... gene is found in much lower percentages of African Americans with ankylosing spondylitis, and in ankylosing spondylitis patients ... is just one COX-2 inhibitor on the market: celecoxib. Gastroenterologist. A medical doctor who specializes in ...
... spondylitis may occur with other conditions, such as: Psoriasis Ulcerative colitis or Crohn disease Recurring or chronic ... people with ankylosing spondylitis may have problems with: Psoriasis, a chronic skin disorder Inflammation in the eye ( ...
Ankylosing spondylitis belongs to a group of rheumatic diseases known as the spondyloarthropathies (SpA), which show a strong association with the genetic marker HLA-B27. Inflammatory back pain and stiffness are prominent early in the disease, whereas chronic, aggressive disease may produce pain and marked axial immobility or deformity. Modern medicine has no established treatment for it. From the Ayurvedic perspective, the disease can fall under amavata, which may be effectively managed when intervention is started in its early stages. Niruha basthi with Balaguduchyadi yoga, combined by Shamana treatment with Rasnerandadi kwatha and Simhanada guggulu have been found effective in curbing its progression. This article presents a single case report in which these treatments achieved considerable success. PMID:21547050
Ankylosing spondylitis belongs to a group of rheumatic diseases known as the spondyloarthropathies (SpA), which show a strong association with the genetic marker HLA-B27. Inflammatory back pain and stiffness are prominent early in the disease, whereas chronic, aggressive disease may produce pain and marked axial immobility or deformity. Modern medicine has no established treatment for it. From the Ayurvedic perspective, the disease can fall under amavata, which may be effectively managed when intervention is started in its early stages. Niruha basthi with Balaguduchyadi yoga, combined by Shamana treatment with Rasnerandadi kwatha and Simhanada guggulu have been found effective in curbing its progression. This article presents a single case report in which these treatments achieved considerable success.
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Sari, İsmail; Öztürk, Mehmet Akif; Akkoç, Nurullah
Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic, inflammatory, rheumatic disease that can reduce the quality of life and increase the risk of disability and mortality. It also causes direct and indirect economic losses due to health expenses and as a result of workforce loss. Management of this disease consists of pharmacological and nonpharmacological modalities. Until recently, pharmacological treatment options have been very limited. However, development of novel biological drugs revolutionized the management of this disease. The aim of this review article is to present an updated overview of the pharmacologic treatment of ankylosing spondylitis. Nonpharmacological treatment modalities including physiotherapy and exercise are only briefly mentioned and surgical treatment is not discussed.
Diethelm, U; Schüler, G
Based on the literature we describe the prognosis and natural history of ankylosing spondylitis. The data on mortality are controversial and it seems that only a small group of patient show a decreased survival. It is a chronic disease with most prominent features of pain and increasing stiffness during the first decade. After a course of 40 years 90% of patients have none or only mild disability. Generally quality of life is slightly reduced. Most patients remain engaged in full-time employment, but job adaptations are often unavoidable and vocational counseling seems to be worthwhile.
The diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis is often delayed due to ambiguous clinical manifestations and strict diagnostic criteria. However, imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging have been found effective for the early diagnosis of non-radiographic sacroiliitis. New tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors have good efficacy for patients with persistently high disease activity despite conventional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug treatment. Thus, early diagnosis and aggressive treatments are essential for ankylosing spondylitis patients. Because many patients complain of musculoskeletal pains, especially around the sacroiliac joint area, hip specialists should be informed of up-to-date knowledge. In this review, we discuss new diagnostic criteria for ankylosing spondylitis, administration methods of TNF-α inhibitors, and the long-term follow-up results for patients treated with TNF-α inhibitors. PMID:27536570
Ostergaard, Mikkel; Lambert, Robert G W
Imaging is an integral part of the management of patients with ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis. Characteristic radiographic and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings are key in the diagnosis. Radiography and MRI are also useful in monitoring the disease. Radiography is the conventional, albeit quite insensitive, gold standard method for assessment of structural damage in spine and sacroiliac joints, whereas MRI has gained a decisive role in monitoring disease activity in clinical trials and practice. MRI may also, if ongoing research demonstrates a sufficient reliability and sensitivity to change, become a new standard method for assessment of structural damage. Ultrasonography allows visualization of peripheral arthritis and enthesitis, but has no role in the assessment of axial manifestations. Computed tomography is a sensitive method for assessment of structural changes in the spine and sacroiliac joints, but its clinical utility is limited due to its use of ionizing radiation and lack of ability to assess the soft tissues. It is exciting that with continued dedicated research and the rapid technical development it is likely that even larger improvements in the use of imaging may occur in the decade to come, for the benefit of our patients.
Sieper, J; Braun, J; Rudwaleit, M; Boonen, A; Zink, A
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a complex, potentially debilitating disease that is insidious in onset, progressing to radiological sacroiliitis over several years. Patients with symptomatic AS lose productivity owing to work disability and unemployment, have a substantial use of healthcare resources, and reduced quality of life. The pathogenesis of AS is poorly understood. However, immune mediated mechanisms involving human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B27, inflammatory cellular infiltrates, cytokines (for example, tumour necrosis factor α and interleukin 10), and genetic and environmental factors are thought to have key roles. The detection of sacroiliitis by radiography, magnetic resonance imaging, or computed tomography in the presence of clinical manifestations is diagnostic for AS, although the presence of inflammatory back pain plus at least two other typical features of spondyloarthropathy (for example, enthesitis and uveitis) is highly predictive of early AS. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) effectively relieve inflammatory symptoms and are presently first line drug treatment. However, NSAID treatment has only a symptomatic effect and probably does not alter the disease course. For symptoms refractory to NSAIDs, second line treatments, including corticosteroids and various disease modifying antirheumatic drugs, are employed but are of limited benefit. Emerging biological therapies target the inflammatory processes underlying AS, and thus, may favourably alter the disease process, in addition to providing symptom relief. PMID:12381506
Gouveia, Enéias Bezerra; Elmann, Dório; Morales, Maira Saad de Ávila
The present article reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of ankylosing spondylitis and its association with ocular changes. The authors used the PubMed (MEDLINE), LILACS, and Ophthalmology Library databases. Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that usually affects the axial skeleton and can progress to stiffness and progressive functional limitation. Ankylosing spondylitis usually begins around the second to third decade of life, preferentially in HLA-B27-positive white males. Its etiology and pathogenesis are not completely understood, and its diagnosis is difficult. Clinical control and treatment are frequently satisfactory. Acute anterior uveíte is the most common extra-articular manifestation, occurring in 20%-30% of the patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Approximately half of the acute anterior uveíte cases are associated with the presence of the HLA-B27 antigen. It can be the first manifestation of an undiagnosed rheumatic disease, usually having a good prognosis and appropriate response to treatment. In conclusion, for better assessment and treatment of patients with uveitis, ophthalmologists and rheumatologists should work together.
Jethwa, H; Mann, S
We describe the case of a 45-year-old man with ankylosing spondylitis being treated with etanercept who presented with a 1 month history of abdominal pain. CT abdomen revealed an ileocaecal mass associated with an abscess, resulting in a laparotomy and right hemi-colectomy. Histology of the resected specimen showed the classical features of Crohn's disease. Etanercept was stopped and he was started on adalimumab. He is currently in clinical remission from both ankylosing spondylitis and Crohn's disease.
Nordström, Dan; Kauppi, Markku
Current classification criteria for ankylosing spondylitis do not allow diagnosis before radiographic changes are visible in sacroiliacal joints. The the new axial spondyloarthropathy (SpA) criteria include axial SpA without radiographic changes as well as established ankylosing spondylitis, recognizing them as a continuum of the same disease. This is of major importance as the burden of early SpA is comparable to that of later stage disease. Diagnosis relies on inflammatory MRI findings which is the most significant change compared to earlier criteria. Emerging data on the efficacy of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha blocking therapies already in early but also in established disease have given new promising alternatives for treatment of this often very cumbersome disease, that rarely responds to classic DMARDs.
Momeni, Mahnaz; Taylor, Nora; Tehrani, Mahsa
Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory condition that usually affects young men. Cardiac dysfunction and pulmonary disease are well-known and commonly reported extra-articular manifestation, associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). AS has also been reported to be specifically associated with aortitis, aortic valve diseases, conduction disturbances, cardiomyopathy and ischemic heart disease. The pulmonary manifestations of the disease include fibrosis of the upper lobes, interstitial lung disease, ventilatory impairment due to chest wall restriction, sleep apnea, and spontaneous pneumothorax. They are many reports detailing pathophysiology, hypothesized mechanisms leading to these derangements, and estimated prevalence of such findings in the AS populations. At this time, there are no clear guidelines regarding a stepwise approach to screen these patients for cardiovascular and pulmonary complications. PMID:21547038
Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel
We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease.
Fan, P T; Clements, P J; Yu, D T; Opelz, G; Bluestone, R
Peripheral blood T (SRBC rosette) and B (AgG- and C-receptor) lymphocyte subpopulations and responsiveness to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) were assayed in 40 patients with ankylosing spondylitis and in 55 normal subjects. There was no significant difference in the lymphocyte concentrations or responsiveness to PHA between the two groups. However, the percentages of T lymphocytes were significantly lower in the patients irrespective of their HLA typing. This was probably due to an increase in the 'null' population since the percentages of both the AgG- and C-receptor cells were normal. PMID:303501
Ankylosing spondylitis is one of the subgroup of diseases called “seronegative spondyloarthropathy”. Frequently, it affects the vertebral colon and sacroiliac joint primarily and affects the peripheral joints less often. This chronic, inflammatory and rheumatic disease can also affect the extraarticular regions of the body. The extraarticular affections can be ophthalmologic, cardiac, pulmonary or neurologic. The cardiac affection can be 2-10% in all patients. Cardiac complications such as left ventricular dysfunction, aortitis, aortic regurgitation, pericarditis and cardiomegaly are reviewed. PMID:27222669
Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Jackson, F I
A prospective study of bone scintigraphic findings has been carried out in 63 patients, firmly diagnosed as having ankylosing spondylitis. In addition to abnormal uptake of the radiotracer at the sacroiliac joints, a peripheral arthropathy has been a common finding, particularly in the proximal joints, occurring in up to 50% of patients. Increased uptake of radiotracer in the spine has also been found both diffusely and focally. Focal increases have been noted at the apophyseal joints in 40% of patients and in three patients with a sterile intervertebral diskitis, an unusual complication of this disease only diagnosed in two patients after bone scintigraphy.
Siddiq, A B; Hasan, S A; Abdullah, A M; Azad, S A; Khan, E H; Khasru, M R
Ankylosing spondylitis is the most common whereas ankylosing tarsitis is the least common subgroup of juvenile onset spondyloarthritides. In our recent study a male presented with ankle joint pain and swelling with limited movements and characteristic radiological changes including; periarticular swelling, thickened heel pad, hyperostosis and reduced ankle, calcaneo-cuboid and talo-navicular joint space for ankylosing tarsitis. He also had persistent inflammatory low back pain with radiological sacroilitis satisfying the clinical features for ankylosing spondylitis. The patient was treated with different anti-inflammatory agents including intra-articular methyl-prednisolone with short-term relief. Associated back pain was improved with spine mobilizing exercise.
Tan, Sovira; Yao, Jianhua; Yao, Lawrence; Ward, Michael M.
Ankylosing spondylitis is a disease characterized by abnormal bone formation (syndesmophyte) at the margins of inter-vertebral disc spaces. Syndesmophyte growth is currently typically monitored by the visual inspection of radiographs. The limitations inherent to the modality (2D projection of a 3D object) and rater (qualitative human judgment) may compromise sensitivity. With newly available treatments, more precise measures of syndesmophytes are needed to determine whether treatment can slow rates of syndesmophyte growth. We previously presented a computer algorithm measuring syndesmophyte volumes and heights in the 3D space of CT scans. In this study, we present improvements to the original algorithm and evaluate the gain in precision as applied to an anthropomorphic vertebral phantom and patients. Each patient was scanned twice in one day, thus providing two syndesmophyte volume and height measures. The difference between those two measures (ideally zero) determines our algorithm's precision. The technical improvements to the algorithm decreased the mean volume difference (standard deviation) between scans from 3.01% (2.83%) to 1.31% (0.95%) and the mean height difference between scans from 3.16% (2.99%) to 1.56% (1.13%). The high precision of the improved algorithm holds promise for application to longitudinal clinical studies.
Chary-Valckenaere, Isabelle; d'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Loeuille, Damien
Although the diagnosis and structural monitoring of ankylosing spondylitis relies classically on standard radiography, recent classification criteria and recommendations issued by the ASAS-OMERACT working group give considerable weight to modern imaging methods, most notably magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI and, more recently, ultrasonography, yield three major benefits: they ensure the early diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis in the absence of radiographic sacroiliitis, they provide therapeutic guidance at any time during the course of the disease, and they supply objective information on the degree of inflammation and response to treatment. Prospective longitudinal studies are under way to determine the respective roles for MRI and ultrasonography in the diagnosis and monitoring of axial and peripheral forms of ankylosing spondylitis. The introduction of whole-body MRI, new MRI sequences and positron emission tomography can be expected to further benefit the diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis.
Dougados, M; Dijkmans, B; Khan, M; Maksymowych, W; van der Linden, S.; Brandt, J
Management of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is challenged by the progressive nature of the disease. To date, no intervention is available that alters the underlying mechanism of inflammation in AS. Currently available conventional treatments are palliative at best, and often fail to control symptoms in the long term. Current drug treatment may perhaps induce a spurious state of "disease remission," which is merely a low level of disease activity. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are first line treatment, but over time, the disease often becomes refractory to these agents. Disease modifying antirheumatic drugs are second line treatment and may offer some clinical benefit. However, conclusive evidence of the efficacy of these drugs from large placebo controlled trials is lacking. Additionally, these drugs can cause treatment-limiting adverse effects. Intra-articular corticosteroid injection guided by arthrography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging is an effective means of reducing inflammatory back pain, but controlled studies are lacking. A controlled study has confirmed moderate but significant efficacy of intravenous bisphosphonate (pamidronate) treatment in patients with AS; further evaluation of bisphosphonate treatment is warranted. Physical therapy and exercise are necessary adjuncts to pharmacotherapy; however, the paucity of controlled data makes it difficult to identify the best way to administer these interventions. Surgical intervention may be required to support severe structural damage. Thus, for patients with AS, the future of successful treatment lies in the development of pharmacological agents capable of both altering the disease course through intervention at sites of disease pathogenesis, and controlling symptoms. PMID:12381510
Bilgen, I G; Yunten, N; Ustun, E E; Oksel, F; Gumusdis, G
We present the radiological features of a 42-year-old man with long-standing inactive ankylosing spondylitis (AS), demonstrating that arachnoiditis is a cause of a cauda equina syndrome (CES) in this disease. CT showed a dorsal arachnoid diverticulum causing scalloped erosion of the laminae, and punctate and curvilinear dural calcification. MRI revealed adhesion and convergence of the cauda equina dorsally into the arachnoid pouch, causing the dural sac to appear empty canal. To the best of our knowledge, dural calcification on CT is a new finding in AS, which may be related to the CES. Our findings support the hypothesis that chronic adhesive arachnoiditis with subsequent loss of meningeal elasticity may be the main cause of CES in AS.
Bal, Serpil; Bal, Kaan; Turan, Yasemin; Deniz, Gonca; Gürgan, Alev; Berkit, Işıl Karataş; Sendur, Omer Faruk
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the axial skeleton. In recent years, several authors reported an increased prevalence of sexual dysfunction among AS patients. We aimed to find out, whether the prevalence of erectile dysfunction among AS patients is different from age-matched healthy controls. Thirty-seven male patients with AS who were diagnosed according to the modified New York criteria and 67 normal healthy controls (NHC) were included in this study. Clinical characteristics of patients including age, disease duration and morning stiffness were noted. Disease activity was evaluated by using Bath AS disease activity index (BASDAI), functional statement was evaluated by using Bath AS functional index, and scores of spinal measurements were done by using Bath AS metrology index. Erectile function is evaluated using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) scoring system. Health-related quality of life was assessed by short form 36. The mean age of the patients and controls were 42.8 + 10.8 and 43.6 + 5.9 years (P = 0.666). The prevalence of erectile dysfunction in AS patients and NHC were 35.1 and 26.9%, respectively (P = 0.335). There was no statistically significant difference between IIEF domain scores of AS patients and NHC except for the sexual desire domain (P = 0.014). Duration of morning stiffness and BASDAI was negatively correlated with sexual desire and overall satisfaction; however, they have no negative impact on erectile function, orgasmic function and intercourse satisfaction domains of IIEF. In this report, we showed that only the sexual desire domain of IIEF was significantly lower in AS patients. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction among AS patients is similar to NHC, which is a finding contrary to previous reports. AS patients do not suffer from erectile dysfunction, they rather have problems of satisfaction from the intercourse.
Kobak, Senol; Sever, Fidan; Sivrikoz, Oya; Karaarslan, Ahmet
A 46-year-old male patient diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis presented to our polyclinic with complaints of pain, swelling, and limitation in joint mobility in both ankles and erythema nodosum skin lesions in both pretibial sites. The sacroiliac joint graphy and the MRI taken revealed active and chronic sacroiliitis. On the thorax CT, multiple mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathies were reported. Mediastinoscopic excisional lymph node biopsy was taken and noncalcified granulomatous structures, lymphocytes, and histiocytes were determined on histopathological examination. The patients were diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis, sarcoidosis, and Löfgren's syndrome. NSAIDs, sulfasalazine, and low dose corticosteroid were started. Significant regression was seen in the patient's subjective and laboratory assessments. PMID:24741443
Saleem, Sahar N; Hawass, Zahi
Objective. To study the computed tomography(CT) images of royal Ancient Egyptian mummies dated to the 18th to early 20th Dynasties for the claimed diagnoses of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and to correlate the findings with the archaeology literature.Methods. We studied the CT images of 13 royal Ancient Egyptian mummies (1492–1153 BC) for evidence of AS and DISH and correlated our findings with the archaeology literature.Results. The findings of the CT scans excluded the diagnosis of AS, based on the absence of sacroiliac joint erosions or fusion of the facet joints. Four mummies fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for DISH:Amenhotep III (18th Dynasty), Ramesses II, his son Merenptah, and Ramesses III (19th to early 20th Dynasties).The diagnosis of DISH, a commonly a symptomatic disease of old age, in the 4 pharaohs is in concordance with their longevity and active lifestyles.Conclusion. CT findings excluded the diagnosis of AS in the studied royal Ancient Egyptian mummies and brought into question the antiquity of the disease. The CT features of DISH during this ancient period were similar to those commonly seen in modern populations,and it is likely that they will also be similar in the future.The affection of Ramesses II and his son Merenptah supports familial clustering of DISH. The process of mummification may induce changes in the spine that should be considered during investigations of disease in ancient mummies.
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease of the spine (spondylitis) and sacroiliac joints (sacroileitis) associated in many cases with inflammatory affection of the peripheral joints (arthritis), entesises (entesitis), eyes (uveitis), intestine (enteritis) and aortic root (aortitis). AS is considered now as a prototype of diseases from the group of seronegative spondyloarthritis. AS is a hereditary disease. Predisposition to AS (90%) is associated with genetic factors the key gene of which is HLA-B27. As pathogenesis of AS is not still verified, three hypotheses are considered basing on HLA-B27 biology. The role of environmental factors involved in AS development (tension in enteses and infection) are discussed.
Olivieri, I; Gemignani, G; Balagi, M; Pasquariello, A; Gremignai, G; Pasero, G
The case is reported of a 42 year old white woman meeting currently used diagnostic criteria for both ankylosing spondylitis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). As found in a previously described similar case of a black man, HLA typing showed antigens associated with both SLE and seronegative spondyloarthropathy. This case thus supports the hypothesis that the two diseases occur together only when this rare combination of HLA antigens is present. Images PMID:2344214
Guan, Mingqiang; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Liang; Xiao, Jun; Li, Zhihan; Shi, Zhanjun
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an inflammatory rheumatologic disease characterized by inflammation and progressive structural damage of the affected joints. Hip involvement often results in severe deformities and significant impairment on function. Although, tremendous progress has been made in conservative management for AS, effective prevention strategies for hip involvement and long-term need for total hip arthroplasty (THA) remain indefinite. When hip involvement has progressed to intractable pain and disability, THA is still the most effective treatment strategy to relieve pain and restore function. However, certain AS-specific problems regarding "preoperative preparation," "intraoperative difficulties," "perioperative pharmacological management," "postoperative physiotherapy," "operation benefits," and "operation complications" need more concern and further discussion.
Hamilton-West, Kate E; Quine, Lyn
Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) is a potentially debilitating chronic condition that necessitates a biopsychosocial approach for successful long-term management. However, the psychosocial consequences of AS are not well understood. In this study patients (N = 68) reported impacts of AS across a wide range of life domains; negative impacts included physical effects of AS, changes in mood or personality, effects on social life and relationships with friends and family, low self-esteem, stigma and worry about the future; positive impacts included increased exercise, feelings of achievement and empathy, stronger relationships, slower pace of life and a more positive perspective. Implications for treatment are discussed.
van Tubergen, Astrid; Hidding, Alita
Physical therapy plays an important role in the overall treatment of ankylosing spondylitis. Apart from exercising at home, patients are advised to follow weekly group physical therapy. In addition, many patients often follow annual courses of in-patient physiotherapy or spa therapy in which exercises also play a central role. This chapter focuses on evidence for benefits of physical therapy and spa therapy in ankylosing spondylitis.
Carter, Shea; Lories, Rik J
Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic and severe inflammatory disease of the axial skeleton and the joints. Inflammation is associated with trabecular bone loss leading to osteoporosis but also with corcal new bone formation leading to progressive ankylosis of the spine and sacroiliac joints. This results in an apparent paradox of bone formation and loss taking place at sites closesly located to each other. Osteoporosis can be explained by the impact of inflammation of the bone remodeling cycle. In contrast, new bone formation has been linked to aberrant acvaon of bone morphogenec protein and Wnt signaling. In this commentary, we review recent data on this bone paradox and highlight recent advances including the effect of current drug therapies and the idenfication of new therapeutic targets.
Sandhya, P; Danda, Debashish; Danda, Sumita; Srivastava, Vivi M
Juvenile ankylosing spondylitis (JAS) is a chronic autoimmune disorder which causes considerable morbidity when left untreated; it occurs predominantly in men. We describe an Asian Indian woman who had JAS with phenotypic features of Turner syndrome (TS) and was found to be a mosaic for 45, X/46, X, psu idic (X) (p11) by karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies of peripheral blood. The absence of Y chromosome material was confirmed by FISH. Haplo-insufficiency of the X chromosome can predispose to autoimmunity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of JAS in association with mosaic Turner syndrome. This case highlights the possible effects of gene dosage in development of an autoimmune disease.
Yang, Chaoqun; Ding, Peipei; Wang, Qingkai; Zhang, Long; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Jianquan; Xu, Enjie; Wang, Na; Chen, Jianfeng; Yang, Guang; Hu, Weiguo; Zhou, Xuhui
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) resulting in back pain and progressive spinal ankyloses. Currently, there are no effective therapeutics targeting AS largely due to elusive pathogenesis mechanisms, even as potential candidates such as HLA-B27 autoantigen have been identified. Herein, we employed a proteoglycan (PG)-induced AS mouse model together with clinical specimens, and found that the complement system was substantially activated in the spinal bone marrow, accompanied by a remarkable proportion alteration of neutrophils and macrophage in bone marrow and spleen, and by the significant increase of TGF-β1 in serum. The combined treatment with a bacteria-derived complement inhibitor Efb-C (C-terminal of extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein of Staphylococcus aureus) remarkably retarded the progression of mouse AS by reducing osteoblast differentiation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that two important modulators involved in AS disease, TGF-β1 and RANKL, were elevated upon in vitro complement attack in osteoblast and/or osteoclast cells. These findings further unravel that complement activation is closely related with the pathogenesis of AS, and suggest that complement inhibition may hold great potential for AS therapy. PMID:27698377
Imrich, R; Rovensky, J; Zlnay, M; Radikova, Z; Macho, L; Vigas, M; Koska, J
Objective: To assess basal function and responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis during dynamic testing. Methods: Insulin induced hypoglycaemia (IIH) (Actrapid HM 0.1 IU/kg, as intravenous bolus) was induced in 17 patients and 11 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and body mass index. Concentrations of glucose, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) were determined in plasma. Results: Comparable basal cortisol levels were found in the two groups, with a trend to be lower in ankylosing spondylitis. In the ankylosing spondylitis group, there were higher concentrations of IL-6 (mean (SEM): 16.6 (2.8) pg/ml v 1.41 (0.66) pg/ml in controls; p<0.001) and TNFα (8.5 (1.74) pg/ml v 4.08 (0.42) pg/ml in controls; p<0.01). Glucose, insulin, ACTH, DHEAS, and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone did not differ significantly from control. The IIH test was carried out successfully in 11 of the 17 patients with ankylosing spondylitis, and the ACTH and cortisol responses were comparable with control. General linear modelling showed a different course of glycaemia (p = 0.041) in the ankylosing spondylitis patients who met the criteria for a successful IIH test compared with the controls. Conclusions: The results suggest there is no difference in basal HPA axis activity and completely preserved responsiveness of the HPA axis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. The interpretation of the different course of glycaemia during IIH in ankylosing spondylitis requires further investigation. PMID:15140773
Park, Won; Yoo, Dae Hyun; Miranda, Pedro; Brzosko, Marek; Wiland, Piotr; Gutierrez-Ureña, Sergio; Mikazane, Helena; Lee, Yeon-Ah; Smiyan, Svitlana; Lim, Mie-Jin; Kadinov, Vladimir; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Kim, HoUng; Lee, Sang Joon; Bae, YunJu; Kim, SuYeon; Braun, Jürgen
Objectives To investigate the efficacy and safety of switching from infliximab reference product (RP) to its biosimilar or maintaining biosimilar treatment in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods This open-label extension study recruited patients with AS who completed a 54-week, randomised controlled study comparing CT-P13 with RP (PLANETAS). CT-P13 (5 mg/kg) was administered intravenously every 8 weeks from week 62 to week 102. Efficacy end points included the proportion of patients achieving Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS)20. Antidrug antibodies (ADAs) were measured using an electrochemiluminescent method. Data were analysed for patients treated with CT-P13 in the main PLANETAS study and the extension (maintenance group) and those who were switched to CT-P13 during the extension study (switch group). Results Overall, 174 (82.9%) of 210 patients who completed the first 54 weeks of PLANETAS and agreed to participate in the extension were enrolled. Among these, 88 were maintained on CT-P13 and 86 were switched to CT-P13 from RP. In these maintenance and switch groups, respectively, ASAS20 response rates at week 102 were 80.7% and 76.9%. ASAS40 and ASAS partial remission were also similar between groups. ADA positivity rates were comparable (week 102: 23.3% vs 27.4%). Adverse events led to treatment discontinuation during the extension study in 3 (3.3%) and 4 (4.8%) patients, respectively. Conclusions This is the first study to show that switching from RP to its biosimilar CT-P13 is possible without negative effects on safety or efficacy in patients with AS. In the maintenance group, CT-P13 was effective and well tolerated over 2 years of treatment. Trial registration number NCT01571206; Results. PMID:27117698
Belachew, D A; Sandu, N; Schaller, B; Guta, Z
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) represents a chronic inflammatory bone disease of the axial skeleton that manifests as chronic back pain and progressive stiffness of the spine. It characteristically affects young adults with a peak age of onset between 20-30 years. In contrast to Western Europe and North America, the disease is rare in Sub-Saharan Africa where the majority of the population is HLA-B27 negative. Even in some African populations where HLA-B27 is prevalent (for example, in Gambia and Senegal, where 3-6% of the general population has HLA-B27), the disease is also said to be rare. However, some other genetic markers may be involved in the causation of AS in the HLA-B27 negative population, and when it occurs in this subgroup of patients it has a similar manifestation with HLA-B27 negative white patients and these patients rarely develop anterior uveitis. The clinical presentation of the disease in Africa is generally milder; most affected individuals do not have a family history of AS, the patients are older at onset of the disease, and the majority of them lack extra-articular manifestations such as anterior uveitis compared with the situation in Western Europe and North America. In conclusion, AS in sub-Saharan Africa seems to represent a subgroup of the disease, which may open the window to a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of the condition.
Masi, Alfonse T.; Nair, Kalyani; Andonian, Brian J.; Prus, Kristina M.; Kelly, Joseph; Sanchez, Jose R.; Henderson, Jacqueline
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is not fully explained by inflammatory processes. Clinical, epidemiological, genetic, and course of disease features indicate additional host-related risk processes and predispositions. Collectively, the pattern of predisposition to onset in adolescent and young adult ages, male preponderance, and widely varied severity of AS is unique among rheumatic diseases. However, this pattern could reflect biomechanical and structural differences between the sexes, naturally occurring musculoskeletal changes over life cycles, and a population polymorphism. During juvenile development, the body is more flexible and weaker than during adolescent maturation and young adulthood, when strengthening and stiffening considerably increase. During middle and later ages, the musculoskeletal system again weakens. The novel concept of an innate axial myofascial hypertonicity reflects basic mechanobiological principles in human function, tissue reactivity, and pathology. However, these processes have been little studied and require critical testing. The proposed physical mechanisms likely interact with recognized immunobiological pathways. The structural biomechanical processes and tissue reactions might possibly precede initiation of other AS-related pathways. Research in the combined structural mechanobiology and immunobiology processes promises to improve understanding of the initiation and perpetuation of AS than prevailing concepts. The combined processes might better explain characteristic enthesopathic and inflammatory processes in AS. PMID:22216409
Chorus, A; Boonen, A; Miedema, H; van der Linden, S.
Objectives: To assess the labour market position of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in relation to disease duration and to identify potential factors in relation to withdrawal from the labour force. Methods: A cross sectional mail survey was conducted among 658 patients with AS. Participation in the labour force was defined as having a paid job. The independent effect of duration of disease was examined by an indirect method of standardisation. A broad variety of risk factors were examined separately and in a combined analysis, including sociodemographic factors, disease related variables, coping styles, and work related factors. Attributable and preventable fractions were calculated from the combined analyses to assess the relative importance of the contributing factors. Results: Probability of participation in the labour force was similarly reduced in patients with AS with different durations of disease. Pacing to cope with limitations was the most relevant factor in increasing the risk of withdrawal from the labour force, accounting for 73% of withdrawals. Coping with limitations by often seeking creative solutions, high disease activity, increased age, and insufficient support from colleagues or management were also positively associated with withdrawal from the labour force. Technical or ergonomic adjustments of the workplace, working in large companies, and coping with dependency style through frequent acceptance were negatively associated. Of these factors, technical or ergonomic adjustment was the most relevant in terms of reducing the risk. Conclusion: Sociodemographic factors, disease related factors, coping styles, and work related factors contribute simultaneously to withdrawal from the labour force. PMID:12117674
Jiménez Balderas, F J; Robles, E J; Juan, L; Badui, E; Arellano, H; Espinosa Said, L; Mintz Spiro, G
We undertook a prospective study of 23 male patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) (New York Criteria), 18 HLA-B27 positive and 5 HLA-B27 negative, five of them had hyperuricemia. The following data of evolution were taken into consideration: age at onset of disease, time course of the disease, presence of urolithiasis, heart disease, flares of uveitis. Clinical activity and degree of disability were evaluated every one to 3 months; on each visit, every patient had determinations of serum and urinary uric acid levels, serum and phosphorus, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), serum protein electrophoresis, as well as X-ray films of the vertebral spine and pelvis. Three groups of patients were detected, all of them with equal age at onset, duration of disease, frequency of B27, peripheral arthritis, and leukocytosis. One group had hyperuricemia (5 of 23 patients, 80% of them HLA-B27 positive) and a lesser degree of clinical activity of the disease (p less than .001, a higher frequency of uveitis (40%, lower levels of serum gammaglobulins (p less than 0.05) and ESR (p less than 0.05), a lesser degree of ankylosis of the spine, and a better functional prognosis than the other groups. Another group (8 of 23 patients, 75% of them were HLA-B27 positive) had normouricemia and hyperuricosuria, and showed a higher frequency of fever (50%), an abnormal urinalysis, and urolithiasis (25%).
Lubrano, Ennio; Perrotta, Fabio Massimo
The treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) positively changed since the introduction of anti-TNFα drugs. These treatments were shown to reduce the symptoms and signs of the diseases and improve the quality of life. However, a variable percentage of patients do not respond to anti-TNFα or can exhibit a loss of response and, furthermore, despite anti-TNFα drugs’ proven efficacy in reducing peripheral radiographic progression in PsA, the impact in reducing radiographic damage in AS is still debated. Recently, the discovery of new pathogenic mechanisms paved the way to the development of new drugs that target other pro-inflammatory cytokines. In particular, the inhibition of interleukin (IL)-17, which is the principal cytokine produced by Th17 lymphocytes, a pro-inflammatory subset involved in both inflammation and new bone formation in AS and PsA, demonstrated promising results. The new molecule secukinumab, an IL-17A inhibitor, showed its efficacy and safety in phase III randomized clinical trials in AS and PsA and is the first non-anti-TNFα biologic approved for the treatment of AS, providing a useful alternative treatment strategy in both diseases. The aim of this article was to review the pathophysiological basis, the efficacy and the safety of secukinumab treatment in AS and PsA patients. PMID:27799780
Mathews, Michael; Bolesta, Michael J
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory spondyloarthropathy with the potential for progressive spinal stiffness that ultimately makes patients susceptible to spinal fractures with traumatic spinal cord injury from even low-energy trauma. Treatment of patients with AS and spinal fractures (AS+FX) is controversial because, although these patients need especially rigorous stabilization, surgery has been associated with an increased risk of complications and persistent neurological deficits. The purpose of this retrospective case series was to profile patients with AS+FX from a 19-year period within the authors' county hospital system, including differences of neurological status in patients treated operatively vs nonoperatively. The study group comprised 11 patients with AS+FX (9 men and 2 women; mean age, 63 years [range, 38-91 years]). The authors reviewed available clinical notes and imaging reports. Six patients had posterior operative fixation, and 5 were stabilized nonoperatively. By the time of either discharge or final follow-up, 3 of the patients treated operatively deteriorated neurologically (2 of them preoperatively) and 3 remained stable. Of the patients treated nonoperatively, 3 remained neurologically intact, 1 deteriorated, and 1 recovered completely. The most common complications in all patients were pneumonia and urinary tract infection. Operative and nonoperative management produced acceptable outcomes in most patients. The authors recommend individualized treatment, accounting for patient preferences and comorbidities.
Zambrano-Zaragoza, José Francisco; Agraz-Cibrian, Juan Manuel; González-Reyes, Christian; Durán-Avelar, Ma. de Jesús; Vibanco-Pérez, Norberto
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, though it is considered an autoimmune disease. HLA-B27 is the risk factor most often associated with AS, and although the mechanism of involvement is unclear, the subtypes and other features of the relationship between HLA-B27 and AS have been studied for years. Additionally, the key role of IL-17 and Th17 cells in autoimmunity and inflammation suggests that the latter and the cytokines involved in their generation could play a role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Recent studies have described the sources of IL-17 and IL-23, as well as the characterization of Th17 cells in autoimmune diseases. Other cells, such as NK and regulatory T cells, have been implicated in autoimmunity and have been evaluated to ascertain their possible role in AS. Moreover, several polymorphisms, mutations and deletions in the regulatory proteins, protein-coding regions, and promoter regions of different genes involved in immune responses have been discovered and evaluated for possible genetic linkages to AS. In this review, we analyze the features of HLA-B27 and the suggested mechanisms of its involvement in AS while also focusing on the characterization of the immune response and the identification of genes associated with AS. PMID:23970995
Shah, Rashmi; Perry, Lisa; Deodhar, Atul
Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder involving the sacroiliac joint, spine and less frequently the peripheral joints. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and TNF-α inhibitors are utilized to reduce signs and symptoms. Whether these agents slow disease progression, is still debatable. Secukinumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody against IL-17 that has been studied in patients with ankylosing spondylitis with promising results. It has demonstrated improvement in signs, symptoms, patient reported outcomes and functional status and has been well tolerated. The clinical improvement is also mirrored in the improvement in sacroiliac joint magnetic resonance imaging scans.
Vosse, D; de Vlam, K
Bone is a target in many inflammatory rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The generalized effect of inflammation on bone may result in a decreased quality of bone and is associated with an increased risk of fractures and deformities, both in RA and AS. RA is characterized by periarticular osteopenia, systemic osteoporosis and bone erosions. Periarticular osteopenia and bone erosions are mainly correlated with disease activity. Unlike postmenopausal osteoporosis, osteoporosis in RA is more characterised by marked loss of bone in the hip and the radius, while the axial bone is relatively preserved. In general, several cross-sectional studies documented a lower bone mineral density in patients with RA, with a two-fold increase in osteoporosis compared to age- and sex-matched controls and relates to an increased fracture risk. Several factors contribute to the increased risk: older age, little exercise, long-term use of corticosteroids, and high disability index. AS is characterized by an increase in bone fragility due to reduced bone mineral density. The reported prevalence of osteoporosis in AS patients varies largely. The large variation reflects the difficulties in assessing BMD in AS due to new bone formation. Bone fragility is also due to changes in structural properties resulting from inflammation-induced bone failure in the spine in combination with reduced capacity of shock absorption leading to vertebral fractures. Different types of spinal fractures in patients with AS are described, including wedging. Wedging vertebral fractures contribute to hyperkyphosis and impaired physical function. In contrast to RA , bone loss in AS is accompanied by new bone formation. The pathophysiology of osteoporosis in RA and AS probably is fundamentally similar, but with different clinical phenotypes. The implications for therapeutically intervening in its occurrence and progression might be fundamentally different.
Taylan, Ali; Sari, Ismail; Kozaci, Didem L; Yuksel, Arif; Bilge, Safak; Yildiz, Yasar; Sop, Gulten; Coker, Isil; Gunay, Necati; Akkoc, Nurullah
To evaluate the T helper 17 (Th17) axis and its relation to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha blockage and disease activity in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The study included 127 AS patients (100M/27F) and 38 (27M/11F) controls. Spinal mobility was assessed by the bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index (BASMI). Patients were also evaluated with the bath ankylosing spondylitis functional (BASFI) and bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index. Cytokines including IL-6, IL-12, TGF-β, IL-17A, and IL-23 were measured in serum sample using commercially available ELISA kits. Cytokines including IL-6, IL-12, TGF-β, IL-17, and IL-23 were significantly higher in the AS patients than the controls (P < 0.05). The Th-17-related cytokines were not different between patients treated with anti-TNF and conventional therapies (P > 0.05). Cytokines were also similar between patients with active and inactive disease (P > 0.05). On correlation analysis, IL-17 was correlated with IL-23 and IL-12 (P < 0.05) and IL-23 showed correlations with IL-12 and BASMI (P < 0.05). We found serum levels of Th-17-related cytokines to be significantly increased in the sera of AS patients. Disease activity and treatment type did not affect the level of these cytokines.
