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Sample records for anka karlsruhe minimum

  1. Karlsruhe nuclide chart - new 9. edition 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Soti, Zsolt; Magill, Joseph; Pfennig, Gerda; Derher, Raymond

    2015-07-01

    Following the success of the 8. Edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart 2012, a new edition is planned for 2015. Since the 2012 edition, more than 100 nuclides have been discovered and about 1400 nuclides have been updated. In summary, the new 9. edition contains decay and radiation data on approximately 3230 ground state nuclides and 740 isomers from 118 chemical elements. The accompanying booklet provides a detailed explanation of the nuclide box structure used in the Chart. An expanded section contains many additional nuclide decay schemes to aid the user to interpret the highly condensed information in the nuclide boxes. The booklet contains - in addition to the latest values of the physical constants and physical properties - a periodic table of the elements, tables of new and updated nuclides, and a difference chart showing the main changes in the Chart graphically. (authors)

  2. Raman spectroscopy at the tritium laboratory Karlsruhe

    SciTech Connect

    Schloesser, M.; Bornschein, B.; Fischer, S.; Kassel, F.; Rupp, S.; Sturm, M.; James, T.M.; Telle, H.H.

    2015-03-15

    Raman spectroscopy is employed successfully for analysis of hydrogen isotopologues at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). Raman spectroscopy is based on the inelastic scattering of photons off molecules. Energy is transferred to the molecules as rotational/vibrational excitation being characteristic for each type of molecule. Thus, qualitative analysis is possible from the Raman shifted light, while quantitative information can be obtained from the signal intensities. After years of research and development, the technique is now well-advanced providing fast (< 10 s), precise (< 0.1%) and true (< 3%) compositional analysis of gas mixtures of hydrogen isotopologues. In this paper, we summarize the recent achievements in the further development on this technique, and the various applications for which it is used at TLK. Raman spectroscopy has evolved as a versatile, highly accurate key method for quantitative analysis complementing the port-folio of analytic techniques at the TLK.

  3. New developments at the INE-Beamline for actinide research at ANKA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dardenne, K.; Brendebach, B.; Denecke, M. A.; Liu, X.; Rothe, J.; Vitova, T.

    2009-11-01

    The INE-Beamline for actinide research at the synchrotron source ANKA is operated by the Institut für Nukleare Entsorgung (INE) at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Experiments on radioactive samples with activities up to 106 times the limit of exemption inside a safe and flexible double containment concept are possible. One great advantage of the beamline is its close proximity to INE's active laboratories with its equipment for manipulation of actinide materials and state-of-the-art spectroscopic, analytical, and microscopic instrumentation. This constellation is unique in Europe. The INE-Beamline is built primarily to serve INE in-house research associated with safe disposal of high level nuclear waste such as actinide speciation or coordination-, redox-, and geo-chemistry of actinides. A wide energy range from around 2.1 keV to 25 keV covering the K-edges from P to Pd and the L3, L2, and L1 edges for actinides from Th to Cm can be used. The INE-Beamline is optimized for X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques (XANES/EXAFS), but x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis and powder diffraction (XRD) are also possible, as well as surface sensitive measurements in grazing incidence geometry (GI-XAFS). Upgrades of instrumentation and extension of experimental capabilities at the INE-Beamline are driven by user needs. Two of the recent upgrades are presented: 1) installation of a microfocus option for spatially resolved studies (μ-XRF, μ-XANES, μ-XRD) and investigations of small volumes (e.g., heterogeneous natural samples and diamond anvil high pressure cells); 2) construction, and commissioning of a high resolution x-ray emission spectrometer (HRXES); 3) availability of an electrochemical cell for investigation of redox sensitive systems.

  4. The high-resolution synchrotron-based imaging stations at the BAMline (BESSY) and TopoTomo (ANKA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rack, Alexander; Riesemeier, Heinrich; Zabler, Simon; Weitkamp, Timm; Müller, Bernd R.; Weidemann, Gerd; Modregger, Peter; Banhart, John; Helfen, Lukas; Danilewsky, Andreas N.; Gräber, Hans G.; Heldele, Richard; Mayzel, Boaz; Goebbels, Jürgen; Baumbach, Tilo

    2008-08-01

    The BAMline at the BESSY light source in Berlin and the TopoTomo beamline at the ANKA synchrotron facility in Karlsruhe (both Germany) operate in the hard X-ray regime (above 6 keV) with similiar photon flux density. For typical imaging applications, a double multilayer monochromator or a filtered white beam is used. In order to optimise the field of view and the resolution of the available indirect pixel detectors, different optical systems have been installed, adapted, respectively, to a large field of view (macroscope) and to high spatial resolution (microscope). They can be combined with different camera systems, ranging from 16-bit dynamic range slow-scan CCDs to fast CMOS cameras. The spatial resolution can be brought substantially beyond the micrometer limit by using a Bragg magnifier. The moderate flux of both beamlines compared to other 3rd generation light sources is compensated by a dedicated scintillator concept. For selected applications, X-ray beam collimation has proven to be a reliable approach to increase the available photon flux density. Absorption contrast, phase contrast, holotomography and refraction-enhanced imaging are used depending on the application. Additionally, at the TopoTomo beamline digital white beam synchrotron topography is performed, using the digital X-ray pixel detectors installed.

  5. Plasmodium berghei ANKA causes intestinal malaria associated with dysbiosis.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Tomoyo; Miyauchi, Eiji; Nakamura, Shota; Hirai, Makoto; Suzue, Kazutomo; Imai, Takashi; Nomura, Takahiro; Handa, Tadashi; Okada, Hiroko; Shimokawa, Chikako; Onishi, Risa; Olia, Alex; Hirata, Jun; Tomita, Haruyoshi; Ohno, Hiroshi; Horii, Toshihiro; Hisaeda, Hajime

    2015-10-27

    Gastrointestinal symptoms, such as abdominal pain and diarrhea, are frequently observed in patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, the correlation between malaria intestinal pathology and intestinal microbiota has not been investigated. In the present study, infection of C57BL/6 mice with P. berghei ANKA (PbA) caused intestinal pathological changes, such as detachment of epithelia in the small intestines and increased intestinal permeability, which correlated with development with experimental cerebral malaria (ECM). Notably, an apparent dysbiosis occurred, characterized by a reduction of Firmicutes and an increase in Proteobacteria. Furthermore, some genera of microbiota correlated with parasite growth and/or ECM development. By contrast, BALB/c mice are resistant to ECM and exhibit milder intestinal pathology and dysbiosis. These results indicate that the severity of cerebral and intestinal pathology coincides with the degree of alteration in microbiota. This is the first report demonstrating that malaria affects intestinal microbiota and causes dysbiosis.

  6. The INE-Beamline for actinide science at ANKA

    SciTech Connect

    Rothe, J.; Dardenne, K.; Denecke, M. A.; Kienzler, B.; Loeble, M.; Metz, V.; Steppert, M.; Vitova, T.; Geckeis, H.; Butorin, S.; Seibert, A.; Walther, C.

    2012-04-15

    Since its inauguration in 2005, the INE-Beamline for actinide research at the synchrotron source ANKA (KIT North Campus) provides dedicated instrumentation for x-ray spectroscopic characterization of actinide samples and other radioactive materials. R and D work at the beamline focuses on various aspects of nuclear waste disposal within INE's mission to provide the scientific basis for assessing long-term safety of a final nuclear waste repository. The INE-Beamline is accessible for the actinide and radiochemistry community through the ANKA proposal system and the European Union Integrated Infrastructure Initiative ACTINET-I3. Experiments with activities up to 1 x 10{sup +6} times the European exemption limit are feasible within a safe but flexible containment concept. Measurements with monochromatic radiation are performed at photon energies varying between {approx}2.1 keV (P K-edge) and {approx}25 keV (Pd K-edge), including the lanthanide L-edges and the actinide M- and L3-edges up to Cf. The close proximity of the INE-Beamline to INE controlled area labs offers infrastructure unique in Europe for the spectroscopic and microscopic characterization of actinide samples. The modular beamline design enables sufficient flexibility to adapt sample environments and detection systems to many scientific questions. The well-established bulk techniques x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy in transmission and fluorescence mode have been augmented by advanced methods using a microfocused beam, including (confocal) XAFS/x-ray fluorescence detection and a combination of (micro-)XAFS and (micro-)x-ray diffraction. Additional instrumentation for high energy-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy has been successfully developed and tested.

  7. Disruption of Parasite hmgb2 Gene Attenuates Plasmodium berghei ANKA Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Lawson-Hogban, Nadou; Boisson, Bertrand; Soares, Miguel P.; Péronet, Roger; Smith, Leanna; Ménard, Robert; Huerre, Michel; Mécheri, Salah

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic high-mobility-group-box (HMGB) proteins are nuclear factors involved in chromatin remodeling and transcription regulation. When released into the extracellular milieu, HMGB1 acts as a proinflammatory cytokine that plays a central role in the pathogenesis of several immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. We found that the Plasmodium genome encodes two genuine HMGB factors, Plasmodium HMGB1 and HMGB2, that encompass, like their human counterparts, a proinflammatory domain. Given that these proteins are released from parasitized red blood cells, we then hypothesized that Plasmodium HMGB might contribute to the pathogenesis of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), a lethal neuroinflammatory syndrome that develops in C57BL/6 (susceptible) mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA and that in many aspects resembles human cerebral malaria elicited by P. falciparum infection. The pathogenesis of experimental cerebral malaria was suppressed in C57BL/6 mice infected with P. berghei ANKA lacking the hmgb2 gene (Δhmgb2 ANKA), an effect associated with a reduction of histological brain lesions and with lower expression levels of several proinflammatory genes. The incidence of ECM in pbhmgb2-deficient mice was restored by the administration of recombinant PbHMGB2. Protection from experimental cerebral malaria in Δhmgb2 ANKA-infected mice was associated with reduced sequestration in the brain of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, including CD8+ granzyme B+ and CD8+ IFN-γ+ cells, and, to some extent, neutrophils. This was consistent with a reduced parasite sequestration in the brain, lungs, and spleen, though to a lesser extent than in wild-type P. berghei ANKA-infected mice. In summary, Plasmodium HMGB2 acts as an alarmin that contributes to the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria. PMID:25916985

  8. Status and commissioning of the Karlsruhe tritium neutrino experiment KATRIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuemmler, Thomas; Katrin Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Neutrino properties, and especially the determination of the neutrino rest mass, play an important role at the intersections of cosmology, particle physics and astroparticle physics. At present there are two complementary approaches to address this topic in laboratory experiments. The search for neutrinoless double β decay probes whether neutrinos are Majorana particles and determines an effective neutrino mass value. Experiments based on single β decay investigate electrons close to their kinematic endpoint in order to determine the neutrino mass by a modelindependent method. The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) is currently the experiment in the most advanced status of commissioning. Applying an ultra-luminous molecular windowless gaseous tritium source and an integrating high-resolution spectrometer of MAC-E filter type, it allows β spectroscopy close to the tritium endpoint with unprecedented precision and will reach a sensitivity of 200 meV/c2 (90% C.L.) on the neutrino mass.

  9. Histopathological studies in two strains of semi-immune mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA after chronic exposure.

    PubMed

    Helegbe, Gideon Kofi; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Senba, Masachika; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Shuaibu, Mohammed Nasir; Yamazaki, Akiko; Kikuchi, Mihoko; Yasunami, Michio; Hirayama, Kenji

    2011-04-01

    To mimic a human malaria infection in the endemic condition, two strains of mice (Balb/c and CBA) were infected and treated several times to generate so-called semi-immune status. As previously reported, neither mice (Balb/c and CBA) strain showed cerebral malaria, even in the susceptible C57BL/6 (B6). The significant difference between the mice strains in our previous study was the rate of destruction of uninfected red blood cells (uRBCs) at infection. After the established repeated cycles of infection and treatment and the final challenge with 10(4) Plasmodium berghei ANKA until minimum Hb, Balb/c and CBA mice were sacrificed. The spleen, liver, brain, kidney, lung, heart, and muscle were removed, stained with hematoxylin-eosin and analyzed with light microscopy. Previous observation suggested that Balb/c destroyed uRBC at much higher rate than the other strains although the parasitemia was very low. Pathological investigation carried out in this study revealed that this destruction was mainly contributed by the uRBCs as no parasite sequestration was observed in any of the organs. However, malaria pigment deposition was observed in spleen and liver of all the semi-immune mice strains. This histopathological study in the severe malaria anemia model, which is difficult to conduct in humans, will be helpful in taking into account different responses to malaria infection when designing therapeutic interventions and vaccine studies.

  10. Application of the Karlsruhe proton microprobe to medical samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, D.; Rokita, E.

    1984-04-01

    The Karlsruhe nuclear microprobe was used in the investigation of healthy and malign tissue of animals and men. Target preparation tests showed that cryofixation of the tissue before cutting with a microtome and succeeding lyophilization of the slices gave reliable results. The slices were mounted on backing foils of Formvar the thickness of which varied between 30 and 50 {μg}/{cm 2}. For irradiation we tested various patterns generated by the 3 MeV proton beam by sweeping in one or two dimensions. Most of the data were collected in line-scan mode, where 256 equidistant irradiation dots of 3 × 10 μm 2 formed a line of 750 μm length at beam currents of 250 pA. The target thickness was determined simultaneously by proton elastic scattering in all cases. Radial concentration profiles of degenerated human arteries (atherosclerosis) showed a remarkable increase of Ca, partly correlated with local maxima of the Zn content, when compared with non-degenerated capillaries. Microtome cuts across a Morris Hepatoma 7777 cancer grown in a rat leg were investigated to correlate the concentration shifts of some trace elements in malign tissue with single cells.

  11. Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains from voles and shrews exhibit specific ankA gene sequences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a Gram-negative bacterium that replicates obligate intracellularly in neutrophils. It is transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks and causes acute febrile disease in humans, dogs, horses, cats, and livestock. Because A. phagocytophilum is not transmitted transovarially in Ixodes spp., it is thought to depend on reservoir hosts to complete its life cycle. In Europe, A. phagocytophilum was detected in roe deer, red deer, wild boars, and small mammals. In contrast to roe deer, red deer and wild boars have been considered as reservoir hosts for granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans, dogs, and horses according to groESL- and ankA-based genotyping. A. phagocytophilum variants infecting small mammals in Europe have not been characterized extensively to date. Results We amplified the total ankA open reading frames of 27 strains from voles and shrews. The analysis revealed that they harboured A. phagocytophilum strains that belonged to a distinct newly described ankA gene cluster. Further, we provide evidence that the heterogeneity of ankA gene sequences might have arisen via recombination. Conclusions Based on ankA-based genotyping voles and shrews are unlikely reservoir hosts for granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans, dogs, horses, and livestock in Europe. PMID:24283328

  12. Treatment of tritiated exhaust gases at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe

    SciTech Connect

    Hutter, E.; Besserer, U.; Jacqmin, G.

    1995-02-01

    The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) accomplished commissioning; tritium involving activities will start this year. The laboratory is destined mainly to investigating processing of fusion reactor fuel and to developing analytic devices for determination of tritium and tritiated species in view of control and accountancy requirements. The area for experimental work in the laboratory is about 800 m{sup 2}. The tritium infrastructure including systems for tritium storage, transfer within the laboratory and processing by cleanup and isotope separation methods has been installed on an additional 400 m{sup 2} area. All tritium processing systems (=primary systems), either of the tritium infrastructure or of the experiments, are enclosed in secondary containments which consist of gloveboxes, each of them connected to the central depressurization system, a part integrated in the central detritiation system. The atmosphere of each glovebox is cleaned in a closed cycle by local detritiation units controlled by two tritium monitors. Additionally, the TLK is equipped with a central detritiation system in which all gases discharged from the primary systems and the secondary systems are processed. All detritiation units consist of a catalyst for oxidizing gaseous tritium or tritiated hydrocarbons to water, a heat exchanger for cooling the catalyst reactor exhaust gas to room temperature, and a molecular sieve bed for adsorbing the water. Experiments with tracer amounts of tritium have shown that decontamination factors >3000 can be achieved with the TLK detritiation units. The central detritiation system was carefully tested and adjusted under normal and abnormal operation conditions. Test results and the behavior of the tritium barrier preventing tritiated exhaust gases from escaping into the atmosphere will be reported.

  13. Differences in susceptibility among mouse strains to infection with Plasmodium berghei (ANKA clone) sporozoites and its relationship to protection by gamma-irradiated sporozoites

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, R.I.; Lowell, G.H.; Gordon, D.M. )

    1990-04-01

    Three inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6 (H-2b), A/J (H-2a), and BALB/c (H-2d), and 1 outbred strain, CD-1, demonstrated differences in susceptibility to iv challenge with the ANKA clone of Plasmodium berghei. Mice were challenged with 100, 1,000, or 10,000 sporozoites, then evaluated daily beginning on day 4 for patency. CD-1 mice were further evaluated at challenge doses of 12,500, 25,000, and 50,000 sporozoites. C57BL/6 mice were the easiest to infect, with 90% becoming infected with 100 sporozoites. The outbred strain CD-1 was the most difficult to infect, requiring a challenge dose of 25,000 sporozoites/mouse in order to achieve a 100% infection rate. Mouse strains also demonstrated differences in their ability to be protected by intravenous immunization with gamma-irradiated sporozoites. A/J mice needed a minimum of 3 doses of irradiated sporozoites for protection against a challenge with 10,000 sporozoites. In contrast, BALB/c mice immunized with a single dose of 1,000 irradiated sporozoites are protected against a 10,000 sporozoite challenge. These data suggest that both infectivity and protection are genetically restricted and that susceptibility to infection may be inversely related to protection.

  14. Establishment of a murine model of cerebral malaria in KunMing mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yan; Xu, Wenyue; Zhou, Taoli; Liu, Taiping; Zheng, Hong; Fu, Yong

    2016-10-01

    Malaria remains one of the most devastating diseases. Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection resulting in high mortality and morbidity worldwide. Analysis of precise mechanisms of CM in humans is difficult for ethical reasons and animal models of CM have been employed to study malaria pathogenesis. Here, we describe a new experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) model with Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection in KunMing (KM) mice. KM mice developed ECM after blood-stage or sporozoites infection, and the development of ECM in KM mice has a dose-dependent relationship with sporozoites inoculums. Histopathological findings revealed important features associated with ECM, including accumulation of mononuclear cells and red blood cells in brain microvascular, and brain parenchymal haemorrhages. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) examination showed that BBB disruption was present in infected KM mice when displaying clinical signs of CM. In vivo bioluminescent imaging experiment indicated that parasitized red blood cells accumulated in most vital organs including heart, lung, spleen, kidney, liver and brain. The levels of inflammatory cytokines interferon-gamma, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-17, IL-12, IL-6 and IL-10 were all remarkably increased in KM mice infected with P. berghei ANKA. This study indicates that P. berghei ANKA infection in KM mice can be used as ECM model to extend further research on genetic, pharmacological and vaccine studies of CM.

  15. UV-CD12: synchrotron radiation circular dichroism beamline at ANKA

    PubMed Central

    Bürck, Jochen; Roth, Siegmar; Windisch, Dirk; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Moss, David; Ulrich, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) is a rapidly growing technique for structure analysis of proteins and other chiral biomaterials. UV-CD12 is a high-flux SRCD beamline installed at the ANKA synchrotron, to which it had been transferred after the closure of the SRS Daresbury. The beamline covers an extended vacuum-UV to near-UV spectral range and has been open for users since October 2011. The current end-station allows for temperature-controlled steady-state SRCD spectroscopy, including routine automated thermal scans of microlitre volumes of water-soluble proteins down to 170 nm. It offers an excellent signal-to-noise ratio over the whole accessible spectral range. The technique of oriented circular dichroism (OCD) was recently implemented for determining the membrane alignment of α-helical peptides and proteins in macroscopically oriented lipid bilayers as mimics of cellular membranes. It offers improved spectral quality <200 nm compared with an OCD setup adapted to a bench-top instrument, and accelerated data collection by a factor of ∼3. In addition, it permits investigations of low hydrated protein films down to 130 nm using a rotatable sample cell that avoids linear dichroism artifacts. PMID:25931105

  16. Oxidative stress and modification of renal vascular permeability are associated with acute kidney injury during P. berghei ANKA infection.

    PubMed

    Elias, Rosa Maria; Correa-Costa, Matheus; Barreto, Claudiene Rodrigues; Silva, Reinaldo Correia; Hayashida, Caroline Y; Castoldi, Angela; Gonçalves, Giselle Martins; Braga, Tarcio Teodoro; Barboza, Renato; Rios, Francisco José; Keller, Alexandre Castro; Cenedeze, Marcos Antonio; Hyane, Meire Ioshie; D'Império-Lima, Maria Regina; Figueiredo-Neto, Antônio Martins; Reis, Marlene Antônia; Marinho, Cláudio Romero Farias; Pacheco-Silva, Alvaro; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2012-01-01

    Malaria associated-acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with 45% of mortality in adult patients hospitalized with severe form of the disease. However, the causes that lead to a framework of malaria-associated AKI are still poorly characterized. Some clinical studies speculate that oxidative stress products, a characteristic of Plasmodium infection, as well as proinflammatory response induced by the parasite are involved in its pathophysiology. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the development of malaria-associated AKI during infection by P. berghei ANKA, with special attention to the role played by the inflammatory response and the involvement of oxidative stress. For that, we took advantage of an experimental model of severe malaria that showed significant changes in the renal pathophysiology to investigate the role of malaria infection in the renal microvascular permeability and tissue injury. Therefore, BALB/c mice were infected with P. berghei ANKA. To assess renal function, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and ratio of proteinuria and creatininuria were evaluated. The products of oxidative stress, as well as cytokine profile were quantified in plasma and renal tissue. The change of renal microvascular permeability, tissue hypoxia and cellular apoptosis were also evaluated. Parasite infection resulted in renal dysfunction. Furthermore, we observed increased expression of adhesion molecule, proinflammatory cytokines and products of oxidative stress, associated with a decrease mRNA expression of HO-1 in kidney tissue of infected mice. The measurement of lipoprotein oxidizability also showed a significant increase in plasma of infected animals. Together, our findings support the idea that products of oxidative stress, as well as the immune response against the parasite are crucial to changes in kidney architecture and microvascular endothelial permeability of BALB/c mice infected with P. berghei ANKA.

  17. Gonadal steroids negatively modulate oxidative stress in CBA/Ca female mice infected with P. berghei ANKA.

    PubMed

    Mosqueda-Romo, Néstor Aarón; Rodríguez-Morales, Ana Laura; Buendía-González, Fidel Orlando; Aguilar-Sánchez, Margarita; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha

    2014-01-01

    We decreased the level of gonadal steroids in female and male mice by gonadectomy. We infected these mice with P. berghei ANKA and observed the subsequent impact on the oxidative stress response. Intact females developed lower levels of parasitaemia and lost weight faster than intact males. Gonadectomised female mice displayed increased levels of parasitaemia, increased body mass, and increased anaemia compared with their male counterparts. In addition, gonadectomised females exhibited lower specific catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in their blood and spleen tissues compared with gonadectomised males. To further study the oxidative stress response in P. berghei ANKA-infected gonadectomised mice, nitric oxide levels were assessed in the blood and spleen, and MDA levels were assessed in the spleen. Intact, sham-operated, and gonadectomised female mice exhibited higher levels of nitric oxide in the blood and spleen compared with male mice. MDA levels were higher in all of the female groups. Finally, gonadectomy significantly increased the oxidative stress levels in females but not in males. These data suggest that differential oxidative stress is influenced by oestrogens that may contribute to sexual dimorphism in malaria.

  18. Protection of Operators and Environment - the Safety Concept of the Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant VEK

    SciTech Connect

    Fleisch, J.; Kuttruf, H.; Lumpp, W.; Pfeifer, W.; Roth, G.; Weisenburger, S.

    2002-02-26

    The Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant (VEK) plant is a milestone in decommissioning and complete dismantling of the former Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant WAK, which is in an advanced stage of disassembly. The VEK is scheduled to vitrify approx. 70 m3 of the highly radioactive liquid waste (HLW) resulting from reprocessing. Site preparation, civil work and component manufacturing began in 1999. The building will be finalized by mid of 2002, hot vitrification operation is currently scheduled for 2004/2005. Provisions against damages arising from construction and operation of the VEK had to be made in accordance with the state of the art as laid down in the German Atomic Law and the Radiation Protection Regulations. For this purpose, the appropriate analysis of accidents and their external and internal impacts were investigated. During the detailed design phase, a failure effects analysis was carried out, in which single events were studied with respect to the objectives of protection and ensuring activity containment, limiting radioactive discharges to the environment and protecting of the staff. Parallel to the planning phase of the VEK plant a cold prototype test facility (PVA) covering the main process steps was constructed and operated at the Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE) of FZK. This pilot operation served to demonstrate the process technique and its operation with a simulated waste solution, and to test the main items of equipment, but was conducted also to use the experimental data and experience to back the safety concept of the radioactive VEK plant. This paper describes the basis of the safety concept of the VEK plant and results of the failure effect analysis. The experimental simulation of the failure scenarios, their effect on the process behavior, and the controllability of these events as well as the effect of the results on the safety concept of VEK are discussed. Additionally, an overview of the actual status of civil work and manufacturing of

  19. High Parasite Burdens Cause Liver Damage in Mice following Plasmodium berghei ANKA Infection Independently of CD8+ T Cell-Mediated Immune Pathology ▿

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Ashraful; Best, Shannon E.; Amante, Fiona H.; Ammerdorffer, Anne; de Labastida, Fabian; Pereira, Tamara; Ramm, Grant A.; Engwerda, Christian R.

