholesterol (80.90 ± 9.72 mg/dL), triglycerides (55.94 ± 7.19 mg/dL) and LDL (22.09 ± 7.60 mg/dL) reduction. The crude extract of C. anisum-olens proved to be useful in lowering of cholesterol.

  9. [Treatment of chronic colitis with an herbal combination of Taraxacum officinale, Hipericum perforatum, Melissa officinaliss, Calendula officinalis and Foeniculum vulgare].

    PubMed

    Chakŭrski, I; Matev, M; Koĭchev, A; Angelova, I; Stefanov, G

    1981-01-01

    Twenty four patients with chronic non-specific colitis were treated with a herb combination. As a result from the treatment, the spontaneous and palpable pains along the large intestine disappeared in 95.83 per cent of the patients by the 15th day of their admission to the clinic. Defecation became daily in the patients with obstipation syndrome, but a combination of Rhamus frangula, Citrus aurantium, C. carvi was added to the herb combination already indicated. Defecation was normalized in patients with diarrhea syndrome. The pathological admixtures in feces disappeared.

  10. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) Tea Drinking Suppresses Subjective Short-term Appetite in Overweight Women.

    PubMed

    Bae, JiYoung; Kim, JiEun; Choue, Ryowon; Lim, Hyunjung

    2015-07-01

    Appetite controlling has been an main strategy for regulating food intake and energy balance in obesity treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of drinking tea of the medicinal herbs, fennel and fenugreek, on the subjective appetite in overweight Korean women. The study was conducted using a placebo-controlled, single-blinded, randomized, and 3-way crossover design. Nine healthy women were given fennel tea (FT), fenugreek tea (FGT), or placebo tea (PT). After drinking a given tea, a lunch buffet was provided and then food consumption of subjects was analyzed. Subjective appetite, hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were measured at seven independent time point using a visual analog scale (VAS). Mean age of 9 subjects were 49.7 ± 4.5 years and their mean body mass index were 24.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2). There was no significant difference in food consumption in the lunch buffet after drinking each tea; however, with respect to the subjective appetite scale, FGT decreased hunger, led to less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). Similarly, the consumption of FT resulted in decreased hunger, less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). The area under the curve of VAS graph indicated that FGT resulted in a higher feeling of fullness than the PT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, drinking the FT and FGT were significantly effective aid to suppress subjective appetite among overweight women in South Korea.

  11. In vitro antifungal activity and mechanism of essential oil from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) on dermatophyte species.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hong; Chen, Xinping; Liang, Jingnan

    2015-01-01

    Fennel seed essential oil (FSEO) is a plant-derived natural therapeutic against dermatophytes. In this study, the antifungal effects of FSEO were investigated from varied aspects, such as MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration, mycelia growth, spore germination and biomass. The results indicated that FSEO had potent antifungal activities on Trichophyton rubrum ATCC 40051, Trichophyton tonsurans 10-0400, Microsporum gypseum 44693-1 and Trichophyton mentagrophytes 10-0060, which is better than the commonly used antifungal agents fluconazole and amphotericin B. Flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy experiments suggested that the antifungal mechanism of FSEO was to damage the plasma membrane and intracellular organelles. Further study revealed that it could also inhibit the mitochondrial enzyme activities, such as succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and ATPase. With better antifungal activity than the commonly used antifungal agents and less possibility of inducing drug resistance, FSEO could be used as a potential antidermatophytic agent.

  12. Antimicrobial activities of essential oil and hexane extract of Florence fennel [Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum (Mill.) Thell.] against foodborne microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Bülent; Ozer, Hakan; Cakir, Ahmet; Polat, Taşkin; Dursun, Atilla; Mete, Ebru; Oztürk, Erdoğan; Ekinci, Melek

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the chemical compositions of the essential oil and hexane extract isolated from the inflorescence, leaf stems, and aerial parts of Florence fennel and the antimicrobial activities of the essential oil, hexane extract, and their major component, anethole, against a large variety of foodborne microorganisms. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the essential oils obtained from inflorescence, leaf stems, and whole aerial parts contained (E)-anethole (59.28-71.69%), limonene (8.30-10.73%), apiole (trace to 9.23%), beta-fenchyl acetate (3.02-4.80%), and perillene (2.16-3.29%) as the main components. Likewise, the hexane extract of the plant sample exhibited a similar chemical composition, and it contained (E)-anethole (53.00%), limonene (27.16%), gamma-terpinene (4.09%), and perillene (3.78%). However, the hexane extract also contained less volatile components such as n-hexadecanoic acid (1.62%), methyl palmitate (1.17%), and linoleic acid (1.15%). The in vitro antimicrobial assays showed that the essential oil, anethole, and hexane extract were effective against most of the foodborne pathogenic, saprophytic, probiotic, and mycotoxigenic microorganisms tested. The results of the present study revealed that (E)-anethole, the main component of Florence fennel essential oil, is responsible for the antimicrobial activity and that the essential oils as well as the hexane extract can be used as a food preservative. This study is the first report showing the antimicrobial activities of essential oil and hexane extract of Florence fennel against probiotic bacteria.

  13. Separation and characterization of phenolic compounds in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) using liquid chromatography-negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Parejo, Irene; Jauregui, Olga; Sánchez-Rabaneda, Ferran; Viladomat, Francesc; Bastida, Jaume; Codina, Carles

    2004-06-16

    Liquid chromatography (LC) diode array detection (DAD) coupled to negative electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used for the rapid and sensitive identification of water-soluble phenolic compounds in fennel waste. The plant material was first extracted and then chromatographed on Sephadex LH-20 to afford seven fractions, each of them being subjected to LC-MS analysis. Identification of the compounds was carried out by interpretation of UV, MS, and MS/MS spectra. Forty-two phenolic substances were identified, 27 of which had not previously been reported in fennel, including hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoid glycosides, and flavonoid aglycons.

  14. Comprehensive Research on Essential Oil and Phenolic Variation in Different Foeniculum vulgare Populations During Transition from Vegetative to Reproductive Stage.

    PubMed

    Salami, Maryam; Rahimmalek, Mehdi; Ehtemam, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-02-01

    Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of four fennel populations (England, Spain, Poland and Iran) were investigated during six developmental stages including two vegetative and four reproductive phases. In reproductive phase, the essential oil content of fruits decreased and the maximum content (5.9%) was obtained in immediate fruits. The essential oils were analyzed using GC/MS. trans-Anethole was the main component of the leaves and the fruits oil. In leaves, it ranged from 41.28% in England at late vegetative stage to 56.6% in Poland population at early vegetative stage. Other major compounds of leaves were limonene, α-pinene and (Z)-β-ocimene. In reproductive phases the trans-anethole increased dramatically. It varied from 85.25% in immature fruits from Poland to 90.7% in pre-mature stage from Spain. The highest phenolic content in the extracts at different growth stages obtained 189 mg TAE/g DW at full mature stage of seed in Iran population. The flavonoid of leaves extract ranged from 3 to 7.5 mg QUE/g DW, while in fruits extract varied from 3 to 10.3 mg QUE/g DW. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) and β-carotene model systems. Immature and full mature growth stages of fennel population from Spain indicated the highest activity in quenching of DPPH radical (74.2% and 74.5, respectively). Antioxidant activities of the extracts had high positive correlation with their phenolic contents in all fruit maturity stages. Finally, it might probably be suggested that in fennel the hot and humid condition can lead to increase trans-anethole, while the hot and dry one can produce higher amount of phenolics and flavonoids.

  15. First report of bacterial streak of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) in California caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. apii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new bacterial streak disease appeared on fennel leaves, stems and bulbs grown in Salinas California production fields. Initial symptoms consisted of small black lesions on stems that spread down the stem to the bulbs and up the stem to leaves as the disease progressed. The disease rendered the pl...

  16. Isolation of terpenoids from Pimpinella anisum essential oil by high-performance counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Walasek, Magdalena; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; Głowniak, Kazimierz

    2013-08-01

    High-performance counter-current chromatography was successfully used for the isolation and purification of terpenoid compounds from the essential oil of Pimpinella anisum L. A two-phase solvent system composed of n-heptane/methanol/ethyl acetate/water (5:2:5:2, v/v/v/v) was suitable for the purification of linalool, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, p-anisaldehyde, while n-heptane/methanol (1:1, v/v) was used for the isolation of anethole and foeniculin. A scale-up process from analytical to preparative was developed. Additionally, a stepwise gradient elution was applied and instead of two different runs, 40 min each, one 80 min separation was performed; although the time of separation remains the same, it was possible to repeat the efficiency even if the water-containing mobile phase was changed to a nonaqueous system. The obtained essential oil, as well as purified compounds, was analyzed by GC. A total of 0.64 mg of linalool, 0.52 mg of terpinen-4-ol, 0.10 mg of α-terpineol, 0.62 mg of p-anisaldehyde, 15 mg of anethole, and 2.12 mg of foeniculin were obtained from 210 mg of the essential oil of P. anisum L. in a short time with purities of 99, 98, 94, 93.54, 93, and 93.6%, respectively. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The effects of fruit essential oil of the Pimpinella anisum on acquisition and expression of morphine induced conditioned place preference in mice.

    PubMed

    Sahraei, Hedayat; Ghoshooni, Hassan; Hossein Salimi, Sayed; Mohseni Astani, Abutaleb; Shafaghi, Bijan; Falahi, Mansoor; Kamalnegad, Mohammad

    2002-04-01

    The problem of drug dependence still remains unresolved. In the present study the effects of an essential oil of Pimpinella anisum (Umbeliferae) on the expression and acquisition of conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by morphine in mice were investigated. Subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of morphine (2-5 mg/kg) produced place preference in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of the essential oil of P. anisum (0.125-0.5 ml/kg) induced conditioned place aversion (CPA). The mice which have received the essential oil of the P. anisum (0.125-0.5 ml/kg, i.p.) as well as the oil with morphine (5 mg/kg, s.c.) reduced the morphine effect. Administration of the essential oil of P. anisum (0.125-0.5 ml/kg, i.p.) on the test day did not show any effect on morphine action. It appeared that pre-administration with bicuculline (GABA(A) receptor antagonist) (1.5 mg/kg, i.p., 20 min before essential oil) diminished the effect of the essential oil of the P. anisum on morphine which induced CPP, but this result was not found for the GABA(B) receptor antagonist, CGP35348 (200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p., 10 min before essential oil). In conclusion, it appeared that the essential oil of the P. anisum may reduce the morphine effects via a GABAergic mechanism.

  18. Pimpinella anisum L. fruit: Chemical composition and effect on rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Asadollahpoor, Ali; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Rahimi, Roja

    2017-01-01

    Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes a group of chronic liver disorders caused by irregular accumulation of fat in liver tissue. The current study aimed to evaluate chemical composition and the effect of fruit extract and essential oil of Pimpinella anisum in experimental model of NAFLD. Materials and Methods: Sixty rats were randomly divided into ten groups, six in each group. NAFLD was induced in rats using choline-deficient diet for 90 days, followed by 30 days of treatment with 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day of hydroethanolic extract (AE) as well as 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/kg/day of essential oil (AO). Blood samples were collected in the final day, and lipid profile, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as well as biomarkers of oxidative damage including myeloperoxidase, lipid peroxidation, total thiol molecules, and ferric-reducing ability of plasma were measured. Liver tissue sections of the sacrificed rats were also assessed histologically. Results: AE and AO significantly reversed increase in the plasma levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and triacylglycerol and decrease in high-density lipoprotein level in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Serum levels of AST and ALT were also significantly modified by treatment with AE and AO (P < 0.05). Biomarkers of oxidative stress were modulated by administration of AE and AO (P < 0.05). Histological assessments also confirmed the effectiveness of treatments by reduced macrovesicular steatohepatitis. Conclusion: It could be concluded that P. anisum fruit extract and essential oil have beneficial effects in the treatment of NAFLD. Further studies are necessary to confirm safety and efficacy of this medicinal plant in clinical setting. PMID:28465696

  19. Pimpinella anisum L. fruit: Chemical composition and effect on rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Asadollahpoor, Ali; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Rahimi, Roja

    2017-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes a group of chronic liver disorders caused by irregular accumulation of fat in liver tissue. The current study aimed to evaluate chemical composition and the effect of fruit extract and essential oil of Pimpinella anisum in experimental model of NAFLD. Sixty rats were randomly divided into ten groups, six in each group. NAFLD was induced in rats using choline-deficient diet for 90 days, followed by 30 days of treatment with 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day of hydroethanolic extract (AE) as well as 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/kg/day of essential oil (AO). Blood samples were collected in the final day, and lipid profile, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as well as biomarkers of oxidative damage including myeloperoxidase, lipid peroxidation, total thiol molecules, and ferric-reducing ability of plasma were measured. Liver tissue sections of the sacrificed rats were also assessed histologically. AE and AO significantly reversed increase in the plasma levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and triacylglycerol and decrease in high-density lipoprotein level in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Serum levels of AST and ALT were also significantly modified by treatment with AE and AO (P < 0.05). Biomarkers of oxidative stress were modulated by administration of AE and AO (P < 0.05). Histological assessments also confirmed the effectiveness of treatments by reduced macrovesicular steatohepatitis. It could be concluded that P. anisum fruit extract and essential oil have beneficial effects in the treatment of NAFLD. Further studies are necessary to confirm safety and efficacy of this medicinal plant in clinical setting.

  20. Studies on essential oils: part 10; antibacterial activity of volatile oils of some spices.

    PubMed

    Singh, G; Kapoor, I P S; Pandey, S K; Singh, U K; Singh, R K

    2002-11-01

    The essential oils extracted from the seeds of seven spices, Anethum graveolens, Carum capticum, Coriandrum sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum and Seseli indicum have been studied for antibacterial activity against eight pathogenic bacteria, causing infections in the human body. It has been found that the oil of C. capticum is very effective against all tested bacteria. The oil of C. cyminum and A. graveolens also gave similar results. These oils are equally or more effective when compared with standard antibiotics, at a very low concentration. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. crude oil phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Noori, Azam; Maivan, Hassan Zare; Alaie, Ebrahim; Newman, Lee A

    2015-06-29

    Sites with crude oil pollution have been successfully treated using phytoremediation, but expanding the range of plants that can be used and understanding how exposure impacts the plants are two areas of study that are important to continue. Leucanthemum vulgare has been shown to grow well under a variety of stressful conditions. To examine L. vulgare's ability to both survive crude oil exposure and to reduce crude oil concentrations in soil, plants were placed in soil containing 0, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% or 10% w/w crude oil. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) concentration, peroxidase and catalase activity, proline and phenol content in roots and leaves were determined at the start of planting and every 2 months for six months. L. vulgare roots were successfully colonized with mycorrhizae under all conditions. Results showed positive correlation between antioxidant compound concentration and crude oil contamination. Also, a significant reduction occurred in TPH content of soil over time in planted pots as compared to controls. The lowest TPH content was recorded after 6 months under all treatments. Results showed L. vulgare could survive crude oil exposure and enhance reducing of crude oil from soil.

  2. Antifungal activity of fluid extract and essential oil from anise fruits (Pimpinella anisum L., Apiaceae).

    PubMed

    Kosalec, Ivan; Pepeljnjak, Stjepan; Kustrak, Danica

    2005-12-01

    Antifungal activities of fluid extract and essential oil obtained from anise fruits Pimpinella anisum L. (Apiaceae) were tested in vitro on clinical isolates of seven species of yeasts and four species of dermatophytes. Diffusion method with cylinders and the broth dilution method were used for antifungal activity testing. Anise fluid extract showed antimycotic activity against Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. pseudotropicalis and C. krusei with MIC values between 17 and 20% (v/v). No activity was noticed against C. glabrata, and anis fruits extracts showed growth promotion activity on Geotrichum spp. Anise fruits extract inhibited the growth of dermatophyte species (Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis and M. gypseum) with MIC values between 1.5 and 9.0% (V/V). Anise essential oil showed strong antifungal activity against yeasts with MIC lower than 1.56% (V/V) and dermatophytes with MIC lower than 0.78% (V/V). Significant differences in antifungal activities were found between anise fluid extract and anise essential oil (p<0.01). Anise essential oil exhibited stronger antifungal activities against yeasts and dermatophytes with MIC values between 0.10 and 1.56% (V/V), respectively.

  3. Aqueous suspension of anise "Pimpinella anisum" protects rats against chemically induced gastric ulcers.

    PubMed

    Al Mofleh, Ibrahim A; Alhaider, Abdulqader A; Mossa, Jaber S; Al-Soohaibani, Mohammed O; Rafatullah, Syed

    2007-02-21

    To substantiate the claims of Unani and Arabian traditional medicine practitioners on the gastroprotective potential effect of a popular spice anise, "Pimpinella anisum L." on experimentally-induced gastric ulceration and secretion in rats. Acute gastric ulceration in rats was produced by various noxious chemicals including 80% ethanol, 0.2 mol/L NaOH, 25% NaCl and indomethacin. Anti-secretory studies were undertaken using pylorus-ligated Shay rat technique. Levels of gastric non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) and wall mucus were estimated and gastric tissue was also examined histologically. Anise aqueous suspension was used in two doses (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) in all experiments. Anise significantly inhibited gastric mucosal damage induced by necrotizing agents and indomethacin. The anti-ulcer effect was further confirmed histologically. In pylorus-ligated Shay rats, anise suspension significantly reduced the basal gastric acid secretion, acidity and completely inhibited the rumenal ulceration. On the other hand, the suspension significantly replenished ethanol-induced depleted levels of gastric mucosal NP-SH and gastric wall mucus concentration. Anise aqueous suspension possesses significant cytoprotective and anti-ulcer activities against experimentally-induced gastric lesions. The anti-ulcer effect of anise is possibly prostaglandin-mediated and/or through its anti-secretory and antioxidative properties.

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load and sensory characteristics of aniseed (Pimpinella anisum).

    PubMed

    Al-Bachir, M

    2007-07-01

    Seeds of anise (Pimpinella anisum) were exposed to doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20kGy in a (60)Co package irradiator. Irradiated and unirradiated samples were stored at room temperature. Microbial populations on seeds, total and inorganic soluble solids in water extract and sensory properties of the latter were evaluated after 0, 6 and 12 months of storage. Results indicated that gamma irradiation reduced the aerobic plate counts of aniseed. Immediately after irradiation, the total soluble solids in an extract of irradiated seeds were greater than those of unirradiated ones. The total soluble solids in an extract of irradiated and un-irradiated seeds increased after 6 and 12 months of storage. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in inorganic soluble solids between the water extract of irradiated and unirradiated aniseeds. Sensory evaluation indicated that gamma irradiation improved sensory characteristics of aniseed water extract tested immediately after irradiation; however, after 12 months of storage, no significant differences (p>0.05) were found in color, taste or flavor between extract of irradiated and unirradiated seeds.

  5. Essential oil composition of Pimpinella anisum L. fruits from various European countries.

    PubMed

    Orav, Anne; Raal, Ain; Arak, Elmar

    2008-02-15

    Variations in the essential oil composition of Pimpinella anisum L. fruits obtained from different geographical areas of Europe were determined using capillary GC and GC-MS techniques. The essential oil content of the samples was 10.0-53.6 mL kg(-1) and did not confirm to the European Pharmacopoeia standard in 5 samples out of 14. A total of 21 compounds were identified and significant quantitative differences were observed among the samples. The major component was trans-anethole (76.9-93.7%); the other principal compounds in oils were gamma-himachalene (0.4-8.2%), trans-pseudoisoeugenyl 2-methylbutyrate (0.4-6.4%), p-anisaldehyde (tr-5.4%) and methylchavicol (0.5-2.3%). The highest content of trans-anethole (>90%) was found in the samples from Greece, Hungary, Scotland, Lithuania, Italy, and Germany (2 samples). Essential oil of aniseed from Estonia was rich in gamma-himachalene (8.2%) and trans-pseudoisoeugenyl 2-methylbutyrate (6.4%). The sample from France contained the highest amount of anisaldehyde (5.4%) comparing with other samples (0-3.1%). beta-Bourbonene and alpha-farnesene are determined in anise oil for the first time.

  6. Loss of competence for glyoxysome formation during somatic embryogenesis in anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Kudielka, R A; Theimer, R R

    1983-10-01

    Somatic embryogenesis in anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) suspension cultures induced by transfer to hormone-free growth medium may be synchronized by previous selection of cell aggregates with diameters between 100-240 μm. Around 80-90% of the embryoids are globular after 2-3 d, heart-shaped after 5-7 d and torpedo-shaped after 9 d. In embryogenic medium without source of carbon or with 20 mmol/l acetate differentiation and growth cease. But like in dedifferentiated cell aggregates the key enzyme activities for glyoxysomes such as isocitrate lyase and malate synthase are induced in globular (3 d old) and heart-shaped (5 d old) embryoids, but not in embryoids at day 7 or later. Similarly, in explants from anise hypocotyl glyoxysomes cannot be derepressed by such treatment. It is concluded that during differentiation of heart-shaped embryoids to torpedo forms the competence of the cells for the yet unknown inducing principle for glyoxysomes is lost.

  7. Antispasmodic and relaxant effects of the hidroalcoholic extract of Pimpinella anisum (Apiaceae) on rat anococcygeus smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Tirapelli, Carlos R; de Andrade, Claudia R; Cassano, Adriano O; De Souza, Fernando A; Ambrosio, Sergio R; da Costa, Fernando B; de Oliveira, Ana M

    2007-03-01

    The present work describes the mechanisms involved in the muscle relaxant effect of ethanol:water (40:60, 60:40 and 80:20) aerial parts extracts of Pimpinella anisum. Three hidroalcoholic extracts in which the proportion of ethanol was 40% (HA(40%)), 60% (HA(60%)) or 80% (HA(80%)) were tested for activity in the rat anococcygeus smooth muscle. The three extracts (50 microg/mL) inhibited acetylcholine-induced contraction. The extract HA(60%) (5-50 microg/mL) concentration dependently relaxed acetylcholine-pre-contracted tissues (31.55+/-3.56%). Conversely, HA(40%) and HA(80%) did not exert relaxant action. Pre-incubation of the preparations with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 microM), 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 3 microM) and oxyhemoglobin (10 microM) reduced the relaxation induced by HA(60%) (percentage of relaxation: 6.81+/-1.86%, 13.13+/-5.87% and 2.12+/-1.46%, respectively). Neither indomethacin (10 microM) nor tetraethylammonium (1 mM) affected the relaxation induced by HA(60%). Incubation of the tissues with L-NAME significantly enhanced the maximal contraction induced by acetylcholine, indicating an inhibitory role for NO in the modulation of the contractile response of anococcygeus smooth muscle to acetylcholine. However, simultaneous addition of L-NAME and HA(60%) resulted in an effect similar to that observed with L-NAME alone, further confirming the observation that Pimpinella anisum acts by realizing NO. Additionally, HA(60%) did not alter CaCl(2)-induced contraction. Collectively, our results provide functional evidence that the effects elicited by the hidroalcoholic extract of Pimpinella anisum involve the participation of NO and subsequent activation of the NO-cGMP pathway. The relaxant action displayed by Pimpinella anisum justifies its use in the folk medicine as an antispasmodic agent.

  8. Pimpinella anisum in the treatment of functional dyspepsia: A double-blind, randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ghoshegir, S Ashraffodin; Mazaheri, Mohammad; Ghannadi, Alireza; Feizi, Awat; Babaeian, Mahmoud; Tanhaee, Maryam; Karimi, Mehrdad; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of Pimpinella anisum (anise) from Apiaceae family on relieving the symptoms of postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) in this double-blind randomized clinical trial. Totally, 107 patients attending the gastroenterology clinic, aged 18-65 years, diagnosed with PDS according to ROME III criteria and signed a written consent form were enrolled. They were randomized to receive either anise or placebo, blindly, for 4 weeks. Anise group included 47 patients and received anise powders, 3 g after each meal (3 times/day). Control group involved 60 patients and received placebo powders (corn starch), 3 gafter each meal (3 times/day). The severity of Functional dyspepsia (FD) symptoms was assessed by FD severity scale. Assessments were done at baseline and by the end of weeks 2, 4 and 12. Mean scores of severity of FD symptoms and the frequency distribution of patients across the study period were compared. The age, sex, body mass index, smoking history, and coffee drinking pattern of the intervention and control groups were not significantly different. Mean (standard deviation) total scores of FD severity scale before intervention in the anise and control groups were 10.6 (4.1) and 10.96 (4.1), respectively (P = 0.6). They were 7.04 (4.1) and 12.30 (4.3) by week 2, respectively (P = 0.0001), 2.44 (4.2) and 13.05 (5.2) by week 4, respectively (P = 0.0001), and 1.08 (3.8) and 13.30 (6.2) by week 12, respectively (P = 0.0001). This study showed the effectiveness of anise in relieving the symptoms of postpartum depression. The findings were consistent across the study period at weeks 2, 4 and 12.

  9. Pimpinella anisum in the treatment of functional dyspepsia: A double-blind, randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshegir, S. Ashraffodin; Mazaheri, Mohammad; Ghannadi, Alireza; Feizi, Awat; Babaeian, Mahmoud; Tanhaee, Maryam; Karimi, Mehrdad; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Background: We aimed to evaluate the effects of Pimpinella anisum (anise) from Apiaceae family on relieving the symptoms of postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) in this double-blind randomized clinical trial. Materials and Methods: Totally, 107 patients attending the gastroenterology clinic, aged 18-65 years, diagnosed with PDS according to ROME III criteria and signed a written consent form were enrolled. They were randomized to receive either anise or placebo, blindly, for 4 weeks. Anise group included 47 patients and received anise powders, 3 g after each meal (3 times/day). Control group involved 60 patients and received placebo powders (corn starch), 3 gafter each meal (3 times/day). The severity of Functional dyspepsia (FD) symptoms was assessed by FD severity scale. Assessments were done at baseline and by the end of weeks 2, 4 and 12. Mean scores of severity of FD symptoms and the frequency distribution of patients across the study period were compared. Results: The age, sex, body mass index, smoking history, and coffee drinking pattern of the intervention and control groups were not significantly different. Mean (standard deviation) total scores of FD severity scale before intervention in the anise and control groups were 10.6 (4.1) and 10.96 (4.1), respectively (P = 0.6). They were 7.04 (4.1) and 12.30 (4.3) by week 2, respectively (P = 0.0001), 2.44 (4.2) and 13.05 (5.2) by week 4, respectively (P = 0.0001), and 1.08 (3.8) and 13.30 (6.2) by week 12, respectively (P = 0.0001). Conclusion: This study showed the effectiveness of anise in relieving the symptoms of postpartum depression. The findings were consistent across the study period at weeks 2, 4 and 12. PMID:25767516

  10. Local Anesthetic Activity from Extracts, Fractions and Pure Compounds from the Roots of Ottonia anisum Spreng. (Piperaceae).

    PubMed

    López, Kelvin S E; Marques, André M; Moreira, Davyson DE L; Velozo, Leosvaldo S; Sudo, Roberto T; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; Guimarães, Elsie F; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C

    2016-01-01

    Piperaceae species can be found worldwide in tropical and subtropical areas and many of them have been used for centuries in traditional folk medicine and in culinary. In Brazil, species of Piperaceae are commonly used in some communities as local anesthetic and analgesic. Countrified communities have known some species of the genus Ottonia as "anestesia" and it is a common habit of chewing leaves and roots of Ottonia species to relief toothache. The purpose of this study is to report our findings on new molecules entities obtained from the roots of Ottonia anisum Spreng, in which local anesthetic activity (sensory blockage) is demonstrated for the first time in vivo guinea pig model. Phytochemical investigation led to the isolation of three amides (pipercallosidine, piperine and valeramide) and in an enriched mixture of seven amides (valeramide, 4,5-dihydropiperlonguminine, N-isobutil-6-piperonil-2-hexenamide, piperovatine, dihydropipercallosidine, pipercallosidine and pipercallpsine). Our findings demonstrated the anesthetic potential for the methanolic extract from roots, its n-hexane partition and amides from O. anisum and it is in agreement with ethnobotanical survey.

  11. Registration of the BISON genetic stocks in Hordeum vulgare L.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A set of near-isogenic lines (NILs) was developed in barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) at Oregon State University, and evaluated for resistance to barley stripe rust (BSR, incited by Puccinia striiformis f.sp. hordei) and agronomic potential. The NILs, henceforth the BISON lines (Barley stripe ...

  12. Resolution and quantification of isomeric fatty acids by silver ion HPLC: fatty acid composition of aniseed oil (Pimpinella anisum, Apiaceae).

    PubMed

    Denev, Roumen V; Kuzmanova, Ivalina S; Momchilova, Svetlana M; Nikolova-Damyanova, Boryana M

    2011-01-01

    A silver ion HPLC procedure is described that is suitable to determine the fatty acid composition of plant seed oils. After conversion of fatty acids to p-methoxyphenacyl derivatives, it was possible to achieve baseline resolution of all fatty acid components with 0 to 3 double bonds, including the positionally isomeric 18:1 fatty acids oleic acid (cis 9-18:1), petroselinic acid (cis 6-18:1), and cis-vaccenic acid (cis 11-18:1), in aniseed oil (Pimpinella anisum, Apiaceae) by a single gradient run on a single cation exchange column laboratory converted to the silver ion form. The UV detector response (280 nm) was linearly related to the fatty acid concentration in the range 0.01 to 3.5 mg/mL.

  13. Larvicidal activity of Ottonia anisum metabolites against Aedes aegypti: A potential natural alternative source for mosquito vector control in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, André M; Velozo, Leosvaldo S; Carvalho, Michelle A; Serdeiro, Michele T; Honório, Nildimar A; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C; Maleck, Marise

    2017-01-01

    Aedes aegypti mosquito is the principal vector of the viruses responsible for urban yellow fever, dengue, dengue haemorrhagic fever, as well as Zika and chikungunya in Brazil. The present study was aimed to investigate the insecticidal potential of the extract and fractions of Ottonia anisum, along with special metabolites isolated from it, as natural alternatives against larvae (L3) of Ae. aegypti, vector of potentially deadly tropical infections in Brazil. The plant species O. anisum was collected in March 2015, at Xerιm area, in Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil. Crude extracts and the isolated pure compounds were screened for toxicity against Ae. aegypti larvae (L3). Bioassays were performed on 20 larvae (L3) of Ae. aegypti in triplicate. The samples were dissolved in a mixture of acetone and DMSO at final concentrations of 1-200 μg/ml. The toxicity of the solutions was evaluated towards the growth and development of Ae. aegypti larvae till emergence of adults. The crude hexane extract showed 100% larval mortality 24 h after treatment at a concentration of 200 μg/ml. The bioassays using 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene revealed 100% mortality among L3 larvae, 24 h afterthe treatment at a concentration of 30 μg/ml, the LC recorded was 1.6 μg/ml. At concentration of 10 μg/ml, the L3 larval mortality recorded was 92%. The metabolite 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene showed potent toxicity against Ae. aegypti larvae. This arylbutanoid agent could be used as a natural alternative adjuvant pesticide, in new compositions that would be environmentally safer.

  14. Inhibitory effect of different fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) samples and their phenolic compounds on formation of advanced glycation products and comparison of antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Salami, Maryam; Rahimmalek, Mehdi; Ehtemam, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-12-15

    In this study, antioxidant, antibacterial and antiglycation properties of methanolic extracts of 23 fennel samples were evaluated and their major compounds were determined using HPLC analysis. The anti-glycative activity of extracts was evaluated in the bovine serum albumin (BSA)/glucose system. The level of glycation, conformational alterations and protein binding to RAGE receptors were assessed by Congo red binding assay and a brown staining method. Among samples, Kh1 from Iran possessed the highest TFC (14.8mgQUEg(-1)), TPC (262mg/g DW) and antioxidant activity (IC50=76μg/ml). The HPLC results revealed high variation in 23 fennel samples according to their major flavonoid (quercetin, apigenin and rutin) and phenolic (chlorogenic, caffeic and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid) compounds. The antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts against four food-borne pathogens was also assessed. The seed extracts of Kh1 and En samples showed moderate to good inhibitory activities (MICs=62.5-125μg/ml) against three bacteria, as well as high anti-glycative activity.

  15. Toxic effects of sub-chronic exposure of male albino rats to emamectin benzoate and possible ameliorative role of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, El-Sayed A; Galal, Azza A A

    2015-05-01

    Emamectin benzoate (EB) is an avermectin insecticide used extensively in pest control on vegetable and field crops. Few studies have been done for evaluating adverse effects of EB. In the current study, we evaluated the toxic effects of EB on male rats and the possible ameliorative role of fennel essential oil (FEO). Thirty two male rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups. All groups were treated orally with distilled water (control group), 0.5mlFEOkg(-1) BW (FEO group), 2.5mgEBkg(-1) BW (EB group), and 0.5mlFEOkg(-1) BW+2.5mgEBkg(-1) BW (FEO+EB group) for 28 days. The obtained results showed that EB treatment resulted in a significant decrease in body weight, body weight gain, RBC count, Hb concentration, % PCV, MCV and MCHC. Moreover, EB significantly decreased total leukocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte and platelet count but significantly increased granulocyte count. EB markedly decreased total protein, albumin, globulin, IgG and IgM concentrations with a significant increase in TNF-α secretion. EB had a negative impact on the liver as it significantly increased ALT, ALP, and MDA, while decreasing SOD activity. Regarding to the histopathological examination, EB treatment induced coagulative necrosis and blood vessels congestion of the liver in treated rats. Furthermore, it resulted in depletion and necrosis of the white pulp of the spleen in treated rats. The co-administration of FEO with EB, however, improved the majority of parameters studied, suggesting that FEO is an important substance in decreasing toxic effects of EB.

  16. Effect of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) vaginal cream on vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Yaralizadeh, Masomeh; Abedi, Parvin; Najar, Shahnaz; Namjoyan, Foroogh; Saki, Amal

    2016-02-01

    Vaginal atrophy is one of the main concerns of postmenopausal women. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of fennel vaginal cream on vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women in Ahvaz, Iran. This double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted on 60 postmenopausal women (45-65 years of age) in Ahvaz, Iran. The study participants were randomly divided into one of two groups, receiving either a placebo (n=30) or fennel 5% vaginal cream (n=30) administered as one application per day (5g/day) for 8 weeks. The vaginal pH and maturation vaginal index (MVI) were measured at baseline and 8 weeks after the intervention, while the vaginal atrophy symptoms was measured at baseline and at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after the intervention. The data were analyzed using the independent t-test, chi-square test, paired sample t-test, and the generalized estimating equation. The number of superficial cells increased significantly in the fennel group after 8 weeks compared to the control group (76.1±15.3 vs. 11.8±8, p<0.001). The number of intermediate and parabasal cells decreased significantly in the fennel group compared to the control group (p<0.001). The vaginal pH decreased significantly at the 8-week follow-up in the fennel group compared to the control group (100% vs. 7.4%, p<0.001). All women in the fennel group had an MVI of 65-100 at the 8-week follow-up, whereas almost half (40.7%) of the women in the control group had an MVI of 50-64 (p<0.001). According to results of this study, fennel is an effective means to manage the symptoms of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women and is devoid of side effects. Larger studies are necessary to confirm the positive impact of fennel for vaginal conditions occurring among postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of chromosomal polymorphism in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) and between H. vulgare and H. chilense using three-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    PubMed

    Szakács, É; Kruppa, K; Molnár-Láng, M

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to study chromosomal polymorphism within cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) using three-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The physical distribution of the most frequently used, highly repetitive DNA sequences (GAA)7 specific for pericentromeric heterochromatic regions, the ribosomal DNA clone pTa71, specific for the 45S rDNA, and the barley-specific telomere-associated sequence HvT01, was investigated to reveal genetic diversity in metaphase spreads of ten barley genotypes with diverse geographical origin, growth habit and row number. A wild relative of barley, Hordeum chilense was also studied in order to compare the polymorphism between and within Hordeum species. Significant differences in the hybridization patterns of all three DNA probes could be detected between the two related species, but only probes pTa71 and HvT01 showed variation in the intensity and/or position of hybridization sites among genotypes of H. vulgare ssp. vulgare. The extent of polymorphism was less than that earlier reported for molecular markers and was restricted to the long chromosome arms, with differences between the chromosomes. 1H and 3H proved to be the most variable chromosomes and 4H and 6H the most conserved.

  18. Photodynamic inactivation of verrucae vulgares. II.

    PubMed

    Veien, N K; Genner, J; Brodthagen, H; Wettermark, G

    1977-01-01

    Photodynamic inactivation therapy, consisting of a double-blind, paired comparison treatment schedule, was used in treating 56 patients for recalcitrant, symmetrical verrucae vulgares. 0.1% proflavine in 100% dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) and 0.1% neutral red in 100% DMSO were used as active dyes, and 1% picric acid in 100% DMSO and 1% color ruber in 100% DMSO and 1% color ruber in 100% DMSO served as corresponding placebos. A Westinghouse sunlamp and black light were used to irradiate the warts dyed with proflavine and its placebo, and the warts dyed with neutral red and its placebo were irradiated with an ordinary light bulb (Osram 588597). 50 patients completed the treatment. 10 of the 27 patients treated with proflavine and 10 of the 23 patients treated with neutral red were cured by the end of an 8 week period, with the warts disappearing simultaneously from the actively as well as the placebo-treated side. Complement fixing antibodies against wart virus were detected in one of the cured patients and 2 who were treatment failures.

  19. Ochratoxin A production in aniseed-based media by selected fungal strains and in anise fruits (Pimpinella anisum L.).

    PubMed

    Espejo, Francisco; Vázquez, Covadonga; Patiño, Belén; Armada, Sandra

    2010-05-01

    The growth conditions and ochratoxin A (OTA) production of Aspergillus strains were studied in aniseed (Pimpinella anisum L.)-based media. The results showed that methanol/NaHCO3 (50:50, v/v) mixture for extraction and competitive direct ELISA analytical method are capable of detecting low OTA concentrations in this raw material, which were confirmed by HPLC with fluorescence detection (R (2) = 0.994). In aniseed meal extract agar artificially contaminated with selected fungi, the higher OTA values obtained were 283.8 ± 28.1 μg L(-1) for A. carbonarius and between 1.7 ± 0.1 μg L(-1) and 16.5 ± 12.8 μg L(-1) for A. steynii strains. While the optimal conditions of growth for A. carbonarius and A. steynii are 28°C and 0.98 a w, the optimal production of OTA was observed at 0.99 a w for both A. carbonarius and A. steynii but at 22°C and 28°C, respectively. Except in one sample, all the aniseed samples analysed were negative for OTA natural contamination. This study demonstrates that aniseed can be a matrix capable to contamination with OTA, at least produced by A. carbonarius and A. steynii strains, regardless of the antimicrobial properties of aniseed essential oil.

  20. Antioxidant activity, polyphenolic contents and essential oil composition of Pimpinella anisum L. as affected by zinc fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Tavallali, Vahid; Rahmati, Sadegh; Bahmanzadegan, Atefeh

    2017-04-07

    The antioxidant activity and essential oil content of plants may vary considerably with respect to environmental conditions, especially nutrient availability. Among micronutrients, zinc (Zn) is needed by plants in only small amounts but is crucial to plant development. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Zn fertilization on the antioxidant activity, polyphenolic contents and essential oil composition of Pimpinella anisum fruit. Foliar application of Zn fertilizer considerably increased the number of detected essential oil components from 27 to 45. Zinc application at a rate of 0.2% (w/v) significantly enhanced the levels of β-bisabolene, germacrene D, n-decane and α-zingiberene, whereas the opposite trend was observed for (E)-anethole and geijerene. Application of 0.2% Zn considerably increased the levels of phenolic compounds, with chlorogenic acid showing the highest content among eight phenolic compounds detected in treated plants. The maximum antioxidant activity was achieved through application of 0.2% Zn fertilizer. These findings indicated that the quality and quantity of anise fruit essential oil components were significantly altered by application of low levels of Zn. After foliar application of Zn, polyphenolic contents as well as antioxidant activity of anise fruit increased. Using Zn fertilizer is an efficient method to improve the pharmaceutical and food properties of anise fruit. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Pimpinella anisum seeds: antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity on human neonatal skin stromal cells and colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Alsalhi, Mohamad S; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Alfuraydi, Akram A; Vishnubalaji, Radhakrishnan; Munusamy, Murugan A; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni

    The present study focused on a simple and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with multipurpose anticancer and antimicrobial activities. We studied a green synthesis route to produce AgNPs by using an aqueous extract of Pimpinella anisum seeds (3 mM). Their antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity on human neonatal skin stromal cells (hSSCs) and colon cancer cells (HT115) were assessed. A biophysical characterization of the synthesized AgNPs was realized: the morphology of AgNPs was determined by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and ultraviolet-vis absorption spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy showed spherical shapes of AgNPs of P. anisum seed extracts with a 3.2 nm minimum diameter and average diameter ranging from 3.2 to 16 nm. X-ray powder diffraction highlighted the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles, ultraviolet-vis absorption spectroscopy was used to monitor their synthesis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the main reducing groups from the seed extract. Energy dispersive spectroscopy was used to confirm the presence of elemental silver. We evaluated the antimicrobial potential of green-synthesized AgNPs against five infectious bacteria: Staphylococcus pyogenes (29213), Acinetobacter baumannii (4436), Klebsiella pneumoniae (G455), Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, we focused on the toxicological effects of AgNPs against hSSC cells and HT115 cells by using in vitro proliferation tests and cell viability assays. Among the different tested concentrations of nanoparticles, doses < 10 µg showed few adverse effects on cell proliferation without variations in viability, whereas doses >10 µg led to increased cytotoxicity. Overall, our results highlighted the capacity of P. anisum-synthesized AgNPs as novel and cheap bioreducing agents for eco-friendly nanosynthetical routes. The data confirm the multipurpose

  2. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Pimpinella anisum seeds: antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity on human neonatal skin stromal cells and colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Alsalhi, Mohamad S; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Alfuraydi, Akram A; Vishnubalaji, Radhakrishnan; Munusamy, Murugan A; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background The present study focused on a simple and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with multipurpose anticancer and antimicrobial activities. Materials and methods We studied a green synthesis route to produce AgNPs by using an aqueous extract of Pimpinella anisum seeds (3 mM). Their antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity on human neonatal skin stromal cells (hSSCs) and colon cancer cells (HT115) were assessed. Results A biophysical characterization of the synthesized AgNPs was realized: the morphology of AgNPs was determined by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and ultraviolet-vis absorption spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy showed spherical shapes of AgNPs of P. anisum seed extracts with a 3.2 nm minimum diameter and average diameter ranging from 3.2 to 16 nm. X-ray powder diffraction highlighted the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles, ultraviolet-vis absorption spectroscopy was used to monitor their synthesis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the main reducing groups from the seed extract. Energy dispersive spectroscopy was used to confirm the presence of elemental silver. We evaluated the antimicrobial potential of green-synthesized AgNPs against five infectious bacteria: Staphylococcus pyogenes (29213), Acinetobacter baumannii (4436), Klebsiella pneumoniae (G455), Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, we focused on the toxicological effects of AgNPs against hSSC cells and HT115 cells by using in vitro proliferation tests and cell viability assays. Among the different tested concentrations of nanoparticles, doses < 10 µg showed few adverse effects on cell proliferation without variations in viability, whereas doses >10 µg led to increased cytotoxicity. Conclusion Overall, our results highlighted the capacity of P. anisum-synthesized AgNPs as novel and cheap bioreducing agents for eco

  3. Hordeum Vulgare Hull in the Design of Fast Disintegrating Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Rajpurohit, H; Sharma, P; Sharma, S; Purohit, S; Bhandari, A

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, fast disintegrating tablets were designed with a view to enhance patient compliance. In this method, the hull of Hordeum vulgare, cross carmellose sodium, and sodium starch glycolate were used as superdisintegrants (4 and 6%), along with microcrystalline cellulose and mannitol, to enhance mouth feel. The prepared batches of tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, wetting time, water absorption ratio and in vitro dispersion time. Based on the in vitro dispersion time, the formulations were tested for the in vitro drug release pattern. Tablets having H. vulgare hull showed the release profile comparable to those tablets having sodium starch glycolate and cross carmellose sodium. PMID:21897660

  4. Expression analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) during salinity stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a salt-tolerant crop species with considerable economic importance in salinity-affected arid and semiarid regions of the world. In this work, barley cultivar Morex was used for transcriptional profiling during salinity stress using a microarray containing ~22,750 prob...

  5. The influence of essential oil of aniseed (Pimpinella anisum, L.) on drug effects on the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Samojlik, Isidora; Mijatović, Vesna; Petković, Stojan; Skrbić, Biljana; Božin, Biljana

    2012-12-01

    Anise (Pimpinella anisum L.; Apiaceae) and its essential oil have been widely used in folk medicine, pharmacy and food industry. Since there are some data about the impact of anise on functions of central nervous system (CNS), the issue of possible interactions with drugs acting in CNS should be considered. This survey aimed to examine the influence of aniseed essential oil (EO) intake on the effects of drugs that act in CNS. The chemical profile of essential oil determined by GC-MS revealed as the main components: trans-anethole (88.49%), γ-himachalene (3.13%), cis-isoeugenol (1.99%), and linalool (1.79%). The effects of codeine, diazepam, midazolam, pentobarbital, imipramine and fluoxetine were tested in mice after 5days of peroral pretreatment with human equivalent dose of aniseed EO (0.3mg/kg). The intake of EO led to significant increase of analgesic effect of codeine. The motor impairment caused by midazolam was enhanced in the group treated by EO. The application of diazepam decreased the number and percentage of entries in open arm in elevated maze plus test in the group pretreated with EO indicating augmented effect of drug on motor activity. EO pretreatment caused significant shortage of pentobarbital induced sleeping time when compared to control. The decrease in antidepressant effect of imipramine and fluoxetine was diminished by the pretreatment with aniseed EO. Based on the results of this study we conclude that concomitant intake of aniseed EO preparations and drugs that act on CNS should be avoided due to potential herb-drug interactions, which also need further clinical confirmation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The fruit essential oil of Pimpinella anisum L. (Umblliferae) induces neuronal hyperexcitability in snail partly through attenuation of after-hyperpolarization.

    PubMed

    Janahmadi, Mahyar; Farajnia, Sahar; Vatanparast, Jafar; Abbasipour, Habib; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2008-12-08

    Many biological actions of Pimpinella anisum L. (Ainse), including antiepileptic activity have been demonstrated; however, there is no data concerning its precise cellular mechanisms of action. We determined whether the fruit essential oil of anise affect the bioelectrical activity of snail neurons in control condition or after pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced epileptic activity. Intracellular recordings were made under the current clamp condition and the effects of anise oil (0.01% or 0.05%) alone or in combination with PTZ were assessed on the firing pattern, action potential configuration and postspike potentials. Anise oil changed the firing pattern from regular tonic discharge to irregular and then to bursting in intact cells or resulted in the robustness of the burst firing and the steepness of the paroxysmal shift induced by PTZ treatment. It also significantly increased the firing frequency and decreased both the after-hyperpolarization potential (AHP) following single action potential and the post-pulse AHP. Likely candidate cellular mechanisms underlying the hyperexcitability produced by anise oil include enhancement of Ca(2+) channels activity or inhibition of voltage and/or Ca(2+) dependent K(+) channels activity underlying AHPs. These finding indicates that a certain caution is needed when Pimpinella anisum is used for treating patients suffering from epilepsy.

  7. Extraction and physicochemical characterization of Sargassum vulgare alginate from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres, Marcia R; Sousa, Alessandra P A; Silva Filho, Eduardo A T; Melo, Dirce F; Feitosa, Judith P A; de Paula, Regina C M; Lima, Maria G S

    2007-10-15

    Alginate fractions from Sargassum vulgare brown seaweed were characterized by (1)H NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy and by rheological measurements. The alginate extraction conditions were investigated. In order to carry out the structural and physicochemical characterization, samples extracted for 1 and 5h at 60 degrees C were further purified by re-precipitation with ethanol and denoted as SVLV (S. vulgare low viscosity) and SVHV (S. vulgare high viscosity), respectively. The M/G ratio values for SVLV and SVHV were 1.56 and 1.27, respectively, higher than the ratio for most Sargassum spp. alginates (0.19-0.82). The homopolymeric blocks F(GG) and F(MM) of these fractions characterized by (1)H NMR spectroscopy were 0.43 and 0.55 for SVHV and 0.36 and 0.58 for SVLV samples, respectively, these values typically being within 0.28-0.77 and 0.07-0.41, respectively. Therefore, the alginate samples from S. vulgare are much richer in mannuronic block structures than those from other Sargassum species. Values of M(w) for alginate samples were also calculated using intrinsic viscosity data. The M(w) value for SVLV (1.94 x 10(5)g/mol) was lower than that for SVHV (3.3 x 10(5)g/mol). Newtonian behavior was observed for a solution concentration as high as 0.7% for SVLV, while for SVHV the solutions behaved as a Newtonian fluid up to 0.5%. The optimal conditions for obtaining the alginates from S. vulgare were 60 degrees C and 5h extraction. Under these conditions, a more viscous alginate in higher yield was extracted from the seaweed biomass.

  8. Chemical diversity in Indian oregano (Origanum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Verma, Ram S; Padalia, Rajendra C; Chauhan, Amit; Verma, Rajesh K; Yadav, Ajai K; Singh, Hemendra P

    2010-08-01

    The terpenoid composition of the essential oils of 17 different populations of Origanum vulgare L., collected from wild populations and subsequently grown under similar conditions in the sub-temperate region of the Western Himalaya, was studied. Analysis by GC (RI) and GC/MS allowed the identification of 51 components, representing 90.15 to 99.94% of the total oil. The two classes of the phenolic compounds and the monoterpenoids were predominant in all the essential oils. On the basis of the major constituents, i.e., marker compounds, and by comparison of the results with previous reports, new chemotypes could be identified. Principal component analysis was performed to determine the chemical variability within the different populations of O. vulgare collected and grown under similar conditions. Based on the marker compounds, six chemotypes with significant variations in their terpenoid profile were noticed within the 17 populations.

  9. Metabolome profiling reveals metabolic cooperation between Bacillus megaterium and Ketogulonicigenium vulgare during induced swarm motility.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Ma, Qian; Yi, Hong; Wang, Lili; Song, Hao; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2011-10-01

    The metabolic cooperation in the ecosystem of Bacillus megaterium and Ketogulonicigenium vulgare was investigated by cultivating them spatially on a soft agar plate. We found that B. megaterium swarmed in a direction along the trace of K. vulgare on the agar plate. Metabolomics based on gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) was employed to analyze the interaction mechanism between the two microorganisms. We found that the microorganisms interact by exchanging a number of metabolites. Both intracellular metabolism and cell-cell communication via metabolic cooperation were essential in determining the population dynamics of the ecosystem. The contents of amino acids and other nutritional compounds in K. vulgare were rather low in comparison to those in B. megaterium, but the levels of these compounds in the medium surrounding K. vulgare were fairly high, even higher than in fresh medium. Erythrose, erythritol, guanine, and inositol accumulated around B. megaterium were consumed by K. vulgare upon its migration. The oxidization products of K. vulgare, including 2-keto-gulonic acids (2KGA), were sharply increased. Upon coculturing of B. megaterium and K. vulgare, 2,6-dipicolinic acid (the biomarker of sporulation of B. megaterium), was remarkably increased compared with those in the monocultures. Therefore, the interactions between B. megaterium and K. vulgare were a synergistic combination of mutualism and antagonism. This paper is the first to systematically identify a symbiotic interaction mechanism via metabolites in the ecosystem established by two isolated colonies of B. megaterium and K. vulgare.

  10. Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis of Marrubiin in Marrubium vulgare L. via HPTLC Technique

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Keyvan; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz; Torbati, Mohammadali; Fathiazad, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study we aimed to quantify marrubiin, as the major active compound, in the aerial parts of Marrubium vulgare from Iran using a HPTLC-densitometry technique. Methods: Quantitative determination of marrubiin in M. vulgare methanol extract was performed by HPTLC analysis via a fully automated TLC scanner. Later on, the in vitro antioxidant activity of the M. vulgare methanol extract was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Furthermore, total phenolics and flavonoids contents of the methanol extract were quantified, spectrophotometrically. Results: The amount of marrubiin was calculated as 156 mg/g of M. vulgare extract. The antioxidant assay revealed a strong radical scavenging activity for the M. vulgare methanol extract with RC50 value of 8.24μg/mL. Total phenolics and flavonoids contents for M. vulgare were determined as 60.4 mg gallic acid equivalent and 12.05 mg quercetin equivalent per each gram of the extract, correspondingly. Conclusion: The presented fingerprint of marrubiin in M. vulgare extract developed by HPTLC densitometry afforded a detailed chemical profile, which might be useful in the identification as well as quality evaluation of herbal medications based on M. vulgare. Besides, the considerable antioxidant activity of M. vulgare was associated with the presence of marrubiin along with phenolics and flavonoids exerting a synergistic effect. PMID:27123428

  11. Essential oil diversity of European Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Lukas, Brigitte; Schmiderer, Corinna; Novak, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    This investigation focused on the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oil compounds of European Origanum vulgare. Extracts of 502 individual O. vulgare plants from 17 countries and 51 populations were analyzed via GC. Extracts of 49 plants of 5 populations of Israeli Origanum syriacum and 30 plants from 3 populations of Turkish Origanum onites were included to exemplify essential oil characteristics of 'high-quality' oregano. The content of essential oil compounds of European O. vulgare ranged between 0.03% and 4.6%. The monoterpenes were primarily made up of sabinene, myrcene, p-cymene, 1,8-cineole, β-ocimene, γ-terpinene, sabinene hydrate, linalool, α-terpineol, carvacrol methyl ether, linalyl acetate, thymol and carvacrol. Among the sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, germacrene D-4-ol, spathulenol, caryophyllene oxide and oplopanone were often present in higher amounts. According to the proportions of cymyl-compounds, sabinyl-compounds and the acyclic linalool/linalyl acetate three different main monoterpene chemotypes were defined. The cymyl- and the acyclic pathway were usually active in plants from the Mediterranean climate whereas an active sabinyl-pathway was a characteristic of plants from the Continental climate.

  12. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L. under different growth conditions.

    PubMed

    De Falco, Enrica; Mancini, Emilia; Roscigno, Graziana; Mignola, Enrico; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Senatore, Felice

    2013-12-04

    This research was aimed at investigating the essential oil production, chemical composition and biological activity of a crop of pink flowered oregano (Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L.) under different spatial distribution of the plants (single and binate rows). This plant factor was shown to affect its growth, soil covering, fresh biomass, essential oil amount and composition. In particular, the essential oil percentage was higher for the binate row treatment at the full bloom. The chemical composition of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation was fully characterized by GC and GC-MS. The oil from plants grown in single rows was rich in sabinene, while plants grown in double rows were richer in ocimenes. The essential oils showed antimicrobial action, mainly against Gram-positive pathogens and particularly Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis.

  13. An in vivo and in vitro investigation on hepatoprotective effects of Pimpinella anisum seed essential oil and extracts against carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Heidari, Reza; Razmjou, Mojtaba; Karimi, Forouzan; Moein, Mahmood Reza; Farshad, Omid; Akbarizadeh, Amin Reza; Shayesteh, Mohammad Reza Houshangi

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Protective effects of different extracts and essential oil from Pimpinella anisum L. seeds were examined against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced toxicity. The parameters such as serum transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase activity, hepatic glutathione content, liver lipid peroxidation and histopathological changes of liver were assessed as toxicity markers. In the in vitro model of this study, markers such as cell viability, cellular reduced and oxidized glutathione and lipid peroxidation in HepG2 cells were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Human liver cancer cell line HepG2 and male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with extracts and essential oil, and markers of hepatotoxicity were investigated. Results: The data revealed that the n-hexane extract, effectively attenuated CCl4-induced toxicity in both in vitro and in vivo models in current investigation. Conclusion: As the oxidative stress markers were ameliorated, it might be concluded that anise seed possesses protective effects probably due to its antioxidant constituents. PMID:25825639

  14. An in vivo and in vitro investigation on hepatoprotective effects of Pimpinella anisum seed essential oil and extracts against carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Heidari, Reza; Razmjou, Mojtaba; Karimi, Forouzan; Moein, Mahmood Reza; Farshad, Omid; Akbarizadeh, Amin Reza; Shayesteh, Mohammad Reza Houshangi

    2015-02-01

    Protective effects of different extracts and essential oil from Pimpinella anisum L. seeds were examined against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced toxicity. The parameters such as serum transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase activity, hepatic glutathione content, liver lipid peroxidation and histopathological changes of liver were assessed as toxicity markers. In the in vitro model of this study, markers such as cell viability, cellular reduced and oxidized glutathione and lipid peroxidation in HepG2 cells were evaluated. Human liver cancer cell line HepG2 and male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with extracts and essential oil, and markers of hepatotoxicity were investigated. The data revealed that the n-hexane extract, effectively attenuated CCl4-induced toxicity in both in vitro and in vivo models in current investigation. As the oxidative stress markers were ameliorated, it might be concluded that anise seed possesses protective effects probably due to its antioxidant constituents.

  15. Congruence of phytochemical and morphological profiles along an altitudinal gradient in Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare from Venetian Region (NE Italy).

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Claudia; Maggi, Filippo; Papa, Fabrizio; Maleci Bini, Laura

    2013-04-01

    Plants of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare from the Veneto region (NE Italy) were selected to study the variability of the essential-oil composition from leaves and inflorescences throughout an elevation gradient. We investigated also the morphology of non-glandular and glandular trichomes, their distribution on the vegetative and reproductive organs, as well as the histochemistry of the secreted products, with special focus on the terpenoidic fraction. Since glandular trichomes are prerequisite for the essential-oil synthesis, the second objective was to establish whether its production is related to glandular hair number, and density. Essential-oil contents decline with increasing altitude, and the micromorphological observations revealed a decrease in trichome density along the same direction. Moreover, GC/MS analysis together with principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the three investigated populations were significantly different in chemical composition. Therefore, an important interpopulation variability for low-, mid-, and high-altitude sites was established, suggesting the likely occurrence of different biotypes associated with altitudinal levels. Hence, the involvement of abiotic factors such as temperature and drought in the chemical polymorphism of O. vulgare associated with elevation is briefly discussed. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  16. An attempt of postharvest orange fruit rot control using essential oils from Mediterranean plants.

    PubMed

    Camele, Ippolito; De Feo, Vincenzo; Altieri, Luciana; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Luigi Rana, Gian

    2010-12-01

    Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested at different doses against four fungi known as causal agents of post-harvest orange fruit rot: Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, Phytophthora citrophthora, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, and Thymus vulgaris (Family Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Family Verbenaceae), and Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Carum carvi (Family Apiaceae). Because preliminary in vitro experiments showed that only the oils from V. officinalis, T. vulgaris, and O. vulgare exhibited some fungistatic activity against the above-named fungi, these three essential oils were used in successive in vivo tests carried out to protect healthy "Washington navel" orange fruits from artificial infection by the same micromycetes. The essential oil of T. vulgaris, at a 2,000 ppm dose, controlled fruit rot by B. cinerea, P. citrophthora, and R. stolonifer but was ineffective against P. italicum. Essential oils of V. officinalis and O. vulgare inhibited infection by the first two fungi and only by P. citrophthora, respectively. This finding represents an important result, with the goal of using the essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their positive effect on their safety and shelf life.

  17. Antibacterial activity against Clostridium genus and antiradical activity of the essential oils from different origin.

    PubMed

    Kačániová, Miroslava; Vukovič, Nenad; Horská, Elena; Salamon, Ivan; Bobková, Alica; Hleba, Lukáš; Fiskelová, Martina; Vatľák, Alexander; Petrová, Jana; Bobko, Marek

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the antimicrobial and antiradical activities of 15 essential oils were investigated. The antimicrobial activities were determined by using agar disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods against Clostridium genus and antioxidant properties of essential oils by testing their scavenging effect on DPPH radicals activities. We determined the antibacterial activity of Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium hystoliticum, Clostridium intestinale, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium ramosum. We obtained the original commercial essential oils samples of Lavandula angustifolia, Carum carvi, Pinus montana, Mentha piperita, Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Pinus sylvestris, Satureia montana, Origanum vulgare L. (2 samples), Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Abies alba Mill., Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch and Thymus vulgaris L. produced in Slovakia (Calendula a.s., Nova Lubovna, Slovakia). The results of the disk diffusion method showed very high essential oils activity against all tested strains of microorganisms. The best antimicrobial activity against C. butyricum was found at Pimpinella anisum, against C. hystoliticum was found at Pinus sylvestris, against C. intestinale was found at Satureia hortensis L., against C. perfringens was found at Origanum vulgare L. and against C. ramosum was found at Pinus sylvestris. The results of broth microdilution assay showed that none of the essential oils was active against C. hystoliticum. The best antimicrobial activity against C. butyricum was found at Abies alba Mill., against C. intestinale was found at Abies alba Mill., against C. perfringens was found at Satureia montana and against C. ramosum was found at Abius alba and Carum carvi. Antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging activity was determined at several solutions of oil samples (50 μL.mL(-1)-0.39 μL.mL(-1)) and the best scavenging effect for the highest concentration (50 μL.mL(-1)) was observed. The antioxidant properties

  18. Repellents in the Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria japonica, against the pill-bug, Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Morisawa, Jun; Kim, Chul-Sa; Kashiwagi, Takehiro; Tebayashi, Shin-ichi; Horiike, Michio

    2002-11-01

    Sandaracopimarinol and (1S,6R)-2,7(14),10-bisabolatrien-1-ol-4-one were isolated and identified from Cryptomeria japonica as repellents against Armadillidium vulgare which is well known as an unpleasant pest in the house and as vegetable pest in Japan. These compounds strongly repelled A. vulgare when they were combined, although each compound alone did not show any activity.

  19. Mitochondrial genome sequences from wild and cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Hisano, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Mai; Yoshida, Hideya; Terachi, Toru; Sato, Kazuhiro

    2016-10-24

    Sequencing analysis of mitochondrial genomes is important for understanding the evolution and genome structures of various plant species. Barley is a self-pollinated diploid plant with seven chromosomes comprising a large haploid genome of 5.1 Gbp. Wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) and cultivated barley (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) have cross compatibility and closely related genomes, although a significant number of nucleotide polymorphisms have been reported between their genomes. We determined the complete nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial genomes of wild and cultivated barley. Two independent circular maps of the 525,599 bp barley mitochondrial genome were constructed by de novo assembly of high-throughput sequencing reads of barley lines H602 and Haruna Nijo, with only three SNPs detected between haplotypes. These mitochondrial genomes contained 33 protein-coding genes, three ribosomal RNAs, 16 transfer RNAs, 188 new ORFs, six major repeat sequences and several types of transposable elements. Of the barley mitochondrial genome-encoded proteins, NAD6, NAD9 and RPS4 had unique structures among grass species. The mitochondrial genome of barley was similar to those of other grass species in terms of gene content, but the configuration of the genes was highly differentiated from that of other grass species. Mitochondrial genome sequencing is essential for annotating the barley nuclear genome; our mitochondrial sequencing identified a significant number of fragmented mitochondrial sequences in the reported nuclear genome sequences. Little polymorphism was detected in the barley mitochondrial genome sequences, which should be explored further to elucidate the evolution of barley.