Braun, J; Baraliakos, X
New bone formation of the vertebral column is pathognomonic for ankylosing spondylitis (AS), while acute and/or chronic changes in the sacroiliac joints are relevant for diagnosis. The 'gold standard' for assessment of structural changes in AS are conventional radiographs, while MRI is useful to assess inflammation. Recent MRI studies have shown that the lower half of the thoracic spine is most commonly affected in AS. Scoring tools for spinal inflammation such as the ASspiMRI-a have been proposed, successfully used in large clinical trials and compared in a multireader experiment; none was finally preferred by OMERACT. Quantification of structural spinal AS changes is performed by the modified Stokes AS Spine Score (mSASSS), which evaluates lateral cervical and lumbar radiographs. Two years was identified as the shortest possible follow-up time based on the reliability and sensitivity to change of the mSASSS. A potential disadvantage of the mSASSS is that the thoracic spine is not included. Recent data based on the mSASSS have suggested that tumour necrosis factor blockers do not inhibit radiographic progression in AS. Since the mean radiographic change is reported to be less than 1 syndesmophyte over 2 years, the sensitivity to change of the mSASSS has been questioned. However, in one study where continuous non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs use was compared with on-demand use, a difference between these two methods of drug intake was reported. The face and construct validity of the mSASSS has been criticised because a score of ´1´ contains a mixture of osteodestructive (erosions) and osteoproliferative changes (squaring and sclerosis). A new scoring system, the RASSS, which concentrates only on bone formation and which includes the lower part of the thoracic spine is currently being evaluated. The relationship between inflammation and new bone formation in AS has recently been investigated. Low sclerostin and DKK-1 serum levels, both inhibitors of bone
Braun, J; Breban, Maxime; Maksymowych, Walter P
The therapeutic options for patients suffering from the more severe forms of spondyloarthritis (SpA) have been rather limited in recent decades. There is now accumulating evidence that anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy is highly effective in SpA, especially in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Based on the data recently published on more than 200 AS patients, and more than 100 PsA patients, this treatment seems to be even more effective than it is in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The two major anti-TNF-alpha agents currently available, infliximab (Remicade) and etanercept (Enbrel), are approved for the treatment of RA in Europe and in the USA. The situation in SpA is different from RA because there is an unmet medical need, especially in AS, because disease-modifying anti-rheumatic therapy is not available for severely affected patients. Thus, TNF blockers might even be considered first-line immunosuppressive treatment in patients with active AS who are not sufficiently treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). For infliximab, a dose of 5mg/kg was required, and intervals between 6 and 12 weeks were necessary for constant suppression of disease activity - a major aim also for long-term treatment. However, it remains to be shown whether patients benefit from long-term therapy and whether radiological progression and ankylosis can be stopped. The optimal doses of infliximab might well be determined individually. Allergic reactions and increased susceptibility to tuberculosis are rare side-effects which need to be recognized early. As it stands now, the benefits of anti-TNF therapy in AS seem to outweigh these shortcomings. The efficacy of etanercept was first demonstrated in PsA. A double-blind study has now been performed in AS - with similar results. There is preliminary evidence that both agents also work in other SpA such as undifferentiated SpA. Hopefully, both agents will be approved soon for the short
Sun, Li; Wu, Rui; Xue, Qin; Wang, Feng; Lu, Peirong
Abstract Background: Uveitis is the most common extra-articular manifestation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The prevalence and characteristics of uveitis in AS have been studied in previous literatures, whereas its associated risk factors have not been clarified. Therefore, this study analyzed the risk factors of uveitis in patients with AS. Methods: A total of 390 patients with AS who fulfilled the modified New York criteria were enrolled from January to December in 2015. The history of uveitis was accepted only if diagnosed by ophthalmologists. The medical records of the patients were retrospectively reviewed and associated information was collected, such as disease duration, HLA-B27, and the number of peripheral arthritis. Hip-joint lesion was identified by imaging examination. Meanwhile, biochemical examinations were performed to determine the patient's physical function. Results: Of 390 patients with AS (80.5% male, mean age 33.3 years), 38 (9.7%) had experienced 1 or more episodes of uveitis. The incidence rate for hip-joint lesion was obviously higher for patients with uveitis than the nonuveitis group (44.7% vs 22.2%; P < 0.01). The number of peripheral arthritis was also larger for the uveitis group than nonuveitis group (2.18 ± 0.23 vs 0.55 ± 0.04; P < 0.001). Meanwhile, patients with uveitis had a significantly higher level of antistreptolysin O (ASO) and circulating immune complex (CIC) than those without (P < 0.05 and P < 0.0001, respectively). However, there were no significant differences in disease duration, HLA-B27, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) between the 2 groups. Binary logistic regression results showed that ASO (OR = 12.2, 95% CI:3.6–41.3, P < 0.01) and the number of peripheral arthritis (OR = 4.1, 95%CI:2.6–6.3, P < 0.01) are significantly associated with uveitis in AS. Conclustion: This study provides some evidence that hip-joint lesion, the number of
Machado, Marina Amaral de Ávila; de Moura, Cristiano Soares; Ferré, Felipe; Bernatsky, Sasha; Rahme, Elham; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate treatment persistence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis who started therapies with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) and tumor necrosis factor blockers (anti-TNF drugs). METHODS This retrospective cohort study from July 2008 to September 2013 evaluated therapy persistence, which is defined as the period between the start of treatment until it is discontinued, allowing for an interval of up to 30 days between the prescription end and the start of the next prescription. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated by logistic regression models to estimate the patients’ chances of persisting in their therapies after the first and after the two first years of follow-up. RESULTS The study included 11,642 patients with rheumatoid arthritis – 2,241 of these started on anti-TNF drugs (+/-DMARD) and 9,401 patients started on DMARD – and 1,251 patients with ankylosing spondylitis – 976 of them were started on anti-TNF drugs (+/-DMARD) and 275 were started on DMARD. In the first year of follow-up, 63.5% of the patients persisted in their therapies with anti-TNF drugs (+/-DMARD) and 54.1% remained using DMARD in the group with rheumatoid arthritis. In regards to ankylosing spondylitis, 79.0% of the subjects in anti-TNF (+/-DMARD) group and 41.1% of the subjects in the DMARD group persisted with their treatments. The OR (95%CI) for therapy persistence was 1.50 (1.34-1.67) for the anti-TNF (+/-DMARD) group as compared with the DMARD group in the first year for the patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and 2.33 (1.74-3.11) for the patients with ankylosing spondylitis. A similar trend was observed at the end of the second year. CONCLUSIONS A general trend of higher rates of therapy persistence with anti-TNF drugs (+/-DMARD) was observed as compared to DMARD in the study period. We observed higher persistence rates for anti-TNF drugs (+/-DMARD) in patients with ankylosing
Raizada, Nishant; Rahaman, S H; Kandasamy, D
Summary Insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS) is a rare cause of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycaemia, which is known to occur in association with the use of sulfhydryl-containing drugs and autoimmune disorders. We describe a patient with hitherto an unreported association of IAS with ankylosing spondylitis. We have also performed and described a simplified method of polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation of an insulin bound antibody in the serum. Learning points IAS should be considered in differential diagnosis of endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycaemia. Ankylosing spondylitis can be associated with IAS apart from several other autoimmune diseases. Very high serum insulin levels (100–10 000 μU/ml) are frequently seen in IAS. When faced with very high serum insulin before suspecting insulinoma, it is advisable that PEG precipitation of serum be done to identify antibody bound insulin. A clinical suspicion of IAS can avoid expensive imaging and unnecessary surgery in affected patients. PMID:26527431
Lories, R J; Baeten, D L P
Rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis are common and severe chronic inflammatory skeletal diseases. Recognizing the differences rather than emphasizing similarities is important for a better understanding of the disease processes, the identification of specific therapeutic targets and in the long-term better treatment options for the individual patients. We discuss a number of pathophysiological differences between rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis by looking at the anatomical characteristics, differences and similarities in the autoimmune and autoinflammatory reactions, association with other immune mediated inflammatory diseases, structural outcome, and their potential significance for further therapeutic developments. Further research into the differences between these diseases should focus on the specific nature of the immune/inflammatory components, the role of resident cells in the joint and joint-associated tissues, the types and mechanisms of tissue remodeling and the characteristics of the articular cartilage. Better insights into their individual characteristics may lead to better therapeutic strategies, specific targets and useful biomarkers.
Krishnan, V. S. Gokul; Madhyastha, Sharath; Ramamoorthi, Kusugodlu; Acharya, Raviraj V.; Gopalaswamy, Vinaya
We present a case of pleural tuberculosis (TB) in a patient on infliximab for ankylosing spondylitis. A 36-year-old male presented to our hospital with low back ache of inflammatory type along with multiple symmetric inflammatory type of joint pain. Further clinical examination, laboratory and radiological investigations were suggestive of ankylosing spondylitis. He was initially treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs but citing poor response it was decided to initiate biologic therapy using infliximab (antitumor necrosis factor-alpha). Mantoux test and chest radiograph were done before the therapy to rule out TB. Following three doses of infliximab, patient came with complaints of fever and cough for 1 week. On investigation, it was found to be a case of pulmonary TB. This shows the importance of close monitoring of patient for TB among patients on infliximab even though the screening test has come out to be negative.
Madsen, Ole Rintek; Lindhardsen, Jesper
Ankylosing spondylitis is an inflammatory disorder primarily affecting the axial skeleton. The disease is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Structural changes in the heart, and arteriosclerosis secondary to inflammation may be of importance. The role of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and of anti-inflammatory treatment is unclear. Tumor necrosis factor inhibitors seem to increase cholesterol levels. Evaluation of the cardiovascular risk in these patients should be considered. Cardiovascular risk factors should be managed according to ordinary guidelines.
Ozkorumak, E; Karkucak, M; Civil, F; Tiryaki, A; Ozden, G
Sexuality is an important part of healthy life. Patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) may be vulnerable to sexual problems because of disease activity and comorbid emotional problems. However, sexuality is a scarcely studied subject in AS. The aim of this study is to compare patients with AS with healthy control. A total of 43 male patients, who referred to the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of the Karadeniz Technical University Farabi Hospital between May 2010 and July 2010, and were diagnosed as AS according to modified New York criteria, were included in the study. Control group consisted of healthy 43 age- and sex-matched male individuals with normal inflammatory levels. The AS patients were compared in means of sociodemographic variables and sexual function with Glombok-Rust Sexual Satisfaction Scale (GRSSS) and clinical interview. Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used to determine anxiety and depression levels, respectively. The disease activity and functional conditions were evaluated with the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI) and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDI). A total of 43 patients with AS and 43 healthy heterosexual male were included in the study. The total GRSSS score was significantly higher in patients with AS, whereas they also had significantly higher sexual complaint than healthy control. The diagnosis of sexual dysfunction according to DSM-IV was significantly higher in the patients with AS as well as depression and anxiety. In study group, GRSSS total score was modestly correlated with disease activity. The psychological status had close relation with sexual functions in AS. Overall assessment is required for complete evaluation in patients with AS.
Gundogdu, Baris; Yolbas, Servet; Yildirim, Ahmet; Gonen, Murat
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a systemic disease primarily characterized by the inflammation of sacroiliac joints and axial skeleton. Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a multisystem genetic disease which is characterized by cutaneous findings, most importantly café-au-lait spots and axillary freckling, by skeletal dysplasia, and by the growth of both benign and malignant nervous system neoplasms, most notably benign neurofibromas. In this case report, we present a 43-year-old male with AS and NF1. PMID:27597922
Wei, Cheng-Yu; Kung, Woon-Man; Chou, Yi-Sheng; Wang, Yao-Chin; Tai, Hsu-Chih; Wei, James Cheng-Chung
Abstract Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease involing spine and enthesis. The primary aim of this study is to investigate the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function and the association between ANS and the functional status or disease activity in AS. The study included 42 AS patients, all fulfilling the modified New York criteria. All the patients are totally symptom free for ANS involvement and had normal neurological findings. These AS patients and 230 healthy volunteers receive analysis of 5 minutes heart rate variability (HRV) in lying posture. In addition, disease activity and functional status of these AS patients are assessed by Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Global Score (BAS-G). Both groups were age and sex-matched. Although the HRV analysis indicates that the peaks of total power (TP, 0–0.5 Hz) and high-frequency power (HF, 0.15–0.40 Hz) are similar in both groups, the activities of low-frequency power (LF, 0.04–0.15 Hz), LF in normalized units (LF%), and the ratio of LF to HF (LF/HF) in AS patients are obviously lower than healthy controls. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein revealed negative relationship with HF. The AS patients without peripheral joint disease have higher LF, TP, variance, LF%, and HF than the patients with peripheral joint disease. The AS patients without uvetis have higher HF than the patients with uvetis. The total scores of BASDI, BASFI, and BAS-G do not show any association to HRV parameters. AS patients have significantly abnormal cardiac autonomic regulation. This is closely related with some inflammatory activities. Reduced autonomic function may be one of the factors of high cardiovascular risk in AS patients. PMID:27227940
Miller, Timothy L; Cass, Nathan; Siegel, Courtney
Ankylosing spondylitis is a disease in which inflammation of joints, most often in the axial skeleton, can lead to reactive fibrosis and eventual joint fusion with associated immobility and kyphosis. The disease often involves extra-articular features, such as uveitis and aortic regurgitation, as well as associated inflammatory conditions of the intestines. Its etiology is unknown. Ankylosing spondylitis most commonly presents in young males (15-30 years old) as persistent low back pain and stiffness that is worse in the morning and at night and improves with activity. The authors report the case of a young male athlete whose symptoms were initially incorrectly diagnosed as sacroiliac joint instability and dysfunction and later as a sacroiliac stress fracture before further workup revealed a seronegative spondyloarthropathy and the diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis. The patient was prescribed oral indomethacin daily by the attending rheumatologist and started on a slow progression of return to running, jumping, and weight lifting. Within 4 weeks of beginning this treatment, the patient had complete cessation of pain with the medication. At follow-up 1 year after graduation from his university, the patient was nearly symptom free and working in a non-heavy labor job. The purpose of this case report is to remind sports medicine physicians of the prevalence of rheumatologic diseases in general and ankylosing spondylitis in particular and of the various ways in which spondyloarthropathies may present in athletes. Increased suspicion may lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment, potentially reducing illness severity and duration and improving the performance of athletes with this condition.
Turan, Yasemin; Duruöz, Mehmet Tuncay; Bal, Serpil; Guvenc, Anil; Cerrahoglu, Lale; Gurgan, Alev
In this study, we evaluated fatigue by using the multidimensional assessment of fatigue (MAF) index in 68 ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. To determine the disease activity, functional status and quality of life, bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI), bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI) and Short Form 36 (SF36) were used respectively. Mander enthesis index (MEI) was used for evaluation of enthesitis. The mean age of the patients was 37.7 (11.1) years. The prevalence of fatigue was 76.5%. There were significant correlations between MAF and BASDAI (P < 0.001), BASFI (P < 0.001), MEI (P = 0.048), pain (P = 0.001), hemoglobin (P = 0.001), ESR (P = 0.035), dorsal Schober's (P = 0.009), occiput-wall distance (P = 0.048). Also MAF was correlated with all dimensions of SF36 except for social function and emotional role. BASFI was found to be the most significant correlated (P = 0.002) parameter with MAF. This study suggests that fatigue is an important symptom in AS and it seemed to occur in severe AS patients. It should appropriately be measured with respect to its intensity with appropriate measures, such as MAF. Moreover, fatigue may increase functional disability, which is already present as a feature of the disease.
Aggarwal, Rohit; Malaviya, Anand N
This study focuses on describing full spectrum of clinical, laboratory, and radiological characterization of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients in India. Data on 70 consecutive AS patients, seen at the rheumatology clinic in India, was prospectively obtained using investigator-administered questionnaires. Diagnosis was made according to the modified New York criteria. The core set of variables selected by Assessment in AS International society were obtained. The differences in clinical characteristics based on presence or absence of peripheral arthritis, gender, and juvenile (JOAS) vs. adult onset AS (AOAS) were evaluated. The male/female ratio was 5:1. The mean age of onset of symptoms and diagnosis were 23.6 and 32.5 years, respectively. Females had similar spinal indices and radiological damage as male counterpart. However, they had more common extra-articular manifestations and root joint involvement. The majority of patients consisted of AOAS (78.5%) and was clinically similar to JOAS. One or more peripheral joints were involved in 65.7% of patients, affecting predominantly the lower extremity (90.6%, knee 47.1%, and ankle 35.7%) in asymmetrical pattern (78%). Patients with peripheral arthritis had higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate, more frequent enthesitis, root joint, and whole spine involvement, suggesting more aggressive disease. Most common site of enthesitis was chondro-sternal junction (30%) and Achilles tendonitis (24.3%). The root joints frequently involved extra-axial joints. Uveitis was the most common extra-articular manifestation (25.7%). The predominant initial symptom was typical inflammatory low back pain (87.1%). Assessment in ankylosing spondylitis indices showed a moderately severe disease activity and damage with following values: mean Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, 3.2 (+/-1.8); mean Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, 2.3 (+/-2.0); and mean Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index, 3.15 (+/-2
Shaw, P J; Allcutt, D A; Bates, D; Crawford, P J
A case of cauda equina syndrome with multiple lumbar arachnoid cysts complicating ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is described. The value of computerised tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a non-invasive means of establishing the diagnosis is emphasised. In contrast to previously reported cases the patient showed neurological improvement following surgical therapy. Surgery may be indicated in some patients, particularly when there is nerve root compression by the arachnoid cysts and when the patient is seen early before irreversible damage to the cauda equina has occurred. Images PMID:2292702
Pease, C T; Fennell, M; Brewerton, D A
The polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) response to a chemotactic or chemokinetic stimulus is enhanced in men with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). This effect does not parallel the severity of disease activity or the size of the acute phase response, and it is independent of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug treatment. Polymorph function is normal in HLA-B27 positive brothers of probands with AS and in other HLA-B27 positive individuals in the absence of disease. Polymorph motility is also normal in patients with psoriasis vulgaris or Crohn's disease, indicating that enhanced PMN motility is not a non-specific consequence of all inflammatory disorders. PMID:2784306
Yildirim, Tulay; Solmaz, Dilek; Emul, Murat; Akgol, Gurkan; Yalvac, Dilek; Ersoy, Yuksel
[Purpose] This study aimed to compare the most common dominant affective temperaments in Ankylosing Spondylitis patients and investigate the relationship between the dominant affective temperaments and pain levels, disease activity, quality of life, current depression, and anxiety level in Ankylosing Spondylitis patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-one patients diagnosed with axial spondiloartropathy and forty-two age- and gender-matched control subjects were included in this study. Disease duration, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum C-reactive protein, pain by the Visual Analog Scale, disease activity by the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, functional status by the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index; psychological status by the Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory and overall health assessment by the Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life Scale were assessed in patients. The Turkish version of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Auto Questionnaire was used to determine the dominant affective temperament. [Results] There was no statistical difference in the distribution of temperament subtypes between patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis and the controls. Depressive, anxious, and cyclothymic temperament scores were higher in patients with high values on the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index and Visual Analog Scale. There was a correlation between anxious subtypes of affective temperament scores and the value of Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life Scale. Correlation analysis also found depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious temperament and psychiatric symptoms to be significantly related. [Conclusion] Affective temperament may contribute to symptoms of depression and anxiety in patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis and may increase disease activity and may reduce their quality of life. PMID:28356618
Bouvier, M; Tebib, J; Colson, F
This multicentric study concerns 43 cases of spondylodiscopathies considered, as far as evolution is concerned, according to their radiological aspect. Late erosive forms (33 cases) occur on a rigid spine, sometimes after a trauma (6 cases). The initial radiological sign may be the fracture of a syndesmophyte or of the posterior arch. The evolution of the signs (pinching, erosions, density) is variable: slow or rapid aggravation leading sometimes to an osteosynthesis, extended stabilization over several years, cure by presence of a syndesmophyte or a bony block which, beside an obvious mechanical etiology in most cases, predicts the intervention of an inflammatory factor, isolated or concomitant. Early erosive forms (3 cases) occur in a context of inflammation, on a healthy spine, and sometimes are multifocal and lead rapidly to the formation of bony blocks: they join directly in the evolution of ankylosing spondylarthritis. Pseudo-Pott and pseudo-dystrophic forms (7 cases) present a variable evolution and their interpretation remains debatable.
Raychaudhuri, Siba P; Deodhar, Atul
Ankylosing spondylitis is the prototype of immune-mediated inflammatory rheumatic diseases grouped under the term spondyloarthritis (SpA). An early diagnosis has now become increasingly important because effective therapies are available and anti-TNF drugs are even more effective if used in early stages of the disease. In ankylosing spondylitis, the 1984 modified New York criteria have been used widely in clinical studies and daily practice but are not applicable in early disease when the characteristic radiographic signs of sacroiliitis are not visible but active sacroiliitis is readily detectable by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thus there has been a need for new classification or diagnostic criteria to identify inflammatory spondyloarthritis at early stage of the disease. This led to the concept of axial SpA to include the entire spectrum of patients with axial disease both, with and without radiographic damage. New classification criteria for the wider group of SpA have been proposed by ASAS (Assessment of Spondylo Arthritis International Society); and the patients are sub-grouped into (1) a predominantly axial disease, termed axial SpA including AS and non-radiographic axial SpA; (2) peripheral SpA. The clinical course and disease process of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis remains unclear. However the development of the SpA criteria by ASAS particularly for axial SpA, is an important step for early diagnosis and better management of these patients.
SOLMAZ, Mustafa; BİNBAY, Zerrin; CİDEM, Muharrem; SAĞIR, Selim; KARACAN, İlhan
Introduction Ankylosing spondylitis (AS), which has an unknown etiology, inflammatory disorder, characterized by inflammation of the spinal joints and adjacent structures. It has a negatif effect on all aspects of a patients’s life: Physcally, psychologically and socially. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of AS on self-esteem and alexithymia. Method In this study, 50 patients from the department of physical therapy and rehabilitation with the diaognosis of AS who were under traetment and follow-up and 50 healty volunteers who matched for age and gender were taken. Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) were performed to both patients and control group. Results Compared to the control group, the anxiety and depression scores were higher in the patient group and the alexithymic characteristics were significantly higher, self-esteem scores were significantly lower in the patient group (p<.05). Conclusion Like all the other inflammatory chronic diseases, depression and anxiety are commonly seen in AS patients. Alexithymai and self-esteem of these patients should be considered carefully. More studies are needed on this regard. PMID:28360653
Karapolat, Hale; Akkoc, Yeşim; Sari, Ismail; Eyigor, Sibel; Akar, Servet; Kirazli, Yeşim; Akkoc, Nurullah
The objective of this non-randomised controlled trial was to evaluate the impact of group-based exercise programme and a home-based exercise programme on Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Indices, depression and quality of life in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Approximately 41 patients in a rehabilitation unit were divided into two groups, either group- or home-based exercise programme. Exercise sessions were performed three times a week for a period of 6 weeks. The patients were compared before and after the rehabilitation programme, with respect to Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Assessment Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and The Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). A statistically significant improvement was observed on BASDAI, BASMI and energy, pain, reaction of emotional and sleep subscores of NHP in both exercise groups after the exercise programme (p < 0.05). No statistically significant changes were detected in BASFI, BDI and social and mobility subscores of NHP in both exercise groups (p > 0.05). No statistically significant differences were found between the two exercise programmes (p > 0.05). Group and home-based exercise programmes are efficient in improving symptoms and mobility and had an important effect on quality of life in patients with AS. Home-based exercise programme, as it is cheaper, more easily performed and efficient, may be preferable for the management programme in AS.
Kara, Asude; Alatas, Emine Tugba; Celebi, Hilal Semra; Dogan, Gursoy; Dere, Yelda
Etanercept is a tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) antagonist with anti-inflammatory effects. It is used in the treatment of dermatologic and rheumatologic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, polyarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. However, etanercept has various cutaneous and systemic side effects. Herein, we report a case of generalized pustular eruption due to etanercept therapy in an ankylosing spondylitis patient and review pustular diseases. PMID:28058373
Duruöz, Mehmet Tuncay; Turan, Yasemin; Cerrahoglu, Lale; Isbilen, Banu
Our aim in this study was to investigate serum hyaluronic acid (HA) levels and the relationship between clinical parameters in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Approximately 30 patients with AS and 30 healthy individuals were recruited in this study consecutively. Cross-sectional study was planned, and demographic, clinical, functional, radiological, and laboratory data of patients were evaluated. Disease activity, functional status, and quality of life were assessed, respectively, with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), and Short-Form 36 (SF-36). Mander Enthesis Index (MEI) was used for evaluation of enthesis involvement. We examined serum concentrations of HA (ng/ml) in patients with AS and controls. The mean ages of patients and control group were 38.3 (SD=10.8) and 42.7 (SD=10.6) years, respectively. The mean of serum HA levels in AS patients was 40.4 (SD=34.8) ng/ml and in controls was 24.9 (SD=20.2). There was significant difference of HA levels between two groups (p=0.04). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between HA level and distance of hand-floor (r=0.444, p=0.014), modified lumbar Schober's (r= -0.413, p=0.023), distance of chin to chest (r=0.436, p=0.016), right sacroiliit grade (r=0.601, p<0.001), left sacroiliit grade (r=0.610, p<0.001), C reactive protein level (r=0.404, p=0.027), albumin (r= -0.464, p=0.010), C3 (p=0.449, p=0.013), and IgA levels (r=0.369, p=0.045). However, there was no significant correlation between HA levels with MEI, BASFI, BASDAI, and SF-36 (p >or= 0.05). Serum HA level was significantly higher in AS patients than controls. However, there was no significant correlation between serum HA level and disease-specific measures as BASFI and BASDAI; it had significant relation with spinal mobility limitation, sacroiliitis, and laboratory parameters related with acute inflammation. The serum HA level may be a potential biomarker of axial
Kaneko, Takahisa; Koyanagi, Izumi; Murakami, Tomohiro; Houkin, Kiyohiro
We report a case of a 61-year-old man with ankylosing spondylitis who showed cervical spine fracture. The patient had fallen down on the floor and presented with severe neck pain. He was treated conservatively with a hard neck collar in an emergency hospital because of C7 body fracture without dislocation. However, the follow-up radiographs demonstrated a progressive C6-7 anterior dislocation. He was referred to our hospital 6 weeks after the trauma. The 3D-CT reconstruction imaging revealed that the fracture extended from the C7 vertebral body to the C6 lamina via the bilateral C6/7 facet joints. The patient underwent C2-Th3 posterior fixation using pedicle and lateral mass screw techniques. The postoperative course was uneventful. He was discharged without any complication at 1 month postoperatively. The radiograph 3 months after surgery showed good bone fusion. Spine fracture with ankylosing spondylitis usually shows significant instability because of the long lever-arm of the fused vertebrae at the fracture level. Solid spinal fusions such as long posterior fusion or anterior-posterior simultaneous fusion are needed in such cases.
Oh, Jae-Sang; Shim, Jai-Joon; Lee, Kyeong-Seok
Fractures in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are often difficult to identify and treat. If combined with osteoporosis, the spine becomes weaker and vulnerable to minor trauma. An 83-year-old woman with a history of chronic AS and severe osteoporosis developed paraparesis and voiding difficulty for 4 days prior. She had been placed in the lateral decubitus position in a bedridden state in a convalescent hospital due to the progressive paraparesis. The laboratory findings showed CO2 retention in the arterial blood gas analysis. After the patient was transferred to the computed tomography (CT) room, a CT was taken in the supine position. Approximately half an hour later, the resident in our neurosurgical department checked on her, and the neurological examination showed a complete paraplegic state. She was treated conservatively and finally expired 20 days later. PMID:27437020
Sambrook, Philip N; Geusens, Piet
Bone is a target in many inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Inflammation leads to a wide range of changes in bone, and especially bone remodeling. In ankylosing spondylitis (AS) bone loss has been documented, but measuring bone density in the spine is hampered by new bone formation in syndesmophytes, periost and within the vertebrae. The risk of vertebral fractures is increased in AS. The diagnosis of vertebral fractures requires imaging and adequate evaluation of vertebral heights. In addition, in the ankysosed spine segments, additional imaging is often needed to diagnose spinal fractures at unusual locations (cervical spine) or in the posterior arch structures. Risk factors for vertebral fractures are helpful for case finding. Fracture prevention is indicated in high risk patients with AS, especially when they have already a vertebral fracture or in the presence of osteoporosis.
Masi, A T
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has a striking disease marker, i.e., HLA-B27, indicating the major genetic predisposition; however, expression of disease is also strongly influenced by age- and sex-related factors. Sex steroids studies suggest greater androgenicity in AS than normal control persons. Therapeutic interventions that normalize such sex steroid status have shown clinical improvements in males and females. Muscle histopathology in AS shows frequent changes early in disease consistent with neuropathic and myopathic mechanisms of a noninflammatory nature. Accepting the available, aggregate data, one may infer that sex steroid imbalance in persons susceptible to AS may target axial and proximal muscle tissues, resulting in relative functional hypertonicity. Such phenomenon, developing in preteen and younger adult ages, may contribute to peripheral and axial manifestations of enthesopathy in this disease by complex and currently unknown mechanisms.
Robinson, Philip C; Brown, Matthew A
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and spondyloarthritis are strongly genetically determined. The long-standing association with HLA-B27 is well described, although the mechanism by which that association induces AS remains uncertain. Recent developments include the description of HLA-B27 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms in European and Asian populations. An increasing number of non-MHC genetic associations have been reported, which provided amongst other things the first evidence of the involvement of the IL-23 pathway in AS. The association with ERAP1 is now known to be restricted to HLA-B27 positive disease. Preliminary studies on the genetics of axial spondyloarthritis demonstrate a lower HLA-B27 carriage rate compared with AS. Studies with larger samples and including non-European ethnic groups are likely to further advance the understanding of the genetics of AS and spondyloarthritis.
Kinsella, T.D.; Fritzler, M.J.; Lewkonia, R.M.
We compared in vitro lymphocytotoxicity (LCT) of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), obtained from patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and normal controls (NC). Assays were performed with antibacterial antisera prepared from AS- and NC-derived Klebsiella and coliforms Escherichia coli. LCT assessed by eosin staining was not significantly different in PBL of 12 AS patients and 28 controls when reacted with 3 Klebsiella and 1 E coli antisera. LCT assessed by /sup 51/Cr release was not significantly different for PBL of 20 age- and sex-matched pairs of AS patients and NC when reacted with 3 Klebsiella and 1 E coli antisera. Similarly, LCT-/sup 51/Cr of PBL of 15 matched AS and NC pairs was not significantly different for anti-K21, a serotype putatively implicated in Klebsiella-HLA-B27 antigenic cross-reactivity. Our results do not support the notion of molecular mimicry between Klebsiella and B27 in the pathogenesis of primary AS.
Channabasappa, S M; Dharmappa, S; Pandurangi, R
A 48-year-old male patient with a long-standing history of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) presented for ureteroscopic stone removal. On preoperative assessment, tracheal intubation was likely to be difficult due to decreased cervical spine mobility. Traditional neuraxial block was impossible due to the fusion of vertebral bodies. AS patients present the most serious array of intubation, which is secondary to decrease in cervical spine mobility and possible temporomandibular joint disease. Management of a case of AS can be very challenging when the airway and the central neuraxial blockade, both are difficult. Fluoroscopic assisted central neuraxial blockade may lead to predictable success in AS. We present a case report with severe AS where conventional techniques failed and C-arm assisted helped in successful epidural anesthesia for ureteroscopic stone removal.
O'Driscoll, S L; Jayson, M I; Baddeley, H
Cervical spine movements were compared in 35 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and matched controls. In AS there were limitations of all movements and particularly of lateral flexion. These limitations could not be correlated with any particular features of AS except radiological involvement of the lower apophyseal joints. In 25 patients there were significant improvements in all measurements after 3 weeks of intensive inpatient physiotherapy. After discharge the patients were encouraged to perform unsupervised physiotherapy and in 11 patients seen at 3 months the improvements in neck movements were either maintained or increased further. In contrast no changes in movements were found in 9 patients assessed 3 weeks and immediately before starting physiotherapy. PMID:629606
Ghasemi-rad, Mohammad; Attaya, Hosam; Lesha, Emal; Vegh, Andrea; Maleki-Miandoab, Tooraj; Nosair, Emad; Sepehrvand, Nariman; Davarian, Ali; Rajebi, Hamid; Pakniat, Abdolghader; Fazeli, Seyed Amirhossein; Mohammadi, Afshin
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects 1% of the general population. As one of the most severe types of spondyloarthropathy, AS affects the spinal vertebrae and sacroiliac joints, causing debilitating pain and loss of mobility. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of AS, from the pathophysiological changes that occur as the disease progresses, to genetic factors that are involved with its onset. Considering the high prevalence in the population, and the debilitating life changes that occur as a result of the disease, a strong emphasis is placed on the diagnostic imaging methods that are used to detect this condition, as well as several treatment methods that could improve the health of individuals diagnosed with AS. PMID:26435775
Smith, G W; James, V; Mackenzie, D A; Stewart, J; Blackwell, C C; Elton, R A; Nuki, G
Non-secretion of ABO blood group substances in body fluids is associated with susceptibility to some bacterial infections. Non-secretors were previously found to be over-represented in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) (49%) compared to controls (27%). Re-evaluation of secretor status in a population of 92 AS patients and 103 controls revealed identical proportions of non-secretors (28%). Of 43 patients studied in both surveys, 6/22 typed initially as non-secretors proved to be secretors using both haemagglutination inhibition assay (HAI) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. Loss of secreted blood group antigens in the saliva is the cause of this mis-typing. Careful attention to the method of collection, handling and preservation of saliva specimens is essential for accurate assessment of secretor status. Therefore, there is no link between secretor status and AS.
van der Heijde, D; Braun, J; McGonagle, D; Siegel, J
Emerging treatment options in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are giving new hope to patients with this chronic and potentially disabling disease. Clinical development of new treatments requires that rigorous and well controlled trials be conducted to demonstrate safety and efficacy. A number of classification systems have been developed in recent years as a result of enhanced understanding of the pathogenesis of AS. Although new outcome measures have been developed and a consensus has been reached on the use of assessment instruments in clinical trials, there is still need for improvement and implementation. The ASsessments in Ankylosing Spondylitis (ASAS) Working Group has addressed some of these dilemmas by establishing a core set of domains for the evaluation of AS and by selecting specific assessment methods for each domain. They have also published improvement criteria for assessing short term improvement with symptom modifying antirheumatic drugs and are presently in the process of developing response criteria for disease controlling antirheumatic treatment. Various experts are also currently examining discrepancies and inadequacies of classification systems for AS. Imaging studies, magnetic resonance imaging, in particular, may provide better classification criteria in the near future. In addition to consensus on outcome assessment and classification of AS, lessons learnt from clinical trials in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may serve as a template for AS. Guidance provided by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for clinical trials in RA may be of particular use. The FDA has defined the claims that sponsors can receive for RA products and the clinical trial data that would be expected to be submitted to support such claims. PMID:12381508
Zlnay, D; Zlnay, M; Rovenský, J
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic, immunologically mediated rheumatic disease whose progression largely depends on the extent of inflammatory activity. In contrast to rheumatoid arthritis (RA), therapeutic control of AS is very limited. Therapy of ankylosing spondylitis should not only control inflammatory processes, but also prevent structural damages and maintain the functions. Until recently, physiotherapy and non-steroidal antiphlogistics (NSA) therapy was a gold standard of AS treatment. NSA therapy alleviates inflammatory pain of spine in 60 to 80% of patients. According to the most recent findings, long-term administration of NSA can affect also X-ray progression. DMARD therapy, which is efficient in RA, has insignificant effect on axial form of AS. Sulfasalazine proved to be efficacious against peripheral form of AS; administration of MTX and leflunomide is not supported by controlled studies. Peripheral arthritis and enthesitis is usually treated by short-term application of corticoids. The fact remains that an important role in AS immunopathogenesis is played by TNF alpha whose increased levels were found in patients with AS in serum, synovial fluid and SI joints. Anti-TNF therapy with infliximab and etanercept proved to be highly efficacious in patients with AS resistant to conventional therapy. Infliximab and etanercept reduced the disease activity (50% improvement in more than half of patients), improved the function and slowed down the structural damage. MRI studies of anti-TNF therapy proved reduction of inflammatory activity in SI joints and spine. Other studies verified the efficacy of adalimumab in AS therapy and showed that adalimumab is a promising drug. Also, several randomized clinical studies proved efficacy of thalidomide whose administration, however, is limited by its severe adverse effects. Until now, the results of studies focused on pamidronate therapy appear to be rather controversial. Better understanding of AS pathogenesis led
Liu, C-C; Lin, Y-C; Lo, C-P; Chang, T-P
Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a rare manifestation in patients with long-standing ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We report a 57-year-old male patient with a 30-year history of AS who developed CES in the past 4 years. The CT and MRI examinations showed unique appearances of dural ectasia, multiple dorsal dural diverticula, erosion of the vertebral posterior elements, tethering of the conus medullaris to the dorsal aspect of the spinal canal and adhesion of the nerve roots of the cauda equina to the wall of the dural sac. A large dural defect was found at surgery. De-adhesion of the tethered conus medullaris was performed but without significant clinical improvement. The possible aetiologies of CES and dural ectasia in patients with chronic AS are discussed and the literature is reviewed. PMID:21606066
Xue, Hong-Xia; Fu, Wen-Yi; Cui, Hua-Dong; Yang, Li-Li; Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Li-Juan
Thalidomide is an effective drug for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis but might induce peripheral neuropathy. This major adverse reaction has attracted much concern. The current study aimed to observe the incidence of thalidomide-induced peripheral neuropathy among ankylosing spondylitis patients for 1 year after treatment. In this study, 207 ankylosing spondylitis cases received thalidomide treatment, while 116 ankylosing spondylitis cases received other treatments. Results showed that the incidence of thalidomide-induced peripheral neuropathy in the thalidomide group was higher than that in the non-thalidomide group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of neuropathy between the < 6 months medication and ≥ 6 months medication groups. There were no differences in the mean age, gender, or daily dose between the two groups. The incidence of peripheral neuropathy among patients receiving 25, 50, 75, or 100 mg thalidomide per day was 4.6%, 8.5%, 17.1%, 21.7%, respectively. The incidence was significantly different between the groups receiving 25 mg and 100 mg thalidomide. In conclusion, thalidomide can induce peripheral neuropathy within 1 year after treatment of ankylosing spondylitis; however, age and gender have no obvious impact on the incidence of peripheral neuropathy. The incidence of peripheral neuropathy is associated with increasing daily doses of thalidomide.
Cortes, Adrian; Hadler, Johanna; Pointon, Jenny P; Robinson, Philip C; Karaderi, Tugce; Leo, Paul; Cremin, Katie; Pryce, Karena; Harris, Jessica; Lee, Seunghun; Joo, Kyung Bin; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Weisman, Michael; Ward, Michael; Zhou, Xiaodong; Garchon, Henri-Jean; Chiocchia, Gilles; Nossent, Johannes; Lie, Benedicte A; Førre, Øystein; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Laiho, Kari; Jiang, Lei; Liu, Yu; Wu, Xin; Bradbury, Linda A; Elewaut, Dirk; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Stebbings, Simon; Appleton, Louise; Farrah, Claire; Lau, Jonathan; Kenna, Tony J; Haroon, Nigil; Ferreira, Manuel A; Yang, Jian; Mulero, Juan; Fernandez-Sueiro, Jose Luis; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A; Lopez-Larrea, Carlos; Deloukas, Panos; Donnelly, Peter; Bowness, Paul; Gafney, Karl; Gaston, Hill; Gladman, Dafna D; Rahman, Proton; Maksymowych, Walter P; Xu, Huji; Crusius, J Bart A; van der Horst-Bruinsma, Irene E; Chou, Chung-Tei; Valle-Oñate, Raphael; Romero-Sánchez, Consuelo; Hansen, Inger Myrnes; Pimentel-Santos, Fernando M; Inman, Robert D; Videm, Vibeke; Martin, Javier; Breban, Maxime; Reveille, John D; Evans, David M; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Wordsworth, Bryan Paul; Brown, Matthew A
Ankylosing spondylitis is a common, highly heritable inflammatory arthritis affecting primarily the spine and pelvis. In addition to HLA-B*27 alleles, 12 loci have previously been identified that are associated with ankylosing spondylitis in populations of European ancestry, and 2 associated loci have been identified in Asians. In this study, we used the Illumina Immunochip microarray to perform a case-control association study involving 10,619 individuals with ankylosing spondylitis (cases) and 15,145 controls. We identified 13 new risk loci and 12 additional ankylosing spondylitis-associated haplotypes at 11 loci. Two ankylosing spondylitis-associated regions have now been identified encoding four aminopeptidases that are involved in peptide processing before major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I presentation. Protective variants at two of these loci are associated both with reduced aminopeptidase function and with MHC class I cell surface expression.
Senabre-Gallego, José Miguel; Santos-Ramírez, Carlos; Santos-Soler, Gregorio; Salas-Heredia, Esteban; Sánchez-Barrioluengo, Mabel; Barber, Xavier; Rosas, José
To date, anti-tumor necrosis factor alfa (anti-TNF-α) therapy is the only alternative to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis. Etanercept is a soluble TNF receptor, with a mode of action and pharmacokinetics different to those of antibodies and distinctive efficacy and safety. Etanercept has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis, with or without radiographic sacroiliitis, and other manifestations of the disease, including peripheral arthritis, enthesitis, and psoriasis. Etanercept is not efficacious in inflammatory bowel disease, and its efficacy in the treatment of uveitis appears to be lower than that of other anti-TNF drugs. Studies of etanercept confirmed regression of bone edema on magnetic resonance imaging of the spine and sacroiliac joint, but failed to reduce radiographic progression, as do the other anti-TNF drugs. It seems that a proportion of patients remain in disease remission when the etanercept dose is reduced or administration intervals are extended. Etanercept is generally well tolerated with an acceptable safety profile in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis. The most common adverse effect of etanercept treatment is injection site reactions, which are generally self-limiting. Reactivation of tuberculosis, reactivation of hepatitis B virus infection, congestive heart failure, demyelinating neurologic disorders, hematologic disorders like aplastic anemia and pancytopenia, vasculitis, immunogenicity, and exacerbation or induction of psoriasis are class effects of all the anti-TNF drugs, and have been seen in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. However, etanercept is less likely to induce reactivation of tuberculosis than the other anti-TNF drugs and it has been suggested that etanercept might be less immunogenic, especially in ankylosing spondylitis. Acute uveitis, Crohn’s disease, and sarcoidosis are other adverse events that have been rarely associated with etanercept
Quaden, Dana H F; De Winter, Liesbeth M; Somers, Veerle
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a debilitating, chronic, rheumatic disease characterized by inflammation and new bone formation resulting in fusion of the spine and sacroiliac joints. Since early treatment is impeded by a delayed diagnosis, it is highly important to find new biomarkers that improve early diagnosis and may also contribute to a better assessment of disease activity, prognosis and therapy response in AS. Because of the absence of rheumatoid factor, AS was long assumed to have a seronegative character and antibodies are thus not considered a hallmark of the disease. However, emerging evidence suggests plasma cells and autoantibodies to be involved in the disease course. In this review, the role of B cells and antibodies in AS is discussed. Furthermore, an overview is provided of antibodies identified in AS up till now, and their diagnostic potential. Many of these antibody responses were based on small study populations and further validation is lacking. Moreover, most were identified by a hypothesis-driven approach and thus limited to antibodies against targets that are already known to be involved in AS pathogenesis. Hence, we propose an unbiased approach to identify novel diagnostic antibodies. The already successfully applied techniques cDNA phage display and serological antigen selection will be used to identify antibodies against both known and new antigen targets in AS plasma. These newly identified antibodies will enhance early diagnosis of AS and provide more insight into the underlying disease pathology, resulting in a more effective treatment strategy and eventually an improved disease outcome.