    2011-01-01

    Infection of C57BL/6 mice with Plasmodium berghei ANKA induces a fatal neurological disease commonly referred to as experimental cerebral malaria. The onset of neurological symptoms and mortality depend on pathogenic CD8+ T cells and elevated parasite burdens in the brain. Here we provide clear evidence of liver damage in this model, which precedes and is independent of the onset of neurological symptoms. Large numbers of parasite-specific CD8+ T cells accumulated in the liver following P. berghei ANKA infection. However, systemic depletion of these cells at various times during infection, while preventing neurological symptoms, failed to protect against liver damage or ameliorate it once established. In contrast, rapid, drug-mediated removal of parasites prevented hepatic injury if administered early and quickly resolved liver damage if administered after the onset of clinical symptoms. These data indicate that CD8+ T cell-mediated immune pathology occurs in the brain but not the liver, while parasite-dependent pathology occurs in both organs during P. berghei ANKA infection. Therefore, we show that P. berghei ANKA infection of C57BL/6 mice is a multiorgan disease driven by the accumulation of parasites, which is also characterized by organ-specific CD8+ T cell-mediated pathology. PMID:21343349

  20. PREFACE: Selected invited contributions from the International Conference on Magnetism (Karlsruhe, Germany, 26-31 July 2009) Selected invited contributions from the International Conference on Magnetism (Karlsruhe, Germany, 26-31 July 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goll, Gernot; Löhneysen, Hilbert v.; Loidl, Alois; Pruschke, Thomas; Richter, Manuel; Schultz, Ludwig; Sürgers, Christoph; Wosnitza, Jochen

    2010-04-01

    The International Conference on Magnetism 2009 (ICM 2009) was held in Karlsruhe, Germany, from 26 to 31 July 2009. Previous conferences in this series were organized in Edinburgh, UK (1991), Warsaw, Poland (1994), Cairns, Australia (1997), Recife, Brazil (2000), Rome, Italy (2003), and Kyoto, Japan (2006). As with previous ICM conferences, the annual Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES) was integrated into ICM 2009. The topics presented at ICM 2009 were strongly correlated electron systems, quantum and classical spin systems, magnetic structures and interactions, magnetization dynamics and micromagnetics, spin-dependent transport, spin electronics, magnetic thin films, particles and nanostructures, soft and hard magnetic materials and their applications, novel materials and device applications, magnetic recording and memories, measuring techniques and instrumentation, as well as interdisciplinary topics. We are grateful to the International Advisory Committee for their help in coordinating an attractive program encompassing practically all aspects of magnetism, both experimentally and theoretically. The Program Committee comprised A Loidl, Germany (Chair), M A Continentino, Brazil, D E Dahlberg, USA, D Givord, France, G Güntherodt, Germany, H Mikeska, Germany, D Kaczorowski, Poland, Ching-Ray Chang, South Korea, I Mertig, Germany, D Vollhardt, Germany, and E F Wassermann, Germany. E F Wassermann was also head of the National Organizing Committee. His help is gratefully acknowledged. The scientific program started on Monday 27 July 2009 with opening addresses by the Conference Chairman, the Deputy Mayor of Karlsruhe, Ms M Mergen and the Chairman of the Executive Board of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, E Umbach. ICM 2009 was attended by the Nobel Laureates P W Anderson, A Fert and P Grünberg who gave plenary talks. A special highlight was the presentation of the Magnetism Award and Néel Medal to S S P Parkin who also presented his newest results

  1. The Karlsruhe Astrophysical Database of Nucleosynthesis in Stars Project – Status and Prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Dillmann, I.; Szücs, T.; Plag, R.; Fülöp, Z.; Käppeler, F.; Mengoni, A.; Rauscher, T.

    2014-06-15

    The KADoNiS (Karlsruhe Astrophysical Database of Nucleosynthesis in Stars) project is an astrophysical online database for cross sections relevant for nucleosynthesis in the s process and the γ process. The s-process database ( (http://www.kadonis.org)) was started in 2005 and is presently facing its 4th update (KADoNiS v1.0). The γ-process database (KADoNiS-p, (http://www.kadonis.org/pprocess)) was recently revised and re-launched in March 2013. Both databases are compilations for experimental cross sections with relevance to heavy ion nucleosynthesis. For the s process recommended Maxwellian averaged cross sections for kT=5−100 keV are given for more than 360 isotopes between {sup 1}H and {sup 210}Bi. For the γ-process database all available experimental data from (p,γ),(p,n),(p,α),(α,γ),(α,n), and (α,p) reactions between {sup 70}Ge and {sup 209}Bi in or close to the respective Gamow window were collected and can be compared to theoretical predictions. The aim of both databases is a quick and user-friendly access to the available data in the astrophysically relevant energy regions.

  2. Karlsruhe Database for Radioactive Wastes (KADABRA) - Accounting and Management System for Radioactive Waste Treatment - 12275

    SciTech Connect

    Himmerkus, Felix; Rittmeyer, Cornelia

    2012-07-01

    The data management system KADABRA was designed according to the purposes of the Cen-tral Decontamination Department (HDB) of the Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs-GmbH (WAK GmbH), which is specialized in the treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste. The layout considers the major treatment processes of the HDB as well as regulatory and legal requirements. KADABRA is designed as an SAG ADABAS application on IBM system Z mainframe. The main function of the system is the data management of all processes related to treatment, transfer and storage of radioactive material within HDB. KADABRA records the relevant data concerning radioactive residues, interim products and waste products as well as the production parameters relevant for final disposal. Analytical data from the laboratory and non destructive assay systems, that describe the chemical and radiological properties of residues, production batches, interim products as well as final waste products, can be linked to the respective dataset for documentation and declaration. The system enables the operator to trace the radioactive material through processing and storage. Information on the actual sta-tus of the material as well as radiological data and storage position can be gained immediately on request. A variety of programs accessed to the database allow the generation of individual reports on periodic or special request. KADABRA offers a high security standard and is constantly adapted to the recent requirements of the organization. (authors)

  3. Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe: administrative and technical framework for isotope laboratory operation

    SciTech Connect

    Welte, S.; Besserer, U.; Osenberg, D.; Wendel, J.

    2015-03-15

    Originally licensed in 1993 the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) is a unique pilot scale isotope laboratory focused on tritium handling and processing to conduct a variety of scientific experiments and development tasks in view of future fusion power plants. TLK currently operates 15 glove boxes of 125 m{sup 3} total volume in an experimental hall measuring nearly 1500 m{sup 2}. The tritium infrastructure, comprising of the tritium storage system, the tritium transfer system and the isotope separation system, is integrated into TLK as a closed loop system to supply tritium to the experiments. Having a license for handling of up to 40 g of tritium and a closed tritium processing loop, TLK is a unique institute in non-military tritium research. In order to fulfil all requirements regarding the license, a framework of regulations is applied as a basis for the operation of TLK, as well as the setup of new experiments and the design of components. This paper will give an overview on the framework of operation in view of licensing issues, as well as administrative and technical regulations mandatory to legally and reliably operate an isotope laboratory of this scale.

  4. Location and source mechanism of the Karlsruhe earthquake of 24 September 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    On 24 September 2014, a ML 2.3 earthquake occurred southwest of the urban area of Karlsruhe, Germany, which was felt by a few people (maximum intensity I 0 = III). It was the first seismic event in this highly populated area since an I 0 = VII earthquake in 1948. Data of 35 permanent and temporary seismometers were analysed to localise the event and to determine the focal mechanism to compare it to previous seismicity. Restricting the data to P- and S-phases from 18 nearby stations and optimising the local earth model result in an epicentre in the southwest of the city at 48.986°N/8.302°E and in a hypocentral depth of 10 km. To calculate the focal mechanism, 22 P- and 5 SH-polarities were determined that constrain a stable left lateral strike-slip focal mechanism with a minor thrusting component and nodal planes striking NE-SW and NW-SE. The epicentre lies in the vicinity of the I 0 = VII earthquake of 1948. Both events are part of the graben-parallel flower structure beneath the Upper Rhine Graben, parallel to the active Rastatt source zone, which runs 5 km further east and included the epicentre of the 1933 Rastatt I 0 = VII earthquake. The focal mechanisms of the 2014 and 1948 earthquakes show NE-SW striking nodal planes that dip to the southeast. However, for the 1948 event, a normal faulting mechanism was determined earlier. Taking the uncertainty of the epicentre and focal mechanism in 1948 and its fault dimensions into account, both events might have happened on the same fault plane.

  5. Differential role of T regulatory and Th17 in Swiss mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA and Plasmodium yoelii.

    PubMed

    Keswani, Tarun; Bhattacharyya, Arindam

    2014-06-01

    The outcome of malaria infection is determined, in part, by the balance of pro-inflammatory and regulatory immune responses. Host immune responses in disease including malaria are finely regulated by the opposing effects of Th17 and T regulatory (Treg) cells. Here we have examined the role of Treg cells and Th17 cells during malaria infection and find that low levels of Treg cells possibly influence the outcome of infections with the lethal strain of Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA). In contrast, high level of Treg cells may influence the outcome of nonlethal Plasmodium yoelii NXL (P. yoelii) infections. We observed decreased expressions of key regulators of Treg inductions-TGF-β, CD4IL-2 and IL-10 during PbA infection, whereas their expression remains high during P. yoelii infection. On the other hand TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ and IL-23 expression is high during PbA infection and lower during P. yoelii infection. Thus, results from this study suggest that the differential expression of Treg and Th17 might have a key role on host pathogenesis during malaria infection. The high level of IL-6 and low level of TGF-β may composite of the advantaged local microenvironment for the production of Th17 cells in the spleen of the PBA infected mice and vice verse during nonlethal P. yoelii.

  6. Solar Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopresto, James C.; Mathews, John; Manross, Kevin

    1995-12-01

    Calcium K plage, H alpha plage and sunspot area have been monitored daily on the INTERNET since November of 1992. The plage and sunspot area have been measured by image processing. The purpose of the project is to investigate the degree of correlation between plage area and solar irradiance. The plage variation shows the expected variation produced by solar rotation and the longer secular changes produced by the solar cycle. The H alpha and sunspot plage area reached a minimum in about late 1994 or early 1995. This is in agreement with the K2 spectral index obtained daily from Sacramento Peak Observatory. The Calcium K plage area minimum seems delayed with respect to the others mentioned above. The minimum of the K line plage area is projected to come within the last few months of 1995.

  7. Type I interferons contribute to experimental cerebral malaria development in response to sporozoite or blood-stage Plasmodium berghei ANKA.

    PubMed

    Palomo, Jennifer; Fauconnier, Mathilde; Coquard, Laurie; Gilles, Maïlys; Meme, Sandra; Szeremeta, Frederic; Fick, Lizette; Franetich, Jean-François; Jacobs, Muazzam; Togbe, Dieudonnée; Beloeil, Jean-Claude; Mazier, Dominique; Ryffel, Bernhard; Quesniaux, Valerie F J

    2013-10-01

    Cerebral malaria is a severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Although T-cell activation and type II IFN-γ are required for Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA)-induced murine experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), the role of type I IFN-α/β in ECM development remains unclear. Here, we address the role of the IFN-α/β pathway in ECM devel-opment in response to hepatic or blood-stage PbA infection, using mice deficient for types I or II IFN receptors. While IFN-γR1⁻/⁻ mice were fully resistant, IFNAR1⁻/⁻ mice showed delayed and partial protection to ECM after PbA infection. ECM resistance in IFN-γR1⁻/⁻ mice correlated with unaltered cerebral microcirculation and absence of ischemia, while WT and IFNAR1⁻/⁻ mice developed distinct microvascular pathologies. ECM resistance appeared to be independent of parasitemia. Instead, key mediators of ECM were attenuated in the absence of IFNAR1, including PbA-induced brain sequestration of CXCR3⁺-activated CD8⁺ T cells. This was associated with reduced expression of Granzyme B, IFN-γ, IL-12Rβ2, and T-cell-attracting chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 in IFNAR1⁻/⁻ mice, more so in the absence of IFN-γR1. Therefore, the type I IFN-α/β receptor pathway contributes to brain T-cell responses and microvascular pathology, although it is not as essential as IFN-γ for the development of cerebral malaria upon hepatic or blood-stage PbA infection.

  8. The CAT-ACT Beamline at ANKA: A new high energy X-ray spectroscopy facility for CATalysis and ACTinide research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimina, A.; Dardenne, K.; Denecke, M. A.; Grunwaldt, J. D.; Huttel, E.; Lichtenberg, H.; Mangold, S.; Pruessmann, T.; Rothe, J.; Steininger, R.; Vitova, T.

    2016-05-01

    A new hard X-ray beamline for CATalysis and ACTinide research has been built at the synchrotron radiation facility ANKA. The beamline design is dedicated to X-ray spectroscopy, including ‘flux hungry’ photon-in/photon-out and correlative techniques with a special infrastructure for radionuclide and catalysis research. The CAT-ACT beamline will help serve the growing need for high flux/hard X-ray spectroscopy in these communities. The design, the first spectra and the current status of this project are reported.

  9. Principles of qualification of the PAMELA process for the vitrification of HLLW of the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant (WAK)

    SciTech Connect

    Ewest, E.; Kunz, W.; Demonie, M.; Martens, B.R.; Goeyse, M. de

    1993-12-31

    After having reprocessed about 211 t of Uranium, the WAK Karlsruhe Pilot Reprocessing Plant was shut down in 1991. While all the other radioactive waste arising from reprocessing were conditioned parallel to the plant operation, some 60 m{sup 3} of High Level Liquid Waste (HLLW) having a specific {beta}, {gamma}-activity of about 2 E13 Bq/l is not yet processed. The waste is stored in two tanks, having a different activity level and chemical composition. In order to obtain a uniform product both solutions will be blended in a suitable way. It is intended to ship this waste to the PAMELA Vitrification Plant located on the Belgoprocess (BP) site in Dessel, Belgium. The vitrified product shall be returned to Germany. As from October 1986 until September 1991, the facility was operated by a mixed Belgian-German crew under the responsibility of BP for the vitrification of 800 m{sup 3} of HEWC (concentrated high-level waste from the reprocessing of high-enriched uranium fuels). Between October 1, 1985 and September 1, 1991, the total amount of 907 m{sup 3} of EUROCHEMIC HLLW has been successfully vitrified and conditioned in about 2,200 canisters. The typical composition of the different types of glass products are compared with the design data of the WAK glass product.

  10. Removal efficiency of silver impregnated filter materials and performance of iodie filters in the off-gas of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, F.J.; Herrmann, B.; Hoeflich, V.

    1997-08-01

    An almost quantitative retention of iodine is required in reprocessing plants. For the iodine removal in the off-gas streams of a reprocessing plant various sorption materials had been tested under realistic conditions in the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK in cooperation with the Karlsruhe research center FZK. The laboratory results achieved with different iodine sorption materials justified long time performance tests in the WAK Plant. Technical iodine filters and sorption materials for measurements of iodine had been tested from 1972 through 1992. This paper gives an overview over the most important results, Extended laboratory, pilot plant, hot cell and plant experiences have been performed concerning the behavior and the distribution of iodine-129 in chemical processing plants. In a conventional reprocessing plant for power reactor fuel, the bulk of iodine-129 and iodine-127 is evolved into the dissolver off-gas. The remainder is dispersed over many aqueous, organic and gaseous process and waste streams of the plant. Iodine filters with silver nitrate impregnated silica were installed in the dissolver off-gas of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK in 1975 and in two vessel vent systems in 1988. The aim of the Karlsruhe iodine research program was an almost quantitative evolution of the iodine during the dissolution process to remove as much iodine with the solid bed filters as possible. After shut down of the WAK plant in December 1990 the removal efficiency of the iodine filters at low iodine concentrations had been investigated during the following years. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Piperaquine and Lumefantrine resistance in Plasmodium berghei ANKA associated with increased expression of Ca2+/H+ antiporter and glutathione associated enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kiboi, Daniel; Irungu, Beatrice; Orwa, Jennifer; Kamau, Luna; Ochola-Oyier, Lynette Isabella; Ngángá, Joseph; Nzila, Alexis

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the mechanisms of resistance of two antimalarial drugs piperaquine (PQ) and lumefantrine (LM) using the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei as a surrogate of the human parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. We analyzed the whole coding sequence of Plasmodium berghei chloroquine resistance transporter (Pbcrt) and Plasmodium berghei multidrug resistance gene 1(Pbmdr-1) for polymorphisms. These genes are associated with quinoline resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. No polymorphic changes were detected in the coding sequences of Pbcrt and Pbmdr1 or in the mRNA transcript levels of Pbmdr1. However, our data demonstrated that PQ and LM resistance is achieved by multiple mechanisms that include elevated mRNA transcript levels of V-type H(+) pumping pyrophosphatase (vp2), Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter (vcx1), gamma glutamylcysteine synthetase (ggcs) and glutathione-S-transferase (gst) genes, mechanisms also known to contribute to chloroquine resistance in P. falciparum and rodent malaria parasites. The increase in ggcs and gst transcript levels was accompanied by high glutathione (GSH) levels and elevated activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) enzyme. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Pbcrt and Pbmdr1 are not associated with PQ and LM resistance in P. berghei ANKA, while vp2, vcx1, ggcs and gst may mediate resistance directly or modulate functional mutations in other unknown genes.

  12. Comparison of local and regional heat transport processes into the subsurface urban heat island of Karlsruhe, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, Susanne; Bayer, Peter; Menberg, Kathrin; Blum, Philipp

    2014-05-01

    Temperatures in shallow urban ground are typically elevated. They manifest as subsurface urban heat islands, which are observed worldwide in different metropolitan areas and which have a site-specific areal extent and intensity. As of right now the governing heat transport processes accumulating heat in the subsurface of cities are insufficiently understood. Based on a spatial assessment of groundwater temperatures, six individual heat flux processes could be identified: (1) heat flux from elevated ground surface temperatures (GST), (2) heat flux from basements of buildings, (3) reinjection of thermal waste water, (4) sewage drains, (5) sewage leakage, and (6) district heating. In this study, the contributions of these processes are quantified on local and regional scales for the city of Karlsruhe in Germany. For the regional scale, the Regionalized Monte Carlo (RMC) method is used. This method applies a single Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for the entire study area. At relatively low data demand, the RMC method provides basic insights into the heat contribution for the entire city. For the local scale, the Local Monte Carlo (LMC) method was developed and applied. This method analyzes all dominant heat fluxes spatially dependent by performing an MC simulation for each arbitrary sized pixel of the study area (here 10 x 10 m). This more intricate approach allows for a spatial representation of all heat flux processes, which is necessary for the local planning of geothermal energy use. In order to evaluate the heat transport processes on a regional scale, we compared the mean annual thermal energies that result from the individual heat flux processes. Both methods identify the heat flux from elevated GST and the heat flux from buildings as the dominant regional processes. However, reinjection of thermal wastewater is by far the most dominant local heat flux processes with an average heat flux of 16 ± 2 W/m2 in the affected areas. Although being dominant on the regional

  13. Rate of red blood cell destruction varies in different strains of mice infected with Plasmodium berghei-ANKA after chronic exposure

    PubMed Central

    Helegbe, Gideon Kofi; Huy, Nguyen T; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Shuaibu, Mohammed N; Yamazaki, Akiko; Kikuchi, Mihoko; Yasunami, Michio; Hirayama, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Background Severe malaria anaemia in the semi-immune individuals in the holo-endemic area has been observed to occur at low parasite density with individual variation in the responses. Thus the following has been thought to be involved: auto-immune-mediated mechanisms of uninfected red blood cell destruction, and host genetic factors to explain the differences in individual responses under the same malaria transmission. In this study, the extent of red blood cell (RBC) destruction in different strains of semi-immune mice model at relatively low parasitaemia was studied. Methodology To generate semi-immunity, four strains of mice were taken through several cycles of infection and treatment. By means of immunofluorescent assay and ELISA, sera were screened for anti-erythrocyte auto-antibodies, and their relationship with haematological parameters and parasitaemia in the strains of semi-immune mice was investigated. Results Upon challenge with Plasmodium berghei ANKA after generating semi-immune status, different mean percentage haemoglobin (Hb) drop was observed in the mice strains (Balb/c = 47.1%; NZW = 30.05%; C57BL/6 = 28.44%; CBA = 25.1%), which occurred on different days for each strain (for Balb/c, mean period = 13.6 days; for C57BL/6, NZW, and CBA mean period = 10.6, 10.8, 10.9 days respectively). Binding of antibody to white ghost RBCs was observed in sera of the four strains of semi-immune mice by immunofluorescence. Mean percentage Hb drop per parasitaemia was highest in Balb/c (73.6), followed by C57BL/6 (8.6), CBA (6.9) and NZW (4.0), p = 0.0005. Consequently, auto-antibodies level to ghost RBC were correlated with degree of anaemia and were highest in Balb/c, when compared with the other strains, p < 0.001. Conclusion The results presented in this study seem to indicate that anti-RBC auto-antibodies may be involved in the destruction of uninfected RBC in semi-immune mice at relatively low parasite burden. Host genetic factors may also influence the

  14. 2011 Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows Arctic sea ice from March 7, 2011, to Sept. 9, 2011, ending with a comparison of the 30-year average minimum extent, shown in yellow, and the Northwest Passage, in red. (no audio) ...

  15. Anti-erythropoietin antibody levels and its association with anaemia in different strains of semi-immune mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria anaemia is still a major public health problem and its pathogenesis still unclear. Interestingly, the progression of anaemia is at relatively low parasitaemia with some mortality in the semi-immune individuals in the endemic areas despite adequate erythropoietin (EPO) synthesis. A recent study has shown that treatment with exogenous anti-erythropoietin (anti-EPO) antibodies (Ab) of infected mice gives protection against malaria infection, suggesting an important role for anti-EPO Ab in malaria. The objective of the study was to evaluate anti-EPO antibody levels in anaemic condition of different strains of semi-immune mice with malaria. Methodology Semi-immune status was attained in four mice strains (Balb/c, B6, CBA and NZW) by repeated infections with 104Plasmodium berghei ANKA, and treatment with chloroquine/pyrimethamine. ELISA was used to measure anti-EPO Ab, transferrin and EPO while inflammatory cytokines measurement was done using bead-based multiplex assay kit. Results The mean anti-EPO Ab levels in the mice strains [Optical Density (OD) values at 450 nm: Balb/c (2.1); B6 (1.3); CBA (1.4) and NZW (1.7)] differed (p = 0.045), and were significantly higher when compared with uninfected controls, p < 0.0001, and mean anti-EPO Ab levels in the mice strains at recovery [OD values at 450 nm: Balb/c (1.8); B6 (1.1); CBA (1.5) and NZW (1.0) also differed (p = 0.0004). Interestingly, EPO levels were significantly high in NZW and low in Balb/c mice (p < 0.05), with those of B6 and CBA of intermediary values. Again, NZW were highly parasitaemic (20.7%) and the other strains (Balb/c, B6 and CBA) ranged between 2.2-2.8% (p = 0.015). Anti-EPO Ab correlated positively with extent of Hb loss (r = 0.5861; p = 0.003). Correlation of anti-EPO antibody with EPO was significant only in Balb/c mice (r = −0.83; p = 0.01). Significant levels of IL6 and IFNγ (p < 0.0001), both known to be associated with erythropoiesis

  16. Record Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Arctic sea ice reached a record low in September 2007, below the previous record set in 2005 and substantially below the long-term average. This image shows the Arctic as observed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite on September 16, 2007. In this image, blue indicates open water, white indicates high sea ice concentration, and turquoise indicates loosely packed sea ice. The black circle at the North Pole results from an absence of data as the satellite does not make observations that far north. Three contour lines appear on this image. The red line is the 2007 minimum, as of September 15, about the same time the record low was reached, and it almost exactly fits the sea ice observed by AMSR-E. The green line indicates the 2005 minimum, the previous record low. The yellow line indicates the median minimum from 1979 to 2000.

  17. Minimum Conflict Mainstreaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awen, Ed; And Others

    Computer technology is discussed as a tool for facilitating the implementation of the mainstreaming process. Minimum conflict mainstreaming/merging (MCM) is defined as an approach which utilizes computer technology to circumvent such structural obstacles to mainstreaming as transportation scheduling, screening and assignment of students, testing,…

  18. Minimum Critical Values Study

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, P.B.

