... ankle - arthroscopy; Surgery - ankle - arthroscopic References Cerrato R, Campbell J, Triche R. Ankle arthroscopy. In: Miller MD, ... and ankle. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ...
Cavallo, M; Natali, S; Ruffilli, A; Buda, R; Vannini, F; Castagnini, F; Ferranti, E; Giannini, S
The ankle joint can be affected by several diseases, with clinical presentation varying from mild pain or swelling to inability, becoming in some cases a serious problem in daily life activities. Arthroscopy is a widely performed procedure in orthopedic surgery, due to the low invasivity compared to the more traditional open field surgery. The ankle joint presents anatomical specificities, like small space and tangential view that make arthroscopy more difficult. From 2000 more than 600 ankle arthroscopies were performed at our institution. The treated pathologies were mostly impingement syndrome and osteochondral lesions, and in lower percentage instabilities and ankle fractures. In the impingement, the AOFAS scores at FU showed an increase compared to scores collected preoperatively, with improvement of symptoms in most of the cases, good or excellent results in 80 % of cases. In ligament injuries, AOFAS score significatively improved at the maximum follow-up. In fractures all patients had an excellent AOFAS score at maximum follow-up, with complete return to their pre-injury activities. In osteochondral injuries, the clinical results showed a progressive improvement over time with the different performed procedures. Control MRI and bioptic samples showed a good regeneration of the cartilage and bone tissue in the lesion site. The encouraging obtained clinical results, in line with the literature, show how the arthroscopic technique, after an adequate learning curve, may represent a precious aid for the orthopedic surgeon and for the patient's outcome. Case series, Level IV.
Cugat, Ramon; Ares, Oscar; Cuscó, Xavier; Garcia, Montserrat; Samitier, Gonzalo; Seijas, Roberto
Ankle arthroscopy provides a minimally invasive approach to the diagnosis and treatment of certain ankle disorders. Neurological complications resulting from ankle arthroscopy have been well documented in orthopaedic and podiatric literature. Owing to the superficial location of the ankle joint and the abundance of overlying periarticular neurovascular structures, complications reported in ankle arthroscopy are greater than those reported for other joints. In particular, all reported neurovascular injuries following ankle arthroscopy have been the direct result of distractor pin or portal placement. The standard posteromedial portal has recognized risks because of the proximity of the posterior neurovascular structures. There can be considerable variability in the course of these portals and their proximity to the neurovascular structures. We found one report of intra-articular damage to the posterior tibial nerve as a result of ankle arthroscopy in the English-language literature and we report this paper as a second case described in the literature.
Lui, Tun Hing
Chondrolysis of the ankle is a very rare condition. We report a case of chondrolysis of the ankle following ankle arthroscopy and microfracture of the osteochondral lesion of the talar dome. The patient's symptoms were relieved after articulated distraction arthroplasty. PMID:24369518
Blázquez Martín, T; Iglesias Durán, E; San Miguel Campos, M
To evaluate the percentage of complications associated with ankle and hindfoot arthroscopy in our hospital and to compare the results with those reported in the literature. A retrospective descriptive review was conducted on the complications associated with ankle and hindfoot arthroscopy performed between May 2008 and April 2013. A total of 257 arthroscopy were performed, 23% on subtalar joint, and 77% of ankle joint. An anterior approach was used in 69%, with 26% by a posterior approach, and the remaining 5% by combined access. A total of 31 complications (12.06%) were found. The most common complication was neurological damage (14 cases), with the most affected nerve being the superficial peroneal nerve (8 cases). Persistent drainage through the portals was found in 10 cases, with 4 cases of infection, and 3 cases of complex regional pain syndrome type 1. There have been substantial advances in arthroscopy of ankle and hindfoot in recent years, expanding its indications, and also the potential risk of complications. The complication rate (12.06%) found in this study is consistent with that described in the literature (0-17%), with neurological injury being the most common complication. Ankle and hindfoot arthroscopy is a safe procedure. It is important to make a careful preoperative planning, to use a meticulous technique, and to perform an appropriate post-operative care, in order to decrease the complication rates. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Han, Guansheng; Xu, Bin; Geng, Chunhui; Cheng, Xinde
To explore the effectiveness of arthroscopy for ankle impingement syndrome. Between March 2009 and April 2013, 30 patients with ankle impingement syndrome were treated. Among them, there were 22 males and 8 females with an average age of 28.6 years (range, 16-55 years). Twenty-six patients had a history of obvious ankle sprains. The disease duration was 6-62 months (mean, 21.5 months). All cases had ankle pain, limitation of activity, and positive results of ankle impact test. According to Meislin scoring criteria, 5 cases were rated as good, 8 cases as medium, and 17 cases as poor; the excellent and good rate was 16.7%. American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score was 43.3 ± 5.1. Visual analogue scale (VAS) score was 6.7 ± 2.3. Preoperative X-ray film showed ankle loose bodies and hyperplasia osteophyte in 6 cases, and lateral malleolus old avulsion fracture in 4 cases. MRI showed soft tissue in the ankle joint in the 17 cases, and articular cartilage injury of tibiotalar joint and bone marrow edema in 7 cases. The location, degree, and organization of the impact were observed under arthroscopy. The joint debridement, removal of loose body and osteophyte, plasty of articular cartilage, and plasma radiofrequency ablation of lateral and medial ligaments were performed. All incisions healed primarily. No infection of skin and joint, or neurological and vascular injury was found. All patients were followed up 6-32 months (mean, 19.5 months). According to Meislin scoring criteria at last follow-up, 16 cases were rated as excellent, 11 cases as good, and 3 cases as medium; the excellent and good rate was 90.0%, showing significant difference when compared with preoperative value (Z = 6.045, P = 0.000). AOFAS score was 89.8 ± 4.3, showing significant difference when compared with preoperative score (t = 38.180, P = 0.000). VAS score was 2.8 ± 1.6, showing significant difference when compared with preoperative score (t = 7.624, P = 0.000). A clear
Chan, Kwok Bill; Lui, Tun Hing
To report the operative findings of ankle arthroscopy during open reduction and internal fixation of acute ankle fractures. This was a retrospective review of 254 consecutive patients with acute ankle fractures who were treated with open reduction and internal fixation of the fractures, and ankle arthroscopy was performed at the same time. The accuracy of fracture reduction, the presence of syndesmosis disruption and its reduction, and the presence of ligamentous injuries and osteochondral lesions were documented. Second-look ankle arthroscopy was performed during syndesmosis screw removal 6 weeks after the key operation. There were 6 patients with Weber A, 177 patients with Weber B, 51 patients with Weber C, and 20 patients with isolated medial malleolar fractures. Syndesmosis disruption was present in 0% of patients with Weber A fracture, 52% of patients with Weber B fracture, 92% of patients with Weber C fracture, and 20% of the patients with isolated medial malleolar fracture. Three patients with Weber B and one patient with Weber C fracture have occult syndesmosis instability after screw removal. Osteochondral lesion was present in no patient with Weber A fracture, 26% of the Weber B cases, 24% of the Weber C cases, and 20% of isolated medial malleolar fracture cases. The association between the presence of deep deltoid ligament tear and syndesmosis disruption (warranting syndesmosis screw fixation) in Weber B cases was statistically significant but not in Weber C cases. There was no statistically significant association between the presence of posterior malleolar fracture and syndesmosis instability that warrant screw fixation. Ankle arthroscopy is a useful adjuvant tool to understand the severity and complexity of acute ankle fracture. Direct arthroscopic visualization ensures detection and evaluation of intra-articular fractures, syndesmosis disruption, and associated osteochondral lesions and ligamentous injuries. Level IV, case series
Karia, Priyesh Ashok; Nathdwarawala, Yogesh; Szarko, Matthew
In anterior ankle arthroscopy, the anterior working area (AWA) is restricted by the presence of the dorsalis pedis artery (DPA) and tendons. Pseudoaneurysms caused by iatrogenic damage to the DPA are difficult to identify intraoperatively. In knee arthroscopy, risk of popliteal artery damage is reduced in the flexed position . This study investigates how DPA movement is affected by dorsiflexion and plantarflexion with the aim of identifying the positions providing the greatest AWA. Twelve cadaveric ankles were dissected to access the DPA. While distracted, ankles were progressively dorsiflexed at 5° intervals from maximum plantarflexion. DPA and tibialis anterior tendon (TA) movement at each 5° interval was measured by their respective distances from the inferior border of the medial malleolus. Mean ankle dorsiflexion was 24.58±1.30° with all specimens showing anterior DPA and TA movement as dorsiflexion increased. Mean DPA and TA movement at maximum dorsiflexion was 3.58±0.29mm and 2.92±0.34mm respectively. A ratio of 1:1.23 relates TA and DPA movement (inmm), and a ratio of 10:1.46 relates dorsiflexion angle to DPA movement (inmm). Anterior movement of the dorsalis pedis artery during dorsiflexion increases the AWA for anterior arthroscopy. Increasing the AWA with maximal dorsiflexion may prove to be a valuable method for lowering the risk of iatrogenic DPA damage. Additionally, increased AWA may allow the use of larger diameter surgical instruments allowing greater control and a reduction in operation time. Copyright © 2013 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lui, Tun Hing
Posterior ankle endoscopy is a safe and effective approach for treatment of posterior ankle impingement. This is usually performed with the patient in prone position. The purpose of this technical note is to describe an arthroscopic approach of decompression of posterior ankle impingement with the patient in supine position. This is indicated if there is posterior ankle impingement together with other ankle pathology requiring anterior ankle arthroscopy. This approach allows treatment of both anterior ankle and posterior ankle pathology with the patient in the supine position. Concomitant anterior ankle arthroscopy can be performed with the usual orientation without the need of change of patient's position.
Barg, Alexej; Saltzman, Charles L; Beals, Timothy C; Bachus, Kent N; Blankenhorn, Brad D; Nickisch, Florian
To evaluate the accessibility of the talar dome through anterior and posterior portals for ankle arthroscopy with the standard noninvasive distraction versus wire-based longitudinal distraction using a tensioned wire placed transversely through the calcaneal tuberosity. Seven matched pairs of thigh-to-foot specimens underwent ankle arthroscopy with 1 of 2 methods of distraction: a standard noninvasive strapping technique or a calcaneal tuberosity wire-based technique. The order of the arthroscopic approach and use of a distraction method was randomly determined. The areas accessed from both 2-portal anterior and 2-portal posterior approaches were determined by using a molded translucent grid. The mean talar surface accessible by anterior ankle arthroscopy was comparable with noninvasive versus calcaneal wire distraction with 57.8% ± 17.2% (range, 32.9% to 75.7%) versus 61.5% ± 15.2% (range, 38.5% to 79.1%) of the talar dome, respectively (P = .590). The use of calcaneal wire distraction significantly improved posterior talar dome accessibility compared with noninvasive distraction, with 56.4% ± 20.0% (range, 14.4% to 78.0%) versus 39.8% ± 14.9% (range, 20.0% to 57.6%) of the talar dome, respectively (P = .031). Under the conditions studied, our cadaveric model showed equivalent talar dome access with 2-portal anterior arthroscopy of calcaneal wire-based distraction versus noninvasive strap distraction, but improved access for 2-portal posterior arthroscopy with calcaneal wire-based distraction versus noninvasive strap distraction. The posterior 40% of the talar dome is difficult to access via anterior ankle arthroscopy. Posterior calcaneal tuberosity wire-based longitudinal distraction improved arthroscopic access to the centro-posterior talar dome with a posterior arthroscopic approach. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Koczy, Bogdan; Pyda, Michał; Stołtny, Tomasz; Mielnik, Michał; Pajak, Jan; Hermanson, Jacek; Pasek, Jarosław; Widuchowski, Jerzy
Anterolateral soft tissue impingement of the ankle joint is a common consequence of ankle sprain due to excessive supination and adduction of the foot, injuries to the tibiofibular syndesmosis and lateral malleolus fractures. Twenty-two arthroscopic procedures to treat anterolateral soft tissue impingement of the ankle joint were performed at the Independent Public Regional Hospital of Trauma Surgery in Piekary Slaskie between 2006 and 2007. The study group included male patients at the mean age of 34 (17 to 55) years. Medical histories revealed ankle sprain in 13 patients, lateral malleolus fracture in 7, and isolated tibiofibular syndesmotic disruption in 2. The mean time from the injury to the arthroscopic treatment was 5 years (range 2 to 8 years). All patients that underwent arthroscopy were evaluated according to the AOFAS score at baseline (before surgery), and at 3 and 12 months after the treatment. The procedure consisted in the removal of hypertrophic, inflamed and scarred soft tissue from the lateral recess. The mean preoperative AOFAS score was 75.4 points. Post-operatively, the AOFAS functional scores increased to 90.6 and 92 points in the third and twelfth month after the procedure respectively. One patient showed temporary neurapraxia of the dorsal intermediate nerve and the ramus cutaneus branch of the superficial peroneal nerve. These results show that arthroscopic treatment of anterolateral soft tissue impingement of the ankle joint produces satisfactory early outcomes.
Ackermann, Jakob; Fraser, Ethan J; Murawski, Christopher D; Desai, Payal; Vig, Khushdeep; Kennedy, John G
The purpose of this study was to report trends associated with concurrent ankle arthroscopy at the time of operative treatment of ankle fracture. The current procedural terminology (CPT) billing codes were used to search the PearlDiver Patient Record Database and identify all patients who were treated for acute ankle fracture in the United States. The Medicare Standard Analytic Files were searchable between 2005 and 2011 and the United Healthcare Orthopedic Dataset from 2007 to 2011. Annual trends were expressed only between 2007 and 2011, as it was the common time period among both databases. Demographic factors were identified for all procedures as well as the cost aspect using the Medicare data set. In total, 32 307 patients underwent open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) of an ankle fracture, of whom 313 (1.0%) had an ankle arthroscopy performed simultaneously. Of those 313 cases, 70 (22.4%) patients received microfracture treatment. Between 2005 and 2011, 85 203 patients were treated for an ankle fracture whether via ORIF or closed treatment. Of these, a total of 566 patients underwent arthroscopic treatment within 7 years. The prevalence of arthroscopy after ankle fracture decreased significantly by 45% from 2007 to 2011 (P< .0001). When ORIF and microfracture were performed concurrently, the total average charge for both procedures drops to $4253.00 and average reimbursement to $818.00 compared with approximately $4964.00 and $1069.00, respectively, when they were performed subsequently. Despite good evidence in favor of arthroscopy at the time of ankle fracture treatment, it appears that only a small proportion of surgeons in the United States perform these procedures concurrently. Therapeutic, Level IV: Retrospective. © 2015 The Author(s).
Villar, R. N.
Arthroscopy has reduced the morbidity and period of hospitalisation associated with orthopaedic surgery and has increased the range of procedures that may be performed. From early operations on the knee it has expanded to include procedures for the shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, ankle, and foot. For some joints the indications for surgery are clear, for others the clinical advantages are still being assessed. This expansion has also led to the recognition of complications, though the incidence is low. Specialist instrumentation has allowed a wide variety of operations previously needing open surgery to be carried out arthroscopically. The repertoire of arthroscopic procedures will undoubtedly continue to expand, and controlled studies are required to validate their efficacy, particularly in the management of degenerative joint diseases. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 PMID:8298357
Hassan, Al-Husseiny Moustafa
Impingement syndromes of the ankle joint are among the most common intraarticular ankle lesions. Soft tissue impingement lesions of the ankle usually occur as a result of synovial, or capsular irritation secondary to traumatic injuries, usually ankle sprains, leading to chronic ankle pain. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate arthroscopic debridement of an anterolateral soft tissue impingement of the ankle. During the period between October 2000 and February 2004, 23 patients with residual complaints after an ankle sprain were diagnosed as anterolateral impingement of the ankle, and were treated by arthroscopic debridement. At a minimum of 6 months follow up, patients were asked to complete an American orthopaedic foot and ankle society (AOFAS) ankle and hind foot score. The average follow-up was 25 months (range 12-38). The average pre-operative patient assessed AOFAS score was 34 (range 4-57). At the end of follow-up the mean AOFAS score was 89 (range 60-100). In terms of patient satisfaction 22 patients said they would accept the same arthroscopic procedure again for the same complaints. At the end of follow-up, 7 patients had excellent results, and 14 patients had good results while two patients had fair results. We believe that arthroscopic debridement of the anterolateral impingement soft tissues are a good, and effective method of treatment.
Lui, Tun Hing
Synovial chondromatosis is a rare pathology in the foot and ankle region. We present a case of concomitant tenosynovial chondromatosis of the extensor digitorum longus tendon and synovial chondromatosis of the ankle, which was successfully treated by extensor digitorum tendon tendoscopy and ankle arthroscopy. Therapeutic, Level IV: Case study. © 2014 The Author(s).
Brand, Jefferson C
A recent study addressing infection rate after intra-articular steroid injection during ankle arthroscopy gives pause to this practice, with an odds ratio of 2.2 in the entire population that was injected with a steroid simultaneously with ankle arthroscopy compared with patients who did not receive an ankle injection. Big data, used in the study upon which the Editor comments here, suggest that because of a significant increased risk of postoperative infection, steroid injection is not recommended after ankle arthroscopy. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
El-Mowafi, Hani; El-Hawary, Ahmed; Kandil, Yasser
Pilon fractures usually result from high energy trauma, and are commonly associated with extensive soft tissue damage which prevents the use of open reduction and internal fixation. This study was designed to evaluate the use of the Ilizarov external fixator in the treatment of pilon fractures of the ankle, and to determine whether arthroscopy of the ankle could improve the outcome. From February 2011 to May 2013 a total of 23 patients with unilateral closed pilon fractures were divided into two groups treated with and without arthroscopy during fixation with the Ilizarov external fixator. The fractures were classified according to the AO Rüdi and Allgőwer classification. Follow up ranged from 10 to 37 months with a mean of 18 months. All cases were evaluated at follow up by the AOFAS and the Bone et al. grading system. According to Bone et al. there were 3 cases excellent, 4 cases good, 2 cases fair, and 2 cases poor in Group A (without arthroscopy), whereas there were 4 cases excellent, 6 cases good, 2 cases fair in Group B (with arthroscopy). The AOFAS score for Group A was 77.8±5.8, and for Group B was 78.4±6.9. We concluded that the Ilizarov external fixator is an excellent method in treating pilon fractures as it minimizes the need for extensive surgery. We also conclude that the use of arthroscopy during pilon fracture fixation did not add statistically significant improvement to our results and it needs longer term investigation to assess its advantage - if any - to the final outcome. level 2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Hyong-Nyun; Park, Yoo-Jung; Kim, Gab-Lae; Park, Yong-Wook
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of arthroscopy combined with hardware removal for chronic pain after satisfactory healing of an ankle fracture. We hypothesized that combining hardware removal with arthroscopy for the intra-articular pathology would improve residual complaints more so than hardware removal alone. The outcomes of the 53 young male patients with chronic pain after healed ankle fracture treated with two different therapeutic plans: (1) conservative treatment after hardware removal (group A) and (2) arthroscopic intervention with hardware removal (group B) were prospectively studied. Patients were reviewed preoperatively and 6 and 12 months postoperatively using American Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scale. Median AOFAS scores improved from 74 (66-80) points to 76 (73-92) points in group A and from 75 (64-80) points to 85 (72-100) points in group B, and this improvement was significantly higher for patients in group B (p = 0.001). This study supports the notion that when there is a definite diagnosis such as loose body, bony impingement, or anterolateral soft-tissue impingement causing chronic pain after healed ankle fracture, arthroscopic treatment with hardware removal is a better treatment option than hardware removal and conservative treatment.
The ankle is a loading joint with a small contact surface and it is therefore very vulnerable to trauma, as it is an exposed region. It is a unique joint because it forms several joints. In this joint the load falls on the contact area, which is one third of the knee or the hip, and it is the most important part of our musculo-skeletal system designed for ambulation and bipedestation. In case of ankle injuries, arthrodesis is a procedure performed to relieve pain, decrease deformity and provide stability. An optimum result of this procedure may be easily achieved if the ankle is fixed in the right position, so this technique will continue to be a treatment alternative. With "minimally invasive percutaneous fixation (MIPF)" fixation is safe, it relieves pain and stops the progression of regeneration, it is a minimally invasive method performed through a small posteromedial incision on the ventral surface of the distal tibial metaphysis, which minimizes soft tissue dissection thus eliminating wound complications. In this study we included patients with severe joint damage and pain, with a physically demanding type of work, in whom other treatments had previously failed and in whom total arthroplasty was not possible (due to questionable results). Patients with a varus-valgus > 15 degrees, talar necrosis, bone defects requiring a graft or subtalar arthrosis were excluded. Our results are no different from the world literature concerning the incidence rate of complications by age and diagnosis as well as the healing rate. Postoperative patient management was better as no rigid immobilization was required. Even though weight bearing was not immediate, at two weeks they could use an unloading boot for partial weight bearing, and total weight bearing was possible by week six. Therefore, there were less complications and in failed cases salvage surgery was possible.
Schoepp, C; Rixen, D
Arthroscopic fracture management of the ankle and calcaneus requires a differentiated approach. The aim is to minimize surgical soft tissue damage and to visualize anatomical fracture reduction arthroscopically. Moreover, additional cartilage damage can be detected and treated. The arthroscopic approach is limited by deep impressions of the joint surface needing cancellous bone grafting, by multiple fracture lines on the articular side and by high-grade soft tissue damage. An alternative to the minimally invasive arthroscopic approach is open arthroscopic reduction in conventional osteosynthesis. This facilitates correct assessment of surgical reduction of complex calcaneal fractures, otherwise remaining non-anatomical reduction might not be fluoroscopically detected during surgery.
Nguyen, Mai P.; Pedersen, Douglas R.; Gao, Yubo; Saltzman, Charles L.; Amendola, Annunziato
Background: Treatment of end-stage ankle osteoarthritis remains challenging, especially in young patients. Initial reports have shown early benefits of joint distraction for the treatment of ankle osteoarthritis. We report the five to ten-year results of a previously described patient cohort following ankle distraction surgery. Methods: All thirty-six patients who had undergone ankle distraction surgery between December 2002 and October 2006 were contacted. Patients were evaluated by a clinical investigator and completed the Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale (AOS) and Short Form-36 (SF-36) surveys. Radiographs as well as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans of the ankles were obtained at the follow-up visits. Results: Twenty-nine patients (81%) were followed for a minimum of five years (mean and standard deviation, 8.3 ± 2.2 years). Sixteen (55%) of the twenty-nine patients still had the native ankle joint whereas thirteen patients (45%) had undergone either ankle arthrodesis or total ankle arthroplasty. Positive predictors of ankle survival included a better AOS score at two years (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.048, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.0028 to 0.84, p = 0.04), older age at surgery (HR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.83 to 0.99, p = 0.04), and fixed distraction (HR = 0.094, 95% CI = 0.017 to 0.525, p < 0.01). Radiographs and advanced imaging revealed progression of ankle osteoarthritis at the time of final follow-up. Conclusions: Ankle function following joint distraction declines over time. Patients should be well informed of the commitment that they must make during the treatment period as well as the long-term results after surgery. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:25834084
Zhao, Hongmou; Qu, Wenqing; Li, Yi; Liang, Xiaojun; Ning, Ning; Zhang, Yan; Hu, Dong
Ankle joint distraction arthroplasty (AJDA) is an alternative surgical procedure for the management of moderate to severe ankle osteoarthritis. However, the benefit of this procedure and failure relative factors are still in debate. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the functional outcomes of AJDA in treatment of moderate to severe ankle OA and to evaluate the relative factors correlated with treatment failure. Forty-six van Dijk stages II and III ankle osteoarthritis patients were included. Fifteen males and 31 females with a mean age of 54.8 (range, 42-71) years were followed with a mean of 42.8 (range, 24-68) months. The Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale (AOS) and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot score were used for functional outcome evaluation. The talar tilt (TT) angle and ankle joint space distance (AJSD) were evaluated. The risk ratio (RR) was calculated for each potential failure relative factor. The AOS and AOFAS scores were significantly improved at the last follow-up time (P < 0.01). The AJSD was improved in 61% of patients and with a significant improvement compared with the preoperative conditions (P < 0.01). The TT angle and range of motion reached no significant difference. The failure rate was 21.7%. Patients with large TT (≥5°) angle (RR = 3.81, 95% CI 1.28-11.33, P = 0.02) and obesity (RR = 3.58, 95% CI 1.30-9.89, P = 0.01) were found to have positive correlation with failure. No correlation was found between failure and gender, or overweight, or side, or age, or type and stage of OA, or pin infection. The current study confirmed the early functional outcomes of ankle distraction arthroplasty. However, this procedure still has a relatively high failure rate, especially for those obese patients and patients with large TT angles.
Vopat, Bryan G.; Lareau, Craig R.; Sangal, Rohit B.; Fantry, Amanda J.; Blankenhorn, Brad D.
Posterior hindfoot arthroscopy is a useful tool to treat a variety of foot and ankle pathologies. Skeletal distraction of the hindfoot to increase visualization in posterior ankle arthroscopy has been described in previous studies, but the described distractor is not readily available in most operating rooms. We describe a case of posterior hindfoot distraction in the prone position using a pneumatic limb positioner and other readily available Food and Drug Administration–approved equipment to apply tension to a transcalcaneal wire. The distraction technique we describe does not require any custom equipment, can fit on most standard operating tables, and is readily available in standard operating rooms. This method achieves adequate distraction, resulting in better visualization and more space for arthroscopic instrumentation. PMID:26697297
Guillo, S; Bauer, T; Lee, J W; Takao, M; Kong, S W; Stone, J W; Mangone, P G; Molloy, A; Perera, A; Pearce, C J; Michels, F; Tourné, Y; Ghorbani, A; Calder, J
Ankle sprains are the most common injuries sustained during sports activities. Most ankle sprains recover fully with non-operative treatment but 20-30% develop chronic ankle instability. Predicting which patients who sustain an ankle sprain will develop instability is difficult. This paper summarises a consensus on identifying which patients may require surgery, the optimal surgical intervention along with treatment of concomitant pathology given the evidence available today. It also discusses the role of arthroscopic treatment and the anatomical basis for individual procedures.
Parikh, S; Dawe, E; Lee, C; Whitehead-Clarke, T; Smith, C; Bendall, S
Introduction Pseudoaneurysm formation following ankle arthroscopy is a rare but potentially catastrophic complication. The placement of anterior ankle portals carries inherent risk to the superficial and deep peroneal nerves, as well as to the dorsalis pedis artery. Anatomical variations in the dorsalis pedis and the presence of branches at the joint line may increase the risk of vascular injury and pseudoaneurysm formation during arthroscopy. There is limited anatomical evidence available regarding the branches of the dorsalis pedis artery, which occur at the point at which they cross the ankle joint. Objectives The objective of the study was to describe the frequency and direction of branches of the dorsalis pedis crossing the ankle joint. Materials and Methods Nineteen cadaveric feet were carefully dissected to explore the course of the dorsalis pedis artery, noting in particular the branching pattern at the joint line. Results Eleven of the nineteen feet had a branch of the dorsalis pedis artery that crossed the level of the ankle joint. Out of these, six were lateral, four medial and one bilateral. Eight of the eleven specimens had one branch at, or just before, the level of the joint. Two specimens had two branches and one had three branches crossing the ankle, which were all in the same direction, crossing laterally to the main trunk of the dorsalis pedis. Conclusions Our study demonstrated high rates of branching of the dorsalis pedis artery at the level of the ankle joint. The role of these branches in pseudoaneurysm formation during anterior hindfoot surgery remains unclear.
Zhang, Kaibin; Jiang, Yiqiu; Du, Jing; Tao, Tianqi; Li, Wang; Li, Yang; Gui, Jianchao
This study aims to compare clinical outcomes of distraction arthroplasty alone versus combined with arthroscopic microfracture in treating post-traumatic ankle arthritis. The study cohort consisted of 96 patients (96 ankles) who underwent distraction arthroplasty alone or combined with arthroscopic microfracture between May 2005 and April 2012. Patients were divided into the distraction group (n = 46) and the combined group (n = 50). The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, visual analog scale (VAS), and ankle activity score (AAS) were used to compare the clinical outcomes between groups. Arthritis severity was assessed on the radiograph. At the mean follow-up period of 30.8 ± 3.1 and 31.4 ± 3.6 months, respectively, no severe complications occurred and no further surgical interventions for symptomatic arthritis were required in both groups. The AOFAS scores improved significantly in the combined group than in the distraction group (59.0 ± 4.7 and 58.0 ± 4.9 preoperatively versus 85.0 ± 4.9 and 88.9 ± 5.4 at final visit, P < 0.001). The AAS scores were also significantly higher in the combined group (3.6 ± 1.1 and 3.3 ± 1.0 preoperatively versus 6.5 ± 1.1 and 7.1 ± 1.3 at final visit, P = 0.009). Pain was significantly alleviated in the combined group by the VAS scores (6.4 ± 0.9 and 6.7 ± 0.9 preoperatively versus 2.3 ± 0.8 and 2.0 ± 0.7 at final visit, P = 0.040). The combined group achieved better radiographic arthritis severity decrease than the distraction group (P = 0.012). Compared to distraction arthroplasty alone, distraction arthroplasty combined with arthroscopic microfracture can offer better functional recovery, pain relief, and ankle arthritis resolution for treating post-traumatic ankle arthritis.
Cho, Jae Ho; Lee, Doo Hyung; Song, Hyung Keun; Bang, Joon Young; Lee, Kyung Tai; Park, Young Uk
Clinicians frequently diagnose chronic ankle instability using the manual anterior drawer test and stress radiography. However, both examinations can yield incorrect results and do not reveal the extent of ankle instability. Stress ultrasound has been reported to be a new diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of chronic ankle instability. The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of stress ultrasound for chronic ankle instability compared to the manual anterior drawer test, stress radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and arthroscopy. Twenty-eight consecutive patients who underwent ankle arthroscopy and subsequent modified Broström repair for treatment of chronic ankle instability were included. The arthroscopic findings were used as the reference standard. A standardized physical examination (manual anterior drawer test), stress radiography, MRI, and stress ultrasound were performed to assess the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) prior to operation. Ultrasound images were taken in the resting position and the maximal anterior drawer position. Grade 3 lateral instability was verified arthroscopically in all 28 cases with a clinical diagnosis (100%). Twenty-two cases showed grade III instability on the manual anterior drawer test (78.6%). Twenty-four cases displayed anterior translation exceeding 5 mm on stress radiography (86%), and talar tilt angle exceeded 15° in three cases (11 %). Nineteen cases displayed a partial chronic tear (change in thickness or signal intensity), and nine cases displayed complete tear on MRI (100%). Lax and wavy ATFL was evident on stress ultrasound in all cases (100 %). The mean value of the ATFL length was 2.8 ± 0.3 cm for the stressed condition and 2.1 ± 0.2 cm for the resting condition (p < 0.001). Stress ultrasound may be useful for the diagnosis of chronic ankle instability in addition to the manual anterior drawer test and stress radiography. III.
Intema, F.; Thomas, T.P.; Anderson, D.D.; Elkins, J.M.; Brown, T.D.; Amendola, A.; Lafeber, F.P.J.G.; Saltzman, C.L.
Objective In osteoarthritis (OA), subchondral bone changes alter the joint’s mechanical environment and potentially influence progression of cartilage degeneration. Joint distraction as a treatment for OA has been shown to provide pain relief and functional improvement through mechanisms that are not well understood. This study evaluated whether subchondral bone remodeling was associated with clinical improvement in OA patients treated with joint distraction. Method Twenty-six patients with advanced post-traumatic ankle OA were treated with joint distraction for three months using an Ilizarov frame in a referral center. Primary outcome measure was bone density change analyzed on CT scans. Longitudinal, manually segmented CT datasets for a given patient were brought into a common spatial alignment. Changes in bone density (Hounsfield Units (HU), relative to baseline) were calculated at the weight-bearing region, extending subchondrally to a depth of 8 mm. Clinical outcome was assessed using the ankle OA scale. Results Baseline scans demonstrated subchondral sclerosis with local cysts. At one and two years of follow-up, an overall decrease in bone density (−23% and −21%, respectively) was observed. Interestingly, density in originally low-density (cystic) areas increased. Joint distraction resulted in a decrease in pain (from 60 to 35, scale of 100) and functional deficit (from 67 to 36). Improvements in clinical outcomes were best correlated with disappearance of low-density (cystic) areas (r=0.69). Conclusions Treatment of advanced post-traumatic ankle OA with three months of joint distraction resulted in bone density normalization that was associated with clinical improvement. PMID:21324372
Chen, Chuan-Mu; Su, Alvin W; Chiu, Fang-Yao; Chen, Tain-Hsiung
Managing refractory osteomyelitis around the ankle joint has been challenging. Destruction of both the ankle and the subtalar joints was common in cases of open fracture. For those who already had multiple surgeries, it would be tough to salvage the limb. Our goal was to set up a staged surgical protocol aiming in treating the aforementioned clinical issue. Twelve male patients underwent our protocol since year 2000. All patients presented refractory osteomyelitis, ankle and subtalar joint destruction, and poor soft tissue condition. All cases had internal fixation for open fractures followed by multiple debridement surgery before. The mean age was 50.8 years (range, 37-71 years), and the median follow-up time was 61 months (range, 48-96 months). The surgical protocol consisted of radical debridement, distraction osteogenesis for segmental bone transport, and tibia lengthening to avoid leg length discrepancy followed by intramedullary nailing for tibio-talo-calcaneal arthrodesis. The external fixation period averaged 24.7 weeks (range, 12-36 weeks). The mean duration to solid union of the arthrodesis and the bridging callus was 18.3 weeks (range, 16-20 weeks). Mild surgical site infection occurred in four cases but all subsided after removal of the nail and oral antibiotics use. At latest follow-up, all patients were infection free and could walk with plantigrade feet. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hindfoot score rising from 21.5 points (range 20-24 points) preoperatively to 65.5 points (range, 60-72). This study has shown our staged surgical protocol may be effective in solving complicated osteomyelitis around the ankle, although salvaging the limb with successful ankle arthrodesis and minimized limb length inequality, yet improving the patients' ambulation level.
Zgonis, Thomas; Stapleton, John J; Roukis, Thomas S
The authors discuss a novel technique not previously published that incorporates a subtalar joint arthrodesis with an ankle joint arthrodiastasis as an alternative to a tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis. Young and active patients who experience refractory pain and stiffness to the rearfoot and ankle secondary to combined severe subtalar and ankle arthrosis are suitable candidates for this surgical procedure. This new approach is based on sound principles in the treatment of severe arthrosis affecting the ankle and subtalar joint. The authors are currently prospectively reviewing their surgical experience with this procedure and believe that it provides an alternative option for the patient, with potentially promising long-term results.
... your primary doctor. Treatments of the Ankle Achilles Tendinosis Surgery Achilles Tendon Rupture Surgery Ankle Arthrodesis Ankle ... for Osteochondral Lesions of the Talus Insertional Achilles Tendinosis Surgery Lateral Ankle Ligament Reconstruction Lateral Ankle Stabilization ...
Wrist surgery; Arthroscopy - wrist; Surgery - wrist - arthroscopy; Surgery - wrist - arthroscopic; Carpal tunnel release ... You will likely receive general anesthesia before this surgery. This means you will be asleep and unable ...
Shibuya, Naohiro; Smith, Rebecca S; Escobedo, Laura A; Agarwal, Monica R
Unlike ankle joint arthroscopy, distraction of the subtalar joint can be challenging. We introduce a powerful distraction method that can be used during an arthroscopic subtalar joint arthrodesis procedure using a "push-pull" technique. A fully threaded screw is used to push the talus while the calcaneus is pulled to distract the joint. The technique allows the surgeon to access the rather tight joint without disrupting a significant amount of the ligamentous and capsular structures. It also allows preservation of the vascular structures that supply the talus. The "push-pull" screw can also be converted to a second point of fixation at the end of the procedure. Copyright © 2014 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
de Amorim Cabrita, Henrique Antônio Berwanger; de Castro Trindade, Christiano Augusto; de Campos Gurgel, Henrique Melo; Leal, Rafael Demura; de Souza Marques, Ricardo da Fonseca
Hip arthroscopy is a safe method for treating a variety of pathological conditions that were unknown until a decade ago. Femoroacetabular impingement is the commonest of these pathological conditions and the one with the best results when treated early on. The instruments and surgical technique for hip arthroscopy continue to evolve. New indications for hip arthroscopy has been studied as the ligamentum teres injuries, capsular repair in instabilities, dissection of the sciatic nerve and repair of gluteal muscles tears (injuries to the hip rotator cuff), although still with debatable reproducibility. The complication rate is low, and ever-better results with fewer complications should be expected with the progression of the learning curve.
Johnson D, Weiss WM. Basic arthroscopic principles. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic ... 11. Sanchez VMI, Meza AO. Hip arthroscopy. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic ...
... ball and socket joint) A torn or damaged biceps tendon A torn rotator cuff A bone spur ... repair. Using arthroscopy for rotator cuff repairs or tendinitis usually relieves the pain, but you may not ...
... Week @ ACFAS Poll Results Arthroscopy e-Book The Journal of Foot & Ankle Surgery Read some of the latest research from the official peer-reviewed scientific journal of ACFAS, The Journal of Foot & Ankle Surgery ( ...
Dodson, Christopher C; Nho, Shane J; Williams, Riley J; Altchek, David W
Arthroscopy of the elbow was originally considered to be an unsafe procedure because of the small size of the elbow joint capsule and its proximity to several crucial neurovascular structures. Over the past decade, however, the procedure has become safer and more effective. These improvements can be attributed to a better understanding of elbow anatomy and of the disorders about the elbow as well as to advances in arthroscopic equipment and surgical technique. The most common indications for elbow arthroscopy include removal of loose bodies, synovectomy, débridement and/or excision of osteophytes, capsular release, and the assessment and treatment of osteochondritis dissecans. More recent advances have expanded the indications of elbow arthroscopy to include fracture management (eg, radial head fractures) and the treatment of lateral epicondylitis.
Rozmaryn, L M; Wei, N
Although small joint arthroscopy has become commonplace over the past decade, relatively little attention has been paid to the investigation and clinical utility of metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint arthroscopy. The literature is scant in this area and consists of only a handful of case reports. In addition, the arthroscopic anatomy of the MP joint has not as yet been reported. Six cadaveric hands (24 joints) were rigorously studied in the laboratory using standard 2.5-mm small joint arthroscopic instrumentation and 5 lb of overhead traction. Radial and ulnar portals were used with care not to injure the extensor tendons. Arthroscopic anatomic landmarks include: (1) A consistent tripartite configuration of the main radial and ulnar collateral ligaments with characteristic changes in relative fiber orientation as the digit goes from extension to flexion, (2) nonvisualization of the accessory collateral ligament from inside the joint, (3) transitional amorphous capsular fibers connecting the collateral ligaments to the volar plate and dorsal capsule, (4) four synovial recesses (radial, ulnar, volar, and dorsal-proximal), (5) metacarpal head and proximal phalanx, (6) a consistent circumferential meniscal equivalent around the margin of the proximal phalanx articular surface, and (7) the sesamoid-metacarpal articulation in the thumb MPjoint. There are published case reports on the utility of MP joint arthroscopy for synovectomy in rheumatoid arthritis and hemachromatosis and realigning Stener lesions in gamekeepers' thumbs. The current clinical series reveals preliminary experience with the technique. MP joint arthroscopy was useful in relieving a locked MP joint from a loose osteochondral body and sagittal tear in the volar plate that enfolded into the joint surface. Intra-articular release of post-traumatic volar plate and dorsal capsular contracture were readily accomplished using this technique. Juxta-articular bone lesions such as osteoid osteomas can be removed with
Al-Mohrej, Omar A.; Al-Kenani, Nader S.
Ankle sprain is reported to be among the most common recurrent injuries. About 20% of acute ankle sprain patients develop chronic ankle instability. The failure of functional rehabilitation after acute ankle sprain leads to the development of chronic ankle instability. Differentiation between functional and anatomical ankle instability is very essential to guide the proper treatment. Stability testing by varus stress test and anterior drawer test should be carried out. Subtalar instability is an important pathology that is commonly by passed during the assessment of chronic ankle instability. Unlike acute ankle sprain, chronic ankle instability might require surgical intervention. The surgical and conservative management options can be very much developed by in-depth knowledge of the ankle anatomy, biomechanics, and pathology. Anatomical repair, augmentation by tendon, or both are the basic methods of surgical intervention. Arthroscopy is becoming more popular in the management of chronic ankle instability. PMID:27843798
Ward, Benjamin D; Lubowitz, James H
Knee arthroscopy is an important diagnostic and therapeutic tool in the management of disorders of the knee. In a series of 4 articles, the basics of knee arthroscopy are reviewed. In this article (part 3), step-by-step diagnostic arthroscopy is reviewed. Diagnostic arthroscopy is a crucial skill for diagnosing intra-articular disorders of the knee including meniscal, synovial, ligamentous, and articular cartilage pathology. Mastery of the basic diagnostic arthroscopy is a critical tool for orthopaedic surgeons treating disorders of the knee.
Obdeijn, Miryam C.; Tuijthof, Gabrielle J. M.; van der Horst, Chantal M. A. M.; Mathoulin, Christophe; Liverneaux, Philippe
Background Wrist arthroscopy plays a role in both the diagnosis and the treatment of wrist pathology. It has evolved in the last three decades. Questions The present status of wrist arthroscopy was investigated by answering the following questions: -What is its current position in the treatment wrist pathologies according to the literature? -What is its current position according to hand surgeons? Methods Analysis of the number of publications on wrist arthroscopy was performed and compared with the number of publications on other arthroscopy topics to assess the current position of wrist arthroscopy. The members of the EWAS (European Wrist Arthroscopy Society) and the members of eight national hand surgery societies were questioned on wrist arthroscopy in daily practice. Results From 1975 till now, 925 papers on wrist arthroscopy were found. The publications on wrist arthroscopy increased from an average of 8/year (1986) to 26/year (2012). More than half (56.9%) of the respondents of the EWAS perform fewer than 5 wrist arthroscopies per month, and only 7 (10.8%) indicate the performance of more than 10 wrist arthroscopies per month. Seventy-four percent of the orthopedic hand surgeons perform wrist arthroscopy (in 48.5% for therapeutic indications) against 36.8% of plastic surgery hand surgeons (in 23.1% for therapeutic indications). Conclusion Wrist arthroscopy has taken up a place in the armamentarium of the hand surgeon. The place of wrist arthroscopy in daily practice is related to the background of the hand surgeon. PMID:24436823
Doron, Ran; Amar, Eyal; Rath, Ehud; Sampson, Thomas; Ochiai, Derek; Matsuda, Dean K.
Adequate traction to achieve hip joint distraction is essential for avoiding iatrogenic injury to the joint during hip arthroscopy. An inability to distract the joint is a relative contraindication for hip arthroscopy. This report describes a novel technique involving an extracapsular approach to gain safe access to a hip joint that fails a trial of traction during positioning for hip arthroscopy. The anterolateral portal is established under fluoroscopic guidance. The arthroscope is positioned on the lateral rim of the acetabulum. A shaver, introduced through a modified anterior portal, is used to facilitate capsular exposure. An arthroscopic capsular incision is made proximal to the lateral acetabular rim and extended anteriorly with a radiofrequency probe. Osteoplasty of the anterolateral acetabular rim is carried out with a burr while protecting the labrum. Distraction of the hip is then possible, allowing safe central-compartment access and subsequent chondrolabral procedures. PMID:25685682
D'Angelantonio, Albert M; Schick, Faith A
There are many treatment options for patients with ankle osteochondral defects and subsequent osteoarthritis. Although ankle arthrodesis remains the gold standard to definitive treatment of this condition, its permanent sequelae demands an alternative. In this article we discuss a case report from a 61-year-old woman with a history of a previous ankle sprain resulting in an osteochondral defect that progressed to develop ankle osteoarthritis. After multiple attempts at conservative management, the patient underwent placement of an articulating external ring fixator for arthrodiastasis, as well as ankle joint resurfacing using allograft. The fixator was kept in place for a total of 12 weeks, with the patient performing range-of-motion exercises throughout the treatment course. We feel that this treatment presents as a promising treatment alternative based on the success demonstrated by this patient's 6-month follow-up. The patient has reported a decease in ankle joint pain, increased range of motion, and a return to normal daily activity without limitation. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bojanić, Ivan; Smoljanović, Tomislav; Mahnik, Alan
Elbow arthroscopy has become an indispensable method of surgical care of injuries and their consequences and damages that affect the elbow. The advantages of elbow arthroscopy in comparison to classical open surgery are multiple. Primarily, arthroscopy allows an excellent view of intra-articular structures and thus a detailed overview of the entire joint which enables us to perform complete surgery without opening the joint. Furthermore, morbidity is significantly smaller, rehabilitation is faster, and return to daily activities is also faster. Basic requirements for successful application of elbow arthroscopy are careful planning of the procedure, very good knowledge of regional anatomy of the elbow, strictly following the rules of performing the procedure, good technique and an experienced surgeon. Pathologies that can currently be addressed arthroscopically include osteochondritis dissecans of elbow, lateral epicondylitis, synovial plica syndrome, elbow osteoarthritis, elbow contracture, as well as the diseases where the synovectomy is needed, such as rheumatoid arthritis, pigmented villonodular synovitis, synovial chondromatosis and hemophiliac synovitis.
... your primary doctor. Treatments of the Ankle Achilles Tendinosis Surgery Achilles Tendon Rupture Surgery Ankle Arthrodesis Ankle ... for Osteochondral Lesions of the Talus Insertional Achilles Tendinosis Surgery Lateral Ankle Ligament Reconstruction Lateral Ankle Stabilization ...
Zollinger, H; Schmohl, P
Arthroscopy has proved to be a reliable method to determine acute and chronic retropatellar damage to cartilaginous tissue. The discrepancy between clinical and radiological findings, subjective disorders, and the actual morphological changes, seem to make arthroscopy desirable in analysing an objective and documentable initial situation. Long-term examinations will have to show how reliable prognostic statements are, and how justifiable the operative or conservative measures indicated by arthroscopic examination can be.
Schick, Cameron W.; Westermann, Robert W.; Gao, Yubo; Abboud, Joseph A.; Wolf, Brian R.
Background: Thromboembolism following shoulder arthroscopy is considered an uncommon complication, with fewer than 50 cases reported in the literature. Arthroscopy of the shoulder is one of the most commonly performed orthopaedic procedures, with low associated risks. Purpose: To identify potential risk factors for the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE) following shoulder arthroscopy and to determine the overall incidence of this complication. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A retrospective case-control review was performed of patients who developed symptomatic deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE) following shoulder arthroscopy. Multiple surgeons from across North America were queried. For every case of DVT or PE identified, 2 control cases of shoulder arthroscopy were analyzed. The incidence of DVT/PE following shoulder arthroscopy was determined. A univariate analysis and a multivariate logistic regression model were conducted to identify any potential risk factors for the development of VTE following shoulder arthroscopy. Results: A total of 17 surgeons participated in this study and had performed a total of 15,033 cases of shoulder arthroscopy from September 2002 through August 2011. Eleven of the 17 participating surgeons had had a patient with a VTE complication during this time frame. The incidence of VTE in the 15,033 cases was 0.15%; 22 patients of the 15,033 patients had a DVT (n = 15) and/or PE (n = 8). Forty-four control cases were also analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. No significant risk factors were identified other than patient positioning. All cases and controls were positioned in the beach-chair position for surgery. Conclusion: The results of this study show that although rare, VTE occurs following shoulder arthroscopy at a rate of 0.15%. The variables analyzed in the cases of VTE compared with the control cases did not show any significant risk factors. All
Nourissat, G; Ciais, G; Coudane, H
Obesity is a major public health issue, as incidence is rising in all developed countries, although the proportion is lower in Europe than in the U.S. Over and above the metabolic consequences and increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular pathology and certain forms of cancer, the present study focuses on osteoarticular risk, and in particular on pathologies manageable by arthroscopy. It also analyzes results and complications specific to arthroscopy in these indications. Meniscal and ligamentous pathologies of the knee, rotator-cuff pathology in the shoulder and tendon pathology in the elbow were not significantly elevated, although a trend emerged. In contrast, there was significant elevation of Achilles and plantar aponeurosis pathology. In terms of postoperative complications, thromboembolic risk was elevated, but there were not significantly more complications specific to arthroscopy. Finally, subjective results were comparable to those for non-obese patients. Review. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Kandil, Abdurrahman; Safran, Marc R
Hip arthroscopy is a fast-growing and evolving field. Like knee and shoulder arthroscopy, hip arthroscopy began as a diagnostic procedure and then progressed to biopsy and resection of abnormalities. Subsequently, it has evolved to repair of various tissues and treatment of underlying causes. As the understanding of the hip joint and its associated pathophysiology grows, indications will continue to expand for this diagnostic and therapeutic modality. This article outlines the historic developments of hip arthroscopy, including advancements in instrumentation and techniques from the days of the first hip arthroscopies to the present day.
Gurvis, D E
Successful operations result from the interplay of several factors. The artfulness and technical skill of the surgeon are paramount. The instruments are also important. Whereas in traditional surgery one instrument can often be substituted for another with equally good results, arthroscopic surgery offers no such luxury. The specialized instruments are the sine qua non of the procedure. An intimate knowledge of the instruments and their uses and abuses comes together in an arthroscopic procedure to produce the end result: a successfully completed arthroscopy.
... other distractions. 3 At 55 mph, the average text takes your eyes off the road long enough ... risk behaviors among high school students, including sending texts while driving. 6,7 In 2013, more than ...
Contreras, Marcos Emílio Kuschnaroff; Hoffmann, Rafael Barreiros; de Araújo, Lúcio Cappelli Toledo; Dani, William Sotau; José Berral, Francisco
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of complications in a series of consecutive cases of hip arthroscopy; to assess the progression of the sample through a learning curve; and to recognize the causes of complications in arthroscopic hip operations. Method: 150 consecutive cases that underwent hip arthroscopy between May 2004 and December 2008 were evaluated. The complications encountered were classified in three ways: organic system affected, severity and groups of 50 consecutive cases. The data were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics and Fisher's exact test. Results: We observed 15 complications in this study (10%): ten were neurological, two were osteoarticular, one was vascular-ischemic and two were cutaneous. In the classification of severity, three were classified as major, 12 as intermediate and none as minor. The incidence of complications over the course of the learning curve did not present any statistically significant difference (p = 0.16). Conclusions: Hip arthroscopy is a surgical procedure that involves low morbidity, but which presents complications in some cases. These complications are frequently neurological and transitory, and mainly occur because of joint traction. The complication rate did not decrease with progression of our sample. PMID:27022521
Polesello, Giancarlo Cavalli; Keiske Ono, Nelson; Bellan, Davi Gabriel; Honda, Emerson Kiyoshi; Guimarães, Rodrigo Pereira; Junior, Walter Riccioli; Do Val Sella, Guilherme
To confirm the therapeutic importance of hip arthroplasty in athletes whose pain precludes sportive function of the hip joint, being able to minimize it to the extent of helping on the return of sports practice at satisfactory levels. Methods: 49 athlete patients (51 hips) submitted to hip arthroscopy complaining of pain and inability to practice sports were assessed. Follow-up time ranged from 12 to 74 months (mean: 39.0 months). Preoperatively, pain site, severity according to Facial Expression Scale (FES) and the degree of disability using the modified Harris Hip Score (HHS) were assessed. Different diagnoses were provided, which led to the indication of arthroscopy, such as femoralacetabular impact, acetabular lip injury not secondary to femoral-acetabular impact, etc. Postoperatively, the patients were assessed by using the same methods as used at baseline and by the subjective analysis of return to sports activities. Results: Based on pre-and postoperative HHS and FES, the statistical analysis showed significance between values. We found some improvement in all cases and return to sports activities at a satisfactory level in most of the cases. Conclusion: As a result of our study, we confirm that arthroscopy in athletes with local hip injuries is an effective technique, able to promote the return to sports practice in most of the cases, without pain, and with an effective joint function, provided well indicated. PMID:26998449
Nakano, Naoki; Khanduja, Vikas
Summary Background Recent developments in hip arthroscopic techniques and technology have made it possible in many cases to avoid open surgical dislocation for treating a variety of pathology in the hip. Although early reports suggest favourable results’ using hip arthroscopy and it has been shown to be a relatively safe procedure, complications do exist and can sometimes lead to significant morbidity. Methods This is a review article. The aim of this manuscript is to present the most frequent and/or serious complications that could occur at or following hip arthroscopy and some guidelines to avoid these complications. Conclusion Most complications of hip arthroscopy are minor or transient but serious complications can occur as well. A lot of complication e.g. acetabular labral puncture go unreported. Appropriate education and training, precise and meticulous surgical technique with correct instrumentation, the right indication in the right patient and adherence to advice from mentors and experienced colleagues are all essential factors for a successful outcome. Level of evidence: V. PMID:28066747
Welch, R D; Lewis, D D
Distraction osteogenesis and the use of circular external skeletal fixation has increased the capacity of veterinary surgeons to manage difficult orthopedic conditions including limb-length discrepancies, angular deformity, distal and severely comminuted fractures, and bone defects. This article discusses the historical developments of the Ilizarov method of distraction osteogenesis in veterinary surgery, circular external skeletal instrumentation, and the biological principles. There is also discussion of use of this method for correction of angular deformity and bone transport and complications associated with this technique.
Amar, Eyal; Sharfman, Zachary T; Rath, Ehud
Heterotopic ossification (HO) after hip arthroscopy is the abnormal formation of mature lamellar bone within extra skeletal soft tissues. HO may lead to pain, impaired range of motion and possibly revision surgery. There has been a substantial amount of recent research on the pathophysiology, prophylaxis and treatment of HO associated with open and arthroscopic hip surgery. This article reviews the literature on the aforementioned topics with a focus on their application in hip arthroscopy.
In 2011, the National Transportation Safety Board urged all states to ban the use of portable electronic devices while driving, including hand-held and hands-free devices. Texting while driving concerns several Texas legislators, who have filed bills, backed by the Texas Medical Association, to ban the practice. TMA physicians recognize that the use of hand-held and hands-free devices and other factors associated with distracted driving affect their patients' safety.
... or outside of your ankle or along the Achilles tendon, which connects the muscles in your lower ... home. Accessed Dec. 15, 2015. Draper TR. Non-Achilles ankle tendinopathy. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed ...
Yasui, Youichi; Hannon, Charles P; Hurley, Eoghan; Kennedy, John G
Posterior ankle impingement syndrome (PAIS) is a common injury in athletes engaging in repetitive plantarflexion, particularly ballet dancers and soccer players. Despite the increase in popularity of the posterior two-portal hindfoot approach, concerns with the technique remain, including; the technical difficulty, relatively steep learning curve, and difficulty performing simultaneous anterior ankle arthroscopy. The purpose of the current literature review is to provide comprehensive knowledge about PAIS, and to describe a systematic four-stage approach of the posterior two-portal arthroscopy. The etiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic strategies are first introduced followed by options in conservative and surgical management. A detailed systematic approach to posterior hindfoot arthroscopy is then described. This technique allows for systematic review of the anatomic structures and treatment of the bony and/or soft tissue lesions in four regions of interest in the hindfoot (superolateral, superomedial, inferomedial, and inferolateral). The review then discusses biological adjuncts and postoperative rehabilitation and ends with a discussion on the most recent clinical outcomes after posterior hindfoot arthroscopy for PAIS. Although clinical evidence suggests high success rates following posterior hindfoot arthroscopy in the short- and mid-term it may be limited in the pathology that can be addressed due to the technical skills required, but the systematic four-stage approach of the posterior two-portal arthroscopy may improve upon this problem. PMID:27795947
Sidman, James; Tatum, Sherard Austin
James Sidman, MD, and Sherard A. Tatum, MD, address the following questions for discussion and debate. Is neonatal distraction osteogenesis (DO) better than lip-tongue adhesion or tracheotomy for micrognathic airway compromise? What role does DO have in adult orthognathic surgery situations? In monobloc and Le Fort III procedures, are internal or external devices preferable? What role does DO play in craniofacial microsomia? Is endoscopic DO better than open procedures for synostosis management? How has your technique changed or evolved over the past 5 years and what has doing this technique taught you? Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lui, Tun Hing
Anterior ankle snapping syndrome is rare. Snapping of the extensor digitorum longus due to attenuated inferior extensor retinaculum and snapping due to hypertrophied or low-lying peroneal tertius muscle have been reported. We reported a new mechanism of anterolateral snapping due to a hypertrophied talar head. Anterolateral snapping ankle can be revealed by active dorsiflexion and plantarflexion of the ankle with the foot inverted. Foot inversion will tension the inferior extensor retinaculum and uncover the dorsolateral prominence of the talar head. The dorsolateral prominence of the talar head will snap over the proximal edge of the inferior extensor retinaculum. This technical note reports the technique of arthroscopic contouring of the talar head via extra-articular ankle arthroscopy. We named this technique arthroscopic taloplasty.