Kobak, Senol; Yilmaz, Hatice; Karaarslan, Ahmet; Yalcin, Murat
A 26-year-old male patient presented to our rheumatology clinic with pain, swelling and limitation of movement in his right ankle, and also purpuric skin lesions in the lower extremity pretibial region. He was asked questions, and he said that he had been having chronic low back pain and morning stiffness for the last few years. His physical examination revealed that he had arthritis in his right ankle, purpuric skin lesions in pretibial regions of both legs, and bilateral FABERE/FADIR positivity. The sacroiliac joint imaging and MRI revealed bilateral sacroiliitis findings, and the lateral heel imaging revealed enthesitis. HLA-B27 was positive. Skin biopsy from lower skin lesions was reported to be consistent with leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Based on clinical, laboratory, radiological, and pathological examinations, the patient was diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis and leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Administration of corticosteroid, salazopyrin, and nonsteroid anti-inflammatory medications was started. Notable clinical and laboratory regression was observed during his checks 3 months later. PMID:24653851
Reveille, John D; Ximenes, Antonio; Ward, Michael M
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is associated with both significant direct and indirect costs, which vary by country, and have generally increased dramatically since the introduction of anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy. The cost-effectiveness of biologic agents is controversial, although cost-effectiveness studies need to consider the potential impact of anti-tumor necrosis factor treatments on work ability. Alternatives to reduce costs associated with biologics have been examined, including on-demand dosing and lower dose alternatives. Other treatment measures, such as total hip arthroplasty and physical therapy, are also effective in reducing pain and improving function in patients with AS, although the optimal type or combination of physical therapy treatment modalities, the optimal frequency and duration of treatment and whether therapy is equally effective in stable disease and uncontrolled AS need to be determined. No studies have examined differences in patient outcomes based on subspecialty care. Establishing an evidence base for these questions would help inform policy decisions to design the most cost-effective measures to treat AS.
Tayfur, Öykü; Kılıç, Levent; Karadağ, Ömer; Akdoğan, Ali; Kerimoğlu, Ülkü; Uzun, Ömrüm
Tuberculous trochanteric bursitis (TTB) is a rare condition that accounts for 1% of musculoskeletal tuberculosis cases. Extrapulmonary TB is usually diagnosed late because of reduced diagnostic suspicion, particularly in the absence of signs of systemic infection. Herein, we report a case of right hip pain that was misdiagnosed as ankylosing spondylitis. The patient had a history of inflammatory back pain with morning stiffness. However, HLA-B27 was negative. Sacroiliac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a giant multiloculated collection (27×16×10 cm). Percutaneous drainage was performed and Mycobacterium tuberculosis was observed in fluid culture. The patient was treated by drainage along with antituberculosis therapy. After 1 year of antituberculosis therapy, control MRI revealed total resolution of the large fluid collection. It is important to emphasize that fever or general symptoms are absent in patients with TTB, as observed in the present case. In endemic countries, TTB should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with chronic hip pain without fever, weight loss, and constitutional symptoms.
Uçar, Demet; Em, Serda; Bozkurt, Mehtap; Oktayoglu, Pelin; Yüksel, Hatice Kurt; Caglayan, Mehmet; Gezer, Orhan; Nas, Kemal
The aim of the present study was to emphasize the collagen turnover in 2 of the most common chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases by evaluating serum prolidase activity (SPA) in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 30 patients who met the modified New York Criteria for the classification of AS, 29 patients who met the 2010 Rheumatoid Arthritis Classification Criteria for the classification of RA, and 31 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Serum samples of the patients and the controls were collected and SPA was measured by a spectrophotometric method. The comparison of the SPA in these 3 groups was statistically examined. In both patient groups, the SPA was lower than in the control group. SPA in patients with AS was statistically significantly lower than in the control and RA groups (P < 0.001/P = 0.002). No statistically significant difference was found between the RA and the control groups (P = 0.891). In conclusion, lower SPA is presumably associated with decreased collagen turnover and fibrosis, leading to decreased physical functions in both chronic inflammatory musculoskeletal diseases.
Hohler, T.; Hug, R.; Schneider, P.; Krummenauer, F.; Gripenberg-Lerche, C.; Granfors, K.; Marker-Hermann, E.
OBJECTIVE—To examine immunological parameters that might explain disease discordance in monozygotic twin pairs with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). METHODS—11 monozygotic twin pairs (nine with AS, two with undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy) were investigated. The peripheral T cell receptor Vβ repertoire was investigated using FACS analysis and 14 different Vβ antibodies. In addition serum samples were tested for antibodies to Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Candida albicans, Proteus mirabilis, and Escherichia coli. Peripheral blood lymphocyte reactivity against a number of bacteria was investigated by interferon γ ELISPOT assays. RESULTS—Twins suffering from AS showed cellular hyporeactivity against K pneumoniae, S pyogenes, C albicans in the ELISPOT assays compared with healthy twins. In contrast with the antibody data, where no significant differences were observed between the two groups, AS concordant twins showed the most pronounced differences in their Vβ repertoire on CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS—Cellular hyporeactivity of peripheral blood cells to bacterial antigens might reflect defective T cell responses allowing bacterial antigens to persist in diseased patients. There are probably other environmental factors that influence disease concordance. PMID:10381488
Rosenbaum, James T
Uveitis is a common complication of spondyloarthritis. The "phenotype" of the uveitis characteristic of ankylosing spondylitis (sudden onset, anterior, unilateral, recurrent, more often male) may differ from the phenotype often seen with either psoriatic arthritis or inflammatory bowel disease (insidious onset, anterior and intermediate, bilateral, chronic, and/or more often female). The frequency of uveitis is also much greater in association with ankylosing spondylitis than with either inflammatory bowel disease or psoriasis. Uveitis may affect the choice of therapy and can rarely be a complication of therapy. Uveitis and arthritis also co-exist in several animal models.
Barman, Apurba; Sinha, Mithilesh K; Rao, P Bhaskar
Autonomic dysreflexia is a medical emergency in spinal cord injury. Majority of cases of autonomic dysreflexia are known to be induced by either bladder or bowel distension. Very few cases of recurrent postural autonomic dysreflexia, due to secondary spinal pathology, have been reported. Discovertebral or Andersson lesion, a recognized complication in Ankylosing Spondylitis, can give rise to similar kind of recurrent postural dysreflexic symptoms. Here, we report a case of Ankylosing Spondylitis with high level, complete spinal cord injury, where the patient was developing recurrent postural autonomic dysreflexia and its successful management. Andersson lesion in the lumbar spine below the level of injury was demonstrated in this case report.
Masi, Alfonse T
Ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthropathy have characteristic age- and sex-specific onset patterns, typical entheseal lesions, and marked heritability, but the integrative mechanisms causing the pathophysiological and structural alterations remain largely undefined. Myofascial tissues are integrated in the body into webs and networks which permit transmission of passive and active tensional forces that provide stabilizing support and help to control movements. Axial myofascial hypertonicity was hypothesized as a potential excessive polymorphic trait which could contribute to chronic biomechanical overloading and exaggerated stresses at entheseal sites. Such a mechanism may help to integrate many of the characteristic host, pathological, and structural features of ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis. Biomechanical stress and strain were recently documented to correlate with peripheral entheseal inflammation and new bone formation in a murine model of spondyloarthritis. Ankylosing spondylitis has traditionally been classified by the modified New York criteria, which require the presence of definite radiographic sacroiliac joint lesions. New classification criteria for axial spondyloarthritis now include patients who do not fulfill the modified New York criteria. The male-to-female sex ratios clearly differed between the two patient categories - 2:1 or 3:1 in ankylosing spondylitis and 1:1 in non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis - and this suggests a spectral concept of disease and, among females, milder structural alterations. Magnetic resonance imaging of active and chronic lesions in ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis reveals complex patterns, usually interpreted as inflammatory reactions, but shows similarities to acute degenerative disc disease, which attributed to edema formation following mechanical stresses and micro-damage. A basic question is whether mechanically induced microinjury and immunologically mediated
Rumancik, W M; Firooznia, H; Davis, M S; Leitman, B S; Golimbu, C; Rafii, M; McCauley, D I
Fibrobullous disease of the upper lobes of the lungs is a rare extraskeletal manifestation of ankylosing spondylitis, occurring in 1.3% of patients with ankylosing spondylitis. We present a patient with this disease, and discuss this pulmonary manifestation. Because the radiographic appearance of the chest in this disease resembles that in tuberculosis, many patients are misdiagnosed and treated for tuberculosis despite negative bacteriology. Computed tomography is useful in delineating the extent of pleural thickening, bullous changes, volume loss, parenchymal fibrosis, and bronchiectasis, as well as identifying or excluding an intracavitary pulmonary mycetoma.
Lee, Hyoun-Ho; Kim, Sang Woo; Jung, Young Jin
Traumatic diaphragm hernia can occur in rare cases and generally accompanies thoracic or abdominal injuries. When suffering from ankylosing spondylitis, a small force can develop into vertebral fracture and an adjacent structural injury, and lead to diaphragm hernia without accompanying concomitant thoracoabdominal injury. A high level of suspicion may be a most reliable diagnostic tool in the detection of a diaphragm injury, and we need to keep in mind a possibility in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis and a thoracolumbar fracture, even in the case of minor trauma. PMID:25733996
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Chang, Wei-Pin; Kuo, Chun-Nan; Kuo, Li-Na; Wang, Yao-Tung; Perng, Wuu-Tsun; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Wei, James Cheng-Chung
Abstract Th2 and Th17 cells are both associated with developing ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and asthma. Th2 cells are also associated with allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis (AD). The prevalence of such allergic diseases in AS patients is unknown. In this study, we intended to study the risk of allergic diseases in a 10-year follow-up population of newly diagnosed patients with AS. We used a nationwide 10-year population-based database retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 (LHID2005) in Taiwan. The study cohort comprised 857 patients with AS who had at least 1 claim of inpatient admission or at least 2 claims of ambulatory visit. The comparison cohort consisted of 4285 randomly selected subjects matched with AS group at a ratio of 5:1. We used Cox proportional-hazards regression to determine the 10-year disease-free survival rates after adjusting for potentially confounding factors. The AS patients had a 1.31 times greater risk of developing asthma within 10 years of diagnosis when compared with non-AS age- and sex-matched subjects, after adjusting for other risk factors (95% confidence interval = 1.00–1.75). But the difference was not significantly different. The AS patients also had a 1.46 times and a 1.22 times greater risk of developing allergic rhinitis and AD significantly. AS patients also had a lower allergic disease-free survival rate compared to non-AS group. Our results showed that patients with AS had a higher risk of developing allergic diseases later in life. PMID:27828843
Yuksel, Kasım Zafer
Study Design Retrospective review. Purpose We retrospectively reviewed our patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) to identify their patterns of spinal fractures to help clarify management strategies and the morbidity and mortality rates associated with this group of patients. Overview of Literature Because of the brittleness of bone and long autofused spinal segments in AS, spinal fractures are common even after minor trauma and often associated with overt instability. Methods Between January 1, 1998 and March 2011, 30 patients (23 males, 7 females; mean age, 70.43 years; range, 45 to 95 years) with the radiographic diagnosis of AS of the spinal column had 42 fractures. Eight patients presented with significant trauma, 17 after falls, and 5 after minor falls or no recorded trauma. Eleven patients presented with a neurological injury, ranging from mild sensory loss to quadriplegia. Results There were 16 compression and 10 transverse fractures, two Jefferson's fractures, one type II and two type III odontoid process fractures, and five fractures of the posterior spinal elements (including lamina and/or facet, three spinous process fractures, three transverse process fractures). Twenty-four fractures affected the craniocervical junction and/or cervical vertebrae, 17 were thoracic, and one involved the lumbar spine. The most affected vertebrae were C6 and T10. The mean follow-up was 29.9 months. One patient was lost to follow-up. Eighteen patients were treated conservatively with bed rest and bracing. Twelve patients underwent surgery for spinal stabilization either with an anterior, posterior or combined approach. Conclusions Nonsurgical treatment can be considered especially in the elderly patients with AS and spinal trauma but without instability or major neurological deficits. The nonfusion rate in conservatively treated patients is low. When treatment is selected for patients with spinal fractures and AS, the pattern of injury must be considered and the need
Shaikh, Saeed A.
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is generally easy to diagnose when the characteristic findings of the “bamboo” spine and fused sacroiliac joints are present on radiographs. Unfortunately, these changes are usually seen late in the disease after tremendous suffering has been incurred by the patient. Diagnostic delay averages seven to ten years. Historically, once the diagnosis was made, the treatment options were often inadequate or poorly tolerated in many individuals. This condition most often starts in early adulthood when people are typically in the earlier stages of their careers, resulting in diminished workforce participation and decreased quality of life. If an individual has a family physician, this might be the first encounter with a healthcare provider. Quite often, the initial practitioner is sought at a public walk-in clinic or chiropractic office. In recent years, there have been two major developments in the management of AS that make earlier diagnosis possible and offer the hope of alleviating pain and preventing structural changes that result in loss of function. These developments include the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the inflammatory changes in the sacroiliac joint and the axial spine, and the demonstration that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blocking agents are highly efficacious in reducing spinal inflammation and possibly in slowing radiographic progression. This review outlines diagnostic strategies that can help identify AS in its earlier stages. Special attention is focused on treatment advances, including the use of anti-TNF agents, and how these medications have been incorporated into clinical recommendations for daily use. PMID:18060011
Zochling, J; van der Heijde, D; Burgos‐Vargas, R; Collantes, E; Davis, J C; Dijkmans, B; Dougados, M; Géher, P; Inman, R D; Khan, M A; Kvien, T K; Leirisalo‐Repo, M; Olivieri, I; Pavelka, K; Sieper, J; Stucki, G; Sturrock, R D; van der Linden, S; Wendling, D; Böhm, H; van Royen, B J; Braun, J
Objective To develop evidence based recommendations for the management of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) as a combined effort of the ‘ASsessment in AS' international working group and the European League Against Rheumatism. Methods Each of the 22 participants was asked to contribute up to 15 propositions describing key clinical aspects of AS management. A Delphi process was used to select 10 final propositions. A systematic literature search was then performed to obtain scientific evidence for each proposition. Outcome data for efficacy, adverse effects, and cost effectiveness were abstracted. The effect size, relative risk, number needed to treat, and incremental cost effectiveness ratio were calculated. On the basis of the search results, 10 major recommendations for the management of AS were constructed. The strength of recommendation was assessed based on the strength of the literature evidence, risk‐benefit trade‐off, and clinical expertise. Results The final recommendations considered the use of non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (conventional NSAIDs, coxibs, and co‐prescription of gastroprotective agents), disease modifying antirheumatic drugs, treatments with biological agents, simple analgesics, local and systemic steroids, non‐pharmacological treatment (including education, exercise, and physiotherapy), and surgical interventions. Three general recommendations were also included. Research evidence (categories I–IV) supported 11 interventions in the treatment of AS. Strength of recommendation varied, depending on the category of evidence and expert opinion. Conclusion Ten key recommendations for the treatment of AS were developed and assessed using a combination of research based evidence and expert consensus. Regular updating will be carried out to keep abreast of new developments in the management of AS. PMID:16126791
Kalliakosta, Georgia; Mandros, Charalampos; Tzelepis, George E.
Purpose: To test the hypothesis that ankylosing spondylitis (AS) alters the pattern of chest wall motion during speech production. Method: The pattern of chest wall motion during speech was measured with respiratory inductive plethysmography in 6 participants with advanced AS (5 men, 1 woman, age 45 plus or minus 8 years, Schober test 1.45 plus or…
Tricás-Moreno, José Miguel; Lucha-López, María Orosia; Lucha-López, Ana Carmen; Salavera-Bordás, Carlos; Vidal-Peracho, Concepción
[Purpose] Ankylosing spondylitis is prevalent in men. Modern and expert consensus documents include physical therapy among the strategies for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis. This study aimed to describe the physical therapy approach in an athlete with ankylosing spondylitis. [Subject and Methods] The patient, refractory to treatment with anti-inflammatory medication, showed pelvic and lumbar pain and joint, muscle, and functional disorders, which were treated with orthopedic joint mobilization, dry needling, exercise, and whole-body hyperthermia. [Results] After the treatment, pain relief, normal joint mobility, improved muscle function, and return to activities of daily living and competitive sporting activities were recorded. [Conclusion] The literature provides evidence for the use of joint mobilization techniques; however, no previous studies have used the same techniques and methods. There is no previous evidence for the use of dry needling in this pathology. Exercise therapy has a higher level of evidence, and guidelines with scientific support were followed. This research confirms the effectiveness of hyperthermia for arthritis. The early stage of ankylosing spondylitis, and the young age, good overall condition, and cooperative attitude of the patient led to positive outcomes. In conclusion, a favorable response that promoted the remission of the disease was observed. PMID:27190490
Demontis, Alessandra; Trainito, Sabina; Del Felice, Alessandra; Masiero, Stefano
Balance impairment is a frequent and undertreated manifestation in ankylosing spondylitis, leading to increased risk of falls and lower quality of life. Our aim was to assess supervised training and home-based rehabilitation efficacy on balance improvement in ankylosing spondylitis subjects on biologic agents. This was a single-blinded, quasi-randomized parallel study in a single outpatient Rehabilitation Clinic of a tertiary referral center. Subjects with ankylosing spondylitis on biologic agents were assigned either to supervised training and home-based rehabilitation program (rehabilitation group) plus educational-behavioral therapy, or to educational-behavioral therapy alone (educational groups). The same therapist provided therapy. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline (T0), end of treatment (T1) and at 7-month follow-up (T2). Rheumatologic outcomes were Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index. Balance parameters (anterior-posterior oscillation, latero-lateral oscillation, sway area, sway density and sway path) were evaluated by stabilometry in a condition of open and closed eyes. Forty-six subjects (36 M, 10 F) were enrolled. Demographic data and clinical status at baseline were comparable between the two groups (22 rehabilitation group, 20 educational group). Primary outcome was sway density that improved both at T1 (SDy: open eyes p = 0.003, closed eyes p = 0.004) and at T2 (SDx: open eyes p = 0.0015, closed eyes p = 0.032). A trend toward improvement in the rehabilitation group rather than in the educational group emerged for balance parameters, especially those measured with closed eyes (0.004 < p < 0.048 at T1 and 0.004 < p < 0.036 at T2). Supervised training and home exercise lead to balance improvement in people with ankylosing spondylitis. Eyes-closed trials show a more marked trend toward improvement, and this may suggest a
Ramos-Remus, C.; Major, P.; Gomez-Vargas, A.; Petrikowski, G.; Hernandez-Chavez, A.; Gonzalez-Marin, E.; Russell, A.
OBJECTIVE—To evaluate temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osseous morphology in a consecutive sample of Mexican patients with ankylosing spondylitis. METHODS—Consecutive patients with a diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis who attended two secondary care outpatient rheumatology clinics were included in the study. Patients had a rheumatological assessment using a structured questionnaire and examination. Recorded variables included demographic data, disease characteristics, TMJ symptoms, and axial mobility measurements. Hypocycloidal tomography of the TMJ was obtained on all subjects. Radiographic variables included condyle position, superior joint space, range of movement, condylar osseous changes, and temporal osseous changes. Patients also underwent standard cervical spine radiography. A control group of normal people without either TMJ symptoms or systemic rheumatic disease was obtained. RESULTS—65 subjects were studied (65 right sided and 63 left sided tomograms). The control group consisted of 22 individuals. Both groups were similar in age [33 (SD 11) v 34 (9) years, P = 0.8]. Patients with ankylosing spondylitis had more variability in TMJ mobility than controls (P < 0.05) and showed increased frequency of condylar erosions (P < 0.01), flattening (P < 0.01), sclerosis (P < 0.01), and temporal flattening (P < 0.01). Condylar erosions were associated with longer duration of ankylosing spondylitis (P < 0.05), neck complaints (P < 0.05), and atlantoaxial subluxation (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS—TMJ involvement is frequent in this population of patients with ankylosing spondylitis and is associated with variables that suggest more severe disease. PMID:9068282
Curtis, Jeffrey R; Harrold, Leslie R; Asgari, Maryam M; Deodhar, Atul; Salman, Craig; Gelfand, Joel M; Wu, Jashin J; Herrinton, Lisa J
Introduction Few studies have assessed the prevalence and features of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) and ankylosing spondylitis in diverse, population-based, community settings. Objectives We used computerized diagnoses to estimate the prevalence of axSpA and ankylosing spondylitis in Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC). Methods We identified persons aged 18 years or older with 1 or more International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnosis Code 720.X (ankylosing spondylitis and other inflammatory spondylopathies) in clinical encounter data from 1996 through 2009 to estimate the prevalence of axSpA and ankylosing spondylitis. We reviewed medical records to confirm the diagnosis in a random sample and estimated the positive predictive value of computerized data to identify confirmed cases using various case definitions. Results In the computerized data, 5568 adults had diagnostic codes indicating axSpA. On the basis of our case-finding approach using a single physician diagnosis code for ICD-9 720.X, the point prevalence of these conditions, standardized to the 2000 US Census, was 2.26 per 1000 persons for axSpA and 1.07 per 1000 for ankylosing spondylitis. Less than half of suspected cases saw a rheumatologist. The most specific algorithm for confirmed ankylosing spondylitis required 2 or more computerized diagnoses assigned by a rheumatologist, with 67% sensitivity (95% confidence interval, 64%–69%) and 81% positive predictive value (95% confidence interval, 79%–83%). Conclusions Observed prevalence in the KPNC population, compared with national estimates for axSpA and ankylosing spondylitis, suggests there is substantial underrecognition of these conditions in routine clinical practice. However, use of computerized data is able to identify true cases of ankylosing spondylitis, facilitating population-based research. PMID:27479952
Liu, Song; Ding, Jie; Wang, Meng; Zhou, Wanqing; Feng, Min; Guan, Wenxian
Abstract Extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) cause increased morbidity and decreased quality of life in Crohn disease (CD). Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) belongs to EIMs. Very little is known on the clinical features of CD concomitant with AS. This study is to investigate the clinical features of CD patients with AS. We retrospectively collected all CD patients with AS in our hospital, and established a comparison group (CD without AS) with age, sex, and duration of Crohn disease matched. Clinical information was retrieved for comparison. Eight CD + AS patients were identified from 195 CD patients. Sixteen CD patients were randomly selected into comparison group. All CD + AS patients were male, HLA-B27 (+), and rheumatoid factor (−) with an average age of 40.8 ± 4.52 years. Significant correlation between disease activity of CD and AS was revealed (r = 0.857, P = 0.011). Significant correlation between disease activity of CD and functional limitation associated with AS was identified (r = 0.881, P < 0.01). C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and globulin were positively correlated to Crohn disease activity index (CDAI), Bath AS disease activity index, and Bath AS functional index(BASFI) scores (r = 0.73–0.93, P < 0.05). Albumin was negatively associated with CDAI and BASFI (r = −0.73 to −0.91, P < 0.05). The ratio of albumin to globulin (Alb/Glo) was significantly related to all 3 scores (r = −0.81 to −0.91, P < 0.05). Male predominance with a 4.12% concomitant incidence of AS is observed in CD patients. Disease activity of CD correlates with disease activity of AS and functional limitation caused by AS. CRP, ESR, and Alb/Glo may serve as biomarkers for disease activity and functional limitation in CD patients concomitant with AS, although future studies are expected. PMID:27428240
Law, W. Alexander
The pain, deformities and disabilities resulting from rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis must be treated by a team composed of physician, physical medicine expert, orthopædic surgeon, and, in certain cases, deep X-ray therapist working simultaneously. The principle of “rest” in order to relieve pain has to be combined with methods designed to preserve and restore function. The multiple joint deformities in these cases may necessitate a long programme of reconstructive or functional treatment, which entails whole-hearted co-operation on the part of the patient in intensive post-operative exercise regime. Procedures advocated for the upper limb include excision of the acromion process together with the subacromial bursa to allow free movement between the central tendon of the deltoid and the tendinous shoulder cuff: arthrodesis of the shoulder in cases where there is more severe joint destruction: in certain cases of elbow-joint arthritis, excision of the radial head and sub-total synovectomy may preserve joint function and avoid or delay the necessity for arthroplasty which can be carried out in two ways: (a) similar to the formal joint excision, or (b) re-shaping the lower end of the humerus and upper end of the ulna lining these surfaces with fascia. The former method is preferable in cases of rheumatoid arthritis. To overcome wrist-joint deformity and restore pronation and supination excision of the lower end of the ulna together with radiocarpal fusion in position for optimum function is advocated. Finger and toe joints may be corrected by resection of the bone ends and capsulectomy. In the lower limbs bilateral involvement of the hip-joint is best treated by vitallium mould arthroplasty which may be carried out in four ways: (1) Routine arthroplasty; (2) Modified Whitman procedure; (3) Modified Colonna operation; and (4) The proximal shaft or intertrochanteric arthroplasty. It is essential in these operations to have knowledge of the operative
Xu, Jun; Zeng, Min; Xie, Jie; Wen, Ting; Hu, Yihe
Abstract Controversies on the surgical protocols and efficacies of total hip arthroplasty (THA) in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) still exist. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the perioperative managements and their outcomes related to performing THA on patients with AS. Data of 54 AS patients who underwent 81 THAs between 2008 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical and imaging data were collected preoperatively, postoperatively, and during the follow-up period for surgical efficacy. Using posterolateral approach, cementless prostheses were selected in all cases. Mean follow-up period was 3.6 years (range, 2–8 years). Inclinations and anteversions of acetabular cups were 36.3°±4.5° (range, 30°–50°) and 12.3°±4.9° (range, 0°–25°) respectively. Mean visual analog scale (VAS) score decreased from 6.7 ± 2.1 (range, 4–10) preoperatively to 1.5 ± 1.0 (range, 0–4) at final follow-up, and mean Harris hip score (HHS) improved from 31.2 ± 11.6 (range, 15–45) to 86.1 ± 4.3 (range, 80–95) (P < 0.05). Postoperative range of motion (ROM) in flexion was improved from 6.7°±13.5° (range, 0°–50°) preoperatively to 82.5°±6.4° (range, 70°–100°) at final follow-up, and ROM in extension was improved from 1.8°±5.7°(range, 0°–15°) to 15.4°±2.6° (range, 10°–20°) (P < 0.05). Heterotopic ossification (HO) was documented in 9 hips (11.1%). Signs of stable fibrous ingrowth and bone ingrowth were detected in 52 and 29 hips, respectively. Sciatic never injury was occurred in 3 cases, and treated conservatively. There were no signs of periprosthetic fractures, dislocation, or prosthesis loosening. Surgical efficacies of THA for AS patients with severe hip involvement are satisfactory. PMID:28121928
Rutherford, Susan M; Nicolson, Cameron F; Crowther, Edward R
Background There is limited outcome measure support for chiropractic manipulative therapy in the management of ankylosing spondylitis. An improvement in specific indices for both function and disease activity during chiropractic therapy for ankylosing spondylitis has not previously been reported. Objective To measure changes in function and disease activity in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis during a course of chiropractic therapy. The clinical management of ankylosing spondylitis, including chiropractic manipulative therapy and the implications of this case study are discussed. Clinical Features A 34-year-old male with a 10 year diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis sought chiropractic treatment for spinal pain and stiffness. His advanced radiographic signs included an increased atlantodental interspace and cervical vertebral ankylosis. Intervention and outcome The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), finger-tip-to-floor distance and chest expansion were assessed during an 18 week course of chiropractic spinal manipulation and mobilization therapy. There was a 90% improvement in the disease activity index and an 85% improvement in the functional index from the pre-treatment baseline, as measured by the BASDAI and BASFI respectively. Spinal flexibility and chest expansion also improved. Conclusion To the authors knowledge this is the first study to incorporate ankylosing spondylitis specific indices, for both disease activity and function, to objectively support the use of chiropractic manipulative therapy in the management of ankylosing spondylitis. More intensive research is suggested. PMID:17549197
Dawson, J.; Kolbinger, F.; Kramer, I.; Beckmann, N.
Main features of ankylosing spondylitis like inflammatory erosive osteopenia and bony overgrowth are recapitulated in rats challenged with complete Freund’s adjuvant. In vivo changes induced in the rat spine were followed longitudinally by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and assessed terminally by micro-computerized tomography (micro-CT) and histology. Signals reflecting inflammation were detected by MRI at levels L5-L6 throughout the experiment, peaking at day 27 after adjuvant. Bone erosion and formation occurred from this time point onward, as confirmed by micro-CT. Histology confirmed the inflammation and bone remodeling. The present study demonstrates the potential of imaging for longitudinal assessments of spinal changes in this animal model and the excellent correlation between in vivo images and histology underlines its fundamental role in the validation of non-invasive imaging. PMID:28076929
Tan, Sovira; Yao, Jianhua; Ward, Michael M.; Yao, Lawrence; Summers, Ronald M.
Ankylosing Spondylitis is a disease of the vertebra where abnormal bone structures (syndesmophytes) grow at intervertebral disk spaces. Because this growth is so slow as to be undetectable on plain radiographs taken over years, it is necessary to resort to computerized techniques to complement qualitative human judgment with precise quantitative measures on 3-D CT images. Very fine segmentation of the vertebral body is required to capture the small structures caused by the pathology. We propose a segmentation algorithm based on a cascade of three level set stages and requiring no training or prior knowledge. First, the noise inside the vertebral body that often blocks the proper evolution of level set surfaces is attenuated by a sigmoid function whose parameters are determined automatically. The 1st level set (geodesic active contour) is designed to roughly segment the interior of the vertebra despite often highly inhomogeneous and even discontinuous boundaries. The result is used as an initial contour for the 2nd level set (Laplacian level set) that closely captures the inner boundary of the cortical bone. The last level set (reversed Laplacian level set) segments the outer boundary of the cortical bone and also corrects small flaws of the previous stage. We carried out extensive tests on 30 vertebrae (5 from each of 6 patients). Two medical experts scored the results at intervertebral disk spaces focusing on end plates and syndesmophytes. Only two minor segmentation errors at vertebral end plates were reported and two syndesmophytes were considered slightly under-segmented.
Kilic, Erkan; Kilic, Gamze; Akgul, Ozgur; Ozgocmen, Salih
The aim of this study was to assess discriminant validity of Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS)-C-reactive protein (-CRP) and ASDAS-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (-ESR) and to compare with The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) as clinical tools for the measurement of disease activity in patients with non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Also, the cut-off values for ASDAS-CRP in nr-axSpA and AS is revisited. Patients with axSpA were recruited from Erciyes Spondyloarthritis Cohort (ESPAC) and were assessed for disease activity, quality of life and functional measures. The discriminatory ability of ASDAS-CRP and ASDAS-ESR was assessed using standardized mean differences and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves analysis. Optimal cut-off values for disease activity scores were calculated. Two hundred and eighty-seven patients with axSpA (nr-axSpA:132, AS:155) were included in this study. Two ASDAS versions and BASDAI had good correlations with patient's and physician's global assessment in both groups. Discriminatory ability of ASDAS-CRP, ASDAS-ESR and BASDAI were similar in patients with nr-axSpA and AS when the patients were assigned into low and high disease activity according to the ASAS partial remission, patient's and physician's global assessment scores (based on the comparison of ROC curves). ASDAS cut-off values are quite similar between groups indicating that ASDAS-CRP works similarly well in nr-axSpA and AS. The performance of ASDAS to discriminate low and high disease activity and cut-off values are quite similar in patients with AS and non-radiographic axial SpA.
Xu, Wang-Dong; Ye, Dong-Qing
Ankylosing spondylitis is a common inflammatory rheumatic disease that affects the axial skeleton, causing characteristic inflammatory back pain, which can lead to structural and functional impairments and a decrease in quality of life. New imaging techniques and therapies have substantially changed the management of this disease in the past decade. Whether inhibition of radiographic progression and structural damage can be reached with available drugs is as yet unclear. Furthermore, treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and physiotherapy remains an important approach to long-term management of patients with ankylosing spondylitis. The new treatment options with IRF-5 seem to be a breakthrough for patients' refractory to conventional and feasible treatment.
Malinowski, Krzysztof Piotr; Kawalec, Paweł
The aim of this systematic review was to collect and summarize all current data on the indirect costs related to absenteeism and presenteeism associated with ankylosing spondylitis. The search was conducted using Medline, Embase and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases. All collected costs were recalculated to average annual cost per patient, expressed in 2013 prices USD using the consumer price index and purchasing power parity. Identified studies were then analyzed to assess their possible inclusion in the meta-analysis. We identified 32 records. The average annual indirect cost per patient varies among all the identified results from US$660.95 to 45,953.87. The mean annual indirect per patient equals US$6454.76. This systematic review summarizes current data related to indirect costs generated by ankylosing spondylitis; it revealed the great economic burden of the disease for society. We observed a great variety of the considered components of indirect costs and their definitions.
Braun, Juergen; Kiltz, Uta; Sarholz, Michael; Heldmann, Frank; Regel, Andrea; Baraliakos, Xenofon
Patient assessment in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) is multidimensional, and monitoring of disease activity, function and radiographic progression is complex. There is no simple 'gold standard' for measuring disease activity in all individual patients, as disease activity in axSpA is the sum of many different aspects and a complexity that cannot be represented by a single variable. Limited spinal mobility is a cardinal sign of ankylosing spondylitis and loss of spinal mobility has been reported to be a prognostic factor and most often evaluated with the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index. Imaging of the spine and assessment of safety aspects plays an important role in the monitoring of patients with axSpA. The timeframe for collecting information regarding disease activity, function and radiographic progression are recommended on an individual basis.
Xia, Qing; Fan, Dazhi; Yang, Xiao; Li, Xiaona; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Mengmeng; Xu, Shengqian; Pan, Faming
Abstract Background: The idea that undifferentiated spondyloarthritis (uSpA) represents the early undifferentiated stage of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and other well-defined SpA subtypes is well known. The gist of this study is to assess the rate estimate of patients with uSpA evolved to AS during long-term follow-up. Methods: A systematic search was implemented to identify pertinent articles. The primary outcome was the rate estimate that patients with uSpA fulfilling the diagnosis of AS according to the modified New York criteria during follow-up. The rate estimate and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were pooled by the random-effects model in STATA 11.0 software. Meta-regression analyses were adopted to explore the sources of heterogeneity. The quality assessment was conducted by the National Institutes of Health Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies and the Begg test and the Egger test were applied to assess publication bias. Results: Sixteen papers were finally included in this study after screening 1299 citations. The pooled rate of patients with uSpA progression to AS synthesized from the 16 papers was 0.323 (95%CI 0.257–0.389). Subgroup analysis based on the length of follow-up showed that the rate at the time-point of 5, 8, and 10 years follow-up was 0.220 (95%CI 0.110–0.330), 0.291 (95%CI 0.257–0.325), and 0.399 (95%CI 0.190–0.608), respectively; while the rate in Asia, Europe, and Latin America was 0.367 (95%CI 0.282–0.452), 0.228 (95%CI 0.066–0.390), and 0.269 (95%CI 0.209–0.329), respectively. Meta-regression analysis indicated that the length of follow-up alone accounts for 45.23% of the total heterogeneity. Nearly half of the papers scored fair quality and none publication bias was identified based on the Begg test and the Egger test. Further, line chart describes an obviously increased trend for the patients with uSpA fulfilling the diagnosis of AS over time. Conclusion: The
Rajak, Rizwan; Wardle, Phil; Rhys-Dillon, Ceril; Martin, James C
Ankylosing spondylitis is one of the commonest inflammatory diseases of the axial skeleton and can be complicated by atlanto-axial instability. This serious and likely underestimated complication can be easily overlooked. However, there are clear features which can help alert suspicion to initiate the appropriate investigations with imaging that is very effective at diagnosing and assessing this complication. The authors report an unusual case where odontoid pannus formation, akin to that seen in rheumatoid arthritis, was the underlying cause.
Machado, Marina Amaral de Ávila; Barbosa, Mariana Michel; Almeida, Alessandra Maciel; de Araújo, Vânia Eloisa; Kakehasi, Adriana Maria; Andrade, Eli Iola Gurgel; Cherchiglia, Mariangela Leal; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis
Biological agents directed against tumor necrosis factor (TNF) represent therapeutic options for patients with ankylosing spondylitis with high disease activity despite use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the anti-TNF agents infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, golimumab, and certolizumab for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis, we performed a systematic review of randomized clinical trials on adult patients with ankylosing spondylitis using articles culled from the EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and LILACS databases (September/2012), manual literature search, and the gray literature. Study selections and data collection were performed by two independent reviewers, with disagreements solved by a third reviewer. The following outcomes were evaluated: ASAS 20 response, disease activity, physical function, vertebral mobility, adverse events, and withdraws. The meta-analysis was performed using the Review Manager(®) 5.1 software by applying the random effects model. Eighteen studies were included in this review. No study of certolizumab was included. Patients treated with anti-TNF agents were more likely to display an ASAS 20 response after 12/14 weeks (RR 2.21; 95 % CI 1.91; 2.56) and 24 weeks (RR 2.68; 95 % CI 2.06; 3.48) compared with controls, which was also true for several other efficacy outcomes. Meta-analysis of safety outcomes and withdraws did not indicate statistically significant differences between treatment and control groups after 12 or 30 weeks. Adalimumab, infliximab, etanercept, and golimumab can effectively reduce the signs and symptoms of the axial component of ankylosing spondylitis. Safety outcomes deserve further study, especially with respect to long-term follow-ups.
Wang, H.H.; Wang, Q.F.
Vaspin is a novel adipocytokine associated with glucose tolerance and chronic inflammation. Some studies reveal that vaspin may be involved in cardiovascular diseases. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between serum vaspin levels and endothelial function in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. One hundred and twenty patients with newly diagnosed ankylosing spondylitis and 100 healthy subjects were studied. Serum vaspin levels were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. High resolution ultrasound was used to measure brachial artery diameter at rest, after reactive hyperemia (flow-mediated dilation, FMD) and after sublingual glyceryltrinitrate. Serum vaspin level in patients was 1.92±1.03 ng/mL, which was significantly lower than that in healthy subjects (2.88±0.81 ng/mL). By dividing the distribution of serum vaspin levels into quartiles, FMD levels increased gradually with the increase of serum vaspin levels in patients (P<0.01). Univariate analysis showed a correlation between vaspin and FMD (r=0.73, P=0.003), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=-0.45, P=0.033), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=0.63, P=0.025), fasting blood glucose (r=-0.79, P=0.006), triglycerides (TG) (r=-0.68, P=0.036), systolic blood pressure (r=-0.35, P=0.021), C-reactive protein (r=-0.67, P=0.011), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (r=-0.77, P=0.023) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r=-0.88, P=0.039) in patients. Multivariate analysis indicated that serum vaspin levels were independently associated with FMD, HOMA-IR and TG in patients. Our study found that serum vaspin levels were decreased in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and were associated with FMD levels. Vaspin may serve as an independent marker for detecting early stage atherosclerosis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. PMID:27383120
Martins, N A; Furtado, Guilherme Eustáquio; Campos, Maria João; Leitão, José Carlos; Filaire, Edith; Ferreira, José Pedro
Ankylosing spondylitis is a systemic rheumatic disease that affects the axial skeleton, causing inflammatory back pain, structural and functional changes which decrease quality of life. Several treatments for ankylosing spondylitis have been proposed and among them the use of exercise. The present study aims to synthesize information from the literature and identify the results of controlled clinical trials on exercise in patients with ankylosing spondylitis with the New York modified diagnostic criteria and to assess whether exercise is more effective than physical activity to reduce functional impairment. The sources of studies used were: LILACS, Pubmed, EBSCOhost, B-on, personal communication, manual research and lists of references. The criteria used for the studies selection was controlled clinical trials, participants with New York modified diagnostic criteria for ankylosing spondylitis, and with interventions through exercise. The variables studied were related to primary outcomes such as BASFI (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index) as a functional index, BASDAI (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index) as an index of intensity of disease activity and BASMI (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index) as a metrological index assessing patient's limitation on movement. From the 603 studies identified after screening only 37 articles were selected for eligibility, from which 18 studies were included. The methodological quality was assessed to select those with an high methodological expressiveness using the PEDro scale. A cumulative meta-analysis was subsequently performed to compare exercise versus usual level of physical activity. Exercise shows significant statistical outcomes for the BASFI, BASDAI and BASMI, higher than those found for usual level of physical activity.