    2005-07-11

    This report provides minimum critical values for various 30-cm water-reflected uranium and plutonium oxide and nitrate aqueous mixtures as calculated by the SCALE CSAS1X sequence using the 238-group ENDF/B-V neutron cross-section library. The minimum values were determined through parametric searches in one-dimensional geometry. The calculations have been performed to obtain the minimum values: critical volume and mass for spheres, critical radius for cylinders, critical thickness for slabs, and minimum critical concentration (infinite geometry) for the following homogeneous mixtures: (1) UO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O for 3, 4, 5, 20, and 100 wt % {sup 235}U; (2) UNH for 3, 4, 5, 20, and 100 wt % {sup 235}U; (3) PuO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O for 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 90/5/5, 80/10/10, and 71/17/11/1 wt % of {sup 239}Pu/{sup 240}Pu/{sup 241}Pu(/{sup 242}Pu); and (4) PuNH for 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 90/5/5, 80/10/10, and 71/17/11/1 wt % of {sup 239}Pu/{sup 240}Pu/{sup 241}Pu(/{sup 242}Pu). All bounding surfaces were fully reflected by 30 cm of H{sub 2}O.

  19. Rising above the Minimum Wage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Even, William; Macpherson, David

    An in-depth analysis was made of how quickly most people move up the wage scale from minimum wage, what factors influence their progress, and how minimum wage increases affect wage growth above the minimum. Very few workers remain at the minimum wage over the long run, according to this study of data drawn from the 1977-78 May Current Population…

  20. Experience in Remote Demolition of the Activated Biological Shielding of the Multi Purpose Research Reactor (MZFR) on the German Karlsruhe Site - 12208

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenmann, Beata; Fleisch, Joachim; Prechtl, Erwin; Suessdorf, Werner; Urban, Manfred

    2012-07-01

    In 2009, WAK Decommissioning and Waste Management GmbH (WAK) became owner and operator of the waste treatment facilities of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) as well as of the prototype reactors, the Compact Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (KNK) and Multi-Purpose Reactor (MZFR), both being in an advanced stage of dismantling. Together with the dismantling and decontamination activities of the former WAK reprocessing facility since 1990, the envisaged demolishing of the R and D reactor FR2 and a hot cell facility, all governmentally funded nuclear decommissioning projects on the Karlsruhe site are concentrated under the WAK management. The small space typical of prototype research reactors represented a challenge also during the last phase of activated dismantling, dismantling of the activated biological shield of the MZFR. Successful demolition of the biological shield required detailed planning and extensive testing in the years before. In view of the limited space and the ambient dose rate that was too high for manual work, it was required to find a tool carrier system to take up and control various demolition and dismantling tools in a remote manner. The strategy formulated in the concept of dismantling the biological shield by means of a modified electro-hydraulic demolition excavator in an adaptable working scaffolding turned out to be feasible. The following boundary conditions were essential: - Remote exchange of the dismantling and removal tools in smallest space. - Positioning of various supply facilities on the working platform. - Avoiding of interfering edges. - Optimization of mass flow (removal of the dismantled mass from the working area). - Maintenance in the surroundings of the dismantling area (in the controlled area). - Testing and qualification of the facilities and training of the staff. Both the dismantling technique chosen and the proceeding selected proved to be successful. Using various designs of universal cutters developed on the basis of

  1. Minimum fuel mode evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

    1995-01-01

    The minimum fuel mode of the NASA F-15 research aircraft is designed to minimize fuel flow while maintaining constant net propulsive force (FNP), effectively reducing thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC), during cruise flight conditions. The test maneuvers were at stabilized flight conditions. The aircraft test engine was allowed to stabilize at the cruise conditions before data collection initiated; data were then recorded with performance seeking control (PSC) not-engaged, then data were recorded with the PSC system engaged. The maneuvers were flown back-to-back to allow for direct comparisons by minimizing the effects of variations in the test day conditions. The minimum fuel mode was evaluated at subsonic and supersonic Mach numbers and focused on three altitudes: 15,000; 30,000; and 45,000 feet. Flight data were collected for part, military, partial, and maximum afterburning power conditions. The TSFC savings at supersonic Mach numbers, ranging from approximately 4% to nearly 10%, are in general much larger than at subsonic Mach numbers because of PSC trims to the afterburner.

  2. Design for Minimum Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Design for Minimum Risk (DFMR) is a term used by NASA programs as an expansion of the general hazard reduction process where if an identified hazard cannot be eliminated, the design is modified to reduce the associated mishap risk to an acceptable level. DFMR is a set of specific requirements to minimize risk. DFMR is not well understood and there are many misconceptions concerning the meaning and use. This paper will provide insight into the use of DFMR for space applications; it s comparison to other hazard mitigation strategies and examples of how the approach has been used in the past. It will also highlight documents used by NASA on various programs to determine DFMR.

  3. Modeling Groundwater-Quality Data from In-Situ Mesocosms Using PHREEQC to Provide Insights into the Electron Donors Involved in Denitrification in the Karlsruhe Aquifer, ND

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korom, S. F.; Tesfay, T.

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater nitrate concentrations in the Karlsruhe aquifer in north-central North Dakota increased in the mid-1990s. In response, state regulators developed a remediation plan that included research into the natural denitrifying capabilities of the aquifer, including the analysis of aquifer sediment samples and the installation of a pair of in-situ mesocosms (ISMs) below the water table to study denitrification reactions. Sediment analysis showed concentrations of the potential electron donors ferrous iron, inorganic sulfide, and organic carbon (OC). X-ray diffraction showed the dominant minerals are quartz, plagioclase feldspar, alkali feldspar, calcite, and dolomite, with lesser amounts of ferrous-iron silicates (chlorite, hornblende, biotite) and pyrite. In the ISMs tracer tests were initiated by pumping groundwater from them, amending it with sodium nitrate and sodium bromide (Br was used as a tracer for nitrate), and pumping the amended water back into the ISMs. The large size of the ISMs (> 180 L of aquifer sediments) allowed large samples (> 1 L) to be taken from the ISMs about every two months for over two years. Samples were analyzed for major ions and saturation indices [SI = log (ion activity product/equilibrium constant)] computed. Any loss of nitrate beyond that attributable to dilution, based on the Br tracer, was considered denitrified. Major sulfate minerals were undersaturated in the ISMs; therefore, any increase in sulfate was attributed to the oxidation of pyrite. PHREEQC was used to determine if the remaining nitate lost to denitrification could be explained best by a reaction with ferrous-iron silicate (as grunerite), organic carbon (as CH2O), or a 50/50 stoichiometric mix of both. After each simulation, the modeled groundwater was “equilibrated” with quartz, albite, anorthite, calcite, dolomite, chlorite, and magnesite, such that the modeled groundwater and the actual groundwater had the same SI values for these minerals. Simulated

  4. Minimum length-maximum velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panes, Boris

    2012-03-01

    We study a framework where the hypothesis of a minimum length in space-time is complemented with the notion of reference frame invariance. It turns out natural to interpret the action of the obtained reference frame transformations in the context of doubly special relativity. As a consequence of this formalism we find interesting connections between the minimum length properties and the modified velocity-energy relation for ultra-relativistic particles. For example, we can predict the ratio between the minimum lengths in space and time using the results from OPERA on superluminal neutrinos.

  5. Ozone Minimums, 1979 to 2013

    NASA Video Gallery

    Minimum concentration of ozone in the southern hemisphere for each year from 1979-2013 (there is no data from 1995). Each image is the day of the year with the lowest concentration of ozone. A grap...

  6. 2013 Arctic Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Video Gallery

    After an unusually cold summer in the northernmost latitudes, Arctic sea ice appears to have reached its annual minimum summer extent for 2013 on Sept. 13, the NASA-supported National Snow and Ice ...

  7. Arctic Sea Ice Minimum, 2015

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the evolution of the Arctic sea ice cover from its wintertime maximum extent, which was reached on Feb. 25, 2015, and was the lowest on record, to its apparent yearly minimum, ...

  8. ACSB: A minimum performance assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Lloyd Thomas; Kissick, William A.

    1988-01-01

    Amplitude companded sideband (ACSB) is a new modulation technique which uses a much smaller channel width than does conventional frequency modulation (FM). Among the requirements of a mobile communications system is adequate speech intelligibility. This paper explores this aspect of minimum required performance. First, the basic principles of ACSB are described, with emphasis on those features that affect speech quality. Second, the appropriate performance measures for ACSB are reviewed. Third, a subjective voice quality scoring method is used to determine the values of the performance measures that equate to the minimum level of intelligibility. It is assumed that the intelligibility of an FM system operating at 12 dB SINAD represents that minimum. It was determined that ACSB operating at 12 dB SINAD with an audio-to-pilot ratio of 10 dB provides approximately the same intelligibility as FM operating at 12 dB SINAD.

  9. The Maunder minimum: a revision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotova, Nadezhda; Ponyavin, Dmitri

    2015-08-01

    One of the most enigmatic features of the solar history in the past was the Maunder minimum (1645-1715). We estimated the daily nominal sunspot counts of each observer individually from 1610 to 1720. Simultaneous comparison of textual reports, tables, and sunspot drawings reveals a significant difference between them. Some observers (among whom were Jean Picard and Giovanni Domenico Cassini, both from the Royal Observatory in Paris) systematically made gaps in reports when others noticed sunspots. Philippe de La Hire announced only fewer sunspot groups compared with the other observers. We argue that different points of view of observers of the seventeenth-century on the origin of sunspots resulted in strong underestimation of sunspot groups. Our findings suggest that the Maunder minimum was an ordinary secular minimum with reduced but non-stopped solar cyclicity.

  10. 75 FR 6151 - Minimum Capital

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... comment on a proposed rule to effect a provision of the Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and..., for rescinding such an increase and a time frame for review of such an increase. DATES: Comments on... effect the higher temporary minimum capital level, the Director must issue regulations setting...

  11. Tennessee Minimum School Bus Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Board of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The School Bus Specifications and Procedures adopted by the 2000 National Conference on School Transportation and the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) were used as guides by the Tennessee State Board of Education Pupil Transportation Advisory Committee in developing the revised minimum specifications for school bus chassis and school…

  12. General Requirements and Minimum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This publication provides the General Requirements and Minimum Standards developed by the National Court Reporters Association's Council on Approved Student Education (CASE). They are the same for all court reporter education programs, whether an institution is applying for approval for the first time or for a new grant of approval. The first…

  13. Solar Effects on Climate and the Maunder Minimum: Minimum Certainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, David

    2003-01-01

    The current state of our understanding of solar effects on climate is reviewed. As an example of the relevant issues, the climate during the Maunder Minimum is compared with current conditions in GCM simulations that include a full stratosphere and parameterized ozone response to solar spectral irradiance variability and trace gas changes. The GISS Global Climate/Middle Atmosphere Model coupled to a q-flux/mixed layer model is used for the simulations, which begin in 1500 and extend to the present. Experiments were made to investigate the effect of total versus spectrally-varying solar irradiance changes; spectrally-varying solar irradiance changes on the stratospheric ozone/climate response with both pre-industrial and present trace gases; and the impact on climate and stratospheric ozone of the preindustrial trace gases and aerosols by themselves. The results showed that: (1) the Maunder Minimum cooling relative to today was primarily associated with reduced anthropogenic radiative forcing, although the solar reduction added 40% to the overall cooling. There is no obvious distinguishing surface climate pattern between the two forcings. (2)The global and tropical response was greater than 1 C, in a model with a sensitivity of 1.2 C per W m-2. To reproduce recent low-end estimates would require a sensitivity 1/4 as large. (3) The global surface temperature change was similar when using the total and spectral irradiance prescriptions, although the tropical response was somewhat greater with the former, and the stratospheric response greater with the latter. (4) Most experiments produce a relative negative phase of the NAO/AO during the Maunder Minimum, with both solar and anthropogenic forcing equally capable, associated with the tropical cooling and relative poleward EP flux refraction. (5) A full stratosphere appeared to be necessary for the negative AO/NAO phase, as was the case with this model for global warming experiments, unless the cooling was very large

  14. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for...

  15. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for...

  16. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for...

  17. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for...

  18. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for...

  19. Understanding the Minimum Wage: Issues and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment Policies Inst. Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, which is designed to clarify facts regarding the minimum wage's impact on marketplace economics, contains a total of 31 questions and answers pertaining to the following topics: relationship between minimum wages and poverty; impacts of changes in the minimum wage on welfare reform; and possible effects of changes in the minimum wage…

  20. Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Chart / Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  1. Law of the Minimum paradoxes.

    PubMed

    Gorban, Alexander N; Pokidysheva, Lyudmila I; Smirnova, Elena V; Tyukina, Tatiana A

    2011-09-01

    The "Law of the Minimum" states that growth is controlled by the scarcest resource (limiting factor). This concept was originally applied to plant or crop growth (Justus von Liebig, 1840, Salisbury, Plant physiology, 4th edn., Wadsworth, Belmont, 1992) and quantitatively supported by many experiments. Some generalizations based on more complicated "dose-response" curves were proposed. Violations of this law in natural and experimental ecosystems were also reported. We study models of adaptation in ensembles of similar organisms under load of environmental factors and prove that violation of Liebig's law follows from adaptation effects. If the fitness of an organism in a fixed environment satisfies the Law of the Minimum then adaptation equalizes the pressure of essential factors and, therefore, acts against the Liebig's law. This is the the Law of the Minimum paradox: if for a randomly chosen pair "organism-environment" the Law of the Minimum typically holds, then in a well-adapted system, we have to expect violations of this law.For the opposite interaction of factors (a synergistic system of factors which amplify each other), adaptation leads from factor equivalence to limitations by a smaller number of factors.For analysis of adaptation, we develop a system of models based on Selye's idea of the universal adaptation resource (adaptation energy). These models predict that under the load of an environmental factor a population separates into two groups (phases): a less correlated, well adapted group and a highly correlated group with a larger variance of attributes, which experiences problems with adaptation. Some empirical data are presented and evidences of interdisciplinary applications to econometrics are discussed.

  2. Minimum thickness anterior porcelain restorations.

    PubMed

    Radz, Gary M

    2011-04-01

    Porcelain laminate veneers (PLVs) provide the dentist and the patient with an opportunity to enhance the patient's smile in a minimally to virtually noninvasive manner. Today's PLV demonstrates excellent clinical performance and as materials and techniques have evolved, the PLV has become one of the most predictable, most esthetic, and least invasive modalities of treatment. This article explores the latest porcelain materials and their use in minimum thickness restoration.

  3. Development of new auxiliary basis functions of the Karlsruhe segmented contracted basis sets including diffuse basis functions (def2-SVPD, def2-TZVPPD, and def2-QVPPD) for RI-MP2 and RI-CC calculations.

    PubMed

    Hellweg, Arnim; Rappoport, Dmitrij

    2015-01-14

    We report optimized auxiliary basis sets for use with the Karlsruhe segmented contracted basis sets including moderately diffuse basis functions (Rappoport and Furche, J. Chem. Phys., 2010, 133, 134105) in resolution-of-the-identity (RI) post-self-consistent field (post-SCF) computations for the elements H-Rn (except lanthanides). The errors of the RI approximation using optimized auxiliary basis sets are analyzed on a comprehensive test set of molecules containing the most common oxidation states of each element and do not exceed those of the corresponding unaugmented basis sets. During these studies an unsatisfying performance of the def2-SVP and def2-QZVPP auxiliary basis sets for Barium was found and improved sets are provided. We establish the versatility of the def2-SVPD, def2-TZVPPD, and def2-QZVPPD basis sets for RI-MP2 and RI-CC (coupled-cluster) energy and property calculations. The influence of diffuse basis functions on correlation energy, basis set superposition error, atomic electron affinity, dipole moments, and computational timings is evaluated at different levels of theory using benchmark sets and showcase examples.

  4. Ceramic veneers with minimum preparation.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Reis, Rachelle; Santana, Lino; Romanini, Jose Carlos; Carvalho, Ricardo Marins; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the possibility of improving dental esthetics with low-thickness glass ceramics without major tooth preparation for patients with small to moderate anterior dental wear and little discoloration. For this purpose, a carefully defined treatment planning and a good communication between the clinician and the dental technician helped to maximize enamel preservation, and offered a good treatment option. Moreover, besides restoring esthetics, the restorative treatment also improved the function of the anterior guidance. It can be concluded that the conservative use of minimum thickness ceramic laminate veneers may provide satisfactory esthetic outcomes while preserving the dental structure.

  5. Minimum Bayes risk image correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minter, T. C., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of designing a matched filter for image correlation will be treated as a statistical pattern recognition problem. It is shown that, by minimizing a suitable criterion, a matched filter can be estimated which approximates the optimum Bayes discriminant function in a least-squares sense. It is well known that the use of the Bayes discriminant function in target classification minimizes the Bayes risk, which in turn directly minimizes the probability of a false fix. A fast Fourier implementation of the minimum Bayes risk correlation procedure is described.

  6. Resistance minimum and heavy fermions

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Kondo

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon of the resistance minimum in dilute magnetic alloys is explained in terms of the s-d interaction which takes account of scattering of the conduction electron off the magnetic impurities in metals. Some of the intermetallic compounds which involve rare earth elements or uranium show a very large electronic specific heat and remain non-magnetic even though they show a Curie-like susceptibility at higher temperatures. These phenomena are also explained based on the s-d interaction model. PMID:25792794

  7. Ceramic veneers with minimum preparation

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Reis, Rachelle; Santana, Lino; Romanini, Jose Carlos; Carvalho, Ricardo Marins; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the possibility of improving dental esthetics with low-thickness glass ceramics without major tooth preparation for patients with small to moderate anterior dental wear and little discoloration. For this purpose, a carefully defined treatment planning and a good communication between the clinician and the dental technician helped to maximize enamel preservation, and offered a good treatment option. Moreover, besides restoring esthetics, the restorative treatment also improved the function of the anterior guidance. It can be concluded that the conservative use of minimum thickness ceramic laminate veneers may provide satisfactory esthetic outcomes while preserving the dental structure. PMID:24932126

  8. Minimum cut and shear bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tordesillas, Antoinette; Cramer, Andrew; Walker, David M.

    2013-06-01

    We explore the efficacy of network optimisation theory for minimum cut to quantify the evolution of granular fabric and its functionality as a transmission medium in deforming dense granular media. Our focus here is on force transmission in a sheared assembly of polydisperse particles, in a biaxial compression test under constant confining pressure. The granular fabric is examined with respect to the material's force-bearing contact network over that regime when the material has reached its residual strength, and is deforming under a near constant volume in the presence of a fully developed shear band. The structural evolution of the fabric is quantitatively characterized using a representative weighted-directed network that is similarly evolving as the sample deforms. The edges or links, representing the interparticle contacts, are each weighted by the capacity of the contact to transmit force: a scalar that depends solely on the relative motion of the contacting grains. In the large strain failure regime, the minimum cut which represents the bottleneck in force transmission is found to lie in the persistent shear band. This study paves the way for the future analysis of flows and force transmission through an evolving contact network and, in turn, the characterisation of the relationship between the material's contact topology and its capacity to transmit forces through its contact network.

  9. Does the Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Marianne E.; Spetz, Joanne; Millar, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on welfare caseloads. We find that the elasticity of the welfare caseload with respect to the…

  10. Do Some Workers Have Minimum Wage Careers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrington, William J.; Fallick, Bruce C.

    2001-01-01

    Most workers who begin their careers in minimum-wage jobs eventually gain more experience and move on to higher paying jobs. However, more than 8% of workers spend at least half of their first 10 working years in minimum wage jobs. Those more likely to have minimum wage careers are less educated, minorities, women with young children, and those…

  11. 78 FR 63873 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Part 543 RIN 3141-AA27 Minimum Internal Control Standards AGENCY... Commission (NIGC) amends its minimum internal control standards for Class II gaming under the Indian Gaming... NIGC published a final rule in the Federal Register called Minimum Internal Control Standards. 64...

  12. Minimum Competency Testing and the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    This brief overview of minimum competency testing and disabled high school students discusses: the inclusion or exclusion of handicapped students in minimum competency testing programs; approaches to accommodating the individual needs of handicapped students; and legal issues. Surveys of states that have mandated minimum competency tests indicate…

  13. 30 CFR 202.53 - Minimum royalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 202.53 Section 202.53 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ROYALTIES Oil, Gas, and OCS Sulfur, General § 202.53 Minimum royalty. For leases that provide for minimum...

  14. 43 CFR 3923.10 - Minimum bid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minimum bid. 3923.10 Section 3923.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE LEASING Minimum Bid § 3923.10 Minimum...

  15. 43 CFR 3923.10 - Minimum bid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minimum bid. 3923.10 Section 3923.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE LEASING Minimum Bid § 3923.10 Minimum...

  16. 43 CFR 3923.10 - Minimum bid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum bid. 3923.10 Section 3923.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) OIL SHALE LEASING Minimum Bid § 3923.10 Minimum bid....

  17. 43 CFR 3923.10 - Minimum bid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minimum bid. 3923.10 Section 3923.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE LEASING Minimum Bid § 3923.10 Minimum...

  18. 7 CFR 4280.136 - Minimum retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum retention. 4280.136 Section 4280.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.136 Minimum retention. Minimum...

  19. Minimum distance classification in remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wacker, A. G.; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The utilization of minimum distance classification methods in remote sensing problems, such as crop species identification, is considered. Literature concerning both minimum distance classification problems and distance measures is reviewed. Experimental results are presented for several examples. The objective of these examples is to: (a) compare the sample classification accuracy of a minimum distance classifier, with the vector classification accuracy of a maximum likelihood classifier, and (b) compare the accuracy of a parametric minimum distance classifier with that of a nonparametric one. Results show the minimum distance classifier performance is 5% to 10% better than that of the maximum likelihood classifier. The nonparametric classifier is only slightly better than the parametric version.

  20. 50 CFR 648.143 - Minimum sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum sizes. 648.143 Section 648.143... Fishery § 648.143 Minimum sizes. (a) The minimum size for black sea bass is 11 inches (27.94 cm) total length for all vessels issued a moratorium permit under § 648.4 (a)(7) that fish for, possess, land...

  1. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order..., may establish, for any or all portions of the production area, minimum quantities below which...

  2. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order..., may establish, for any or all portions of the production area, minimum quantities below which...

  3. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order..., may establish, for any or all portions of the production area, minimum quantities below which...

  4. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order..., may establish, for any or all portions of the production area, minimum quantities below which...

  5. 30 CFR 1202.352 - Minimum royalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 1202.352 Section 1202.352 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue ROYALTIES Geothermal Resources § 1202.352 Minimum royalty. In no event shall the...

  6. 14 CFR 205.5 - Minimum coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or death of persons, including nonemployee cargo attendants, other than passengers, and for damage to... accident liability insurance coverage for bodily injury to or death of aircraft passengers, with minimum... death of aircraft passengers, with a minimum coverage of $75,000 for any one passenger and a total...

  7. 14 CFR 205.5 - Minimum coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or death of persons, including nonemployee cargo attendants, other than passengers, and for damage to... accident liability insurance coverage for bodily injury to or death of aircraft passengers, with minimum... death of aircraft passengers, with a minimum coverage of $75,000 for any one passenger and a total...

  8. 14 CFR 205.5 - Minimum coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or death of persons, including nonemployee cargo attendants, other than passengers, and for damage to... accident liability insurance coverage for bodily injury to or death of aircraft passengers, with minimum... death of aircraft passengers, with a minimum coverage of $75,000 for any one passenger and a total...

  9. 14 CFR 205.5 - Minimum coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or death of persons, including nonemployee cargo attendants, other than passengers, and for damage to... accident liability insurance coverage for bodily injury to or death of aircraft passengers, with minimum... death of aircraft passengers, with a minimum coverage of $75,000 for any one passenger and a total...

  10. 14 CFR 205.5 - Minimum coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or death of persons, including nonemployee cargo attendants, other than passengers, and for damage to... accident liability insurance coverage for bodily injury to or death of aircraft passengers, with minimum... death of aircraft passengers, with a minimum coverage of $75,000 for any one passenger and a total...

  11. Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…

  12. 78 FR 11793 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Part 543 RIN 3141-AA27 Minimum Internal Control Standards AGENCY... (NIGC) proposes to amend its minimum internal control standards for Class II gaming under the Indian... Internal Control Standards. 64 FR 590. The rule added a new part to the Commission's...

  13. 30 CFR 202.352 - Minimum royalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 202.352 Section 202.352 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ROYALTIES Geothermal Resources § 202.352 Minimum royalty. In no event shall the lessee's annual...

  14. 30 CFR 1202.352 - Minimum royalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 1202.352 Section 1202.352 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ROYALTIES Geothermal Resources § 1202.352 Minimum royalty. In no event shall the lessee's...

  15. 30 CFR 1202.352 - Minimum royalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 1202.352 Section 1202.352 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ROYALTIES Geothermal Resources § 1202.352 Minimum royalty. In no event shall the lessee's...

  16. 30 CFR 1202.352 - Minimum royalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 1202.352 Section 1202.352 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ROYALTIES Geothermal Resources § 1202.352 Minimum royalty. In no event shall the lessee's...

  17. 24 CFR 280.35 - Minimum participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum participation. 280.35 Section 280.35 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Minimum participation. Except as provided in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, the recipient may...

  18. 24 CFR 280.35 - Minimum participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minimum participation. 280.35 Section 280.35 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Minimum participation. Except as provided in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, the recipient may...