Zhou, Libin; Shang, Hongtao; Feng, Zhihong; Liu, Chen; Ye, Wenmin; Ma, Qin; Wu, Wei; Liu, Yanpu
Curvilinear distraction is currently under investigation to reconstruct curved maxillofacial bone defects. However, previous studies have revealed the discrepancy between the contour of the regenerated bone in the distraction gap and the curvilinear pathway of the transport disc. We hypothesize that the discrepancy is because of the conflict of the distraction vector and the strain vector during the consolidation. In curvilinear distraction osteogenesis, the distraction vector varies, while the strain vector during the consolidation phase is fixed-linear, from the beginning to the end of the distraction pathway. Here we bring forward a solution of segmental curvilinear distraction osteogenesis to divide the curvilinear distraction into several segments, with respective consolidation for each distraction gap. If this hypothesis is verified, the segmental distraction curvilinear distraction will benefit the reconstruction of complicated long-range maxillofacial bone defects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Weinrauch, Patrick; Kermeci, Sharon
We describe the use of intraoperative ultrasound for the safe development of arthroscopic portals during hip arthroscopy without the requirement for fluoroscopy. We find this technique consistently accurate, allowing the safe introduction of arthroscopic instruments into the hip with a very low rate of iatrogenic injury. We have further developed the technique for application to both central- and peripheral-compartment procedures. We now have a total experience of more than 700 procedures to date. With the described technique of ultrasound guidance for portal placement, fluoroscopy is required in fewer than 2% of hip arthroscopy procedures at our institution. PMID:24904772
Vega, Jordi; Marimón, Jesús; Golanó, Pau; Pérez-Carro, Luis; Salmerón, Jorge; Aguilera, Josep Maria
True ossicle in the distal portion of the malleolus is only sporadically observed, and related disease has been rarely reported. We present two cases of atypical ankle impingement resulting from an ankle sprain. Plain radiographs revealed true submalleolar ossicles. Conservative treatment failed, and arthroscopy was performed. Instability of the ossicle and surrounding fibrotic soft tissue was evident; a gap between the ossicle and the tip of the malleolus seen during plantar flexion of the ankle disappeared in dorsal flexion, resulting in compression of the surrounding soft tissue. Arthroscopic excision of the accessory ossicle relieved the symptoms and enabled both patients to return to full preinjury activities.
Tourné, Y; Mabit, C
Capsule/ligament lesions of the lateral compartment of the ankle lead to lateral laxity, which is a prime contributor to chronic ankle instability. Lateral ligament reconstruction stabilizes the joint. Exhaustive preoperative clinical and paraclinical work-up is essential. The present article classifies, presents and criticizes the main techniques in terms of long-term stabilization and reduction of osteoarthritis risk. Anatomic ligament repair with reinforcement (mainly extensor retinaculum) or anatomic ligament reconstruction are the two recommended options. Non-anatomic reconstructions using the peroneus brevis should be abandoned. Arthroscopy is increasingly being developed, but results need assessment on longer follow-up than presently available. Postoperative neuromuscular reprogramming is fundamental to optimal recovery. Finally, the concept of complex ankle instability is discussed from the diagnostic and therapeutic points of view. The various forms of ligament reconstruction failure and corresponding treatments are reported.
Matsuda, Dean K; Gupta, Nikhil; Hanami, Dylan
Pincer femoroacetabular impingement occurs in focal or global forms, the latter having more generalized and typically more extreme acetabular overcoverage. Severe global deformities are often treated with open surgical dislocation of the hip. Arthroscopic technical challenges relate to difficulties with hip distraction; central-compartment access; and instrument navigation, acetabuloplasty, and chondrolabral surgery of the posterior acetabulum. Techniques addressing these challenges are introduced permitting dual-portal hip arthroscopy with central-compartment access, subtotal acetabuloplasty, and circumferential chondrolabral surgery. The modified midanterior portal in combination with a zone-specific sequence of acetabular rim reduction monitored with fluoroscopic templating enables precision subtotal acetabuloplasty. Guidelines for acetabular rim reduction include the following suggested radiographic endpoints: postoperative center-edge angle of 35°, a neutral posterior wall sign, and an anterior margin ratio of 0.5. Arthroscopic zone-specific chondrophobic rim preparation and circumferential labral reparative and reconstructive techniques and tools permit the arthroscopic treatment of these challenging deformities.
Adams, Julie E; King, Graham J W; Steinmann, Scott P; Cohen, Mark S
Elbow arthroscopy is a tool useful for the treatment of a variety of pathologies about the elbow. The major indications for elbow arthroscopy include débridement for septic elbow arthritis, synovectomy for inflammatory arthritis, débridement for osteoarthritis, loose body extraction, contracture release, treatment of osteochondral defects and selected fractures or instability, and tennis elbow release. To achieve favorable outcomes after elbow arthroscopy, the surgeon should be aware of contraindications, technical considerations, anatomic principles, and the need for proper patient positioning and portal selection. Elbow arthroscopy is an effective procedure for the treatment of inflammatory arthritis, osteoarthritis, and lateral epicondylitis.
Adams, Julie E; King, Graham J W; Steinmann, Scott P; Cohen, Mark S
Elbow arthroscopy is a tool useful for the treatment of a variety of pathologies about the elbow. The major indications for elbow arthroscopy include débridement for septic elbow arthritis, synovectomy for inflammatory arthritis, débridement for osteoarthritis, loose body extraction, contracture release, treatment of osteochondral defects and selected fractures or instability, and tennis elbow release. Contraindications, technical considerations, and favorable outcomes following treatment with elbow arthroscopy require careful patient evaluation, a thorough understanding of anatomic principles, and proper patient positioning and portal selection to guide preoperative planning and overall patient care. Elbow arthroscopy is an effective procedure for the treatment of inflammatory arthritis, osteoarthritis, and lateral epicondylitis.
Hip arthroscopy is currently being leveraged in the diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of hip joint problems. In fact, great advancements in hip arthroscopy have resulted in an ever-expanding number of indications to which it is being applied. Minimally invasive hip arthroscopy allows for quicker initiation of rehabilitation and has attracted much attention as the field becomes increasingly focused on surgeries designed to preserve joints. This review aims to summarize the recent advances, applications, and impact of hip arthroscopy. PMID:28316958
... the sole of the foot is facing inwards, stretching and possibly damaging the ligaments on the outer ... sprains: Always warm up and use the recommended stretching techniques for your ankles before playing sports, exercising, ...
... is surgery to replace the damaged bone and cartilage in the ankle joint. Artificial joint parts (prosthetics) ... Your surgeon will remove the damaged bone and cartilage. Your surgeon will replace the damaged part of: ...
Fletcher, Matt D A
Distraction arthroplasty of the ankle, elbow, and hip has become widely accepted and used within the orthopaedic community with excellent initial results which appear sustained. To date it has not been applied to the wrist in the same manner. A novel technique, drawn upon past success of articulated ankle distraction and static wrist distraction, was devised and evaluated by application of articulated wrist distraction performed over a 12-week period in a patient with poor functional outcome following limited wrist fusion. Posttreatment results showed improvement in range of motion (100-degree arc), subjective pain, and functional outcome measures (DASH 21.7, Mayo Wrist Score 80) comparable or better than either limited wrist fusion or proximal row carpectomy. Articulated wrist distraction initially appears to be a promising therapeutic option for the management of the stiff and painful wrist to maintain maximal function for which formal wrist arthrodesis may be the only alternative.
Brooks, Stuart; Morgan, Mamdouh
A prospective study of 238 patients was performed in a district general hospital to assess current diagnostic accuracy rates and to ascertain the use and the effectiveness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning in reducing the number of negative arthroscopies. The pre-operative diagnosis of patients listed for knee arthroscopy was medial meniscus tear 94 (40%) and osteoarthritis 59 (25%). MRI scans were requested in 57 patients (24%) with medial meniscus tear representing 65% (37 patients). The correlation study was done between pre-operative diagnosis, MRI and arthroscopic diagnosis. Clinical diagnosis was as accurate as the MRI with 79% agreement between the preoperative diagnosis and arthroscopy compared to 77% agreement between MRI scan and arthroscopy. There was no evidence, in this study, that MRI scan can reduce the number of negative arthroscopies. Four normal MRI scans had positive arthroscopic diagnosis (two torn medial meniscus, one torn lateral meniscus and one chondromalacia patella). Out of 240 arthroscopies, there were only 10 normal knees (negative arthroscopy) representing 4% of the total number of knee arthroscopies; one patient of those 10 cases had MRI scan with ACL rupture diagnosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:12215031
Pasa, L; Hart, R; Kocis, J; Muzík, V; Veselý, R
Arthroscopic examination of joints has recently gained wide application. Due to hip joint shape and a difficult approach to it, hip arthroscopy has long remained outside the attention and abilities of arthroscopists. The authors present their first experience with operative hip arthroscopy that offers new options for the treatment of intra-articular pathology of the hip joint. In the years 2001-2003, 24 hip arthroscopies were performed. The following pathological conditions were diagnosed and treated: loose bodies, chondral lesions of the femoral head and acetabulum, ruptures of the labrum acetabuli and ligamentum teres, impingement syndrome of the labrum acetabuli, and coxitis. No post-operative neurologic symptoms or vascular complications were observed. All procedures were carried out on patients in a supine position, with the treated joint in traction. A standard 30 degrees device and common instruments for arthroscopic surgery were used. The instruments were inserted in the articular fissure with the use of an X-ray intensifier. Movement in the hip joint during surgery is very limited due to traction, joint shape and the length of working canals. After traction is released, it is possible to examine also the intra-articular part of the femoral neck. The pre-operative complaints (clunking, painful joint) were relieved up to 4 to 6 weeks after surgery in 23 patients. In one patient primarily diagnosed with coxitis, infection was not eradicated after lavage and debridement and, because inflammation deeply affected the femoral head, the hip was eventually treated by Girdlestone arthroplasty. The results were evaluated clinically and on the basis of the Merle d'Aubigne and Postel questionnaire assessing pain and walking abilities by both the patients and the surgeon. All 24 patients reported poor or average conditions before surgery and, after surgery, 23 experienced improvement to a very good or average condition. One patient's state failed to improve and was
Madan, Simerjit Singh; Pai, Dinker R
Arthroscopy uses a completely different skill set compared with open orthopedic surgery. Hitherto, arthroscopy had not been given enough emphasis in the core orthopedic curricula. Simulation has been seen as an excellent way to teach the skills required in arthroscopy. The simulators used for arthroscopy training can be broadly classified into physical simulators such as cadavers, animals, models and box trainers, virtual-reality simulators, and hybrid simulators that combine virtual-reality simulation with physical components that allow real tactile feedback. The advantages and disadvantages of each of these types have been described in this article. The factors that determine skill acquisition using these simulators have been highlighted. In conclusion, simulation seems to be a valuable tool for arthroscopy training, although further studies are needed to state whether this translates into better operative skill on real patients.
Braunstein, M; Baumbach, S F; Böcker, W; Mutschler, W; Polzer, H
Acute ankle fractures are one of the most common fractures in adults with an incidence of 0.1-0.2 % per year. Operative treatment by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is the standard method of treatment for unstable or dislocated fractures. The main goal of the operation is the anatomical realignment of the joint and restoration of ankle stability; nevertheless, anatomical reduction does not automatically lead to favorable clinical results. According to several studies the mid-term and in particular the long-term outcome following operative treatment is often poor with residual symptoms including chronic pain, stiffness, recurrent swelling and ankle instability. There is growing evidence that this poor outcome might be related to occult intra-articular injuries involving cartilage and soft tissues. In recent studies the frequency of fracture-related osteochondral lesions was reported to be approximately 64 %. By physical examination, standard radiography or even computed tomography (CT), these intra-articular pathologies cannot be reliably diagnosed; therefore, many authors emphasize the value of ankle arthroscopy in acute fracture treatment as it has become a safe and effective diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Arthroscopically assisted open reduction and internal fixation (AORIF) allows control of the reduction as well examination of all intra-articular structures. If necessary, intra-articular pathologies can be addressed by removing ruptured ligaments and loose bodies, performing chondroplasty or microfracturing. So far there is no evidence that supplementary ankle arthroscopy increases the complication rate. On the other hand, the positive effect of AORIF has also not been clearly documented; nevertheless, there are clear indications that arthroscopically assisted fracture treatment is beneficial, especially in complex fractures.
... 18-21yrs. Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & ... Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention ... Children > Health Issues > Conditions > Orthopedic > Sprained Ankles Health Issues ...
Schick, Cameron W; Westermann, Robert W; Gao, Yubo; Wolf, Brian R
Thromboembolism following shoulder arthroscopy is considered an uncommon complication, with fewer than 50 cases reported in the literature. Arthroscopy of the shoulder is one of the most commonly performed orthopaedic procedures, with low associated risks. To identify potential risk factors for the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE) following shoulder arthroscopy and to determine the overall incidence of this complication. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. A retrospective case-control review was performed of patients who developed symptomatic deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE) following shoulder arthroscopy. Multiple surgeons from across North America were queried. For every case of DVT or PE identified, 2 control cases of shoulder arthroscopy were analyzed. The incidence of DVT/PE following shoulder arthroscopy was determined. A univariate analysis and a multivariate logistic regression model were conducted to identify any potential risk factors for the development of VTE following shoulder arthroscopy. A total of 17 surgeons participated in this study and had performed a total of 15,033 cases of shoulder arthroscopy from September 2002 through August 2011. Eleven of the 17 participating surgeons had had a patient with a VTE complication during this time frame. The incidence of VTE in the 15,033 cases was 0.15%; 22 patients of the 15,033 patients had a DVT (n = 15) and/or PE (n = 8). Forty-four control cases were also analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. No significant risk factors were identified other than patient positioning. All cases and controls were positioned in the beach-chair position for surgery. The results of this study show that although rare, VTE occurs following shoulder arthroscopy at a rate of 0.15%. The variables analyzed in the cases of VTE compared with the control cases did not show any significant risk factors. All cases were positioned in the beach-chair position. Further
... bleeding. Fast beforehand. Depending on the type of anesthesia you'll have, your doctor may want you ... mild sedative. During the procedure The type of anesthesia used varies by procedure. Local anesthesia. Numbing agents ...
Marchac, D; Arnaud, E
The distraction of the maxilla provides very useful possibilities in young children with unstable articulation and in infants in order to avoid excessively radical operations. The principles of the distraction are reviewed. The authors report 13 clinical cases and complications. The material needs to be perfected, as numerous incidents are still observed.
ERCIN, ERSIN; BILGILI, MUSTAFA GOKHAN; ONES, HALIL NADIR; KURAL, CEMAL
Fluid extravasation is possibly the most common complication of shoulder arthroscopy. Shoulder arthroscopy can lead to major increases in the compartment pressure of adjacent muscles and this phenomenon is significant when an infusion pump is used. This article describes a case of pectoral swelling due to fluid extravasation after shoulder arthroscopy. A 24-year-old male underwent an arthroscopic Bankart repair for recurrent shoulder dislocation. The surgery was performed in the beach chair position and lasted two hours. At the end of the procedure, the patient was found to have left pectoral swelling. A chest radiography showed no abnormality. Pectoral swelling due to fluid extravasation after shoulder arthroscopy has not previously been documented. PMID:26889473
Ercin, Ersin; Bilgili, Mustafa Gokhan; Ones, Halil Nadir; Kural, Cemal
Fluid extravasation is possibly the most common complication of shoulder arthroscopy. Shoulder arthroscopy can lead to major increases in the compartment pressure of adjacent muscles and this phenomenon is significant when an infusion pump is used. This article describes a case of pectoral swelling due to fluid extravasation after shoulder arthroscopy. A 24-year-old male underwent an arthroscopic Bankart repair for recurrent shoulder dislocation. The surgery was performed in the beach chair position and lasted two hours. At the end of the procedure, the patient was found to have left pectoral swelling. A chest radiography showed no abnormality. Pectoral swelling due to fluid extravasation after shoulder arthroscopy has not previously been documented.
Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Ejnisman, Benno; Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Monteiro, Gustavo Cará; Cohen, Moisés; Faloppa, Flávio
Scapulothoracic arthroscopy is a procedure presenting restricted indications, for resecting free bodies, benign tumors, bursitis, and snaping scapula. The authors report four cases of scapulothoracic joint arthroscopy; in the first case, only a benign tumor (osteochondroma) could be visualized; in the second case, arthroscopic resection of an osteochondroma was found; in the third case, arthroscopic bursectomy due to scapulothoracic bursitis, and; in the fourth case, bursectomy and partial superomedial arthroscopic scapulectomy due to snaping scapula. PMID:27022519
Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Ejnisman, Benno; Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Monteiro, Gustavo Cará; Cohen, Moisés; Faloppa, Flávio
Scapulothoracic arthroscopy is a procedure presenting restricted indications, for resecting free bodies, benign tumors, bursitis, and snaping scapula. The authors report four cases of scapulothoracic joint arthroscopy; in the first case, only a benign tumor (osteochondroma) could be visualized; in the second case, arthroscopic resection of an osteochondroma was found; in the third case, arthroscopic bursectomy due to scapulothoracic bursitis, and; in the fourth case, bursectomy and partial superomedial arthroscopic scapulectomy due to snaping scapula.
Lardé, Hélène; Nichols, Sylvain
Arthroscopy has all the advantages of minimally invasive surgery in cattle. Specialized equipment and knowledge of normal joint anatomy of cattle are mandatory for successful arthroscopy. The surgical technique is different in cattle compared with the horse. Thick skin and joint capsules complicate movement of the arthroscope within the joints. In cattle, septic arthritis and osteochondrosis are the most frequent disorders suitable for arthroscopic treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Andelman, Steven M; Meier, Kristen M; Walsh, Amanda L; Kim, Joung Heon; Hausman, Michael R
Elbow arthroscopy is a minimally invasive means by which to treat a variety of acute and chronic elbow conditions. Although the safety and efficacy is well documented in the adult population, comparatively little information is available about the role of elbow arthroscopy in the pediatric population. This study reports the indications for and safety of elbow arthroscopy in a series of pediatric patients. A retrospective review was performed from 2001 to 2015 of a surgical database at a single institution. All elbow arthroscopies performed in patients aged 18 years and younger were reviewed. Indications for surgery, perioperative and postoperative complications, further surgical intervention, and descriptive demographic information were recorded. We identified 64 elbow arthroscopic procedures in 59 patients. The average age at the time of surgery was 11.8 years. Indications for the arthroscopic surgery included contracture release (45.3%), closed reduction and fixation for fracture (20.3%), treatment of osteochondritis dissecans (20.3%), diagnostic arthroscopy (7.8%), and débridement (6.3%). The overall complication rate was 17.2%, with a major and minor complication rate of 6.3% and 10.9%, respectively. Elbow arthroscopy has applications in the pediatric population with an acceptable safety profile. The techniques and indications continue to evolve. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mañero, Luciano Martin; Arroquy, Damian; Barrios, Juan Manuel; Botta, Juan Martin; Caceres, Carlos Alberto
Introduction: Juvenile Tillaux Fracture is an isolated fracture of the lateral portion of the distal tibial epiphysis, considered SALTER-HARRIS fracture type 3, wherein the fragment is moved by the anterolateral ligament anterior inferior tibiofibular. They occur at the beginning of the 2nd decade of life and are caused by a force external rotation. The pattern of injury is considered a result of the closing sequence of the distal tibial physis, which usually closes around 15 years of age in girls and 17 in boys, this process usually takes about 18 months, occurring first in the central area of the physis, extending medially and finally to side, being this epiphyseal portion which is open at the time of the vulnerable to fracture injury in this age group. The curriculum includes RX, and TAC, being more sensitive to detect fragments of 2 or more mm of travel, but may overestimate the true displacement. The non-displaced fracture can be treated with cast immobilization and displaced with closed reduction (plantar flexion external rotation in the pronated foot and direct pressure on the anterolateral epiphysis). An equal displacement or > 2 mm of the articular surface is indication of open reduction and percutaneous fixation, because it may increase the risk of osteoarthritis in the future. Objective: Presentation of a case Juvenile Tillaux Fractures with surgical resolution under arthroscopic assistance. Methods: Male patient 14 years old who suffered indirect trauma left ankle during practice sports (rugby) in September 2015, 48 hours of evolution. After performing X-rays and scans one left Salter Harris type III at the level of distal tibial epiphysis (Tillaux fracture) ankle fracture was diagnosed. It had a greater than 2 mm displacement. As a reduction treatment and percutaneous osteosynthesis with more osteodesis screw with arthroscopic assistance and fluoroscopy was performed. After surgery a long leg cast was placed for three weeks, continuing with three other
... ankle replacement. Your surgeon removed and reshaped damaged bones, and put in an artificial ankle joint. You received pain medicine and were shown how to treat swelling around your new ankle joint.
Khair, M Michael; Grzybowski, Jeffrey S; Kuhns, Benjamin D; Wuerz, Thomas H; Shewman, Elizabeth; Nho, Shane J
side-to-side sutures or suture anchor-based repair was able to restore the capsular strength to a native intact hip. We found, however, that the side-to-side suture repair was better able to restore the distraction force compared with suture anchor repair. Capsular management during hip arthroscopy remains a debated topic, with multiple techniques involving both capsulotomy and capsular closure published in the literature. This study provides insight into capsular stability against axial stress under capsulotomy and capsular repair conditions. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Henn, R Frank; Shah, Neel; Warner, Jon J P; Gomoll, Andreas H
The purpose of this study was to quantify the benefits of shoulder arthroscopy simulator training with a cadaveric model of shoulder arthroscopy. Seventeen first-year medical students with no prior experience in shoulder arthroscopy were enrolled and completed this study. Each subject completed a baseline proctored arthroscopy on a cadaveric shoulder, which included controlling the camera and completing a standard series of tasks using the probe. The subjects were randomized, and 9 of the subjects received training on a virtual reality simulator for shoulder arthroscopy. All subjects then repeated the same cadaveric arthroscopy. The arthroscopic videos were analyzed in a blinded fashion for time to task completion and subjective assessment of technical performance. The 2 groups were compared by use of Student t tests, and change over time within groups was analyzed with paired t tests. There were no observed differences between the 2 groups on the baseline evaluation. The simulator group improved significantly from baseline with respect to time to completion and subjective performance (P < .05). Time to completion was significantly faster in the simulator group compared with controls at the final evaluation (P < .05). No difference was observed between the groups on the subjective scores at the final evaluation (P = .98). Shoulder arthroscopy simulator training resulted in significant benefits in clinical shoulder arthroscopy time to task completion in this cadaveric model. This study provides important additional evidence of the benefit of simulators in orthopaedic surgical training. There may be a role for simulator training in shoulder arthroscopy education. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... activity in the mix -- even talking to your passengers or changing a radio station -- can be enough ... same things that distracted drivers 100 years ago -- passengers, things that catch one’s attention outside the vehicle, ...
Buda, Roberto; Cavallo, Marco; Castagnini, Francesco; Ferranti, Enrico; Natali, Simone; Giannini, Sandro
Young hemophilic patients are frequently affected by ankle arthropathy. At the end stage of the disease, the current treatments are arthrodesis and arthroplasty, which have significant drawbacks. Validated procedures capable of slowing down or even arresting the progression towards the end stage are currently lacking. This review aims to discuss the rationale for and feasibility of applying, in mild hemophilic ankle arthropathy, the main techniques currently used to treat osteochondral defects, focusing in particular on ankle distraction, chondrocyte implantation, mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, allograft transplantation and the use of growth factors. To date, ankle distraction is the only procedure that has been successfully used in hemophilic ankle arthropathy. The use of mesenchymal stem cells have recently been evaluated as feasible for osteochondral repair in hemophilic patients. There may be a rationale for the use of growth factors if they are combined with the previous techniques, which could be useful to arrest the progression of the degeneration or delay end-stage procedures.
Hankemeier, S; Bastian, L; Gosling, T; Krettek, C
Callus distraction is based on the principle of regenerating bone by continuous distraction of proliferating callus tissue. It has become the standard treatment of significant leg shortening and large bone defects. Due to many problems and complications, exact preoperative planning, operative technique and careful postoperative follow-up are essential. External fixators can be used for all indications of callus distraction. However, due to pin tract infections, pain and loss of mobility caused by soft tissue transfixation, fixators are applied in patients with open growth plates, simultaneous lengthening with continuous deformity corrections, and increased risk of infection. Distraction over an intramedullary nail allows removal of the external fixator at the end of distraction before callus consolidation (monorail method). The intramedullary nail protects newly formed callus tissue and reduces the risk of axial deviation and refractures. Recently developed, fully intramedullary lengthening devices eliminate fixator-associated complications and accelerate return to normal daily activities. This review describes principles of callus distraction, potential complications and their management.
Efunkoya, Akinwale A; Bamgbose, Babatunde O; Adebola, Rafael A; Adeoye, Joshua B; Akpasa, Izegboya O
Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a biologic process of new bone formation between the surfaces of bone segments that are gradually separated by incremental traction. It consists of 4 primary phases, namely, corticotomy and device placement, a latency period, active distraction, and consolidation. The objectives of the current study were to review DO as it applies to maxillomandibular defects and to share our clinical experience in the cases we have done. A clinical narrative review of the literature was performed to evaluate the use and efficacy of maxillomandibular osteogenesis in maxillomandibular defects. A systematic search of the literature was performed using PubMed, with special interest in the history of DO and its application in dentistry and maxillofacial surgery. medical subject headings terms included surgical procedures, osteogenesis, distraction, and orthodontics. Two cases of maxillomandibular DO managed at the Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH), Nigeria, were reported and discussed. Articles involving maxillary and midface distractions, bilateral distraction for airway obstruction, and distraction for hemifacial microstomia were all reviewed. In the first case reported, a unidirectional distractor was used to achieve simultaneous mandibular lengthening and maxillary occlusal correction. Gains of 10 mm in mandibular ramal height and 23 mm in corpus length were achieved in the second reported case, using a bidirectional distractor. The literature search revealed no previous Nigerian reports of maxillomandibular DO. The DO is a viable and available treatment option for reconstructing maxillomandibular discrepancies and accompanying soft and hard tissue deficiencies.
Thevendran, Gowreeson; Younger, Alastair
The management of diabetic ankle fractures is difficult given the associated wound and bone healing complications. Even with meticulous soft tissue handling and a stable construct, the fixation sometimes fails because of the poor biological environment. This study reports on 2 cases of Weber type B ankle fractures in patients with diabetes mellitus where the authors elected to treat with arthroscopy-assisted fracture reduction and percutaneous fibula nailing to reduce the risk of wound complications.
Sraj, Shafic A
Several wrist arthroscopy towers are commercially available. In this report, the use of a triangular holder as a cheap, mobile, radiolucent tower for wrist arthroscopy is described, which can be useful in a cost-conscious surgical practice.
Leventhal, Evan L.; Moore, Douglas C.; Akelman, Edward; Wolfe, Scott W.; Crisco, Joseph J.
Introduction Wrist distraction is a common treatment maneuver used clinically for the reduction of distal radial fractures and mid-carpal dislocations. Wrist distraction is also required during wrist arthroscopy to access the radiocarpal joint and has been used as a test for scapholunate ligament injury. However, the effect of a distraction load on the normal wrist has not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to measure the 3-D conformational changes of the carpal bones in the normal wrist as a result of a static distractive load. Methods The dominant wrists of 14 healthy volunteers were scanned using computed tomography at rest and during application of 98N of distraction. Load was applied using finger traps and volunteers were encouraged to relax their forearm muscles and to allow distraction of the wrist. The motions of the bones in the wrist were tracked between the unloaded and loaded trial using markerless bone registration. The average displacement vector of each bone was calculated relative to the radius as well as the interbone distances for 20 bone-bone interactions. Joint separation was estimated at the radiocarpal, midcarpal and carpal-metacarpal joints in the direction of loading using the radius, lunate, capitate and 3rd metacarpal. Results With loading, the distance between the radius and 3rd metacarpal increased an average of 3.3±3.1mm in the direction of loading. This separation was primarily located in the axial direction at the radiocarpal (1.0±1.0mm) and midcarpal (2.0±1.7mm) joints. There were minimal changes in the transverse direction within the distal row, although the proximal row narrowed by 0.98±0.7mm. Distraction between the radius and scaphoid (2.5±2.2mm) was 2.4 times greater than between the radius and lunate (1.0±1.0mm). Conclusions Carpal distraction has a significant effect on the conformation of the carpus, especially at the radiocarpal and midcarpal joints. In the normal wrist, external traction causes twice as
Hilgersom, Nick F J; Oh, Luke S; Flipsen, Mark; Eygendaal, Denise; van den Bekerom, Michel P J
Elbow arthroscopy is a technical challenging surgical procedure because of close proximity of neurovascular structures and the limited articular working space. With the rising number of elbow arthroscopies being performed nowadays due to an increasing number of surgeons performing this procedure and a broader range of indications, a rise in complications is foreseen. With this editorial we hope to create awareness of possible complications of elbow arthroscopy, particularly nerve injuries, and provide a guideline to avoid complications during elbow arthroscopy. PMID:28251060
Jameson, Eleanor; Trevena, Judy; Swain, Nic
The current study investigated whether active distraction reduces participants’ experience of pain more than passive distraction during a cold pressor task. In the first experiment, 60 participants were asked to submerge their hand in cold (2°C) water for as long as they could tolerate. They did this with no distraction, and then with active (electronic gaming system) and passive (television) distraction, in randomly assigned order. Tolerance time, pain intensity ratings and task absorption ratings were measured for each condition. A second experiment attempted to control for participants’ expectations about the effects of distraction on pain. Forty participants underwent the same experimental procedure, but were given verbal suggestions about the effects of distraction by the experimenter before each distraction condition. Participants in both experiments had a significantly higher pain tolerance and reported less pain with the active distraction compared with passive or no distraction. Participants reported being more absorbed, and were significantly more willing to do the task again when they had the active distraction compared with both passive distraction and no distraction. They also had more enjoyment, less anxiety and greater reduction in pain with active distraction than with passive distraction. There was no effect of suggestion. These experiments offer further support for the use of electronic games as a method of pain control. PMID:21369538
Jameson, Eleanor; Trevena, Judy; Swain, Nic
The current study investigated whether active distraction reduces participants' experience of pain more than passive distraction during a cold pressor task. In the first experiment, 60 participants were asked to submerge their hand in cold (2°C) water for as long as they could tolerate. They did this with no distraction, and then with active (electronic gaming system) and passive (television) distraction, in randomly assigned order. Tolerance time, pain intensity ratings and task absorption ratings were measured for each condition. A second experiment attempted to control for participants' expectations about the effects of distraction on pain. Forty participants underwent the same experimental procedure, but were given verbal suggestions about the effects of distraction by the experimenter before each distraction condition. Participants in both experiments had a significantly higher pain tolerance and reported less pain with the active distraction compared with passive or no distraction. Participants reported being more absorbed, and were significantly more willing to do the task again when they had the active distraction compared with both passive distraction and no distraction. They also had more enjoyment, less anxiety and greater reduction in pain with active distraction than with passive distraction. There was no effect of suggestion. These experiments offer further support for the use of electronic games as a method of pain control.
Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications.
Cooper, Daniel E.
A technique of single portal knee arthroscopy was reported in 2013. Using a parallel working cannula assembled to the arthroscope cannula, the instruments are passed into the joint in line with the arthroscope. The original technique video in Arthroscopy Techniques shows the use of a 25 mm tube assembly with a parallel portal through which biters and proximally bent cutter instruments are used to perform procedures in the knee. This 2015 technical update shows the current preferred and most versatile method of single portal knee arthroscopy using a parallel locking and rotating hub for passage of biters and double-bend cutters. The video shows adequate completion of a partial meniscectomy using only 1 portal. PMID:27073772
Lubowitz, James H; Brand, Jefferson C; Provencher, Matthew T; Rossi, Michael J
According to the Harvard Business Review, the optimal number of people in a decision-making group is no more than 8. Thus, it is no surprise that 18 Arthroscopy journal associate editors had difficulty making a major decision. In the end, 18 editors did successfully select the 2015 winner of the Best Comparative Study Prize. All studies have limitations, but from a statistical standpoint, the editors believe that the conclusions of the winning study are likely correct. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ward, Benjamin D.; Lubowitz, James H.
Knee arthroscopy is an important diagnostic and therapeutic tool in the management of disorders of the knee. In a series of 4 articles, the basics of knee arthroscopy are reviewed. In this article (part 1), patient positioning, tourniquet placement, and draping are reviewed. Meticulous attention to these details allows surgical access to the compartments of the knee. A circumferential leg holder or a lateral post allows the application of varus and valgus forces to open the medial and lateral compartments of the knee. PMID:24892015
Bruno, Maurilio; Longhino, Valentina; Sansone, Valerio
We present the case of an unusual and serious complication of hip arthroscopy due to the severance of the inferior gluteal artery. The lesion induced a severe anemic condition and the formation of a large pseudoaneurysm, which compressed the sciatic nerve and left permanent neurologic sequelae. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of its kind. We also describe how to establish a safe posterior hip joint arthroscopic portal to avoid such a complication. Copyright © 2011 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Russo, A; Zappia, M; Reginelli, A; Carfora, M; D'Agosto, G F; La Porta, M; Genovese, E A; Fonio, P
Ankle impingement is defined as entrapment of an anatomic structure that leads to pain and decreased range of motion of the ankle and can be classified as either soft tissue or osseous (Bassett et al. in J Bone Joint Surg Am 72:55-59, 1990). The impingement syndromes of the ankle are a group of painful disorders that limit full range of movement. Symptoms are due to compression of soft-tissues or osseous structures during particular movements (Ogilvie-Harris et al. in Arthroscopy 13:564-574, 1997). Osseous impingement can result from spur formation along the anterior margin of the distal tibia and talus or as a result of a prominent posterolateral talar process, the os trigonum. Soft-tissue impingement usually results from scarring and fibrosis associated with synovial, capsular, or ligamentous injury. Soft-tissue impingement most often occurs in the anterolateral gutter, the medial ankle, or in the region of the syndesmosis (Van den Bekerom and Raven in Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 15:465-471, 2007). The main impingement syndromes are anterolateral, anterior, anteromedial, posterior, and posteromedial impingement. These conditions arise from initial ankle injuries, which, in the subacute or chronic situation, lead to development of abnormal osseous and soft-tissue thickening within the ankle joint. The relative contributions of the osseous and soft-tissue abnormalities are variable, but whatever component is dominant there is physical impingement and painful limitation of ankle movement. Conventional radiography is usually the first imaging technique performer and allows assessment of any potential bone abnormality, particularly in anterior and posterior impingement. Computed tomography (CT) and isotope bone scanning have been largely superseded by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. MR imaging can demonstrate osseous and soft-tissue edema in anterior or posterior impingement. MR imaging is the most useful imaging modality in evaluating suspected soft
Flores, Roberto L.
Mandibular distraction has revolutionized the treatment of Robin sequence associated with severe airway obstruction. The distraction technique remains the only intervention that directly corrects mandibular hypoplasia and the retropositioned tongue, providing efficient relief of airway stenosis. Multiple studies have demonstrated the efficacy of distraction in avoiding tracheostomy and decreasing the severity airway obstruction in this patient population. The benefit to avoiding tracheostomy and relieving airway obstruction is superior to that of tongue–lip adhesion. It is, therefore, not surprising that mandibular distraction has become the first-line intervention at many centers for the surgical treatment of Robin sequence. The complication profile associated with mandibular distraction appears low; the most common complication is infection, which can be treated by antibiotics alone. The severity of airway obstruction can be quantified by polysomnogram: This tool has become one of the most widely used objective metrics in the Robin sequence population. Therefore indications for surgery, timing of palatoplasty and long-term assessment of airway function should be performed in conjunction with sleep study analysis. The effects of mandibular lengthening on feeding difficulty in Robin sequence patient remains a topic of controversy. Studies have demonstrated conflicting results: This can be an area of future study. Agreed-upon indications for surgery and definitive protocols of care have yet to be formulized; future research should focus on achieving these goals. Such studies would require agreed-upon terminology for Robin sequence, an increase in comparative and prospective analysis, and the use of quantifiable metrics of clinical results. PMID:25383055
Flores, Roberto L
Mandibular distraction has revolutionized the treatment of Robin sequence associated with severe airway obstruction. The distraction technique remains the only intervention that directly corrects mandibular hypoplasia and the retropositioned tongue, providing efficient relief of airway stenosis. Multiple studies have demonstrated the efficacy of distraction in avoiding tracheostomy and decreasing the severity airway obstruction in this patient population. The benefit to avoiding tracheostomy and relieving airway obstruction is superior to that of tongue-lip adhesion. It is, therefore, not surprising that mandibular distraction has become the first-line intervention at many centers for the surgical treatment of Robin sequence. The complication profile associated with mandibular distraction appears low; the most common complication is infection, which can be treated by antibiotics alone. The severity of airway obstruction can be quantified by polysomnogram: This tool has become one of the most widely used objective metrics in the Robin sequence population. Therefore indications for surgery, timing of palatoplasty and long-term assessment of airway function should be performed in conjunction with sleep study analysis. The effects of mandibular lengthening on feeding difficulty in Robin sequence patient remains a topic of controversy. Studies have demonstrated conflicting results: This can be an area of future study. Agreed-upon indications for surgery and definitive protocols of care have yet to be formulized; future research should focus on achieving these goals. Such studies would require agreed-upon terminology for Robin sequence, an increase in comparative and prospective analysis, and the use of quantifiable metrics of clinical results.
Boles, Richard E; Roberts, Michael C
To examine the effects of parenting distractions on supervising behaviors in relation to child risky behaviors. Forty preschool-aged children and their parents were randomly assigned to occupy a simulated home living room for 45 min with the parent involved in either (a) no planned distraction, (b) a telephone call distraction, (c) a TV show distraction, or (d) a computer assignment distraction. Parent and child behaviors were recorded and coded. Parent supervising behaviors were significantly intercorrelated but revealed no relation to risky child behavior. Children showed higher risky behavior during parental distractions and steadily over time when parent distractions occurred. Additionally, younger children were more likely to engage in risky behavior when compared to older children. Parents showed significant reductions in their ability to supervise children during distractions, limiting the ability to provide education or to take immediate action necessary to prevent or minimize possible injuries.
Roberts, Michael C.
Objective To examine the effects of parenting distractions on supervising behaviors in relation to child risky behaviors. Methods Forty preschool-aged children and their parents were randomly assigned to occupy a simulated home living room for 45 min with the parent involved in either (a) no planned distraction, (b) a telephone call distraction, (c) a TV show distraction, or (d) a computer assignment distraction. Parent and child behaviors were recorded and coded. Results Parent supervising behaviors were significantly intercorrelated but revealed no relation to risky child behavior. Children showed higher risky behavior during parental distractions and steadily over time when parent distractions occurred. Additionally, younger children were more likely to engage in risky behavior when compared to older children. Conclusions Parents showed significant reductions in their ability to supervise children during distractions, limiting the ability to provide education or to take immediate action necessary to prevent or minimize possible injuries. PMID:18334495
Lui, Tun Hing; Tong, Sheung Chi
Technique of subtalar arthroscopy is rapidly evolving. Increasing number of traditional open procedures for the subtalar joint can now be done arthroscopically. It is hoped that less wound complications, faster rehabilitation and better cosmetic outcomes can be achieved with this minimally invasive technique. PMID:25621211
Patients with active claims for workplace injuries will benefit from treatment for femoroacetabular impingement, but improvement is not as good as in the patients with sports-related injuries. Workers' Compensation patients differ from highly motivated athletes. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bruno, Maurilio; Lavanga, Vito; Maiorano, Emanuele; Sansone, Valerio
A case is presented of an unusual complication of shoulder arthroscopy, which was caused by incorrect location of the posterior portal, inducing neurapraxia of both the axillary and radial nerves, with significant clinical and functional sequelae. A subsequent open surgical neurolysis was required to restore normal nerve function. This type of lesion has not been reported previously. Level of evidence V.
af Klint, Erik; Catrina, Anca I; Matt, Peter; Neregråd, Petra; Lampa, Jon; Ulfgren, Ann-Kristin; Klareskog, Lars; Lindblad, Staffan
Introduction Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive technique for retrieving synovial biopsies in rheumatology during the past 20 years. Vital for its use is continual evaluation of its safety and efficacy. Important for sampling is the fact of intraarticular variation for synovial markers. For microscopic measurements scoring systems have been developed and validated, but for macroscopic evaluations there is a need for further comprehensive description and validation of equivalent scoring systems. Methods We studied the complication rate and yield of arthroscopies performed at our clinic between 1998 and 2005. We also created and evaluated a macroscopic score set of instructions for synovitis. Results Of 408 procedures, we had two major and one minor complication; two haemarthrosis and one wound infection, respectively. Pain was most often not a problem, but 12 procedures had to be prematurely ended due to pain. Yield of biopsies adequate for histology were 83% over all, 94% for knee joints and 34% for smaller joints. Video printer photographs of synovium taken during arthroscopy were jointly and individually reviewed by seven raters in several settings, and intra and inter rater variation was calculated. A macroscopic synovial scoring system for arthroscopy was created (Macro-score), based upon hypertrophy, vascularity and global synovitis. These written instructions were evaluated by five control-raters, and when evaluated individual parameters were without greater intra or inter rater variability, indicating that the score is reliable and easy to use. Conclusions In our hands rheumatologic arthroscopy is a safe method with very few complications. For knee joints it is a reliable method to retrieve representative tissue in clinical longitudinal studies. We also created an easy to use macroscopic score, that needs to be validated against other methodologies. We hope it will be of value in further developing international standards in this area. PMID:19490631
Heck, Katherine E; Carlos, Ramona M
Adolescents who drive with peers are known to have a higher risk of crashes. While passengers may distract drivers, little is known about the circumstances of these distractions among teen drivers. This study used survey data on driving among 2,144 California high school seniors to examine distractions caused by passengers. Overall, 38.4% of youths who drove reported having been distracted by a passenger. Distractions were more commonly reported among girls and students attending moderate- to high-income schools. Talking or yelling was the most commonly reported type of distraction. About 7.5% of distractions reported were deliberate, such as hitting or tickling the driver or attempting to use the vehicle's controls. Driving after alcohol use and having had a crash as a driver were both significant predictors of reporting passenger-related distraction. Adolescents often experience distractions related to passengers, and in some cases these distractions are intentional. These results provide information about teenage drivers who are distracted by passenger behaviors. In some cases, passengers attempted to use vehicle controls; however, it seems unlikely that this behavior is common enough to warrant redesign of controls to make them less accessible to passengers.
... Risk for Newly Active Baby Boomers The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons has a valuable lesson for Baby Boomers now getting back into fitness and sports: Get your ankles checked for chronic instability caused ...
Bozic, Kevin J; Chan, Vanessa; Valone, Frank H; Feeley, Brian T; Vail, Thomas P
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changing incidence of hip arthroscopy procedures among newly trained surgeons in the United States, the indications for hip arthroscopy, and the reported rate of post-operative complications. The ABOS database was used to evaluate the annual incidence of hip arthroscopy procedures between 2006-2010. Procedures were categorized by indication and type of procedure. The rate of surgical complications was calculated and compared between the published literature and hip arthroscopy procedures performed for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI)/osteoarthritis (OA) and for labral tears among the newly trained surgeon cohort taking the ABOS Part II Board exam. The overall incidence of hip arthroscopy procedures performed by ABOS Part II examinees increased by over 600% during the 5-year period under study from approximately 83 in 2006 to 636 in 2010. The incidence of hip arthroscopy for FAI/OA increased steadily over the time period under study, while the incidence of hip arthroscopy for labral tears was variable over time. The rate of surgical complications was 5.9% for hip arthroscopy procedures for a diagnosis of FAI/OA vs. 4.4% for a diagnosis of labral tear (P=0.36). The incidence of hip arthroscopy has increased dramatically over the past 5 years, particularly for the indication of FAI/OA. Reported surgical complication rates are relatively low, but appear higher than those rates reported in previously published series. Appropriate indications for hip arthroscopy remain unclear. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mai, Nicholas; Cooper, Leslie
School nurses are faced with the challenge of identifying and treating ankle injuries in the school setting. There is little information guiding the assessment and treatment of these children when an injury occurs. It is essential for school nurses to understand ankle anatomy, pathophysiology of the acute ankle injury, general and orthopedic…
Mai, Nicholas; Cooper, Leslie
School nurses are faced with the challenge of identifying and treating ankle injuries in the school setting. There is little information guiding the assessment and treatment of these children when an injury occurs. It is essential for school nurses to understand ankle anatomy, pathophysiology of the acute ankle injury, general and orthopedic…
Park, Myung-Sik; Yoon, Sun-Jung; Kim, Yong-Jin; Chung, Woo-Chul
The aim of this study was to assess complications related to arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and how these complications have changed as we have gained more experience with this procedure. The authors reviewed 200 hips (197 patients). The average patient age was 44.64 years and the mean follow-up time was 28.2 months. All patients underwent hip arthroscopy in the supine position. Clinically, Modified Harris Hip Scores (MHHS) and patient satisfaction with outcome were used. We divided complications into 3 groups: Group 1 related to traction, group 2 related to surgical technique or implant failure, and group 3 related to outcomes. Clinically, the MHHS improved from 69.96 (±6.10) to 80.45 (±7.00), and patient satisfaction with the achieved outcome increased to 8.87 (±0.76). The overall complication rate was 15% (30 of 200 hips). Group 1 consisted of 4 patients with pudendal neuropraxia and 2 patients with ankle joint pain (P = .013). Group 2 consisted of 2 patients with lateral femoral cutaneous neuropraxia, 2 patients with iatrogenic labral perforations, one patient with a labral tear, and 4 patients with femoral head scuffs. There were 4 incidents of instrument breakage. Furthermore, 3 suture anchors failed, a second-degree burn occurred in one patient, and there was incomplete reshaping in 5 hips (P = .045). Group 3 included one patient with a snapping sound and heterotopic ossification. Second-look arthroscopy was performed for 5 hips. All the complications outlined in groups 1 and 2 are related to the learning curve and have statistical significance (P < .05). Complications relating to hip arthroscopy took different forms during the early learning period, but overall complication rates decreased along the learning curve. Surgical technique-related complications such as problems with suture anchors and the reshaping of cam impingements were also considered during the later stage. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2014
Escoto, Abelardo; Le Ber, Fraser; Trejos, Ana Luisa; Naish, Michael D; Patel, Rajni V; Lebel, Marie-Eve
Many challenges exist when teaching and learning arthroscopic surgery, carrying a high risk of damaging the joint during the learning process. To minimize risk, the use of arthroscopy simulators allows trainees to learn basic skills in a risk-free environment before entering the operating room. A high-fidelity physical knee arthroscopy simulator is proposed to bridge the gap between surgeons and residents. The simulator is composed of modular and replaceable elements and can measure applied forces, instrument position and hand motion, in order to assess performance in real time. A construct validity study was conducted in order to assess the performance improvement of novices after practicing with the simulator. In addition, a face validity study involving expert surgeons indicated that the simulator provides a realistic scenario suitable for teaching basic skills. Future work involves the development of better metrics to assess user performance.
Kocher, Mininder S; Kim, Young-Jo; Millis, Michael B; Mandiga, Rahul; Siparsky, Patrick; Micheli, Lyle J; Kasser, James R
Hip arthroscopy has become an established procedure for certain indications in adults, but experience in children and adolescents has been more limited. The purpose of this study is to report the early-term results of hip arthroscopy in children and adolescents. A consecutive case series of 54 hip arthroscopies in 42 patients 18 years old and younger over a 3-year period at a tertiary-care children's hospital with a minimum of 1 year of follow-up was reviewed. Patients were assessed with the modified Harris hip score (HHS) before and after surgery. Overall results and results by common diagnoses were analyzed. Indications for surgery included isolated labral tear (n = 30), Perthes disease (n = 8), hip dysplasia with labral tear after prior periacetabular osteotomy (n = 8), inflammatory arthritis (n = 3), spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (n = 2), avascular necrosis (n = 1), slipped capital femoral epiphysis (n = 1), and osteochondral fracture (n = 1). Overall, there was a significant improvement in HHS from 53.1 to 82.9 (P < 0.001), with 83% of patients improved. By diagnosis, significant improvement in HHS was seen for patients with isolated labral tears undergoing labral debridement (before surgery 57.6; after surgery 89.2; P < 0.001), for patients with Perthes disease undergoing chondroplasty and loose body excision (before surgery 49.5; after surgery 80.1; P < 0.001), and for patients with hip dysplasia after prior periacetabular osteotomy undergoing labral debridement (before surgery 51.8; after surgery 79.8; P < 0.001). Complications included transient pudendal nerve palsy (n = 3), instrument breakage (n = 1), and recurrent labral tear (n = 3). Hip arthroscopy in children and adolescents appears to be safe and efficacious for certain indications in the short term.
K. Intra- abdominal compartment syndrome as a complication of ruptured abdomi- nal aortic aneurysm repair. Am Surg 1989;55:396-402. 6. Sugrue M...00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After Hip Arthroscopy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Author’s personal copy Case Report Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After
Mannava, Sandeep; Howse, Elizabeth A.; Stone, Austin V.; Stubbs, Allston J.
Hip arthroscopy serves as both a diagnostic and therapeutic tool for the management of various conditions that afflict the hip. This article reviews the basics of hip arthroscopy by demonstrating supine patient positioning, fluoroscopic evaluation of the hip under anesthesia, and sterile preparation and draping. Careful attention to detail during the operating theater setup ensures adequate access to the various compartments of the hip to facilitate the diagnosis of disease and treatment with minimally invasive arthroscopy. Furthermore, having a routine method for patient positioning and operative setup improves patient safety, as well as operative efficiency, as the operative team becomes familiar with the surgeon's standard approach to hip arthroscopy cases. PMID:26759783
Wolfe, Elizabeth Suzanne; Arabian, Sandra Strack; Breeze, Janis L; Salzler, Matthew J.
Commuting via bicycle is a very popular mode of transportation in the Northeastern United States (US). Boston, MA has seen a rapid increase in bicycle ridership over the past decade which has raised concerns and awareness about bicycle safety. An emerging topic in this field is distracted bicycle riding. This study was conducted to provide descriptive data on the prevalence and type of distracted bicycling in Boston at different times of day. This was a cross-sectional study in which observers tallied bicyclists at four high traffic intersections in Boston during various peak commuting hours for two types of distractions: auditory (ear buds/phones in or on ears), and visual/tactile (electronic device or other object in hand). Nineteen hundred seventy-four bicyclists were observed and 615 (31.2%, 95% CI: 29%-33%) were distracted. Of those observed, auditory distractions were the most common (N= 349 [17.7%, 95% CI: 16%-19%], p=0.0003) followed by visual/tactile distractions (N= 266 [13.5%, 95% CI: 12%-15%]). The highest proportion (40.7%, 95% CI: 35%-46%) of distracted bicyclists was observed during the midday commute (between 13:30-15:00). Distracted bicycling is a prevalent safety concern in the city of Boston, as almost one-third of all bicyclists exhibited distracted behavior. Education and public awareness campaigns should be designed to decrease distracted bicycling behaviors and promote bicycle safety in Boston. An awareness of the prevalence of distracted biking can be utilized to promote bicycle safety campaigns dedicated to decreasing distracted bicycling and to provide a baseline against which improvements can be measured. PMID:26953533
Persisting pain after an ankle sprain is often caused by the development of intraarticular fibrous scars or even tibiotalar spurs due to repetitive trauma. This may result in a posttraumatic impingement syndrome of the ankle. Pain is typically provoked by dorsiflexion of the ankle and palpation of the tibiotalar anterior joint space. The study evaluates the outcome of arthroscopic treatment of the ankle impingement syndrome. 32 patients are included (16-65 years, mean age 38 years) who underwent an arthroscopic operation because of an impingement syndrome of the ankle grades I-III (Scranton) due to a trauma without therapeutic response to conservative therapy over 3 months. Diagnostic criteria were palpatoric anterior ankle joint pain and pain provoked by dorsiflexion, in cases of grades II and III lesions spurs on the X-ray as well. The mean follow-up time was 49 months. The evaluation of the results was done with the West Point Ankle Score. The study is designed as a retrospective case series. 26 patients reached more than 80 points in the West Point Ankle Score corresponding to a good or excellent result (mean result 86 points, ranging from 80 to 98 points). The preoperative mean score reached up to 64 points overall (57-70). Five patients rated the postoperative result fair, one bad with 73 points at mean (62-78). Preoperatively they reached 56 point on an average (48-62). The fair and the poor results were associated with severe ankle sprain leading to ligament ruptures or fractures where severe chondral lesions were to be found with arthroscopy. The results of the study show that ankle arthroscopy with resection of hypertrophic synovium and fibrous bands (type I) or tibial spurs (types II and III injuries) after an ankle sprain haven proven to be a reliable therapy for a posttraumatic impingement syndrome of the ankle that does not respond to conservative treatment. It is characterized by low morbidity and good to excellent results in most cases. The outcome
Bayona, Sofia; Akhtar, Kash; Gupte, Chinmay; Emery, Roger J.H.; Dodds, Alexander L.; Bello, Fernando
Background: Surgical training is undergoing major changes with reduced resident work hours and an increasing focus on patient safety and surgical aptitude. The aim of this study was to create a valid, reliable method for an assessment of arthroscopic skills that is independent of time and place and is designed for both real and simulated settings. The validity of the scale was tested using a virtual reality shoulder arthroscopy simulator. Methods: The study consisted of two parts. In the first part, an Imperial Global Arthroscopy Rating Scale for assessing technical performance was developed using a Delphi method. Application of this scale required installing a dual-camera system to synchronously record the simulator screen and body movements of trainees to allow an assessment that is independent of time and place. The scale includes aspects such as efficient portal positioning, angles of instrument insertion, proficiency in handling the arthroscope and adequately manipulating the camera, and triangulation skills. In the second part of the study, a validation study was conducted. Two experienced arthroscopic surgeons, blinded to the identities and experience of the participants, each assessed forty-nine subjects performing three different tests using the Imperial Global Arthroscopy Rating Scale. Results were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance with measures of absolute agreement. The intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated for each test to assess inter-rater reliability. Results: The scale demonstrated high internal consistency (Cronbach alpha, 0.918). The intraclass correlation coefficient demonstrated high agreement between the assessors: 0.91 (p < 0.001). Construct validity was evaluated using Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance (chi-square test, 29.826; p < 0.001), demonstrating that the Imperial Global Arthroscopy Rating Scale distinguishes significantly between subjects with different levels of experience utilizing a virtual reality
Arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis is a cost-effective option for many patients with posttraumatic arthritis of the ankle joint. Rehabilitation is generally quicker than conventional open techniques, and rates of fusion are comparable or better than traditional open techniques. Unless the arthroscopic surgeon has considerable experience, the best results are seen in patients with very little deformity in the ankle joint. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jackson, J Benjamin; Jacobson, Lance; Banerjee, Rahul; Nickisch, Florian
There is a high potential for disability following calcaneal fracture. This potential exists whether a patient is treated with conservative or operative management. Subfibular impingement and irritation of the peroneal tendon and sural nerve may also be present. Posttraumatic arthritis of the subtalar joint can occur. In patients with symptomatic calcaneal malunion, systematic evaluation is required to determine the source of pain. Nonsurgical treatment may be effective. One surgical treatment option is subtalar distraction arthrodesis. High rates of successful arthrodesis and patient satisfaction have been reported with this surgical option in correctly selected patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Winters, Ryan; Tatum, Sherard A
Distraction osteogenesis (DO) may be the most versatile tool to become available to the craniofacial surgeon in recent years. It can be used in an ever-expanding register of clinical scenarios and offers major advantages over conventional craniofacial techniques in some circumstances. Craniofacial surgery has significant complications, some of which can be mitigated but not eliminated by choosing DO over conventional approaches. Although some DO applications are in their infancy with limited data, this article provides an overview of current uses of this versatile technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wolfe, M W; Uhl, T L; Mattacola, C G; McCluskey, L C
Without adequate care, acute ankle trauma can result in chronic joint instability. Use of a standardized protocol enhances the management of ankle sprains. In patients with grades I or II sprains, emphasis should be placed on accurate diagnosis, early use of RICE (rest, ice, compression and elevation), maintenance of range of motion and use of an ankle support. Sprains with complete ligament [corrected] tears (grade III) may require surgical intervention. Although early motion and mobility are recommended, ligamentous strength does not return until months after an ankle sprain.