  20. The complete chloroplast genome of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Lukas, Brigitte; Novak, Johannes

    2013-10-10

    Oregano (Origanum vulgare L., Lamiaceae) is a medicinal and aromatic plant maybe best known for flavouring pizza. New applications e.g. as natural antioxidants for food are emerging due to the plants' high antibacterial and antioxidant activity. The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of Origanum vulgare (GenBank/EBML/DDBJ accession number: JX880022) consists of 151,935 bp and includes a pair of inverted repeats (IR) of 25,527 bp separated by one small and one large single copy region (SSC and LSC) of 17,745 and 83,136 bp, respectively. The genome with an overall GC content of 38% hosts 114 genes that covering 63% of the genome of which 8% were introns. The comparison of the Origanum cp genome with the cp genomes of two other core lamiales (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge and Sesamum indicum L.) revealed completely conserved protein-coding regions in the IR region but also in the LSC and SSC regions. Phylogenetic analysis of the lamiids based on 56 protein-coding genes give a hint at the basic structure of the Lamiales. However, further genomes will be necessary to clarify this taxonomically complicated order. The variability of the cp within the genus Origanum, studied exemplarily on 16 different chloroplast DNA regions, demonstrated that in 14 regions analyzed, the variability was extremely low (max. 0.7%), while only two regions showed a moderate variability of up to 2.3%. The cp genome of Origanum vulgare contains 27 perfect mononucleotide repeats (number of repeats>9) consisting exclusively of the nucleotides A or T. 34 perfect repeats (repeat lengths>1 and number of repeats>3) were found, of which 32 were di-, and 2 were trinucleotide repeats.

  1. The renal effects of alginates isolated from brown seaweed Sargassum vulgare.

    PubMed

    de Paula Alves Sousa, Alessandra; Barbosa, Paulo Sergio Ferreira; Torres, Márcia Rocha; Martins, Alice Maria Costa; Martins, René Duarte; de Sousa Alves, Renata; de Sousa, Daniel Freire; Alves, Claudênio Diógenes; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia Veras; Monteiro, Helena Serra Azul

    2008-04-01

    Alginates isolated from Sargassum vulgare, present a strong antitumor activity, associated with kidney reversible damage, as analysed by histopathology of treated animals. In the present study, the renal alteration mechanisms of S. vulgare alginates were investigated using the isolated perfused rat kidney and the isolated perfused rat mesenteric blood vessel methods. The results showed that the effects of Sargassum vulgare low viscosity (SVLV) alginate were more potent than those of Sargassum vulgare high viscosity (SVHV) alginate in the isolated rat kidney. The SVLV alginate caused considerable changes in renal physiology, as shown by an increase in parameters such as perfusion pressure, renal vascular resistance, glomerular filtration rate, urinary flow and sodium, potassium and chloride excretion and by reduction of chloride tubular transport. The effects of SVHV were weaker than those of SVLV. The effects of SVLV on kidney could be related to direct vascular action as demonstrated with SVLV alginate on mesenteric blood vessels. In conclusion, the Sargassum vulgare alginate altered the renal function parameters evaluated. S. vulgare low viscosity alginate renal effects were more potent than S. vulgare high viscosity alginate. It is suggested that physicochemical differences between SVHV and SVLV could explain the differences found in the results.

  2. [Development of a vulgarity scale based on Ortega's "The revolt of the masses"].

    PubMed

    Hatori, Tsuyoshi; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Fujii, Satoshi

    2008-12-01

    This study developed a scale measuring the spiritual vulgarity of the masses, based upon Ortega's "The revolt of the masses" (1957). A questionnaire was constructed with forty items, based on Ortega's descriptions of the characteristics of the spiritual vulgarity of the masses. The questionnaire was completed by 200 university students. The results of factor analysis of the vulgarity measurements yielded two subscales; autistic attitude and contumelious attitude. The two scales were correlated with other existing measures of social values, which was further evidence of validity.

  3. 21 CFR 582.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Elder flowers Sambucus canadensis L. Fennel, common Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fennel, sweet (finocchio... glabra L. and other spp. of Glycyrrhiza. Linden flowers Tilia spp. Mace Myristica fragrans Houtt...

  4. 21 CFR 582.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Elder flowers Sambucus canadensis L. Fennel, common Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fennel, sweet (finocchio... glabra L. and other spp. of Glycyrrhiza. Linden flowers Tilia spp. Mace Myristica fragrans Houtt...

  5. 21 CFR 582.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Elder flowers Sambucus canadensis L. Fennel, common Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fennel, sweet (finocchio... glabra L. and other spp. of Glycyrrhiza. Linden flowers Tilia spp. Mace Myristica fragrans Houtt...

  6. Antiurolithic activity of Origanum vulgare is mediated through multiple pathways

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Origanum vulgare Linn has traditionally been used in the treatment of urolithiasis. Therefore, we investigated the crude extract of Origanum vulgare for possible antiurolithic effect, to rationalize its medicinal use. Methods The crude aqueous-methanolic extract of Origanum vulgare (Ov.Cr) was studied using the in vitro and in vivo methods. In the in vitro experiments, supersaturated solution of calcium and oxalate, kidney epithelial cell lines (MDCK) and urinary bladder of rabbits were used, whereas, in the in vivo studies, rat model of urolithiasis was used for the study of preventive and curative effect. Results In the in vitro experiments, Ov.Cr exhibited a concentration-dependent (0.25-4 mg/ml) inhibitory effect on the slope of nucleation and aggregation and also decreased the number of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals (COM) produced in calcium oxalate metastable solutions. It also showed concentration-dependent antioxidant effect against DPPH free radical and lipid peroxidation induced in rat kidney tissue homogenate. Ov.Cr reduced the cell toxicity using MTT assay and LDH release in renal epithelial cells (MDCK) exposed to oxalate (0.5 mM) and COM (66 μg/cm2) crystals. Ov.Cr relaxed high K+ (80 mM) induced contraction in rabbit urinary bladder strips, and shifted the calcium concentration-response curves (CRCs) towards right with suppression of the maximum response similar to that of verapamil, a standard calcium channel blocker. In male Wistar rats receiving lithogenic treatment comprising of 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water given for 3 weeks along with ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) for the first 5 days, Ov.Cr treatment (10-30 mg/kg) prevented as well as reversed toxic changes including loss of body weight, polyurea, crystalluria, oxaluria, raised serum urea and creatinine levels and crystal deposition in kidneys compared to their respective controls. Conclusion These data indicating the antiurolithic activity in Ov.Cr, possibly mediated

  7. Quantification of biologically active O-prenylated and unprenylated phenylpropanoids in dill (Anethum graveolens), anise (Pimpinella anisum), and wild celery (Angelica archangelica).

    PubMed

    Taddeo, Vito Alessandro; Genovese, Salvatore; Medina, Philippe de; Palmisano, Roberta; Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena

    2017-02-05

    An analytical strategy based on different extraction methodologies and HPLC with spectrophotometric (UV-vis) detection has been developed to investigate the presence of and to quantitate biologically active selected unprenylated and O-prenylated phenylpropanoids, namely umbelliferone, 4'-geranyloxyferulic acid, 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin, auraptene, and umbelliprenin in dill (Anethum graveolens L.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), and wild celery (Angelica archangelica L.). Absolute ethanol or 7:3 water/ethanol mixtures were seen to be the most powerful extraction solvents to perform "classic" maceration or ultrasound-assisted one in terms of yields in secondary metabolites. For anethum and anise, umbelliprenine was found to be the most abundant prenyloxy secondary metabolite, while in wild celery 4'-geranyloxyferulic acid recorded the highest concentration. Our experimental approach demonstrated to be efficient for the simultaneous identification and quantitation of the above mentioned prenyloxyphenylpropanoids in the title plant species, that is reported herein for the first time in the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Phytochemical Profile and Evaluation of the Biological Activities of Essential Oils Derived from the Greek Aromatic Plant Species Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Pimpinella anisum and Fortunella margarita.

    PubMed

    Fitsiou, Eleni; Mitropoulou, Gregoria; Spyridopoulou, Katerina; Tiptiri-Kourpeti, Angeliki; Vamvakias, Manolis; Bardouki, Haido; Panayiotidis, Mihalis Ι; Galanis, Alex; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Chlichlia, Katerina; Pappa, Aglaia

    2016-08-16

    Natural products, known for their medicinal properties since antiquity, are continuously being studied for their biological properties. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of the volatile preparations of essential oils of the Greek plants Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil), Mentha spicata (spearmint), Pimpinella anisum (anise) and Fortunella margarita (kumquat). GC/MS analyses revealed that the major components in the essential oil fractions, were carvone (85.4%) in spearmint, methyl chavicol (74.9%) in sweet basil, trans-anethole (88.1%) in anise, and limonene (93.8%) in kumquat. We further explored their biological potential by studying their antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Only the essential oils from spearmint and sweet basil demonstrated cytotoxicity against common foodborne bacteria, while all preparations were active against the fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger. Antioxidant evaluation by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity assays revealed a variable degree of antioxidant potency. Finally, their antiproliferative potential was tested against a panel of human cancer cell lines and evaluated by using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. All essential oil preparations exhibited a variable degree of antiproliferative activity, depending on the cancer model used, with the most potent one being sweet basil against an in vitro model of human colon carcinoma.

  9. Proinflammatory activity of an alginate isolated from Sargassum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Lins, Kézia O A L; Vale, Mariana L; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V

    2013-01-30

    Alginates are unbranched polymers of polysaccharide presented as the structural components of marine brown algae. The proinflammatory activity of SVHV, an alginate isolated from Sargassum vulgare, was investigated using models of paw edema, mast cells degranulation and neutrophil migration in vivo. SVHV induced a dose dependent paw edema, with a peak at 2 h, associated with an increased myeloperoxidase activity and production of TNF-α and IL-1β. Pharmacological modulators, remarkably dexamethasone and indomethacin, inhibited the edema. SVHV (1.0 mg) also led to a significant induction of neutrophil migration in the peritoneal cavity of rats. This neutrophil migration was significantly reduced by peritoneal resident macrophages depletion, but was not affected by the depletion of mast cells. Our data suggest that SVHV has proinflammatory activity dependent of the activation of resident cells, being the macrophages the main cells involved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nitrites derived from Foneiculum vulgare (fennel) seeds promotes vascular functions.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Akila; Sridhara, Sree Rama Chaitanya; Sinha, Swaraj; Nagarajan, Shunmugam; Balaguru, Uma Maheswari; Siamwala, Jamila H; Rajendran, Saranya; Saran, Uttara; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2012-12-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated that nitrites play an important role in the cardiovascular system. Fennel (Foneiculum vulgare) seeds are often used as mouth fresheners after a meal in both the Indian sub-continent and around the world. The present study aims to quantify the nitrite and nitrates in fennel seeds as well as elucidating the effect of fennel derived-nitrites on vascular functions. Results from our study show that fennel seeds contain significantly higher amount of nitrites when compared to other commonly used post-meal seeds. Furthermore our study confirmed the functional effects of fennel derived-nitrites using in vitro and ex vivo models that describe the promotion of angiogenesis, cell migration, and vasorelaxation. We also showed that chewing fennel seeds enhanced nitrite content of saliva. Thus our study indicates the potential role of fennel derived-nitrites on the vascular system.

  11. Chemical compositions and antioxidant properties of essential oils from nine species of Turkish plants obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and steam distillation.

    PubMed

    Topal, Ummihan; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Goto, Motonobu; Otles, Semih

    2008-01-01

    Chemical compositions and antioxidant activities of essential oils from nine different species of Turkish plants, namely Melissa officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Cuminum cyminum L., Piper nigrum L., Lavandula stoechas spp., Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum L., Thymus serpyllum and Liquidamber orientalis Mill., were studied. Essential oils were obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) extraction and steam distillation, and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antioxidant activities of SCCO2 extraction and steam distillation extracts were tested by means of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Essential oils extracted by SCCO2 and steam distillation showed different compositions in different species. In the DPPH assay, R. officinalis, C. cyminum, P. anisum, T. serpyllum and L. orientalis essential oils obtained by SCCO2 extraction showed higher antioxidant activity than steam distillation extracts, with radical scavenging activities ranging from 87.1 +/- 0.23% to 92.0 +/- 0.34% compared with the butylated hydroxytoluene positive control (91.4 +/- 0.21%).

  12. Proteomic Analysis of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare under Glutathione Reveals High Demand for Thiamin Transport and Antioxidant Protection

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qian; Zhang, Weiwen; Zhang, Lu; Qiao, Bin; Pan, Chensong; Yi, Hong; Wang, Lili; Yuan, Ying-jin

    2012-01-01

    Ketogulonicigenium vulgare, though grows poorly when mono-cultured, has been widely used in the industrial production of the precursor of vitamin C with the coculture of Bacillus megaterium. Various efforts have been made to clarify the synergic pattern of this artificial microbial community and to improve the growth and production ability of K. vulgare, but there is still no sound explanation. In previous research, we found that the addition of reduced glutathione into K. vulgare monoculture could significantly improve its growth and productivity. By performing SEM and TEM, we observed that after adding GSH into K. vulgare monoculture, cells became about 4–6 folds elongated, and formed intracytoplasmic membranes (ICM). To explore the molecular mechanism and provide insights into the investigation of the synergic pattern of the co-culture system, we conducted a comparative iTRAQ-2-D-LC-MS/MS-based proteomic analysis of K. vulgare grown under reduced glutathione. Principal component analysis of proteomic data showed that after the addition of glutathione, proteins for thiamin/thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) transport, glutathione transport and the maintenance of membrane integrity, together with several membrane-bound dehydrogenases had significant up-regulation. Besides, several proteins participating in the pentose phosphate pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle were also up-regulated. Additionally, proteins combating intracellular reactive oxygen species were also up-regulated, which similarly occurred in K. vulgare when the co-cultured B. megaterium cells lysed from our former research results. This study reveals the demand for transmembrane transport of substrates, especially thiamin, and the demand for antioxidant protection of K. vulgare. PMID:22384164

  13. Pharmacokinetic Herb-Drug Interaction between Essential Oil of Aniseed (Pimpinella anisum L., Apiaceae) and Acetaminophen and Caffeine: A Potential Risk for Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Samojlik, Isidora; Petković, Stojan; Stilinović, Nebojša; Vukmirović, Saša; Mijatović, Vesna; Božin, Biljana

    2016-02-01

    Aniseed (Pimpinella anisum L., Apiaceae) and its essential oil (EO) have been widely used. Because there are some data about the impact of aniseed EO on drug effects, this survey aimed to assess the potential of pharmacokinetic herb-drug interaction between aniseed EO and acetaminophen and caffeine in mice. The chemical analysis (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) of aniseed EO has confirmed trans-anethole (87.96%) as the main component. The pharmacokinetic studies of intraperitoneally (i.p.) and orally applied acetaminophen (200 mg/kg) and caffeine (20 mg/kg) were performed in mice after 5 days of oral treatment with human equivalent dose of aniseed EO (0.3 mg/kg/day). The analysis of pharmacokinetic data showed that in the group treated by aniseed EO, the significant decrease in the peak plasma concentration of acetaminophen after oral application (p = 0.024) was revealed when compared with control group and the reduction of systemic exposure to the drug after oral application (74 ± 32% vs. 85 ± 35% in the control) was noted. The bioavailability of orally applied caffeine was also significantly decreased (p = 0.022) after the EO treatment in comparison with the control (57 ± 24% vs. 101 ± 29%). Therefore, the compromised therapeutic efficacy of acetaminophen and caffeine during the usage of aniseed EO preparations should be considered. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Antiviral Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDGs) from the Brazilian Brown Seaweed Sargassum vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Plouguerné, Erwan; de Souza, Lauro M.; Sassaki, Guilherme L.; Cavalcanti, Jéssica Figueiredo; Villela Romanos, Maria Teresa; da Gama, Bernardo A. P.; Crespo Pereira, Renato; Barreto-Bergter, Eliana

    2013-01-01

    Total lipids from the Brazilian brown seaweed Sargassum vulgare were extracted with chloroform/methanol 2:1 and 1:2 (v/v) at room temperature. After performing Folch partition of the crude lipid extract, the lipids recovered from the Folch lower layer were fractionated on a silica gel column eluted with chloroform, acetone and methanol. The fraction eluted with methanol, presented a strong orcinol-positive band characteristic of the presence of sulfatides when examined by TLC. This fraction was then purified by two successive silica gel column chromatography giving rise to fractions F4I86 and F4II90 that exhibited strong activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2. The chemical structures present in both fractions were elucidated by ESI-MS and 1H/13C NMR analysis HSQC fingerprints based on their tandem–MS behavior as sulfoquinovosildiacylglycerols (SQDGs). The main SQDG present in both fractions and responsible for the anti-herpes activity observed was identified as 1,2-di-O-palmitoyl-3-O-(6-sulfo-α-d-quinovopyranosyl)-glycerol. PMID:24284427

  15. Sulphated polysaccharide isolated from Sargassum vulgare: Characterization and hypolipidemic effects.

    PubMed

    Kolsi, Rihab Ben Abdallah; Salah, Hichem Ben; Jardak, Neila; Chaaben, Rim; Jribi, Imed; Feki, Abdelfattah El; Rebai, Tarak; Jamoussi, Kamel; Allouche, Noureddine; Blecker, Cristophe; Belghith, Hafedh; Belghith, Karima

    2017-08-15

    A sulphated polysaccharide from brown algae Sargassum vulgare (SVSP) was extracted and examined with respect to chemical, structural characterization and hypolipidemic effects. SVSP consisted mainly of sulphate and total sugars with low levels of lipids and proteins. Its structure was studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (RMN), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), infra-red spectroscopic, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction analysis. Allowing us therefore to revealed that SVSP was composed of glucose, rhamnose, xylose, galactose, mannose and arabinose with XRD pattern that was typical for a semi-crystalline polymer and complexities of the spectra reflected its homogeneous structure. The administration of SVSP to obese rats is effective in lowering the body weight and inhibiting the lipase activity leading to notable regulation of lipid profile, increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, limiting lipid peroxidation; and protects liver-kidney functions proved by a decrease in the levels of toxicity parameters in blood, confirmed by histological study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Expression analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) during salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Walia, Harkamal; Wilson, Clyde; Wahid, Abdul; Condamine, Pascal; Cui, Xinping; Close, Timothy J

    2006-04-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a salt-tolerant crop species with considerable economic importance in salinity-affected arid and semiarid regions of the world. In this work, barley cultivar Morex was used for transcriptional profiling during salinity stress using a microarray containing approximately 22,750 probe sets. The experiment was designed to target the early responses of genes to a salinity stress at seedling stage. We found a comparable number of probe sets up-regulated and down-regulated in response to salinity. The differentially expressed genes were broadly characterized using gene ontology and through expression-based hierarchical clustering to identify interesting features in the data. A prominent feature of the response to salinity was the induction of genes involved in jasmonic acid biosynthesis and genes known to respond to jasmonic acid treatment. A large number of abiotic stress (heat, drought, and low temperature) related genes were also found to be responsive to salinity stress. Our results also indicate osmoprotection to be an early response of barley under salinity stress. Additionally, we compared the results of our studies with two other reports characterizing gene expression of barley under salinity stress and found very few genes in common.

  17. Hepatoprotective activity of white horehound (Marrubium vulgare) extract against cyclophosphamide toxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Ettaya, Amani; Dhibi, Sabah; Samout, Noura; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-04-01

    The hepatoprotective activity of Marrubium vulgare against cyclophosphamide toxicity in Wistar rats was evaluated. Adult male rats were divided into 4 groups of 6 each: a control group, a group injected with cyclophosphamide (150 mg·kg(-1)) for 3 days, a group orally given a M. vulgare aqueous extract ((500 mg of dry leaves)·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 30 days then treated with cyclophosphamide, and a group receiving only M. vulgare for 30 days. After 33 days of treatment, activities of alanine amino transferase (ALAT), aspartate amino transferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined in serum. Moreover, lipid peroxidation level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in liver. Alterations of these hepatic biomarkers and increased lipid peroxidation confirmed cyclophosphamide-induced liver toxicity. Cyclophosphamide also decreased the enzymatic defense system against oxidative stress. However, when this drug was administered in rats given M. vulgare extract, all the biological parameters underwent much less alteration. Administration of M. vulgare extract was found to be beneficial by attenuating cyclophosphamide-induced liver damage. The protective effect of the plant is mainly attributed to its antioxidant properties and the existence of phenolic acids and flavonoids, as highlighted by HPLC-based analysis.

  18. Efficacy of Essential Oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare on Echinococcus granulosus

    PubMed Central

    Pensel, P. E.; Maggiore, M. A.; Gende, L. B.; Eguaras, M. J.; Denegri, M. G.; Elissondo, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the in vitro effect of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils against E. granulosus protoscoleces and cysts. Essential oils were added to the medium resulting in thymol final concentrations of 10 μg/mL. The essential oils had a time-dependent effect provoking the complete loss of protoscolex viability after 72 days of postincubation. The results were confirmed at the ultrastructure level. Loss of infectivity in protoscoleces incubated with O. vulgare after 60 days was observed. On the other hand, the weight of cysts recorded in mice inoculated with T. vulgaris treated protoscoleces was significantly lower than that obtained in control group. Gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase activity was readily detected in the culture supernatant of protoscoleces treated either with the essential oils or thymol. T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils and thymol can induce cell apoptosis of protoscoleces after short incubation times. The efficacy of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils was also demonstrated in vitro on E. granulosus murine cysts. Our data suggest that essential oils of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare have anthelmintic effect against protoscoleces and cysts of E. granulosus. PMID:25180033

  19. Evidence for a new feminizing Wolbachia strain in the isopod Armadillidium vulgare: evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Cordaux, R; Michel-Salzat, A; Frelon-Raimond, M; Rigaud, T; Bouchon, D

    2004-07-01

    Wolbachia are intracellular maternally inherited alpha-Proteobacteria infecting a wide range of arthropods. In the common pill bug Armadillidium vulgare, the known Wolbachia strain is responsible for feminization of genetic males. We have investigated Wolbachia diversity in 20 populations of A. vulgare from west and east Europe, north Africa and north America. A new Wolbachia strain (wVulM) was identified through the variability of the wsp gene, distantly related to that previously known (wVulC) in this host species. No individual with multiple infections was detected. Inoculation experiments indicated that the new wVulM bacterial strain also induces feminization in A. vulgare. However, the wVulC strain showed a higher transmission rate than the wVulM strain and was the most geographically widespread Wolbachia in A. vulgare populations. Mitochondrial 16SrDNA gene sequencing was conducted in Wolbachia-infected individuals, revealing the occurrence of four host lineages. The comparison of bacterial strains and their respective host mitochondrial phylogenies failed to show concordance, indicating horizontal transmission of the Wolbachia strains within populations of A. vulgare.

  20. Efficacy of Essential Oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare on Echinococcus granulosus.

    PubMed

    Pensel, P E; Maggiore, M A; Gende, L B; Eguaras, M J; Denegri, M G; Elissondo, M C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the in vitro effect of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils against E. granulosus protoscoleces and cysts. Essential oils were added to the medium resulting in thymol final concentrations of 10 μg/mL. The essential oils had a time-dependent effect provoking the complete loss of protoscolex viability after 72 days of postincubation. The results were confirmed at the ultrastructure level. Loss of infectivity in protoscoleces incubated with O. vulgare after 60 days was observed. On the other hand, the weight of cysts recorded in mice inoculated with T. vulgaris treated protoscoleces was significantly lower than that obtained in control group. Gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase activity was readily detected in the culture supernatant of protoscoleces treated either with the essential oils or thymol. T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils and thymol can induce cell apoptosis of protoscoleces after short incubation times. The efficacy of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils was also demonstrated in vitro on E. granulosus murine cysts. Our data suggest that essential oils of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare have anthelmintic effect against protoscoleces and cysts of E. granulosus.

  1. Insights into mutualism mechanism and versatile metabolism of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare Hbe602 based on comparative genomics and metabolomics studies.

    PubMed

    Jia, Nan; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Du, Jin; Pan, Cai-Hui; Tian, Geng; Lang, Ji-Dong; Fang, Jian-Huo; Gao, Feng; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-03-16

    Ketogulonicigenium vulgare has been widely used in vitamin C two steps fermentation and requires companion strain for optimal growth. However, the understanding of K. vulgare as well as its companion strain is still preliminary. Here, the complete genome of K. vulgare Hbe602 was deciphered to provide insight into the symbiosis mechanism and the versatile metabolism. K. vulgare contains the LuxR family proteins, chemokine proteins, flagellar structure proteins, peptides and transporters for symbiosis consortium. Besides, the growth state and metabolite variation of K. vulgare were observed when five carbohydrates (D-sorbitol, L-sorbose, D-glucose, D-fructose and D-mannitol) were used as carbon source. The growth increased by 40.72% and 62.97% respectively when K. vulgare was cultured on D-mannitol/D-sorbitol than on L-sorbose. The insufficient metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids and vitamins is the main reason for the slow growth of K. vulgare. The combined analysis of genomics and metabolomics indicated that TCA cycle, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism were significantly up-regulated when K. vulgare was cultured on the D-mannitol/D-sorbitol, which facilitated the better growth. The present study would be helpful to further understand its metabolic structure and guide the engineering transformation.

  2. Cloning and characterization of four B-hordein genes from Tibetan hull-less barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare).

    PubMed

    Han, Zhao-Xue; Qian, Gang; Pan, Zhi-Fen; Deng, Guang-Bing; Wu, Fang; Tang, Ya-Wei; Qiang, Xiao-Lin; Yu, Mao-Qun

    2006-10-01

    Four B-hordein genes, designated BH1-BH4, were cloned using PCR amplification from two hull-less barley cultivars, ZQ7239 and ZQ148, collected from Tibet. The results of sequencing indicated that BH1-BH4 contained complete open reading frames (ORFs). Comparison of their predicted polypeptide sequences with the published sequences suggested that they all share the same basic protein structure. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the deduced amino-acid sequences of BH1-BH4 genes were more closely related to B-hordeins from cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) than to any other prolamins from wild barley and Aegilops tauschii. Comparison of the coding regions of BH1-BH4 genes showed that BH1 had a lower sequence identity to other previously published B-hordeins than the other three B-hordeins obtained in this study. BH1 was then cloned in a bacterial expression vector based on bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. The resulting plasmid produced a 28.15 kDa protein in Escherichia coli. The potential value of B-hordein genes in grain quality improvement of hull-less barley has been discussed.

  3. Five new secondary metabolites from Monascus purpureus-fermented Hordeum vulgare and Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Md Pravej; Puri, Alka; Ali, M; Panda, Bibhu Prasad

    2013-10-01

    Long grains of Hordeum vulgare and Sorghum bicolor were individually fermented with Monascus purpureus MTCC 369 under solid state fermentation. The aqueous extract of Monascus which fermented H. vulgare and S. bicolor was found to contain five different new metabolites. Silica gel column chromatography of the aqueous extract with a linear gradient of ethyl acetate, acetonitrile and carbon tetrachloride (v/v) yielded five new metabolites named benzopranyl capriate (9H-1-isoprenyl-benzopyran-5-isopropanoic acid-6-ol-6-n-decanoate), shorghumoic acid (n-octadec-8,11-dien-7α-ol-1-oic acid) and sorghumflavin A (2-n-butyloxo-6-β-hydroxy-7-β-isoprenyl ankaflavin) from Monascus-fermented S. bicolor, while hordeumflavin B (2-n-undecanyloxo-7-β-isoprenyl ankaflavin) and vulgaredilone (2-dodecanyl-7-β isopranyl monoscodilone) from Monascus-fermented H. vulgare.

  4. Immunomodulatory Activity of Acidic Polysaccharides Isolated from Tanacetum vulgare L

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Gang; Schepetkin, Igor A.; Quinn, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    Tanacetum vulgare L. (Tansy) has been extensively used in folk medicine for treatment of a variety of medical disorders. In the present study, we isolated and purified four acidic polysaccharide fractions (designated T-I to T-IV) from Tansy florets by the sequential use of hot-water extraction, ethanol precipitation, ultra-filtration, anion-exchange, and size-exclusion chromatography. The average Mr of fractions T-I through T-IV was estimated to be 326, 151, 64 and 9 kDa, respectively, as determined by high performance size-exclusion chromatography analysis. Sugar composition analysis revealed that Tansy polysaccharides consisted primarily of galacturonic acid, galactose, arabinose, and rhamnose. Fractions T-II through T-IV contained an arabinogalactan type II structure, as determined by reaction with Yariv reagent. High Mr fractions T-I and T-II exhibited potent macrophage/monocyte-activating activity, enhancing production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) by J774.A1 murine macrophages, and activating nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in THP-1 human monocytes. In addition, Tansy polysaccharides stimulated human neutrophil function by greatly enhancing neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) release. Furthermore, the low Mr fraction T-IV had potent complement-fixing activity, which may also contribute to the anti-inflammatory and would-healing properties of Tansy extracts. Taken together, our results provide a molecular basis to explain at least part of the beneficial therapeutic effects of Tansy extracts, and support the concept of using Tansy polysaccharides as an immunotherapeutic adjuvant. PMID:17996673

  5. SIRE1 RETROTRANSPOSONS IN BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Cakmak, B; Marakli, S; Gozukirmizi, N

    2015-07-01

    Sireviruses are genera of copia LTR retrotransposons with a unique genome structure among retrotransposons. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an economically important plant. In this study, we used mature barley embryos, 10-day-old roots and 10-day-old leaves derived from the same barley plant to investigate SIRE) retrotransposon movements by Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) technique. We found polymorphism rates between 0-64% among embryos, roots and leaves. Polymorphism rates were detected to be 0-27% among embryos, 8-60% among roots, and 11-50% among leaves. Polymorphisms were observed not only among the parts of different individuals, but also on the parts of the same plant (23-64%). The internal domains of SIRE1 (GAG, ENV and RT) were also analyzed in the embryos, roots and leaves. Analysis of band profiles showed no polymorphism for GAG, however, different band patterns were observed among samples for RT and ENV. The sequencing of SIRE1 GAG, ENV and RT domains revealed 79% similarity for GAG, 96% for ENV and 83% for RT to copia retrotransposons. Comparison between barley retrotransposons and SIRE1 in barley indicated that SIRE1-GAG, ENV and RT might be diverge earlier from barley retrotransposons. SIRE1 sequences were compared with SIRE1 in barley, results showed the closest homologues were SIRE1-ENVand SIRE1-RTsequences, and SIRE1-GAG sequences was a sister group to sequences of Glycine max. This study is the first detailed investigation of SIRE1 in barley genome. The obtained findings are expected to contribute to the comprehension of SIRE1 retrotransposon and its role in barley genome.

  6. Optimization of carvacrol, rosmarinic, oleanolic and ursolic acid extraction from oregano herbs (Origanum onites L., Origanum vulgare spp. hirtum and Origanum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Baranauskaitė, Justė; Jakštas, Valdas; Ivanauskas, Liudas; Kopustinskienė, Dalia M; Drakšienė, Gailutė; Masteikova, Ruta; Bernatonienė, Jurga

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to increase the extraction efficiency of carvacrol, rosmarinic, oleanolic and ursolic acid from the different species of oregano herbs (Origanum onites L., Origanum vulgare spp. hirtum and Origanum vulgare L.). Various extraction methods (ultrasound-assisted, heat-reflux, continuous stirring, maceration, percolation) and extraction conditions (different solvent, material:solvent ratio, extraction temperature, extraction time) were used, and the active substances were determined by HPLC. The lowest content of carvacrol, rosmarinic, oleanolic and ursolic acid was obtained by percolation. During heat-reflux extraction, the content of active substances depended on the solvent used: ethanol/non-aqueous solvent (glycerol or propylene glycol) mixture was more effective compared with ethanol alone. The results showed that for each species of oregano the most optimal extraction method should be selected to maximize the content of biologically active substances in the extracts.

  7. Effects of the aqueous extract of Pimpinella anisum L. seeds on exploratory activity and emotional behavior in rats using the open field and elevated plus maze tests.

    PubMed

    Gamberini, Maria Thereza; Rodrigues, Domingos Sávio; Rodrigues, Daniela; Pontes, Victoria Bottino

    2015-06-20

    Pimpinella anisum L. is considered one of the first plants used for medicinal purposes. Pharmacological actions of the plant on the central nervous system have been proven but previous analyses have focused on anticonvulsant and neuroprotective actions. In traditional medicine worldwide, the use of Pimpinella is commonly recommended as a tranquilizer, although no scientific information supporting this use is available. Therefore, it was decided to investigate the central actions of the plant to observe behavioral responses, with an emphasis on the emotional component. To investigate the effects of the aqueous extract of Pimpinella seeds on exploratory activity and emotional behavior in rats using the open field and elevated plus maze tests. Seeds of Pimpinella were extracted with distilled water, concentrated and freeze-dried yielding the aqueous extract(AE). Rats were divided into four groups: control(water 5 mL/kg, p.o.) and AE 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg, p.o. Individual observations were performed in an open field and the parameters locomotor activity, rearing, grooming and defecation were recorded. In elevated plus maze test, rats were divided into four groups: control(water 5 mL/kg, p.o.) and AE 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg, p.o. The parameters arm entries, total time spent in open and closed arms; and total number of arrivals at the end of an open or closed arm were recorded for each rat. Among the parameters assessed with the open field test, only rearing was reduced in the AE 0.5 g/kg group. When AE 1.0 g/kg was administered, only the initiation of exploratory activity was delayed, without impairing the animals' general activity. The highest dose of AE (2.0 g/kg) induced a reduction in the animals' habituation during the open field test within the same session, as evidenced by the maintenance of high levels of peripheral locomotion and rearing throughout the test. On the elevated plus maze test, no alterations were observed in the responses of the animals relative to

  8. Molluscicidal and Mosquitocidal activities of the essential oils of Thymus capitatus Hoff. et Link. and Marrubium vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Salama, Maha M; Taher, Eman E; El-Bahy, Mohamed M

    2012-01-01

    Steam distillation of essential oils of aerial parts of Thymus capitatus and Marrubium vulgare L. collected at North cost of Egypt yielded 0.5% and 0.2%, respectively. Results of Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the two samples identified 96.27% and 90.19% of the total oil composition for T. capitatus and M. vulgare, respectively. The two oil samples appeared dominated by the oxygenated constituents (88.22% for T. capitatus and 57.50% for M. vulgare), composed of phenols, mainly carvacrol (32.98%) and thymol (32.82%) in essential oil of T. capitatus, and thymol (34.55%) in essential oil of M. vulgare. It was evaluated the molluscicidal activity of T. capitatus and M. vulgare essential oils on adult and eggs of Biomphalaria alexandrina as well as their mosquitocidal activity on Culex pipiens. The LC50 and LC90 of T. capitatus essential oil against adult snails was 200 and 400 ppm/3hrs, respectively, while for M. vulgare it was 50 and 100 ppm/3hrs, respectively. Moreover, M. vulgare showed LC100 ovicidal activity at 200 ppm/24 hrs while T. capitatus oil showed no ovicidal activity. It was verified mosquitocidal activity, with LC50 and LC90 of 100 and 200 ppm/12hrs respectively for larvae, and 200 and 400 ppm/12hrs respectively for pupae of C. pipiens.

  9. Empirical prediction and validation of antibacterial inhibitory effects of various plant essential oils on common pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Akdemir Evrendilek, Gulsun

    2015-06-02

    In this study, fractional compound composition, antioxidant capacity, and phenolic substance content of 14 plant essential oils-anise (Pimpinella anisum), bay leaves (Laurus nobilis), cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum verum), clove (Eugenia caryophyllata), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), hop (Humulus lupulus), Istanbul oregano (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum), Izmir oregano (Origanum onites), mint (Mentha piperita), myrtus (Myrtus communis), orange peel (Citrus sinensis), sage (Salvia officinalis), thyme (Thymbra spicata), and Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum)--were related to inhibition of 10 bacteria through multiple linear or non-linear (M(N)LR) models-four Gram-positive bacteria of Listeria innocua, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis, and six Gram-negative bacteria of Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Klebsiella oxytoca. A total of 65 compounds with different antioxidant capacity, phenolic substance content and antibacterial properties were detected with 14 plant essential oils. The best-fit M(N)LR models indicated that relative to anise essential oil, the essential oils of oreganos, cinnamon, and thyme had consistently high inhibitory effects, while orange peel essential oil had consistently a low inhibitory effect. Regression analysis indicated that beta-bisabolene (Turkish and Istanbul oreganos), and terpinolene (thyme) were found to be the most inhibitory compounds regardless of the bacteria type tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic dissection of grain beta-glucan and amylose content in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High beta glucan (BG) barleys (Hordeum vulgare L.) have major potential as food ingredients due to the well know health benefits. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with BG have been reported in hulled barley, however no QTL studies have been reported in hulless barley. In this study, QTL an...

  11. Geography of genetic differentiation in the barley wild relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity require knowledge of the distribution and structure of genetic variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic...

  12. Rumen fermentation and production effects of Origanum vulgare L. leaves in lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A lactating cow trial was conducted to study the effects of dietary addition of oregano leaf material (Origanum vulgare L.; 0, control vs. 500 g/d, OV) on ruminal fermentation, methane production, total tract digestibility, manure gas emissions, N metabolism, organoleptic characteristics of milk, an...

  13. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism, sex ratio distorters and population genetics in the isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed Central

    Rigaud, T; Bouchon, D; Souty-Grosset, C; Raimond, R

    1999-01-01

    Two maternally inherited sex ratio distorters (SRD) impose female-biased sex ratios on the wood louse Armadillidium vulgare by feminizing putative males. These SRD are (i) an intracytoplasmic bacterium of the genus Wolbachia, and (ii) another non-Mendelian element of unknown nature: the f element. Mitochondrial DNA variation was investigated in A. vulgare field populations to trace the evolution of host-SRD relationships and to investigate the effect of SRD on host cytoplasmic polymorphism. The Wolbachia endosymbionts showed no polymorphism in their ITS2 sequence and were associated with two closely related mitochondrial types. This situation probably reflects a single infection event followed by a slight differentiation of mitochondria. There was no association between the f element and a given mitochondrial type, which may confirm the fact that this element can be partially paternally transmitted. The spreading of a maternally inherited SRD in a population should reduce the mitochondrial diversity by a hitchhiking process. In A. vulgare, however, a within-population mtDNA polymorphism was often found, because of the deficient spread of Wolbachia and the partial paternal inheritance of the f element. The analysis of molecular variance indicated that A. vulgare populations are genetically structured, but without isolation by distance. PMID:10430591

  14. The discovery of resistant sources of spring barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, and unique greenbug biotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genetic sources for host-plant resistance to the greenbug (Schiazphis graminum Ronani) in barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) are limited in that only two single dominant genes Rsg1 and Rsg2 are available for resistance to greenbug biotypes. We evaluated four new barley lines from the Wild...

  15. Contemporary Seasonal and Altitudinal Variations of Leaf Structural Features in Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    KOFIDIS, G.; BOSABALIDIS, A. M.; MOUSTAKAS, M.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of elevation (200, 950 and 1760 m) and season (April–October) on leaf morphological, anatomical, ultrastructural, morphometrical and photosynthetic parameters were studied in Origanum vulgare plants. Observations aimed at the determination of the alterations in leaf structure and function associated with differential growth and adaptation of plants. Raising elevation results in a progressive decrease of plant height. During the growing period, summer plants are taller than spring and autumn plants at all elevations examined. In high‐altitude populations (O. vulgare ssp. vulgare), the blade size becomes reduced in June leaves as compared with October leaves, while it does not change remarkably in low‐altitude populations (O. vulgare ssp. hirtum). Leaf thickness remains more or less stable during the growing period. Expanded leaves in June and October at 200 m elevation contain dark phenolics only in their epidermis, whereas leaves of August are densely filled with phenolics in all of their tissues. In June at 1760 m elevation, leaves are devoid of phenolics, which, however, occur in the epidermis of the leaves in August and October. At higher altitudes, larger mesophyll chloroplasts with more starch grains are present in June leaves, whereas in August and October leaves chloroplasts are smaller with fewer starch grains. Leaf stomata and non‐glandular hairs increase in number from the lowland to the upland habitats, whereas glandular hairs decrease in number. During the growing season, the density of stomata and of glandular and non‐glandular hairs progressively increases. In the low‐ and mid‐altitude oregano populations, leaf chlorophyll a content and PSII activity significantly increase in October, whereas they simultaneously decrease in the high‐altitude population, suggesting a phenomenon of chilling‐induced photoinhibition. The highest photochemical efficiency of PSII appears in the mid‐altitude population (having

  16. Contemporary seasonal and altitudinal variations of leaf structural features in oregano (Origanum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Kofidis, G; Bosabalidis, A M; Moustakas, M

    2003-11-01

    The effects of elevation (200, 950 and 1760 m) and season (April-October) on leaf morphological, anatomical, ultrastructural, morphometrical and photosynthetic parameters were studied in Origanum vulgare plants. Observations aimed at the determination of the alterations in leaf structure and function associated with differential growth and adaptation of plants. Raising elevation results in a progressive decrease of plant height. During the growing period, summer plants are taller than spring and autumn plants at all elevations examined. In high-altitude populations (O. vulgare ssp. vulgare), the blade size becomes reduced in June leaves as compared with October leaves, while it does not change remarkably in low-altitude populations (O. vulgare ssp. hirtum). Leaf thickness remains more or less stable during the growing period. Expanded leaves in June and October at 200 m elevation contain dark phenolics only in their epidermis, whereas leaves of August are densely filled with phenolics in all of their tissues. In June at 1760 m elevation, leaves are devoid of phenolics, which, however, occur in the epidermis of the leaves in August and October. At higher altitudes, larger mesophyll chloroplasts with more starch grains are present in June leaves, whereas in August and October leaves chloroplasts are smaller with fewer starch grains. Leaf stomata and non-glandular hairs increase in number from the lowland to the upland habitats, whereas glandular hairs decrease in number. During the growing season, the density of stomata and of glandular and non-glandular hairs progressively increases. In the low- and mid-altitude oregano populations, leaf chlorophyll a content and PSII activity significantly increase in October, whereas they simultaneously decrease in the high-altitude population, suggesting a phenomenon of chilling-induced photoinhibition. The highest photochemical efficiency of PSII appears in the mid-altitude population (having characteristics intermediate between

  17. A plate method for rapid screening of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare mutants for enhanced 2-keto-l-gulonic acid production.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weichao; Han, Litao; Mandlaa, Mandlaa; Zhang, Haihong; Zhang, Zhongze; Xu, Hui

    2017-02-21

    A new plate method was developed for rapid screening of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare mutants overproducing 2-keto-l-gulonic acid (2-KLG). The screening methodology took the advantage of the acidity caused by 2-KLG, which changes the color of bromothymol blue (pH indicator) from blue to yellow. Using the proposed method, a mutant, K. vulgare 65, was selected from 20,000 colonies produced by a strain subjected to spaceflight mutagenesis. When co-cultured with Bacillus megaterium 2980 in 20-L fermenters, K. vulgare 65 showed a high conversion rate (94.45%) of l-sorbose to 2-KLG. In contrast to the traditional screening method, this one significantly improved the frequency of obtaining positive mutants. The proposed plate screening method is cost-effective and easy to run and is thus useful for the isolation and screening of K. vulgare mutants overproducing 2-KLG.

  18. Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, Antibiotic, and Cytotoxic Activities of Tanacetum vulgare L. Essential Oil and Its Constituents.

    PubMed

    Coté, Héloïse; Boucher, Marie-Anne; Pichette, André; Legault, Jean

    2017-05-25

    Background:Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae) is a perennial herb that has been used to treat multiple ailments. Regional variability of the chemical composition of T. vulgare essential oils is well-known. Despite these regional chemotypes, most relevant studies did not analyze the complete chemical composition of the T. vulgare essential oil and its constituents in relation to their biological activities. Here, we assess the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities of T. vulgare collected from northern Quebec (Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean), Canada. Methods: Essential oil was extracted from plants by steam distillation and analyzed using GC-FID. Biological activities of essential oil and its main constituents were evaluated in vitro. Results: We identified the major compounds as camphor, borneol, and 1,8-cineole. The oil possesses anti-inflammatory activity inhibiting NO production. It also inhibits intracellular DCFH oxidation induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide. Anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil appears driven mainly by α-humulene while antioxidant activity is provided by α-pinene and caryophyllene oxide. Essential oil from T vulgare was active against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with camphor and caryophyllene oxide responsible for antibacterial activity. Finally, T. vulgare essential oil was slightly cytotoxic against the human healthy cell line WS1 while α-humulene and caryophyllene oxide were moderately cytotoxic against A-549, DLD-1, and WS1. Conclusion: We report, for the first time, links between the specific compounds found in T. vulgare essential oil and anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities. T. vulgare essential oil possesses interesting biological properties.

  19. Mapping and validation of major quantitative trait loci for kernel length in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong; Liu, Shihang; Liu, Yujiao; Liu, Yaxi; You, Jing; Deng, Mei; Ma, Jian; Chen, Guangdeng; Wei, Yuming; Liu, Chunji; Zheng, Youliang

    2016-09-13

    Kernel length is an important target trait in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) breeding programs. However, the number of known quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling kernel length is limited. In the present study, we aimed to identify major QTLs for kernel length, as well as putative candidate genes that might influence kernel length in wild barley. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the barley cultivar Baudin (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) and the long-kernel wild barley genotype Awcs276 (H.vulgare ssp. spontaneum) was evaluated at one location over three years. A high-density genetic linkage map was constructed using 1,832 genome-wide diversity array technology (DArT) markers, spanning a total of 927.07 cM with an average interval of approximately 0.49 cM. Two major QTLs for kernel length, LEN-3H and LEN-4H, were detected across environments and further validated in a second RIL population derived from Fleet (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) and Awcs276. In addition, a systematic search of public databases identified four candidate genes and four categories of proteins related to LEN-3H and LEN-4H. This study establishes a fundamental research platform for genomic studies and marker-assisted selection, since LEN-3H and LEN-4H could be used for accelerating progress in barley breeding programs that aim to improve kernel length.

  20. Fatty acids of the seeds of Origanum onites L. and O. vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Azcan, Nezihe; Kara, Mustafa; Demirci, Betül; Başer, K Hüsnü Can

    2004-05-01

    Seed oils of Origanum onites L. from the Antalya and Mugla regions and O. vulgare L. from the Kirklareli region of Turkey were extracted with hexane in a Soxhlet apparatus. The oil yields were 14.1-20.0 and 18.5%, respectively. FA compositions of the seed oils were determined by GC and GC/MS. Twenty FA were identified in both O. onites and O. vulgare seeds. The major FA of both species were linolenic (56.3-57.0%; 61.8%), linoleic (21.5-21.7%; 18.8%), oleic (8.7-8.9%; 5.9%), palmitic (5.9-6.5%; 5.5%), stearic (2.1-2.4%; 2.1%), and (Z)-11-octadecenoic (0.6-0.8%; 0.5%), respectively.

  1. Dataset for transcriptional response of barley (Hordeum vulgare) exposed to drought and subsequent re-watering.

    PubMed

    Kokáš, Filip; Vojta, Petr; Galuszka, Petr

    2016-09-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an economically important species, which can be cultivated in environmentally adverse conditions due to its higher tolerance in contrast to other cereal crops. The draft of H. vulgare genome is available already for couple of years; however its functional annotation is still incomplete. All available databases were searched to expand current annotation. The improved annotation was used to describe processes and genes regulated in transgenic lines showing higher tolerance to drought in our associated article, doi:10.1016/j.nbt.2016.01.010 (Vojta et al., 2016) [1]. Here we present whole transcriptome response, using extended annotation, to severe drought stress and subsequent re-watering in wild-type barley plants in stem elongation phase of growth. Up- and down-regulated genes fall into distinct GO categories and these enriched by stress and revitalization are highlighted. Transcriptomic data were evaluated separately for root and aerial tissues.

  2. Agronomic, metabolomic and lipidomic characterisation of Sicilian Origanum vulgare (L.) ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; Martinelli, Federico; Mariotti, Lorenzo; Leto, Claudio; Maggio, Antonella; La Bella, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Although Origanum vulgare (L.) has been deeply analysed at phytochemical level, poor knowledge is available regarding non-volatile compounds such as lipids. The aim of this work was to characterise five wild Sicilian Origanum ecotypes from an agronomic, metabolomic and lipidomic perspective. Serradifalco presented higher dry weight and inflorescences/plant than the others while Favara had a significantly higher number of branches per plant and more extensive flowered stratum. Metabolomic analysis, performed with LC-MS-TOF, allowed a preliminary characterisation of the non-volatile metabolome of the five oregano ecotypes Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum. Twenty-five metabolites were identified belonging to organic acids, amino acids, lysophosphatidylcholines, carnithines, nucleic bases and lysophosphatidylethanolamines. Lipidomic analysis identified 115 polar plant membrane glycerolipid species. Thirteen of them were differentially present in the two chosen ecotypes. The role of these metabolites in plant physiology from a qualitative and pharmacological point of view was discussed.

  3. Feminizing Wolbachia: a transcriptomics approach with insights on the immune response genes in Armadillidium vulgare

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Wolbachia are vertically transmitted bacteria known to be the most widespread endosymbiont in arthropods. They induce various alterations of the reproduction of their host, including feminization of genetic males in isopod crustaceans. In the pill bug Armadillidium vulgare, the presence of Wolbachia is also associated with detrimental effects on host fertility and lifespan. Deleterious effects have been demonstrated on hemocyte density, phenoloxidase activity, and natural hemolymph septicemia, suggesting that infected individuals could have defective immune capacities. Since nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in Wolbachia-A. vulgare interactions and its secondary immunocompetence modulation, we developed a transcriptomics strategy and compared A. vulgare gene expression between Wolbachia-infected animals (i.e., “symbiotic” animals) and uninfected ones (i.e., “asymbiotic” animals) as well as between animals challenged or not challenged by a pathogenic bacteria. Results Since very little genetic data is available on A. vulgare, we produced several EST libraries and generated a total of 28 606 ESTs. Analyses of these ESTs revealed that immune processes were over-represented in most experimental conditions (responses to a symbiont and to a pathogen). Considering canonical crustacean immune pathways, these genes encode antimicrobial peptides or are involved in pathogen recognition, detoxification, and autophagy. By RT-qPCR, we demonstrated a general trend towards gene under-expression in symbiotic whole animals and ovaries whereas the same gene set tends to be over-expressed in symbiotic immune tissues. Conclusion This study allowed us to generate the first reference transcriptome ever obtained in the Isopoda group and to identify genes involved in the major known crustacean immune pathways encompassing cellular and humoral responses. Expression of immune-related genes revealed a modulation of host immunity when females are

  4. The mis-identification of the major antioxidant flavonoids in young barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves.

    PubMed

    Markham, Kenneth R; Mitchell, Kevin A

    2003-01-01

    Several papers have appeared in the literature since 1992 which refer to a major "isoflavonoid" antioxidant in young green barley leaves (Hordeum vulgare) as 2''-O-glucosylisovitexin. In the present paper the original NMR data supporting this structural assignment are examined and found to have been misinterpreted. HPLC and NMR data are used to prove that the major flavonoid antioxidants in young green barley leaves are in fact the flavone-C-glycosides, saponarin and lutonarin.

  5. Feminizing Wolbachia: a transcriptomics approach with insights on the immune response genes in Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Frédéric; Herbinière-Gaboreau, Juline; Charif, Delphine; Mitta, Guillaume; Gavory, Frédéric; Wincker, Patrick; Grève, Pierre; Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Bouchon, Didier

    2012-01-18

    Wolbachia are vertically transmitted bacteria known to be the most widespread endosymbiont in arthropods. They induce various alterations of the reproduction of their host, including feminization of genetic males in isopod crustaceans. In the pill bug Armadillidium vulgare, the presence of Wolbachia is also associated with detrimental effects on host fertility and lifespan. Deleterious effects have been demonstrated on hemocyte density, phenoloxidase activity, and natural hemolymph septicemia, suggesting that infected individuals could have defective immune capacities. Since nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in Wolbachia-A. vulgare interactions and its secondary immunocompetence modulation, we developed a transcriptomics strategy and compared A. vulgare gene expression between Wolbachia-infected animals (i.e., "symbiotic" animals) and uninfected ones (i.e., "asymbiotic" animals) as well as between animals challenged or not challenged by a pathogenic bacteria. Since very little genetic data is available on A. vulgare, we produced several EST libraries and generated a total of 28 606 ESTs. Analyses of these ESTs revealed that immune processes were over-represented in most experimental conditions (responses to a symbiont and to a pathogen). Considering canonical crustacean immune pathways, these genes encode antimicrobial peptides or are involved in pathogen recognition, detoxification, and autophagy. By RT-qPCR, we demonstrated a general trend towards gene under-expression in symbiotic whole animals and ovaries whereas the same gene set tends to be over-expressed in symbiotic immune tissues. This study allowed us to generate the first reference transcriptome ever obtained in the Isopoda group and to identify genes involved in the major known crustacean immune pathways encompassing cellular and humoral responses. Expression of immune-related genes revealed a modulation of host immunity when females are infected by Wolbachia, including in ovaries

  6. Diuretic activity of the aqueous extracts of Carum carvi and Tanacetum vulgare in normal rats.

    PubMed

    Lahlou, Sanaa; Tahraoui, Adil; Israili, Zafar; Lyoussi, Badiaâ

    2007-04-04

    In the Moroccan traditional medicine, the ripe fruits of Carum carvi L. (Apiaceae) and the leaves of Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae/Compositae), two widely available plant materials, are used as diuretics. Since, the diuretic activity of these substances has not been investigated in scientifically controlled studies, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the diuretic potential of aqueous extracts of Carum carvi fruit (caraway) and the leaves of Tanacetum vulgare (tansy) in normal rats after acute and sub-chronic oral administration. Water extracts of Carum carvi and Tanacetum vulgare (100 mg/kg) or the reference drug, furosemide (10 mg/kg) were administrated orally to male Wistar rats and their urine output was quantitated at several intervals of time after the dose. After single doses of the extracts of both caraway seeds and tansy leaves, urine output was significantly increased at all time points, and at 24 h after the dose, the total volume of urine excreted was similar for the plant extracts and furosemide. Both extracts increased urinary levels of Na(+) and K(+), to about the same extent, while furosemide increased urinary levels of only Na(+) and decreased urinary K(+). Despite changes in urinary excretion of the electrolytes, plasma Na(+) and K(+) levels were not affected by any of the three substances. In the 8-day sub-chronic study, all three substances induced significant diuresis and natriuresis; only tansy increased urinary potassium excretion. The plant extracts did not appear to have renal toxicity or any other adverse effects during the study period. In conclusion, water extracts of both Carum carvi and Tanacetum vulgare have strong diuretic action confirming their ethnopharmacological use. From the pattern of excretion of water, sodium and potassium, it may be deduced that there are atleast two types of active principals present in these extracts, one having a furosemide-like activity and the other a thiazide-like activity.

  7. Adaptive variation in offspring size in the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brody, M.S.; Lawlor, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    Variation in the birth size of offspring of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, was observed in laboratory experiments and in field populations. In the laboratory, larger offspring were produced when the mother's food supply was reduced. In field populations, larger offspring were produced during the summer, a period of reduced food availability. Smaller offspring are produced in the spring, when food is readily available. Females may be making larger young to increase survival during the more severe conditions of the summer breeding period.

  8. The role of Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda: Oniscidea) in litter decomposition and soil organic matter stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalodova, Alexandra; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Armadilidum vulgare is common terrestrial isopod in Europe which is also important invasive species in North America. In ienvasive range it can reach densities up to 10 000 individuals per m square, consume all litter fall and substantially effect litter mineralisation and nutrient release. Here we are focusing on the effects of A. vulgare feeding on organic matter decomposition and stabilization. During 65 weeks laboratory experiment we observed the microbial activity of intact leaf litter (Acer pseudoplatanus), faecal pellets of terrestrial isopods (Armadillidium vulgare) produced from the same litter and unconsumed residues of this litter. Simultaneously we compared the response of microbial activity of excrements and litter to changes of humidity, temperature and addition of easily decomposable substances. Microbial respiration of faecal pellets was lower than microbial respiration of intact leaf litter or unconsumed litter residues. At the same time moisture and temperature fluctuations and addition of easily decomposable substances led to much higher increase in respiration in litter than in faecal pellets. As a conclusion, processing of litter by soil macrofauna slowed down microbial respiration and made it less sensitive to environmental fluctuation. 13C NMR spectra from excrements indicated preferential loss of polysaccharide-carbon and accumulation of lignin with some modification to the O-aromatic-C. Thermochemolysis showed that not only amount of lignin increased in litter but also its quality changed. Guaiacyl units were depleted, which indicate breakdown of guaiacyl associated with gut passage.

  9. Leucanthemum vulgare lam. germination, growth and mycorrhizal symbiosis under crude oil contamination.

    PubMed

    Noori, Azam Sadat; Maivan, Hassan Zare; Alaie, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Oil contamination of soil limits plants' access to water and nutrients. Leucanthemum vulgare colonized by mycorrhizae could provide an effective tool in remedying oil contamination. Seeds of L. vulgare were planted in pots containing soil mixed with petroleum at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10% w/w and propagules of mycorrhizal fungi. Plants were grown under ambient conditions for 16 weeks. Seed germination data were collected weekly for three weeks. Mycorrhizal percentage, spore counts, length and weight of roots and shoots were determined after harvesting. Results showed significant differences in seed germination rates between oil-treated, mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. The overall germination rate was greater at 7.5% w/w crude oil contamination (p = 0.05) in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal pots with significant differences between their respective Root:Shoot ratios (both length and weight). Results of this research showed L. vulgare could be germinated and grown in crude oil contaminated soils and could be used to augment plant establishment as part of phytoremediation practices.

  10. Hepatoprotective effect of Origanum vulgare in Wistar rats against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Sikander, Mohammad; Malik, Shabnam; Parveen, Kehkashan; Ahmad, Maqsood; Yadav, Deepak; Hafeez, Zubair Bin; Bansal, Manish

    2013-04-01

    The effect of an aqueous extract of Origanum vulgare (OV) leaves extract on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity was investigated in normal and hepatotoxic rats. To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of OV, rats were divided into six groups: control group, O. vulgare group, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4; 2 ml/kg body weight) group, and three treatment groups that received CCl4 and OV at doses of 50, 100, 150 mg/kg body weight orally for 15 days. Alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and aspartate amino transferase (AST) in serum, lipid peroxide (LPO), GST, CAT, SOD, GPx, GR, and GSH in liver tissue were estimated to assess liver function. CCl4 administration led to pathological and biochemical evidence of liver injury as compared to controls. OV administration led to significant protection against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in dose-dependent manner, maximum activity was found in CCl4 + OV3 (150 mg/kg body weight) groups and changes in the hepatocytes were confirmed through histopathological analysis of liver tissues. It was also associated with significantly lower serum ALT, ALP, and AST levels, higher GST, CAT, SOD, GPx, GR, and GSH level in liver tissue. The level of LPO also decreases significantly after the administration of OV leaves extract. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. Thus, the study suggests O. vulgare showed protective activity against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats and might be beneficial for the liver toxicity.

  11. Geography of Genetic Structure in Barley Wild Relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Thormann, Imke; Reeves, Patrick; Reilley, Ann; Engels, Johannes M M; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Richards, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity requires knowledge of the distribution and structure of the variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic diversity for barley improvement and co-occurs with the domesticate within the center of origin. We studied the current distribution of genetic diversity and population structure in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan and investigated whether it is correlated with either spatial or climatic variation inferred from publically available climate layers commonly used in conservation and ecogeographical studies. The genetic structure of 32 populations collected in 2012 was analyzed with 37 SSRs. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified. Populations were characterized by admixture and high allelic richness, and genetic diversity was concentrated in the northern part of the study area. Genetic structure, spatial location and climate were not correlated. This may point out a limitation in using large scale climatic data layers to predict genetic diversity, especially as it is applied to regional genetic resources collections in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum.

  12. Effect of lixiviated sediments affected with treated water on Selenastrum capricornutum, Printz and Origanum vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Guadalupe E; Lopez, Martin H; Flores, Antonio M; Figueroa, Guadalupe T; De Leon, Fernando G

    2010-01-01

    Xochimilco is an area of Mexico City fulfilling important ecological functions. However, the water of the canal network in the lacustrine zone of Xochimilco is supplied by the water treatment plants of the city, implying a risk of accumulated contaminants in the sediments. This study reports the effect of lixiviates obtained from sediments collected in the canals of Xochimilco on the growth of the alga Selenastrum capricornutum and the angiosperm Origanum vulgare. Three factors were tested: (a) water source in terms of the effluent from the two water treatment plants (urban waste-water, located at Cerro de la Estrella (CE) and urban-rural waters at San Luis Tlaxialtemalco (SLT); (b) sampling season (January, dry season; May and September, rainy season; and (c) distances from the water discharge point in the Xochimilco's main canal (5200 and 1000 m for CE, and 0, 200 m for SLT). The chemical water properties analyzed were: pH, electrical conductivity, N-NO(3), N-NH(3), N(Total), P-PO(4) and P(Total). The alga was more sensitive to the contaminants than O. vulgare, showing growth inhibition of 93-100%. The effect of sampling season on the inhibition of algal growth was ordered as follows: September > May > January. Lixiviates obtained from sediment samples 200 and 1000 m from the main point of water discharge caused a higher algal growth inhibition than the samples obtained at the source point. Lixiviate promoted the growth of seedlings of O. vulgare.