  19. 24 CFR 280.35 - Minimum participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Minimum participation. 280.35 Section 280.35 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Minimum participation. Except as provided in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, the recipient may...

  20. 24 CFR 280.35 - Minimum participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Minimum participation. 280.35 Section 280.35 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Minimum participation. Except as provided in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, the recipient may...

  1. Optimal shock isolation with minimum settling time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilkey, W. D.; Lim, T. W.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown how unique isolator forces and corresponding forces can be chosen by superimposing a minimum settling time onto the limiting performance of the shock isolation system. Basically, this means that the system which has reached the peak value of the performance index is settled to rest in minimum time.

  2. New Minimum Wage Research: A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes "Introduction" (Ehrenberg); "Effect of the Minimum Wage [MW] on the Fast-Food Industry" (Katz, Krueger); "Using Regional Variation in Wages to Measure Effects of the Federal MW" (Card); "Do MWs Reduce Employment?" (Card); "Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages" (Neumark,…

  3. 30 CFR 281.30 - Minimum royalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 281.30 Section 281.30 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Financial Considerations § 281.30 Minimum...

  4. 30 CFR 1202.53 - Minimum royalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 1202.53 Section 1202.53 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue ROYALTIES Oil, Gas, and OCS Sulfur, General § 1202.53 Minimum royalty. For leases...

  5. 30 CFR 1202.53 - Minimum royalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 1202.53 Section 1202.53 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ROYALTIES Oil, Gas, and OCS Sulfur, General § 1202.53 Minimum royalty. For leases that provide...

  6. 30 CFR 1202.53 - Minimum royalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 1202.53 Section 1202.53 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ROYALTIES Oil, Gas, and OCS Sulfur, General § 1202.53 Minimum royalty. For leases that provide...

  7. 30 CFR 1202.53 - Minimum royalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 1202.53 Section 1202.53 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ROYALTIES Oil, Gas, and OCS Sulfur, General § 1202.53 Minimum royalty. For leases that provide...

  8. Testable scenario for relativity with minimum length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelino-Camelia, G.

    2001-06-01

    I propose a general class of spacetimes whose structure is governed by observer-independent scales of both velocity (/c) and length (Planck length), and I observe that these spacetimes can naturally host a modification of FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction such that lengths which in their inertial rest frame are bigger than a ``minimum length'' are also bigger than the minimum length in all other inertial frames. With an analysis in leading order in the minimum length, I show that this is the case in a specific illustrative example of postulates for relativity with velocity and length observer-independent scales.

  9. An Investigation of Minimum Buy Policies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    Remaining are 2393 items for which we make a minimum buy . We also converted the quarterly data into a series of requisitions more appropriate for our...AO80 399 ARMY INVENTORY RESEARCH OFFICE PHILADELPHIA PA F/B 5/3 AN INVESTIGATION OF MINIMUM BUY POLICIES.(U) AUG 79 S FRAZZA. A J KAPLAN...UNCLASSIFIED IRO-269 NL EEEEEEEEE///EEEflfllflfflfllflf EN AD- FINAL REPORT F0 REPORt NO269 AN INVESTIGATION OF o MINIMUM BUY POLICIES l.5S ARMY U.S. CUSTOM

  10. On the Minimum Induced Drag of Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the minimum induced drag of wings. The topics include: 1) The History of Spanload Development of the optimum spanload Winglets and their implications; 2) Horten Sailplanes; and 3) Flight Mechanics & Adverse yaw.

  11. Enforcement Related to Minimum Risk Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    If a product does not meet all the requirements of the minimum risk exemption, it must be registered unless eligible for some other exemption. Learn about enforcement actions EPA can take where unregistered products make pesticidal claims.

  12. Quantitative Research on the Minimum Wage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfarb, Robert S.

    1975-01-01

    The article reviews recent research examining the impact of minimum wage requirements on the size and distribution of teenage employment and earnings. The studies measure income distribution, employment levels and effect on unemployment. (MW)

  13. Impact of the Minimum Wage on Compression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Michael N.; Candland, Charles W.

    1979-01-01

    Assesses the impact of increases in the minimum wage on salary schedules, provides guidelines for creating a philosophy to deal with the impact, and outlines options and presents recommendations. (IRT)

  14. 7 CFR 35.11 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Europe (defined to mean the following countries: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia..., Europe, Greenland, Canada, or Mexico, shall meet each applicable minimum requirement of the U.S. No....

  15. How unprecedented a solar minimum was it?

    PubMed

    Russell, C T; Jian, L K; Luhmann, J G

    2013-05-01

    The end of the last solar cycle was at least 3 years late, and to date, the new solar cycle has seen mainly weaker activity since the onset of the rising phase toward the new solar maximum. The newspapers now even report when auroras are seen in Norway. This paper is an update of our review paper written during the deepest part of the last solar minimum [1]. We update the records of solar activity and its consequent effects on the interplanetary fields and solar wind density. The arrival of solar minimum allows us to use two techniques that predict sunspot maximum from readings obtained at solar minimum. It is clear that the Sun is still behaving strangely compared to the last few solar minima even though we are well beyond the minimum phase of the cycle 23-24 transition.

  16. How unprecedented a solar minimum was it?

    PubMed Central

    Russell, C.T.; Jian, L.K.; Luhmann, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    The end of the last solar cycle was at least 3 years late, and to date, the new solar cycle has seen mainly weaker activity since the onset of the rising phase toward the new solar maximum. The newspapers now even report when auroras are seen in Norway. This paper is an update of our review paper written during the deepest part of the last solar minimum [1]. We update the records of solar activity and its consequent effects on the interplanetary fields and solar wind density. The arrival of solar minimum allows us to use two techniques that predict sunspot maximum from readings obtained at solar minimum. It is clear that the Sun is still behaving strangely compared to the last few solar minima even though we are well beyond the minimum phase of the cycle 23–24 transition. PMID:25685425

  17. Minimum Release of Tributyltin to Prevent Macrofouling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    identify by block number) The minimum release of tni-and dibutyltin has been determined for both barnacles and hydrozoans. The test method involved...prevented hydrozoans from attaching. No minimum release rate could be calculated for the dibutyltin because the flux rates were not high enoughi to achieve a...DATA FOR SETTLEMENT WITH TRI- AND DIBUTYLTIN ........................................... 13 FIGURES 1. Percent settlement of barnacles relative to

  18. Minimum Disclosure Counting for the Alternative Vote

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Roland; Buckland, Richard

    Although there is a substantial body of work on preventing bribery and coercion of voters in cryptographic election schemes for plurality electoral systems, there are few attempts to construct such schemes for preferential electoral systems. The problem is preferential systems are prone to bribery and coercion via subtle signature attacks during the counting. We introduce a minimum disclosure counting scheme for the alternative vote preferential system. Minimum disclosure provides protection from signature attacks by revealing only the winning candidate.

  19. Image data compression having minimum perceptual error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method for performing image compression that eliminates redundant and invisible image components is described. The image compression uses a Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and each DCT coefficient yielded by the transform is quantized by an entry in a quantization matrix which determines the perceived image quality and the bit rate of the image being compressed. The present invention adapts or customizes the quantization matrix to the image being compressed. The quantization matrix comprises visual masking by luminance and contrast techniques and by an error pooling technique all resulting in a minimum perceptual error for any given bit rate, or minimum bit rate for a given perceptual error.

  20. Deep solar minimum and global climate changes.

    PubMed

    Hady, Ahmed A

    2013-05-01

    This paper examines the deep minimum of solar cycle 23 and its potential impact on climate change. In addition, a source region of the solar winds at solar activity minimum, especially in the solar cycle 23, the deepest during the last 500 years, has been studied. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary solar activity are so weak and hence expected to cause global cooling. Prevalent global warming, caused by building-up of green-house gases in the troposphere, seems to exceed this solar effect. This paper discusses this issue.

  1. Minimum loss reconfiguration of unbalanced distribution networks

    SciTech Connect

    Borozan, V.; Rajicic, D.; Ackovski, R.

    1997-01-01

    A heuristic method for determining the configuration with minimum resistive line losses for three-phase unbalanced distribution networks is described. This method is based on previous papers dealing with balanced network. Using a fast and reliable load flow solution technique and also, efficient algorithms for network elements inspection, so that methodology becomes capable to solve the challenging problem while still maintaining a high execution speed. A developed algorithm is applied on a practical distribution network. Performed analysis highlight the influence of load imbalances on a solution of minimum loss reconfiguration problem.

  2. Image Data Compression Having Minimum Perceptual Error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A method is presented for performing color or grayscale image compression that eliminates redundant and invisible image components. The image compression uses a Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and each DCT coefficient yielded by the transform is quantized by an entry in a quantization matrix which determines the perceived image quality and the bit rate of the image being compressed. The quantization matrix comprises visual masking by luminance and contrast technique all resulting in a minimum perceptual error for any given bit rate, or minimum bit rate for a given perceptual error.

  3. The minimum distance approach to classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wacker, A. G.; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1971-01-01

    The work to advance the state-of-the-art of miminum distance classification is reportd. This is accomplished through a combination of theoretical and comprehensive experimental investigations based on multispectral scanner data. A survey of the literature for suitable distance measures was conducted and the results of this survey are presented. It is shown that minimum distance classification, using density estimators and Kullback-Leibler numbers as the distance measure, is equivalent to a form of maximum likelihood sample classification. It is also shown that for the parametric case, minimum distance classification is equivalent to nearest neighbor classification in the parameter space.

  4. Optimization for minimum sensitivity to uncertain parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchard, Jocelyn I.; Adelman, Howard M.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1994-01-01

    A procedure to design a structure for minimum sensitivity to uncertainties in problem parameters is described. The approach is to minimize directly the sensitivity derivatives of the optimum design with respect to fixed design parameters using a nested optimization procedure. The procedure is demonstrated for the design of a bimetallic beam for minimum weight with insensitivity to uncertainties in structural properties. The beam is modeled with finite elements based on two dimensional beam analysis. A sequential quadratic programming procedure used as the optimizer supplies the Lagrange multipliers that are used to calculate the optimum sensitivity derivatives. The method was perceived to be successful from comparisons of the optimization results with parametric studies.

  5. Minimum induced drag configurations with jet interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pao, J. L.; Lan, C. E.

    1978-01-01

    A theoretical method is presented for determining the optimum camber shape and twist distribution for the minimum induced drag in the wing-alone case without prescribing the span loading shape. The same method was applied to find the corresponding minimum induced drag configuration with the upper-surface-blowing jet. Lan's quasi-vortex-lattice method and his wing-jet interaction theory was used. Comparison of the predicted results with another theoretical method shows good agreement for configurations without the flowing jet. More applicable experimental data with blowing jets are needed to establish the accuracy of the theory.

  6. 24 CFR 280.35 - Minimum participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Minimum participation. 280.35 Section 280.35 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GRANT PROGRAMS NEHEMIAH HOUSING OPPORTUNITY GRANTS PROGRAM Program Operation §...

  7. 7 CFR 33.10 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Regulations § 33.10 Minimum requirements. No person shall... shipment of apples to any foreign destination unless: (a) Apples grade at least U.S. No. 1 or U.S. No. 1 Early: Provided, That apples for export to Pacific ports of Russia shall grade at least U.S. Utility...

  8. 7 CFR 33.10 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Regulations § 33.10 Minimum requirements. No person shall... shipment of apples to any foreign destination unless: (a) Apples grade at least U.S. No. 1 or U.S. No. 1 Early: Provided, That apples for export to Pacific ports of Russia shall grade at least U.S. Utility...

  9. 7 CFR 33.10 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Regulations § 33.10 Minimum requirements. No person shall... shipment of apples to any foreign destination unless: (a) Apples grade at least U.S. No. 1 or U.S. No. 1 Early: Provided, That apples for export to Pacific ports of Russia shall grade at least U.S. Utility...

  10. 7 CFR 33.10 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Regulations § 33.10 Minimum requirements. No person shall... shipment of apples to any foreign destination unless: (a) Apples grade at least U.S. No. 1 or U.S. No. 1 Early: Provided, That apples for export to Pacific ports of Russia shall grade at least U.S. Utility...

  11. 7 CFR 33.10 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Regulations § 33.10 Minimum requirements. No person shall... shipment of apples to any foreign destination unless: (a) Apples grade at least U.S. No. 1 or U.S. No. 1 Early: Provided, That apples for export to Pacific ports of Russia shall grade at least U.S. Utility...

  12. Unification of algorithms for minimum mode optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yi; Xiao, Penghao; Henkelman, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Minimum mode following algorithms are widely used for saddle point searching in chemical and material systems. Common to these algorithms is a component to find the minimum curvature mode of the second derivative, or Hessian matrix. Several methods, including Lanczos, dimer, Rayleigh-Ritz minimization, shifted power iteration, and locally optimal block preconditioned conjugate gradient, have been proposed for this purpose. Each of these methods finds the lowest curvature mode iteratively without calculating the Hessian matrix, since the full matrix calculation is prohibitively expensive in the high dimensional spaces of interest. Here we unify these iterative methods in the same theoretical framework using the concept of the Krylov subspace. The Lanczos method finds the lowest eigenvalue in a Krylov subspace of increasing size, while the other methods search in a smaller subspace spanned by the set of previous search directions. We show that these smaller subspaces are contained within the Krylov space for which the Lanczos method explicitly finds the lowest curvature mode, and hence the theoretical efficiency of the minimum mode finding methods are bounded by the Lanczos method. Numerical tests demonstrate that the dimer method combined with second-order optimizers approaches but does not exceed the efficiency of the Lanczos method for minimum mode optimization.

  13. Unification of algorithms for minimum mode optimization.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi; Xiao, Penghao; Henkelman, Graeme

    2014-01-28

    Minimum mode following algorithms are widely used for saddle point searching in chemical and material systems. Common to these algorithms is a component to find the minimum curvature mode of the second derivative, or Hessian matrix. Several methods, including Lanczos, dimer, Rayleigh-Ritz minimization, shifted power iteration, and locally optimal block preconditioned conjugate gradient, have been proposed for this purpose. Each of these methods finds the lowest curvature mode iteratively without calculating the Hessian matrix, since the full matrix calculation is prohibitively expensive in the high dimensional spaces of interest. Here we unify these iterative methods in the same theoretical framework using the concept of the Krylov subspace. The Lanczos method finds the lowest eigenvalue in a Krylov subspace of increasing size, while the other methods search in a smaller subspace spanned by the set of previous search directions. We show that these smaller subspaces are contained within the Krylov space for which the Lanczos method explicitly finds the lowest curvature mode, and hence the theoretical efficiency of the minimum mode finding methods are bounded by the Lanczos method. Numerical tests demonstrate that the dimer method combined with second-order optimizers approaches but does not exceed the efficiency of the Lanczos method for minimum mode optimization.

  14. 7 CFR 905.141 - Minimum exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.141 Minimum exemption. Any shipment of fruit which meets each of the following requirements may be transported from the...

  15. 7 CFR 905.141 - Minimum exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.141 Minimum exemption. Any shipment of fruit which meets each of the following requirements may be transported from the...

  16. 44 CFR 62.6 - Minimum commissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADJUSTMENT OF CLAIMS Issuance of Policies § 62.6 Minimum commissions. (a) The earned commission which shall be paid to any property or casualty insurance agent or broker duly licensed by a state insurance regulatory authority, with respect to each policy or renewal the agent duly procures on behalf of the...

  17. 7 CFR 905.141 - Minimum exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.141 Minimum exemption. Any shipment of fruit which meets each of the following requirements may be transported from the...

  18. Minimum Wage Effects throughout the Wage Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David; Schweitzer, Mark; Wascher, William

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides evidence on a wide set of margins along which labor markets can adjust in response to increases in the minimum wage, including wages, hours, employment, and ultimately labor income. Not surprisingly, the evidence indicates that low-wage workers are most strongly affected, while higher-wage workers are little affected. Workers…

  19. 77 FR 58707 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ...The National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC) amends its minimum internal control standards for Class II gaming under the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act to provide comprehensive and updated standards for all aspects of Class II gaming. These amendments replace the partial standards published in 2008 with a set of comprehensive standards for the entire Class II gaming environment. The new sections......

  20. Personal Insect Repellents and Minimum Risk Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An exempt pesticide product may not bear claims to control rodent, insect or microbial pests in a way that links the pests with specific disease. We are considering a proposal to remove personal mosquito and tick repellents from the minimum risk exemption.

  1. Minimum Risk Pesticide: Definition and Product Confirmation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Minimum risk pesticides pose little to no risk to human health or the environment and therefore are not subject to regulation under FIFRA. EPA does not do any pre-market review for such products or labels, but violative products are subject to enforcement.

  2. Missouri Minimum Standards for School Buses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicastro, Chris L.

    2008-01-01

    The revised minimum standards for school bus chassis and school bus bodies have been prepared in conformity with the Revised Statutes of Missouri (RSMo) for school bus transportation. The standards recommended by the 2005 National Conference on School Transportation and the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) promulgated by the U. S.…

  3. 2013 Missouri Minimum Standards for School Buses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicastro, Chris L.

    2012-01-01

    The revised minimum standards for school bus chassis and school bus bodies have been prepared in conformity with the Revised Statutes of Missouri (RSMo) for school bus transportation. The standards recommended by the 2010 National Conference on School Transportation and the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) promulgated by the U. S.…

  4. Minimum intervention dentistry: periodontics and implant dentistry.

    PubMed

    Darby, I B; Ngo, L

    2013-06-01

    This article will look at the role of minimum intervention dentistry in the management of periodontal disease. It will discuss the role of appropriate assessment, treatment and risk factors/indicators. In addition, the role of the patient and early intervention in the continuing care of dental implants will be discussed as well as the management of peri-implant disease.

  5. Minimum Licensing Requirements for Day Care Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Human Services, Little Rock. Div. of Social Services.

    The standards outlined in this document compose the minimum licensing requirements for persons or organizations operating a child care facility in Arkansas. Sections of the guide concern the licensing authority and definition of units covered by the authority, center organization and administration, staff, program, discipline, records, nutrition,…

  6. 24 CFR 35.155 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minimum requirements. 35.155 Section 35.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based...

  7. 24 CFR 35.155 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum requirements. 35.155 Section 35.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based...

  8. 24 CFR 35.155 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Minimum requirements. 35.155 Section 35.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based...

  9. 24 CFR 35.155 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Minimum requirements. 35.155 Section 35.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based...

  10. 24 CFR 35.155 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Minimum requirements. 35.155 Section 35.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based...

  11. Completeness properties of the minimum uncertainty states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trifonov, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The completeness properties of the Schrodinger minimum uncertainty states (SMUS) and of some of their subsets are considered. The invariant measures and the resolution unity measures for the set of SMUS are constructed and the representation of squeezing and correlating operators and SMUS as superpositions of Glauber coherent states on the real line is elucidated.

  12. What Vocational Students Think about Minimum Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schab, Fred

    1978-01-01

    Results of a survey of Georgia high school students in the vocational curriculum on what they thought about minimum graduation requirements are summarized. Among the opinions were that the student who completes the twelfth grade should be able to read, write, and calculate at or close to that level. Seventy-five percent thought that paid…

  13. Menu Plans: Maximum Nutrition for Minimum Cost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that menu planning is the key to getting maximum nutrition in day care meals and snacks for minimum cost. Explores United States Department of Agriculture food pyramid guidelines for children and tips for planning menus and grocery shopping. Includes suggested meal patterns and portion sizes. (HTH)

  14. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum quantities. 966.53 Section 966.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  15. 24 CFR 3280.703 - Minimum standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Baseboard Heating Equipment, Fourth Edition, with 1998 revisions—UL 1042-1994. Electric Central Air Heating... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Heating, Cooling and Fuel Burning Systems § 3280.703 Minimum standards. Heating, cooling and fuel burning appliances and systems in...

  16. 49 CFR 639.27 - Minimum criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CAPITAL LEASES Cost-Effectiveness § 639.27 Minimum criteria. In making the... used where possible and appropriate: (a) Operation costs; (b) Reliability of service; (c) Maintenance costs; (d) Difference in warranties; (e) Passenger comfort; (f) Insurance costs; (g)...

  17. The periodicity of Grand Solar Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Herrera, Victor Manuel

    2016-07-01

    The sunspot number is the most used index to quantify the solar activity. Nevertheless, the sunspot is a syn- thetic index and not a physical index. Therefore, we should be careful to use the sunspot number to quantify the low (high) solar activity. One of the major problems of using sunspot to quantify solar activity is that its minimum value is zero. This zero value hinders the reconstruction of the solar cycle during the Maunder minimum. All solar indexes can be used as analog signals, which can be easily converted into digital signals. In con- trast, the conversion of a digital signal into an analog signal is not in general a simple task. The sunspot number during the Maunder minimum can be studied as a digital signal of the solar activity In 1894, Maunder published a discovery that has maintained the Solar Physics in an impasse. In his fa- mous work on "A Prolonged Sunspot Minimum" Maunder wrote: "The sequence of maximum and minimum has, in fact, been unfailing during the present century [..] and yet there [..], the ordinary solar cycle was once interrupted, and one long period of almost unbroken quiescence prevailed". The search of new historical Grand solar minima has been one of the most important questions in Solar Physics. However, the possibility of estimating a new Grand solar minimum is even more valuable. Since solar activity is the result of electromagnetic processes; we propose to employ the power to quantify solar activity: this is a fundamental physics concept in electrodynamics. Total Solar Irradiance is the primary energy source of the Earth's climate system and therefore its variations can contribute to natural climate change. In this work, we propose to consider the fluctuations in the power of the Total Solar Irradiance as a physical measure of the energy released by the solar dynamo, which contributes to understanding the nature of "profound solar magnetic field in calm". Using a new reconstruction of the Total Solar Irradiance we found the

  18. The Maunder minimum (1645-1715) was indeed a grand minimum: A reassessment of multiple datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usoskin, Ilya G.; Arlt, Rainer; Asvestari, Eleanna; Hawkins, Ed; Käpylä, Maarit; Kovaltsov, Gennady A.; Krivova, Natalie; Lockwood, Michael; Mursula, Kalevi; O'Reilly, Jezebel; Owens, Matthew; Scott, Chris J.; Sokoloff, Dmitry D.; Solanki, Sami K.; Soon, Willie; Vaquero, José M.

    2015-09-01

    Aims: Although the time of the Maunder minimum (1645-1715) is widely known as a period of extremely low solar activity, it is still being debated whether solar activity during that period might have been moderate or even higher than the current solar cycle #24. We have revisited all existing evidence and datasets, both direct and indirect, to assess the level of solar activity during the Maunder minimum. Methods: We discuss the East Asian naked-eye sunspot observations, the telescopic solar observations, the fraction of sunspot active days, the latitudinal extent of sunspot positions, auroral sightings at high latitudes, cosmogenic radionuclide data as well as solar eclipse observations for that period. We also consider peculiar features of the Sun (very strong hemispheric asymmetry of the sunspot location, unusual differential rotation and the lack of the K-corona) that imply a special mode of solar activity during the Maunder minimum. Results: The level of solar activity during the Maunder minimum is reassessed on the basis of all available datasets. Conclusions: We conclude that solar activity was indeed at an exceptionally low level during the Maunder minimum. Although the exact level is still unclear, it was definitely lower than during the Dalton minimum of around 1800 and significantly below that of the current solar cycle #24. Claims of a moderate-to-high level of solar activity during the Maunder minimum are rejected with a high confidence level.

  19. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature.

    PubMed

    Savage, M J

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient (b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  20. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  1. Anticipating Cycle 24 Minimum and Its Consequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the 12-mo moving average of monthly mean sunspot number (R) through November 2006, cycle 23 has persisted for 126 mo, having had a minimum of 8.0 in May 1996, a peak of 120.8 in April 2000, and an ascent duration of 47 mo. In November 2006, the 12-mo moving average of monthly mean sunspot number was 12.7, a value just outside the upper observed envelope of sunspot minimum values for the most recent cycles 16-23 (range 3.4-12.3), but within the 90-percent prediction interval (7.8 +/- 6.7). The first spotless day during the decline of cycle 23 occurred in January 2004, and the first occurrence of 10 or more and 20 or more spotless days was February 2006 and April 2007, respectively, inferring that sunspot minimum for cycle 24 is imminent. Through May 2007, 121 spotless days have accumulated. In terms of the weighted mean latitude (weighed by spot area) (LAT) and the highest observed latitude spot (HLS) in November 2006, 12-mo moving averages of these parameters measured 7.9 and 14.6 deg, respectively, these values being the lowest values yet observed during the decline of cycle 23 and being below corresponding mean values found for cycles 16-23. As yet, no high-latitude new-cycle spots have been seen nor has there been an upturn in LAT and HLS, these conditions having always preceded new cycle minimum by several months for past cycles. Together, these findings suggest that cycle 24 s minimum amplitude still lies well beyond November 2006. This implies that cycle 23 s period either will lie in the period "gap" (127-134 mo), a first for a sunspot cycle, or it will be longer than 134 mo, thus making cycle 23 a long-period cycle (like cycle 20) and indicating that cycle 24 s minimum will occur after July 2007. Should cycle 23 prove to be a cycle of longer period, a consequence might be that the maximum amplitude for cycle 24 may be smaller than previously predicted.