Giannini, Sandro; Buda, Roberto; Mosca, Massimiliano; Parma, Alessandro; Di Caprio, Francesco
Posterior ankle impingement is a common cause of chronic ankle pain and results from compression of bony or soft tissue structures during ankle plantar flexion. Bony impingement is most commonly related to an os trigonum or prominent trigonal process. Posteromedial soft tissue impingement generally arises from an inversion injury, with compression of the posterior tibiotalar ligament between the medial malleolus and talus. Posterolateral soft tissue impingement is caused by an accessory ligament, the posterior intermalleolar ligament, which spans the posterior ankle between the posterior tibiofibular and posterior talofibular ligaments. Finally, anomalous muscles have also been described as a cause of posterior impingement.
Kim, So-Yeon; Hopfinger, Joseph B.
The ability to maintain focus and avoid distraction by goal-irrelevant stimuli is critical for performing many tasks and may be a key deficit in attention-related problems. Recent studies have demonstrated that irrelevant stimuli that are consciously perceived may be filtered out on a neural level and not cause the distraction triggered by…
Kim, So-Yeon; Hopfinger, Joseph B.
The ability to maintain focus and avoid distraction by goal-irrelevant stimuli is critical for performing many tasks and may be a key deficit in attention-related problems. Recent studies have demonstrated that irrelevant stimuli that are consciously perceived may be filtered out on a neural level and not cause the distraction triggered by…
Arslan, Mahmut; Cantürk, Mehmet; Örnek, Dilşen; Gamlı, Mehmet; Pala, Yaşar; Dikmen, Bayazit; Basaran, Melekşah
OBJECTIVE: The goal of the study was to investigate the regıonal ıntravenous anesthesıa procedure in knee arthroscopy and to evaluate the effects of adding ketamine over the anesthesia block charactery and tourniquet pain. MATERIAL/METHOD: Forty American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) II patients who received knee arthroscopy were enrolled. After monitoring, a peripheral IV line was inserted.The venous blood in the lower extremity was evacuated with a bandage, and the proximal cuff of the double-cuff tourniquet was inflated. The patients were randomly split into two groups. While Group P received 80 ml 0.5% prilocaine, Group PK received 0.15 mg/kg ketamine (80 ml in total) via the dorsum of the foot. We recorded onset time of the sensory block, end time of the sensory block, presence of the motor block, the time when the patient verbally reported tourniquet pain and surgical pain, duration of tourniquet tolerance, fentanyl consumption during the operation, time to first analgesic requirement, methemoglobin values at 60 minutes, operative conditions, 24-hour analgesic consumption, discharge time, and hemodynamic parameters. RESULTS: The body mass index (BMI) of the patients who required general anesthesia was significantly higher than the BMI of other patients. The onset time of the sensory block was shorter for those in Group PK, but the time to first analgesic requirement was longer. CONCLUSION: Regıonal ıntravenous anesthesıa using the doses and volumes commonly used in knee arthroscopy may be an inadequate block among patients with high BMI values. Moreover, the addition of ketamine to the local anesthetic solution may produce a partial solution by shortening the onset of sensory block and prolonging the time until the first analgesic is required. PMID:21049208
... foot and ankle surgeons. All Fellows of the College are board certified by the American Board of Foot and Ankle Surgery. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights ...
Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1986
Types of ankle sprains, surgical versus nonsurgical treatment, tape versus brace for support, rehabilitation, exercise, and prevention of ankle sprains are discussed by a panel of experts. An acute ankle taping technique is illustrated. (MT)
Lee, Simon; Kuhn, Andrew; Draovitch, Pete; Bedi, Asheesh
Femoroacetabular impingement may be particularly disabling to the high-demand athlete, especially those with significant cutting and pivoting requirements. If nonoperative treatment fails to adequately alleviate symptoms or sufficiently restore function in the athlete, hip arthroscopy can lead to improved pain, improved range of motion, and high rates of return to play with proper postoperative rehabilitation. The rate of return to previous level of competition is also high with accurate diagnosis and well-executed correction of deformity. A clear understanding of the etiology, diagnosis, management, and outcomes is essential for clinicians to optimally help patients to return to play.
Federer, Andrew E.; Karas, Vasili; Nho, Shane; Coleman, Struan H.; Mather, Richard C.
Hip arthroscopy has recently become a common procedure to treat central and peripheral hip pathology. Capsulotomies are necessary in these procedures, and negotiating adequate visualization, as well as capsular preservation, is a challenge. We describe a capsular suspension technique that allows for adequate visualization of the central and peripheral compartments while facilitating preservation of the native hip capsule. This technique eliminates the need for additional personnel for retraction, potentially decreases iatrogenic hip injury, eliminates the need for excessive capsular debridement, and allows for capsular closure under minimal tension. PMID:26759769
Leslie, I J; Bentley, G
Chondromalacia patellae is difficult to diagnosis clinically with accuracy. In order to clarify the relevant symptoms and signs, 78 patients presenting with a clinical diagnosis of chondromalacia were examined by arthroscopy. In 49% of the knees no abnormalities were found. Presenting symptoms were similar in the normal and abnormal groups. Physical signs were more helpful in diagnosis and it is considered that the presence of an effusion, quadriceps wasting, and patello-femoral crepitus are the most important clinical findings in the diagnosis of chondromalacia patellae. The arthroscope is valuable instrument in establishing the diagnosis of chondromalacia patellae especially in the teenage female. Images PMID:749700
The contribution of the segmental osteotomies in the ortho-surgical protocols is no longer to demonstrate and found a new lease of life thanks to the combination with the bone distraction techniques. The osteotomy of Köle, initially described to close infraclusies, and then used to level very marked curves of Spee has more recently been used to correct anterior crowding. This support is therefore aimed at patients with an incisor and canine Class 2 but molar Class 1 with an isolated mandibular footprint. With minimal orthodontic preparation we can create in two weeks bilateral diastemas that will then be used to align the incisivocanin crowding without stripping or bicuspid extractions. Dental orthodontic movements can be resumed one month after the end of the distraction. This technique is therefore likely to avoid bicuspid extraction and replace some sagittal osteotomy advancement by correction of the overjet. It also helps to correct a incisors labial or lingual tipping playing on differential activation of the cylinders and the distractor. This segmental surgery can be combined with Le Fort 1 surgeries with correction of the transverse and associated meanings, but in a second time, to a mandibular advancement and/or a genioplasty.
Batista, Jorge Pablo; del Vecchio, Jorge Javier; Golanó, Pau; Vega, Jordi
Endoscopy for the posterior region of the ankle through two portals is becoming more widespread for the treatment of a large number of conditions which used to be treated with open surgery years ago. The tendon of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) travels along an osteofibrous tunnel between the posterolateral and posteromedial tubercles of the talus. Chronic inflammation of this tendon may lead to painful stenosing tenosynovitis. The aim of this report is to describe two cases depicting an accessory tendon which is an anatomical variation of the flexor hallucis longus in patients with posterior friction syndrome due to posterior ankle impingement and associated with a posteromedial osteochondral lesion of the talus. The anatomical variation (FDAL) described was a finding during an endoscopy of the posterior region of the ankle, and we have spared it by sectioning the superior flexor retinaculum only. The accessory flexor digitorum longus is an anatomical variation and should be taken into account when performing an arthroscopy of the posterior region of the ankle. We recommend this treatment on this type of injury although we admit this does not make a definite conclusion. PMID:26060592
Schaffler, Gottfried J; Tirman, Phillip F J; Stoller, David W; Genant, Harry K; Ceballos, Cecar; Dillingham, Michael F
Our objective was to identify MR imaging findings in patients with syndesmotic soft tissue impingement of the ankle and to investigate the reliability of these imaging characteristics to predict syndesmotic soft tissue impingement syndromes of the ankle. Twenty-one ankles with chronic pain ultimately proven to have anterior soft tissue impingement syndrome were examined by MR imaging during January 1996 to June 2001. The MR imaging protocol included sagittal and coronal short tau inversion recovery (STIR), sagittal T1-weighted spin echo, axial and coronal proton-density, and T2-weighted spin-echo sequences. Nineteen ankles that underwent MR imaging during the same period of time and that had arthroscopically proven diagnosis different than impingement syndrome served as a control group. Fibrovascular scar formations distinct from the syndesmotic ligaments possibly related to syndesmotic soft tissue impingement were recorded. Arthroscopy was performed subsequently in all patients and was considered the gold standard. The statistical analysis revealed an overall frequency of scarred syndesmotic ligaments of 70% in the group with ankle impingement. Fibrovascular scar formations distinct from the syndesmotic ligaments presented with low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and remained low to intermediate in signal intensity on T2-weighted MR imaging. Compared with arthroscopy, MR imaging revealed a sensitivity of 89%, a specificity of 100%, and a diagnostic accuracy of 93% for scarred syndesmotic ligaments. The frequency of scar formation distinct from the syndesmotic ligaments in patients with impingement syndrome of the ankle was not statistically significantly higher than in the control group. In contrast to that, anterior tibial osteophytes and talar osteophytes were statistically significantly higher in the group with anterior impingement than in the control group. Conventional MR imaging was found to be insensitive for the diagnosis of syndesmotic soft tissue
Feibel, Robert J; Uhthoff, Hans K
Ankle arthrodesis in a plantigrade position. In high-energy open injuries with segmental bone loss: proximal tibial metaphyseal corticotomy with distal Ilizarov bone transport for compensation of leg length discrepancy. Posttraumatic loss of the tibial plafond, usually resulting from open fracture type IIIC. Ipsilateral foot injuries impairing ambulation after fusion. Severe injury to the posterior tibial nerve with absent plantar sensation. Soft-tissue injury not manageable surgically. Inadequate patient compliance. Advanced age. Severe osteoporosis. Acute infection. Standard technique: anteromedial longitudinal incision. Removal of remaining articular cartilage. Passing of Ilizarov wires through the distal fibula, talar neck and body. Placement of 5-mm half-pins through stab incisions, perpendicular to the medial face of the tibial shaft. A lateral to medial 1.8-mm Ilizarov wire in the proximal tibial metaphysis is optional. Callus distraction/Ilizarov bone transport: exposure through an anteromedial incision or transverse traumatic wound. Removal of small residual segment of tibial plafond blocking transport. Retain small vascularized bone fragments not blocking transport. For Ilizarov external fixation, two rings in the proximal tibial region. Drill osteoclasis of the tibial metaphysis 1 cm distal to the tibial tuberosity and complete with Ilizarov osteotome. Secure the Ilizarov threaded rods or clickers. Weight bearing as tolerated. Begin distraction 14 days after corticotomy at a rate of 0.5-1 mm per day depending on patient's age. After docking: Ilizarov ankle arthrodesis. Between January 1993 and September 1996, four patients (two men, two women) with severe, nonreconstructable fractures of the tibial plafond were treated. Callus distraction and Ilizarov bone transport in three patients. Age range 19-68 years (average age 45.7 years). Mean follow-up 6.6 years (4 years 9 months to 7 years 4 months). Average duration of the entire treatment in external
Siddiqui, Mashfiqul A; Chong, Keen Wai; Yeo, William; Rao, Mohana S; Rikhraj, Inderjeet S
The subtalar joint is complex. With the advent of smaller diameter arthroscopes, subtalar arthroscopy has become an important diagnostic and therapeutic tool for subtalar joint disorders. The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of patients who underwent arthroscopy for subtalar joint disorders using a 2.4-mm zero-degree arthroscope. In this prospective study, 6 patients who underwent subtalar arthroscopy from September 2008 to January 2009 in the authors' institution were included. The American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) hindfoot scores were recorded preoperatively and at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Mean +/- SD age was 45.5 +/- 16.2 years (range, 27.5-63.2). Postoperative diagnosis included arthrofibrosis, osteoarthritis, and osteochondral disease of the subtalar joint. Mean +/- SD AOFAS scores improved from 49.67 +/- 18.83 (range, 22-76) to 67.33 +/- 14.92 (range, 53-91) at 3 months (P = .03) and 75 +/- 19.74 (range, 54-100) at 6 months (P = .004). Subtalar arthroscopy using the 2.4-mm zero-degree arthroscope shows promising results in the diagnosis and treatment of subtalar pathologies. Patients have a significant improvement in their AOFAS hindfoot scores as early as 3 months and continue to improve subsequently. Usage of the zero-degree arthroscope allows the "instrumentation hand" to maneuver more easily in space and perform the operative procedure without getting in the way of the "camera hand." It can also save on inventory costs for centers that already have the zero-degree arthroscope. The role of specialized imaging is still unclear. Diagnosis of sinus tarsi syndrome should be historical with direct visualization of the joint revealing exact etiology.
Domb, Benjamin G.; Sgroi, Terrance A.; VanDevender, Jeremy C.
Context: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) was first described by Ganz in 2003 and is a significant cause of decreased function and mobility. Femoroacetabular impingement must be treated in an individualized, goal-oriented, stepwise fashion. This protocol was developed with biomechanical considerations of soft tissue and bony structures surrounding the hip joint. Evidence Acquisition: The PubMed database was searched for scientific and review articles from the years 2000 to 2015 utilizing the search terms: hip rehabilitation, femoroacetabular impingement, and arthroscopy. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: Five hundred ninety-five of 738 patients were available for follow-up showing improvement from preoperative to 2-year follow-up of 61.29 to 82.02 for modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), 62.79 to 83.04 for Hip Outcome Score–Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL), 40.96 to 70.07 for Hip Outcome Score–Sport-Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS), and 57.97 to 80.41 for Non-Arthritic Hip Score (NAHS); visual analog scale (VAS) scores decreased from 5.86 preoperatively to 2.94 postoperatively. Conclusion: Following a structured, criteria-based program, appropriate patients undergoing hip arthroscopy may achieve excellent outcomes and return to full independent activities of daily living as well as sport. PMID:27173983
Somberg, Andrew Max; Whiteside, William K; Nilssen, Erik; Murawski, Daniel; Liu, Wei
Many types of screws, plates, and strut grafts have been utilized for ankle arthrodesis. Biomechanical testing has shown that these constructs can have variable stiffness. More recently, headless compression screws have emerged as an evolving method of achieving compression in various applications but there is limited literature regarding ankle arthrodesis. The aim of this study was to determine the biomechanical stability provided by a second generation fully threaded headless compression screw compared to a standard headed, partially threaded cancellous screw in a cadaveric ankle arthrodesis model. Twenty fresh frozen human cadaver specimens were subjected to simulated ankle arthrodesis with either three standard cancellous-bone screws (InFix 7.3mm) or with three headless compression screws (Acumed Acutrak 2 7.5mm). The specimens were subjected to cyclic loading and unloading at a rate of 1Hz, compression of 525 Newtons (N) and distraction of 20N for a total of 500 cycles using an electromechanical load frame (Instron). The amount of maximum distraction was recorded as well as the amount of motion that occurred through 1, 10, 50, 100, and 500 cycles. No significant difference (p=0.412) was seen in the amount of distraction that occurred across the fusion site for either screw. The average maximum distraction after 500 cycles was 201.9μm for the Acutrak 2 screw and 235.4μm for the InFix screw. No difference was seen throughout each cycle over time for the Acutrak 2 screw (p-value=0.988) or the InFix screw (p-value=0.991). Both the traditional InFix type screw and the second generation Acumed Acutrak headless compression screws provide adequate fixation during ankle arthrodesis under submaximal loads. There is no demonstrable difference between traditional cannulated partially threaded screws and headless compression screws studied in this model. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Posterior ankle impingement syndrome is a clinical disorder characterized by posterior ankle pain that occurs in forced plantar flexion. The pain may be acute as a result of trauma or chronic from repetitive stress. Pathology of the os trigonum-talar process is the most common cause of this syndrome, but it also may result from flexor hallucis longus tenosynovitis, ankle osteochondritis, subtalar joint disease, and fracture. Patients usually report chronic or recurrent posterior ankle pain caused or exacerbated by forced plantar flexion or push-off maneuvers, such as may occur during dancing, kicking, or downhill running. Diagnosis of posterior ankle impingement syndrome is based primarily on clinical history and physical examination. Radiography, scintigraphy, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging depict associated bone and soft-tissue abnormalities. Symptoms typically improve with nonsurgical management, but surgery may be required in refractory cases.
Kemper, Susan; Mcdowd, Joan; Metcalf, Kim; Liu, Chiung-Ju
Eye-tracking technology was employed to examine young and older adults' performance in the reading with distraction paradigm. Distracters of 1, 2, and 4 words that formed meaningful phrases were used. There were marked age differences in fixation patterns. Young adults' fixations to the distracters and targets increased with distracter length.…
Seijas, Roberto; Sallent, Andrea; Galán, María; Alvarez-Diaz, Pedro; Ares, Oscar; Cugat, Ramón
Hip arthroscopy is considered a safe procedure, considering the relatively low rate of complications. Despite several complications have been described following this surgical procedure, the present event has not yet been described. The purpose of the present study is to report an unpublished complication following hip arthroscopy, after reviewing 162 hip arthroscopies and finding iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) in the knee during followup. A retrospective review of 162 hip arthroscopies performed between September 2007 and June 2011 was carried out, evaluating patients who presented ITBS during followup. Indication for hip arthroscopy was failure of conservative treatment in patients with symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement. During a minimum followup of 2 years, nine patients (5.5%) developed ITBS. All patients were diagnosed with ITBS within the first 45 postoperative days. Conservative treatment was successful in 6 patients while 3 had to undergo surgery. The increased internal rotation, synovitis and increased adduction of the hip can be attributed as predisposing factors to the development of ITBS. This is a newly described observation within followup of hip arthroscopy. These findings may help orthopedic surgeons when planning rehabilitation after hip arthroscopy, including stretching exercises to prevent this syndrome.
Seijas, Roberto; Sallent, Andrea; Galán, María; Alvarez-Diaz, Pedro; Ares, Oscar; Cugat, Ramón
Background: Hip arthroscopy is considered a safe procedure, considering the relatively low rate of complications. Despite several complications have been described following this surgical procedure, the present event has not yet been described. The purpose of the present study is to report an unpublished complication following hip arthroscopy, after reviewing 162 hip arthroscopies and finding iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) in the knee during followup. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of 162 hip arthroscopies performed between September 2007 and June 2011 was carried out, evaluating patients who presented ITBS during followup. Indication for hip arthroscopy was failure of conservative treatment in patients with symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement. Results: During a minimum followup of 2 years, nine patients (5.5%) developed ITBS. All patients were diagnosed with ITBS within the first 45 postoperative days. Conservative treatment was successful in 6 patients while 3 had to undergo surgery. The increased internal rotation, synovitis and increased adduction of the hip can be attributed as predisposing factors to the development of ITBS. Conclusions: This is a newly described observation within followup of hip arthroscopy. These findings may help orthopedic surgeons when planning rehabilitation after hip arthroscopy, including stretching exercises to prevent this syndrome. PMID:27746490
Rowe, N M; Mehrara, B J; Luchs, J S; Dudziak, M E; Steinbrech, D S; Illei, P B; Fernandez, G J; Gittes, G K; Longaker, M T
Recruitment of a blood supply is critical for successful bone induction and fracture healing. Despite the clinical success of distraction osteogenesis (DO), an analysis of angiogenesis during membranous bone DO has not been performed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temporal and spatial pattern of angiogenesis during mandibular DO. The right hemimandible of adult male rats was osteotomized, and a customized distraction device was applied. Following a 3-day latency period, distraction was begun at a rate of 0.25 mm twice daily for 6 days (3.0 mm total; 12% increase in mandibular length). Three animals each were sacrificed on days 2, 4, and 6 of distraction (D1, D2, and D3 respectively), or after 1, 2, or 4 weeks of consolidation (C1, C2, and C3 respectively). Two experienced pathologists reviewed the regenerate histology, and angiogenesis was assessed by counting the number of blood vessels per intermediate-power field (IPF). Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance, with p < or = 0.05 considered significant. Results demonstrate that mandibular DO was associated with an intense vascular response during the early stages of distraction (D1). On average, 31.5+/-7.9 vessels were noted in each IPF examined during this time point. The number of blood vessels in the distraction regenerate decreased significantly during the later distraction time points, with approximately 14.0+/-2.0 and 14.7+/-3.5 blood vessels per IPF in sections obtained after days 4 and 6 of distraction (D2, D3) respectively. However, blood vessels at these time points took on a more mature histological pattern. During the consolidation period, the number of blood vessels noted in the regenerate decreased with 8.0+/-2.6, 9.3+/-2.1, and 4.0+/-2.0 vessels per IPF in sections obtained after 1, 2, or 4 weeks of consolidation (C1, C2, C3) respectively (p < 0.05 compared with vessel counts during the earliest distraction time point). This study demonstrates for the first
Adeola, Ruth; Gibbons, Mallory
Distracted driving is a growing problem in the United States. With the integration of wireless devices into everyday life, cell phone use behind the wheel is a distraction requiring increasing concern. Teen drivers are most susceptible to the dangers of distracted driving as made evident in the overrepresentation of teens in distraction-related motor vehicle crashes. This article describes the causes, consequences, and statistics related to distracted driving in teenagers and an injury prevention program for teenagers.
Williams, R. L.; Williams, L. A.; Watura, R.; Fairclough, J. A.
As part of a waiting list initiative, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were arranged for 69 patients waiting for knee arthroscopy. All patients had a clinical diagnosis of a meniscal tear. With 11 non-attenders, 58 scans were performed. Of the patients scanned, 35 had demonstrable meniscal tears, and five patients had other pathology on their scans. All patients were reviewed clinically after their scans, and 24 patients were removed from the waiting list. After a further 9 months, only one of the 24 patients removed had been re-listed for therapeutic arthroscopy. This initiative proved a cost-effective method of reducing waiting times for knee arthroscopy. PMID:8881730
Ejnisman, Benno; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Carvalho, Cassiano Diniz; Pochini, Alberto De Castro
Scapulothoracic arthroscopy is gaining recognition among arthroscopic procedures as it is considered a relatively low morbidity procedure; also, continuing studies of this technique are making it safer. Scapulothoracic arthroscopy can be used for removal of a foreign body. This case report describes the removal of a firearm projectile using image-guided arthroscopy, highlighting the anatomical aspects and characteristics of the surgical technique. In this case, the patient recovered uneventfully, with complete remission of symptoms in 30 days, returning to his usual activities within 2 months after surgery. PMID:25480137
Chen, Sufen; Sussman, Elyse S.
The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that sound context modulates the magnitude of auditory distraction, indexed by behavioral and electrophysiological measures. Participants were asked to identify tone duration, while irrelevant changes occurred in tone frequency, tone intensity, and harmonic structure. Frequency deviants were randomly intermixed with standards (Uni-Condition), with intensity deviants (Bi-Condition), and with both intensity and complex deviants (Tri-Condition). Only in the Tri-Condition did the auditory distraction effect reflect the magnitude difference among the frequency and intensity deviants. The mixture of the different types of deviants in the Tri-Condition modulated the perceived level of distraction, demonstrating that the sound context can modulate the effect of deviance level on processing irrelevant acoustic changes in the environment. These findings thus indicate that perceptual contrast plays a role in change detection processes that leads to auditory distraction. PMID:23886958
Blowers, G H
An attempt is made to replicate a former study of the relationship of field dependence as measured by rod-and-frame errors to distraction in an RT paradigm. For two groups of Ss (n = 14) who differed specifically in their dependence upon the tilted frame and were classified as frame-dependent and frame-independent, no relationship of frame (or field) dependence to susceptibility to distraction was found.
Voight, Michael L.; Robinson, Kevin; Gill, Lance; Griffin, Karen
Context: With the evolution of hip arthroscopy has come an increased recognition of intra-articular hip pathologies and improved techniques for their management. Whereas mechanical problems can often be corrected through surgery, functional deficits must be corrected through the rehabilitation process. Therefore, the evolution of hip arthroscopy has necessitated a progression in hip rehabilitation to ensure optimal postsurgical results. Evidence Acquisition: Literature review was conducted with PubMed, EMBASE, and PEDro (1992 to 2009) with the terms hip, rehabilitation, and physical therapy. Results: Although it is generally accepted that rehabilitation after hip arthroscopy is important, there is limited evidence-based research to support the rehabilitative guidelines. Conclusion: The common goal of hip rehabilitation should remain focused on the return to pain-free function of the hip joint. Outcome data indicate that this goal is being met; however, further data are required to completely validate the long-term success of hip rehabilitation after arthroscopy. PMID:23015942
Kountouriotis, G K; Merat, N
Driver distraction is strongly associated with crashes and near-misses, and despite the attention this topic has received in recent years, the effect of different types of distracting task on driving performance remains unclear. In the case of non-visual distractions, such as talking on the phone or other engaging verbal tasks that do not require a visual input, a common finding is reduced lateral variability in steering and gaze patterns where participants concentrate their gaze towards the centre of the road and their steering control is less variable. In the experiments presented here, we examined whether this finding is more pronounced in the presence of a lead car (which may provide a focus point for gaze) and whether the behaviour of the lead car has any influence on the driver's steering control. In addition, both visual and non-visual distraction tasks were used, and their effect on different road environments (straight and curved roadways) was assessed. Visual distraction was found to increase variability in both gaze patterns and steering control, non-visual distraction reduced gaze and steering variability in conditions without a lead car; in the conditions where a lead car was present there was no significant difference from baseline. The lateral behaviour of the lead car did not have an effect on steering performance, a finding which indicates that a lead car may not necessarily be used as an information point. Finally, the effects of driver distraction were different for straight and curved roadways, indicating a stronger influence of the road environment in steering than previously thought. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roukis, Thomas S
Lateral ankle instability is frequently encountered when performing total ankle replacement and remains a challenge. In the present techniques report, I have described a modification of the Evans peroneus brevis tendon lateral ankle stabilization harvested through limited incisions using simple topographic anatomic landmarks. The harvested peroneus brevis is then transferred either to the anterior distal tibia concomitantly with total ankle replacement or through the tibia when performed after total ankle replacement and secured with plate and screw fixation. This modified Evans peroneus brevis tendon is useful in providing lateral ankle stability during or after primary and revision total ankle replacement.
Camp, Christopher L.; Reardon, Patrick J.; Levy, Bruce A.; Krych, Aaron J.
Capsulotomy is typically performed during arthroscopic treatment for femoroacetabular impingement. As the frequency of hip arthroscopy continues to expand rapidly, increased attention is being paid to the implications of interportal capsulotomy and the need for repair. To minimize the risk of postoperative instability, capsular closure has been recommended to restore the anatomy and biomechanical function of the capsule. We present a reliable, efficient, and effective method for arthroscopic closure of the interportal capsulotomy after hip arthroscopy. PMID:26870655
Ali, M M; Abd-Elnaeim, M
To describe a technique for arthroscopy of the fetlock joint of the dromedary camel, and the problems that could occur during and after arthroscopy. Seven animals (4 cadaveric limbs and 3 living camels) were used in this study. Two dorsal arthroscopic portals (lateral and medial) and one palmaro-lateral portal were used. Distension of the joint capsule was effected by injecting Ringer´s lactate solution into the joint cavity. Landmarks for the dorsal arthroscopic portals were located at the centre of the groove bounded by the lateral branch of the suspensory ligament and the large metacarpus at a point 1 cm proximal to the joint. The palmaro-lateral portal was located in a triangular area between the branch of the suspensory ligament, the large metacarpus, and the sesamoid bone, with insertion of the arthroscope in a 45° joint flexion angle. Arthroscopy of the fetlock joint via the dorso-lateral portal allowed examination of the distal end of the large metacarpus and the proximal end of the first phalanx of the fourth digit. Arthroscopy via a dorso-medial approach allowed examination of the distal end of the large metacarpus and the proximal end of the first phalanx and the distal end of the third digit. The palmaro-lateral portal allowed examination of the sesamoid bones, the synovial membrane, and the synovial villi. The main complications recorded during arthroscopy were iatrogenic articular surface injury as well as obstruction of vision with the synovial villi. This is the first work to describe the normal arthroscopy of the fetlock joint in the dromedary camel, the arthroscopic portals, and the complications that could occur during and after arthroscopy. Further studies are required for diagnosis of pathological changes in the fetlock joint of the dromedary camel and for arthroscopy of other joints in the dromedary camel.
Obdeijn, M C; Bavinck, N; Mathoulin, C; van der Horst, C M A M; Schijven, M P; Tuijthof, G J M
Arthroscopy has assumed an important place in wrist surgery. It requires specific operative skills that are now mainly acquired in the operating room. In other fields of endoscopic surgery, e-learning and virtual reality (VR) have introduced new perspectives in teaching skills. This leads to the following research question: Could the current way of teaching wrist arthroscopy skills be supported using new educational media, such as e-learning and simulator training? The literature was searched for available methods of teaching endoscopic skills. Articles were assessed on the evidence of validity. In addition, a survey was sent to all members of the European Wrist Arthroscopy Society (EWAS) to find out whether hand surgeons express a need to embrace modern educational tools such as e-learning or simulators for training of wrist arthroscopy skills. This study shows that the current way of teaching wrist arthroscopy skills can be supported using new educational media, such as e-learning and simulator training. Literature indicates that e-learning can be a valuable tool for teaching basic knowledge of arthroscopy and supports the hypothesis that the use of virtual reality and simulators in training enhances operative skills in surgical trainees. This survey indicates that 55 out of 65 respondents feel that an e-learning program would be a valuable asset and 62 out of the 65 respondents are positive on the additional value of wrist arthroscopy simulator in training. Study results support the need and relevance to strengthen current training of wrist arthroscopy using e-learning and simulator training. V.
Holmlund, A B
Temporomandibular joint arthroscopy has gained wide interest in reviews of recent literature. With this technique a proper understanding of the anatomical landmarks is important to ensure success. The technique for anesthesia, puncture and the arthroscopic examination are fully described. An inferior lateral approach to the joint compartment is advocated. A description of the equipment used for this procedure together with the functional elements of the instruments are emphasised. Indications for diagnostic arthroscopy together with the possible postoperative complications are presented.
McCarthy, A D; Hollands, R J
Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive form of surgery used to inspect joints. It is complex to learn yet current training methods appear inadequate, thus negating the potential benefits to the patient. This paper describes the development and initial assessment of a cost-effective virtual reality based system for training surgeons in arthroscopy of the knee. The system runs on a P.C. Initial assessments by surgeons have been positive and current developments in deformable models are described.
... to getting your blood pressure taken in a routine visit to your doctor. You may feel some ... mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/ankle-brachial-index/basics/definition/PRC-20014625 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...
Malleolar fracture; Tri-malleolar; Bi-malleolar; Distal tibia fracture; Distal fibula fracture; Malleolus fracture ... Some ankle fractures may require surgery when: The ends of the bone are out of line with each other (displaced). The ...
... help to ease pain and swelling. You can buy these medicines without a prescription. DO NOT use ... easily. Your ankle is increasingly discolored (red or black and blue), or it becomes numb or tingly. ...
Haviv, Barak; Bronak, Shlomo; Thein, Rafael
Arthroscopy is a minimal invasive surgical technique to treat joint disorders with the use of fiber optics for indirect vision and small surgical tools. The first endoscopic direct inspection of the knee joint was documented at the beginning of the 20th century; however, the clinical practice of arthroscopy started only fifty years later. The "historical fathers" of surgical arthroscopy were Kenji Takagi from Japan and Eugen Bircher from Switzerland. The arthroscopes had become safer and more dependable since the 1970's with the introduction of fiber optics, while vision became easier with the invention of television. Subsequently, in the 1980's and 90's instruments were refined and arthroscopy evolved from a diagnostic to a therapeutic tool with the advantages of minimal approach, few complications and short rehabilitation. The beginning of knee arthroscopy in Israel followed the development in North America in the1970's. Within a few years, knee arthroscopy in Israel had also evolved to be therapeutic rather than diagnostic and was specifically used for partial meniscectomies. Currently, arthroscopic surgery, particularly of the knee and shoulder, has become common practice worldwide. Arthroscopic procedures constitute more than a third of all orthopedic procedures performed at the Israeli Assuta private hospitals. With the development of various technologies, it is anticipated that arthroscopic techniques will further evolve and play an ever greater role in diagnosing and treating joint pathology.
Lee, Daniel K; Mulder, Gerit D
The growing number of lower-extremity abnormalities that are seen in inpatient and outpatient settings has paralleled the increased number of elderly in the population. Foot and ankle deformities, disorders, and arthritis, which are not manifested until late in life, have become more common as more individuals attain longer lifespans. Although conservative therapies are a priority when addressing the geriatric population, surgical options may be overlooked secondary to a misunderstanding of their ability to overcome perioperative management. Advanced minimally invasive surgical procedures for the foot and ankle have decreased the complications associated with foot surgery, making surgical intervention a viable option for many of the elderly. The newer procedures do not, however, minimize strict perioperative management, including pharmacological and nutritional assessment, and cardiopulmonary precautions. Outpatient surgical intervention may effectively address many ongoing problems associated with pain, decreased ambulation, and decreased quality of life. Current techniques in joint reconstruction in the forefoot and midfoot allow weight bearing from the day of surgery. Most hindfoot and ankle surgeries now permit minimal bone resection and incision through arthroscopy, resulting in improved muscle and tendon repair and early weight bearing. The changes in surgical approaches for the geriatric foot have permitted more effective and rapid intervention in problems affecting ambulation and quality of life in our aged population.
... distractions caused by the use of PEDs. Such distractions may also hinder their prompt recognition and reaction... distractions caused by the use of PEDs. Such distractions may also hinder their prompt recognition and...
Sunaga, Ataru; Kamochi, Hideaki; Oguma, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Yasushi
In this review, we discuss in detail our current procedure for treating craniosynostosis using multidirectional cranial distraction osteogenesis (MCDO). The MCDO method allows all phenotypes of skull deformity to be reshaped by distraction osteogenesis, except in patients who are 5 months of age or younger and patients with posterior cranial vault problems. We report the results of clinical data of 36 children with craniosynostosis who underwent MCDO between 2005 and 2014 in our institute. This method has the following benefits, such as a high flexibility of reshaping, shorter treatment period and less invasive secondary intervention. We also discuss the other distraction osteogenesis techniques that are used to treat craniosynostosis and compare them with MCDO. The preferred procedure for correction of craniosynostosis may depend on the patient's age, the extent of deformity, and the extent of correction achievable by surgery. We can arrange the combinations of various methods according to the advantage and disadvantage of each technique. PMID:27226854
Gomi, Akira; Sunaga, Ataru; Kamochi, Hideaki; Oguma, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Yasushi
In this review, we discuss in detail our current procedure for treating craniosynostosis using multidirectional cranial distraction osteogenesis (MCDO). The MCDO method allows all phenotypes of skull deformity to be reshaped by distraction osteogenesis, except in patients who are 5 months of age or younger and patients with posterior cranial vault problems. We report the results of clinical data of 36 children with craniosynostosis who underwent MCDO between 2005 and 2014 in our institute. This method has the following benefits, such as a high flexibility of reshaping, shorter treatment period and less invasive secondary intervention. We also discuss the other distraction osteogenesis techniques that are used to treat craniosynostosis and compare them with MCDO. The preferred procedure for correction of craniosynostosis may depend on the patient's age, the extent of deformity, and the extent of correction achievable by surgery. We can arrange the combinations of various methods according to the advantage and disadvantage of each technique.
Lin, Che-Yu; Kang, Jiunn-Horng; Wang, Chung-Li; Shau, Yio-Wha
Measurement of viscosity of the ankle joint complex is a novel method to assess mechanical ankle instability. In order to further investigate the clinical significance of the method, this study intended to investigate the relationship between ankle viscosity and severity of functional ankle instability. Cross-sectional study. 15 participants with unilateral inversion ankle sprain and 15 controls were recruited. Their ankles were further classified into stable and unstable ankles. Ankle viscosity was measured by an instrumental anterior drawer test. Severity of functional ankle instability was measured by the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool. Unstable ankles were compared with stable ankles. Injured ankles were compared with uninjured ankles of both groups. The spearman's rank correlation coefficient was applied to determine the relationship between ankle viscosity and severity of functional ankle instability in unstable ankles. There was a moderate relationship between ankle viscosity and severity of functional ankle instability (r=-0.64, p<0.0001). Unstable ankles exhibited significantly lower viscosity (p<0.005) and more severe functional ankle instability (p<0.0001) than stable ankles. Injured ankles exhibited significantly lower viscosity and more severe functional ankle instability than uninjured ankles (p<0.0001). There was a moderate relationship between ankle viscosity and severity of functional ankle instability. This finding suggested that, severity of functional ankle instability may be partially attributed to mechanical insufficiencies such as the degenerative changes in ankle viscosity following the inversion ankle sprain. In clinical application, measurement of ankle viscosity could be a useful tool to evaluate severity of chronic ankle instability. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reconstruction of the ankle after trauma requires a variety of treatment strategies. Once the personality of the problem is appreciated, a tailored approach may be implemented. The Ilizarov method provides a versatile, powerful, and safe approach. It is particularly useful in the setting of infection, bone loss, poor soft tissue envelope, leg length discrepancy, bony deformity, and joint contracture. In this article, a variety of posttraumatic ankle pathologies are discussed. Treatment methods including osteotomy, arthrodesis, distraction, correction of contracture, nonunion repair, and tibia and fibula lengthening are reviewed. The use of the Ilizarov method for acute and/or gradual correction as well as the application of simultaneous treatments at multiple levels is discussed in this article. PMID:18751813
Kakkar, Rahul; Siddique, M S
The ankle is a highly congruent joint with a surface area of 11-13 cm(2). Total ankle replacements have been attempted since the early 1970s and design has continually evolved as the early designs were a failure. This was because the stresses involved and the mutiaxial motion of the ankle has not been understood until recently. It has been shown that the talus slides as well as rolls during the ankle arc of motion from plantarflexion to dorsiflexion. Furthermore, the articular surfaces and the calcaneofibular and tibiocalcaneal ligaments have been shown to form a four bar linkage dictating ankle motion. A new design ankle replacement has been suggested recently which allows multiaxial motion at the ankle while maintaining congruency throughout the arc of motion. The early results of this ankle replacement have been encouraging without any reported failures due to mechanical loosening.
Maffulli, Nicola; Del Buono, Angelo; Maffulli, Gayle D; Oliva, Francesco; Testa, Vittorino; Capasso, Giovanni; Denaro, Vincenzo
Lateral ankle sprains may result in pain and disability in the short term, decreased sport activity and early retirement from sports in the mid term, and secondary injuries and development of early osteoarthritis to the ankle in the long term. This combined approach to chronic lateral instability and intra-articular lesions of the ankle is safe and in the long term maintains mechanical stability, functional ability, and a good level of sport activity. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. We present the long-term outcomes of 42 athletes who underwent ankle arthroscopy and anterior talofibular Broström repair for management of chronic lateral ankle instability. We assessed in all patients preoperative and postoperative anterior drawer test and side-to-side differences, American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, and Kaikkonen grading scales. Patients were asked about return to sport and level of activity. Patients were also assessed for development of degenerative changes to the ankle, and preoperative versus postoperative findings were compared. Thirty-eight patients were reviewed at an average of 8.7 years (range, 5-13 years) after surgery; 4 patients were lost to follow-up. At the last follow-up, patients were significantly improved for ankle laxity, AOFAS scores, and Kaikkonen scales. The mean AOFAS score improved from 51 (range, 32-71) to 90 (range, 67-100), and the mean Kaikkonen score improved from 45 (range, 30-70) to 90 (range, 65-100). According to outcome criteria set preoperatively, there were 8 failures by the AOFAS score and 9 by the Kaikkonen score. Twenty-two (58%) patients practiced sport at the preinjury level, 6 (16%) had changed to lower levels but were still active in less demanding sports (cycling and tennis), and 10 (26%) had abandoned active sport participation although they still were physically active. Six of these patients did not feel safe with their ankle because of the occurrence of new episodes of ankle instability. Of the
Weir, R. O.; Marshall, W. L.
Compared experimental desensitization with a procedure that replaced relaxation with a distraction task and with an approach that combined both relaxation and distraction. Desensitization generally was more effective than the other two procedures. (Author)
Welck, M J; Myerson, M S
Subtalar distraction arthrodesis is performed in certain situations where there is loss of subtalar height, reduced talar declination and evidence of anterior tibiotalar impingement. Standard evaluation includes the assessment of the lateral talocalcaneal angle, calcaneal pitch, talocalcaneal height and talar declination angle on a weight bearing lateral radiograph. We present a case of erosive valgus subtalar osteoarthritis with subtalar collapse managed with a subtalar distraction arthrodesis. A weight bearing CT (WB-CT) scan was used in the assessment. The value of WB-CT for this indication is discussed, along with a discussion on surgical technique, complications and future directions. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. All rights reserved.
Amir, Lisa R; Everts, Vincent; Bronckers, Antonius L J J
Bone has the capacity to regenerate in response to injury. During distraction osteogenesis, the renewal of bone is enhanced by gradual stretching of the soft connective tissues in the gap area between two separated bone segments. This procedure has received much clinical attention as a way to correct congenital growth retardation of bone tissue or to generate bone to fill skeletal defects. The process of bone regeneration involves a complex system of biological changes whereby mechanical stress is converted into a cascade of signals that activate cellular behavior resulting in (enhanced) formation of bone. Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in understanding the bone regeneration process during distraction osteogenesis. The mechanical and biological factors that are important for the success of the distraction treatment have been partially characterized and are discussed in this review.
Jansma, J; Becking, A G
With distraction osteogenesis (DOG) formation of new bone is initiated by gradual separation of osteotomized bone fragments. Both external and internal distraction devices are available. Since its first application in craniomaxillofacial surgery in the early nineties, developments in distraction osteogenesis have been tremendous. Important advantages of this technique are: lack of a donorsite and its associated morbidity; increase of the volume of the soft tissue envelop; less surgical trauma compared to conventional craniomaxillofacial procedures; and the usability of the technique in growing individuals. Disadvantages of DOG are: the sofar limited experience and follow-up in craniomaxillofacial surgery; and the unknown influences on growth. The technique will gradually find its niche and the general dentist will therefore be increasingly confronted with its specific indications. In this paper the general principles of DOG and a number of indications in craniomaxillofacial surgery are discussed.
BUDA, ROBERTO; CAVALLO, MARCO; CASTAGNINI, FRANCESCO; FERRANTI, ENRICO; NATALI, SIMONE; GIANNINI, SANDRO
Young hemophilic patients are frequently affected by ankle arthropathy. At the end stage of the disease, the current treatments are arthrodesis and arthroplasty, which have significant drawbacks. Validated procedures capable of slowing down or even arresting the progression towards the end stage are currently lacking. This review aims to discuss the rationale for and feasibility of applying, in mild hemophilic ankle arthropathy, the main techniques currently used to treat osteochondral defects, focusing in particular on ankle distraction, chondrocyte implantation, mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, allograft transplantation and the use of growth factors. To date, ankle distraction is the only procedure that has been successfully used in hemophilic ankle arthropathy. The use of mesenchymal stem cells have recently been evaluated as feasible for osteochondral repair in hemophilic patients. There may be a rationale for the use of growth factors if they are combined with the previous techniques, which could be useful to arrest the progression of the degeneration or delay end-stage procedures. PMID:26904526
Herrera-Pérez, M; Pais-Brito, J L; de Bergua-Domingo, J; Aciego de Mendoza, M; Guerra-Ferraz, A; Cortés-García, P; Déniz-Rodríguez, B
The most common cause of osteoarthritis of the ankle is post-traumatic, and although tibiotalar arthrodesis remains the surgical gold standard, a number of techniques have been described to preserve joint mobility, such as joint distraction arthroplasty or arthrodiastasis. To evaluate the functional outcome and changes in Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain after the application of the distraction arthroplasty for post-traumatic ankle osteoarthritis. A prospective comparative study of a group of 10 young patients with post-traumatic ankle osteoarthritis treated by synovectomy and arthrodiastasis, compared to a control group of 10 patients treated by isolated synovectomy. Results were calculated using the AOFAS scale and the VAS for pain before and after treatment. As regards the pain measured by VAS, no difference was observed between the two groups before surgery (P=.99), but there was a difference at 3 months (P<.001), 6 months (P=.005), and 12 months (P=.006). No differences were observed in the AOFAS scale between the two groups before surgery (P=.99), or at 3 months (P<.99), but there was a difference at 6 months (P<.001). Ankle arthrodiastasis is effective in reducing pain in post-traumatic ankle arthropathy, and is superior to isolated synovectomy. © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Hao, Jiajie; Xu, Zhijie; Zhao, Zhigang
Background: The development of handicraft industry and increase of various such works that need a large amount of repeated wrist ulnar deviation strength, the incidence of ulnar impaction syndrome (UIS) is increasing, but the traditional simple ulnar shortening osteotomy has more complications. This study aimed to explore the early diagnostic criteria of UIS and its wrist arthroscopic treatment experience. Materials and Methods: 9 UIS patients were enrolled in this study. According to magnetic resonance imaging, X-ray and endoscopic features, the diagnostic criteria of UIS were summarized and the individualized treatment schedule was made. If the ulnar positive variance was less than 4 mm, the arthroscopic wafer resection was performed. If the ulnar positive variance was more than 4 mm, the arthroscopic resection of injury and degenerative triangular fibrocartilage complex and ulnar osteotomy were conducted. Results: In all patients, the wound healed without any complications. All patients returned to normal life and work, with no ulnar wrist pain again. One patient had wrist weakness. There was a significant difference of the wrist activity between the last followup and before operation (P < 0.05). According to the modified wrist function scoring system of Green and O’Brien, there were 6 cases of excellent, 2 cases of good and 1 case of appropriate and the overall excellent and good rate was 92.3%. Conclusion: In the treatment of UIS, the arthroscopy can improve the diagnosis rate, optimize the treatment plan, shorten the treatment cycle, with good treatment results. PMID:27053807
Zvijac, John E.; Ammus, Sharhabil S.; Aran, Fernando; Kiebzak, Gary M.
A 41-year-old man with an unremarkable medical history presented with a painful knee after a sports injury. He was diagnosed with a medial meniscal tear. Symptoms did not abate after 6 months of physical therapy, and he underwent arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy. A week after beginning physical therapy he experienced a knee effusion, decreased ROM, and inability to flex his quadriceps. His knee was aspirated. Blood tests were ordered and his complete blood count, liver functions tests, and INR/PTT were normal. The patient had recurrent effusions requiring three additional joint aspirations. Ten weeks after the initial surgery, the patient underwent a second arthroscopy, during which a hematoma was removed and a synovectomy performed. The patient continued bleeding from the incisions after portals were sutured, and he was admitted to the hospital. A hematologist was consulted and comprehensive platelet aggregation testing revealed previously undiagnosed Glanzmann's thrombasthenia. The patient began treatment with platelet infusions and desmopressin and progressed to a full recovery. Clinical suspicion for surgical patients with unusual repetitive postoperative bleeding should include previously undetected rare bleeding disorders even in adults. PMID:26000186
Zvijac, John E; Ammus, Sharhabil S; Aran, Fernando; Kiebzak, Gary M
A 41-year-old man with an unremarkable medical history presented with a painful knee after a sports injury. He was diagnosed with a medial meniscal tear. Symptoms did not abate after 6 months of physical therapy, and he underwent arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy. A week after beginning physical therapy he experienced a knee effusion, decreased ROM, and inability to flex his quadriceps. His knee was aspirated. Blood tests were ordered and his complete blood count, liver functions tests, and INR/PTT were normal. The patient had recurrent effusions requiring three additional joint aspirations. Ten weeks after the initial surgery, the patient underwent a second arthroscopy, during which a hematoma was removed and a synovectomy performed. The patient continued bleeding from the incisions after portals were sutured, and he was admitted to the hospital. A hematologist was consulted and comprehensive platelet aggregation testing revealed previously undiagnosed Glanzmann's thrombasthenia. The patient began treatment with platelet infusions and desmopressin and progressed to a full recovery. Clinical suspicion for surgical patients with unusual repetitive postoperative bleeding should include previously undetected rare bleeding disorders even in adults.
... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Distracted Driving Grant Program AGENCY: National Highway... Transportation (DOT) announced the availability of funding authorized for distracted driving grants on August 24... grant program. DOT recently published a notice of funding availability (NOFA) for the distracted driving...
Kolodziej, Lukas; Sadlik, Boguslaw; Sokolowski, Sebastian; Bohatyrewicz, Andrzej
Background: As orthopedic surgeons become skilled in ankle arthroscopy technique and evidence -based data is supporting its use, arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis (AAA) will likely continue to increase, but stabilization methods have not been described clearly. We present a technique for two parallel 7.3-mm headless compression screws fixation (HCSs) for AAA in cases of ankle arthritis with different etiology, both traumatic and non-traumatic, including neuromuscular and inflammatory patients. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively verified 24 consecutive patients (25 ankles) who underwent AAA between 2011 and 2015. The average follow-up was 26 months (range 18 to 52 months). Arthrodesis was performed in 16 patients due to posttraumatic arthritis (in 5 as a sequela of pilon, 6 ankles, 3 tibia fractures, and 2 had arthritis due to chronic instability after lateral ligament injury), in 4 patients due to neuromuscular ankle joint deformities, and in 4 patients due to rheumatoid arthritis. Results: Fusion occurred in 23 joints (92%) over an average of 12 weeks (range 6 to 18 weeks). Ankle arthrodesis was not achieved in 2 joints (8%), both in post-pilon fracture patients. The correct foot alignment was not achieved in 4 feet (16%). None of the treated patients required hardware removal. Conclusion: The presented technique was effective in achieving a high fusion rate in a variety of diseases, decreasing intra- and post-operative hardware complications while maintaining adequate bone stability. PMID:28400871
Drosos, G I; Stavropoulos, N I; Katsis, A; Kesidis, K; Kazakos, K; Verettas, D-A
The aim of this study was to explore the intensity of post-arthroscopy knee pain during the first 24 hours, and to study the influence of pre-operative pain, tourniquet time and amount of surgical trauma on post-arthroscopy pain. In 78 male patients that underwent elective arthroscopic menisectomy or diagnostic arthroscopy of the knee, preoperative and post-operative pain were registered using the Visual Analogue Scale. Variance for repeated measures and for independent observations was analysed. Supplementary analgesia was required for 23% of the patients, more often in the recovery room and between 2 and 8 hours postoperatively. Of all factors analyzed, only time was statistically significant in determining the level of post-operative pain. Supplementary analgesia was required only in patients that underwent operative arthroscopy, and more often in patients with tourniquet time of more than 40 minutes. In conclusions, post-operative time is the most significant factor related to the post-arthroscopy knee pain.
Bauer, T; Boisrenoult, P; Jenny, J Y
Septic arthritis develops after less than 1% of all arthroscopy procedures. The clinical symptoms may resemble those seen after uncomplicated arthroscopy, raising diagnostic challenges. The diagnosis rests on emergent joint aspiration with microscopic smear examination and prolonged culturing on specific media. Urgent therapeutic measures must be taken, including abundant arthroscopic lavage, synovectomy, and the concomitant administration of two effective antibiotics for at least 6 weeks. Preservation of implants or transplants is increasingly accepted, and repeated joint lavage is a component of the treatment strategy. After knee arthroscopy, infection is the most common complication; most cases occur after cruciate ligament reconstruction, and staphylococci are the predominant causative organisms. Emergent synovectomy with transplant preservation and appropriate antibiotic therapy ensures eradication of the infection in 85% of cases, with no adverse effect on final functional outcomes. After shoulder arthroscopy, infection is 10 times less common than neurological complications and occurs mainly after rotator cuff repair procedures; the diagnosis may be difficult and delayed if Propionibacterium acnes is the causative organism. The update presented here is based on both a literature review and a practice survey. The findings have been used to develop practical recommendations aimed at improving the management of post-arthroscopy infections, which are exceedingly rare but can induce devastating functional impairments.
Severino, Fabricio Roberto; Souza, Clodoaldo José Duarte de; Severino, Nilson Roberto
Objectives: Assess the worthiness of arthroscopy in investigating and treating knee pain after arthroplasty unexplained by clinical and subsidiary examinations. Methods: Among 402 patients submitted to total or unicompartimental arthroplasty between September 2001 and April 2007 at a public university hospital, 17 presented with pain on prosthetic articulation, without clear diagnosis by clinical, X-ray, laboratory, scintiscan, or nuclear magnetic resonance tests. All patients were submitted to arthroscopy and symptoms were assessed by using the Lysholm scale, comparing pre-and post-arthroscopy periods. Peroperative findings have been recorded. Results: The procedure was effective for pain relief in 14 of 17 patients (82.35%). The median for Lysholm scale climbed from 36 points before arthroscopy to 94 points after the procedure (p < 0.001). Most of the patients (12) were arthroscopically diagnosed with fibrosis known as “cyclop”; on the remaining five patients, anterior synovitis was found. All patients were treated by resection. Conclusions: Knee arthroscopy after arthroplasty in patients presenting unclear persistent pain shows localized arthrofibrosis (“cyclops”) or synovitis, which can be treated by using the same procedure, resulting in pain relief. PMID:27022517
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Gessmann, J; Seybold, D; Baecker, H; Muhr, G; Graf, M
Despite adequate primary treatment many ankle fractures result in post-traumatic deformities and arthrosis. Revision mostly requires a multidirectional correction whereas internal fixation procedures are often not applicable due to soft tissue damage and the extent of deformity. The Taylor spatial frame enables simultaneous correction of multidirectional deformities through a virtual hinge using the same ideas of distraction osteogenesis as the Ilizarov fixator. The presented case demonstrates minimally invasive correction of a complex deformity of the ankle with the Taylor spatial frame fixator. Orthogonal alignment was achieved and a stabilizing tibiotalar arthrodesis was performed achieving a good functional and pain-free result.
Lee, Dong Hoon; Ryu, Keun Jung; Song, Hae Ryong; Han, Soo-Hong
differed between normally and abnormally distracting nails (95 mm versus 100 mm; p = 0.03), although this was unlikely to be clinically important. Complications occurred in 10 patients (53%), including five with decreased ankle ROM during distraction, four with delayed bone healing, and one with mechanical device failure during distraction. Rate control was difficult to achieve with the ISKD nail for femoral and tibial lengthenings, complications were relatively common, and among patients in whom rate control was not achieved, pain levels were high. Based on our findings, we believe that surgeons should avoid use of this nail. Level IV, therapeutic study. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Distraction osteogenesis has revolutionised the management of craniofacial abnormalities. The technique however requires precise planning, patient selection, execution and follow-up to achieve consistent and positive results and to avoid unfavourable results. The unfavourable results with craniofacial distraction stem from many factors ranging from improper patient selection, planning and use of inappropriate distraction device and vector. The present study analyses the current standards and techniques of distraction and details in depth the various errors and complications that may occur due to this technique. The commonly observed complications of distraction have been detailed along with measures and suggestions to avoid them in clinical practice. PMID:24501455
Saour, Samer; Saour, Tania; Cerovac, Sonja
Wrist arthroscopy allows complete visualization under magnification and is essentially a diagnostic and therapeutic tool. The first wrist arthroscopy was described by Chen in 1979. Since then, the indications and applications for wrist arthroscopy continue to expand as new techniques and instrumentation evolve.
Takao, Masato; Glazebrook, Mark; Stone, James; Guillo, Stéphane
Ankle instability is a condition that often requires surgery to stabilize the ankle joint that will improve pain and function if nonoperative treatments fail. Ankle stabilization surgery may be performed as a repair in which the native existing anterior talofibular ligament or calcaneofibular ligament (or both) is imbricated or reattached. Alternatively, when native ankle ligaments are insufficient for repair, a reconstruction of the ligaments may be performed in which an autologous or allograft tendon is used to reconstruct the anterior talofibular ligament or calcaneofibular ligament (or both). Currently, ankle stabilization surgery is most commonly performed through an open incision, but arthroscopic ankle stabilization using repair techniques has been described and is being used more often. We present our technique for anatomic ankle arthroscopic reconstruction of the lateral ligaments (anti-ROLL) performed in an all–inside-out manner that is likely safe for patients and minimally invasive. PMID:26900560
Takao, Masato; Glazebrook, Mark; Stone, James; Guillo, Stéphane
Ankle instability is a condition that often requires surgery to stabilize the ankle joint that will improve pain and function if nonoperative treatments fail. Ankle stabilization surgery may be performed as a repair in which the native existing anterior talofibular ligament or calcaneofibular ligament (or both) is imbricated or reattached. Alternatively, when native ankle ligaments are insufficient for repair, a reconstruction of the ligaments may be performed in which an autologous or allograft tendon is used to reconstruct the anterior talofibular ligament or calcaneofibular ligament (or both). Currently, ankle stabilization surgery is most commonly performed through an open incision, but arthroscopic ankle stabilization using repair techniques has been described and is being used more often. We present our technique for anatomic ankle arthroscopic reconstruction of the lateral ligaments (anti-ROLL) performed in an all-inside-out manner that is likely safe for patients and minimally invasive.