Calin, A; Dijkmans, B; Emery, P; Hakala, M; Kalden, J; Leirisalo-Repo, M; Mola, E; Salvarani, C; Sanmarti, R; Sany, J; Sibilia, J; Sieper, J; van der Linden, S; Veys, E; Appel, A; Fatenejad, S
Objective: A double blind, randomised, placebo controlled study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of etanercept to treat adult patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods: Adult patients with AS at 14 European sites were randomly assigned to 25 mg injections of etanercept or placebo twice weekly for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was an improvement of at least 20% in patient reported symptoms, based on the multicomponent Assessments in Ankylosing Spondylitis (ASAS) response criteria (ASAS 20). Secondary end points included ASAS 50 and ASAS 70 responses and improved scores on individual components of ASAS, the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), acute phase reactants, and spinal mobility tests. Safety was evaluated during scheduled visits. Results: Of 84 patients enrolled, 45 received etanercept and 39 received placebo. Significantly more etanercept patients than placebo patients responded at the ASAS 20 level as early as week 2, and sustained differences were evident up to week 12. Significantly more etanercept patients reported ASAS 50 responses at all times and ASAS 70 responses at weeks 2, 4, and 8; reported lower composite and fatigue BASDAI scores; had lower acute phase reactant levels; and had improved spinal flexion. Etanercept was well tolerated. Most adverse events were mild to moderate; the only between-group difference was injection site reactions, which occurred significantly more often in etanercept patients. Conclusions: Etanercept is a well tolerated and effective treatment for reducing clinical symptoms and signs of AS. PMID:15345498
Turan, Yasemin; Duruöz, Mehmet Tuncay; Cerrahoglu, Lale
The aims of this study were to evaluate quality of life (QOL) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to determine the relationship between QOL and clinical condition/functional status. Forty-six AS patients (37 males) were included in the study. The demographic data of the patients were recorded. Disease activity Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), enthesitis involvement Mander Ehthesis Index (MEI), functional evaluation Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), and quality of life Short-Form 36 (SF-36) were assessed. The mean age of the patients was 39.2 (SD: 11. 46) years. Most MEI was found related to physical function (P = 0.014), physical role (P = 0. 01), pain (P = 0.002) and vitality (P = 0.004) in SF-36 subgroups. Among the subgroups, the best correlations with the general health was found in BASDAI (P = 0.014) and secondly in MEI (P = 0.038). None of the mental health and social function subgroups had any significant correlation with any of the parameters (P > 0.05). A significant relationship was found between the emotional role and BASFI, and chest expansion (P = 0.004). Clinical and functional state were affecting QOL of patients with AS. It has been found out that in patients with AS, the QOL subgroups are mostly related with enthesis involvement.
Xiao, Peng; Pang, Changhe; Zhu, Xu; Wu, Xuejian
This article is to explore the curative effect of treating ankylosing spondylitis (AS) through combining etanercept, thalidomide and sulfasalazine. Sixty-two patients with AS were divided into 3 groups: experimental group Ais treated by etanercept+ thalidomide + sulfasalazine for 1 year (n=22); control group B was treated with etanercept; control group C was treated with thalidomide + sulfasalazine for 1 year (n=20). In 1st, 3rd, 6th, 12th month after the treatment, ASAS20 and ASAS50 were obtained through Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI), Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C react protein (CRP) and then curative effect was analyzed. In 1 and 3 months after the treatment, each indicator had downtrend, and ASAS20 of experimental group and etanercept control group reached 100%; ASAS50 increased compared with the first months' treatment; although ASAS20 and ASAS50 in thalidomide control group was smaller, they increased; in 6 and 12 months after the treatment, ASAS20 improvement ratio in group A still remained on 100%, ASA50 improvement ratio increased; recurrence rate of group B increased; ASA20 and ASA50 had a continuous and significant increase, but its their was less than group A. This study proved that, the effect of curing AS combiningetanercept, thalidomide and sulfasalazine is better, therefore, it is a high-feasible treatment approach.
Soleimanifar, Narjes; Amirzargar, Ali Akbar; Mahmoudi, Mahdi; Pourfathollah, Ali Akbar; Azizi, Esfandiar; Jamshidi, Ahmad Reza; Rezaei, Nima; Tahoori, Mohammad Taher; Bidad, Katayoon; Nikbin, Behrouz; Nicknam, Mohammad Hossein
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease, characterized by axial arthritis in which the genetic-environmental factors seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. This study was performed to investigate the role of polymorphisms of the programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1) gene on susceptibility to AS. In this study, 161 Iranian patients with AS and 208 normal controls were enrolled; two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the PDCD1 gene PD-1.3 (G, A) in nucleotide position +7146 of intron 4 and PD-1.9 (C, T) in nucleotide +7625 of exon 5 were studied. Analysis of PD-1.3 revealed that 82% of patients and 79% of controls had GG genotype, while GA and AA genotypes were detected in 17% and 0.6% of patients, respectively, and 20% and 1.4% of controls, respectively. Moreover, the genotype CC (PD-1.9) was present in 92% of patients and 97% of controls. Although these differences were not statistically significant between patients and controls, comparisons of genotypes frequencies in the AS patients, based on human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27, revealed that all patients who had CT genotype (PD-1.9) were HLA-B27 positive, whereas 30% of patients with CC genotype were HLA-B27 negative. There was no evidence of association for PDCD1 SNPs with AS in our study, but CT genotype (PD-1.9) seems to be associated with HLA-B27 positivity in the patients with AS.
Aissaoui, N; Rostom, S; Hakkou, J; Berrada Ghziouel, K; Bahiri, R; Abouqal, R; Hajjaj-Hassouni, N
This study aims to evaluate the frequency of fatigue in Moroccan patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and its relationships with disease-specific variables, psychological status, and sleep disturbance. A cross-sectional study included patients fulfilled the modified New York classification criteria for ankylosing spondylitis. To assess fatigue, the first item of Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI) and the multidimensional assessment of fatigue (MAF) was used. The evaluation included the activity of the disease (BASDAI), global well-being (Bath ankylosing spondylitis global index), functional status (Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index), metrologic measurements (Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrological index), and visual analog scale of axial or joint pain. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were measured. To assess psychological status, the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) was used. Sleep disturbance was assessed by the fourth item of Hamilton anxiety scale. One hundred and ten patients were included, of average age 38.0 years ± 12.6. In our data, 66.4% experienced severe fatigue (BASDAI fatigue ≥ 5). The mean total score of MAF was 26 ± 12.77. The disease-specific variables contributed significantly with both BASDAI fatigue and MAF as dependent variables, accounting for 71.3 and 65.6% of the variance, respectively. The contribution of the depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance were 24.9, 18.4 and 15.4%, respectively. This study state the importance of fatigue in AS patients. Even though disease activity was the most powerful predictor of fatigue, the effects of psychogenic factors and sleep disturbance, should be taken into consideration in the management of AS.
Tomotani, Daniere Yurie Vieira; Miranda, Aryádine Allinne Machado de; Almeida, Lorena Penha; Mubarac, Rebecca Souza; Neves, Anne Christine Garcia; Ribeiro, Sandra Lúcia Euzébio
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects mainly the axial skeletal system, causing pain and functional incapacity. The peripheral joint involvement occurs in 30 to 40% of cases. Osteomyelitis of the mandible was relatively common before the advent of preventive antibiotic therapy and restorative dentistry. Currently, the infection of the facial bones is a rare condition, being the odontogenic infection the most responsible for cases with mandibular involvement. The authors report the case of a EA patient, with severe peripheral involvement, which progressed to osteomyelitis of the jaw, secondary to the odontogenic infection due to delay in diagnosis and treatment.
Robinson, Philip Cameron; Wordsworth, Bryan Paul; Reveille, John D; Brown, Matthew A
New classification criteria for axial spondyloarthritis have been developed with the goal of increasing sensitivity of criteria for early inflammatory spondyloarthritis. However these criteria substantially increase heterogeneity of the resulting disease group, reducing their value in both research and clinical settings. Further research to establish criteria based on better knowledge of the natural history of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis, its aetiopathogenesis and response to treatment is required. In the meantime the modified New York criteria for ankylosing spondylitis remain a very useful classification criteria set, defining a relatively homogenous group of cases for clinical use and research studies.
Lipton, James A; Mitchell, Lisa J
The authors describe the case of a patient with ankylosing spondylitis who was treated with orthotic devices for postural unleveling. The patient described specific pre-existing postural problems, both static and dynamic, that had been present for many years. A unilateral 9-mm gel heel lift was used, followed by custom-molded orthotic devices that incorporated the heel lift. The patient reported immediate resolution of these symptoms after orthotic treatment, as well as increased functionality and satisfaction in activities of daily living, which coincided with the leveling of his posture. The orthotic devices were used until the patient underwent total hip arthroplasty, at which point the orthotic treatment was discontinued.
Martindale, Jane; Shukla, Rudresh; Goodacre, John
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory condition that has a significant impact on the quality of life and work productivity. New classification criteria have enabled earlier diagnosis of this condition. However, work productivity is an important issue that is still often overlooked during clinical assessments and consultations. This article focusses on the relationship between axial spondyloarthritis (axial SpA) and work productivity. It summarises the impact of this condition on work productivity, and it highlights the tools available to assess this. It also highlights the increasing role and potential of employers, health professionals and new treatments for enhancing work productivity for people with this condition.
Garrido-Castro, Juan L; Escudero, Alejandro; Medina-Carnicer, Rafael; Galisteo, Alfonso M; Gonzalez-Navas, Cristina; Carmona, Loreto; Collantes-Estevez, Eduardo
Spinal mobility measures are subject to high variability and subjectivity. Automated motion capture allows an objective and quantitative measure of mobility with high levels of precision. To validate the University of Cordoba Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (UCOASMI), an index measure of spinal mobility, based on automated motion capture, validation studies included the following: (1) validity, tested by correlation--Pearson's r--between the UCOASMI and the mobility index Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), and a measure of structural damage, the modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spinal Score (mSASSS); (2) reliability, with internal consistency tested by Cronbach's alpha, test-retest by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) after 2 weeks, and error measurement, by variation coefficient (VC) and smallest detectable difference (SDD); and (3) responsiveness, by effect size (ES) in a clinical trial of anti-TNF. Patients for the different studies all had ankylosing spondylitis. Validity studies show correlation between the BASMI (r = 0.881) and the mSASSS (r = 0.780). Reliability studies show an internal consistency of Cronbach's α = 0.894, intra-observer ICC = 0.996, test-retest ICC = 0.996, and a measurement error of VC = 2.80% and SDD = 0.25 points. Responsiveness showed an ES after 24 weeks of treatment of 0.48. In all studies, the UCOASMI's performance was better than that of the BASMI. The UCOASMI is a validated index to measure spinal mobility with better metric properties than previous indices.
This article presents a rare case of a fracture of the thoracic spine accompanied by significant dislocation but without spinal cord injury in a 74-year-old male patient with ankylosing spondylitis. A literature search failed to reveal a similar case. Conservative treatment produced a good outcome.
Liu, Kang; Wu, Lianguo; Shi, Xiaolin; Wu, Fengqing
Naringin is an abundant flavanone in pomelo, grapefruit as well as lime and its variants, has been shown to exhibit certain antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and hypoglycemic effects. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the protective effects of naringin against ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to elucidate the potential underlying mechanism. Firstly, a mouse model of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) was established. Next, osteocalcin (OC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and triglyceride (TG) activity values, inflammatory factor and oxidative stress were evaluated in the AS mice. Then, the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein expression levels in the AS mice were investigated using western blot analysis. The results showed that naringin increased OC, ALP and TG activity values in the AS mouse model. Furthermore, inflammatory factor and oxidative stress levels in the AS mice were restrained by treatment with naringin. Furthermore, JAK2 and STAT3 protein expression levels were reduced by treatment with naringin. In conclusion, the present results indicated that the protective effects of naringin against AS are exerted via the induction of ossification, suppression of inflammation and oxidative stress and the downregulation of JAK2/STAT3 in mice. PMID:27446336
Caglayan, Mehmet; Türkoğlu, Ahmet; Oktayoglu, Pelin; Yıldız, Mehmet; Dağlı, Abdullah Zübeyir; Böyük, Abdullah; Em, Serda; Bozkurt, Mehtap; Nas, Kemal
Haemorrhoidal disease (HD) is one of the most common diseases encountered by the clinicians of general surgery. Chronic constipation, pushing during defecation and increased abdominal pressure play an important role in development of haemorrhoidal disease. Patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) frequently use the Valsalva manoeuvre in their daily lives, which may increase the abdominal pressure, leading to formation of haemorrhoids. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of haemorrhoidal disease in patients with AS. A total of 221 individuals were included in this study in three groups as follows: 72 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), 75 patients with chronic low back pain (LBP) and 74 healthy control subjects. Patients were examined both physically and anoscopically, and their histories were taken. The incidence of HD was 45.8% in patients with AS, 16% in patients with chronic LBP and 9.5% in healthy control subjects. The incidence of HD was significantly higher in patients with AS compared to the other groups. Patients with AS have a high incidence of HD, which should be taken into consideration by clinicians during routine examination of these patients.
Turan, Yasemin; Bayraktar, Kevser; Kahvecioglu, Fatih; Tastaban, Engin; Aydin, Elif; Kurt Omurlu, Imran; Berkit, Isil Karatas
This double-blind, randomized controlled study was conducted with the aim to investigate the effect of magnetic field therapy applied to the hip region on clinical and functional status in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. Patients with AS (n = 66) who were diagnosed according to modified New York criteria were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. Participants were randomly assigned to receive magnetic field therapy (2 Hz) (n = 35), or placebo magnetic field therapy (n = 31) each hip region for 20 min. Patients in each group were given heat pack and short-wave treatments applied to bilateral hip regions. Both groups had articular range of motion and stretching exercises and strengthening exercises for surrounding muscles for the hip region as well as breathing and postural exercises by the same physical therapist. These treatment protocols were continued for a total of 15 sessions (1 session per day), and patients were examined by the same physician at months 1, 3 and 6. Visual analogue scale (VAS) pain, VAS fatigue, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrologic Index (BASMI), DFI, Harris hip assessment index and Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life scale (ASQOL) were obtained at the beginning of therapy and at month 1, month 3 and month 6 for each patient. There were no significant differences between groups in the VAS pain, VAS fatigue, morning stiffness, BASDAI, BASFI, BASMI, DFI, Harris hip assessment index and ASQoL at baseline, month 1, month 3 or month 6 (p > 0.05). Further randomized, double-blind controlled studies are needed in order to establish the evidence level for the efficacy of modalities with known analgesic and anti-inflammatory action such as magnetotherapy, particularly in rheumatic disorders associated with chronic pain.
Wang, Cong-hua; Feng, Yuan; Ren, Zhen; Yang, Xichao; Jia, Jun-feng; Rong, Meng-yao; Li, Xue-yi; Wu, Zhen-biao
Enthesitis is considered as the primary anatomical lesion in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We aimed to investigate the potential of ultrasound to detect early changes after TNF-a antagonist therapy of Achilles enthesitis of AS patients. One hundred AS patients with active disease, requiring TNF-a antagonist therapy, were included (etanercept n = 25, infliximab n = 25, adalimumab n = 25, non-biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) n = 25). Physical examination was performed to evaluate disease activity and detect Achilles enthesitis and/or retrocalcaneal bursitis. Ultrasound of the Achilles enthesitis was performed bilaterally. Follow-up examinations were performed 3 months after the initiation of therapy. Gray scale (GS) scores, Power Doppler (PD) scores, and total additive scores (TS) decreased significantly during TNF-a antagonist therapy but not in traditional non-biologic traditional DMARDs group. The bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI), bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index (BASMI), bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), and Maastricht ankylosing spondylitis enthesitis score (MASES) all showed significant improvements. When three different TNF-a antagonists were analyzed separately, no significant difference was observed in GS, PD, and total scores. Subclinical Achilles enthesitis, detected only with GS ultrasound, is present in a subset of AS patients and a significant improvement can be demonstrated after 3 months of TNF-a antagonist therapy. Doppler ultrasound provides a reliable estimation to monitor the therapeutic response to TNF antagonists in AS patients with Achilles enthesitis. TNF-a antagonists have been shown to be effective in decreasing ultrasound signs of enthesitis after 3 months of therapy in AS patients.
Zochling, J; van der Heijde, D; Dougados, M; Braun, J
Objective To assess available management strategies in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) using a systematic approach, as a part of the development of evidence based recommendations for the management of AS. Methods A systematic search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PEDro, and the Cochrane Library was performed to identify relevant interventions for the management of AS. Evidence for each intervention was categorised by study type, and outcome data for efficacy, adverse effects, and cost effectiveness were abstracted. The effect size, rate ratio, number needed to treat, and incremental cost effectiveness ratio were calculated for each intervention where possible. Results from randomised controlled trials were pooled where appropriate. Results Both pharmacological and non‐pharmacological interventions considered to be of interest to clinicians involved in the management of AS were identified. Good evidence (level Ib) exists supporting the use of non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and coxibs for symptomatic treatment. Non‐pharmacological treatments are also supported for maintaining function in AS. The use of conventional antirheumatoid arthritis drugs is not well supported by high level research evidence. Tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (infliximab and etanercept) have level Ib evidence supporting large treatment effects for spinal pain and function in AS over at least 6 months. Level IV evidence supports surgical interventions in specific patients. Conclusion This extensive literature review forms the evidence base considered in the development of the new ASAS/EULAR recommendations for the management of AS. PMID:16126792
Bosnić, Dubravka; Žarković, Branimir; Zarkovic, Maja; Anić, Branimir
Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by occlusion of the follicular pilosebaceous units of the skin. The treatment options are sometimes very limited and unpleasant odor and abundant drainage complicate the disease. Ankylosing spondylitis is a form of seronegative spondyloarthritis with predominantly axial but also peripheral joint involvement. Both of the conditions lower the patient’s quality of life and affect everyday activities. We describe a 39-year-old male patient with both diseases treated with different medications with only a modest result. After the initiation of a tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) inhibitor (adalimumab) the patient experienced first the musculoskeletal and later on the skin improvement. The introduction of TNF-α inhibitors should be considered early in the treatment of overlapping hidradenitis suppurativa and the spondyloarthritis spectrum of conditions. Available medical data confirm the positive results and beneficial effect on disease course, activity and, most importantly, quality of life. PMID:28115784
Bosnić, Dubravka; Žarković, Branimir; Barešić, Marko; Zarkovic, Maja; Anić, Branimir
Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by occlusion of the follicular pilosebaceous units of the skin. The treatment options are sometimes very limited and unpleasant odor and abundant drainage complicate the disease. Ankylosing spondylitis is a form of seronegative spondyloarthritis with predominantly axial but also peripheral joint involvement. Both of the conditions lower the patient's quality of life and affect everyday activities. We describe a 39-year-old male patient with both diseases treated with different medications with only a modest result. After the initiation of a tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) inhibitor (adalimumab) the patient experienced first the musculoskeletal and later on the skin improvement. The introduction of TNF-α inhibitors should be considered early in the treatment of overlapping hidradenitis suppurativa and the spondyloarthritis spectrum of conditions. Available medical data confirm the positive results and beneficial effect on disease course, activity and, most importantly, quality of life.
Dillon, Charles F; Hirsch, Rosemarie
Currently available U.S. population-based data for ankylosing spondylitis (AS), spondyloarthritis and inflammatory back pain (IBP) from the nationally representative U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) include both NHANES I (1971-1975) and NHANES II (1976-1980) surveys. The pelvic radiographs obtained in NHANES I provided U.S. prevalence estimates for radiographic sacroiliitis, an important component of the AS case definition. AS and spondyloarthritis prevalences cannot readily be calculated from NHANES I survey data; however, IBP prevalence (Rudwaleit et al Criteria 7b) can be estimated from NHANES II. The NHANES II estimate for IBP is 0.8% of the adult population ages 25 to 49 years. The prevalence of IBP in the subset of persons with a history of a back pain episode lasting 2 or more weeks was 6.7%. The 2009-2010 NHANES U.S. Inflammatory Back Pain/Spondyloarthritis survey is currently fielded.
Poddubnyy, D; Sieper, J
The term axial spondyloarthritis covers patients with established structural changes visible on x-ray in sacroiliac joints and/or in the spine (classical ankylosing spondylitis) but also patients with non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis in whom early inflammatory signs of the disease can only be visualized with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI technique plays an important role in the diagnosis of this disease and an early diagnosis is normally based on a combination of clinical, laboratory and imaging parameters. Only non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and TNF-α blockers are effective in the treatment of axial spondyloarthritis. Patients with short disease duration and elevated acute phase reactant levels demonstrate best therapy response and, therefore, should be closely followed-up and consistently treated.
Rashid, Taha; Ebringer, Alan; Wilson, Clyde
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a world-wide chronic inflammatory disease of the axial skeleton most likely caused by a microbial factor in genetically susceptible individuals. Over the last 40 years extensive data has been produced which shows that the majority of patients with AS possess the HLA-B27 genetic marker. Significantly elevated levels of Klebsiella antibodies have been demonstrated in 1556 AS patients in 16 different countries with various geographical locations. Other evidence for the link between Klebsiella and AS include increased fecal isolation rates of Klebsiella microbes in AS patients together with shared molecular and immunological cross-reactivity features existing between Klebsiella antigens and HLA-B27 and collagens I, III and IV. Anti-Klebsiella measures could possibly be included with the currently used medical treatment in the management of patients with AS.
Yang, Lianjun; Wang, Liping; Wang, Xin; Xian, Cory J.; Lu, Hai
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease primarily affecting the sacroiliac joints and the spine, for which the pathogenesis is thought to be a result of the combination of host genetic factors and environmental triggers. However, the precise factors that determine one’s susceptibility to AS remain to be unraveled. With 100 trillion bacteria residing in the mammalian gut having established a symbiotic relation with their host influencing many aspects of host metabolism, physiology, and immunity, a growing body of evidence suggests that intestinal microbiota may play an important role in AS. Several mechanisms have been suggested to explain the potential role of the microbiome in the etiology of AS, such as alterations of intestinal permeability, stimulation of immune responses, and molecular mimicry. In this review, the existing evidence for the involvement of the microbiome in AS pathogenesis was discussed and the potential of intestinal microbiome-targeting strategies in the prevention and treatment of AS was evaluated. PMID:27999312
Inman, R D; El-Gabalawy, H S
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are immune-mediated inflammatory joint diseases with the potential for significant target organ damage. Genetic factors play an important role in defining disease susceptibility. Both diseases are mediated in part by TNF, since anti-TNF therapies have proved effective in both AS and RA. Despite their similarities, the genetic elements associated with the respective diseases differ, most notably in HLA associations, with AS being associated with class I HLA alleles and RA associated with class II HLA alleles. AS has a predilection for axial joints whereas RA targets peripheral joints, but the immunological basis of that distinction is unknown. Autoantibody formation is the immunological hallmark of RA, whereas AS is notable for being a "seronegative" disease. Growing knowledge of new aspects of the host immune response (such as innate immune responses and Th17 cells) is adding to new insights into shared mechanisms of pathogenesis between these two diseases.
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes, induced by stimulating the PBMC of an HLA-B27+ normal individual (B27+, AS-) with the PBMC of an HLA-identical sibling suffering from ankylosing spondylitis (AS) (B27+, AS+), specifically lyse B27+, AS+ PBMC but not PBMC from HLA-27+ or B27-, AS- normal controls, or from HLA-B27- AS patients (B27-,AS+). CTL of similar specificity can also be raised by immunizing in vitro B27+,AS- cells with autologous cells modified by cross-reactive bacterial antigens. These results suggest that CTL can recognize certain bacterial antigens in association with HLA-B27 and that this interaction may lead to an inflammatory episode during the initial stages of the disease. PMID:3528379
Raval, Chetankumar; Patel, Heena; Patel, Pranoti; Kharod, Utpala
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients are most challenging. These patient present the most serious array of intubation and difficult airway imaginable, secondary to decrease or no cervical spine mobility, fixed flexion deformity of thoracolumbar spine and possible temporomandibular joint disease. Sound clinical judgment is critical for timing and selecting the method for airway intervention. The retrograde intubation technique is an important option when fiberoptic bronchoscope is not available, and other method is not applicable for gaining airway access for surgery in prone position. We report a case of AS with fixed flexion deformity of thoracic and thoracolumbar spine, fusion of posterior elements of cervical spine posted for lumbar spinal osteotomy with anticipated difficult intubation. An awake retrograde oral intubation with light sedation and local block is performed. PMID:20668567
Baraliakos, X; Braun, J
The development of the axial spondyloarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis (ASAS) classification criteria has had several implications for our understanding of the entire spectrum of spondyloarthritides (SpA). Going beyond the modified New York criteria, which concentrate on conventional radiographs of the sacroiliac joints (SIJ) for the classification of ankylosing spondylitis, the ASAS criteria add active inflammation of the SIJ as obtained by MRI and human leucocyte antigen (HLA) B27 to classify patients with chronic back pain starting at a young age as axial SpA (axSpA). AxSpA should be considered as one disease that includes AS, the radiographic form, as well as the non-radiographic (nr-axSpA) form. Similarities and differences between these subgroups have been described in 3 studies: 1 local study, 1 national study (German SpA Inception Cohort) and 1 international study mainly conducted to test the efficacy of a tumour necrosis factor α blocker. Most clinical features and assessments of axSpA showed the same prevalence in patients with and without radiographic changes. However, some differences have been observed: the male:female ratio, the proportion of patients with objective signs of inflammation such as bone marrow oedema as detected by MRI, and the proportion of patients with increased levels of C reactive protein were higher in patients with AS. Importantly, these factors have also been identified as prognostic factors for more severe disease in terms of new bone formation. Thus, nr-axSpA may represent an early stage of AS but may also just be an abortive form of a disease which does cause much pain but which may also never lead to structural changes of the axial skeleton. Since the cut-off between nr-axSpA and AS is artificial and unreliable, we think that the term nr-axSpA should not be used for diagnosis but only for classification for historical reasons.
Duruöz, M T; Doward, L; Turan, Y; Cerrahoglu, L; Yurtkuran, M; Calis, M; Tas, N; Ozgocmen, S; Yoleri, O; Durmaz, B; Oncel, S; Tuncer, T; Sendur, O; Birtane, M; Tuzun, F; Bingol, U; Kirnap, M; Celik Erturk, G; Ardicoglu, O; Memis, A; Atamaz, F; Kizil, R; Kacar, C; Gurer, G; Uzunca, K; Sari, H
The Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life (ASQoL) questionnaire is a disease-specific measure of needs-based quality of life developed in the UK and the Netherlands. This study describes translation, validation, and reliability of the scale into Turkish population. The ASQoL was translated into Turkish using the dual-panel process. Content validity was assessed via cognitive debriefing interviews with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. Patients with AS according to modified New York criteria were recruited into the study from 12 hospitals of all part of Turkey. Psychometric and scaling properties were assessed via a two administration survey involving the ASQoL, the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI), and Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). Classical psychometrics assessed reliability, convergent validity (correlation of ASQoL with NHP, BASFI, and BASDAI) and discriminative validity (correlation of ASQoL with perceived AS-severity and general health). Cognitive debriefing showed the new Turkish ASQoL to be clear, relevant, and comprehensive. Completed survey questionnaires were received from 277 AS patients (80% Male, mean age 42.2/SD 11.6, mean AS duration 9.4 years/SD 9.4). Test-retest reliability was excellent (0.96), indicating low random measurement error for the scale. Correlations of ASQoL with NHP sections were low to moderate (NHP Sleep 0.34; NHP Emotional Reactions 0.83) suggesting the measures assess related but distinct constructs. The measure was able to discriminate between patients based on their perceived disease severity (p < 0.0001) and self-reported general health (p < 0.0001). The Turkish version of ASQoL has good reliability and validity properties. It is practical and useful scale to assess the quality of life in AS patients in Turkish population.
Baraliakos, X; Braun, J
The development of the axial spondyloarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis (ASAS) classification criteria has had several implications for our understanding of the entire spectrum of spondyloarthritides (SpA). Going beyond the modified New York criteria, which concentrate on conventional radiographs of the sacroiliac joints (SIJ) for the classification of ankylosing spondylitis, the ASAS criteria add active inflammation of the SIJ as obtained by MRI and human leucocyte antigen (HLA) B27 to classify patients with chronic back pain starting at a young age as axial SpA (axSpA). AxSpA should be considered as one disease that includes AS, the radiographic form, as well as the non-radiographic (nr-axSpA) form. Similarities and differences between these subgroups have been described in 3 studies: 1 local study, 1 national study (German SpA Inception Cohort) and 1 international study mainly conducted to test the efficacy of a tumour necrosis factor α blocker. Most clinical features and assessments of axSpA showed the same prevalence in patients with and without radiographic changes. However, some differences have been observed: the male:female ratio, the proportion of patients with objective signs of inflammation such as bone marrow oedema as detected by MRI, and the proportion of patients with increased levels of C reactive protein were higher in patients with AS. Importantly, these factors have also been identified as prognostic factors for more severe disease in terms of new bone formation. Thus, nr-axSpA may represent an early stage of AS but may also just be an abortive form of a disease which does cause much pain but which may also never lead to structural changes of the axial skeleton. Since the cut-off between nr-axSpA and AS is artificial and unreliable, we think that the term nr-axSpA should not be used for diagnosis but only for classification for historical reasons. PMID:26557375
BANICIOIU-COVEI, S.; VREJU, FA.; CIUREA, P.
Purpose: The goal of this study is to identify the predictive factors involved in the evolution of the reactive arthritis to ankylosing spondylitis by following the presence and degree of sacroiliitis and also the appeareance of acute anterior uveitis.Material and Methods: The study was performed between 01.01.2011- 31.12.2014 on 112 patients, aged between 17 and 47 years old, in evidence of the Rheumatology Clinic of the Clinical Hospital Emergency Craiova. The patients were divided in 2 lots according to the radiological criteria: the first lot included 52 patients diagnosed with reactive arthritis, with the determination of the pathogen agent involved and the demonstration of sacroiliitis first degree by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (IRM). The second lot included a number of 60 patients diagnosed with reactive arthritis, without presenting significant changes in the sacroiliac joints and at the cervico-dorsal- lumbar spine. Results: In the first batch, the performance of the IRM and monitoring the patients every 6 months over 3 years revealed the progression of sacroiliitis from first degree in which it was at the moment of diagnosing at second degree in a 6 month period. Three years after initiation of therapy for reactive arthritis, the patients from the second batch responded favorably to treatment, the performance of imaging not revealing signs of sacroiliitis.Conclusion: Association of sacroiliitis at baseline proved to be a negative prognostic factor in reactive arthritis, which can suggest the evolution to ankylosing spondylitis, monitoring these patients being necessary for at least 3 years from the point of diagnosing.
Graham, J E; Rouse, M; Twiss, J; McKenna, S P; Vidalis, A A
Background Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) is a chronic rheumatic disease that has a significant impact on patient’s quality of life (QoL). The Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life (ASQoL) questionnaire is a disease-specific patient-reported outcome measure for assessing QoL in AS. While the ASQoL has been adapted for use in 46 countries worldwide, a Greek language version of the measure has not been available and was required for an international clinical trial. Aim The aim was to develop and assess the psychometric properties of a Greek language version of the ASQoL. Methods The adaptation of the ASQoL into Greek involved three procedures: translation, assessment of face and content validity, and formal validation. The measure was translated into Greek using two translation panels. Cognitive debriefing interviews were employed to determine face and content validity. Finally, the translation’s psychometric properties were examined by administering it on two occasions, with a 14-day interval. The Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) was used as a comparator measure. Results The ASQoL proved straightforward to translate into Greek and interviewees found it relevant, comprehensible and easy to complete. The measure had good internal consistency (α =0.92) and test-retest reliability (r =0.98). Predicted correlations with the NHP provided evidence of the convergent validity of the two measures. Construct validity was confirmed by the measure’s ability to distinguish groups of AS patients varying by perceived disease severity and general health. Conclusions The Greek ASQoL has been shown to be well-accepted, reliable and valid and can be recommended for use in clinical studies and routine clinical practice in AS. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (2):119-124. PMID:27418759
Tsui, Florence WL; Tsui, Hing Wo; Akram, Ali; Haroon, Nigil; Inman, Robert D
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a complex disease involving multiple risk factors, both genetic and environmental. AS patients are predominantly young men, and the disease is characterized by inflammation and ankylosis, mainly at the cartilage–bone interface and enthesis. HLA-B27 has been known to be the major AS-susceptibility gene for more than 40 years. Despite advances made in the past few years, progress in the search for non-human leukocyte antigen susceptibility genes has been hampered by the heterogeneity of the disease. Compared to other complex diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), fewer susceptibility loci have been identified in AS. Furthermore, non-major histocompatibility-complex susceptibility loci discovered, such as ERAP1 and IL23R, are likely contributors to joint inflammation. Identification and confirmation of functional variants remains a significant challenge of investigations involving genome-wide association studies (GWAS). It remains unclear why none of the AS-susceptibility genes identified in GWAS appear to be directly involved in the ankylosing process. Numerous reviews have recently been published on the genetics of AS. Therefore, aside from a brief summary of what AS GWAS has successfully achieved thus far, this review will focus on directions that could address unanswered questions raised by GWAS. PMID:24971029
Camargo, U; Toledo, R A; Cintra, J R; Nunes, D P T; Acayaba de Toledo, R; Brandão de Mattos, C C; Mattos, L C
Genes located outside the HLA region (6p21) have been considered as candidates for susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis. We tested the hypothesis that the G22A polymorphism of the adenosine deaminase gene (ADA; 20q13.11) is associated with ankylosing spondylitis in 166 Brazilian subjects genotyped for the HLA*27 gene (47 patients and 119 controls matched for gender, age and geographic origin). The HLA-B*27 gene and the G22A ADA polymorphism were identified by PCR with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes and PCR-RFLP, respectively. There were no significant differences in frequencies of ADA genotypes [odds ratio (OR) = 1.200, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.3102-4.643, P > 0.8] and ADA*01 and ADA*02 alleles (OR = 1.192, 95%CI = 0.3155-4.505, P > 0.8) in patients versus controls. We conclude that the G22A polymorphism is not associated with ankylosing spondylitis.
AlDhaheri, Fahmi; Almteri, Talal; Dwid, Naji; Majdali, Ahd; Janoudi, Nahed; Almoallim, Hani
Patient: Male, 38 Final Diagnosis: Ankylosing spondylitis Symptoms: Back pain • morning stiffness Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Not applicable Specialty: Rheuamatology Objective: Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment Background: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that predominantly affects the axial skeleton. The ability of anti-TNF-α agents to reduce disease activity in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), including AS, has been demonstrated in multiple randomized trials and several meta-analyses. Reports on the efficacy of rituximab in treatment of AS have described good results. We report on a patient with AS who failed anti-TNF-α therapy but showed good clinical improvement with rituximab therapy. Case Report: A 38-year-old male patient was diagnosed with AS and showed poor response to sulfasalazine and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Infliximab was initiated with marked improvement as per the Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI). Due to disease flare, the patient was switched to etanercept. He subsequently acquired papillary thyroid cancer and etanercept was discontinued. He underwent a total thyroidectomy followed by radioiodine therapy. For his ongoing active disease, NSAIDs and sulfasalazine were resumed with a lack of response (BASDAI=7.1). Rituximab was started and resulted in significant improvement (BASDAI=2.3). Conclusions: Rituximab can be a potential target therapy for patients who start to lose response to TNF-inhibitors or for those who develop solid malignancies. Further placebo-controlled studies are required. PMID:28179619
Braun, J; Kiltz, U; Baraliakos, X; van der Heijde, D
The spondyloarthritides (SpA) are currently differentiated into axial and peripheral SpA. Patients with axial SpA (axSpA) may be further classified into the classical form ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and non-radiographic axSpA (nr-axSpA). The SpA are genetically linked, and the subtypes including psoriatic arthritis (PsA) share characteristic clinical symptoms such as inflammatory back pain (IBP) and enthesitis. IMP can be due to sacroiliitis and spondylitis, enthesitis may occur with or without arthritis, and anterior uveitis, as well as other extraarticular manifestations such as psoriasis and chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In addition to clinical findings, imaging, mainly conventional radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and laboratory results such as HLA B27 and CRP are important tools for classification and diagnosis of SpA. The Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS), an international group of experts in the field of SpA since 1995, has published on assessments and outcome parameters in SpA. The publication of classification criteria for axSpA has now largely replaced the 1984 criteria for AS. However, the established cut-off between AS and nr-axSpA, 'definite' structural changes in the sacroiliac joints, has been recently debated because of limited reliability. Since imaging plays an important role in all criteria sets, the ASAS group has recently published definitions for inflammatory changes in the SIJ and the spine. The most important domains in AS are disease activity, function, spinal mobility, structural damage, and quality of life, some of which are discussed in this manuscript. For axSpA there are two major tools to assess disease activity, the BASDAI and the ASDAS, one for function, the BASFI, and several mobility measures including the BASMI. The AS Health Index (AS-HI) is introduced elsewhere in this supplement.
Dzieża-Grudnik, Anna; Sulicka, Joanna; Strach, Magdalena; Siga, Olga; Klimek, Ewa; Korkosz, Mariusz; Grodzicki, Tomasz
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of CV events. The aim of the study was to assess arterial stiffness and inflammatory markers in patients with short duration chronic arthritis. We assessed carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AIx), traditional CV risk factors and inflammatory and endothelial markers in 71 chronic arthritis patients (RA and AS) and in 29 healthy controls. We did not find differences in PWV (for RA, AS and controls, respectively: 10 [8.8-10.9] versus 10.7 [9.1-11.8] versus 9.2 [8.3-11.4] m/s; p = .14) and AIx (for RA, AS and controls, respectively: 24.3 ± 11.5 versus 5.7 ± 12.4 versus 10 ± 12.8%; p = .22). Both groups of arthritis patients had active disease with significantly elevated inflammatory markers compared to controls. There were no correlations between endothelial and inflammatory markers and parameters of arterial stiffness in arthritis patients. When analyzing arthritis patients according to median of PVW, there were no significant differences in inflammatory and endothelial markers. We found that in patients with short duration active RA and AS arterial stiffness was not increased and furthermore, there was no association between markers of systemic inflammation and arterial stiffness.
Genre, Fernanda; López-Mejías, Raquel; Miranda-Filloy, José A; Ubilla, Begoña; Carnero-López, Beatriz; Blanco, Ricardo; Pina, Trinitario; González-Juanatey, Carlos; Llorca, Javier; González-Gay, Miguel A
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. AS patients also display a high prevalence of features clustered under the name of metabolic syndrome (MeS). Anti-TNF- α therapy was found to be effective to treat AS patients by suppressing inflammation and also improving endothelial function. Previously, it was demonstrated that a short infusion of anti-TNF- α monoclonal antibodyinfliximab induced a rapid and dramatic reduction in serum insulin levels and insulin resistance along with a rapid improvement of insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic AS patients. The role of adipokines, MeS-related biomarkers and biomarkers of endothelial cell activation and inflammation seem to be relevant in different chronic inflammatory diseases. However, its implication in AS has not been fully established. Therefore, in this review we summarize the recent advances in the study of the involvement of these molecules in CV disease or MeS in AS. The assessment of adipokines and biomarkers of endothelial cell activation and MeS may be of potential relevance in the stratification of the CV risk of patients with AS.
Ho, Huei-Huang; Chen, Ji-Yih
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a common rheumatic disease in the Chinese population, which is the largest population in the world associated with the global burden of health care. Herein we review and report the epidemiology and specific clinical characteristics of Chinese AS. More than 90 % of Chinese AS patients are HLA-B27 positive with the predominant HLA-B*2704 subtype; the incidence of HLA-B27 positivity ranges from 4 to 8 % in the general Chinese population. The first-degree relatives of AS probands often develop atypical AS with relatively mild disease and particularly undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy in females. Chinese AS patients have higher frequencies of juvenile-onset AS and peripheral arthritis. Of extra-articular manifestations, AS patients have earlier onset and more recurrent attacks of HLA-B27-related acute anterior uveitis. Cardiac arrhythmias or other cardiovascular disorders and metabolic syndrome are not infrequently found. Importantly, apical lung diseases in Chinese AS patients are also frequently associated with tuberculosis infection.