  13. Geography of Genetic Structure in Barley Wild Relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Patrick; Reilley, Ann; Engels, Johannes M. M.; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Richards, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity requires knowledge of the distribution and structure of the variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic diversity for barley improvement and co-occurs with the domesticate within the center of origin. We studied the current distribution of genetic diversity and population structure in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan and investigated whether it is correlated with either spatial or climatic variation inferred from publically available climate layers commonly used in conservation and ecogeographical studies. The genetic structure of 32 populations collected in 2012 was analyzed with 37 SSRs. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified. Populations were characterized by admixture and high allelic richness, and genetic diversity was concentrated in the northern part of the study area. Genetic structure, spatial location and climate were not correlated. This may point out a limitation in using large scale climatic data layers to predict genetic diversity, especially as it is applied to regional genetic resources collections in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum. PMID:27513459

  14. Antioxidant capacity of Ocimum basilicum L. and Origanum vulgare L. extracts.

    PubMed

    Kaurinovic, Biljana; Popovic, Mira; Vlaisavljevic, Sanja; Trivic, Svetlana

    2011-08-30

    The antioxidant properties of five different extracts (Et₂O, CHCl₃, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and H₂O) of Ocimum basilicum L. and Origanum vulgare L. were studied. Antioxidant activity was assessed in six different model systems. Free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) was evaluated by measuring the scavenging capacity of extracts on DPPH, NO, O₂•⁻ and OH radical, as well as on hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). In addition, the protective effects on lipid peroxidation in liposomes (LPx) were evaluated by TBA-assay using the Fe²⁺/ascorbate induction system. The amount of total phenolic compounds and content of total flavonoids was also determined. EtOAc, n-BuOH and H₂O extracts of O. basilicum and O. vulgare expressed very strong scavenger activity. Furthermore, the mentioned extracts showed notable inhibition of LPx. On the other hand, Et₂O and CHCl₃ extracts showed much weaker effect in the neutralization of DPPH, NO and O₂•⁻ radicals and the neutralization of H₂O₂. When examining the production of OH radicals and inhibition of LPx, the Et₂O and CHCl₃ extracts showed weak prooxidative properties. The observed differences in antioxidant activity could be partially explained by the levels of phenolics and flavonoids in the investigated O. basilicum and O. vulgare extracts.

  15. Insect herbivory and propagule pressure influence Cirsium vulgare invasiveness across the landscape.

    PubMed

    Eckberg, James O; Tenhumberg, Brigitte; Louda, Svata M

    2012-08-01

    A current challenge in ecology is to better understand the magnitude, variation, and interaction in the factors that limit the invasiveness of exotic species. We conducted a factorial experiment involving herbivore manipulation (insecticide-in-water vs. water-only control) and seven densities of introduced nonnative Cirsium vulgare (bull thistle) seed. The experiment was repeated with two seed cohorts at eight grassland sites uninvaded by C. vulgare in the central Great Plains, USA. Herbivory by native insects significantly reduced thistle seedling density, causing the largest reductions in density at the highest propagule inputs. The magnitude of this herbivore effect varied widely among sites and between cohort years. The combination of herbivory and lower propagule pressure increased the rate at which new C. vulgare populations failed to establish during the initial stages of invasion. This experiment demonstrates that the interaction between biotic resistance by native insects, propagule pressure, and spatiotemporal variation in their effects were crucial to the initial invasion by this Eurasian plant in the western tallgrass prairie.

  16. Multi-Infections of Feminizing Wolbachia Strains in Natural Populations of the Terrestrial Isopod Armadillidium Vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Valette, Victorien; Bitome Essono, Paul-Yannick; Le Clec’h, Winka; Johnson, Monique; Bech, Nicolas; Grandjean, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Maternally inherited Wolbachia (α-Proteobacteria) are widespread parasitic reproductive manipulators. A growing number of studies have described the presence of different Wolbachia strains within a same host. To date, no naturally occurring multiple infections have been recorded in terrestrial isopods. This is true for Armadillidium vulgare which is known to harbor non simultaneously three Wolbachia strains. Traditionally, such Wolbachia are detected by PCR amplification of the wsp gene and strains are characterized by sequencing. The presence of nucleotide deletions or insertions within the wsp gene, among these three different strains, provides the opportunity to test a novel genotyping method. Herein, we designed a new primer pair able to amplify products whose lengths are specific to each Wolbachia strain so as to detect the presence of multi-infections in A. vulgare. Experimental injections of Wolbachia strains in Wolbachia-free females were used to validate the methodology. We re-investigated, using this novel method, the infection status of 40 females sampled in 2003 and previously described as mono-infected based on the classical sequencing method. Among these females, 29 were identified as bi-infected. It is the first time that naturally occuring multiple infections of Wolbachia are detected within an individual A. vulgare host. Additionally, we resampled 6 of these populations in 2010 to check the infection status of females. PMID:24324814

  17. Biosynthesis of stable iron oxide nanoparticles in aqueous extracts of Hordeum vulgare and Rumex acetosa plants.

    PubMed

    Makarov, Valentin V; Makarova, Svetlana S; Love, Andrew J; Sinitsyna, Olga V; Dudnik, Anna O; Yaminsky, Igor V; Taliansky, Michael E; Kalinina, Natalia O

    2014-05-27

    We report the synthesis and characterization of amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles from iron salts in aqueous extracts of monocotyledonous (Hordeum vulgare) and dicotyledonous (Rumex acetosa) plants. The nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, absorbance spectroscopy, SAED, EELS, XPS, and DLS methods and were shown to contain mainly iron oxide and iron oxohydroxide. H. vulgare extracts produced amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles with diameters of up to 30 nm. These iron nanoparticles are intrinsically unstable and prone to aggregation; however, we rendered them stable in the long term by addition of 40 mM citrate buffer pH 3.0. In contrast, amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles (diameters of 10-40 nm) produced using R. acetosa extracts are highly stable. The total protein content and antioxidant capacity are similar for both extracts, but pH values differ (H. vulgare pH 5.8 vs R. acetosa pH 3.7). We suggest that the presence of organic acids (such oxalic or citric acids) plays an important role in the stabilization of iron nanoparticles, and that plants containing such constituents may be more efficacious for the green synthesis of iron nanoparticles.

  18. Antinociceptive synergistic interaction between Achillea millefolium and Origanum vulgare L. extract encapsulated in liposome in rat.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh-Kiabi, Farshad; Negahdari, Babak

    2017-07-18

    This study aims to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of combined Achillea millefolium and Origanum extract encapsulated in liposome. The effect of Achillea millefolium and Origanum vulgare L. extract, and their liposome-incorporated form was assessed using 3% formalin test in rat. 12 male Wistar rats, 4 in each group, were used in this study, and increasing doses of Achillea millefolium (31.6, 100, 178, and 316 mg/kg) and Origanum vulgare L. extract (5.6, 10, 17.8, and 31.6 mg/kg), and co-administered extract were i.p. administered 10 min before 3% formalin. The mechanisms of action were evaluated for the liposomal encapsulated co-administered extract using N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (3 mg/kg) and naloxone (1 mg/kg). The interaction index and isobolographic analysis revealed a synergistic effect of the extracts. We observed a lower experimental ED30 as compared to the theoretical ED30. Naloxone also reduced the antinociceptive effect of the liposome encapsulated co-administered extract. These data suggest that the Achillea millefolium and Origanum vulgare L. extract encapsulated in liposome gave a synergistic effect.

  19. Using elevated CO2 to increase the biomass of a Sorghum vulgare x Sorghum vulgare var. sudanense hybrid and Trifolium pratense L. and to trigger hyperaccumulation of cesium.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huibin; Tang, Shirong; Zhang, Ximei; Guo, Junkang; Song, Zhengguo; Tian, Shuai; Smith, Donald L

    2009-10-30

    The most important challenge to use phytoremediation is how to improve its efficiency by increasing the accumulation of metals in plants, or by improving key plant biological traits that should enhance metal uptake. In this paper, we used open-top chambers to investigate the effects of elevated CO2 (860 microL L(-1)) on biomass and Cs uptake by a Sorghum vulgare x Sorghum vulgare var. sudanense hybrid and Trifolium pratense L. growing on soils spiked with various levels of cesium (0, 300, 1500 and 3000 mg Cs kg(-1)). The results showed that elevated CO2 not only increased aboveground biomass of the Sorghum and Trifolium species by 32-111%, and by 8-11%, respectively, compared to the ambient CO2 treatment, but also caused more accumulation of Cs by Sorghum species (up to 73%) than Trifolium species (up to 43%). It was speculated that the increase in biomass and the improvement in Cs accumulation ability at elevated CO2 could be related to lowered soil pH values, and changes in number and kind of microorganisms in the rhizospheres of the two tested species. This is the first report of a link among elevated CO2, increased biomass and hyperaccumulation of Cs by Sorghum and Trifolium species.

  20. Binary and Tertiary Mixtures of Satureja hortensis and Origanum vulgare Essential Oils as Potent Antimicrobial Agents Against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Lesjak, Marija; Simin, Natasa; Orcic, Dejan; Franciskovic, Marina; Knezevic, Petar; Beara, Ivana; Aleksic, Verica; Svircev, Emilija; Buzas, Krisztina; Mimica-Dukic, Neda

    2016-03-01

    Essential oils possess strong antimicrobial activity, even against multiresistant Helicobacter pylori. Available therapies against H. pylori infection have multiple disadvantages, indicating a great need for a development of new therapeutics. The purpose of this study was to develop a potent natural product based anti-H. pylori formulation. First, anti-H. pylori activity of nine essential oils was determined, after which the most active oils were mixed in various ratios for further testing. Satureja hortensis, Origanum vulgare subsp. vulgare and O. vulgare subsp. hirtum essential oils expressed the highest activity (MIC = 2 μL mL(-1)). Their binary and ternary mixtures exhibited notably higher antimicrobial activity (MIC ≤ 2 μL mL(-1)). The most active was the mixture of S. hortensis and O. vulgare subsp. hirtum oils in volume ratio 2:1, which expressed 4 times higher activity than individual oils (MIC = 0.5 μL mL(-1)). According to GC-MS, both oils in the mixture were characterized by high content of phenols (48-73%), with carvacrol as the main carrier of antimicrobial activity. Presented in vitro study pointed out binary mixture of S. hortensis and O. vulgare subsp. hirtum essential oils in volume ratio 2:1 as promising candidate for further in vivo studies targeting H. pylori infection. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Terpene synthases of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and their roles in the pathway and regulation of terpene biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Crocoll, Christoph; Asbach, Julia; Novak, Johannes; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Degenhardt, Jörg

    2010-08-01

    The aroma, flavor and pharmaceutical value of cultivated oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) is a consequence of its essential oil which consists mostly of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. To investigate the biosynthetic pathway to oregano terpenes and its regulation, we identified and characterized seven terpene synthases, key enzymes of terpene biosynthesis, from two cultivars of O. vulgare. Heterologous expression of these enzymes showed that each forms multiple mono- or sesquiterpene products and together they are responsible for the direct production of almost all terpenes found in O. vulgare essential oil. The correlation of essential oil composition with relative and absolute terpene synthase transcript concentrations in different lines of O. vulgare demonstrated that monoterpene synthase activity is predominantly regulated on the level of transcription and that the phenolic monoterpene alcohol thymol is derived from gamma-terpinene, a product of a single monoterpene synthase. The combination of heterologously-expressed terpene synthases for in vitro assays resulted in blends of mono- and sesquiterpene products that strongly resemble those found in vivo, indicating that terpene synthase expression levels directly control the composition of the essential oil. These results will facilitate metabolic engineering and directed breeding of O. vulgare cultivars with higher quantity of essential oil and improved oil composition.

  2. Chloroplast and Mitochondrial DNA Variation in HORDEUM VULGARE and HORDEUM SPONTANEUM

    PubMed Central

    Holwerda, Barry C.; Jana, Sakti; Crosby, William L.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of restriction fragment polymorphism in Hordeum vulgare and Hordeum spontaneum was made using 17 and 16 hexanucleotide restriction endonucleases on chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrial (mt) DNA, respectively. The plant accessions originated from various places throughout the Fertile Cresent and Mediterranean. The types of changes in cpDNA consisted of nucleotide substitutions and insertions and deletions on the order of 100 base pairs. In contrast, mtDNA has most likely undergone larger insertions and deletions of up to 20 kilobase pairs in addition to rearrangements. Grouping of mtDNA fragment data showed that in some cases geographical affinities existed between the two species, whereas in others there were no clear affinities. Nucleotide diversity estimates derived from the restriction fragment data were used in a number of comparisons of variability. Comparisons of overall mtDNA variability (nucleotide diversity = 9.68 x 10-4) with cpDNA variability (nucleotide diversity = 6.38 x 10-4 ) indicated that the former are somewhat more variable. Furthermore, there was no indication that the wild H. spontaneum (cpDNA diversity = 5.57 x 10-4; mtDNA diversity = 6.04 x 10 -4) was more variable than the land races of H. vulgare (cpDNA diversity = 5.88 x 10-4; mtDNA diversity = 9.79 x 10-4). In fact, on the basis of mtDNA diversity, H. vulgare was the more variable species. Comparison of organelle nucleotide diversity estimates with an estimate of nuclear nucleotide diversity derived from existing isozyme data provided evidence that both organelle genomes are evolving at a slower rate than the nuclear genome. PMID:17246361

  3. Histological study of some Echium vulgare, Pulmonaria officinalis and Symphytum officinale populations.

    PubMed

    Papp, Nóra; Bencsik, Tímea; Németh, Kitti; Gyergyák, Kinga; Sulc, Alexandra; Farkas, Agnes

    2011-10-01

    Plants living in different ecological habitats can show significant variability in their histological and phytochemical characters. The main histological features of various populations of three medicinal plants from the Boraginaceae family were studied. Stems, petioles and leaves were investigated by light microscopy in vertical and transverse sections. The outline of the epidermal cells, as well as the shape and cell number of trichomes was studied in leaf surface casts. Differences were measured among the populations of Echium vulgare in the width and height of epidermis cells in the stem, petiole and leaf, as well as in the size of palisade cells in the leaves. Among the populations of Pulmonaria officinalis significant differences were found in the length of trichomes and in the slightly or strongly wavy outline of epidermal radial cell walls. Populations of Symphytum officinale showed variance in the height of epidermal cells in leaves and stems, length of palisade cells and number of intercellular spaces in leaves, and the size of the central cavity in the stem. Boraginaceae bristles were found to be longer in plants in windy/shady habitats as opposed to sunny habitats, both in the leaves and stems ofP. officinalis and S. officinale, which might be connected to varying levels of exposure to wind. Longer epidermal cells were detected in the leaves and stems of both E. vulgare and S. officinale plants living in shady habitats, compared with shorter cells in sunny habitats. Leaf mesophyll cells were shorter in shady habitats as opposed to longer cells in sunny habitats, both in E. vulgare and S. officinale. This combination of histological characters may contribute to the plant's adaptation to various amounts of sunshine. The reported data prove the polymorphism of the studied taxa, as well as their ability to adapt to various ecological circumstances.

  4. In vitro activity of origanum vulgare essential oil against candida species

    PubMed Central

    Cleff, Marlete Brum; Meinerz, Ana Raquel; Xavier, Melissa; Schuch, Luiz Filipe; Schuch, Luiz Filipe; Araújo Meireles, Mário Carlos; Alves Rodrigues, Maria Regina; de Mello, João Roberto Braga

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of the essential oil extracted from Origanum vulgare against sixteen Candida species isolates. Standard strains tested comprised C. albicans (ATCC strains 44858, 4053, 18804 and 3691), C. parapsilosis (ATCC 22019), C. krusei (ATCC 34135), C. lusitaniae (ATCC 34449) and C. dubliniensis (ATCC MY646). Six Candida albicans isolates from the vaginal mucous membrane of female dogs, one isolate from the cutaneous tegument of a dog and one isolate of a capuchin monkey were tested in parallel. A broth microdilution technique (CLSI) was used, and the inoculum concentration was adjusted to 5 x 106 CFU mL-1. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography. Susceptibility was expressed as Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimal Fungicidal Concentration (MFC). All isolates tested in vitro were sensitive to O. vulgare essential oil. The chromatographic analysis revealed that the main compounds present in the essential oil were 4-terpineol (47.95%), carvacrol (9.42%), thymol (8.42%) and □-terpineol (7.57%). C. albicans isolates obtained from animal mucous membranes exhibited MIC and MFC values of 2.72 μL mL-1 and 5 μL mL-1, respectively. MIC and MFC values for C. albicans standard strains were 2.97 μL mL-1 and 3.54 μL mL-1, respectively. The MIC and MFC for non-albicans species were 2.10 μL mL-1 and 2.97 μL mL-1, respectively. The antifungal activity of O. vulgare essential oil against Candida spp. observed in vitro suggests its administration may represent an alternative treatment for candidiasis. PMID:24031471

  5. Silica Biominerals (Phytolith) Compound of Cultured Barley Plants (Hordeum Vulgare L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamirsky, I. E.; Klykov, A. G.; Murugova, G. A.; Golokhvast, K. S.

    2017-08-01

    The comparative analysis results of the morphological and chemical composition of biomineral elements (phytolith) of cultured barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) have been presented for the first time. On the example of the biserial “Pacific” variety related to var. nutans and line 342 (var. nigricans). The optical microscopy method has been used to identify 4 morphotypes of fossil plants. The distinctive sitespecific signs were established, manifested in the size multiblade fossil plants and the presence of a disc-shaped fossil plants from one variety not only in the ear, but in the stalk.

  6. Genetic relatedness and population differentiation of Himalayan hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) landraces inferred with SSRs.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Madhav; Wagner, Carola; Friedt, Wolfgang; Ordon, Frank

    2006-08-01

    A set of 107 hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare) landraces originally collected from the highlands of Nepal along the Annapurna and Manaslu Himalaya range were studied for genetic relatedness and population differentiation using simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The 44 genome covering barley SSRs applied in this study revealed a high level of genetic diversity among the landraces (diversity index, DI = 0.536) tested. The genetic similarity (GS) based UPGMA clustering and Bayesian Model-based (MB) structure analysis revealed a complex genetic structure of the landraces. Eight genetically distinct populations were identified, of which seven were further studied for diversity and differentiation. The genetic diversity estimated for all and each population separately revealed a hot spot of genetic diversity at Pisang (DI = 0.559). The populations are fairly differentiated (theta = 0.433, R(ST) = 0.445) accounting for > 40% of the genetic variation among the populations. The pairwise population differentiation test confirmed that many of the geographic populations significantly differ from each other but that the differentiation is independent of the geographic distance (r = 0.224, P > 0.05). The high level of genetic diversity and complex population structure detected in Himalayan hulless barley landraces and the relevance of the findings are discussed.

  7. Indigenous plasmids of Bacillus megaterium WSH-002 involved in mutualism with Ketogulonicigenium vulgare WSH-001.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jingwen; Zheng, Qiaoshuang; Liu, Jie; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-09-01

    In the two-step vitamin C fermentation process, the precursor 2-keto-l-gulonic acid (2-KLG) was synthesized using a mixed culture of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare WSH-001 and Bacillus megaterium WSH-002, which contained three plasmids, pBME1, pBME2 and pBME3. The cell growth of B. megaterium was not affected by the elimination of these plasmids. However, elimination of pBME2 and pBME3 significantly affected l-sorbose uptake and 2-KLG production. Sequence analysis of the plasmids showed that many of the pBME2 and pBME3 genes were of unknown function or could not be assigned to a specific metabolic pathway. The current work showed that the indigenous plasmids pBME2 and pBME3 of B. megaterium WSH-002 involved in mutualism with K. vulgare WSH-001. The results provided a promising new route to further demonstrate the mutualism process between the two bacteria.

  8. The effect of external marking on the behaviour of the common pill woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Drahokoupilová, Táňa; Tuf, Ivan Hadrián

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Zoologists distinguish individual animals using marking techniques. Generally they test the potential influence of marking on survival only; the influence on behaviour is usually neglected. We evaluated the influence of two external marking techniques (nail polish and queen-bee marker) on the behaviour of common pill woodlouse, Armadillidium vulgare. The behaviour was examined from two points of view: (1) activity during 24 hours and (2) specific expressions of behaviour (exploring, feeding, resting and hiding) over a 24 hour period. We compared behaviour among woodlice marked with nail polish and queen-bee marker with the unmarked control group during a nine-day experiment. Although we did not find any influence of marking on survival, there was an evident influence on behaviour in most cases. Generally, in the groups of marked individuals of Armadillidium vulgare there were large differences observed against the control group in the overall activity. Activity of marked individuals was significantly reduced and they preferred hiding. The influence of polish and marker on the overall frequencies of behavioural categories was evident, mainly in feeding, resting and hiding. The influence on the frequency of exploring was significant in the polish marked group only. PMID:22536105

  9. Sexual bipotentiality of developing ovaries in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Malacostraca, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S; Yamasaki, K

    1997-07-01

    The androgenic glands (AG) of crustaceans are responsible for differentiation of male sexual characters. The process of gonadal differentiation in females was studied morphologically in Armadillidium vulgare given a masculinizing AG implant. Gonadal masculinization was induced by implantation of an AG into females at various stages of postembryonic development. Functional sex reversal always occurred when an AG was implanted into females that were in stages 5 and 6 of development. Partial formation of testes was induced after implantation of an AG into stage 7 and 8 females. When an AG was implanted into a stage 9 female, development of a functional testis was not observed, but the ovaries were partially masculinized. These results show that after the onset of sex differentiation female gonads retain sexual bipotentiality through several stages of postembryonic development. Implantation of one AG into a female is enough to induce gonadal masculinization and sex reversal in this species. The AG implant up to stage 6 (3.4 mm in body length) is an experimental procedure certain to transform a genetic female into a functional male. The process of gonadal development in female A. vulgare is discussed.

  10. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids from Echium vulgare in Honey Originate Primarily from Floral Nectar.

    PubMed

    Lucchetti, Matteo A; Glauser, Gaetan; Kilchenmann, Verena; Dübecke, Arne; Beckh, Gudrun; Praz, Christophe; Kast, Christina

    2016-06-29

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in honey can be a potential human health risk. So far, it has remained unclear whether PAs in honey originate from pollen or floral nectar. We obtained honey, nectar, and plant pollen from two observation sites where Echium vulgare L. was naturally abundant. The PA concentration of honey was determined by targeted analysis using a high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system (HPLC-MS/MS), allowing the quantification of six different PAs and PA-N-oxides present in E. vulgare. Echium-type PAs were detected up to 0.153 μg/g in honey. Nectar and plant pollen were analyzed by nontargeted analysis using ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-high resolution-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HR-MS), allowing the detection of 10 alkaloids in small size samples. Echium-type PAs were detected between 0.3-95.1 μg/g in nectar and 500-35000 μg/g in plant pollen. The PA composition in nectar and plant pollen was compared to the composition in honey. Echimidine (+N-oxide) was the main alkaloid detected in honey and nectar samples, while echivulgarine (+N-oxide) was the main PA found in plant pollen. These results suggest that nectar contributes more significantly to PA contamination in honey than plant pollen.

  11. Chemical composition and bioactivity of different oregano (Origanum vulgare) extracts and essential oil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Bárbara; Marques, António; Ramos, Cristina; Serrano, Carmo; Matos, Olívia; Neng, Nuno R; Nogueira, José M F; Saraiva, Jorge Alexandre; Nunes, Maria Leonor

    2013-08-30

    There is a growing interest in industry to replace synthetic chemicals by natural products with bioactive properties. Aromatic plants are excellent sources of bioactive compounds that can be extracted using several processes. As far as oregano is concerned, studies are lacking addressing the effect of extraction processes in bioactivity of extracts. This study aimed to characterise the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial properties of oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil and extracts (in hot and cold water, and ethanol), and the chemical composition of its essential oil. The major components of oregano essential oil were carvacrol, β-fenchyl alcohol, thymol, and γ-terpinene. Hot water extract had the strongest antioxidant properties and the highest phenolic content. All extracts were ineffective in inhibiting the growth of the seven tested bacteria. In contrast, the essential oil inhibited the growth of all bacteria, causing greater reductions on both Listeria strains (L. monocytogenes and L. innocua). O. vulgare extracts and essential oil from Portuguese origin are strong candidates to replace synthetic chemicals used by the industry. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. The flavonoids of Tanacetum parthenium and T. vulgare and their anti-inflammatory properties.

    PubMed

    Williams, C A; Harborne, J B; Geiger, H; Hoult, J R

    1999-06-01

    The lipophilic flavonoids in leaf and flower of Tanacetum parthenium and T. vulgaris have been compared. While those of T. parthenium are methyl ethers of the flavonols 6-hydroxykaempferol and quercetagetin, the surface flavonoids of T. vulgare are methyl ethers of the flavones scutellarein and 6-hydroxyluteolin. Apigenin and two flavone glucuronides are surprisingly present in glandular trichomes on the lower epidermis of the ray florets of T. parthenium. The opportunity has been taken to revise the structures of the four 6-hydroxyflavonol methyl ethers of T. parthenium based on NMR measurements. These are now shown to be uniformly 6- rather than 7-O-methylated. Tanetin, previously thought to be a new structure, is now formulated as the known 6-hydroxykaempferol 3,6,4'-trimethyl ether. The vacuolar flavonoids of both plants are dominated by the presence of apigenin and luteolin 7-glucuronides; nine other glycosides were present, including the uncommon 6-hydroxyluteolin 7-glucoside in T. vulgare. When the major flavonol and flavone methyl ethers of the two plants were tested pharmacologically, they variously inhibited the major pathways of arachidonate metabolism in leukocytes. There were significant differences in potency, with the tansy 6-hydroxyflavones less active than the feverfew 6-hydroxyflavonols as inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase.

  13. Organization of the large mitochondrial genome in the isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed Central

    Raimond, R; Marcadé, I; Bouchon, D; Rigaud, T; Bossy, J P; Souty-Grosset, C

    1999-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in animals is generally a circular molecule of approximately 15 kb, but there are many exceptions such as linear molecules and larger ones. RFLP studies indicated that the mtDNA in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare varied from 20 to 42 kb. This variation depended on the restriction enzyme used, and on the restriction profile generated by a given enzyme. The DNA fragments had characteristic electrophoretic behaviors. Digestions with two endonucleases always generated fewer fragments than expected; denaturation of restriction profiles reduced the size of two bands by half; densitometry indicated that a number of small fragments were present in stoichiometry, which has approximately twice the expected concentration. Finally, hybridization to a 550-bp 16S rDNA probe often revealed two copies of this gene. These results cannot be due to the genetic rearrangements generally invoked to explain large mtDNA. We propose that the large A. vulgare mtDNA is produced by the tripling of a 14-kb monomer with a singular rearrangement: one monomer is linear and the other two form a circular dimer. Densitometry suggested that these two molecular structures were present in different proportions within a single individual. The absence of mutations within the dimers also suggests that replication occurs during the monomer phase. PMID:9872960

  14. Breastfeeding: A Review of Its Physiology and Galactogogue Plants in View of Traditional Persian Medicine.

    PubMed

    Javan, Roghayeh; Javadi, Behjat; Feyzabadi, Zohre

    2017-09-01

    The beneficial effects of breastfeeding for the infant and mother are well recognized. Many natural products are reputed to be galactogogue agents in major Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) textbooks. The aim of this study is to review those medicinal plants that are reported to be effective in increasing breast milk in TPM and to compare the data from TPM texts with the findings of modern pharmacological and clinical research. Data on the medicinal plants used to increase breast milk were obtained from major TPM textbooks. A detailed search in PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases was performed to confirm the effects of medicinal plants mentioned in TPM on lactation in view of the identified pharmacological actions. Foeniculum vulgare, Anethum graveolens, Pimpinella anisum, Nigella sativa, and Vitex agnus-castus are among the most effective galactogogue TPM plants. Many pharmacologically relevant activities have been reported for these herbs. The use of traditional knowledge can pave the way toward finding effective phytopharmaceuticals for increasing breast milk.

  15. In Vitro Susceptibility of Pythium insidiosum to Melaleuca alternifolia, Mentha piperita and Origanum vulgare Essential Oils Combinations.

    PubMed

    de Souza Silveira Valente, Júlia; de Oliveira da Silva Fonseca, Anelise; Denardi, Laura Bedin; Dal Ben, Vanessa Silveira; de Souza Maia Filho, Fernando; Baptista, Cristiane Telles; Braga, Caroline Quintana; Zambrano, Cristina Gomes; Alves, Sydney Hartz; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Pereira, Daniela Isabel Brayer

    2016-08-01

    Pythium insidiosum is the etiologic agent of pythiosis, a severe and emerging disease that affects mammals. Failure of conventional antifungal therapies is partially justified by the absence of ergosterol in the plasma membrane of this oomycete. Despite research advancement, the treatment of pythiosis has not been not fully established. The present study investigated the in vitro susceptibility profile of Brazilian isolates of P. insidiosum (n = 20) against Melaleuca alternifolia, Mentha piperita and Origanum vulgare essential oils, and their combinations. Susceptibility tests were performed according to CLSI M38-A2 protocol, and combinations were evaluated by the microdilution cherkerboard method. All tested essential oils showed antimicrobial activity against P. insidiosum, and the greatest activity of O. vulgare was highlighted. Synergistic and/or indifferent effect was observed for all combinations evaluated, especially the M. piperita and O. vulgare combination, which showed 65 % synergism. This is the first study to report in vitro combinations of essential oils against P. insidiosum indicating the susceptibility of this oomycete to M. alternifolia, M. piperita and O. vulgare essential oils, as well as their combinations.

  16. Genotypic and phenotypic changes in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) during a period of climate change in Jordan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Climate change and other anthropogenic disturbances can lead to the loss of genetic variation and thereby affect evolutionary potential and survival of plant populations in the wild. We examined these predictions in the primary wild relative of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) ...

  17. Effects of Anti-Tobacco Advertisements Based on Risk-Taking Tendencies: Realistic Fear vs. Vulgar Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Moon J.; Ferguson, Mary Ann

    2002-01-01

    Explores how college students with different risk-taking tendencies responded to different emotional appeals in anti-tobacco advertisements. Finds that rebellious participants who watched realistic fear advertisements reported higher levels of interest than those who watched the vulgar humor advertisements. Explains that impulsive participants…

  18. Masculinization of females of the isopod crustacean, Armadillidium vulgare, following injections of an active extract of the androgenic gland.

    PubMed

    Katakura, Y; Hasegawa, Y

    1983-01-01

    Injections of 64 U of an active extract of the androgenic gland into young females of Armadillidium vulgare induced masculinization of the external sexual characteristics and transformation of the internal female reproductive organs into testes, seminal vesicles, and vasa deferentia. Following injections of 10-U doses, the internal organs were hardly affected in 8 of 10 females although the external characteristics underwent masculinization.

  19. A new genetic linkage map of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) facilitates genetic dissection of height and spike length and angle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant height and spike length and angle are important agronomic traits in the production of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) due to strong correlations with lodging and disease. The objective of this study was to use QTL analysis to identify genetic regions associated with each trait in a recombinant inb...

  20. A high-throughput RNA extraction for sprouted single-seed malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) rich in polysaccharides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Germinated seed from cereal crops including barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important tissue to extract RNA and analyze expression levels of genes that control aspects of germination. These tissues are rich in polysaccharides and most methods for RNA extraction are not suitable to handle the exces...

  1. The in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In order to validate its antiseptic and anticancer properties with respect to traditional uses, we have screened for the first time the antimicrobial activity of aerial parts of M. vulgare L. essential oil against different pathogenic microorganisms and the cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines. Methods The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of M. vulgare essential oil against 12 bacterial and 4 fungi strains. The disc diameters of zone of inhibition (DD), the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the concentration inhibiting 50% (IC50) were investigated to characterize the antimicrobial activities of this essential oil. The in vitro cytotoxicity of M. vulgare essential oil was examined using a modified MTT assay; the viability and the IC50 were used to evaluate this test. Results The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against the different tested microorganisms. The present results results showed a significant activity against microorganisms especially Gram (+) bacteria with inhibition zones and minimal inhibitory concentration values in the range of 6.6-25.2 mm and 1120-2600 μg/ml, respectively, whereas Gram (-) bacteria exhibited a higher resistance. As far as the antifungal activity, among four strains tested, Botrytis cinerea exhibited the strongest activity with inhibition zones of 12.6 mm. However, Fusarium solani, Penicillium digitatum and Aspergillus niger were less sensitive to M. vulgare essential oil. About the citotoxicity assay, this finding indicate the capability of this essential oil to inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cell lines under some conditions with IC50 value of 0.258 μg/ml. Conclusion This investigation showed that the M. vulgare essential oil has a potent antimicrobial activity against some Gram (+) pathogenic bacteria and Botrytis cinerea fungi. The present studies confirm the use of this essential oil as anticancer

  2. Genome Sequence of Bacillus endophyticus and Analysis of Its Companion Mechanism in the Ketogulonigenium vulgare-Bacillus Strain Consortium.

    PubMed

    Jia, Nan; Du, Jin; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Gao, Feng; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus strains have been widely used as the companion strain of Ketogulonigenium vulgare in the process of vitamin C fermentation. Different Bacillus strains generate different effects on the growth of K. vulgare and ultimately influence the productivity. First, we identified that Bacillus endophyticus Hbe603 was an appropriate strain to cooperate with K. vulgare and the product conversion rate exceeded 90% in industrial vitamin C fermentation. Here, we report the genome sequencing of the B. endophyticus Hbe603 industrial companion strain and speculate its possible advantage in the consortium. The circular chromosome of B. endophyticus Hbe603 has a size of 4.87 Mb with GC content of 36.64% and has the highest similarity with that of Bacillus megaterium among all the bacteria with complete genomes. By comparing the distribution of COGs with that of Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus and B. megaterium, B. endophyticus has less genes related to cell envelope biogenesis and signal transduction mechanisms, and more genes related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism, energy production and conversion, as well as lipid transport and metabolism. Genome-based functional studies revealed the specific capability of B. endophyticus in sporulation, transcription regulation, environmental resistance, membrane transportation, extracellular proteins and nutrients synthesis, which would be beneficial for K. vulgare. In particular, B. endophyticus lacks the Rap-Phr signal cascade system and, in part, spore coat related proteins. In addition, it has specific pathways for vitamin B12 synthesis and sorbitol metabolism. The genome analysis of the industrial B. endophyticus will help us understand its cooperative mechanism in the K. vulgare-Bacillus strain consortium to improve the fermentation of vitamin C.

  3. Endosperm structure affects the malting quality of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Ulla R M; Wilhelmson, Annika; Salmenkallio-Marttila, Marjatta; Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo; Rajala, Ari; Reinikainen, Pekka; Kotaviita, Erja; Simolin, Helena; Home, Silja

    2005-09-07

    Twenty-seven barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) samples collected from growing sites in Scandinavia in 2001 and 2002 were examined to study the effect of endosperm structure on malting behavior. Samples were micromalted, and several malt characteristics were measured. Samples were classified as having a mealier or steelier endosperm on the basis of light transflectance (LTm). Because endosperm structure is greatly dependent on protein content, three barley sample pairs with similar protein contents were chosen for further analysis. During malting, the steelier barley samples produced less root mass, but showed higher respiration losses and higher activities of starch-hydrolyzing enzymes. Malts made from steelier barley had a less friable structure, with more urea-soluble D hordein and more free amino nitrogen and soluble protein. The reason for these differences may lie in the structure or localization of the hordeins as well as the possible effects of endosperm packing on water uptake and movement of enzymes.

  4. Conglobation in the Pill Bug, Armadillidium vulgare, as a Water Conservation Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Smigel, Jacob T.; Gibbs, Allen G.

    2008-01-01

    Water balance of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, was investigated during conglobation (rolling-up behavior). Water loss and metabolic rates were measured at 18 ± 1°C in dry air using flow-through respirometry. Water-loss rates decreased 34.8% when specimens were in their conglobated form, while CO2 release decreased by 37.1%. Water loss was also measured gravimetrically at humidities ranging from 6 to 75 %RH. Conglobation was associated with a decrease in water-loss rates up to 53 %RH, but no significant differences were observed at higher humidities. Our findings suggest that conglobation behavior may help to conserve water, in addition to its demonstrated role in protection from predation. PMID:20233103

  5. Genome sequence of a crustacean iridovirus, IIV31, isolated from the pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Piégu, Benoît; Guizard, Sébastien; Yeping, Tan; Cruaud, Corinne; Asgari, Sassan; Bideshi, Dennis K; Federici, Brian A; Bigot, Yves

    2014-07-01

    Members of the family Iridoviridae are animal viruses that infect only invertebrates and poikilothermic vertebrates. The invertebrate iridovirus 31 (IIV31) was originally isolated from adult pill bugs, Armadillidium vulgare (class Crustacea, order Isopoda, suborder Oniscidea), found in southern California on the campus of the University of California, Riverside, USA. IIV31 virions are icosahedral, have a diameter of about 135 nm, and contain a dsDNA genome 220.222 kbp in length, with 35.09 mol % G+C content and 203 ORFs. Here, we describe the complete genome sequence of this virus and its annotation. This is the eighth genome sequence of an IIV reported. © 2014 The Authors.

  6. Conglobation in the pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare, as a water conservation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Smigel, Jacob T; Gibbs, Allen G

    2008-01-01

    Water balance of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, was investigated during conglobation (rolling-up behavior). Water loss and metabolic rates were measured at 18 +/- 1 degrees C in dry air using flow-through respirometry. Water-loss rates decreased 34.8% when specimens were in their conglobated form, while CO2 release decreased by 37.1%. Water loss was also measured gravimetrically at humidities ranging from 6 to 75 %RH. Conglobation was associated with a decrease in water-loss rates up to 53 %RH, but no significant differences were observed at higher humidities. Our findings suggest that conglobation behavior may help to conserve water, in addition to its demonstrated role in protection from predation.

  7. Extreme Population-Dependent Linkage Disequilibrium Detected in an Inbreeding Plant Species, Hordeum vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Katherine S.; Russell, Joanne; Langridge, Peter; Powell, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    In human genetics a detailed knowledge of linkage disequilibrium (LD) is considered a prerequisite for effective population-based, high-resolution gene mapping and cloning. Similar opportunities exist for plants; however, differences in breeding system and population history need to be considered. Here we report a detailed study of localized LD in different populations of an inbreeding crop species. We measured LD between and within four gene loci within the region surrounding the hardness locus in three different gene pools of barley (Hordeum vulgare). We demonstrate that LD extends to at least 212 kb in elite barley cultivars but is rapidly eroded in related inbreeding ancestral populations. Our results indicate that haplotype-based sequence analysis in multiple populations will provide new opportunities to adjust the resolution of association studies in inbreeding crop species. PMID:16219791

  8. [Stress response genes expression analysis of barley Hordeum vulgare under space flight environment].

    PubMed

    Shagimardanova, E I; Gusev, O A; Sychev, V N; Levinskikh, M A; Sharipova, M R; Il'inskaia, O N; Bingham, G; Sugimoto, M

    2010-01-01

    Transcriptome of barley Hordeum vulgare grown aboard International Space Station (ISS) was analyzed by means of microarray. It was revealed 500 genes with mRNA level, changed more than two folds in space environment. Among them are genes encoding stress response proteins, videlicet Heat Shock Proteins (HSP), Pathogenesis-Related Proteins (PR) and Antioxidant Proteins. Further analysis of these genes by real time PCR showed enhanced transcription level of Reactive oxygen Species (ROS) scavenging genes. The mRNA level of superoxide dismutase (sod) was 6 folds higher in space environment when compare to Earth conditions. Glutamyl transferase gene expression was enhanced 24 times in space. Transcription of catalase gene (cat) was increased 18 times and of ascorbate peroxidase was increased 3 times in space in comparison with ground control. For the first time it was shown that space flight environment may induce oxidative stress in plants.

  9. Biochemical and physiological studies on the effects of senescence leaves of Populus deltoides on Triticum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Khaket, Tejinder Pal; Kumar, Viney; Singh, Jasbir; Dhanda, Suman

    2014-01-01

    Triticum vulgare (Wheat) based products are the major dietary source of food in developing countries. In India, it grows in association with boundary plantations of Populus deltoids (poplar). During winter, poplar enters in dormancy which cause a heavy leaf fall at the time of wheat seed germination. Large number of poplar senescence leaves may adversely affect the wheat. Therefore, the present study was performed to examine the effect of senescence poplar leaves on wheat germ and some other biochemical parameters. Seed's germination rate was determined by measuring root and shoot lengths, percent germination, germination index, and inhibition percentage. Biochemical parameters, namely, pigment, carbohydrate, protein, and phenol content, were estimated. Activities of catalase and polyphenol oxidase which are stress marker enzymes were also measured. Results revealed that germination and other biochemical parameters of wheat were severely affected by senescence poplar leaves even at very low concentration. So, intercropping of poplar along with wheat may be chosen carefully as wheat is the major dietary staple.

  10. Characterization of a new UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase from Hordeum vulgare (barley).

    PubMed

    Wahl, Claudia; Spiertz, Markus; Elling, Lothar

    2017-09-20

    The broad substrate spectrum of UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylases from plant salvage pathways is of high interest for the synthesis of expensive nucleotide sugars by straightforward enzyme cascade reactions in combination with monosaccharide kinases. We here present a new UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase from Hordeum vulgare with favorable biochemical properties like broad pH and temperature tolerances as well as a broad substrate spectrum and high synthesis stability. Enzyme properties were determined and reaction conditions were optimized by high-through-put multiplexed capillary electrophoresis analysis. In combination with a galactokinase UDP-α-d-galactose (UDP-Gal) was efficiently synthesized with a space-time-yield of 17g/L*h for full conversion of 10mM substrate within 20min by 1.2U of each enzyme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Floral volatiles ofTanacetum vulgare L. attractive toLobesia botrana den. et schiff. females.

    PubMed

    Gabel, B; Thiéry, D; Suchy, V; Marion-Poll, F; Hradsky, P; Farkas, P

    1992-05-01

    The European grapevine moth (EGVM),Lobesia botrana, is a major pest of grapes in Europe. Females are attracted to a nonhost plant: tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), which is a common weed in Slovakian vineyards. A steam distillate extract of tansy flowers was analyzed by means of a GC-EAG technique to screen constituents detected by the olfactory receptors of EGVM females. From more than 200 GC peaks, nine peaks corresponding to monoterpenoids released an EAG response in more than 70% of the females (N=15):p-cymene,d-limonene,α-thujene,α-thujone,β-thujone, thujyl alcohol, terpinene-4-ol, (Z)-verbenol, and piperitone. The steam distillate of tansy as well as a synthetic blend of identified compounds released consistent attraction in a field cage. The use of nonhost plants and host plant odors in integrated pest management is discussed.

  12. Construction of a map-based reference genome sequence for barley, Hordeum vulgare L.

    PubMed Central

    Beier, Sebastian; Himmelbach, Axel; Colmsee, Christian; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Barrero, Roberto A.; Zhang, Qisen; Li, Lin; Bayer, Micha; Bolser, Daniel; Taudien, Stefan; Groth, Marco; Felder, Marius; Hastie, Alex; Šimková, Hana; Staňková, Helena; Vrána, Jan; Chan, Saki; Muñoz-Amatriaín, María; Ounit, Rachid; Wanamaker, Steve; Schmutzer, Thomas; Aliyeva-Schnorr, Lala; Grasso, Stefano; Tanskanen, Jaakko; Sampath, Dharanya; Heavens, Darren; Cao, Sujie; Chapman, Brett; Dai, Fei; Han, Yong; Li, Hua; Li, Xuan; Lin, Chongyun; McCooke, John K.; Tan, Cong; Wang, Songbo; Yin, Shuya; Zhou, Gaofeng; Poland, Jesse A.; Bellgard, Matthew I.; Houben, Andreas; Doležel, Jaroslav; Ayling, Sarah; Lonardi, Stefano; Langridge, Peter; Muehlbauer, Gary J.; Kersey, Paul; Clark, Matthew D.; Caccamo, Mario; Schulman, Alan H.; Platzer, Matthias; Close, Timothy J.; Hansson, Mats; Zhang, Guoping; Braumann, Ilka; Li, Chengdao; Waugh, Robbie; Scholz, Uwe; Stein, Nils; Mascher, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a cereal grass mainly used as animal fodder and raw material for the malting industry. The map-based reference genome sequence of barley cv. ‘Morex’ was constructed by the International Barley Genome Sequencing Consortium (IBSC) using hierarchical shotgun sequencing. Here, we report the experimental and computational procedures to (i) sequence and assemble more than 80,000 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones along the minimum tiling path of a genome-wide physical map, (ii) find and validate overlaps between adjacent BACs, (iii) construct 4,265 non-redundant sequence scaffolds representing clusters of overlapping BACs, and (iv) order and orient these BAC clusters along the seven barley chromosomes using positional information provided by dense genetic maps, an optical map and chromosome conformation capture sequencing (Hi-C). Integrative access to these sequence and mapping resources is provided by the barley genome explorer (BARLEX). PMID:28448065

  13. Inhibition of melanogenesis and oxidation by protocatechuic acid from Origanum vulgare (oregano).

    PubMed

    Chou, Tzung-Han; Ding, Hsiou-Yu; Lin, Rong-Jyh; Liang, Jing-Yao; Liang, Chia-Hua

    2010-11-29

    Antioxidant and antimelanogenesis activities of protocatechuic acid (1) from Origanum vulgare (oregano) were investigated. The antioxidative capacity of 1 was confirmed from its free-radical-scavenging activities, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and suppression of reactive oxygen species in H(2)O(2)-induced BNLCL2 cells. The inhibition by 1 of tyrosinase and DOPA oxidase activity and melanin production was possibly related to the down-regulation of melanocortin-1 receptor, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related proteins-2, and tyrosinase-related proteins-1 expression in α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-induced B16 cells. After a gel containing 1 was applied to mice, the values of L* slightly increased, and a* and erythema-melanin levels of skin were reduced by comparing the values of untreated control groups, indicating 1 can reduce melanin production. These results suggest that 1 may act as an effective quencher of oxidative attackers with antimelanogenesis properties.

  14. Origanum vulgare and Thymbra capitata Essential Oils from Spain: Determination of Aromatic Profile and Bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Perez, Enrique; Cutillas, Ana-Belen; Martinez-Gutierrez, Ramiro; Tomas, Virginia; Tudela, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Oregano (Thymbra capitata and Origanum vulgare) essential oils (EOs), cultivated and extracted in the South-East of Spain, were analysed by GC/MS to determine their composition. (E)-β-Caryophyllene (0.5-4.9%), thymol (0.2-5.8%), p-cymene (3.8-8.2%), γ-terpinene (2.1-10.7%) and carvacrol (58.7-77.4%) were determined as the main molecules. This characterisation was completed with enantioselective gas chromatography, where (-)-(E)-β-caryophyllene, (+)-a- pinene and (+)-β-pinene were determined as the main enantiomers. Antioxidant activity was evaluated positively by several methods, accounting for activity against free radicals and reducing power. Important inhibitory activity on lipoxygenase (LOX) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was observed supporting potential anti-inflammatory, anti-Alzheimer and insecticidal activities, mainly due to carvacrol. These properties support the potential use of oregano EOs as natural cosmetic and natural pharmaceutical ingredients.

  15. When GIS zooms in: spatio-genetic maps of multipaternity in Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Bech, Nicolas; Depeux, Charlotte; Durand, Sylvine; Debenest, Catherine; Lafitte, Alexandra; Beltran-Bech, Sophie

    2017-09-20

    Geographic information system (GIS) tools are designed to illustrate, analyse and integrate geographic or spatial data, usually on a macroscopic scale. By contrast, genetic tools focus on a microscopic scale. Because in reality, landscapes have no predefined scale, our original study aims to develop a new approach, combining both cartographic and genetic approaches to explore microscopic landscapes. For this, we focused on Armadillidium vulgare, a terrestrial isopod model in which evolutionary pressures imposed by terrestrial life have led to the development of internal fertilisation and, consequently, to associated physiological changes. Among these, the emergence of internal receptacles, found in many taxa ranging from mammals to arthropods, allowed females to store sperm from several partners, enabling multipaternity. Among arthropods, terrestrial isopods like the polygynandrous A. vulgare present a female structure, the marsupium, in which fertilised eggs migrate and develop into mancae (larval stage). To test our innovative combined approach, we proposed different males to four independent females, and at the end of incubation in the marsupium, we mapped (using GIS methods) and genotyped (using 12 microsatellite markers) all the incubated mancae. This methodology permitted to obtain spatio-genetic maps describing heterozygosity and spatial distribution of mancae and of multipaternity within the marsupial landscape. We discussed the interest of this kind of multidisciplinary approach which could improve in this case our understanding of sexual selection mechanisms in this terrestrial crustacean. Beyond the interesting model-focused insights, the main challenge of this study was the transfer of GIS techniques to a microscopic scale and our results appear so as pioneers rendering GIS tools available for studies involving imagery whatever their study scale.

  16. Chitosan boosts the antimicrobial activity of Origanum vulgare essential oil in modified atmosphere packaged pork.

    PubMed

    Paparella, Antonello; Mazzarrino, Giovanni; Chaves-López, Clemencia; Rossi, Chiara; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Guerrieri, Oana; Serio, Annalisa

    2016-10-01

    The potential of chitosan as a possible booster of the antimicrobial activity of Origanum vulgare EO (OEO) against spoilage bacteria and Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in fresh pork meat. Pork fillets were inoculated with 3 L. monocytogenes strains, dipped either in Origanum vulgare (oregano) Essential Oil (OEO) at 2 and 4%, or in chitosan 1% alone or added with 2 and 4% OEO, then packed under modified atmosphere (70% O2, 20% CO2, 10% N2) and stored at 4 °C for 15 days. OEO did not reduce L. monocytogenes growth, while 2 Log decrease was obtained after 2 days of storage in treatments with chitosan alone or with OEO, with growth inhibition up to day 15 in samples with chitosan and OEO 4%. When OEO was combined with chitosan, total viable counts and spoilage bacteria were reduced and contained over time, particularly Pseudomonas (2.0 Log CFU/g at day 15) and Brochothrix thermosphacta (undetectable). All the treatments applied extended meat shelf-life with respect to control, whose commercial shelf-life was 10 days. Chitosan treatments enhanced L* and maintained a* values almost stable during storage. Chitosan and OEO singly applied reduced lipid oxidation (0.62-0.75 mg malondialdehyde/Kg meat) compared to control (0.99 mg malondialdehyde/Kg meat). Finally, chitosan treated samples were not recognized with respect to the control, whereas OEO gave bitter taste; chitosan with OEO instead mitigated the effect of OEO addition to meat. Chitosan combined with OEO boosts its antimicrobial activity and shows a potential for application in industrial production of fresh pork in MAP, to achieve shelf-life extension, control of L. monocytogenes growth, stability of color and protective effect from oxidation, with low sensory impact.

  17. Essential Oil Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Origanum vulgare subsp. glandulosum Desf. at Different Phenological Stages

    PubMed Central

    Chaabane, Hédia; Jemli, Maroua; Boulila, Abdennacer; Boussaid, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Variation in the quantity and quality of the essential oil (EO) of wild population of Origanum vulgare at different phenological stages, including vegetative, late vegetative, and flowering set, is reported. The oils of air-dried samples were obtained by hydrodistillation. The yield of oils (w/w%) at different stages were in the order of late vegetative (2.0%), early vegetative (1.7%), and flowering (0.6%) set. The oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, 36, 33, and 16 components were identified and quantified in vegetative, late vegetative, and flowering set, representing 94.47%, 95.91%, and 99.62% of the oil, respectively. Carvacrol was the major compound in all samples. The ranges of major constituents were as follows: carvacrol (61.08–83.37%), p-cymene (3.02–9.87%), and γ-terpinene (4.13–6.34%). Antibacterial activity of the oils was tested against three Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria by the disc diffusion method and determining their diameter of inhibition and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. The inhibition zones and MIC values for bacterial strains, which were sensitive to the EO of O. vulgare subsp. glandulosum, were in the range of 9–36 mm and 125–600 μg/mL, respectively. The oils of various phenological stages showed high activity against all tested bacteria, of which Bacillus subtilis was the most sensitive and resistant strain, respectively. Thus, they represent an inexpensive source of natural antibacterial substances that exhibited potential for use in pathogenic systems. PMID:24320986

  18. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania.

    PubMed

    Spiridon, Iuliana; Colceru, Svetlana; Anghel, Narcis; Teaca, Carmen Alice; Bodirlau, Ruxanda; Armatu, Alice

    2011-10-01

    The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides.

  19. Complete genomic sequence of barley (Hordeum vulgare) endornavirus (HvEV) determined by next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Candresse, Thierry; Marais, Armelle; Sorrentino, Roberto; Faure, Chantal; Theil, Sébastien; Cadot, Valérie; Rolland, Mathieu; Villemot, Julie; Rabenstein, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Endornaviruses are unusual plant-, fungus- and oomycete-infecting viruses with a large, ca 14- to 17-kb linear double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome and a persistent lifestyle. The complete genome sequence of an endornavirus from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) Nerz variety was determined from paired Illumina MySeq reads derived from purified dsRNAs. The genome is 14,243 nt long, with 5' and 3' non-coding regions of 207 and 47 nt, respectively. It encodes a single large protein of 4663 amino acids that carries conserved motifs for a methyltransferase, a helicase and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The sequence of Hordeum vulgare endornavirus (HvEV) carries all the hallmarks of a typical member of the genus Endornavirus, with the exception of an UDP-glycosyltransferase motif observed in many, but not all, endornaviral genomes.

  20. Taxonomic complexity in the halophyte Limonium vulgare and related taxa (Plumbaginaceae): insights from analysis of morphological, reproductive and karyological data

    PubMed Central

    Cortinhas, Ana; Erben, Matthias; Paula Paes, Ana; Espírito Santo, Dalila; Guara-Requena, Miguel; Caperta, Ana D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Limonium is a well-known example of a group of plants that is taxonomically complex due to certain biological characteristics that hamper species' delineation. The closely related polyploid species Limonium vulgare Mill., L. humile Mill. and L. narbonense Mill. are defined species and can be used for studying patterns of morphological and reproductive variation. The first two taxa are usually found in Atlantic Europe and the third in the Mediterranean region, but a number of intermediate morphological forms may be present alongside typical examples of these species. This study attempts to elucidate morphological, floral and karyological diversity representative of these taxa in the Iberian Peninsula. Methods The extent of morphological differentiation was tested through comparison of 197 specimens from both Portugal and Spain using 17 descriptive morphological characters and 19 diagnostic morphometric characters. Analyses of floral morphisms (heterostyly and pollen–stigma dimorphism) and karyological determinations were also conducted. Key Results and Conclusions Discriminant analysis using morphometric variables reliably assigned individuals in natural populations to their respective groups. In addition, the results provide the first direct evidence that L. narbonense and a new species, Limonium maritimum Caperta, Cortinhas, Paes, Guara, Espírito-Santo and Erben, sp. nov., related to L. vulgare are present on Portuguese coasts. Most of these species are found together in mixed populations, especially L. vulgare and L. narbonense. It is hypothesized that taxonomic biodiversity found in sites where distinct species co-occur facilitates the evolutionary processes of hybridization, introgression and apomixis. This study therefore contributes to the elucidation of the taxonomic diversity in L. vulgare-related species and may also help in implementing future conservation programmes to maintain the evolutionary processes generating biodiversity

  1. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils from organically cultivated fennel cultivars.

    PubMed

    Shahat, Abdelaaty A; Ibrahim, Abeer Y; Hendawy, Saber F; Omer, Elsayed A; Hammouda, Faiza M; Abdel-Rahman, Fawzia H; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2011-02-01

    Essential oils of the fruits of three organically grown cultivars of Egyptian fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum, Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce and Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare) were examined for their chemical constituents, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the essential oils revealed the presence of 18 major monoterpenoids in all three cultivars but their percentage in each oil were greatly different. trans-Anethole, estragole, fenchone and limonene were highly abundant in all of the examined oils. Antioxidant activities of the essential oils were evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation and metal chelating assays. Essential oils from the azoricum and dulce cultivars were more effective antioxidants than that from the vulgare cultivar. Antimicrobial activities of each oil were measured against two species of fungi, two species of Gram negative and two species of Gram positive bacteria. All three cultivars showed similar antimicrobial activity.

  2. Effects of parasitic sex-ratio distorters on host genetic structure in the Armadillidium vulgare-Wolbachia association.

    PubMed

    Verne, S; Johnson, M; Bouchon, D; Grandjean, F

    2012-02-01

    In the pill bug Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea, Oniscidea), Wolbachia facilitates its spread through vertical transmission via the eggs by inducing feminization of genetic males. The spread of feminizing Wolbachia within and across populations is therefore expected to influence mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic structure by hitchhiking. To test this hypothesis, we analysed nuclear and mtDNA genetic structure, and Wolbachia prevalence in 13 populations of the pill bug host. Wolbachia prevalence (ranging from 0% to 100% of sampled females) was highly variable among populations. All three Wolbachia strains previously observed in A. vulgare were present (wVulC, wVulM and wVulP) with wVulC being the most prevalent (nine of 13 populations). The host showed a genetic structure on five microsatellite loci that is compatible with isolation by distance. The strong genetic structure observed on host mtDNA was correlated with Wolbachia prevalence: three mitotypes were in strong linkage disequilibrium with the three strains of Wolbachia. Neutrality tests showed that the mtDNA polymorphism is not neutral, and we thus suggest that this unusual pattern of mtDNA polymorphism found in A. vulgare was due to Wolbachia.

  3. Physiological and Biochemical Analyses Shed Light on the Response of Sargassum vulgare to Ocean Acidification at Different Time Scales.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Castellano, Immacolata; Lorenti, Maurizio; Delledonne, Massimo; Beemster, Gerrit T S; Asard, Han; Buia, Maria Cristina; Palumbo, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Studies regarding macroalgal responses to ocean acidification (OA) are mostly limited to short-term experiments in controlled conditions, which hamper the possibility to scale up the observations to long-term effects in the natural environment. To gain a broader perspective, we utilized volcanic CO2 vents as a "natural laboratory" to study OA effects on Sargassum vulgare at different time scales. We measured photosynthetic rates, oxidative stress levels, antioxidant contents, antioxidant enzyme activities, and activities of oxidative metabolic enzymes in S. vulgare growing at a natural acidified site (pH 6.7) compared to samples from a site with current pH (pH 8.2), used as a control one. These variables were also tested in plants transplanted from the control to the acidified site and vice-versa. After short-term exposure, photosynthetic rates and energy metabolism were increased in S. vulgare together with oxidative damage. However, in natural populations under long-term conditions photosynthetic rates were similar, the activity of oxidative metabolic enzymes was maintained, and no sign of oxidative damages was observed. The differences in the response of the macroalga indicate that the natural population at the acidified site is adapted to live at the lowered pH. The results suggest that this macroalga can adopt biochemical and physiological strategies to grow in future acidified oceans.

  4. Anthelmintic Activity of Crude Extract and Essential Oil of Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae) against Adult Worms of Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Godinho, Loyana Silva; Aleixo de Carvalho, Lara Soares; Barbosa de Castro, Clarissa Campos; Dias, Mirna Meana; Pinto, Priscila de Faria; Crotti, Antônio Eduardo Miller; Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva; de Moraes, Josué; Da Silva Filho, Ademar A.

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, affects more than 200 million people worldwide, and its control is dependent on a single drug, praziquantel. Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae) is used in folk medicine as a vermifuge. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro schistosomicidal activity of the crude extract (TV) and the essential oil (TV-EO) from the aerial parts of T. vulgare. TV-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS, which allowed the identification of β-thujone (84.13%) as the major constituent. TV and TV-EO, at 200 μg/mL, decreased motor activity and caused 100% mortality of all adult worms. At 100 and 50 μg/mL, only TV caused death of all adult worms, while TV-EO was inactive. TV (200 μg/mL) was also able to reduce viability and decrease production of developed eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed morphological alterations in the tegument of the S. mansoni surface after incubation with TV (50 and 100 μg/mL). Quantitative analysis on the schistosomes tegument showed that TV caused changes in the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni male worms in a dose-dependent manner. The findings suggest that T. vulgare is a potential source of schistosomicidal compounds. PMID:24672320

  5. Can glandular hair density be a breeding marker for Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum with high essential oil content?

    PubMed

    Szabó, Krisztina; Sárosi, Szilvia; Cserháti, Beatrix; Ferenczy, Antal

    2010-09-01

    Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum (Link) Ietswaart is an essential oil rich plant traditionally used as oregano. Based on the interest of the essential oil producing sector, in 2000 we have started a breeding program of O. vulgare subsp. hirtum. Plant material for our breeding work consists of 6 progeny. Individual evaluation of the plant material was carried out in 2008-2009 with the primary aim of finding mother plants with appropriate morphological features, high essential oil content (> 7%) and with carvacrol as the main essential oil component. Among the survey of morphological characteristics special attention was given to glandular hair density in order to test the usability of it as a morphological marker for screening progeny for high essential oil content. The characteristics of the progeny can be described with high variability ensuring the possibility of a good selection base. Evaluating the morphology, essential oil content and constitution of the individuals, 20 plants were selected on the grounds of their high (7-8.6%) essential oil content, high ratio (70-93%) of carvacrol in the essential oil and typical morphological features of O. vulgare subsp. hirtum. From the results of glandular hair density it can be stated that the correlation between glandular hair density of the upper, middle and lower leaves either on vegetative or generative shoots and essential oil content was never strong enough (correlation coefficient < or = 0.5) to use it exclusively as a morphological marker for individual selection.

  6. HvNax3--a locus controlling shoot sodium exclusion derived from wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum).

    PubMed

    Shavrukov, Yuri; Gupta, Narendra K; Miyazaki, Junji; Baho, Manahil N; Chalmers, Kenneth J; Tester, Mark; Langridge, Peter; Collins, Nicholas C

    2010-05-01

    Previous work identified the wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) accession CPI-71284-48 as being capable of limiting sodium (Na(+)) accumulation in the shoots under saline hydroponic growth conditions. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis using a cross between CPI-71284-48 and a selection of the cultivated barley (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) cultivar Barque (Barque-73, a moderate Na(+) excluder) attributed the control of the Na(+) exclusion trait from CPI-71284-48 to a single locus on the short arm of chromosome 7H, which was named HvNax3. The locus reduced shoot Na(+) accumulation by 10-25% in plants grown in 150 mM NaCl. Markers generated using colinearity with rice and Brachypodium, together with the analysis of introgression lines and F(2) and F(3) families, enabled HvNax3 to be mapped to a 1.3-cM interval. Genes from the corresponding rice and Brachypodium intervals encode 16 different classes of proteins and include several plausible candidates for HvNax3. The potential of HvNax3 to provide a useful trait contributing to salinity tolerance in cultivated barley is discussed.