McIlwraith, C W
This paper reviews the current status of diagnostic and surgical arthroscopy in the horse. Arthroscopy has been used as a diagnostic aid since 1974 and is useful for evaluation of abnormalities in synovial membrane and articular cartilage. Surgical arthroscopy is a more recent advance that has replaced conventional arthrotomy in 90 per cent of the author's cases. Clinical conditions currently being treated using arthroscopic techniques rather than arthrotomy include all chip fractures in the carpus, chip fractures of the first phalanx, chronic proliferative synovitis in the fetlock and osteochondritis dissecans of the femoropatellar and tibiotarsal joints. The equipment requirements and basic techniques are reviewed. Convalescent time following surgery is decreased and the cosmetic appearance improved compared to arthrotomy. Considerable experience is required for competent surgery which, in turn, is necessary for this method to have advantage over previous conventional techniques.
Chai, Ho Lam; Lui, Tun Hing
Introduction: The posterior portion of the knee joint, which includes the tibial attachment of the posterior cruciate ligament and the posterior horn of the menisci, has been called a “blind spot” because it is difficult to observe this area under arthroscopy through standard anterior portals. Posteromedial, posterolateral, and posterior transseptal portals have been developed for visualization and instrumentation of the posteromedial and posterolateral compartments of the knee joint. Case Report: A 57-year-old man presented of persistent left posterior knee pain for 1 year. Radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging showed posterior knee encapsulated loose bodies. The symptoms did not respond to physiotherapy and analgesics. The loose bodies were removed via posterior knee arthroscopy. The symptoms subsided afterward. Conclusion: Lateral portal of the knee allows establishment of the posterolateral portal under endoscopic visualization, and the loose bodies of the posterior compartment of the knee can be effectively removed via the posterior knee arthroscopy. PMID:28819604
Zivanovic, Aleksandar; Dibble, Edward; Davies, Brian; Moody, Louise; Waterworth, Alan
This paper describes the initial development of an innovative haptic device that will be integrated into an existing virtual reality training system for knee arthroscopy. The resulting system will be called WISHKATS (Warwick, Imperial, Sheffield Knee Arthroscopy Training System). This haptic device will enable the trainee to feel realistic forces on the probing tool and will work together with software, which will simulate tissue deformation. The proposed haptic system is a compact, multi-degree of freedom, motorised mechanism with force sensors, and will be used to simulate the diagnostic aspects of knee arthroscopy. There are a number of problems associated with the development of a suitable haptic system and this paper explores the engineering requirements of such a device.
Jetty, Vybhav; Glueck, Charles J; Freiberg, Richard A; Wang, Ping
Venous thromboembolism is uncommon after knee arthroscopy, and there are no guidelines for thromboprophylaxis in elective routine knee arthroscopy. Preoperative evaluation of common thrombophilias should provide guidance for postarthroscopy thromboprophylaxis in otherwise healthy patients who are at high risk for venous thromboembolism. This study assessed 10 patients with venous thromboembolism after total hip or knee arthroplasty. Patients were assessed if venous thromboembolism occurred within 6 months after knee arthroscopy (n=10) or total hip or knee arthroplasty (n=21). This study assessed gene mutations (factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, plasminogen activator inhibitor, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase) and serologic thrombophilias (high levels of factors VIII and XI, homocysteine, anticardiolipin immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibodies, and lupus anticoagulant; low antigenic protein C, S, and free S; and antithrombin III deficiency). The same coagulation data were obtained for normal subjects (n=110). The major thrombophilias in the arthroscopy group were factor V Leiden heterozygosity (40%), high factor VIII level (50%), and high homocysteine (30%). The respective values in control subjects were 2% (P=.0004), 7% (P=.0011), and 5% (P=.02). When the arthroscopy group was compared with the 21 patients who had venous thromboembolism after total hip or knee arthroplasty, the sole difference was factor V Leiden heterozygosity, which was 40% vs 0%, respectively (P=.007). Although venous thromboembolism after knee arthroscopy is uncommon, to identify high-risk patients and guide postoperative thromboprophylaxis, the authors suggest routine preoperative measurement of 3 common familial thrombophilias: factor V Leiden, factor VIII, and homocysteine. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(6):e1052-e1057.].
Dario, P; Carrozza, M C; Marcacci, M; D'Attanasio, S; Magnami, B; Tonet, O; Megali, G
This paper describes a novel mechatronic tool for arthroscopy, which is at the same time a smart tool for traditional arthroscopy and the main component of a system for computer-assisted arthroscopy. The mechatronic arthroscope has a cable-actuated servomotor-driven multi-joint mechanical structure, is equipped with a position sensor measuring the orientation of the tip and with a force sensor detecting possible contact with delicate tissues in the knee, and incorporates an embedded microcontroller for sensor signal processing, motor driving and interfacing with the surgeon and/or the system control unit. When used manually, the mechatronic arthroscope enhances the surgeon's capabilities by enabling him/her to easily control tip motion and to prevent undesired contacts. When the tool is integrated in a complete system for computer-assisted arthroscopy, the trajectory of the arthroscope is reconstructed in real time by an optical tracking system using infrared emitters located in the handle, providing advantages in terms of improved intervention accuracy. The computer-assisted arthroscopy system comprises an image processing module for segmentation and three-dimensional reconstruction of preoperative computer tomography or magnetic resonance images, a registration module for measuring the position of the knee joint, tracking the trajectory of the operating tools, and matching preoperative and intra-operative images, and a human-machine interface that displays the enhanced reality scenario and data from the mechatronic arthroscope in a friendly and intuitive manner. By integrating preoperative and intra-operative images and information provided by the mechatronic arthroscope, the system allows virtual navigation in the knee joint during the planning phase and computer guidance by augmented reality during the intervention. This paper describes in detail the characteristics of the mechatronic arthroscope and of the system for computer-assisted arthroscopy and discusses
Yeung, M.; Kowalczuk, M.; Simunovic, N.
Objective Hip arthroscopy in the setting of hip dysplasia is controversial in the orthopaedic community, as the outcome literature has been variable and inconclusive. We hypothesise that outcomes of hip arthroscopy may be diminished in the setting of hip dysplasia, but outcomes may be acceptable in milder or borderline cases of hip dysplasia. Methods A systematic search was performed in duplicate for studies investigating the outcome of hip arthroscopy in the setting of hip dysplasia up to July 2015. Study parameters including sample size, definition of dysplasia, outcomes measures, and re-operation rates were obtained. Furthermore, the levels of evidence of studies were collected and quality assessment was performed. Results The systematic review identified 18 studies investigating hip arthroscopy in the setting of hip dysplasia, with 889 included patients. Criteria used by the studies to diagnose hip dysplasia and borderline hip dysplasia included centre edge angle in 72% of studies but the range of angles were quite variable. Although 89% of studies reported improved post-operative outcome scores in the setting of hip dysplasia, revision rates were considerable (14.1%), with 9.6% requiring conversion to total hip arthroplasty. Conclusion The available orthopaedic literature suggests that although improved outcomes are seen in hip arthroscopy in the setting of hip dysplasia, there is a high rate of re-operation and conversion to total hip arthroplasty. Furthermore, the criteria used to define hip dysplasia vary considerably among published studies. Cite this article: M. Yeung, M. Kowalczuk, N. Simunovic, O. R. Ayeni. Hip arthroscopy in the setting of hip dysplasia: A systematic review. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:225–231. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.56.2000533. PMID:27313136
Ritterman, Scott A; Fellars, Todd A; Digiovanni, Christopher W
The ankle is the most commonly injured joint in athletic and work activities. In contrast, osteoarthritis of the ankle joint is relatively rare and is typically post-traumatic or inflammatory in nature. Common symptoms that prompt an orthopaedic consultation include pain, disability and altered gait mechanics. Non-operative management has been the mainstay for previously undiagnosed patients. For those with advanced disease, ankle fusion or total ankle replacement may be the only surgical options. Though some recent studies have shown patients' preference for a well functioning ankle replacement, significant long- term follow-up data is lacking.
Jothiraj, H; Howland-Harris, J; Evley, R; Moppett, I K
Distractions are cited as contributory to healthcare-associated errors in a large proportion of incidents including those involving anaesthetists. The anaesthetist is relatively understudied, despite the closer coupling between action and outcome than in surgery. After formal regulatory approval, we undertook an observational study using a validated rating scale for the observed effect of distractions. We also recorded the parties involved, the relative urgency of the distraction and the likely benefit or harm to the initiator and recipient. Thirty-two separate surgical operations were observed. Median case duration was 103 min (range 22-227 min). 3557 potentially distracting events were observed, of which 1173 (33%) were deemed to score ≥ 2 on the distraction scale (i.e. caused distraction). Of these 3557 events, 1227 involved the anaesthetist either as an initiator of a potential/actual distraction, or the recipient of an actual distraction. The commonest initiators of distraction were the circulating nurse (832/3557) and the anaesthetist (816/3557). Sixty distracting events were observed while the anaesthetist was preparing or administering drugs (~2 per case). Of the 60 drug-related distracting events, 26 were initiated by the anaesthetist, and 3 of 7 airway events. Distracting events involving the anaesthetist are common, but approximately two-thirds of these events have no externally visible effect. Another anaesthetist was the most common recipient of a distracting event initiated by the anaesthetist. Anaesthetists need to address themselves as causes of distractions and the potential impact on patient safety.
Burrus, Matthew Tyrrell; Cowan, James B; Bedi, Asheesh
Although most patients have successful outcomes after hip arthroscopy, a minority of patients experience complications that may impact their recovery and long-term benefit. As most of these complications can be minimized by appropriate surgical technique, many tips have been recommended. Additionally, the reasons behind clinical failure postoperatively have been scrutinized, which include, most commonly, incomplete correction of osseous pathomorphology, underappreciated preexisting hip osteoarthritis, and/or an incorrect preoperative diagnosis. Meticulous preoperative planning, evaluation of advanced imaging studies, and proper patient selection will help to reduce the number of postoperative failures and increase the chance of a successful outcome following hip arthroscopy.
Guaydier-Souquieres, C.; Beguin, J.; Ollivier, D.; Loyau, G.
This study presents the macroscopic and histologic results of 35 knee arthroscopies performed on patients with rheumatoid arthritis, some months after an yttrium or osmic acid intraarticular injection. The procedure was most often performed after a failure of the injection or a relapse of synovitis. Arthroscopy provides an understanding of the cause of synoviorthesis failure--insufficient action of the product on the synovitis or its poor diffusion, fibri-nonecrotic deposits, or cartilaginous lesions--and may be used both diagnostically and therapeutically.
Ilizaliturri Sánchez, Víctor M; Camacho Galindo, Javier
Arthroscopic surgery of the hip is a routine procedure in an increasing number of institutions around the world. Indications for this procedure increase as more experience is developed. Thanks to hip arthroscopy some intraarticular lesions like labral or ligamentum teres tears and cartilage lesions have been recognized. All of these have the potential to develop hip osteoarthritis. Open techniques for the treatment of femoroacetabular impingement have been transformed to arthroscopic techniques. Femoroacetabular impingement has the potential to cause hip osteoarthritis. The role of hip arthroscopy in the treatment of formally established hip osteoarthritis is limited and has better results in young patients with early degenerative changes.
Tillett, Edward D; Rogers, Rainie; Nyland, John
For residents to adequately develop the early arthroscopy psychomotor skills required to better learn how to manage the improvisational situations they will encounter during actual patient cases, they need to experience sufficient practice repetitions within a contextually relevant environment. Unfortunately, the cost of suture anchors can be a practice repetition-limiting factor in learning arthroscopic knot-tying techniques. We describe a technique for creating inexpensive reusable suture anchors and provide an example of their application to repair the anterior glenoid labrum during an arthroscopy psychomotor skills laboratory training session.
Rossi, Michael J; Lubowitz, James H
As editors, we not only oversee the peer-review process to select the most timely and relevant content but also strive to group the articles we accept for publication in a way that best fulfills your expectations and needs as readers. The Internet has impacted not only how we review but also how we publish and how you read. We invite you to take advantage of Arthroscopy's many web-based features to tailor your reading experience. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mittal, Samarth; Singla, Amit; Nag, H L; Meena, Sanjay; Lohiya, Ramprakash; Agarwal, Abhinav
Intra-articular ganglion cysts of the knee joint are rare and most frequently are an incidental finding on MRI and arthroscopy. Most of the previous studies have reported a single ganglion cyst in the knee. There have been previous reports of more than one cyst in the same knee but not in the same structure within the knee. We are reporting a case of dual ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) ganglion cysts one of which was missed on radiological examination but later detected during arthroscopy. To the best of our knowledge, no such case has been reported in the indexed English literature till date.
Franson, Justin; Baravarian, Bob
Many articles have been published that discuss various lateral ankle injuries and specific lateral ankle pathology. The purpose of this article is to explore and present a specific combination of findings that the author's multiphysician practice has noticed on a frequently recurring basis. The triple injury of ankle synovitis, ankle instability, and peroneal tendon tear can be termed the Lateral Ankle Triad. While it is common to find each of these specific injuries individually, they are often found in combination. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Glick, James M; Valone, Frank; Safran, Marc R
Hip arthroscopy is one of the fastest-growing areas of orthopaedic surgery. There are many reasons for this, including a better understanding of the pathophysiology of damage to the hip joint, improvements in imaging and technology advancements in arthroscopic instrumentation. This manuscript documents the historical development of hip arthroscopy, in general, as well as advances and ideas that have led to common techniques with regard to portal placement, traction and instrumentation. These advances have led to expanding indications for hip arthroscopy. This manuscript ends with some thoughts about the future of hip arthroscopy from the perspective of one of the leaders who helped shape hip arthroscopy, as it is performed today.
Introduction: The risk of growth arrest following paediatric ankle fractures type 1 A is very high. Therefore all attempts should be done to anatomically reduce this kind of fracture. The advances in ankle arthroscopy have brought the possibility to reduce these fractures under direct vision, without the need of capsulotomy. The purpose of this paper is to stress the importance of the use of arthroscopically assisted reduction of type 1 A fractures. Case Report: We describe two cases with SH type IV fractures of the distal medial tibia, one treated with open reduction and percutaneous screw fixation and the other treated with arthroscopically assisted reduction and percutaneous screw fixation. The first case ended with severe growth disturbance, while the second gave a very good result. Conclusion: The use of arthroscopically assisted reduction of type 1 A fractures should be considered to ensure anatomical reduction. PMID:27298899
Laporta, Guido; Bock, Felicia; Ghate, Nihar
Subtalar joint arthrodesis is a commonly used surgical procedure for the management of rearfoot pathologic features. We present a technique guide for a posterior incisional approach to subtalar joint arthrodesis for correction of a calcaneal deformity secondary to calcaneal fracture malunion. This technique uses a monolateral external fixation device for controlled distraction and intercallary allograft placement. In contrast to a standard lateral approach, this incision provides better visualization of the joint space, and the use of a distractor enhances access to the joint surfaces for fusion preparation and maintains alignment while internal fixation is applied. A 44-year-old male underwent isolated subtalar joint arthrodesis to repair a malunion of a nonsurgically managed calcaneal fracture sustained 1 year before the surgical intervention. Controlled distraction was applied using a Hoffmann(®) Compact™ MRI external fixation device. This device maintained distraction and tibial-calcaneal alignment until placement of the allograft-bone marrow aspirate. The use of external fixation is a viable option for distraction arthrodesis in subtalar joint fusions. It facilitates frontal plane deformity correction. We have described the surgical technique and presented a case in which the posterior approach with distraction was successfully used in subtalar joint arthrodesis. At 12 weeks postoperatively, serial radiographs displayed incorporation of the graft, with distraction maintained at the subtalar joint arthrodesis site. At the 3-month follow-up visit, the patient had successfully transitioned to weightbearing in a CAM walker without any complications. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lycke, Christian; Theopold, Jan-Dirk; Marquass, Bastian; von Dercks, Nikolaus; Hepp, Pierre
This article describes the removal of a scapular osteophyte from the subscapular space by scapulothoracic arthroscopy. The endoscopic technique allows a gentle approach to the subscapular space without causing a large amount of surgical trauma and therefore leads to good cosmetic and functional results. PMID:27073768
Jones, Kay S.
Arthroscopic surgery of the hip is a well-established technique with numerous recognized indications. Despite the well-accepted nature of this procedure, there have been no outcomes studies with extended followup. We investigated the response to hip arthroscopy in a consecutive series of patients with 10 years followup. Since 1993, all patients undergoing hip arthroscopy have been assessed prospectively with a modified Harris hip score preoperatively and then postoperatively at 3, 12, 24, 60, and 120 months. A cohort of 50 patients (52 hips) was identified who had achieved 10-year followup and represent the substance of this study. There was 100% followup. The average age of the patients was 38 years (range, 14–84 years), with 27 males and 23 females. The median improvement was 25 points (preoperative, 56 points; postoperative, 81 points). Fourteen patients were converted to THA and two died. Four patients underwent repeat arthroscopy. There were two complications in one patient. The presence of arthritis at the time of the index procedure was an indicator of poor prognosis. This study substantiates the long-term effectiveness of arthroscopy in the hip as treatment for various disorders, including labral pathology, chondral damage, synovitis, and loose bodies. Arthritis is an indicator of poor long-term outcomes with these reported methods. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:19381742
Srouji, S; Oren, D; Zoabi, A; Ronen, O; Zraik, H
The traditional arthroscopy technique includes the creation of three ports in order to enable visualization, operation, and arthrocentesis. The aim of this study was to assess an advanced temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthroscopy technique that requires only a single cannula, through which a one-piece instrument containing a visualization canal, irrigation canal, and a working canal is inserted, as an alternative to the traditional double-puncture technique. This retrospective study assessed eight patients (13 TMJs) with pain and/or limited range of movement that was refractory to conservative therapy, who were treated between June 2015 and December 2015. The temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) was diagnosed by physical examination and mouth opening measurements. The duration of surgery was recorded and compared to that documented for traditional arthroscopies performed by the same surgeon. Operative single-cannula arthroscopy (OSCA) was performed using a holmium YAG (Ho:YAG) 230μm fibre laser for ablation. The OSCA technique proved effective in improving mouth opening in all patients (mean increase 9.12±1.96mm) and in reducing pain (mean visual analogue scale decrease of 3.25±1.28). The operation time was approximately half that of the traditional technique. The OSCA technique is as efficient as the traditional technique, is simple to learn, and is simpler to execute. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Simon; Shin, Jason; Haro, Marc; Khair, Michael; Riboh, Jonathan C.; Kuhns, Benjamin D.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Nho, Shane J.
Growing awareness of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and recent innovations in management have resulted in hip arthroscopy becoming one of the fastest-growing orthopedic subspecialties. The purpose of this study was to identify the 50 most cited articles related to the topic of FAI and hip arthroscopy and to analyze their characteristics. The overall number of citations within these articles ranged from 99 to 820. Citation density ranged from 4.41 to 74.55. Seven countries produced these articles with the majority attributed to the United States (n = 26) and Switzerland (n = 18). Clinical studies made up more than half of the top articles (n = 27). The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery level of evidence most commonly encountered was level IV (n = 24), while the remaining articles were level III (n = 3). No randomized controlled trials or non-randomized controlled trials were encountered in this search. The level of evidence was not significantly correlated with the overall number of citations, publication year, or citation density. The current top 50 list provides orthopedic surgeons interested in hip arthroscopy with an up-to-date core list of the most cited articles in the scientific literature and represents a foundation to use to develop their knowledge regarding hip arthroscopy and FAI. PMID:26347872
Piuzzi, Nicolas S; Slullitel, Pablo A I; Bertona, Agustin; Oñativia, José I.; Albergo, Ignacio; Zanotti, Gerardo; Buttaro, Martin A; Piccaluga, Francisco; Comba, Fernando M
Hip arthroscopy treatment in patients with osteoarthritis is controversial. To systematically review the clinical outcome of patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA) treated with arthroscopy and what proportion of these patients subsequently underwent total hip arthroplasty (THA). Systematic review. PubMed, Cochrane library and LILACS were searched from January 1990 through December 2013 for eligible studies. The methodological quality of the collected data (applied to each study) was performed with a modified version of the Coleman methodology score (mCMS). 11 studies were included in this review. Most of the studies included reported clinical improvements. The overall conversion rate to THA ranged from 9.5% to 50%. Mean time between arthroscopy and THA was 13.5 months. The quality of studies is low. We have found inconclusive evidence to make categorical indications for hip arthroscopy in the treatment of OA, although we have found that there is some postoperative clinical outcome improvement of pain and function in a short-term evaluation. Increasingly worse outcomes were seen as the severity of OA increased.
Griffiths, Emmet J; Khanduja, Vikas
Arthroscopic examination and treatment is an ever-increasing part of modern orthopaedic practice in this age of minimally invasive surgery. Arthroscopic procedures have been widespread in surgery of the knee and the shoulder for many years; however, the hip until relatively recently, has been largely neglected. Even now hip arthroscopy is not widely available; this may be due to the complexity of the procedure, the requirement of specialist equipment and a reportedly long learning curve. On the other hand, it has gone through a period of rapid growth over the last decade and is being performed in large numbers routinely in some centres around the world. Hip arthroscopy now provides excellent visualisation of not only the articular surfaces of the hip joint but also of the peritrochanteric or extra-articular space around the hip. Pathology of both the femoral head and the acetabulum along with the soft tissues of the hip, namely the ligamentum teres, the acetabular labrum, the synovial folds and synovium, is readily diagnosed. Modern techniques provide therapeutic options for a myriad of conditions and allow modulation of pathological processes early. Additionally hip arthroscopy is a relatively safe procedure with few complications and contraindications. However, the key to good outcomes is in the careful selection of patients and meticulous surgical technique. The aim of this review is to bring the reader up to date with an overview of the evolution of arthroscopy of the hip, review the current practice and explore possible future developments.
Lui, Tun Hing
Adhesive capsulitis of the ankle is also known as frozen ankle and results in marked fibrosis and contracture of the ankle capsule. Arthroscopic capsular release is indicated for symptomatic frozen ankle that is resistant to conservative treatment. It is contraindicated for ankle stiffness due to degenerative joint disease, intra-articular malunion, or adhesion of the extensors of the ankle. The procedure consists of endoscopic posterior ankle capsulectomy and arthroscopic anterior ankle capsulotomy. It has the advantages of being minimally invasive surgery and allowing early postoperative vigorous mobilization of the ankle joint.
Shibuya, Naohiro; Agarwal, Monica R
Many joint-depressive, neglected calcaneal fractures need distraction arthrodesis of the subtalar joint. Because the calcaneal tuberosity is usually malunited in the varus position, more distraction is required on the medial side to place the tuberosity in the everted position before insertion of a bone graft. Traditionally, a distractor is placed on the medial side to achieve this task. However, the medially placed distractor hinders with the positioning of the extremity and exposure of the main operative site, which is commonly on the lateral side. We introduce a technique to avoid this burden by placing a hinged distractor device on the lateral aspect of the foot while maintaining the correction of the varus deformity. Copyright © 2012 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Russell, Jeffrey A
Ankle sprain is a common injury in dancers. Because of the relative frequency of this injury and its wide acceptance as a likely part of an active lifestyle, in many individuals it may not receive the careful attention it deserves. An extreme ankle range of motion and excellent ankle stability are fundamental to success in dance. Hence, following a proper treatment protocol is crucial for allowing a dancer who suffers an ankle sprain to return to dance as soon as possible without impaired function. This article reviews the basic principles of the etiology and management of ankle sprain in dancers. Key concepts are on-site examination and treatment, early restoration, dance-specific rehabilitation, and a carefully administered safe return to dance. Additionally, injuries that may occur in conjunction with ankle sprain are highlighted, and practical, clinically relevant summary concepts for dance healthcare professionals, dance scientists, dance teachers, and dancers are provided.
14 Selected outcomes stratified by PAB protocol .............. ... ... . .......... . .... 15 Ankle Injury Model...use of medical services: Rates/1 ,000 male trainees during 2 week risk period, by year of training and PAS protocol , n=68,418 ROC Curve for ankle ...knee injury during 2 week risk period LIST OF TABLES Parachute ankle brace protocol periods, 1998 - 2006 Descriptive characteristics of U.S. Army
Bhattacharyya, Rahul; Davidson, Donald J; Sugand, Kapil; Bartlett, Matthew J; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Gupte, Chinmay M
Virtual-reality and cadaveric simulations are expensive and not readily accessible. Innovative and accessible training adjuncts are required to help to meet training needs. Cognitive task analysis has been used extensively to train pilots and in other surgical specialties. However, the use of cognitive task analyses within orthopaedics is in its infancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel cognitive task analysis tool to train novice surgeons in diagnostic knee arthroscopy in high-fidelity, phantom-limb simulation. Three expert knee surgeons were interviewed independently to generate a list of technical steps, decision points, and errors for diagnostic knee arthroscopy. A modified Delphi technique was used to generate the final cognitive task analysis. A video and a voiceover were recorded for each phase of this procedure. These were combined to produce the Imperial Knee Arthroscopy Cognitive Task Analysis (IKACTA) tool that utilizes written and audiovisual stimuli to describe each phase of a diagnostic knee arthroscopy. In this double-blinded, randomized controlled trial, a power calculation was performed prior to recruitment. Sixteen novice orthopaedic trainees who performed ≤10 diagnostic knee arthroscopies were randomized into 2 equal groups. The intervention group (IKACTA group) was given the IKACTA tool and the control group had no additional learning material. They were assessed objectively (validated Arthroscopic Surgical Skill Evaluation Tool [ASSET] global rating scale) on a high-fidelity, phantom-knee simulator. All participants, using the Likert rating scale, subjectively rated the tool. The mean ASSET score (and standard deviation) was 19.5 ± 3.7 points in the IKACTA group and 10.6 ± 2.3 points in the control group, resulting in an improvement of 8.9 points (95% confidence interval, 7.6 to 10.1 points; p = 0.002); the score was determined as 51.3% (19.5 of 38) for the IKACTA group, 27.9% (10.6 of 38) for the
Sullman, Mark J M; Prat, Francesc; Tasci, Duygu Kuzu
This study investigated the prevalence of observable distractions while driving and the effect of drivers' characteristics and time-related variables on their prevalence. Using roadside observation, 2 independent observers collected data at 4 randomly selected locations in St. Albans, UK. Of the 10,984 drivers observed, 16.8% were engaged in a secondary task, with talking to passengers being the most common distraction (8.8%), followed by smoking (1.9%) and talking on a hands-free mobile phone (1.7%). An additional 1.0% were observed talking on a handheld phone, and the rest of the distractions (e.g., texting, drinking) were recorded in less than 1% of the drivers observed. Gender-related differences were found for a number of different distractions (i.e., talking to passengers, drinking, and handheld mobile phone conversations), but age emerged as a significant predictor for most secondary tasks, including talking to passengers, smoking, hands-free mobile phone use, handheld mobile phone use, texting/keying numbers, drinking, and engagement in any type of distraction (all distractions combined). The overall pattern for age was that middle-aged and older drivers were less likely to be distracted than younger drivers. This work provides further evidence of the relatively high rate of distracted driving in the UK. The findings clearly indicate that younger drivers are more likely to drive distracted, which probably contributes to their higher crash rates.
Bouletreau, Pierre J; Warren, Stephen M; Longaker, Michael T
Distraction osteogenesis has become a mainstay in bone tissue engineering and has significantly improved our armamentarium for reconstructive craniomaxillofacial procedures. However, although the biomechanical, histological, and ultrastructural changes associated with distraction osteogenesis have been widely described, the molecular mechanisms governing the formation of new bone in the interfragmental gap of gradually distracted bone segments remain largely unclear. Recently, a rat model of mandibular distraction was described that provides an excellent environment for deciphering the molecular mechanisms that mediate distraction osteogenesis. This article presents the hypotheses and current research that have furthered knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that govern distraction osteogenesis. Recent studies have implicated a growing number of cytokines that are intimately involved in the regulation of bone synthesis and turnover. The gene regulation of numerous cytokines (transforming growth factor-beta1, -beta2, -beta3, bone morphogenetic proteins, insulin-like growth factor-1, fibroblast growth factor-2) and extracellular matrix proteins (osteonectin, osteopontin) during distraction osteogenesis have been best characterized and are discussed in this article. It is believed that understanding the biomolecular mechanisms that mediate membranous distraction osteogenesis may guide the development of targeted strategies designed to improve distraction osteogenesis and accelerate bone healing.
Kircher, Katja; Ahlstrom, Christer
Behavioral variables are often used as performance indicators (PIs) of visual or internal distraction induced by secondary tasks. The objective of this study is to investigate whether visual distraction can be predicted by driving performance PIs in a naturalistic setting. Visual distraction is here defined by a gaze based real-time distraction detection algorithm called AttenD. Seven drivers used an instrumented vehicle for one month each in a small scale field operational test. For each of the visual distraction events detected by AttenD, seven PIs such as steering wheel reversal rate and throttle hold were calculated. Corresponding data were also calculated for time periods during which the drivers were classified as attentive. For each PI, means between distracted and attentive states were calculated using t-tests for different time-window sizes (2 – 40 s), and the window width with the smallest resulting p-value was selected as optimal. Based on the optimized PIs, logistic regression was used to predict whether the drivers were attentive or distracted. The logistic regression resulted in predictions which were 76 % correct (sensitivity = 77 % and specificity = 76 %). The conclusion is that there is a relationship between behavioral variables and visual distraction, but the relationship is not strong enough to accurately predict visual driver distraction. Instead, behavioral PIs are probably best suited as complementary to eye tracking based algorithms in order to make them more accurate and robust. PMID:21050615
Forster, Sophie; Lavie, Nilli
Attention may be distracted from its intended focus both by stimuli in the external environment and by internally generated task-unrelated thoughts during mind wandering. However, previous attention research has focused almost exclusively on distraction by external stimuli, and the extent to which mind wandering relates to external distraction is…
Forster, Sophie; Lavie, Nilli
Attention may be distracted from its intended focus both by stimuli in the external environment and by internally generated task-unrelated thoughts during mind wandering. However, previous attention research has focused almost exclusively on distraction by external stimuli, and the extent to which mind wandering relates to external distraction is…
Lee, Michael S; Tallerico, Valerie
Distraction arthrodesis of the subtalar joint is often used for the correction of neglected calcaneal fractures. Although different techniques have been advocated, there remains some debate as to the optimal type of bone graft for this purpose. This study retrospectively reviewed one surgeon's results for distraction arthrodesis of the talocalcaneal joint for 15 consecutive feet in 15 patients using 12 frozen femoral head and 3 freeze-dried iliac crest allografts. Indications for distraction arthrodesis in this series included neglected calcaneal fracture (n = 10), failed open reduction with internal fixation (n = 3), malunion after ankle fusion (n = 1), and subtalar joint arthritis with deformity (n = 1). The mean patient age was 47.5 (range 29 to 66) years, and the mean duration of follow-up was 20.6 (range 13 to 31) months. Complete union was achieved in 14 (93.33%) feet. Orthobiological agents were used in every case, including 7 (46.67%) platelet-rich plasma, 5 (33.33%) demineralized bone matrix combined with platelet-rich plasma, 2 (13.33%) platelet-rich plasma combined with an implantable electrical bone growth stimulator, and 1 (6.67%) demineralized bone matrix only. One (6.67%) patient developed a nonunion with collapse of the allogeneic graft, requiring revision with autogenous iliac crest bone graft. There were 8 (53.33%) minor complications, including 4 (26.66%) cases with inferior heel irritation, 2 (13.33%) with sural nerve paresthesia, and 2 (13.33%) with wound dehiscence. In conclusion, the use of allograft for subtalar joint distraction arthrodesis results in similar union rates as autogenous iliac crest grafting previously reported in the literature. Copyright 2010 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Acute ankle injury, a common musculoskeletal injury, can cause ankle sprains. Some evidence suggests that previous injuries or limited joint flexibility may contribute to ankle sprains. The initial assessment of an acute ankle injury should include questions about the timing and mechanism of the injury. The Ottawa Ankle and Foot Rules provide clinical guidelines for excluding a fracture in adults and children and determining if radiography is indicated at the time of injury. Reexamination three to five days after injury, when pain and swelling have improved, may help with the diagnosis. Therapy for ankle sprains focuses on controlling pain and swelling. PRICE (Protection, Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation) is a well-established protocol for the treatment of ankle injury. There is some evidence that applying ice and using nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs improves healing and speeds recovery. Functional rehabilitation (e.g., motion restoration and strengthening exercises) is preferred over immobilization. Superiority of surgical repair versus functional rehabilitation for severe lateral ligament rupture is controversial. Treatment using semirigid supports is superior to using elastic bandages. Support devices provide some protection against future ankle sprains, particularly in persons with a history of recurrent sprains. Ankle disk or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercise regimens also may be helpful, although the literature supporting this is limited.
Pesquer, Lionel; Guillo, Stephane; Meyer, Philippe; Hauger, Olivier
Ankle impingement is a common condition occurring secondary to sprain or repeated microtrauma. Clinical symptoms are chronic pain located in the affected region and limited range of ankle motion. There are three types of ankle impingement syndrome: anterior impingement, which can be subdivided into anterolateral, anteromedial and purely anterior impingement; posterior impingement, which can be subdivided into posterior and posteromedial impingement; and calcaneal peroneal impingement which is secondary to planovalgus foot deformity. This paper evaluates physiological and clinical elements of these three types of ankle impingement syndrome as well as the role of ultrasound (US) imaging and US-guided treatment.
... needed to repair the damage, especially in competitive athletes. For severe ankle sprains, your doctor may also ... includes resting, protecting and reducing swelling of your injured ankle. Phase II includes restoring your ankle's flexibility, ...
... foot and ankle surgeons. All Fellows of the College are board certified by the American Board of Foot and Ankle Surgery. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights ...
Campbell, Claudia M.; Witmer, Kenny; Simango, Mpepera; Carteret, Alene; Loggia, Marco L.; Campbell, James N.; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.; Edwards, Robert R.
Behavioral analgesic techniques such as distraction reduce pain in both clinical and experimental settings. Individuals differ in the magnitude of distraction-induced analgesia, and additional study is needed to identify the factors that influence the pain relieving effects of distraction. Catastrophizing, a set of negative emotional and cognitive processes, is widely recognized to be associated with increased reports of pain. We sought to evaluate the relationship between catastrophizing and distraction analgesia. Healthy participants completed three sessions in a randomized order. In one session (Pain Alone), pain was induced by topical application of a 10% capsaicin cream and simultaneous administration of a tonic heat stimulus. In another session (Pain + Distraction), identical capsaicin+heat application procedures were followed, but subjects played video games that required a high level of attention. During both sessions, verbal ratings of pain were obtained and participants rated their degree of catastrophizing. During the other session (Distraction Alone) subjects played the video games in the absence of any pain stimulus. Pain was rated significantly lower during the distraction session compared to the “pain alone” session. In addition, high catastrophizers rated pain significantly higher regardless of whether the subjects were distracted. Catastrophizing did not influence the overall degree of distraction analgesia; however, early in the session high catastrophizers had little distraction analgesia, though later in the session low and high catastrophizers rated pain similarly. These results suggest that both distraction and catastrophizing have substantial effects on experimental pain in normal subjects and these variables interact as a function of time. PMID:20188470
Campbell, Claudia M; Witmer, Kenny; Simango, Mpepera; Carteret, Alene; Loggia, Marco L; Campbell, James N; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Edwards, Robert R
Behavioral analgesic techniques such as distraction reduce pain in both clinical and experimental settings. Individuals differ in the magnitude of distraction-induced analgesia, and additional study is needed to identify the factors that influence the pain relieving effects of distraction. Catastrophizing, a set of negative emotional and cognitive processes, is widely recognized to be associated with increased reports of pain. We sought to evaluate the relationship between catastrophizing and distraction analgesia. Healthy participants completed three sessions in a randomized order. In one session (Pain Alone), pain was induced by topical application of a 10% capsaicin cream and simultaneous administration of a tonic heat stimulus. In another session (Pain+Distraction), identical capsaicin+heat application procedures were followed, but subjects played video games that required a high level of attention. During both sessions, verbal ratings of pain were obtained and participants rated their degree of catastrophizing. During the other session (Distraction Alone) subjects played the video games in the absence of any pain stimulus. Pain was rated significantly lower during the distraction session compared to the "Pain Alone" session. In addition, high catastrophizers rated pain significantly higher regardless of whether the subjects were distracted. Catastrophizing did not influence the overall degree of distraction analgesia; however, early in the session high catastrophizers had little distraction analgesia, though later in the session low and high catastrophizers rated pain similarly. These results suggest that both distraction and catastrophizing have substantial effects on experimental pain in normal subjects and these variables interact as a function of time. Copyright 2009 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Suhr, M A A; Kreusch, Th
Five cases are presented to exemplify technical difficulties and complications which may be encountered when performing distraction osteogenesis in the facial skeleton. The procedure should be performed under close supervision by the surgical and orthodontic colleagues. Errors in the choice of vector may be managed by earlier removal of the distractor and subsequent traction on the previously osteotomized segments using orthodontic appliances and principles. Multiple distractors may be inserted in the same jaw and bimaxillary procedures are possible, increasing the likelihood of encountering technical difficulties. Detailed planning and close follow-up, with early recognition and active management of the complications, may be useful in ensuring a successful outcome of this versatile procedure.
Suhr, A; Mückley, T; Hofmann, G O; Spahn, G
Ankle sprains (supination-eversion injury) have a high incidence. Conservative treatment is generally the method of choice. This study is intended to evaluate the 1-year results of a standardised treatment protocol. A total of 416 patients who had suffered an ankle sprain were included into this study. All of them had undergone primary conservative treatment. A total of 66 of them (15.9 %) had undergone operative treatment within one year after injury. The indications for operation were persistent pain, swelling or persistent instability. In 33 patients an arthroscopy for evaluation of the joint and debridement was used. In the case of a persistent instability 22 ligament augmentations (Kuner periostal flap) and 11 peroneus tenodesis (Watson-Jones) were performed. The evaluation was done by using the AOFAS score ("Ankle Hindfoot Scale" of the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society). A 1-year follow-up was possible in 96.4 % of the patients. The mean AOFAS score was 77.1 ± 10.5 points after conservative treatment. Those patients who needed an arthroscopic debridement had a slightly better outcome (AOFAS score 79.5 ± 10.2 points). Patients who had undergone stabilisation operations tended to have the best outcome (p = 0.093). The AOFAS score was 79.6 ± 15.4 points in patients after periostal flap augmentation, respectively, 83.0 ± 7.4 points after peroneus tenodesis. The results confirm the benefit of conservative treatment in acute ankle sprain. Even so about 15 - 20 % of the patients still suffer from persistent pain, swelling or instability. The indication for operative intervention should be made relatively broadly. Most of these patients profit from the operation. Above all, after ankle sprain patients need a continuous re-evaluation by a specialised centre during the first post-injury year. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Chuah, Lisa Y M; Dolcos, Florin; Chen, Annette K; Zheng, Hui; Parimal, Sarayu; Chee, Michael W L
We determined if sleep deprivation would amplify the effect of negative emotional distracters on working memory. A crossover design involving 2 functional neuroimaging scans conducted at least one week apart. One scan followed a normal night of sleep and the other followed 24 h of sleep deprivation. Scanning order was counterbalanced across subjects. The study took place in a research laboratory. 24 young, healthy volunteers with no history of any sleep, psychiatric, or neurologic disorders. N/A. Study participants were scanned while performing a delayed-response working memory task. Two distracters were presented during the maintenance phase, and these differed in content: highly arousing, negative emotional scenes; low-arousing, neutral scenes; and digitally scrambled versions of the pictures. Irrespective of whether volunteers were sleep deprived, negative emotional (relative to neutral) distracters elicited greater maintenance-related activity in the amygdala, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and fusiform gyri, while concurrently depressing activity in cognitive control regions. Individuals who maintained or increased distracter-related amygdala activation after sleep deprivation showed increased working memory disruptions by negative emotional distracters. These individuals also showed reduced functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventromedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, regions postulated to mediate cognitive control against emotional distraction. Increased distraction by emotional stimuli following sleep deprivation is accompanied by increases in amygdala activation and reduced functional connectivity between the amygdala and prefrontal cognitive control regions. These findings shed light on the neural basis for interindividual variation in how negative emotional stimuli might distract sleep deprived persons.
Hamza, Karim M.
In this article, I make a case for the potential educative worth of distractions for learning science in the school laboratory. Distractions are operationalized as experiences lying outside the main purpose of the laboratory activity, thereby diverting students' attention from that purpose. Through a practical epistemology analysis, I…
Boulétreau, P; Longaker, M T
Distraction osteogenesis has become a mainstay in bone engineering and the recent application of this technique to the membranous craniofacial skeleton has significantly improved our armamentarium for reconstructive craniomaxillofacial procedures. However, if the biomechanical, histological and ultrastructural changes associated with distraction osteogenesis have been widely described, the molecular mechanisms governing the formation of new bone in the interfragmental gap of gradually distracted bone segments remain largely unclear. Recently, our laboratory has described a rat mandibular distraction model that provides an excellent environment for deciphering the molecular mechanisms that mediate distraction osteogenesis. In this Article, we present the hypotheses and current research that have furthered our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that govern distraction osteogenesis. Recent studies have implicated a growing number of cytokines that are intimately involved in the regulation of bone synthesis and turnover. The gene regulation of numerous cytokines (Transforming Growth Factor-B, Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, Insulin-like Growth Factor-1, Fibroblast Growth Factor-2) during distraction osteogenesis have been best characterized and will be discussed in this text. We believe that novel systems like the rat model will facilitate our understanding of the biomolecular mechanisms that mediate membranous distraction osteogenesis and will ultimately guide the development of targeted-strategies designed to accelerate bone healing.
Hamza, Karim M.
In this article, I make a case for the potential educative worth of distractions for learning science in the school laboratory. Distractions are operationalized as experiences lying outside the main purpose of the laboratory activity, thereby diverting students' attention from that purpose. Through a practical epistemology analysis, I…
Nery, Caio; Raduan, Fernando; Del Buono, Angelo; Asaumi, Inacio Diogo; Cohen, Moises; Maffulli, Nicola
Lateral ankle sprains account for 85% of ankle lesions. Combined open and arthroscopic procedures could improve the diagnosis and management of intra-articular lesions and allow surgeons to perform minimally invasive anatomic reconstruction of the lateral ligament complex. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Forty consecutive patients underwent ankle arthroscopy for recurrent (2 or more episodes) lateral ankle instability unresponsive to nonoperative measures. The clinical diagnosis of mechanical instability was confirmed at imaging (plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) and arthroscopic assessment. All patients underwent arthroscopic Broström-Gould repair for management of lateral ankle instability; secondary lesions were also managed. Postoperatively, the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) score was administered to assess the functional status; clinical examination and conventional radiographs were performed in all patients. Thirty-eight patients were reviewed at an average postoperative follow-up of 9.8 years. The mean AOFAS score was 90 (range, 44-100) at the last follow-up. No significantly different outcomes were found in patients who had undergone microfractures for management of grade III to IV cartilage lesions compared with patients with no cartilage lesions. Postoperative AOFAS scores were graded as excellent and good in almost all patients (94.7%). Concerning failure rate, 2 patients (5.3%) reported a low AOFAS score: one patient underwent soft tissue removal for anterior impingement, and one received simultaneous medial ankle instability repair. The arthroscopic Broström-Gould-assisted technique could be a viable alternative to the gold-standard Broström-Gould procedure for anatomic repair of chronic lateral ankle instability and management of intra-articular lesions. Prospective randomized controlled trials are needed.
Kateel, Shashidhara Kamath; Agarwal, Amit; Kharae, Gagan; Nautiyal, Vijay Prakash; Jyoti, Anant; Prasad, P Narayana
Canine distraction was introduced as an alternative treatment to retract the canines in minimum possible period of 3 weeks. It involved rapid canine retraction through distraction of the periodontal ligament. Another technique for rapid canine distalization involved osteotomies surrounding the canines to achieve rapid movement of the canines in the dentoalveolar segment known as dentoalveolar distraction. The present study is intended to assess and evaluate canine retraction by the above two mentioned methods of distraction osteogenesis. Eight orthodontic patients who required first premolar extractions were selected and 16 canines were distracted into the extraction space, using a distraction screw. The distraction procedure was completed in 15.38 ± 1.51 days on the side of periodontal ligament distraction while it took 14.50 ± 2.45 days on the side of dentoalveolar distraction. No significant anchorage loss was seen in both the sides. The distal displacement of the canines was 6.63 ± 0.90 mm on the periodontal distraction side at the rate of 0.43 ± 0.05 mm/day and 6.91 ± 1.16 mm on the side of dentoalveolar distraction at the rate of 0.48 ± 0.08 mm/day. An angulation change of 14.94° ± 7.58° was observed in canine inclination in periodontal distraction side while change of 14.88° ± 3.15° was seen in the dentoalveolar distraction side. No significant differences in the various parameters were found between both the techniques of canine retraction by distraction osteogenesis, while reducing orthodontic treatment duration by 6-9 months without any unfavorable short-term effects on the periodontium.
Jurina, Andrija; Dimnjaković, Damjan; Smoljanović, Tomislav; Bojanić, Ivan
Intra-articular calcaneal osteoid osteoma is a very rare condition and the diagnosis as well as the treatment is extremely challenging. We report a case of a 19-year-old male with intra-articular osteoid osteoma of the calcaneus, initially treated for peroneal tenosynovitis with unsatisfactory results. Thorough diagnostic procedure revealed the superolateral location of a calcaneal osteoid osteoma, near the sinus tarsi. A cherry-red elevated lesion typical of an osteoid osteoma nidus was completely removed arthroscopically using the anterolateral portal and the middle portal for subtalar arthroscopy. Histopathology confirmed the suspected diagnosis. The postoperative clinical course was uneventful with immediate pain relief and full weightbearing and movement allowed soon. The patient had no recurrent pain and normal joint mobility 8 months postoperatively. Considering the accessibility of the lesion, intra-articular osteoid osteoma of the calcaneus can be successfully treated arthroscopically using lateral approach for subtalar arthroscopy.
Patel, Jayesh; Ball, David J; Jones, Huw
Driver distraction is recognised as a significant cause of road traffic incidents. However, the more objective measurement and ranking of the relative importance of individual distractions in contributing to incidents tend to differ from subjectively-held rankings. To investigate this, the present study examines qualitative characteristics of 14 driver distractions to determine if these characteristics might explain the discrepancy. The conclusion is that for laypersons, qualitative characteristics, such as equity and familiarity, do contribute to their ranking of driver distractions. This poses some interesting issues for risk managers. For example, should safety interventions aimed at driver distractions be based purely on factual data and life-saving potential, or should they accommodate qualitative factors of salience to the public?
Szafranski, Craig; Kahol, Kanav; Ghaemmaghami, Vafa; Smith, Marshall; Ferrara, John J
Surgery training requires residents to focus on tasks while minimizing the effect of distractions. There is a need to develop training methodologies that can enable surgical residents to hone this ability. Fourteen surgical residents were divided into 2 groups. They were trained to perform simulated tasks in a noiseless environment and subsequently performed these tasks in a distractive one. In a follow-up experiment, an experimental group was trained in noisy and distractive conditions and was compared with a control group trained in noiseless conditions. Residents who trained in noiseless environments possessed decreased surgical proficiency when performing the identical tasks in realistic environments (P < .05). Pretraining in a noisy environment improves surgical proficiency. Noise and distractions can significantly impede performance of surgical residents, but this effect can be nullified by introduction of noise and distractions in the training environment.
Bell, W H; Harper, R P; Gonzalez, M; Cherkashin, A M; Samchukov, M L
The purpose of this investigation was to elucidate the biology of distraction osteogenesis during mandibular widening. Midsymphyseal vertical interdental osteotomies were performed in nine Macaca mulatta monkeys. After a latency period a tooth-borne appliance was activated at a rate of 0.5 mm twice a day for 7-10 days. The appliance was then stabilized for a period of 4 or 8 weeks. The distraction gap at the inferior portion of the symphysis was bridged completely by new bony trabeculae. Bone formation in the interdental area was apparently related to the surgical technique. Newly formed bony trabeculae were oriented parallel to the direction of distraction. The location of the osteotomy site with an adequate margin of alveolar bone contiguous with the adjacent teeth was necessary for the induction of the distraction osteogenesis. Disproportional movement between superior and inferior portions of the distracted segments was noted.
Batal, Hussam S; Cottrell, David A
Alveolar distraction osteogenesis can be a valuable tool for implant site development. Simultaneous regeneration of hard and soft tissue and an overall decrease in treatment time compared with other methods of site preparation can be an advantage. The authors advocate the concept of "prosthetically driven alveolar distraction." Surgical planning should begin with visualization of the final restoration to determine the volume and position of the soft and hard tissue deficiency. Surgical guides will help the surgeon determine the vector of distraction. Adherence to surgical principles to avoid damage to adjacent vital structures and maintain vascular supply to the transport segment is necessary for success. Bone grafting may be necessary before or after distraction to increase the surgical success of the procedure. Close follow-up is needed to verify the appropriate distraction vector and volume. Patient management and acceptance should be considered in distractor design and placement.
Byrd, J W Thomas; Jones, Kay S
To report the results of hip arthroscopy among high-level baseball players as recorded by outcome scores and return to baseball. All patients undergoing hip arthroscopy were prospectively assessed with the modified Harris Hip Score. On review of all procedures performed over a 12-year period, 44 hips were identified among 41 intercollegiate or professional baseball players who had achieved 2-year follow-up. Among the 41 players, follow-up averaged 45 months (range, 24 to 120 months), with a mean age of 23 years (range, 18 to 34 years). There were 23 collegiate (1 bilateral) and 18 professional (2 bilateral) baseball players, including 10 Major League Baseball players. Of the 8 Major League Baseball pitchers, 6 (75%) also underwent ulnar collateral ligament elbow surgery. Improvement in the modified Harris Hip Score averaged 13 points (from 81 points preoperatively to 94 points postoperatively); a paired-samples t test determined that this mean improvement of 13 points was statistically significant (P < .001). Players returned to baseball after 42 of 44 procedures (95%) at a mean of 4.3 months (range, 3 to 8 months), with 90% regaining the ability to participate at their previous level of competition. There were no complications. Three players (1 bilateral) underwent repeat arthroscopy. This study supports the idea that arthroscopic treatment for a variety of hip pathologies in high-level baseball players provides a successful return to sport and improvement in functional outcome scores. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rossi, Michael J; Brand, Jefferson C; Provencher, Matthew T; Lubowitz, James H
In medicine, value is defined as outcome divided by cost. Adverse events after medical treatment result in diminished outcomes and increased costs. As we evolve toward value-driven care, we must quantify the incidence of and risk factors for adverse events in order to minimize this dual-and multiplicative-effect. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bouché, P M; Chavagnac, B; Cognet, V; Banssillon, V
We report an observation of acute rhabdomyolysis of gluteus maximum muscles occurring in a non-obese patient installed in supine position that underwent knee arthroscopy under spinal anaesthesia. The patient had insulin-dependent diabetes melitus with documented microangiopathy. The interest of this observation resides in the occurrence of the syndrome after a short period of time (one hour) of installation in the supine position in a patient that did not have any of the generally described risk factors of rhabdomyolysis.
Kane, Patrick; Philippon, Marc J
A significant proportion of patients undergoing hip arthroscopy for treatment of femoroacetabular impingement are athletes attempting to return to sport. Emerging data suggest hip arthroscopy has a high success rate in athletes returning to play at all competitive levels and ages. Although several factors are important in determining return to athletics, the results of hip arthroscopy appear promising in all athletes, from weekend warriors to elite professionals.
Exner, G Ulrich
Bilateral congenital absence of the fibula in a 10-year-old boy. A marked valgus malalignment at the left ankle and a foot with three rays caused pain during standing and walking. Ortheses did not help. Therefore, various treatment options were considered such as amputation of the foot, a supramalleolar correction osteotomy, and a tibiotalar arthrodesis. Correction of malalignment and ankle arthrodesis stabilized with an external mini-fixator while sparing the distal tibial physis. Two skin incisions: one on the medial side visualizing the flexor tendons and the neurovascular bundle while sparing the sural nerve and the small saphenous vein. Exposure of the medial malleolus after division of its ligamentous and capsular attachments. Localization of the ankle joint. The second incision on the lateral side. Z-lengthening of the sole peroneal tendon. Opening of the ankle joint at the lateral and anterior aspect. Resection of the articular surfaces of tibia and talus based on a preoperatively made drawing that showed an alignment of the hindfoot with the longitudinal axis of the tibia and the foot in 90 degrees in relation to the leg. Temporary insertion of a Kirschner wire from the sole of the foot into the tibia to maintain the obtained correction. Placement of a mini-fixator: one threaded Kirschner wire crosses the talocalcaneal synostosis, the second the distal tibial epiphysis, and the third one the proximal third of the tibia. Once the frame is mounted, compression of the resection surfaces and slight distraction between the proximal and middle Kirschner wires. At the age of 16 years the boy is able to use a regular shoe with an orthotic insert; he is pain-free and can participate in all daily activities. The growth of the tibia has not been affected.
Bech, N. H.; Hulst, A. H.; Spuijbroek, J. A.; van Leuken, L. L. A.; Haverkamp, D.
Hip arthroscopy is a fast growing orthopedic field of expertise. As in any field of surgery adequate postoperative pain management regimes are of utmost importance. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge on anesthetic options for perioperative pain management for hip arthroscopy. We searched the Pubmed/Medline and Embase database for literature and included 10 studies for our analysis. Because of the variety of pain scales and different ways of measured pain no meta-analysis could be performed and a descriptive review is performed. There are several types of pain regimens that can mostly be divided in two groups: local anesthetics and nerve blocks. Included studies show a rather large variation in reported visual analogue scale scores, post anesthesia care unit admission time and opioid usage. There are several anesthetic options available for hip arthroscopy. Different studies use different dosages, anesthetic regimens and different protocols; this partly explains the differences between studies with similar techniques. Peripheral nerve blocks seems promising but regarding current literature no clear recommendation can be made about what the best perioperative pain management option is, an overview of all reported techniques is given. PMID:27583156
Zemirline, Ahmed; Agnus, Vincent; Soler, Luc; Mathoulin, Christophe L; Obdeijn, Miryam; Liverneaux, Philippe A
In video surgery, and more specifically in arthroscopy, one of the major problems is positioning the camera and instruments within the anatomic environment. The concept of computer-guided video surgery has already been used in ear, nose, and throat (ENT), gynecology, and even in hip arthroscopy. These systems, however, rely on optical or mechanical sensors, which turn out to be restricting and cumbersome. The aim of our study was to develop and evaluate the accuracy of a navigation system based on electromagnetic sensors in video surgery. We used an electromagnetic localization device (Aurora, Northern Digital Inc., Ontario, Canada) to track the movements in space of both the camera and the instruments. We have developed a dedicated application in the Python language, using the VTK library for the graphic display and the OpenCV library for camera calibration. A prototype has been designed and evaluated for wrist arthroscopy. It allows display of the theoretical position of instruments onto the arthroscopic view with useful accuracy. The augmented reality view represents valuable assistance when surgeons want to position the arthroscope or locate their instruments. It makes the maneuver more intuitive, increases comfort, saves time, and enhances concentration.