Reveille, John D
With the growing awareness of the impact of chronic back pain and axial spondyloarthritis and recent breakthroughs in genetics and the development of novel treatments which may impact best on early disease, the need for markers that can facilitate early diagnosis and profiling those individuals at the highest risk for a bad outcome has never been greater. The genetic basis of ankylosing spondylitis has been considerably advanced, and HLA-B27 testing has a role in the diagnosis. Knowledge is still incomplete of the rest of the genetic contribution to disease susceptibility, and it is likely premature to use extensive genetic testing (other than HLA-B27) for diagnosis. Serum and plasma biomarkers have been examined extensively in assessing disease activity, treatment response, and as predictors or radiographic severity. For assessing disease activity, other than C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, the most work has been in examining cytokines (particularly interleukin 17 and 23), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) markers (particularly MMP3). For assessing those at the highest risk for radiographic progression, biomarkers of bony metabolism, cartilage and connective tissue degradation products, and adipokines have been most extensively assessed. The problem is that no individual biomarkers has been reproducibly shown to assess disease activity or predict outcome, and this area still remains an unmet need, of relevance to industry stakeholders, to regulatory bodies, to the healthcare system, to academic investigators, and finally to patients and providers.
El Maghraoui, Abdellah
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is the most frequent and most severe subtype of spondyloarthritis and can be an outcome of any of the other spondyloarthritis subtypes. It primarily affects the axial joints, most notably the sacroiliac joints. Other sites of involvement include the spine, peripheral joints, and entheses (capsules, ligaments, and tendons). Inflammatory enthesopathy progressing to ossification and ankylosis is the pathologic basis for the disease. Extra-articular manifestations vary widely in terms of both frequency and severity. The most common extra-articular manifestations are represented by uveitis, bowel disease, heart, lung, skin, bone and kidney involvement. This review focuses on prevalence and clinical characteristics of the most common extra-articular manifestations in AS, and discuss the diagnosis and therapeutic difficulties that rheumatologists faces when dealing with such manifestations. The advantages of treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), especially if continuous use is envisaged, should be weighted against possible gastrointestinal and cardiovascular disadvantages. In the presence of history of gastrointestinal complaints or a high cardiovascular risk, NSAIDs should be used with caution. TNF inhibition has demonstrated effectiveness in the treatment of AS symptoms and all currently available anti-TNF agents appear to have similar efficacy. However, the efficacy of anti-TNF agents varies in the presence of extra-articular manifestations. Etanercept appears to have very little effect on inflammatory bowel disease and limited efficacy on the course of uveitis probably inferior to the monoclonal antibodies infliximab and adalimumab.
Papagoras, Charalampos; Voulgari, Paraskevi V; Drosos, Alexandros A
The spondyloarthritides (SpA) are a group of idiopathic inflammatory diseases affecting the axial and/or peripheral skeleton. Recent evidence points towards an increased mortality and morbidity due to cardiovascular disease, especially within the two major forms of SpA, ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis. Several studies have identified alterations of the lipid profile, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic cardiovascular risk factors in SpA patients. An array of vascular morphologic and functional abnormalities has also been reported in these diseases, supporting the hypothesis of accelerated atherosclerosis in SpA. Inflammation appears to be a major player, involved both in the impairment of the classic cardiovascular risk factors, as well as directly in the process of endothelial injury, dysfunction and ultimately atherosclerosis. Multiple studies in rheumatoid arthritis have suggested that effective suppression of inflammation with synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs or with biologics may also exert favourable effects in the cardiovascular risk. Although such evidence is currently lacking for SpA, there is little doubt that physicians caring for patients with SpA should aim at controlling both inflammation and traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Such an integrated approach is expected to benefit patients in multiple levels.
Mercieca, Cecilia; van der Horst-Bruinsma, Irene E; Borg, Andrew A
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is associated with several comorbidities which contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality and add to the complexity of management. In addition to the well known extra-articular manifestations and increased cardiovascular risk, several pulmonary, renal, and neurological complications which have been associated with AS deserve equal attention. Whereas a clear link has been established for some manifestations, the evidence for other associations is less clear. Interstitial lung disease, apical fibrosis, secondary infection, and ventilatory restriction from reduced chest wall movement are well known pulmonary complications; more recently an association with sleep apnoea has been suggested. Renal amyloidosis and IgA nephropathy remain a treatment challenge which may respond to anti-TNF therapy. Atlanto axial subluxation and vertebral fractures can result in serious neurological complications and are notoriously difficult to diagnose unless a high level of suspicion is maintained. Despite several reports linking AS with demyelination a true link remains to be proved. This review discusses the prevalence, pathophysiology, and management of pulmonary, renal, and neurological complications, and implications for clinical practice.
Sharan, Deepak; Rajkumar, Joshua Samuel
Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of insidious onset, mostly affecting the axial skeleton. It leads to varying degrees of restricted spinal mobility, pain and loss of functional capacity. Rehabilitation, especially Physiotherapy and exercises, are considered integral components of its management. Various rehabilitation modalities are available for the benefit of individuals with AS, but a sequenced protocol has not been reported. A scientific review was performed using the following search engines: MEDLINE (Pubmed), COCHRANE Library and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). Studies which had at least one of the group receiving rehabilitation and the major outcomes studied were pain, stiffness, mobility (spine and chest wall) and physical function (disease activity, ADL, QOL and global function) were selected. A total of 19 studies were shortlisted for the review which included a total of 1142 subjects with AS. The review of literature showed that individuals with AS had beneficial effects from exercise programmes compared to no exercise. Patient education, active involvement and motivation of individuals with AS played an important role in the overall treatment outcomes. Based on the review, a four phase sequenced rehabilitation protocol has been laid down for the benefit of individuals with AS.
Palla, Ilaria; Trieste, Leopoldo; Tani, Chiara; Talarico, Rosaria; Cortesi, Paolo A; Mosca, Marta; Turchetti, Giuseppe
This article reviews the last decade studies on the economic impact of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Interestingly, a common observation is that in AS indirect costs are higher than the use of direct healthcare resources. Country, age, gender, and severity of the diseases impact on per patient annual costs AS related. Different payment and reimbursement regimes may impact on the amount and distribution of indirect costs. The differences observed among countries on absolute and relative (compared with direct costs) amounts of indirect costs can be explained with the capability of a country of actually measure productivity losses and indirect costs. Low indirect costs without other indicators should not be considered as a sign of efficiency in AS care, but may be due to an underestimation of AS-related costs; as a consequence, indirect costs may be a net loss for patients that nobody can repay. A private insurance reimbursement regime has the highest capability of inducing players to define, select and actually identify indirect costs better than in different reimbursement regimes. Therefore indirect costs may become very high in case of private insurance regimes because of their more detailed identification.
Deng, Chuiwen; Li, Wenli; Fei, Yunyun; Li, Yongzhe; Zhang, Fengchun
Current knowledge about the overall and site-specific risk of malignancy associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to address this knowledge gap. Five databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane library and the virtual health library) were systematically searched. A manual search of publications within the last 2 years in key journals in the field (Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, Rheumatology and Arthritis & rheumatology) was also performed. STATA 11.2 software was used to conduct the meta-analysis. After screening, twenty-three studies, of different designs, were eligible for meta-analysis. AS is associated with a 14% (pooled RR 1.14; 95% CI 1.03–1.25) increase in the overall risk for malignancy. Compared to controls, patients with AS are at a specific increased risk for malignancy of the digestive system (pooled RR 1.20; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.42), multiple myelomas (pooled RR 1.92; 95% CI 1.37 to 3.69) and lymphomas (pooled RR 1.32; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.57). On subgroup analysis, evidence from high quality cohort studies indicated that AS patients from Asia are at highest risk for malignancy overall. Confirmation of findings from large-scale longitudinal studies is needed to identify specific risk factors and to evaluate treatment effects. PMID:27534810
Boonen, A; van der Heijde, D; Landewe, R; Guillemin, F; Rutten-van, M; Dougados, M; Mielants, H; de Vlam, K; van der Tempel, H; Boesen, S; Spoorenberg, A; Schouten, H; van der Linden, S.
Objective: To assess direct costs associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). To determine which variables, including country, predict costs. Methods: 216 patients with AS from the Netherlands, France, and Belgium participated in a two year observational study and filled in bimonthly economic questionnaires. Disease related healthcare resource use was measured and direct costs were calculated from a societal perspective (true cost estimates) and from a financial perspective (country-specific tariffs). Predictors of costs were assessed using Cox's regression analysis. Results: 209 patients provided sufficient data for cost analysis. Mean annual societal direct costs for each patient were €2640, of which 82% were direct healthcare costs. In univariate analysis costs were higher in the Netherlands than in Belgium, but this difference disappeared after adjusting for baseline differences in patients' characteristics among countries. Longer disease duration, lower education, worse physical function, and higher disease activity were predictors of costs. Mean annual direct costs from a financial perspective were €2122, €1402, and €941 per patient in the Netherlands, France, and Belgium, respectively. For each country, costs from a financial perspective were significantly lower than costs from a societal perspective. Conclusion: Direct costs for AS are substantial in three European countries but not significantly different after adjusting for baseline characteristics among countries. Worse physical function and higher disease activity are important determinants of costs, suggesting better disease control might reduce the costs of AS. The difference in costs from a societal and financial perspective emphasises the importance of an economic analysis. PMID:12860728
Liu, Y; Xu, B; Cai, X
By use of low molecular weight polyethlene glycol (PEG400) as tracer, a revised Chedwick method with capillary gas chromatography was used to examine the intestinal permeability in 49 subjects including patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and healthy controls. Recovery percentage, maximal recovery percentage [Rmax(%)] and Rmax(w) were used to find the effect of bowel permeability in the pathogenesis and disease flare up of AS, as well as the role of HLA-B27 for the bowel permeability. The results showed that in AS group, the recovery of first component (242D) was higher and the Rmax(%) was lower than those in the controls. No statistical difference was found with other indexes. The results indicated that bowel permeability is not elevated in AS. The passage of enteral bacteria antigen into the host may not result from the process of nonspecific penetration. We postulate that there may somehow be a process of "active transportation" in the pathogenesis of AS. More studies of the process are necessary to clarify its importance in the early stage of AS.
Giannotti, Erika; Trainito, Sabina; Arioli, Giovanni; Rucco, Vincenzo; Masiero, Stefano
Exercise is considered a fundamental tool for the management of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), in combination with pharmacological therapy that with the advent of biological therapy has improved dramatically the control of signs and symptoms of this challenging disease. Current evidence shows that a specific exercise protocol has not been validated yet. The purpose of this review is to update the most recent evidence (July 2010-November 2013) about physiotherapy in AS, analyzing the possible role and synergistic interactions between exercise and biological drugs. From 117 studies initially considered, only 15 were included in the review. The results support a multimodal approach, including educational sessions, conducted in a group setting, supervised by a physiotherapist and followed by a maintaining home-based regimen. Spa exercise and McKenzie, Heckscher, and Pilates methods seem promising in AS rehabilitation, but their effectiveness should be further investigated in future randomized controlled trials (RCTs). When performed in accordance with the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines, cardiovascular training has been proven safe and effective and should be included in AS rehabilitation protocols. Exercise training plays an important role in the biological era, being now applicable to stabilized patients, leading ultimately to a better management of AS by physiatrists and rheumatologists throughout the world. On the basis of the current evidence, further research should aim to determine which exercise protocols should be recommended.
Ungprasert, Patompong; Srivali, Narat; Kittanamongkolchai, Wonngarm
Background: Several immune-mediated inflammatory disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus have been linked to an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, the data on ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are limited. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies that reported odds ratio, relative risk, hazard ratio, or standardized incidence ratio comparing the risk of VTE and possible pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with AS versus non-AS participants. Pooled risk ratio and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method of DerSimonian and Laird. Results: Of 423 potentially relevant articles, three studies met our inclusion criteria and thus, were included in the data analysis. The pooled risk ratio of VTE in patients with AS was 1.60 (95% confidence interval: 1.05–2.44). The statistical heterogeneity of this study was high with an I2 of 93%. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated a statistically significant increased VTE risk among patients with AS. PMID:27890993
Seif, Gretchen; Elliott, James
Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common and costly medical conditions in the United States; various studies have reported up to 80% of the adult population will experience a significant episode of LBP sometime within their lifetime. Although many cases of LBP are related to the musculoskeletal system and appropriate for the care of the physical therapist (PT), some episodes of LBP have a systemic cause. Thus, it is the role of the PT to ensure each patient is appropriate for physical therapy intervention throughout the episode of care. When the patient's condition is not appropriate for physical therapy intervention, it is the PT's responsibility to refer the patient to other medical professions to ensure optimal patient care. The purpose of this case report is to describe a patient referred to PT who was diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis. The patient presented initially to physical therapy with a diagnosis of LBP. However, after several visits her symptoms were inconsistent with mechanical LBP and thus required further medical consultation.
Dogan, Bercem Aycicek; Sennaroglu, Engin; Dam, Gamze; Dogan, Nurettin Ozgur; Cicekcioglu, Hulya
We present a 24-year-old woman with symptoms of backache, acute peripheral arthritis, joint swelling, and erythema, diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and determined to have cor triatriatum sinister (CTS) without cardiac symptoms. On physical examination, the patient had a rythmic S1 with a loud pulmonic component to her S2 and a grade 2/6 systolic murmur along the left sternal edge. Pulmonary examination was normal. Also her left knee and left metacarpophalangeal joints were swollen. Chest radiography revealed a slight prominence of the pulmonary arteries. Her echocardiogram showed a normal left ventricle and that the left atrium was divided into 2 distinct chambers by a membranous septum. In the left atrium, a moderately obstructive fibromuscular membrane was imaged, resulting in a transmembrane mean pressure gradient of 6 mm Hg. Pulmonary artery pressure was increased (peak systolic pulmonary pressure: 44 mm Hg). There was also mild mitral regurgitation and the atrial septum was intact. Cardiac MRI demonstrated CTS. Cardiovascular involvement is a common finding in patients with AS. Thus, careful cardiac evaluation appears to be mandatory in all cases of AS. Our case may be interesting in that to the best of our knowledge, AS with CTS has not been previously reported. Also a patient with CTS who has no cardiac symptoms is a very rare occurrence in the literature.
Gürel, Çevik; İnanır, Ahmet; Nursal, Ayşe Feyda; Tekcan, Akın; Rüstemoğlu, Aydın; Yigit, Serbülent
Background Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease mainly affecting the spine and sacroiliac joints. Macrophage migration inhibitory (MIF) factor is a regulatory cytokine that inhibits random immune cell migration. MIF gene promoter polymorphisms play a role in the progression of several inflammatory disorders. Aims To investigate the relationship between the MIF gene -173 G/C single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and AS. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Methods In this study, a total of 161 AS and 194 normal controls were recruited. The MIF gene -173 G/C SNP was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction using the restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Results There was no significant difference between groups in terms of genotype distribution (p>0.05). When wild-type G/G and G/C+C/C genotypes are compared in terms of clinical characteristics, there is a significant difference between the average age and the duration of disease in AS patients (p<0.05). Conclusion No significant relationship between AS disease and MIF -173 G/C polymorphism was found. MIF -173 G/C polymorphism (C allele) may affect the time of onset and the duration of disease in AS patients. PMID:27994913
Chen, Wei-Chiao; Wei, James Cheng-Chung; Lu, Hsing-Fang; Wong, Henry Sung-Ching; Woon, Peng Yeong; Hsu, Yu-Wen; Huang, Jin-Ding; Chang, Wei-Chiao
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a systemic autoimmune disease mainly affecting the lumbar spine and sacroiliac joints, and exhibits peripheral inflammatory arthropathy. More than 25 loci have been identified as associated with AS. Because both AS and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are autoimmune diseases that may share some common genetic factors, we therefore examined if the newly identified RA genetic polymorphisms were associated with AS in a Taiwanese population. In this study, we enrolled 475 AS patients and 11,301 healthy subjects from a Taiwanese biobank as controls. Although none of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with the susceptibility to AS, the AS disease index Bath AS Global (BAS-G) clinical phenotype was observed as significantly correlated to the AA genotype of rs657075 (CSF2). The significance remains after gender/age/disease duration adjustment and after group categorization by human leukocyte antigen-B 27 (HLA-B27) genotype. We further investigated the possible functions of rs657075 through bioinformatics approaches. Results revealed that polymorphism of rs657075 is able to influence the expression of acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 6 (ACSL6). In conclusion, our study indicated that rs657075 (CSF2) is strongly associated with the AS disease index Bath AS Global (BAS-G) clinical phenotype. PMID:28054948
Shen, Te-Chun; Lin, Cheng-Li; Wei, Chang-Ching; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang
Background The relationship between asthma and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is controversial. We examined the risk of asthma among AS patients in a nationwide population. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the National Health Insurance (NHI) system of Taiwan. The cohort included 5,974 patients newly diagnosed with AS from 2000 to 2010. The date of diagnosis was defined as the index date. A 4-fold of general population without AS was randomly selected frequency matched by age, gender and the index year. The occurrence and hazard ratio (HR) of asthma were estimated by the end of 2011. Results The overall incidence of asthma was 1.74 folds greater in the AS cohort than in the non-AS cohort (8.26 versus 4.74 per 1000 person-years) with a multivariable Cox method measured adjusted HR of 1.54 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.34–1.76). The adjusted HR of asthma associated with AS was higher in women (1.59; 95% CI, 1.33–1.90), those aged 50–64 years (1.66; 95% CI, 1.31–2.09), or those without comorbidities (1.82; 95% CI, 1.54–2.13). Conclusion Patients with AS are at a higher risk of developing asthma than the general population, regardless of gender and age. The pathophysiology needs further investigation. PMID:25658339
Deng, Chuiwen; Li, Wenli; Fei, Yunyun; Li, Yongzhe; Zhang, Fengchun
Current knowledge about the overall and site-specific risk of malignancy associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to address this knowledge gap. Five databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane library and the virtual health library) were systematically searched. A manual search of publications within the last 2 years in key journals in the field (Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, Rheumatology and Arthritis &rheumatology) was also performed. STATA 11.2 software was used to conduct the meta-analysis. After screening, twenty-three studies, of different designs, were eligible for meta-analysis. AS is associated with a 14% (pooled RR 1.14; 95% CI 1.03-1.25) increase in the overall risk for malignancy. Compared to controls, patients with AS are at a specific increased risk for malignancy of the digestive system (pooled RR 1.20; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.42), multiple myelomas (pooled RR 1.92; 95% CI 1.37 to 3.69) and lymphomas (pooled RR 1.32; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.57). On subgroup analysis, evidence from high quality cohort studies indicated that AS patients from Asia are at highest risk for malignancy overall. Confirmation of findings from large-scale longitudinal studies is needed to identify specific risk factors and to evaluate treatment effects.
Fajri, Dessy W; Brand, Caroline A; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Martin, Belinda J; Buchanan, Russell R C; Schachna, Lionel
Tumour necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) therapy, either intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous (SQ), demonstrates similar efficacy in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The objective of this study was to examine factors influencing patient preference of TNFi. Fifty-nine (79.7%) participants were male with mean age 43.9 years and disease duration of 22.0 years. Fifty-nine patients (79.7%) agreed with the statement 'My doctor gave me a choice and I made a decision based on my personal preference'. Patients commenced first on IV TNFi most commonly cited reduced frequency of injections (96.6%), administration by a trained professional (89.7%) and use of infusion time for leisure activities (86.2%). Patients commenced on SQ TNFi cited flexibility with timing of treatment (80%), shortened administration time (73.3%) and the convenience of home therapy (73.3%). Shared clinical decision-making between clinicians and patients may be desirable for AS patients commencing TNFi therapy.
McGuigan, L E; Hart, H H; Gow, P J; Kidd, B L; Grigor, R R; Moore, T E
The frequent development of sacroiliitis and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in patients suffering from Reiter's Syndrome (RS) has been stressed by a number of authors. This study was designed to ascertain the frequency of these problems in our RS patients, whether they were related to other clinical features of RS and what was the extent of the resulting disability. Fifty-five patients (50 men and 5 women) with RS with a mean duration of 9.3 years were assessed radiologically to determine the prevalence of sacroiliitis and thoracolumbar syndesmophyte formation. These radiological findings were correlated with HLA-B27, clinical features and functional status. Sacroiliitis was found in 22 patients (40%) but was mild in severity, frequently asymmetrical and very rarely associated with syndesmophyte formation. Sacroiliitis occurred significantly more commonly in patients with iritis and/or a prolonged disease duration (p less than 0.05) but although it was also found more frequently in HLA-B27 positive patients this was not significant (0.1 greater than p greater than 0.05). Some restriction in back movement was observed in 31 patients (56.3%) but only two patients satisfied New York criteria for AS and just one was functionally impaired by his back disease. Although the frequent finding of sacroiliitis in RS may provide an interesting insight into the interrelationship between RS and AS, our study shows that this sacroiliitis is commonly asymptomatic and does not provide a problem in management.
Qin, Jian; Zhu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Yue
Abstract Background To investigate the magnetic diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) sequence and Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) scoring in assessing curative effect of combined treatment of Chinese and Western medicine for early ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods 48 cases diagnosed as early AS and treated with Chinese and Western medicine were included in the study. Magnetic routine and DWI sequence scanning image were performed to obtain the mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of sub-articular surface bone marrow. Combined with SPARCC scoring, statistical analysis was conducted to compare the difference with the information obtained in the previous study. Results The mean ADC value in the sub-articular surface bone marrow of patients after clinical treatment: (4.34±0.55)×10-4mm2/s in ilium and (3.96±0.23)×10-4mm2/s in sacrum, which were both significantly lower than that before treatment (p< 0.05). There was highly positive correlation between mean ADC value and SPARCC scoring (P<0.05). The regression relationship could be demonstrated as Y=-64.420+21.262X(Y: SPARCC scoring value; X: mean ADC value). Conclusions Magnetic DWI and SPARCC scoring could be applied in accessing AS inflammation activity changes and in reflect of curative effect of early AS patients as well as in providing reliable radiologist evidence for clinical therapeutic efficacy. PMID:28352767
Introduction ETS1 is a negative regulator of the Th17 differentiation gene and plays a central role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. We aimed to investigate whether polymorphisms in ETS1 confer susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in Han Chinese. Methods We selected seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within ETS1 based on HapMap data and previous genome-wide association study. Genotyping involved the TaqMan method in 1,015 patients with AS and 1,132 healthy controls from Shandong Province, and 352 AS patients and 400 healthy controls from Ningxia, a northwest region in China. Gene expression was determined by real-time PCR. Results The SNP rs1128334 was strongly associated with AS (odds ratio 1.204, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.37; P = 0.005). This association was confiexrmed in the Ningxia population (P = 0.015). Carriers of the haplotype TAT for rs12574073, rs1128334 and rs4937333 were associated with increased risk of AS and haplotype CGC with reduced risk as compared to controls. In addition, ETS1 expression was lower in AS patients than controls. The risk allele A of rs1128334 and haplotype A-T of rs1128334 and rs4937333 were associated with decreased expression of ETS1. Conclusions Common variants in ETS1 may contribute to AS susceptibility in Han Chinese people. PMID:24708692
Jadon, Deepak R; Ramanan, Athimalaipet V; Sengupta, Raj
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has 2 main modes of onset: juvenile-onset AS (JoAS) and adult-onset AS (AoAS). It is not known whether JoAS is a subtype of AS, or AS modulated by early age of onset and longer disease duration. We performed a systematic review of the literature, identifying 12 articles and 1 abstract directly comparing JoAS and AoAS cohorts, with observational study design. Patients with JoAS appear to have more peripheral joint involvement both clinically and radiographically (especially knees and ankles) and more root joint involvement (hips and shoulders); they are more likely to proceed to hip arthroplasty and often initially present with peripheral rather than axial symptoms. Patients with AoAS appear to have more axial symptoms and radiographic disease, particularly in the lumbar spine, and worse axial metrology. In terms of other characteristics, more evidence is needed to confidently state whether JoAS and AoAS are different.
Jiang, Yeqing; Chen, Ling; Zhu, Jiaan; Xue, Qin; Wang, Niansong; Huang, Yunxia; Liu, Fang; Hu, Yizhou; Hu, Bing
The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) to detect changes in the sacroiliac joint regions after infliximab (an anti-TNF-α blocker) treatment in active axial ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. A total of 110 sacroiliac joints in 55 patients with active AS were detected by PDUS before and after the infliximab treatment. The color flow signals inside the sacroiliac joints were observed, and the resistance index (RI) was measured. The clinical condition of the AS patients was improved compared with their condition before the infliximab treatment. Before the treatment, color flow signals were observed in 103 joints, and the mean RI value was 0.56 ± 0.06. Three months after the first infliximab treatment, color flow signals were observed in 50 joints, and the mean RI value was 0.87 ± 0.11. There were more blood flow signals in the sacroiliac joints before the infliximab treatment in patients with active AS (p < 0.01), and the mean RI value was higher after the infliximab treatment (p < 0.01). The blood flow signals in the sacroiliac joints became weaker or even disappeared and the RI values increased in patients with active sacroiliitis after infliximab treatment. This result shows that PDUS can be used in the follow-up of patients with axial AS.
Penesova, A; Rovensky, J; Zlnay, M; Dedik, L; Radikova, Z; Koska, J; Vigas, M; Imrich, R
Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to determine insulin response to intravenous glucose load and insulin sensitivity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Fourteen nonobese male patients with AS and 14 matched healthy controls underwent frequent-sampling intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT). Insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity were calculated using the computer-minimal and homeostasis-model assessment 2 (HOMA2) models. Fasting glucose, insulin, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride levels, HOMA2, glucose effectiveness, insulin sensitivity and insulin response to FSIVGTT did not differ between patients and controls. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 concentrations tended to be higher in AS patients than in controls. Second-phase beta-cell responsiveness was 37% lower (p = 0.05) in AS patients than in controls. A negative correlation was found between the percentage of beta-cell secretion and IL-6 in all subjects (r = -0.54, p = 0.006). We found normal insulin sensitivity but attenuated glucose utilization in the second phase of FSIVGTT in AS patients. Our results indicate that elevated IL-6 levels may play a pathophysiological role in attenuating beta-cell responsiveness, which may explain the association between elevated IL-6 levels and increased risk for type 2 diabetes.
In traditional Chinese and Korean homeopathic medicine, Chrysanthemum indicum Linné (Asteraceae) is a time-honored herb, prescribed for the resolution of symptoms associated with inflammatory and hypertensive conditions as well as those affecting the lungs and its associated structures. The goal of this work is to investigate the defensive role of Chrysanthemum indicum extract in fighting ankylosing spondylitis (AS) using mouse models, through which the manifestation and extent of the disease progression were measured with quantitative analysis of the intervertebral joints. Markers of inflammation as well as oxidative stress were also analysed. Western blot was used to quantify the levels of Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) p65, Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), and sclerostin (SOST). Consequently, the findings of this experiment demonstrated that AS in mice that were given Chrysanthemum indicum extract had lower level of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 (P < 0.05) and increased level of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P < 0.05). The results also revealed that Chrysanthemum indicum supplemented with diet contributed to a decrease in Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 protein expression (P < 0.05) and higher levels of DKK-1 and SOST proteins (P < 0.05). Therefore, we concluded that the beneficial role of Chrysanthemum indicum in AS is manifested through downregulating oxidative stress, inhibiting inflammatory mediators and NF-κB, and increasing DKK-1 and SOST levels. PMID:28261616
Cakar, Engin; Taskaynatan, Mehmet Ali; Dincer, Umit; Kiralp, Mehmet Zeki; Durmus, Oguz; Ozgül, Ahmet
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a systemic chronic inflammatory disease primarily affecting the axial skeleton. Work disability can be one of the major consequences of AS, and the knowledge about the burden of AS to the patient and society is not well-established yet. The objective of this study was to investigate work disability among patients with AS in the national service and to put forward the related factors and differences among disabled and nondisabled groups. A total of 121 male AS patients were included in the study. Patient demographics and duration of disease were noted, and employment status and disability were questioned. Measures of functionality, axial mobility, health-related quality of life, and depression were used. It was found that 38 patients (31.4%) continued their work lives with no change, 54 patients (44.6%) changed to a lighter job, and 29 patients (24%) were retired due to AS. Differences in age at onset of the disease, time since the diagnosis, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and hip involvement were statistically significant. The mean retirement age of the patients was 36 +/- 4.2 years. Frequency of hip involvement was higher in the work-disabled group. Spine was evidently affected more seriously, and CRP values were higher in the work-disabled group. Older age at onset, longer time since the diagnosis, longer diagnosis delay, and some physical impairments like decrease in spinal mobility and hip involvement may preclude AS patients from leading a productive work life.
Li, Shijuan; Kay, Stephen; Porter, Stuart
To investigate the utility of 3D visualization technology to augment assessment and feedback for Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS), a visualization prototype was developed, and both subjective and objective measures of current assessment instruments were compared. To verify and establish a base-line for the prototype's effectiveness, motion data and measurement data from a healthy adult in a laboratory environment were collected. To validate the prototype, a qualitative evaluation was undertaken using multiple methods including a pilot study, focus groups, and individual interviews. Research subjects comprised physiotherapists in clinical practice and academia and content analysis of their responses was used to substantiate the findings. The prototype enhanced both assessment and feedback of AS from the physiotherapist's perspective and they believed it to be superior to the current methods used in practice for assessing the condition and in documenting variations for subsequent treatment. The physiotherapists believed that such a system had potential to encourage multidisciplinary working, and to be patient-centric, both with respect to the process of treatment and with regard to the convenience it offered to patients in managing their own condition. 3D visualization of AS symptoms and its treatment via exercise is a valuable technique as demonstrated by the prototype system.
Landi, Margarita; Maldonado-Ficco, Hernán; Perez-Alamino, Rodolfo; Maldonado-Cocco, José A; Citera, Gustavo; Arturi, Pablo; Sampaio-Barros, Percival D; Flores Alvarado, Diana E; Burgos-Vargas, Rubén; Santos, Elena; Palleiro, Daniel; Gutiérrez, Miguel A; Vieira-Sousa, Elsa; Pimentel-Santos, Fernando; Paira, Sergio O; Berman, Alberto; Barrezueta, Claudia Vera; Vazquez-Mellado, Janitzia; Collantes-Estevez, Eduardo
The aim of the study was to compare clinical manifestations, disease activity, functional capacity, spinal mobility, and radiological findings between men and women from a multicenter, multiethnic Ibero-American cohort of patients with Spondyloarthritis (SpA).This observational cross-section study included 1264 consecutive SpA patients who fulfilled the modified New York criteria for ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Demographic, clinical, and radiologic data were evaluated. Categorical data were compared by X or Fisher's exact tests and continuous variables by ANOVA with post-hoc tests.Primary AS was diagnosed in 1072 patients, psoriatic spondylitis in 147, and spondylitis associated to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in 45 patients. Overall, male patients were significantly younger, had longer diagnostic delay, lower disease activity, worse spinal mobility, better quality of life, and more severe radiologic damage. Dactylitis and enthesitis, as well as swollen joint count, were significantly more common among women. In primary AS, there was a marked male predominance (76.2%). Among patients with psoriatic spondylitis, male predominance was lower (57.8%), but was also associated with worse spinal mobility and more severe radiologic damage. In the total population, male patients with primary AS referred higher permanent work disability (13.2% vs 6.9%; P < 0.05), although no difference was observed in psoriatic or IBD spondylitis according to the gender.Among Ibero-American SpA patients, there are some differences in clinical and radiological manifestations, men showing more structural damage, whereas women more active disease. These data suggest that the phenotype of SpA differs between genders. This can influence the subsequent diagnostic approach and therapeutic decisions.
Landi, Margarita; Maldonado-Ficco, Hernán; Perez-Alamino, Rodolfo; Maldonado-Cocco, José A.; Citera, Gustavo; Arturi, Pablo; Sampaio-Barros, Percival D.; Flores Alvarado, Diana E.; Burgos-Vargas, Rubén; Santos, Elena; Palleiro, Daniel; Gutiérrez, Miguel A.; Vieyra-Sousa, Elsa; Pimentel-Santos, Fernando; Paira, Sergio O.; Berman, Alberto; Barrezueta, Claudia Vera; Vazquez-Mellado, Janitzia; Collantes-Estevez, Eduardo
Abstract The aim of the study was to compare clinical manifestations, disease activity, functional capacity, spinal mobility, and radiological findings between men and women from a multicenter, multiethnic Ibero-American cohort of patients with Spondyloarthritis (SpA). This observational cross-section study included 1264 consecutive SpA patients who fulfilled the modified New York criteria for ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Demographic, clinical, and radiologic data were evaluated. Categorical data were compared by X2 or Fisher's exact tests and continuous variables by ANOVA with post-hoc tests. Primary AS was diagnosed in 1072 patients, psoriatic spondylitis in 147, and spondylitis associated to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in 45 patients. Overall, male patients were significantly younger, had longer diagnostic delay, lower disease activity, worse spinal mobility, better quality of life, and more severe radiologic damage. Dactylitis and enthesitis, as well as swollen joint count, were significantly more common among women. In primary AS, there was a marked male predominance (76.2%). Among patients with psoriatic spondylitis, male predominance was lower (57.8%), but was also associated with worse spinal mobility and more severe radiologic damage. In the total population, male patients with primary AS referred higher permanent work disability (13.2% vs 6.9%; P < 0.05), although no difference was observed in psoriatic or IBD spondylitis according to the gender. Among Ibero-American SpA patients, there are some differences in clinical and radiological manifestations, men showing more structural damage, whereas women more active disease. These data suggest that the phenotype of SpA differs between genders. This can influence the subsequent diagnostic approach and therapeutic decisions. PMID:28002334
Saracoglu, Ismail; Kurt, Gamze; Okur, Eda Ozge; Afsar, Emrah; Seyyar, Gulce Kallem; Calik, Bilge Basakci; Taspinar, Ferruh
The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of specific exercise types on pulmonary functions, aerobic and functional capacity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). A systematic search of Cochrane Database of Systematic Review, MEDLINE (EBSCO), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), CINAHL (EBSCO), PUBMED, AMED, EMBASE (OVID) was conducted in January 2016. The outcome measures were spirometric measurements, chest expansion, 6 minute walk distance (6MWD), pVO2, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). The search strategy was applied with limitation of date and language and this initial electronic search resulted in 143 relevant studies. After duplicates were removed, the titles and abstracts of 52 articles were screened. Of these, 14 full-text articles met initial criteria and were retrieved for review, with eight studies meeting final inclusion criteria. Both specific and conventional exercise groups showed significant improvements in BASDAI and BASFI scores (p < 0.05) in patients with AS, although there was no significant difference between two exercise groups. As for pulmonary functions, the specific exercise groups have greater improvements than conventional group in spirometric measurement, chest expansion (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference between specific conventional exercise types in 6MWD (p > 0.05). Specific exercises are an effective adjuvant therapy to enhance cardiopulmonary functions in patients with AS; therefore, it is assumed that in addition to the medical treatments, specific exercise therapy might reduce the cardiopulmonary complications related with AS.
Uthman, Imad; Noureldine, Mohammad Hassan A; Arayssi, Thurayya; Chalhoub, Nathalie E; Akl, Elie A
A panel of experts commissioned by the American College of Rheumatology have recently reviewed the literature related to the treatment of patients with ankylosing spondylitis and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis. They published a set of recommendations for the management of common clinical questions for both active and stable disease, including the appropriate use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tumor necrosis factor inhibitors, rehabilitation, education, and preventive care. This article summarizes these recommendations and provides key practical messages for physicians taking care of these patients.
Liang, Hui; Li, Wen-Rong; Zhang, Hua; Tian, Xu; Wei, Wei; Wang, Chun-Mei
Abstract Since the use of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor therapy is becoming wider, the effects of concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are different. The study aimed to objectively evaluate whether concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors can reduce the disease activity in patients with AS. A search from PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library was electronically performed to collect studies which compared concurrent intervention with exercise and TNF inhibitor to conventional approach in terms of disease activity in patients with AS published from their inception to June 2015. Studies that measured the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), and chest expansion as outcomes were included. Two independent investigators screened the identified articles, extracted the data, and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. Quantitative analysis was performed with Review Manager (RevMan) software (version 5.3.0). A total of 5 studies comprising 221 participants were included in the study. Meta-analyses showed that concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy significantly reduced the BASMI scores (MD, −0.99; 95% CI, −1.61 to −0.38) and BASDAI scores (MD, −0.58; 95% CI, −1.10 to −0.06), but the BASFI scores (MD, −0.31; 95% CI, −0.76 to 0.15) was not reduced, and chest expansion (MD, 0.80; 95% CI, −0.18 to 1.78) was not increased. Concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy can reduce the disease activity in patients with AS. More randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with high-quality, large-scale, and appropriate follow-up are warranted to further establish the benefit of concurrent intervention with
Doward, L; Spoorenberg, A; Cook, S; Whalley, D; Helliwell, P; Kay, L; McKenna, S; Tennant, A; van der Heijde, D; Chamberlain, M
Background: Although disease-specific health status measures are available for ankylosing spondylitis (AS), no instrument exists for assessing quality of life (QoL) in the condition. Objective: To produce an AS-specific QoL measure that would be relevant and acceptable to respondents, valid, and reliable. Methods: The ASQoL employs the needs-based model of QoL and was developed in parallel in the UK and the Netherlands (NL). Content was derived from interviews with patients in each country. Face and content validity were assessed through patient field test interviews (UK and NL). A postal survey in the UK produced a more efficient version of the ASQoL, which was tested for scaling properties, reliability, internal consistency, and validity in a further postal survey in each country. Results: A 41 item questionnaire was derived from interview transcripts. Field testing interviews confirmed acceptability. Rasch analysis of data from the first survey (n=121) produced a 26 item questionnaire. Rasch analysis of data from the second survey (UK: n=164; NL: n=154) showed some item misfit, but showed that items formed a hierarchical order and were stable over time. Problematic items were removed giving an 18 item scale. Both language versions had excellent internal consistency (α=0.89–0.91), test-retest reliability (rs=0.92 UK and rs=0.91 NL), and validity. Conclusions: The ASQoL provides a valuable tool for assessing the impact of interventions for AS and for evaluating models of service delivery. It is well accepted by patients, taking about four minutes to complete, and has excellent scaling and psychometric properties. PMID:12480664
Gönüllü, Emel; Bilge, N Şule Yaşar; Cansu, Döndü U; Bekmez, Müge; Musmul, Ahmet; Akçar, Nevbahar; Kaşifoğlu, Timuçin; Korkmaz, Cengiz
It has been reported that renal stone formation increased in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). However, its reason remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate serially the possible risk factors for renal stone formation in AS patients. Two groups consisted of AS patients with renal stone (n = 30), AS patients without renal stone (n = 30), and 20 healthy controls (HC) were included to the study. Parathyroid hormone, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and immunoglobulin A levels and 24 h urine were evaluated at baseline, and three times monthly. Serum calcium levels were higher in AS patients with urolithiasis than those without at baseline and third-month evaluation (baseline: 9.53 ± 0.3 vs 9.32 ± 0.3 mg/dl; p < 0.03; at third-month evaluation: 9.74 ± 0.2 vs 9.56 ± 0.3 mg/dl; p < 0.01). No significant differences were found between groups in terms of PTH and magnesium levels. In all evaluation times, although urinary calcium excretion was higher in AS patients with urolithiasis than in those without, it did not reach a statistical significance. IgA levels were significantly higher in renal stone sufferers than HC patients in all evaluation times.AS patients with urolithiasis also had high IgA levels compared with AS patients without renal stone at the second-month evaluation time (276 ± 102 vs 219 ± 104 mg/dl, p < 0.002). Increased levels of serum calcium and IgA levels as well as family history for urolithiasis may be an indicator of the development of urolithiasis in AS patients.
Rudwaleit, Martin; Taylor, William J
The concept of spondyloarthritides (or spondyloarthropathies, SpAs) that comprises a group of interrelated disorders has been recognised since the early 1970s. While the European Spondyloarthropathy Study Group (ESSG) criteria and the Amor criteria have been developed to embrace the entire group of SpAs, new criteria for psoriatic arthritis have been developed recently. The Classification of Psoriatic Arthritis (CASPAR) study, a large one of more than 1000 patients, led to a new set of validated classification criteria for psoriatic arthritis. Since their publication in 2006 the CASPAR criteria are widely used in clinical studies. In ankylosing spondylitis, the 1984 modified New York criteria have been used widely in clinical studies and daily practice but are not applicable in early disease when the characteristic radiographical signs of sacroiliitis are not visible but active sacroiliitis is readily detectable by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This led to the concept of axial SpA that includes patients with and without radiographical damage; candidate criteria for axial SpA were developed based on proposals for a structured diagnostic approach. These criteria were validated in the Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society (ASAS) study on new classification criteria for axial SpA, a large international prospective study. In this new criteria, sacroiliitis showing up on MRI has been given as much weight as sacroiliitis on radiographs, thereby also identifying patients with early axial SpA. Both the CASPAR and the ASAS criteria for axial SpA are likely to be of use as diagnostic criteria.