  7. The potential of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil in inhibiting the growth of some food-related Aspergillus species

    PubMed Central

    Carmo, Egberto Santos; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2008-01-01

    Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) has been currently known for their interesting antimicrobial activity being regarded as alternative antimicrobial for use is food conservation systems. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of O. vulgare essential oil in inhibiting the growth of some food-related Aspergillus species (A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. terreus, A. ochraceus, A. fumigatus and A. niger). The essential oil revealed a strong anti-Aspergillus property providing an inhibition of all assayed mould strains. MIC values were between 80 and 20 μL/mL being found a MIC50 of 40 μL/mL. The essential oil at concentration of 80 and 40 μL/mL provided a fungicidal effect on A. flavus, A. fumigatus and A. niger noted by a total inhibition of the radial mycelial growth along 14 days of interaction. In addition, the essential oil was able to inhibit the mould spores germination when assayed at concentrations of 80 and 40 μL/mL. Our results showed the interesting anti-Aspergillus activity of O. vulgare essential oil supporting their possible use as anti-mould compound in food conservation. PMID:24031231

  8. Characterization of microRNAs and their targets in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) using deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Deng, Pingchuan; Bian, Jianxin; Yue, Hong; Feng, Kewei; Wang, Mengxing; Du, Xianghong; Weining, Song; Nie, Xiaojun

    2016-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of small, endogenous RNAs that play a negative regulatory role in various developmental and metabolic processes of plants. Wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum), as the progenitor of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare), has served as a valuable germplasm resource for barley genetic improvement. To survey miRNAs in wild barley, we sequenced the small RNA library prepared from wild barley using the Illumina deep sequencing technology. A total of 70 known miRNAs and 18 putative novel miRNAs were identified. Sequence analysis revealed that all of the miRNAs identified in wild barley contained the highly conserved hairpin sequences found in barley cultivars. MiRNA target predictions showed that 12 out of 52 miRNA families were predicted to target transcription factors, including 8 highly conserved miRNA families in plants and 4 wheat-barley conserved miRNA families. In addition to transcription factors, other predicted target genes were involved in diverse physiological and metabolic processes and stress defense. Our study for the first time reported the large-scale investigation of small RNAs in wild barley, which will provide essential information for understanding the regulatory role of miRNAs in wild barley and also shed light on future practical utilization of miRNAs for barley improvement.

  9. Physiological and Biochemical Analyses Shed Light on the Response of Sargassum vulgare to Ocean Acidification at Different Time Scales

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Castellano, Immacolata; Lorenti, Maurizio; Delledonne, Massimo; Beemster, Gerrit T. S.; Asard, Han; Buia, Maria Cristina; Palumbo, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Studies regarding macroalgal responses to ocean acidification (OA) are mostly limited to short-term experiments in controlled conditions, which hamper the possibility to scale up the observations to long-term effects in the natural environment. To gain a broader perspective, we utilized volcanic CO2 vents as a “natural laboratory” to study OA effects on Sargassum vulgare at different time scales. We measured photosynthetic rates, oxidative stress levels, antioxidant contents, antioxidant enzyme activities, and activities of oxidative metabolic enzymes in S. vulgare growing at a natural acidified site (pH 6.7) compared to samples from a site with current pH (pH 8.2), used as a control one. These variables were also tested in plants transplanted from the control to the acidified site and vice-versa. After short-term exposure, photosynthetic rates and energy metabolism were increased in S. vulgare together with oxidative damage. However, in natural populations under long-term conditions photosynthetic rates were similar, the activity of oxidative metabolic enzymes was maintained, and no sign of oxidative damages was observed. The differences in the response of the macroalga indicate that the natural population at the acidified site is adapted to live at the lowered pH. The results suggest that this macroalga can adopt biochemical and physiological strategies to grow in future acidified oceans. PMID:28469628

  10. Effect of prolonged water stress on essential oil content, compositions and gene expression patterns of mono- and sesquiterpene synthesis in two oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) subspecies.

    PubMed

    Morshedloo, Mohammad Reza; Craker, Lyle E; Salami, Alireza; Nazeri, Vahideh; Sang, Hyunkyu; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-02-01

    Origanum vulgare L., recognized throughout the world as a popular medicinal and flavoring herb, contains a wide array of medicinally active components, including phenolic glucosides, flavonoids, tannins, sterols and high amounts of terpenoids. Especially the latter are often extracted by hydrodistillation resulting in the so-called essential oil that is rich in monoterpenes (e.g. carvacrol, thymol, linalyl acetate) and/or sesquiterpenes (e.g. (E)-β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, bicyclogermacrene, β-caryophyllene oxide). Water stresses in the arid and semiarid regions of the world severely affect growth and productivity of oregano. To determine the variation in essential oil and gene expression pathway of Iranian oregano under prolonged water stress, two native subspecies of O. vulgare (subsp. virens and subsp. gracile) were studied. The plants, grown in pots, were subjected to three water stress conditions, i.e. no stress, mild stress (60± 5% FMC) and moderate stress (40± 5% FMC). The studied subspecies exhibited significant differences in essential oil content, compositions, and patterns of gene expression under water stress conditions. The essential oil of O. vulgare subsp. gracile was rich in the phenolic monoterpene carvacrol (46.86-52.07%), whereas the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon (Z)-α-bisabolene (39.17-42.64%) was the major constituent in the oil of O. vulgare subsp. virens. Both the mild and moderate water stresses significantly increased the essential oil content of O. vulgare subsp. gracile, but did not significantly change the essential oil content of O. vulgare subsp. virens nor the level of carvacrol and (Z)-α-bisabolene in the investigated subspecies. Interestingly, the amount of (E)-β-caryophyllene in O. vulgare subsp. virens was significantly increased under water stress conditions. Gene expression studies supported the above findings and demonstrated that there are two different pathways affecting the biosynthesis of the terpenoid

  11. Nitrogen deficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings induces molecular and metabolic adjustments that trigger aphid resistance

    PubMed Central

    Comadira, Gloria; Rasool, Brwa; Karpinska, Barbara; Morris, Jenny; Verrall, Susan R.; Hedley, Peter E.; Foyer, Christine H.; Hancock, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural nitrous oxide (N2O) pollution resulting from the use of synthetic fertilizers represents a significant contribution to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, providing a rationale for reduced use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers. Nitrogen limitation results in extensive systems rebalancing that remodels metabolism and defence processes. To analyse the regulation underpinning these responses, barley (Horedeum vulgare) seedlings were grown for 7 d under N-deficient conditions until net photosynthesis was 50% lower than in N-replete controls. Although shoot growth was decreased there was no evidence for the induction of oxidative stress despite lower total concentrations of N-containing antioxidants. Nitrogen-deficient barley leaves were rich in amino acids, sugars and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. In contrast to N-replete leaves one-day-old nymphs of the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) failed to reach adulthood when transferred to N-deficient barley leaves. Transcripts encoding cell, sugar and nutrient signalling, protein degradation and secondary metabolism were over-represented in N-deficient leaves while those associated with hormone metabolism were similar under both nutrient regimes with the exception of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in auxin metabolism and responses. Significant similarities were observed between the N-limited barley leaf transcriptome and that of aphid-infested Arabidopsis leaves. These findings not only highlight significant similarities between biotic and abiotic stress signalling cascades but also identify potential targets for increasing aphid resistance with implications for the development of sustainable agriculture. PMID:26038307

  12. Molecular classification of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) mutants using derivative NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Paul R; Tanner, Greg J; Chandler, Peter M; Anderssen, Robert S

    2009-05-27

    Near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy was used in the characterization of grain morphology mutants of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) in relation to grain nitrogen (N) content and protein composition. Derivative spectroscopy provided spectra with enhanced resolution, allowing wavelengths to be identified with clear differences in contribution from associated chemical bonds. Comparisons of fourth-derivative spectra of wholemeal flour from high-N grains with flour from low-N grains identified wavelengths at which there were statistically significant differences between the groups. Their importance was independently confirmed by step-up regression using these wavelengths to generate an equation predicting N content (R(2) = 0.98). Fourth-derivative spectral comparisons also allowed novel biochemical differences to be predicted. Visual assessment of the spectra of all mutants revealed a variable region (1470-1520 nm, corresponding to N-H stretch vibrations) that allowed two extreme sets to be defined. The protein extracted from these two sets differed markedly in hordein content.

  13. [Polymorphism of hordein-coding loci in cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Afghanistan].

    PubMed

    Pomortsev, A A; Martynov, S P; Kovaleva, O N; Lialina, E V

    2010-11-01

    Polymorphism of hordeins encoded by the HrdA, Hrd B, and Hrd Floci was analyzed in 84 accessions of local barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties from major agricultural regions of Afghanistan using starch gel electrophoresis. Forty alleles of the Hrd A locus with the frequencies from 0.12 to 32.73%, 62 alleles of the Hrd B locus with the frequencies from 0.12 to 14.29%, and five alleles of the Hrd Flocus with the frequencies from 0.59 to 32.15% have been identified. The conclusion about genetic similarity of barley populations from different regions of Afghanistan is made on the basis of cluster analysis of the matrix of allele frequencies in barley populations from 31 localities. The local barley populations form four unequal clusters. The largest cluster I includes populations from 14 localities of Afghanistan. The second largest cluster IV consists of populations from ten localities, and clusters II and III comprise populations from four and three localities, respectively. Each of the four clusters includes populations from different regions of northern and southern Afghanistan. Based on our results, we conclude that the diversity of hordein-coding loci and the distribution of their alleles among different regions of Afghanistan are the consequences of introduction of barley landraces and their distribution over trade routes.

  14. Elevated CO2 reduces stomatal and metabolic limitations on photosynthesis caused by salinity in Hordeum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Usue; Robredo, Anabel; Lacuesta, Maite; Mena-Petite, Amaia; Muñoz-Rueda, Alberto

    2012-03-01

    The future environment may be altered by high concentrations of salt in the soil and elevated [CO(2)] in the atmosphere. These have opposite effects on photosynthesis. Generally, salt stress inhibits photosynthesis by stomatal and non-stomatal mechanisms; in contrast, elevated [CO(2)] stimulates photosynthesis by increasing CO(2) availability in the Rubisco carboxylating site and by reducing photorespiration. However, few studies have focused on the interactive effects of these factors on photosynthesis. To elucidate this knowledge gap, we grew the barley plant, Hordeum vulgare (cv. Iranis), with and without salt stress at either ambient or elevated atmospheric [CO(2)] (350 or 700 μmol mol(-1) CO(2), respectively). We measured growth, several photosynthetic and fluorescence parameters, and carbohydrate content. Under saline conditions, the photosynthetic rate decreased, mostly because of stomatal limitations. Increasing salinity progressively increased metabolic (photochemical and biochemical) limitation; this included an increase in non-photochemical quenching and a reduction in the PSII quantum yield. When salinity was combined with elevated CO(2), the rate of CO(2) diffusion to the carboxylating site increased, despite lower stomatal and internal conductance. The greater CO(2) availability increased the electron sink capacity, which alleviated the salt-induced metabolic limitations on the photosynthetic rate. Consequently, elevated CO(2) partially mitigated the saline effects on photosynthesis by maintaining favorable biochemistry and photochemistry in barley leaves.

  15. Self-corrective behavior for turn alternation in pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare).

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Toru; Migita, Masao; Mitsuishi, Meiji

    2016-01-01

    Pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare) demonstrate a behavior called turn alternation that keeps their overall direction of movement straight after obstacles in experimental settings force them to deviate from a course. For example, this behavior is seen when they alternate their path choice on successive trials of the T-maze test. However, sometimes pill bugs stop after turning and change their direction (directional change). The function of this directional change has not been investigated because such individuals are usually omitted from the data. The present paper shows that pill bugs use directional changes to prevent them from turning in the same direction on two successive turns, a behavior called turn repetition. We examined the behavior of 36 pill bugs that each completed 130 successive T-maze trials. Directional changes appeared more frequently when individuals had begun a turn repetition than when they had begun a turn alternation. Furthermore, after correcting for turn repetition, turn alternations increased. These results suggest that pill bugs have an inherent mechanism that acts to maintain turn-alternating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Biogenesis of water splitting by photosystem II during de-etiolation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Shevela, Dmitriy; Arnold, Janine; Reisinger, Veronika; Berends, Hans-Martin; Kmiec, Karol; Koroidov, Sergey; Bue, Ann Kristin; Messinger, Johannes; Eichacker, Lutz A

    2016-07-01

    Etioplasts lack thylakoid membranes and photosystem complexes. Light triggers differentiation of etioplasts into mature chloroplasts, and photosystem complexes assemble in parallel with thylakoid membrane development. Plastids isolated at various time points of de-etiolation are ideal to study the kinetic biogenesis of photosystem complexes during chloroplast development. Here, we investigated the chronology of photosystem II (PSII) biogenesis by monitoring assembly status of chlorophyll-binding protein complexes and development of water splitting via O2 production in plastids (etiochloroplasts) isolated during de-etiolation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Assembly of PSII monomers, dimers and complexes binding outer light-harvesting antenna [PSII-light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) supercomplexes] was identified after 1, 2 and 4 h of de-etiolation, respectively. Water splitting was detected in parallel with assembly of PSII monomers, and its development correlated with an increase of bound Mn in the samples. After 4 h of de-etiolation, etiochloroplasts revealed the same water-splitting efficiency as mature chloroplasts. We conclude that the capability of PSII to split water during de-etiolation precedes assembly of the PSII-LHCII supercomplexes. Taken together, data show a rapid establishment of water-splitting activity during etioplast-to-chloroplast transition and emphasize that assembly of the functional water-splitting site of PSII is not the rate-limiting step in the formation of photoactive thylakoid membranes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Chlorophyll Fluorescence as a Possible Tool for Salinity Tolerance Screening in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed Central

    Belkhodja, R.; Morales, F.; Abadia, A.; Gomez-Aparisi, J.; Abadia, J.

    1994-01-01

    The application of chlorophyll fluorescence measurements to screening barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes for salinity tolerance has been investigated. Excised barley leaves were cut under water and incubated with the cut end immersed in water or in a 100-mM NaCl solution, either in the dark or in high light. Changes in rapid fluorescence kinetics occurred in excised barley leaves exposed to the saline solution only when the incubation was carried out in the presence of high light. Fluorescence changes consisted of decreases in the variable to maximum fluorescence ratio and in increases in the relative proportion of variable fluorescence leading to point I in the Kautsky fluorescence induction curve. These relative increases in fluorescence at point I appeared to arise from a delayed plastoquinone reoxidation in the dark, since they disappeared after short, far-red illumination, which is known to excite photosystem I preferentially. We show that a significant correlation existed between some fluorescence parameters, measured after a combined salt and high-light treatment, and other independent measurements of salinity tolerance. These results suggest that chlorophyll fluorescence, and especially the relative fluorescence at point I in the Kautsky fluorescence induction curve, could be used for the screening of barley genotypes for salinity tolerance. PMID:12232117

  18. Farmers without borders—genetic structuring in century old barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    PubMed Central

    Forsberg, N E G; Russell, J; Macaulay, M; Leino, M W; Hagenblad, J

    2015-01-01

    The geographic distribution of genetic diversity can reveal the evolutionary history of a species. For crop plants, phylogeographic patterns also indicate how seed has been exchanged and spread in agrarian communities. Such patterns are, however, easily blurred by the intense seed trade, plant improvement and even genebank conservation during the twentieth century, and discerning fine-scale phylogeographic patterns is thus particularly challenging. Using historical crop specimens, these problems are circumvented and we show here how high-throughput genotyping of historical nineteenth century crop specimens can reveal detailed geographic population structure. Thirty-one historical and nine extant accessions of North European landrace barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), in total 231 individuals, were genotyped on a 384 single nucleotide polymorphism assay. The historical material shows constant high levels of within-accession diversity, whereas the extant accessions show more varying levels of diversity and a higher degree of total genotype sharing. Structure, discriminant analysis of principal components and principal component analysis cluster the accessions in latitudinal groups across country borders in Finland, Norway and Sweden. FST statistics indicate strong differentiation between accessions from southern Fennoscandia and accessions from central or northern Fennoscandia, and less differentiation between central and northern accessions. These findings are discussed in the context of contrasting historical records on intense within-country south to north seed movement. Our results suggest that although seeds were traded long distances, long-term cultivation has instead been of locally available, possibly better adapted, genotypes. PMID:25227257

  19. The best timing of mate search in Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Beauché, Fanny; Richard, Freddie-Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Mate choice is mediated by many components with the criteria varying across the animal kingdom. Chemical cues used for mate attractiveness can also reflect mate quality. Regarding the gregarious species Armadillidium vulgare (isopod crustacean), we tested whether individuals can discriminate conspecifics at two different levels (between sex and physiological status) based on olfactory perception. Tested conspecifics were individuals of the same or opposite sex, with the females at different moult stages. We found that the attractiveness of individuals was mediated by short-distance chemical cues and tested individuals were able to discriminate and prefer individuals of the opposite sex. Moreover, male preference to female increased during their moulting status as they matured. Males were particularly more attracted by females with appearing white calcium plates, which corresponds to the beginning of their higher receptivity period. These differences in attractiveness due to sex and physiological status are likely to shape the composition of aggregates and facilitate mate finding and optimize the reproductive success for both males and females. Thus aggregation pheromones could be linked to sex pheromones in terrestrial isopods.

  20. The Best Timing of Mate Search in Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea)

    PubMed Central

    Beauché, Fanny; Richard, Freddie-Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Mate choice is mediated by many components with the criteria varying across the animal kingdom. Chemical cues used for mate attractiveness can also reflect mate quality. Regarding the gregarious species Armadillidium vulgare (isopod crustacean), we tested whether individuals can discriminate conspecifics at two different levels (between sex and physiological status) based on olfactory perception. Tested conspecifics were individuals of the same or opposite sex, with the females at different moult stages. We found that the attractiveness of individuals was mediated by short-distance chemical cues and tested individuals were able to discriminate and prefer individuals of the opposite sex. Moreover, male preference to female increased during their moulting status as they matured. Males were particularly more attracted by females with appearing white calcium plates, which corresponds to the beginning of their higher receptivity period. These differences in attractiveness due to sex and physiological status are likely to shape the composition of aggregates and facilitate mate finding and optimize the reproductive success for both males and females. Thus aggregation pheromones could be linked to sex pheromones in terrestrial isopods. PMID:23469225

  1. Day-length effects on protein localisation affect water absorption in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Ulla R M; Wilhelmson, Annika; Home, Silja; Poutanen, Kaisa; Shewry, Peter R

    2012-12-01

    Hordeins are major storage proteins of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grains and are considered to influence malting and brewing by forming a matrix surrounding the starch granules which affects the release of fermentable sugars. However, the extent to which environmental factors affect hordein location, and the impact of this on malting performance, have not so far been studied. Therefore the relationship of hordein location to water uptake and malting quality were studied by growing barley cv. Barke under different daylengths (14 h and 18 h of light) in controlled environment conditions. Differences in the locations of hordein storage proteins were observed, with C hordein being located more deeply within the endosperm of both developing grains at 35 days after anthesis and in mature grains under long-day conditions. This deeper location of C hordein was correlated positively with water uptake during the steeping phase of malting. An effect of environment (daylength) on the localisation of C hordein was demonstrated. This difference in hordein localisation was also associated with differences in malting quality with water uptake in the steeping phase being associated positively with the deeper location of C hordein. These results indicate that environmental effects on protein location may affect malting performance of barley grains. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Purification and partial characterization of aminopeptidase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Oszywa, Bartosz; Makowski, Maciej; Pawełczak, Małgorzata

    2013-04-01

    Aminopeptidases (EC 3.4.11) are proteolytic enzymes, which hydrolyze one amino acid from N-terminus of peptidic substrates. Inhibitors of plant aminopeptidases can find an application in agriculture as herbicides. Isolation and partial characterization of aminopeptidase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds has been described. The enzyme was purified to molecular homogeneity using a six-step purification procedure (precipitation with (NH4)2SO4, followed by chromatography on Sephadex G-25, DEAE-Sepharose, Sephacryl HR 300, Macro-Prep Q and Phenyl-Sepharose HP columns). The enzyme was purified 365-fold with recovery above 18%. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was determined by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration as 58 kDa, and was found to be a monomer. Its pH and temperature optima were 7.5 and 52 °C, respectively. The enzyme behaves as standard leucine aminopeptidase by preferring bulky amino acids at the N-terminus, with phenylalanine being of choice.

  3. Differences in shoot and root terpenoid profiles and plant responses to fertilisation in Tanacetum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Kleine, Sandra; Müller, Caroline

    2013-12-01

    Intraspecific chemical diversity is a common phenomenon especially found in shoots of essential oil-accumulating plant species. Abiotic factors can influence the concentration of essential oils, but the effects are inconsistent and little is known in how far these may vary within an individual and within species between chemotypes. Tanacetum vulgare L. occurs in various chemotypes that differ in the composition of mono- and sesquiterpenoids in their shoot tissues. We investigated how far shoot chemotype grouping is mirrored in root terpenoid profiles. Furthermore, we studied whether different fertilisation amounts influence the plant growth and morphological traits as well as the constitutive terpenoid concentration of leaves and roots of three chemotypes, trans-carvyl acetate, β-thujone, and camphor, to different degrees. Shoot terpenoids were dominated by monoterpenoids, while the roots contained mainly sesquiterpenoids. The clear grouping in three chemotypes based on leaf chemistry was weakly mirrored in the root terpenoid composition. Furthermore, the leaf C/N ratio and the stem height differed between chemotypes. All plants responded to increased nutrient availability with increased total biomass and specific leaf area but decreased C/N and root/shoot ratios. Leaf terpenoid concentrations decreased with increasing fertiliser supply, independent of chemotype. In contrast to the leaves, the terpenoid concentrations of the roots were unaffected by fertilisation. Our results demonstrate that aboveground and belowground organs within a species can be under different selection pressures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Changing environmental conditions and applying organic fertilizers in Origanum vulgare L.

    PubMed Central

    Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Morales-Prado, Luis E.; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel V.; Hernández-Montiel, Luis G.; Rueda-Puente, Edgar O.; Nieto-Garibay, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Any improvement in agricultural systems that results in higher production should also reduce negative environmental impacts and enhance sustainability. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of two different production systems, one open-field and the other shade-enclosure with four bocashi doses, in order to find the best environmental option in terms of yield, physiological and morphometric characteristics in one oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) cultivar. In this study a completely randomized block design was used with four replications and evaluated for photosynthetic and transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll, leaf area and temperature, aerial and roots fresh and dry biomass, fresh and dry yield. The results showed that oregano adapted best to the shade-enclosure with increase yield of fresh and dry leaf weight of 165% and 118%, respectively, when compared to open-field. Also, higher doses of bocashi improved yield in both environments but more so in shade-enclosure. Soil moisture retention was higher in shade-enclosure which was reflected in physiological variables for soil matric potential, transpiration, stomatal conductivity, photosynthesis being significantly higher in shade-enclosure compared to open-field, thus improving yield. It seems that oregano plants can be grown and perform better under shade-enclosure than open-field and bocashi is a suitable organic fertilizer. PMID:26257756

  5. Studies of the uptake of nitrate in barley. II. Energetics. [Hordeum vulgare L

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, A.D.M.; Siddiqi, M.Y.; Ruth, T.J.; Rufty, T.W. Jr. North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh )

    1990-08-01

    Q{sub 10} values for {sup 13}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} influx were determined in uninduced (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-starved) and induced (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-pretreated) roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants at various concentrations of external NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ((NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}){sub 0}). At 0.02 mole per cubic meter (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}){sub 0}, Q{sub 10} values for influx were from 3 to 4 between 5 and 10{degree}C. As (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}){sub 0} increased Q{sub 10} values decreased, reaching values of 1.2 and 2.0, respectively, at 20 moles per cubic meter in uninduced and induced plants. The metabolic dependence of {sup 13}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} influx at low and high (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}){sub 0} (0.1 and 20.0 moles per cubic meter, respectively) in uninduced and induced plants was probed by the use of various inhibitors. These experiments confirmed the findings of the Q{sub 10} studies, demonstrating that at low (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}){sub 0} {sup 13}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} influx was extremely sensitive to metabolic inhibition. By contrast, at high (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}){sub 0}, influx was relatively insensitive to the presence of inhibitors.

  6. Absorption and translocation of selenium by plants. [Bromus mollis; Hordeum vulgare

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, C.E.; Epstein, E.

    1987-04-01

    The absorption of Se by the roots and its translocation to the shoots is being studied in the range grass, Bromus mollis. Seedlings are grown in a 0.1 modified Hoagland solution which is minus SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ for 3 days before the experiment. Se is supplied as Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 4/ at 2.5 ..mu..M. The gamma emitting /sup 75/Se is used as a tracer. Se is translocated to the shoots quickly following its absorption; after 20 minutes the Se concentration in the shoots exceeds that in the roots. The influence of pH and of other anions (i.e. SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, SiO/sub 3//sup 2 -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, and Cl/sup -/) on the absorption and translocation of this element is currently being examined. Absorption of Se by excised barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Arivat) roots follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics over the 2.5-100 ..mu..M range; a low-affinity mechanism comes into play at higher concentrations. Absorption by the former (high-affinity) mechanism is competitively inhibited by SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, is little affected by NO/sub 3//sup -/ and Cl/sup -/, and is pH dependent. Over the 4-8 pH range absorption was maximal at pH 4, but only twice that found at pH 8.

  7. High performance liquid chromatography resolution of ubiquitin pathway enzymes from wheat germ. [Triticum vulgare

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.L.; Callis, J.; Vierstra, R.D. )

    1990-10-01

    The highly conserved protein ubiquitin is involved in several cellular processes in eukaryotes as a result of its covalent ligation to a variety of target proteins. Here, we describe the purification of several enzymatic activities involved in ubiquitin-protein conjugate formation and disassembly from wheat germ (Triticum vulgare) by a combination of ubiquitin affinity chromatography and anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography. Using this procedure, ubiquitin activating enzyme (E1), several distinct ubiquitin carrier proteins (E2s) with molecular masses of 16, 20, 23, 23.5, and 25 kilodaltons, and a ubiquitin-protein hydrolase (isopeptidase) were isolated. Purified E1 formed a thiol ester linkage with {sup 125}I-ubiquitin in an ATP-dependent manner and transferred bound ubiquitin to the various purified E2s. The ubiquitin protein hydrolase fraction was sensitive to hemin, and in an ATP-independent reaction, was capable of removing the ubiquitin moiety from both ubiquitin {sup 125}I-lysozyme conjugates ({epsilon}-amino or isopeptide linkage) and the ubiquitin 52-amino acid extension protein fusion ({alpha}-amino or peptide linkage). Using this procedure, wheat germ represents an inexpensive source from which enzymes involved in the ubiquitin pathway may be isolated.

  8. Host origin and tissue microhabitat shaping the microbiota of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Dittmer, Jessica; Lesobre, Jérôme; Moumen, Bouziane; Bouchon, Didier

    2016-05-01

    We present the first in-depth investigation of the host-associated microbiota of the terrestrial isopod crustacean Armadillidium vulgare. This species is an important decomposer of organic matter in terrestrial ecosystems and a major model organism for arthropod-Wolbachia symbioses due to its well-characterized association with feminizing Wolbachia 16S rRNA gene pyrotags were used to characterize its bacterial microbiota at multiple levels: (i) in individuals from laboratory lineages and field populations and (ii) in various host tissues. This integrative approach allowed us to reveal an unexpectedly high bacterial diversity, placing this species in the same league as termites in terms of symbiotic diversity. Interestingly, both animal groups belong to the same ecological guild in terrestrial ecosystems. While Wolbachia represented the predominant taxon in infected individuals, it was not the only major player. Together, the most abundant taxa represented a large scope of symbiotic interactions, including bacterial pathogens, a reproductive parasite (Wolbachia) and potential nutritional symbionts. Furthermore, we demonstrate that individuals from different populations harboured distinct bacterial communities, indicating a strong link between the host-associated microbiota and environmental bacteria, possibly due to terrestrial isopod nutritional ecology. Overall, this work highlights the need for more studies of host-microbiota interactions and bacterial diversity in non-insect arthropods.

  9. Green Synthesis and Characterization of Palladium Nanoparticles Using Origanum vulgare L. Extract and Their Catalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Mohammed Rafi; Ali, Zuhur Jameel Qandeel; Khan, Mujeeb; Kuniyil, Mufsir; Assal, Mohamed E; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H; Khan, Merajuddin; Adil, Syed Farooq

    2017-01-19

    The synthesis of Palladium (Pd) nanoparticles by green methods has attracted remarkable attention in recent years because of its superiority above chemical approaches, owing to its low cost and ecological compatibility. In this present work, we describe a facile and environmentally friendly synthesis of Pd nanoparticles (Pd NPs) using an aqueous extract of aerial parts of Origanum vulgare L. (OV) as a bioreductant. This plant is available in many parts of the world as well as in Saudi Arabia and is known to be a rich source of phenolic components, a feature we fruitfully utilized in the synthesis of Pd NPs, using various concentrations of plant extracts. Moreover, the OV extract phytomolecules are not only accountable for the reduction and progression of nanoparticles, but they also act as stabilizing agents, which was confirmed by several characterization methods. The as-synthesized Pd nanoparticles (Pd NPs) were analyzed using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Further, FT-IR study has proven that the OV not merely represents a bioreductant but also functionalizes the nanoparticles. Furthermore, the green synthesized metallic Pd NPs were successfully applied as catalysts for selective oxidation of alcohols.

  10. Nanobubble water's promotion effect of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) sprouts supported by RNA-Seq analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu; Oshita, Seiichi; Kawabata, Saneyuki; Thuyet, Dang Quoc

    2017-10-01

    The physiological promotion effect of nanobubble (NB) water on living organism is a still poorly understood phenomenon which was discovered one decade ago. Here, we analysed the barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) embryo transcriptome following exposure to NB water and low concentration hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) using RNA-Seq. We found that 349 genes were differentially expressed in response to 24-h exposure of NB water, and 97 genes were differentially expressed after exposure to H2O2. GO enrichment and cluster analyses revealed that NB water-induced expression of genes related to cell division and cell wall loosening. RNA-Seq, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and enzyme activity measurements all pointed to genes encoding peroxidases as a major factor responsible for the effects of physiological enhancement due to NB water. The exogenous hydroxyl radical (•OH) produced by NB water significantly increased expression of genes related to peroxidase and NADPH, thus leading to an increased endogenous superoxide anion (O2•-) inside the barley seed. Appropriately low concentrations of exogenously added reactive oxygen species (ROS) and endogenous ROS played important roles in plant growth and development. When ROS levels were low, the endogenous ROS was eliminated by ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and other peroxidases instead of activating the catalase (CAT) and superoxidase dismutase (SOD). This dataset will serve as the foundation for a system biology approach to understand NB water's physiological promoting effects on living organisms.

  11. Senescence-induced iron mobilization in source leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rongli; Weber, Günther; Köster, Jessica; Reza-Hajirezaei, Mohammad; Zou, Chunqin; Zhang, Fusuo; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2012-07-01

    • Retranslocation of iron (Fe) from source leaves to sinks requires soluble Fe binding forms. As much of the Fe is protein-bound and associated with the leaf nitrogen (N) status, we investigated the role of N in Fe mobilization and retranslocation under N deficiency- vs dark-induced leaf senescence. • By excluding Fe retranslocation from the apoplastic root pool, Fe concentrations in source and sink leaves from hydroponically grown barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants were determined in parallel with the concentrations of potential Fe chelators and the expression of genes involved in phytosiderophore biosynthesis. • N supply showed opposing effects on Fe pools in source leaves, inhibiting Fe export out of source leaves under N sufficiency but stimulating Fe export from source leaves under N deficiency, which partially alleviated Fe deficiency-induced chlorosis. Both triggers of leaf senescence, shading and N deficiency, enhanced NICOTIANAMINE SYNTHASE2 gene expression, soluble Fe pools in source leaves, and phytosiderophore and citrate rather than nicotianamine concentrations. • These results indicate that Fe mobilization within senescing leaves is independent of a concomitant N sink in young leaves and that phytosiderophores enhance Fe solubility in senescing source leaves, favoring subsequent Fe retranslocation.

  12. Non-reciprocal interactions between K+ and Na+ ions in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Kronzucker, Herbert J.; Szczerba, Mark W.; Schulze, Lasse M.; Britto, Dev T.

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of sodium and potassium ions in the context of the primary entry of Na+ into plant cells, and the subsequent development of sodium toxicity, has been the subject of much recent attention. In the present study, the technique of compartmental analysis with the radiotracers 42K+ and 24Na+ was applied in intact seedlings of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to test the hypothesis that elevated levels of K+ in the growth medium will reduce both rapid, futile Na+ cycling at the plasma membrane, and Na+ build-up in the cytosol of root cells, under saline conditions (100 mM NaCl). We reject this hypothesis, showing that, over a wide (400-fold) range of K+ supply, K+ neither reduces the primary fluxes of Na+ at the root plasma membrane nor suppresses Na+ accumulation in the cytosol. By contrast, 100 mM NaCl suppressed the cytosolic K+ pool by 47–73%, and also substantially decreased low-affinity K+ transport across the plasma membrane. We confirm that the cytosolic [K+]:[Na+] ratio is a poor predictor of growth performance under saline conditions, while a good correlation is seen between growth and the tissue ratios of the two ions. The data provide insight into the mechanisms that mediate the toxic influx of sodium across the root plasma membrane under salinity stress, demonstrating that, in the glycophyte barley, K+ and Na+ are unlikely to share a common low-affinity pathway for entry into the plant cell. PMID:18562445

  13. Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Cytotoxic Activities of the Ethanolic Origanum vulgare Extract and Its Major Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Coccimiglio, John; Alipour, Misagh; Jiang, Zi-Hua; Gottardo, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Oregano is a perennial shrub that grows in the mountains of the Mediterranean and Euro/Irano-Siberian regions. This study was conducted to identify the major constituents of the ethanolic Origanum vulgare extract and examine the cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of the extract but more importantly the contribution of its specific major constituent(s) or their combination to the overall extract biological activity. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis showed that the extract contained monoterpene hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds, the major ones being carvacrol and thymol and to a lesser extent p-cymene, 1-octacosanol, creosol, and phytol. A549 epithelial cells challenged with the extract showed a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity. A combination of thymol and carvacrol at equimolar concentrations to those present in the extract was less cytotoxic. The A549 cells pretreated with nonlethal extract concentrations protected against hydrogen-peroxide-induced cytotoxicity, an antioxidant effect more effective than the combination of equimolar concentrations of thymol/carvacrol. Inclusion of p-cymene and/or 1-octacosanol did not alter the synergistic antioxidant effects of the carvacrol/thymol mixture. The extract also exhibited antimicrobial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains including clinical isolates. In conclusion, the oregano extract has cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities mostly attributed to carvacrol and thymol. PMID:27051475

  14. Response of Microcystis aeruginosa BCCUSP 232 to barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) straw degradation extract and fractions.

    PubMed

    Mecina, Gustavo Franciscatti; Dokkedal, Anne Lígia; Saldanha, Luiz Leonardo; Chia, Mathias Ahii; Cordeiro-Araújo, Micheline Kézia; do Carmo Bittencourt-Oliveira, Maria; da Silva, Regildo Márcio Gonçalves

    2017-12-01

    The eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems is a serious environmental problem that leads to increased frequency of cyanobacterial blooms and concentrations of cyanotoxins. These changes in aquatic chemistry can negatively affect animal and human health. Environment-friendly methods are needed to control bloom forming cyanobacteria. We investigated the effect of Hordeum vulgare L. (barley) straw degradation extract and its fractions on the growth, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzyme activities, and microcystins content of Microcystis aeruginosa (Kützing) Kützing BCCUSP232. Exposure to the extract significantly (p<0.05) inhibited the growth of M. aeruginosa throughout the study, whereas only the highest concentration of fractions 1 and 2 significantly (p<0.05) reduced the growth of the cyanobacterium on day 10 of the experiment. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly (p<0.05) altered by the extract and fractions 1 and 2. Phytochemical profiling of the extract and its fractions revealed that the barley straw degradation process yielded predominantly phenolic acids. These results demonstrate that barley straw extract and its fractions can efficiently interfere with the growth and development of M. aeruginosa under laboratory conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Photosynthetic and Photorespiratory Characteristics of Mutants of Hordeum vulgare L 1

    PubMed Central

    McCashin, Barry G.; Canvin, David T.

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between photosynthesis and photorespiration was determined in normal and 26 mutants of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Himalaya). The rate of apparent photosynthesis ranged from 1 to 30 milligrams of CO2 per square decimeter per hour. The variation in rate of photosynthesis was due, in some cases, to differences in chlorophyll content, in others to stomatal resistance, and in still others to unknown factors; but no single factor accounted for the variation. Photorespiratory activity, as determined by the 14CO2/12CO2 technique, CO2 evolution into CO2-free air, and the response of photosynthesis to low and high O2 concentrations, was positively and significantly correlated with photosynthesis. This supports the idea that the two processes are integrally and tightly coupled. There appears to be no competition between photosynthesis and photorespiration, and the probability of finding plants with high rates of photosynthesis and low rates of photorespiration measured under natural conditions, appears to be very low. PMID:16660965

  16. Evaluation of antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of Armadillidium vulgare Latreille.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shen-Shen; Ren, Meng-Yue; Song, Shuai; Wei, Ping; Luo, Jia-Bo

    2017-02-01

    To assess the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of the aqueous extract of Armadillidium vulgare (AV). The antinociceptive effect of AV (400, 600 and 800 mg/kg) was investigated in mice using the acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced nociceptive, and hot plate tests. Phlogogen-induced paw edema using carrageenan, dextran, or compound 48/80 as phlogogen was used as inflammatory models to evaluate AV's anti-inflammatory effect. Additionally, the bioactive substances glucosamine (GLcN) and taurine in AV were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Oral treatment of the mice with AV (600 and 800 mg/kg) significantly reduced the number of writhes in the acetic acid-induced writhing test (P<0.01) but not the hot plate test (P>0.05). All doses tested significantly inhibited paw-withdrawal during the second phase of the formalin-induced nociceptive model (P<0.01). AV demonstrated a strong anti-inflammatory effect in all those inflammatory models (P<0.05). AV has antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects, providing scientific evidence of the efficacy of its traditional use in pain treatment. Furthermore, GLcN and taurine contribute, at least in part, to the anti-inflammatory activity of AV.

  17. Chlorophyll Biosynthetic Reactions during Senescence of Excised Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv IB 65) Leaves.

    PubMed Central

    Hukmani, P.; Tripathy, B. C.

    1994-01-01

    The chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthetic reactions were monitored during senescence of dark-incubated excised barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv IB 65) leaves floated in double-distilled water or kinetin solution. Kinetin abolished the degradation of Chl but failed to check the net degradation of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), suggesting that different sets of enzymes, i.e. kinetin sensitive and insensitive, are responsible for the degradation of Chl and Pchlide, respectively. Upon exposure of the leaves to light, the dark-accumulated Pchlide was efficiently phototransformed to chorophyllide (Chlide), even on the 7th d of dark incubation, demonstrating that the activity of Pchlide reductase, one of the late enzymes of the Chl biosynthetic pathway, is not substantially affected during senescence. The senescing leaves continued to synthesize Pchlide and Chlide until the 7th d, although at a reduced rate (20% of the 1st d). The decline of the rate of synthesis of Pchlide and Chlide is due to the loss of activity of two early enzymes of the Chl biosynthetic pathway, i.e. 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and porphobilinogen deaminase. Kinetin substantially checked the loss of activity of these two enzymes. PMID:12232286

  18. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy surface analysis of aluminum ion stress in barley roots. [Hordeum vulgare

    SciTech Connect

    Millard, M.M.; Foy, C.D.; Coradetti, C.A.; Reinsel, M.D. )

    1990-06-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to analyze root surface changes when Dayton barley (Hordeum vulgare) (Al tolerant) and Kearney barley (Al sensitive) seedlings were grown in nutrient solution in the presence and absence of 37.0 micromolar Al. The electron spectra from root surfaces contained strong lines in order of decreasing intensity from organic forms of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen and weak lines due to inorganic elements in the form of anions and cations on the surface. The surface composition of root tips from Kearney was C, 65.6%; 0, 26.8%; N, 4.4% and tips from Dayton was C, 72.7%; O, 23.6%; N, 1.9%, grown in the absence of aluminum. Electron lines characteristic of nitrate, potassium, chloride, phosphate were also present in the spectra from those roots. Dayton roots grown in the presence of 37.0 micromolar aluminum contained 2.1% aluminum while Kearney contained 1.3% aluminum. The ratio of aluminum to phosphate was close to 1.0. Dayton roots usually contained twice as much aluminum phosphate in the surface region as Kearney. Dayton may be less susceptible to Al toxic effects by accumulation of aluminum phosphate on the root surface which then acts as a barrier to the transport of aluminum into the interior of the roots.

  19. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Acid Soil Resistance in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Gaofeng; Broughton, Sue; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ma, Yanling; Zhou, Meixue; Li, Chengdao

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) have been used to detect QTLs underlying complex traits in major crops. In this study, we collected 218 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines including wild barley and cultivated barley from China, Canada, Australia, and Europe. A total of 408 polymorphic markers were used for population structure and LD analysis. GWAS for acid soil resistance were performed on the population using a general linkage model (GLM) and a mixed linkage model (MLM), respectively. A total of 22 QTLs (quantitative trait loci) were detected with the GLM and MLM analyses. Two QTLs, close to markers bPb-1959 (133.1 cM) and bPb-8013 (86.7 cM), localized on chromosome 1H and 4H respectively, were consistently detected in two different trials with both the GLM and MLM analyses. Furthermore, bPb-8013, the closest marker to the major Al3+ resistance gene HvAACT1 in barley, was identified to be QTL5. The QTLs could be used in marker-assisted selection to identify and pyramid different loci for improved acid soil resistance in barley. PMID:27064793

  20. Effect of three safeners on sulfur assimilation and iron deficiency response in barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants.

    PubMed

    Bartucca, Maria Luce; Celletti, Silvia; Astolfi, Stefania; Mimmo, Tanja; Cesco, Stefano; Panfili, Ivan; Del Buono, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    Safeners are agrochemicals used in agriculture to protect crops from herbicide injuries. They act by stimulating herbicide metabolism. As graminaceous plants, to cope with iron (Fe) deficiency, activate sulfur (S) metabolism and release huge amounts of Fe-chelating compounds, or phytosiderophores (PSs), we investigated, in barley plants (Hordeum vulgare, L.) grown in Fe deficiency, the effects of three safeners on two enzymes of S assimilation, cysteine (Cys) and glutathione (GSH), and PS release. Finally, we monitored the root Fe content in plants treated with the most effective safener. Generally, all the safeners activated S metabolism and increased Cys and GSH contents. In addition, the safened plants excreted higher levels of PSs. Given that mefenpyr-diethyl (Mef) was the most effective in causing these effects, we assessed the Fe concentration in Mef-treated barley and found higher Fe levels than those in untreated plants. The three safeners, in different ways but specifically, activated S reductive metabolism and regulated Cys and GSH contents, PS release rate and Fe content (Mef-treated barley). The results of this research provide new indications of the biochemical and physiological mechanisms involved in the safening action. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. A new allele for aluminium tolerance gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanling; Li, Chengdao; Ryan, Peter R; Shabala, Sergey; You, Jianfeng; Liu, Jie; Liu, Chunji; Zhou, Meixue

    2016-03-05

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity is the main factor limiting the crop production in acid soils and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the most Al-sensitive of the small-grained cereals. The major gene for Al tolerance in barley is HvAACT1 (HvMATE) on chromosome 4H which encodes a multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) protein. The HvAACT1 protein facilitates the Al-activated release of citrate from root apices which protects the growing cells and enables root elongation to continue. A 1 kb transposable element-like insert in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of HvAACT1 is associated with increased gene expression and tolerance and a PCR-based marker is available to score for this insertion. We screened a wide range of barley genotypes for Al tolerance and identified a moderately tolerant Chinese genotype named CXHKSL which did not show the typical allele in the 5' UTR of HvAACT1 associated with tolerance. We investigated the mechanism of Al tolerance in CXHKSL and concluded it also relies on the Al-activated release of citrate from roots. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of double haploid lines generated with CXHKSL and the Al-sensitive variety Gairdner mapped the tolerance locus to the same region as HvAACT1 on chromosome 4H. Our results show that the Chinese barley genotype CXHKSL possesses a novel allele of the major Al tolerance gene HvAACT1.

  2. Essential oil diversity of Origanum vulgare L. populations from Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Mastro, Giuseppe De; Tarraf, Waed; Verdini, Leonardo; Brunetti, Gianluca; Ruta, Claudia

    2017-11-15

    Essential oils (EOs) belonging to 25 wild populations of Origanum vulgare L. samples, growing wild in different locations of Calabria Region (Southern Italy), were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The quantitative and qualitative data showed EO concentrations ranging from 0.96 to 5.10% and 37 compounds detected, representing more than 80% of the total composition of the oils. By applying hierarchical cluster analysis on the basis of the EO constituents, two main groups and three subgroups were found, reflecting the variation in the chemical composition of EOs from wild oregano populations. The first group consisted of acyclic (linalool/linalyl acetate) chemotypes with a predominant presence of linalyl acetate; the second was characterized by chemotypes rich in cymyl-compounds, mainly carvacrol, thymol and γ-terpinene. The data obtained contribute to broaden the inventory of wild oregano populations from Calabria to plan programs for the selection of chemotypes with new and specific uses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Changing environmental conditions and applying organic fertilizers in Origanum vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Morales-Prado, Luis E; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel V; Hernández-Montiel, Luis G; Rueda-Puente, Edgar O; Nieto-Garibay, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Any improvement in agricultural systems that results in higher production should also reduce negative environmental impacts and enhance sustainability. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of two different production systems, one open-field and the other shade-enclosure with four bocashi doses, in order to find the best environmental option in terms of yield, physiological and morphometric characteristics in one oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) cultivar. In this study a completely randomized block design was used with four replications and evaluated for photosynthetic and transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll, leaf area and temperature, aerial and roots fresh and dry biomass, fresh and dry yield. The results showed that oregano adapted best to the shade-enclosure with increase yield of fresh and dry leaf weight of 165% and 118%, respectively, when compared to open-field. Also, higher doses of bocashi improved yield in both environments but more so in shade-enclosure. Soil moisture retention was higher in shade-enclosure which was reflected in physiological variables for soil matric potential, transpiration, stomatal conductivity, photosynthesis being significantly higher in shade-enclosure compared to open-field, thus improving yield. It seems that oregano plants can be grown and perform better under shade-enclosure than open-field and bocashi is a suitable organic fertilizer.

  4. Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Cytotoxic Activities of the Ethanolic Origanum vulgare Extract and Its Major Constituents.

    PubMed

    Coccimiglio, John; Alipour, Misagh; Jiang, Zi-Hua; Gottardo, Christine; Suntres, Zacharias

    2016-01-01

    Oregano is a perennial shrub that grows in the mountains of the Mediterranean and Euro/Irano-Siberian regions. This study was conducted to identify the major constituents of the ethanolic Origanum vulgare extract and examine the cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of the extract but more importantly the contribution of its specific major constituent(s) or their combination to the overall extract biological activity. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis showed that the extract contained monoterpene hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds, the major ones being carvacrol and thymol and to a lesser extent p-cymene, 1-octacosanol, creosol, and phytol. A549 epithelial cells challenged with the extract showed a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity. A combination of thymol and carvacrol at equimolar concentrations to those present in the extract was less cytotoxic. The A549 cells pretreated with nonlethal extract concentrations protected against hydrogen-peroxide-induced cytotoxicity, an antioxidant effect more effective than the combination of equimolar concentrations of thymol/carvacrol. Inclusion of p-cymene and/or 1-octacosanol did not alter the synergistic antioxidant effects of the carvacrol/thymol mixture. The extract also exhibited antimicrobial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains including clinical isolates. In conclusion, the oregano extract has cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities mostly attributed to carvacrol and thymol.

  5. Antibacterial activity of oregano (Origanum vulgare Linn.) against gram positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Sabahat; Tariq, Perween

    2009-10-01

    The present investigation is focused on antibacterial potential of infusion, decoction and essential oil of oregano (Origanum vulgare) against 111 Gram-positive bacterial isolates belonging to 23 different species related to 3 genera. Infusion and essential oil exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus saprophyticus, S. aureus, Micrococcus roseus, M. kristinae, M. nishinomiyaensis, M. lylae, M. luteus, M. sedentarius, M. varians, Bacillus megaterium, B. thuringiensis, B. alvei, B. circulans, B. brevis, B. coagulans, B. pumilus, B. laterosporus, B. polymyxa, B. macerans, B. subtilis, B. firmus, B. cereus and B. lichiniformis. The infusion exhibited maximum activity against B. laterosporus (17.5 mm mean zone of inhibition+/-1.5 Standard deviation) followed by B. polymyxa (17.0 mm+/-2.0 SD) and essential oil of oregano exhibited maximum activity against S. saprophyticus (16.8 mm+/-1.8 SD) followed by B. circulans (14.5 mm+/-0.5 SD). While all these tested isolates were found resistant to decoction of oregano.

  6. A subchronic 90-day oral toxicity study of Origanum vulgare essential oil in rats.

    PubMed

    Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Maisanaba, S; Puerto, M; Pichardo, S; Jos, A; Moyano, R; Cameán, A M

    2017-03-01

    Oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare L. virens) (OEO) is being used in the food industry due to its useful properties to develop new active packaging systems. In this concern, the safety assessment of this natural extract is of great interest before being commercialized. The European Food Safety Authority requests different in vivo assays to ensure the safety of food contact materials. One of these studies is a 90 days repeated-dose oral assay in rodents. In the present work, 40 male and 40 female Wistar rats were orally exposed to 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) OEO during 90 days following the OECD guideline 408. Data revealed no mortality and no treatment-related adverse effects of the OEO in food/water consumption, body weight, haematology, biochemistry, necropsy, organ weight and histopathology. These findings suggest that the oral no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of this OEO is 200 mg/kg b.w. in Wistar rats, the highest dose tested. In conclusion, the use of this OEO in food packaging appears to be safe based on the lack of toxicity during the subchronic study at doses 330-fold higher than those expected to be in contact consumers in the worst scenario of exposure.

  7. Bulbosum to Go: A Toolbox to Utilize Hordeum vulgare/bulbosum Introgressions for Breeding and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Wendler, Neele; Mascher, Martin; Himmelbach, Axel; Johnston, Paul; Pickering, Richard; Stein, Nils

    2015-10-05

    Hordeum bulbosum L., a wild relative of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), has been considered as a valuable source of genetic diversity for barley improvement. Since the 1990s, a considerable number of barley/H. bulbosum introgression lines (IL)s has been generated, with segments introgressed from H. bulbosum harboring a diverse set of desirable traits. However, the efficient utilization of these ILs has been hampered, largely due to the lack of suitable molecular tools for their genetic characterization and highly reduced interspecific recombination frequencies in the region of the introgression. In the present study, we utilized genotyping-by-sequencing for the detailed molecular characterization of 145 ILs. Genotypic information allows the genetic diversity within the set of ILs to be determined and a strategy was outlined to tackle the obstacle of reduced recombination frequencies. Furthermore, we compiled exome capture re-sequencing information of barley and H. bulbosum and designed an integrated barley/H. bulbosum sequence resource with polymorphism information on interspecific and intraspecific sequence variations of both species. The integrated sequence will be valuable for marker development in barley/H. bulbosum ILs derived from any barley and H. bulbosum donors. This study provides the tools for the widespread utilization of barley/H. bulbosum ILs in applied barley breeding and academic research.

  8. The Discovery of Resistant Sources of Spring Barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, and Unique Greenbug Biotypes.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, J Scott; Mornhinweg, Dolores W; Payton, Mark E; Puterka, Gary J

    2016-02-01

    The genetic sources for host-plant resistance to the greenbug (Schizaphis graminum Rondani) in barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) are limited in that only two single dominant genes Rsg1 and Rsg2 are available for the complex of greenbug biotypes. We evaluated four new barley lines from the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) that previously showed potential for greenbug resistance. Three of those entries, WBDC 53, WBDC 117, WBDC 336, exhibited very dominant sources of resistance to older known biotypes B, C, E, F, H, I, and TX1, which also add to the host-plant differentials used to separate these greenbug biotypes. We also re-evaluated the earlier known set of greenbug biotypes that have been in culture for several years against the known host-plant differentials, and included seven newer greenbug isolates collected from Wyoming to the full complement of small grain differentials. This resulted in the discovery of five new greenbug biotypes, WY10 MC, WY81, WY10 B, WY12 MC, and WY86. Wyoming isolates WY4 A and WY4 B were identical in their phenotypic profile, and should be combined as a single unique greenbug biotype. These barley trials resulted in finding new sources of host-plant resistance, although more research needs to be conducted on what type of resistance was found, and how it can be used. We also document that the Wheatland, Wyoming area serves as a very conducive environment for the development of new greenbug biotypes.

  9. HvZIP7 mediates zinc accumulation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) at moderately high zinc supply.

    PubMed

    Tiong, Jingwen; McDonald, Glenn K; Genc, Yusuf; Pedas, Pai; Hayes, Julie E; Toubia, John; Langridge, Peter; Huang, Chun Y

    2014-01-01

    High expression of zinc (Zn)-regulated, iron-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) genes increases root Zn uptake in dicots, leading to high accumulation of Zn in shoots. However, none of the ZIP genes tested previously in monocots could enhance shoot Zn accumulation. In this report, barley (Hordeum vulgare) HvZIP7 was investigated for its functions in Zn transport. The functions of HvZIP7 in planta were studied using in situ hybridization and transient analysis of subcellular localization with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter. Transgenic barley lines overexpressing HvZIP7 were also generated to further understand the functions of HvZIP7 in metal transport. HvZIP7 is strongly induced by Zn deficiency, primarily in vascular tissues of roots and leaves, and its protein was localized in the plasma membrane. These properties are similar to its closely related homologs in dicots. Overexpression of HvZIP7 in barley plants increased Zn uptake when moderately high concentrations of Zn were supplied. Significantly, there was a specific enhancement of shoot Zn accumulation, with no measurable increase in iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd). HvZIP7 displays characteristics of low-affinity Zn transport. The unique function of HvZIP7 provides new insights into the role of ZIP genes in Zn homeostasis in monocots, and offers opportunities to develop Zn biofortification strategies in cereals.

  10. Physiological and biochemical response of soil-grown barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rico, Cyren M; Barrios, Ana C; Tan, Wenjuan; Rubenecia, Rosnah; Lee, Sang Chul; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-07-01

    A soil microcosm study was performed to examine the impacts of cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO2) on the physiology, productivity, and macromolecular composition of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The plants were cultivated in soil treated with nCeO2 at 0, 125, 250, and 500 mg kg(-1) (control, nCeO2-L, nCeO2-M, and nCeO2-H, respectively). Accumulation of Ce in leaves/grains and its effects on plant stress and nutrient loading were analyzed. The data revealed that nCeO2-H promoted plant development resulting in 331 % increase in shoot biomass compared with the control. nCeO2 treatment modified the stress levels in leaves without apparent signs of toxicity. However, plants exposed to nCeO2-H treatment did not form grains. Compared with control, nCeO2-M enhanced grain Ce accumulation by as much as 294 % which was accompanied by remarkable increases in P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Al. Likewise, nCeO2-M enhanced the methionine, aspartic acid, threonine, tyrosine, arginine, and linolenic acid contents in the grains by up to 617, 31, 58, 141, 378, and 2.47 % respectively, compared with the rest of the treatments. The findings illustrate the beneficial and harmful effects of nanoceria in barley.

  11. Nitrogen deficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings induces molecular and metabolic adjustments that trigger aphid resistance.

    PubMed

    Comadira, Gloria; Rasool, Brwa; Karpinska, Barbara; Morris, Jenny; Verrall, Susan R; Hedley, Peter E; Foyer, Christine H; Hancock, Robert D

    2015-06-01

    Agricultural nitrous oxide (N2O) pollution resulting from the use of synthetic fertilizers represents a significant contribution to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, providing a rationale for reduced use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers. Nitrogen limitation results in extensive systems rebalancing that remodels metabolism and defence processes. To analyse the regulation underpinning these responses, barley (Horedeum vulgare) seedlings were grown for 7 d under N-deficient conditions until net photosynthesis was 50% lower than in N-replete controls. Although shoot growth was decreased there was no evidence for the induction of oxidative stress despite lower total concentrations of N-containing antioxidants. Nitrogen-deficient barley leaves were rich in amino acids, sugars and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. In contrast to N-replete leaves one-day-old nymphs of the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) failed to reach adulthood when transferred to N-deficient barley leaves. Transcripts encoding cell, sugar and nutrient signalling, protein degradation and secondary metabolism were over-represented in N-deficient leaves while those associated with hormone metabolism were similar under both nutrient regimes with the exception of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in auxin metabolism and responses. Significant similarities were observed between the N-limited barley leaf transcriptome and that of aphid-infested Arabidopsis leaves. These findings not only highlight significant similarities between biotic and abiotic stress signalling cascades but also identify potential targets for increasing aphid resistance with implications for the development of sustainable agriculture.

  12. Extraction, purification and identification of antifreeze proteins from cold acclimated malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiangli; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Haiying; Wang, Li; Qian, Haifeng; Qi, Xiguang

    2015-05-15

    Antifreeze proteins from cold-acclimated malting barley were extracted by infiltration-centrifugation. The infiltration time was optimised, and its extraction effect was evaluated. The effect of cold acclimation on the accumulation of barley antifreeze proteins (BaAFPs) was assessed by comparing the thermal hysteresis activities (THA) of proteins extracted from both cold acclimated and non-cold acclimated barley grain. Ultra-filtration, ammonium precipitation and column chromatography were used successively to purify the BaAFPs, and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS was used for protein identification. The results showed that infiltration-centrifugation was more targeted than the traditional method, and 10h was the optimal infiltration time. THA was observed only after cold acclimation implied that AFPs only began to accumulate after cold acclimation. After purification, BaAFP-I was obtained at an electrophoresis level and its THA was 1.04°C (18.0 mg ml(-1)). The mass fingerprinting and sequencing results indicated the homology of the BaAFP-I to alpha-amylase inhibitor BDAI-1 (Hordeum vulgare).

  13. Characterization of the association of nitrate reductase with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) root membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyerhoff, P. A.; Fox, T. C.; Travis, R. L.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The nature of the association between nitrate reductase (NR) and membranes was examined. Nitrate reductase activity (NRA) associated with the microsomal fraction of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) roots amounted to 0.6 to 0.8% of soluble NRA following sonication in the presence of 250 mM KI and repeated osmotic shock. This treatment removed all contaminating soluble NRA from microsomes of uninduced barley roots that had been homogenized in a soluble extract from roots of NO3(-)-induced plants. On continuous sucrose gradients, NRA co-migrated specifically with VO4(-)-sensitive ATPase activity, a plasma membrane (PM) marker; activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, assayed as cytosolic marker, co-migrated with NRA. Microsomal NRA was absent in barley deficient in soluble NR. Perturbation and trypsinolysis experiments with PM vesicles isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning indicated that NR is associated with the periphery of the cytoplasmic face of the bilayer. These results demonstrate that PM and soluble NRs are essentially the same protein but that the membrane-associated form is tightly bound. Although it is possible that PM-associated NR exists in vivo, unequivocal evidence for this has yet to be shown. However, PM NR is definitely present in vitro.

  14. Expression and characterization of a cytosolic glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase isoform from barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots.

    PubMed

    Castiglia, Daniela; Cardi, Manuela; Landi, Simone; Cafasso, Donata; Esposito, Sergio

    2015-08-01

    In plant cells, glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH-EC 1.1.1.49) regulates the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP), a metabolic route involved in the production of NADPH for various biosynthetic processes and stress response. In this study, we report the overexpression of a cytosolic G6PDH isoform from barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots in bacteria, and the biochemical characterization of the purified recombinant enzyme (HvCy-G6PDH). A full-length cDNA coding for a cytosolic isoform of G6PDH was isolated, and the sequence was cloned into pET3d vector; the protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified by anion exchange and affinity chromatography. The kinetic properties were calculated: the recombinant HvCy-G6PDH showed KMs and KINADPH comparable to those observed for the enzyme purified from barley roots; moreover, the analysis of NADPH inhibition suggested a competitive mechanism. Therefore, this enzyme could be utilised for the structural and regulatory characterization of this isoform in higher plants.

  15. Differential heat sensitivity index in barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) monitored by chlorophyll a fluorescence OKJIP.

    PubMed

    Oukarroum, Abdallah; El Madidi, Saïd; Strasser, Reto J

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to differentiate the heat tolerance in ten varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) originating from Morocco. Five modern varieties and five landraces (local varieties) collected at five different geographical localities in the south of Morocco were investigated in the present study. After two weeks of growth, detached leaves were short term exposure to various temperatures (25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 °C) for 10 min in the dark. Two chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters derived from chlorophyll a fluorescence transient (OKJIP) (performance index (PIABS) and relative variable fluorescence at the K-step (VK)) were analysed. Heat treatment had a significant effect on the PIABS and VK at 45 °C treatment and the analysis of variance for PIABS and VK is highly significant between all varieties. The slope of the relationship between logPIABS and VK named heat sensitivity index (HSI) was used to evaluate the thermotolerance of photosystem II (PSII) between the studied barley varieties. According to this approach, barley varieties were screened and ranked for improving heat tolerance. HSI was found to be a new indicator with regard to distinguishing heat tolerance of different barley cultivars.

  16. Bio-efficacy of the essential oil of oregano (Origanum vulgare Lamiaceae. Ssp. Hirtum).

    PubMed

    Grondona, Ezequiel; Gatti, Gerardo; López, Abel G; Sánchez, Leonardo Rodolfo; Rivero, Virginia; Pessah, Oscar; Zunino, María P; Ponce, Andrés A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactivity of the essential oil isolated from Origanum vulgare L. (EOv). We analyzed the in vivo anti-inflammatory properties in a mouse-airway inflammation model and the in vitro antimicrobial activity, genotoxicity over the anaphase-telophase with the Allium cepa strain and its cytotoxicity/viability in A549 culture cells. In vivo, EOv modified the levels of tumor necrosis factor -α and viable activated macrophages and was capable to mitigate the effects of degradation of conjugated dienes. In vitro, EOv reduced the viability of cultured A549 cells as well as the mitotic index and a number of chromosomal aberrations; however, it did not change the number of phases. We found that EOv presents antimicrobial activity against different Gram (-) and (+) strains, measured by disc-diffusion test and confirmed with a more accurate method, the AutoCad software. We postulate that EOv presents antibacterial, antioxidant and chemopreventive properties and could be play an important role as bioprotector agent.