Shetty, Vijay D; Villar, Richard N
Diagnosis and treatment of intra‐articular hip problems in young patients present a challenge to hip surgeons. Previous studies have shown that non‐invasive investigations such as radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging provide limited help. Non‐operative treatment is likely to result in persistent symptoms, and surgical options for intra‐articular hip problems involve open arthrotomy of the hip joint, which carries potential risks associated with joint dislocation. Arthroscopy of the hip joint, therefore, seems to be an attractive option. It was once thought that introduction of a straight arthroscope into the ball‐and‐socket hip joint was almost impossible. Hip arthroscopy has seen several advances since then, and the speed at which it developed in recent years directly corresponded to the rate at which the conditions affecting the hip joint were identified. Athletes and other young individuals with hip injuries are increasingly being diagnosed with an ever evolving series of conditions. Many of these conditions were previously unrecognised and thus left untreated, resulting in premature ends to the patients' competitive careers. Hip arthroscopy, as with any procedure, is not without risks. The procedure is not widely available as it requires specialist equipment and takes a long time to learn. Complications are few, occurring in <5% of patients. PMID:17138638
Zemirline, Ahmed; Agnus, Vincent; Soler, Luc; Mathoulin, Christophe L.; Liverneaux, Philippe A.; Obdeijn, Miryam
Purpose In video surgery, and more specifically in arthroscopy, one of the major problems is positioning the camera and instruments within the anatomic environment. The concept of computer-guided video surgery has already been used in ear, nose, and throat (ENT), gynecology, and even in hip arthroscopy. These systems, however, rely on optical or mechanical sensors, which turn out to be restricting and cumbersome. The aim of our study was to develop and evaluate the accuracy of a navigation system based on electromagnetic sensors in video surgery. Methods We used an electromagnetic localization device (Aurora, Northern Digital Inc., Ontario, Canada) to track the movements in space of both the camera and the instruments. We have developed a dedicated application in the Python language, using the VTK library for the graphic display and the OpenCV library for camera calibration. Results A prototype has been designed and evaluated for wrist arthroscopy. It allows display of the theoretical position of instruments onto the arthroscopic view with useful accuracy. Discussion The augmented reality view represents valuable assistance when surgeons want to position the arthroscope or locate their instruments. It makes the maneuver more intuitive, increases comfort, saves time, and enhances concentration. PMID:24436832
Cheng, Y; Cai, Y
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of chronic lateral ankle ligament injury. Methods: A total of 120 ankles in 120 patients with a clinical suspicion of chronic ankle ligament injury were examined by ultrasonography by using a 5- to 17-MHz linear array transducer before surgery. The results of ultrasonography were compared with the operative findings. Results: There were 18 sprains and 24 partial and 52 complete tears of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL); 26 sprains, 27 partial and 12 complete tears of the calcaneofibular ligament (CFL); and 1 complete tear of the posterior talofibular ligament (PTFL) at arthroscopy and operation. Compared with operative findings, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ultrasonography were 98.9%, 96.2% and 84.2%, respectively, for injury of the ATFL and 93.8%, 90.9% and 83.3%, respectively, for injury of the CFL. The PTFL tear was identified by ultrasonography. The accuracy of identification between acute-on-chronic and subacute–chronic patients did not differ. The accuracies of diagnosing three grades of ATFL injuries were almost the same as those of diagnosing CFL injuries. Conclusion: Ultrasonography provides useful information for the evaluation of patients presenting with chronic pain after ankle sprain. Advances in knowledge: Intraoperative findings are the reference standard. We demonstrated that ultrasonography was highly sensitive and specific in detecting chronic lateral ligments injury of the ankle joint. PMID:24352708
Kuhns, Benjamin D.; Weber, Alexander E.; Levy, David M.; Bedi, Asheesh; Mather, Richard C.; Salata, Michael J.; Nho, Shane J.
Hip arthroscopy has become an increasingly utilized surgical technique for the treatment of the young, active patients with hip pain. The clinical outcomes of hip arthroscopy in this patient population have been largely successful; however, there is increasing interest in the contribution of hip capsule in postoperative clinical and functional outcomes. The structure and function of the normal hip capsule will be reviewed. Capsular contributions to hip stability will be discussed in the setting of hip arthroscopy with an emphasis on diagnosis-based considerations. Lastly, clinical outcomes following hip arthroscopy will be discussed as they relate to capsular management. PMID:26973840
Roukis, Thomas S; Prissel, Mark A
Medial ankle instability secondary to deltoid ligament insufficiency is frequently encountered when performing total ankle replacement and remains a challenge. In the present techniques report, we describe a "reverse" Evans peroneus brevis tendon nonanatomic deltoid ligament reconstruction for medial ankle stabilization harvested through limited incisions using simple topographic anatomic landmarks. The harvested peroneus brevis tendon is brought through a drill hole in the talus from laterally to medially, aiming for the junction of the talar neck and body plantar to the midline. The tendon is the brought superiorly and obliquely to the anterior medial aspect of the distal tibia where it is secured under a plate and screw construct. This modified Evans peroneus brevis tendon nonanatomic deltoid ligament reconstruction is useful in providing medial ankle stability during or after primary and revision total ankle replacement.
Weinstein, M L
Returning to full activity is of primary concern for the injured patient with a second-degree ankle sprain. This is especially true of a member of the United States Marine Corps. Unfortunately, many patients are not referred to physical therapy for comprehensive management of acute ankle sprains. An ankle protocol based on previous clinical experience was developed which included an acute and rehabilitative phase. An air stirrup orthosis was used as an adjunct to therapy to resume activities safely. This combination allowed Marines to return to full duty in less than 2 weeks.
Hillgrove-Stuart, Jessica; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Horton, Rachel; Greenberg, Saul
BACKGROUND: Distraction has recently gained attention as a technique that may help reduce acute pain in infants and toddlers; however, results remain equivocal. It appears that these mixed results stem from a variety of methodological differences with regard to how distraction is implemented. OBJECTIVES: To offer more definitive conclusions regarding the efficacy and mechanisms of distraction for pain management during infancy. Specifically, the goal was to examine whether the agent of distraction (ie, the specific person conducting the distraction) and preneedle distress behaviours impact the efficacy of distraction when toddlers were held by parents. METHODS: A total of 99 toddlers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (typical care, research assistant-directed distraction or parent-directed distraction). Toddler distress behaviours were assessed pre- and postneedle. Toddlers were further grouped according to distress behaviours preneedle (low/no distress versus high distress). Parental soothing behaviours were also assessed as a manipulation check. RESULTS: Toddler postneedle pain did not significantly differ among groups. However, toddlers who were distressed preneedle displayed significantly more pain postneedle, regardless of the treatment group. There were no significant interactions between treatment group and preneedle distress behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that, when being held by a parent, distraction using a toy does not result in lower pain scores in the context of immunization, regardless of who offers the distraction. Furthermore, these findings raise the notion that if clinicians ensured toddlers were regulated before attempting an immunization, postneedle pain may be significantly reduced. PMID:23936893
Hillgrove-Stuart, Jessica; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Horton, Rachel; Greenberg, Saul
Distraction has recently gained attention as a technique that may help reduce acute pain in infants and toddlers; however, results remain equivocal. It appears that these mixed results stem from a variety of methodological differences with regard to how distraction is implemented. To offer more definitive conclusions regarding the efficacy and mechanisms of distraction for pain management during infancy. Specifically, the goal was to examine whether the agent of distraction (i.e., the specific person conducting the distraction) and preneedle distress behaviours impact the efficacy of distraction when toddlers were held by parents. A total of 99 toddlers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (typical care, research assistant-directed distraction or parent-directed distraction). Toddler distress behaviours were assessed pre- and postneedle. Toddlers were further grouped according to distress behaviours preneedle (low⁄no distress versus high distress). Parental soothing behaviours were also assessed as a manipulation check. Toddler postneedle pain did not significantly differ among groups. However, toddlers who were distressed preneedle displayed significantly more pain postneedle, regardless of the treatment group. There were no significant interactions between treatment group and preneedle distress behaviours. These results suggest that, when being held by a parent, distraction using a toy does not result in lower pain scores in the context of immunization, regardless of who offers the distraction. Furthermore, these findings raise the notion that if clinicians ensured toddlers were regulated before attempting an immunization, postneedle pain may be significantly reduced.
Long, Jie; Tang, Wei; Fan, Yu-bo; Tian, Wei-dong; Feng, Fan; Liu, Lei; Zheng, Xiao-hui; Jing, Wei; Wu, Ling
Distraction osteogenesis typically requires a long treatment period, which can lead to bone and soft-tissue infection and considerable patient discomfort. Use of a rapid distraction rate in craniofacial distraction osteogenesis to shorten the distraction period is possible owing to the unique characteristics of craniofacial bones, including an abundant blood supply and rapid bone healing compared with long bones. The effects of using a rapid distraction rate in the treatment of craniofacial deformities are currently unclear, however. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a rapid distraction rate on new bone formation during mandibular distraction osteogenesis in goats. Sixteen goats were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four goats each. In Groups A, B, and C, the right mandible of each goat was distracted at a rate of 0.8mm/d, 1.6mm/d, and 2.0mm/d, respectively; Group D was the control group and did not undergo distraction. Six weeks after the conclusion of distraction, bone densitometry and three-point bending testing were performed in all groups. The mean bone density value of goats in Group A was significantly higher than those of all the other groups (p<0.05), and the mean bone density value of goats in Group C was significantly lower than those of all the other groups (p<0.05). The mean curve slope, peak stress, bending modulus, and energy to failure values of Groups A, B, and C were all significantly lower than those of the control group (p<0.05). As the distraction rate increased, the curve slope and peak stress values gradually declined (p<0.05). Use of a rapid distraction rate in mandibular distraction osteogenesis may have detrimental effects on the quality of new bone, despite the abundant blood supply of craniofacial bones.
Denegar, Craig R.; Miller, Sayers J., III
Investigates whether chronic ankle instability can be prevented, discussing: the relationship between mechanical and functional instability; normal ankle mechanics, sequelae to lateral ankle sprains, and abnormal ankle mechanics; and tissue healing, joint dysfunction, and acute lateral ankle sprain management. The paper describes a treatment model…
Denegar, Craig R.; Miller, Sayers J., III
Investigates whether chronic ankle instability can be prevented, discussing: the relationship between mechanical and functional instability; normal ankle mechanics, sequelae to lateral ankle sprains, and abnormal ankle mechanics; and tissue healing, joint dysfunction, and acute lateral ankle sprain management. The paper describes a treatment model…
Hamza, Karim M.
In this article, I make a case for the potential educative worth of distractions for learning science in the school laboratory. Distractions are operationalized as experiences lying outside the main purpose of the laboratory activity, thereby diverting students' attention from that purpose. Through a practical epistemology analysis, I examined in close detail the conversations of three groups of high school students trying to explain how a real galvanic cell works. The three groups experienced the same two distractions, (1) a nonworking light-emitting diode and (2) negative readings on a voltmeter. The analysis reveals how one of the groups, through a series of contingencies, successively made the two distractions continuous with the main purpose of the activity. In the remaining two groups, no such continuity was established. The results show that (a) experiences initially being distracting, perplexing, and confusing may indeed acquire significance for the students' possibilities of coping with the main purpose of the activity but that (b) the outcome is highly contingent on the particular experiences drawn upon by the students to cope with the distractions. Consequently, I discuss ways in which teachers may turn distractions encountered in laboratory activities into educative experiences for more than a few lucky students.
Liu, Z.J.; King, G.J.; Herring, S.W.
The impact of mandibular distraction on condyles is poorly understood. To examine how condylar mineralization is affected, we performed distraction in 128 one-month-old rapidly and 126 three-month-old slowly growing rats. The rate of distraction was 0.0 mm (sham), 0.2 mm (slow), 0.4 mm (moderate), or 0.6 mm (rapid). From 7 to 9 rats from each rate (n = 29-32) were killed at 4 time periods (D6, D10, D24, and D38) following osteotomy. Calcein and alizarin were injected 6 and 3 days, respectively, prior to death. Methacrylate-embedded sagittal condylar sections were examined under epifluorescence, and mineral apposition rates were measured. Results indicated that: (1) rapidly growing rats showed higher mineral apposition rates (p < 0.01-0.001) than did slowly growing rats; (2) mineral apposition rates were lower in distracted sides at all times in rapidly growing rats (p < 0.05-0.01), while this side-dependency was seen only at D24 in slowly growing rats (p < 0.05); and (3) distraction rates had little effect on mineral apposition rates. Thus, mandibular distraction decreases condylar mineral apposition rates, but only in rapidly growing rats, which is related to surgery and its functional consequences, not to the distraction rate. PMID:16798868
Yu, Jack C.; Fearon, Jeffrey; Havlik, Robert J.; Buchman, Steve R.; Polley, John W.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:: After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Review the biomechanical principles and pertinent cellular and molecular biology of distraction osteogenesis of the craniofacial skeleton. 2. Describe the clinical indications and applications of distraction osteogenesis of the craniofacial skeleton. 3. Describe maxillary, mandibular, midface, and calvarial procedures in distraction osteogenesis. 4. Discuss the clinical outcomes and complications of distraction osteogenesis of the craniofacial skeleton.The year 2002 marked the end of the first decade in clinical distraction osteogenesis of the craniofacial skeleton. In this short period, its application has increased exponentially. More than 3000 cases have been performed according to a recent survey, and more than 700 articles have been written on this subject in the MEDLINE database since 1996. It is a powerful surgical tool and enables surgeons to achieve results not previously attainable. Despite all this, distraction osteogenesis is practiced by only a small number of plastic surgeons. This article reviews the biomechanical principles; the pertinent cellular and molecular biology; and the clinical indications, applications, controversies, and complications of distraction osteogenesis of the craniofacial skeleton.
Kumar, N. Nanda; Ravindran, C.
Introduction Compromised alveolar ridge in vertical and horizontal dimension is a common finding in patients visiting practitioners for dental prosthesis. Various treatment modalities are available for correction of deficient ridges among which alveolar distraction osteogenesis is one. Aim To study the efficacy of alveolar distraction osteogenesis in augmentation of alveolar ridges deficient in vertical dimension. Materials and Methods Ten patients aged 16 to 46 years with deficient alveolar ridge underwent ridge augmentation in 11 alveolar segments using the distraction osteogenesis method. For each patient a custom made distraction device was fabricated. The device was indigenously manufactured with SS-316 (ISO 3506). Results The vertical bone gain reached more than 10mm without the use of bone transplantation. Certain complications like incorrect vector of distraction, paresthesia, pain and loss of transport segment were encountered during the course of the study. Conclusion Alveolar vertical distraction osteogenesis is a reliable and predictable technique for both hard and soft tissue genesis. Implant placement is feasible with primary stability in neogenerated bone at the level of the distracted areas. PMID:26816991
Mohanty, Rajat; Kumar, N Nanda; Ravindran, C
Compromised alveolar ridge in vertical and horizontal dimension is a common finding in patients visiting practitioners for dental prosthesis. Various treatment modalities are available for correction of deficient ridges among which alveolar distraction osteogenesis is one. To study the efficacy of alveolar distraction osteogenesis in augmentation of alveolar ridges deficient in vertical dimension. Ten patients aged 16 to 46 years with deficient alveolar ridge underwent ridge augmentation in 11 alveolar segments using the distraction osteogenesis method. For each patient a custom made distraction device was fabricated. The device was indigenously manufactured with SS-316 (ISO 3506). The vertical bone gain reached more than 10mm without the use of bone transplantation. Certain complications like incorrect vector of distraction, paresthesia, pain and loss of transport segment were encountered during the course of the study. Alveolar vertical distraction osteogenesis is a reliable and predictable technique for both hard and soft tissue genesis. Implant placement is feasible with primary stability in neogenerated bone at the level of the distracted areas.
34"Limitations .ii ....... 1 End Notes . ............ 13 Chapter 2 - TRAINING DISTRACTIONS IN COMBAT UNITS Training Distractions Dealing with Personnel...Training Distraction Survey .. ........ . 20 Summary . .................... 36 End Notes ........... . . ......... 37 Chapter 3 - WHICH TRAINING DISTRACTIONS...Training ... .......... 41 Summary . ................... 45 End Notes . ...... . . . . . . ............. 47 Chapter 4 - COMMANDER’S ROLE IN ELIMINATING OR
Kitabata, Reina; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Nagasao, Tomohisa; Kishi, Kazuo
Congenital brachymetatarsia most commonly involves the fourth ray and may be combined with metacarpal shortening. Now, many reports demonstrated the usefulness of distraction osteogenesis for lengthening of the metatarsals by using an external distraction device. In this article, we treated shortening fourth metatarsal by bone lengthening using the internal distraction device. This technique has some advantages over the method of external distraction.
Rucigaj, Tanja Planinsek
Ultrasound examinations are noninvasive diagnostic methods which, along with appropriate history and clinical examination, provide basic information on the etiology and spread of the disease, as well as on treatment options required in patients with chronic venous insufficiency and arterial flow impairment. Doppler flow meter offers useful data on venous blood return, primarily in great veins, while both deep and superficial veins as well as arteries can be visualized and data on venous and arterial hemodynamics obtained by duplex ultrasonography. In addition, Doppler flow meter provides data on the peripheral arterial system action through ankle brachial index measurement, which will guide the choice of compression therapy when deciding on the treatment of peripheral arterial disease and mixed arteriovenous leg ulcers. However, diagnosis of arterial insufficiency requires additional examinations.
Chuah, Lisa Y.M.; Dolcos, Florin; Chen, Annette K.; Zheng, Hui; Parimal, Sarayu; Chee, Michael W.L.
Study Objectives: We determined if sleep deprivation would amplify the effect of negative emotional distracters on working memory. Design: A crossover design involving 2 functional neuroimaging scans conducted at least one week apart. One scan followed a normal night of sleep and the other followed 24 h of sleep deprivation. Scanning order was counterbalanced across subjects. Setting: The study took place in a research laboratory. Participants: 24 young, healthy volunteers with no history of any sleep, psychiatric, or neurologic disorders. Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Study participants were scanned while performing a delayed-response working memory task. Two distracters were presented during the maintenance phase, and these differed in content: highly arousing, negative emotional scenes; low-arousing, neutral scenes; and digitally scrambled versions of the pictures. Irrespective of whether volunteers were sleep deprived, negative emotional (relative to neutral) distracters elicited greater maintenance-related activity in the amygdala, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and fusiform gyri, while concurrently depressing activity in cognitive control regions. Individuals who maintained or increased distracter-related amygdala activation after sleep deprivation showed increased working memory disruptions by negative emotional distracters. These individuals also showed reduced functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventromedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, regions postulated to mediate cognitive control against emtional distraction. Conclusions: Increased distraction by emotional stimuli following sleep deprivation is accompanied by increases in amygdala activation and reduced functional connectivity between the amygdala and prefrontal cognitive control regions. These findings shed light on the neural basis for interindividual variation in how negative emotional stimuli might distract sleep deprived persons. Citation: Chuah LYM
Corcoran, J; Hubli, E H; Salyer, K E
Distraction osteogenesis quickly has become a mainstay in the treatment of craniofacial syndromes with mandibular hypoplasia. We report on a series of eight patients undergoing distraction osteogenesis of neomandibles constructed with costochondral grafts. The length of distraction, resting phase between distraction and device removal, and complication rate were significantly greater in the rib-graft distraction group when compared with our series of native mandibular distraction patients (n = 21 devices). Most complications were minor, including pintrack infection and hardware failure; however, major complications included fibrous union and facial nerve praxia. Secondary procedures have been able to be performed successfully on previously distracted rib grafts as well.
Dove, N L; Wiederman, M W
Past research on the role of cognitive distraction in sexual dysfunction typically has focused on males and has been conducted in the laboratory using artificial stimuli. In the current study, young adult women (N = 74) with coital experience completed questionnaires regarding cognitive distraction and their sexuality. Those women who reported greater cognitive distraction during sexual activity with a partner also reported relatively lower sexual esteem, less sexual satisfaction, less consistent orgasms, and higher incidence of pretending orgasm even after the women's general affect, sexual desire, general self-focus, general sexual attitudes, and body dissatisfaction were statistically controlled. Results are discussed with regard to directions for future research and implications for sex therapy.
Schwartz, Jaclyn M; Kihm, Carl A; Camasta, Craig A
Subtalar joint middle facet coalitions commonly present in children who have a painful, rigid, pes planovalgus foot type. The middle facet coalition allows rearfoot forces to be distributed medially through the coalition, and this can result in arthritis or lateral tarsal wedging. The senior author has used a wedged bone graft distraction subtalar joint arthrodesis to correct calcaneal valgus and restore the talar height in these patients. The tight, press-fit nature of the tricortical iliac crest allograft provides stability and can negate the need for internal fixation. We retrospectively reviewed 9 pediatric subtalar joint distraction arthrodesis procedures performed on 8 patients during a 6-year period. All patients began weightbearing at 6 weeks after surgery. All patients had osseous union, and no complications developed that required a second surgery. The clinical outcomes, assessed at a mean of 25.5 (range, 6.3 to 75.8) months postoperatively, were satisfactory. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score was 90.1 (range, 79 to 94), on a 94-point scale. The wedged distraction arthrodesis technique has not been previously described for correction of pediatric patients with lateral tarsal wedging, but it is an effective option and yields successful outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lötscher, P; Lang, T H; Zwicky, L; Hintermann, B; Knupp, M
Injuries of the ankle joint have a high incidence in daily life and sports, thus, playing an important socioeconomic role. Therefore, proper diagnosis and adequate treatment are mandatory. While most of the ligament injuries around the ankle joint are treated conservatively, great controversy exists on how to treat deltoid ligament injuries in ankle fractures. Missed injuries and inadequate treatment of the medial ankle lead to inferior outcome with instability, progressive deformity, and ankle joint osteoarthritis.
... feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... 51. Trayes KP, Studdiford JS, Pickle S, Tully AS. Edema: Diagnosis and management. Am Fam Phys . 2013;88( ...
... by a condition such as osteoporosis or a stress fracture. You may be at higher risk of a broken foot or ankle if you: Participate in high-impact sports. The stresses, direct blows and twisting injuries ...
Thomas, Ruthann C.; Hasher, Lynn
Three studies explored whether younger and older adults’ free recall performance can benefit from prior exposure to distraction that becomes relevant in a memory task. Participants initially read stories that included distracting text. Later, they studied a list of words for free recall, with half of the list consisting of previously distracting words. When the memory task was indirect in its use of distraction (Study 1), only older adults showed transfer, with better recall of previously distracting compared with new words, which increased their recall to match that of younger adults. However, younger adults showed transfer when cued about the relevance of previous distraction both before studying the words (Study 2) and before recalling the words (Study 3) in the memory test. Results suggest that both younger and older adults encode distraction, but younger adults require explicit cueing to use their knowledge of distraction. In contrast, older adults transfer knowledge of distraction in both explicitly cued and indirect memory tasks. Results are discussed in terms of age differences in inhibition and source-constrained retrieval. PMID:21843024
Beaman, C. Philip; Hanczakowski, Maciej; Jones, Dylan M.
The effects of auditory distraction in memory tasks have, to date, been examined with procedures that minimize participants’ control over their own memory processes. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to metacognitive control factors which might affect memory performance. In this study, we investigate the effects of auditory distraction on metacognitive control of memory, examining the effects of auditory distraction in recognition tasks utilizing the metacognitive framework of Koriat and Goldsmith (1996), to determine whether strategic regulation of memory accuracy is impacted by auditory distraction. Results replicated previous findings in showing that auditory distraction impairs memory performance in tasks minimizing participants’ metacognitive control (forced-report test). However, the results revealed also that when metacognitive control is allowed (free-report tests), auditory distraction impacts upon a range of metacognitive indices. In the present study, auditory distraction undermined accuracy of metacognitive monitoring (resolution), reduced confidence in responses provided and, correspondingly, increased participants’ propensity to withhold responses in free-report recognition. Crucially, changes in metacognitive processes were related to impairment in free-report recognition performance, as the use of the “don’t know” option under distraction led to a reduction in the number of correct responses volunteered in free-report tests. Overall, the present results show how auditory distraction exerts its influence on memory performance via both memory and metamemory processes. PMID:24860543
Li, Yi; Zhao, Hong-Mou; Liang, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Cheng; Zhao, Kai; Yang, Jie
To evaluate the functional outcomes of modified limited "L" incision beside the Achilles tendon with distraction bone block arthrodesis in treatment of subtalar osteoarthritis. From March 2009 to September 2012, a total of 22 cases of old calcaneus fractures with subtalar osteoarthritis were treated with modified limited "L" incision and distraction bone block arthrodesis including 13 males and 9 females with a mean age of 35.3 years old (ranged 22 to 49). The mean time from calcaneal fracture was 21 months (ranged 11 to 32). According to the Stephens-Sanders classification, 16 cases were type II and 6 were type III. The modified-AOFAS ankle-hindfoot score was used for functional outcomes evaluation. There was one incision necrosis and no infection, implant failure, bone-graft absorbed or talus necrosis was note at the follow-up time. A total of 21 cases were followed up for a mean time of 29 months (ranged from 18 to 46 months). All of the cases reached a bony union within 4 months postoperation. The mean modified-AOFAS ankle-hindfoot score was 82.6 points (ranged from 66 to 92 points),reached a significantly improvement in comparing with the mean preoperative score (50.8 points,ranged from 32 to 65 points, P < 0.01). The modified limited"L" incision beside the Achilles tendon with distraction bone block arthrodesis is an acceptable and alternative treatment method for subtalar osteoarthritis. This method is easy to use and with less complication. It can correct the main pathological changes and reach good functional outcomes.
Lansdown, Terry C; Stephens, Amanda N; Walker, Guy H
Strategies to contend with driver distraction may no longer be sufficient for the emerging variety of contemporary driver distractions. A more systematic and systemic approach holds promise for improved road safety but is not currently being developed. This systematic review of multiple driver distractions aims to address this gap and presents two key findings. Systematic classification of distracting tasks with respect to driving is challenging, and engagement with Multiple-Additional-to-Driving (MAD) tasks is almost universally detrimental to driving performance. A model is presented to assist in systematically characterising multiple driver demands. Identified literature is placed into context using the model and shortfalls are identified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yen, S L
Distraction osteogenesis is a surgical-orthopedic method for lengthening bone by separating or distracting a fracture callus. This technique has a long history in limb lengthening and has recently been used to lengthen mandibles and maxillae in human patients. Distraction osteogenesis represents a powerful method of producing unlimited quantities of living bone which can be formed along any plane of space. Because this method uses local host tissue, it offers many advantages over bone grafting. In the author's experience, large (10-22 mm) antero-posterior and vertical corrections of mandibles can be achieved using this technique. The purpose of this article is to review its biological basis and discuss recent clinical applications. This article reviews the history, theory, current management, and limitations of distraction osteogenesis in treating craniofacial anomalies.
Durbin, Dennis R; McGehee, Daniel V; Fisher, Donald; McCartt, Anne
Novice teen drivers have long been known to have an increased risk of crashing, as well as increased tendencies toward unsafe and risky driving behaviors. Teens are unique as drivers for several reasons, many of which have implications specifically in the area of distracted driving. This paper reviews several of these features, including the widespread prevalence of mobile device use by teens, their lack of driving experience, the influence of peer passengers as a source of distraction, the role of parents in influencing teens’ attitudes and behaviors relevant to distracted driving and the impact of laws designed to prevent mobile device use by teen drivers. Recommendations for future research include understanding how engagement in a variety of secondary tasks by teen drivers affects their driving performance or crash risk; understanding the respective roles of parents, peers and technology in influencing teen driver behavior; and evaluating the impact of public policy on mitigating teen crash risk related to driver distraction. PMID:24776228
Jin, Moran; Lee, Yang-Haeng; Yoon, Young Chul; Han, Il-Yong; Park, Kyung-Taek; Wi, Jin Hong
Pseudoaneurysm with arteriovenous fistula is a rare complication of arthroscopy, and can be diagnosed by ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or angiography. This condition can be treated with open surgical repair or endovascular repair. We report our experience with the open surgical repair of a pseudoaneurysm with an arteriovenous fistula in a young male patient who underwent arthroscopy five months previously.
Shah, Himansu R; Zamboni, William A; Khiabani, Kayvan T
This is the first case of Nocardial septic arthritis of the wrist that has been reported without any cutaneous presentation. It was successfully diagnosed and treated with wrist arthroscopy. Arthroscopy is less traumatic and done through smaller incisions than the traditional open technique.
Osti, Leonardo; Del Buono, Angelo; Maffulli, Nicola
The aim of this study is to report the clinical and functional outcomes following arthroscopic management of anterior impingement, grade III-IV cartilage lesions, and mild to moderate osteoarthritis of the ankle in former soccer players. The study included 15 former male professional soccer players with mild to moderate degenerative changes of the ankle who had undergone arthroscopic debridement and management of secondary injuries of the ankle. Preoperatively and at the last follow-up, at an average of 7.4 years, the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) and the Kaikkonen scales and visual analogue scale (VAS) assessment were administered to all patients. Ankle osteoarthritis was assessed from weightbearing anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of both ankles. At the last follow-up, the average AOFAS score had increased significantly from 48 (range, 29-69) to 86 (range, 63-94) (P < 0.0001), with good to excellent scores in 11 patients (74 %). The average Kaikkonen preoperative score of 43 (range, 28-70) had significantly improved to 85 (range, 61-95) (P < 0.0001), with good excellent scores in 11 patients (74 %). VAS values were also improved at the last follow-up. At the last appointment, only one (7 %) patient had abandoned altogether any sport, as he did not feel safe with his ankle and he felt too old to continue. Anterior ankle arthroscopy for management of mild to moderate ankle arthritis is safe, effective, and low cost and allows former athletes to safely return to ordinary daily activities and recreational sport activities.
Baechler, Martin F; Means, Kenneth R; Parks, Brent G; Nguyen, Augustine; Segalman, Keith A
This study was conducted to study the effect of distraction across the wrist joint on carpal canal pressure. Ten cadaver specimens were mounted vertically in neutral forearm rotation by 2 half pins that transfixed the radius and ulna. The wrist joint was distracted by suspending weights from the middle finger. A balloon-tipped catheter, percutaneously introduced into the carpal canal and connected to a transducer, was used to measure carpal canal pressure. The carpal canal pressure was measured at 0 to 4.54 kg of distraction in 0.45-kg increments and at 6.81 kg and 9.08 kg of distraction. Three wrist positions were tested: neutral, 30 degrees of flexion, and 30 degrees of extension. Highly linear direct relationships between wrist distraction force and carpal canal pressure over baseline were observed in all positions of the wrist. Statistically significant increases in carpal canal pressure over baseline were observed at a wrist distraction force of 2.27 kg or more with the wrist in neutral position, at 1.82 kg or more with the wrist in 30 degrees of extension, and at 4.09 kg or more with the wrist in 30 degrees of flexion. At each level of wrist distraction force of 3.63 kg or less the carpal canal pressure of the extended wrist was significantly higher than that of the wrist in neutral position. At each level of wrist distraction force 4.54 kg or less the carpal canal pressure of the extended wrist was significantly higher than that of the flexed wrist. No statistically significant differences were observed at any level of wrist distraction force between carpal canal pressures in the neutral and flexed positions of the wrist. Distraction across the wrist joint causes a statistically significant highly linear increase in carpal canal pressure. The position of the distracted wrist also has a considerable effect on carpal canal pressure, with the extended position associated with the largest increases in carpal canal pressure and the flexed position with the
Kim, Byeong-Jo; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Chang-Tae; Lee, Sun-Min
[Purpose] To report the effects of ankle balance taping for a patient with chronic ankle instability (CAI). [Subject] A 33-year-old man with a 10 year history of chronic ankle stability. [Methods] ABT with kinesiology tape was performed for 2 months (average, 16 h/day) around the right ankle. [Results] At the end of two months, no ankle instability was noted when ascending and descending the stairs, jumping, turning, operating the pedals while driving, and lifting heavy objects. [Conclusion] The repeated use of kinesiology tape in ankle balance taping may be an effective treatment for recovering the ankle stability of patients with chronic ankle instability. PMID:26311206
Kim, Byeong-Jo; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Chang-Tae; Lee, Sun-Min
[Purpose] To report the effects of ankle balance taping for a patient with chronic ankle instability (CAI). [Subject] A 33-year-old man with a 10 year history of chronic ankle stability. [Methods] ABT with kinesiology tape was performed for 2 months (average, 16 h/day) around the right ankle. [Results] At the end of two months, no ankle instability was noted when ascending and descending the stairs, jumping, turning, operating the pedals while driving, and lifting heavy objects. [Conclusion] The repeated use of kinesiology tape in ankle balance taping may be an effective treatment for recovering the ankle stability of patients with chronic ankle instability.
Hsu, Andrew R; Lareau, Craig R; Anderson, Robert B
Infolding and retraction of an avulsed deltoid complex after ankle fracture can be a source of persistent increased medial clear space, malreduction, and postoperative pain and medial instability. The purpose of this descriptive case series was to analyze the preliminary outcomes of acute superficial deltoid complex avulsion repair during ankle fracture fixation in a cohort of National Football League (NFL) players. We found that there is often complete avulsion of the superficial deltoid complex off the proximal aspect of the medial malleolus during high-energy ankle fractures in athletes. Between 2004 and 2014, the cases of 14 NFL players who underwent ankle fracture fixation with open deltoid complex repair were reviewed. Patients with chronic deltoid ligament injuries or ankle fractures more than 2 months old were excluded. Average age for all patients was 25 years and body mass index 34.4. Player positions included 1 wide receiver, 1 tight end, 1 safety, 1 running back, 1 linebacker, and 9 offensive linemen. Average time from injury to surgery was 7.5 days. Surgical treatment for all patients consisted of ankle arthroscopy and debridement, followed by fibula fixation with plate and screws, syndesmotic fixation with suture-button devices, and open deltoid complex repair with suture anchors. Patient demographics were recorded with position played, time from injury to surgery, games played before and after surgery, ability to return to play, and postoperative complications. Return to play was defined as the ability to successfully participate in at least 1 full regular-season NFL game after surgery. All NFL players were able to return to running and cutting maneuvers by 6 months after surgery. There were no significant differences in playing experience before surgery versus after surgery. Average playing experience before surgery was 3.3 seasons, 39 games played, and 22 games started. Average playing experience after surgery was 1.6 seasons, 16 games played, and
Schillhammer, Carl K; Reid, John B; Rister, Jamie; Jani, Sunil S; Marvil, Sean C; Chen, Austin W; Anderson, Chris G; D'Agostino, Sophia; Lubowitz, James H
To categorize and summarize up-to-date anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) research published in Arthroscopy and The American Journal of Sports Medicine and systematically review each subcategory, beginning with ACL anatomy. After searching for "anterior cruciate ligament" OR "ACL" in Arthroscopy and The American Journal of Sports Medicine from January 2012 through December 2014, we excluded articles more pertinent to ACL augmentation; open growth plates; and meniscal, chondral, or multiligamentous pathology. Studies were subcategorized for data extraction. We included 212 studies that were classified into 8 categories: anatomy; basic science and biomechanics; tunnel position; graft selection; graft fixation; injury risk and rehabilitation; practice patterns and outcomes; and complications. Anatomic risk factors for ACL injury and post-reconstruction graft failure include a narrow intercondylar notch, low native ACL volume, and increased posterior slope. Regarding anatomic footprints, the femoral attachment is 43% of the proximal-to-distal lateral femoral condylar length whereas the posterior border of the tendon is 2.5 mm from the articular margin. The tibial attachment of the ACL is two-fifths of the medial-to-lateral interspinous distance and 15 mm anterior to the posterior cruciate ligament. Anatomic research using radiology and computed tomography to evaluate ACL graft placement shows poor interobserver and intraobserver reliability. With a mind to improving outcomes, surgeons should be aware of anatomic risk factors (stenotic femoral notch, low ligament volume, and increased posterior slope) for ACL graft failure, have a precise understanding of arthroscopic landmarks identifying femoral and tibial footprint locations, and understand that imaging to evaluate graft placement is unreliable. Level III, systematic review of Level III evidence. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Capito, Nicholas M; Cook, James L; Yahuaca, Bernardo; Capito, Marie D; Sherman, Seth L; Smith, Matthew J
A hyperosmolar irrigation solution has been reported to be safe and have potential benefits for use during shoulder arthroscopy in an animal model study. In this study, the clinical effects of a hyperosmolar solution were compared with a standard isotonic solution when used for shoulder arthroscopy. A prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial was performed to compare isotonic (273 mOsm/L) and hyperosmolar (593 mOsm/L) irrigation solutions used for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Primary outcomes focused on the amount of periarticular fluid retention based on net weight gain, change in shoulder girth, and pain. All patients were tracked through standard postsurgical follow-up to ensure no additional complications arose. Patients were contacted at 1 year to assess American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeon score, visual analog scale pain score, and the Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation shoulder scores RESULTS: Fifty patients (n = 25/group) were enrolled and completed the study. No statistically significant differences were noted between cohorts in demographics or surgical variables. The hyperosmolar group experienced significantly less mean weight gain (1.6 ± 0.82 kg vs. 2.25 ± 0.77 kg; P = .005), significantly less change in shoulder girth (P < .05), and a significantly lower immediate postoperative visual analog scale pain score (P = .036). At 1 year postoperatively, the differences between groups for American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, visual analog scale pain, and Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation were not significant (P > .2). A hyperosmolar irrigation solution provides a safe and effective way to decrease periarticular fluid retention associated with arthroscopic rotator cuff surgery without any adverse long-term effects. Use of a hyperosmolar irrigation solution for shoulder arthroscopy has potential clinical benefits to surgeons and patients. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of
McRae, Kateri; Hughes, Brent; Chopra, Sita; Gabrieli, John D.E.; Gross, James J.; Ochsner, Kevin N.
Distraction and reappraisal are two commonly used forms of cognitive emotion regulation. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown that each one depends upon interactions between prefrontal cortex, interpreted as implementing cognitive control, and limbic regions, interpreted as mediating emotional responses. However, no study has directly compared distraction with reappraisal, and it thus remains unclear whether they draw upon different neural mechanisms and have different emotional consequences. The present fMRI study compared distraction and reappraisal, and found both similarities and differences between the two forms of emotion regulation. Both resulted in decreased negative affect, decreased activation in the amygdala, and increased activation in prefrontal and cingulate regions. Relative to distraction, reappraisal led to greater decreases in negative affect, and greater increases in a network of regions associated with processing affective meaning (medial prefrontal and anterior temporal cortices). Relative to reappraisal, distraction led to greater decreases in amygdala activation, and greater increases in activation in prefrontal and parietal regions. Taken together, these data suggest that distraction and reappraisal differentially engage neural systems involved in attentional deployment and cognitive reframing, and have different emotional consequences. PMID:19400679
Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia P; Parmentier, Fabrice B R
Research shows that attention is ineluctably captured away from a focal visual task by rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards). The fundamental cognitive mechanisms underlying this effect have been the object of an increasing number of studies but their sensitivity to mood and emotions remains relatively unexplored despite suggestion of greater distractibility in negative emotional contexts. In this study, we examined the effect of sadness, a widespread form of emotional distress and a symptom of many disorders, on distraction by deviant sounds. Participants received either a sadness induction or a neutral mood induction by means of a mixed procedure based on music and autobiographical recall prior to taking part in an auditory-visual oddball task in which they categorized visual digits while ignoring task-irrelevant sounds. The results showed that although all participants exhibited significantly longer response times in the visual categorization task following the presentation of rare and unexpected deviant sounds relative to that of the standard sound, this distraction effect was significantly greater in participants who had received the sadness induction (a twofold increase). The residual distraction on the subsequent trial (postdeviance distraction) was equivalent in both groups, suggesting that sadness interfered with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound and back toward the target stimulus. We propose that this disengagement impairment reflected the monopolization of cognitive resources by sadness and/or associated ruminations. Our findings suggest that sadness can increase distraction even when distractors are emotionally neutral.
Geva, Ronny; Yaron, Hagit; Kuint, Jacob
Children with sleep disorders tend to experience attention problems, yet little is known about the relationship between sleep and attention in early development. This prospective follow-up study investigated the longitudinal relationships between neonatal sleep, attention, and distraction in infants born preterm. We used actigraphy and sleep-wake diaries in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU, N = 65), attention orienting in a visual-recognition-memory task (VRM) at age 4 months, and structured observation of attention and distractibility at age 18 months. Infants with poorer neonatal sleep (n = 31) exhibited longer first gaze durations in the VRM at 4 months and longer distraction episodes at 18 months relative to neonatal controls who slept well (p < .01). Hierarchical regression models support relations between neonatal sleep and gaze behavior at 4 months and distractibility at 18 months; moreover, alterations in orienting attention at 4 months predicted the likelihood of being distracted during the second year of life. Findings underscore the importance of early sleep-wake and attention regulation in the development of distraction in infants born preterm. © The Author(s) 2013.
G.A. Ilizarov's clinical insights and experimental biology have developed into what is known today as distraction osteogenesis. Initially used for the treatment of fractures and nonunions, his methods have proven successful for limb lengthening and bone transportation. A brief history of the development of distraction osteogenesis, definition of terms, methods, and monitoring techniques are described. The primary mechanism, intramembranous ossification, is direct bone formation in uniform gradients of mineralization from a central fibrous interzone. New bone is produced from the local host surfaces and quickly remodels to the equivalent macro and microstructure. Blood supply at the focus of distraction, dependency on a latency period, different rates, and rhythms of distraction are all tested and discussed. Data from experimental tibial lengthening in more than 125 animals (dogs, rabbits, and rats) show that distraction osteogenesis provides unlimited new bone formation that remodels at daily rates ranging from 200 to 400 microns. In over 100 clinical cases, patients ranging in age from 18 months to 49 years have regenerated bone at an average rate of 213 microns in adults and 385 microns in children. Approximately 10% of these cases required supplemental bone grafts. The article proposes that distraction osteogenesis might be successfully applied in craniofacial surgery.
Guerrero, C A; Bell, W H; Contasti, G I; Rodriguez, A M
Transverse mandibular deficiency with crowding of the mandibular anterior teeth is frequently present in patients with Class I and II malocclusions. The hallmarks of treatment by compensating orthodontics, functional appliances or orthopaedic devices are instability, compromised periodontium and compromised facial aesthetics. A new surgical technique has been developed to widen the mandible. The method is based upon gradual osteodistraction following vertical interdental symphyseal osteotomy. Ten patients with transverse mandibular deficiency and significant dental crowding were treated by symphyseal distraction and subsequent non-extraction decompensating orthodontic treatment. Either an intraoral tooth-borne Hyrax appliance or a new custom-made bone-borne osteodistractor was used to gradually widen the mandible. The surgical procedures were accomplished under local anaesthesia and intravenous sedation in an ambulatory surgical setting using an individualized distraction protocol. The appliances were activated 7 days after symphyseal osteotomies, once each day at a rate of 1 mm per day and stabilized for 30-40 days after distraction. After the segments were distracted, non-extraction orthodontic alignment of the mandibular anterior teeth was accomplished. The symphyseal distraction gaps were bridged by new bony regenerate. Distraction osteogenesis provided an efficient surgical alternative to orthognathic surgery for widening the mandible and treatment of transverse mandibular deficiency without extraction of teeth.
McRae, Kateri; Hughes, Brent; Chopra, Sita; Gabrieli, John D E; Gross, James J; Ochsner, Kevin N
Distraction and reappraisal are two commonly used forms of cognitive emotion regulation. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown that each one depends upon interactions between pFC, interpreted as implementing cognitive control, and limbic regions, interpreted as mediating emotional responses. However, no study has directly compared distraction with reappraisal, and it remains unclear whether they draw upon different neural mechanisms and have different emotional consequences. The present fMRI study compared distraction and reappraisal and found both similarities and differences between the two forms of emotion regulation. Both resulted in decreased negative affect, decreased activation in the amygdala, and increased activation in prefrontal and cingulate regions. Relative to distraction, reappraisal led to greater decreases in negative affect and to greater increases in a network of regions associated with processing affective meaning (medial prefrontal and anterior temporal cortices). Relative to reappraisal, distraction led to greater decreases in amygdala activation and to greater increases in activation in prefrontal and parietal regions. Taken together, these data suggest that distraction and reappraisal differentially engage neural systems involved in attentional deployment and cognitive reframing and have different emotional consequences.
Attention research over the last several decades has provided rich insights into the determinants of distraction, including distractor characteristics, task features, and individual differences. Load Theory represented a particularly important breakthrough, highlighting the critical role of the level and nature of task-load in determining both the efficiency of distractor rejection and the stage of processing at which this occurs. However, until recently studies of distraction were restricted to those measuring rather specific forms of distraction by external stimuli which I argue that, although intended to be irrelevant, were in fact task-relevant. In daily life, attention may be distracted by a wide range of stimuli, which may often be entirely unrelated to any task being performed, and may include not only external stimuli but also internally generated stimuli such as task-unrelated thoughts. This review outlines recent research examining these more general, entirely task-irrelevant, forms of distraction within the framework of Load Theory. I discuss the relation between different forms of distraction, and the universality of load effects across different distractor types and individuals. PMID:23734138
Attention research over the last several decades has provided rich insights into the determinants of distraction, including distractor characteristics, task features, and individual differences. Load Theory represented a particularly important breakthrough, highlighting the critical role of the level and nature of task-load in determining both the efficiency of distractor rejection and the stage of processing at which this occurs. However, until recently studies of distraction were restricted to those measuring rather specific forms of distraction by external stimuli which I argue that, although intended to be irrelevant, were in fact task-relevant. In daily life, attention may be distracted by a wide range of stimuli, which may often be entirely unrelated to any task being performed, and may include not only external stimuli but also internally generated stimuli such as task-unrelated thoughts. This review outlines recent research examining these more general, entirely task-irrelevant, forms of distraction within the framework of Load Theory. I discuss the relation between different forms of distraction, and the universality of load effects across different distractor types and individuals.
Mella, Claudio; Villalón, Ignacio E; Núñez, Álvaro; Paccot, Daniel; Díaz-Ledezma, Claudio
The use of hip arthroscopy, as a surgical technique, has increased significantly over the past ten years. The procedure has shown good and excellent results in symptom relief and function improvement for patients with femoro-acetabular impingement (FAI) and concurrent chondro-labral lesions. It is also a reliable method to correct the characteristic pathomorphologic alteration of FAI. However, surgical results are less successful among patients with advanced articular damage and secondary hip osteoarthritis. The aim of this article is to present some clinical and imagenological tools to discriminate the good candidates for arthroscopic FAI treatment from those who are not, due to extensive articular damage.
Mella, Claudio; Villalón, Ignacio E.; Núñez, Álvaro; Paccot, Daniel; Díaz-Ledezma, Claudio
The use of hip arthroscopy, as a surgical technique, has increased significantly over the past ten years. The procedure has shown good and excellent results in symptom relief and function improvement for patients with femoro-acetabular impingement (FAI) and concurrent chondro-labral lesions. It is also a reliable method to correct the characteristic pathomorphologic alteration of FAI. However, surgical results are less successful among patients with advanced articular damage and secondary hip osteoarthritis. The aim of this article is to present some clinical and imagenological tools to discriminate the good candidates for arthroscopic FAI treatment from those who are not, due to extensive articular damage. PMID:27163082
Lui, Tun Hing
A spring ligament tear can occur because of failure of the tibialis posterior tendon in adult-acquired flatfoot deformity or as an isolated injury with a normal tibialis posterior tendon. The superomedial spring ligament is the most common site of rupture. Compromise of this ligament is a primary causative factor of peritalar subluxation, and a functioning tibialis posterior tendon cannot prevent or correct a planovalgus foot deformity. Therefore, the spring ligament should be repaired in addition to treatment of tibialis posterior tendon abnormalities. The purpose of this technical note is to describe a minimally invasive approach for repair of the superomedial spring ligament by talonavicular arthroscopy.
Salvo, John P; Hammoud, Sommer; Flato, Russell; Sgromolo, Nicole; Mendelsohn, Elliot S
Patients with a workers' compensation claim have been shown to have inferior outcomes after various orthopedic procedures. In hip arthroscopy, good to excellent results have been shown in the athletic and prearthritic population in short-term and long-term follow-up. In the current study, the authors' hypothesis was that patients with a workers' compensation claim would have inferior outcomes after hip arthroscopy compared with patients without a workers' compensation claim. All patients with a workers' compensation claim who underwent hip arthroscopy over a 2-year period were studied. Postoperative functional outcomes were assessed with the Hip Outcome Score and modified Harris Hip Score. A cohort of 30 patients who did not have a workers' compensation claim was selected for comparison. Twenty-six patients were identified who had a workers' compensation claim and underwent hip arthroscopy performed by a single surgeon at the authors' institution with at least 6 months of follow-up. These patients were compared with 30 patients who did not have a workers' compensation claim. The workers' compensation group had a Hip Outcome Score of 66.5±28.8 and the non-workers' compensation group had a Hip Outcome Score of 89.4±12.0. This difference was statistically significant with Wilcoxon test (P=.003). The workers' compensation group had an average modified Harris Hip Score of 72.5±20.7 (mean±SD), and the non-workers' compensation group had a modified Harris Hip Score of 75.6±15.3. This difference was not significantly significant with Wilcoxon test (P=.9). At latest follow-up, 15 patients in the workers' compensation group (58%) were working. Patients returned to work an average of 6.8 months after surgery. The current study showed that postoperative functional outcomes in the workers' compensation group, as measured by Hip Outcome Score, were significantly inferior to those in the non-workers' compensation group. No statistical difference in postoperative modified
van den Heuvel, Alexander; Van Bouwel, Saskia; Dereymaeker, Greta
The ankle joint has unique anatomical, biomechanical and cartilaginous structural characteristics that allow the joint to withstand the very high mechanical stresses and strains over years. Any minor changes to any of these features predispose the joint to osteoarthritis. Total ankle replacement (TAR) is evolving as an alternative to ankle arthrodesis for the treatment of end-stage ankle osteoarthritis. Initial implant designs from the early 1970s had unacceptably high failure and complication rates. As a result many orthopaedic surgeons have restricted the use of TAR in favour of ankle arthrodesis. Long term follow-up studies following ankle arthrodesis show risks of developing adjacent joint osteoarthritis. Therefore research towards a successful ankle replacement continues. Newer designs and longer-term outcome studies have renewed the interest in ankle joint replacement. We present an overview of the evolution, results and current concepts of total ankle replacement.
Papadelis, Eustratios A; Karampinas, Panagiotis K; Kavroudakis, Eustratios; Vlamis, John; Polizois, Vasilios D; Pneumaticos, Spiros G
During reconstructive procedures of the hindfoot, a structural graft is often needed to fill gaps. To eliminate donor site morbidity and limited availability of autografts, porous tantalum was used. Eighteen patients who underwent subtalar joint distraction arthrodesis by means of trabecular metal augment were reviewed retrospectively. The results were evaluated clinically, with the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) score and the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, and were assessed radiologically. The mean follow-up period was 18 months. Computed tomography showed sound fusion. There was a marked increase in AOFAS scores and a decrease in VAS scores. Arthrodesis was achieved in all cases with no major postoperative complications. Radiographically, there was a marked increase in all measured parameters (talocalcaneal angle, talocalcaneal height, talar declination angle), and the intraoperatively achieved correction was maintained at the last follow-up visit. Our data suggest that porous tantalum may be used as a structural graft option for subtalar arthrodesis. Level IV, retrospective case series. © The Author(s) 2015.
Gerstner Garces, Juan Bernardo
Chronic instability of the ankle and anterolateral impingement syndrome are abnormalities that present as a result of inversion and forced plantar-flexion traumas of the foot, despite strict conservative management in the ER and in rehabilitation. A conservative approach is always the first choice of treatment, including anti-inflammatory medications, rehabilitation and proprioception, infiltration with steroids in impingement cases, and use of orthotics, whose true effectiveness is the subject of multiple studies and much debate. Good to excellent results can be obtained surgically with a minimally invasive approach, such as the arthroscopic technique presented herein. Such an approach is useful in managing a combination of conditions such as anterolateral impingement, synovitis, and osteochondral lesions of the talus. The method is easily reproducible, its learning curve is rapid, and it has the advantage of not preventing the use other arthroscopic methods, or open anatomic or nonanatomic methods (tendon transfers), in the case of failure. No nerve lesion was recorded, probably owing to the use of the security zone, and neither was there any arthrofibrosis, possibly related to the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications in the immediate postsurgical period coupled with aggressive rehabilitation from the fourth week. The success of the technique is due to multidisciplinary team work leading to the ultimate achievement of patient satisfaction. This technique is not indicated for patients with a high sports demand or for sport professionals, until further biomechanical studies on its use and success are completed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thomas, Ruthann C.; Hasher, Lynn
Three studies explored whether younger and older adults' free recall performance can benefit from prior exposure to distraction that becomes relevant in a memory task. Participants initially read stories that included distracting text. Later, they studied a list of words for free recall, with half of the list consisting of previously distracting…
Datta, Renu; Utreja, Ashok; Singh, S P; Rattan, Vidya
The aim of this research was to evaluate the level of satisfaction of patients who were undergoing distraction osteogenesis of mandible with extraoral distraction appliance. The prospective study was performed on 13 patients with facio-mandibular deformity reporting to the Oral Health Sciences Center, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India, who required surgical and orthodontic intervention for correction. A standardized multiple choice questionnaire was provided to all patients at 3 stages of treatment i.e. during predistraction, distraction and post distraction period. Predistraction evaluation showed that the main reason for patients to seek treatment was lack of facial esthetics and all of them were sure that there would be a change in their lives after they underwent this treatment procedure. During distraction phase the most common complaint was pain. None of the patients felt that they were suffering during active distraction phase and all felt that they made the right decision. In post distraction phase, all patients were satisfied with the treatment and felt that the treatment was worth it. Twelve out of 13 patients would recommend treatment to others without any hesitation. Our study concludes that distraction osteogenesis of the mandible with extra-oral appliances is acceptable to patients, and improved facial appearance is a positive influence. The appliance and results of the procedure are socially accepted and appreciated.
Asik, Mehmet; Cetik, Ozgur; Talu, Ufuk; Sozen, Yunus V
This retrospective review evaluated the results of arthroscopy-assisted surgery for tibial plateau fractures in 45 patients with closed tibial plateau fractures. The fracture involved articular depression in 27 patients in whom lifting and bone grafting with autogenous corticocancellous iliac bone graft was required. In 23 patients there were also meniscal lesions, which were treated by partial resection in 16 and repaired in 7. Internal fixation was performed using screws in 36 knees and plate in 10 knees. Radiological results were evaluated according to the Resnic-Niwoyama criteria; mean follow-up was 36 months (range 14-72). There was no intraoperative complication in the series, but postoperatively there were one infection and one loss of correction. Results were satisfactory in 89% of cases, according the Rasmussen criteria. Arthroscopy is thus an excellent and minimally invasive method for assessment and treatment of tibial plateau fractures. The advantages are complete and anatomical reduction in the fractured articular surface and evaluation of other concomitant intra-articular pathology and entails only little additional morbidity, especially compared to arthrotomy.
Liu, Yu-Jie; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Jun-Liang; Li, Shu-Yuan; Li, Hai-Feng; Qu, Feng; Xue, Jing; Qi, Wei; Liu, Chang; Zhu, Juan-Li
To explore clinical effects of gluteal muscle contracture and minimum invasive surgery under the arthroscopy. Totally 358 patients with gluteus contracture were treated,which included 175 males and 183 females with an average age of (19.7 +/- 6.8) years old (ranged, 14 to 41). All patients have a history of repetitive intramuscular injection of penicillin with benzyl alcohol solvent. According to clinical characteristics and intraoperative situation, patients were classified into four groups:cable strip (118 cases), fanshaped (107 cases), mixed (87 cases), tensor fasciae latae contracture(46 cases). The curative effects were evaluated according to postoperative function evaluation standard of gluteus contracture. All patients were followed up and 37 cases withdrew. The following up time ranged from 1.5 to 8 years with an average of 3.5 years. According to evaluation standard of gluteus contracture, 303 cases got excellent results, 13 cases good,and 5 cases fair at the final follow-up. No recurrence, infection and neurovascular injury occurred. The classification of gluteal muscle contracture is beneficial for choose surgical strategy and improve curative effect. The advantage of plasma knife minimally invasive solution in treating gluteal muscle contracture with radiofrequency under arthroscopy is minimally invasive, safe, and benefit for early functional exercises.
Zhao, Su-Feng; Tang, En-Yi; Hu, Qin-Gang; Yang, Xu-Dong; Da, Shi-Jin
Distraction osteogenesis has recently evolved a challenging technique to overcome major drawbacks of the traditional orthodontic treatment modalities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of patients with chilopalatognathus who have premaxillary deficiency through distraction osteogenesis using a self-constructed tooth-borne distraction device. Individual tooth-borne distraction devices were used for advancement of the maxillary anterior segment. Distraction was performed for 26 patients in accordance with the specific requirements of each individual. Cephalometric radiographs were taken before treatment (T1), after distraction (T2), and after consolidation for 8 weeks (T3). Cephalometric analysis revealed that the premaxilla was moved forward and that the length of palatal plane increased. In 2 cases, the distractor did not work during distraction and was removed. Distraction osteogenesis using individual tooth-borne distraction devices in patients with chilopalatognathus could effectively resolve soft tissue insufficiencies and hypoplasia of the maxilla.
Xiao, Yao; Shi, Jing
This paper aims to study the traffic flow characteristics considering drivers’ distraction behavior, which is common and lasts for stochastic duration time. The distribution of distraction duration time and the influence of distraction on traffic flow are analyzed. The relationship among distraction duration time, probability of distraction occurrence and proportion of distraction is established by stochastic model. Then a modified optimal velocity model was proposed to simulate a two-lane road, taking the effect of distraction behavior into account. A survey was conducted to collect maximum speed, average speed, lane change frequency and headway of vehicle when distracted. The results suggest that distraction behavior has significant negative influence on traffic flow rate and increases the lane changing frequency. Short-time distraction seems to have smaller impact on traffic flow than long-time distraction. This model simulates the distraction behavior very well and distracted drivers have lower mean speed, lower lane changing frequency, longer headway and are overtaken by more vehicles in simulation. This study provided a good model to analyze distraction behavior in traffic flow and pointed out an important factor affecting the traffic flow efficiency.