Nazarinia, Mohammad Ali; Ghaffarpasand, Fariborz; Heiran, Hamid Reza; Habibagahi, Zahra
The prevalence and pattern of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) can vary from country to country, according to genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to analyze the patterns of disease in a population of Iranian patients with AS. We performed a prospective study (2002-2007) analyzing 98 patients with diagnosis of AS according to the modified New York criteria. Selected patients underwent complete clinical (initial symptom, axial and peripheral involvement, heel enthesitis, extra-articular manifestations) and radiological (sacroiliac, lumbar, thoracic, and cervical spine) investigations, and these data were compared with sex, age at onset, and HLA-B27. There was predominance of men (71.4%), adult onset (>16 years, 90.8%), and positive HLA-B27 (73.4%). Family history of AS was noted in 14.3% of the patients. The predominant initial symptoms were inflammatory low back pain (44.2%). Radiological findings included syndesmophytes in 34.7% and "bamboo spine" in 16.3% of patients. Acute anterior uveitis was noted in 44.9% of patients. Male sex was associated with involvement of shoulder (P = 0.001). Female sex and juvenile-onset AS were associated with extra-articular involvement. Positive HLA-B27 was associated with hip involvement (P = 0.042) and adult-onset AS (P = 0.035). Analysis of the patterns of disease in this population of 98 southern Iranian patients with AS revealed that female sex and juvenile-onset AS were associated with extensive extra-axial involvement; and HLA-B27 was associated with hip involvement.
Karaarslan, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Hatice; Aycan, Hakan; Orman, Mehmet; Kobak, Senol
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease, which typically begins in early decades of life with primarily axial joints involvement. This disease rarely affects patients older than 50 years of age. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the demographic, clinical, and laboratory features of late onset and early onset AS patients who were followed up in a single rheumatology center. A total of 339 patients who have been diagnosed with AS according to modified New York criteria were included in the study. The patients whose initial symptoms were observed after 50 years of age were accepted as late onset AS. Out of 339 patients, 27 (7.9%) were diagnosed as late onset AS and 312 (92.3%) patients were evaluated as early onset AS. Of 27 late onset patients, 10 were male and 17 were female. Delay in the diagnosis was 5.8 years for early onset AS, while it was 3.8 years for late onset AS (p = 0.001). Higher levels of acute phase reactants and more methotrexate (MTX) use were detected in early onset AS patients compared to late onset AS (p = 0.001, p = 0.007, respectively). Statistically, there was no difference between these two groups, with regard to disease clinical activity indexes, anthropometric measurement parameters, uveitis and peripheral joint involvement. In this study, we showed that early and late onset AS patients may present with different clinical, genetic, and laboratory features. Late onset AS patients are characterized with lower human leukocyte antigen-B27 sequence, less inflammatory sign, delayed diagnosis, and less MTX and anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha drug usage.
Duran, Arzu; Kobak, Senol; Sen, Nazime; Aktakka, Seniha; Atabay, Tennur; Orman, Mehmet
Calprotectin is one of the major antimicrobial S100 leucocyte proteins. Serum calprotectin levels are associated with certain inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to investigate serum and fecal calprotectin levels in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and show their potential relations to the clinical findings of the disease. Fifty-one patients fulﬁlling the New York criteria of AS and 43 healthy age- and gender-matched volunteers were included in the study. Physical and locomotor system examinations were performed and history data were obtained for all patients. Disease activity parameters were assessed together with anthropometric parameters. Routine laboratory examinations and genetic testing (HLA-B27) were performed. Serum calprotectin levels and fecal calprotectin levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean age of the patients was 41.5 years, the mean duration of the disease was 8.6 years, and the delay in diagnosis was 4.2 years. Serum calprotectin levels were similar in both AS patients and in the control group (p=0.233). Serum calprotectin level was correlated with Bath AS disease activity index (BASDAI) and Bath AS functional index (BASFI) (p=0.001, p=0.002, respectively). A higher level of fecal calprotectin was detected in AS patients when compared with the control group. A statistically significant correlation between fecal calprotectin level and BASDAI, BASFI, C-reactive protein and Erythrocyte sedimentation rate were detected (p=0.002, p=0.005, p=0.001, p=0.002, respectively). The results indicated that fecal calprotectin levels were associated with AS disease findings and activity parameters. Calprotectin is a vital disease activity biomarker for AS and may have an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Multi-centered prospective studies are needed in order to provide further insight.
Acar, Muradiye; Cora, Tulin; Tunc, Recep; Acar, Hasan
The aim of this study was to determine human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 subtypes frequency in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and related spondyloartropathy (SpA) patients. Therefore, we investigated the differences in HLA-B27 subtypes between HLA-B27-positive patients and controls. Sixty six patients were included in this study (51 AS and 15 SpA). Thirty-five individuals were diagnosed with leukemia or chronic renal failure, and their donors without any rheumatological problem (no SpA history) were selected as the control group. HLA-B27 subtyping was performed by PCR-SSP (polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primer) method in serologically HLA-B27-positive 46 AS patients, 9 SpA patients and control group. When the frequency of HLA-B27 was 4.5% in Turkish population, this frequency was 90.2% in AS patients. Four different HLA-B27 subtypes found in AS patients were B 2705 (65.2%), B 2702 (26.1%), B 2704 (6.5%) and B 2707 (2.2%). In SpA patients, B 2705 and B 2702 found in equal frequency. Five B27 alleles were identified in our control group: B 2705 (54.3%), B 2702 (31.4) %, B 2703 (2.9%), B 2704 (2.9%) and B 2702/B 2705 (8.5%). Both in the patient group and in the control group, we also observed B 2705 as most frequent allele, and B 2702 was second common allele. Our results show that the frequency of HLA-B27 subtypes is not significantly different between patients and controls (P > 0.10).
Lee, Young Ho; Song, Gwan Gyu
The aim of this study was to determine whether 11 polymorphisms of endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) confer susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The authors conducted meta-analyses on associations between ERAP1 polymorphisms and AS susceptibility by using fixed and random effects models. A total of 19 articles were included in this meta-analysis, which comprised a total of 19,902 AS patients and 39,750 controls. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between AS and the minor alleles of the rs30187 polymorphism in all study subjects (OR = 1.255, 95 % CI = 1.147-1.373, P = 8.0 × 10(-8)). Stratification by ethnicity led to the identification of a significant association between this polymorphism and AS in European patients (OR = 1.283, 95 % CI = 1.237-1.331, P < 1.0 × 10(-9)). Meta-analyses of the results for the rs27044, rs10050860, rs2287987, rs17482078, and rs26653 polymorphisms showed the same pattern that was found for rs30187. Interestingly, the rs27037 polymorphism was significantly associated with AS susceptibility in both European and Asian patients. Meta-analysis showed a significant association between AS and the minor alleles of the rs27980 and rs27582 polymorphisms in the East Asian patients (OR = 0.904, 95 % CI = 0.818-0.999, P = 0.047; OR = 0.871, 95 % CI = 0.772-0.982, P = 0.024, respectively) (Table 2). However, these polymorphisms have not been studied in Europeans. This meta-analysis shows that the ERAP1 polymorphisms are associated with the development of AS in Europeans and East Asians.
Resorlu, Mustafa; Gokmen, Ferhat; Resorlu, Hatice; Adam, Gurhan; Akbal, Ayla; Cevizci, Sibel; Sariyildirim, Abdullah; Savas, Yilmaz; Guven, Mustafa; Aras, Adem Bozkurt
Purpose: To assess the relation between ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and degenerative disc disease emerging in association with various intrinsic and extrinsic factors and to evaluate the correlation between degree of degeneration in intervertebral discs and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Methods: Thirty-five patients with AS and a control group of 35 patients were included in the study. Three hundred fifty intervertebral discs were assessed in terms of degeneration by analyzing signal intensities and morphologies on T2 weighted series of a 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner. ADC values were determined in diffusion weighted images (DWI) using a “b value of 500 s/mm2”. Patients in the AS and control groups were compared in terms of intervertebral disc degeneration, and association between degree of degeneration and ADC values was analyzed. Results: The mean of total degeneration degrees for five lumbar intervertebral discs was significantly higher in the patients with AS compared to the control group (16.77±4.67 vs 13.00±4.08, respectively; P=0.001). When intervertebral discs were analyzed separately, disc degeneration was again significantly higher in patients with AS compared to the control group, with the exception of L5-S1. Age, cholesterol level, triglyceride level, duration of disease and BASFI index were significantly associated with degree of degeneration in patients with AS. A negative correlation was determined between disc degeneration and ADC value. Conclusion: AS is a risk factor for degenerative disc disease due to its systemic effects, the fact it leads to posture impairment and its inflammatory effects on the vertebrae. A decrease in ADC values is observed as degeneration worsens in degenerative disc disease. PMID:25785119
Wang, Hongliang; Sun, Na; Li, Ka; Tian, Jiguang; Li, Jianmin
Background Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) involves inflammation at the sacroiliac joint and spine attachment site. This study aimed to observe the ratio and function of peripheral regulatory Vδ1 T cells in AS patients to investigate their roles in AS pathogenesis. Material/Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were separated by density-gradient centrifugation from AS patients and healthy controls. Flow cytometry was used to determine the ratio between Vδ1 and CD4 T cells of PBMC in AS patients and controls. Flow cytometry sorting (FCS) was used to obtain Vδ1 and naïve CD4 T cells with purity higher than 90%. CFSE staining method was used to detect the effect of Vδ1 T cells on proliferation of naïve CD4 T cells. The effect of Vδ1 T cells on secretion of IFN-γ from naïve CD4 T cells and the ability to secrete IL-10 from Vδ1 T cells were determined by flow cytometry. Results AS patients had significantly lower Vδ1 T cell ratio in PBMC compared to controls (p<0.05), but their CD4 T cell ratio was significantly elevated (p<0.05). Functional assay showed suppression of naïve CD4 T cell proliferation and IFN-γ secretion by peripheral Vδ1 T cells in AS patients (p<0.01). AS patients also had lower IL-10 secreting level from peripheral derived Vδ1 T cells (p<0.01). Conclusions The immune suppression of peripheral Vδ1 T cell in AS patient increases the ratio of peripheral CD4 T cells and IFN-γ level, leading to AS pathogenesis. This immune suppression is mainly due to suppressed IL-10 secretion. PMID:27598263
Günendi, Zafer; Sepici Dinçel, Aylin; Erdoğan, Zeynep; Aknar, Ozlem; Yanpal, Selma; Göğüş, Feride; Atalay, Fatma
We aimed to investigate the effect of regular supervised exercise program on functional status, disease activity, and total antioxidant status (TAS) level in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Thirty-two patients (mean age: 44 years) with AS were included in the study and divided into two groups. Group 1, the exercise group (n = 16), attended a supervised exercise program that consisted of aerobic, strengthening, and stretching exercises for 1 h a day, five times a week for 3 weeks. Group 2, the control group, received a home exercise program (n:16). Bath AS Activity Index (BASDAI) and Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI) were calculated and serum TAS levels were measured for each patient at 0 and 3 weeks. There was no significant difference in patients' baseline characteristics (age, disease duration, BASFI, and BASDAI scores) between exercise and control groups. In the exercise group, there were significant improvements between pre-exercise and post-exercise assessments in BASFI (2.8 +/- 1,8; 1.7 +/- 1,40, p = 0.004) and BASDAI scores (2.1 +/- 1.7; 1.2 +/- 1.3, p = 0.01). Mean TAS levels were significantly decreased after supervised exercise program (1.48 +/- 0.16 mmol/L; 1.36 +/- 0.20 mmol/L, p = 0.03). In the control group, BASFI score (2.4 +/- 1.7; 2.9 +/- 2.1, p = 0.19), BASDAI score (2.6 +/- 2.2; 3.1 +/- 2.6, p = 0.33), and mean TAS levels (1.38 +/- 0.23 mmol/L; 1.39 +/- 0.20 mmol/L, p = 0.66) did not differ significantly between 0 and 3 weeks. Short-term, supervised exercise program improved functional status and decreased disease activity. However, the mechanism of this beneficial clinical effect does not seem to be through antioxidant activity.
Rubio Vargas, Roxana; van den Berg, Rosaline; van Lunteren, Miranda; Ez-Zaitouni, Zineb; Bakker, Pauline A C; Dagfinrud, Hanne; Ramonda, Roberta; Landewé, Robert; Molenaar, Esmeralda; van Gaalen, Floris A; van der Heijde, Désirée
Objective Obesity is associated with elevated C reactive protein (CRP) levels. The Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) combines patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and CRP. We evaluated the effect of body mass index (BMI) on CRP and on ASDAS, and studied if ASDAS can be used in obese axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) patients to assess disease activity. Methods Baseline data of patients with chronic back pain of short duration included in the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohort were used. Collected data included BMI and ASDAS. Patients were classified according to the ASAS axSpA classification criteria and BMI (overweight ≥25 and obese ≥30). Correlation and linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relation between BMI and ASDAS. Linear regression models were performed to assess if age or gender were effect modifiers in the relation between BMI and CRP, and between BMI and ASDAS. Results In total, 428 patients were analysed (n=168 axSpA; n=260 no-axSpA). The mean age was 31.1 years, 36.9% were male, 26.4% were overweight and 13.3% obese, median CRP was 3 mg/L and the mean ASDAS was 2.6. Gender was the only factor modifying the relationship between BMI and CRP as BMI had an influence on CRP only in females (β=0.35; p<0.001). Correlations between BMI and CRP or PROs were generally weak, and only significant for CRP in female patients. BMI was not related to ASDAS in axSpA patients. Conclusions ASDAS is not affected by BMI in axSpA patients. Therefore, based on our data it is not necessary to take BMI in consideration when assessing disease activity using ASDAS in axSpA patients. PMID:27403336
Park, Jun Won; Kwon, Hyun Mi; Park, Jin Kyun; Choi, Ja-Young; Lee, Eun Bong; Song, Yeong Wook
Objective To investigate the impact of dose reduction of tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) on radiographic progression in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods One hundred and sixty-five patients treated with etanercept or adalimumab were selected from a consecutive single-center observational cohort based on the availability of radiographs at baseline and after two- and/or four-years of follow up. Radiographs were assessed by two blinded readers using the modified Stokes AS Spinal Score (mSASSS). Radiographic progression in patients treated with standard-dose TNFi (standard-dose group, n = 49) was compared with patients whose dosage was tapered during the treatment (tapering group, n = 116) using linear mixed models. Results Baseline characteristics between two groups were comparable except for higher BASDAI (7.1 vs. 6.3, p = 0.003) in the standard-dose group. At two years after the treatment, mean dose quotient (S.D.) of the tapering group was 0.59 (0.17). During follow up, rate of radiographic progression in overall patients was 0.90 mSASSS units/year. Radiographic progression over time between the two groups was similar at the entire group level. However, in the subgroup of patients with baseline syndesmophytes, progression occurred significantly faster in the tapering group after the adjustment for baseline status (1.23 vs. 1.72 mSASSS units/year, p = 0.023). Results were consistent when radiographic progression was assessed by the number of newly developed syndesmophytes (0.52 vs. 0.73/year, p = 0.047). Sensitivity analysis after multiple imputation of missing radiographs also showed similar results. Conclusion A dose tapering strategy of TNFi is associated with more rapid radiographic progression in AS patients who have syndesmophytes at baseline. PMID:28033420
Klavdianou, Kalliopi; Liossis, Stamatis-Nick; Papachristou, Dionysios J; Theocharis, Georgios; Sirinian, Chaido; Kottorou, Anastasia; Filippopoulou, Alexandra; Andonopoulos, Andrew P; Daoussis, Dimitrios
Evidence suggests that serotonin is an inhibitor of bone formation. We aimed to assess: 1) serum serotonin levels in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), a prototype bone-forming disease, compared with patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and healthy subjects; 2) the effect(s) of TNFα blockers on serum serotonin levels in patients with AS and RA; and 3) the effect(s) of serum of AS patients on serotonin signaling. Serum serotonin levels were measured in 47 patients with AS, 28 patients with RA, and 40 healthy subjects by radioimmunoassay; t test was used to assess differences between groups. The effect of serum on serotonin signaling was assessed using the human osteoblastic cell line Saos2, evaluating levels of phospho-CREB by Western immunoblots. Serotonin serum levels were significantly lower in patients with AS compared with healthy subjects (mean ± SEM ng/mL 122.9 ± 11.6 versus 177.4 ± 24.58, p = 0.038) and patients with RA (mean ± SEM ng/mL 244.8 ± 37.5, p = 0.0004). Patients with AS receiving TNFα blockers had significantly lower serotonin levels compared with patients with AS not on such treatment (mean ± SEM ng/mL 95.8 ± 14.9 versus 149.2 ± 16.0, p = 0.019). Serotonin serum levels were inversely correlated with pCREB induction in osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells. Serotonin levels are low in patients with AS and decrease even further during anti-TNFα treatment. Differences in serotonin levels are shown to have a functional impact on osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells. Therefore, serotonin may be involved in new bone formation in AS.
Zhang, Ying; Hu, Xu; Zhang, Chao; Zhou, Yue; Chu, Tong-Wei
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a severe chronic inflammatory disease that may ultimately result in the development of a 'bamboo‑like' spine. Although the pathological changes that occur in AS have been extensively investigated, the mechanism underlying spinal fusion during AS remains elusive. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in paraspinal tissues from patients with AS compared with those from healthy controls were therefore investigated. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)‑based suppression subtractive hybridization was performed using total mRNA from the supraspinal ligaments of three patients with AS and three patients with spinal fractures as controls. From this, 27 genes were identified in all of the three independent forward libraries, which were defined as DEGs associated with AS. Reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR demonstrated that six DEGs were overexpressed in the tissues from patients with AS compared with those from individuals in the control group, including those encoding transforming growth factor β types I and III receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase‑3, core‑binding factor α1 and bone morphogenetic protein 2. Western blot analysis showed increased expression in all six of these proteins in the samples from patients with AS compared with those in the control groups. These findings suggested that changes in the expression of these genes and proteins are associated with the development of spinal fusion during the pathogenesis of AS. Furthermore, these genes may be novel markers of the risk of developing AS, in addition to being targets for the treatment of this disease.
Roberts, Amity R.; Appleton, Louise H.; Cortes, Adrian; Vecellio, Matteo; Lau, Jonathan; Watts, Laura; Brown, Matthew A.; Wordsworth, Paul
We investigated the proposal that ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is associated with unusual ERAP1 genotypes. ERAP1 haplotypes were constructed for 213 AS cases and 46 rheumatoid arthritis controls using family data. Haplotypes were generated from five common ERAP1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)—rs2287987 (M349V), rs30187 (K528R), rs10050860 (D575N), rs17482078 (R725Q), and rs27044 (Q730E). Haplotype frequencies were compared using Fisher’s exact test. ERAP1 haplotypes imputed from the International Genetics of AS Consortium (IGAS) Immunochip study were also studied. In the family study, we identified only four common ERAP1 haplotypes (“VRNQE,” “MKDRQ,” “MRDRE,” and “MKDRE”) in both AS cases and controls apart from two rare (<0.5%) previously unreported haplotypes. There were no examples of the unusual ERAP1 haplotype combination (“*001/*005”) previously reported by others in 53% of AS cases. As expected, K528-bearing haplotypes were increased in the AS family study (AS 43% vs. control 35%), due particularly to an increase in the MKDRQ haplotype (AS 35% vs. control 25%, P = 0.01). This trend was replicated in the imputed Immunochip data for the two K528-bearing haplotypes MKDRQ (AS 33% vs. controls 27%, P = 1.2 × 10–24) and MKDRE (AS 8% vs. controls 7%, P = 0.004). The ERAP1 association with AS is therefore predominantly attributable to common ERAP1 haplotypes and haplotype combinations. PMID:28049827
Tarhan, Figen; Orük, Gonca; Niflioğlu, Ozgür; Ozer, Serhat
Association between rheumatological and autoimmune thyroid disorders has been demonstrated by many studies. However, a few data exist indicating the association between thyroid disorders and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). In this study, the frequency of thyroid disorders in patients with AS and the impact of anti-TNF α therapy on this were investigated. Data of 108 patients (female/male (F/M) 27/81) were analyzed. Data on free T3, free T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO), anti-thyroglobulin antibodies, and thyroid ultrasound were assessed retrospectively. 44 (F/M 15/29) patients were receiving anti-TNF α, while 64 (F/M 12/52) were receiving other drugs [(sulfasalazine, anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs)]. Among those not receiving anti-TNF α therapy, TPO level was high in 23 patients (mean TPO value 86.69 ± 65.28 U/ml), while it was high only in nine receiving anti-TNF α (mean TPO 36.61 ± 14.02 U/ml) (p < 0.05). Investigating the data regarding gender in both populations, autoimmune thyroid disease frequency was found to be lower in the patient group receiving anti-TNF α treatment. Subclinical hyperthyroidism was discovered in three patients (one female two male), and subclinical hypothyroidism in two (two male). Thyroid nodule was detected in 29 patients. It was concluded that the frequency of thyroid autoimmune disease was higher in our study than that reported in the literature, and the frequency of thyroid disorder in patients with AS was lower in those receiving anti-TNF α compared to those not. This may arise from the role of TNF α on pathogenesis of thyroid disorders.
Tarhan, Figen; Argın, Mehmet; Can, Gerçek; Özmen, Mustafa; Keser, Gökhan
The coexistence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is very rare, and, to the best of our knowledge, there are only 8 reported cases in the English literature. Here, we present another case with the coexistence of these two diseases, and review the clinical and laboratory features of the previously reported cases. A 55 year-old female patient, with a diagnosis of SLE with locomotor, skin, renal and hematopoietic system involvement, which had been confirmed by relevant autoantibody positivity, and hypocomplementemia and biopsy-proven membranous lupus nephritis, was referred to our clinic suffered from typical inflammatory low-back pain after eight years of follow-up. Sacroiliac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed the presence of bilateral active sacroiliitis with bone marrow oedema. HLA-B27 was positive and bilateral calcaneal spurs were also detected by conventional radiography. Therefore, the additional diagnosis of AS was made, eight years after the diagnosis of SLE. Inflammatory low-back pain typically responded to treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Including the present case, most of the reported cases of the coexistence of SLE and AS are female, and SLE generally precedes the occurrence of AS. The present case is also notable as the patient had both MRI confirmation of bilateral active sacroiliitis and HLA-B27 positivity. The coexistence of these two diseases with different genetic backgrounds in the same patient is much lower than expected based upon their prevalence in the general population. Although it has been suggested that the very rare combination of the susceptibility genes of each disease may explain the rarity of coexistence, epidemiological data concerning the genetic risks for the coexistence of SLE and AS are not available. PMID:27708869
Caetano-Lopes, Joana; Vieira-Sousa, Elsa; Campanilho-Marques, Raquel; Ponte, Cristina; Canhão, Helena; Ainola, Mari; Fonseca, João E.
Introduction Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) is characterized by excessive local bone formation and concomitant systemic bone loss. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays a central role in the inflammation of axial skeleton and enthesis of AS patients. Despite reduction of inflammation and systemic bone loss, AS patients treated with TNF inhibitors (TNFi) have ongoing local bone formation. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of TNFi in the differentiation and activity of osteoclasts (OC) in AS patients. Methods 13 AS patients treated with TNFi were analyzed at baseline and after a minimum follow-up period of 6 months. 25 healthy donors were recruited as controls. Blood samples were collected to assess receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) surface expression on circulating leukocytes and frequency and phenotype of monocyte subpopulations. Quantification of serum levels of bone turnover markers and cytokines, in vitro OC differentiation assay and qRT-PCR for OC specific genes were performed. Results RANKL+ circulating lymphocytes (B and T cells) and IL-17A, IL-23 and TGF-β levels were decreased after TNFi treatment. We found no differences in the frequency of the different monocyte subpopulations, however, we found decreased expression of CCR2 and increased expression of CD62L after TNFi treatment. OC number was reduced in patients at baseline when compared to controls. OC specific gene expression was reduced in circulating OC precursors after TNFi treatment. However, when cultured in OC differentiating conditions, OC precursors from AS TNFi-treated patients showed increased activity as compared to baseline. Conclusion In AS patients, TNFi treatment reduces systemic pro osteoclastogenic stimuli. However, OC precursors from AS patients exposed to TNFi therapy have increased in vitro activity in response to osteoclastogenic stimuli. PMID:26674064
Manolios, Nicholas; Ali, Marina; Camden, Bradley; Aflaky, Elham; Pavic, Katrina; Markewycz, Andrew; De Costa, Robert; Angelides, Socrates
Objective To evaluate the clinical utility of a novel radiotracer, 99mTc-glucosamine, in assessing disease activity of both rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Material and Methods: Twenty-five patients with RA (nine males and 16 females) and 12 patients with AS (all male) at various stages of disease were recruited for the study. A clinical history and examination was performed, followed by the measurement of hematological, biochemical, and autoimmune serological parameters to assess disease activity. 99mTc-glucosamine was intravenously administered and scans were compared with other imaging modalities, including plain X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and bone scans. Results In patients with AS, 99mTc-glucosamine scans were more capable of identifying active disease and differentiating between inflammatory and non-inflammatory causes. In patients with RA, 99mTc-glucosamine accumulated at all known sites of disease involvement. Uptake was most pronounced in patients with active untreated disease. The relative tracer activity in the involved joints increased with time compared with that in the adjoining soft tissue, liver, and cardiac blood pool. Using Spearman’s correlation coefficient, there was a positive correlation among glucosamine scan scores, C-reactive protein (p=0.048), and clinical assessment (p=0.003), which was not noted with bone scans. Conclusion The radiotracer was well tolerated by all patients, with no adverse reactions. 99mTc-glucosamine imaging could detect spinal inflammation in AS. With respect to RA, 99mTc-glucosamine was a viable alternative to 99mTc-labeled methylene diphosphonate nuclear bone scans for imaging inflamed joints and had the added advantage of demonstrating a significant clinical correlation between disease activity and scan findings. PMID:27708974
Evans, David M; Spencer, Chris C A; Pointon, Jennifer J; Su, Zhan; Harvey, David; Kochan, Grazyna; Oppermann, Udo; Opperman, Udo; Dilthey, Alexander; Pirinen, Matti; Stone, Millicent A; Appleton, Louise; Moutsianas, Loukas; Moutsianis, Loukas; Leslie, Stephen; Wordsworth, Tom; Kenna, Tony J; Karaderi, Tugce; Thomas, Gethin P; Ward, Michael M; Weisman, Michael H; Farrar, Claire; Bradbury, Linda A; Danoy, Patrick; Inman, Robert D; Maksymowych, Walter; Gladman, Dafna; Rahman, Proton; Morgan, Ann; Marzo-Ortega, Helena; Bowness, Paul; Gaffney, Karl; Gaston, J S Hill; Smith, Malcolm; Bruges-Armas, Jacome; Couto, Ana-Rita; Sorrentino, Rosa; Paladini, Fabiana; Ferreira, Manuel A; Xu, Huji; Liu, Yu; Jiang, Lei; Lopez-Larrea, Carlos; Díaz-Peña, Roberto; López-Vázquez, Antonio; Zayats, Tetyana; Band, Gavin; Bellenguez, Céline; Blackburn, Hannah; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Bramon, Elvira; Bumpstead, Suzannah J; Casas, Juan P; Corvin, Aiden; Craddock, Nicholas; Deloukas, Panos; Dronov, Serge; Duncanson, Audrey; Edkins, Sarah; Freeman, Colin; Gillman, Matthew; Gray, Emma; Gwilliam, Rhian; Hammond, Naomi; Hunt, Sarah E; Jankowski, Janusz; Jayakumar, Alagurevathi; Langford, Cordelia; Liddle, Jennifer; Markus, Hugh S; Mathew, Christopher G; McCann, Owen T; McCarthy, Mark I; Palmer, Colin N A; Peltonen, Leena; Plomin, Robert; Potter, Simon C; Rautanen, Anna; Ravindrarajah, Radhi; Ricketts, Michelle; Samani, Nilesh; Sawcer, Stephen J; Strange, Amy; Trembath, Richard C; Viswanathan, Ananth C; Waller, Matthew; Weston, Paul; Whittaker, Pamela; Widaa, Sara; Wood, Nicholas W; McVean, Gilean; Reveille, John D; Wordsworth, B Paul; Brown, Matthew A; Donnelly, Peter
Ankylosing spondylitis is a common form of inflammatory arthritis predominantly affecting the spine and pelvis that occurs in approximately 5 out of 1,000 adults of European descent. Here we report the identification of three variants in the RUNX3, LTBR-TNFRSF1A and IL12B regions convincingly associated with ankylosing spondylitis (P < 5 × 10(-8) in the combined discovery and replication datasets) and a further four loci at PTGER4, TBKBP1, ANTXR2 and CARD9 that show strong association across all our datasets (P < 5 × 10(-6) overall, with support in each of the three datasets studied). We also show that polymorphisms of ERAP1, which encodes an endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase involved in peptide trimming before HLA class I presentation, only affect ankylosing spondylitis risk in HLA-B27-positive individuals. These findings provide strong evidence that HLA-B27 operates in ankylosing spondylitis through a mechanism involving aberrant processing of antigenic peptides.
Vidal-Castiñeira, Jose Ramón; López-Vázquez, Antonio; Diaz-Peña, Roberto; Diaz-Bulnes, Paula; Martinez-Camblor, Pablo; Coto, Eliecer; Coto-Segura, Pablo; Bruges-Armas, Jacome; Pinto, Jose Antonio; Blanco, Francisco Jose; Sánchez, Alejandra; Mulero, Juan; Queiro, Ruben; Lopez-Larrea, Carlos
The aim of this study was to identify new genetic variants associated with the severity of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We sequenced the exome of eight patients diagnosed with AS, selected on the basis of the severity of their clinical parameters. We identified 27 variants in exons and regulatory regions. The contribution of candidate variants found to AS severity was validated by genotyping two Spanish cohorts consisting of 180 cases/300 controls and 419 cases/656 controls. Relationships of SNPs and clinical variables with the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity and Functional Indices BASDAI and BASFI were analyzed. BASFI was standardized by adjusting for the duration of the disease since the appearance of the first symptoms. Refining the analysis of SNPs in the two cohorts, we found that the rs4819554 minor allele G in the promoter of the IL17RA gene was associated with AS (p<0.005). This variant was also associated with the BASFI score. Classifying AS patients by the severity of their functional status with respect to BASFI/disease duration of the 60th, 65th, 70th and 75th percentiles, we found the association increased from p60 to p75 (cohort 1: p<0.05 to p<0.01; cohort 2: p<0.01 to p<0.005). Our findings indicate a genetic role for the IL17/ILRA axis in the development of severe forms of AS. PMID:27415816
Cock, I E; van Vuuren, S F
A wide variety of herbal remedies are used in traditional African medicine to treat inflammatory disorders, including some autoimmune diseases. Thirty-four extracts from 13 South African plant species traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation were investigated for their ability to control a microbial trigger for ankylosing spondylitis (Klebsiella pneumoniae). Twenty-six of the extracts (76.5%) inhibited the growth of K. pneumoniae. Methanol and water extracts of Ballota africana, Carpobrotus edulis leaves, Kigellia africana, Lippia javanica, Pelargonium fasiculata, Syzygium cordatum (including bark), Terminalia pruinoides and Terminalia sericea were effective K. pneumoniae inhibitors, with MIC values <1000 µg/ml. The roots of Tulbaghia violaceae and bark from Warburgia salutaris also demonstrated efficacy. The most potent extracts were examined by RP-HPLC and UV-Vis spectroscopy for the presence of resveratrol. Methanolic extracts of B. africana, C. edulis leaves, L. javanica, T. pruinoides and T. sericea, as well as aqueous B. africana, T. pruinoides and T. sericea extracts, displayed peaks with retention times and UV-Vis spectra consistent with the presence of resveratrol. Resveratrol was generally a minor component, indicating that resveratrol was not solely responsible for the anti-Klebsiella growth inhibitory properties. Plant extracts with K. pneumoniae inhibitory activity were either non-toxic, or of low toxicity in the Artemia (brine shrimp) nauplii bioassay. Their low toxicity and antibiotic bioactivity against K. pneumoniae indicate their potential for both preventing the onset of ankylosing spondylitis and minimising its symptoms once the disease is established.
Lin, Tian-Tian; Lu, Jing; Qi, Chen-Yue; Yuan, Lin; Li, Xiao-Lin; Xia, Li-Ping; Shen, Hui
Interleukin (IL)-27 is an IL-12 family cytokine and exerts a critical role in immune regulation in the context of infection, autoimmunity, and angiogenesis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible pathophysiological role of IL-27 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). One hundred and forty AS patients and 90 healthy controls were included in the current study. The levels of IL-27 and VEGF in serum and synovial fluid (SF) samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 were measured by standard laboratory techniques. Disease activity in AS was scored with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). Hip involvement, peripheral arthritis, and eye involvement were also recorded. The serum levels of IL-27 were remarkably higher in AS patients than healthy groups and significantly correlated with serum levels of VEGF. Furthermore, the serum levels of IL-27 were correlated with BASDAI independent of other markers of inflammation. Elevated serum levels of IL-27 and VEGF were detected in AS patients with peripheral arthritis and HLA-B27 positive. The SF levels of IL-27 and VEGF were significantly higher than serum levels in AS patients with peripheral arthritis. By contrast, levels of IL-27 and VEGF were not increased in AS patients with hip involvement and eye involvement. IL-27 may regulate the immunological or inflammatory process of AS.
Jansen, Jeroen P.; Taylor, Stephanie D.
Objectives. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of etoricoxib (90 mg) relative to celecoxib (200/400 mg), and the nonselective NSAIDs naproxen (1000 mg) and diclofenac (150 mg) in the initial treatment of ankylosing spondylitis in Norway. Methods. A previously developed Markov state-transition model was used to estimate costs and benefits associated with initiating treatment with the different competing NSAIDs. Efficacy, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular safety, and resource use data were obtained from the literature. Data from different studies were synthesized and translated into direct costs and quality adjusted life years by means of a Bayesian comprehensive decision modeling approach. Results. Over a 30-year time horizon, etoricoxib is associated with about 0.4 more quality adjusted life years than the other interventions. At 1 year, naproxen is the most cost-saving strategy. However, etoricoxib is cost and quality adjusted life year saving relative to celecoxib, as well as diclofenac and naproxen after 5 years of follow-up. For a willingness-to-pay ceiling ratio of 200,000 Norwegian krones per quality adjusted life year, there is a >95% probability that etoricoxib is the most-cost-effective treatment when a time horizon of 5 or more years is considered. Conclusions. Etoricoxib is the most cost-effective NSAID for initiating treatment of ankylosing spondylitis in Norway. PMID:21772851
Braun, J; Davis, J; Dougados, M; Sieper, J; van der Linden, S; van der Heijde, D
Objective To update the international recommendations for use of anti‐tumour necrosis factor (TNF) agents in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis. Methods The published recommendations on anti‐TNF treatment in ankylosing spondylitis formed the basis of the update. A questionnaire was sent to the ASAS (assessment in ankylosing spondylitis) members before the final decisions were agreed upon at an international meeting of the ASAS working group. Results Only minor changes to the original consensus statement were required. For the initiation of anti‐TNF treatment, there should be: a diagnosis of definitive ankylosing spondylitis (normally based on modified New York criteria); active disease for at least four weeks, as defined by a sustained Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI) of ⩾4 on a 0–10 scale and expert opinion based on clinical findings; refractory disease, defined by failure of at least two non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs during a three month period, failure of intra‐articular steroids (if indicated), and failure of sulfasalazine in patients with predominantly peripheral arthritis; and application of the usual precautions and contraindications for biological treatment. For monitoring anti‐TNF treatment: both the ASAS core set for clinical practice and the BASDAI should be followed after the initiation of treatment. Discontinuation of anti‐TNF treatment in non‐responders should be considered after 6–12 weeks. Response is defined by improvement of at least 50% or 2 units (on a 0–10 scale) of the BASDAI. Conclusions This updated consensus statement is recommended in guiding clinical practice and as a basis for developing national guidelines. Evaluation and regular update of this consensus statement is subject to further research by the ASAS group. PMID:16096329
Cervical spine fracture in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis causing a C2-T9 spinal epidural hematoma- Treatment resulted in a rapid and complete recovery from tetraplegia: Case report and literature review.
Wong, Albert Sii Hieng; Yu, Denis Hee Youg
Full recovery from tetraplegia is uncommon in cervical spine injury. This has not being reported for cervical spine fracture in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis causing spinal epidural hematoma. We report on a case of cervical spine fracture in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis who came with tetraplegia. He underwent a two stage fixation and fusion. He had a complete recovery. Two hours after the operation he regained full strength in all the limbs while in the Intensive Care Unit. He went back to full employment. There are only two other reports in the literature where patients with ankylosing spondylitis and extradural hematoma who underwent treatment within 12 h and recovered completely from tetraparesis and paraplegia respectively. Patient with ankylosing spondylitis has a higher incidence of spinal fracture and extradural hematoma. Good outcome can be achieved by early diagnosis and treatment. This can ensure not only a stable spine, but also a rapid and complete recovery in a tetraplegic patient.
Dhir, Varun; Kulkarni, Sujay; Adgaonkar, Ashish; Dhobe, Poornima; Aggarwal, Amita
The disease activity and functional impact of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is currently measured through various questionnaire instruments, the most popular of which are the Bath indices. However, Hindi versions for use in Indian patients are not available. This study aimed to fill this lacuna. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the instruments--Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitits Metrology Index (BASMI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Patient Global Score (BAS-G), and Health Assessment Questionnaire-Spondyloarthropathy (HAQ-S)--were done using standard guidelines. These were then self-administered to patients. The BASMI measurements, occiput-to-wall distance, chest expansion (in centimeters), total enthesis count, ESR, and C reactive protein (CRP) were measured. To assess reliability, the patient was called back on day 14, and the questionnaires were again self-administered, and the intra-class correlation coefficient was calculated to assess reliability. Correlation of questionnaire scores with acute phase reactants, measurements, and enthesitis index were used to assess for construct validity. Some modifications were done in the Bath indices and HAQ-S for cross-cultural adaptation. For validation, 41 patients of ankylosing spondylitis with a mean age of 34 years (±10.2) and disease duration of 5.8 years (±6.2) were included. The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), BASDAI, and HAQ-S showed good correlation among themselves (r = 0.69 to 0.84, p < 0.001), except for BAS-G with HAQ-S (r = 0.53, p < 0.001). Correlation between BASDAI and ESR (0.31, p = 0.05), CRP (0.48, p < 0.001), and enthesitis score (0.32, p = 0.045) was fair. Similarly, there was fair correlation of BASFI with ESR (0.55, p < 0.001), CRP (p = 0.60, p < 0.001), and various metrological measurements. These suggest convergent validity. However, there was a lack of correlation between metrological measurements and BASDAI
Qu, Zhe; Qian, Bang-ping; Qiu, Yong; Zhang, Yun-peng; Hu, Jun; Zhu, Ze-zhang
Abstract To date, only a few reports described the potential factors influencing the position of conus medullaris. One previous study revealed no significant change of conus locations in patients with idiopathic scoliosis; however, the effect of ankylosing spondylitis (AS)-related thoracolumbar kyphosis on conus position remains unexplored. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the variation of conus medullaris terminations in patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis secondary to AS when compared with normal subjects, and evaluated the relationship between conus positions and the magnitude of kyphosis. In this study, MR images of 96 AS patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis, including 86 males and 10 females with an average of 34.6 years (range, 17–65 years), and 100 age-matched normal controls were reviewed to determine the conus terminations in relation to spinal levels. Sagittal parameters of the AS group measured on radiograph included: global kyphosis (GK), thoracic kyphosis (TK), lumbar lordosis (LL), and thoracolumbar junction (TLJ). Finally, conus tips located at the mean level of the lower 3rd of L1 in both groups, there was no significant difference of the conus distributions between AS and control group (P = 0.49). In addition, conus medullaris displayed similar positions in AS patients among various apical region groups (P = 0.88), and no significant difference was found when AS population was stratified into GK ranges of 30° (P = 0.173). Also, no remarkable correlation of the conus positions with GK (r = −0.15, P = 0.15), TK (r = −0.10, P = 0.34), LL (r = −0.10, P = 0.32), and TLJ (r = −0.06, P = 0.54) was identified. This study showed the conus terminations displayed a wide range of distributions in AS patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis, which was similar to normal subjects. Moreover, the conus located at a relatively fixed position and would not be affected by the change of kyphosis magnitude, which is
Liu, Song; Ding, Jie; Wang, Meng; Zhou, Wanqing; Feng, Min; Guan, Wenxian
Extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) cause increased morbidity and decreased quality of life in Crohn disease (CD). Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) belongs to EIMs. Very little is known on the clinical features of CD concomitant with AS. This study is to investigate the clinical features of CD patients with AS.We retrospectively collected all CD patients with AS in our hospital, and established a comparison group (CD without AS) with age, sex, and duration of Crohn disease matched. Clinical information was retrieved for comparison.Eight CD + AS patients were identified from 195 CD patients. Sixteen CD patients were randomly selected into comparison group. All CD + AS patients were male, HLA-B27 (+), and rheumatoid factor (-) with an average age of 40.8 ± 4.52 years. Significant correlation between disease activity of CD and AS was revealed (r = 0.857, P = 0.011). Significant correlation between disease activity of CD and functional limitation associated with AS was identified (r = 0.881, P < 0.01). C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and globulin were positively correlated to Crohn disease activity index (CDAI), Bath AS disease activity index, and Bath AS functional index(BASFI) scores (r = 0.73-0.93, P < 0.05). Albumin was negatively associated with CDAI and BASFI (r = -0.73 to -0.91, P < 0.05). The ratio of albumin to globulin (Alb/Glo) was significantly related to all 3 scores (r = -0.81 to -0.91, P < 0.05).Male predominance with a 4.12% concomitant incidence of AS is observed in CD patients. Disease activity of CD correlates with disease activity of AS and functional limitation caused by AS. CRP, ESR, and Alb/Glo may serve as biomarkers for disease activity and functional limitation in CD patients concomitant with AS, although future studies are expected.