  17. Tanacetum vulgare as a bioindicator of trace-metal contamination: a study of a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine.

    PubMed

    Jasion, Mateusz; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Kempers, Alexander J

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the possibility of use of Tanacetum vulgare (tansy) as an ecological indicator of metal concentration in a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine in Bełchatów (Poland). Tanacetum vulgare is the only species growing abundantly and spontaneously in the lignite mine waste dumps. Metal concentrations in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and soil were measured in dump sites differing in type and time of reclamation and therefore differing in pollution levels. Tanacetum vulgare appeared to be an accumulator of chromium and iron in roots, whereas highest concentrations of manganese and zinc were found in leaves. A high bioaccumulation factor for cadmium (Cd) was observed in dumps and control sites, indicating that even small amounts of Cd in the environment may result in significant uptake by the plant. The lowest concentrations of metals were found in plants from sites situated on dumps reclaimed with argillaceous limestone.

  18. Complete chloroplast genome sequences of Hordeum vulgare, Sorghum bicolor and Agrostis stolonifera, and comparative analyses with other grass genomes

    PubMed Central

    Saski, Christopher; Lee, Seung-Bum; Fjellheim, Siri; Guda, Chittibabu; Jansen, Robert K.; Luo, Hong; Tomkins, Jeffrey; Rognli, Odd Arne; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2009-01-01

    Comparisons of complete chloroplast genome sequences of Hordeum vulgare, Sorghum bicolor and Agrostis stolonifera to six published grass chloroplast genomes reveal that gene content and order are similar but two microstructural changes have occurred. First, the expansion of the IR at the SSC/IRa boundary that duplicates a portion of the 5′ end of ndhH is restricted to the three genera of the subfamily Pooideae (Agrostis, Hordeum and Triticum). Second, a 6 bp deletion in ndhK is shared by Agrostis, Hordeum, Oryza and Triticum, and this event supports the sister relationship between the subfamilies Erhartoideae and Pooideae. Repeat analysis identified 19–37 direct and inverted repeats 30 bp or longer with a sequence identity of at least 90%. Seventeen of the 26 shared repeats are found in all the grass chloroplast genomes examined and are located in the same genes or intergenic spacer (IGS) regions. Examination of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) identified 16–21 potential polymorphic SSRs. Five IGS regions have 100% sequence identity among Zea mays, Saccharum officinarum and Sorghum bicolor, whereas no spacer regions were identical among Oryza sativa, Triticum aestivum, H. vulgare and A. stolonifera despite their close phylogenetic relationship. Alignment of EST sequences and DNA coding sequences identified six C–U conversions in both Sorghum bicolor and H. vulgare but only one in A. stolonifera. Phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences of 61 protein-coding genes of 38 taxa using both maximum parsimony and likelihood methods provide moderate support for a sister relationship between the subfamilies Erhartoideae and Pooideae. PMID:17534593

  19. An investigation on cardioprotective potential of Marrubium vulgare aqueous fraction against ischemia-reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart.

    PubMed

    Garjani, Alireza; Tila, Dena; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz; Vaez, Haleh; Rameshrad, Maryam; Pashaii, Mahdiyeh; Fathiazad, Fatemeh

    2017-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of aqueous fraction of M. vulgare hydroalcoholic extract on cardiac parameters in ischemic-reperfused isolated rat hearts. The aerial parts of the plant were extracted with methanol 70% by maceration. The water-soluble portion of the total hydroalcoholic extract was prepared with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Afterwards, the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoids content of the aqueous fraction were determined. In order to evaluate the effects of the aqueous fraction on cardiac parameters and I/R injury, the Langendroff method was used on Male Wistar rats. Harvested hearts were cannulated immediately to the langendroff apparatus and subjected into 30 min regional ischemia and 2 hrs reperfusion, either by a modified Krebs-Henseleit Buffer Solution (KHBS) or enriched KHBS with plant extract (10, 20, 40 µg/mL). The aqueous fraction was found to be a scavenger of DPPH radical with RC50 value of 47µg/mL. The total phenolic and flavonoids content of the fraction was 6.05g gallic acid equivalent and 36.13mg quercetin equivalent per 100g of dry plant material. In addition, 40 µg/mL of M. vulgare aqueous fraction significantly decreased infarct size in comparison to control group. All doses considerably reduced the total ventricular ectopic beats (VEBs) during 30 min of ischemia. The extract at dose of 40 µg/mL noticeably decreased the arrhythmias during the first 30 min of reperfusion. The results of the study indicated aqueous fraction of M. vulgare possesses a protective effect against I/R injuries in isolated rat hearts.

  20. The effect of drought on photosynthetic plasticity in Marrubium vulgare plants growing at low and high altitudes.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Ghader; Ajory, Neda

    2015-11-01

    Photosynthesis is a biological process most affected by water deficit. Plants have various photosynthetic mechanisms that are matched to specific climatic zones. We studied the photosynthetic plasticity of C3 plants at water deficit using ecotypes of Marrubium vulgare L. from high (2,200 m) and low (1,100 m) elevation sites in the Mishou-Dagh Mountains of Iran. Under experimental drought, high-altitude plants showed more tolerance to water stress based on most of the parameters studied as compared to the low-altitude plants. Increased tolerance in high-altitude plants was achieved by lower levels of daytime stomatal conductance (g s) and reduced damaging effect on maximal quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) (F v /F m ) coupled with higher levels of carotenoids and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). High-altitude plants exhibited higher water use efficiency (WUE) than that in low-altitude plants depending on the presence of thick leaves and the reduced daytime stomatal conductance. Additionally, we have studied the oscillation in H(+) content and diel gas exchange patterns to determine the occurrence of C3 or weak CAM (Crassulacean acid metabolism) in M. vulgare through 15 days drought stress. Under water-stressed conditions, low-altitude plants exhibited stomatal conductance and acid fluctuations characteristic of C3 photosynthesis, though high-altitude plants exhibited more pronounced increases in nocturnal acidity and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activity, suggesting photosynthetic flexibility. These results indicated that the regulation of carotenoids, NPQ, stomatal conductance and diel patterns of CO2 exchange presented the larger differences among studied plants at different altitudes and seem to be the protecting mechanisms controlling the photosynthetic performance of M. vulgare plants under drought conditions.

  1. Complete chloroplast genome sequences of Hordeum vulgare, Sorghum bicolor and Agrostis stolonifera, and comparative analyses with other grass genomes.

    PubMed

    Saski, Christopher; Lee, Seung-Bum; Fjellheim, Siri; Guda, Chittibabu; Jansen, Robert K; Luo, Hong; Tomkins, Jeffrey; Rognli, Odd Arne; Daniell, Henry; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2007-08-01

    Comparisons of complete chloroplast genome sequences of Hordeum vulgare, Sorghum bicolor and Agrostis stolonifera to six published grass chloroplast genomes reveal that gene content and order are similar but two microstructural changes have occurred. First, the expansion of the IR at the SSC/IRa boundary that duplicates a portion of the 5' end of ndhH is restricted to the three genera of the subfamily Pooideae (Agrostis, Hordeum and Triticum). Second, a 6 bp deletion in ndhK is shared by Agrostis, Hordeum, Oryza and Triticum, and this event supports the sister relationship between the subfamilies Erhartoideae and Pooideae. Repeat analysis identified 19-37 direct and inverted repeats 30 bp or longer with a sequence identity of at least 90%. Seventeen of the 26 shared repeats are found in all the grass chloroplast genomes examined and are located in the same genes or intergenic spacer (IGS) regions. Examination of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) identified 16-21 potential polymorphic SSRs. Five IGS regions have 100% sequence identity among Zea mays, Saccharum officinarum and Sorghum bicolor, whereas no spacer regions were identical among Oryza sativa, Triticum aestivum, H. vulgare and A. stolonifera despite their close phylogenetic relationship. Alignment of EST sequences and DNA coding sequences identified six C-U conversions in both Sorghum bicolor and H. vulgare but only one in A. stolonifera. Phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences of 61 protein-coding genes of 38 taxa using both maximum parsimony and likelihood methods provide moderate support for a sister relationship between the subfamilies Erhartoideae and Pooideae.

  2. Proteomic Response of Hordeum vulgare cv. Tadmor and Hordeum marinum to Salinity Stress: Similarities and Differences between a Glycophyte and a Halophyte

    PubMed Central

    Maršálová, Lucie; Vítámvás, Pavel; Hynek, Radovan; Prášil, Ilja T.; Kosová, Klára

    2016-01-01

    Response to a high salinity treatment of 300 mM NaCl was studied in a cultivated barley Hordeum vulgare Syrian cultivar Tadmor and in a halophytic wild barley H. marinum. Differential salinity tolerance of H. marinum and H. vulgare is underlied by qualitative and quantitative differences in proteins involved in a variety of biological processes. The major aim was to identify proteins underlying differential salinity tolerance between the two barley species. Analyses of plant water content, osmotic potential and accumulation of proline and dehydrin proteins under high salinity revealed a relatively higher water saturation deficit in H. marinum than in H. vulgare while H. vulgare had lower osmotic potential corresponding with high levels of proline and dehydrins. Analysis of proteins soluble upon boiling isolated from control and salt-treated crown tissues revealed similarities as well as differences between H. marinum and H. vulgare. The similar salinity responses of both barley species lie in enhanced levels of stress-protective proteins such as defense-related proteins from late-embryogenesis abundant family, several chaperones from heat shock protein family, and others such as GrpE. However, there have also been found significant differences between H. marinum and H. vulgare salinity response indicating an active stress acclimation in H. marinum while stress damage in H. vulgare. An active acclimation to high salinity in H. marinum is underlined by enhanced levels of several stress-responsive transcription factors from basic leucine zipper and nascent polypeptide-associated complex families. In salt-treated H. marinum, enhanced levels of proteins involved in energy metabolism such as glycolysis, ATP metabolism, and photosynthesis-related proteins indicate an active acclimation to enhanced energy requirements during an establishment of novel plant homeostasis. In contrast, changes at proteome level in salt-treated H. vulgare indicate plant tissue damage as

  3. Identification of two key genes controlling chill haze stability of beer in barley (Hordeum vulgare L).

    PubMed

    Ye, Lingzhen; Huang, Yuqing; Dai, Fei; Ning, Huajiang; Li, Chengdao; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

    2015-06-11

    In bright beer, haze formation is a serious quality problem, degrading beer quality and reducing its shelf life. The quality of barley (Hordeum vulgare L) malt, as the main raw material for beer brewing, largely affects the colloidal stability of beer. In this study, the genetic mechanism of the factors affecting beer haze stability in barley was studied. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of alcohol chill haze (ACH) in beer was carried out using a Franklin/Yerong double haploid (DH) population. One QTL, named as qACH, was detected for ACH, and it was located on the position of about 108 cM in chromosome 4H and can explain about 20 % of the phenotypic variation. Two key haze active proteins, BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd were identified by proteomics analysis. Bioinformatics analysis showed that BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd had the same position as qACH in the chromosome. It may be deduced that BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd are candidate genes for qACH, controlling colloidal stability of beer. Polymorphism comparison between Yerong and Franklin in the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd detected the corresponding gene specific markers, which could be used in marker-assisted selection for malt barley breeding. We identified a novel QTL, qACH controlling chill haze of beer, and two key haze active proteins, BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd. And further analysis showed that BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd might be the candidate genes associated with beer chill haze.

  4. Silver ions disrupt K+ homeostasis and cellular integrity in intact barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) roots

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Devrim; Britto, Dev T.; Jean, Yuel-Kai; Schulze, Lasse M.; Becker, Alexander; Kronzucker, Herbert J.

    2012-01-01

    The heavy metals silver, gold, and mercury can strongly inhibit aquaporin-mediated water flow across plant cell membranes, but critical examinations of their side effects are rare. Here, the short-lived radiotracer 42K is used to demonstrate that these metals, especially silver, profoundly change potassium homeostasis in roots of intact barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants, by altering unidirectional K+ fluxes. Doses as low as 5 μM AgNO3 rapidly reduced K+ influx to 5% that of controls, and brought about pronounced and immediate increases in K+ efflux, while higher doses of Au3+ and Hg2+ were required to produce similar responses. Reduced influx and enhanced efflux of K+ resulted in a net loss of >40% of root tissue K+ during a 15 min application of 500 μM AgNO3, comprising the entire cytosolic potassium pool and about a third of the vacuolar pool. Silver also brought about major losses of UV-absorbing compounds, total electrolytes, and NH4+. Co-application, with silver, of the channel blockers Cs+, TEA+, or Ca2+, did not affect the enhanced efflux, ruling out the involvement of outwardly rectifying ion channels. Taken together with an examination of propidium iodide staining under confocal microscopy, the results indicate that silver ions affect K+ homeostasis by directly inhibiting K+ influx at lower concentrations, and indirectly inhibiting K+ influx and enhancing K+ efflux, via membrane destruction, at higher concentrations. Ni2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+, three heavy metals not generally known to affect aquaporins, did not enhance K+ efflux or cause propidium iodide incorporation. The study reveals strong and previously unknown effects of major aquaporin inhibitors and recommends caution in their application. PMID:21948852

  5. Dawn and Dusk Set States of the Circadian Oscillator in Sprouting Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Weiwei; Clausen, Jenni; Boden, Scott; Oliver, Sandra N.; Casao, M. Cristina; Ford, Brett; Anderssen, Robert S.; Trevaskis, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The plant circadian clock is an internal timekeeper that coordinates biological processes with daily changes in the external environment. The transcript levels of clock genes, which oscillate to control circadian outputs, were examined during early seedling development in barley (Hordeum vulgare), a model for temperate cereal crops. Oscillations of clock gene transcript levels do not occur in barley seedlings grown in darkness or constant light but were observed with day-night cycles. A dark-to-light transition influenced transcript levels of some clock genes but triggered only weak oscillations of gene expression, whereas a light-to-dark transition triggered robust oscillations. Single light pulses of 6, 12 or 18 hours induced robust oscillations. The light-to-dark transition was the primary determinant of the timing of subsequent peaks of clock gene expression. After the light-to-dark transition the timing of peak transcript levels of clock gene also varied depending on the length of the preceding light pulse. Thus, a single photoperiod can trigger initiation of photoperiod-dependent circadian rhythms in barley seedlings. Photoperiod-specific rhythms of clock gene expression were observed in two week old barley plants. Changing the timing of dusk altered clock gene expression patterns within a single day, showing that alteration of circadian oscillator behaviour is amongst the most rapid molecular responses to changing photoperiod in barley. A barley EARLY FLOWERING3 mutant, which exhibits rapid photoperiod–insensitive flowering behaviour, does not establish clock rhythms in response to a single photoperiod. The data presented show that dawn and dusk cues are important signals for setting the state of the circadian oscillator during early development of barley and that the circadian oscillator of barley exhibits photoperiod-dependent oscillation states. PMID:26068005

  6. Allene oxide synthases of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Salome): tissue specific regulation in seedling development.

    PubMed

    Maucher, H; Hause, B; Feussner, I; Ziegler, J; Wasternack, C

    2000-01-01

    Allene oxide synthase (AOS) is the first enzyme in the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway which leads to formation of jasmonic acid (JA). Two full-length cDNAs of AOS designated as AOS1 and AOS2, respectively, were isolated from barley (H. vulgare cv. Salome) leaves, which represent the first AOS clones from a monocotyledonous species. For AOS1, the open reading frame encompasses 1461 bp encoding a polypeptide of 487 amino acids with calculated molecular mass of 53.4 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.3, whereas the corresponding data of AOS2 are 1443 bp, 480 amino acids, 52.7 kDa and 7.9. Southern blot analysis revealed at least two genes. Despite the lack of a putative chloroplast signal peptide in both sequences, the protein co-purified with chloroplasts and was localized within chloroplasts by immunocytochemical analysis. The barley AOSs, expressed in bacteria as active enzymes, catalyze the dehydration of LOX-derived 9- as well as 13-hydroperoxides of polyenoic fatty acids to the unstable allene oxides. In leaves, AOS mRNA accumulated upon treatment with jasmonates, octadecanoids and metabolizable carbohydrates, but not upon floating on abscisic acid, NaCl, Na-salicylate or infection with powdery mildew. In developing seedlings, AOS mRNA strongly accumulated in the scutellar nodule, but less in the leaf base. Both tissues exhibited elevated JA levels. In situ hybridizations revealed the preferential occurrence of AOS mRNA in parenchymatic cells surrounding the vascular bundles of the scutellar nodule and in the young convoluted leaves as well as within the first internode. The properties of both barley AOSs, their up-regulation of their mRNAs and their tissue specific expression suggest a role during seedling development and jasmonate biosynthesis.

  7. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Stem Rust Resistance in Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum.

    PubMed

    Sallam, Ahmad H; Tyagi, Priyanka; Brown-Guedira, Gina; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Hulse, Alex; Steffenson, Brian J

    2017-08-30

    Stem rust was one of the most devastating diseases of barley in North America. Through the deployment of cultivars with the resistance gene Rpg1, losses to stem rust have been minimal over the past 70 years. However, there exist both domestic (QCCJB) and foreign (TTKSK aka isolate Ug99) pathotypes with virulence for this important gene. To identify new sources of stem rust resistance for barley, we evaluated the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) (314 ecogeographically diverse accessions of Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) for seedling resistance to four pathotypes (TTKSK, QCCJB, MCCFC, and HKHJC) of the wheat stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, Pgt) and one isolate (92-MN-90) of the rye stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. secalis, Pgs). Based on a coefficient of infection, the frequency of resistance in the WBDC was low ranging from 0.6% with HKHJC to 19.4% with 92-MN-90. None of the accessions was resistant to all five cultures of P. graminis A genome-wide association study was conducted to map stem rust resistance loci using 50,842 single nucleotide polymorphic markers generated by genotype-by-sequencing and ordered using the new barley reference genome assembly. After proper accounting for genetic relatedness and structure among accessions, 45 quantitative trait loci were identified for resistance to P. graminis across all seven barley chromosomes. Three novel loci associated with resistance to TTKSK, QCCJB, MCCFC, and 92-MN-90 were identified on chromosomes 5H and 7H, and two novel loci associated with resistance to HKHJC were identified on chromosomes 1H and 3H. These novel alleles will enhance the diversity of resistance available for cultivated barley. Copyright © 2017, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics.

  8. Regulation of the Flavonoid Biosynthesis Pathway Genes in Purple and Black Grains of Hordeum vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Mock, Hans-Peter; Kukoeva, Tatjana V.; Börner, Andreas; Khlestkina, Elena K.

    2016-01-01

    Barley grain at maturity can have yellow, purple, blue, and black pigmentations which are suggested to play a protective role under stress conditions. The first three types of the colors are caused by phenolic compounds flavonoids; the last one is caused by phytomelanins, oxidized and polymerized phenolic compounds. Although the genetic basis of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in barley has been thoroughly studied, there is no data yet on its regulation in purple and black barley grains. In the current study, genetic model of Hordeum vulgare ‘Bowman’ near-isogenic lines (NILs) was used to investigate the regulation of the flavonoid biosynthesis in white, purple, and black barley grains. Microsatellite genotyping revealed donor segments in the purple- and black-grained lines on chromosomes 2H (in region of the Ant2 gene determining purple color of grains) and 1H (in region of the Blp gene determining black lemma and pericarp), respectively. The isolated dominant Ant2 allele of the purple-grained line has high level of sequence similarity with the recessive Bowman’s ant2 in coding region, whereas an insertion of 179 bp was detected in promoter region of ant2. This structural divergence between Ant2 and ant2 alleles may underlie their different expression in grain pericarp: Bowman’s Ant2 is not transcribed, whereas it was up-regulated in the purple-grained line with coordinately co-expressed flavonoid biosynthesis structural genes (Chs, Chi, F3h, F3’h, Dfr, Ans). This led to total anthocyain content increase in purple-grained line identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Collectively, these results proved the regulatory function of the Ant2 gene in anthocyanin biosynthesis in barley grain pericarp. In the black-grained line, the specific transcriptional regulation of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway genes was not detected, suggesting that flavonoid pigments are not involved in development of black lemma and pericarp trait. PMID

  9. Drought stress and leaf herbivory affect root terpenoid concentrations and growth of Tanacetum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Kleine, Sandra; Müller, Caroline

    2014-10-01

    Plant responses of both shoots and roots to combined abiotic and biotic stress have been rarely investigated. However, stresses such as drought and aboveground herbivory might lead to conflicting resource allocation patterns and pronounced shifts in shoot vs. root defenses. In the present study, the effects of water availability and leaf herbivory by caterpillars of a generalist on various shoot and root traits of the aromatic plant Tanacetum vulgare L. were investigated. This species contains terpenoids in leaves and roots, which can differ in composition among individuals, forming so-called chemotypes. To test for intraspecific variation, responses were investigated in two chemotypes, the thujone and the carvyl acetate chemotype. Furthermore, effects of differences in plant quality on the herbivores were studied. Shoot biomass significantly decreased due to drought and herbivory, whereas the root/shoot ratio increased following drought but was unaffected by herbivory. No shifts in C/N ratios were found. In contrast to our expectation, leaf terpenoid concentrations decreased only slightly due to drought, whereas root terpenoids were significantly induced by both drought and herbivory. Chemotypes showed distinct responses to drought at least in the root/shoot ratio, with a higher drought sensitivity of the carvyl acetate chemotype. The body mass of the caterpillars was unaffected by the irrigation treatment but depended on chemotype and terpenoid concentration of the plants. Thus, both qualitative and quantitative defenses strongly affect herbivore development. The present results offer new insights into the above- and belowground organ-specific responses of plants. They highlight the importance of roots in response to various environmental challenges.

  10. Tissue-Specific Epigenetic Modifications in Root Apical Meristem Cells of Hordeum vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Braszewska-Zalewska, Agnieszka J.; Wolny, Elzbieta A.; Smialek, Lukasz; Hasterok, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications of chromatin structure are essential for many biological processes, including growth and reproduction. Patterns of DNA and histone modifications have recently been widely studied in many plant species, although there is virtually no data on the spatial and temporal distribution of epigenetic markers during plant development. Accordingly, we have used immunostaining techniques to investigate epigenetic modifications in the root apical meristem of Hordeum vulgare. Histone H4 acetylation (H4K5ac), histone H3 dimethylation (H3K4me2, H3K9me2) and DNA methylation (5mC) patterns were established for various root meristem tissues. Distinct levels of those modifications were visualised in the root cap, epidermis, cortex and vascular tissues. The lateral root cap cells seem to display the highest level of H3K9me2 and 5mC. In the epidermis, the highest level of 5mC and H3K9me2 was detected in the nuclei from the boundary of the proximal meristem and the elongation zone, while the vascular tissues were characterized by the highest level of H4K5ac. Some of the modified histones were also detectable in the cytoplasm in a highly tissue-specific manner. Immunolocalisation of epigenetic modifications of chromatin carried out in this way, on longitudinal or transverse sections, provides a unique topographic context within the organ, and will provide some answers to the significant biological question of tissue differentiation processes during root development in a monocotyledon plant species. PMID:23935955

  11. Localization and Pattern of Graviresponse across the Pulvinus of Barley Hordeum vulgare1

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Thomas G.; Lu, Casey R.; Ghosheh, Najati S.; Kaufman, Peter B.

    1989-01-01

    Pulvini of excised stem segments from barley (Hordeum vulgare cv `Larker') were pretreated with 1 millimolar coumarin before gravistimulation to reduce longitudinal cell expansion and exaggerate radial cell enlargement. The cellular localization and pattern of graviresponse across individual pulvini were then evaluated by cutting the organ in cross-section, photographing the cross-section, and then measuring pulvinus thickness and the radial width of cortical and epidermal cells in enlargements of the photomicrographs. With respect to orientation during gravistimulation, we designated the uppermost point of the cross-section 0° and the lowermost point 180°. A gravity-induced increase in pulvinus thickness was observable within 40° of the vertical in coumarin-treated pulvini. In upper halves of coumarin-treated gravistimulated pulvini, cells in the inner cortex and inner epidermis had increased radial widths, relative to untreated gravistimulated pulvini. In lower halves of coumarin-treated pulvini, cells in the central and outer cortex and in the outer epidermis showed the greatest increase in radial width. Cells comprising the vascular bundles also increased in radial width, with this pattern following that of the central cortex. These results indicate (a) that all cell types are capable of showing a graviresponse, (b) that the graviresponse occurs in both the top and the bottom of the responding organ, and (c) that the magnitude of the response increases approximately linearly from the uppermost point to the lowermost. These results are also consistent with models of gravitropism that link the pattern and magnitude of the graviresponse to graviperception via statolith sedimentation. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 PMID:11537463

  12. Mesophyll distribution of ‘antioxidant’ flavonoid glycosides in Ligustrum vulgare leaves under contrasting sunlight irradiance

    PubMed Central

    Agati, Giovanni; Stefano, Giovanni; Biricolti, Stefano; Tattini, Massimiliano

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Flavonoids have the potential to serve as antioxidants in addition to their function of UV screening in photoprotective mechanisms. However, flavonoids have long been reported to accumulate mostly in epidermal cells and surface organs in response to high sunlight. Therefore, how leaf flavonoids actually carry out their antioxidant functions is still a matter of debate. Here, the distribution of flavonoids with effective antioxidant properties, i.e. the orthodihydroxy B-ring-substituted quercetin and luteolin glycosides, was investigated in the mesophyll of Ligustrum vulgare leaves acclimated to contrasting sunlight irradiance. Methods In the first experiment, plants were grown at 20 % (shade) or 100% (sun) natural sunlight. Plants were exposed to 100 % sunlight irradiance in the presence or absence of UV wavelengths, in a second experiment. Fluorescence microspectroscopy and multispectral fluorescence microimaging were used in both cross sections and intact leaf pieces to visualize orthodihydroxy B-ring-substituted flavonoids at inter- and intracellular levels. Identification and quantification of individual hydroxycinnamates and flavonoid glycosides were performed via HPLC-DAD. Key Results Quercetin and luteolin derivatives accumulated to a great extent in both the epidermal and mesophyll cells in response to high sunlight. Tissue fluorescence signatures and leaf flavonoid concentrations were strongly related. Monohydroxyflavone glycosides, namely luteolin 4′-O-glucoside and two apigenin 7-O-glycosides were unresponsive to changes in sunlight irradiance. Quercetin and luteolin derivatives accumulated in the vacuoles of mesophyll cells in leaves growing under 100 % natural sunlight in the absence of UV wavelengths. Conclusions The above findings lead to the hypothesis that flavonoids play a key role in countering light-induced oxidative stress, and not only in avoiding the penetration of short solar wavelengths in the leaf. PMID:19633310

  13. Origanum vulgare leaf extract protects mice bone marrow cells against ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemnezhad Targhi, Reza; Changizi, Vahid; Haddad, Farhang; Homayoun, Mansour; Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Ionizing radiation produces free radicals which induce DNA damage and cell death. Origanum vulgare leaf extract (OVLE) is a natural compound and its capability of scavenging free radicals and its antioxidant activity have been demonstrated by many researchers. In this study, using micronucleus assay, radioprotective effect of OVLE against clastogenic and cytotoxic effect of gamma irradiation has been investigated in mice bone marrow cells. Materials and Methods: OVLE was injected intraperitoneally to the BALB/c mice 1hr prior to gamma irradiation (3Gy) at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg. Twenty four hours after irradiation or treatment, animals were killed and smears were prepared from the bone marrow cells. The slides were stained with May Grunwald–Giemsa method and analyzed microscopically. The frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs), micronucleated normochromatic erythrocyte (MnNCEs) and cell proliferation ratio PCE/PCE+NCE (polychromatic erythrocyte/polychromatic erythrocyte + normochromatic erythrocyte) were calculated. Results: The results showed that gamma irradiation (3Gy) increased the frequency of MnPCEs, MnNCEs and reduced the PCE/PCE+NCE ratio in mice bone marrow compared to the non-irradiated control group (p<0.0001). Injection of OVLE significantly reduced the frequency of MnPCEs (p<0.0001) and MnNCEs (p<0.05) and increased the PCE/PCE+NCE ratio as compared to the irradiated control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: It seems that OVLE with its antioxidant properties and its capability of scavenging free radicals and reactive oxygen species can reduce the cytotoxic effects of gamma irradiation in mice bone marrow cells. PMID:28078248

  14. Additive toxicity of zinc and arsenate on barley (Hordeum vulgare) root elongation.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Rangel, Georgina; Versieren, Liske; Qiu, Hao; Smolders, Erik

    2017-06-01

    Zinc (Zn) and arsenic (As) are typically present as mixed contaminants in mining-impacted areas; however, their joined effects have rarely been evaluated. The present study was set up to test whether the Zn(2+) and H2 AsO4(-) (hereafter, As) mixture toxicity to plants is additive or whether interactions occur. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) root elongation was measured in resin buffered nutrient solutions. The design included ranges of single-element concentrations and combinations at 3 different Ca(2+) concentrations (0.5 mM, 2.2 mM, and 15.0 mM) to vary the relative toxicity of Zn(2+) . Increasing Ca concentrations decreased Zn toxicity, whereas As toxicity was unaffected by Ca. Root elongation was generally more affected in Zn-As mixtures than in corresponding single-element treatments. This is merely a joint additive effect, as 96% of the root elongation data were within a factor of 1.2 from predictions using the independent action (IA) or concentration addition (CA) model. The CA and IA predictions were similar, and data did not allow identification of equal or dissimilar modes of action. Small but significant Zn-As antagonisms were only found at high effects (>50% inhibition). The present study suggests that mixture effects of Zn and As are environmentally relevant and that current risk assessment underestimates toxicity in multielement-contaminated environments. The CA model can be used as a conservative model for risk assessment; however, for soil-grown plants, soil-exposed studies are needed. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1556-1562. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  15. Fine mapping and chromosome walking towards the Ror1 locus in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Garcia, Johanna; Collins, Nicholas C; Ahmadinejad, Nahal; Ma, Lu; Houben, Andreas; Bednarek, Pawel; Benjdia, Mariam; Freialdenhoven, Andreas; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Reinhardt, Richard; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Panstruga, Ralph

    2013-12-01

    The Ror1 gene was fine-mapped to the pericentric region of barley chromosome 1HL. Recessively inherited loss-of-function alleles of the barley (Hordeum vulgare) Mildew resistance locus o (Mlo) gene confer durable broad-spectrum disease resistance against the obligate biotrophic fungal powdery mildew pathogen Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei. Previous genetic analyses revealed two barley genes, Ror1 and Ror2, that are Required for mlo-specified resistance and basal defence. While Ror2 was cloned and shown to encode a t-SNARE protein (syntaxin), the molecular nature or Ror1 remained elusive. Ror1 was previously mapped to the centromeric region of the long arm of barley chromosome 1H. Here, we narrowed the barley Ror1 interval to 0.18 cM and initiated a chromosome walk using barley yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones, next-generation DNA sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Two non-overlapping YAC contigs containing Ror1 flanking genes were identified. Despite a high degree of synteny observed between barley and the sequenced genomes of the grasses rice (Oryza sativa), Brachypodium distachyon and Sorghum bicolor across the wider chromosomal area, the genes in the YAC contigs showed extensive interspecific rearrangements in orientation and order. Consequently, the position of a Ror1 homolog in these species could not be precisely predicted, nor was a barley gene co-segregating with Ror1 identified. These factors have prevented the molecular identification of the Ror1 gene for the time being.

  16. Identification and Expression Analysis of the Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Aquaporin Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Hove, Runyararo M.; Ziemann, Mark; Bhave, Mrinal

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) that mediate bidirectional flux of water and other substrates across cell membranes, and play critical roles in plant-water relations, dehydration stress responses and crop productivity. However, limited data are available as yet on the contributions of these proteins to the physiology of the major crop barley (Hordeum vulgare). The present work reports the identification and expression analysis of the barley MIP family. A comprehensive search of publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data, draft barley genome data, GenBank transcripts and sixteen new annotations together revealed that the barley MIP family is comprised of at least forty AQPs. Alternative splicing events were likely in two plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) AQPs. Analyses of the AQP signature sequences and specificity determining positions indicated a potential of several putative AQP isoforms to transport non-aqua substrates including physiological important substrates, and respond to abiotic stresses. Analysis of our publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data identified notable differential expression of HvPIP1;2 and HvTIP4;1 under salt stress. Analyses of other gene expression resources also confirmed isoform-specific responses in different tissues and/or in response to salinity, as well as some potentially inter-cultivar differences. The work reports systematic and comprehensive analysis of most, if not all, barley AQP genes, their sequences, expression patterns in different tissues, potential transport and stress response functions, and a strong framework for selection and/or development of stress tolerant barley varieties. In addition, the barley data would be highly valuable for genetic studies of the evolutionarily closely related wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). PMID:26057533

  17. Localization and pattern of graviresponse across the pulvinus of barley Hordeum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Brock, T G; Lu, C R; Ghosheh, N S; Kaufman, P B

    1989-01-01

    Pulvini of excised stem segments from barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Larker') were pretreated with 1 millimolar coumarin before gravistimulation to reduce longitudinal cell expansion and exaggerate radial cell enlargement. The cellular localization and pattern of graviresponse across individual pulvini were then evaluated by cutting the organ in cross-section, photographing the cross-section, and then measuring pulvinus thickness and the radial width of cortical and epidermal cells in enlargements of the photomicrographs. With respect to orientation during gravistimulation, we designated the uppermost point of the cross-section 0 degrees and the lowermost point 180 degrees. A gravity-induced increase in pulvinus thickness was observable within 40 degrees of the vertical in coumarin-treated pulvini. In upper halves of coumarin-treated gravistimulated pulvini, cells in the inner cortex and inner epidermis had increased radial widths, relative to untreated gravistimulated pulvini. In lower halves of coumarin-treated pulvini, cells in the central and outer cortex and in the outer epidermis showed the greatest increase in radial width. Cells comprising the vascular bundles also increased in radial width, with this pattern following that of the central cortex. These results indicate (a) that all cell types are capable of showing a graviresponse, (b) that the graviresponse occurs in both the top and the bottom of the responding organ, and (c) that the magnitude of the response increases approximately linearly from the uppermost point to the lowermost. These results are also consistent with models of gravitropism that link the pattern and magnitude of the graviresponse to graviperception via statolith sedimentation.

  18. Localization and pattern of graviresponse across the pulvinus of barley Hordeum vulgare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, T. G.; Lu, C. R.; Ghosheh, N. S.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1989-01-01

    Pulvini of excised stem segments from barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Larker') were pretreated with 1 millimolar coumarin before gravistimulation to reduce longitudinal cell expansion and exaggerate radial cell enlargement. The cellular localization and pattern of graviresponse across individual pulvini were then evaluated by cutting the organ in cross-section, photographing the cross-section, and then measuring pulvinus thickness and the radial width of cortical and epidermal cells in enlargements of the photomicrographs. With respect to orientation during gravistimulation, we designated the uppermost point of the cross-section 0 degrees and the lowermost point 180 degrees. A gravity-induced increase in pulvinus thickness was observable within 40 degrees of the vertical in coumarin-treated pulvini. In upper halves of coumarin-treated gravistimulated pulvini, cells in the inner cortex and inner epidermis had increased radial widths, relative to untreated gravistimulated pulvini. In lower halves of coumarin-treated pulvini, cells in the central and outer cortex and in the outer epidermis showed the greatest increase in radial width. Cells comprising the vascular bundles also increased in radial width, with this pattern following that of the central cortex. These results indicate (a) that all cell types are capable of showing a graviresponse, (b) that the graviresponse occurs in both the top and the bottom of the responding organ, and (c) that the magnitude of the response increases approximately linearly from the uppermost point to the lowermost. These results are also consistent with models of gravitropism that link the pattern and magnitude of the graviresponse to graviperception via statolith sedimentation.

  19. The mechanism of boron tolerance for maintenance of root growth in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Young; Kolesik, Peter; McNeill, Ann; Collins, Helen; Zhang, Qisen; Huynh, Bao-Lam; Graham, Robin; Stangoulis, James

    2007-08-01

    Cultivar differences in root elongation under B toxic conditions were observed in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). A significant increase in the length and width of the root meristematic zone (RMZ) was observed in Sahara 3771 (B tolerant) when it was grown under excessive B concentration, compared to when grown at adequate B supply. This coincided with an increase in cell width and cell numbers in the meristematic zone (MZ), whereas a significant decrease in the length and no significant effect on the width of the MZ was observed in Clipper (B intolerant) when it was grown under excessive B supply. This was accompanied by a decrease in cell numbers, but an increase in the length and width of individual cells present along the MZ. Excessive B concentrations led to a significantly lower osmotic potential within the cell sap of the root tip in SloopVic (B tolerant) and Sahara 3771, while the opposite was observed in Clipper. Enhanced sugar levels in the root tips of SloopVic were observed between 48 and 96 h after excess B was applied. This coincided with an increase in the root elongation rate and with a 2.7-fold increase in sucrose level within mature leaf tissue. A significant decrease in reducing sugar levels was observed in the root tips of Clipper under excessive B concentrations. This coincided with significantly lower root elongation rates and lower sucrose levels in leaf tissues. Results indicate a B tolerance mechanism associated with a complex control of sucrose levels between leaf and root tip that assist in maintaining root growth under B toxicity.

  20. Structure of Hordeum vulgare NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase 2. Unwinding the reaction mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkensgaard, Kristine G.; Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Henriksen, Anette

    2009-09-01

    The first crystal structure of a cereal NTR, a protein involved in seed development and germination, has been determined. The structure is in a conformation that excludes NADPH binding and indicates that a domain reorientation facilitated by Trx binding precedes NADPH binding in the reaction mechanism. Thioredoxins (Trxs) are protein disulfide reductases that regulate the intracellular redox environment and are important for seed germination in plants. Trxs are in turn regulated by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRs), which provide reducing equivalents to Trx using NADPH to recycle Trxs to the active form. Here, the first crystal structure of a cereal NTR, HvNTR2 from Hordeum vulgare (barley), is presented, which is also the first structure of a monocot plant NTR. The structure was determined at 2.6 Å resolution and refined to an R{sub cryst} of 19.0% and an R{sub free} of 23.8%. The dimeric protein is structurally similar to the structures of AtNTR-B from Arabidopsis thaliana and other known low-molecular-weight NTRs. However, the relative position of the two NTR cofactor-binding domains, the FAD and the NADPH domains, is not the same. The NADPH domain is rotated by 25° and bent by a 38% closure relative to the FAD domain in comparison with AtNTR-B. The structure may represent an intermediate between the two conformations described previously: the flavin-oxidizing (FO) and the flavin-reducing (FR) conformations. Here, analysis of interdomain contacts as well as phylogenetic studies lead to the proposal of a new reaction scheme in which NTR–Trx interactions mediate the FO to FR transformation.

  1. Dawn and Dusk Set States of the Circadian Oscillator in Sprouting Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Deng, Weiwei; Clausen, Jenni; Boden, Scott; Oliver, Sandra N; Casao, M Cristina; Ford, Brett; Anderssen, Robert S; Trevaskis, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The plant circadian clock is an internal timekeeper that coordinates biological processes with daily changes in the external environment. The transcript levels of clock genes, which oscillate to control circadian outputs, were examined during early seedling development in barley (Hordeum vulgare), a model for temperate cereal crops. Oscillations of clock gene transcript levels do not occur in barley seedlings grown in darkness or constant light but were observed with day-night cycles. A dark-to-light transition influenced transcript levels of some clock genes but triggered only weak oscillations of gene expression, whereas a light-to-dark transition triggered robust oscillations. Single light pulses of 6, 12 or 18 hours induced robust oscillations. The light-to-dark transition was the primary determinant of the timing of subsequent peaks of clock gene expression. After the light-to-dark transition the timing of peak transcript levels of clock gene also varied depending on the length of the preceding light pulse. Thus, a single photoperiod can trigger initiation of photoperiod-dependent circadian rhythms in barley seedlings. Photoperiod-specific rhythms of clock gene expression were observed in two week old barley plants. Changing the timing of dusk altered clock gene expression patterns within a single day, showing that alteration of circadian oscillator behaviour is amongst the most rapid molecular responses to changing photoperiod in barley. A barley EARLY FLOWERING3 mutant, which exhibits rapid photoperiod-insensitive flowering behaviour, does not establish clock rhythms in response to a single photoperiod. The data presented show that dawn and dusk cues are important signals for setting the state of the circadian oscillator during early development of barley and that the circadian oscillator of barley exhibits photoperiod-dependent oscillation states.

  2. High-throughput transcriptome analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare) exposed to excessive boron.

    PubMed

    Tombuloglu, Guzin; Tombuloglu, Huseyin; Sakcali, M Serdal; Unver, Turgay

    2015-02-15

    Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for optimum plant growth. However, above certain threshold B is toxic and causes yield loss in agricultural lands. While a number of studies were conducted to understand B tolerance mechanism, a transcriptome-wide approach for B tolerant barley is performed here for the first time. A high-throughput RNA-Seq (cDNA) sequencing technology (Illumina) was used with barley (Hordeum vulgare), yielding 208 million clean reads. In total, 256,874 unigenes were generated and assigned to known peptide databases: Gene Ontology (GO) (99,043), Swiss-Prot (38,266), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) (26,250), and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) (36,860), as determined by BLASTx search. According to the digital gene expression (DGE) analyses, 16% and 17% of the transcripts were found to be differentially regulated in root and leaf tissues, respectively. Most of them were involved in cell wall, stress response, membrane, protein kinase and transporter mechanisms. Some of the genes detected as highly expressed in root tissue are phospholipases, predicted divalent heavy-metal cation transporters, formin-like proteins and calmodulin/Ca(2+)-binding proteins. In addition, chitin-binding lectin precursor, ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase, and serine/threonine-protein kinase AFC2 genes were indicated to be highly regulated in leaf tissue upon excess B treatment. Some pathways, such as the Ca(2+)-calmodulin system, are activated in response to B toxicity. The differential regulation of 10 transcripts was confirmed by qRT-PCR, revealing the tissue-specific responses against B toxicity and their putative function in B-tolerance mechanisms.

  3. Drought acclimation in wild and cultivated barley lines. [Hordeum spontaneum; Hordeum vulgare

    SciTech Connect

    Glinka, Z. ); Gunasekera, D.; Mane, S.; Berkowitz, G. )

    1991-05-01

    Wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) seeds collected from arid and temperate regions in Israel were used, along with cultivated barley (H. vulgare) in a study to evaluate the range of acclimation responses to low leaf water potential ({Psi}w). Stress was imposed on plants by withholding water until {Psi}w was {minus}2 megapascals (MPa). Protoplast volume (PV) was measured at {minus}0.2 and {minus}2 MPa (imposed in vitro) in leaf tissue from well-watered and stressed plants. In well-watered plants, PV declined at {minus}2, as compared to {minus}0.2 MPa in all lines. With tissue from in situ stressed plants, PV reduction at {minus}2 MPa was not as great in some lines. The change in the extent of PV reduction occurring at {minus}2 MPa was used as an index of drought acclimation. The 13 wild barley lines were separated into high, medium, and low acclimation groups. Lines collected from arid regions scored in the high acclimation group. The cultivated barley lines scored in the medium and low groups. Relative water content decline at low leaf {Psi}w in situ was not a good indicator of acclimation; all lines responded similarly. Photosynthesis in situ was measured at high and low leaf {Psi}w in lines from the three groupings. Photosynthetic sensitivity to low {Psi}w was twice as great in low acclimation, as compared to high acclimation lines. It was concluded that PV response to low {Psi}w is a good indicator of drought acclimation in barley, and that wild lines offer a range of acclimation potential which could be used in breeding programs.

  4. Localization and pattern of graviresponse across the pulvinus of barley Hordeum vulgare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, T. G.; Lu, C. R.; Ghosheh, N. S.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1989-01-01

    Pulvini of excised stem segments from barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Larker') were pretreated with 1 millimolar coumarin before gravistimulation to reduce longitudinal cell expansion and exaggerate radial cell enlargement. The cellular localization and pattern of graviresponse across individual pulvini were then evaluated by cutting the organ in cross-section, photographing the cross-section, and then measuring pulvinus thickness and the radial width of cortical and epidermal cells in enlargements of the photomicrographs. With respect to orientation during gravistimulation, we designated the uppermost point of the cross-section 0 degrees and the lowermost point 180 degrees. A gravity-induced increase in pulvinus thickness was observable within 40 degrees of the vertical in coumarin-treated pulvini. In upper halves of coumarin-treated gravistimulated pulvini, cells in the inner cortex and inner epidermis had increased radial widths, relative to untreated gravistimulated pulvini. In lower halves of coumarin-treated pulvini, cells in the central and outer cortex and in the outer epidermis showed the greatest increase in radial width. Cells comprising the vascular bundles also increased in radial width, with this pattern following that of the central cortex. These results indicate (a) that all cell types are capable of showing a graviresponse, (b) that the graviresponse occurs in both the top and the bottom of the responding organ, and (c) that the magnitude of the response increases approximately linearly from the uppermost point to the lowermost. These results are also consistent with models of gravitropism that link the pattern and magnitude of the graviresponse to graviperception via statolith sedimentation.

  5. A novel approach to monitor the hydrolysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare L) malt: a chemometrics approach.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, D; Degner, S; Eglinton, J

    2014-12-03

    Malting barley is a process that has been profusely studied and is known to be influenced by several physical and biochemical properties of the grain. In particular, the amount of material that can be extracted from the malt (malt extract) is an important measure of brewing performance and end quality. The objectives of this study were (a) to compare the time course of hydrolysis of different malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L) varieties and (b) to evaluate the usefulness of mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy as high-throughput method to monitor malt hydrolysis. Differences in the pattern of hydrolysis were observed between the malt samples analyzed where samples from the same variety that have similar hot water extract (HWE) values tend to have the same pattern of hydrolysis. Principal component score plots based on the MIR spectra showed similar results. Partial least-squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) was used to classify malt samples according to their corresponding variety and time course of hydrolysis. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) and the standard error of cross validation (SECV) obtained for the prediction of variety and time course of hydrolysis were 0.67 (1.01) and 0.38 (19.90), respectively. These differences might be the result of the different composition in sugars between the barley varieties analyzed after malting, measured as wort density and not observed when only the HWE value at the end point is reported. This method offers the possibility to measure several parameters in malt simultaneously, reducing the time of analysis as well as requiring minimal sample preparation.

  6. Identification and Expression Analysis of the Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Aquaporin Gene Family.

    PubMed

    Hove, Runyararo M; Ziemann, Mark; Bhave, Mrinal

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) that mediate bidirectional flux of water and other substrates across cell membranes, and play critical roles in plant-water relations, dehydration stress responses and crop productivity. However, limited data are available as yet on the contributions of these proteins to the physiology of the major crop barley (Hordeum vulgare). The present work reports the identification and expression analysis of the barley MIP family. A comprehensive search of publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data, draft barley genome data, GenBank transcripts and sixteen new annotations together revealed that the barley MIP family is comprised of at least forty AQPs. Alternative splicing events were likely in two plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) AQPs. Analyses of the AQP signature sequences and specificity determining positions indicated a potential of several putative AQP isoforms to transport non-aqua substrates including physiological important substrates, and respond to abiotic stresses. Analysis of our publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data identified notable differential expression of HvPIP1;2 and HvTIP4;1 under salt stress. Analyses of other gene expression resources also confirmed isoform-specific responses in different tissues and/or in response to salinity, as well as some potentially inter-cultivar differences. The work reports systematic and comprehensive analysis of most, if not all, barley AQP genes, their sequences, expression patterns in different tissues, potential transport and stress response functions, and a strong framework for selection and/or development of stress tolerant barley varieties. In addition, the barley data would be highly valuable for genetic studies of the evolutionarily closely related wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

  7. Identification and expression analyses of cytosolic glutamine synthetase genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Goodall, Andrew J; Kumar, Pankaj; Tobin, Alyson K

    2013-04-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is a key enzyme in nitrogen (N) assimilation, particularly during seed development. Three cytosolic GS isoforms (HvGS1) were identified in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Golden Promise). Quantitation of gene expression, localization and response to N supply revealed that each gene plays a non-redundant role in different tissues and during development. Localization of HvGS1_1 in vascular cells of different tissues, combined with its abundance in the stem and its response to changes in N supply, indicate that it is important in N transport and remobilization. HvGS1_1 is located on chromosome 6H at 72.54 cM, close to the marker HVM074 which is associated with a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for grain protein content (GPC). HvGS1_1 may be a potential candidate gene to manipulate barley GPC. HvGS1_2 mRNA was localized to the leaf mesophyll cells, in the cortex and pericycle of roots, and was the dominant HvGS1 isoform in these tissues. HvGS1_2 expression increased in leaves with an increasing supply of N, suggesting its role in the primary assimilation of N. HvGS1_3 was specifically and predominantly localized in the grain, being highly expressed throughout grain development. HvGS1_3 expression increased specifically in the roots of plants grown on high NH(+)4, suggesting that it has a primary role in grain N assimilation and also in the protection against ammonium toxicity in roots. The expression of HvGS1 genes is directly correlated with protein and enzymatic activity, indicating that transcriptional regulation is of prime importance in the control of GS activity in barley.

  8. Enhanced Pb Absorption by Hordeum vulgare L. and Helianthus annuus L. Plants Inoculated with an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Consortium.

    PubMed

    Arias, Milton Senen Barcos; Peña-Cabriales, Juan José; Alarcón, Alejandro; Maldonado Vega, María

    2015-01-01

    The effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) consortium conformed by (Glomus intraradices, Glomus albidum, Glomus diaphanum, and Glomus claroideum) on plant growth and absorption of Pb, Fe, Na, Ca, and (32)P in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants was evaluated. AMF-plants and controls were grown in a substrate amended with powdered Pb slag at proportions of 0, 10, 20, and 30% v/v equivalent to total Pb contents of 117; 5,337; 13,659, and 19,913 mg Pb kg(-1) substrate, respectively. Mycorrhizal root colonization values were 70, 94, 98, and 90%, for barley and 91, 97, 95, and 97%, for sunflower. AMF inoculum had positive repercussions on plant development of both crops. Mycorrhizal barley absorbed more Pb (40.4 mg Pb kg(-1)) shoot dry weight than non-colonized controls (26.5 mg Pb kg(-1)) when treated with a high Pb slag dosage. This increase was higher in roots than shoots (650.0 and 511.5 mg Pb kg(-1) root dry weight, respectively). A similar pattern was found in sunflower. Plants with AMF absorbed equal or lower amounts of Fe, Na and Ca than controls. H. vulgare absorbed more total P (1.0%) than H. annuus (0.9%). The arbuscular mycorrizal consortium enhanced Pb extraction by plants.

  9. Influence of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and pH on copper toxicity to barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Lock, K; Criel, P; De Schamphelaere, K A C; Van Eeckhout, H; Janssen, C R

    2007-10-01

    The extent to which Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+) ions and pH independently influence copper toxicity to barley (Hordeum vulgare) was assessed by measuring root growth in nutrient solutions. Increased Ca(2+) activity resulted in a sixfold decrease in [EC50(cu2+)] values, while a positive relationship between the cation activity and the EC50 was expected. Increased Mg(2+) activity resulted in a twofold increase in [EC50(cu2+)] values. Na(+), K(+) and H(+) activities did not significantly affect Cu(2+) toxicity. The obtained results indicated that competition for binding sites between Cu(2+) and cations such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+) and H(+) is not an important factor in determining Cu(2+) toxicity to H. vulgare. However, the EC50s could, with one exception, be predicted within a factor three based on the free Cu(2+) activity, indicating that the free Cu(2+) activity cannot only be used to predict metal toxicity to aquatic, but also to terrestrial organisms.

  10. A herbal antifungal formulation of Thymus serpillum, Origanum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis for treating ovine dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

    PubMed

    Mugnaini, Linda; Nardoni, Simona; Pistelli, Luisa; Leonardi, Michele; Giuliotti, Lorella; Benvenuti, Maria N; Pisseri, Francesca; Mancianti, Francesca

    2013-05-01

    A number of herbal products with anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and antimycotic properties are available for dermatological usage. The successful treatment of 13 sheep affected by ringworm due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes with a mixture consisting of essential oils (EOs) of Thymus serpillum 2%, Origanum vulgare 5% and Rosmarinus officinalis 5% in sweet almond (Prunus dulcis) oil. The effectiveness of EOs and of the major components of the mixture (thymol, carvacrol, 1,8 cineole, α-pinene, p-cymene, γ-terpinene) against the fungal clinical isolate was evaluated by a microdilution test. Thirteen animals were topically administered with the mixture twice daily for 15 days. The other sheep were administered with a conventional treatment (seven animals) or left untreated (two animals). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were 0.1% for T. serpillum, 0.5% for O. vulgare, 2.5% for I. verum and 5% for both R. officinalis and C. limon. Thymol and carvacrol showed MICs of 0.125% and 0.0625%. A clinical and aetiological cure was obtained at the end of each treatment regimen in only the treated animals. Specific antimycotic drugs licenced for food-producing sheep are not available within the European Community. The mixture tested here appeared to be a versatile tool for limiting fungal growth.

  11. Large gene overlaps and tRNA processing in the compact mitochondrial genome of the crustacean Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Doublet, Vincent; Ubrig, Elodie; Alioua, Abdelmalek; Bouchon, Didier; Marcadé, Isabelle; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    A faithful expression of the mitochondrial DNA is crucial for cell survival. Animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) presents a highly compact gene organization. The typical 16.5 kbp animal mtDNA encodes 13 proteins, 2 rRNAs and 22 tRNAs. In the backyard pillbug Armadillidium vulgare, the rather small 13.9 kbp mtDNA encodes the same set of proteins and rRNAs as compared to animal kingdom mtDNA, but seems to harbor an incomplete set of tRNA genes. Here, we first confirm the expression of 13 tRNA genes in this mtDNA. Then we show the extensive repair of a truncated tRNA, the expression of tRNA involved in large gene overlaps and of tRNA genes partially or fully integrated within protein-coding genes in either direct or opposite orientation. Under selective pressure, overlaps between genes have been likely favored for strong genome size reduction. Our study underlines the existence of unknown biochemical mechanisms for the complete gene expression of A. vulgare mtDNA, and of co-evolutionary processes to keep overlapping genes functional in a compacted mitochondrial genome.

  12. Combined application of origanum vulgare l. essential oil and acetic acid for controlling the growth of staphylococcus aureus in foods

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Evandro Leite; de Barros, Jefferson Carneiro; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; Neto, Nelson Justino Gomes; da Costa, Ana Caroliny Vieira

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the occurrence of an enhancing inhibitory effect of the combined application of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil and acetic acid against Staphylococcus aureus by the determination of Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) index and kill-time assay in nutrient broth, meat broth and in a food model (meat pieces). Acetic acid showed MIC and MFC of 0.6 and 1.25 μL.mL-1, respectively. For O. vulgare essential oil MIC and MBC were 1.25 and 2.5 μL.mL-1, respectively. FIC indexes of the mixture of essential oil and acetic acid at MIC x ½ were ≤ 1.0, showing an additive effect. No synergy was found at kill-time study. Anti-staphylococcal effect of the antimicrobials alone or in mixture (MIC x ½) was lower in meat than in nutrient and meat broths. The effective combination of essential oils and organic acids could appear as an attractive alternative for the food industry, as the doses to inhibit the microbial growth in foods can be lowered. PMID:24031377

  13. Large gene overlaps and tRNA processing in the compact mitochondrial genome of the crustacean Armadillidium vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Doublet, Vincent; Ubrig, Elodie; Alioua, Abdelmalek; Bouchon, Didier; Marcadé, Isabelle; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    A faithful expression of the mitochondrial DNA is crucial for cell survival. Animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) presents a highly compact gene organization. The typical 16.5 kbp animal mtDNA encodes 13 proteins, 2 rRNAs and 22 tRNAs. In the backyard pillbug Armadillidium vulgare, the rather small 13.9 kbp mtDNA encodes the same set of proteins and rRNAs as compared to animal kingdom mtDNA, but seems to harbor an incomplete set of tRNA genes. Here, we first confirm the expression of 13 tRNA genes in this mtDNA. Then we show the extensive repair of a truncated tRNA, the expression of tRNA involved in large gene overlaps and of tRNA genes partially or fully integrated within protein-coding genes in either direct or opposite orientation. Under selective pressure, overlaps between genes have been likely favored for strong genome size reduction. Our study underlines the existence of unknown biochemical mechanisms for the complete gene expression of A. vulgare mtDNA, and of co-evolutionary processes to keep overlapping genes functional in a compacted mitochondrial genome. PMID:26361137

  14. Molecular response of Sargassum vulgare to acidification at volcanic CO2 vents - insights from de novo transcriptomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Castellano, Immacolata; Patti, Francesco Paolo; Delledonne, Massimo; Abdelgawad, Hamada; Beemster, Gerrit T S; Asard, Han; Palumbo, Anna; Buia, Maria Cristina

    2017-01-30

    Ocean acidification is an emerging problem that is expected to impact ocean species to varying degrees. Currently, little is known about its effect on molecular mechanisms induced in fleshy macroalgae. To elucidate genome wide responses to acidification, a comparative transcriptome analysis was carried out between Sargassum vulgare populations growing under acidified conditions at volcanic CO2 vents and a control site. Several transcripts involved in a wide range of cellular and metabolic processes were differentially expressed. No drastic changes were observed in the carbon acquisition processes and RuBisCO level. Moreover, relatively few stress genes, including those for antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins, were affected. Instead, increased expression of transcripts involved in energy metabolism, photosynthetic processes, and ion homeostasis suggested that algae increased energy production to maintain ion-homeostasis and other cellular processes. Also, an increased allocation of carbon to cell wall and carbon storage was observed. A number of genes encoding proteins involved in cellular signaling, information storage and processing, and transposition were differentially expressed between the two conditions. The transcriptional changes of key enzymes were largely confirmed by enzymatic activity measurements. Altogether, the changes induced by acidification indicate an adaptation of growth and development of S. vulgare at the volcanic CO2 vents, suggesting that this fleshy alga exhibits a high plasticity to low pH and can adopt molecular strategies to grow also in future more acidified waters. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Antinociceptive Effect of Aqueous Extract of Origanum vulgare L. in Male Rats: Possible Involvement of the GABAergic System

    PubMed Central

    Afarineshe Khaki, Mohammad Reza; Pahlavan, Yasamin; Sepehri, Gholamreza; Sheibani, Vahid; Pahlavan, Bahare

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to assess the possible involvement of GABAergic mechanism in analgesic effect of aqueous extract of Origanum Vulgare (ORG) in a rat model of acute pain test. Sixty-three anaesthetized male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were cannulated into the left ventricle. Five to seven days after the recovery from surgery, ORG extract was intraventricularly injected at dose of 3 μg/rat i.c.v. Then, baclofen (10 mg/Kg, IP), CGP35348 (100 nmol/Kg, i.c.v), muscimol (1 mg/Kg IP) and bicuculline (5 mg/Kg IP) were separately injected 20 min before the injection of ORG. The experimental groups were compared with intact (control) group (n = 7). The response latency of rats to thermal stimulation was recorded using Tail-Flick test. Injection of ORG extract resulted in a significant and dose-dependent increase in the response latency. There was also a significant increase in the response latency after co-administration of ORG extract with baclofen when compared with control group. However, following co-administration of ORG extract/bicuculline, a significant decrease in the response latency was observed compared to control group. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that aqueous extract of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. viridis possesses antinociceptive activity in a dose-dependent manner and ORG-induced antinociception might be mediated, at least in part, by both GABA receptors. PMID:24250616

  16. Effect of cadmium on selected physiological and morphological parameters in metallicolous and non-metallicolous populations of Echium vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Dresler, Sławomir; Bednarek, Wiesław; Wójcik, Małgorzata

    2014-06-01

    Cadmium tolerance of three populations of Echium vulgare L., naturally occurring on two Zn-Pb waste deposits (metallicolous populations M1, M2) and on an uncontaminated site (non-metallicolous population, NM) was investigated. The plants were cultivated in hydroponics at 0, 5, 15, 30, or 50μM Cd for 14 days. Although Cd reduced the content of photosynthetic pigments indifferently in the three populations, plant growth parameters and root viability analyses confirmed different Cd tolerances decreasing in the order M1>M2>NM in the populations studied. Organic acids (tartrate, malate, citrate, succinate) were not responsible for the elevated Cd tolerance of the metallicolous populations, although malate and citrate might participate in Cd detoxification in the roots of the M1 and M2. Phytochelatin concentrations were higher in the roots of M1 and M2 populations of E. vulgare, suggesting their role in Cd detoxification and different Cd tolerances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuroprotective Effects of Herbal Extract (Rosa canina, Tanacetum vulgare and Urtica dioica) on Rat Model of Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Daneshmand, Parvaneh; Saliminejad, Kioomars; Dehghan Shasaltaneh, Marzieh; Kamali, Koorosh; Riazi, Gholam Hossein; Nazari, Reza; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease (SAD) is caused by genetic risk factors, aging and oxidative stresses. The herbal extract of Rosa canina (R. canina), Tanacetum vulgare (T. vulgare) and Urtica dioica (U. dioica) has a beneficial role in aging, as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agent. In this study, the neuroprotective effects of this herbal extract in the rat model of SAD was investigated. The rats were divided into control, sham, model, herbal extract -treated and ethanol-treated groups. Drug interventions were started on the 21(st) day after modeling and each treatment group was given the drugs by intraperitoneal (I.P.) route for 21 days. The expression levels of the five important genes for pathogenesis of SAD including Syp, Psen1, Mapk3, Map2 and Tnf-α were measured by qPCR between the hippocampi of SAD model which were treated by this herbal extract and control groups. The Morris Water Maze was adapted to test spatial learning and memory ability of the rats. Treatment of the rat model of SAD with herbal extract induced a significant change in expression of Syp (p=0.001) and Psen1 (p=0.029). In Morris Water Maze, significant changes in spatial learning seen in the rat model group were improved in herbal-treated group. This herbal extract could have anti-dementia properties and improve spatial learning and memory in SAD rat model.

  18. Inhibitory effect of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare essential oils on virulence factors of phytopatogenic Pseudomonas syringae strains.