  2. 5 CFR 551.601 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum age standards. 551.601 Section... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Child Labor § 551.601 Minimum age standards. (a) 16-year minimum age. The Act, in section 3(l), sets a general 16-year minimum age, which applies to all...

  3. 5 CFR 551.601 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum age standards. 551.601 Section... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Child Labor § 551.601 Minimum age standards. (a) 16-year minimum age. The Act, in section 3(l), sets a general 16-year minimum age, which applies to all...

  4. 5 CFR 551.601 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum age standards. 551.601 Section... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Child Labor § 551.601 Minimum age standards. (a) 16-year minimum age. The Act, in section 3(l), sets a general 16-year minimum age, which applies to all...

  5. 5 CFR 551.601 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum age standards. 551.601 Section... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Child Labor § 551.601 Minimum age standards. (a) 16-year minimum age. The Act, in section 3(l), sets a general 16-year minimum age, which applies to all...

  6. Minimum Wage Laws and the Distribution of Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Kevin

    The desirability of raising the minimum wage long revolved around just one question: the effect of higher minimum wages on the overall level of employment. An even more critical effect of the minimum wage rests on the composition of employment--who gets the minimum wage job. An examination of employment in eating and drinking establishments…

  7. 50 CFR 648.72 - Minimum surf clam size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum surf clam size. 648.72 Section 648... Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.72 Minimum surf clam size. (a) Minimum length. The minimum length for surf clams is 4.75 inches (12.065 cm). (b) Determination of compliance. No more than...

  8. 50 CFR 648.72 - Minimum surf clam size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum surf clam size. 648.72 Section... Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.72 Minimum surf clam size. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 60622, Sept. 29, 2011. (a) Minimum length. The minimum length for surf clams is...

  9. 12 CFR 325.3 - Minimum leverage capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum leverage capital requirement. 325.3... GENERAL POLICY CAPITAL MAINTENANCE Minimum Capital Requirements § 325.3 Minimum leverage capital requirement. (a) General. Banks must maintain at least the minimum leverage capital requirement set forth...

  10. 50 CFR 648.83 - Multispecies minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Multispecies minimum fish sizes. 648.83... Measures for the NE Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries § 648.83 Multispecies minimum fish sizes. (a) Minimum fish sizes. (1) Minimum fish sizes for recreational vessels and charter/party vessels that are...

  11. 50 CFR 648.83 - Multispecies minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multispecies minimum fish sizes. 648.83... Measures for the NE Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries § 648.83 Multispecies minimum fish sizes. (a) Minimum fish sizes. (1) Minimum fish sizes for recreational vessels and charter/party vessels that are...

  12. 12 CFR 3.6 - Minimum capital ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum capital ratios. 3.6 Section 3.6 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Minimum Capital Ratios § 3.6 Minimum capital ratios. (a) Risk-based capital ratio....

  13. On the Minimum Induced Drag of Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    2015-01-01

    Birds do not require the use of vertical tails. They do not appear to have any mechanism by which to control their yaw. As an example the albatross is notable in this regard. The authors believe this is possible because of a unique adaptation by which there exists a triple-optimal solution that provides the maximum aerodynamic efficiency, the minimum structural weight, and it provides for coordination of control in roll and yaw. Until now, this solution has eluded researchers, and remained unknown. Here it is shown that the correct specification of spanload provides for all three solutions at once, maximum aerodynamic efficiency, minimum structural weight, and coordinated control. The implications of this result has far reaching effects on the design of aircraft, as well as dramatic efficiency improvement.

  14. Low Streamflow Forcasting using Minimum Relative Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, H.; Singh, V. P.

    2013-12-01

    Minimum relative entropy spectral analysis is derived in this study, and applied to forecast streamflow time series. Proposed method extends the autocorrelation in the manner that the relative entropy of underlying process is minimized so that time series data can be forecasted. Different prior estimation, such as uniform, exponential and Gaussian assumption, is taken to estimate the spectral density depending on the autocorrelation structure. Seasonal and nonseasonal low streamflow series obtained from Colorado River (Texas) under draught condition is successfully forecasted using proposed method. Minimum relative entropy determines spectral of low streamflow series with higher resolution than conventional method. Forecasted streamflow is compared to the prediction using Burg's maximum entropy spectral analysis (MESA) and Configurational entropy. The advantage and disadvantage of each method in forecasting low streamflow is discussed.

  15. Hierarchical clustering in minimum spanning trees.

    PubMed

    Yu, Meichen; Hillebrand, Arjan; Tewarie, Prejaas; Meier, Jil; van Dijk, Bob; Van Mieghem, Piet; Stam, Cornelis Jan

    2015-02-01

    The identification of clusters or communities in complex networks is a reappearing problem. The minimum spanning tree (MST), the tree connecting all nodes with minimum total weight, is regarded as an important transport backbone of the original weighted graph. We hypothesize that the clustering of the MST reveals insight in the hierarchical structure of weighted graphs. However, existing theories and algorithms have difficulties to define and identify clusters in trees. Here, we first define clustering in trees and then propose a tree agglomerative hierarchical clustering (TAHC) method for the detection of clusters in MSTs. We then demonstrate that the TAHC method can detect clusters in artificial trees, and also in MSTs of weighted social networks, for which the clusters are in agreement with the previously reported clusters of the original weighted networks. Our results therefore not only indicate that clusters can be found in MSTs, but also that the MSTs contain information about the underlying clusters of the original weighted network.

  16. Bistable dielectric elastomer minimum energy structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianwen; Wang, Shu; McCoul, David; Xing, Zhiguang; Huang, Bo; Liu, Liwu; Leng, Jinsong

    2016-07-01

    Dielectric elastomer minimum energy structures (DEMES) can realize large angular deformations by small voltage-induced strains, which make them an attractive candidate for use as soft actuators. If the task only needs binary action, the bistable structure will be an efficient solution and can save energy because it requires only a very short duration of voltage to switch its state. To obtain bistable DEMES, a method to realize the two stable states of traditional DEMES is provided in this paper. Based on this, a type of symmetrical bistable DEMES is proposed, and the required actuation pulse duration is shorter than 0.1 s. When a suitable mass is attached to end of the DEMES, or two layers of dielectric elastomer are affixed to both sides of the primary frame, the DEMES can realize two stable states and can be switched by a suitable pulse duration. To calculate the required minimum pulse duration, a mathematical model is provided and validated by experiment.

  17. Hierarchical clustering in minimum spanning trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Meichen; Hillebrand, Arjan; Tewarie, Prejaas; Meier, Jil; van Dijk, Bob; Van Mieghem, Piet; Stam, Cornelis Jan

    2015-02-01

    The identification of clusters or communities in complex networks is a reappearing problem. The minimum spanning tree (MST), the tree connecting all nodes with minimum total weight, is regarded as an important transport backbone of the original weighted graph. We hypothesize that the clustering of the MST reveals insight in the hierarchical structure of weighted graphs. However, existing theories and algorithms have difficulties to define and identify clusters in trees. Here, we first define clustering in trees and then propose a tree agglomerative hierarchical clustering (TAHC) method for the detection of clusters in MSTs. We then demonstrate that the TAHC method can detect clusters in artificial trees, and also in MSTs of weighted social networks, for which the clusters are in agreement with the previously reported clusters of the original weighted networks. Our results therefore not only indicate that clusters can be found in MSTs, but also that the MSTs contain information about the underlying clusters of the original weighted network.

  18. On finding minimum-diameter clique trees

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, J.R.S. . Dept. of Computer Science); Peyton, B.W. )

    1991-08-01

    It is well-known that any chordal graph can be represented as a clique tree (acyclic hypergraph, join tree). Since some chordal graphs have many distinct clique tree representations, it is interesting to consider which one is most desirable under various circumstances. A clique tree of minimum diameter (or height) is sometimes a natural candidate when choosing clique trees to be processed in a parallel computing environment. This paper introduces a linear time algorithm for computing a minimum-diameter clique tree. The new algorithm is an analogue of the natural greedy algorithm for rooting an ordinary tree in order to minimize its height. It has potential application in the development of parallel algorithms for both knowledge-based systems and the solution of sparse linear systems of equations. 31 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Minimum acquisition time detection. [of radar targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, H. I.; Hung, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    Two different methods of target detection when the return signal is contaminated with noise are discussed and compared. The first method uses Neyman-Pearson detection philosophy and selects the threshold level to give a desired false alarm probability. The maximum probability of false alarm is constrained by the target cross scan velocity component. The second method (minimum acquisition time detection), which is similar to the ideal observer, selects the threshold level to minimize the expected target acquisition time. The probabilities of false alarm and missed detection are selected so that the errors produced by these effects produce the minimum acquisition time. Three different scan techniques - linear, spiral and two-mode scan - are studied and compared.

  20. How Deep Was the Maunder Minimum?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotova, N. V.; Ponyavin, D. I.

    2016-11-01

    One of the most enigmatic features of the solar history is the Maunder minimum (MM). We analyze reports of solar observers from the group-sunspot-number database. Particular attention is given to short notes that resulted in an underestimation of the sunspot activity. These reports by Derham, Flamsteed, Hevelius, Picard, G.D. Cassini, and Fogel are found to address the absence of sunspots of great significance, which could signify a secular minimum with a majority of small short-lived spots. Up to Schwabe's discovery of the solar cycle, sunspots were considered as an irregular phenomenon; sunspot observations were not dedicated to the task of sunspot monitoring and counting. Here, we argue that the level of the solar activity in the past is significantly underestimated.

  1. Minimum-time running: a numerical approach.

    PubMed

    Maroński, Ryszard; Rogowski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with the minimum-time running problem. The time of covering a given distance is minimized. The Hill-Keller model of running employed is based on Newton's second law and the equation of power balance. The problem is formulated in optimal control. The unknown function is the runner's velocity that varies with the distance. The problem is solved applying the direct Chebyshev's pseudospectral method.

  2. Time crystals from minimum time uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faizal, Mir; Khalil, Mohammed M.; Das, Saurya

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the Generalized Uncertainty Principle, covariance, and a minimum measurable time, we propose a deformation of the Heisenberg algebra and show that this leads to corrections to all quantum mechanical systems. We also demonstrate that such a deformation implies a discrete spectrum for time. In other words, time behaves like a crystal. As an application of our formalism, we analyze the effect of such a deformation on the rate of spontaneous emission in a hydrogen atom.

  3. Minimum Time Turns Using Vectored Thrust.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    small, typicilly on the order of 10 seconds, the fuel consumed during the maneuver is negligible and the aircraft weight remains constant. The aircraft...practical (2, 3), these angles were allowed full range in order to determine how much range of thrust vectoring would be exploited if it were available...angle. 15q 15 *q 111. The Optimial Control Problem The formulation of the minimum turning time problem involves first- order non-linear differential

  4. Hypervelocity, minimum-radii, coordinated turns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tauber, Michael E.

    1990-01-01

    An analytic solution is presented for the most basic powered-flight maneuver, consisting of a constant-altitude coordinated turn and expressions for minimum-turn radii; associated flight conditions are derived. It is shown that the formulation for hypervelocity turns differs from that for subsonic and hypersonic speeds. Illustrative calculations using approximate aerodynamics based on Newtonian theory are presented, and these demonstrate the differences of hypersonic flight conditions and their associated turning radii from those at lower speeds.

  5. Minimum memory for generating rare events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghamohammadi, Cina; Crutchfield, James P.

    2017-03-01

    We classify the rare events of structured, memoryful stochastic processes and use this to analyze sequential and parallel generators for these events. Given a stochastic process, we introduce a method to construct a process whose typical realizations are a given process' rare events. This leads to an expression for the minimum memory required to generate rare events. We then show that the recently discovered classical-quantum ambiguity of simplicity also occurs when comparing the structure of process fluctuations.

  6. Two variants of minimum discarded fill ordering

    SciTech Connect

    D'Azevedo, E.F. ); Forsyth, P.A.; Tang, Wei-Pai . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-01-01

    It is well known that the ordering of the unknowns can have a significant effect on the convergence of Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) methods. There has been considerable experimental work on the effects of ordering for regular finite difference problems. In many cases, good results have been obtained with preconditioners based on diagonal, spiral or natural row orderings. However, for finite element problems having unstructured grids or grids generated by a local refinement approach, it is difficult to define many of the orderings for more regular problems. A recently proposed Minimum Discarded Fill (MDF) ordering technique is effective in finding high quality Incomplete LU (ILU) preconditioners, especially for problems arising from unstructured finite element grids. Testing indicates this algorithm can identify a rather complicated physical structure in an anisotropic problem and orders the unknowns in the preferred'' direction. The MDF technique may be viewed as the numerical analogue of the minimum deficiency algorithm in sparse matrix technology. At any stage of the partial elimination, the MDF technique chooses the next pivot node so as to minimize the amount of discarded fill. In this work, two efficient variants of the MDF technique are explored to produce cost-effective high-order ILU preconditioners. The Threshold MDF orderings combine MDF ideas with drop tolerance techniques to identify the sparsity pattern in the ILU preconditioners. These techniques identify an ordering that encourages fast decay of the entries in the ILU factorization. The Minimum Update Matrix (MUM) ordering technique is a simplification of the MDF ordering and is closely related to the minimum degree algorithm. The MUM ordering is especially for large problems arising from Navier-Stokes problems. Some interesting pictures of the orderings are presented using a visualization tool. 22 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Could a future "Grand Solar Minimum" like the Maunder Minimum stop global warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meehl, Gerald A.; Arblaster, Julie M.; Marsh, Daniel R.

    2013-05-01

    A future Maunder Minimum type grand solar minimum, with total solar irradiance reduced by 0.25% over a 50 year period from 2020 to 2070, is imposed in a future climate change scenario experiment (RCP4.5) using, for the first time, a global coupled climate model that includes ozone chemistry and resolved stratospheric dynamics (Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model). This model has been shown to simulate two amplifying mechanisms that produce regional signals of decadal climate variability comparable to observations, and thus is considered a credible tool to simulate the Sun's effects on Earth's climate. After the initial decrease of solar radiation in 2020, globally averaged surface air temperature cools relative to the reference simulation by up to several tenths of a degree Centigrade. By the end of the grand solar minimum in 2070, the warming nearly catches up to the reference simulation. Thus, a future grand solar minimum could slow down but not stop global warming.

  8. The Maunder minimum as a secular minimum with non-stopped Sunspot cyclicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotova, N. V.; Ponyavin, D. I.

    2016-12-01

    One of the most enigmatic features of the solar history is the Maunder minimum (1645-1715). We compare the scatter of amplitudes of the 11-year cycles, according to the new Sunspot Number and Sunspot Group series version 2.0, along with scenario of the Maunder minimum as a period with non-stopped cyclicity. We demonstrate that both amplitude and duration of cycles after the Gleissberg and Maunder minima are similar. Moreover, times of minima and maxima of cycles in the course the Maunder minimum coincide with those during the Gleissberg one, indicating a secular variation. Usefulness of the proxy data within the Maunder minimum is discussed. The scatter of amplitudes and duration of the Schwabe cycles in the past is argued to be comparable with those in the modern epoch.

  9. Minimum Requirements for Taxicab Security Cameras*

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Shengke; Amandus, Harlan E.; Amendola, Alfred A.; Newbraugh, Bradley H.; Cantis, Douglas M.; Weaver, Darlene

    2015-01-01

    Problem The homicide rate of taxicab-industry is 20 times greater than that of all workers. A NIOSH study showed that cities with taxicab-security cameras experienced significant reduction in taxicab driver homicides. Methods Minimum technical requirements and a standard test protocol for taxicab-security cameras for effective taxicab-facial identification were determined. The study took more than 10,000 photographs of human-face charts in a simulated-taxicab with various photographic resolutions, dynamic ranges, lens-distortions, and motion-blurs in various light and cab-seat conditions. Thirteen volunteer photograph-evaluators evaluated these face photographs and voted for the minimum technical requirements for taxicab-security cameras. Results Five worst-case scenario photographic image quality thresholds were suggested: the resolution of XGA-format, highlight-dynamic-range of 1 EV, twilight-dynamic-range of 3.3 EV, lens-distortion of 30%, and shutter-speed of 1/30 second. Practical Applications These minimum requirements will help taxicab regulators and fleets to identify effective taxicab-security cameras, and help taxicab-security camera manufacturers to improve the camera facial identification capability. PMID:26823992

  10. On the Minimum Induced Drag of Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    2011-01-01

    Of all the types of drag, induced drag is associated with the creation and generation of lift over wings. Induced drag is directly driven by the span load that the aircraft is flying at. The tools by which to calculate and predict induced drag we use were created by Ludwig Prandtl in 1903. Within a decade after Prandtl created a tool for calculating induced drag, Prandtl and his students had optimized the problem to solve the minimum induced drag for a wing of a given span, formalized and written about in 1920. This solution is quoted in textbooks extensively today. Prandtl did not stop with this first solution, and came to a dramatically different solution in 1932. Subsequent development of this 1932 solution solves several aeronautics design difficulties simultaneously, including maximum performance, minimum structure, minimum drag loss due to control input, and solution to adverse yaw without a vertical tail. This presentation lists that solution by Prandtl, and the refinements by Horten, Jones, Kline, Viswanathan, and Whitcomb.

  11. On the Minimum Induced Drag of Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    2010-01-01

    Of all the types of drag, induced drag is associated with the creation and generation of lift over wings. Induced drag is directly driven by the span load that the aircraft is flying at. The tools by which to calculate and predict induced drag we use were created by Ludwig Prandtl in 1903. Within a decade after Prandtl created a tool for calculating induced drag, Prandtl and his students had optimized the problem to solve the minimum induced drag for a wing of a given span, formalized and written about in 1920. This solution is quoted in textbooks extensively today. Prandtl did not stop with this first solution, and came to a dramatically different solution in 1932. Subsequent development of this 1932 solution solves several aeronautics design difficulties simultaneously, including maximum performance, minimum structure, minimum drag loss due to control input, and solution to adverse yaw without a vertical tail. This presentation lists that solution by Prandtl, and the refinements by Horten, Jones, Kline, Viswanathan, and Whitcomb

  12. Design for minimum energy in interstellar communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messerschmitt, David G.

    2015-02-01

    Microwave digital communication at interstellar distances is the foundation of extraterrestrial civilization (SETI and METI) communication of information-bearing signals. Large distances demand large transmitted power and/or large antennas, while the propagation is transparent over a wide bandwidth. Recognizing a fundamental tradeoff, reduced energy delivered to the receiver at the expense of wide bandwidth (the opposite of terrestrial objectives) is advantageous. Wide bandwidth also results in simpler design and implementation, allowing circumvention of dispersion and scattering arising in the interstellar medium and motion effects and obviating any related processing. The minimum energy delivered to the receiver per bit of information is determined by cosmic microwave background alone. By mapping a single bit onto a carrier burst, the Morse code invented for the telegraph in 1836 comes closer to this minimum energy than approaches used in modern terrestrial radio. Rather than the terrestrial approach of adding phases and amplitudes increases information capacity while minimizing bandwidth, adding multiple time-frequency locations for carrier bursts increases capacity while minimizing energy per information bit. The resulting location code is simple and yet can approach the minimum energy as bandwidth is expanded. It is consistent with easy discovery, since carrier bursts are energetic and straightforward modifications to post-detection pattern recognition can identify burst patterns. Time and frequency coherence constraints leading to simple signal discovery are addressed, and observations of the interstellar medium by transmitter and receiver constrain the burst parameters and limit the search scope.

  13. The minimum entropy principle and task performance.

    PubMed

    Guastello, Stephen J; Gorin, Hillary; Huschen, Samuel; Peters, Natalie E; Fabisch, Megan; Poston, Kirsten; Weinberger, Kelsey

    2013-07-01

    According to the minimum entropy principle, efficient cognitive performance is produced with a neurocognitive strategy that involves a minimum of degrees of freedom. Although high performance is often regarded as consistent performance as well, some variability in performance still remains which allows the person to adapt to changing goal conditions or fatigue. The present study investigated the connection between performance, entropy in performance, and four task-switching strategies. Fifty-one undergraduates performed 7 different computer-based cognitive tasks producing sets of 49 responses under instructional conditions requiring task quotas or no quotas. The temporal patterns of performance were analyzed using orbital decomposition to extract pattern types and lengths, which were then compared with regard to Shannon entropy, topological entropy, and overall performance. Task switching strategies from a previous study were available for the same participants as well. Results indicated that both topological entropy and Shannon entropy were negatively correlated with performance. Some task-switching strategies produced lower entropy in performance than others. Stepwise regression showed that the top three predictors of performance were Shannon entropy and arithmetic and spatial abilities. Additional implications for the prediction of work performance with cognitive ability measurements and the applicability of the minimum entropy principle to multidimensional performance criteria and team work are discussed.

  14. 29 CFR 516.2 - Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS RECORDS TO BE KEPT BY EMPLOYERS General Requirements § 516.2 Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum...

  15. 29 CFR 516.2 - Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS RECORDS TO BE KEPT BY EMPLOYERS General Requirements § 516.2 Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum...

  16. 29 CFR 516.2 - Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS RECORDS TO BE KEPT BY EMPLOYERS General Requirements § 516.2 Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum...

  17. 29 CFR 516.2 - Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS RECORDS TO BE KEPT BY EMPLOYERS General Requirements § 516.2 Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum...

  18. 29 CFR 516.2 - Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS RECORDS TO BE KEPT BY EMPLOYERS General Requirements § 516.2 Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum...

  19. Aerobrake assembly with minimum Space Station accommodation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzberg, Steven J.; Butler, David H.; Doggett, William R.; Russell, James W.; Hurban, Theresa

    1991-01-01

    The minimum Space Station Freedom accommodations required for initial assembly, repair, and refurbishment of the Lunar aerobrake were investigated. Baseline Space Station Freedom support services were assumed, as well as reasonable earth-to-orbit possibilities. A set of three aerobrake configurations representative of the major themes in aerobraking were developed. Structural assembly concepts, along with on-orbit assembly and refurbishment scenarios were created. The scenarios were exercised to identify required Space Station Freedom accommodations. Finally, important areas for follow-on study were also identified.

  20. The Minimum Legal Drinking Age and Crime

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We use variation from the minimum legal drinking age to estimate the causal effect of access to alcohol on crime. Using a census of arrests in California and a regression discontinuity design, we find that individuals just over age 21 are 5.9% more likely to be arrested than individuals just under 21. This increase is mostly due to assaults, alcohol-related offenses, and nuisance crimes. These results suggest that policies that restrict access to alcohol have the potential to substantially reduce crime. PMID:26120205

  1. Quantization of conductance minimum and index theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegaya, Satoshi; Suzuki, Shu-Ichiro; Tanaka, Yukio; Asano, Yasuhiro

    2016-08-01

    We discuss the minimum value of the zero-bias differential conductance Gmin in a junction consisting of a normal metal and a nodal superconductor preserving time-reversal symmetry. Using the quasiclassical Green function method, we show that Gmin is quantized at (4 e2/h ) NZES in the limit of strong impurity scatterings in the normal metal at the zero temperature. The integer NZES represents the number of perfect transmission channels through the junction. An analysis of the chiral symmetry of the Hamiltonian indicates that NZES corresponds to the Atiyah-Singer index in mathematics.

  2. Minimum energy information fusion in sensor networks

    SciTech Connect

    Chapline, G

    1999-05-11

    In this paper we consider how to organize the sharing of information in a distributed network of sensors and data processors so as to provide explanations for sensor readings with minimal expenditure of energy. We point out that the Minimum Description Length principle provides an approach to information fusion that is more naturally suited to energy minimization than traditional Bayesian approaches. In addition we show that for networks consisting of a large number of identical sensors Kohonen self-organization provides an exact solution to the problem of combing the sensor outputs into minimal description length explanations.

  3. Axisymmetric inlet minimum weight design method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadell, Shari-Beth

    1995-01-01

    An analytical method for determining the minimum weight design of an axisymmetric supersonic inlet has been developed. The goal of this method development project was to improve the ability to predict the weight of high-speed inlets in conceptual and preliminary design. The initial model was developed using information that was available from inlet conceptual design tools (e.g., the inlet internal and external geometries and pressure distributions). Stiffened shell construction was assumed. Mass properties were computed by analyzing a parametric cubic curve representation of the inlet geometry. Design loads and stresses were developed at analysis stations along the length of the inlet. The equivalent minimum structural thicknesses for both shell and frame structures required to support the maximum loads produced by various load conditions were then determined. Preliminary results indicated that inlet hammershock pressures produced the critical design load condition for a significant portion of the inlet. By improving the accuracy of inlet weight predictions, the method will improve the fidelity of propulsion and vehicle design studies and increase the accuracy of weight versus cost studies.