Xu, Jun; Zeng, Min; Xie, Jie; Wen, Ting; Hu, Yihe
Controversies on the surgical protocols and efficacies of total hip arthroplasty (THA) in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) still exist. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the perioperative managements and their outcomes related to performing THA on patients with AS.Data of 54 AS patients who underwent 81 THAs between 2008 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical and imaging data were collected preoperatively, postoperatively, and during the follow-up period for surgical efficacy.Using posterolateral approach, cementless prostheses were selected in all cases. Mean follow-up period was 3.6 years (range, 2-8 years). Inclinations and anteversions of acetabular cups were 36.3°±4.5° (range, 30°-50°) and 12.3°±4.9° (range, 0°-25°) respectively. Mean visual analog scale (VAS) score decreased from 6.7 ± 2.1 (range, 4-10) preoperatively to 1.5 ± 1.0 (range, 0-4) at final follow-up, and mean Harris hip score (HHS) improved from 31.2 ± 11.6 (range, 15-45) to 86.1 ± 4.3 (range, 80-95) (P < 0.05). Postoperative range of motion (ROM) in flexion was improved from 6.7°±13.5° (range, 0°-50°) preoperatively to 82.5°±6.4° (range, 70°-100°) at final follow-up, and ROM in extension was improved from 1.8°±5.7°(range, 0°-15°) to 15.4°±2.6° (range, 10°-20°) (P < 0.05). Heterotopic ossification (HO) was documented in 9 hips (11.1%). Signs of stable fibrous ingrowth and bone ingrowth were detected in 52 and 29 hips, respectively. Sciatic never injury was occurred in 3 cases, and treated conservatively. There were no signs of periprosthetic fractures, dislocation, or prosthesis loosening.Surgical efficacies of THA for AS patients with severe hip involvement are satisfactory.
Dundar, U; Solak, O; Toktas, H; Demirdal, U S; Subasi, V; Kavuncu, V; Evcik, D
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease that affects mainly the axial skeleton and causes significant pain and disability. Aquatic (water-based) exercise may have a beneficial effect in various musculoskeletal conditions. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of aquatic exercise interventions with land-based exercises (home-based exercise) in the treatment of AS. Patients with AS were randomly assigned to receive either home-based exercise or aquatic exercise treatment protocol. Home-based exercise program was demonstrated by a physiotherapist on one occasion and then, exercise manual booklet was given to all patients in this group. Aquatic exercise program consisted of 20 sessions, 5× per week for 4 weeks in a swimming pool at 32-33 °C. All the patients in both groups were assessed for pain, spinal mobility, disease activity, disability, and quality of life. Evaluations were performed before treatment (week 0) and after treatment (week 4 and week 12). The baseline and mean values of the percentage changes calculated for both groups were compared using independent sample t test. Paired t test was used for comparison of pre- and posttreatment values within groups. A total of 69 patients with AS were included in this study. We observed significant improvements for all parameters [pain score (VAS) visual analog scale, lumbar flexion/extension, modified Schober test, chest expansion, bath AS functional index, bath AS metrology index, bath AS disease activity index, and short form-36 (SF-36)] in both groups after treatment at week 4 and week 12 (p < 0.05). Comparison of the percentage changes of parameters both at week 4 and week 12 relative to pretreatment values showed that improvement in VAS (p < 0.001) and bodily pain (p < 0.001), general health (p < 0.001), vitality (p < 0.001), social functioning (p < 0.001), role limitations due to emotional problems (p < 0.001), and general mental health (p < 0.001) subparts of
Ji, Wei; Chen, Yajun; Zhao, Xia; Guo, Yunke; Zhong, Lingyu; Li, Honggang; Wang, Dan; Song, Yanna
The aim of the current study was to explore the effects and possible mechanisms of tripterygium glycosides tablet (TGT) in the treatment of active ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Thirty-six patients with active AS were given a 20 mg TGT treatment three times per day for 12 weeks, and 21 unrelated healthy controls were recruited as the control group. Efficacy measures included the Bath AS disease activity index (BASDAI), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) prior and subsequent to TGT treatment. Serum dickkopf homolog 1 (DKK1) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) levels before and after TGT treatment were assessed using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and ELISA assay. The levels of several serum biomarkers were determined by ELISA, including receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), cross-linked telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). After 12 weeks of TGT treatment, the BASDAI score of the patients was significantly reduced (P<0.05), their levels of ESR and CRP were significantly reduced to a normal level (P<0.05, P<0.05), RT-PCR and ELISA showed a significant increase in the level of DKK1 expression (P<0.05) and a significant decreased IL-17 expression (P<0.05), there was a significant increase in the expression of OPG, BAP and BMP-2 (P<0.01, P<0.01, P<0.01) and a significant reduction in the expression levels of RANKL, CTX-II. MMP-3, PGE2, and VEGF (P<0.01, P<0.01, P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.01) compared with those of the controls. TGT is effective at improving the signs and symptoms of patients with AS through the regulation of serum biomarkers, and the mechanisms may be associated with the anti-inflammatory effect, inhibition of new bone formation and potential bone-protective effects.
Smolen, Josef S; Braun, Jürgen; Dougados, Maxime; Emery, Paul; FitzGerald, Oliver; Helliwell, Philip; Kavanaugh, Arthur; Kvien, Tore K; Landewé, Robert; Luger, Thomas; Mease, Philip; Olivieri, Ignazio; Reveille, John; Ritchlin, Christopher; Rudwaleit, Martin; Schoels, Monika; Sieper, Joachim; de Wit, Martinus; Baraliakos, Xenofon; Betteridge, Neil; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Collantes-Estevez, Eduardo; Deodhar, Atul; Elewaut, Dirk; Gossec, Laure; Jongkees, Merryn; Maccarone, Mara; Redlich, Kurt; van den Bosch, Filip; Wei, James Cheng-Chung; Winthrop, Kevin; van der Heijde, Désirée
Background Therapeutic targets have been defined for diseases like diabetes, hypertension or rheumatoid arthritis and adhering to them has improved outcomes. Such targets are just emerging for spondyloarthritis (SpA). Objective To define the treatment target for SpA including ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and develop recommendations for achieving the target, including a treat-to-target management strategy. Methods Based on results of a systematic literature review and expert opinion, a task force of expert physicians and patients developed recommendations which were broadly discussed and voted upon in a Delphi-like process. Level of evidence, grade and strength of the recommendations were derived by respective means. The commonalities between axial SpA, peripheral SpA and PsA were discussed in detail. Results Although the literature review did not reveal trials comparing a treat-to-target approach with another or no strategy, it provided indirect evidence regarding an optimised approach to therapy that facilitated the development of recommendations. The group agreed on 5 overarching principles and 11 recommendations; 9 of these recommendations related commonly to the whole spectrum of SpA and PsA, and only 2 were designed separately for axial SpA, peripheral SpA and PsA. The main treatment target, which should be based on a shared decision with the patient, was defined as remission, with the alternative target of low disease activity. Follow-up examinations at regular intervals that depend on the patient's status should safeguard the evolution of disease activity towards the targeted goal. Additional recommendations relate to extra-articular and extramusculoskeletal aspects and other important factors, such as comorbidity. While the level of evidence was generally quite low, the mean strength of recommendation was 9–10 (10: maximum agreement) for all recommendations. A research agenda was formulated. Conclusions The task force defined the
Bodur, Hatice; Ataman, Sebnem; Buğdaycı, Derya Soy; Rezvani, Aylin; Nas, Kemal; Uzunca, Kaan; Emlakçıoğlu, Emel; Karatepe, Altınay Göksel; Durmuş, Bekir; Sezgin, Melek; Ayhan, Figen; Yazgan, Pelin; Duruöz, Tuncay; Yener, Mahmut; Gürgan, Alev; Kırnap, Mehmet; Cakar, Engin; Altan, Lale; Soydemir, Raikan; Capkın, Erhan; Tekeoğlu, Ibrahim; Aydın, Gülümser; Günendi, Zafer; Nacır, Barış; Sallı, Ali; Oztürk, Cihat; Memiş, Asuman; Turan, Yasemin; Kozanoğlu, Erkan; Sivrioğlu, Konçuy
A web-based application patient follow-up program was developed to create a registry of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) by the Turkiye Romatizma Arastirma Savas Dernegi (TRASD) AS Study Group. This study describes the methodological background and patient characteristics. The patient follow-up program is a web-based questionnaire, which contains sections on socio-demographic data, anamnesis, personal and family history, systemic and musculoskeletal examination, laboratory and imaging data and treatment. Between October 1, 2007 and February 28, 2009, 1,381 patients from 41 centers were included in the registry (1,038 males [75.2%]; mean age 39.5 ± 10.7 years). Mean disease duration was 12.1 ± 8.5 years, and mean time from initial symptom to diagnosis was 5 ± 6.8 years (median 2 years). HLA-B27 positivity was detected in 73.7% of 262 patients tested. Manifestations of extraarticular involvement were anterior uveitis (13.2%), psoriasis and other skin and mucous membrane lesions (6%) and inflammatory bowel disease (3.8%). The prevalence of peripheral arthritis was 11.2%. In 51.7% of patients, the Bath AS Disease Activity Index was ≥4. But since our patients consisted of the ones with more severe disease who referred to the tertiary centers and needed a regular follow-up, they may not represent the general AS population. Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs were being used by 41.9% of patients, with 16.4% using anti-TNF agents. TRASD-IP (Izlem Programi: Follow-up program) is the first AS registry in Turkey. Such databases are very useful and provide a basis for data collection from large numbers of subjects. TRASD-IP gives information on the clinical and demographic profiles of patients, and the efficacy and safety of anti-TNF drugs, examines the impact on quality of life, and provides real-life data that may be used in cost-effectiveness analyses.
Ramos-Remus, Cesar; Hernandez-Rios, Guillermo; Duran-Barragan, Sergio; Sanchez-Ortiz, Adriana; Aceves-Avila, Francisco Javier; Castillo-Ortiz, Jose Dionisio; Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar
The aim of this study is to assess the trends in work disability and sick leave in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). In 1993 and 2007, patients diagnosed with AS that attended to a secondary- or a tertiary-care outpatient rheumatology clinics were evaluated for demographics, disease characteristics, axial mobility, working status, and work days missed due to sick leave or permanent disability. Factors that impacted labor status were identified by multiple regression analysis. In 1993, 91 study individuals (mean age 35 years, mean disease duration 10 ± 8 years) included 28 (31%) on permanent disability and 63 currently working; of these 63, 42 (67%) had missed at least 1 work day in the previous 12 months (mean 69 ± 63 days). In the next 5 years, the annual permanent disability was 3%. In 2007, 185 study individuals (mean age 42, mean disease duration 12 ± 10 years) included 53 (39%) on permanent disability and 132 active workers; 35 (66%) out of the 53 began permanent disability between 1999 and 2007 (2.1% annual disability rate), and 53 (40%) out of 132 active workers missed at least 1 work day in the previous 12 months (mean 52 ± 63 days). Only age predicted disability, with 10% and 11% increases in risk per year in 1993 and 2007, respectively (hazard ratios 1.09 and 1.11, respectively; p = 0.03 for both). Although the impact of AS on work seems to decrease slightly during the last 15 years, the actual impact is still substantial. An important proportion of patients went on permanent disability in the three decades before retirement. Extrapolating these results to official data for the year 2005, we may infer that between 1.3 million and nearly 15 million working days were missed that year due to AS.
Objectives The aim of the study was to investigate the association between activity of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and decrease in quality of life as well as productivity loss of affected patients in a specified group of patients in the Polish setting. Material and methods An questionnaire survey was conducted using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) to assess disease activity, as well as the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaires to assess productivity loss; quality of life was presented as utility calculated using the EuroQol 5 questionnaire and also measured on a visual analogue scale (VAS). Indirect costs were assessed with the human capital approach implying gross domestic product per capita or gross value added per worker in Poland in 2014 and were expressed in Polish zlotys (PLN) as well as in euros. Correlation was presented using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Results We performed our analysis based on 78 full questionnaires collected. A mean BASDAI score of 5.91 in the analysed group of patients was detected and mean utility of 0.5135 was observed. Average quality of life measured on the visual analogue scale was 46.55. Mean number of days off work was 45.26 days per year and mean on-the-job productivity loss was 49.29%. Average annual indirect costs per patient were €4241 (17 686 PLN) calculated using gross domestic product and €10 172 (42 417 PLN) estimated using gross value added. Total productivity loss was significantly correlated with disease activity (strong correlation of 0.6005) and utility (moderate correlation of –0.3698). Conclusions Ankylosing spondylitis causes a great decrease in quality of life as well as patients’ productivity loss associated with both absenteeism and presenteeism. The greater the disease activity is, the lower is the utility, the lower is the quality of life measured on the VAS, and the greater are the total annual indirect costs. Total indirect costs were
Sousa, Elsa; Caetano-Lopes, Joana; Pinto, Patrícia; Pimentel, Fernando; Teles, José; Canhão, Helena; Rodrigues, Ana; Resende, Catarina; Mourão, Ana Filipa; Ribeiro, Célia; Pinto, Teresa Laura; Rosa, Carlos Miranda; da Silva, José Alberto Pereira; Branco, Jaime; Ventura, Francisco; Queiroz, Mário Viana; Fonseca, João Eurico
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease in which genetic factors play a central role. The efficacy of TNF blockers has reoriented research in this field in order to explain the influence of TNF in AS pathogenesis. The objective of this study was to access the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at positions -308 and -238 of the promoter region of TNF gene on AS susceptibility and prognosis. SNPs were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphisms in patients and controls. AS patients exhibited a decreased frequency of the A allele at position -238 (10%) when compared with controls (18%), suggesting that this could be a protective factor for disease susceptibility. In addition, the -308 GA/AA genotypes were associated with later disease onset in AS patients. These results suggest that TNF gene promoter polymorphisms at positions -238 and -308 could have a small influence on AS susceptibility and prognosis.
Mahmoud, Adel; Fayez, Dalia; Gabal, Mervat Mammdouh Abou; Hamza, Sherin Mohamed Hosny; Badr, Takwa
Introduction Fusion of joints as well as intervertebral spaces by the formation of bony spurs appearing as syndesmophytes and osteophytes are the hallmark of spondyloarthropathies which accounts for disability. The aim of this study was to assess the serum level of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-7 in ankylosing spondylitis and its relationship with disease activity and the radiographic damage. Methods This longitudinal case control study was conducted in Ain Shams University Hospitals (Egypt). A total of 55 subjects were included in two case groups and one control group. Group I included 20 patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) assessed at baseline (defined as Ia and after 18 months defined as Ib). Group II included 20 patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and Group III included 15 healthy subjects as controls. Patients with other forms of seronegative spondyloarthropathies, bone forming diseases were excluded from the study. The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI) were used to assess disease activity in AS patients. RA disease activity was assessed using the disease activity score 28 (DAS28). Radiographic changes were assessed using the Bath AS Radiographic Index (BASRI) in AS and Larsen scores in RA. Laboratory investigations included: Complete blood picture (CBC), Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), quantitative CRP, serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase. Determination of serum bone morphogenetic protein-7 level (BMP-7) was done using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sample collections, clinical and radiological assessments were performed at baseline for all groups and after a mean follow-up of 18 months for Group I. Data were analyzed by SPSS 17, using t-test, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, Fischer exact test, Chi square, and Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient. Results There were statistically significant differences between the 3
Albayrak, Ilknur; Bağcacı, Sinan; Sallı, Ali; Kucuksen, Sami; Uğurlu, Hatice
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory rheumatological disease affecting the axial skeleton with various extra-articular complications. Dysphagia due to a giant anterior osteophyte of the cervical spine in AS is extremely rare. We present a 48-year-old male with AS suffering from progressive dysphagia to soft foods and liquids. Esophagography showed an anterior osteophyte at C5-C6 resulting in esophageal compression. The patient refused surgical resection of the osteophyte and received conservative therapy. However, after 6 months there was no improvement in dysphagia. This case illustrates that a large cervical osteophyte may be the cause of dysphagia in patients with AS and should be included in the diagnostic workup in early stages of the disease.
Cruyssen, Bert Vander; Ribbens, Clio; Boonen, Annelies; Mielants, Herman; de Vlam, Kurt; Lenaerts, Jan; Steinfeld, Serge; Van den Bosch, Filip; Dewulf, Lode; Vastesaeger, Nathan
Objectives This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in rheumatology practice at the beginning of the anti‐TNF (tumour necrosis factor) era, and to evaluate the initiation of anti‐TNF therapy in a clinical setting where prescription is regulated by the authority's imposed reimbursement criteria. Methods Between February 2004 and February 2005, all Belgian rheumatologists in academic and non‐academic outpatient settings were invited to register all AS patients who visited their practice. A random sample of these patients was further examined by an in‐depth clinical profile. In a follow‐up investigation, we recorded whether patients initiated anti‐TNF therapy and compared this to their eligibility at baseline evaluation. Results 89 rheumatologists participated and registered 2141 patients; 1023 patients were clinically evaluated. These 847 fulfilled the New York modified criteria for definite AS and 176 for probable AS. The profile of AS in rheumatology practice is characterised by longstanding and active disease with a high frequency of extra‐articular manifestations and metrological and functional impairment. At a median of 2 months after the clinical evaluation, anti‐TNF therapy was initiated in 263 of 603 (44%) evaluable patients with definite AS and in 22 of 138 (16%) evaluable patients with probable AS (total 38%). More than 85% of the patients who started anti‐TNF therapy had an increased Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index despite previous NSAID (non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drug) use. Conclusions Of a representative cohort of 1023 Belgian AS patients seen in daily rheumatology practice, about 40% commenced anti‐TNF therapy. Decision factors to start anti‐TNF therapy may include disease activity and severity. PMID:17261531
Mahmoudi, Mehdi; Jamshidi, Ahmad Reza; Karami, Jafar; Mohseni, Alireza; Amirzargar, Ali Akbar; Farhadi, Elham; Ahmadzadeh, Nooshin; Nicknam, Mohammad Hossein
Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) is a chronic rheumatic disease which mainly involves the axial skeleton. It seems that non-HLA genes, as well as HLA-B27 gene, are linked to the etiology of the disease. Recently, it has been documented that KIRs and their HLA ligands are contributed to the Ankylosing Spondylitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the KIR genes and their HLA ligands in Iranian AS patients and healthy individuals. The present study includes 200 AS patient samples and 200 healthy control samples. KIR genotyping was performed using the polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) method to type the presence or absence of the 16 KIR genes, 6 known specific HLA class I ligands and also, two pseudogenes. Two KIR genes (KIR-2DL3 and KIR2DL5), and among the HLA ligands, two HLA ligands (HLA-C2Lys80 and HLA-B27) genes were significantly different between case and control groups. In addition, we found some interesting KIR/HLA compound genotypes, which were associated with AS susceptibility. Our results suggest that the AS patients present more activating and less inhibitory KIR genes with combination of their HLA ligands than healthy controls. Once the balance of signal transduction between activating and inhibitory receptors is disturbed, the ability of NK cells to identify and lyse the targets in immune responses will be compromised. Accordingly, imbalance of activating and inhibitory KIR genes by up-regulating the activation and losing the inhibition of KIRs signaling or combination of both might be one of the important factors which underlying the pathogenesis of AS.
Wu, Qi; Inman, Robert D; Davis, Karen D
Ankylosing spondylitis is associated with back pain and fatigue and impacts mobility but can be treated with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi). The differential effects of TNFi treatment on multiple symptoms and the brain is not well delineated. Thus, we conducted a 2-part study. In study 1, we conducted a retrospective chart review in 129 ankylosing spondylitis patients to assess TNFi effects on pain, fatigue, motor function, mobility, and quality of life (QoL). After at least 10 weeks of TNFi treatment, patients had clinically significant improvements (>30%) in pain (including neuropathic pain), most disease and QoL factors, and normalized sensory detection thresholds. However, residual fatigue (mean = 5.3) was prominent. Although 60% of patients had significant relief of pain, only 22% of patients had significant relief of both pain and fatigue. Therefore, the preferential TNFi treatment effect on pain compared with fatigue could contribute to suboptimal effects on QoL. Part 2 was a prospective study in 14 patients to identify TNFi treatment effects on pain, fatigue, sensory and psychological factors, and brain cortical thickness based on 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Centrally, TNFi was associated with statistically significant cortical thinning of motor, premotor, and posterior parietal regions. Pain intensity reduction was associated with cortical thinning of the secondary somatosensory cortex, and pain unpleasantness reduction was associated with the cortical thinning of motor areas. In contrast, fatigue reduction correlated with cortical thinning of the insula, primary sensory cortex/inferior parietal sulcus, and superior temporal polysensory areas. This indicates that TNFi treatment produces changes in brain areas implicated in sensory, motor, affective, and cognitive functions.
Mitulescu, TC; Stavaru, C; Voinea, LM; Banica, LM; Matache, C; Predeteanu, D
Hypothesis:Abnormal Vitamin D (Vit D) level could have consequences on the immuno-inflammatory processes in Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS). Aim:The purpose of this study was to analyze the role of Vitamin D in the interplay between immune and inflammation effectors in AS associated-Acute Anterior Uveitis (AAU). Methods and Results:25-hydroxyvitamin D (Vit D), LL-37 peptide, IL-8 and Serum Amyloid A (SAA) were identified and quantified in the serum/ plasma of thirty-four AS patients [eleven AS patients presenting AAU (AAU AS patients) and twenty-three AS patients without AAU (wAAU AS patients)] and eighteen healthy individuals (Control) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Acute-phase SAA level was significantly higher in AS patients compared to Controls. Contrary with wAAU AS patients, significantly elevated levels of IL-8, and diminished levels of Vit D characterized AAU AS patients. Regarding LL-37, its level decreased concomitantly with the level of Vit D. When AS patients were subgrouped based on AAU presence or on Vit D level, important associations between immuno-inflammatory assessed markers and AS features were noticed. Generally, Vit D levels were associated indirectly with leukocytes/ neutrophils number or with ESR, CRP, and Fibrinogen levels. The levels of SAA and IL-8 associated directly with AAU or with AAU relapses, especially in AS patients with Vit D insufficiency, while SAA associated directly with infection/ inflammatory markers and with disease activity indexes or with the degree of functional limitation. Discussion:Altered levels of Vit D affect the balance between LL-37, IL-8 and SAA, suggesting an association with AAU, an extra-articular manifestation of AS. Abbreviations:Vit D = Vitamin D, AS = Ankylosing Spondylitis, AAU = Acute Anterior Uveitis, AAU AS = AS patients with AAU, wAAU AS = AS patients without AAU, SSZ = Sulphasalazine, Leu = Leukocytes, Neu = Neutrophils. PMID:27713770
Tomasiewicz, Beata; Hurkacz, Magdalena; Jarzibowski, Jarosław; Wiela-Hojeńska, Anna
Therapy of chronic rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) needs a comprehensive approach to the patient, based on the control of pain and improvement in overall condition, which affects the quality-of-life. This requires optimizing the treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or analgesics and control of adverse drug reactions. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pain pharmacotherapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis treated as the basic pharmacotherapy-biological drugs, the analysis of awareness of pharmacovigilance and evaluation of analgesic treatment costs. Material and methods. Examined group consisted of 102 people with RA or AS received biological therapy. Test method was questionnaire with closed and open questions. Results. 86.2% of respondents used a pain medication (41%--an ad hoc basis, but 23%--at least once a day), while 79.4%--NSAIDs (33%--an ad hoc basis and 17%--at least once a day). In 85.3% of those not observed adverse effects of pain pharmacotherapy. 5 persons declared abdominal pain. Most of the patients complied with the recommendations of the doctor in the pain treatment. For the third respondents the cost of pharmacotherapy of pain was monthly 1-10 zl, but 6% of patients paying for drugs from 50-60 and above 60 zl monthly. Conclusions. Biological treatment in RA and AS is effective but requires additional analgesic therapy. Adverse effects seen during pharmacological treatment of chronic pain in rheumatic diseases are, in practice sporadic. Therapeutic patient education with chronic diseases is proper. Costs borne by the patient's pain relief in this group are not too high.
Tamrakar, Anupam; Sonkar, Ramsukh; Chandrakar, Vijaya Lakshmi; Tamrakar, Er. Anuraj
Purpose: To specify the role of Ayurvedic medicine along with Agni karma in treatment of Ankylosing spondylitis, a chronic inflammatory arthritis and auto immune disease with a strong genetic predisposition Method: In present case study of AS with +ve HLAB27 and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) 624.1U/L(normal range 230460U/L)with radiological abnormalities at the sight of L.S. spine AP and Lt. are symptoms of mild lumbar spondylosis with right sacro-iliac arthritis. The patient was having Vata and Kapha dominant symptoms like Amavata so he was subjected to therapy which performs removal of Ama and detoxification of toxins from the body followed by ruksh virechan with swadista virechan churna 5 gm in every 4 days once in night and Nadi sweda with dashmool kwath for 7days there after agni karma in every 15 days periodically along with hypothetical herbomineral combination up to 6 months as patient follows. Result: After 4 months of regular treatment all other typical features related to disease like amajeerna, shoola etc were also improved. In lab reports, HLAB27 became negative and LDH returned to normal range up to 294U/L. In radiological reports the fusion of vertebral column was also reversed as showed in AP view of X-ray imaging. This particular case has proved the importance of Ayurvedic medicine and Agni karma in AS. Conclusion: Ayurvedic intervention was found to be efficacious in management of Ankylosing spondylitis. Further studies are needed to establish efficacy on the basis of rigorous parameters.
Joo, Young Bin; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Park, Jina; Joo, Kyung Bin; Song, Yoonah; Lee, Seunghun
We aimed to compare digital tomosynthesis (DTS) with radiographs for the assessment of spinal bone damage in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The study comprised 68 patients with AS who underwent both DTS and radiographs of the cervical and lumbar spine on the same day. Spinal bone damage was assessed using the modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spinal Score (mSASSS) and the presence of facet joint damage. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test and McNemar's test were used to compare spinal bone damage between the two modalities. In 68 AS patients with mean 4.5 years of disease duration, the mean mSASSS was 11.7 ± 11.3 with radiographs and 13.1 ± 11.5 with DTS (p = 0.001). A grade 1 (erosion, sclerosis, or squaring) score in the mSASSS system was higher with DTS than with radiographs (p = 0.001), but grade 2 (syndesmophyte) and grade 3 (bridge) scores (p > 0.005 each) were not. In particular, the grade 1 score was higher with DTS than with radiographs at the cervicothoracic (p < 0.001) and thoracolumbar (p = 0.003) junctions. With regard to facet joint damage, erosion/sclerosis of facet joints was better depicted by DTS than by radiographs in the cervical (54.4 vs. 22.1%, p < 0.001) and lumbar spine (72.1 vs. 11.8%, p < 0.001). DTS depicted more subtle damage of spinal vertebrae in patients with AS than radiographs did. Moreover, erosion/sclerosis of facet joints was better detected with DTS than with radiographs.
Introduction Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is unique in its pathology where inflammation commences at the entheses before progressing to an osteoproliferative phenotype generating excessive bone formation that can result in joint fusion. The underlying mechanisms of this progression are poorly understood. Recent work has suggested that changes in Wnt signalling, a key bone regulatory pathway, may contribute to joint ankylosis in AS. Using the proteoglycan-induced spondylitis (PGISp) mouse model which displays spondylitis and eventual joint fusion following an initial inflammatory stimulus, we have characterised the structural and molecular changes that underlie disease progression. Methods PGISp mice were characterised 12 weeks after initiation of inflammation using histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and expression profiling. Results Inflammation initiated at the periphery of the intervertebral discs progressing to disc destruction followed by massively excessive cartilage and bone matrix formation, as demonstrated by toluidine blue staining and IHC for collagen type I and osteocalcin, leading to syndesmophyte formation. Expression levels of DKK1 and SOST, Wnt signalling inhibitors highly expressed in joints, were reduced by 49% and 63% respectively in the spine PGISp compared with control mice (P < 0.05) with SOST inhibition confirmed by IHC. Microarray profiling showed genes involved in inflammation and immune-regulation were altered. Further, a number of genes specifically involved in bone regulation including other members of the Wnt pathway were also dysregulated. Conclusions This study implicates the Wnt pathway as a likely mediator of the mechanism by which inflammation induces bony ankylosis in spondyloarthritis, raising the potential that therapies targeting this pathway may be effective in preventing this process. PMID:23171658
Fischer, Charles P.; Emary, Peter C.; Taylor, John A.
Objective The purpose of this report is to present a presumptive case of ankylosing spondylitis with late stage progression that simulated osteoblastic metastasis in a patient with a history of prostate carcinoma. Clinical Features A 67-year-old white man presented to a chiropractic clinic complaining of severe and worsening acute low back pain and right foot “numbness.” Further questioning also revealed a history of prostate carcinoma. Intervention and Outcome Imaging examination revealed a sclerotic pedicle and increased uptake of radiopharmaceutical on a nuclear medicine bone scan highly suggestive of osteoblastic skeletal metastasis. Further evaluation, however, revealed that the bone sclerosis was not the result of skeletal metastasis, but more consistent with a seronegative spondyloarthritis such as ankylosing spondylitis. Conclusion This report describes a presumptive case of ankylosing spondylitis simulating skeletal metastasis in a patient with a past medical history of prostate cancer. This atypical presentation illustrates the inherent uncertainty of diagnosis and how that uncertainty can be challenging in clinical practice. It also reinforces that it is critical for healthcare providers to consider a wide spectrum of differential diagnoses to avoid misdiagnoses and inappropriate interventions. PMID:26793037
American College of Rheumatology/Spondylitis Association of America/Spondyloarthritis Research and Treatment Network 2015 Recommendations for the Treatment of Ankylosing Spondylitis and Nonradiographic Axial Spondyloarthritis
WARD, MICHAEL M.; DEODHAR, ATUL; AKL, ELIE A.; LUI, ANDREW; ERMANN, JOERG; GENSLER, LIANNE S.; SMITH, JUDITH A.; BORENSTEIN, DAVID; HIRATZKA, JAYME; WEISS, PAMELA F.; INMAN, ROBERT D.; MAJITHIA, VIKAS; HAROON, NIGIL; MAKSYMOWYCH, WALTER P.; JOYCE, JANET; CLARK, BRUCE M.; COLBERT, ROBERT A.; FIGGIE, MARK P.; HALLEGUA, DAVID S.; PRETE, PAMELA E.; ROSENBAUM, JAMES T.; STEBULIS, JUDITH A.; VAN DEN BOSCH, FILIP; YU, DAVID T. Y.; MILLER, AMY S.; REVEILLE, JOHN D.; CAPLAN, LIRON
Objective To provide evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). Methods A core group led the development of the recommendations, starting with the treatment questions. A literature review group conducted systematic literature reviews of studies that addressed 57 specific treatment questions, based on searches conducted in OVID Medline (1946–2014), PubMed (1966–2014), and the Cochrane Library. We assessed the quality of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) method. A separate voting group reviewed the evidence and voted on recommendations for each question using the GRADE framework. Results In patients with active AS, the strong recommendations included use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), use of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) when activity persists despite NSAID treatment, not to use systemic glucocorticoids, use of physical therapy, and use of hip arthroplasty for patients with advanced hip arthritis. Among the conditional recommendations was that no particular TNFi was preferred except in patients with concomitant inflammatory bowel disease or recurrent iritis, in whom TNFi monoclonal antibodies should be used. In patients with active nonradiographic axial SpA despite treatment with NSAIDs, we conditionally recommend treatment with TNFi. Other recommendations for patients with nonradiographic axial SpA were based on indirect evidence and were the same as for patients with AS. Conclusion These recommendations provide guidance for the management of common clinical questions in AS and nonradiographic axial SpA. Additional research on optimal medication management over time, disease monitoring, and preventive care is needed to help establish best practices in these areas. PMID:26401907
American College of Rheumatology/Spondylitis Association of America/Spondyloarthritis Research and Treatment Network 2015 Recommendations for the Treatment of Ankylosing Spondylitis and Nonradiographic Axial Spondyloarthritis
Ward, Michael M.; Deodhar, Atul; Akl, Elie A.; Lui, Andrew; Ermann, Joerg; Gensler, Lianne S.; Smith, Judith A.; Borenstein, David; Hiratzka, Jayme; Weiss, Pamela F.; Inman, Robert D.; Majithia, Vikas; Haroon, Nigil; Maksymowych, Walter P.; Joyce, Janet; Clark, Bruce M.; Colbert, Robert A.; Figgie, Mark P.; Hallegua, David S.; Prete, Pamela E.; Rosenbaum, James T.; Stebulis, Judith A.; van den Bosch, Filip; Yu, David T. Y.; Miller, Amy S.; Reveille, John D.; Caplan, Liron
Objective To provide evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). Methods A core group led the development of the recommendations, starting with the treatment questions. A literature review group conducted systematic literature reviews of studies that addressed 57 specific treatment questions, based on searches conducted in OVID Medline (1946–2014), PubMed (1966–2014), and the Cochrane Library. We assessed the quality of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) method. A separate voting group reviewed the evidence and voted on recommendations for each question using the GRADE framework. Results In patients with active AS, the strong recommendations included use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), use of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) when activity persists despite NSAID treatment, not to use systemic glucocorticoids, use of physical therapy, and use of hip arthroplasty for patients with advanced hip arthritis. Among the conditional recommendations was that no particular TNFi was preferred except in patients with concomitant inflammatory bowel disease or recurrent iritis, in whom TNFi monoclonal antibodies should be used. In patients with active nonradiographic axial SpA despite treatment with NSAIDs, we conditionally recommend treatment with TNFi. Other recommendations for patients with nonradiographic axial SpA were based on indirect evidence and were the same as for patients with AS. Conclusion These recommendations provide guidance for the management of common clinical questions in AS and nonradiographic axial SpA. Additional research on optimal medication management over time, disease monitoring, and preventive care is needed to help establish best practices in these areas. PMID:26401991
Health-related quality of life in Turkish patients with ankylosing spondylitis: impact of peripheral involvement on quality of life in terms of disease activity, functional status, severity of pain, and social and emotional functioning.
Yılmaz, Ozlem; Tutoğlu, Ahmet; Garip, Yeşim; Ozcan, Esra; Bodur, Hatice
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) affects sacroiliac joints at early stages and may involve the axial skeleton at later stages of disease. Peripheral involvement usually occurs in lower extremities. When it develops early in the disease course, it is a predictor of more aggressive disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in AS and to assess the impact of peripheral involvement on HRQoL domains in terms of disease activity, functional status, pain, and social and emotional functioning. Seventy-four AS patients were included. Peripheral involvement was present in 51.35 % of the patients. In 65.79 % of these cases the hips, in 31.58 % the knees, in 18.42 % the shoulders and in 13.16 % the ankles were affected. Patients were evaluated by Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life (ASQoL), Short Form-36 (SF-36), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI). ASQoL was strongly correlated with ASDAS, BASDAI, BASFI, and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), severity of total pain, night pain, fatigue, morning stiffness and ESR. ASDAS and BASDAI showed the strongest correlation with ASQoL. Severity of total pain, functional status and severity of night pain followed it, respectively. Patients with peripheral involvement scored significantly lower in all subgroups of SF36 and significantly higher in ASDAS, BASDAI, BASFI, BASMI and ASQoL scores and levels of pain, night pain, fatigue and morning stiffness. Peripheral involvement is associated with more active disease and functional disability and has a negative influence on HRQoL including physical, social and emotional functioning.
Muheremu, Aikeremujiang; Li, Hui; Ma, Junyi; Ma, Yong; Ma, Yuan
Objective To establish a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) kyphosis that is a digital platform for further studies. Methods A 30-year-old man with AS kyphosis underwent computed tomography transverse scanning from T1 to the sacrococcyx. The images were imported into Mimics® 17.0 software to establish a 3D model of the posterior spine, which was then imported into Studio Geomagic 2013 software. Posterior spine convex geometry was established on the 3D geometric model for subsequent optimization of image processing. Unigraphics NX 8.5 produced the spinal kyphosis surface model. Modeled calcification of ligaments and partial resection of useless sacral bone were added. The model was imported into ANSYS 15.0 FE analysis software. Ligaments were added. Parameters were set to generate a 3D FE model of AS. Results and Conclusion A 3D FE model of AS was successfully established, providing a reliable digital platform for subsequent biomechanical analysis.
García-Medel, Noel; Sanz-Bravo, Alejandro; Van Nguyen, Dung; Galocha, Begoña; Gómez-Molina, Patricia; Martín-Esteban, Adrián; Alvarez-Navarro, Carlos; de Castro, José A. López
The association of ERAP1 with ankylosing spondylitis (AS)1 among HLA-B27-positive individuals suggests that ERAP1 polymorphism may affect pathogenesis by altering peptide-dependent features of the HLA-B27 molecule. Comparisons of HLA-B*27:04-bound peptidomes from cells expressing different natural variants of ERAP1 revealed significant differences in the size, length, and amount of many ligands, as well as in HLA-B27 stability. Peptide analyses suggested that the mechanism of ERAP1/HLA-B27 interaction is a variant-dependent alteration in the balance between epitope generation and destruction determined by the susceptibility of N-terminal flanking and P1 residues to trimming. ERAP1 polymorphism associated with AS susceptibility ensured efficient peptide trimming and high HLA-B27 stability. Protective polymorphism resulted in diminished ERAP1 activity, less efficient trimming, suboptimal HLA-B27 peptidomes, and decreased molecular stability. This study demonstrates that natural ERAP1 polymorphism affects HLA-B27 antigen presentation and stability in vivo and proposes a mechanism for the interaction between these molecules in AS. PMID:22918227
Schiotis, Ruxandra; Sánchez, Alejandra; Escudero, Alejandro; Bartolomé, Nerea; Szczypiorska, Magdalena; Font, Pilar; Martínez, Antonio; Tejedor, Diego; Artieda, Marta; Mulero, Juan; Buzoianu, Anca; Collantes-Estévez, Eduardo
The objective of this study is to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) predictors of treatment nonresponse to the first anti-TNF-alpha agent in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Patients were classified as "nonresponders" if they failed to achieve improvement ≥50 % of the initial BASDAI. We selected candidate SNPs previously reported, associated with susceptibility or pathogenesis of AS and with other spondylarthropaties (SpAs). The predictors of nonresponse were modeled with multiple logistic regression. The predictive power of the genetic model of nonresponse to treatment was tested with AUC-ROC. One hundred and twenty-one (121) AS patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of the candidate SNPs tested for association with treatment effectiveness, five independent predictors were identified: rs917997, rs755622, rs1800896, rs3740691, and rs1061622. The genetic model of nonresponse to treatment had a predictive power of 0.77 (95 % CI 0.68-0.86). Our study identified several polymorphisms which could be the useful genetic biomarkers in predicting nonresponse to anti-TNF-alpha therapy.