Papadaki, Maria E; Troulis, Maria J; Glowacki, Julie; Kaban, Leonard B
To establish a porcine model for maxillary distraction osteogenesis and to document the sequence of bone formation in the zone of advancement. Female Yucatan minipigs (n = 9) in the mixed dentition stage underwent modified Le Fort I osteotomy through a vestibular incision under general anesthesia. A unidirectional, semiburied Le Fort I distraction device was fixed across the osteotomy. The distraction protocol was 0-day latency, 1-mm/d rate for 12 days, and 24 days of fixation. Maxillary specimens (n = 9) were harvested and divided in half at the end of distraction (n = 6 sides), midfixation (n = 6), and the end of fixation (n = 6). Clinical stability, volume, and radiographic density across the zone of advancement were graded on semiquantitative scales. Specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined with light microscopy. Animals tolerated the operation, the distraction and fixation periods. There were no infections and no devices failed. At the end of the distraction period, bone trabeculae were present at the periphery and fibrous tissues, and vessels, preosteoblasts, and osteoblasts were present in the center of the zone of advancement. Islands of chondrocyte-like cells appeared in 1 specimen each at midfixation and the end of fixation. At the end of fixation, clinical stability and radiographic density were graded 3/3 and bone formation was complete across the advancement zone in all specimens. A model for Le Fort I distraction osteogenesis was established. Intramembranous bone formation was the predominant mechanism of healing in the zone of advancement. Latency was not necessary for bone formation in this minipig model. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Magi, Gonzalo; Carucci, Juan Pablo; Berro, Manuel; Bergues, Sebastián
Introduction: Hip pathology is being recognized with more frequency as source of disability and functional limitation in athletes. It has been stated that the overload made with certain positions during some sports activities can develop condral damage. Moreover, the sum of bone deformity and repetitive movements of the hip requiered in sports may increase the risk of causing injuries. These can be treated with hip arthroscopy. Despite of this, there is a lack of evidence about the time taken to return to sports activity and the level reached afterwards by those patients treated with this procedure. Objective: Describe the clinical evolution, the time taken to return to sports activity and the level reached a year after the treatment of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) with hip arthroscopy in 23 athletes. Method: 23 athletes were included in the study, defined as those patients with a minimum of 6 hours a week of sports practice, who were treated for FAI with hip arthroscopy between 2010 and 2015 by the same surgeon at our institution. The diagnosis was clinical (positive impingement test, hip pain and functional limitation of the hip), radiological (cam and pincer) and with magnetic nuclear resonance (labral tears). Preoperative modified Harris hip score was registered in all cases. Tonnis radiographic score was used. All patients had type 0 or 1 Tonnis hips. After 3 months of ineffective non operative treatment the arthroscopy was performed. Patients were treated in dorsal decubitus with orthopedic table. Labral reconstruction with anchors and femoral and acetabular osteoplasty was made. After surgery, patients were able to walk with support for 4 weeks and began physiotherapy. A year after surgery, all patients were questioned about the time taken to return to sports activity and the level of activity reached at that time compared to the one they had before symptoms appeared. The modified Harris hip score was also registered. Results: Ten patients played
Wilkin, Emily Jane; Hunt, Adrienne; Nightingale, Elizabeth Jean; Munn, Joanne; Kilbreath, Sharon Lynne; Refshauge, Kathryn Margaret
To assess inter-rater reliability of ankle manual tests. We also correlated the manual tests with the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT). One ankle from each of 60 participants was assessed using four different manual tests (anterior drawer in supine and crook lying, talar tilt, inversion tilt). Three different raters, varying in experience, tested each participant. The CAIT questionnaire was also administered. The study received ethics approval from the University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), standard error of the mean (SEM) and percent close agreement (PCA) were used to determine reliability of the four tests. Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to determine relationships between the manual tests and CAIT scores. Inter-rater reliability for the four manual tests was poor regardless of therapist's experience (ICC([1,1]) -0.12 to 0.33; SEM 0.93-1.69). Correlations between the CAIT and manual tests were also low varying between r = -0.12 and -0.42. Inter-rater reliability was poor for manual tests of ankle stability. Reliability may be improved by using a grading scale with fewer intervals. The CAIT scores and manual tests correlated poorly, potentially reflecting the variety of conditions leading to ankle instability. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... education site of the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society. Patients Visit the official patient education site of the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society. Patients Visit the official patient education site of ...
Salvi, Andrea Emilio; Metelli, Giovanni Pietro; Bettinsoli, Rosita; Hacking, Steven Adam
Traditional treatment of complex ankle fracture consists of open reduction and internal fixation. Nevertheless, this treatment can delay fracture healing and cause prolonged oedema. The surgeon should consider necessity of early recovery when treating athletes, especially football players. In this light, it was decided to perform an arthroscopy-assisted percutaneous minimal osteosynthesis of a fibular fracture together with a syndesmotic disruption in order to permit the patient, a 24-year-old male, to resume quicker and easier full sport activities. The outcome was good and allowed patient to play soccer since 6 months following surgery. The complete and detailed articular evaluation provided by the arthroscope permitted to manage carefully a complex articular traumatism, avoiding the necessity of plating the fracture and improving a rapid full recovery of the joint function.
Hui, S H; Lui, T H
Introduction: Periosteal reaction has a long list of differential diagnoses ranging from trauma, infection, metabolic disease to malignancy. The morphology of periosteal reaction shown in imaging studies helps to narrow down the list of differential diagnoses. Case report: A 25 year old gentleman had an inversion injury to his left ankle. He complained of lateral ankle and posterior heel pain and swelling after the injury. Radiograph of his left ankle revealed solid, smooth periosteal reaction at posterior aspect of left distal tibia. MRI showed periosteal reaction at the corresponding site, which was better demonstrated in CT scan. Follow up MRI and CT showed maturation of the new bone formation at the site of periosteal reaction. Findings were compatible with subperiosteal hematoma formation from injury, which ossified with time. Conclusion: Smooth, thick periosteal reaction favours benign process, while interrupted pattern is an alarming feature for more aggressive causes. PMID:27299131
van den Bekerom, Michel P J; Mutsaerts, Eduard L A R; van Dijk, C Niek
Review the literature concerning modalities to evaluate the integrity of the deltoid ligament in patients with supination external rotation ankle fractures. The electronic databases Pubmed/Medline, CINAHL and Embase were searched from 1987 to November 2007 to identify all published original studies concerning diagnostic modalities to evaluate the integrity of the deltoid ligament in adult ankle fractures. This review included nine studies involving 423 ankle fractures. Three trails investigated medial tenderness; two studies, ecchymosis; two studies, swelling; one study, an injury radiograph; six studies, a type of radiographic stress view; one study, the Lauge-Hansen classification; one study, MRI; and one article studied arthroscopy in the evaluation of the deltoid ligament integrity. Swelling, ecchymosis, medial tenderness, initial injury radiographs and the Lauge-Hansen classification are less adequate predictors of the integrity of the deltoid ligament. Manual or the less painful variant, the gravity external rotation stress radiographs are considered the gold standard. The amount of medial clear space widening indicative of a positive external rotation stress test has been somewhat variable in the literature but > or =5 mm is generally regarded as most reliable. Achieving adequate external rotation of the foot when obtaining stress radiographs is more important than positioning the ankle in the appropriate degree of ankle flexion. The amount of applied force necessary when performing an external rotation stress radiograph is not well defined and mainly determined by the patient's pain level. The indication for surgery should not be based on the absolute value of one parameter but on the combination of several parameters. If nonoperative treatment is chosen despite a positive stress radiograph, close follow-up is critical because subluxation of the ankle joint is still possible. MRI could be useful in individual cases.
Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia Pilar; Parmentier, Fabrice B R
Rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards) capture attention and impair behavioural performance in an ongoing visual task. Recent evidence indicates that this effect is increased by sadness in a task involving neutral stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that such effect may not be limited to negative emotions but reflect a general depletion of attentional resources by examining whether a positive emotion (happiness) would increase deviance distraction too. Prior to performing an auditory-visual oddball task, happiness or a neutral mood was induced in participants by means of the exposure to music and the recollection of an autobiographical event. Results from the oddball task showed significantly larger deviance distraction following the induction of happiness. Interestingly, the small amount of distraction typically observed on the standard trial following a deviant trial (post-deviance distraction) was not increased by happiness. We speculate that happiness might interfere with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound back towards the target stimulus (through the depletion of cognitive resources and/or mind wandering) but help subsequent cognitive control to recover from distraction.
Vissink, A; de Baat, C
Distraction osteogenesis is a treatment in which new bone is created in the space which comes to exist between bone fragments that have slowly been driven apart by osteogenesis. This treatment, originally developed in orthopaedic surgery, is also commonly used for correcting deformities in the head and neck. After an initial hype, during which time distraction osteogenesis was used to correct deformities in the maxillofacial skeleton, it is beginning to become clearer for which conditions in the head and neck region distraction osteogenesis is most effective or can be seen as a good alternative for 'classical' surgical treatment. In this special issue, the application of distraction osteogenesis in orthopaedics, pre-prosthetic reconstructive surgery, orthodontics and cleft-surgery are discussed and the mandible, the maxilla and the cranio-facial skeleton are also considered. In addition, the possibility that the consolidation period can be reduced in the case of some treatments, such as bone substitutes and growth factors, by combining them with distraction osteogenesis is also addressed.
Tavakoli, K; Stewart, K J; Poole, M D
Distraction osteogenesis is a technique of new bone formation by the gradual separation of bony fragments. The method, although initially developed for limb lengthening, is now being applied in the treatment of craniofacial deformities. A number of principles have been established through careful scientific study to guide clinical practice, such as the ideal rate and rhythm of distraction, the need for periosteal preservation during bone division, a "latent period" of neutral fixation before, and a "consolidation period" after distraction. The technique is being applied in craniofacial surgery particularly for mandibular deformities and offers considerable advantages over previous methods such as osteotomy and inlay bone grafting. Donor site morbidity is avoided, the investing soft tissue envelope is concurrently expanded, and the magnitude of the procedure is less. However, the technique is still in its infancy and requires further modification and refinement before widespread acceptance as a treatment in mainstream craniofacial surgery. Problems with cutaneous scarring and socially undesirable external hardware, particularly in the pediatric population, have led to the emergence of intraoral miniature devices, with the ultimate goal of development of a multiplanar internal autodistractor. Furthermore, many principles well established in leg lengthening, such as the rate and rhythm of distraction, need to be reexamined and the parameters redefined with particular reference to the craniofacial skeleton. Distraction osteogenesis has an expanding role in craniofacial surgery.
Background Although arthroscopy of upper extremity joints was initially a diagnostic tool, it is increasingly used for therapeutic interventions. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the gold standard for assessing treatment efficacy. We aimed to review the literature for intervention RCTs involving wrist and shoulder arthroscopy. Methods We performed a systematic review for RCTs in which at least one arm was an intervention performed through wrist arthroscopy or shoulder arthroscopy. PubMed and Cochrane Library databases were searched up to December 2012. Two researchers reviewed each article and recorded the condition treated, randomization method, number of randomized participants, time of randomization, outcomes measures, blinding, and description of dropouts and withdrawals. We used the modified Jadad scale that considers the randomization method, blinding, and dropouts/withdrawals; score 0 (lowest quality) to 5 (highest quality). The scores for the wrist and shoulder RCTs were compared with the Mann–Whitney test. Results The first references to both wrist and shoulder arthroscopy appeared in the late 1970s. The search found 4 wrist arthroscopy intervention RCTs (Kienböck’s disease, dorsal wrist ganglia, volar wrist ganglia, and distal radius fracture; first 3 compared arthroscopic with open surgery). The median number of participants was 45. The search found 50 shoulder arthroscopy intervention RCTs (rotator cuff tears 22, instability 14, impingement 9, and other conditions 5). Of these, 31 compared different arthroscopic treatments, 12 compared arthroscopic with open treatment, and 7 compared arthroscopic with nonoperative treatment. The median number of participants was 60. The median modified Jadad score for the wrist RCTs was 0.5 (range 0–1) and for the shoulder RCTs 3.0 (range 0–5) (p = 0.012). Conclusion Despite the increasing use of wrist arthroscopy in the treatment of various wrist disorders the efficacy of arthroscopically
Bony fusion of the ankle in a functionally favorable position for restitution of a painless weight bearing while avoiding a leg length discrepancy. Disabling, painful osteoarthritis of the ankle with extensive bone defect secondary to trauma, infection, or serious deformities such as congenital malformations or diabetic osteoarthropathies. Acute joint infection. Severe arterial occlusive disease of the involved limb. Lateral approach to the distal fibula. Fibular osteotomy 7 cm proximal to the tip of the lateral malleolus and posterior flipping of the distal fibula. Exposure of the ankle. Removal of all articular cartilage and debridement of the bone defect. Determination of the size of the defect and harvesting of a corresponding tricortical bone graft from the iliac crest. Also harvesting of autogenous cancellous bone either from the iliac crest or from the lateral part of the proximal tibia. Insertion of the tricortical bone graft and filling of the remaining defect with cancellous bone. Fixation with three 6.5-mm titanium lag screws. Depending on the extent of the defect additional stabilization of the bone graft with a titanium plate. Fixation of the lateral fibula on talus and tibia with two 3.5-mm titanium screws for additional support. Wound closure in layers. Split below-knee cast with the ankle in neutral position. Between January 2002 and January 2004 this technique was used in five patients with extensive bone defects (four women, one man, average age 57 years [42-77 years]). No intra- or early postoperative complications. The AOFAS (American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society) Score was improved from 23 points preoperatively to 76 points postoperatively (average follow-up time of 25 months). Two patients developed a nonunion and underwent a revision with an ankle arthrodesis nail. A valgus malposition after arthrodesis in one patient was corrected with a supramalleolar osteotomy.
Lee, Sun-Min; Lee, Jung-Hoon
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to report the effects of ankle eversion taping using kinesiology tape on ankle inversion sprain. [Subject] The subject was a 21-year-old woman with Grade 2 ankle inversion sprain. [Methods] Ankle eversion taping was applied to the sprained left ankle using kinesiology tape for 4 weeks (average, 15 h/day). [Results] Ankle instability and pain were reduced, and functional dynamic balance was improved after ankle eversion taping for 4 weeks. The Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool score and reach distances in the Y-Balance and lunge tests were increased. [Conclusion] Repeated ankle eversion taping may be an effective treatment intervention for ankle inversion sprain. PMID:27064668
Lee, Sun-Min; Lee, Jung-Hoon
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to report the effects of ankle eversion taping using kinesiology tape on ankle inversion sprain. [Subject] The subject was a 21-year-old woman with Grade 2 ankle inversion sprain. [Methods] Ankle eversion taping was applied to the sprained left ankle using kinesiology tape for 4 weeks (average, 15 h/day). [Results] Ankle instability and pain were reduced, and functional dynamic balance was improved after ankle eversion taping for 4 weeks. The Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool score and reach distances in the Y-Balance and lunge tests were increased. [Conclusion] Repeated ankle eversion taping may be an effective treatment intervention for ankle inversion sprain.
Guillén-Rogel, Paloma; San Emeterio, Cristina; Marín, Pedro J
[Purpose] This study assessed the relationships between the ankle dorsiflexion range of motion and foot and ankle strength. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine healthy (young adults) volunteers participated in this study. Each participant completed tests for ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, hallux flexor strength, and ankle plantar and dorsiflexor strength. [Results] The results showed (1) a moderate correlation between ankle dorsiflexor strength and dorsiflexion range of motion and (2) a moderate correlation between ankle dorsiflexor strength and first toe flexor muscle strength. Ankle dorsiflexor strength is the main contributor ankle dorsiflexion range of motion to and first toe flexor muscle strength. [Conclusion] Ankle dorsiflexion range of motion can play an important role in determining ankle dorsiflexor strength in young adults.
Brand, Jefferson C
Humans are notably poor at predicting event outcomes. In "Correlation of Synovial Fluid Biomarkers With Cartilage Pathology and Associated Outcomes in Knee Arthroscopy," Cuellar, Cuellar, Kirsch, and Strauss show that some synovial fluid biomarkers (20 were sampled for the investigation) may predict operative findings at the time of arthroscopy and patient-reported outcome measures at follow-up. Further research will clarify the role of synovial biomarkers in knee pathology and, hopefully, narrow the choices to one or two pertinent markers that can be used to improve our ability to predict outcomes from arthroscopic knee surgery. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Roy, Dennis R.
Arthroscopy of the pediatric hip began in 1977 with a publication by Gross. Interest was relatively slow to develop in the 1980s and 1990s. Coupled with the success of hip arthroscopy in the adult, interest heightened in applying the procedure to a variety of pediatric hip disorders, given that the alternative was an open surgical hip dislocation. The success of this initial group of pediatric hip arthroscopist’s has further expanded the application of hip arthroscopy as the primary or adjunct procedure for the management of intra-articular problems of the pediatric hip. PMID:27583144
Shirley, Denise S L; Mullet, Hannan; Stanley, John K
The indications and applications for wrist arthroscopy continue to expand as new techniques and instrumentation evolve. Wrist arthroscopy is now the gold standard investigation for chronic wrist pain before definitive surgery. Although complications are uncommon, they may include infection, neuroma formation, tendon injury, dorsal skin slough, tourniquet neurapraxia, and reflex sympathetic dystrophy. We describe extensor tendon sheath fistula formation arising from the 3/4 portal after diagnostic wrist arthroscopy and our management in this novel case. The formation of a patent communication between the radiocarpal joint and the tendon sheath permitting the collection of synovial fluid has not previously been described.
Hunt, Timothy J; Brand, Jefferson C; Provencher, Matthew T; Rossi, Michael J; Lubowitz, James H
The 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America Annual Meeting Program inspires a Content Collection of Arthroscopy journal articles worthy of review. A foundation of a credible podium presentation is the published medical literature. Your Editors thus suggest recent publications that seem particularly relevant in the context of the 2017 annual meeting. Consider these articles as one would a suggestion for a good glass of wine to complement a delicious meal. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Voigt, Jeffrey D; Mosier, Michael; Huber, Bryan
Hundreds of thousands of surgical arthroscopy procedures are performed annually in the United States (US) based on MRI findings. There are situations where these MRI findings are equivocal or indeterminate and because of this clinicians commonly perform the arthroscopy in order not to miss pathology. Recently, a less invasive needle arthroscopy system has been introduced that is commonly performed in the physician office setting and that may help improve the accuracy of diagnostic findings. This in turn may prevent unnecessary follow-on arthroscopy procedures from being performed. The purpose of this analysis is to determine whether the in-office diagnostic needle arthroscopy system can provide cost savings by reducing unnecessary follow on arthroscopy procedures. Data obtained from a recent trial and from a systematic review were used in comparing the accuracy of MRI and VisionScope needle arthroscopy (VSI) with standard arthroscopy (gold standard). The resultant false positive and false negative findings were then used to evaluate the costs of follow-on procedures. These differences were then modeled for the US patient population diagnosed and treated for meniscal knee pathology (most common disorder) to determine if a technology such as VSI could save the US healthcare system money. Data on surgical arthroscopy procedures in the US for meniscal knee pathology were used (calendar year [CY] 2010). The costs of performing diagnostic and surgical arthroscopy procedures (using CY 2013 Medicare reimbursement amounts), costs associated with false negative findings, and the costs for treating associated complications arising from diagnostic and therapeutic arthroscopy procedures were assessed. In patients presenting with medial meniscal pathology (International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition, Clinical Modification [ICD9CM] diagnosis 836.0), VSI in place of MRI (standard of care) resulted in a net cost savings to the US system of US$115-US$177 million (CY 2013
Weber, Jason M; Maleski, Richard M
Lateral ankle sprains are among the most common sports injuries. Although ankle sprains are treated conservatively at the present time, for years the treatment was based on acute repair of the ruptured ligaments. Several differing opinions currently exist as to the treatment of lateral ankle sprains. A review of the literature and explanation of the benefits and risks of each treatment protocol is undertaken.
Ekstrand, Jan; And Others
Investigates relationship between ankle sprains and participation time in competitive orienteering. Examined 15,474 competitors in races in the Swedish O-ringen 5-day event in 1987. Injuries requiring medical attention were analyzed, showing 137 (23.9 percent) ankle sprains. Injury incidence was 8.4/10,000 hours. Incidence of ankle sprains was…
MacLaren, Jill E; Cohen, Lindsey L
To compare the effects of two pediatric venipuncture distress-management distraction strategies that differed in the degree to which they required children's interaction. Eighty-eight 1- to 7-year-old children receiving venipuncture were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions: interactive toy distraction, passive movie distraction, or standard care. Distress was examined via parent, nurse, self-report (children over 4 years), and observational coding. Engagement in distraction was assessed via observational coding. Children in the passive condition were more distracted and less distressed than children in the interactive condition. Although children in the interactive condition were more distracted than standard care children, there were no differences in distress between these groups. Despite literature that suggests that interactive distraction should lower distress more than passive distraction, results indicate that a passive strategy might be most effective for children's venipuncture. It is possible that children's distress interfered with their ability to interact with the distractor.
Stutts, Jane; Feaganes, John; Reinfurt, Donald; Rodgman, Eric; Hamlett, Charles; Gish, Kenneth; Staplin, Loren
Unobtrusive video camera units were installed in the vehicles of 70 volunteer drivers over 1-week time periods to study drivers' exposure to distractions. The video data were coded based on a detailed taxonomy of driver distractions along with important contextual variables and driving performance measures. Results show distractions to be a common component of everyday driving. In terms of overall event durations, the most common distractions were eating and drinking (including preparations to eat or drink), distractions inside the vehicle (reaching or looking for an object, manipulating vehicle controls, etc.), and distractions outside the vehicle (often unidentified). Distractions were frequently associated with decreased driving performance, as measured by higher levels of no hands on the steering wheel, eyes directed inside rather than outside the vehicle, and lane wanderings or encroachments. Naturalistic driving studies can provide a useful supplement to more controlled laboratory and field studies to further our understanding of the effects of all types of distractions on driving safety.
Overton, Tiffany L; Rives, Terry E; Hecht, Carrie; Shafi, Shahid; Gandhi, Rajesh R
While the number of motor vehicle crashes has declined over the years, crashes resulting from distracted driving are increasing in the United States resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. The national public seems to be aware of the dangers associated with using technology while driving, but continues to engage in this dangerous behaviour, and may be unaware of or underestimate the impact of cell phone use on their own driving performance. Problems associated with distracted driving are not limited to novice or teenage drivers; multifaceted universal prevention efforts aimed at impacting large segments of the population may have the greatest impact. Legislation limiting drivers' cell phone use has had little impact, possibly due to low regulation and enforcement. Behaviour change programmes, improved vehicle safety, and public awareness campaigns have been developed as potential preventive efforts to reduce accidents caused by distracted drivers.
Oh, Chang-Wug; Shetty, Gautam M; Song, Hae-Ryong; Kyung, Hee-Soo; Oh, Jong-Keon; Min, Woo-Kie; Lee, Byung-Woo; Park, Byung-Chul
Although distraction osteogenesis has solved limb length discrepancies, many complications are inevitable from long duration of external fixation. Use of intramedullary nails for early removal of fixators has its own challenges especially in pediatric age group. To facilitate early removal of external fixators in children, we tried a novel method of submuscular plating over the distraction callus, which is described, and the results and complications of this technique are presented. In eight children (four girls and four boys), of limb lengthening (four cases) and bone transport (four cases) done in three femurs and five tibiae with external fixators (five Ilizarov ring fixators and three monofixators), submuscular plating was done over the distraction callus. The causes of limb length discrepancy included traumatic and septic growth arrest, congenital pseudoarthrosis of tibia, fibular hemimelia, tumor salvage, and Perthes' disease. The purpose of plating was to remove the external fixator earlier after achieving the target length. Mean age of plating procedure was 11.62 years, and mean amount of distraction was 5.47 cm. In all patients, the distraction callus healed on maintaining its length or correcting into the original alignment. The mean external fixation index was 26.93 days/cm and healing index was 52.01 days/cm. One complication of superficial pin-track infection occurred, which resolved completely with conservative treatment. None of the patients developed deep infection or implant failures. The mean follow-up after plating was 28 months (range, 18-62 months). Submuscular plating over the distraction callus may be a successful method that permits early removal of fixator with fewer complications. This method can be a useful alternative in children or when nailing is difficult.
Bonnin, Michel P; Laurent, Jean-Raphael; Casillas, Mark
The return to sporting activities after ankle arthroplasty has rarely been evaluated. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate function and return to sports after total ankle arthroplasty. One hundred seventy-nine Salto Total Ankle Arthroplasties (TAA) were implanted between 1997 and 2005. A self-administered questionnaire including the Foot Function Index (FFI) and Foot and Ankle Ability Measurement (FAAM) was sent to all patients. At last followup, six were deceased, 22 were not available for evaluation, and six questionnaires were incomplete. One hundred forty-five questionnaires were available. The mean age was 60.9 years and the mean followup was 53.8 months. The main indications for TAA were osteoarthritis (OA) in 100 cases and Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in 40 cases. 15.2% of the patients said that their operated ankle was "normal'' 60.7%" nearly normal''; 20% "abnormal'' and 4.1% "highly abnormal.'' The FFI scores were 13.7 +/- 17 for "activity limitations'', 31.7 +/- 23 for "disability'' and 16.9 +/- 19 for "pain''. The FAAM scores were 74.9 +/- 18 for activities of daily living and 48.9 +/- 28 for sports activities. On a Visual Analog Scales (0 to 100 were 100 is the "pre-pathology level'') the mean rating was 70.2 +/- 19.6 for Activities of Daily Living and 53.7 +/- 28 for sport activities. In the OA patients, 38 regularly road bicycle, 21 perform recreational gymnastics, 58 swimming, 50 home gardening, 27 dancing, and 43 hiking. Seven patients regularly practice tennis, nine cross-country skiing, 17 downhill skiing, and six regularly run more than 500 m. This study showed that TAA improved the quality of life and that return to recreational activities was generally possible but the return to impact sport was rarely possible.
Fearon, J A
Treatment of the craniofacial dysostoses (e.g., Crouzon, Apert, Pfeiffer, Saethre-Chotzen syndromes) is critically dependent on the successful advancement of the midface with a Le Fort III procedure. The purpose of this retrospective clinical outcome study was to evaluate a new technique for distracting the Le Fort III procedure and to compare its results in growing children with those of the standard Le Fort III osteotomy. The records of 22 children were reviewed; 10 patients (mean age, 6.5 years) underwent a standard Le Fort III procedure, and 12 patients (mean age, 7.5 years) underwent a Le Fort III distraction procedure. The distraction group included two separate techniques, bilateral buried distraction (n = 2) and halo distraction (n = 10). Preoperative and 2- to 3-month postoperative cephalograms were analyzed. The average horizontal advancement achieved in the standard Le Fort III group was 6 mm, compared with 19 mm of advancement in the distraction group (p = 0.005). Complications were evenly distributed between the two groups (one infection and one tracheostomy in each group), and the lengths of hospitalization were similar. No documented improvement in sleep apnea was identified in the standard Le Fort III group. However, in the distraction group two patients experienced normalization of sleep studies postoperatively as measured by respiratory disturbance index, and two patients underwent successful decannulation of tracheotomies. For aesthetic reasons, halo distraction was preferred over bilateral buried distraction. With halo distraction the vector of traction is focused in the facial midline, which helps to reposition the concave midface and to provide a more convex facial profile. In growing children, the ideal vector for distraction is determined by the malar position and not by dental occlusion. The amount of overcorrection can be calculated from tables of normal anthropologic data. On this preliminary review, it was concluded that the use of
Karun, Vinayak; Agarwal, Navneet; Singh, Virendra
Introduction: Management of mandibular deformities is challenging. Distraction osteogenesis is a relatively new technique with promising results. Materials and Methods: We selected 12 patients. The osteotomy site decided was proximal to the antegonial notch. Latency time was five to seven days. Consolidation period was eight weeks in eleven cases and six weeks in one case. Results: In all the patients, appreciable lengthening of mandible was achieved. Discussion: The greatest advantage of distraction osteogenesis is growth of soft tissue along with the growth of hard tissue. This increases post operative stability PMID:24665178
Mabrey, Jay D; Gillogly, Scott D; Kasser, James R; Sweeney, Howard J; Zarins, Bertram; Mevis, Howard; Garrett, William E; Poss, Robert; Cannon, W Dilworth
The virtual reality arthroscopic knee simulator (VR-AKS) consists of a computer platform, a video display, and two force-feedback (haptic) interfaces known as "PHANToMs" that also monitor the position of the instruments in the user's hands. The forces that the user would normally apply to the lower limb during arthroscopy are directed through an instrumented surrogate leg. Proprietary software provides the mathematical representation of the physical world and replicates the visual, mechanical, and behavioral aspects of the knee. This includes moderating the haptic interface and simultaneously executing a collision-detection algorithm that prevents the instruments from moving through "solid" surfaces. Modeling software interacts with this algorithm to send the appropriate images to the video display, including knee pathology such as meniscal tears and chondral defects as well as normal anatomy. Task-oriented programs monitor specific performance such as executing a proper examination of the knee or shaving a torn meniscus.
Sauber, Ryan; Saborio, George; Nickel, Beth M; Kivlan, Benjamin R; Christoforetti, John J
Advanced hip joint-preserving arthroscopic techniques have been shown to improve patient-reported functional outcomes with low rates of postoperative complications. Prior work has shown that formation of adhesive scar is a potential source of persistent pain and cause for revision surgery. As resources for postoperative in-studio physical therapy become scarce, a home-based strategy to avoid scar formation without adding formal therapy cost may be beneficial. The purpose of this technical note is to introduce a patient-centered educational video technique for home-caregiver delivery of manual hip pendulum exercises in the postoperative setting. This video technique offers access to our method for pendulum exercise as part of early recovery after advanced hip arthroscopy.
Chen, Lixin; Ma, Shaoyun; Li, Xianpeng
Twenty six patients with fracture of tibial plateau was under arthroscopy assisted reduction, the joint surface of bone graft, and USES the steel plate fixation treatment. Average surgery time was 65 min (70-120 min), average fracture healing time was 15 weeks (12-17 weeks), joint surface anatomical reattachment rate was 92.9%. Using break knee function criteria evaluation of curative effect: 18 cases great 6 cases wed, 2 cases ok, fine rate was 92.3%. No infection, deep venous thrombosis and small leg fascia chamber syndrome and other complications. Conclusion is that treatment of tibial plateau fractures under arthroscope has advantages of small trauma, check intuitively and reset accurately, functional recovery of patients are satisfied, the treatment has certain clinical application value.
Wyss, Nancy M.; Kannass, Kathleen N.; Haden, Catherine A.
We investigated the effects of distraction on attention and task performance during toddlerhood. Thirty toddlers (24- to 26-month-olds) completed different tasks (2 of each: categorization, problem solving, memory, free play) in one of two conditions: No Distraction or Distraction. The results revealed that the distractor had varying effects on…
Yen, S L; Shang, W; Shuler, C; Yamashita, D D
Although distraction osteogenesis can lengthen congenitally small mandibles, the distraction procedure can be difficult to control. To study the efficacy and safety of orthodontic spring guidance on bilateral mandibular distraction, an 8-mm anterior open bite was experimentally produced and corrected during bilateral mandibular distraction in rabbits. Orthodontic springs were attached to the anterior maxilla and mandible to redirect an ongoing distraction procedure. Sixteen rabbits underwent mandibular distraction: 6 rabbits received heavy springs (8 oz), 6 rabbits received light force springs (2 oz), and 4 rabbits served as control animals with anterior open bites without spring guidance. Nickel-titanium springs were applied during the last week of osseous distraction and the first week of consolidation. Distractors were left in place throughout a 2-month consolidation period. None of the animals developed fibrous union as a result of spring guidance. The 8-mm open bite did not close in the control group or in the light spring group after 2 weeks of spring wear or during the consolidation period. Heavy springs completely closed the experimental open bites within 2 weeks (P <.01, analysis of variance). Bite corrections did not change during the consolidation period. This study indicated that the addition of an orthodontic spring to a mandibular distraction procedure did not impair bone healing. With the distraction device in place, heavy spring forces redirected an ongoing mandibular distraction procedure and corrected an open bite, distraction side effect. Direct measurements, radiographic measurements, and tissue histologic factors described changes in segment position and shape of the distraction site.
Wong, Lily Y. S.
This paper identifies distracting factors which take away pupils' attention from the lesson and focus it on the teacher. Distracting factors include teachers' irritating habits, improper attire, and mannerisms. Examples of distracting features of both males and females are listed in eight categories: (1) attire; (2) hair; (3) make-up; (4) personal…
Shao, Bo; Sun, Yingying; Gao, Yuan; Li, Tao; Li, Yongfeng; Zhang, Yongqiang; Ge, Xu; Liu, Baolin; Kong, Liang
Our aim was to evaluate the function of a new optimised distraction implant. Six dogs with alveolar bone defects had a total of 18 distraction, and 6 normal, implants inserted into edentulous mandibular ridges after osteotomy. Five days after insertion the distraction implants were activated at a rate of 1 mm/2 days to achieve a distraction height of 6mm. Radiographs were taken at 0, 1, 2, and 3 months after distraction. Two dogs were killed after 1, 2, and 3 months, respectively, and 12 distraction implants taken from the different time points were evaluated by microcomputed tomographic (MicroCT) scanning and histological examination. The other 6 distraction, and the 6 normal, implants were compared after osseointegration with a fatigue test. The results showed that all the distraction implants had successfully distracted the bone to the anticipated height. Radiographs showed that the density of the regenerated bone increased steadily during the consolidation period. MicroCT showed that the regenerated bone was comparable with the native bone 3 months after distraction. Both native and regenerated bone had osseointegrated histologically by 1 month and 3 months after distraction. The experiment successfully confirmed the usefulness and feasibility of this new distraction implant, and suggests interesting clinical uses. Copyright © 2013 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stiglitz, Y; Gosselin, O; Sedaghatian, J; Sirveaux, F; Molé, D
Shoulder arthroscopy is reputed to be painful, but progression of postoperative pain after this type of surgery has never been described and analyzed. This study had a triple objective: the description, search for risk factors, and analysis of the long-term impact of postoperative pain. This continuous prospective series includes 231 patients who underwent arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Pain was evaluated from D-1 to D3, then at D7, D30, and 1 year. Three pain criteria were noted: visual analog scale (VAS), morphine intake, and satisfaction with pain management. Surgery was performed under general anesthesia and/or interscalene block. A local anesthetic complement was administered in one of four modes: single subacromial injection, subacromial catheter, intra-articular catheter, or no complement. The VAS values remained less than 4 out of 10 during the entire study. Immediate postoperative pain was less than preoperative pain. It was followed by a pain bounce on D1 and D2 and did not return to a level significantly lower than its preoperative value until D30. Rotator cuff repair is the most painful surgery in the first postoperative days. The main risk factor for pain is a work related accident or occupational disease, associated with higher VAS values from D1 to 1 year and greater morphine intake. There was no correlation between immediate postoperative and 1-year VAS values. Pain after shoulder arthroscopy is relatively low and the efficacy of the intervention is long-lasting in terms of pain symptom. A pain bounce appears on D1, which must be taken into account, notably in the context of outpatient surgery. The use of local anesthesia is therefore advantageous. Despite the efficacy of postoperative pain relief protocols, their effect on longer term perspective was not demonstrated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Williams, Glenn N; Jones, Morgan H; Amendola, Annunziato
Ankle sprains are among the most common athletic injuries and represent a significant source of persistent pain and disability. Despite the high incidence of ankle sprains in athletes, syndesmosis injuries have historically been underdiagnosed, and assessment in terms of severity and optimal treatment has not been determined. More recently, a heightened awareness in sports medicine has resulted in more frequent diagnoses of syndesmosis injuries. However, there is a low level of evidence and a paucity of literature on this topic compared with lateral ankle sprains. As a result, no clear guidelines are available to help the clinician assess the severity of injury, choose an imaging modality to visualize the injury, make a decision in terms of operative versus nonoperative treatment, or decide when the athlete may return to play. Increased knowledge and understanding of these injuries by clinicians and researchers are essential to improve the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of this significant condition. This review will discuss the anatomy, mechanism of injury, diagnosis, and treatment of syndesmosis sprains of the ankle while identifying controversies in management and topics for future research.
The dancer's foot and ankle are subjected to high forces and unusual stresses in training and performance. Injuries are common in dancers, and the foot and ankle are particularly vulnerable. Ankle sprains, ankle impingement syndromes, flexor hallucis longus tendonitis, cuboid subluxation, stress fractures, midfoot injuries, heel pain, and first metatarsophalangeal joint problems including hallux valgus, hallux rigidus, and sesamoid injuries will be reviewed. This article will discuss these common foot and ankle problems in dancers and give typical clinical presentation and diagnostic and treatment recommendations.
Lee, M S; Hofbauer, M H
The diagnosis and management of lateral ankle injuries require the physician to obtain an accurate history, complete a thorough physical examination, and institute appropriate treatment protocol. Labeling all acute lateral ankle injuries as ankle sprains can lead to long-term mechanical and functional instability and chronic pain around the ankle. Appropriate and aggressive functional rehabilitation of the acute ankle limits the postinjury convalescence and need for surgical reconstruction. If surgical repair of the chronic or acute ankle is warranted, the Brostrom-Gould procedure serves as a highly successful anatomic repair. Lateral ankle tenodesing procedures also are effective; however, in most cases, the loss of rearfoot motion limits this procedure to a secondary reconstructive procedure.
Al-Mohrej, Omar A.; Al-Kenani, Nader S.
Ankle sprains fall into two main categories: acute ankle sprains and chronic ankle instability, which are among the most common recurrent injuries during occupational activities, athletic events, training and army service. Acute ankle sprain is usually managed conservatively and functional rehabilitation failure by conservative treatment leads to development of chronic ankle instability, which most often requires surgical intervention. Enhancing the in-depth knowledge of the ankle anatomy, biomechanics and pathology helps greatly in deciding the management options. Cite this article: Al-Mohrej OA, Al-Kenani NS. Acute ankle sprain: conservative or surgical approach? EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:34-44. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000010. PMID:28461926
Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff
To examine parental anxiety in the context of successful and unsuccessful distraction treatment of preschool aged children undergoing chemotherapy procedures. Twenty-nine children (M age = 42 months) experiencing intramuscular or portacatheter injections participated in the study. Parents and children were shown how to use a portable electronic toy as a distractor during chemotherapy injections. Parental anxiety was assessed at baseline and child distress was coded during each procedure. Parents' baseline state anxiety accounted for 17% of the variance in changes in children's distress following distraction intervention. Parents of children who did not benefit from distraction reported significantly higher state anxiety at baseline than parents of the other participants. Results highlight the importance of examining individual outcomes in intervention studies and suggest that parents' emotional states may moderate distraction treatment outcome in young children. Future research formally testing parent anxiety as a moderator is recommended.
Lee, Sun-Min; Lee, Jung-Hoon
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to report the effects of ankle inversion taping using kinesiology tape in a patient with a medial ankle sprain. [Subject] A 28-year-old amateur soccer player suffered a Grade 2 medial ankle sprain during a match. [Methods] Ankle inversion taping was applied to the sprained ankle every day for 2 months. [Results] His symptoms were reduced after ankle inversion taping application for 2 months. The self-reported function score, the reach distances in the Star Excursion Balance Test, and the weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion were increased. [Conclusion] This study showed that ankle inversion taping using kinesiology tape may be an effective therapy for a patient with a medial ankle sprain. PMID:26311991
Lee, Sun-Min; Lee, Jung-Hoon
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to report the effects of ankle inversion taping using kinesiology tape in a patient with a medial ankle sprain. [Subject] A 28-year-old amateur soccer player suffered a Grade 2 medial ankle sprain during a match. [Methods] Ankle inversion taping was applied to the sprained ankle every day for 2 months. [Results] His symptoms were reduced after ankle inversion taping application for 2 months. The self-reported function score, the reach distances in the Star Excursion Balance Test, and the weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion were increased. [Conclusion] This study showed that ankle inversion taping using kinesiology tape may be an effective therapy for a patient with a medial ankle sprain.
Sinha, Apurv; Pydah, Satya Kanth V; Webb, Mark
Elbow arthroscopy is a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool for various conditions. Conventional arthroscopy with the patient in the prone or lateral position where the screen is placed on the opposite side makes it difficult to interpret the image, results in visual paradox, and is associated with difficult triangulation. We present a modified setup for the operating room to help eliminate these problems and improve triangulation.
Sharpe, S R; Knapik, J; Jones, B
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of ankle bracing and taping in preventing recurrencess of ankle sprains, specifically in female athletes. Varsity soccer players' medical records over a five-year period were retrospectively reviewed at a Division III women's college. Data were extracted regarding any history of ankle sprain(s), type of intervention used as prophylaxis after the ankle sprain, number of exposures, and any incidence of recurrence. All collegiate varsity soccer players who had suffered a previous sprain to either one or both ankles (38 players) were identified as subjects. Each previously injured ankle (n = 56) was considered as a case for the analysis. Ankles that had a previous sprain received one of four interventions: 1) a canvas, laced ankle brace (n = 19), 2) taping (n = 12), 3) a combination of taping and ankle bracing (n = 8), or 4) no treatment (n = 17). The four intervention groups had a total of 1717 practice exposures and 650 competitive game exposures; exposures did not differ among the 4 groups. Ankle sprain recurrence frequency was 0%, 25%, 25%, and 35% for the braced, taped, combination, and untreated groups, respectively. The recurrence incidence for the braced group was significantly lower than that of the other three groups. The ankle sprain recurrence frequency did not differ among the taped, combination, and no treatment groups. We suggest that prophylactic ankle bracing is effective in reducing the incidence of ankle sprains in female soccer players with a previous history of ankle sprains.
Vincent, J.R.; Panayotou, T.
This editorial about sustainable development views it as a distraction to the main issues, pointing out that consumption patterns, not consumption levels is the critical problem. Topics include private consumption and environmental quality, private consumption and resource depletion, patterns versus levels. 21 refs.
McRae, Kateri; Hughes, Brent; Chopra, Sita; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Gross, James J.; Ochsner, Kevin N.
Distraction and reappraisal are two commonly used forms of cognitive emotion regulation. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown that each one depends upon interactions between pFC, interpreted as implementing cognitive control, and limbic regions, interpreted as mediating emotional responses. However, no study has directly compared distraction…
Choi, In Ho; Chung, Chin Youb; Cho, Tae-Joon; Yoo, Won Joon
Distraction osteogenesis is currently a standard method of bone lengthening. It is a viable method for the treatment of short extremities as well as extensive bone defects, because large amounts of bone can be regenerated in the distraction gap. Mechanical stimulation by distraction induces biological responses of skeletal regeneration that is accomplished by a cascade of biologic processes that may include differentiation of pluripotential tissue, angiogenesis, mineralization, and remodeling. There are complex interactions between bone-forming osteoblasts and other cells present within the bone microenvironment, particularly vascular endothelial cells that may be pivotal members of a complex interactive communication network in bone. Regenerate bone forms by three modes of ossification, which include intramembranous, enchondral, and transchondroid ossifications, although intramembraneous bone formation is the predominant mechanism of ossification. In this review we discussed the coupling between angiogenesis and mineralization, the biological and mechanical factors affecting them, the cellular and molecular events occurring during distraction osteogenesis, and the emerging modalities to accelerate regenerate bone healing and remodeling. PMID:12172035
Ozawa, Sachiyo; Hiraki, Kazuo
When near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is used to measure emotion-related cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the prefrontal cortex regions, the functional distinction of CBF changes is often difficult because NIRS is unable to measure neural activity in deeper brain regions that play major roles in emotional processing. The CBF changes could represent cognitive control of emotion and emotional responses to emotional materials. Supposing that emotion-related CBF changes in the prefrontal cortex regions during distraction are emotional responses, we examined whether oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) decreases. Attention-demanding tasks cause blood flow decreases, and we thus compared the effects of visually paced tapping with different tempos, on distraction. The results showed that the oxyHb level induced by emotional stimulation decreased with fast-tempo tapping significantly more than slow-tempo tapping in ventral medial prefrontal cortex regions. Moreover, a Global-Local task following tapping showed significantly greater local-minus-global response time (RT) difference scores in the fast- and mid-tempo condition compared with those in the slow-tempo, suggesting an increased attentional focus, and decreased negative emotion. The overall findings indicate that oxyHb changes in a relatively long distraction task, as measured by NIRS, are associated with emotional responses, and oxyHb can be decreased by successfully performing attention-demanding distraction tasks.
McRae, Kateri; Hughes, Brent; Chopra, Sita; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Gross, James J.; Ochsner, Kevin N.
Distraction and reappraisal are two commonly used forms of cognitive emotion regulation. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown that each one depends upon interactions between pFC, interpreted as implementing cognitive control, and limbic regions, interpreted as mediating emotional responses. However, no study has directly compared distraction…
Suarez-Ahedo, Carlos; Pavan Vemula, S.; Stake, Christine E.; Finley, Zachary A.; Martin, Timothy J.; Gui, Chengcheng; Domb, Benjamin G.
The role of radiofrequency energy (RFE) devices has been minimally studied in hip arthroscopy. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of RFE devices in hip arthroscopy through a systematic review of the literature. We searched the PubMed database using the following Medical Subject Heading terms: hip arthroscopy, hip radiofrequency, thermal capsulorrhaphy, thermal chondroplasty and radiofrequency debridement. Two authors independently reviewed the literature and included articles based on predetermined inclusion criteria. We excluded review, technique and experimental articles. After title and abstract review, we selected 293 articles for full-text review. Ten articles met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. For the included articles, a total of 305 hips underwent arthroscopy with concomitant RFE treatment at a mean age of 25.7 years. Eight articles presented patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments, one study did not report an outcome instrument but utilized an evaluation of postoperative range of motion (ROM) and 1 year magnetic resonance image (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) imaging. The remaining article measured only the ROM pre- and postoperatively. Only one of the articles reviewed reported complications. Current evidence on the safety and indications for use of RFE devices in hip arthroscopy is insufficient. The literature shows mixed results regarding its use in hip arthroscopy. Although the use of thermal energy is not without risk, if used judiciously and appropriate precautions are taken to avoid damage to adjacent tissues, those devices can be useful for the treatment of certain intra-articular hip pathologies arthroscopically. PMID:27011856
Background Hip arthroscopies are often used in the treatment of intra-articular hip injuries. Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) are an important parameter in evaluating treatment. It is unclear which PRO questionnaires are specifically available for hip arthroscopy patients. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate which PRO questionnaires are valid and reliable in the evaluation of patients undergoing hip arthroscopy. Methods A search was conducted in Pubmed, Medline, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Pedro, EMBASE and Web of Science from 1931 to October 2010. Studies assessing the quality of PRO questionnaires in the evaluation of patients undergoing hip arthroscopy were included. The quality of the questionnaires was evaluated by the psychometric properties of the outcome measures. The quality of the articles investigating the questionnaires was assessed by the COSMIN list. Results Five articles identified three questionnaires; the Modified Harris Hip Score (MHHS), the Nonarthritic Hip Score (NAHS) and the Hip Outcome Score (HOS). The NAHS scored best on the content validity, whereas the HOS scored best on agreement, internal consistency, reliability and responsiveness. The quality of the articles describing the HOS scored highest. The NAHS is the best quality questionnaire. The articles describing the HOS are the best quality articles. Conclusions This systematic review shows that there is no conclusive evidence for the use of a single patient-reported outcome questionnaire in the evaluation of patients undergoing hip arthroscopy. Based on available psychometric evidence we recommend using a combination of the NAHS and the HOS for patients undergoing hip arthroscopy. PMID:21619610
Andrade, Neelam; Gandhewar, Trupti; Kalra, Rinku
An attempt has been made to review various devices as well as the outstanding studies done in the past for understanding the methodology of distraction for regeneration of bone. Lengthening of underdeveloped bones inclusive of the maxillofacial complex has been obtained by distraction osteogenesis by many authors. This could be achieved by the use of various extraoral or intraoral devices. Devices used for distraction osteogenesis must have a minimum of 2 important characteristics – they should be able to transfer distraction forces directly to the bone and secondly, should offer adequate rigidity for osseous consolidation to occur. With advanced technology and biomechanical engineering, preformed intraoral distraction devices are now available worldwide. The introduction of these intraoral bone-bourne devices have eliminated the need for bulky, cumbersome extraoral distraction devices which had problems such as external scars, pin tract infections, nerve or tooth bud injuries and poor patient compliance. The design of completely internalized custom made appliance has opened new vistas in the field of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Indigenous internal devices are also economical and locally available. PMID:23482829
Tong, Haizhou; Liu, Lei; Tang, Xiaojun; Song, Tao; Yin, Ningbei; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Zhenmin
Midface distraction osteogenesis has been popularized for the correction of midface hypoplasia associated with exophthalmos and obstructive sleep apnea in patients with Crouzon syndrome. The purpose of this study was to present the method of utilizing the modified external device with elastic distraction for the midface advancement in Crouzon syndrome, and the clinical outcomes and skeletal changes were analyzed. Five consecutive patients with Crouzon syndrome underwent Le Fort III osteotomy with midface advancement using a modified external device with elastic distraction. The distraction system consists of a rigid external distractor, nickel-titanium shape memory alloy spring, and bone-borne traction hooks. The midface advancement was initiated with the bony anchorage around the nasomaxillary buttress at the level between occlusal plane and infraorbital margin. The device was activated at a rate of 1 to 1.5 mm per day by the length of spring. The skeletal changes were analyzed by cephalometric and computed tomographic measurement. All the patients achieved improvements in midface appearance, obstructive sleep apnea, exophthalmos, and occlusion. No complications occurred during this procedure. After the distraction, 1 patient developed an open bite that was corrected by a definitive orthognathic surgery. Cephalometric and computed tomographic measurement analysis showed a differential advancement of midface with more at the occlusal level than the orbital level. In addition, midface suture and bone remodeling was also observed in growing patient. Our modified external device with elastic distraction offers an alternative method to achieve midface advancement in patients with Crouzon syndrome.
Robati, Shibby; Salih, Alan; Ghosh, Koushik; Vinayakam, Parthiban
The complex anatomy of the articular bone surfaces, ligaments, tendon attachments and muscles makes the ankle joint difficult to replicate in prosthetic replacements. Ever since the early 1970s, which saw the dawn of the first total ankle replacements, there have been numerous other attempts at replicating the joint, often with poor clinical outcomes. The anatomy of the ankle is discussed, followed by evidence of the normal ankle biomechanics and the ideal requirements of an ankle replacement. We focus on the Scandinavian Total Ankle Replacement and evaluate whether these requirements have been met.
Robati, Shibby; Salih, Alan; Ghosh, Koushik; Vinayakam, Parthiban
The complex anatomy of the articular bone surfaces, ligaments, tendon attachments and muscles makes the ankle joint difficult to replicate in prosthetic replacements. Ever since the early 1970s, which saw the dawn of the first total ankle replacements, there have been numerous other attempts at replicating the joint, often with poor clinical outcomes. The anatomy of the ankle is discussed, followed by evidence of the normal ankle biomechanics and the ideal requirements of an ankle replacement. We focus on the Scandinavian Total Ankle Replacement and evaluate whether these requirements have been met. PMID:26955224
Lee, John D.
Driver distraction research has a long history, spanning nearly 50 years, but intensifying over the last decade. The dominant paradigm guiding this research defines distraction in terms of excessive workload and limited attentional resources. This approach largely ignores how drivers come to engage in these tasks and under what conditions they engage and disengage from driving—the dynamics of distraction. The dynamics of distraction identifies breakdowns of interruption management as an important contributor to distraction, leading to describe distraction in terms of failures of task timing, switching, and prioritization. The dynamics of distraction also identifies disengagement in driving (e.g., mind wandering) as a substantial challenge that secondary tasks might exacerbate or mitigate. Increasing vehicle automation accentuates the need to consider these dynamics of distraction. Automation offers drivers more opportunity to engage in distractions and disengage from driving, and can surprise drivers by unexpectedly requiring drivers to quickly re-engage in driving—placing greater importance of interruption management expertise. This review describes distraction in terms of breakdowns in interruption management and problems of engagement, and summarizes how contingency, conditioning, and consequence traps lead to problems of engaging and disengaging in driving and distractions. PMID:24776224
Wong, Granger B; Nargozian, Charles; Padwa, Bonnie L
External maxillary distractions present additional anesthetic concerns to the existing complexity of the patient with craniofacial disorder. The distraction hardware is rigidly fixed to the cranium and projects in the frontofacial midline, thus limiting oronasal airway access. A review of 16 patients (10 male, 6 female) having external maxillary distraction was done. Patients with patent tracheostomies were excluded. In all cases, the same type of external distraction device was used (R.E.D., K.L.S. Martin, Jacksonville, FL, USA). Perioperative records were reviewed for medical history; operative diagnosis, presence of airway disease, tracheostomy, laryngoscopy grade, use of fiberoptic bronchoscope, procedure, operative time, use of intraoperative steroid, day of postoperative extubation, and need for reintubation were documented. The study group was subdivided into two diagnostic categories: those with syndromic craniosynostosis (n = 9) and those with cleft lip/palate (CLP) (n = 7). Patients in the craniosynostotic group had grade 1 laryngoscopy views, with the exception of a single patient with Crouzon syndrome who had a grade 3 view. This was the only patient who required fiberoptic intubation. One patient with Apert syndrome required reintubation (48 hours after surgery); successful extubation was done 96 hours later. In the cleft lip/palate group, all patients had grade 1 laryngoscopic views, except one with a grade 3 view; no patient required fiberoptic intubation. Six of the seven patients were extubated immediately after surgery, with one patient extubated the next day. No patient experienced failure of extubation. External maxillary distraction minimally affects anesthetic management provided certain safeguards are observed. The vertical bar can be left attached to the cranial portion of the distractor, or it can be removed for extubation or reintubation. Removal of the vertical bar allows unobstructed direct laryngoscopy. This emphasizes the importance
Schneider, Susan M.; Hood, Linda E.
Purpose/Objectives To explore virtual reality (VR) as a distraction intervention to relieve symptom distress in adults receiving chemotherapy treatments for breast, colon, and lung cancer. Design Crossover design in which participants served as their own control. Setting Outpatient clinic at a comprehensive cancer center in the southeastern United States. Sample 123 adults receiving initial chemotherapy treatments. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to receive the VR distraction intervention during one chemotherapy treatment and then received no intervention (control) during an alternate matched chemotherapy treatment. The Adapted Symptom Distress Scale–2, Revised Piper Fatigue Scale, and State Anxiety Inventory were used to measure symptom distress. The Presence Questionnaire and an open-ended questionnaire were used to evaluate the subjects’ VR experience. The influence of type of cancer, age, and gender on symptom outcomes was explored. Mixed models were used to test for differences in levels of symptom distress. Main Research Variables Virtual reality and symptom distress. Findings Patients had an altered perception of time (p < 0.001) when using VR, which validates the distracting capacity of the intervention. Evaluation of the intervention indicated that patients believed the head-mounted device was easy to use, they experienced no cybersickness, and 82% would use VR again. However, analysis demonstrated no significant differences in symptom distress immediately or two days following chemotherapy treatments. Conclusions Patients stated that using VR made the treatment seem shorter and that chemotherapy treatments with VR were better than treatments without the distraction intervention. However, positive experiences did not result in a decrease in symptom distress. The findings support the idea that using VR can help to make chemotherapy treatments more tolerable, but clinicians should not assume that use of VR will improve chemotherapy
Maheshwari, Sandhya; Verma, Sanjeev K; Tariq, Mohd; Prabhat, K C; Kumar, Shailendra
As in the traditional combined surgical and orthodontic procedures, an Orthodontist can plays vital role in treatment planning and the orthodontic treatment of patient undergoing distraction osteogenesis. This role includes predistraction assessment of the craniofacial skeleton and occlusal function, pre-distraction, and post-distraction orthodontic care. Based on clinical evaluation, dental study models, photographic analysis, cephalometric evaluation, and three-dimensional computed tomographic analysis, the Orthodontist, in collaboration with the Surgeon, plans distraction device placement and the predicted vectors of distraction. Finally, as in other forms of orthognathic surgery, the practice of distraction osteogenesis depends on the cooperation and planning between orthodontist and surgeon as a team. Purpose of this paper is to review biomechanics and orthodontic treatment protocol of distraction osteogenesis in the maxillofacial region.