  4. Minimum fan turbine inlet temperature mode evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

    1995-01-01

    Measured reductions in turbine temperature which resulted from the application of the F-15 performance seeking control (PSC) minimum fan turbine inlet temperature (FTIT) mode during the dual-engine test phase is presented as a function of net propulsive force and flight condition. Data were collected at altitudes of 30,000 and 45,000 feet at military and partial afterburning power settings. The FTIT reductions for the supersonic tests are less than at subsonic Mach numbers because of the increased modeling and control complexity. In addition, the propulsion system was designed to be optimized at the mid supersonic Mach number range. Subsonically at military power, FTIT reductions were above 70 R for either the left or right engines, and repeatable for the right engine. At partial afterburner and supersonic conditions, the level of FTIT reductions were at least 25 R and as much as 55 R. Considering that the turbine operates at or very near its temperature limit at these high power settings, these seemingly small temperature reductions may significantly lengthen the life of the turbine. In general, the minimum FTIT mode has performed well, demonstrating significant temperature reductions at military and partial afterburner power. Decreases of over 100 R at cruise flight conditions were identified. Temperature reductions of this magnitude could significantly extend turbine life and reduce replacement costs.

  5. From Minimum Entropy Production Principle To Minimum Information Loss With Elliptic Type Quasilinear PDEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Endre

    2004-04-01

    The Laplace equation does not contain any entropy production [27]. The entropy production can be illustrated with the Dirichlet Integral Principle and the quasilinear PDE of second order [28,27]. They can show the physical meaning too. The content of the quasilinear PDE leads to the probability density function of the process and the minimum principle of the entropy production [15,16,19,25]. The Maxwell's demon shows the connection between [18,26,21,20,22,23,24] thermodynamics and the theory of information. The negentropy principle of Brillouin [22] gives the important bridge between the thermodynamical problem of dissipation and the gain in information. The entropy compensation at an open stationary state shows the relation between negentropy principle [27] and minimum entropy principle and the connection to minimum information loss.

  6. Current and Proposed Regulations Related to Minimum Risk Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Minimum risk pesticides are exempted from requirements for registration with EPA but are still subject to certain criteria to qualify as minimum risk and may be further regulated by states. See links to the key regulatory citations.

  7. Need for Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions for Minimum Risk Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The ingredients used in minimum risk products used on food, food crops, food contact surfaces, or animal feed commodities generally have a tolerance or tolerance exemption. Learn about tolerances and tolerance exemptions for minimum risk ingredients.

  8. 29 CFR 570.118 - Sixteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... minimum. The Act sets a 16-year-age minimum for employment in manufacturing or mining occupations... conditions, be employed inside and outside of places of business that use power-driven machinery to...

  9. 29 CFR 570.118 - Sixteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... minimum. The Act sets a 16-year-age minimum for employment in manufacturing or mining occupations... conditions, be employed inside and outside of places of business that use power-driven machinery to...

  10. 29 CFR 570.118 - Sixteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... minimum. The Act sets a 16-year-age minimum for employment in manufacturing or mining occupations... conditions, be employed inside and outside of places of business that use power-driven machinery to...

  11. 29 CFR 570.118 - Sixteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... minimum. The Act sets a 16-year-age minimum for employment in manufacturing or mining occupations... conditions, be employed inside and outside of places of business that use power-driven machinery to...

  12. On the Minimum Weight Steiner Triangular Tiling problem

    SciTech Connect

    Doddi, S.; Zhu, B.

    1995-04-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Minimum Weight Steiner Triangular Tiling problem, which is a generalization of the Minimum Weight Steiner Triangulation. Contrary to the conjecture of Eppstein that the Minimum Weight Steiner Triangulation of a convex polygon has the property that the Steiner points all lie on the boundary of the polygon [Epp94], we show that the Steiner points of a Minimum Weight Steiner Triangular Tiling could lie in the interior of a convex polygon.

  13. 50 CFR 648.124 - Minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum fish sizes. 648.124 Section 648... Scup Fishery § 648.124 Minimum fish sizes. (a) The minimum size for scup is 9 inches (22.9 cm) TL for... charter boat, or more than five crew members if a party boat. (c) The minimum size applies to whole...

  14. 30 CFR 56.19021 - Minimum rope strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Wire Ropes § 56.19021 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal strength (manufacturer's published catalog strength) of wire ropes used for hoisting shall meet the minimum rope strength values... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum rope strength. 56.19021 Section...

  15. 30 CFR 56.19021 - Minimum rope strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Wire Ropes § 56.19021 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal strength (manufacturer's published catalog strength) of wire ropes used for hoisting shall meet the minimum rope strength values... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum rope strength. 56.19021 Section...

  16. 30 CFR 57.19021 - Minimum rope strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 57.19021 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal strength (manufacturer's published catalog strength) of wire ropes used for hoisting shall meet the minimum rope strength values... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minimum rope strength. 57.19021 Section...

  17. 30 CFR 57.19021 - Minimum rope strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 57.19021 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal strength (manufacturer's published catalog strength) of wire ropes used for hoisting shall meet the minimum rope strength values... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minimum rope strength. 57.19021 Section...

  18. 30 CFR 77.1431 - Minimum rope strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1431 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal strength (manufacturer's published catalog strength) of wire ropes used for hoisting shall meet the minimum rope strength values... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum rope strength. 77.1431 Section...

  19. 30 CFR 57.19021 - Minimum rope strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 57.19021 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal strength (manufacturer's published catalog strength) of wire ropes used for hoisting shall meet the minimum rope strength values... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum rope strength. 57.19021 Section...

  20. 30 CFR 77.1431 - Minimum rope strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1431 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal strength (manufacturer's published catalog strength) of wire ropes used for hoisting shall meet the minimum rope strength values... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum rope strength. 77.1431 Section...

  1. 30 CFR 77.1431 - Minimum rope strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1431 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal strength (manufacturer's published catalog strength) of wire ropes used for hoisting shall meet the minimum rope strength values... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum rope strength. 77.1431 Section...

  2. 30 CFR 57.19021 - Minimum rope strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 57.19021 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal strength (manufacturer's published catalog strength) of wire ropes used for hoisting shall meet the minimum rope strength values... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum rope strength. 57.19021 Section...

  3. 30 CFR 77.1431 - Minimum rope strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1431 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal strength (manufacturer's published catalog strength) of wire ropes used for hoisting shall meet the minimum rope strength values... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minimum rope strength. 77.1431 Section...

  4. 30 CFR 56.19021 - Minimum rope strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Wire Ropes § 56.19021 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal strength (manufacturer's published catalog strength) of wire ropes used for hoisting shall meet the minimum rope strength values... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minimum rope strength. 56.19021 Section...

  5. 30 CFR 77.1431 - Minimum rope strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1431 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal strength (manufacturer's published catalog strength) of wire ropes used for hoisting shall meet the minimum rope strength values... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minimum rope strength. 77.1431 Section...

  6. 30 CFR 57.19021 - Minimum rope strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 57.19021 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal strength (manufacturer's published catalog strength) of wire ropes used for hoisting shall meet the minimum rope strength values... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum rope strength. 57.19021 Section...

  7. 30 CFR 56.19021 - Minimum rope strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Wire Ropes § 56.19021 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal strength (manufacturer's published catalog strength) of wire ropes used for hoisting shall meet the minimum rope strength values... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minimum rope strength. 56.19021 Section...

  8. 30 CFR 56.19021 - Minimum rope strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Wire Ropes § 56.19021 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal strength (manufacturer's published catalog strength) of wire ropes used for hoisting shall meet the minimum rope strength values... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum rope strength. 56.19021 Section...

  9. 9 CFR 147.51 - Authorized laboratory minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authorized laboratory minimum... Authorized Laboratories and Approved Tests § 147.51 Authorized laboratory minimum requirements. These minimum requirements are intended to be the basis on which an authorized laboratory of the Plan can be evaluated...

  10. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570.2 Section 570.2 Labor... REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a) All occupations except in agriculture. (1) The Act, in section 3(1), sets a general 16-year minimum age...

  11. 27 CFR 19.184 - Scale tank minimum graduations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Scale tank minimum... Requirements Tank Requirements § 19.184 Scale tank minimum graduations. (a) The beams or dials on scale tanks... pounds (b) For scales having a capacity greater than 2,000 pounds, the minimum quantity which may...

  12. 27 CFR 19.184 - Scale tank minimum graduations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Scale tank minimum... Requirements Tank Requirements § 19.184 Scale tank minimum graduations. (a) The beams or dials on scale tanks... pounds (b) For scales having a capacity greater than 2,000 pounds, the minimum quantity which may...

  13. 27 CFR 19.184 - Scale tank minimum graduations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Scale tank minimum... Requirements Tank Requirements § 19.184 Scale tank minimum graduations. (a) The beams or dials on scale tanks... pounds (b) For scales having a capacity greater than 2,000 pounds, the minimum quantity which may...

  14. 27 CFR 19.184 - Scale tank minimum graduations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Scale tank minimum... Requirements Tank Requirements § 19.184 Scale tank minimum graduations. (a) The beams or dials on scale tanks... pounds (b) For scales having a capacity greater than 2,000 pounds, the minimum quantity which may...

  15. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570.2 Section 570.2 Labor... REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a) All occupations except in agriculture. (1) The Act, in section 3(1), sets a general 16-year minimum age...

  16. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570.2 Section 570.2 Labor... REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a) All occupations except in agriculture. (1) The Act, in section 3(1), sets a general 16-year minimum age...

  17. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570.2 Section 570.2 Labor... REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a) All occupations except in agriculture. (1) The Act, in section 3(1), sets a general 16-year minimum age...

  18. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570.2 Section 570.2 Labor... REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a) All occupations except in agriculture. (1) The Act, in section 3(1), sets a general 16-year minimum age...

  19. 43 CFR 3142.2-1 - Minimum production schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum production schedule. 3142.2-1... Quantities/Diligent Development for Combined Hydrocarbon Leases § 3142.2-1 Minimum production schedule. Upon... sand reserves, a minimum annual tar sand production schedule for the lease or unit operations...

  20. 7 CFR 953.43 - Minimum standards of quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum standards of quality. 953.43 Section 953.43... SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 953.43 Minimum standards of quality. (a) Recommendation. Whenever the committee deems it advisable to establish and maintain minimum standards of...

  1. 7 CFR 953.43 - Minimum standards of quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum standards of quality. 953.43 Section 953.43... SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 953.43 Minimum standards of quality. (a) Recommendation. Whenever the committee deems it advisable to establish and maintain minimum standards of...

  2. 29 CFR 4.159 - General minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General minimum wage. 4.159 Section 4.159 Labor Office of... General minimum wage. The Act, in section 2(b)(1), provides generally that no contractor or subcontractor... a contract less than the minimum wage specified under section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor...

  3. 29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...'s minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires, under paragraph (2) of the subsection, that an employee...'s minimum wage requirements by reason of the 1961 Amendments (see §§ 783.23 and 783.26)....

  4. 41 CFR 50-201.1101 - Minimum wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Minimum wages. 50-201... Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 201-GENERAL REGULATIONS § 50-201.1101 Minimum wages. Determinations of prevailing minimum wages or changes therein will be published in the Federal Register by...

  5. 29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...'s minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires, under paragraph (2) of the subsection, that an employee...'s minimum wage requirements by reason of the 1961 Amendments (see §§ 783.23 and 783.26)....

  6. Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages. Recent Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David

    Using a specially constructed panel data set on state minimum wage laws and labor market conditions, Neumark and Wascher (1992) presented evidence that countered the claim that minimum wages could be raised with no cost to employment. They concluded that estimates indicating that minimum wages reduced employment on the order of 1-2 percent for a…

  7. 41 CFR 50-201.1101 - Minimum wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum wages. 50-201... Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 201-GENERAL REGULATIONS § 50-201.1101 Minimum wages. Determinations of prevailing minimum wages or changes therein will be published in the Federal Register by...

  8. 29 CFR 4.159 - General minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General minimum wage. 4.159 Section 4.159 Labor Office of... General minimum wage. The Act, in section 2(b)(1), provides generally that no contractor or subcontractor... a contract less than the minimum wage specified under section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor...

  9. 29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...'s minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires, under paragraph (2) of the subsection, that an employee...'s minimum wage requirements by reason of the 1961 Amendments (see §§ 783.23 and 783.26)....

  10. 29 CFR 4.159 - General minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General minimum wage. 4.159 Section 4.159 Labor Office of... General minimum wage. The Act, in section 2(b)(1), provides generally that no contractor or subcontractor... a contract less than the minimum wage specified under section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor...

  11. 29 CFR 4.159 - General minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General minimum wage. 4.159 Section 4.159 Labor Office of... General minimum wage. The Act, in section 2(b)(1), provides generally that no contractor or subcontractor... a contract less than the minimum wage specified under section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor...

  12. 29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...'s minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires, under paragraph (2) of the subsection, that an employee...'s minimum wage requirements by reason of the 1961 Amendments (see §§ 783.23 and 783.26)....

  13. 29 CFR 4.159 - General minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true General minimum wage. 4.159 Section 4.159 Labor Office of... General minimum wage. The Act, in section 2(b)(1), provides generally that no contractor or subcontractor... a contract less than the minimum wage specified under section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor...

  14. 41 CFR 50-201.1101 - Minimum wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Minimum wages. 50-201... Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 201-GENERAL REGULATIONS § 50-201.1101 Minimum wages. Determinations of prevailing minimum wages or changes therein will be published in the Federal Register by...

  15. 29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...'s minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires, under paragraph (2) of the subsection, that an employee...'s minimum wage requirements by reason of the 1961 Amendments (see §§ 783.23 and 783.26)....

  16. 41 CFR 50-201.1101 - Minimum wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minimum wages. 50-201... Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 201-GENERAL REGULATIONS § 50-201.1101 Minimum wages. Determinations of prevailing minimum wages or changes therein will be published in the Federal Register by...

  17. Minimum Wages and Skill Acquisition: Another Look at Schooling Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David; Wascher, William

    2003-01-01

    Examines the effects of minimum wage on schooling, seeking to reconcile some of the contradictory results in recent research using Current Population Survey data from the late 1970s through the 1980s. Findings point to negative effects of minimum wages on school enrollment, bolstering the findings of negative effects of minimum wages on enrollment…

  18. Minimum Wage Effects on Educational Enrollments in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacheco, Gail A.; Cruickshank, Amy A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the impact of minimum wages on educational enrollments in New Zealand. A significant reform to the youth minimum wage since 2000 has resulted in some age groups undergoing a 91% rise in their real minimum wage over the last 10 years. Three panel least squares multivariate models are estimated from a national sample…

  19. 12 CFR 931.3 - Minimum investment in capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a) A Bank shall require each member to maintain a minimum investment in the capital stock of the Bank,...

  20. 12 CFR 931.3 - Minimum investment in capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a) A Bank shall require each member to maintain a minimum investment in the capital stock of the Bank,...

  1. 12 CFR 931.3 - Minimum investment in capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a) A Bank shall require each member to maintain a minimum investment in the capital stock of the Bank,...

  2. 12 CFR 931.3 - Minimum investment in capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a) A Bank shall require each member to maintain a minimum investment in the capital stock of the Bank,...

  3. 50 CFR 648.103 - Minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.103 Minimum fish sizes. (a) The minimum size for summer flounder is 14... § 648.107, the minimum size for summer flounder is 19.5 inch (49.53 cm) TL for all vessels that do...

  4. 41 CFR 50-201.1101 - Minimum wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minimum wages. 50-201.1101 Section 50-201.1101 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 201-GENERAL REGULATIONS § 50-201.1101 Minimum wages. Determinations of prevailing minimum wages...

  5. 12 CFR 722.4 - Minimum appraisal standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 722.4 Section 722... APPRAISALS § 722.4 Minimum appraisal standards. For federally related transactions, all appraisals shall, at a minimum: (a) Conform to generally accepted appraisal standards as evidenced by the...

  6. 12 CFR 564.4 - Minimum appraisal standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 564.4 Section 564.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.4 Minimum appraisal standards. For federally related transactions, all appraisals shall, at a minimum:...

  7. 14 CFR 91.157 - Special VFR weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special VFR weather minimums. 91.157... Flight Rules § 91.157 Special VFR weather minimums. (a) Except as provided in appendix D, section 3, of this part, special VFR operations may be conducted under the weather minimums and requirements of...

  8. 14 CFR 91.157 - Special VFR weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special VFR weather minimums. 91.157... Flight Rules § 91.157 Special VFR weather minimums. (a) Except as provided in appendix D, section 3, of this part, special VFR operations may be conducted under the weather minimums and requirements of...

  9. 14 CFR 91.157 - Special VFR weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special VFR weather minimums. 91.157... Flight Rules § 91.157 Special VFR weather minimums. (a) Except as provided in appendix D, section 3, of this part, special VFR operations may be conducted under the weather minimums and requirements of...

  10. 14 CFR 91.157 - Special VFR weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special VFR weather minimums. 91.157... Flight Rules § 91.157 Special VFR weather minimums. (a) Except as provided in appendix D, section 3, of this part, special VFR operations may be conducted under the weather minimums and requirements of...

  11. 47 CFR 73.807 - Minimum distance separation between stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum distance separation between stations... separation between stations. Minimum separation requirements for LP100 and LP10 stations, as defined in §§ 73... these separations are met. Minimum distances for co-channel and first-adjacent channel are...

  12. 47 CFR 73.207 - Minimum distance separation between stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum distance separation between stations... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.207 Minimum distance separation between... reference points meet all of the minimum distance separation requirements of this section. The...

  13. 47 CFR 73.207 - Minimum distance separation between stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum distance separation between stations... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.207 Minimum distance separation between... reference points meet all of the minimum distance separation requirements of this section. The...

  14. 47 CFR 73.207 - Minimum distance separation between stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minimum distance separation between stations... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.207 Minimum distance separation between... reference points meet all of the minimum distance separation requirements of this section. The...

  15. 47 CFR 73.807 - Minimum distance separation between stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum distance separation between stations... separation between stations. Minimum separation requirements for LP100 and LP10 stations, as defined in §§ 73... these separations are met. Minimum distances for co-channel and first-adjacent channel are...

  16. 47 CFR 73.207 - Minimum distance separation between stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minimum distance separation between stations... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.207 Minimum distance separation between... reference points meet all of the minimum distance separation requirements of this section. The...

  17. 47 CFR 73.207 - Minimum distance separation between stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minimum distance separation between stations... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.207 Minimum distance separation between... reference points meet all of the minimum distance separation requirements of this section. The...

  18. 24 CFR 241.535 - Loan multiples-minimum principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loan multiples-minimum principal... Security Instruments § 241.535 Loan multiples—minimum principal. The loan shall involve a principal obligation in multiples of $100, and the minimum principal obligation shall be $10,000....

  19. 24 CFR 232.535 - Loan multiples-minimum principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loan multiples-minimum principal... of Fire Safety Equipment Eligible Security Instruments § 232.535 Loan multiples—minimum principal. The loan shall involve a principal obligation in multiples of $100, and the minimum...

  20. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(c) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  1. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(c) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  2. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(b) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  3. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(b) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  4. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(b) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  5. 50 CFR 648.162 - Minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum fish sizes. 648.162 Section 648... Atlantic Bluefish Fishery § 648.162 Minimum fish sizes. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 60639, Sept... minimum fish sizes are necessary to assure that the fishing mortality rate is not exceeded, or to...

  6. 50 CFR 648.93 - Monkfish minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Monkfish minimum fish sizes. 648.93... Measures for the NE Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries § 648.93 Monkfish minimum fish sizes. (a) General... fish size requirements established in this section. Minimum Fish Sizes (Total Length/Tail Length)...

  7. 50 CFR 648.93 - Monkfish minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Monkfish minimum fish sizes. 648.93... Measures for the NE Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries § 648.93 Monkfish minimum fish sizes. (a) General provisions. All monkfish caught by vessels issued a valid Federal monkfish permit must meet the minimum...

  8. 50 CFR 648.162 - Minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum fish sizes. 648.162 Section 648... Atlantic Bluefish Fishery § 648.162 Minimum fish sizes. If the Council determines through its annual review or framework adjustment process that minimum fish sizes are necessary to assure that the...

  9. 10 CFR 862.6 - Voluntary minimum altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Voluntary minimum altitude. 862.6 Section 862.6 Energy... § 862.6 Voluntary minimum altitude. In addition to complying with all applicable FAA prohibitions or restrictions, aircraft are requested to maintain a minimum altitude of 2,000 feet above the terrain of...

  10. 10 CFR 862.6 - Voluntary minimum altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Voluntary minimum altitude. 862.6 Section 862.6 Energy... § 862.6 Voluntary minimum altitude. In addition to complying with all applicable FAA prohibitions or restrictions, aircraft are requested to maintain a minimum altitude of 2,000 feet above the terrain of...

  11. 10 CFR 862.6 - Voluntary minimum altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Voluntary minimum altitude. 862.6 Section 862.6 Energy... § 862.6 Voluntary minimum altitude. In addition to complying with all applicable FAA prohibitions or restrictions, aircraft are requested to maintain a minimum altitude of 2,000 feet above the terrain of...

  12. 10 CFR 862.6 - Voluntary minimum altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Voluntary minimum altitude. 862.6 Section 862.6 Energy... § 862.6 Voluntary minimum altitude. In addition to complying with all applicable FAA prohibitions or restrictions, aircraft are requested to maintain a minimum altitude of 2,000 feet above the terrain of...

  13. 12 CFR 3.10 - Minimum capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Capital Ratio Requirements and Buffers § 3.10 Minimum capital requirements. (a) Minimum capital requirements. A national bank or Federal savings association must maintain the following minimum capital ratios: (1) A common equity tier 1 capital ratio of 4.5 percent. (2) A tier 1 capital ratio of 6 percent....

  14. 14 CFR 27.1523 - Minimum flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum flight crew. 27.1523 Section 27.1523 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... § 27.1523 Minimum flight crew. The minimum flight crew must be established so that it is sufficient...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1523 - Minimum flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum flight crew. 29.1523 Section 29.1523 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Limitations § 29.1523 Minimum flight crew. The minimum flight crew must be established so that it...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1523 - Minimum flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum flight crew. 25.1523 Section 25.1523 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Limitations § 25.1523 Minimum flight crew. The minimum flight crew must be established so that it...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1523 - Minimum flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum flight crew. 23.1523 Section 23.1523 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information § 23.1523 Minimum flight crew. The minimum flight crew must be established so that it...

  18. On a Minimum Problem in Smectic Elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonsanti, Michele; Giovine, Pasquale

    2008-07-01

    Smectic elastomers are layered materials exhibiting a solid-like elastic response along the layer normal and a rubbery one in the plane. Balance equations for smectic elastomers are derived from the general theory of continua with constrained microstructure. In this work we investigate a very simple minimum problem based on multi-well potentials where the microstructure is taken into account. The set of polymeric strains minimizing the elastic energy contains a one-parameter family of simple strain associated with a micro-variation of the degree of freedom. We develop the energy functional through two terms, the first one nematic and the second one considering the tilting phenomenon; after, by developing in the rubber elasticity framework, we minimize over the tilt rotation angle and extract the engineering stress.

  19. Helicopter rotor blade design for minimum vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    The importance of blade design parameters in rotor vibratory response and the design of a minimum vibration blade based upon this understanding are examined. Various design approaches are examined for a 4 bladed articulated rotor operating at a high speed flight condition. Blade modal shaping, frequency placement, structural and aerodynamic coupling, and intermodal cancellation are investigated to systematically identify and evaluate blade design parameters that influence blade airloads, blade modal response, hub loads, and fuselage vibration. The relative contributions of the various components of blade force excitation and response to the vibratory hub loads transmitted to the fuselage are determined in order to isolate primary candidates for vibration alleviation. A blade design is achieved which reduces the predicted fuselage vibration from the baseline blade by approximately one half. Blade designs are developed that offer significant reductions in vibration (and fatigue stresses) without resorting to special vibration alleviation devices, radical blade geometries, or weight penalties.

  20. Galactic Archaeology and Minimum Spanning Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacFarlane, B. A.; Gibson, B. K.; Flynn, C. M. L.

    2016-10-01

    Chemical tagging of stellar debris from disrupted open clusters and associations underpins the science cases for next-generation multi-object spectroscopic surveys. As part of the Galactic Archaeology project TraCD (Tracking Cluster Debris), a preliminary attempt at reconstructing the birth clouds of now phase-mixed thin disk debris is undertaken using a parametric minimum spanning tree (MST) approach. Empirically-motivated chemical abundance pattern uncertainties (for a 10-dimensional chemistry-space) are applied to NBODY6-realized stellar associations dissolved into a background sea of field stars, all evolving in a Milky Way potential. We demonstrate that significant population reconstruction degeneracies appear when the abundance uncertainties approach ˜0.1 dex and the parameterized MST approach is employed; more sophisticated methodologies will be required to ameliorate these degeneracies.

  1. Radiation belt dynamics during solar minimum

    SciTech Connect

    Gussenhoven, M.S.; Mullen, E.G. ); Holeman, E. )

    1989-12-01

    Two types of temporal variation in the radiation belts are studied using low altitude data taken onboard the DMSP F7 satellite: those associated with the solar cycle and those associated with large magnetic storm effects. Over a three-year period from 1984 to 1987 and encompassing solar minimum, the protons in the heart of the inner belt increased at a rate of approximately 6% per year. Over the same period, outer zone electron enhancements declined both in number and peak intensity. During the large magnetic storm of February 1986, following the period of peak ring current intensity, a second proton belt with energies up to 50 MeV was found at magnetic latitudes between 45{degrees} and 55{degrees}. The belt lasted for more than 100 days. The slot region between the inner and outer electron belts collapsed by the merging of the two populations and did not reform for 40 days.