    PubMed

    Carezzano, M E; Sotelo, J P; Primo, E; Reinoso, E B; Paletti Rovey, M F; Demo, M S; Giordano, W F; de Las M Oliva, M

    2017-04-12

    Pseudomonas syringae is a phytopathogenic bacterium that causes lesions in the leaves during the colonization process. The damage is associated to the production of many virulence factors such as biofilm and phytotoxins. The essential oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare have demonstrated the ability to inhibit P. syringae. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils on the production of virulence factors of phytopatogenic P. syringae strains, including anti-biofilm and anti-toxins activities. The broth microdilution method was performed for the determination of MIC and biofilm inhibition assays. Coronatine, syringomycin and tabtoxin was pheno- and genotipically evaluated. Both oils showed good inhibitory activity with MIC values ranging from 1.43 to 11.5 mg/mL for thyme and 5.8 to 11.6 mg/mL for oregano. The biofilm formation, the production of coronatine, syringomycin and tabtoxin were inhibited by thyme and oregano essential oils in the majority of the strains. The results presented here are promising, demonstrating the bactericidal activity and the reduction of the virulence factor production by thymus and oregano oils, providing some insight into how they exert their antibacterial activity. These natural products could be considered in the future for the control of bacteriosis caused by P. syringae. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic Transformation of Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum for the Development of a Transposon-Based Insertional Mutagenesis System.

    PubMed

    Cardinal, Marie-Josée; Kaur, Rajvinder; Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-10-01

    Domestication and intensive selective breeding of plants has triggered erosion of genetic diversity of important stress-related alleles. Researchers highlight the potential of using wild accessions as a gene source for improvement of cereals such as barley, which has major economic and social importance worldwide. Previously, we have successfully introduced the maize Ac/Ds transposon system for gene identification in cultivated barley. The objective of current research was to investigate the response of Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum wild barley accessions in tissue culture to standardize parameters for introduction of Ac/Ds transposons through genetic transformation. We investigated the response of ten wild barley genotypes for callus induction, regenerative green callus induction and regeneration of fertile plants. The activity of exogenous Ac/Ds elements was observed through a transient assay on immature wild barley embryos/callus whereby transformed embryos/calli were identified by the expression of GUS. Transient Ds expression bombardment experiments were performed on 352 pieces of callus (3-5 mm each) or immature embryos in 4 genotypes of wild barley. The transformation frequency of putative transgenic callus lines based on transient GUS expression ranged between 72 and100 % in wild barley genotypes. This is the first report of a transformation system in H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum.

  20. Evidence for Lack of Acquisition of Tolerance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028 after Exposure to Subinhibitory Amounts of Origanum vulgare L. Essential Oil and Carvacrol

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Isabelle da Silva; Gomes Neto, Nelson Justino; Tavares, Adassa Gama; Nunes, Pollyana Campos; Magnani, Marciane

    2012-01-01

    Overnight exposure of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to sublethal amounts of Origanum vulgare essential oil (OV) and carvacrol (CAR) did not result in direct and cross-bacterial protection. Cells subcultured with increasing amounts of OV or CAR survived up to the MIC of either compound, revealing few significant changes in bacterial susceptibility. PMID:22544235

  1. Isolation of diterpenoid alkaloids from herb and flowers of aconitum napellus ssp. vulgare and electrospray ion trap multiple MS study of these alkaloids

    PubMed

    Chen; Koelliker; Oehme; Katz

    1999-05-01

    Chemical investigation of herb and flowers of Aconitum napellus L. ssp. vulgare led to the isolation of 12 diterpenoid alkaloids. Their chemical structures were identified on the basis of NMR and MS and of their complete ion trap multiple fragmentation mass spectrometry study.

  2. Broadly conserved fungal effector BEC1019 suppresses host cell death and enhances pathogen virulence in powdery mildew of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The interaction of barley, Hordeum vulgare L., with the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, is an ideal model to address fundamental questions in host resistance and susceptibility. Effector proteins secreted by B. graminis act to inhibit, induce, or accelerate host pr...

  3. Selected secondary metabolites in Echium vulgare L. populations from nonmetalliferous and metalliferous areas.

    PubMed

    Dresler, Sławomir; Rutkowska, Ewelina; Bednarek, Wiesław; Stanisławski, Grzegorz; Kubrak, Tomasz; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Wójcik, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of severe environmental conditions prevailing on metalliferous waste heaps and heavy metal-contaminated growth substrates on accumulation of selected secondary metabolites, antioxidant capacity, and heavy metal concentration in two metallicolous (MC, MZ) and one nonmetallicolous (NM) populations of Echium vulgare L. The shoots and the roots of the three studied populations were collected from their natural habitats. Additionally, the plants were cultivated on different growth substrates, i.e. a contaminated substrate obtained from the areas of growth of the MZ and MC populations and an uncontaminated one from the NM population site. Several compounds, i.e. allantoin, rutin, rosmarinic acid, chlorogenic acid, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid were identified in the shoots. Moreover, rosmarinic acid, allantoin, and shikonin were measured in the roots. The adverse environmental conditions contributed to a ca. 10- and 4-fold increase in the concentration of allantoin in the roots and shoots, respectively, as well as a ca. 4-fold and ca. 3-fold increase in the level of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and shikonin, respectively, in comparison with the plants from the uncontaminated site. Similarly, a great impact of the contaminated substrate on the compounds was demonstrated in the soil experiment. Regardless of the populations, even ca. 20-fold higher levels of allantoin and shikonin were observed in plants grown on the MC and MZ substrates. In contrast, the chlorogenic acid concentration was lower in plants collected from the metalliferous areas and in all populations cultivated on the contaminated substrates in comparison with plants from the uncontaminated soil. Unambiguous results were obtained in the case of rutin, i.e. decreased accumulation in both metallicolous populations from the natural environment and increased accumulation in plants grown on the contaminated substrates. The high concentrations of heavy metals in the

  4. Effect of the dietary oregano (Origanum vulgare) on Cu and Zn balance in weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Untea, Arabela; Criste, Rodica; Panaite, Tatiana; Costache, Iulian

    2011-01-01

    A 4-week study conducted on 20 weaned piglets (average initial weight 15 kg) evaluated the effects of dietary oregano (Origanum vulgare) used in the presence/absence of phytase on the Cu and Zn balance, while reducing/eliminating their inclusion in the diet as inorganic salts. Oregano was harvested from the wild flora. The Cu and Zn concentrations that were taken into consideration (9.85 ppm and 53.31 pmm, respectively) were the consensus values obtained in an interlaboratory study. The piglets were assigned to 4 groups (C, E1, E2, E3), housed in individual metabolic cages and fed on corn-soybean meal-based diets. The diet of the control group (C) with addition of 1% inorganic mineral premix (MP), contained: 40.92 ppm Cu, 144.96 ppm Zn. The experimental diets differed from the C diet as follows: E1--3% oregano, 0% phytase (5000 PU/g), 0% MP; E2--3% oregano, 0.01% phytase, 0% MP; E3--3% oregano, 0% phytase, 0.5% MP, E4--3% oregano, 0.01% phytase, 0,5% premix. For groups E1, E2, E3 and E4, 0.5% Zn of the MP were included in the diet, because the dietary oregano amount did not meet the requirements (NRC) for piglets. The mineral balance was determined during 3 periods of 5 days each. The levels of Cu and Zn were measured by FAAS in the samples (weekly samples/piglet) of ingesta, faeces and urine. It was noticed that although the dietary Cu ingested by the groups without MP was 75% (10.08 ppm) lower than C, the absorption coefficients were only 47% (28.83) lower than for group C (54.22%), while in the groups with 0.5% MP, the absorption was just 10% (48.86%) lower than for group C. For Zn, where the amount ingested by the experimental groups was 33% (97.62 ppm) lower than for group C, the absorption coefficients were just 20% (46.3%) lower than for group C (57.64%). No significant differences were noticed for Cu and Zn in terms of apparent absorption, between the groups with/without phytase. The deposits of Cu and Zn in the main organs and serum (from slaughtered

  5. HPLC-HRMS method for fast phytochelatins determination in plants. Application to analysis of Clinopodium vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Bardarov, Krum; Naydenov, Mladen; Djingova, Rumyana

    2015-09-01

    An optimized analytical method based on C8 core-shell reverse phase chromatographic separation and high resolution mass spectral (HRMS) detection is developed for a fast analysis of unbound phytochelatins (PCs) in plants. Its application to analysis of Clinopodium vulgare L. is demonstrated where proper PCs liberating and preservation conditions were employed using dithiotreitol in the extraction step. A baseline separation of glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins from 2 to 5 (PC2-PC5) for 3 min was achieved at conventional HPLC backpressure, with detection limits from 3 ppt (for GSH) to 2.5 ppb (for PC5). It is shown, that the use of HRMS with tandem mass spectral (MS/MS) capabilities permits additional wide range screening ability for iso-phytochelatins and PC similar compounds, based on exact mass and fragment spectra in a post acquisition manner.

  6. A High-Throughput RNA Extraction for Sprouted Single-Seed Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Rich in Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Abdur; Baldwin, Thomas; Gines, Michael; Bregitzer, Phil; Esvelt Klos, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Germinated seed from cereal crops including barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important tissue to extract RNA and analyze expression levels of genes that control aspects of germination. These tissues are rich in polysaccharides and most methods for RNA extraction are not suitable to handle the excess polysaccharides. Here, we compare the current methods for RNA extraction applicable to germinated barley tissue. We found that although some of these standard methods produced high-quality RNA, the process of extraction was drastically slow, mostly because the frozen seed tissue powder from liquid N2 grinding became recalcitrant to buffer mixing. Our suggested modifications to the protocols removed the need for liquid N2 grinding and significantly increased the output efficiency of RNA extraction. Our modified protocol has applications in other cereal tissues rich in polysaccharides, including oat. PMID:28025509

  7. [Mechanism of the refractory state of androgen hormone in Armadillidium vulgare Latr. (crustacean, isopod, oniscoid) harboring a feminizing bacteria].

    PubMed

    Juchault, P; Legrand, J J

    1985-12-01

    In thelygenous lines of Armadillidium vulgare, neo-females and intersex males (iM) with feminizing symbiotic bacteria are not masculinized by an extract from iM androgenic gland, which, however, masculinizes bacterialess genetic females. Injection of iM hemolymph extract masculinizes these genetic females. This indicates that androgenic hormone is present in iM hemolymph. Lack of androgenic hormone activity in thelygenous lines is supposed to result from the action of bacteria on the androgenic hormone receptors. Since a temporary recovery of the male differentiation of iM can be induced by implantation of different parts of central nervous system, bacteria effect is probably indirect, through an action on a neurosecretory system, perhaps one of those controlling the functioning of the androgenic gland.

  8. A High-Throughput RNA Extraction for Sprouted Single-Seed Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Rich in Polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Abdur; Baldwin, Thomas; Gines, Michael; Bregitzer, Phil; Esvelt Klos, Kathy

    2016-12-22

    Germinated seed from cereal crops including barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important tissue to extract RNA and analyze expression levels of genes that control aspects of germination. These tissues are rich in polysaccharides and most methods for RNA extraction are not suitable to handle the excess polysaccharides. Here, we compare the current methods for RNA extraction applicable to germinated barley tissue. We found that although some of these standard methods produced high-quality RNA, the process of extraction was drastically slow, mostly because the frozen seed tissue powder from liquid N₂ grinding became recalcitrant to buffer mixing. Our suggested modifications to the protocols removed the need for liquid N₂ grinding and significantly increased the output efficiency of RNA extraction. Our modified protocol has applications in other cereal tissues rich in polysaccharides, including oat.

  9. The role of pollination in the population biology of the monocarpic species Cirsium palustre and Cirsium vulgare.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, B H

    1981-10-01

    The absence of cross-pollination in Cirsium palustre and Cirsium vulgare resulted in reduced achene production while the achenes produced were heavier than those produced after cross-pollimation. Establishment of plants from non-cross-pollinated achenes is comparatively higher, facilitating the founding of a population from isolated individuals in these wind-dispersed species.If achene weight is the result of a balance between cross-pollination and self-pollination (and/or apomixis), the first causing more and thereby lighter achenes to develop, increasing density of flowering individuals in a population may lower achene weight and consequently seedling survival. This may account for the frequently observed decline of populations of fugitive monocarpic perennials.

  10. Development of PLA films containing oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare L. virens) intended for use in food packaging.

    PubMed

    Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Pichardo, S; Bermúdez, J M; Baños, A; Núñez, C; Guillamón, E; Aucejo, S; Cameán, A M

    2016-08-01

    Consumers' concerns about the environment and health have led to the development of new food packaging materials avoiding petroleum-based matrices and synthetic additives. The present study has developed polylactic acid (PLA) films containing different concentrations of essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. virens (OEO). The effectiveness of this new active packaging was checked for use in ready-to-eat salads. A plasticising effect was observed when OEO was incorporated in PLA films. The rest of the mechanical and physical properties of developed films did not show much change when OEO was included in the film. An antioxidant effect was recorded only for films containing the highest percentages of the active agent (5% and 10%). In addition, films exhibited in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus carnosus. Moreover, in ready-to-eat salads, antimicrobial activity was only observed against yeast and moulds, where 5% and 10% of OEO was the most effective.

  11. Physiochemical Properties of the Pulp and Almonds of TUCUMÃ (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart) for Oil Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, R. M.; Ribeiro, A. I.; Melo, W. J.; Queiroz, M. R.; Russo, A. C.; Amaral, J. B.

    2009-04-01

    Tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart) it is a palm tree commonly found at the Amazonian forest of firm earth, it produces nutritious fruits, quite appreciated by the local population. The seeds are for the obtaining of eatable olive oil and soap, the endocarp is employee for the local population in the making of earrings, rings, bracelets, necklaces and other workmanships. This species has occurrence also in Acre, Rondônia, Pará, Mato Grosso, Roraima, Trindad, Guyana and Bolivia. The objective of this work was to accomplish mechanical tests on the fruits with the purpose of studying the rupture of the shell and the whole income almonds and to obtain the impact loads in tucumã fruits. It was also characterized biochemical compositions of the pulp and the almond seeking the use for the other ends. The physiochemical parameters analyzed were: moisture content, fats gray, total protein, fiber, carbohydrate, calorie, fats acids and vitamins, just in the pulp: vitamin E, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B5, vitamin B3, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D3 and vitamin E. The obtained results revealed that the maximum force of rupture was of approximately 6200 N for the direction apex-insert and 7200 N for the perpendicular direction; then this the tucumã fruit with high shell hardness when compared to the other types of chestnuts, being necessary studies to design machines capable to promote mechanical breaking and thus facilitating, its commercial exploration. The pulp of the tucumã fruits, presented a significant amount of fats (32%), following by carbohydrates (19,7%) and fibers (18,4). The caloric value was of 380 Kcal/g. Also the pulp presented good amount of vitamin B3 (niacin - 76,7%) and C (acid ascorbic - 23,6%). In relation to the fat acids the pulp presents contents of acid oleic (C18.1) about 72,8% following for linoléico (C18.2), being a good product for the human and animal feeding,. In the almond 24,2% of fiber, 10,7% of fats, 17,0% of

  12. Rumen fermentation and production effects of Origanum vulgare L. leaves in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Tekippe, J A; Hristov, A N; Heyler, K S; Cassidy, T W; Zheljazkov, V D; Ferreira, J F S; Karnati, S K; Varga, G A

    2011-10-01

    A lactating cow trial was conducted to study the effects of dietary addition of oregano leaf material (Origanum vulgare L.; OV; 0, control vs. 500 g/d) on ruminal fermentation, methane production, total tract digestibility, manure gas emissions, N metabolism, organoleptic characteristics of milk, and dairy cow performance. Eight primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows (6 of which were ruminally cannulated) were used in a crossover design trial with two 21-d periods. Cows were fed once daily. The OV material was top-dressed and mixed with a portion of the total mixed ration. Cows averaged 80 ± 12.5 d in milk at the beginning of the trial. Rumen pH, concentration of total and individual volatile fatty acids, microbial protein outflow, and microbial profiles were not affected by treatment. Ruminal ammonia-N concentration was increased by OV compared with the control (5.3 vs. 4.3mM). Rumen methane production, which was measured only within 8h after feeding, was decreased by OV. Intake of dry matter (average of 26.6 ± 0.83 kg/d) and apparent total tract digestibly of nutrients did not differ between treatments. Average milk yield, milk protein, lactose, and milk urea nitrogen concentrations were unaffected by treatment. Milk fat content was increased and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield tended to be increased by OV, compared with the control (3.29 vs. 3.12% and 42.4 vs. 41.0 kg/d, respectively). Fat-corrected (3.5%) milk feed efficiency and milk net energy for lactation (NE(L)) efficiency (milk NE(L) ÷ NE(L) intake) were increased by OV compared with the control (1.64 vs. 1.54 kg/kg and 68.0 vs. 64.4%, respectively). Milk sensory parameters were not affected by treatment. Urinary and fecal N losses, and manure ammonia and methane emissions were unaffected by treatment. Under the current experimental conditions, supplementation of dairy cow diets with 500 g/d of OV increased milk fat concentration, feed and milk NE(L) efficiencies, and tended to increase 3.5% fat

  13. Continuous 2-keto-L-gulonic acid fermentation from L-sorbose by Ketogulonigenium vulgare DSM 4025.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Yoshinori; Sugisawa, Teruhide; Hoshino, Tatsuo

    2009-04-01

    A single-stage continuous fermentation process for the production of 2-keto-L-gulonic acid (2KGA) from L-sorbose using Ketogulonigenium vulgare DSM 4025 was developed. The chemostat culture with the dilution rate that was calculated based on the relationship between the 2KGA production rate and the 2KGA concentration was feasible for production with high concentration of 2KGA. In this system, 112.2 g/L of 2KGA on the average was continuously produced from 114 g/L of L-sorbose. A steady state of the fermentation was maintained for the duration of more than 110 h. The dilution rate was kept in the range of 0.035 and 0.043 h(-1), and the 2KGA productivity was 3.90 to 4.80 g/L/h. The average molar conversion yield of 2KGA from L-sorbose was 91.3%. Under the optimal conditions, L-sorbose concentration was kept at 0 g/L. Meanwhile, the dissolved oxygen level was changing in response to the dilution rate and 2KGA concentration. In the dissolved oxygen (DO) range of 16% to 58%, it was revealed that the relationship between DO and D possessed high degree of positive correlation under the L-sorbose limiting condition (complete consumption of L-sorbose). Increasing D closer to the critical value for washing out point of the continuous fermentation, DO value tended to be gradually increased up to 58%. In conclusion, an efficient and reproducible continuous fermentation process for 2KGA production by K. vulgare DSM 4025 could be developed using a medium containing baker's yeast without using a second helper microorganism.

  14. Sex reversal by implantations of ethanol-treated androgenic glands of female isopods, Armadillidium vulgare (Malacostraca, crustacea).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S; Yamasaki, K

    1998-09-01

    The androgenic glands (AGs) of malacostracan crustaceans are responsible for differentiation of male sexual characteristics, and sex reversal is readily obtained by implantation of AGs in female crustaceans. In order to induce sex reversal, we implanted inactive AGs (dead cells) into young females of Armadillidium vulgare. Before implantation fresh AGs (living cells) were treated twice with 80% ethanol for 3 min and kept in crustacean physiological saline for 30 s. We refer to these AGs as ethanol-treated AGs (t-AGs). Stage 6 females were used as recipients of t-AG implantation. They received an implant of three t-AGs (3 t-AGs) three times, once each week. Testis formation in recipients was used as an indicator of the masculinized levels of female gonads. Female sexual characteristics were masculinized in proportion to the number of 3 t-AG implantations. Three implantations (total number of t-AGs, nine glands) induced development of testes, penes, and male copulatory organs in the recipient females. Furthermore, they could produce progeny. These results show that t-AG implantations are capable of inducing masculinization of female sexual characteristics. The procedure of three implantations with 3 t-AGs at stage 6 is enough to transform the sex from a genetic female into a functional male. If t-AGs are used to implant instead of fresh AGs, we can detect the effects induced by newly formed AGs of recipient females, not by implanted donor's AGs. The present method may be useful for examining the regulatory mechanism of sex differentiation of female A. vulgare.

  15. [The hygienic characteristic and effectiveness of the application of natural sylvinite screens for the combined treatment of the patients presenting with vulgar psoriasis].

    PubMed

    El'kin, V D; Vladimirskiĭ, E V; Barannikov, V G; Gorovits, É S; Kopytova, E A

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to provide hygienic assessment of hospital wards equipped with the therapeutic sylvinite screens (TSS) and compare the results of the treatment of 80 patients suffering vulgar psoriasis with the use of TSS and without them. The sylvinite screens made it possible to create comfortable microenvironment in the wards and moderately increased the radiation background (0,15+/-0,005 Sv/hour) thereby promoting saturation of the ward atmosphere with aeroions dominated by the light negative particles (491,5+/-14,4 units/cm3). Such healthy environment hadc beneficial effect on the clinical course of the psoriatic process, the state of functional systems of the patients and their quality of life. It is concluded that the introduction of halotherapy in the treatment in patients presenting with vulgar psoriasis makes it possible to achieve clinical remission in 65% of them compared with 20% of the patients given the traditional treatment.

  16. [Study of the synthesis of vitellogenin in intersexual males of Armadillidium vulgare Latreille (oniscoid isopod crustacean): comparison with males and with intact or ovariectomized females].

    PubMed

    Souty-Grosset, C; Juchault, P

    1987-05-01

    In some natural populations of Armadilidium vulgare, intersex animals are genetic males which are feminized by maternally transmitted symbiotic bacteria. In these intersex males (iM) the fat body synthesizes vitellogenin, although their gonads are testes with hypertrophied--but nonfunctional--androgenic glands. Vitellogenin is present in the hemolymph of males changed experimentally into iM 90 days after inoculation of the feminizing bacteria. During the molting cycle, vitellogenin synthesis in iM varies as in ovariectomized females or in vitellogenic females, with a peak at the stage D1." In A. vulgare, vitellogenin synthesis is a neutral character since it can be observed in a genetic male or in an ovariectomized female; however, it is inhibited by the androgenic hormone. In intersex males, vitellogenin synthesis is the result of their refractoriness to androgenic hormone.

  17. Androgenic gland hormone is a sex-reversing factor but cannot be a sex-determining factor in the female crustacean isopods Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S

    1999-09-01

    Sex reversal of female isopods, Armadillidium vulgare, has been induced by implantation of the androgenic gland (AG) into individuals after the initiation of morphological sex differentiation. The focus of the present study is to examine whether female gonads are reversed by the androgenic gland hormone (AGH) during the sexually undifferentiated period through postembryonic development in A. vulgare. Instead of injections of AGH, three AGs were implanted into each genetic female at various developmental stages to induce sex reversal. Before implantation fresh AGs were treated with ethanol to stop AGH synthesis, but then still contained AGH. These AGs have been referred to as ethanol-treated AGs (t-AGs). Development of a testis was used as an indicator of gonadal sex reversal. The gonads of genetic females were transformed into testes by implantations of t-AGs during the sex differentiation period. However, when genetic females received implants at sexually undifferentiated stages, development of their gonads was not reversed in the male direction. These results suggest that after the onset of gonadal sex differentiation, AGH is a sex-reversing factor that can turn a female gonad into a male gonad. AGH cannot be a sex-determining factor in female A. vulgare, as undifferentiated gonads of genetic females are not sex reversed by the hormone.

  18. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and insecticidal activity against the lesser mealworm Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (Link) and Artemisia dracunculus L. essential oils.

    PubMed

    Szczepanik, Maria; Walczak, Maciej; Zawitowska, Beata; Michalska-Sionkowska, Marta; Szumny, Antoni; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław; Swiontek Brzezinska, Maria

    2017-07-04

    Essential oils (EOs) from Artemisia dracunculus L. and Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum were obtained and the qualitative and quantitative chemical composition of the extracts was investigated. The insecticidal activity of EOs against the larval stages of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) was studied. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of these oils against pathogens transmitted by this pest was also investigated. The obtained results indicate the possibility of using Greek oregano EO with a high content of carvacrol as a feed additive in poultry nutrition. The use of the Greek oregano oil at 1% dose shows stronger reduction of body weight gain of larvae IV stage. Their body mass was only 10.92% of the control. Moreover, essential oils from Origanum vulgare strongly inhibit the growth of tested bacteria strain as well as growth of Candida albicans. This may be a good alternative to antibiotic growth promoters and coccidiostats whose use in feeding farm animals has been prohibited from January 2006 under European Union Directives. The introduction of O. vulgare L. ssp. hirtum EO into the premises of farm and poultry houses may help to improve sanitary conditions and the control of the lesser mealworm inhabiting these buildings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment of experimental pythiosis with essential oils of Origanum vulgare and Mentha piperita singly, in association and in combination with immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Anelise O S; Pereira, Daniela I B; Botton, Sônia A; Pötter, Luciana; Sallis, Elisa S V; Júnior, Sérgio F V; Filho, Fernando S M; Zambrano, Cristina Gomes; Maroneze, Beatriz P; Valente, Julia S S; Baptista, Cristiane T; Braga, Caroline Q; Ben, Vanessa Dal; Meireles, Mario C A

    2015-08-05

    This study investigated the in vivo antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Origanum vulgare and Mentha piperita both singly, associated and in combination with immunotherapy to treat experimental pythiosis. The disease was reproduced in 18 rabbits divided into six groups (n=3): group 1, control; group 2, treated with essential oil of Mentha piperita; group 3, treated with essential oil of Origanum vulgare; group 4, treated with commercial immunotherapic; group 5, treated with a association of oils of M. piperita and O. vulgare and group 6, treated with a combination of both oils plus immunotherapy. Essential oils were added in a topical cream base formula, and lesions were treated daily for 45 days. The animals in groups 4 and 6 received a dose of immunotherapeutic agent every 14 days. The results revealed that the evolution of lesions in groups 5 and 6 did not differ from one another but differed from the other groups. The lesions of group 5 increased 3.16 times every measurement, while those of group 6 increased 1.83 times, indicating that the smallest growth of the lesions occurred when the combination of therapies were used. A rabbit from group 5 showed clinical cure at day 20 of treatment. This research is the pioneer in the treatment of experimental pythiosis using essential oils from medicinal plants and a combination of therapies. This study demonstrated that the use of essential oils can be a viable alternative treatment to cutaneous pythiosis, particularly when used in association or combination with immunotherapy.

  20. Purification and characterization of soluble (cytosolic) and bound (cell wall) isoforms of invertases in barley (Hordeum vulgare) elongating stem tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karuppiah, N.; Vadlamudi, B.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1989-01-01

    Three different isoforms of invertases have been detected in the developing internodes of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Based on substrate specificities, the isoforms have been identified to be invertases (beta-fructosidases EC 3.2.1.26). The soluble (cytosolic) invertase isoform can be purified to apparent homogeneity by diethylaminoethyl cellulose, Concanavalin-A Sepharose, organo-mercurial Sepharose, and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography. A bound (cell wall) invertase isoform can be released by 1 molar salt and purified further by the same procedures as above except omitting the organo-mercurial Sepharose affinity chromatography step. A third isoform of invertase, which is apparently tightly associated with the cell wall, cannot be isolated yet. The soluble and bound invertase isoforms were purified by factors of 60- and 7-fold, respectively. The native enzymes have an apparent molecular weight of 120 kilodaltons as estimated by gel filtration. They have been identified to be dimers under denaturing and nondenaturing conditions. The soluble enzyme has a pH optimum of 5.5, Km of 12 millimolar, and a Vmax of 80 micromole per minute per milligram of protein compared with cell wall isozyme which has a pH optimum of 4.5, Km of millimolar, and a Vmax of 9 micromole per minute per milligram of protein.

  1. Construction of a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) YAC library and isolation of a Hor1-specific clone.

    PubMed

    Kleine, M; Michalek, W; Graner, A; Herrmann, R G; Jung, C

    1993-08-01

    We have constructed an EcoRI-based YAC (yeast artificial chromosome) library from barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Franka) using the vector pYAC4. The library consists of approximately 18,000 recombinant YACs with insert sizes ranging between 100 and 1000 kb (average of 160 kb) corresponding to 50% of the barley genome. Size fractionation after ligation resulted in an increased average insert size (av. 370 kb) but also in a substantial decrease in cloning efficiency. Less than 1% of the colonies showed homology to a plastome-specific probe; approximately 50% of the colonies displayed a signal with a dispersed, highly repetitive barley-specific probe. Using a primer combination deduced from the sequence of a member of the small Hor1 gene family coding for the C-hordein storage proteins, the library was screened by polymerase chain reaction and subsequently by the colony hybridization technique. A single YAC, designated Y66C11, with a 120 kb insert was isolated. This DNA fragment represents a coherent stretch from the terminal part of the Hor1 gene region as judged from the correspondence of the restriction patterns between Y66C11 DNA and barley DNA after hybridization with the Hor1-specific probe. Restriction with the isoschizomeric enzymes HpaII/MspI suggests a high degree of methylation of the Hor1 region in mesophyll cells but not in YAC-derived (yeast) DNA.

  2. The cytotoxic effect of essential oils from Origanum vulgare L. and/or Rosmarinus officinalis L. on Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Azerêdo, Geíza Alves de; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz de; Souza, Evandro Leite de

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of the essential oils from Origanum vulgare L. (OV) and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (RO), both singly and in combination at sub-inhibitory concentrations (¼ MIC + ¼ MIC), against Aeromonas hydrophila and to investigate the possible mechanisms underlying these activities. Used singly (OV: 2.5 μL/mL; RO: 20 μL/mL) or in a mixture (OV: 0.625 μL/mL + RO: 5 μL/L), these essential oils led to a significant decrease (p<0.01) in bacterial viability after 24 h of exposure. A decrease in glucose consumption by A. hydrophila and release of cellular material were observed immediately after the addition of the essential oils, both singly and as a mixture, and continued for up to 6 h. Electron microscopy of cells exposed to the essential oils revealed severe changes in the plasma membrane, cytoplasmic appearance, and cell shape during the 6-h exposure period. OV and RO essential oils combined at sub-inhibitory concentrations could be rationally applied to inhibit the growth of A. hydrophila in food products, particularly minimally processed vegetables.

  3. Combination Studies of Oreganum Vulgare Extract Fractions and Volatile Oil along with Ciprofloxacin and Fluconazole against Common Fish Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Veni; Vasudeva, Neeru; Dhuhan, Joginder Singh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The study is aimed at finding new antibiotic therapy for aquaculture due to potential of bacteria to develop resistance to the existing therapies. Use of large quantities of synthetic antibiotics in aquaculture thus has the potential to be detrimental to fish health, to the environment and wildlife and to human health. Methods: Antimicrobial potential of volatile oil and fractions of chloroform extract of Oreganum vulgare was evaluated alone and in the presence of standard antimicrobials against common fish pathogens by disc-diffusion, agar well assay and two fold microdilution method by nanodrop spectrophotometric method. Results: The best results were represented by volatile oil followed by phenolic fraction by disc-diffusion, agar well and microdilution assays (Minimum inhibitory concentration). By the interaction studies, it was observed that the volatile oil and phenolic fraction were able to inhibit the pathogens at very low concentration compared to standard drugs. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) was calculated and volatile oil and phenolic fractions were found to be synergistic against Pseudomonas fluorescens and Candida albicans. Conclusion: The experimental data suggests the use of volatile oil and phenolic fraction in combination with standard antimicrobials to maintain healthy aquaculture with lesser adverse effects as compared to synthetic antibiotic therapy. PMID:24312842

  4. Characterization of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) NAC transcription factors suggests conserved functions compared to both monocots and dicots

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The NAC transcription factor family is involved in the regulation of traits in both monocots and dicots of high agronomic importance. Understanding the precise functions of the NAC genes can be of utmost importance for the improvement of cereal crop plants through plant breeding. For the cereal crop plant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) only a few NAC genes have so far been investigated. Results Through searches in publicly available barley sequence databases we have obtained a list of 48 barley NAC genes (HvNACs) with 43 of them representing full-length coding sequences. Phylogenetic comparisons to Brachypodium, rice, and Arabidopsis NAC proteins indicate that the barley NAC family includes members from all of the eight NAC subfamilies, although by comparison to these species a number of HvNACs still remains to be identified. Using qRT-PCR we investigated the expression profiles of 46 HvNACs across eight barley tissues (young flag leaf, senescing flag leaf, young ear, old ear, milk grain, late dough grain, roots, and developing stem) and two hormone treatments (abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate). Conclusions Comparisons of expression profiles of selected barley NAC genes with the published functions of closely related NAC genes from other plant species, including both monocots and dicots, suggest conserved functions in the areas of secondary cell wall biosynthesis, leaf senescence, root development, seed development, and hormone regulated stress responses. PMID:21851648

  5. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) circadian clock genes can respond rapidly to temperature in an EARLY FLOWERING 3-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Brett; Deng, Weiwei; Clausen, Jenni; Oliver, Sandra; Boden, Scott; Hemming, Megan; Trevaskis, Ben

    2016-01-01

    An increase in global temperatures will impact future crop yields. In the cereal crops wheat and barley, high temperatures accelerate reproductive development, reducing the number of grains per plant and final grain yield. Despite this relationship between temperature and cereal yield, it is not clear what genes and molecular pathways mediate the developmental response to increased temperatures. The plant circadian clock can respond to changes in temperature and is important for photoperiod-dependent flowering, and so is a potential mechanism controlling temperature responses in cereal crops. This study examines the relationship between temperature, the circadian clock, and the expression of flowering-time genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare), a crop model for temperate cereals. Transcript levels of barley core circadian clock genes were assayed over a range of temperatures. Transcript levels of core clock genes CCA1, GI, PRR59, PRR73, PRR95, and LUX are increased at higher temperatures. CCA1 and PRR73 respond rapidly to a decrease in temperature whereas GI and PRR59 respond rapidly to an increase in temperature. The response of GI and the PRR genes to changes in temperature is lost in the elf3 mutant indicating that their response to temperature may be dependent on a functional ELF3 gene. PMID:27580625

  6. Tolerance response of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica strains to habituation to Origanum vulgare L. essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Monte, Daniel F. M.; Tavares, Adassa G.; Albuquerque, Allan R.; Sampaio, Fábio C.; Oliveira, Tereza C. R. M.; Franco, Octavio L.; Souza, Evandro L.; Magnani, Marciane

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica isolates from human outbreaks or from poultry origin were investigated for their ability to develop direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance to sodium chloride, potassium chloride, lactic acid, acetic acid, and ciprofloxacin after habituation in subinhibitory amounts ( of the minimum inhibitory concentration – (MIC) and of the minimum inhibitory concentration – MIC) of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO) at different time intervals. The habituation of S. enterica to OVEO did not induce direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in the tested strains, as assessed by the modulation of MIC values. However, cells habituated to OVEO maintained or increased susceptibility to the tested antimicrobials agents, with up to fourfold double dilution decrease from previously determined MIC values. This study reports for the first time the non-inductive effect of OVEO on the acquisition of direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in multidrug-resistant S. enterica strains to antimicrobial agents that are largely used in food preservation, as well as to CIP, the therapeutic drug of salmonellosis. PMID:25566231

  7. Characterization of volatile organic compounds emitted by barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) roots and their attractiveness to wireworms.

    PubMed

    Gfeller, Aurélie; Laloux, Morgan; Barsics, Fanny; Kati, Djamel Edine; Haubruge, Eric; du Jardin, Patrick; Verheggen, François J; Lognay, Georges; Wathelet, Jean-Paul; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure

    2013-08-01

    Root volatile organic compounds (VOCs), their chemistry and ecological functions have garnered less attention than aboveground emitted plant VOCs. We report here on the identification of VOCs emitted by barley roots (Hordeum vulgare L.). Twenty nine VOCs were identified from isolated 21-d-old roots. The detection was dependent on the medium used for root cultivation. We identified 24 VOCs from 7-d-old roots when plants were cultivated on sterile Hoagland gelified medium, 33 when grown on sterile vermiculite, and 34 on non-sterile vermiculite. The major VOCs were fatty acid derived compounds, including hexanal, methyl hexanoate, (E)-hex-2-enal, 2-pentylfuran, pentan-1-ol, (Z)-2-(pentenyl)-furan, (Z)-pent-2-en-1-ol, hexan-1-ol, (Z)-hex-3-en-1-ol, (E)-hex-2-en-1-ol, oct-1-en-3-ol, 2-ethylhexan-1-ol (likely a contaminant), (E)-non-2-enal, octan-1-ol, (2E,6Z)-nona-2,6-dienal, methyl (E)-non-2-enoate, nonan-1-ol, (Z)-non-3-en-1-ol, (E)-non-2-en-1-ol, nona-3,6-dien-1-ol, and nona-2,6-dien-1-ol. In an olfactometer assay, wireworms (larvae of Agriotes sordidus Illiger, Coleoptera: Elateridae) were attracted to cues emanating from barley seedlings. We discuss the role of individual root volatiles or a blend of the root volatiles detected here and their interaction with CO2 for wireworm attraction.

  8. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) circadian clock genes can respond rapidly to temperature in an EARLY FLOWERING 3-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Ford, Brett; Deng, Weiwei; Clausen, Jenni; Oliver, Sandra; Boden, Scott; Hemming, Megan; Trevaskis, Ben

    2016-10-01

    An increase in global temperatures will impact future crop yields. In the cereal crops wheat and barley, high temperatures accelerate reproductive development, reducing the number of grains per plant and final grain yield. Despite this relationship between temperature and cereal yield, it is not clear what genes and molecular pathways mediate the developmental response to increased temperatures. The plant circadian clock can respond to changes in temperature and is important for photoperiod-dependent flowering, and so is a potential mechanism controlling temperature responses in cereal crops. This study examines the relationship between temperature, the circadian clock, and the expression of flowering-time genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare), a crop model for temperate cereals. Transcript levels of barley core circadian clock genes were assayed over a range of temperatures. Transcript levels of core clock genes CCA1, GI, PRR59, PRR73, PRR95, and LUX are increased at higher temperatures. CCA1 and PRR73 respond rapidly to a decrease in temperature whereas GI and PRR59 respond rapidly to an increase in temperature. The response of GI and the PRR genes to changes in temperature is lost in the elf3 mutant indicating that their response to temperature may be dependent on a functional ELF3 gene. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. Increased yield stability of field-grown winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varietal mixtures through ecological processes.

    PubMed

    Creissen, Henry E; Jorgensen, Tove H; Brown, James K M

    2016-07-01

    Crop variety mixtures have the potential to increase yield stability in highly variable and unpredictable environments, yet knowledge of the specific mechanisms underlying enhanced yield stability has been limited. Ecological processes in genetically diverse crops were investigated by conducting field trials with winter barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare), grown as monocultures or as three-way mixtures in fungicide treated and untreated plots at three sites. Mixtures achieved yields comparable to the best performing monocultures whilst enhancing yield stability despite being subject to multiple predicted and unpredicted abiotic and biotic stresses including brown rust (Puccinia hordei) and lodging. There was compensation through competitive release because the most competitive variety overyielded in mixtures thereby compensating for less competitive varieties. Facilitation was also identified as an important ecological process within mixtures by reducing lodging. This study indicates that crop varietal mixtures have the capacity to stabilise productivity even when environmental conditions and stresses are not predicted in advance. Varietal mixtures provide a means of increasing crop genetic diversity without the need for extensive breeding efforts. They may confer enhanced resilience to environmental stresses and thus be a desirable component of future cropping systems for sustainable arable farming.

  10. Purification and characterization of soluble (cytosolic) and bound (cell wall) isoforms of invertases in barley (Hordeum vulgare) elongating stem tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karuppiah, N.; Vadlamudi, B.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1989-01-01

    Three different isoforms of invertases have been detected in the developing internodes of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Based on substrate specificities, the isoforms have been identified to be invertases (beta-fructosidases EC 3.2.1.26). The soluble (cytosolic) invertase isoform can be purified to apparent homogeneity by diethylaminoethyl cellulose, Concanavalin-A Sepharose, organo-mercurial Sepharose, and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography. A bound (cell wall) invertase isoform can be released by 1 molar salt and purified further by the same procedures as above except omitting the organo-mercurial Sepharose affinity chromatography step. A third isoform of invertase, which is apparently tightly associated with the cell wall, cannot be isolated yet. The soluble and bound invertase isoforms were purified by factors of 60- and 7-fold, respectively. The native enzymes have an apparent molecular weight of 120 kilodaltons as estimated by gel filtration. They have been identified to be dimers under denaturing and nondenaturing conditions. The soluble enzyme has a pH optimum of 5.5, Km of 12 millimolar, and a Vmax of 80 micromole per minute per milligram of protein compared with cell wall isozyme which has a pH optimum of 4.5, Km of millimolar, and a Vmax of 9 micromole per minute per milligram of protein.

  11. Conflict between feminizing sex ratio distorters and an autosomal masculinizing gene in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare Latr.

    PubMed

    Rigaud, T; Juchault, P

    1993-02-01

    Female sex determination in the pill bug Armadillidium vulgare is frequently under the control of feminizing parasitic sex factors (PSF). One of these PSF is an intracytoplasmic Wolbachia-like bacterium (F), while the other (f) is suspected of being an F-bacterial DNA sequence unstably integrated into the host genome. In most wild populations harboring PSF, all individuals are genetic males (ZZ), and female phenotypes occur only due to the presence of PSF which overrides the male determinant carried by the Z chromosome (females are thus ZZ +F or ZZ +f neo-females). Here we report the effects of the conflict between these PSF and a dominant autosomal masculinizing gene (M) on phenotypes. The M gene is able to override the feminizing effect of the f sex factor and, consequently, male sex may be restored. However, M is unable to restore male sex when competing with the F bacteria. It seems that the main effect of M is to delay the expression of F bacteria slightly, inducing intersex phenotypes. Most of these intersexes are functional females, able to transmit the masculinizing gene. The frequency of M and its effects on the sex ratio in wild populations are discussed.

  12. Adaptation and diversity along an altitudinal gradient in Ethiopian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) landraces revealed by molecular analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Among the cereal crops, barley is the species with the greatest adaptability to a wide range of environments. To determine the level and structure of genetic diversity in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) landraces from the central highlands of Ethiopia, we have examined the molecular variation at seven nuclear microsatellite loci. Results A total of 106 landrace populations were sampled in the two growing seasons (Meher and Belg; the long and short rainy seasons, respectively), across three districts (Ankober, Mojanawadera and Tarmaber), and within each district along an altitudinal gradient (from 1,798 to 3,324 m a.s.l). Overall, although significant, the divergence (e.g. FST) is very low between seasons and geographical districts, while it is high between different classes of altitude. Selection for adaptation to different altitudes appears to be the main factor that has determined the observed clinal variation, along with population-size effects. Conclusions Our data show that barley landraces from Ethiopia are constituted by highly variable local populations (farmer's fields) that have large within-population diversity. These landraces are also shown to be locally adapted, with the major driving force that has shaped their population structure being consistent with selection for adaptation along an altitudinal gradient. Overall, our study highlights the potential of such landraces as a source of useful alleles. Furthermore, these landraces also represent an ideal system to study the processes of adaptation and for the identification of genes and genomic regions that have adaptive roles in crop species. PMID:20565982

  13. Changes in Physiological and Agronomical Parameters of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Exposed to Cerium and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Marchiol, Luca; Mattiello, Alessandro; Pošćić, Filip; Fellet, Guido; Zavalloni, Costanza; Carlino, Elvio; Musetti, Rita

    2016-01-01

    The aims of our experiment were to evaluate the uptake and translocation of cerium and titanium oxide nanoparticles and to verify their effects on the growth cycle of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Barley plants were grown to physiological maturity in soil enriched with either 0, 500 or 1000 mg·kg−1 cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO2) or titanium oxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) and their combination. The growth cycle of nCeO2 and nTiO2 treated plants was about 10 days longer than the controls. In nCeO2 treated plants the number of tillers, leaf area and the number of spikes per plant were reduced respectively by 35.5%, 28.3% and 30% (p ≤ 0.05). nTiO2 stimulated plant growth and compensated for the adverse effects of nCeO2. Concentrations of Ce and Ti in aboveground plant fractions were minute. The fate of nanomaterials within the plant tissues was different. Crystalline nTiO2 aggregates were detected within the leaf tissues of barley, whereas nCeO2 was not present in the form of nanoclusters. PMID:26999181

  14. Direct measurement of recombination frequency in interspecific hybrids between Hordeum vulgare and H. bulbosum using genomic in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Pickering, R; Murray, B

    1999-09-01

    Two different genotypes of diploid Hordeum vulgare x H. bulbosum hybrids, which differ in their pattern of meiotic metaphase pairing behaviour, were investigated at MI and AI by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). One hybrid, 102C2, showed a high frequency of bivalents at metaphase I whereas the other, 103K5, showed a high frequency of univalents. The GISH analysis of both hybrids established that pairing occurred only between chromosomes of different parental genomes and revealed that pairing frequency greatly exceeded recombination. Hybrid 102C2 had a significantly higher recombination frequency than 103K5, but in both hybrids recombination involved only distal chromosome regions. However, an interesting finding is that the ratio of recombination to pairing frequency in 103K5 (1:8.9) is twice as high compared with 102C2 (1:17). The hybrids also differed in chromosome stability; little chromosome elimination occurred in 102C2 but 103K5 showed extensive chromosome loss. It appears that the high frequency of bound arms at MI favours retention of H. bulbosum chromosomes and maintains stability of chromosome numbers in PMCs. Various ideas are put forward to explain the discrepancy between meiotic pairing frequency and recombination in these hybrids.

  15. Water uptake by seminal and adventitious roots in relation to whole-plant water flow in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Knipfer, Thorsten; Fricke, Wieland

    2011-01-01

    Prior to an assessment of the role of aquaporins in root water uptake, the main path of water movement in different types of root and driving forces during day and night need to be known. In the present study on hydroponically grown barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) the two main root types of 14- to 17-d-old plants were analysed for hydraulic conductivity in dependence of the main driving force (hydrostatic, osmotic). Seminal roots contributed 92% and adventitious roots 8% to plant water uptake. The lower contribution of adventitious compared with seminal roots was associated with a smaller surface area and number of roots per plant and a lower axial hydraulic conductance, and occurred despite a less-developed endodermis. The radial hydraulic conductivity of the two types of root was similar and depended little on the prevailing driving force, suggesting that water uptake occurred along a pathway that involved crossing of membrane(s). Exudation experiments showed that osmotic forces were sufficient to support night-time transpiration, yet transpiration experiments and cuticle permeance data questioned the significance of osmotic forces. During the day, 90% of water uptake was driven by a tension of about –0.15 MPa. PMID:20974734

  16. Increased yield stability of field-grown winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varietal mixtures through ecological processes

    PubMed Central

    Creissen, Henry E.; Jorgensen, Tove H.; Brown, James K.M.

    2016-01-01

    Crop variety mixtures have the potential to increase yield stability in highly variable and unpredictable environments, yet knowledge of the specific mechanisms underlying enhanced yield stability has been limited. Ecological processes in genetically diverse crops were investigated by conducting field trials with winter barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare), grown as monocultures or as three-way mixtures in fungicide treated and untreated plots at three sites. Mixtures achieved yields comparable to the best performing monocultures whilst enhancing yield stability despite being subject to multiple predicted and unpredicted abiotic and biotic stresses including brown rust (Puccinia hordei) and lodging. There was compensation through competitive release because the most competitive variety overyielded in mixtures thereby compensating for less competitive varieties. Facilitation was also identified as an important ecological process within mixtures by reducing lodging. This study indicates that crop varietal mixtures have the capacity to stabilise productivity even when environmental conditions and stresses are not predicted in advance. Varietal mixtures provide a means of increasing crop genetic diversity without the need for extensive breeding efforts. They may confer enhanced resilience to environmental stresses and thus be a desirable component of future cropping systems for sustainable arable farming. PMID:27375312

  17. Detection of QTLs for salt tolerance in Asian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by association analysis with SNP markers

    PubMed Central

    Sbei, Hanen; Sato, Kazuhiro; Shehzad, Tariq; Harrabi, Moncef; Okuno, Kazutoshi

    2014-01-01

    Two hundred ninety-six Asian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions were assessed to detect QTLs underlying salt tolerance by association analysis using a 384 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker system. The experiment was laid out at the seedling stage in a hydroponic solution under control and 250 mM NaCl solution with three replications of four plants each. Salt tolerance was assessed by leaf injury score (LIS) and salt tolerance indices (STIs) of the number of leaves (NL), shoot length (SL), root length (RL), shoot dry weight (SDW) and root dry weight (RDW). LIS was scored from 1 to 5 according to the severity of necrosis and chlorosis observed on leaves. There was a wide variation in salt tolerance among Asian barley accessions. LIS and STI (SDW) were the most suitable traits for screening salt tolerance. Association was estimated between markers and traits to detect QTLs for LIS and STI (SDW). Seven significant QTLs were located on chromosomes 1H (2 QTLs), 2H (2 QTLs), 3H (1 QTL), 4H (1 QTL) and 5H (1 QTL). Five QTLs were associated with LIS and 2 QTLs with STI (SDW). Two QTLs associated with LIS were newly identified on chromosomes 3H and 4H. PMID:25914593

  18. Limitation of Cell Elongation in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Leaves Through Mechanical and Tissue-Hydraulic Properties.

    PubMed

    Touati, Mostefa; Knipfer, Thorsten; Visnovitz, Tamás; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Fricke, Wieland

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the mechanical and hydraulic limitation of growth in leaf epidermal cells of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in response to agents which affect cellular water (mercuric chloride, HgCl(2)) and potassium (cesium chloride, CsCl; tetraethylammonium, TEA) transport, pump activity of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and wall acidification (fusicoccin, FC). Cell turgor (P) was measured with the cell pressure probe, and cell osmotic pressure (π) was analyzed through picoliter osmometry of single-cell extracts. A wall extensibility coefficient (M) and tissue hydraulic conductance coefficient (L) were derived using the Lockhart equation. There was a significant positive linear relationship between relative elemental growth rate and P, which fit all treatments, with an overall apparent yield threshold of 0.368 MPa. Differences in growth between treatments could be explained through differences in P. A comparison of L and M showed that growth in all except the FC treatment was co-limited through hydraulic and mechanical properties, though to various extents. This was accompanied by significant (0.17-0.24 MPa) differences in water potential (ΔΨ) between xylem and epidermal cells in the leaf elongation zone. In contrast, FC-treated leaves showed ΔΨ close to zero and a 10-fold increase in L.

  19. Conflict between Feminizing Sex Ratio Distorters and an Autosomal Masculinizing Gene in the Terrestrial Isopod Armadillidium Vulgare Latr

    PubMed Central

    Rigaud, T.; Juchault, P.

    1993-01-01

    Female sex determination in the pill bug Armadillidium vulgare is frequently under the control of feminizing parasitic sex factors (PSF). One of these PSF is an intracytoplasmic Wolbachia-like bacterium (F), while the other (f) is suspected of being an F-bacterial DNA sequence unstably integrated into the host genome. In most wild populations harboring PSF, all individuals are genetic males (ZZ), and female phenotypes occur only due to the presence of PSF which overrides the male determinant carried by the Z chromosome (females are thus ZZ +F or ZZ +f neo-females). Here we report the effects of the conflict between these PSF and a dominant autosomal masculinizing gene (M) on phenotypes. The M gene is able to override the feminizing effect of the f sex factor and, consequently, male sex may be restored. However, M is unable to restore male sex when competing with the F bacteria. It seems that the main effect of M is to delay the expression of F bacteria slightly, inducing intersex phenotypes. Most of these intersexes are functional females, able to transmit the masculinizing gene. The frequency of M and its effects on the sex ratio in wild populations are discussed. PMID:8436273

  20. Occurrence of Trichosirocalus horridus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on native Cirsium altissimum versus exotic C. vulgare in North American tallgrass prairie.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masaru; Louda, Svata M; Miller, Tom E X; O'Brien, Charles W

    2009-06-01

    Postrelease studies can provide data with which to evaluate expectations based on prerelease tests of biological control insects. In 2004, we observed Trichosirocalus horridus Panzer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the rosette weevil introduced into North America against Eurasian thistles, feeding on native tall thistle, Cirsium altissimum L. Spreng., in tallgrass prairie. In this study, we examined the rosette weevil's use of tall thistle, compared with its use of the co-occurring exotic bull thistle, C. vulgare (Savi) Tenore. For both thistle species, we quantified weevil frequency, abundance, and seasonal variation in incidence, using both timed observations at two sites over two growing seasons (2004, 2005) and dissections of thistle flowering shoots from 13 sites (2005). Based on prerelease information, we expected the Eurasian thistle to be the quantitatively preferred host plant for this Eurasian weevil. Instead, we found that both the frequency of infestation and the mean number of adult rosette weevils per plant were at least as high, and sometimes higher, on the native thistle as on the exotic thistle. Furthermore, adult weevil phenology coincided on the two host species. This study provides new quantitative evidence of nontarget feeding by another weevil released for thistle biological control; and it raises important questions for further research. We conclude that continued new releases, as well as augmentation of existing populations, of T. horridus should wait until more research is done on the impact of the nontarget occurrence now reported for this biological control insect.

  1. Purification and characterization of soluble (cytosolic) and bound (cell wall) isoforms of invertases in barley (Hordeum vulgare) elongating stem tissue.

    PubMed

    Karuppiah, N; Vadlamudi, B; Kaufman, P B

    1989-01-01

    Three different isoforms of invertases have been detected in the developing internodes of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Based on substrate specificities, the isoforms have been identified to be invertases (beta-fructosidases EC 3.2.1.26). The soluble (cytosolic) invertase isoform can be purified to apparent homogeneity by diethylaminoethyl cellulose, Concanavalin-A Sepharose, organo-mercurial Sepharose, and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography. A bound (cell wall) invertase isoform can be released by 1 molar salt and purified further by the same procedures as above except omitting the organo-mercurial Sepharose affinity chromatography step. A third isoform of invertase, which is apparently tightly associated with the cell wall, cannot be isolated yet. The soluble and bound invertase isoforms were purified by factors of 60- and 7-fold, respectively. The native enzymes have an apparent molecular weight of 120 kilodaltons as estimated by gel filtration. They have been identified to be dimers under denaturing and nondenaturing conditions. The soluble enzyme has a pH optimum of 5.5, Km of 12 millimolar, and a Vmax of 80 micromole per minute per milligram of protein compared with cell wall isozyme which has a pH optimum of 4.5, Km of millimolar, and a Vmax of 9 micromole per minute per milligram of protein.

  2. Reconstitution of cyanogenesis in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and its implications for resistance against the barley powdery mildew fungus.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Kirsten A; Hrmova, Maria; Nielsen, Janni Nyvang; Forslund, Karin; Ebert, Stefan; Olsen, Carl E; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2006-04-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) produces a leucine-derived cyanogenic beta-D-glucoside, epiheterodendrin that accumulates specifically in leaf epidermis. Barley leaves are not cyanogenic, i.e. they do not possess the ability to release hydrogen cyanide, because they lack a cyanide releasing beta-D-glucosidase. Cyanogenesis was reconstituted in barley leaf epidermal cells through single cell expression of a cDNA encoding dhurrinase-2, a cyanogenic beta-D-glucosidase from sorghum. This resulted in a 35-60% reduction in colonization rate by an obligate parasite Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, the causal agent of barley powdery mildew. A database search for barley homologues of dhurrinase-2 identified a (1,4)-beta-D-glucan exohydrolase isozyme betaII that is located in the starchy endosperm of barley grain. The purified barley (1,4)-beta-D-glucan exohydrolase isozyme betaII was found to hydrolyze the cyanogenic beta-D-glucosides, epiheterodendrin and dhurrin. Molecular modelling of its active site based on the crystal structure of linamarase from white clover, demonstrated that the disposition of the catalytic active amino acid residues was structurally conserved. Epiheterodendrin stimulated appressoria and appressorial hook formation of B. graminis in vitro, suggesting that loss of cyanogenesis in barley leaves has enabled the fungus to utilize the presence of epiheterodendrin to facilitate host recognition and to establish infection.

  3. Protective effect of Sargussum vulgare sulfated polysaccharide against molecular, biochemical and histopathological damage caused by alloxan in experimental diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ben Abdallah Kolsi, Rihab; Bkhairia, Intidhar; Gargouri, Lamia; Ktari, Naourez; Chaaben, Rim; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Nasri, Moncef; Jamoussi, Kamel; Fki, Lotfi; Belghith, Karima

    2017-07-14

    Diabetes is a serious condition that is linked to the development of oxidative stress. In the context of enhancing the biodiversity of Tunisia's flora, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of Sargussum vulgare sulfated polysaccharide (SVSP) on hyperglycemia and diabetes complications in the alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Our results showed a disturbance of carbohydrate, lipid, hematological and histopathological parameters, an increase in the α-amylase enzyme activity and damage to the pancreatic, hepatic and renal tissues in rats rendered diabetic by alloxan. In contrast, treatment with SVSP resulted in a correction of fasting and postprandial blood glucose and HbA1c through inhibition of pancreatic α-amylase. We also noticed an improvement in hemogram parameters and an attenuation of the pancreatic oxidative stress markers as well as histological protections. On the other hand, the administration of SVSP to diabetic rats caused, besides the correction of glycemic and lipid parameters, a good defense against hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of diabetes as well as good antioxidant status and histological protections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare on phytopathogenic strains isolated from soybean.

    PubMed

    Oliva, M de las M; Carezzano, M E; Giuliano, M; Daghero, J; Zygadlo, J; Bogino, P; Giordano, W; Demo, M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species isolated from soybean. Strains with characteristics of P. syringae were isolated from leaves of soybean plants with blight symptoms. Ten of these could be identified in Group Ia of LOPAT as P. syringae. Six of these were confirmed as P. syringae using 16S rRNA, indicating the presence of these phytopathogenic bacteria in east and central Argentina. All the phytopathogenic bacteria were re-isolated and identified from the infected plants. MIC values for thyme were 11.5 and 5.7 mg·ml(-1) on P. syringae strains, while oregano showed variability in the inhibitory activity. Both essential oils inhibited all P. syringae strains, with better inhibitory activity than the antibiotic streptomycin. The oils were not bactericidal for all pseudomonads. Both oils contained high carvacrol (29.5% and 19.7%, respectively) and low thymol (1.5%). Natural products obtained from aromatic plants represent potential sources of molecules with biological activity that could be used as new alternatives for the treatment of phytopathogenic bacteria infections.

  5. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils obtained from oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) by using different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Karakaya, Sibel; El, Sedef Nehir; Karagözlü, Nural; Sahin, Serpil

    2011-06-01

    In this study, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils obtained from oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) were determined by using solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME), supercritical fluid extraction, and conventional hydrodistillation (CH) methods. The inhibitory effects on the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical of essential oils obtained from oregano by using SFME and CH were similar. However, essential oil extracted by CH showed greater (2.69 μmol/μL of oil) Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than oregano oils obtained by SFME (P < .05). The difference between percentage inhibition and TEAC values most probably is due to the fact that undiluted and diluted samples are used in the percentage inhibition assay and the TEAC assay, respectively. TEAC values of oregano essential oils obtained by SFME at different microwave power levels were found to be similar and ranged from 0.72 to 0.84 μmol/μL of oil. Essential oils obtained by CH and SFME at different microwave powers inhibited the survival of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, whereas survival of Staphylococcus aureus was not influenced. In addition, oregano oil obtained by SFME at 40% power level did not show any inhibitory effect on E. coli O157:H7.

  6. Optimization of multiple shoot induction and plant regeneration in Indian barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars using mature embryos.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Hassan; Giri, Archana; Nejad, Amir Sasan Mozaffari; Moslem, Amir

    2013-07-01

    Barley is the fourth most important crop in the world. Development of a regeneration system using immature embryos is both time consuming and laborious. The present study was initiated with a view to develop a regeneration system in six genotypes of Indian barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars as a prerequisite to transformation. The mature embryos were excised from seeds and cultured on MS medium supplemented with high and low concentrations of cytokinins and auxins respectively. The MS medium containing 3 mg/L N(6)-benzylaminopurine (BA) and 0.5 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was found to be the most effective for multiple shoot formation in HOR7231 cultivar that could produce 12 shoots per explant. The other cultivars HOR4409 and HOR3844 produced a minimum number of adventitious shoots (1.33 and 1.67 respectively) on MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/L BA and 0.3 mg/L 2,4-D. The elongated shoots were separated and successfully rooted on MS medium containing 1 mg/L indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The response of different barley cultivars was found to be varying with respect to multiple shoot production. This is the first report of multiple shoot induction and plantlet regeneration in Indian cultivar of barley which would be useful for genetic transformation.

  7. High frequency plant regeneration from immature embryos of an elite barley cultivar (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Morex).

    PubMed

    Chang, Y; von Zitzewitz, J; Hayes, P M; Chen, T H H

    2003-04-01

    An efficient plant regeneration system was developed for Hordeum vulgare L. 'Morex' barley, an important United States malting cultivar. The protocol was based on a series of experiments involving the sizes of immature embryos and the culture media. We found that the embryo size is critical for the establishment of embryogenic callus. Smaller embryos (0.5-1.5 mm) showed a much higher ability to produce embryogenic callus capable of regenerating green plants with fewer albinos than did the larger embryos (1.6-3.0 mm). Either 3 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid or dicamba in modified Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium was optimum for the induction of embryogenic callus. The embryogenic callus maintained high regeneration during six subcultures in the callus induction medium. Efficient shoot regeneration was obtained on modified MS medium containing 0.5-1.0 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BA). Regenerated shoots were rooted on half-strength MS medium containing 0.2 mg/l IBA. Plants were successfully transferred to soil and grown to maturity in the greenhouse. This efficient plant regeneration system provides a foundation for generating transgenic plants of this important barley cultivar.

  8. Spatial distribution of calcite and amorphous calcium carbonate in the cuticle of the terrestrial crustaceans Porcellio scaber and Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Hild, Sabine; Marti, Othmar; Ziegler, Andreas

    2008-07-01

    The crustacean cuticle is an interesting model to study the properties of mineralized bio-composites. The cuticle consists of an organic matrix composed of chitin-protein fibres associated with various amounts of crystalline and amorphous calcium carbonate. It is thought that in isopods the relative amounts of these mineral polymorphs depend on its function and the habitat of the animal. In addition to the composition, the distribution of the various components should affect the properties of the cuticle. However, the spatial distribution of calcium carbonate polymorphs within the crustacean cuticle is unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the mineralized cuticles of the terrestrial isopods Armadillidium vulgare and Porcellio scaber using scanning electron-microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and confocal mu-Raman spectroscopic imaging. We show for the first time that the mineral phases are arranged in distinct layers. Calcite is restricted to the outer layer of the cuticle that corresponds to the exocuticle. Amorphous calcium carbonate is located within the endocuticle that lies below the exocuticle. Within both layers mineral is arranged in rows of granules with diameters of about 20 nm. The results suggest functional implications of mineral distribution that accord to the moulting and escape behaviour of the animals.