Maheshwari, Sandhya; Verma, Sanjeev K.; Tariq, Mohd.; Prabhat, K. C.; Kumar, Shailendra
As in the traditional combined surgical and orthodontic procedures, an Orthodontist can plays vital role in treatment planning and the orthodontic treatment of patient undergoing distraction osteogenesis. This role includes predistraction assessment of the craniofacial skeleton and occlusal function, pre-distraction, and post-distraction orthodontic care. Based on clinical evaluation, dental study models, photographic analysis, cephalometric evaluation, and three-dimensional computed tomographic analysis, the Orthodontist, in collaboration with the Surgeon, plans distraction device placement and the predicted vectors of distraction. Finally, as in other forms of orthognathic surgery, the practice of distraction osteogenesis depends on the cooperation and planning between orthodontist and surgeon as a team. Purpose of this paper is to review biomechanics and orthodontic treatment protocol of distraction osteogenesis in the maxillofacial region. PMID:22639497
Lubowitz, James H; Brand, Jefferson C; Provencher, Matthew T; Rossi, Michael J
The Annual Meeting of the Arthroscopy Association of North America (AANA) is notable for timely presentation of innovative research and development. In addition, much of what is presented at the Annual Meeting is never published in Arthroscopy journal. Readers are encouraged to attend the AANA meeting to keep up with the discussion and debate. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hadadi, Mohammad; Ebrahimi, Ismaeil; Mousavi, Mohammad Ebrahim; Aminian, Gholamreza; Esteki, Ali; Rahgozar, Mehdi
Chronic ankle instability is associated with neuromechanical changes and poor postural stability. Despite variety of mechanisms of foot and ankle orthoses, almost none apply comprehensive mechanisms to improve postural control in all subgroups of chronic ankle instability patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an ankle support implementing combined mechanisms to improve postural control in chronic ankle instability patients. Cross-sectional study. An ankle support with combined mechanism was designed based on most effective action mechanisms of foot and ankle orthoses. The effect of this orthosis on postural control was evaluated in 20 participants with chronic ankle instability and 20 matched healthy participants. The single-limb stance balance test was measured in both groups with and without the new orthosis using a force platform. The results showed that application of combined mechanism ankle support significantly improved all postural sway parameters in chronic ankle instability patients. There were no differences in means of investigated parameters with and without the orthosis in the healthy group. No statistically significant differences were found in postural sway between chronic ankle instability patients and healthy participants after applying the combined mechanism ankle support. The combined mechanism ankle support is effective in improving static postural control of chronic ankle instability patients to close to the postural sway of healthy individual. the orthosis had no adverse effects on balance performance of healthy individuals. Clinical relevance Application of the combined mechanism ankle support for patients with chronic ankle instability is effective in improving static balance. This may be helpful in reduction of recurrence of ankle sprain although further research about dynamic conditions is needed.
Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Hong, Youlian; Chan, Lap-Ki; Yung, Patrick Shu-Hang; Chan, Kai-Ming
This article systematically reviews epidemiological studies on sports injury from 1977 to 2005 in which ankle injury was included. A total of 227 studies reporting injury pattern in 70 sports from 38 countries were included. A total of 201,600 patients were included, with 32,509 ankle injuries. Ankle injury information was available from 14,098 patients, with 11 847 ankle sprains. Results show that the ankle was the most common injured body site in 24 of 70 included sports, especially in aeroball, wall climbing, indoor volleyball, mountaineering, netball and field events in track and field. Ankle sprain was the major ankle injury in 33 of 43 sports, especially in Australian football, field hockey, handball, orienteering, scooter and squash. In sports injuries throughout the countries studied, the ankle was the second most common injured body site after the knee, and ankle sprain was the most common type of ankle injury. The incidence of ankle injury and ankle sprain was high in court games and team sports, such as rugby, soccer, volleyball, handball and basketball. This systematic review provides a summary of the epidemiology of ankle injury in sports.
Young, Kristie L; Salmon, Paul M; Cornelissen, Miranda
This study explored the nature of errors made by drivers when distracted versus not distracted. Participants drove an instrumented vehicle around an urban test route both while distracted (performing a visual detection task) and while not distracted. Two in-vehicle observers recorded the driving errors made, and a range of other data were collected, including driver verbal protocols, forward, cockpit and driver video, and vehicle data (speed, braking, steering wheel angle, etc.). Classification of the errors revealed that drivers were significantly more likely to make errors when distracted; although driving errors were prevalent even when not distracted. Interestingly, the nature of the errors made when distracted did not differ substantially from those made when not distracted, suggesting that, rather than making different types of errors, distracted drivers simply make a greater number of the same error types they make when not distracted. Avenues for broadening our understanding of the relationship between distraction and driving errors are discussed along with the advantages of using a multi-method framework for studying driver behaviour.
Erickson, Brandon J; Chalmers, Peter N; Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Frank, Rachel M; Romeo, Anthony A; Harris, Joshua D
The purpose of this article is to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of elbow arthroscopy literature to answer the following questions: "Across the world, what demographic of patients are undergoing elbow arthroscopy, what are the most common indications for elbow arthroscopy, and how good is the evidence?" The authors hypothesized that patients who undergo elbow arthroscopy will be chiefly age <40 years, the most common indication for elbow arthroscopy will be a release/débridement, and the evidence regarding elbow arthroscopy will be poor. Also, no significant differences will exist in elbow arthroscopy publications, subjects, outcomes, and techniques based on continent/country of publication. A systematic review was registered with the International Prospective Register of Ongoing Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) and performed with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines using 3 publicly available databases. Therapeutic clinical outcome investigations reporting arthroscopic elbow outcomes with levels of evidence I-IV were eligible for inclusion. All study, subject, and surgical technique demographics were analyzed and compared between continents and countries. Statistics were calculated using 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compare between continents and Pearson's correlation coefficients to evaluate changes over time. In total, 112 studies were included (3093 subjects; 3168 elbows; 64% male; mean 34.9 ± 14.68 years. Mean 33.4 ± 26.02 months follow-up. Most studies were level IV evidence (94.6%) and had a low Modified Coleman Methodology Score (MCMS) (mean 28.1 ± 8.06). From 1985 through 2013, the number of publications significantly increased with time (P = .004) in all continents. The 3 most common indications for elbow arthroscopy were osteochondritis dissecans (OCD), lateral epicondylitis, and release and débridement. The number of reported cases for the 3 most common indications significantly
Dawes, Piers; Munro, Kevin J
It is widely recognized by hearing aid users and audiologists that a period of auditory acclimatization and adjustment is needed for new users to become accustomed to their devices. The aim of the present study was to test the idea that auditory acclimatization and adjustment to hearing aids involves a process of learning to "tune out" newly audible but undesirable sounds, which are described by new hearing aid users as annoying and distracting. It was hypothesized that (1) speech recognition thresholds in noise would improve over time for new hearing aid users, (2) distractibility to noise would reduce over time for new hearing aid users, (3) there would be a correlation between improved speech recognition in noise and reduced distractibility to background sounds, (4) improvements in speech recognition and distraction would be accompanied by self-report of reduced annoyance, and (5) improvements in speech recognition and distraction would be associated with higher general cognitive ability and more hearing aid use. New adult hearing aid users (n = 35) completed a test of aided speech recognition in noise (SIN) and a test of auditory distraction by background sound amplified by hearing aids on the day of fitting and 1, 7, 14, and 30 days post fitting. At day 30, participants completed self-ratings of the annoyance of amplified sounds. Daily hearing aid use was measured via hearing aid data logging, and cognitive ability was measured with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence block design test. A control group of experienced hearing aid users (n = 20) completed the tests over a similar time frame. At day 30, there was no statistically significant improvement in SIN among new users versus experienced users. However, levels of hearing loss and hearing aid use varied widely among new users. A subset of new users with moderate hearing loss who wore their hearing aids at least 6 hr/day (n = 10) had significantly improved SIN (by ~3-dB signal to noise ratio
Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Heyworth, Benton E; Murray, Kerri; Yen, Yi-Meng; Kocher, Mininder S; Millis, Michael B
To report the operative findings and outcomes of hip arthroscopy for recurrent pain following periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) for acetabular dysplasia. A departmental database was used to identify patients who underwent hip arthroscopy following PAO between 2000 and 2009. Demographic data, arthroscopic findings, functional outcome scores and patient satisfaction were analysed. Of 556 PAO patients, 17 hips in 16 patients (3.1%) underwent post-PAO hip arthroscopy. Mean age at PAO was 23.8 years, and mean age at arthroscopy was 27.0 years. Common hip arthroscopy findings included labral tears (13 hips, 81.3%), significant (≥grade 2) chondral changes (12 hips, 75%), cam impingement (7 hips, 43.8%) and pincer impingement (6 hips, 37.5%). At mean follow-up 2.8 years after arthroscopy, additional procedures had been performed in six hips (37.5%), including total hip arthroplasty in one hip. Post-PAO arthroscopy questionnaire revealed 85.7% of patients with improved hip pain, 57.1% improved hip stiffness and 57.1% improved hip function. There was no significant difference in functional outcome measures. Common post-PAO hip arthroscopy findings include labral tears, chondral changes and femoroacetabular impingement. Many patients reported subjective hip improvement from post-PAO arthroscopy, but hip outcome scores were unchanged and one-third of patients had further surgery.
Bhandary, Sudarshan; Khandige, Ganesh; Kabra, Utkarsh
Introduction Rotator cuff tears are quite common and can cause significant disability. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has now emerged as the modality of choice in the preoperative evaluation of patients with rotator cuff injuries, in view of its improved inherent soft tissue contrast and resolution. Aim To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of routine MRI in the detection and characterisation of rotator cuff tears, by correlating the findings with arthroscopy. Materials and Methods This prospective study was carried out between July 2014 and August 2016 at the AJ Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalore, Karnataka, India. A total of 82 patients were diagnosed with rotator cuff injury on MRI during this period, out of which 45 patients who underwent further evaluation with arthroscopy were included in this study. The data collected was analysed for significant correlation between MRI diagnosis and arthroscopic findings using kappa statistics. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive value and accuracy of MRI for the diagnosis of full and partial thickness tears were calculated using arthroscopic findings as the reference standard. Results There were 27 males and 18 females in this study. The youngest patient was 22 years and the oldest was 74 years. Majority of rotator cuff tears (78%) were seen in patients above the age of 40 years. MRI showed a sensitivity of 89.6%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 83.3% for the diagnosis of full thickness rotator cuff tears. For partial thickness tears, MRI showed a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 86.6%, positive predictive value of 78.9% and negative predictive value of 100%. The accuracy was 93.1% for full thickness tears and 91.1% for partial thickness tears. The p-value was less than 0.01 for both full and partial thickness tears. There was good agreement between the MRI and arthroscopic findings, with kappa value of 0.85 for full thickness tears and 0.81 for partial
Nair, Arvind; Kumar, J Phani; Venkataramana, V; Yuvaraj, A; Reddy, V Sridhar; Kumar, S Kishore
Background: The aim of this clinical prospective study is to apply and evaluate an approach to reduce the overall orthodontic treatment time, by means of dentoalveolar distraction osteogenesis to achieve rapid canine retraction using an indigenously developed intra-oral tooth-borne distraction device. Materials & Methods: This study was carried out in the Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics. Four patients selected for the purpose of Maxillary and/or Mandibular canine distraction with a rigid custom-made, intra-oral distraction device made of stainless steel and were scheduled for orthodontic treatment with bilateral first premolar extraction and then subsequent bilateral canine teeth distalization. Results: In all the patients the canine teeth moved distally and made contact with the second premolars within 14-16 days range after which they were kept passive, with the appliance for a week of consolidation. The amount of canine retraction was in 7-7.5mms range, in all the patients, in each of the four quadrants studied. Bodily movement, tipping and buccal flaring of the canine teeth were noticed in all the cases. Conclusion: Combination of newer orthodontic appliances and the principles of biomechanics to maintain the control over rapid tooth movement, rapid canine distalization using distraction osteogenesis awaits further development before routine application, of this innovative and exciting approach. How to cite the article: Nair A, Kumar JP, Venkataramana V, Yuvaraj A, Reddy VS, Kumar SK. Dento-Alveolar distraction osteogenesis using rigid intra-oral tooth borne distraction device. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(2):106-13. PMID:24876710
Nair, Arvind; Kumar, J Phani; Venkataramana, V; Yuvaraj, A; Reddy, V Sridhar; Kumar, S Kishore
The aim of this clinical prospective study is to apply and evaluate an approach to reduce the overall orthodontic treatment time, by means of dentoalveolar distraction osteogenesis to achieve rapid canine retraction using an indigenously developed intra-oral tooth-borne distraction device. This study was carried out in the Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics. Four patients selected for the purpose of Maxillary and/or Mandibular canine distraction with a rigid custom-made, intra-oral distraction device made of stainless steel and were scheduled for orthodontic treatment with bilateral first premolar extraction and then subsequent bilateral canine teeth distalization. In all the patients the canine teeth moved distally and made contact with the second premolars within 14-16 days range after which they were kept passive, with the appliance for a week of consolidation. The amount of canine retraction was in 7-7.5mms range, in all the patients, in each of the four quadrants studied. Bodily movement, tipping and buccal flaring of the canine teeth were noticed in all the cases. Combination of newer orthodontic appliances and the principles of biomechanics to maintain the control over rapid tooth movement, rapid canine distalization using distraction osteogenesis awaits further development before routine application, of this innovative and exciting approach. How to cite the article: Nair A, Kumar JP, Venkataramana V, Yuvaraj A, Reddy VS, Kumar SK. Dento-Alveolar distraction osteogenesis using rigid intra-oral tooth borne distraction device. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(2):106-13.
Schreiber, Kristin L; Campbell, Claudia; Martel, Marc O; Greenbaum, Seth; Wasan, Ajay D; Borsook, David; Jamison, Robert N; Edwards, Robert R
Diverting attention away from noxious stimulation (i.e., distraction) is a common pain-coping strategy. Its effects are variable across individuals, however, and the authors hypothesized that chronic pain patients who reported higher levels of pain catastrophizing would derive less pain-reducing benefit from distraction. Chronic pain patients (n=149) underwent psychometric and quantitative sensory testing, including assessment of the temporal summation of pain in the presence and absence of a distracting motor task. A simple distraction task decreased temporal summation of pain overall, but, surprisingly, a greater distraction analgesia was observed in high catastrophizers. This enhanced distraction analgesia in high catastrophizers was not altered when controlling for current pain scores, depression, anxiety, or opioid use (analysis of covariance [ANCOVA]: F=8.7, P<0.005). Interestingly, the magnitude of distraction analgesia was inversely correlated with conditioned pain modulation (Pearson R=-0.23, P=0.005). Distraction produced greater analgesia among chronic pain patients with higher catastrophizing, suggesting that catastrophizing's pain-amplifying effects may be due in part to greater attention to pain, and these patients may benefit from distraction-based pain management approaches. Furthermore, these data suggest that distraction analgesia and conditioned pain modulation may involve separate underlying mechanisms.
There is a wealth of literature on the management of ankle sprains, but the quality of evidence is variable and conclusions diverge. Practice in emergency departments (EDs) also varies and in some cases does not reflect the evidence base. This article reviews some of the most recent research on the subject and suggests air-stirrup ankle braces can be used in EDs for management of moderate and severe ankle sprains.
Moser, Brad R
Dancers spend a lot of time in the relevé position in demi-pointe and en pointe in their training and their careers. Pain from both osseous and soft tissue causes may start to occur in the posterior aspect of their ankle. This article reviews the potential causes of posterior ankle impingement in dancers. It will discuss the clinical evaluation of a dancer and the appropriate workup and radiographic studies needed to further evaluate a dancer with suspected posterior ankle impingement.
Greyvensteyn, Gerhardus A; Madaree, Anil
Distraction osteogenesis is an effective treatment modality for the correction of craniofacial deformities. The cost of these devices is significant and may preclude routine use of these distractors in developing countries. Hence, distraction osteogenesis was performed using medical equipment that was readily available in any hospital at minimal cost. From 2008 to 2013, a retrospective study was performed on infants and neonates who underwent primary distraction for craniofacial abnormalities. Midface or mandibular distraction was performed because of respiratory impairment and/or globe exposure. The apparatus used included Steinmann pins, stainless steel wires, attachment bolts, orthopaedic pulleys, string and intravenous bags for weights. For midface distraction, a transzygomatic pin was inserted, and a transmandibular pin or a cerclage wire was inserted into the mandible through the symphysis or body of the mandible and connected to the pulley system. Distraction osteogenesis was performed on five patients - three mandibular distractions (Pierre Robin sequence) and two transfacial distractions (Apert syndrome/Pfeiffer syndrome type III). The mean age, duration of distraction and duration of consolidation at the time of distraction was 60.5 days, 18.6 days and 16.4 days, respectively. The mean length of distraction achieved was 12 mm. Common complications observed were pin loosening, pressure necrosis of the skin and uneven pull. A major disadvantage was the longer hospital stay required. The African method of distraction is effective, easy and cost effective and could be used in third-world hospitals where surgical expertise or expensive distraction sets are not freely available. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rowe, N M; Mehrara, B J; Dudziak, M E; Steinbreck, D S; Mackool, R J; Gittes, G K; McCarthy, J G; Longaker, M T
The application of distraction osteogenesis to craniofacial surgery has altered the approach and treatment of congenital and acquired craniofacial defects. Although the histologic and ultrastructural changes associated with distraction osteogenesis have been described extensively, relatively little is known about the molecular regulation of this process. The elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of distraction osteogenesis has important clinical implications because it may facilitate the use of recombinant proteins or gene therapy to accelerate bone regeneration. Molecular analysis of distraction osteogenesis has been hindered by the use of large animal models in which only limited genetic information is available. In this study, a rat model of mandibular distraction osteogenesis is described. This report includes a pilot study (n = 50) to develop an appropriate distraction device and to determine the optimal placement of the osteotomy. The study subsequently included 80 animals, 35 of which were distracted at a rate of 0.25 mm per day for 6 days (1.5 mm total) and 35 that were distracted at a rate of 0.25 mm twice per day (3.0 mm total). These animals were killed at various time points (after latency and during the distraction and consolidation periods) and displayed histologic and radiographic findings of membranous bone distraction osteogenesis that were consistent with those in large ,animal and clinical models. In addition, five animals each were acutely lengthened 1.5 mm and 3.0 mm and demonstrated a fibrous nonunion. Furthermore, the utility of this model is demonstrated in the analysis of the molecular mechanisms of distraction osteogenesis by applying the polymerase chain reaction to total cellular RNA isolated from normal and distracted rat mandibles. In conclusion, it is believed that the rat model of distraction osteogenesis has significant advantages over traditional models, including decreased costs and facilitation of molecular analysis.
Weiss, Karen E; Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Wohlheiter, Karen
Using a mixed model design, this study examined the effects of interactive versus passive distraction on healthy preschool-aged children's cold pressor pain tolerance. Sixty-one children aged 3-5 years were randomly assigned to one of the following: interactive distraction, passive distraction, or no distraction control. Participants underwent a baseline cold pressor trial followed by interactive distraction trial, passive distraction trial, or second baseline trial. One or two additional trials followed. Children originally assigned to distraction received the alternate distraction intervention. Controls participated in both interactive and passive distraction trials in counterbalanced order. Participants showed significantly higher pain tolerance during both interactive and passive distraction relative to baseline. The two distraction conditions did not differ. Interactive and passive video game distraction appear to be effective for preschool-aged children during laboratory pain exposure. Future studies should examine whether more extensive training would enhance effects of interactive video game distraction.
Chung, Hyung-Jin; Bae, Su-Young; Choo, Ji-Woong
This study was designed to evaluate the mid-term results and efficacy of subtalar distraction double bone-block arthrodesis for calcaneal malunion. From January 2004 to June 2007, we operated on 6 patients (10 cases). There were 5 males (9 cases) and 1 female (1 case), four of which presented with bilateral calcaneal malunion. Seven cases were operated on initially. The period between initial injury and arthrodesis was 23 months, and the average follow up period was 58 months. In operation, we applied an extensile lateral approach and arthrodesis was performed through a tricortical double bone-block and cannulated screws. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot scale was used for clinical evaluation. In radiologic analysis, plain X-ray and CT were examined to assess union and various parameters. The mean age of the patients was 41 years. All cases achieved radiologic union at the final follow-up. The mean AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot scale (maximum of 94 points) increased from 43.3 points preoperatively to 85.4 points at the final follow-up. The radiologic analysis of the pre- and postoperative standing lateral radiographs showed improvements of 5.6 mm in talo-calcaneal height, 1.8° in talocalcaneal angle, 5.1° in talar declination angle and 5.3° in talo-first metatarsal angle. Subtalar distraction two bone-block arthrodesis provides overall good results not only in the short term but also the mid-term with significant improvement in clinical and radiologic outcomes. This procedure warrants consideration for managing calcaneal malunion with loss of height and subtalar arthritis.
Chung, Hyung-Jin; Choo, Ji-Woong
Purpose This study was designed to evaluate the mid-term results and efficacy of subtalar distraction double bone-block arthrodesis for calcaneal malunion. Materials and Methods From January 2004 to June 2007, we operated on 6 patients (10 cases). There were 5 males (9 cases) and 1 female (1 case), four of which presented with bilateral calcaneal malunion. Seven cases were operated on initially. The period between initial injury and arthrodesis was 23 months, and the average follow up period was 58 months. In operation, we applied an extensile lateral approach and arthrodesis was performed through a tricortical double bone-block and cannulated screws. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot scale was used for clinical evaluation. In radiologic analysis, plain X-ray and CT were examined to assess union and various parameters. Results The mean age of the patients was 41 years. All cases achieved radiologic union at the final follow-up. The mean AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot scale (maximum of 94 points) increased from 43.3 points preoperatively to 85.4 points at the final follow-up. The radiologic analysis of the pre- and postoperative standing lateral radiographs showed improvements of 5.6 mm in talo-calcaneal height, 1.8° in talocalcaneal angle, 5.1° in talar declination angle and 5.3° in talo-first metatarsal angle. Conclusion Subtalar distraction two bone-block arthrodesis provides overall good results not only in the short term but also the mid-term with significant improvement in clinical and radiologic outcomes. This procedure warrants consideration for managing calcaneal malunion with loss of height and subtalar arthritis. PMID:24954341
Ahmad, Christopher S; Vitale, Mark A
Elbow arthroscopy has become an accepted treatment for numerous elbow conditions, including loose bodies, lateral epicondylitis, contractures, painful osteophytes, synovitis, osteochondritis dissecans, synovial plica, and osteoarthritis. It is absolutely necessary that the treating surgeon have complete knowledge of elbow anatomy. Three options exist for patient positioning: supine, prone, and lateral decubitus. Standard arthroscopic probes, grasping forceps, punches, and motorized shavers and burrs are used in the procedure. Retractors are essential for visualizing, exposing, and protecting nerves. Specially designed capsular biters can be used to develop a plane between the capsule and the surrounding soft tissues to facilitate capsulotomy and capsulectomy. Among elbow arthroscopists, the sequence of portal placement varies; however, there is little variation in the exact location of portal placement because of neurovascular constraints. Loose body removal and extensor carpi radialis brevis release for lateral epicondylitis are common procedures suitable for the beginning arthroscopist. For beginning and advanced procedures, the surgeon's skill and competence must be at a level consistent with the procedure to avoid complications.
Papalia, Rocco; Del Buono, Angelo; Franceschi, Francesco; Marinozzi, Andrea; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo
This review explores the scientific evidence for clinical, functional and imaging outcomes after surgical management of Femoroacetabular Impingement (FAI) syndrome, and assesses the methodological quality of the published literature reporting this issue. The medical literature databases of Pubmed, Medline, Ovid, Google Scholar and Embase were searched for articles published in English, Spanish, French and Italian, using a combination of the keywords 'femoro-acetabular impingement syndrome', 'postoperative outcomes', 'open surgery', and 'arthroscopic management'. To address three main questions, we extracted data on demographic features, operative techniques, postoperative rehabilitation regimens, imaging features, pre and postoperative hip scores. Complications and conversion to arthroplasty were also investigated. Thirty-one studies published have reported clinical, functional and imaging outcomes after open and arthroscopic management of FAI syndrome. The modified Coleman methodology score (CMS) averaged 56.2 (range, 30-81). From extracted data, it was shown that arthroscopy, open surgery and arthroscopic surgery followed by mini open surgery are comparable for functional results, biomechanics, and return to sport. Progression of OA and conversion to hip arthroplasty are dependent on preoperative status of cartilage and osteoarthritis and type of management. Debridement and osteoplasty provide better results than debridement only. Significantly improved outcomes have been recorded in patients undergoing labral refixation than resection. The Coleman methodology score showed great heterogeneity in terms of study design and outcome assessment, and generally low methodological quality. Although open and minimally invasive procedures allow athletes to return to professional sports activity, they are contraindicated in patients with severe osteoarthritis and cartilage degeneration.
Giri, Saurabh; Singh, Ch Arun Kumar; Datta, Snehasish; Paul, Vinil; Masatvar, Pranav; Hmarj, Christopher L.; Marbaniang, Graham Bell
Background A variety of procedures have been described for treatment of the osteoarthritic knee. Comprehensive Arthroscopic treatment regime has definite role in treating patients with knee Osteoarthritis. Aim To evaluate the role of arthroscopy in functional and subjective outcomes of patient with moderate to severe osteoarthritis of knee. Materials and Methods Between October 2011 to September 2013, 30 patients were treated with an arthroscopic regimen. Patients with primary osteoarthritis who fulfilled clinical and radiographic classification criteria of American College of Rheumatology for osteoarthritis were included. All patients were followed for 18 months. All patients were subjected to comprehensive arthroscopic treatment. Results Overall, mean age was 59 years, with 17 females and 13 males. According to Kellgren Lawrence scale, 17 patients had grade 2 osteoarthritis, 10 had grade 3 osteoarthritis and 3 patients had grade 4. The average preoperative Lysholm score was 38.8. According to Outerbridge grading of chondral surface lesions, 14 patients were in grade-1, 5 in grade-2, 8 in grade-3 and 3 patients were in grade-4. The average 18 months postoperative Lysholm score was 83.3 (range 60- 96). 73.33% patients showed good/ excellent outcome. 80% of patients with chondral and meniscal lesions showed excellent/good outcome. Conclusion This arthroscopic treatment regimen can improve function and activity levels in patients with moderate to severe osteoarthritis. Patients with meniscal and chondral pathology will be benefited more by arthroscopic treatment. PMID:26436009
Silva, Paulo Alexandre da; Lopes, Maria Teresa de Fatima Fernandes; Freire, Fernando Silva
Internal derangements (ID) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) have a multifactorial etiology and are most often treated conservatively by splints, physical therapy and medications. Only in 2-5% of cases are the treatment surgical, either by arthroscopy or arthrotomy. To evaluate improvement of mouth opening, pain relief during function, position of the articular disk and complications following Arthroscopic Lyse and Lavage (ALL). A prospective study of 78 patients (138 TMJs) with TMJ ID, 5 males and 73 females, mean age 29.7 years, treated between January 2010 and April 2013, who were refractory to conservative treatment, had limited mouth opening and pain localized to the TMJ during function, and who were submitted to TMJ ALL and followed for a period of 12 months, with periodic reviews. ALL was effective in 93.6% of cases, with 85.3% experiencing improvement in mouth opening and 91.2% in pain reduction during function, 63% improvement in disk position and a rate of complications of 6.2%. In this study the ALL exhibited a high rate of success with low morbidity in internal derangements of the TMJ. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Objective: To describe the functional anatomy of the ankle complex as it relates to lateral ankle instability and to describe the pathomechanics and pathophysiology of acute lateral ankle sprains and chronic ankle instability. Data Sources: I searched MEDLINE (1985–2001) and CINAHL (1982–2001) using the key words ankle sprain and ankle instability. Data Synthesis: Lateral ankle sprains are among the most common injuries incurred during sports participation. The ankle functions as a complex with contributions from the talocrural, subtalar, and inferior tibiofibular joints. Each of these joints must be considered in the pathomechanics and pathophysiology of lateral ankle sprains and chronic ankle instability. Lateral ankle sprains typically occur when the rearfoot undergoes excessive supination on an externally rotated lower leg. Recurrent ankle sprain is extremely common; in fact, the most common predisposition to suffering a sprain is the history of having suffered a previous ankle sprain. Chronic ankle instability may be due to mechanical instability, functional instability, or most likely, a combination of these 2 phenomena. Mechanical instability may be due to specific insufficiencies such as pathologic laxity, arthrokinematic changes, synovial irritation, or degenerative changes. Functional instability is caused by insufficiencies in proprioception and neuromuscular control. Conclusions/Recommendations: Lateral ankle sprains are often inadequately treated, resulting in frequent recurrence of ankle sprains. Appreciation of the complex anatomy and mechanics of the ankle joint and the pathomechanics and pathophysiology related to acute and chronic ankle instability is integral to the process of effectively evaluating and treating ankle injuries. PMID:12937557
Rzonca, E C; Lue, B Y
As has been previously discussed, the incidence and resultant associated disabilities of ankle sprains have been well documented in the literature. The staggering statistics on long-term disability show that there is no such thing as a simple ankle sprain. The degree of disability is related to the extent of the initial injury as well as the follow-up medical care provided. It is this fact that requires a complete understanding of the injury as well as a proper treatment and rehabilitation program. One of the reasons cited for the long-term disability or lack of consistently good results in treating ankle sprains is the lack of uniformity in treatment. One possible reason is the lack of agreement in diagnostic techniques as well as the end diagnosis of a particular grade of ankle sprain. If a sprain is managed correctly, resultant disability will be kept to a minimum. A proper rehabilitation program may be the most important factor in preventing chronic instability. The acronym RICE falls short of complete ankle management. RICE primarily addresses the ankle edema. Thus, the patient's ankle is only partially rehabilitated. A rational approach to the management of ankle sprains is given. Upon reviewing a complete protocol for ankle sprain rehabilitation, the acronym TEMPER can be used judiciously to remember the key steps in the treatment plan. Through the use of this acronym, one can institute a complete rehabilitation program.
Acevedo, Jorge I; Mangone, Peter
Over the last 50 years, the surgical management of chronic lateral ankle ligament insufficiency has focused on 2 main categories: local soft-tissue reconstruction and tendon grafts/transfer procedures. There is an increasing interest in the arthroscopic solutions for chronic instability of the ankle. Recent biomechanical studies suggest the at least one of the arthroscopic techniques can provide equivalent results to current open local soft-tissue reconstruction (such as the modified Brostrom technique). Arthroscopic lateral ankle ligament reconstruction is becoming an increasingly acceptable method for the surgical management of chronic lateral ankle instability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wünschel, Markus; Leichtle, Ulf G; Leichtle, Carmen I; Walter, Christian; Mittag, Falk; Arlt, Eva; Suckel, Andreas
Although mid- to long-term results after total ankle replacement have improved because of available second- and third-generation devices, failure of total ankle replacement is still more common compared with total hip replacement and total knee replacement. The portfolio of available total ankle replacement revision component options is small. Furthermore, the bone stock of the tibiotalar region is scarce making it difficult and in some situations impossible to perform revision total ankle replacement. In these cases tibiotalar and tibiotalocalcaneal fusions are valuable options. This article describes which surgical procedures should be performed depending on the initial situation and gives detailed advice on surgical technique, postoperative care, and clinical results.
Denning, Jaime R
Ankle fractures account for 5% and foot fractures account for approximately 8% of fractures in children. Some complications are evident early in the treatment or natural history of foot and ankle fractures. Other complications do not become apparent until weeks, months, or years after the original fracture. The incidence of long-term sequelae like posttraumatic arthritis from childhood foot and ankle fractures is poorly studied because decades or lifelong follow-up has frequently not been accomplished. This article discusses a variety of complications associated with foot and ankle fractures in children or the treatment of these injuries.
Kim, Da-Rae; Potter, Hollis G.; Li, Angela E.; Chun, Ka-Young; Jung, Yoon Young; Kim, Jin-Su; Young, Ki-Won
With advances in implant technology, total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) has become an increasingly popular alternative to arthrodesis for the management of end-stage ankle arthritis. However, reports in the literature do not focus on the imaging features of TAA. Through a literature review, we demonstrate basic design features of the current ankle arthroplasty system, and the normal and abnormal postoperative imaging features associated with such devices. Pre- and postoperative evaluations of ankle arthroplasty mainly include radiography; in addition, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging provide further characterization of imaging abnormalities. Familiarization with multimodal imaging features of frequent procedural complications at various postoperative intervals is important in radiological practice. PMID:27134529
Le, Peter; Hwang, Jaejin; Grawe, Sarah; Li, Jing; Snyder, Alison; Lee, Christina; Marras, William S
The objective of this study was to identify biomechanical measures that can distinguish texting distraction in a laboratory-simulated driving environment. The goal would be to use this information to provide an intervention for risky driving behaviour. Sixteen subjects participated in this study. Three independent variables were tested: task (texting, visual targeting, weighted and non-weighted movements), task direction (front and side) and task distance (close and far). Dependent variables consisted of biomechanical moments, head displacement and the length of time to complete each task. Results revealed that the time to complete each task was higher for texting compared to other tasks. Peak moments during texting were only distinguishable from visual targeting. Peak head displacement and cumulative biomechanical exposure measures indicated that texting can be distinguished from other tasks. Therefore, it may be useful to take into account both temporal and biomechanical measures when considering warning systems to detect texting distraction.
In two experiments, the effects of taxing selective attention processes on the efficiency of working memory processes were considered in relation to normal aging. In both experiments, the presence of task-irrelevant information disrupted the efficiency of working memory processes, and the effect was generally greater for older than for younger adults. The presence of distracting information increased the frequency of intrusion errors in both younger and older adults and of memory-based errors in older adults. These findings suggest that distraction disrupts both the ability to maintain a coherent stream of goal-directed thought and action in younger and older adults and the encoding and retention of relevant information in older adults.
... foot and ankle surgeons. All Fellows of the College are board certified by the American Board of Foot and Ankle Surgery. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights ...
Ritter, Stephanie; Moore, Marjorie
The lateral ligament complex of the ankle is the most frequently injured structure in the body. Although most simple ankle sprains do not result in long-term disability, a significant number do not completely resolve, leading to residual symptoms that may persist for years. The most commonly reported symptoms, particularly among athletes, include instability, re-injury, and tendinitis. Ballet dancers are a combination of artist and high-performance athlete; consequently, they are subjected to the same types of injuries as other athletes, including lateral ankle sprains and their sequelae. Furthermore, ballet dancers perform in unusual positions such as en pointe, which places the ankle in extreme plantar flexion, requiring stabilization by surrounding muscles. Dancers' extraordinary performance demands place them at risk for other ankle injuries as well, including inflammation ofseveral tendons, especially the peroneals. This report reviews the relevant literature to characterize the scope of lateral ankle sprains and sequelae, discuss the importance of the peroneal muscles in ankle stability, and explore a relationship between lateral ankle sprain and ankle tendinitis in ballet dancers. Informal interviews were conducted with physical therapists who specialize in treating ballet dancers, providing a clinical context for this report. An extensive review of the literature was conducted, including electronic databases, reference lists from papers, and relevant reference texts. Numerous studies have investigated ankle sprains and residual complaints; nearly all report that lateral ankle sprains commonly lead to chronic ankle instability. Studies exploring ankle stability have demonstrated that the peroneal muscles play a crucial role in ankle stabilization; EMG studies confirm they are the first to contract during ankle inversion stress. The dancer's need for exceptional ankle stabilization may lead to peroneal overuse and tendinitis. Studies have linked peroneal
Pope, Caitlin Northcutt; Bell, Tyler Reed; Stavrinos, Despina
Performing secondary tasks, such as texting while driving, is associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle collisions (MVCs). While cognitive processes, such as executive function, are involved in driving, little is known about the relationship between executive control and willingness to engage in distracted driving. This study investigated the relationship between age, behavioral manifestations of executive function, and self-reported distracted driving behaviors. Executive difficulty (assessed with the BRIEF-A) as well as demographics (age and gender) was considered as possible predictors of engagement in distracted driving behaviors. Fifty-nine young, middle, and older adults self-reported executive difficulty and weekly engagement in distracted driving behaviors. Results revealed that while partially accounted for by age, global executive difficulty was uniquely related to engagement in distracted driving behaviors. Older age was associated with fewer weekly self-reported distracted driving behaviors while higher self-reported executive difficulty was associated with more frequent weekly engagement in distracted behavior. No significant differences were found between young and middle-aged adults on distracted driving behaviors. Findings conclude that distracted driving is a ubiquitous phenomenon evident in drivers of all ages. Possible mechanisms underlying distracted driving behavior could potentially be related to deficits in executive function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Young, Kristie L; Salmon, Paul M
Distracted driving is acknowledged universally as a large and growing road safety problem. Compounding the problem is that distracted driving is a complex, multifaceted issue influenced by a multitude of factors, organisations and individuals. As such, management of the problem is not straightforward. Numerous countermeasures have been developed and implemented across the globe. The vast majority of these measures have derived from the traditional reductionist, driver-centric approach to distraction and have failed to fully reflect the complex mix of actors and components that give rise to drivers becoming distracted. An alternative approach that is gaining momentum in road safety is the systems approach, which considers all components of the system and their interactions as an integrated whole. In this paper, we review the current knowledge base on driver distraction and argue that the systems approach is not currently being realised in practice. Adopting a more holistic, systems approach to distracted driving will not only improve existing knowledge and interventions from the traditional approach, but will enhance our understanding and management of distraction by considering the complex relationships and interactions of the multiple actors and the myriad sources, enablers and interventions that make up the distracted driving system. It is only by recognising and understanding how all of the system components work together to enable distraction to occur, that we can start to work on solutions to help mitigate the occurrence and consequences of distracted driving.
Chiang, Chao-Ching; Tzeng, Yun-Hsuan; Lin, Chien-Fu Jeff; Huang, Ching-Kuei; Chen, Wei-Ming; Liu, Chien-Lin; Chen, Tain-Hsiung
Tricortical autograft has been commonly used in subtalar distraction arthrodesis (SDA) for severe calcaneal malunion. Structural allograft enriched with orthobiological agents is an alternative. This study was performed to evaluate the results of SDA using fresh-frozen allogeneic femoral head without the addition of orthobiological agents. We retrospectively reviewed 15 consecutive SDA procedures (13 patients) with allogeneic femoral head augmented with local autograft for the treatment of severe calcaneal malunion. Clinical outcome was evaluated with the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot score, visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, Short Form-12 (SF-12), range of motion (ROM) of the ankle joint, and patient satisfaction rate. Radiographic assessment included the talar declination angle (TDA), calcaneal inclination angle (CIA), lateral talocalcaneal angle (LTCA), heel height, calcaneal length, and union time. At a median follow-up of 36.0 months (range, 24-47 months), all 15 feet (100%) achieved union, at a median of 13.0 weeks (range, 12-18 weeks). The AOFAS score and VAS pain score improved significantly, with a satisfaction rate of 93.3%. The TDA, CIA, LTCA, and heel height improved significantly. The median increase in heel height was 8.6 mm (range, 1.9-20.1 mm). There was a significant reduction in calcaneal length. Complications included 1 varus malalignment, 1 complex regional pain syndrome, 1 hardware irritation, and 1 sural neuralgia. This study found that SDA using fresh-frozen femoral head allograft without an orthobiological agent was cost-effective and may have outcomes comparable to those using autograft or allograft enriched with orthobiological agents.
Thacker, Mihir M; Feldman, David S; Madan, Sanjeev S; Straight, Joseph J; Scher, David M
From 1996 to 2000, 11 adolescents with hip joint arthritis secondary to osteonecrosis or idiopathic chondrolysis were treated with articulated hinged distraction arthroplasty. Indications for surgery were severe pain and limited ambulation. Charts and radiographs were reviewed. Clinical status was assessed preoperatively and at latest follow-up (mean 4.8 years after surgery) using criteria of pain, range of motion, and ambulation level. Ten patients showed improved clinical status, with seven having an excellent outcome and three a good outcome. One patient failed distraction. Mean joint space was 2.6 mm before surgery and 4.8 mm at latest follow-up. Average duration of fixator use was 4.4 months. Four patients (36.4%) had complications. Articulated hip distraction was effective in eliminating pain, improving function, and preventing progressive degenerative changes in young patients' hips. It should be considered a salvage procedure for arthritic hips and an alternative to arthrodesis in this difficult-to-treat group of patients.
Stufkens, S A S; Knupp, M; Lampert, C; van Dijk, C N; Hintermann, B
We have compared the results at a mean follow-up of 13 years (11 to 14) of two groups of supination-external rotation type-4 fractures of the ankle, in one of which there was a fracture of the medial malleolus and in the other the medial deltoid ligament had been partially or completely ruptured. Of 66 patients treated operatively between 1993 and 1997, 36 were available for follow-up. Arthroscopy had been performed in all patients pre-operatively to assess the extent of the intra-articular lesions. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hind-foot score was used for clinical evaluation and showed a significant difference in both the total and the functional scores (p < 0.05), but not in those for pain or alignment, in favour of the group with a damaged deltoid ligament (p < 0.05). The only significant difference between the groups on the short-form 36 quality-of-life score was for bodily pain, again in favour of the group with a damaged deltoid ligament. There was no significant difference between the groups in the subjective visual analogue scores or in the modified Kannus radiological score. Arthroscopically, there was a significant difference with an increased risk of loose bodies in the group with an intact deltoid ligament (p < 0.005), although there was no significant increased risk of deep cartilage lesions in the two groups. At a mean follow-up of 13 years after operative treatment of a supination-external rotation type-4 ankle fracture patients with partial or complete rupture of the medial deltoid ligament tended to have a better result than those with a medial malleolar fracture.
Rahm, Stefan; Germann, Marco; Hingsammer, Andreas; Wieser, Karl; Gerber, Christian
This study was to determine face and construct validity of a new virtual reality-based shoulder arthroscopy simulator which uses passive haptic feedback. Fifty-one participants including 25 novices (<20 shoulder arthroscopies) and 26 experts (>100 shoulder arthroscopies) completed two tests: for assessment of face validity, a questionnaire was filled out concerning quality of simulated reality and training potential using a 7-point Likert scale (range 1-7). Construct validity was tested by comparing simulator metrics (operation time in seconds, camera and grasper pathway in centimetre and grasper openings) between novices and experts test results. Overall simulated reality was rated high with a median value of 5.5 (range 2.8-7) points. Training capacity scored a median value of 5.8 (range 3-7) points. Experts were significantly faster in the diagnostic test with a median of 91 (range 37-208) s than novices with 1177 (range 81-383) s (p < 0.0001) and in the therapeutic test 102 (range 58-283) s versus 229 (range 114-399) s (p < 0.0001). Similar results were seen in the other metric values except in the camera pathway in the therapeutic test. The tested simulator achieved high scores in terms of realism and training capability. It reliably discriminated between novices and experts. Further improvements of the simulator, especially in the field of therapeutic arthroscopy, might improve its value as training and assessment tool for shoulder arthroscopy skills. II.
The aim of this retrospective clinical study was to assess the clinical outcomes of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthroscopy in patients who presented with category 1 normal joints. The null hypothesis being tested was that patients with normal joints do not respond to TMJ arthroscopy. The clinical records of 116 patients who had undergone TMJ arthroscopy by the author from 2010 to 2013 were retrieved and individually analysed for inclusion in this retrospective, cohort clinical study. The inclusion criteria used to select patients for this study were those who had arthroscopically proven category 1 normal joints, free of intra-articular pathology. Of the 14 patients who were found to have normal joints, only 10 could be contacted for a follow-up survey. Despite the fact that all patients were informed that no joint pathology was found, six out of the 10 patients reported improvement in their temporomandibular disorder (TMD) symptoms that lasted for more than 6 months following TMJ arthroscopy. The results of this investigation indicate that we can reject the null hypothesis, and that patients with normal TMJs do indeed respond to TMJ arthroscopy. What this limited study has highlighted is the pervasive effects of the placebo that all surgeons need to keep in mind when formulating treatment plans for patients with TMD.
Payne, Kristen A.; Berg, Kris; Latin, Richard W.
Objective: To determine if ankle muscular strength, flexibility and proprioception can predict ankle injury in college basketball players and to compare ankle injury rates in female and male players. Design and Setting: In this prospective, correlational study, subjects were tested at the start of the competitive season for ankle joint muscle strength, flexibility, and proprioception. The first ankle injury for each subject was recorded on an injury report form, and the data were analyzed to determine if any of these preseason measurements predicted future injury. The setting was a competitive 9-week season for four women's and four men's college basketball teams. Subjects: A convenience sample of 31 female and 11 male college basketball players. Measurements: Subjects were tested for ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, various measures of ankle proprioception, and isokinetic peak torque of ankle dorsiflexion-plantar flexion and eversion-inversion at 30°/sec and 180°/sec before the start of the conference basketball seasons. Data were analyzed using a series of multiple regression equations to determine the variance in ankle injury attributed to each variable. Results: Various measures of proprioception predicted left ankle injury in all subjects (p < .05), while ankle strength and flexibility measures failed to account for additional variance. There was no statistically significant difference in ankle injury rate between women and men. Conclusions: Ankle joint proprioceptive deficits can be used to predict ankle injury, but further research is needed to identify other sources of variance. In our study, ankle injury rate was similar in female and male college basketball players. PMID:16558453
Swedler, David I; Pollack, Keshia M; Agnew, Jacqueline
For truck drivers, distracted driving is a workplace behavior that increases occupational injury risk. We propose safety climate as an appropriate lens through which researchers can examine occupational distracted driving. Using a mixed methods study design, we surveyed truck drivers using the Safety Climate Questionnaire (SCQ) complemented by semi-structured interviews of experts on distracted driving and truck safety. Safety climate was assessed by using the entire SCQ as an overall climate score, followed by factor analysis that identified the following safety climate factors: Communications and Procedures; Management Commitment; and Work Pressure. In multivariate regression, the overall safety climate scale was associated with having ever experienced a crash and/or distraction-involved swerving. Interview participants described how these SCQ constructs could affect occupational distracted driving. To reduce distraction-related crashes in their organizations, management can adhere to safe policies and procedures, invest in engineering controls, and develop safer communication procedures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Clark, Gregory J
Stakeholders in the automotive industry, airline industry, and anesthesia profession have identified critical periods of time in which distractions and interruptions of normal processes can have devastating effects. Just as reducing distractions improves safety in an automobile or airplane cockpit, limiting distractions and interruptions during critical times in the perioperative setting can increase patient safety. We assessed perioperative nurses and identified what they perceived as critical phases of nursing care. We also worked with our anesthesia partners to address their concerns about interruptions during the administration of nerve blocks. The perioperative nurses at our hospital initiated strategies to reduce distractions or interruptions to their practice at critical points, and, in collaboration with surgical committee members, we developed strategies to reduce or eliminate distractions for anesthesia professionals during the preoperative administration of nerve blocks and to eliminate distractions for the RN circulator and scrub person during the final counts. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Blakey, Emma; Carroll, Daniel J
When switching between tasks, preschoolers frequently make distraction errors-as distinct from perseverative errors. This study examines for the first time why preschoolers make these errors. One hundred and sixty-four 2- and 3-year-olds completed one of four different conditions on a rule-switching task requiring children to sort stimuli according to one rule and then switch to a new rule. Conditions varied according to the type of information that children needed to ignore. Children made significantly more distraction errors when the to-be-ignored information was related to the previous rule. When it was not related to a previous rule, even young preschoolers could disregard this information. This demonstrates that distraction errors are caused by children's initial goal representations that continue to affect performance. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Peacock, Zachary S.; Tricomi, Brad; Murphy, Brian; Magill, John; Kaban, Leonard B.; Troulis, Maria
Purpose To determine if automated continuous distraction osteogenesis at rates > 1mm/day would result in clinical and radiographic bone formation in a minipig model. Materials and Methods An automated, continuous, curvilinear distraction device was placed across a mandibular osteotomy in 10 minipigs. After 12 mm of distraction and 24 days fixation, animals were sacrificed and bone healing evaluated. The continuous distraction rates were 1.5 (n=5) and 3 mm/day (n=5). A semiquantitative scale was used to assess ex-vivo clinical appearance of the distraction gap (3= osteotomy not visible; 2= <50%; 1= >50%; 0= 100% visible); stability (3 = no mobility; 2 and 1 = mobility in 2 or 1 plane respectively; 0= mobility in 3 planes); radiographic density (4 = 100% gap opaque, 3= >75%, 2 = 50% – 75%, 1= <50%, or 0 = radiolucent). Groups of 4 minipigs distracted discontinuously at 1, 2, and 4 mm/day served as controls. Results The continuous DO 1.5 mm/day group had significantly higher scores for appearance and radiographic density compared to the discontinuous 4 mm/day group. The continuous DO 3mm/day group had significantly higher scores for appearance and radiographic density compared to the discontinuous 4 mm/day group, and higher stability compared to the discontinuous 2 and 4 mm/day groups. Conclusions Results of this preliminary study indicate that continuous DO at rates of 1.5 and 3.0 mm/day produces better bone formation when compared to discontinuous DO at rates faster than 1mm/day. PMID:23499159
Blynskiy, F. Yu
The method for automated bone shape correction within bone distraction procedure is presented. High precision deformation angle measurement is provided by the software for X- Ray images processing. Special BDC v.1.0.1. application is designed. The purpose of the BDC is modeling of the bone geometry structure to calculate the appropriate distraction forces. The correction procedure control is realized by the hardware of the distraction system.
Hashmi, Asra; Schumaier, Adam; White, Shenita; Yi, Christina; Khan, Faraz A; Hanba, Curtis J; Al-Mufarrej, Faisal
The purpose of this study was to analyze the craniofacial distraction literature published over the last 50 years and to determine various trends in publications. A literature search was conducted in November and December 2015. The date search range was 1965 to 2015. Databases searched included Medline, Web of Science, Biosis, SciELO, Data Citation, and Zoologic Records. Data were collected on distraction type, author specialty, date of publication, country, state (if United States), number of citations, journal name, journal type, and Le Fort type (for midfacial distractions). Total number of craniofacial distraction publications was 1729. Cranial distraction accounted for (11%), midfacial (11%), and mandibular (78%). Largest increase in publications was in the 1990s, with 48 publications from 1991 to 1995 rising to 261 publications from 1996 to 2000. Among the cranial distraction publications, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (PRS) (67%) were the most frequent authors but among the midfacial and mandibular distraction publications, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS) were the most frequent authors (68% and 64%, respectively). Total number of citations was 26,281 with OMFS (50.4%) and PRS (37%) being cited most frequently. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery was cited most for mandibular and midfacial distraction, and PRS was cited most for cranial distraction. Research on craniofacial distraction has significantly increased since the 1970s, with mandibular distraction accounting for the majority of this rise. Among specialties, OMFS and PRS account for the majority of the literature. The United States leads the publication. Authors tend to publish distraction literature in their corresponding journal specialty, with the exception of PRS who publishes most frequently in OMFS journals.
Lateral column lengthening for acquired adult flatfoot deformity caused by posterior tibial tendon dysfunction stage II: a retrospective comparison of calcaneus osteotomy with calcaneocuboid distraction arthrodesis.
Haeseker, Guus A; Mureau, Marc A; Faber, Frank W M
In this study, clinical and radiological results after lateral column lengthening by calcaneocuboid distraction arthrodesis and calcaneus osteotomy were compared. Thirty-three patients (35 feet) treated with lateral column lengthening by distraction arthrodesis (14 patients, 16 feet; group I) or by calcaneus osteotomy (19 patients, 19 feet; group II) for adult-acquired flatfoot deformity caused by stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction were compared retrospectively. Mean follow-up was 42.4 months (range, 6-78 months) for group I and 15.8 months (range, 6-32 months) for group II (P < .001). The American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score was determined, 4 variables were measured on preoperative and postoperative weight-bearing radiographs, and a number of independent and outcome variables, including patient satisfaction, were recorded. Group 2 had a significantly higher American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society score compared with group I (mean, 85 vs. 72, respectively; P < .02) at time of last follow-up, and there were no dissatisfied patients in group I, whereas 2 patients in group II were dissatisfied with the result of the operation. All radiological results were significantly better at time of follow-up in both groups (except for talocalcaneal angle in group I), although no significant differences were noted in the amount of change in radiographic measurements between the groups. No significant correlation was found between follow-up time and radiographic improvement, indicating stable radiographic measurements over time. In group II, 13 mild calcaneocuboid subluxations were observed. In both groups, 1 nonunion and 1 wound complication occurred. Based on our experience with the patients described in this report, we recommend lateral column lengthening by means of calcaneus osteotomy rather than distraction arthrodesis of the calcaneocuboid joint, for correction of stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction.
Wali, Mousa Kadhim; Murugappan, Murugappan; Ahmad, Badlishah
[Purpose] In earlier studies of driver distraction, researchers classified distraction into two levels (not distracted, and distracted). This study classified four levels of distraction (neutral, low, medium, high). [Subjects and Methods] Fifty Asian subjects (n=50, 43 males, 7 females), age range 20-35 years, who were free from any disease, participated in this study. Wireless EEG signals were recorded by 14 electrodes during four types of distraction stimuli (Global Position Systems (GPS), music player, short message service (SMS), and mental tasks). We derived the amplitude spectrum of three different frequency bands, theta, alpha, and beta of EEG. Then, based on fusion of discrete wavelet packet transforms and fast fourier transform yield, we extracted two features (power spectral density, spectral centroid frequency) of different wavelets (db4, db8, sym8, and coif5). Mean ± SD was calculated and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. A fuzzy inference system classifier was applied to different wavelets using the two extracted features. [Results] The results indicate that the two features of sym8 posses highly significant discrimination across the four levels of distraction, and the best average accuracy achieved by the subtractive fuzzy classifier was 79.21% using the power spectral density feature extracted using the sym8 wavelet. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that EEG signals can be used to monitor distraction level intensity in order to alert drivers to high levels of distraction.
Atchley, Paul; Tran, Ashleigh V; Salehinejad, Mohammad Ali
The goal of the current work was to create a publicly available visualization tool of distracted driving research, the purpose of which is to allow the public and other stakeholders to empirically inform questions of their choice that may bear on policy discussions. Fifty years of distracted driving research was used to design a comprehensive database of studies that evaluated the effects of distraction on driving performance. Distraction sources (e.g., texting, talking, visual distraction) and performance measures were defined, and the sample of studies were evaluated and categorized by their measures. The final product yielded 342 studies using various methodologies. Across all measures, 1297 found distractions degraded driving performance, 54 found distraction improved driving performance, and 257 found distraction had no effect on driving performance. An analysis of the most common phone distractions (texting and talking) showed that texting almost always results in degraded performance. Aggregate data reveal no difference in performance decrements for hand-held or hands-free phones even though single studies of those variables vary in their outcomes. This project illustrates how scientific research can be made publically available for use by a diverse audience of stakeholders. An important result of this project is that data aggregated along a simple set of characteristics such as whether or not performance is decreased, improved or not affected, can reveal trends in the data that are less clear from any individual study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Clark, Chagit E; Conture, Edward G; Walden, Tedra A; Lambert, Warren E
This study investigated the relation among speech-language dissociations, attentional distractibility, and childhood stuttering. Participants were 82 preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) and 120 who do not stutter (CWNS). Correlation-based statistics (Bates, Appelbaum, Salcedo, Saygin, & Pizzamiglio, 2003) identified dissociations across 5 norm-based speech-language subtests. The Behavioral Style Questionnaire Distractibility subscale measured attentional distractibility. Analyses addressed (a) between-groups differences in the number of children exhibiting speech-language dissociations; (b) between-groups distractibility differences; (c) the relation between distractibility and speech-language dissociations; and (d) whether interactions between distractibility and dissociations predicted the frequency of total, stuttered, and nonstuttered disfluencies. More preschool-age CWS exhibited speech-language dissociations compared with CWNS, and more boys exhibited dissociations compared with girls. In addition, male CWS were less distractible than female CWS and female CWNS. For CWS, but not CWNS, less distractibility (i.e., greater attention) was associated with more speech-language dissociations. Last, interactions between distractibility and dissociations did not predict speech disfluencies in CWS or CWNS. The present findings suggest that for preschool-age CWS, attentional processes are associated with speech-language dissociations. Future investigations are warranted to better understand the directionality of effect of this association (e.g., inefficient attentional processes → speech-language dissociations vs. inefficient attentional processes ← speech-language dissociations).
Sawant, Ajit S.; Kumar, Vikash; Pawar, Prakash; Tamhankar, Ashwin S.