  2. Minimum wear tube support hole design

    DOEpatents

    Glatthorn, Raymond H.

    1986-01-01

    A minimum-wear through-bore (16) is defined within a heat exchanger tube support plate (14) so as to have an hourglass configuration as determined by means of a constant radiused surface curvature (18) as defined by means of an external radius (R3), wherein the surface (18) extends between the upper surface (20) and lower surface (22) of the tube support plate (14). When a heat exchange tube (12) is disposed within the tube support plate (14) so as to pass through the through-bore (16), the heat exchange tube (12) is always in contact with a smoothly curved or radiused portion of the through-bore surface (16) whereby unacceptably excessive wear upon the heat exchange tube (12), as normally developed by means of sharp edges, lands, ridges, or the like conventionally part of the tube support plates, is eliminated or substantially reduced.

  3. Minimum relative entropy, Bayes and Kapur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodbury, Allan D.

    2011-04-01

    The focus of this paper is to illustrate important philosophies on inversion and the similarly and differences between Bayesian and minimum relative entropy (MRE) methods. The development of each approach is illustrated through the general-discrete linear inverse. MRE differs from both Bayes and classical statistical methods in that knowledge of moments are used as ‘data’ rather than sample values. MRE like Bayes, presumes knowledge of a prior probability distribution and produces the posterior pdf itself. MRE attempts to produce this pdf based on the information provided by new moments. It will use moments of the prior distribution only if new data on these moments is not available. It is important to note that MRE makes a strong statement that the imposed constraints are exact and complete. In this way, MRE is maximally uncommitted with respect to unknown information. In general, since input data are known only to within a certain accuracy, it is important that any inversion method should allow for errors in the measured data. The MRE approach can accommodate such uncertainty and in new work described here, previous results are modified to include a Gaussian prior. A variety of MRE solutions are reproduced under a number of assumed moments and these include second-order central moments. Various solutions of Jacobs & van der Geest were repeated and clarified. Menke's weighted minimum length solution was shown to have a basis in information theory, and the classic least-squares estimate is shown as a solution to MRE under the conditions of more data than unknowns and where we utilize the observed data and their associated noise. An example inverse problem involving a gravity survey over a layered and faulted zone is shown. In all cases the inverse results match quite closely the actual density profile, at least in the upper portions of the profile. The similar results to Bayes presented in are a reflection of the fact that the MRE posterior pdf, and its mean

  4. The Chandlerian Period of minimum excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Naosuke

    Up to the present, the Chandlerian Period has been defined as the mean period of the revolution of the pole around its mean position. However, as the motion of the excitation pole does not contain the Chandlerian component, we can determine the length of the Chandlerian Period under the condition that the motion of the excitation pole attains a minimum after elimination of the Chandlerian component. It is calculated as 416 (mean solar) days. It means the period deduced from the angular velocity of the pole around the instantaneous excitation pole, and is able to match better those deduced from the theory of the internal constitution of the Earth. The calculated results using the recent data of ERP with a high precision show that the Chandlerian Period in this sense seems to have a reality. The main results are shown in the Figure on the next pape. This paper was published in full form in the Journal of the Geodetic Society of Japan, 33 (1987) pp.97-100.

  5. River meanders - Theory of minimum variance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langbein, Walter Basil; Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1966-01-01

    Meanders are the result of erosion-deposition processes tending toward the most stable form in which the variability of certain essential properties is minimized. This minimization involves the adjustment of the planimetric geometry and the hydraulic factors of depth, velocity, and local slope.The planimetric geometry of a meander is that of a random walk whose most frequent form minimizes the sum of the squares of the changes in direction in each successive unit length. The direction angles are then sine functions of channel distance. This yields a meander shape typically present in meandering rivers and has the characteristic that the ratio of meander length to average radius of curvature in the bend is 4.7.Depth, velocity, and slope are shown by field observations to be adjusted so as to decrease the variance of shear and the friction factor in a meander curve over that in an otherwise comparable straight reach of the same riverSince theory and observation indicate meanders achieve the minimum variance postulated, it follows that for channels in which alternating pools and riffles occur, meandering is the most probable form of channel geometry and thus is more stable geometry than a straight or nonmeandering alinement.

  6. Minimum information about a bioactive entity (MIABE).

    PubMed

    Orchard, Sandra; Al-Lazikani, Bissan; Bryant, Steve; Clark, Dominic; Calder, Elizabeth; Dix, Ian; Engkvist, Ola; Forster, Mark; Gaulton, Anna; Gilson, Michael; Glen, Robert; Grigorov, Martin; Hammond-Kosack, Kim; Harland, Lee; Hopkins, Andrew; Larminie, Christopher; Lynch, Nick; Mann, Romeena K; Murray-Rust, Peter; Lo Piparo, Elena; Southan, Christopher; Steinbeck, Christoph; Wishart, David; Hermjakob, Henning; Overington, John; Thornton, Janet

    2011-08-31

    Bioactive molecules such as drugs, pesticides and food additives are produced in large numbers by many commercial and academic groups around the world. Enormous quantities of data are generated on the biological properties and quality of these molecules. Access to such data - both on licensed and commercially available compounds, and also on those that fail during development - is crucial for understanding how improved molecules could be developed. For example, computational analysis of aggregated data on molecules that are investigated in drug discovery programmes has led to a greater understanding of the properties of successful drugs. However, the information required to perform these analyses is rarely published, and when it is made available it is often missing crucial data or is in a format that is inappropriate for efficient data-mining. Here, we propose a solution: the definition of reporting guidelines for bioactive entities - the Minimum Information About a Bioactive Entity (MIABE) - which has been developed by representatives of pharmaceutical companies, data resource providers and academic groups.

  7. IMPLICATIONS OF THE RECENT LOW SOLAR MINIMUM FOR THE SOLAR WIND DURING THE MAUNDER MINIMUM

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, M.; Owens, M. J.

    2014-01-20

    The behavior of the Sun and near-Earth space during grand solar minima is not understood; however, the recent long and low minimum of the decadal-scale solar cycle gives some important clues, with implications for understanding the solar dynamo and predicting space weather conditions. The speed of the near-Earth solar wind and the strength of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) embedded within it can be reliably reconstructed for before the advent of spacecraft monitoring using observations of geomagnetic activity that extend back to the mid-19th century. We show that during the solar cycle minima around 1879 and 1901 the average solar wind speed was exceptionally low, implying the Earth remained within the streamer belt of slow solar wind flow for extended periods. This is consistent with a broader streamer belt, which was also a feature of the recent low minimum (2009), and yields a prediction that the low near-Earth IMF during the Maunder minimum (1640-1700), as derived from models and deduced from cosmogenic isotopes, was accompanied by a persistent and relatively constant solar wind of speed roughly half the average for the modern era.

  8. Mesopic luminance assessed with minimum motion photometry.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Sabine; MacLeod, Donald I A

    2011-08-25

    We measured the relative contribution of rods and cones to luminance across a range of photopic, mesopic, and scotopic adaptation levels and at various retinal eccentricities. We isolated the luminance channel by setting motion-based luminance nulls (minimum motion photometry) using annular stimuli. Luminance nulls between differently colored stimuli require equality in a weighted sum of rod and cone excitations. The relative cone weight increases smoothly from the scotopic range, where rods dominate, to photopic levels, where rod influence becomes negligible. The change from rod to cone vision does not occur uniformly over the visual field. The more peripheral the stimulus location, the higher is the light level required for cones to participate strongly. The relative cone contribution can be described by a sigmoid function of intensity, with two parameters that each depend on the eccentricity and spatial frequency of the stimulus. One parameter determines the "meso-mesopic" luminance--the center of the mesopic range, at which rod and cone contributions are balanced. This increases with eccentricity, reflecting an increase in the meso-mesopic luminance from 0.04 scotopic cd/m(2) at 2° eccentricity to 0.44 scotopic cd/m(2) at 18°. The second parameter represents the slope of the log-log threshold-versus-intensity curve (TVI curve) for rod vision. This parameter inversely scales the width of the mesopic range and increases only slightly with eccentricity (from 0.73 at 2° to 0.78 for vision at 18° off-axis).

  9. Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS). Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    In the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization(MAWS) concept, actual waste streams are utilized as additive resources for vitrification, which may contain the basic components (glass formers and fluxes) for making a suitable glass or glassy slag. If too much glass former is present, then the melt viscosity or temperature will be too high for processing; while if there is too much flux, then the durability may suffer. Therefore, there are optimum combinations of these two important classes of constituents depending on the criteria required. The challenge is to combine these resources in such a way that minimizes the use of non-waste additives yet yields a processable and durable final waste form for disposal. The benefit to this approach is that the volume of the final waste form is minimized (waste loading maximized) since little or no additives are used and vitrification itself results in volume reduction through evaporation of water, combustion of organics, and compaction of the solids into a non-porous glass. This implies a significant reduction in disposal costs due to volume reduction alone, and minimizes future risks/costs due to the long term durability and leach resistance of glass. This is accomplished by using integrated systems that are both cost-effective and produce an environmentally sound waste form for disposal. individual component technologies may include: vitrification; thermal destruction; soil washing; gas scrubbing/filtration; and, ion-exchange wastewater treatment. The particular combination of technologies will depend on the waste streams to be treated. At the heart of MAWS is vitrification technology, which incorporates all primary and secondary waste streams into a final, long-term, stabilized glass wasteform. The integrated technology approach, and view of waste streams as resources, is innovative yet practical to cost effectively treat a broad range of DOE mixed and low-level wastes.

  10. 24 CFR 200.74 - Minimum property standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and... Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Property Requirements § 200.74 Minimum...

  11. 24 CFR 200.74 - Minimum property standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and... Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Property Requirements § 200.74 Minimum...

  12. Solar Activity Heading for a Maunder Minimum?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatten, K. H.; Tobiska, W. K.

    2003-05-01

    Long-range (few years to decades) solar activity prediction techniques vary greatly in their methods. They range from examining planetary orbits, to spectral analyses (e.g. Fourier, wavelet and spectral analyses), to artificial intelligence methods, to simply using general statistical techniques. Rather than concentrate on statistical/mathematical/numerical methods, we discuss a class of methods which appears to have a "physical basis." Not only does it have a physical basis, but this basis is rooted in both "basic" physics (dynamo theory), but also solar physics (Babcock dynamo theory). The class we discuss is referred to as "precursor methods," originally developed by Ohl, Brown and Williams and others, using geomagnetic observations. My colleagues and I have developed some understanding for how these methods work and have expanded the prediction methods using "solar dynamo precursor" methods, notably a "SODA" index (SOlar Dynamo Amplitude). These methods are now based upon an understanding of the Sun's dynamo processes- to explain a connection between how the Sun's fields are generated and how the Sun broadcasts its future activity levels to Earth. This has led to better monitoring of the Sun's dynamo fields and is leading to more accurate prediction techniques. Related to the Sun's polar and toroidal magnetic fields, we explain how these methods work, past predictions, the current cycle, and predictions of future of solar activity levels for the next few solar cycles. The surprising result of these long-range predictions is a rapid decline in solar activity, starting with cycle #24. If this trend continues, we may see the Sun heading towards a "Maunder" type of solar activity minimum - an extensive period of reduced levels of solar activity. For the solar physicists, who enjoy studying solar activity, we hope this isn't so, but for NASA, which must place and maintain satellites in low earth orbit (LEO), it may help with reboost problems. Space debris, and other

  13. MEDOF - MINIMUM EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE OPTIMAL FILTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, R. S.

    1994-01-01

    The Minimum Euclidean Distance Optimal Filter program, MEDOF, generates filters for use in optical correlators. The algorithm implemented in MEDOF follows theory put forth by Richard D. Juday of NASA/JSC. This program analytically optimizes filters on arbitrary spatial light modulators such as coupled, binary, full complex, and fractional 2pi phase. MEDOF optimizes these modulators on a number of metrics including: correlation peak intensity at the origin for the centered appearance of the reference image in the input plane, signal to noise ratio including the correlation detector noise as well as the colored additive input noise, peak to correlation energy defined as the fraction of the signal energy passed by the filter that shows up in the correlation spot, and the peak to total energy which is a generalization of PCE that adds the passed colored input noise to the input image's passed energy. The user of MEDOF supplies the functions that describe the following quantities: 1) the reference signal, 2) the realizable complex encodings of both the input and filter SLM, 3) the noise model, possibly colored, as it adds at the reference image and at the correlation detection plane, and 4) the metric to analyze, here taken to be one of the analytical ones like SNR (signal to noise ratio) or PCE (peak to correlation energy) rather than peak to secondary ratio. MEDOF calculates filters for arbitrary modulators and a wide range of metrics as described above. MEDOF examines the statistics of the encoded input image's noise (if SNR or PCE is selected) and the filter SLM's (Spatial Light Modulator) available values. These statistics are used as the basis of a range for searching for the magnitude and phase of k, a pragmatically based complex constant for computing the filter transmittance from the electric field. The filter is produced for the mesh points in those ranges and the value of the metric that results from these points is computed. When the search is concluded, the

  14. 30 CFR 75.1431 - Minimum rope strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1431 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal strength (manufacturer's published catalog strength) of wire ropes... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minimum rope strength. 75.1431 Section...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1431 - Minimum rope strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1431 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal strength (manufacturer's published catalog strength) of wire ropes... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minimum rope strength. 75.1431 Section...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1431 - Minimum rope strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1431 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal strength (manufacturer's published catalog strength) of wire ropes... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum rope strength. 75.1431 Section...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1431 - Minimum rope strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1431 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal strength (manufacturer's published catalog strength) of wire ropes... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum rope strength. 75.1431 Section...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1431 - Minimum rope strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1431 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal strength (manufacturer's published catalog strength) of wire ropes... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum rope strength. 75.1431 Section...

  19. 24 CFR 200.925 - Applicability of minimum property standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applicability of minimum property standards. 200.925 Section 200.925 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Minimum Property Standards §...

  20. 24 CFR 200.933 - Changes in minimum property standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Changes in minimum property standards. 200.933 Section 200.933 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Minimum Property Standards §...

  1. Minimum Accident of Concern - A Different Basis for CAS Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, D.

    2002-01-31

    A Criticality Alarm System is normally designed to detect immediately the minimum accident of concern. This report covers the methodology to establish a different minimum accident of concern developed for shielded facilities and applied to a case of the canyon sump excursion in a Savannah River Site facility.

  2. 30 CFR 18.97 - Inspection of machines; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inspection of machines; minimum requirements... Field Approval of Electrically Operated Mining Equipment § 18.97 Inspection of machines; minimum requirements. (a) Except as provided in § 18.95, all machines approved under the provisions of this subpart...

  3. 30 CFR 18.97 - Inspection of machines; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inspection of machines; minimum requirements... Field Approval of Electrically Operated Mining Equipment § 18.97 Inspection of machines; minimum requirements. (a) Except as provided in § 18.95, all machines approved under the provisions of this subpart...

  4. 30 CFR 18.97 - Inspection of machines; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inspection of machines; minimum requirements... Field Approval of Electrically Operated Mining Equipment § 18.97 Inspection of machines; minimum requirements. (a) Except as provided in § 18.95, all machines approved under the provisions of this subpart...

  5. 30 CFR 18.97 - Inspection of machines; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inspection of machines; minimum requirements... Field Approval of Electrically Operated Mining Equipment § 18.97 Inspection of machines; minimum requirements. (a) Except as provided in § 18.95, all machines approved under the provisions of this subpart...

  6. 30 CFR 18.97 - Inspection of machines; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection of machines; minimum requirements... Field Approval of Electrically Operated Mining Equipment § 18.97 Inspection of machines; minimum requirements. (a) Except as provided in § 18.95, all machines approved under the provisions of this subpart...

  7. 29 CFR 541.604 - Minimum guarantee plus extras.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum guarantee plus extras. 541.604 Section 541.604 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS... SALES EMPLOYEES Salary Requirements § 541.604 Minimum guarantee plus extras. (a) An employer may...

  8. 38 CFR 36.4351 - Minimum property and construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum property and construction requirements. 36.4351 Section 36.4351 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty or Insurance of Loans to Veterans With Electronic Reporting § 36.4351 Minimum property...

  9. 38 CFR 36.4521 - Minimum property and construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum property and construction requirements. 36.4521 Section 36.4521 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Direct Loans § 36.4521 Minimum property and construction requirements. No loan for the purchase...

  10. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum net worth amount. 422.382 Section 422.382 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Provider-Sponsored Organizations § 422.382 Minimum net worth amount. (a) At the time...

  11. Legal Issues in Minimum Competency Testing. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Tests, Measurement, and Evaluation, Princeton, NJ.

    The rapid growth of minimum competency testing (by 1981, 36 states in the United States had mandated some form of minimum competency testing) has led to increased legal challenges of the existing testing programs. Three issues have been raised and are summarized in this brief overview: (1) constitutional claims under the due process clause; (2)…

  12. 9 CFR 2.130 - Minimum age requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum age requirements. 2.130... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.130 Minimum age requirements. No dog or cat shall be... least eight (8) weeks of age and has been weaned....

  13. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....382 Minimum net worth amount. (a) At the time an organization applies to contract with CMS as a PSO... the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain a minimum net worth amount equal to the... equivalents. (ii) After the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain the greater of...

  14. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....382 Minimum net worth amount. (a) At the time an organization applies to contract with CMS as a PSO... the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain a minimum net worth amount equal to the... equivalents. (ii) After the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain the greater of...

  15. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....382 Minimum net worth amount. (a) At the time an organization applies to contract with CMS as a PSO... the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain a minimum net worth amount equal to the... equivalents. (ii) After the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain the greater of...

  16. 47 CFR 25.205 - Minimum angle of antenna elevation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minimum angle of antenna elevation. 25.205... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.205 Minimum angle of antenna elevation. (a) Earth station antennas shall not normally be authorized for transmission at angles less than 5° measured from...

  17. 47 CFR 25.205 - Minimum angle of antenna elevation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum angle of antenna elevation. 25.205... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.205 Minimum angle of antenna elevation. (a) Earth station antennas shall not normally be authorized for transmission at angles less than 5° measured from...

  18. 47 CFR 25.205 - Minimum angle of antenna elevation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minimum angle of antenna elevation. 25.205... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.205 Minimum angle of antenna elevation. (a) Earth station antennas shall not normally be authorized for transmission at angles less than 5° measured from...

  19. 47 CFR 25.205 - Minimum angle of antenna elevation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minimum angle of antenna elevation. 25.205... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.205 Minimum angle of antenna elevation. (a) Earth station antennas shall not normally be authorized for transmission at angles less than 5° measured from...

  20. 47 CFR 25.205 - Minimum angle of antenna elevation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum angle of antenna elevation. 25.205... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.205 Minimum angle of antenna elevation. (a) Earth station antennas shall not normally be authorized for transmission at angles less than 5° measured from...

  1. 43 CFR 3142.2 - Minimum production levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum production levels. 3142.2 Section 3142.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Quantities/Diligent Development for Combined Hydrocarbon Leases § 3142.2 Minimum production levels....

  2. Minimum Library Use Skills: Standards, Test, and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Jo Ann, Ed.

    Compiled by the Wisconsin Association of Academic Librarians' (WAAL) Education and Library Use Committee, the Test of Minimum Library Use Skills provides examples of questions which may be used to assess students' knowledge of the 13 minimum library use skills adapted by the WAAL membership in 1983. The 59 multiple choice questions that make up…

  3. 13 CFR 107.210 - Minimum capital requirements for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... except the minimum capital requirement, as determined solely by SBA; (ii) Has a viable business plan... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum capital requirements for Licensees. 107.210 Section 107.210 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION...

  4. 12 CFR 3.6 - Minimum capital ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum capital ratios. 3.6 Section 3.6 Banks... maintain Tier 1 capital in an amount equal to at least 3.0 percent of adjusted total assets. (c) Additional... banks meeting the conditions set forth in this paragraph (c), the minimum Tier 1 leverage ratio is...

  5. 12 CFR 3.6 - Minimum capital ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum capital ratios. 3.6 Section 3.6 Banks... maintain Tier 1 capital in an amount equal to at least 3.0 percent of adjusted total assets. (c) Additional... banks meeting the conditions set forth in this paragraph (c), the minimum Tier 1 leverage ratio is...

  6. The Minimum Wage, Restaurant Prices, and Labor Market Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaronson, Daniel; French, Eric; MacDonald, James

    2008-01-01

    Using store-level and aggregated Consumer Price Index data, we show that restaurant prices rise in response to minimum wage increases under several sources of identifying variation. We introduce a general model of employment determination that implies minimum wage hikes cause prices to rise in competitive labor markets but potentially fall in…

  7. The Minimum Wage and the Employment of Teenagers. Recent Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallick, Bruce; Currie, Janet

    A study used individual-level data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth to examine the effects of changes in the federal minimum wage on teenage employment. Individuals in the sample were classified as either likely or unlikely to be affected by these increases in the federal minimum wage on the basis of their wage rates and industry of…

  8. The Effect of Minimum Wage Rates on High School Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, John Robert; Hamrock, Caitlin

    2010-01-01

    Does increasing the minimum wage reduce the high school completion rate? Previous research has suffered from (1. narrow time horizons, (2. potentially inadequate measures of states' high school completion rates, and (3. potentially inadequate measures of minimum wage rates. Overcoming each of these limitations, we analyze the impact of changes in…

  9. 24 CFR 3286.505 - Minimum elements to be inspected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minimum elements to be inspected...-Administered States § 3286.505 Minimum elements to be inspected. The installation of every manufactured home... the installation elements included in a checklist. The checklist must include assurance that each...

  10. 24 CFR 3286.505 - Minimum elements to be inspected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Minimum elements to be inspected...-Administered States § 3286.505 Minimum elements to be inspected. The installation of every manufactured home... the installation elements included in a checklist. The checklist must include assurance that each...

  11. 24 CFR 3286.505 - Minimum elements to be inspected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Minimum elements to be inspected...-Administered States § 3286.505 Minimum elements to be inspected. The installation of every manufactured home... the installation elements included in a checklist. The checklist must include assurance that each...

  12. 24 CFR 3286.505 - Minimum elements to be inspected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Minimum elements to be inspected...-Administered States § 3286.505 Minimum elements to be inspected. The installation of every manufactured home... the installation elements included in a checklist. The checklist must include assurance that each...

  13. 42 CFR 84.79 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing gas; minimum requirements. 84.79 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.79 Breathing gas; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing gas used to supply... respiratory tract irritating compounds. (c) Compressed, gaseous breathing air shall meet the...

  14. 42 CFR 84.79 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing gas; minimum requirements. 84.79 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.79 Breathing gas; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing gas used to supply... respiratory tract irritating compounds. (c) Compressed, gaseous breathing air shall meet the...

  15. 42 CFR 84.141 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing gas; minimum requirements. 84.141 Section... Respirators § 84.141 Breathing gas; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing gas used to supply supplied-air respirators shall be respirable breathing air and contain no less than 19.5 volume-percent of oxygen....

  16. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  17. 42 CFR 84.141 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing gas; minimum requirements. 84.141 Section... Respirators § 84.141 Breathing gas; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing gas used to supply supplied-air respirators shall be respirable breathing air and contain no less than 19.5 volume-percent of oxygen....

  18. 42 CFR 84.122 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84... Masks § 84.122 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece of a gas mask mounted on a breathing machine both before and...

  19. 42 CFR 84.141 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing gas; minimum requirements. 84.141 Section... Respirators § 84.141 Breathing gas; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing gas used to supply supplied-air respirators shall be respirable breathing air and contain no less than 19.5 volume-percent of oxygen....

  20. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  1. 42 CFR 84.203 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84.203 Section 84.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.203 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance...

  2. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  3. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  4. 42 CFR 84.122 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84... Masks § 84.122 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece of a gas mask mounted on a breathing machine both before and...

  5. 42 CFR 84.122 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84... Masks § 84.122 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece of a gas mask mounted on a breathing machine both before and...

  6. 42 CFR 84.141 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing gas; minimum requirements. 84.141 Section... Respirators § 84.141 Breathing gas; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing gas used to supply supplied-air respirators shall be respirable breathing air and contain no less than 19.5 volume-percent of oxygen....

  7. 42 CFR 84.79 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing gas; minimum requirements. 84.79 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.79 Breathing gas; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing gas used to supply... respiratory tract irritating compounds. (c) Compressed, gaseous breathing air shall meet the...

  8. 42 CFR 84.79 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing gas; minimum requirements. 84.79 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.79 Breathing gas; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing gas used to supply... respiratory tract irritating compounds. (c) Compressed, gaseous breathing air shall meet the...

  9. 42 CFR 84.203 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84.203 Section 84.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.203 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance...