  9. Genome-wide identification, characterisation and expression profiles of calcium-dependent protein kinase genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Fedorowicz-Strońska, Olga; Koczyk, Grzegorz; Kaczmarek, Małgorzata; Krajewski, Paweł; Sadowski, Jan

    2017-02-01

    In plant cells, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are important sensors of Ca(2+) flux resulting from various environmental stresses like cold, drought or salt stress. Previous genome sequence analysis and comparative studies in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) defined a multi-gene family of CDPKs. Here, we identified and characterised the CDPK gene complement of the model plant, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Comparative analysis encompassed phylogeny reconstruction based on newly available barley genome sequence, as well as established model genomes (e.g. O. sativa, A. thaliana, Brachypodium distachyon). Functional gene copies possessed characteristic CDPK domain architecture, including a serine/threonine kinase domain and four regulatory EF-hand motifs. In silico verification was followed by measurements of transcript abundance via real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The relative expression of CDPK genes was determined in the vegetative growth stage under intensifying drought stress conditions. The majority of barley CDPK genes showed distinct changes in patterns of expression during exposure to stress. Our study constitutes evidence for involvement of the barley CDPK gene complement in signal transduction pathways relating to adaptation to drought. Our bioinformatics and transcriptomic analyses will provide an important foundation for further functional dissection of the barley CDPK gene family.

  10. Evolutionary history of wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) analyzed using multilocus sequence data and paleodistribution modeling.

    PubMed

    Jakob, Sabine S; Rödder, Dennis; Engler, Jan O; Shaaf, Salar; Ozkan, Hakan; Blattner, Frank R; Kilian, Benjamin

    2014-03-01

    Studies of Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum, the wild progenitor of cultivated barley, have mostly relied on materials collected decades ago and maintained since then ex situ in germplasm repositories. We analyzed spatial genetic variation in wild barley populations collected rather recently, exploring sequence variations at seven single-copy nuclear loci, and inferred the relationships among these populations and toward the genepool of the crop. The wild barley collection covers the whole natural distribution area from the Mediterranean to Middle Asia. In contrast to earlier studies, Bayesian assignment analyses revealed three population clusters, in the Levant, Turkey, and east of Turkey, respectively. Genetic diversity was exceptionally high in the Levant, while eastern populations were depleted of private alleles. Species distribution modeling based on climate parameters and extant occurrence points of the taxon inferred suitable habitat conditions during the ice-age, particularly in the Levant and Turkey. Together with the ecologically wide range of habitats, they might contribute to structured but long-term stable populations in this region and their high genetic diversity. For recently collected individuals, Bayesian assignment to geographic clusters was generally unambiguous, but materials from genebanks often showed accessions that were not placed according to their assumed geographic origin or showed traces of introgression from cultivated barley. We assign this to gene flow among accessions during ex situ maintenance. Evolutionary studies based on such materials might therefore result in wrong conclusions regarding the history of the species or the origin and mode of domestication of the crop, depending on the accessions included.

  11. Changes in Physiological and Agronomical Parameters of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Exposed to Cerium and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Marchiol, Luca; Mattiello, Alessandro; Pošćić, Filip; Fellet, Guido; Zavalloni, Costanza; Carlino, Elvio; Musetti, Rita

    2016-03-17

    The aims of our experiment were to evaluate the uptake and translocation of cerium and titanium oxide nanoparticles and to verify their effects on the growth cycle of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Barley plants were grown to physiological maturity in soil enriched with either 0, 500 or 1000 mg · kg(-1) cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO₂) or titanium oxide nanoparticles (nTiO₂) and their combination. The growth cycle of nCeO₂ and nTiO₂ treated plants was about 10 days longer than the controls. In nCeO₂ treated plants the number of tillers, leaf area and the number of spikes per plant were reduced respectively by 35.5%, 28.3% and 30% (p ≤ 0.05). nTiO₂ stimulated plant growth and compensated for the adverse effects of nCeO₂. Concentrations of Ce and Ti in aboveground plant fractions were minute. The fate of nanomaterials within the plant tissues was different. Crystalline nTiO₂ aggregates were detected within the leaf tissues of barley, whereas nCeO₂ was not present in the form of nanoclusters.

  12. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) low phytic acid 1-1: an endosperm-specific, filial determinant of seed total phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Raboy, Victor; Cichy, Karen; Peterson, Kevin; Reichman, Sarah; Sompong, Utumporn; Srinives, Peerasak; Saneoka, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    Inositol hexaphosphate (Ins P6 or "phytic acid") typically accounts for 75 (± 10%) of seed total phosphorus (P). In some cases, genetic blocks in seed Ins P6 accumulation can also alter the distribution or total amount of seed P. In nonmutant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) caryopses, ~80% of Ins P6 and total P accumulate in the aleurone layer, the outer layer of the endosperm, with the remainder in the germ. In barley low phytic acid 1-1 (Hvlpa1-1) seed, both endosperm Ins P6 and total P are reduced (~45% and ~25%, respectively), but germs are phenotypically wild type. This translates into a net reduction in whole-seed total P of ~15%. Nutrient culture studies demonstrate that the reduction in endosperm total P is not due to a reduction in the uptake of P into the maternal plant. Genetic tests (analyses of testcross and F2 seed) reveal that the Hvlpa1-1 genotype of the filial seed conditions the seed total P reduction; sibling seed in the same head of barley that differ in their Hvlpa1-1 genotype (heterozygous vs. homozygous recessive) differ in their total P (normal vs. reduced, respectively). Therefore, Hvlpa1 functions as a seed-specific or filial determinant of barley endosperm total P.

  13. Oxygen deficiency and salinity affect cell-specific ion concentrations in adventitious roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Kotula, Lukasz; Clode, Peta L; Striker, Gustavo G; Pedersen, Ole; Läuchli, André; Shabala, Sergey; Colmer, Timothy D

    2015-12-01

    Oxygen deficiency associated with soil waterlogging adversely impacts root respiration and nutrient acquisition. We investigated the effects of O2 deficiency and salinity (100 mM NaCl) on radial O2 concentrations and cell-specific ion distributions in adventitious roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Microelectrode profiling measured O2 concentrations across roots in aerated, aerated saline, stagnant or stagnant saline media. X-ray microanalysis at two positions behind the apex determined the cell-specific elemental concentrations of potassium (K), sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) across roots. Severe O2 deficiency occurred in the stele and apical regions of roots in stagnant solutions. O2 deficiency in the stele reduced the concentrations of K, Na and Cl in the pericycle and xylem parenchyma cells at the subapical region. Near the root apex, Na declined across the cortex in roots from the aerated saline solution but was relatively high in all cell types in roots from the stagnant saline solution. Oxygen deficiency has a substantial impact on cellular ion concentrations in roots. Both pericycle and xylem parenchyma cells are involved in energy-dependent K loading into the xylem and in controlling radial Na and Cl transport. At root tips, accumulation of Na in the outer cell layers likely contributed to reduction of Na in inner cells of the tips.

  14. Milling, water uptake, and modification properties of different barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lots in relation to grain composition and structure.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Ulla R M; Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Serenius, Marjo; Hietaniemi, Veli; Wilhelmson, Annika; Poutanen, Kaisa; Lehtinen, Pekka

    2014-09-03

    Milling properties, water uptake, and modification in malting were studied in 14 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lots from two consecutive crop years. In all barley lots studied, grains with lower β-glucan and protein content and higher starch content produced finer flours upon milling. Grains with lower β-glucan content also hydrated more rapidly during steeping. A detailed study of two cultivars from two crop years indicated that similar environmental conditions could induce a higher β-glucan content and concentration of aggregated B hordein in the peripheral endosperm and a lower proportion of C hordein entrapped among aggregated hordeins deeper within the endosperm. These characteristics were associated with production of coarser flours during milling as well as with slower water uptake and lower modification. However, the data do not distinguish between the effect of β-glucan content and that of hordein localization. Distribution of β-glucan or total protein within the kernel was not linked to hydration or modification.

  15. Overexpression, purification and enzymatic characterization of a recombinant plastidial glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Nure) roots.

    PubMed

    Cardi, Manuela; Chibani, Kamel; Castiglia, Daniela; Cafasso, Donata; Pizzo, Elio; Rouhier, Nicolas; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Esposito, Sergio

    2013-12-01

    In plant cells, the plastidial glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (P2-G6PDH, EC 1.1.1.49) represents one of the most important sources of NADPH. However, previous studies revealed that both native and recombinant purified P2-G6PDHs show a great instability and a rapid loss of catalytic activity. Therefore it has been difficult to describe accurately the catalytic and physico-chemical properties of these isoforms. The plastidial G6PDH encoding sequence from barley roots (Hordeum vulgare cv. Nure), devoid of a long plastidial transit peptide, was expressed as recombinant protein in Escherichia coli, either untagged or with an N-terminal his-tag. After purification from both the soluble fraction and inclusion bodies, we have explored its kinetic parameters, as well as its sensitivity to reduction. The obtained results are consistent with values determined for other P2-G6PDHs previously purified from barley roots and from other land plants. Overall, these data shed light on the catalytic mechanism of plant P2-G6PDH, summarized in a proposed model in which the sequential mechanism is very similar to the mammalian cytosolic G6PDH. This study provides a rational basis to consider the recombinant barley root P2-G6PDH as a good model for further kinetic and structural studies.

  16. Differential sensitivity of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to chlorpyrifos and propiconazole: Morphology, cytogenetic assay and photosynthetic pigments.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Pragyan; Mishra, Amit Kumar; Shukla, Pratiksha; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The present investigation was performed to evaluate the effects of an insecticide and fungicide, namely, chlorpyrifos (CP) and propiconazole (PZ) on barley (Hordeum vulgare L. variety Karan-16). The seeds were treated with three concentrations of CP and PZ, i.e., 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.5% for 6 hours after different pre-soaking durations of 7, 17 and 27 hours. Different pre-soaking durations (7, 17 and 27 h) represent three phases of the cell cycle i.e., G1, S and G2, respectively. Double distilled water and ethyl methane sulfonate were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. As compared to their respective controls, treated root tip meristematic cells of barley showed significant reductions in the germination percentage, seedling height, mitotic index and comparative increase in chromosomal aberrations against both the pesticides, and the magnitude was higher in CP. After treatment with the pesticides, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents increased up to 0.1% but reduced at 0.5% and the decrease was more prominent in CP as compared to PZ. In treated cells, fragmentation, stickiness, bridges, multipolar anaphase and diagonal anaphase were observed as aberrations. As compared to control, chromosomal aberrations were higher in CP as compared to PZ. The results of the present study concluded that CP induced chromosomal aberrations were more frequent than PZ; hence it has higher probability to cause genotoxicity in barley.

  17. Larvicidal potential of carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol from the essential oil of Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles subpictus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S L; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. However, the use of synthetic insecticides to control Culicidae may lead to resistance, high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Nowadays, plant-borne mosquitocides may serve as suitable alternative in the fight against mosquito vectors. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) leaf essential oil (EO) and its major chemical constituents was evaluated against the malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi and An. subpictus, the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the essential oil of O. vulgare contained 17 compounds. The major chemical components were carvacrol (38.30%) and terpinen-4-ol (28.70%). EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of An. stephensi, An. subpictus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with LC50 values of 67.00, 74.14, 80.35 and 84.93 μg/ml. The two major constituents extracted from the O. vulgare EO were tested individually for acute toxicity against larvae of the four mosquito vectors. Carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol appeared to be most effective against An. stephensi (LC50=21.15 and 43.27 μg/ml, respectively) followed by An. subpictus (LC50=24.06 and 47.73 μg/ml), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=26.08 and 52.19 μg/ml) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50=27.95 and 54.87 μg/ml). Overall, this research adds knowledge to develop newer and safer natural larvicides against malaria, filariasis and Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors.

  18. Identification of 6-octadecynoic acid from a methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtera, Anna; Miyamae, Yusaku; Nakai, Naomi; Kawachi, Atsushi; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Han, Junkyu; Isoda, Hiroko; Neffati, Mohamed; Akita, Toru; Maejima, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Seiji; Kambe, Taiho; Mori, Naoki; Irie, Kazuhiro; Nagao, Masaya

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •6-ODA, a rare fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified from Marrubium vulgare. •6-ODA was synthesized from petroselinic acid as a starting material. •6-ODA stimulated lipid accumulation in HSC-T6 and 3T3-L1 cells. •The first report of a fatty acid with a triple bond functioning as a PPARγ agonist. •This study sheds light on novel functions of a fatty acid with a triple bond. -- Abstract: 6-Octadecynoic acid (6-ODA), a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified in the methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Fibrogenesis caused by hepatic stellate cells is inhibited by PPARγ whose ligands are clinically used for the treatment of diabetes. Plant extracts of Marrubium vulgare L., were screened for activity to inhibit fibrosis in the hepatic stellate cell line HSC-T6 using Oil Red-O staining, which detects lipids that typically accumulate in quiescent hepatic stellate cells. A methanol extract with activity to stimulate accumulation of lipids was obtained. This extract was found to have PPARγ agonist activity using a luciferase reporter assay. After purification using several chromatographic methods, 6-ODA, a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified as a candidate of PPARγ agonist. Synthesized 6-ODA and its derivative 9-octadecynoic acid (9-ODA), which both have a triple bond but in different positions, activated PPARγ in a luciferase reporter assay and increased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a PPARγ-dependent manner. There is little information about the biological activity of fatty acids with a triple bond, and to our knowledge, this is the first report that 6-ODA and 9-ODA function as PPARγ agonists.

  19. Intensification of marrubiin concentration by optimization of microwave-assisted (low CO2 yielding) extraction process for Marrubium vulgare using central composite design and antioxidant evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Vineet; Nanda, Arun

    2017-12-01

    Marrubium vulgare Linn (Lamiaceae) was generally extracted by conventional methods with low yield of marrubiin; these processes were not considered environment friendly. This study extracts the whole plant of M. vulgare by microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and optimizes the effect of various extraction parameters on the marrubiin yield by using Central Composite Design (CCD). The selected medicinal plant was extracted using ethanol: water (1:1) as solvent by MAE. The plant material was also extracted using a Soxhlet and the various extracts were analyzed by HPTLC to quantify the marrubiin concentration. The optimized conditions for the microwave-assisted extraction of selected medicinal plant was microwave power of 539 W, irradiation time of 373 s and solvent to drug ratio, 32 mL per g of the drug. The marrubiin concentration in MAE almost doubled relative to the traditional method (0.69 ± 0.08 to 1.35 ± 0.04%). The IC50 for DPPH was reduced to 66.28 ± 0.6 μg/mL as compared to conventional extract (84.14 ± 0.7 μg/mL). The scanning electron micrographs of the treated and untreated drug samples further support the results. The CCD can be successfully applied to optimize the extraction parameters (MAE) for M. vulgare. Moreover, in terms of environmental impact, the MAE technique could be assumed as a 'Green approach' because the MAE approach for extraction of plant released only 92.3 g of CO2 as compared to 3207.6 g CO2 using the Soxhlet method of extraction.

  20. Binary mixture of Satureja hortensis and Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum essential oils: in vivo therapeutic efficiency against Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Harmati, Maria; Gyukity-Sebestyen, Edina; Dobra, Gabriella; Terhes, Gabriella; Urban, Edit; Decsi, Gabor; Mimica-Dukić, Neda; Lesjak, Marija; Simin, Nataša; Pap, Bernadett; Nemeth, Istvan B; Buzas, Krisztina

    2017-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori can cause many gastrointestinal and also extra-gastrointestinal disorders and is a major risk factor for gastric carcinoma and MALT lymphoma. Currently, numerous antibiotic-based therapies are available; however, these therapies have numerous drawbacks, mainly due to increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistant strains. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutic agents against H. pylori infections. In this study, the anti-H. pylori activity of 2:1 mixture of Satureja hortensis and Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum essential oils (2MIX) was investigated in vivo. After screening in vitro cytotoxicity of 2MIX on mammalian cell lines, the therapeutic efficiency was studied in a mouse model, where changes in H. pylori colonization were detected by PCR and histology of gastric samples. The immune reaction of mice was tested based on cytokine and chemokine production, and the in vivo toxicity of 2MIX was also investigated by measuring ALT and AST enzyme activities and Cyp3a11 and HO-1 mRNA levels in livers of mice. 2MIX had not shown in vitro cytotoxicity against cell lines, only the highest concentration caused significant decrease in their survival rates. In the in vivo experiments, 2MIX successfully eradicated the pathogen in 70% of the mice. We could not detect toxicity or altered cytokine and chemokine balance after in vivo treatments in mice. These results show that 2MIX is effective in reducing H. pylori colonization suggesting that this essential oil mixture has great potential as a new, effective, and safe therapeutic agent against H. pylori. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. BAC library resources for map-based cloning and physical map construction in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although second generation sequencing (2GS) technologies allow re-sequencing of previously gold-standard-sequenced genomes, whole genome shotgun sequencing and de novo assembly of large and complex eukaryotic genomes is still difficult. Availability of a genome-wide physical map is therefore still a prerequisite for whole genome sequencing for genomes like barley. To start such an endeavor, large insert genomic libraries, i.e. Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) libraries, which are unbiased and representing deep haploid genome coverage, need to be ready in place. Result Five new BAC libraries were constructed for barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar Morex. These libraries were constructed in different cloning sites (HindIII, EcoRI, MboI and BstXI) of the respective vectors. In order to enhance unbiased genome representation and to minimize the number of gaps between BAC contigs, which are often due to uneven distribution of restriction sites, a mechanically sheared library was also generated. The new BAC libraries were fully characterized in depth by scrutinizing the major quality parameters such as average insert size, degree of contamination (plate wide, neighboring, and chloroplast), empty wells and off-scale clones (clones with <30 or >250 fragments). Additionally a set of gene-based probes were hybridized to high density BAC filters and showed that genome coverage of each library is between 2.4 and 6.6 X. Conclusion BAC libraries representing >20 haploid genomes are available as a new resource to the barley research community. Systematic utilization of these libraries in high-throughput BAC fingerprinting should allow developing a genome-wide physical map for the barley genome, which will be instrumental for map-based gene isolation and genome sequencing. PMID:21595870

  2. A single gene encodes two different transcripts for the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase small subunit from barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed Central

    Thorbjørnsen, T; Villand, P; Kleczkowski, L A; Olsen, O A

    1996-01-01

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), a heterotetrameric enzyme composed of two small and two large subunits, catalyses the first committed step of starch synthesis in plant tissues. In an attempt to learn more about the organization and expression of the small-subunit gene of AGPase, we have studied the small-subunit transcripts as well as the structure of the gene encoding these transcripts in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Bomi). Two different transcripts (bepsF1 and blps14) were identified: bepF1 was abundantly expressed in the starchy endosperm but not in leaves, whereas blps14 was isolated from leaves but was also found to be present at a moderate level in the starchy endosperm. The sequences for the two transcripts are identical over approx. 90% of the length, with differences being confined solely to their 5' ends. In blps14, the unique 5' end is 259 nt long and encodes a putative plastid transit peptide sequence. For the 178-nt 5' end of bepsF1, on the other hand, no transit peptide sequence could be recognized. A lambda clone that hybridized to the AGPase transcripts was isolated from a barley genomic library and characterized. The restriction map has suggested a complex organization of the gene, with alternative exons encoding the different 5' ends of the two transcripts followed by nine exons coding for the common part of the transcripts. The sequence of a portion of the genomic clone, covering the alternative 5'-end exons as well as upstream regions, has verified that both transcripts are encoded by the gene. The results suggest that the small-subunit gene of barley AGPase transcribes two different mRNAs by a mechanism classified as alternative splicing. PMID:8546676

  3. Precursor structure, distribution and possible functions of pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH) in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille).

    PubMed

    Fouda, Maged Mohamed Ali; Hiragaki, Susumu; Tufail, Muhammad; Shao, Qi-Miao; Takeda, Makio

    2010-12-01

    Pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH) is an 18 amino acid neuropeptide that induces pigment migration in Decapoda and serves as a circadian neurotransmitter in the locomotor activity rhythm in Drosophila. In this study, a cDNA encoding PDH was cloned from adult brains of the pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare (Av). The cDNA comprising 529 bp encodes a peptide (AvPDH) that consists of a putative 26 amino acid signal peptide, and a 34 amino acid PDH-precursor-related peptide containing an 18 amino acid mature peptide. The peptide shows a high sequence identity (55-77%) to crustacean β-PDHs and insect PDFs. The tissue-specific expression pattern was examined by reverse transcription PCR. The transcript is expressed in the brain strongly and ventral nerve cord weakly, but the signal was not detected in the intestinal tract. A similar expression profile appeared in Western blot analyses. Western blot analyses with timed samples showed more intense expression of PDH-like antigen at night. PDH-like immunohistochemical reactivity (PDH-ir) was detected in the optic lobe, anteromedian protocerebrum, accessory lobe, tritocerebrum, and suboesophageal ganglion but the reactivity was faint or nil in the pseudofrontal organ (sinus gland). These results were substantiated by in situ hybridization. Co-localization using anti-Gryllus bimaculatus (Gb)-PDF, anti-Bombyx mori (Bm)-CLK, and anti-Bm-CYC showed a co-localization of these antigens in the optic lobe and SOG. The results provide the first structural and immunocytochemical identification of PDH neurons in terrestrial isopods, and the co-localization of PDH with CLK and CYC supports its possible involvement in circadian clock. A day/night rhythm of PDH content is also a new feature.

  4. Calcium transport in protoplasts isolated from ml-o barley isolines resistant and susceptible to powdery mildew. [Hordeum vulgare L

    SciTech Connect

    Wrona, A.F.; Spanswick, R.M.; Aist, J.R. )

    1988-12-01

    Free cytoplasmic calcium has been postulated to play a role in preventing powdery mildew in a series of homozygous ml-o mutants of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. Protoplasts isolated from 7-day-old plants of the ml-o resistant-susceptible (R-S) barley isolines, Riso 5678/3* {times} Carlsberg II R and S, were used to test for differences in fluxes of Ca{sup 2+} across the plasmalemma. Greater influx or lesser efflux might account for a higher free cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} postulated to exist in ml-o R mutants. Uniform patterns of uptake were maintained for 3 hours from solutions of 0.2 and 2 millimolar Ca{sup 2+}. Washout curves of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} from R and S protoplasts revealed three compartments - presumed to represent release from the vacuole, organelles, and the cytoplasm (which included bound as well as free Ca{sup 2+}). Uptake and washout did not differ between isolines. On the basis of recent determinations of submicromolar levels of free cytoplasmic Ca{sup 2+} and their initial rates of {sup 45}ca-labeled Ca{sup 2+} uptake, they show that measurement of the unidirectional influx of Ca{sup 2+} across the plasmalemma is not feasible because the specific activity of the pool of free cytoplasmic calcium increases almost instantaneously to a level that would result in a significant, but unknown, efflux of label. Similarly, measurement of the efflux of Ca{sup 2+} across the plasmalemma is not possible since the activity of the pool of free cytoplasmic calcium is a factor of 350 smaller than the most rapid component of the washout experiment. This pool of cytoplasmic free Ca{sup 2+} will wash out too rapidly and be too small to detect under the conditions of these experiments.

  5. Metabolite profiling reveals distinct changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolism in phosphate-deficient barley plants (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun Y; Roessner, Ute; Eickmeier, Ira; Genc, Yusuf; Callahan, Damien L; Shirley, Neil; Langridge, Peter; Bacic, Antony

    2008-05-01

    Plants modify metabolic processes for adaptation to low phosphate (P) conditions. Whilst transcriptomic analyses show that P deficiency changes hundreds of genes related to various metabolic processes, there is limited information available for global metabolite changes of P-deficient plants, especially for cereals. As changes in metabolites are the ultimate 'readout' of changes in gene expression, we profiled polar metabolites from both shoots and roots of P-deficient barley (Hordeum vulgare) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that mildly P-deficient plants accumulated di- and trisaccharides (sucrose, maltose, raffinose and 6-kestose), especially in shoots. Severe P deficiency increased the levels of metabolites related to ammonium metabolism in addition to di- and trisaccharides, but reduced the levels of phosphorylated intermediates (glucose-6-P, fructose-6-P, inositol-1-P and glycerol-3-P) and organic acids (alpha-ketoglutarate, succinate, fumarate and malate). The results revealed that P-deficient plants modify carbohydrate metabolism initially to reduce P consumption, and salvage P from small P-containing metabolites when P deficiency is severe, which consequently reduced levels of organic acids in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The extent of the effect of severe P deficiency on ammonium metabolism was also revealed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) quantitative analysis of free amino acids. A sharp increase in the concentrations of glutamine and asparagine was observed in both shoots and roots of severely P-deficient plants. Based on these data, a strategy for improving the ability of cereals to adapt to low P environments is proposed that involves alteration in partitioning of carbohydrates into organic acids and amino acids to enable more efficient utilization of carbon in P-deficient plants.

  6. Variability in Proline-Accumulating Ability of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Cultivars Induced by Vapor Pressure Deficit.

    PubMed

    Naidu, B P; Aspinall, D; Paleg, L G

    1992-02-01

    This work was undertaken in an effort to reconcile the conflicting proline-accumulating responses of the barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars, Excelsior and Proctor, reported by Singh et al. (1972) and Hanson et al. (1976). It deals with the effects of different vapor pressure deficits (VPD) during growth and subsequent drought stress on several barley cultivars. A higher VPD (1.2 kilopascals) during Clipper seedling growth resulted in higher solute-accumulating ability, seemingly independently of leaf water potential, than a lower VPD (0.12 kilopascals). The higher VPD during stress also resulted in higher solute contents, and this response may be more closely related to leaf water potential. When the responses of Excelsior and Proctor were examined in detail, it was found that the relative proline-accumulating ability of the two cultivars was dependent upon the VPD under which they were grown. At low VPD, Proctor accumulated significantly more proline than did Excelsior; whereas at higher VPD, Excelsior accumulated more proline than did Proctor. The crossover occurred at a VPD of about 0.72 kilopascals. This reversal of cultivar response was enhanced by multiplying seed under the two VPD extremes. Glycinebetaine accumulation did not demonstrate the crossover effect, although the concentration of this compound in all cultivars also depended on the VPD prevailing during growth and/or stress. Solute levels, in general, were more closely related to the decrease in relative water content than to a decrease in leaf water potential. It is concluded that the conflicting proline-accumulating responses of Excelsior and Proctor could be explained by these findings.

  7. Evolutionary History of Wild Barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) Analyzed Using Multilocus Sequence Data and Paleodistribution Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Jakob, Sabine S.; Rödder, Dennis; Engler, Jan O.; Shaaf, Salar; Özkan, Hakan; Blattner, Frank R.; Kilian, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Studies of Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum, the wild progenitor of cultivated barley, have mostly relied on materials collected decades ago and maintained since then ex situ in germplasm repositories. We analyzed spatial genetic variation in wild barley populations collected rather recently, exploring sequence variations at seven single-copy nuclear loci, and inferred the relationships among these populations and toward the genepool of the crop. The wild barley collection covers the whole natural distribution area from the Mediterranean to Middle Asia. In contrast to earlier studies, Bayesian assignment analyses revealed three population clusters, in the Levant, Turkey, and east of Turkey, respectively. Genetic diversity was exceptionally high in the Levant, while eastern populations were depleted of private alleles. Species distribution modeling based on climate parameters and extant occurrence points of the taxon inferred suitable habitat conditions during the ice-age, particularly in the Levant and Turkey. Together with the ecologically wide range of habitats, they might contribute to structured but long-term stable populations in this region and their high genetic diversity. For recently collected individuals, Bayesian assignment to geographic clusters was generally unambiguous, but materials from genebanks often showed accessions that were not placed according to their assumed geographic origin or showed traces of introgression from cultivated barley. We assign this to gene flow among accessions during ex situ maintenance. Evolutionary studies based on such materials might therefore result in wrong conclusions regarding the history of the species or the origin and mode of domestication of the crop, depending on the accessions included. PMID:24586028

  8. Effect of Hordeum vulgare L. (Barley) on blood glucose levels of normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Minaiyan, M.; Ghannadi, A.; Movahedian, A.; Hakim-Elahi, I.

    2014-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is the world's fourth most important cereal crop after wheat, rice and maize. It is readily available with reasonable cost, and has the highest amount of dietary fiber among the cereals which may be beneficial for metabolic syndrome. In the present study, the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of barley seeds and a protein enriched fraction on blood glucose of normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats (STZ, 55 mg/kg, i.p) were investigated. Normal and diabetic male Wistar rats were treated daily with normal saline (1 ml), barley hydroalcoholic extract (BHE) (0.1, 0.25, 0.5 g/kg), protein enriched fraction (PEF) (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 g/kg) and glibenclamide (1 and 3 mg/kg), separately and the treatment was continued for 11 days. Blood samples were taken at 0, 1, 2, 3, 9 h in the first day and the days 5 (120 h) and 11 (264 h) for measuring the blood glucose levels (BGL). Our results indicated that none of the BHE and PEF, were effective to reduce BGL in normal or diabetic rats in acute phase of treatment (1st day). Nevertheless, BHE at doses of 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg, were only effective in detracting BGL of diabetic rats after 11 days of continued daily therapy. Moreover, BHE restored body weight of diabetic rats at the end of treatment. Glibenclamide had also hypoglycemic action in normal and diabetic rats after both acute and extended treatments. These findings suggest that barley seeds hydroalcoholic extract, has a role in diabetic control in long term consumption, and this effect might be at least due to its high fiber content. More detailed studies are warranted to demonstrate its mechanism of action and identify active components. PMID:25657786

  9. Effects of Cerium and Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles in Soil on the Nutrient Composition of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Kernels

    PubMed Central

    Pošćić, Filip; Mattiello, Alessandro; Fellet, Guido; Miceli, Fabiano; Marchiol, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The implications of metal nanoparticles (MeNPs) are still unknown for many food crops. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cerium oxide (nCeO2) and titanium oxide (nTiO2) nanoparticles in soil at 0, 500 and 1000 mg·kg−1 on the nutritional parameters of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) kernels. Mineral nutrients, amylose, β-glucans, amino acid and crude protein (CP) concentrations were measured in kernels. Whole flour samples were analyzed by ICP-AES/MS, HPLC and Elemental CHNS Analyzer. Results showed that Ce and Ti accumulation under MeNPs treatments did not differ from the control treatment. However, nCeO2 and nTiO2 had an impact on composition and nutritional quality of barley kernels in contrasting ways. Both MeNPs left β-glucans unaffected but reduced amylose content by approximately 21%. Most amino acids and CP increased. Among amino acids, lysine followed by proline saw the largest increase (51% and 37%, respectively). Potassium and S were both negatively impacted by MeNPs, while B was only affected by 500 mg nCeO2·kg−1. On the contrary Zn and Mn concentrations were improved by 500 mg nTiO2·kg−1, and Ca by both nTiO2 treatments. Generally, our findings demonstrated that kernels are negatively affected by nCeO2 while nTiO2 can potentially have beneficial effects. However, both MeNPs have the potential to negatively impact malt and feed production. PMID:27294945

  10. Effects of Cerium and Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles in Soil on the Nutrient Composition of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Kernels.

    PubMed

    Pošćić, Filip; Mattiello, Alessandro; Fellet, Guido; Miceli, Fabiano; Marchiol, Luca

    2016-06-09

    The implications of metal nanoparticles (MeNPs) are still unknown for many food crops. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cerium oxide (nCeO₂) and titanium oxide (nTiO₂) nanoparticles in soil at 0, 500 and 1000 mg·kg(-1) on the nutritional parameters of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) kernels. Mineral nutrients, amylose, β-glucans, amino acid and crude protein (CP) concentrations were measured in kernels. Whole flour samples were analyzed by ICP-AES/MS, HPLC and Elemental CHNS Analyzer. Results showed that Ce and Ti accumulation under MeNPs treatments did not differ from the control treatment. However, nCeO₂ and nTiO₂ had an impact on composition and nutritional quality of barley kernels in contrasting ways. Both MeNPs left β-glucans unaffected but reduced amylose content by approximately 21%. Most amino acids and CP increased. Among amino acids, lysine followed by proline saw the largest increase (51% and 37%, respectively). Potassium and S were both negatively impacted by MeNPs, while B was only affected by 500 mg nCeO₂·kg(-1). On the contrary Zn and Mn concentrations were improved by 500 mg nTiO₂·kg(-1), and Ca by both nTiO₂ treatments. Generally, our findings demonstrated that kernels are negatively affected by nCeO₂ while nTiO₂ can potentially have beneficial effects. However, both MeNPs have the potential to negatively impact malt and feed production.

  11. A synergistic effect of pretreatment on cell wall structural changes in barley straw (Hordeum vulgare L.) for efficient bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Md Mominul Islam; Kim, Chul-Hwan; Park, Hyeong-Hun; Nam, Hye-Gyeong; Lee, Gyeong Sun; Jo, Hu Seung; Lee, Ji-Young; Kim, Jae Won

    2015-03-15

    Barley straw (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an attractive lignocellulosic material and one of the most abundant renewable resources for fuel ethanol production. Although it has high cellulose and hemicellulose contents, there are several challenges and limitations in the process of converting it to fuel ethanol. High ash, silica and lignin contents in barley straw make it an inferior feedstock for enzymatic hydrolysis. Therefore pretreatment of barley straw could play an important role in inducing structural and compositional changes that increase the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis and make the whole process economically viable. Saccharification was enhanced using various concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0% v/v) of a solution of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and various reaction times (15, 30 and 45 min) during pretreatment at 121 °C. The highest yield of glucose (447 mg g⁻¹) was achieved by pretreatment with 2.0% NaClO+H₂O₂ solution for 30 min, representing an increase of 65.99% compared with untreated barley straw (152 mg g⁻¹). During fermentation, the highest amount of ethanol (207 mg g⁻¹) was obtained under anaerobic plus 0.4 mmol L⁻¹ benzoic acid conditions, representing an increase of 57.49, 38.16 and 10.14% compared with untreated sample (88 mg g⁻¹), aerobic (128 mg g⁻¹) and anaerobic (186 mg g⁻¹) conditions respectively. The results suggest that pretreatment with 2.0% NaClO+H₂O₂ solution disrupted the recalcitrant structure of barley straw and enhanced the glucose yield and subsequent bioethanol production. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Identification of regulated proteins in naked barley grains (Hordeum vulgare nudum) after Fusarium graminearum infection at different grain ripening stages.

    PubMed

    Trümper, Christina; Paffenholz, Katrin; Smit, Inga; Kössler, Philip; Karlovsky, Petr; Braun, Hans-Peter; Pawelzik, Elke

    2016-02-05

    We analyzed the effect of Fusarium graminearum infection on field-grown naked barley (Hordeum vulgare nudum). The ears were inoculated with F. graminearum spores during anthesis. In the course of ripening, grains in five phenological growth stages of naked barley from milk ripe to plant death were sampled. The albumin and globulin proteins of inoculated grains and untreated (control) grains were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Forty-five spots composing of proteins that were changed in abundance due to F. graminearum infection were subsequently identified by mass spectrometry. Various proteins showing altered expression pattern after Fusarium infection were linked to stress response such as plant signal transduction pathways, fungal defense and oxidative burst. More proteins changed during early grain ripening stages than during later ripening stages. Protease inhibitors occurred at increased abundancy during milk ripe stage. A thaumatin-like protein accumulated at plant death stage. Proteins linked to nitrogen metabolism and protein biosynthesis were mainly reduced, whereas those linked to carbon metabolism were predominantly increased in infected grains. Fusarium graminearum infection can lead to significant contamination of grains with mycotoxins. With this 2D-based proteomics study we give an insight into plant–pathogen interactions between the non-model plant naked barley and the fungus F. graminearum during five stages of grain development. Over the multiple developmental stages we observed specific patterns of changes induced by the fungus: the primary plant metabolism and inhibition of fungal protease were predominantly affected during early grain development stages. During the entire grain development we found an induced accumulation of thaumatin-like proteins due to the fungal infection indicating their fundamental role for naked barley defense.

  13. Methanolic extract of Origanum vulgare ameliorates type 1 diabetes through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activity.

    PubMed

    Vujicic, Milica; Nikolic, Ivana; Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Saksida, Tamara; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Orescanin-Dusic, Zorana; Blagojevic, Dusko; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Tzakos, Andreas G; Stojanovic, Ivana

    2015-03-14

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D), an autoimmune inflammatory disorder, develops as a consequence of pancreatic β-cell destruction and results in hyperglycaemia. Since current T1D therapy mainly involves insulin replacement, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (Greek oregano) leaf extract rich in biophenols for the treatment of T1D. The phytochemical profile of methanolic oregano extract (MOE) and aqueous oregano extract (AOE) was determined by liquid chromatography/electrospray ion-trap tandem MS (LC/DAD/ESI-MSn), while their main compounds were quantified by HPLC with diode array detection. After establishing their potent in vitro antioxidant activity, the extracts were administered to C57BL/6 mice treated with multiple low doses of streptozotocin for diabetes induction. While prophylactic AOE therapy had no impact on diabetes induction, MOE reduced diabetes incidence and preserved normal insulin secretion. In addition, MOE scavenged reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and, therefore, alleviated the need for the up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes. MOE treatment specifically attenuated the pro-inflammatory response mediated by T helper 17 cells and enhanced anti-inflammatory T helper 2 and T regulatory cells through the impact on specific signalling pathways and transcription factors. Importantly, MOE preserved β-cells from in vitro apoptosis via blockade of caspase 3. Finally, rosmarinic acid, a predominant compound in MOE, exhibited only partial protection from diabetes induction. In conclusion, acting as an antioxidant, immunomodulator and in an anti-apoptotic manner, MOE protected mice from diabetes development. Seemingly, there is more than one compound responsible for the beneficial effect of MOE.

  14. Ethyl Acetate Extract of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum Prevents Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Vujicic, Milica; Nikolic, Ivana; Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Saksida, Tamara; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Vasic, Bobana; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Tzakos, Andreas G; Stojanovic, Ivana

    2016-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that develops as a consequence of pancreatic β-cell death induced by proinflammatory mediators. Because Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (Greek oregano) contains antiinflammatory molecules, we hypothesized that it might be beneficial for the treatment of T1D. An ethyl acetate extract of oregano (EAO) was prepared from the leaves by a polar extraction method. Phytochemical composition was determined by liquid chromatography-UV diode array coupled to ion-trap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization interface (LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n) ). In vitro immunomodulatory effect of EAO was estimated by measuring proliferation (MTT) or cytokine secretion (ELISA) from immune cells. Diabetes was induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin (MLDS) in male C57BL/6 mice and EAO was administered intraperitoneally for 10 d. Determination of cellular composition (flow cytometry) and cytokine production (ELISA) was performed on 12th d after diabetes induction. EAO suppressed the function of both macrophages and lymphocytes in vitro. In vivo, EAO treatment significantly preserved pancreatic islets and reduced diabetes incidence in MLDS-challenged mice. Besides down-modulatory effect on macrophages, EAO reduced the number of total CD4(+) and activated CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells. Furthermore, EAO affected the number of T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 17 (Th17) cells through downregulation of their key transcription factors T-bet and RORγT. Because EAO treatment protects mice from development of hyperglycemia by reducing proinflammatory macrophage/Th1/Th17 response, this plant extract could represent a basis for future diabetes therapy.

  15. Physiological and proteomic characterization of manganese sensitivity and tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa) in comparison with barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    PubMed Central

    Führs, Hendrik; Behrens, Christof; Gallien, Sébastien; Heintz, Dimitri; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Braun, Hans-Peter; Horst, Walter J.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Research on manganese (Mn) toxicity and tolerance indicates that Mn toxicity develops apoplastically through increased peroxidase activities mediated by phenolics and Mn, and Mn tolerance could be conferred by sequestration of Mn in inert cell compartments. This comparative study focuses on Mn-sensitive barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Mn-tolerant rice (Oryza sativa) as model organisms to unravel the mechanisms of Mn toxicity and/or tolerance in monocots. Methods Bulk leaf Mn concentrations as well as peroxidase activities and protein concentrations were analysed in apoplastic washing fluid (AWF) in both species. In rice, Mn distribution between leaf compartments and the leaf proteome using 2D isoelectic focusing IEF/SDS–PAGE and 2D Blue native BN/SDS–PAGE was studied. Key Results The Mn sensitivity of barley was confirmed since the formation of brown spots on older leaves was induced by low bulk leaf and AWF Mn concentrations and exhibited strongly enhanced H2O2-producing and consuming peroxidase activities. In contrast, by a factor of 50, higher Mn concentrations did not produce Mn toxicity symptoms on older leaves in rice. Peroxidase activities, lower by a factor of about 100 in the rice leaf AWF compared with barley, support the view of a central role for these peroxidases in the apoplastic expression of Mn toxicity. The high Mn tolerance of old rice leaves could be related to a high Mn binding capacity of the cell walls. Proteomic studies suggest that the lower Mn tolerance of young rice leaves could be related to Mn excess-induced displacement of Mg and Fe from essential metabolic functions. Conclusions The results provide evidence that Mn toxicity in barley involves apoplastic lesions mediated by peroxidases. The high Mn tolerance of old leaves of rice involves a high Mn binding capacity of the cell walls, whereas Mn toxicity in less Mn-tolerant young leaves is related to Mn-induced Mg and Fe deficiencies. PMID:20237113

  16. EST-SSR markers derived from an elite barley cultivar (Hordeum vulgare L. 'Morex'): polymorphism and genetic marker potential.

    PubMed

    Emebiri, Livinus C

    2009-08-01

    Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats have become the markers of choice for marker-assisted selection because of their low template DNA requirement, high reproducibility, and high level of polymorphism. This study investigated a new set of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) EST-derived SSR markers designed to target gene sequences expressed during grain development, as they are more likely to be important in determining grain quality. The EST sequences (HVSMEh and HVSMEi) were derived from cDNA libraries of the elite six-rowed cultivar Morex, made from spikes harvested at 5 to 45 days after pollination. Approximately half of the 110 SSR markers derived from the ESTs were polymorphic in a panel of 8 diverse barley genotypes, with PIC values between 0.19 and 0.79. Twenty of the new markers were mapped to chromosomal locations using 2 doubled haploid populations. To demonstrate marker potential, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses were carried out with phenotypic data on wort beta-glucan content and beta-glucanase activity, two traits with a long history of genetic studies. Most of the EST-SSR markers mapped to within 10 cM of the cellulose synthase (HvCesA) and cellulose synthase-like (HvCslF) genes, which provides highly informative functional markers for tracking these genes in breeding programs. It was also observed that on any given chromosome, the QTL for beta-glucan content and beta-glucanase activity were rarely coincident but tended to occur in adjacent intervals along chromosomal regions, which agreed with their independent genetic basis; the adjacent localization may be important for coordination of cell wall degradation during germination and malting.

  17. Variation between Ethiopian and North American barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare) in response to Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) populations.

    PubMed

    Araya, Alemu; Belay, Tesfay; Hussein, Temam

    2014-03-15

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), causes severe damage to barley, Hordeum vulgare L. (Poales: Poaceae), in the highlands of Ethiopia. Little information is available on the control of this pest in Ethiopia. An experiment aimed at evaluating the resistance of barley varieties from the USA to D. noxia populations and determining biotypic variation between Ethiopian and North American D. noxia populations was conducted. The D. noxia-resistant barley varieties Burton and RWA-1758 from the USA, the resistant barley line 3296-15 from Ethiopia, and a local Ethiopian susceptible variety were included in a randomized design in a greenhouse under natural light conditions. There were highly significant differences (P < 0.001) in the mean D. noxia population, leaf chlorosis, leaf rolling, plant stunting, number of tillers per plant, and the percentage of infested tillers per plant between the resistant and susceptible varieties. The aphid population per tiller was lower on the resistant barley plants than on the susceptible plants. Severe plant damage was observed on the local barley variety, while the least damage was observed on Burton, followed by RWA-1758. Burton and RWA-1758 were therefore highly resistant and moderately resistant, respectively, to the northern Ethiopian D. noxia populations, indicating similarities in biotypes between the United States and northern Ethiopian D. noxia populations. The damage to variety 3296-15 was greater than to Burton and RWA-1758. Leaf chlorosis scores and leaf rolling scores for variety 3296-15 upon treatment with the north Ethiopian D. noxia population indicate likely biotypic variation between D. noxia populations of northern and central Ethiopia.

  18. Anti-oxidant studies and anti-microbial effect of Origanum vulgare Linn in combination with standard antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Veni; Vasudeva, Neeru; Kumar, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Origanum is one of the over 200 genera in the Lamiaceae (mint family), and this genus includes culinary, fragrant, and medicinal properties. The plant is reported to contain anti-microbial properties, but it lacks combination studies with that of synthetic antibiotics. Aim: To investigate the anti-oxidant and anti-microbial interaction studies of Origanum vulgare with standard drugs against Bacillus species of bacteria and Aspergillus niger. Materials and Methods: The anti-oxidant properties of phenolic, non-phenolic fractions of chloroform extract and volatile oil were evaluated by free radical-scavenging, hydrogen peroxide radical-scavenging assay, reducing power, and metal chelating assays. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration and fractional inhibitory concentration index were determined which demonstrates the behavior of volatile oil, phenolic, and non-phenolic fractions of volatile oil with that of ciprofloxacin and fluconazole. The IC50 value for volatile oil was found to be 15, 30, and 30 μg/ml and that of phenolic fraction was 60, 120, and 120 μg/ml for free radical-scavenging, hydrogen peroxide-scavenging, and metal chelating assays respectively. Non-phenolic fraction was found to act antagonistically along with ciprofloxacin against B. cereus and B. subtilis, while the phenolic fraction exhibited indifferent activity along with ciprofloxacin against both the bacterial strains. Conclusion: This combination of drug therapy will not only prove effective in antibiotic resistance, but these natural constituents will also help in preventing body from harmful radicals which lead to fatal diseases. PMID:25364204

  19. Neuroprotective Effects of Herbal Extract (Rosa canina, Tanacetum vulgare and Urtica dioica) on Rat Model of Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Daneshmand, Parvaneh; Saliminejad, Kioomars; Dehghan Shasaltaneh, Marzieh; Kamali, Koorosh; Riazi, Gholam Hossein; Nazari, Reza; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease (SAD) is caused by genetic risk factors, aging and oxidative stresses. The herbal extract of Rosa canina (R. canina), Tanacetum vulgare (T. vulgare) and Urtica dioica (U. dioica) has a beneficial role in aging, as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agent. In this study, the neuroprotective effects of this herbal extract in the rat model of SAD was investigated. Methods: The rats were divided into control, sham, model, herbal extract -treated and ethanol-treated groups. Drug interventions were started on the 21st day after modeling and each treatment group was given the drugs by intraperitoneal (I.P.) route for 21 days. The expression levels of the five important genes for pathogenesis of SAD including Syp, Psen1, Mapk3, Map2 and Tnf-α were measured by qPCR between the hippocampi of SAD model which were treated by this herbal extract and control groups. The Morris Water Maze was adapted to test spatial learning and memory ability of the rats. Results: Treatment of the rat model of SAD with herbal extract induced a significant change in expression of Syp (p=0.001) and Psen1 (p=0.029). In Morris Water Maze, significant changes in spatial learning seen in the rat model group were improved in herbal-treated group. Conclusion: This herbal extract could have anti-dementia properties and improve spatial learning and memory in SAD rat model. PMID:27563424

  20. Some characteristics of segregation in hybrids of Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch emend. Bacht. × H. vulgare (L.) emend. Vav. et Bacht.

    PubMed

    Bakhteyev, F K

    1969-01-01

    The analysis of hybrid generations, that had arisen from crosses of various forms of H. spontaneum, as well as comparison of the results of crossing representatives of H. spontaneum with two and six-row forms of H. vulgare warrant the following statements: 1. When various morphological races of H. spontaneum were intercrossed, no morphologically new types arose among the progeny of hybrid generations as a result of these crosses. Various morphological hybrid groups, eight up to F 3, remained strictly within the variability of the system of the species Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch emend. Bacht. 2. When various morphological races of H. spontaneum were hybridized with two- and six-row forms of H. vulgare, marked dominance of characters of the wild parent were observed, nevertheless even in F 3 occasional hybrid individuals with a nonbrittle ear have been obtained. This fact is an evidence that cultivated barley may take part in the formation of such hybrids. In the fourth generation of the above interspecific crosses besides individuals which had inherited the characters of one or the other of the parents new morphological types arise. The latter are characterized by new combinations, inherited from both parents. In studies reported previously such casual hybrid individuals were provisionally named by us "sessiliproskowetzii". At first glance, the latter seemed not to differ from H. spontaneum v. proskowetzii, but more thorough observation showed that such hybrids differ from genuine individuals of v. proskowetzii: their sterile lateral spikelets are sessile, i.e. deprived of pedicels.

  1. Armadillidin H, a Glycine-Rich Peptide from the Terrestrial Crustacean Armadillidium vulgare, Displays an Unexpected Wide Antimicrobial Spectrum with Membranolytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Verdon, Julien; Coutos-Thevenot, Pierre; Rodier, Marie-Helene; Landon, Celine; Depayras, Segolene; Noel, Cyril; La Camera, Sylvain; Moumen, Bouziane; Greve, Pierre; Bouchon, Didier; Berjeaud, Jean-Marc; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are key components of innate immunity and are widespread in nature, from bacteria to vertebrate animals. In crustaceans, there are currently 15 distinct AMP families published so far in the literature, mainly isolated from members of the Decapoda order. Up to now, armadillidin is the sole non-decapod AMP isolated from the haemocytes of Armadillidium vulgare, a crustacean isopod. Its first description demonstrated that armadillidin is a linear glycine-rich (47%) cationic peptide with an antimicrobial activity directed toward Bacillus megaterium. In the present work, we report identification of armadillidin Q, a variant of armadillidin H (earlier known as armadillidin), from crude haemocyte extracts of A. vulgare using LC-MS approach. We demonstrated that both armadillidins displayed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, but were totally inactive against yeasts. Membrane permeabilization assays, only performed with armadillidin H, showed that the peptide is membrane active against bacterial and fungal strains leading to deep changes in cell morphology. This damaging activity visualized by electronic microscopy correlates with a rapid decrease of cell viability leading to highly blebbed cells. In contrast, armadillidin H does not reveal cytotoxicity toward human erythrocytes. Furthermore, no secondary structure could be defined in this study [by circular dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)] even in a membrane mimicking environment. Therefore, armadillidins represent interesting candidates to gain insight into the biology of glycine-rich AMPs.

  2. Armadillidin H, a Glycine-Rich Peptide from the Terrestrial Crustacean Armadillidium vulgare, Displays an Unexpected Wide Antimicrobial Spectrum with Membranolytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Verdon, Julien; Coutos-Thevenot, Pierre; Rodier, Marie-Helene; Landon, Celine; Depayras, Segolene; Noel, Cyril; La Camera, Sylvain; Moumen, Bouziane; Greve, Pierre; Bouchon, Didier; Berjeaud, Jean-Marc; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are key components of innate immunity and are widespread in nature, from bacteria to vertebrate animals. In crustaceans, there are currently 15 distinct AMP families published so far in the literature, mainly isolated from members of the Decapoda order. Up to now, armadillidin is the sole non-decapod AMP isolated from the haemocytes of Armadillidium vulgare, a crustacean isopod. Its first description demonstrated that armadillidin is a linear glycine-rich (47%) cationic peptide with an antimicrobial activity directed toward Bacillus megaterium. In the present work, we report identification of armadillidin Q, a variant of armadillidin H (earlier known as armadillidin), from crude haemocyte extracts of A. vulgare using LC-MS approach. We demonstrated that both armadillidins displayed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, but were totally inactive against yeasts. Membrane permeabilization assays, only performed with armadillidin H, showed that the peptide is membrane active against bacterial and fungal strains leading to deep changes in cell morphology. This damaging activity visualized by electronic microscopy correlates with a rapid decrease of cell viability leading to highly blebbed cells. In contrast, armadillidin H does not reveal cytotoxicity toward human erythrocytes. Furthermore, no secondary structure could be defined in this study [by circular dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)] even in a membrane mimicking environment. Therefore, armadillidins represent interesting candidates to gain insight into the biology of glycine-rich AMPs. PMID:27713732

  3. Volatile oil composition and antiproliferative activity of Laurus nobilis, Origanum syriacum, Origanum vulgare, and Salvia triloba against human breast adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Kalaldeh, Jelnar Z; Abu-Dahab, Rana; Afifi, Fatma U

    2010-04-01

    Medicinal plants and culinary herbs have gained importance in the last decade as cytotoxic and antitumor agents. We hypothesized that some of the commonly used spices with reported antimicrobial activity might have antiproliferative activity. In the present study, selected spices used in Jordan were chemically analyzed and investigated for their antiproliferative activity to the adenocarcinoma of breast cell line (MCF7). The composition of the essential oils of Laurus nobilis L, Origanum syriacum L, Origanum vulgare L, and Salvia triloba L was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antiproliferative activities of the hydrodistilled volatile oils and the crude ethanol and water extracts were evaluated using the sulphorhodamine B assay. 1,8-Cineol was the major constituent in the hydrodistilled oils of both plants, L nobilis and S triloba, with concentrations of 40.91% and 45.16%, respectively. The major constituent of O syriacum was the carvacrol (47.10%), whereas that of O vulgare was trans-sabinene hydrate (27.19%). The ethanol crude extracts of O syriacum, L nobilis, and S triloba showed antiproliferative activity to MCF7 with IC(50) values 6.40, 24.49, and 25.25 microg/mL, respectively. However, none of the hydrodistilled essential oils of the tested plant species or their aqueous extracts demonstrated cytotoxic activity.

  4. Chemometrics applied to the analysis of induced phytochelatins in Hordeum vulgare plants stressed with various toxic non-essential metals and metalloids.

    PubMed

    Dago, Àngela; González, Inmaculada; Ariño, Cristina; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Esteban, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    Hordeum vulgare plants were stressed with Hg, Cd and As and their phytotoxicity was evaluated in terms of growth inhibition and total metal uptake by the plant. The synthesised phytochelatins ((γ-Glu-Cys)n-Gly, n=2-5; PCs) were determined by HPLC with amperometric detection at a glassy carbon electrode. The results indicate that H. vulgare is a good phytostabilisation plant due to its capacity to accumulate heavy metals in roots. Cd and Hg are the most uptake toxic elements, being Cd the most potent inducer of PCs. The data obtained on the different PCs and related peptides induced by each heavy metal were used to perform a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the results as a function of the contaminating toxic element or its concentration level. The nature of the stressor element could be predicted from the pattern of PCs and related peptides identified by PCA. PCs were the most strongly induced peptides under Cd and Hg stress, whereas As only tended to synthesise small thiols such as glutathione and γ-glutamylcysteine, both precursors of PCs synthesis. This finding indicates that PCs are induced at different rates depending on the metal stressor used. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evolutionary Significance of Wolbachia-to-Animal Horizontal Gene Transfer: Female Sex Determination and the f Element in the Isopod Armadillidium vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Cordaux, Richard; Gilbert, Clément

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events from bacteria to animals have been reported in the past years, many of which involve Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts and their invertebrate hosts. Most transferred Wolbachia genes are neutrally-evolving fossils embedded in host genomes. A remarkable case of Wolbachia HGT for which a clear evolutionary significance has been demonstrated is the “f element”, a nuclear Wolbachia insert involved in female sex determination in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. The f element represents an instance of bacteria-to-animal HGT that has occurred so recently that it was possible to infer the donor (feminizing Wolbachia closely related to the wVulC Wolbachia strain of A. vulgare) and the mechanism of integration (a nearly complete genome inserted by micro-homology-mediated recombination). In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of the f element and discuss arising perspectives regarding female sex determination, unstable inheritance, population dynamics and the molecular evolution of the f element. Overall, the f element unifies three major areas in evolutionary biology: symbiosis, HGT and sex determination. Its characterization highlights the tremendous impact sex ratio distorters can have on the evolution of sex determination mechanisms and sex chromosomes in animals and plants. PMID:28753988

  6. Population-genetic analysis of HvABCG31 promoter sequence in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The cuticle is an important adaptive structure whose origin played a crucial role in the transition of plants from aqueous to terrestrial conditions. HvABCG31/Eibi1 is an ABCG transporter gene, involved in cuticle formation that was recently identified in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum). To study the genetic variation of HvABCG31 in different habitats, its 2 kb promoter region was sequenced from 112 wild barley accessions collected from five natural populations from southern and northern Israel. The sites included three mesic and two xeric habitats, and differed in annual rainfall, soil type, and soil water capacity. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the aligned HvABCG31 promoter sequences clustered the majority of accessions (69 out of 71) from the three northern mesic populations into one cluster, while all 21 accessions from the Dead Sea area, a xeric southern population, and two isolated accessions (one from a xeric population at Mitzpe Ramon and one from the xeric ‘African Slope’ of “Evolution Canyon”) formed the second cluster. The southern arid populations included six haplotypes, but they differed from the consensus sequence at a large number of positions, while the northern mesic populations included 15 haplotypes that were, on average, more similar to the consensus sequence. Most of the haplotypes (20 of 22) were unique to a population. Interestingly, higher genetic variation occurred within populations (54.2%) than among populations (45.8%). Analysis of the promoter region detected a large number of transcription factor binding sites: 121–128 and 121–134 sites in the two southern arid populations, and 123–128,125–128, and 123–125 sites in the three northern mesic populations. Three types of TFBSs were significantly enriched: those related to GA (gibberellin), Dof (DNA binding with one finger), and light. Conclusions Drought stress and adaptive natural selection may have been important determinants in the observed

  7. Impact of fungicides on active oxygen species and antioxidant enzymes in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to ozone.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue-xuan; von, Tiedemann Andreas

    2002-01-01

    Two modern fungicides, a strobilurin, azoxystrobin (AZO), and a triazole, epoxiconazole (EPO), applied as foliar spray on spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Scarlett) 3 days prior to fumigation with injurious doses of ozone (150-250 ppb; 5 days; 7 h/day) induced a 50-60% protection against ozone injury on leaves. Fungicide treatments of barley plants at growth stage (GS) 32 significantly increased the total leaf soluble protein content. Additionally, activities of the antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate-peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) were increased by both fungicides at maximal rates of 16, 75, 51 and 144%, respectively. Guiacol-peroxidase (POX) activity was elevated by 50-110% only in AZO treated plants, while this effect was lacking after treatments with EPO. This coincided with elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) only in EPO and not in AZO treated plants. The enhancement of the plant antioxidative system by the two fungicides significantly and considerably reduced the level of superoxide (O2*-) in leaves. Fumigation of barley plants for 4 days with non-injurious ozone doses (120-150 ppb, 7 h/day) markedly and immediately stimulated O2*- accumulation in leaves, while H2O2 was increased only after the third day of fumigation. Therefore, O2*- itself or as precursor of even more toxic oxyradicals appears to be more indicative for ozone-induced leaf damage than H2O2. Ozone also induced significant increases in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POX and CAT) after 2 days of fumigation in fungicide untreated plants, while after 4 days of fumigation these enzymes declined to a level lower than in unfumigated plants, due to the oxidative degradation of leaf proteins. This is the first report demonstrating the marked enhancement of plant antioxidative enzymes and the enhanced scavenging of potentially harmful O2*- by fungicides as a mechanism of protecting plants against noxious oxidative stress

  8. Effect of Origanum vulgare L. leaves on rumen fermentation, production, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hristov, A N; Lee, C; Cassidy, T; Heyler, K; Tekippe, J A; Varga, G A; Corl, B; Brandt, R C

    2013-02-01

    This experiment investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of Origanum vulgare L. leaf material (OR) on rumen fermentation, production, and milk fatty acid composition in dairy cows. The experimental design was a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square with 8 rumen-cannulated Holstein cows and 20-d experimental periods. Treatments were control (no OR supplementation), 250 g/cow per day OR (LOR), 500 g/d OR (MOR), and 750 g/d OR (HOR). Oregano supplementation had no effect on rumen pH, volatile fatty acid concentrations, and estimated microbial protein synthesis, but decreased ammonia concentration and linearly decreased methane production per unit of dry matter intake (DMI) compared with the unsupplemented control: 18.2, 16.5, 11.7, and 13.6g of methane/kg of DMI, respectively. Proportions of rumen bacterial, methanogen, and fungal populations were not affected by treatment. Treatment had no effect on total-tract apparent digestibility of dietary nutrients, except neutral detergent fiber digestibility was slightly decreased by all OR treatments compared with the control. Urinary N losses and manure odor were not affected by OR, except the proportion of urinary urea N in the total excreted urine N tended to be decreased compared with the control. Oregano linearly decreased DMI (28.3, 28.3, 27.5, and 26.7 kg/d for control, LOR, MOR, and HOR, respectively). Milk yield was not affected by treatment: 43.4, 45.2, 44.1, and 43.4 kg/d, respectively. Feed efficiency was linearly increased with OR supplementation and was greater than the control (1.46, 1.59, 1.60, and 1.63 kg/kg, respectively). Milk composition was unaffected by OR, except milk urea-N concentration was decreased. Milk fatty acid composition was not affected by treatment. In this short-term study, OR fed at 250 to 750 g/d decreased rumen methane production in dairy cows within 8h after feeding, but the effect over a 24-h feeding cycle has not been determined. Supplementation of the diet with OR linearly

  9. Evaluation of phytotoxicity effect of olive mill wastewater treated by different technologies on seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Rusan, Munir J M; Albalasmeh, Ammar A; Zuraiqi, Said; Bashabsheh, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    Olive-mill wastewater (OMW) is a by-product effluent of olive oil extraction process that is produced in large amount in the Mediterranean region. OMW is believed to induce phytotoxic effect on organisms including seed germination and plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of untreated and treated OMW with different techniques on seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The following treatments were investigated: (1) tap water (control); (2) OMW treated by aerobic biological technology in a Jacto Reactor (JR); (3) OMW treated by solar fenton oxidation (SFO); (4) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by nanofiltration (MF+NF); (5) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by reverse osmosis (MF+RO) process; (6) diluted OMW with tap water (25 % OMW); (7) diluted OMW with tap water (50 % OMW); (8) diluted OMW with tap water (75 % OMW); and (9) untreated OMW (100 % OMW). A germination test was conducted in an incubator at temperature of 23 (∘)C. In each petri dish, a filter paper was mounted and ten seeds of barley were placed on the filter paper. Five milliliter of water were added to each petri dish. The seed germination was determined by counting the number of germinated seeds to calculate the percentage of germination (G %). Germination rate index (GRI), seed vigor index (SVI), and phytotoxicity index (PI) were also calculated. Then, the dry weights and lengths of the shoots and the roots of the germinated seeds were measured. The results show that 100, 75, and 50 %OMW were very phytotoxic and completely prohibited seed germination. However, phytotoxicity decreased significantly following treatments of OMW with all techniques investigated and by the 25 % OMW dilution, as results of removing the phenols and other phytotoxic organic compounds from the OMW or by diluting it. This was evidenced by relative enhancement of the dry weights and lengths of shoot and root as well as the G %, GRI, SVG, and PI. It was concluded that if

  10. Comparison of the effects of Origanum vulgare with LHRH-A2 and 17β-estradiol on the ultrastructure of gonadotroph cells and ovarian oogenesis in immature Trichogaster trichopterus.