The bladder neck distraction is a rare posterior urethral injury in paediatric age group. It mostly occurs secondary to road traffic accidents. We report three cases of paediatric bladder neck distraction injury. Three paediatric patients aged between 4 to 7 years (mean 5 year), who presented with post traumatic bladder neck distraction injury but no other major injury, they were treated with early urethro-vesical anastomosis. Postoperatively all patients were continent and with good urine flow rates. In paediatric bladder neck distraction injury, immediate urethro-vesical anastomosis gives good results. PMID:28384935
Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.; Lambert, Warren E.
Purpose This study investigated the relation among speech-language dissociations, attentional distractibility, and childhood stuttering. Method Participants were 82 preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) and 120 who do not stutter (CWNS). Correlation-based statistics (Bates, Appelbaum, Salcedo, Saygin, & Pizzamiglio, 2003) identified dissociations across 5 norm-based speech-language subtests. The Behavioral Style Questionnaire Distractibility subscale measured attentional distractibility. Analyses addressed (a) between-groups differences in the number of children exhibiting speech-language dissociations; (b) between-groups distractibility differences; (c) the relation between distractibility and speech-language dissociations; and (d) whether interactions between distractibility and dissociations predicted the frequency of total, stuttered, and nonstuttered disfluencies. Results More preschool-age CWS exhibited speech-language dissociations compared with CWNS, and more boys exhibited dissociations compared with girls. In addition, male CWS were less distractible than female CWS and female CWNS. For CWS, but not CWNS, less distractibility (i.e., greater attention) was associated with more speech-language dissociations. Last, interactions between distractibility and dissociations did not predict speech disfluencies in CWS or CWNS. Conclusions The present findings suggest that for preschool-age CWS, attentional processes are associated with speech-language dissociations. Future investigations are warranted to better understand the directionality of effect of this association (e.g., inefficient attentional processes → speech-language dissociations vs. inefficient attentional processes ← speech-language dissociations). PMID:26126203
Harrison, Emily L. R.; Fillmore, Mark T.
Background Recognition of the risks associated with alcohol intoxication and driver distraction has led to a wealth of simulated driving research aimed at studying the adverse effects of each of these factors. Research on driving has moved beyond the individual, separate examination of these factors to the examination of potential interactions between alcohol intoxication and driver distraction. In many driving situations, distractions are commonplace and might have little or no disruptive influence on primary driving functions. Yet, such distractions might become disruptive to a driver who is intoxicated. Methods The present study examined the interactive impairing effects of alcohol intoxication and driver distraction on simulated driving performance in 40 young adult drivers using a divided attention task as a distracter activity. The interactive influence of alcohol and distraction was tested by having drivers perform the driving task under four different conditions: 0.65 g/kg alcohol; 0.65 g/kg alcohol + divided attention; placebo; and placebo + divided attention. Results As hypothesized, divided attention had no impairing effect on driving performance in sober drivers. However, under alcohol, divided attention exacerbated the impairing effects of alcohol on driving precision. Conclusions Alcohol and distraction continue to be appropriate targets for research into ways to reduce the rates of driving-related fatalities and injuries. Greater consideration of how alcohol and distraction interact to impair aspects of driving performance can further efforts to create prevention and intervention measures to protect drivers, particularly young adults. PMID:21277119
Wais, Peter E; Gazzaley, Adam
The detrimental influence of distraction on memory and attention is well established, yet it is not as clear whether irrelevant information impacts categorization abilities and whether this impact changes in aging. We examined categorization with morphed prototype stimuli in both younger and older adults, using an adaptive staircase approach to assess participants' performance in conditions with and without visual distractors. Results showed that distraction did not affect younger adults, but produced a negative impact on older adults' categorization such that there was an interaction of age and distraction. These results suggest a relationship between the increased susceptibility to visual distraction in normal aging and impairment in categorization.
Harrison, Emily L R; Fillmore, Mark T
Recognition of the risks associated with alcohol intoxication and driver distraction has led to a wealth of simulated driving research aimed at studying the adverse effects of each of these factors. Research on driving has moved beyond the individual, separate examination of these factors to the examination of potential interactions between alcohol intoxication and driver distraction. In many driving situations, distractions are commonplace and might have little or no disruptive influence on primary driving functions. Yet, such distractions might become disruptive to a driver who is intoxicated. The present study examined the interactive impairing effects of alcohol intoxication and driver distraction on simulated driving performance in 40 young adult drivers using a divided attention task as a distracter activity. The interactive influence of alcohol and distraction was tested by having drivers perform the driving task under four different conditions: 0.65 g/kg alcohol; 0.65 g/kg alcohol+divided attention; placebo; and placebo+divided attention. As hypothesized, divided attention had no impairing effect on driving performance in sober drivers. However, under alcohol, divided attention exacerbated the impairing effects of alcohol on driving precision. Alcohol and distraction continue to be appropriate targets for research into ways to reduce the rates of driving-related fatalities and injuries. Greater consideration of how alcohol and distraction interact to impair aspects of driving performance can further efforts to create prevention and intervention measures to protect drivers, particularly young adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Barg, A; Elsner, A; Hefti, D; Hintermann, B
The standard treatment for end-stage osteoarthritis of the ankle joint in haemophilic patients has been fusion of the ankle joint. Total ankle replacement is still controversial as a treatment option. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the mid-term outcome in patients treated with total ankle replacement using an unconstrained three-component ankle implant. Ten haemophilic ankles in eight patients (mean age: 43.2 years, range 26.7-57.5) treated with total ankle replacement were followed up for a minimum of 2.7 years (mean: 5.6, range 2.7-7.6). The outcome was measured with clinical and radiological evaluations. There were no intra- or peri-operative complications. The AOFAS-hindfoot-score increased from 38 (range 8-57) preoperatively to 81 (range 69-95) postoperatively. All patients were satisfied with the results. Four patients became pain free; in the whole patient cohort pain level decreased from 7.1 (range 4-9) preoperatively to 0.8 (range 0-3) postoperatively. All categories of SF-36 score showed significant improvements in quality of life. In one patient, open ankle arthrolysis was performed because of painful arthrofibrosis. For patients with haemophilic osteoarthritis of the ankle joint, total ankle replacement is a valuable alternative treatment to ankle fusion.
Leland, J Martin
With knee arthroscopy being the most common orthopaedic procedure performed in the United States, it is crucial to be able to access the entire knee without iatrogenic injury. Frequently orthopaedic surgeons encounter tight medial compartments, creating difficulty in accessing the posterior horn of the medial meniscus without damaging the articular cartilage. Partial release of the medial collateral ligament during knee arthroscopy protects chondrocytes.
Wukich, Dane K; Tuason, Dominick A
The differential diagnosis for chronic ankle pain is quite broad. Ankle pain can be caused by intra-articular or extra-articular pathology and may be a result of a traumatic or nontraumatic event. A detailed patient history and physical examination, coupled with judicious selection of the appropriate imaging modalities, are vital in making an accurate diagnosis and providing effective treatment. Chronic ankle pain can affect all age groups, ranging from young athletes to elderly patients with degenerative joint and soft-tissue disorders. It has been estimated that 23,000 ankle sprains occur each day in the United States, representing approximately 1 sprain per 10,000 people per day. Because nearly one in five ankle injuries result in chronic symptoms, orthopaedic surgeons are likely to see patients with chronic ankle pain. Many patients with chronic ankle pain do not recall any history of trauma. Reviewing the management of the various disorders that can cause chronic ankle pain will help orthopaedic surgeons provide the best treatment for their patients.
Acute ankle and foot trauma is a regular emergency presentation and prompt strategic assessment skills are required to enable nurses to categorise and prioritise these injuries appropriately. This article provides background information on the anatomy and physiology of the lower limb to help nurses to identify various grades of ankle sprain as well as injuries that are limb threatening
Westrich, Geoffrey; Schaefer, Sarah; Walcott-Sapp, Sarah; Lyman, Stephen
Intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid products may eliminate pain, improve mobility and quality of life, and delay osteoarthritis progression. In this study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of sodium hyaluronate injections given after knee arthroscopy. Forty-six patients with early osteoarthritis and a symptomatic meniscus tear were prospectively randomized into study (injection) and control groups and underwent knee arthroscopy. Study patients received 3 sodium hyaluronate injections after surgery. Study and control outcomes were compared 3 and 6 months after surgery. The injection patients had significantly less pain (visual analog scale) at 3-month follow-up and more flexion at 6-month follow-up. Tenderness, pain on motion, and crepitus were significantly more likely to be absent from injection patients at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Patients with osteoarthritis and a symptomatic meniscus tear may experience more pain relief and functional mobility after arthroscopic surgery plus hyaluronic acid injections than after arthroscopy alone.
Obdeijn, M C; Alewijnse, J V; Mathoulin, C; Liverneaux, P; Tuijthof, G J M; Schijven, M P
The objective of this study was to develop and validate a computer-based module for wrist arthroscopy to which a group of experts could consent. The need for such a module was assessed with members of the European Wrist Arthroscopy Society (EWAS). The computer-based module was developed through several rounds of consulting experts on the content. The module's learning enhancement was tested in a randomized controlled trial with 28 medical students who were assigned to the computer-based module group or lecture group. The design process led to a useful tool, which is supported by a panel of experts. Although the computer based module did not enhance learning, the participants did find the module more pleasant to use. Developing learning tools such as this computer-based module can improve the teaching of wrist arthroscopy skills.
Isakov, E; Mizrahi, J
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate uninjured and recurrent sprained ankles during single leg standing, both with and without visual input, and the contribution of related proprioceptive feedback in this event. METHODS: A force measuring system was used for monitoring reaction forces in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions during single leg standing. Differences between selected variables obtained in the uninjured and sprained ankles were analysed using two way analysis of variance. RESULTS: Foot-ground reaction forces in both anteroposterior and mediolateral directions were the same in normal and sprained ankles of each subject while standing with either open or closed eyes. However, standing with closed eyes, irrespective of the ankle status, always produced significantly higher reaction forces than those obtained with open eyes (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The amount of postural sway during single leg standing is similar in the chronically sprained and the uninjured ankle joint. Images p66-a PMID:9132216
Harrasser, N; Eichelberg, K; Pohlig, F; Waizy, H; Toepfer, A; von Eisenhart-Rothe, R
Because of their frequency, ankle sprains are of major clinical and economic importance. The simple sprain with uneventful healing has to be distinguished from the potentially complicated sprain which is at risk of transition to chronic ankle instability. Conservative treatment is indicated for the acute, simple ankle sprain without accompanying injuries and also in cases of chronic instability. If conservative treatment fails, good results can be achieved by anatomic ligament reconstruction of the lateral ankle ligaments. Arthroscopic techniques offer the advantage of joint inspection and addressing intra-articular pathologies in combination with ligament repair. Accompanying pathologies must be adequately addressed during ligament repair to avoid persistent ankle discomfort. If syndesmotic insufficiency and tibiofibular instability are suspected, the objective should be early diagnosis with MRI and surgical repair.
Khan, Zeeshan; Hussain, Shakir; Carter, Simon R
Sarcomas are rare tumours and particularly rarer in the foot and ankle region. The complex anatomy of the foot and ankle makes it unique and hence poses a challenge to the surgeon for limb salvage surgery. Other lesions found in the foot and ankle region are benign bone and soft tissue tumours, metastasis and infection. The purpose of this article is to discuss the relevance of the complex anatomy of the foot and ankle in relation to tumours, clinical features, their general management principles and further discussion about some of the more common bone and soft tissue lesions. Discussion of every single bone and soft tissue lesion in the foot and ankle region is beyond the scope of this article.
Prusinowska, Agnieszka; Krogulec, Zbigniew; Turski, Piotr; Przepiórski, Emil; Małdyk, Paweł; Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna
Functions of the ankle joint are closely connected with the gait and ability to maintain an upright position. Degenerative lesions of the joint directly contribute to postural disorders and greatly restrict propulsion of the foot, thus leading to abnormal gait. Development of total ankle replacement is connected with the use of the method as an efficient treatment of joint injuries and continuation of achievements in hip and knee surgery. The total ankle replacement technique was introduced as an alternative to arthrodesis, i.e. surgical fixation, which made it possible to preserve joint mobility and to improve gait. Total ankle replacement is indicated in post-traumatic degenerative joint disease and joint destruction secondary to rheumatoid arthritis. In this paper, total ankle replacement and various types of currently used endoprostheses are discussed. The authors also describe principles of early postoperative rehabilitation as well as rehabilitation in the outpatient setting.
Boyd, Jason A; Gradisar, Ian M
Several orthopedic registries have described the incidence of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients who have undergone knee arthroscopy. Patient risk factors may play a role in the conversion rate from knee arthroscopy to TKA. This study quantifies the incidence of conversion of knee arthroscopy to TKA from a US mixed-payer database and describes some common patient risk factors for conversion. The medical records of more than 50 million patients who were treated between 1998 and 2014 were mined with a commercially available software platform. During the study period, a total of 68,090 patients older than 50 years underwent knee arthroscopy for partial meniscectomy, chondroplasty, or debridement. Reported rates of TKA at 1, 2, and 3 years after arthroscopy were 10.1%, 13.7%, and 15.6%, respectively. Obesity, depressive disorder, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, and age 70 years and older were associated with increased relative risk of conversion to TKA at 2 years. When obesity was combined individually with the top 5 other risk factors, no combination produced a higher relative risk than that of obesity alone. Patients who were 50 to 54 years of age had the lowest incidence of conversion to TKA (8.3%, P<.001). Men had a lower incidence of conversion to TKA (11.3%) than women (15.8%, P<.001). This information can help surgeons to counsel patients on the incidence of TKA after knee arthroscopy and identify preoperative risk factors that increase risk. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(6):e1041-e1044.].
Salmon, Paul M; Young, Kristie L; Regan, Michael A
Driver distraction represents a significant problem in the public transport sector. Various methods exist for investigating distraction; however, the majority are difficult to apply within the context of naturalistic bus driving. This article investigates the nature of bus driver distraction at a major Australian public transport company, including the sources of distraction present, and their effects on driver performance, through the application of a novel framework of ergonomics methods. The framework represents a novel approach for assessing distraction in a real world context. The findings suggest that there are a number of sources of distraction that could potentially distract bus drivers while driving, including those that derive from the driving task itself, and those that derive from the additional requirements associated with bus operation, such as passenger and ticketing-related distractions. A taxonomy of the sources of bus driver distraction identified is presented, along with a discussion of proposed countermeasures designed to remove the sources identified or mitigate their effects on driver performance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Chang, Ke-Vin; Hsiao, Ming-Yen; Chen, Wen-Shiang; Wang, Tyng-Guey; Chien, Kuo-Liong
To explore the effectiveness and safety of hyaluronic acid (HA) administration for ankle osteoarthritis (OA), and to investigate the effects of variations in HA regimens on treatment responses. Electronic databases, including PubMed and Scopus, were searched from January 1995 to June 2012. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or prospective cohort studies that employed intra-articular HA to treat ankle OA. Four RCTs, 1 comparative study, and 4 single-arm prospective studies were identified, comprising 354 participants. We determined effect sizes for selected studies by extracting pain scores from ankle OA or visual analog scales before and after HA or reference treatments. Meta-regression was implemented to determine whether outcomes were modified by variations in HA regimens. The pooled effect size of improvement scores from baseline was 2.01 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-2.75), whereas the values of comparisons with reference treatments including saline, exercise, and arthroscopy reduced to 0.85 (95% CI, -0.13 to 1.83). The placebo effect of the injection procedure accounted for 87% of the observed efficacy of HA treatment. The meta-regression indicated that the molecular weight was not associated with the magnitude of pain relief, but increases in total doses and active ingredients administered might result in a better outcome. Conversely, increases in injection volumes might cause a reduction of effect sizes. Regarding the side effects, the use of extremely high molecular weight HA frequently caused early postinjection pain. Intra-articular HA administration can significantly reduce pain in ankle OA compared with the condition before treatment, and it is likely superior to reference therapy. We recommend using multiple doses with an appropriate injection volume to achieve maximum effectiveness. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Khushaba, Rami N; Kodagoda, Sarath; Liu, Diaki; Dissanayake, Gamini
Driver distraction is regarded as a significant contributor to motor-vehicle crashes. One of the important factors contributing to driver distraction was reported to be the handling and reaching of in-car electronic equipment and controls that usually requires taking the drivers' hands off the wheel and eyes off the road. To minimize the amount of such distraction, we present a new control scheme that senses and decodes the human muscles signals, denoted as Electromyogram (EMG), associated with different fingers postures/pressures, and map that to different commands to control external equipment, without taking hands off the wheel. To facilitate such a scheme, the most significant step is the extraction of a set of highly discriminative feature set that can well separate between the different EMG-based actions and to do so in a computationally efficient manner. In this paper, an accurate and efficient method based on Fuzzy Neighborhood Discriminant Analysis (FNDA), is proposed for discriminant feature extraction and then extended to the channel selection problem. Unlike existing methods, the objective of the proposed FNDA is to preserve the local geometrical and discriminant structures, while taking into account the contribution of the samples to the different classes. The method also aims to efficiently overcome the singularity problems of classical LDA by employing the QR-decomposition. Practical real-time experiments with eight EMG sensors attached on the human forearm of eight subjects indicated that up to fourteen classes of fingers postures/pressures can be classified with <7% error on average, proving the significance of the proposed method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Denegar, Craig R.; Miller, Sayers J.
Objective: To pose the question, “Can chronic ankle instability be prevented?” The evaluation and treatment of chronic ankle instability is a significant challenge in athletic health care. The condition affects large numbers of athletes and is associated with reinjury and impaired performance. The management of acute injuries varies widely but in athletic training has traditionally focused on initial symptom management and rapid return to activity. A review of practice strategies and philosophies suggests that a more detailed evaluation of all joints affected by the injury, correction of hypomobility, and protection of healing structures may lead to a more optimal long-term outcome. Background: Sprains to the lateral ankle are common in athletes, and the reinjury rate is high. These injuries are often perceived as being isolated to the anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments. It is, however, becoming apparent that a lateral ankle sprain can injure other tissues and result in joint dysfunction throughout the ankle complex. Description: We begin by addressing the relationship between mechanical and functional instability. We then discuss normal ankle mechanics, sequelae to lateral ankle sprains, and abnormal ankle mechanics. Finally, tissue healing, joint dysfunction, and the management of acute lateral ankle sprain are reviewed, with an emphasis on restoring normal mechanics of the ankle-joint complex. A treatment model based on assessment of joint function, treatment of hypomobile segments, and protection of healing tissues at hypermobile segments is described. PMID:12937564
Simondson, David; Brock, Kim; Cotton, Susan
This study aimed to determine the reliability and the smallest real difference of the Ankle Lunge test in an ankle fracture patient population. In the post immobilisation stage of ankle fracture, ankle dorsiflexion is an important measure of progress and outcome. The Ankle Lunge test measures weight bearing dorsiflexion, resulting in negative scores (knee to wall distance) and positive scores (toe to wall distance), for which the latter has proven reliability in normal subjects only. A consecutive sample of ankle fracture patients with permission to commence weight bearing, were recruited to the study. Three measurements of the Ankle Lunge Test were performed each by two raters, one senior and one junior physiotherapist. These occurred prior to therapy sessions in the second week after plaster removal. A standardised testing station was utilised and allowed for both knee to wall distance and toe to wall distance measurement. Data was collected from 10 individuals with ankle fracture, with an average age of 36 years (SD 14.8). Seventy seven percent of observations were negative. Intra and inter-rater reliability yielded intra class correlations at or above 0.97, p < .001. There was a significant systematic bias towards improved scores during repeated measurement for one rater (p = .01). The smallest real difference was calculated as 13.8mm. The Ankle Lunge test is a practical and reliable tool for measuring weightbearing dorsiflexion post ankle fracture. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, Hong-Yun; Zheng, Jie-Jiao; Zhang, Jian; Cai, Ye-Hua; Hua, Ying-Hui; Chen, Shi-Yi
Lateral ankle sprain is the most common injury. A previous study demonstrated that patients with mechanical ankle instability suffered deficits in postural control, indicating that structural damage of the lateral ankle ligaments may produce a balance deficit. The purpose of this study was to confirm that lateral ligaments reconstruction could improve postural control in patients with mechanical ankle instability. A total of 15 patients were included in the study. Each patient had a history of an ankle sprain with persistent symptoms of ankle instability and a positive anterior drawer test and had been treated nonoperatively for at least 3 months. All patients were diagnosed with lateral ankle ligaments tear by ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. They underwent arthroscopic debridement and open lateral ankle ligaments reconstruction with a modified Broström procedure. One day before and 6 months after the operation, all of the participants underwent single-limb postural sway tests. The anterior drawer test and the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society scale score were used to evaluate the clinical results in these patients. At 6 months after the operation, with the patients' eyes closed, there was significantly decreased postural sway in the anteroposterior direction, the circumferential area, and the total path length on the operated ankles compared with those measurements before the operation. With eyes open, however, no difference was found in postural sway before and after the operation. Postural control was improved by reconstructing the lateral ligaments. IV.
Jeon, In-cheol; Kwon, Oh-yun; Yi, Chung-Hwi; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Hwang, Ui-jae
A variety of ankle self-stretching exercises have been recommended to improve ankle-dorsiflexion range of motion (DFROM) in individuals with limited ankle dorsiflexion. A strap can be applied to stabilize the talus and facilitate anterior glide of the distal tibia at the talocrural joint during ankle self-stretching exercises. Novel ankle self-stretching using a strap (SSS) may be a useful method of improving ankle DFROM. To compare the effects of 2 ankle-stretching techniques (static stretching versus SSS) on ankle DFROM. Randomized controlled clinical trial. University research laboratory. Thirty-two participants with limited active dorsiflexion (<20°) while sitting (14 women and 18 men) were recruited. The participants performed 2 ankle self-stretching techniques (static stretching and SSS) for 3 weeks. Active DFROM (ADFROM), passive DFROM (PDFROM), and the lunge angle were measured. An independent t test was used to compare the improvements in these values before and after the 2 stretching interventions. The level of statistical significance was set at α = .05. Active DFROM and PDFROM were greater in both stretching groups after the 3-week interventions. However, ADFROM, PDFROM, and the lunge angle were greater in the SSS group than in the static-stretching group (P < .05). Ankle SSS is recommended to improve ADFROM, PDFROM, and the lunge angle in individuals with limited DFROM.
Yi, Paul H; Ganta, Abhishek; Hussein, Khalil I; Frank, Rachel M; Jawa, Andrew
We sought to assess the readability levels of arthroscopy-related patient education materials available on the Web sites of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) and the Arthroscopy Association of North America (AANA). We identified all articles related to arthroscopy available in 2012 from the online patient education libraries of AAOS and AANA. After performing follow-up editing, we assessed each article with the Flesch-Kincaid (FK) readability test. Mean readability levels of the articles from the AAOS Web site and the AANA Web site were compared. We also determined the number of articles with readability levels at or below the eighth-grade level (the average reading ability of the US adult population) and sixth-grade level (the widely recommended level for patient education materials). Intraobserver reliability and interobserver reliability of FK grade assessment were evaluated. A total of 62 articles were reviewed (43 from AAOS and 19 from AANA). The mean overall FK grade level was 10.2 (range, 5.2 to 12). The AAOS articles had a mean FK grade level of 9.6 (range, 5.2 to 12), whereas the AANA articles had a mean FK grade level of 11.4 (range, 8.7 to 12); the difference was significant (P < .0001). Only 3 articles had a readability level at or below the eighth-grade level and only 1 was at or below the sixth-grade level; all were from AAOS. Intraobserver reliability and interobserver reliability were excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient of 1 for both). Online patient education materials related to arthroscopy from AAOS and AANA may be written at a level too difficult for a large portion of the patient population to comprehend.
Robinson, R C; O'Neal, P J; Robinson, G H
In vitro data were collected to measure torque-force values of an internal distraction device. The measurements were correlated with in vivo torque readings in an attempt to better understand the force required to distract the osteogenic bone callus of the human mandible during distraction osteogenesis. Five internal craniofacial distraction devices were mounted on an apparatus to test load limits and torque measurements. The apparatus aligned the devices so that weight provided a force opposite and parallel to the vector of distraction. Weights were added in 5-lb increments, and the devices were activated 0.5 mm for each torque reading. Torque readings were obtained from a calibrated torque wrench. Measurements were plotted on a graph and correlated with clinical torque readings obtained from 8 patients undergoing mandibular lengthening. The average torque for distracting the human mandible 0.5 mm twice a day was 4.2 +/- 1.6 Newton-centimeters (N-cm). The average slope of the in vitro data shows that 4.2 N-cm of torque is equivalent to a force of 35.6 N. The average force of device failure was 235.8 N. Torque-force diagrams offer an effective means for calibrating safety margins and load capabilities for internal distraction devices. Quantification of axial forces encountered in mandibular lengthening will help contribute to the overall understanding and biomechanics of mandibular distraction osteogenesis. Copyright 2001 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
LaPointe, Leonard L.; Heald, Gary R.; Stierwalt, Julie A. G.; Kemker, Brett E.; Maurice, Trisha
Objective: The effects of interference, competition, and distraction on cognitive processing are unclearly understood, particularly regarding type and intensity of auditory distraction across a variety of cognitive processing tasks. Method: The purpose of this investigation was to report two experiments that sought to explore the effects of types…
... while driving. The statute shall— (i) Prohibit drivers from texting through a personal wireless... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Distracted driving grants. 1200.24 Section 1200.24... PROGRAMS National Priority Safety Program Grants § 1200.24 Distracted driving grants. (a) Purpose. This...
... while driving. The statute shall— (i) Prohibit drivers from texting through a personal wireless... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Distracted driving grants. 1200.24 Section 1200.24... PROGRAMS National Priority Safety Program Grants § 1200.24 Distracted driving grants. (a) Purpose. This...
Runyan, Christopher M; Gabrick, Kyle S
Distraction osteogenesis is a bone-regenerative process in which an osteotomy is followed by distraction of the surrounding vascularized bone segments, with formation of new bone within the distraction gap. Distraction osteogenesis is efficacious for reconstructing critical sized bony defects in the appendicular and craniofacial skeleton. To provide opportunity to expand applications of distraction osteogenesis, it is important to have a thorough understanding of the underlying molecular biology and physiology of bone development and fracture healing. To accomplish these objectives a review of the literature was performed using search terms "endochondral ossification, intramembranous ossification, craniofacial skeleton, appendicular skeleton, fracture healing, bone development, and distraction osteogenesis." Bones of the craniofacial and appendicular skeleton have distinct mechanisms of embryonic development. The former develops from growth centers of mesenchymal precursors through intramembranous ossification. The latter forms though endochondral ossification in growth plates. However, both endochondral and intramembranous bone share similar master regulatory transcription factors and downstream growth factors. Fracture healing mirrors the pathway by which these bones developed embryonically. In contrast, bone formed by distraction osteogenesis does so by intramembranous ossification, regardless of whether it occurs within the appendicular or craniofacial skeleton. Understanding molecular pathway differences between bone formation by these mechanisms may allow for optimization and expansion of skeletal reconstruction by distraction osteogenesis.
LaPointe, Leonard L.; Heald, Gary R.; Stierwalt, Julie A. G.; Kemker, Brett E.; Maurice, Trisha
Objective: The effects of interference, competition, and distraction on cognitive processing are unclearly understood, particularly regarding type and intensity of auditory distraction across a variety of cognitive processing tasks. Method: The purpose of this investigation was to report two experiments that sought to explore the effects of types…
Smucny, Jason; Rojas, Donald C.; Eichman, Lindsay C.; Tregellas, Jason R.
Selective attention in the presence of distraction is a key aspect of healthy cognition. The underlying neurobiological processes, have not, however, been functionally well characterized. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine how ecologically relevant distracting noise affects cortical activity in 27…
... SAFETY BOARD Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for Distraction Forum The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a forum, Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for Distraction, which will begin... the forum, and all five NTSB Board Members will serve as members of the Board of Inquiry. The forum is...
Waanders, N A; Richards, M; Steen, H; Kuhn, J L; Goldstein, S A; Goulet, J A
Physical forces have been hypothesized to direct the process of bone regeneration during distraction osteogenesis. However, despite significant clinical experience, relatively little is known about how the mechanics of distraction influence bone formation. This study investigated net fixator forces and strains in the distraction callus during bilateral lengthening of tibiae in New Zealand White rabbits. Distractions yielded a classic viscoelastic response with a sharp increase in fixator force, followed immediately by significant relaxation. Tension acting on mesenchymal gap tissue caused by distraction was estimated to reach more than 30 N by the time full lengthening was achieved. Average maximum cyclic strains within the distraction zone during ambulation were estimated to be 14% to 15% and supported by the results of fluoroscopic imaging. Paradigms for fracture healing have hypothesized that such strains are incompatible with new bone formation. The documented clinical success of distraction osteogenesis at stimulating large volumes of new bone suggests that other mechanisms that warrant additional investigation may be at work during distraction.
Rao, Santhosh; Rao, Sruthi
Orthognathic surgery and alloplastic grafting are the main stay in management in hemifacial microsomia. Distraction osteogenesis is used to increase the ramus and corpus length in the management, but here we have described a technique to increase the height of the body of the mandible using the principles of basal osteotomy and distraction osteogenesis.
Cohen, Lindsey L; MacLaren, Jill E; Fortson, Beverly L; Friedman, Abby; DeMore, Melissa; Lim, Crystal S; Shelton, Elisabeth; Gangaram, Balram
Distraction has been shown to be an effective technique for managing pain in children; however, few investigations have examined the utility of this technique with infants. The goal of the current study was to investigate the effectiveness of movie distraction in reducing infants' immunization distress. Participants were 136 infants (range=1-21 months; M=7.6 months, SD=5.0 months) and their parents, all of whom were recruited when presenting for routine vaccinations. The parent-child dyads were randomly assigned to either a Distraction or Typical Care control condition. Infant and adult behaviors were assessed using a visual analog scale and a behavioral observation rating scale. Results indicated parents in the Distraction group engaged in higher rates of distraction than those in the Typical Care group, whereas there was no difference in the behavior of nurses in the Distraction and Typical Care groups. In addition, infants in the Distraction group displayed fewer distress behaviors than infants in the Typical Care group both prior to and during recovery from the injection. Findings suggest that a simple and practical distraction intervention can provide some distress relief to infants during routine injections.
Parks-Stamm, Elizabeth J.; Gollwitzer, Peter M.; Oettingen, Gabriele
College students whose test anxiety was measured completed a working memory-intensive math exam with televised distractions. Students were provided with implementation intentions (if-then plans; Gollwitzer, 1999) designed to either help them ignore the distractions (i.e., temptation-inhibiting plans) or focus more intently on the math exam (i.e.,…
Smucny, Jason; Rojas, Donald C.; Eichman, Lindsay C.; Tregellas, Jason R.
Selective attention in the presence of distraction is a key aspect of healthy cognition. The underlying neurobiological processes, have not, however, been functionally well characterized. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine how ecologically relevant distracting noise affects cortical activity in 27…
Tuzuner-Oncul, Aysegul Mine; Kisnisci, Reha S
Vertical lengthening of the mandibular ramus is considered to be one of the least stable surgical procedures in the management of musculoskeletal maxillofacial deformities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of the mandibular ramus following vertical lengthening by means of distraction osteogenesis. This study included eight non-syndromic adult patients with temporomandibular joint ankylosis. The vertical height deficiency of the mandibular ramus and the ramus/condyle unit on the affected side were simultaneously reconstructed by transportation of a bone segment using distraction osteogenesis following gap arthroplasty. Lateral and posteroanterior (PA) cephalograms taken postoperatively before active distraction, at the completion of distraction and 6, 12, 24 months after distraction, were compared to evaluate the changes of the ramus height. In all cases the vertical ramus and ramus/condyle unit height loss were successfully reconstructed by distraction osteogenesis. There was no relapse in the amount of height gained by distraction osteogenesis at the 24 months follow-up review (p>0.05). Acute one stage vertical lengthening of the mandibular ramus is considered to be one of the least stable musculoskeletal procedures with relapse being a significant adverse outcome. In this clinical study gradual vertical lengthening of the ramus through ramus/condyle unit distraction osteogenesis has maintained the initial vertical ramus height gained for 24 months.
Vaseenon, Tanawat; Wattanarojanaporn, Thongaek; Intharasompan, Piyapong; Theeraamphon, Nipon; Auephanviriyakul, Sansanee; Phisitkul, Phinit
Foot and ankle problems in Thai monks have not been explored. This is an unshod population, and its members have a unique lifestyle living among others in our modern era. Beginning at their ordainment, they follow strict rules about barefoot walking, the amount of daily walking, and their sitting position, practices that theoretically can increase their risk of developing foot and ankle problems. To evaluate the prevalence ofcommon foot and ankle problems in Thai monks. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in combination with foot and ankle examinations of monks living in northern Thailand Foot morphology was examined using a Harris mat footprint. Results of the interviews and the foot and ankle examinations were evaluated. Two hundred and nine monks from 28 temples were included in this study. Common foot and ankle problems found included callosity (70.8%), toe deformities (18.2%), plantar fasciitis (13.4%), metatarsalgia (3.8%), and numbness (2.9%). Callosity and toe deformities were associated with prolonged barefoot walking over extended periods since ordainment (p < 0.05). The callosity was found on the forefoot (47.3%), lateral malleolus (40.7%), and heel (12%). Arch types were considered normal in 66.4% of cases, high in 21.6%, and low in 12%. No association was found between arch type and foot and ankle problems. Callosity and toe deformity were the most common foot and ankle problems found in Thai monks, especially those with prolonged period of barefoot walking and long-term duration ofordainment. The unique pattern of walking and sitting of Thai monks may have contributed to the development of those feet and ankle problems.
Stuelcken, Max C; Ferdinands, René E D; Ginn, Karen A; Sinclair, Peter J
This preliminary study aimed to quantify the magnitude of the peak shoulder distraction force during the bowling action of female cricket fast bowlers. An eight camera Vicon motion analysis system operating at 120 Hz recorded the fast bowling actions of 18 Australian female fast bowlers. A three segment inverse solution model of the bowling arm was used to calculate the shoulder distraction force. A large peak shoulder distraction force was recorded during the early stages of the follow-through of the bowling action. When normalized for body weight, the distraction force was within the range of values reported for baseball and softball pitchers, who are considered to be at high risk of shoulder injury. Therefore, the relative importance of the peak shoulder distraction force in the fast bowling action for the development of shoulder pain in female cricket fast bowlers warrants further investigation.
Espinosa, Norman; Wirth, Stephan Hermann
Total ankle replacement has become a popular treatment of symptomatic end-stage ankle osteoarthritis. Contemporary total ankle replacement systems provide more anatomic and biomechanically sound function. However, longevity is still limited and long-term results of modern total ankle replacement designs are not available. In the case of failure, conversion into arthrodesis has remained the treatment of choice but at the cost of hindfoot function and potential degeneration of the adjacent joints. Thus, revision total ankle replacement by exchange of the prosthetic components represents an attractive solution. This article focuses on revision total ankle replacement and conversion to ankle arthrodesis.
Giannini, Sandro; Chiarello, Eugenio; Persiani, Valentina; Luciani, Deianira; Cadossi, Matteo; Tedesco, Giuseppe
The incidence of ankle fractures (AFs) in the elderly is rising due to the increase in life expectancy. Rather than directly related to osteoporosis, AFs are a predictor of osteoporotic fractures in other sites. In women AFs are associated with weight and BMI. AFs are difficult to categorize; therapeutic options are non-operative treatment with plaster casts or surgical treatment with Kirschner's wires, plates and screws. The choice of treatment should be based not only on the fracture type but also on the local and general comorbidity of the patient. Considering the new evidence that postmenopausal women with AFs have disrupted microarchitecture and decreased stiffness of the bone compared with women with no fracture history, in our opinion low-trauma AFs should be considered in a similar way to the other classical osteoporotic fractures.
Corredera, Cristina; Iglesias, Maribel; Hernández-Martín, Angela; Colmenero, Isabel; Dilme, Elisabet; Torrelo, Antonio
We report a girl with lipophagic lobular panniculitis of unknown origin located on her ankles leading to circumferential fat atrophy of the ankles, a condition usually referred to as "annular lipoatrophy of the ankles." According to our patient's features and five additional cases reported so far, we conclude that this condition is actually an end-stage manifestation of an idiopathic lobular panniculitis of children localized to the lower part of the lower limbs. An association with some autoimmune manifestations is highlighted. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Roukis, Thomas S
The Salto Talaris XT Revision Ankle Prosthesis is an anatomically designed fixed-bearing prosthesis available in the United States based on the design of previous Salto systems. The Salto Talaris XT Revision Ankle Prosthesis design optimizes surface area, cortical contact, and ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene conformity. Two tibial component designs, both with the same base plate dimensions, are available, the standard conical fixation plug affixed to a short keel and a long-stemmed version. The author presents an overview of the Salto Talaris XT Revision Ankle Prosthesis surgical technique and pearls for successful application.
Hardaker, W T; Margello, S; Goldner, J L
The theatrical dancer is a unique combination of athlete and artist. The physical demands of dance class, rehearsal, and performance can lead to injury, particularly to the foot and ankle. Ankle sprains are the most common acute injury. Chronic injuries predominate and relate primarily to the repeated impact loading of the foot and ankle on the dance floor. Contributing factors include anatomic variation, improper technique, and fatigue. Early and aggressive conservative management is usually successful and surgery is rarely indicated. Orthotics play a limited but potentially useful role in treatment. Following treatment, a structured rehabilitation program is fundamental to the successful return to dance.
Michael, Junitha M; Golshani, Ashkahn; Gargac, Shawn; Goswami, Tarun
Until the 1970s ankle arthrodesis was considered to be the "gold-standard" to treat arthritis. But the low fusion rate of ankle arthrodeses along with the inability to achieve normal range of motion led to the growing interest in the development of total ankle replacements. Though the short-term outcomes were good, their long-term outcomes were not as promising. To date, most models do not exactly mimic the anatomical functionality of a natural ankle joint. Therefore, research is being conducted worldwide to either enhance the existing models or develop new models while understanding the intricacies of the joint more precisely. This paper reviews the anatomical and biomechanical aspects of the ankle joint. Also, the evolution and comparison of clinical outcomes of various total ankle replacements are presented.
Farjadian, Amir B; Nabian, Mohsen; Hartman, Amber; Corsino, Johnathan; Mavroidis, Constantinos; Holden, Maureen K
An estimated of 2,000,000 acute ankle sprains occur annually in the United States. Furthermore, ankle disabilities are caused by neurological impairments such as traumatic brain injury, cerebral palsy and stroke. The virtually interfaced robotic ankle and balance trainer (vi-RABT) was introduced as a cost-effective platform-based rehabilitation robot to improve overall ankle/balance strength, mobility and control. The system is equipped with 2 degrees of freedom (2-DOF) controlled actuation along with complete means of angle and torque measurement mechanisms. Vi-RABT was used to assess ankle strength, flexibility and motor control in healthy human subjects, while playing interactive virtual reality games on the screen. The results suggest that in the task with 2-DOF, subjects have better control over ankle's position vs. force.
Williamson, Emilie R C; Demetracopoulos, Constantine A; Ellis, Scott J
Few reports in the literature have described the conversion of a surgically fused ankle to a total ankle replacement. The takedown of an autofusion and conversion to a prosthesis has not been described. We report the case of a patient with severe rheumatoid arthritis with an ankle autofusion fixed in equinus and severe talonavicular arthritis that was converted to ankle replacement using the Salto XT revision system. We describe the reasons why the decision was made to perform total ankle arthroplasty while concomitantly fusing the talonavicular joint, and discuss the rationale of the various surgical treatment options considered. We describe the clinical and radiographic outcomes achieved in this case. At 12 months post-operatively the patient reported significant reduction of pain, increased FAOS scores and had increased ankle range of motion.
Ames, B N; Gold, L S
Entering a new millennium seems a good time to challenge some old ideas, which in our view are implausible, have little supportive evidence, and might best be left behind. In this essay, we summarize a decade of work, raising four issues that involve toxicology, nutrition, public health, and government regulatory policy. (a) Paracelsus or parascience: the dose (trace) makes the poison. Half of all chemicals, whether natural or synthetic, are positive in high-dose rodent cancer tests. These results are unlikely to be relevant at the low doses of human exposure. (b) Even Rachel Carson was made of chemicals: natural vs. synthetic chemicals. Human exposure to naturally occurring rodent carcinogens is ubiquitous, and dwarfs the general public's exposure to synthetic rodent carcinogens. (c) Errors of omission: micronutrient inadequacy is genotoxic. The major causes of cancer (other than smoking) do not involve exogenous carcinogenic chemicals: dietary imbalances, hormonal factors, infection and inflammation, and genetic factors. Insufficiency of many micronutrients, which appears to mimic radiation, is a preventable source of DNA damage. (d) Damage by distraction: regulating low hypothetical risks. Putting huge amounts of money into minuscule hypothetical risks damages public health by diverting resources and distracting the public from major risks.
Behler, Oliver; Breckel, Thomas P K; Thiel, Christiane M
Several studies provide evidence that nicotine alleviates the detrimental effects of distracting sensory stimuli. It is been suggested that nicotine may either act as a stimulus filter that prevents irrelevant stimuli entering awareness or by enhancing the attentional focus to relevant stimuli via a boost in processing capacity. To differentiate between these two accounts, we administered nicotine to healthy non-smokers and investigated distractor interference in a visual search task with low and high perceptual load to tax processing capacity. Thirty healthy non-smokers received either 7 mg transdermal nicotine or a matched placebo in a double blind within subject design 1 h prior to performing the visual search task with different fixation distractors. Nicotine reduced interference of incongruent distractors, but only under low-load conditions, where distractor effects were large. No effects of nicotine were observed under high-load conditions. Highly distractible subjects showed the largest effects of nicotine. The findings suggest that nicotine acts primarily as a stimulus filter that prevents irrelevant stimuli from entering awareness in situations of high distractor interference.
Marchac, D; Arnaud, E
The wall separating the face and the cranium was broken by Paul Tessier and Gérard Guiot in the 1960s, making it possible to perform a combined operation around the orbits and forehead, and opening up close cooperation between plastic surgeons and neurosurgeons, especially for treatment of the major malformations such as hypertelorism of major facial retrusions. The principles of mobilization of the orbits to correct teleorbitism or orbital dystopia are recalled with reference to the different variations and with clinical examples. Facial advancement to correct the retrusions created by faciocraniosynostosis is explained with the many possible variants, combined with a intracranial approach or not, with or without a bipartition. The indications are discussed as is the risk linked to combined advancement of face and forehead. The progressive bone elongation principle introduced by Ilizarov for the limbs has been applied to the face at the mandibular level by McCarthy, with great success. The distraction of bone structures is now also applied at the level of the midface and makes it possible to overcome the retraction of soft tissues and lower the risk of relapse of facial retrusion. Many technical problems have still to be solved, but the results are already very promising. Many other applications of the distraction principle will be developed for the midface level, with other technical improvements such as the use of absorbable mini-plates and screws.
Wu, Ji; Xue, Jing; Huang, Rongrong; Zheng, Chao; Cui, Yuming; Rao, Shucheng
Excessive spinal distraction is a major cause of distraction spinal cord injury (SCI) during spinal deformity correction surgery. However, the lack of animal models of gradable and replicable distraction SCI has hampered research about how it occurs and how it can be prevented. The rabbit is a suitable choice for a model because it is more similar to humans than the rat, the most often used for studies of distraction SCI. The rabbit is readily acquired and reasonably affordable to maintain. The study aims to develop a gradable and replicable animal model of human lumbar distraction SCI. This is an animal laboratory study. We built a spine distractor designed to vary the percentage of spine distraction by changing the movement between the bony landmarks of the spine. Anesthetized rabbits underwent surgery to expose the vertebral segments from T12 through L4. The distractor was mounted onto the T12 and L4 vertebral segments, and distraction was effected by turning the distractor's central screw to 0% (control), 10%, 20%, or 30% of the length from the L1 to the L4 vertebral segments, with eight rabbits in each group. Cortical somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded, and neurologic function was evaluated before the distractor was mounted and after the distractor was dismounted. The rabbits were killed, and spinal cord samples were taken for biochemical, histopathologic, and stereologic studies. With increasing percentage distraction, the extent of distraction SCI increased as measured by recordings of cortical somatosensory evoked potentials, neurologic function, and biochemical, histopathologic, and stereologic studies. Our model can be widely applied to studies of the causes of and treatment for distraction SCI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stavrinos, Despina; Byington, Katherine W; Schwebel, David C
Distraction on cell phones jeopardizes motor-vehicle driver safety, but few studies examine distracted walking. At particular risk are college students, who walk frequently in and near traffic, have increased pedestrian injury rates compared to other age groups, and frequently use cell phones. Using an interactive and immersive virtual environment, two experiments studied the effect of cell phone conversation on distraction of college student pedestrians. In the first, we examined whether pedestrians would display riskier behavior when distracted by a naturalistic cell phone conversation than when undistracted. We also considered whether individual difference factors would moderate the effect of the distraction. In a second experiment, we examined the impact of three forms of distraction on pedestrian safety: (a) engaging in a cell phone conversation, (b) engaging in a cognitively challenging spatial task by phone, and (c) engaging in a cognitively challenging mental arithmetic task by phone. Results revealed that cell phone conversations distracted college pedestrians considerably across all pedestrian safety variables measured, with just one exception. Attention to traffic was not affected by the naturalistic phone conversation in Experiment 1, but was altered by the cognitively-demanding content of some types of conversation in Experiment 2. The content of the conversation did not play a major role in distraction across other variables; both mundane and cognitively complex conversations distracted participants. Moreover, no significant associations between individual difference factors and susceptibility to distraction emerged. Results may inform researchers, policy makers, and pedestrians themselves. Educational campaigns might discourage telephone conversations in pedestrian environments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sawada, Hiromi; Ogawa, Takuya; Kataoka, Keiichi; Baba, Yoshiyuki; Moriyama, Keiji
Maxillary distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a mainstream surgical technique for patients who have severe maxillary hypoplasia associated with craniofacial syndromes and cleft-related deformities. However, limited information about the biomechanical aspects of maxillary DO is available limiting broad utilization and improvements to the procedure. The objective of this study was to analyze force levels during the active distraction process and to investigate the relationship between distraction force and maxillary movement during Le Fort I maxillary DO using a rigid external distraction (RED) system. Microtension gauges were integrated into the distraction wires on each side of the RED system. Six patients with cleft lip and palate aged 12.8 to 23.5 years underwent strain gauge measurements during maxillary advancement with DO using an RED system. Lateral cephalograms were taken to measure maxillary horizontal, vertical, and linear movements after DO. The average linear maxillary movement was 11.2 mm (range 8.5-15.9 mm). The applied forces ranged from 13.4 to 26.8 N. The distance of maxillary movement was proportional to the distraction force. The measurement of distraction forces during DO provides important information with which to establish appropriate protocols. Patients requiring more advancement may require more distraction force. However, other factors such as scarring, patient anatomy, surgical freedom of the osteotomized maxilla, and the like, may affect the required force during DO with the RED system.
Parmentier, Fabrice B. R.; Elsley, Jane V.; Ljungberg, Jessica K.
Unexpected events often distract us. In the laboratory, novel auditory stimuli have been shown to capture attention away from a focal visual task and yield specific electrophysiological responses as well as a behavioral cost to performance. Distraction is thought to follow ineluctably from the sound's low probability of occurrence or, put more…
Parmentier, Fabrice B. R.; Elsley, Jane V.; Ljungberg, Jessica K.
Unexpected events often distract us. In the laboratory, novel auditory stimuli have been shown to capture attention away from a focal visual task and yield specific electrophysiological responses as well as a behavioral cost to performance. Distraction is thought to follow ineluctably from the sound's low probability of occurrence or, put more…
Haupt, Ulrich; Völkle, Daniela; Waldherr, Christian; Beck, Martin
The case of intra- and retroperitoneal irrigation solution after hip arthroscopy of a 15-year-old girl is presented. She underwent hip arthroscopy for intra-articular adhesiolysis after previous surgical dislocation of the hip for the treatment of femoroacetabular impingement. Arthroscopy was performed in the lateral decubitus position without traction to debride the peripheral joint compartment. The irrigation pressure was set at 40 mm Hg. There were no intraoperative complications. By the end of surgery, the anesthesiologist reported a drop in the patient's body temperature from 36.3 degrees to 34.5 degrees C. Postoperatively, she complained about abdominal swelling and discomfort. Abdominal sonography revealed approximately 2 to 3 L of intra- and retroperitoneal liquid, which was considered to be irrigation fluid. The irrigation fluid was absorbed within 16 hours without further treatment. The only possible way the irrigation fluid could have flown was a retroperitoneal course along the iliopsoas muscle and the iliac vessels with intraperitoneal perforation along their course. We observed at arthroscopies that irrigation pressure incidentally can rise to 140 mm Hg when leaking of fluid through the portals occurs. Intra-abdominal fluid is a potentially devastating complication. A sudden drop of body temperature has to raise suspicion for intra-abdominal leaking of irrigation fluid.
Steed, Jeremiah T; Drexler, Kathlyn; Wooldridge, Adam N; Ferguson, Matthew
Arthroscopic rotator cuff tendon repair is a common elective procedure performed by trained orthopaedic surgeons with a relatively low complication rate. Specifically, isolated neuropraxia of the anterior interosseous nerve (AIN) is a very rare complication of shoulder arthroscopy. An analysis of peer-reviewed published literature revealed only three articles reporting a total of seven cases that describe this specific complication following standard shoulder arthroscopic procedures. This article reports on three patients diagnosed with AIN neuropraxia following routine shoulder arthroscopy done by a single surgeon within a three-year period. All three patients also underwent open biceps tenodesis immediately following completion of the arthroscopic procedures. The exact causal mechanism of AIN neuropraxia following shoulder arthroscopy with biceps tenodesis is not known. This case report reviews possible mechanisms with emphasis on specific factors that make a traction injury the most likely etiology in these cases. We critically analyze our operating room setup and patient positioning practices in light of the existing biomechanical and cadaveric research to propose changes to our standard practices that may help to reduce the incidence of this specific postoperative complication in patients undergoing elective shoulder arthroscopy with biceps tenodesis.
Pitman, M I; Nainzadeh, N; Ergas, E; Springer, S
With the increase in the use of shoulder arthroscopy in the past decade, there has been an increased awareness of complications. Reports of the occurrence of transient neuropraxia indicate an incidence of 10%-30%. The recording of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) for the study and functional monitoring of the sensory pathway is well accepted as a reproducible method of monitoring peripheral nerve and spinal cord function during surgery. SEPs were recorded during shoulder arthroscopy in 20 patients to monitor the musculocutaneous nerve, ulnar nerve, and either the median or radial nerve. In all 20 cases, abnormal SEPs of the musculocutaneous nerve were demonstrated. In 16 cases, this was produced upon initial joint distention, and in 15 cases, by traction; in 11, by longitudinal traction of greater than or equal to 12 lb, and in six by perpendicular traction of greater than or equal to 7 lb. In 10 patients, there were varying combinations of median, ulnar, and radial nerve involvement. There were two cases of clinical neuropraxia in this series. One resolved in 24 h and one in 48 h. The conclusion is that there is a real potential for neurologic damage during shoulder arthroscopy and that the musculocutaneous nerve is the most vulnerable. Factors responsible include joint distention, excessive traction, and extravasation of fluid. The use of SEPs provides a reliable means for monitoring the neurologic status of the extremity during shoulder arthroscopy.
Wooldridge, Adam N.
Arthroscopic rotator cuff tendon repair is a common elective procedure performed by trained orthopaedic surgeons with a relatively low complication rate. Specifically, isolated neuropraxia of the anterior interosseous nerve (AIN) is a very rare complication of shoulder arthroscopy. An analysis of peer-reviewed published literature revealed only three articles reporting a total of seven cases that describe this specific complication following standard shoulder arthroscopic procedures. This article reports on three patients diagnosed with AIN neuropraxia following routine shoulder arthroscopy done by a single surgeon within a three-year period. All three patients also underwent open biceps tenodesis immediately following completion of the arthroscopic procedures. The exact causal mechanism of AIN neuropraxia following shoulder arthroscopy with biceps tenodesis is not known. This case report reviews possible mechanisms with emphasis on specific factors that make a traction injury the most likely etiology in these cases. We critically analyze our operating room setup and patient positioning practices in light of the existing biomechanical and cadaveric research to propose changes to our standard practices that may help to reduce the incidence of this specific postoperative complication in patients undergoing elective shoulder arthroscopy with biceps tenodesis. PMID:28567319
Bamps, Sven; Renson, Daan; Nijs, Stefaan; Sermon
Introduction: Arthroscopy has become a major diagnostic tool and treatment option for shoulder pathology. However rare, respiratory complications such as a pneumothorax have been reported in patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy. Surgery - as well as anesthesiology-related factors and respiratory comorbidity have been hypothesized to intervene in the onset of respiratory complications. Case Report: We report the case of a 42-year-old male patient who underwent an arthroscopy of the left shoulder. The anesthesia, the surgical procedure as well as the post-operative course went uncomplicated. The patients were discharged 6 h after the end of the surgical procedure. 4 h after discharge, however, the patient developed severe respiratory distress and signs of hemodynamic shock due to an ipsilateral (tension) post-operative pneumothorax. The available literature is reviewed focusing on the possible pathogenic mechanisms implying the development of this complication. Conclusion: The presence of a pneumothorax after shoulder arthroscopy is a rare but dangerous complication. It can primarily be attributed to rupture of parietal pleura, rupture of visceral pleura, and alveolar rupture or trauma during anesthesia. In our patient, we speculate that a rupture of parietal pleura was the underlying cause. This can be related to the surgical methodology (portal placement and continuous pump infusion with intermittent suction) and subacromial distention used during the procedure. Awareness, prompt recognition, and treatment are necessary. PMID:28164043
Emphysematous osteomyelitis is a rare but serious condition which is often associated with a fatal outcome. The typical appearances of emphysematous osteomyelitis are clusters of small gas bubbles within the medullary cavity. We report a case of a 62-year-old male who presented with emphysematous osteomyelitis due to hematogenous spread of Escherichia coli from the knee after arthroscopy. PMID:27651965
Zanotti, Gerardo; Comba, Fernando; Genovesi, Eduardo; Buttaro, Martin; Piccaluga, Francisco
Aim: We purposed to describe the surgical technique and preliminary outcomes of combined arthroscopic and periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) for the treatment of non-arthritic hip dysplasia. Methods: Between May and August 2015, 4 patients (3 female, 1 male) with an average age of 29 years old (range; 22-33) had undergone one-stage hip arthroscopy and periacetabular osteotomy. Primary symptom was pain associated with instability. Upon radiographic examination, mean lateral center-edge angle of Wiberg was 12° (range; 7°-18°). Intra-articular findings were computed and primary outomes were as follows: radiographic angular correction; time to healing after pelvis osteotomy and functional results according to Merle D’Aubigné Score. Results: Minimum follow-up was 6 months whereas maximum was 9 months. Mean surgical time was 98 minutes for hip arthroscopy and 132 minutes for the osteotomy. In all cases, a lesion of the antero-superior labrum and the chondro-labral junction was found and repaired. After correction, overall postoperative center-edge angle was 29° (range; 25°-35°). Bone healing was certified in all cases at 6 months postoperatively. Overall Merle D’Aubigné Score was 17/18 points. Conclusion: Combined treatment of non-arthritic hip dysplasia with hip arthroscopy and PAO obtained good clinical and radiological outcomes. Former arthroscopy enables the diagnosis of cartilage lesions and intra-articular pathology as well as it aids in proceeding or not to an open correction.
Howell, Stephen M
Arthroscopy of the osteoarthritic knee is a common and costly practice with limited and specific indications. The extent of osteoarthritis (OA) is determined by joint space narrowing, which is best measured on a weight-bearing radiograph of the knee in 30° or 45° of flexion. The patient older than 40 years with a normal joint space should have a magnetic resonance image taken to rule out focal cartilage wear and avascular necrosis before recommending arthroscopy. Randomized controlled trials of patients with joint space narrowing have shown that outcomes after arthroscopic lavage or debridement are no better than those after a sham procedure (placebo effect), and that arthroscopic surgery provides no additional benefit to physical and medical therapy. The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons guideline on the Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Knee (2008) recommended against performing arthroscopy with a primary diagnosis of OA of the knee, with the caveat that partial meniscectomy or loose body removal is an option in patients with OA that have primary mechanical signs and symptoms of a torn meniscus and/or loose body. There is no evidence that removal of loose debris, cartilage flaps, torn meniscal fragments, and inflammatory enzymes have any pain relief or functional benefit in patients that have joint space narrowing on standing radiographs. Many patients with joint space narrowing are older with multiple medical comorbidities. Consider the complications and consequences when recommending arthroscopy to treat the painful osteoarthritic knee without mechanical symptoms, as there is no proven clinical benefit.