  10. 42 CFR 84.79 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing gas; minimum requirements. 84.79 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.79 Breathing gas; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing gas used to supply... respiratory tract irritating compounds. (c) Compressed, gaseous breathing air shall meet the...

  11. 42 CFR 84.141 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing gas; minimum requirements. 84.141 Section... Respirators § 84.141 Breathing gas; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing gas used to supply supplied-air respirators shall be respirable breathing air and contain no less than 19.5 volume-percent of oxygen....

  12. 42 CFR 84.203 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84.203 Section 84.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.203 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance...

  13. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  14. 6 CFR 27.204 - Minimum concentration by security issue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum concentration by security issue. 27.204... FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.204 Minimum concentration by... is present in a mixture, and the concentration of the chemical is equal to or greater than...

  15. 6 CFR 27.204 - Minimum concentration by security issue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum concentration by security issue. 27.204... FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.204 Minimum concentration by... is present in a mixture, and the concentration of the chemical is equal to or greater than...

  16. 14 CFR 93.311 - Minimum terrain clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum terrain clearance. 93.311 Section 93.311 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.311 Minimum terrain clearance. Except in an emergency,...

  17. 42 CFR 84.197 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.197... Cartridge Respirators § 84.197 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. Respirators shall be equipped with a substantial, durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type...

  18. 42 CFR 84.134 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.134... Respirators § 84.134 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. Supplied-air respirators shall be equipped with a substantial, durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type...

  19. 42 CFR 84.174 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.174... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.174 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. (a) Except..., durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type of respirator it...

  20. 42 CFR 84.1134 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84... Combination Gas Masks § 84.1134 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section each respirator shall be equipped with a substantial, durable...

  1. 50 CFR 622.454 - Minimum size limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.454 Minimum size limit. (a) The minimum size limit for Caribbean spiny lobster is 3.5 inches (8.9 cm), carapace length. (b) A spiny lobster not... operator of a vessel that fishes in the EEZ is responsible for ensuring that spiny lobster on board are...

  2. 50 CFR 622.454 - Minimum size limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.454 Minimum size limit. (a) The minimum size limit for Caribbean spiny lobster is 3.5 inches (8.9 cm), carapace length. (b) A spiny lobster not... operator of a vessel that fishes in the EEZ is responsible for ensuring that spiny lobster on board are...

  3. 9 CFR 147.51 - Authorized laboratory minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authorized laboratory minimum requirements. 147.51 Section 147.51 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Authorized Laboratories and Approved Tests § 147.51 Authorized laboratory minimum requirements. These...

  4. 76 FR 30243 - Minimum Security Devices and Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Minimum Security Devices and Procedures AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... following information collection. Title of Proposal: Minimum Security Devices and Procedures. OMB Number... security program is necessitated by the Bank Protection Act (12 U.S.C. 1881-1884), which requires...

  5. 76 FR 15368 - Minimum Security Devices and Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Minimum Security Devices and Procedures AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... collection. Title of Proposal: Minimum Security Devices and Procedures. OMB Number: 1550-0062. Form Number: N/A. Description: The requirement that savings associations establish a written security program...

  6. 24 CFR 3280.110 - Minimum room dimensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum room dimensions. 3280.110 Section 3280.110 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Minimum room dimensions. The gross floor area required by § 3280.110 (a) and (b) shall have no...

  7. 49 CFR 236.562 - Minimum rail current required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum rail current required. 236.562 Section 236.562 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... rail current required. The minimum rail current required to restore the locomotive equipment...

  8. 5 CFR 844.303 - Minimum disability annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum disability annuity. 844.303... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DISABILITY RETIREMENT Computation of Disability Annuity § 844.303 Minimum disability annuity. Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, an...

  9. The Age 21 Minimum Legal Drinking Age Law. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Currently, all 50 states limit alcohol purchases to people aged 21 and over. But that hasn't always been the case. In fact, it was July 17, 1984, when President Ronald Reagan signed the national 21 minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) legislation into law. At that time, only 23 states had minimum alcohol purchasing ages of 21 years old. The…

  10. 33 CFR 67.05-20 - Minimum lighting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum lighting requirements. 67.05-20 Section 67.05-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... for Lights § 67.05-20 Minimum lighting requirements. The obstruction lighting requirements...

  11. 33 CFR 67.05-20 - Minimum lighting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minimum lighting requirements. 67.05-20 Section 67.05-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... for Lights § 67.05-20 Minimum lighting requirements. The obstruction lighting requirements...

  12. 33 CFR 67.05-20 - Minimum lighting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum lighting requirements. 67.05-20 Section 67.05-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... for Lights § 67.05-20 Minimum lighting requirements. The obstruction lighting requirements...

  13. 33 CFR 67.05-20 - Minimum lighting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minimum lighting requirements. 67.05-20 Section 67.05-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... for Lights § 67.05-20 Minimum lighting requirements. The obstruction lighting requirements...

  14. 33 CFR 67.05-20 - Minimum lighting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum lighting requirements. 67.05-20 Section 67.05-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... for Lights § 67.05-20 Minimum lighting requirements. The obstruction lighting requirements...

  15. State cigarette minimum price laws - United States, 2009.

    PubMed

    2010-04-09

    Cigarette price increases reduce the demand for cigarettes and thereby reduce smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption, and youth initiation of smoking. Excise tax increases are the most effective government intervention to increase the price of cigarettes, but cigarette manufacturers use trade discounts, coupons, and other promotions to counteract the effects of these tax increases and appeal to price-sensitive smokers. State cigarette minimum price laws, initiated by states in the 1940s and 1950s to protect tobacco retailers from predatory business practices, typically require a minimum percentage markup to be added to the wholesale and/or retail price. If a statute prohibits trade discounts from the minimum price calculation, these laws have the potential to counteract discounting by cigarette manufacturers. To assess the status of cigarette minimum price laws in the United States, CDC surveyed state statutes and identified those states with minimum price laws in effect as of December 31, 2009. This report summarizes the results of that survey, which determined that 25 states had minimum price laws for cigarettes (median wholesale markup: 4.00%; median retail markup: 8.00%), and seven of those states also expressly prohibited the use of trade discounts in the minimum retail price calculation. Minimum price laws can help prevent trade discounting from eroding the positive effects of state excise tax increases and higher cigarette prices on public health.

  16. The Arguments and Data in Favor of Minimum Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carifio, James; Carey, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    The arguments and for and against minimum grading systems have grown increasingly more intense and acrimonious in the past decade. However, there has been an absence of empirical data, theory and clear comparative analyses of conflicting points of view. Critics of minimum grading contend that the practice will produce grade inflation and social…

  17. 42 CFR 84.82 - Gas pressure gages; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gas pressure gages; minimum requirements. 84.82...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.82 Gas pressure gages; minimum requirements. (a) Gas pressure gages.... (c) Gas pressure gages other than those specified in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section shall...

  18. 12 CFR 225.64 - Minimum appraisal standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 225.64 Section 225... SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards for Federally Related Transactions § 225.64 Minimum appraisal standards. For federally...

  19. Granulation Properties in DOT Images from Solar Maximum to Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pötzi, W.

    DOT granulation filtergrams in the G-Band from solar maximum to solar minimum (1999 to 2007) were investigated for changes of granulation properties like areas, perimeter, fractal dimension, cell sizes, and life times. Granules seem to become larger during solar minimum, whereas the distances between the granule centres stay constant. Nonetheless, the uncertainties are very high.

  20. 14 CFR 125.379 - Landing weather minimums: IFR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Landing weather minimums: IFR. 125.379 Section 125.379 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 125.379 Landing weather minimums: IFR. (a) If the pilot in command of an airplane has not served...

  1. 14 CFR 121.655 - Applicability of reported weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicability of reported weather minimums... § 121.655 Applicability of reported weather minimums. In conducting operations under §§ 121.649 through 121.653, the ceiling and visibility values in the main body of the latest weather report control...

  2. 14 CFR 135.221 - IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.221 IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may designate an alternate airport unless the weather reports or forecasts, or...

  3. 14 CFR 91.155 - Basic VFR weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Basic VFR weather minimums. 91.155 Section 91.155 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Rules § 91.155 Basic VFR weather minimums. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section...

  4. 14 CFR 125.379 - Landing weather minimums: IFR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Landing weather minimums: IFR. 125.379 Section 125.379 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 125.379 Landing weather minimums: IFR. (a) If the pilot in command of an airplane has not served...

  5. 14 CFR 125.379 - Landing weather minimums: IFR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Landing weather minimums: IFR. 125.379 Section 125.379 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 125.379 Landing weather minimums: IFR. (a) If the pilot in command of an airplane has not served...

  6. 14 CFR 121.655 - Applicability of reported weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicability of reported weather minimums... § 121.655 Applicability of reported weather minimums. In conducting operations under §§ 121.649 through 121.653, the ceiling and visibility values in the main body of the latest weather report control...

  7. 14 CFR 121.655 - Applicability of reported weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applicability of reported weather minimums... § 121.655 Applicability of reported weather minimums. In conducting operations under §§ 121.649 through 121.653, the ceiling and visibility values in the main body of the latest weather report control...

  8. 14 CFR 91.155 - Basic VFR weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Basic VFR weather minimums. 91.155 Section 91.155 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Rules § 91.155 Basic VFR weather minimums. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section...

  9. 14 CFR 135.221 - IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.221 IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may designate an alternate airport unless the weather reports or forecasts, or...

  10. 14 CFR 91.155 - Basic VFR weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Basic VFR weather minimums. 91.155 Section 91.155 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Rules § 91.155 Basic VFR weather minimums. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section...

  11. 14 CFR 121.655 - Applicability of reported weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applicability of reported weather minimums... § 121.655 Applicability of reported weather minimums. In conducting operations under §§ 121.649 through 121.653, the ceiling and visibility values in the main body of the latest weather report control...

  12. 14 CFR 125.379 - Landing weather minimums: IFR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing weather minimums: IFR. 125.379 Section 125.379 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 125.379 Landing weather minimums: IFR. (a) If the pilot in command of an airplane has not served...

  13. 14 CFR 125.379 - Landing weather minimums: IFR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Landing weather minimums: IFR. 125.379 Section 125.379 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 125.379 Landing weather minimums: IFR. (a) If the pilot in command of an airplane has not served...

  14. 14 CFR 135.221 - IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.221 IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may designate an alternate airport unless the weather reports or forecasts, or...

  15. 14 CFR 135.221 - IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.221 IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may designate an alternate airport unless the weather reports or forecasts, or...

  16. 14 CFR 121.655 - Applicability of reported weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability of reported weather minimums... § 121.655 Applicability of reported weather minimums. In conducting operations under §§ 121.649 through 121.653, the ceiling and visibility values in the main body of the latest weather report control...

  17. 14 CFR 91.155 - Basic VFR weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Basic VFR weather minimums. 91.155 Section 91.155 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Rules § 91.155 Basic VFR weather minimums. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section...

  18. 14 CFR 135.221 - IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.221 IFR: Alternate airport weather minimums. No person may designate an alternate airport unless the weather reports or forecasts, or...

  19. 5 CFR 890.1007 - Minimum length of mandatory debarments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum length of mandatory debarments. 890.1007 Section 890.1007 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... Against Health Care Providers Mandatory Debarments § 890.1007 Minimum length of mandatory debarments....

  20. 5 CFR 890.1007 - Minimum length of mandatory debarments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum length of mandatory debarments. 890.1007 Section 890.1007 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... Against Health Care Providers Mandatory Debarments § 890.1007 Minimum length of mandatory debarments....

  1. 47 CFR 73.807 - Minimum distance separation between stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minimum distance separation between stations... separation between stations. Minimum separation requirements for LP100 and LP10 stations, as defined in §§ 73... the co-channel, first- and second-adjacent and IF channel separations are met. An LPFM station...

  2. 47 CFR 73.507 - Minimum distance separations between stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum distance separations between stations... separations between stations. (a) Minimum distance separations. No application for a new station, or change in... proposed facilities will be located so as to meet the adjacent channel distance separations specified...

  3. 47 CFR 73.610 - Minimum distance separations between stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minimum distance separations between stations... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.610 Minimum distance separations between stations. (a) The provisions of this section relate to allotment separations and...

  4. 47 CFR 73.610 - Minimum distance separations between stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum distance separations between stations... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.610 Minimum distance separations between stations. (a) The provisions of this section relate to allotment separations and...

  5. 47 CFR 73.507 - Minimum distance separations between stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minimum distance separations between stations... separations between stations. (a) Minimum distance separations. No application for a new station, or change in... proposed facilities will be located so as to meet the adjacent channel distance separations specified...

  6. 47 CFR 73.507 - Minimum distance separations between stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minimum distance separations between stations... separations between stations. (a) Minimum distance separations. No application for a new station, or change in... proposed facilities will be located so as to meet the adjacent channel distance separations specified...

  7. 47 CFR 73.610 - Minimum distance separations between stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum distance separations between stations... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.610 Minimum distance separations between stations. (a) The provisions of this section relate to allotment separations and...

  8. 47 CFR 73.610 - Minimum distance separations between stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minimum distance separations between stations... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.610 Minimum distance separations between stations. (a) The provisions of this section relate to allotment separations and...

  9. 47 CFR 73.507 - Minimum distance separations between stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum distance separations between stations... separations between stations. (a) Minimum distance separations. No application for a new station, or change in... proposed facilities will be located so as to meet the adjacent channel distance separations specified...

  10. 47 CFR 73.807 - Minimum distance separation between stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minimum distance separation between stations... separation between stations. Minimum separation requirements for LPFM stations are listed in the following...- and second-adjacent channel separations are met. An LPFM station need not satisfy the...

  11. 47 CFR 73.807 - Minimum distance separation between stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minimum distance separation between stations... separation between stations. Minimum separation requirements for LPFM stations are listed in the following...- and second-adjacent channel separations are met. An LPFM station need not satisfy the...

  12. 47 CFR 73.610 - Minimum distance separations between stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minimum distance separations between stations... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.610 Minimum distance separations between stations. (a) The provisions of this section relate to allotment separations and...

  13. 47 CFR 73.507 - Minimum distance separations between stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minimum distance separations between stations... separations between stations. (a) Minimum distance separations. No application for a new station, or change in... proposed facilities will be located so as to meet the adjacent channel distance separations specified...

  14. 32 CFR 552.68 - Minimum requirements for agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... securities cannot be made to the insurer. (7) Overseas commanders will exercise further agent control... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minimum requirements for agents. 552.68 Section... Reservations § 552.68 Minimum requirements for agents. (a) In the United States, its territories, and...

  15. 42 CFR 84.117 - Gas mask containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. 84.117... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.117 Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. (a) Gas masks shall be equipped with a...

  16. 42 CFR 84.117 - Gas mask containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. 84.117... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.117 Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. (a) Gas masks shall be equipped with a...

  17. 42 CFR 84.117 - Gas mask containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. 84.117... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.117 Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. (a) Gas masks shall be equipped with a...

  18. 42 CFR 84.117 - Gas mask containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. 84.117... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.117 Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. (a) Gas masks shall be equipped with a...

  19. 45 CFR 158.210 - Minimum medical loss ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum medical loss ratio. 158.210 Section 158.210 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS... § 158.210 Minimum medical loss ratio. Subject to the provisions of § 158.211 of this subpart: (a)...

  20. 30 CFR 77.606-1 - Rubber gloves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. 77.606-1... COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.606-1 Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. (a) Rubber gloves (lineman's... be used and tested in accordance with the provisions of §§ 77.704-6 through 77.704-8. (b)...

  1. 30 CFR 77.606-1 - Rubber gloves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. 77.606-1... COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.606-1 Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. (a) Rubber gloves (lineman's... be used and tested in accordance with the provisions of §§ 77.704-6 through 77.704-8. (b)...

  2. 30 CFR 77.606-1 - Rubber gloves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. 77.606-1... COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.606-1 Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. (a) Rubber gloves (lineman's... be used and tested in accordance with the provisions of §§ 77.704-6 through 77.704-8. (b)...

  3. 30 CFR 77.606-1 - Rubber gloves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. 77.606-1... COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.606-1 Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. (a) Rubber gloves (lineman's... be used and tested in accordance with the provisions of §§ 77.704-6 through 77.704-8. (b)...

  4. 30 CFR 77.606-1 - Rubber gloves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. 77.606-1... COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.606-1 Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. (a) Rubber gloves (lineman's... be used and tested in accordance with the provisions of §§ 77.704-6 through 77.704-8. (b)...

  5. 34 CFR 303.512 - Minimum State complaint procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES State Administration Lead Agency Procedures for Resolving Complaints § 303.512 Minimum State complaint procedures. (a) Time limit, minimum procedures. Each lead agency shall include in...) to— (1) Carry out an independent on-site investigation, if the lead agency determines that such...

  6. 34 CFR 303.512 - Minimum State complaint procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES State Administration Lead Agency Procedures for Resolving Complaints § 303.512 Minimum State complaint procedures. (a) Time limit, minimum procedures. Each lead agency shall include in...) to— (1) Carry out an independent on-site investigation, if the lead agency determines that such...

  7. 49 CFR 236.54 - Minimum length of track circuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum length of track circuit. 236.54 Section... Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.54 Minimum length of track circuit. When a track circuit shorter than maximum inner wheelbase of any locomotive or car operated over such track circuit is used...

  8. 42 CFR 84.74 - Apparatus containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Apparatus containers; minimum requirements. 84.74...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.74 Apparatus containers; minimum requirements. (a) Apparatus may be...) Containers supplied by the applicant for carrying or storing self-contained breathing apparatus will...

  9. 42 CFR 84.74 - Apparatus containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Apparatus containers; minimum requirements. 84.74...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.74 Apparatus containers; minimum requirements. (a) Apparatus may be...) Containers supplied by the applicant for carrying or storing self-contained breathing apparatus will...

  10. Choosing Minimum Passing Scores by Stochastic Approximation Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Samuel A.

    1980-01-01

    A specified minimum performance level can be translated into a minimum passing score for the written test by measuring the performance of students whose written test scores are near the desired cutoff score. Stochastic approximation methods accomplish this purpose. The up-and-down method and the Robbins-Monro process are compared. (Author/RL)

  11. 49 CFR 383.135 - Minimum passing scores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum passing scores. 383.135 Section 383.135... STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Tests § 383.135 Minimum passing scores. (a) The driver applicant must correctly answer at least 80 percent of the questions on each knowledge test in order to achieve a...

  12. 42 CFR 84.203 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.203 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to... resistance requirements for chemical cartridge respirators are as follows: Maximum Resistance Type...

  13. 42 CFR 84.203 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.203 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to... resistance requirements for chemical cartridge respirators are as follows: Maximum Resistance Type...

  14. 42 CFR 84.122 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84... Masks § 84.122 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be... rate of 85 liters per minute. (b) The maximum allowable resistance requirements for gas masks are...

  15. 42 CFR 84.122 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84... Masks § 84.122 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be... rate of 85 liters per minute. (b) The maximum allowable resistance requirements for gas masks are...

  16. 29 CFR 779.508 - Eighteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eighteen-year minimum. 779.508 Section 779.508 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... § 779.508 Eighteen-year minimum. To protect young workers from hazardous employment, the Act...

  17. 29 CFR 779.508 - Eighteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eighteen-year minimum. 779.508 Section 779.508 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... § 779.508 Eighteen-year minimum. To protect young workers from hazardous employment, the Act...

  18. 27 CFR 40.526 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. 40.526 Section 40.526 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Manufacturers of Processed Tobacco § 40.526 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. A permit...

  19. 27 CFR 40.526 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. 40.526 Section 40.526 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Manufacturers of Processed Tobacco § 40.526 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. A permit...

  20. 27 CFR 40.526 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. 40.526 Section 40.526 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Manufacturers of Processed Tobacco § 40.526 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. A permit...

  1. 27 CFR 40.526 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. 40.526 Section 40.526 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Manufacturers of Processed Tobacco § 40.526 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. A permit...

  2. 27 CFR 40.526 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. 40.526 Section 40.526 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Manufacturers of Processed Tobacco § 40.526 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. A permit...

  3. 5 CFR 9901.407 - Minimum period of performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.407 Minimum period of performance. (a) Only... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum period of performance. 9901.407 Section 9901.407 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND...

  4. 5 CFR 9901.407 - Minimum period of performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.407 Minimum period of performance. (a) Only... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum period of performance. 9901.407 Section 9901.407 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND...

  5. On the Compelling Need to Go beyond Minimum Competency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    The essential meaninglessness of the phrase "Minimum Competency" is discussed and it is placed in the larger context of "The Basics." It is argued that "The Basics" as taught in preparation for minimum competency tests (MCT) are not basic either in the sense of being essential skills or enabling skills. Using research findings and common sense,…

  6. Theoretical minimum energies to produce steel for selected conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Fruehan, R. J.; Fortini, O.; Paxton, H. W.; Brindle, R.

    2000-03-01

    An ITP study has determined the theoretical minimum energy requirements for producing steel from ore, scrap, and direct reduced iron. Dr. Richard Fruehan's report, Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions, provides insight into the potential energy savings (and associated reductions in carbon dioxide emissions) for ironmaking, steelmaking, and rolling processes (PDF 459 KB).

  7. 42 CFR 84.1138 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.1138... Gas Masks § 84.1138 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) All facepieces shall be equipped with head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an even...

  8. 42 CFR 84.178 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.178... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.178 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) All facepieces shall be equipped with head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension...

  9. 42 CFR 84.138 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.138... Respirators § 84.138 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses which are designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use, and...

  10. 42 CFR 84.1138 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.1138... Gas Masks § 84.1138 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) All facepieces shall be equipped with head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an even...

  11. 42 CFR 84.121 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.121... § 84.121 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses, designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an...

  12. 42 CFR 84.178 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.178... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.178 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) All facepieces shall be equipped with head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension...

  13. 42 CFR 84.138 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.138... Respirators § 84.138 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses which are designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use, and...

  14. 42 CFR 84.78 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.78 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.78 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate...

  15. 42 CFR 84.178 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.178... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.178 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) All facepieces shall be equipped with head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension...

  16. 42 CFR 84.1138 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.1138... Gas Masks § 84.1138 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) All facepieces shall be equipped with head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an even...

  17. 42 CFR 84.138 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.138... Respirators § 84.138 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses which are designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use, and...

  18. 42 CFR 84.201 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.201... Cartridge Respirators § 84.201 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a)(1) Facepieces for chemical... head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an even...

  19. 42 CFR 84.178 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.178... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.178 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) All facepieces shall be equipped with head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension...

  20. 42 CFR 84.1138 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.1138... Gas Masks § 84.1138 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) All facepieces shall be equipped with head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an even...

  1. 42 CFR 84.201 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.201... Cartridge Respirators § 84.201 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a)(1) Facepieces for chemical... head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an even...

  2. 42 CFR 84.138 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.138... Respirators § 84.138 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses which are designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use, and...

  3. 42 CFR 84.178 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.178... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.178 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) All facepieces shall be equipped with head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension...

  4. 42 CFR 84.121 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.121... § 84.121 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses, designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an...

  5. 42 CFR 84.201 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.201... Cartridge Respirators § 84.201 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a)(1) Facepieces for chemical... head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an even...

  6. 42 CFR 84.1138 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.1138... Gas Masks § 84.1138 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) All facepieces shall be equipped with head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an even...

  7. 42 CFR 84.78 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.78 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.78 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate...

  8. 42 CFR 84.201 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.201... Cartridge Respirators § 84.201 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a)(1) Facepieces for chemical... head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an even...

  9. 42 CFR 84.121 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.121... § 84.121 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses, designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an...

  10. 42 CFR 84.121 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.121... § 84.121 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses, designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an...

  11. 42 CFR 84.78 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.78 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.78 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate...

  12. 42 CFR 84.78 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.78 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.78 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate...

  13. 42 CFR 84.121 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.121... § 84.121 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses, designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an...

  14. 42 CFR 84.201 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.201... Cartridge Respirators § 84.201 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a)(1) Facepieces for chemical... head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an even...

  15. 42 CFR 84.78 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.78 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.78 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate...

  16. 42 CFR 84.138 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.138... Respirators § 84.138 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses which are designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use, and...

  17. 42 CFR 84.205 - Facepiece test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facepiece test; minimum requirements. 84.205... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.205 Facepiece test; minimum requirements. (a) The complete chemical...

  18. 42 CFR 84.205 - Facepiece test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Facepiece test; minimum requirements. 84.205... Cartridge Respirators § 84.205 Facepiece test; minimum requirements. (a) The complete chemical cartridge... of faces they are designed to fit, the Institute will provide test subjects to suit such...

  19. 42 CFR 84.205 - Facepiece test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Facepiece test; minimum requirements. 84.205... Cartridge Respirators § 84.205 Facepiece test; minimum requirements. (a) The complete chemical cartridge... of faces they are designed to fit, the Institute will provide test subjects to suit such...

  20. 42 CFR 84.205 - Facepiece test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Facepiece test; minimum requirements. 84.205... Cartridge Respirators § 84.205 Facepiece test; minimum requirements. (a) The complete chemical cartridge... of faces they are designed to fit, the Institute will provide test subjects to suit such...