    PubMed

    Bagheri Ziari, Sedigheh; Naji, Tahereh; Hosseinzadeh Sahafi, Homayoun

    2015-10-01

    Origanum vulgare is a plant of the mint family that contains phytoestrogens. This study compared the effects of O. vulgare, LHRH-A2, and 17β-estradiol on the ultrastructure of gonadotroph cells and ovarian oogenesis in immature Trichogaster trichopterus. Fish (5.1±0.032cm and 2.1±0.043g, n=150) were randomly divided into four treatment groups (three hormonal treatments and control) and treated intramuscularly at four levels with 17β-estradiol or O. vulgare at 10, 20, 30 and 50mg/kg body weight and with LHRH-A2 at 0.001, 0.002, 0.003, and 0.005mg/kg body weight. There were three control treatments: saline, ethanol and placebo. Fish were kept in 15 tanks, with 10 fish per tank, injected a total of seven doses over 13 days. Gonadosomatic index (GSI) and oocyte diameter were lower (P≤0.05) in the control than in the three hormonal treatments. The highest GSI and oocyte diameter responses were observed in fish treated with 17β-estradiol (2.76±0.23%, 149.8±15.43mm) followed by O. vulgare (1.86±0.18%, 104.3±11.5mm) and LHRH-A2 (1.52±0.12%, 91.75±9.02mm) (P≤0.05). Moreover, there was a significant effect of dose level within all the hormonal treatments (P≤0.05). The effect of treatment on the length and weight was likely GSI. Ovarian tissue results showed faster oogenesis of oocytes in fish treated with O. vulgare, after 17β-estradiol. Ultrastructure of gonadotroph cells demonstrated less stimulation by O. vulgare than by 17β-estradiol and LHRH-A2. This study suggests that compared with the two hormonal treatments, O. vulgare dose-dependently affects ovarian oogenesis and gonadotroph cells.

  11. Antifungal activity of essential oils against selected terverticillate penicillia.

    PubMed

    Felšöciová, Soňa; Kačániová, Miroslava; Horská, Elena; Vukovič, Nenad; Hleba, Lukáš; Petrová, Jana; Rovná, Katarina; Stričík, Michal; Hajduová, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen 15 essential oils of selected plant species, viz. Lavandula angustifolia, Carum carvi, Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Mentha piperita, Chamomilla recutita L., Pinus sylvestris, Satureia hortensis L., Origanum vulgare L., Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch, Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L. for antifungal activity against five Penicillium species: Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium expansum and Penicillium griseofulvum. The method used for screening included the disc diffusion method. The study points out the wide spectrum of antifungal activity of essential oils against Penicillium fungi. There were five essential oils of the 15 mentioned above which showed a hopeful antifungal activity: Pimpinella anisum, Chamomilla recutita L., Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare L. The most hopeful antifungal activity and killing effect against all tested penicillia was found to be Origanum vulgare L. and Pimpinella anisum. The lowest level of antifungal activity was demonstrated by the oils Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch, Rosmarinus officinalis.

  12. Study the Antinociceptive Effect of Intracerebroventricular Injection of Aqueous Extract of Origanum Vulgare Leaves in Rat: Possible Involvement of Opioid System

    PubMed Central

    Pahlavan, Yasaman; Sepehri, Gholamreza; Sheibani, Vahid; Afarinesh khaki, Mohammadreza; Gojazadeh, Morteza; Pahlavan, Bahare; Pahlavan, Fereshteh

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of study was to investigate the antinociceptive effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) microinjection of Origanum vulgare (ORG) extract and possible involvement of opioid receptors. Materials and Methods: Cannula was inserted into left ventricle of male rats. Five days after surgery Tail Flick Latency (TFL) was measured after ICV microinjection of, ORG (1, 3 and 6 µg / rat). Effective dose of ORG was injected ICV in concomitant with morphine (2 mg/kg, IP), naloxone (2 mg / kg, IP) and saline (0.5 µl/rat) and TFL was recorded. Results: The co- administration of ORG extract with morphine showed a significant increase in TFL and naloxone, pretreatment significantly inhibited the antinociceptive activity of ORG and morphine. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of ORG possesses antinociceptive activities in the tail-flick test in a dose dependent manner. ORG - induced antinociception may have been mediated by opioid systems. PMID:24379969

  13. Antioxidant effect rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) extracts on TBARS and colour of model raw pork batters.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Hernández, E; Ponce-Alquicira, E; Jaramillo-Flores, M E; Guerrero Legarreta, I

    2009-02-01

    Herbs and spices are traditional used as food ingredients as well as for their antioxidant properties. The objective of this work was to study the concentration of carnosol, rosmarinic and carnosic acids in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and oregano leaves (Origanum vulgare L.), and their effect on the oxidation and colour of model pork batters. Extracts were obtained by maceration with ethanol and reflux with chloroform. Rosemary extracts showed higher antioxidant activity, even more than the phenol compounds separately. These extracts also showed the highest antioxidant capacity, possibly due to the presence of high concentrations of carnosic acid and carnosol and unidentified active compounds. However, ethanol oregano extracts containing high concentrations of phenols, mainly rosmarinic acid, efficiently prevented colour deterioration. The antioxidant effect of the studied extracts depends, not only on the concentration of phenol compounds (rosmarinic acid, carnosol and carnosic acid), but also on the extraction method and solvent.

  14. Use of Co speciation and soil properties to explain variation in Co toxicity to root growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in different soils.

    PubMed

    Micó, C; Li, H F; Zhao, F J; McGrath, S P

    2008-12-01

    The influence of soil properties on the bioavailability and toxicity of Co to barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) root elongation was investigated. Ten soils varying widely in soil properties were amended with seven doses of CoCl2. Soil properties greatly influenced the expression of Co toxicity. The effective concentration of added Co causing 50% inhibition (EC50) ranged from 45 to 863 mg kg(-1), representing almost 20-fold variation among soils. Furthermore, we investigated Co toxicity in relation to Co concentrations and free Co2+ activity in soil solution. The EC50 values showed variation among soils of 17- and 29-fold, based on the Co concentration in soil solution and free Co2+ activity, respectively. Single regressions were carried out between Co toxicity threshold values and selected soil properties. Models obtained showed that soil effective cation exchange capacity (eCEC) and exchangeable calcium were the most consistent single predictors of the EC50 values based on soil added Co.

  15. Effects of Substituted Pyridazinones (San 6706, San 9774, San 9785) on Glycerolipids and Their Associated Fatty Acids in the Leaves of Vicia faba and Hordeum vulgare1

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mobashsher-Uddin; Lem, Nora W.; Chandorkar, Kashinath R.; Williams, John P.

    1979-01-01

    The fatty acids of the major glycerolipids from the leaves of Vicia faba and Hordeum vulgare plants treated with three different concentrations of pyridazinone derivatives were analyzed. These compounds showed multiple effects on the levels of lipids and pigments. At low concentrations, the primary effect of San 9785 was on the level of linolenic acid (18:3) in the galactolipids of V. faba, whereas the effect of San 6706 was primarily on the trans-Δ3-hexadecenoic acid (16:1) content in phosphatidylglycerol. At higher concentrations, the two compounds reduced the content of both fatty acids in the leaves. The results appear to indicate a differential effect of these herbicides on fatty acid accumulation and a difference in susceptibility of two fatty acids in the species examined. Electron microscopic studies revealed that two herbicides caused different abnormalities in V. faba chloroplast ultrastructure. Images PMID:16660953

  16. Influence of Phenological Stages on Yield and Quality of Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) Under the Agroclimatic Condition of Doon Valley (Uttarakhand)

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, N. K.; Singh, S.; Haider, S. Z.; Lohani, H.

    2013-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted under the agroclimatic conditions of Doon valley, in order to determine the effects of phenological stages on herbage yield and quality of oil in oregano (Origanum vulgare L.). Plants were harvested in five phenological stages, i.e. early vegetative, late vegetative, flower initiation, full bloom, and fruit set stages. Results showed the significant effects of phenological stages on herbage, yield, and quality of oregano. Harvesting at full bloom stage showed better results in terms of herbage and oil yield. The quality of essential oil was evaluated using GC and GC/MS. Thymol content was rich in all the stages (46.90-62.26%) followed by γ-terpinene (1.11-11.75%) and p-cymene (3.11-5.32%). PMID:24302806

  17. Edible films from methylcellulose and nanoemulsions of clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oils as shelf life extenders for sliced bread.

    PubMed

    Otoni, Caio G; Pontes, Silvania F O; Medeiros, Eber A A; Soares, Nilda de F F

    2014-06-04

    Consumers are increasingly demanding foods with lower synthetic preservatives. Plant essential oils are natural compounds with remarkable antimicrobial properties and may be incorporated as emulsions into water-soluble polymers to form antimicrobial films. Coarse emulsions (diameters of 1.3-1.9 μm) and nanoemulsions (diameters of 180-250 nm) of clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oils were produced through low-speed mixing and ultrasonication, respectively. Methylcellulose was added for film-forming purposes. Both essential oils reduced the rigidity and increased the extensibility of the methylcellulose films, effects that were even more pronounced for nanodroplets. Both essential oils lessened the counts of yeasts and molds in sliced bread during 15 days, and droplet size reduction provided a further improvement in antimicrobial properties. Due to increased bioavailability, less preservative content might be used and still deliver the same antimicrobial efficiency if encapsulated in smaller particles.

  18. Influence of Phenological Stages on Yield and Quality of Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) Under the Agroclimatic Condition of Doon Valley (Uttarakhand).

    PubMed

    Chauhan, N K; Singh, S; Haider, S Z; Lohani, H

    2013-07-01

    A field experiment was conducted under the agroclimatic conditions of Doon valley, in order to determine the effects of phenological stages on herbage yield and quality of oil in oregano (Origanum vulgare L.). Plants were harvested in five phenological stages, i.e. early vegetative, late vegetative, flower initiation, full bloom, and fruit set stages. Results showed the significant effects of phenological stages on herbage, yield, and quality of oregano. Harvesting at full bloom stage showed better results in terms of herbage and oil yield. The quality of essential oil was evaluated using GC and GC/MS. Thymol content was rich in all the stages (46.90-62.26%) followed by γ-terpinene (1.11-11.75%) and p-cymene (3.11-5.32%).

  19. A Spectrophotometric Assay for Robust Viability Testing of Seed Batches Using 2,3,5-Triphenyl Tetrazolium Chloride: Using Hordeum vulgare L. as a Model

    PubMed Central

    Lopez Del Egido, Laura; Navarro-Miró, David; Martinez-Heredia, Victor; Toorop, Peter E.; Iannetta, Pietro P. M.

    2017-01-01

    A comparative analysis was carried out of published methods to assess seed viability using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) based assays of seed batches. The tests were carried out on seeds of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Optic) as a model. We established that 10% [w/v] trichloroacetic acid (TCA)/methanol is superior to the acetone and methanol-only based methods: allowing the highest recovery of formazan and the lowest background optical density (OD) readings, across seed lots comprising different ratios of viable and dead seeds. The method allowed a linear-model to accurately capture the statistically significant relationship between the quantity of formazan that could be extracted using the method we developed and the seed temperature-response, and seed viability as a function of artificially aged seed lots. Other quality control steps are defined to help ensure the assay is robust and these are reported in a Standard Operating Procedure. PMID:28559902

  20. Quantitative Determination of Secoiridoids and Phenylpropanoids in Different Extracts of Ligustrum Vulgare L. Leaves by a Validated HPTLC-Photodensitometry Method.

    PubMed

    Czerwińska, Monika E; Ziarek, Marlena; Bazylko, Agnieszka; Osińska, Ewa; Kiss, Anna K

    2015-01-01

    The genus Ligustrum (Oleaceae) is distributed in Europe and Asia (south China and Korea), where it is used to prevent hypertension, sore throats, inflammation and diabetes. The main groups of compounds in extracts of Ligustrum vulgare are biologically active secoiridoids and phenylpropanoids. The aim of the study was primarily the development and validation of a HPTLC-photodensitometry method for separation and determination of secoiridoids (oleacein, oleuropein) and phenylpropanoids (echinacoside) in different extracts prepared from leaves of L. vulgare. A secondary issue was the quantitative screening of oleacein, oleuropein and echinacoside in extracts from leaves collected at different stages of plant growth (from May to September). A HPTLC-photodensitometry method was developed and validated for quantification of oleuropein, oleacein and echinacoside in plant extracts (aqueous and ethanolic extract, decoction, infusion). Silica gel was used as the stationary phase and dichloromethane:methanol:formic acid:water (80:25:1.5:4, v/v/v/v) as the mobile phase. The HPTLC-photodensitometry method developed for quantification of oleacein, oleuropein and echinacoside was specific, accurate and precise. The presence of oleacein was detected in aqueous extracts, whereas oleuropein was present, in particular, in ethanolic extracts, decoctions and infusions. Echinacoside was detected in all the extracts prepared. The content of secoiridoids was variable from May to September, whereas the amount of echinacoside increased in this term. The developed and validated HPTLC-photodensitometry method allowed performing fast screening of quantitative profiles of oleacein, oleuropein and echinacoside in preparations of privet leaves. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Spaceflight-induced enhancement of 2-keto-L-gulonic acid production by a mixed culture of Ketogulonigenium vulgare and Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Yang, W; Han, L; Mandlaa, M; Chen, H; Jiang, M; Zhang, Z; Xu, H

    2013-07-01

    Two bacterial strains used for industrial production of 2-keto-L-gulonic acid (2-KLG), Ketogulonigenium vulgare 2 and Bacillus thuringiensis 1514, were loaded onto the spacecraft Shenzhou VII and exposed to space conditions for 68 h in an attempt to increase their fermentation productivities of 2-KLG. An optimal combination of mutants B. thuringiensis 320 and K. vulgare 2194 (KB2194-320) was identified by systematically screening the pH and 2-KLG production of 16 000 colonies. Compared with the coculture of parent strains, the conversion rate of L-sorbose to 2-KLG by KB2194-320 in shake flask fermentation was increased significantly from 82·7% to 95·0%. Furthermore, a conversion rate of 94·5% and 2-KLG productivity of 1·88 g l(-1)  h(-1) were achieved with KB2194-320 in industrial-scale fermentation (260 m(3) fermentor). An observed increase in cell number of K2194 (increased by 47·8%) during the exponential phase and decrease in 2-KLG reductase activity (decreased by 46·0%) were assumed to explain the enhanced 2-KLG production. The results suggested that the mutants KB2194-320 could be ideal substitutes for the currently employed strains in the 2-KLG fermentation process and demonstrated the feasibility of using spaceflight to breed high-yielding 2-KLG-producing strains for vitamin C production. KB2194-320, a combination of two bacterial strains bred by spaceflight mutation, exhibited significantly improved 2-KLG productivity and hence could potentially increase the efficiency and reduce the cost of vitamin C production by the two-step fermentation process. In addition, a new pH indicator method was applied for rational screening of K2, which dramatically improved the efficiency of screening. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Catabolism of (+/-)-abscisic acid by excised leaves of Hordeum vulgare L. cv Dyan and its modification by chemical and environmental factors

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, A.K.; Railton, I.D.

    1987-05-01

    Excised light-grown leaves and etiolated leaves of Hordeum vulgare L. cv Dyan catabolized applied (+/-)-(2-/sup 14/C)abscisic acid ((+/-)-(2-/sup 14/C)ABA) to phaseic acid (PA), dihydrophaseic acid (DPA), and 2'-hydroxymethyl ABA (2'-HMABA). Identification of these catabolites was made by microchemical methods and by combined capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) following high dose feeds of nonlabeled substrate to leaves. Circular dichroism analysis revealed that 2'-HMABA was derived from the (-) enantiomer of ABA. Refeeding studies were used to confirm the catabolic route. The methyl ester of (+/-)-(2/sup 14/C)-ABA was hydrolyzed efficiently by light-grown leaves of H. vulgare. Leaf age played a significant role in (+/-)-ABA catabolism, with younger leaves being less able than their older counterparts to catabolize this compound. The catabolism of (+/-)-ABA was inhibited markedly in water-stressed Hordeum leaves which was characterized by a decreased incorporation of label into 2'-HMABA, DPA, and conjugates. The specific, mixed function oxidase inhibitor, ancymidol, did not inhibit, dramatically (+/-)-ABA catabolism in light-grown leaves of Hordeum whereas the 80s ribosome, translational inhibitor, cycloheximide, inhibited this process markedly. The 70s ribosome translational inhibitors, lincomycin and chloramphenicol, were less effective than cycloheximide in inhibiting (+/-)-ABA catabolism, implying that cytoplasmic protein synthesis is necessary for the catabolism of (+/-)-ABA in Hordeum leaves whereas chloroplast protein synthesis plays only a minor role. This further suggests that the enzymes involved in (+/-)-ABA catabolism in this plant are cytoplasmically synthesized and are turned-over rapidly, although the enzyme responsible for glycosylating (+/-)-ABA itself appeared to be stable.

  3. The study of mechanisms of biological activity of copper oxide nanoparticle CuO in the test for seedling roots of Triticum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Korotkova, Anastasia Mickhailovna; Lebedev, Svyatoslav Valeryevich; Gavrish, Irina Aleksandrovna

    2017-03-06

    The rapid development of nanotechnology raises questions assessment of their impact on living objects. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of nanoparticle (NP) CuO at concentrations ranging from 0.8 to 63.5 g/l in the test on wheat seedlings Triticum vulgare during 1-72 h. In the viability test (WST-test), cells were isolated from the roots of seedlings T. vulgare, 12 h not observed increase reductase activity after 24 h decreased rate of not more than 19% compared with the control. The number of dead cells in seedlings of T. vulgaris after exposure with CuO nanoparticles to the test with Evans blue increased by 5-15% compared to control. We observed that a significant increase in copper revenues leaves 4.5-8.9 times more in relation to the control and the roots-in 5-9.7 times. During the determined amount of active oxygen species, a significant proportional increase in the total pool of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in roots increased to 27.6% after exposure to NP CuO compared with the control. It is shown that in the introduction in medium, the NP CuO in the doses ranging from 3.2 to 63.5 g/l leads to DNA fragmentation and increases the fragments less than 3000 bp on 51.4-62.8%. The totality of our results influences nanoforms of copper oxide on the amount of ROS, and the viability of the genomic component of the cells shows different mechanisms of damage in the activation of a metabolic reaction, to determine the concentration of nano-CuO.

  4. [Specific features of fertility restoration in alloplasmic lines obtained based on hybridization of self-fertilized offspring of barley-wheat (Hordeum vulgare L. x Triticum aestivum L.) amphiploid with common wheat varieties Saratovskaya 29 and Pyrotrix 28].

    PubMed

    Pershina, L A; Deviatkina, E P; Trubacheeva, N V; Kravtsova, L A; Dobrovol'skaia, O B

    2012-12-01

    The problems of fertility restoration in the progeny of barley-wheat hybrids (H. vulgare x T. aestivum) are explained by incompatibility between the cytoplasm of cultivated barley and the nuclear genome of common wheat. Suitable models for studying these problems are alloplasmic lines that combine the cytoplasm of barley and the nuclear genome of wheat. In this work, the specific features of fertility restoration in alloplasmic common wheat lines (H. vulgare)-T. aestivum were studied depending on the influence of wheat varieties Saratovskaya 29 (Sar29) and Pyrotrix 28 (Pyr28) used to produce these lines. The alloplasmic lines were created using hybrids between the 48-chromosome offspring (Amph1) of the barley-wheat amphiploid H. vulgare (ya-319) x T. aestivum (Sar29) and these wheat varieties. Backcrossing of the Amph1 (2n = 48) x Sar29 hybrid with the wheat variety Sar29 resulted in the complete sterility in the (H. vulgare)-Sar29 line, which suggests the incompatibility of the nuclear genome of the common wheat variety Sar29 with the cytoplasm of H. vulgare. Crossing of Amph1 (2n = 48) with Pyr28 resulted in the restoration of self-fertility in the hybrid with 2n = 44. In the alloplasmic lines (2n = 42) formed based on plants of the self-fertilized generations of this hybrid, the barley chromosomes were eliminated, and recombination between the nuclear genomes of the parental wheat varieties Sar29 and Pyr28 took place. Alloplasmic recombinant lines (H. vulgare)-T. aestivum with different levels of fertility were isolated. As was shown by the SSR analysis, differences in the fertility traits between these lines are determined by variations in the content of the genetic material from the wheat varieties Sar29 and Pyr28. The complete restoration of fertility in these alloplasmic recombinant lines is accompanied by the formation of a nuclear genome in which the genetic material of Pyr28 significantly prevails. The conclusion is made that the common wheat variety

  5. Accurate Mass GC/LC-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols of Spicy Fruits from the Apiaceae Family

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thao; Aparicio, Mario; Saleh, Mahmoud A.

    2016-01-01

    The triacylglycerol (TAG) structure and the regio-stereospecific distribution of fatty acids (FA) of seed oils from most of the Apiaceae family are not well documented. The TAG structure ultimately determines the final physical properties of the oils and the position of FAs in the TAG molecule affects the digestion; absorption and metabolism; and physical and technological properties of TAGs. Fixed oils from the fruits of dill (Anethum graveolens), caraway (Carum carvi), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), anise (Pimpinella anisum), carrot (Daucus carota), celery (Apium graveolens), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), and Khella (Ammi visnaga), all from the Apiaceae family, were extracted at room temperature in chloroform/methanol (2:1 v/v) using percolators. Crude lipids were fractionated by solid phase extraction to separate neutral triacylglycerols (TAGs) from other lipids components. Neutral TAGs were subjected to transesterification process to convert them to their corresponding fatty acids methyl esters (FAMES) using 1% boron trifluoride (BF3) in methanol. FAMES were analyzed by gas chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (GC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Triglycerides were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (LC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Petroselinic acid was the major fatty acid in all samples ranging from 57% of the total fatty acids in caraway up to 82% in fennel. All samples contained palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1n-9), stearic (C18:0), petroselinic (C18:1n-12), linoleic (C18:2n-6), linolinic (18:3n-3), and arachidic (C20:0) acids. TAG were analyzed using LC-QTOF for accurate mass identification and mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques for regiospesific elucidation of the identified TAGs. Five major TAGs were detected in all samples but with different relative concentrations in all of the tested samples. Several other TAGs were detected as minor components and were present in

  6. Accurate Mass GC/LC-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols of Spicy Fruits from the Apiaceae Family.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thao; Aparicio, Mario; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2015-12-02

    The triacylglycerol (TAG) structure and the regio-stereospecific distribution of fatty acids (FA) of seed oils from most of the Apiaceae family are not well documented. The TAG structure ultimately determines the final physical properties of the oils and the position of FAs in the TAG molecule affects the digestion; absorption and metabolism; and physical and technological properties of TAGs. Fixed oils from the fruits of dill (Anethum graveolens), caraway (Carum carvi), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), anise (Pimpinella anisum), carrot (Daucus carota), celery (Apium graveolens), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), and Khella (Ammi visnaga), all from the Apiaceae family, were extracted at room temperature in chloroform/methanol (2:1 v/v) using percolators. Crude lipids were fractionated by solid phase extraction to separate neutral triacylglycerols (TAGs) from other lipids components. Neutral TAGs were subjected to transesterification process to convert them to their corresponding fatty acids methyl esters (FAMES) using 1% boron trifluoride (BF₃) in methanol. FAMES were analyzed by gas chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (GC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Triglycerides were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (LC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Petroselinic acid was the major fatty acid in all samples ranging from 57% of the total fatty acids in caraway up to 82% in fennel. All samples contained palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1n-9), stearic (C18:0), petroselinic (C18:1n-12), linoleic (C18:2n-6), linolinic (18:3n-3), and arachidic (C20:0) acids. TAG were analyzed using LC-QTOF for accurate mass identification and mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques for regiospesific elucidation of the identified TAGs. Five major TAGs were detected in all samples but with different relative concentrations in all of the tested samples. Several other TAGs were detected as minor components and were present in

  7. A pair of chiral flavonolignans as novel anti-cyanobacterial allelochemicals derived from barley straw (Hordeum vulgare): characterization and comparison of their anti-cyanobacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xi; Huang, Haomin; Ge, Zhiwei; Rounge, Trine B; Shi, Jiyan; Xu, Xinhua; Li, Ruobing; Chen, Yingxu

    2014-05-01

    The inhibitory effect of barley straw (Hordeum vulgare) on cyanobacteria has been observed in many field and laboratory studies for over 30 years, although the compounds responsible for this anti-cyanobacterial effect have remained unknown. In this study, a pair of chiral flavonolignans were isolated from barley straw extract using a bioassay-guided isolation procedure against Microcystis sp. The structures of the allelopathic compounds were elucidated by NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and HPLC-MS (high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry), and turned out to be salcolin A and B. The enantiomers differ in their anti-cyanobacterial abilities. Both enantiomers exhibited inhibitory effects on Microcystis sp., and the EC50 (concentration for 50% of maximal effect) of salcolin A and B were 6.02 × 10(-5) and 9.60 × 10(-5 ) mol l(-1) , respectively. Furthermore, the modes of actions of the enantiomers were investigated and compared at a single cell level by flow cytometry. Salcolin A was found to induce an increase on cyanobacterial intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) levels and to inhibit esterase activity, whereas salcolin B caused leakages of cyanobacterial cytoplasms. Thus, salcolin A was more 'algistatic', and salcolin B was more 'algicidal'. This study suggests that salcolin is the key allelochemical in barley straw's inhibitory effect on cyanobacteria and could be used as an agent in the future control of cyanobacterial harmful algae blooms.

  8. Habituation of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus to Origanum vulgare L. essential oil does not induce direct-tolerance and cross-tolerance to salts and organic acids.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Adassa Gama; Monte, Daniel Farias Marinho do; Albuquerque, Allan Dos Reis; Sampaio, Fábio Correia; Magnani, Marciane; Siqueira Júnior, José Pinto de; Souza, Evandro Leite de

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus strains that were isolated from foods were investigated for their ability to develop direct-tolerance and cross-tolerance to sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl), lactic acid (LA) and acetic acid (AA) after habituation in sublethal amounts (1/2 of the minimum inhibitory concentration - 1/2 MIC and 1/4 of the minimum inhibitory concentration - 1/4 MIC) of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO). The habituation of S. aureus to 1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC of OVEO did not induce direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in the tested strains, as assessed by modulation of MIC values. Otherwise, exposing the strains to OVEO at sublethal concentrations maintained or increased the sensitivity of the cells to the tested stressing agents because the MIC values of OVEO, NaCl, KCl, LA and AA against the cells that were previously habituated to OVEO remained the same or decreased when compared with non-habituated cells. These data indicate that OVEO does not have an inductive effect on the acquisition of direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in the tested enterotoxigenic strains of S. aureus to antimicrobial agents that are typically used in food preservation.

  9. Efficacy of Origanum vulgare L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oils in combination to control postharvest pathogenic Aspergilli and autochthonous mycoflora in Vitis labrusca L. (table grapes).

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Larissa Lima; de Andrade, Sonálle Carolina Albuquerque; Athayde, Ana Júlia Alves Aguiar; de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Vasconcelos; de Sales, Camila Veríssimo; Madruga, Marta Suely; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the application of the essential oils of Origanum vulgare L. (OVEO) and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (ROEO) alone and in combination to inhibit Aspergillus flavus URM 4540 and Aspergillus niger URM 5842 in fungal growth media and on Vitis labrusca L. (table grapes). The influence on the autochthonous mycoflora and the physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the grapes during storage (25°C, 12days and 12°C, 24days) were also studied. The application of the essential oils in different concentrations (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration - MIC, 1/2 MIC+1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC+1/4 MIC) inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of the test fungi and inhibited the growth of the assayed fungal strains in artificially contaminated grapes and the autochthonous mycoflora of grapes stored at both room and cold temperatures. In general, the application of OVEO and/or ROEO at sub-lethal concentrations preserved the quality of grapes as measured by their physical, physicochemical and sensory attributes throughout the assessed storage time. These results demonstrate the potential of the combination of OVEO and ROEO at sub-lethal concentrations to control postharvest pathogenic fungi in fruits, particularly, A. flavus and A. niger in table grapes.

  10. Molecular mapping of a non-host resistance gene YrpstY1 in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for resistance to wheat stripe rust.

    PubMed

    Sui, Xinxia; He, Zhonghu; Lu, Yaming; Wang, Zhenlin; Xia, Xianchun

    2010-10-01

    Cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is considered as a non-host or inappropriate host species for wheat stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici. Most barley cultivars show a broad-spectrum resistance to wheat stripe rust. To determine the genes for resistance to wheat stripe rust in barley, a cross was made between a resistant barley line Y12 and a susceptible line Y16. The two parents, F(1) and 147 BC(1) plants were tested at seedling stage with Chinese prevalent race CYR32 of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici by artificial inoculation in greenhouse. The results indicated that Y12 possessed one dominant resistance gene to wheat stripe rust, designated YrpstY1 provisionally. A total of 388 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to map the resistance gene in Y12 using bulked segregant analysis. A linkage map, including nine SSR loci on chromosome 7H and YrpstY1, was constructed using the BC(1) population, indicating that the resistance gene YrpstY1 is located on chromosome 7H. It is potential to transfer the resistance gene into common wheat for stripe rust resistance.

  11. Uptake, degradation and chiral discrimination of N-acyl-D/L-homoserine lactones by barley (Hordeum vulgare) and yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) plants.

    PubMed

    Götz, Christine; Fekete, Agnes; Gebefuegi, Istvan; Forczek, Sándor T; Fuksová, Kvetoslava; Li, Xiaojing; Englmann, Matthias; Gryndler, Milan; Hartmann, Anton; Matucha, Miroslav; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Schröder, Peter

    2007-11-01

    Bacterial intraspecies and interspecies communication in the rhizosphere is mediated by diffusible signal molecules. Many Gram-negative bacteria use N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) as autoinducers in the quorum sensing response. While bacterial signalling is well described, the fate of AHLs in contact with plants is much less known. Thus, adsorption, uptake and translocation of N-hexanoyl- (C6-HSL), N-octanoyl- (C8-HSL) and N-decanoyl-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL) were studied in axenic systems with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and the legume yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban) as model plants using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) and tritium-labelled AHLs. Decreases in AHL concentration due to abiotic adsorption or degradation were tolerable under the experimental conditions. The presence of plants enhanced AHL decline in media depending on the compounds' lipophilicity, whereby the legume caused stronger AHL decrease than barley. All tested AHLs were traceable in root extracts of both plants. While all AHLs except C10-HSL were detectable in barley shoots, only C6-HSL was found in shoots of yam bean. Furthermore, tritium-labelled AHLs were used to determine short-term uptake kinetics. Chiral separation by GC-MS revealed that both plants discriminated D-AHL stereoisomers to different extents. These results indicate substantial differences in uptake and degradation of different AHLs in the plants tested.

  12. Genome-Wide Analysis of APETALA2/Ethylene-Responsive Factor (AP2/ERF) Gene Family in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shen; Luan, Haiye; Lv, Chao; Zhang, Xinzhong; Song, Xiyun; Xu, Rugen

    2016-01-01

    APETALA2/Ethylene-Responsive Factor (AP2/ERF) gene family is plant specific transcription factor. It plays critical roles in development process, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, and responses to plant hormones. However, limited data are available on the contributions of AP2/ERF gene family in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). In the present study, 121 HvAP2/ERF genes in barley were identified by using bioinformatics methods. A total of 118 HvAP2/ERF (97.5%) genes were located on seven chromosomes. According to phylogenetic classification of AP2/ERF family in Arabidopsis, HvAP2/ERF proteins were divided into AP2 (APETALA2), RAV (Related to ABI3/VP), DREB (dehydration responsive element binding), ERF (ethylene responsive factors) and soloist sub families. The analysis of duplication events indicated that tandem repeat and segmental duplication contributed to the expansion of the AP2/ERF family in barley. HvDREB1s/2s genes displayed various expression patterns under abiotic stress and phytohormone. Taken together, the data generated in this study will be useful for genome-wide analysis to determine the precise role of the HvAP2/ERF gene during barley development, abiotic stress and phytohormone responses with the ultimate goal of improving crop production. PMID:27598245

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR) from barley (Hordeum vulgare) and potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    PubMed

    Larsen, Knud

    2004-01-01

    Cinnamoyl CoA reductase catalyzes the reduction of cinnamic acid CoA esters into their corresponding aldehydes, the first step of the phenylpropanoid pathway specifically dedicated to monolignol biosynthesis. Two cDNA clones encoding cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR) have been isolated from Hordeum vulgare (HvCCR) and Solanum tuberosum (StCCR1). Amino acid sequence alignment revealed the motif, NWYCY, representing the active site of CCR, conserved in both the encoded HvCCR and StCCR1 amino acid sequences. The HvCCR encoded protein possesses substantial homology with CCRs isolated and cloned form other sources; the highest identity (89%) was observed with CCR from fescue (Festuca arundicinea). Expression analysis by RT-PCR demonstrated that the HvCCR gene is expressed in barley stem and root tissue while no expression is detected in leaves and flowers. This expression pattern suggests that HvCCR is involved in constitutive lignification. Transcripts of StCCR1 were detected in potato root, leaf and also in stem although at a very low level.

  14. Studies of the uptake of nitrate in barley. I. Kinetics of sup 13 NO sub 3 sup minus influx. [Hordeum vulgare L

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqi, M.Y.; Glass, A.D.M.; Ruth, T.J.; Rufty, T.W. Jr. North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh )

    1990-08-01

    {sup 13}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} was used to investigate patterns of NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} influx into roots of barley plants (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Klondike) previously grown with (induced) or without (uninduced) a source of external NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ((NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}){sub 0}). In both induced and uninduced plants, {sup 13}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} influx was biphasic in the range from 0.005 to 50 moles per cubic meter (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}){sub 0}. In the low concentration range (<1 mole per cubic meter for induced plants and <0.3 mole per cubic meter for uninduced plants), influx was saturable and V{sub max} and K{sub m} values for influx either increased or decreased according to NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} pretreatment. By contrast, {sup 13}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} influx in the high concentration range revealed a strictly linear concentration dependence. These fluxes appeared to be mediated by a constitutive, rather than an inducible, transport system.

  15. Determination of trace alkaline phosphatase by solid-substrate room-temperature phosphorimetry based on Triticum vulgare lectin labeled with fullerenol.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-Ming; Gao, Fei; Huang, Hong-Hua; Zeng, Li-Qing; Huang, Xiao-Mei; Zhu, Guo-Hui; Li, Zhi-Ming

    2008-04-01

    Fullerenol (F) shows a strong and stable room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) signal on the surface of nitrocellulose membrane (NCM) at lambda ex max/ lambda em max =542.0/709.4 nm. When modified by dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid sodium salt (DBS), fullerenol emits a stronger signal. It was also found that quantitative specific affinity-adsorption reaction can be carried out between Triticum vulgare lectin (WGA) labeled with DBS-F and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) on the surface of NCM, and the product obtained (WGA-ALP-WGA-F-DBS) emits a strong and stable RTP signal. Furthermore, the content of ALP was proportional to the DeltaI(p) value. Based on the facts above, a new method for the determination of trace amounts of ALP by affinity-adsorption solid-substrate room-temperature phosphorimetry (AA-SS-RTP) was established, using fullerenol modified with DBS to label WGA. The detection limit was 0.011 fg spot(-1) (corresponding concentration: 2.8x10(-14) g ml(-1), namely 2.8x10(-16) mol l(-1)). This method with high sensitivity, accuracy, and precision has been successfully applied to the determination of the content of ALP in human serum survey and forecast human disease, and the results are tallied with those using alkaline phosphatase kits. The mechanism for the determination of ALP using AA-SS-RTP was also discussed.

  16. Interactive effects of salinity and phosphorus availability on growth, water relations, nutritional status and photosynthetic activity of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Talbi Zribi, O; Abdelly, C; Debez, A

    2011-11-01

    The interactive effects of salinity and phosphorus availability on growth, water relations, nutritional status and photosynthetic activity were investigated in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Manel). Seedlings were grown hydroponically under low or sufficient phosphorus (P) supply (5 or 180 μmol KH(2) PO(4) plant(-1) week(-1) , respectively), with or without 100 mm NaCl. Phosphorus deficiency or salinity significantly decreased whole plant growth, leaf water content, leaf osmotic potential and gas exchange parameters, with a more marked impact of P stress. The effect of both stresses was not additive since the response of plants to combined salinity and P deficiency was similar to that of plants grown under P deficiency alone. In addition, salt-treated plants exposed to P deficiency showed higher salt tolerance compared to plants grown with sufficient P supply. This was related to plant ability to significantly increase root:shoot DW ratio, root length, K(+)/Na(+) ratio, leaf proline and soluble sugar concentrations and total non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity, together with restricting Na(+) accumulation in the upper leaves. As a whole, our results indicate that under concomitant exposure to both salt and P deficiency, the impact of the latter constraint is pre-dominant.

  17. Assessment of tolerance induction by Origanum vulgare L. essential oil or carvacrol in Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultivated in a meat-based broth and in a meat model.

    PubMed

    da Silva Luz, Isabelle; Gomes-Neto, Nelson Justino; Magnani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO) and carvacrol in inhibiting the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, as well as the development of direct tolerance and cross-tolerance when this bacterium was challenged with sublethal amounts of these substances in a meat-based broth and in a meat model. OVEO and carvacrol at their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), 1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC decreased the viable cell counts of P. aeruginosa in meat-based broth. Direct tolerance or cross-tolerance was not induced after exposure of the assayed bacterial strain to sublethal amounts of OVEO or carvacrol in meat-based broth and in an artificially contaminated ground beef. Bacterial cells progressively subcultured in meat-based broth with increasing amounts of the tested substances survived up to the MIC of OVEO and to 1/2 MIC of carvacrol. The results reveal a lack of induction of tolerance in P. aeruginosa by exposure to OVEO or carvacrol in meat-based broth and in a meat model.

  18. The Effect of Homoeologous Meiotic Pairing in Tetraploid Hordeum bulbosum L. × H. vulgare L. Hybrids on Alien Introgressions in Offspring.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Margret; Pendinen, Galina

    2016-01-01

    The pairing behaviour of the individual chromosome arms of Hordeum vulgare (Hv) with their homoeologous arms of H. bulbosum (Hb) at metaphase I of meiosis in tetraploid Hb × Hv hybrids and the frequencies of recombined Hv chromosome arms in selfed offspring were studied on differentially visualized chromosomes after fluorescent in situ hybridisation. The frequencies of paired Hv-Hb arms in the F2 and F3 hybrids were correlated with the frequencies of recombined Hv chromosomes in progenies. Self-generation of hybrids, the number of Hv and Hb chromosomes, and the number of recombined Hv chromosomes of the hybrids strongly influenced the Hv-Hb pairing frequency in meiosis. Within the offspring of F2 and F3 hybrids both Hv plants and hybrids were detected. In contrast, all progenies of the F4 hybrid were hybrids which exhibited centromere misdivisions. The highest frequencies of homoeologous pairing in hybrids and most recombinants were obtained for the barley chromosome 1HL. Recombinants for 4HL, 5HS, 6HS, and 7HS were rarely found. Meiotic pairing and recombinants involving chromosome 1HS were never observed. The results of this study demonstrate that fertile tetraploid interspecific hybrids with a high intergenomic pairing at meiosis are valuable basic material for introgression breeding in barley.

  19. Interactions and Toxicity of Cu-Zn mixtures to Hordeum vulgare in Different Soils Can Be Rationalized with Bioavailability-Based Prediction Models.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Hao; Versieren, Liske; Rangel, Georgina Guzman; Smolders, Erik

    2016-01-19

    Soil contamination with copper (Cu) is often associated with zinc (Zn), and the biological response to such mixed contamination is complex. Here, we investigated Cu and Zn mixture toxicity to Hordeum vulgare in three different soils, the premise being that the observed interactions are mainly due to effects on bioavailability. The toxic effect of Cu and Zn mixtures on seedling root elongation was more than additive (i.e., synergism) in soils with high and medium cation-exchange capacity (CEC) but less than additive (antagonism) in a low-CEC soil. This was found when we expressed the dose as the conventional total soil concentration. In contrast, antagonism was found in all soils when we expressed the dose as free-ion activities in soil solution, indicating that there is metal-ion competition for binding to the plant roots. Neither a concentration addition nor an independent action model explained mixture effects, irrespective of the dose expressions. In contrast, a multimetal BLM model and a WHAM-Ftox model successfully explained the mixture effects across all soils and showed that bioavailability factors mainly explain the interactions in soils. The WHAM-Ftox model is a promising tool for the risk assessment of mixed-metal contamination in soils.

  20. Sexual differentiation traits in functional males with female genital apertures (male symbol fga) in the woodlice Armadillidium vulgare Latr. (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Azzouna, Atf; Greve, Pierre; Martin, Gilbert

    2004-08-01

    This study reports the results of examination of the gonadal morphology and ultrastructural features of the androgenic hormone (AH)-producing androgenic gland cells of laboratory stocks of functional male woodlice, Armadillidium vulgare, with female genital apertures ( male symbol fga), with and without experimentally induced infections of the sex-ratio-distorting endobacterial parasite, Wolbachia. Males ( male symbol fga) have been reported in wild populations containing individuals infected with this maternally transmitted sex-ratio-distorting parasite. We report a reduction of testicular segment (utricle) number, androgenic gland cell hypertrophy, and electron-dense ultrastructural cytological features in male symbol fga males. The presence of the Wolbachia parasite had no effect on the features we examined. These results suggest that male symbol fga males are produced as the result of a delayed expression/action of the male sex-determining AH which causes a "lag-phase" delay in male differentiation in genetic males and is not due to the presence, in genetic females, of a hypothetical, epigenetic "M" gene as suggested by Rigaud and Juchault. Our results favor the interpretation of males as true genetic (ZZ) males in which the delayed AH action appears to involve cellular AH trafficking pathways which may be controlled by an impaired autosomal gene responsible for AH action.

  1. Real-time PCR quantification and live-cell imaging of endophytic colonization of barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots by Fusarium equiseti and Pochonia chlamydosporia.

    PubMed

    Maciá-Vicente, Jose G; Jansson, Hans-Börje; Talbot, Nicholas J; Lopez-Llorca, Luis V

    2009-01-01

    *New tools were developed for the study of the endophytic development of the fungal species Fusarium equiseti and Pochonia chlamydosporia in barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots. These were applied to monitor the host colonization patterns of these potential candidates for biocontrol of root pathogens. * Molecular beacons specific for either F. equiseti or P. chlamydosporia were designed and used in real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) quantification of fungal populations in roots. Genetic transformation of isolates with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was carried out using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol, and spatial patterns of root colonization were investigated by laser confocal microscopy. * Quantification of endophytes by real-time PCR in roots of barley gave similar results for all fungi, and was more accurate than culturing methods. Conversely, monitoring of root colonization by GFP-expressing transformants showed differences in the endophytic behaviours of the two species, and provided evidence of a plant response against endophyte colonization. * Both F. equiseti and P. chlamydosporia colonized barley roots endophytically, escaping attempts by the host to prevent fungal growth within root tissues. This strongly supports a balanced antagonism between the virulence of the colonizing endophyte and the plant defence response. Development of real-time PCR techniques and GFP transformants of these fungal species will facilitate future work to determine their biocontrol capacity.

  2. Habituation of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus to Origanum vulgare L. essential oil does not induce direct-tolerance and cross-tolerance to salts and organic acids

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Adassa Gama; do Monte, Daniel Farias Marinho; Albuquerque, Allan dos Reis; Sampaio, Fábio Correia; Magnani, Marciane; de Siqueira, José Pinto; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus strains that were isolated from foods were investigated for their ability to develop direct-tolerance and cross-tolerance to sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl), lactic acid (LA) and acetic acid (AA) after habituation in sublethal amounts (1/2 of the minimum inhibitory concentration - 1/2 MIC and 1/4 of the minimum inhibitory concentration - 1/4 MIC) of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO). The habituation of S. aureus to 1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC of OVEO did not induce direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in the tested strains, as assessed by modulation of MIC values. Otherwise, exposing the strains to OVEO at sublethal concentrations maintained or increased the sensitivity of the cells to the tested stressing agents because the MIC values of OVEO, NaCl, KCl, LA and AA against the cells that were previously habituated to OVEO remained the same or decreased when compared with non-habituated cells. These data indicate that OVEO does not have an inductive effect on the acquisition of direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in the tested enterotoxigenic strains of S. aureus to antimicrobial agents that are typically used in food preservation. PMID:26413067

  3. Low-Resolution Structure of the Full-Length Barley (Hordeum vulgare) SGT1 Protein in Solution, Obtained Using Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Taube, Michał; Pieńkowska, Joanna R.; Jarmołowski, Artur; Kozak, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    SGT1 is an evolutionarily conserved eukaryotic protein involved in many important cellular processes. In plants, SGT1 is involved in resistance to disease. In a low ionic strength environment, the SGT1 protein tends to form dimers. The protein consists of three structurally independent domains (the tetratricopeptide repeats domain (TPR), the CHORD- and SGT1-containing domain (CS), and the SGT1-specific domain (SGS)), and two less conserved variable regions (VR1 and VR2). In the present study, we provide the low-resolution structure of the barley (Hordeum vulgare) SGT1 protein in solution and its dimer/monomer equilibrium using small-angle scattering of synchrotron radiation, ab-initio modeling and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The multivariate curve resolution least-square method (MCR-ALS) was applied to separate the scattering data of the monomeric and dimeric species from a complex mixture. The models of the barley SGT1 dimer and monomer were formulated using rigid body modeling with ab-initio structure prediction. Both oligomeric forms of barley SGT1 have elongated shapes with unfolded inter-domain regions. Circular dichroism spectroscopy confirmed that the barley SGT1 protein had a modular architecture, with an α-helical TPR domain, a β-sheet sandwich CS domain, and a disordered SGS domain separated by VR1 and VR2 regions. Using molecular docking and ab-initio protein structure prediction, a model of dimerization of the TPR domains was proposed. PMID:24714665

  4. A genome-wide analysis of the ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2/LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (AS2/LOB) gene family in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)* #

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Bao-jian; Wang, Jun; Lin, Shen; Tian, Zheng; Zhou, Kai; Luan, Hai-ye; Lyu, Chao; Zhang, Xin-zhong; Xu, Ru-gen

    2016-01-01

    ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2/LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (AS2/LOB) genes are a family of plant specific transcription factors, which play an important role in the regulation of plant lateral organ development and metabolism. However, a genome-wide analysis of the AS2/LOB gene family is still not available for barley. In the present study, 24 AS2-like (ASL)/LOB domain (LBD) genes were identified based on the barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genome sequence. A phylogenetic tree of ASL/LBD proteins from barley, Arabidopsis, maize, and rice was constructed. The ASL/LBD genes were classified into two classes, class I and class II, which were divided into five and two subgroups, respectively. Genes homologous in barley and Arabidopsis were analyzed. In addition, the structure and chromosomal locations of the genes were analyzed. Expression profiles indicated that barley HvASL/LBD genes exhibit a variety of expression patterns, suggesting that they are involved in various aspects of physiological and developmental processes. This genome-wide analysis of the barley AS2/LOB gene family contributes to our understanding of the functions of the AS2/LOB gene family. PMID:27704746

  5. Amino acid transport across the tonoplast of vacuoles isolated from barley mesophyll protoplasts: Uptake of alanine, leucine, and glutamine. [Hordeum vulgare L

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, K.J.; Jaeger, R.; Kaiser, G.; Martinoia, E. )

    1990-01-01

    Mesophyll protoplasts from leaves of well-fertilized barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants contained amino acids at concentrations as high as 120 millimoles per liter. With the exception of glutamic acid, which is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, a major part of all other amino acids was contained inside the large central vacuole. Alanine, leucine, and glutamine are the dominant vacuolar amino acids in barley. Their transport into isolated vacuoles was studied using {sup 14}C-labeled amino acids. Uptake was slow in the absence of ATP. A three- to sixfold stimulation of uptake was observed after addition of ATP or adenylyl imidodiphosphate an ATP analogue not being hydrolyzed by ATPases. Other nucleotides were ineffective in increasing the rate of uptake. ATP-Stimulated amino acid transport was not dependent on the transtonoplast pH or membrane potential. p-Chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid and n-ethyl maleimide increased transport independently of ATP. Neutral amino acids such as valine or leucine effectively decreased the rate of alanine transport. Glutamine and glycine were less effective or not effective as competitive inhibitors of alanine transport. The results indicate the existence of a uniport translocator specific for neutral or basic amino acids that is under control of metabolic effectors.

  6. A genome-wide analysis of the ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2/LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (AS2/LOB) gene family in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Guo, Bao-Jian; Wang, Jun; Lin, Shen; Tian, Zheng; Zhou, Kai; Luan, Hai-Ye; Lyu, Chao; Zhang, Xin-Zhong; Xu, Ru-Gen

    ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2/LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (AS2/LOB) genes are a family of plant specific transcription factors, which play an important role in the regulation of plant lateral organ development and metabolism. However, a genome-wide analysis of the AS2/LOB gene family is still not available for barley. In the present study, 24 AS2-like (ASL)/LOB domain (LBD) genes were identified based on the barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genome sequence. A phylogenetic tree of ASL/LBD proteins from barley, Arabidopsis, maize, and rice was constructed. The ASL/LBD genes were classified into two classes, class I and class II, which were divided into five and two subgroups, respectively. Genes homologous in barley and Arabidopsis were analyzed. In addition, the structure and chromosomal locations of the genes were analyzed. Expression profiles indicated that barley HvASL/LBD genes exhibit a variety of expression patterns, suggesting that they are involved in various aspects of physiological and developmental processes. This genome-wide analysis of the barley AS2/LOB gene family contributes to our understanding of the functions of the AS2/LOB gene family.

  7. Genome-Wide Analysis of APETALA2/Ethylene-Responsive Factor (AP2/ERF) Gene Family in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Guo, Baojian; Wei, Yafeng; Xu, Ruibin; Lin, Shen; Luan, Haiye; Lv, Chao; Zhang, Xinzhong; Song, Xiyun; Xu, Rugen

    2016-01-01

    APETALA2/Ethylene-Responsive Factor (AP2/ERF) gene family is plant specific transcription factor. It plays critical roles in development process, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, and responses to plant hormones. However, limited data are available on the contributions of AP2/ERF gene family in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). In the present study, 121 HvAP2/ERF genes in barley were identified by using bioinformatics methods. A total of 118 HvAP2/ERF (97.5%) genes were located on seven chromosomes. According to phylogenetic classification of AP2/ERF family in Arabidopsis, HvAP2/ERF proteins were divided into AP2 (APETALA2), RAV (Related to ABI3/VP), DREB (dehydration responsive element binding), ERF (ethylene responsive factors) and soloist sub families. The analysis of duplication events indicated that tandem repeat and segmental duplication contributed to the expansion of the AP2/ERF family in barley. HvDREB1s/2s genes displayed various expression patterns under abiotic stress and phytohormone. Taken together, the data generated in this study will be useful for genome-wide analysis to determine the precise role of the HvAP2/ERF gene during barley development, abiotic stress and phytohormone responses with the ultimate goal of improving crop production.

  8. Response of the rhizosphere prokaryotic community of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration in open-top chambers.

    PubMed

    Szoboszlay, Márton; Näther, Astrid; Mitterbauer, Esther; Bender, Jürgen; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Tebbe, Christoph C

    2017-08-01

    The effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2 ] on the diversity and composition of the prokaryotic community inhabiting the rhizosphere of winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was investigated in a field experiment, using open-top chambers. Rhizosphere samples were collected at anthesis (flowering stage) from six chambers with ambient [CO2 ] (approximately 400 ppm) and six chambers with elevated [CO2 ] (700 ppm). The V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was PCR-amplified from the extracted DNA and sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq instrument. Above-ground plant biomass was not affected by elevated [CO2 ] at anthesis, but plants exposed to elevated [CO2 ] had significantly higher grain yield. The composition of the rhizosphere prokaryotic communities was very similar under ambient and elevated [CO2 ]. The dominant taxa were Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Alpha-, Gamma-, and Betaproteobacteria. Elevated [CO2 ] resulted in lower prokaryotic diversity in the rhizosphere, but did not cause a significant difference in community structure. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Root spatial metabolite profiling of two genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) reveals differences in response to short-term salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Shelden, Megan C.; Dias, Daniel A.; Jayasinghe, Nirupama S.; Bacic, Antony; Roessner, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is the most salt-tolerant cereal crop and has excellent genetic and genomic resources. It is therefore a good model to study salt-tolerance mechanisms in cereals. We aimed to determine metabolic differences between a cultivated barley, Clipper (tolerant), and a North African landrace, Sahara (susceptible), previously shown to have contrasting root growth phenotypes in response to the early phase of salinity stress. GC-MS was used to determine spatial changes in primary metabolites in barley roots in response to salt stress, by profiling three different regions of the root: root cap/cell division zone (R1), elongation zone (R2), and maturation zone (R3). We identified 76 known metabolites, including 29 amino acids and amines, 20 organic acids and fatty acids, and 19 sugars and sugar phosphates. The maintenance of cell division and root elongation in Clipper in response to short-term salt stress was associated with the synthesis and accumulation of amino acids (i.e. proline), sugars (maltose, sucrose, xylose), and organic acids (gluconate, shikimate), indicating a potential role for these metabolic pathways in salt tolerance and the maintenance of root elongation. The processes involved in root growth adaptation and the underlying coordination of metabolic pathways appear to be controlled in a region-specific manner. This study highlights the importance of utilizing spatial profiling and will provide us with a better understanding of abiotic stress response(s) in plants at the tissue and cellular level. PMID:26946124

  10. Identifying inflorescence phytoliths from selected species of wheat (Triticum monococcum, T. dicoccon, T. dicoccoides, and T. aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare and H. spontaneum) (Gramineae).

    PubMed

    Ball, T B; Gardner, J S; Anderson, N

    1999-11-01

    Analysis of microfossil silica phytoliths is becoming an increasingly important research tool for taxonomists, archaeobotanists, and paleoecologists. Expanded use of phytolith analysis by researchers is dependent upon development of phytolith systematics. In this study phytoliths produced by the inflorescence bracts from four species of wheat, Triticum monoccocum, T. dicoccon, T. dicoccoides, and T. aestivum, and two species of barley, Hordeum vulgare, and H. spontaneum, were analyzed using computer-assisted image and statistical analysis with the intent to develop taxonomic tools to distinguish among the taxa. A classification key based on significant differences among the mean morphometries of the inflorescence phytoliths produced by each species was created and tested. Discriminant analysis of the morphometries of several morphotypes of phytoliths was also conducted to determine whether this computer-assisted statistical procedure could be used as another method to classify the taxa and to determine which morphotypes have measurements that can best be used in discriminant functions. Test results indicated that, at the genus level, both the classification key and discriminant analysis of certain morphotypes of phytoliths were relatively reliable tools for distinguishing among phytoliths produced in the inflorescence bracts of the taxa considered. For distinguishing among the taxa at the species level, the classification key was most reliable. Of the discriminant analyses tested, that based on all the phytolith morphotypes combined was more reliable than those based on only one morphotype.

  11. Heterologous expression and characterization of wild-type and mutant forms of a 26 kDa endochitinase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, M D; Jensen, A; Robertus, J D; Leah, R; Skriver, K

    1997-01-01

    To investigate structure-function relationships in plant chitinases, we have developed a heterologous expression system for the 26 kDa endochitinase from Hordeum vulgare L. (barley). Escherichia coli cells harbouring the gene in a T7 RNA polymerase-based expression vector synthesized completely insoluble recombinant protein under standard induction conditions at 37 degrees C. However, a concentration of soluble recombinant protein of approx. 15 mg/l was achieved by inducing bacteria at low temperature (15 degrees C). Recombinant endochitinase was purified to homogeneity and shown to be structurally and functionally identical to the seed protein. An average of three disulphide bonds are present in the recombinant enzyme, consistent with the number found in the natural form. The seed and recombinant proteins showed the same specific activity towards a high-molecular-mass substrate and exhibited similar anti-fungal activity towards Tricoderma reesei. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to replace residues that are likely to be involved in the catalytic event, based on structural similarities with lysozyme and on sequence alignments with related chitinases. The Glu67-->Gln mutation resulted in a protein with undetectable activity, while the Glu89-->Gln mutation yielded an enzyme with 0. 25% of wild-type specific activity. This suggests that two acidic residues are essential for catalytic activity, similar to the situation with many other glycosyl hydrolases. Examination of conserved residues stretching into the proposed substrate binding cleft suggests that Asn124 also plays an important functional role. PMID:9148754

  12. Molecular characterisation of a bio-based active packaging containing Origanum vulgare L. essential oil using pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Llana-Ruíz-Cabello, María; Pichardo, Silvia; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T; Bermúdez, José M; Aucejo, Susana; González-Vila, Francisco J; Cameán, Ana M; González-Pérez, José A

    2016-07-01

    Environmental, economic and safety challenges motivate shift towards safer materials for food packaging. New bioactive packaging techniques, i.e. addition of essential plant oils (EOs), are gaining attention by creating barriers to protect products from spoilage. Analytical pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) was used to fingerprint a bioactive polylactic acid (PLA) with polybutylene succinate (PBS) (950 g kg(-1) :50 g kg(-1) ) film extruded with variable quantities (0, 20, 50 and 100 g kg(-1) ) of Origanum vulgare EO. Main PLA:PBS pyrolysis products were lactide enantiomers and monomer units from the major PLA fraction and succinic acid anhydride from the PBS fraction. Oregano EO pyrolysis released cymene, terpinene and thymol/carvacrol peaks as diagnostic peaks for EO. In fact, linear correlation coefficients better than 0.950R(2) value (P < 0.001) were found between the chromatographic area of the diagnostic peaks and the amount of oregano EO in the bioplastic. The pyrolytic behaviour of a bio-based active package polymer including EO is studied in detail. Identified diagnostic compounds provide a tool to monitor the quantity of EO incorporated into the PLA:PBS polymeric matrix. Analytical pyrolysis is proposed as a rapid technique for the identification and quantification of additives within bio-based plastic matrices. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Microencapsulation, Chemical Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Mexican (Lippia graveolens H.B.K.) and European (Origanum vulgare L.) Oregano Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Regalado-González, Carlos; Vázquez-Landaverde, Pedro; Guerrero-Legarreta, Isabel; García-Almendárez, Blanca E.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of solvent polarity (methanol and pentane) on the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oils (EO's) of Lippia graveolens H.B.K. (MXO) and Origanum vulgare L. (EUO) was studied by GC-MS. Composition of modified starch microencapsulated EO's was conducted by headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The antimicrobial activity of free and microencapsulated EO's was evaluated. They were tested against Salmonella sp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas fragi, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Micrococcus luteus. Thymol and carvacrol were among the main components of EO's and their free and microencapsulated inhibitory activity was tested against M. luteus, showing an additive combined effect. Chemical composition of EO's varied according to the solvent used for GC analysis and to volatile fraction as evaluated by HS-SPME. Thymol (both solvents) was the main component in essential oil of MXO, while carvacrol was the main component of the volatile fraction. EUO showed α-pinene (methanol) and γ-terpinene (pentane) as major constituents, the latter being the main component of the volatile fraction. EO's showed good stability after 3 months storage at 4°C, where antimicrobial activity of microencapsulated EO's remained the same, while free EO's decreased 41% (MXO) and 67% (EUO) from initial activity. Microencapsulation retains most antimicrobial activity and improves stability of EO's from oregano. PMID:25177730

  14. A Chitosan Coating Containing Essential Oil from Origanum vulgare L. to Control Postharvest Mold Infections and Keep the Quality of Cherry Tomato Fruit.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Tainá A; Andrade, Sonalle C A; Maciel, Janeeyre F; Arcanjo, Narciza M O; Madruga, Marta S; Meireles, Bruno; Cordeiro, Ângela M T; Souza, Evandro L; Magnani, Marciane

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of an edible chitosan coating (CHI; 4 mg/mL) and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO; 1.25 μL/mL) for maintaining the quality of cherry tomato fruit during storage at room (25°C; 12 days) and cold (12°C; 24 days) temperatures was assessed. CHI and OVEO in combination showed in vitro fungicidal effects against R. stolonifer and Aspergillus niger. CHI-OVEO coating reduced the incidence of black mold and soft rot caused by these fungi in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit during storage at both temperatures. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the appearance of the first visible signs of black mold and soft rot in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit stored at room temperature by 6 days and by more than 9 days in those stored at cold temperature. At the end of storage at room and cold temperature fruit coated with CHI-OVEO showed higher firmness (>2 N/mm) and lower weight loss (>2%) compared to uncoated tomato fruit. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the decrease of lycopene, ascorbic citric acid, glucose and fructose during the storage time assessed at room or cold temperatures. The increase of catechin, myricetin, caffeic and syringic acids was higher (1-9 mg/g) in cherry tomato fruit coated with CHI-OVEO compared to uncoated fruit during the storage at both temperatures studied. CHI-OVEO coating is a feasible treatment for maintaining the storage quality of cherry tomato fruit.

  15. Effect of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) essential oils on Trypanosoma cruzi (Protozoa: Kinetoplastida) growth and ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Giani F; das Graças Cardoso, Maria; Guimarães, Luiz Gustavo L; Salgado, Ana Paula S P; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F S; Soares, Maurilio J

    2007-03-01

    In the present work, we have investigated the effect of essential oils obtained from Origanum vulgare L. (oregano) and Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme) on growth and ultrastructure of diverse evolutive forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Culture epimastigotes and bloodstream trypomastigotes were incubated for 24 h with different concentrations of oregano or thyme essential oils and with thymol (the main constituent of thyme), and the inhibitory concentration (IC)(50) was determined by cell counting. Crude extract of oregano essential oil inhibited epimastigote growth (IC(50)/24 h = 175 microg/ml) and also induced trypomastigote lysis (IC(50)/24 h = 115 microg/ml). Thyme essential oil presented IC(50)/24 h values of 77 microg/ml for epimastigot