Zhang, Li; Ouyang, Hui; Xie, Zhen; Liang, Zhi-Hui; Wu, Xiong-Wen
To explore the association of serum Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) levels with the development of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and rheumatic arthritis (RA) in humans, databases including PubMed, EBSCO, Springerlink, Ovid, WANFANG and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched to identify relevant studies. On the basis of rigorous inclusion and exclusion criteria, case–control studies of the relationships between serum DKK-1 levels and AS and RA published before December 2014 were enrolled. Statistical analyses were performed using Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 (CMA 2.0). Seven case–control trials with a total of 300 AS patients, 136 RA patients and 232 healthy controls were included in this study. Meta-analysis results revealed that DKK-1 serum levels were significantly higher in AS patients than in normal controls (standard mean differences (s.m.d.)=0.301, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.094–0.507, P=0.004), whereas no significant difference in DKK-1 serum levels was observed between RA patients and healthy controls (s.m.d.=0.798, 95% CI=−2.166–3.763, P=0.598). Serum DKK-1 level may be closely related to the development of AS but not of RA. PMID:27103566
Zhang, Li; Ouyang, Hui; Xie, Zhen; Liang, Zhi-Hui; Wu, Xiong-Wen
To explore the association of serum Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) levels with the development of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and rheumatic arthritis (RA) in humans, databases including PubMed, EBSCO, Springerlink, Ovid, WANFANG and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched to identify relevant studies. On the basis of rigorous inclusion and exclusion criteria, case-control studies of the relationships between serum DKK-1 levels and AS and RA published before December 2014 were enrolled. Statistical analyses were performed using Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 (CMA 2.0). Seven case-control trials with a total of 300 AS patients, 136 RA patients and 232 healthy controls were included in this study. Meta-analysis results revealed that DKK-1 serum levels were significantly higher in AS patients than in normal controls (standard mean differences (s.m.d.)=0.301, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.094-0.507, P=0.004), whereas no significant difference in DKK-1 serum levels was observed between RA patients and healthy controls (s.m.d.=0.798, 95% CI=-2.166-3.763, P=0.598). Serum DKK-1 level may be closely related to the development of AS but not of RA.
Li, Xiang; Chai, Wei; Zhang, Guoqiang; Ni, Ming; Chen, Jiying; Dong, Jiyuan; Zhou, Yonggang; Hao, Libo; Bai, Yang; Wang, Yan
BACKGROUND Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been confirmed to play an important role in the development and progression of diseases. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory systemic disease and it is hard to be found in early time. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of lncRNA-AK001085 in the diagnosis of AS. MATERIAL AND METHODS The expression of lncRNA-AK001085 was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. The relationship between its expression and clinicopathologic characteristics was also analyzed. Meanwhile the correlation between lncRNA-AK001085 expression and diseases activity indexes was estimated. In addition, the value of it in the diagnosis of AS was explored through establishing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS Serum lncRNA-AK001085 expression was decreased in patients with AS compared with healthy individuals. And its expression was proved to be influenced by ever cigarette smoker, exercise level and occupational activity level. Besides, the correlation of the expression of lncRNA-AK001085 and disease activity indexes (BASDI, ASDAS, ESR, CRP) were all negative, which suggested that the lncRNA-AK001085 was significantly lower in patients with a high disease activity score. It might showed that the expression of lncRNA-AK001085 affected the activity of AS. CONCLUSIONS LncRNA-AK001085 was down-regulated in AS patients and it could be an independent diagnostic indicator.
Park, Joon Hyeong; Seo, Yu Mi; Han, Seung Beom; Kim, Ki Hwan; Rhim, Jung Woo; Chung, Nack Gyun; Kim, Myung Shin; Kang, Jin Han
Recurrent macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is very rare. We present the case of an adolescent boy with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B27-positive ankylosing spondylitis (AS), who experienced episodes of recurrent MAS since he was a toddler. A 16-year-old boy was admitted because of remittent fever with pancytopenia and splenomegaly after surgical intervention for an intractable perianal abscess. He had been diagnosed with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) 4 different times, which was well controlled with intravenous immunoglobulin and steroids since the age of 3. We were unable to identify the cause for the HLH. He remained symptom-free until the development of back pain and right ankle joint pain with swelling at 15 years of age. He was diagnosed with HLA B27-positive AS with bilateral active sacroiliitis. He showed symptom aggravation despite taking naproxen and methotrexate, and the symptoms improved with etanercept. On admission, his laboratory data showed leukopenia with high ferritin and triglyceride levels. Bone marrow biopsy examination showed histiocytic hyperplasia with hemophagocytosis. There was no evidence of infection. He received naproxen alone, and his symptoms and laboratory data improved without any other immunomodulatory medications. Genetic study revealed no primary HLH or inflammasome abnormalities. In this case, underlying autoimmune disease should have been considered as the cause of recurrent MAS in the young patient once primary HLH was excluded. PMID:27826329
Liu, Zeying; Cui, Yazhou; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiumei; Han, Jinxiang
The aim of this study was to investigate two mineralization-related genes TNAP and ANKH polymorphisms associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in the North Chinese Han population. We carried out a case-control study in Chinese AS cohorts involving 278 AS patients and 286 unrelated healthy controls. Five TNAP SNPs (rs3200254, rs1256348, rs1472563, rs1780329, rs3767155) and four ANKH SNPs (rs25957, rs26307, rs27356, rs28006) were genotyped by the Multiplex Snapshot method. There were significant differences in genotype (permutated p = 0.00481) and allele (permutated p = 0.0126) frequencies of the rs26307 ANKH SNP between AS patients and controls. Logistic regression analysis suggested an association of AS with the polymorphism in an additive model (OR = 0.640, 95%CI = 0.480-0.853, p = 0.0023, permutation 10,000 corrected p = 0.0158) and a dominant model (OR = 0.599, 95%CI = 0.423-0.846, p = 0.0037, permutation 10,000 corrected p = 0.022). Haplotype analysis identified the ANKH haplotype rs26307(C)/rs27356 (T) as a predisposing factor for AS (OR = 1.53, 95%CI = 1.165-2.071, p = 0.0026, permutation 10,000 corrected p = 0.0103). This study provides evidence that variation in the ANKH gene influences susceptibility to AS in the Northern Han Chinese population.
Li, Xiang; Chai, Wei; Zhang, Guoqiang; Ni, Ming; Chen, Jiying; Dong, Jiyuan; Zhou, Yonggang; Hao, Libo; Bai, Yang; Wang, Yan
Background Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been confirmed to play an important role in the development and progression of diseases. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory systemic disease and it is hard to be found in early time. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of lncRNA-AK001085 in the diagnosis of AS. Material/Methods The expression of lncRNA-AK001085 was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. The relationship between its expression and clinicopathologic characteristics was also analyzed. Meanwhile the correlation between lncRNA-AK001085 expression and diseases activity indexes was estimated. In addition, the value of it in the diagnosis of AS was explored through establishing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results Serum lncRNA-AK001085 expression was decreased in patients with AS compared with healthy individuals. And its expression was proved to be influenced by ever cigarette smoker, exercise level and occupational activity level. Besides, the correlation of the expression of lncRNA-AK001085 and disease activity indexes (BASDI, ASDAS, ESR, CRP) were all negative, which suggested that the lncRNA-AK001085 was significantly lower in patients with a high disease activity score. It might showed that the expression of lncRNA-AK001085 affected the activity of AS. Conclusions LncRNA-AK001085 was down-regulated in AS patients and it could be an independent diagnostic indicator. PMID:28042142
Liu, Zhenhua; Gao, Liangbin; Wang, Peng; Xie, Zhongyu; Cen, Shuizhong; Li, Yuxi; Wu, Xiaohua; Wang, Le; Su, Hongjun; Deng, Wen; Wang, Shan; Li, Deng; Li, Jinteng; Ouyang, Yi
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an autoimmune disease with unknown etiology. Dysregulated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) apoptosis may contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. However, apoptosis of MSCs from patients with AS (ASMSCs) has not been investigated yet. The present study aims to assess the apoptosis of bone marrow-derived ASMSCs and to investigate the underlying mechanisms of altered ASMSCs apoptosis. We successfully induced the apoptosis of ASMSCs and MSCs from healthy donors (HDMSCs) using the combination of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and cycloheximide (CHX). We found that ASMSCs treated with TNF-α and CHX showed higher apoptosis levels compared to HDMSCs. During apoptosis, ASMSCs expressed significantly more TRAIL-R2, which activated both the death receptor pathway and mitochondria pathway by increasing the expression of FADD, cleaved caspase-8, cytosolic cytochrome C, and cleaved caspase-3. Inhibiting TRAIL-R2 expression using shRNA eliminated the apoptosis differences between HDMSCs and ASMSCs by partially reducing ASMSCs apoptosis but minimally affecting that of HDMSCs. Furthermore, the expression of FADD, cleaved caspase-8, cytosolic cytochrome C, and cleaved caspase-3 were comparable between HDMSCs and ASMSCs after TRAIL-R2 inhibition. These results indicated that increased TRAIL-R2 expression results in enhanced ASMSCs apoptosis and may contribute to AS pathogenesis. PMID:28182106
Wang, Qingwen; Yang, Yuanyuan; Lv, Jiyang; Lin, Qi; Wang, Luo; Fanga, Zhengyu
Genetics play a key role in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) showed that rs4552569 (on 5q14.3) and rs17095830 (on 12q12) were associated with the risk of AS in Han Chinese, which was not replicated in other two studies. In the current study, rs4552569 and rs17095830 were genotyped in 735 Han Chinese AS patients and 1204 healthy controls using high resolution melting analysis (HRMA). We compared the distributions of genotypes and alleles between AS cases and healthy controls. Rs30187 and rs10865331, which were reported to be associated with AS susceptibility in various populations, were also genotyped and analyzed as positive controls. The results showed that no association between rs4552569/rs17095830 polymorphisms and AS susceptibility was found. On the other hand, an association between rs17095830 and one of AS complication (inflammatory bowel disease) was observed (allelic P value=0.0180; odds ratio[OR]=1.739; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.146-2.639). PMID:27047576
Khan, Muhammad A
This is the story of a remarkable Swiss patient-Heinz Baumberger, PhD-who was born in 1931 and has suffered from ankylosing spondylitis (AS) since 1943. He has survived many manifestations and co-morbid conditions associated with his disease and its treatment. These include severe episodes of acute anterior uveitis, osteoporosis with fragility fractures, and also post-traumatic spinal fractures on three different occasions. In addition, he has suffered from multiple basal cell carcinomas as a late complication of a 3-week course of spinal radiation in 1952 and another one in 1962. It was only in 1971 that Dr. Baumberger for the first time met a fellow sufferer from AS, and he subsequently helped establish the Swiss AS patient support group, the second such national group in the world. He co-authored with his rheumatologist an excellent and well-illustrated book on AS for patients and their family members and for allied healthcare professionals. He travelled extensively around the globe lecturing and participating in various meetings and congresses in his zeal to spread the idea of self-help organizations for patients with AS.
Batmaz, İbrahim; Sarıyıldız, Mustafa Akif; Dilek, Banu; Bez, Yasin; Karakoç, Mehmet; Çevik, Remzi
The aim of this study is to investigate sleep quality in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to evaluate the relationship of the disease parameters with sleep disturbance. Eighty AS patients (60 males and 20 females) fulfilling the modified New York criteria, and 52 age- and gender-matched controls (33 males and 19 females) were enrolled in the study. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Pain was measured by visual analogue scale. The disease activity and functional status were assessed by the Bath AS disease Activity Index and the Bath AS Functional Index. The Bath AS Metrology Index was used to evaluate mobility restrictions, and the Bath AS Radiology Index was employed to evaluate the radiological damage. The psychological status and quality of life were assessed with the hospital anxiety-depression scale and AS quality of life scale. The patients with AS had significantly more unfavourable scores in the subjective sleep quality, habitual sleep efficiency domains (p < 0.001) and the total PSQI score (p < 0.05). Poor sleep quality (total PSQI score) was positively correlated with increased pain, poor quality of life, higher depressed mood, higher disease activity and mobility restrictions. Pain was also an independent contributor to poorer sleep quality (p = 0.002). The sleep quality is disturbed in patients with AS. The lower quality of sleep is greatly associated with the pain, disease activity, depression, quality of life and increased limitation of mobility.
Corona-Sanchez, Esther Guadalupe; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Gonzalez-Lopez, Laura; Sanchez-Hernandez, Julia Dolores; Vazquez-Del Mercado, Monica; Ontiveros-Mercado, Heriberto; Huerta, Miguel; Trujillo, Xochitl; Rocha-Muñoz, Alberto Daniel; Celis, Alfredo; Ortega-Flores, Ricardo; Gamez-Nava, Jorge Ivan
The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences in allele and genotype frequencies of -383 tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) polymorphism between ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and controls. Mexican Mestizos with AS were matched by gender, age, and ethnicity with healthy controls and compared in allele and genotype frequencies of the -383 TNFR1 polymorphism. Polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR-RFLP. The AA genotype occurred at a higher frequency in the AS group (92%) compared with controls (79%, P = 0.03). A allele was increased in AS (96% vs. 88%, P = 0.015) and was associated with genetic susceptibility for AS (odds ratio = 3.48, 95% CI = 1.23-10.61). This preliminary study is the first assessing the association of the -383 A/C TNFR1 polymorphism with AS, although it has the limitation of a small sample size. These data are of interest for the genetic epidemiology of AS in the Mexican population, requiring further investigation in other countries.
Zhou, Simon Y; Shu, Cathye; Korth-Bradley, Joan; Raible, Donald; Palmisano, Maria; Wadjula, Joseph; Fatenejad, Saeed; Bjornsson, Thorir
Etanercept pharmacokinetics in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and psoriasis were assessed separately with distinct models using population pharmacokinetics methods of limited precision. The different model structures and associated significant covariates identified by these earlier methods made it difficult to compare etanercept pharmacokinetics among disease groups. This integrated analysis aimed to establish a framework to evaluate previously established population pharmacokinetic models of etanercept, and to identify consistent and important demographic and disease factors that affected etanercept pharmacokinetics in a diverse population of healthy subjects and patients with RA and AS. In this integrated analysis, cumulative rich and sparse etanercept concentration data from 53 healthy volunteers, 212 patients with RA, and 346 patients with AS were examined and compared using nonlinear mixed effect methodology implemented the in NONMEM VI software package. A more precise estimation method (FOCEi) was employed and compared with the first-order method in population pharmacokinetics model building and evaluation. The integrated analysis found that an optimal population pharmacokinetics model with a 2-compartment structure adequately characterized etanercept pharmacokinetics in all subject groups. Health status or disease type did not significantly affect etanercept pharmacokinetics. In adult patients with RA and AS, age and body weight do not significantly affect etanercept pharmacokinetics.
Beyond its role in calcium and phosphorus metabolism for healthy bone mineralization, there is increasing awareness for vitamin D contribution in modulation of immune reactions. Given that ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease involving excess immune/inflammatory activity and posing great therapeutic challenges, it is conceivable to claim that vitamin D treatment may be a safe and effective treatment to influence or modify the primary disease and its related comorbidities. Nevertheless, consistent body of research supporting this hypothesis is still lacking. In this paper, we examine whether systematic screening and treatment for vitamin D deficiency are feasible at present. We will review the immunomodulatory role of vitamin D and its contribution in initiation and progression of AS, as well as how they would determine the occurrence of comorbid conditions. Our conclusion is that despite the overwhelmed interest about vitamin D treatment in AS patients, systematic screening and treatment for vitamin D deficiency of all AS patients are not feasible as yet. This stresses the need for further extensive well-designed research to prove vitamin D efficacy in AS beyond bone protection. And if utility is proven, personalized treatment regimes, duration of treatment, and threshold values for vitamin D should be provided. PMID:28116213
Maki-Ikola, O.; Hallgren, R.; Kanerud, L.; Feltelius, N.; Knutsson, L.; Granfors, K.
OBJECTIVE—To measure gut immunity directly in jejunal fluid in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS—Antibodies against three different Enterobacterias were measured in jejunal perfusion fluids (collected by a double balloon perfusion device) of 19 patients with AS, 14 patients with RA, and 22 healthy controls using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS—The AS patients had significantly increased jejunal fluid concentrations of IgM, IgG, and IgA class antibodies against Klebsiella pneumoniae, and IgM and IgA class antibodies against Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis compared with healthy controls. When compared with the patients with RA, the AS patients had higher concentrations of IgA and IgG class antibodies only against K pneumoniae. The RA patients had higher IgM class antibody concentrations against all three studied Enterobacterias, when compared with the healthy controls, suggesting an enhanced mucosal immune response in these patients. A three month treatment with sulphasalazine did not decrease enterobacterial antibody concentrations in the 10 patients with AS. CONCLUSION—There is strong direct evidence for an abnormal mucosal humoral immune response particularly to K pneumoniae in patients with AS. PMID:9486004
Gyurcsik, Zsuzsanna Némethné; András, Anita; Bodnár, Nóra; Szekanecz, Zoltán; Szántó, Sándor
Physical therapy in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is important for maintaining or improving mobility, fitness, functioning, and global health. It also plays a role in the prevention and management of structural deformities. In this study we assessed the functional status of AS patients in relation to disease duration and activity. Furthermore, in volunteering patients we analyzed the efficacy of a controlled, individualized physiotherapeutic program. Altogether, clinical data of 75 AS patients were retrospectively analyzed. Anthropometrical data, duration since diagnosis and disease activity, pain intensity, tender points, sacroiliac joint involvement determined by X-ray, functional condition, and physical activity level were recorded. Subjective, functional, and physical tests were performed. Out of the 75 patients, 10 volunteered to undergo a complex physical exercise program twice a week for 3 months. The program included 1.5 h of general posture reeducation, manual mobilization of the spine, and pelvic-, upper-, and lower-extremity exercises, stretching with joint prevention strategies and functional exercises. In AS, pain intensity recorded on a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS), BASFI, BASDAI, modified Schober index, chest expansion and occiput-to-wall distance values showed significant correlation with disease activity. The 3-month physical therapy improved several subjective and functional parameters, and markedly reduced pain intensity and spine stiffness. A complex, individualized physical therapy program may be useful and should be introduced to AS patients in order to maintain and increase spine mobility, preserve functional capacity, decrease the pain and stiffness.
Jones, Gareth T; Ratz, Tiara; Dean, Linda E; Macfarlane, Gary J; Atzeni, Fabiola
Objectives To examine the relationship between smoking, smoking cessation, and disease characteristics/quality of life (QoL) in spondyloarthritis. Methods The Scotland Registry for Ankylosing Spondylitis collects data from clinically diagnosed patients with spondyloarthritis. Clinical data, including Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis indices of disease activity (BASDAI) and function (BASFI), was obtained from medical records. Postal questionnaires provided information on smoking status and QoL (Ankylosing Spondylitis QoL questionnaire; ASQoL). Linear and logistic regression quantified the effect of smoking, and smoking cessation, on various disease-specific and QoL outcomes, adjusting for age, sex, deprivation, education and alcohol status. Results are presented as regression coefficients (β) or odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. Results 946 participants provided data (male 73.5%, mean age 52yrs). Current smoking was reported by 22%, and 38% were ex-smokers. Ever smokers experienced poorer BASDAI (β = 0.5; 0.2 to 0.9) and BASFI (β = 0.8; 0.4 to 1.2), and reported worse QoL (ASQoL, β = 1.5; 0.7 to 2.3). Compared to current smokers, ex-smokers reported lower disease activity (BASDAI, β = -0.5; -1.0 to -0.04) and significantly better QoL (ASQoL, β = -1.2; -2.3 to -0.2). They also were more likely to have a uveitis history (OR = 2.4; 1.5 to 3.8). Conclusions Smokers with spondyloarthritis experience worse disease than never smokers. However, we provide new evidence that, among smokers, smoking cessation is associated with lower disease activity and better physical function and QoL. Clinicians should specifically promote smoking cessation as an adjunct to usual therapy in patients with spondyloarthritis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Bahouq, Hanane; Rostom, Samira; Bahiri, Rachid; Hakkou, Jinane; Aissaoui, Nawal; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia
Fatigue is a frequent symptom during ankylosing spondylitis (AS) often under estimated which needs to be measured properly with respect to its intensity by appropriate measures, such as the multidimensional assessment of fatigue (MAF). The aims of this study were to translate into the classic Arabic version of the MAF questionnaire and to validate its use for assessing fatigue in Moroccan patients with AS. The MAF contains 16 items with a global fatigue index (IGF). The MAF was translated and back-translated to arabic, pretested and reviewed by a committee following the Guillemin criteria (J Clin Epidemiol 46:1417-1432, 1993). It was then validate on 110 Moroccan patients with AS. Reliability for the 3-day test-retest was assessed using internal consistency by Cronbach's alpha coefficient and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). External construct validity was assessed by correlation with pain, activity of disease and other keys variable. The reproducibility of the 15 items was satisfactory with a kappa statistics of agreement superior to 0.6. The ICC for IGF score reproducibility was good and reached 0.98 (IC 95%, 0.96-0.99). The internal consistency was at 0.991 with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The construct validity showed a positive correlation between MAF and the axial (r = 0.34) and peripheral (r = 0.32) visual analogical scale, the Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI) (r = 0.77), the first item of BASDAI (r = 0.85), the functional disability by the Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (r = 0.64), the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r = 0.43) and the C reactive protein (r = 0.30) (for all P < 0.001). There was no statistical correlation between MAF and the other variables. The Arabic version of the MAF has good comprehensibility, internal consistency, reliability and validity for the evaluation of Arabic speaking patients with AS.
Liang, Hui; Zhang, Hua; Ji, Haiyan; Wang, Chunmei
The objective of this paper was to objectively evaluate the effectiveness of home-based exercise interventions for improving health-related quality of life in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Databases including PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Ovid-Medline, and The Cochrane Library were electronically searched published from inception through October 2014 involving home-based exercise intervention in AS patients. Studies that measured the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), depression and pain as outcomes were included. Studies involving patients with multiple diseases or received combinations of other interventions were excluded. Two independent investigators screened the identified articles, extracted the data, and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. Qualitative descriptions were conducted, and quantitative analysis was performed with RevMan software (version 5.2). A total of six studies comprising 1098 participants were included in the study. Meta-analyses showed that home-based exercise interventions significantly reduced the BASFI scores (MD = -0.39, 95 % CI -0.57, -0.20, p = 0.001), BASDAI scores (MD = -0.50, 95 % CI -0.99, -0.02, p = 0.04), depression scores (MD = -2.31, 95 % CI -3.33, -1.30, p = 0.001), and for pain scores because of different evaluation methods among these studies; therefore, a subgroup analysis should be conducted for comparison. The results show that home-based exercise interventions can effectively improve the health-related quality of life in patients with AS. The benefit and clinical performance of home-based exercise care requires further investigation by a series of multicenter, large-sample size randomized controlled trails.
Dougados, Maxime; Baeten, Dominique L.; Cheng‐Chung Wei, James; Geusens, Piet; Readie, Aimee; Richards, Hanno B.; Martin, Ruvie; Porter, Brian
Objective To evaluate the effect of secukinumab (interleukin‐17A inhibitor) on patient‐reported outcomes in patients with active ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods In this phase III study, 371 patients were randomized (1:1:1) to receive intravenous (IV) secukinumab 10 mg/kg at baseline and weeks 2 and 4 followed by subcutaneous (SC) secukinumab 150 mg every 4 weeks (IV→150 mg group), or SC secukinumab 75 mg every 4 weeks (IV→75 mg group), or placebo. Patient‐reported outcomes included the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), BASDAI criteria for 50% improvement (BASDAI 50), Short Form 36 (SF‐36) physical component summary (PCS) score and mental component summary (MCS) score, Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life (ASQoL) questionnaire, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), EuroQol 5‐domain (EQ‐5D) questionnaire, Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy–Fatigue (FACIT‐F), and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment–General Health questionnaire (WPAI‐GH). Results At week 16, secukinumab IV→150 mg or IV→75 mg was associated with statistically and clinically significant improvements from baseline versus placebo in the BASDAI (−2.3 for both regimens versus −0.6; P < 0.0001 and P < 0.001, respectively), SF‐36 PCS (5.6 for both regimens versus 1.0; P < 0.0001 and P < 0.001, respectively), and ASQoL (−3.6 for both regimens versus −1.0; P < 0.0001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Clinically significant improvements in the SF‐36 MCS, BASFI, EQ‐5D, and BASDAI 50 were observed with both secukinumab groups versus placebo at week 16; improvements were also observed in the FACIT‐F and WPAI‐GH. All improvements were sustained through week 52. Conclusion Our findings indicate that secukinumab provides significant and sustained improvements in patient‐reported disease activity and health‐related quality of life, and reduces functional impairment, fatigue, and
Kim, Ha Yeon
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, idiopathic, inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. In rare cases, CD has been associated with Hirschsprung's disease (HD); however, the underlying pathophysiology of this and other comorbidities is not yet fully understood. In this report, we describe the case of a 17-year-old patient who was diagnosed with both CD and ankylosing spondylitis (AS), having undergone a long ileo-colonic anastomosis to treat HD at 12 months of age. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of CD combined with AS in a patient with HD. PMID:28239325
Cheng, Wei-Chun; Jimmy-Ong; Lee, Chia-Ling; Lan, Cing-Hong; Chen, Tsung-Ying; Lai, Hsien-Yong
The Airway Scope (AWS) provides better glottic view than the conventional direct laryngoscopy in tracheal intubation. With it, the endotracheal tube can be more easily inserted into the tracheal lumen easily. We hereby presented a 24-year-old ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patient wearing a halo vest who was successfully intubated for undergoing cervical spine surgery involving C1 and C2 under general anesthesia. Pre-operative airway assessment revealed that he was a case of difficult intubation. An AWS was used for oral tracheal intubation which was achieved smoothly in the first attempt. AWS can be an alternative device for airway management in a patient wearing halo vest.
Chen, Hsin-Hung; Yeh, Su-Yin; Chen, Hue-Yong; Lin, Cheng-Li; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung
This study evaluated whether people with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and spondyloarthritis are at higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We used a sub-dataset of the National Health Insurance Research Database from 1996 to 2010 to established a AS cohort consisting new patients with AS or spondyloarthritis (N = 7,778) and a non-AS cohort without the diseases (N = 31,112). Incidences of T2DM in the two cohorts, hazard ratios (HRs) of risk of T2DM in association with AS, and cumulative probability of having T2DM were estimated by the end of 2010. The incidence of T2DM was 1.17-fold higher in the AS cohort than in the non-AS cohort (13.5 vs. 11.5, per 1,000 person-years), with an adjusted HR of 1.16 (95 % CI = 1.05-1.29). The T2DM incidence was higher for women than for men; while the Cox model measured sex-specific adjusted HR of T2DM was higher for men than for women. The incidence rate of T2DM increased with age in both cohorts, while the age-specific measures showed that the adjusted HR of T2DM was higher in young AS patients (≤50 years of age) than older ones, compared to their peers of non-AS group. The plot of Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the overall probability of having T2DM was 2 % higher in the AS cohort than in the non-AS cohort (log-rank test: p < 0.0001). Patients with AS and spondyloarthritis have an increased risk of developing T2DM.
Bandinelli, F; Salvadorini, G; Delle Sedie, A; Riente, L; Bombardieri, S; Matucci-Cerinic, M
The variability of demographic, social, genetic, and clinical factors might influence the time between the onset of symptoms and the diagnosis [diagnostic delay (DD)] of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in different geographic areas. Different clinical manifestations in men and women affected by AS might indicate a possible role of gender in DD. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of demographic, social, genetic, and clinical factors on DD and the differences of DD between men and women related to the presence of different demographic, social, clinical, and genetic parameters in an Italian cohort of primary AS patients. A total of 135 Italian primary AS patients (45 female and 90 male, 27.9 ± 0.89 years old at onset) were studied. The DD, gender, education and work (manual or non-manual) levels, and type of first clinical presentation (inflammatory back pain, arthritis, enthesitis) at onset, family history of AS, and HLA B27 presence were analyzed. The DD (8.744 mean ±0.6869) was significantly higher in men (p = 0.0023), in axial presentation (p = 0.0021), and in manual work (even if with low significance, p = 0.047). The lower DD in women in comparison to that in men was likely related to higher education (p = 0.0045) and work (p = 0.0186) levels, peripheral involvement (p = 0.0009), and HLA B27 positivity (p = 0.0231). DD was higher in AS patients: male, employed in manual jobs, and with axial symptoms at onset. In men, DD seemed to be negatively influenced by lower level of education and work, axial clinical presentation, and HLA B27.
Harrison, Andrew A; Badenhorst, Christoffel; Kirby, Sandra; White, Douglas; Athens, Josie; Stebbings, Simon
The objective of this research is to measure the effect of a national ankylosing spondylitis (AS) public awareness campaign on numbers of referrals for suspected AS and numbers of cases diagnosed with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). A television advertising campaign was conducted by Arthritis New Zealand in 2011 to raise public awareness of AS. A retrospective analysis was made of referrals received by the three rheumatology services 3 months before the campaign started and 3 months after the campaign ended. The age, gender, number of referrals for suspected AS and number of referrals resulting in a diagnosis of axial SpA were recorded. Independent analysis showed that the awareness campaign reached 82 % of the primary target audience. In the 3 months after the awareness campaign, there was a significant increase in referrals for suspected AS compared with the 3 months before the campaign (54 vs. 88, 63 %, p = 0.0056). Referrals for other conditions did not change. The number of referrals resulting in a diagnosis of axial SpA also increased (27 vs. 44, 63 %, p = 0.0576). The mean ages of the patients referred and of those diagnosed with axial SpA did not change. The male/female ratio was 1:1 among the referrals for suspected AS and 2:1 in referrals diagnosed with axial SpA, before and after the campaign. The Arthritis New Zealand AS public awareness campaign was associated with a significant increase in referrals to rheumatology services for suspected AS and an increase in the diagnosis of axial SpA in clinics.
Van den Bosch, Filip
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a disabling inflammatory disease accompanied by a variety of extra-articular manifestations in a significant number of patients. These manifestations, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, psoriasis, and uveitis, share a similar inflammatory mechanism with one another and with AS. Extra-articular manifestations are observed in a larger percentage of patients with AS and spondyloarthritides (SpAs) than the normal population; therefore, it is important to identify these and other inflammatory-mediated conditions and consider them when treating SpAs. How rheumatologists approach patients with both AS and extra-articular manifestations may lead to a better understanding of what treatment approaches could be taken to optimize patient outcomes. Rheumatologists (N = 453) from five European countries and Canada who treat AS were surveyed to determine treatment practices and management of both AS and its associated extra-articular manifestations. Most rheumatologists (93%) believe AS could be diagnosed earlier as the average time between symptom onset and diagnosis was approximately 4 years. In total, 60% routinely screen patients with AS for extra-articular manifestations, although this varied considerably across countries. The majority (97%) agrees that controlling inflammation is critical during treatment, and patients with extra-articular manifestations tend to have poorer prognoses than those patients with only axial AS. Treatment considerations varied depending on whether patients presented with only axial AS or had extra-articular manifestations, where use of biologics became more common. Rheumatologists agree that patients with both AS and extra-articular manifestations require a different treatment strategy than patients with AS alone. Results of this survey highlight areas where rheumatologists differ in their clinical management of patients with AS including tools used for disease assessment and the routine screening, or
Wang, Min; Li, Xianping; Chen, Jingwei; Zhou, Yong; Cao, Hong; Wu, Xiang; Jiang, Hongmin
To screen specific serum biomarker for ankylosing spondylitis (AS) using a phage random peptide library. A phage random peptide library of random peptide 12-mers was immunoscreened with purified immunoglobulin (Ig) G from sera of AS patients. Positive clones obtained after three rounds of biopanning were detected with ELISA and sequenced. Reaction of the screened positive clones with sera from AS patients, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, osteoarthritis (OA) patients and healthy controls was detected using phage ELISA. Correlation among erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and the absorbance value of the positive clone in phage ELISA was examined in AS patients. Seventeen out of twenty randomly selected phage clones exhibited specific reaction with purified sera IgG from AS patients, among them seven coming from the same clone whose inserted peptide sequence was LALPPLAPNHHH (named "AS1"). Phage ELISA results showed that the positive reaction rate of the AS1 clone was 92.0% with AS patients, significantly different (P < 0.01) from those with SLE patients (56.7%), RA patients (50.0%), OA patients (13.3%), and healthy controls (14.0%). Absorbance value of the AS1 clone in phage ELISA was significantly higher than those in the other groups (P < 0.05). In addition, the absorbance value of the AS1 clone showed no statistically significant correlation with ESR and CRP in AS patients, suggesting that AS1 detects AS patients through a unique mechanism other than inflammation. The short peptide AS1 obtained through screening of a phage random peptide library with purified serum IgG from AS patients can specifically react with the sera of AS patients, and thereby may be a candidate of AS-specific serum biomarkers.
Ozen, Gulsen; Deniz, Rabia; Eren, Fatih; Erzik, Can; Unal, Ali Ugur; Yavuz, Sule; Aydin, Sibel Zehra; Inanc, Nevsun; Direskeneli, Haner; Atagunduz, Pamir
Background: Radiographic severity of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) shows such great variance that some patients never develop syndesmophytes throughout the entire disease span, whereas some develop bamboo spine relatively early. Objective: To study the association between ERAP1, IL23R and PTGER4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and radiographic severity in AS patients. Methods: rs27044 and rs30187 (ERAP1), rs11209032 (IL23R) and rs10440635 (PTGER4) SNPs were genotyped in 235 AS patients fulfilling the modified New York criteria. Patients were classified as mild- and severe-AS according to modified Stoke AS spinal score (mSASSS). Mild-AS is defined as having mSASSS of “0” following at least 10 years of disease duration. Severe-AS is defined as having mSASSS of >20 (patients with mild vertebral changes (i.e. squaring or erosions) were omitted for clear stratification) regardless of disease duration. Results: The genotype distributions and allele frequencies of ERAP1 rs27044 and rs30187, IL23R rs11209032 and PTGER4 rs10440635 SNPs were similar in mild- (n=171, mSASSS=0, 55.6% HLA-B27 positive) and severe-AS patients (n=64, mSASSS=48.5±17.8, 73.4% HLA-B27 positive). After adjustment for clinical differences between groups (gender, disease duration, HLA-B27 and smoking status) by logistic regression analysis, none of the alleles in the investigated SNPs were found to be associated with radiographic severity of AS. Conclusion: In radiographically well-categorized AS patients, ERAP1 rs27044 and rs30187, IL23R rs11209032 and PTGER4 rs10440635 SNPs are not found to be associated with radiographic severity of AS.
Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Boonen, Annelis; Vázquez-Mellado, Janitzia; Reyes-Lagunes, Isabel; Hernández-Garduño, Adolfo; Goycochea, Maria Victoria; Bernard-Medina, Ana G.; Rodríguez-Amado, Jacqueline; Casasola-Vargas, Julio; Garza-Elizondo, Mario A.; Aceves, Francisco J.; Shumski, Clara; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben
Abstract This article aims to identify the strategies for coping with health and daily-life stressors of Mexican patients with chronic rheumatic disease. We analyzed the baseline data of a cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and gout. Their strategies for coping were identified with a validated questionnaire. Comparisons between health and daily-life stressors and between the 3 clinical conditions were made. With regression analyses, we determined the contribution of individual, socioeconomic, educational, and health-related quality-of-life variables to health status and coping strategy. We identified several predominant coping strategies in response to daily-life and health stressors in 261 patients with RA, 226 with AS, and 206 with gout. Evasive and reappraisal strategies were predominant when patients cope with health stressors; emotional/negative and evasive strategies predominated when coping with daily-life stressors. There was a significant association between the evasive pattern and the low short-form health survey (SF-36) scores and health stressors across the 3 diseases. Besides some differences between diagnoses, the most important finding was the predominance of the evasive strategy and its association with low SF-36 score and high level of pain in patients with gout. Patients with rheumatic diseases cope in different ways when confronted with health and daily-life stressors. The strategy of coping differs across diagnoses; emotional/negative and evasive strategies are associated with poor health-related quality of life. The identification of the coping strategies could result in the design of psychosocial interventions to improve self-management. PMID:25761177
Zou, Yu-Cong; Yang, Xian-Wen; Yuan, Shi-Guo; Zhang, Pei; Li, Yi-Kai
Background Heterotopic ossification on the enthesis, which develops after subsequent inflammation, is one of the most distinctive features in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) serves as a key mediator of inflammation and bone remodeling in AS. Celastrol, a well-known Chinese medicinal herb isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii, is widely used in treating inflammatory diseases, including AS. It has been proven that it can inhibit lipopolysac-charide-induced expression of various inflammation mediators, such as PGE-2. However, the mechanism by which celastrol inhibits inflammation-induced bone forming in AS is unclear. Objective To investigate whether celastrol could inhibit isolated AS fibroblast osteogenesis induced by PGE-2. Methods Hip synovial tissues were obtained from six AS patients undergoing total hip replacement in our hospital. Fibroblasts were isolated, primarily cultured, and then treated with PGE-2 for osteogenic induction. Different doses of celastrol and indometacin were added to observe their effects on osteogenic differentiation. Cell proliferation, osteogenic markers, alizarin red staining as well as the activity of alkaline phosphatase were examined in our study. Results Celastrol significantly inhibits cell proliferation of isolated AS fibroblasts and in vitro osteogenic differentiation compared with control groups in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that celastrol could inhibit isolated AS fibroblast proliferation and in vitro osteogenic differentiation. The interaction of PI3K/AKT signaling and Wnt protein may be involved in the process. Further studies should be performed in vivo and animal models to identify the potential effect of celastrol on the bone metabolism of AS patients. PMID:27022241
Tao, Ke; Tang, Xu; Wang, Bin; Li, Ru-jun; Zhang, Bao-qing; Lin, Jian-hao; Li, Hu
Chemokine-like factor 1 (CKLF1) is a newly cloned chemotactic cytokine with CCR4 being its functional receptor. Recent evidence demonstrates a role of CKLF1 in arthritis. The aim of this study was to quantify the expression of CKLF1 as well as assess the correlation between CKLF1 and plasma acute-phase markers. Synovium was obtained from 16 osteoarthritis (OA), 15 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 10 ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty, with other 11 patients treated for meniscal tears during sport accidents serving as normal controls. Levels of CKLF1 and CCR4 mRNA were detected by qRT-PCR, and the expression of CKLF1 was investigated by immunohistochemistry staining, subsequently analyzed with semiquantitative scores. Plasma acute-phase markers of inflammation were determined by ELISA. CKLF1 was found with a particularly up-regulated expression in synovim from AS and RA patients, and CCR4 mRNA levels increased in RA patients, not in OA or AS patients. Elevated levels of plasma markers of inflammation including CRP, ESR and D-dimer were observed in RA. Further, significantly positive correlations between relative expression levels of CKLF1 and CRP/ESR in RA patients and a positive correlation between CKLF1 and ESR in AS patients were found. There was no detectable correlation between CKLF1 and plasma D-dimer. This study confirms an increased but different level of CKLF1 in RA, OA and AS patients, all significantly higher than that in controls. Additionally, the significant positive correlations between CKLF1 levels and CRP/ESR in RA and between CKLF1 and ESR suggest that CKLF1 might contribute to the inflammation state and clinical symptoms in these rheumatic diseases. Further studies are required to investigate the utility of targeting specific CKLF1 for symptom control or disease modification in RA and AS.
Puccetti, Antonio; Dolcino, Marzia; Tinazzi, Elisa; Moretta, Francesca; D'Angelo, Salvatore; Olivieri, Ignazio; Lunardi, Claudio
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis of unknown origin. Its autoimmune origin has been suggested but never proven. Several reports have implicated Klebsiella pneumoniae as a triggering or perpetuating factor in AS; however, its role in the disease pathogenesis remains debated. Moreover, despite extensive investigations, a biomarker for AS has not yet been identified. To clarify these issues, we screened a random peptide library with pooled IgGs obtained from 40 patients with AS. A peptide (AS peptide) selected from the library was recognized by serum IgGs from 170 of 200 (85%) patients with AS but not by serum specimens from 100 healthy controls. Interestingly, the AS peptide shows a sequence similarity with several molecules expressed at the fibrocartilaginous sites that are primarily involved in the AS inflammatory process. Moreover, the peptide is highly homologous to a Klebsiella pneumoniae dipeptidase (DPP) protein. The antibody affinity purified against the AS peptide recognizes the autoantigens and the DPP protein. Furthermore, serum IgG antibodies against the Klebsiella DPP121-145 peptide epitope were detected in 190 of 200 patients with AS (95%), 3 of 200 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (1.5%) and only 1 of 100 (1%) patients with psoriatic arthritis. Such reactivity was not detected in healthy control donors. Our results show that antibodies directed against an epitope of a Klebsiella pneumoniae-derived protein are present in nearly all patients with AS. In the absence of serological biomarkers for AS, such antibodies may represent a useful tool in the diagnosis of the disease.
Pamuk, Ömer Nuri; Kalyoncu, Umut; Aksu, Kenan; Omma, Ahmet; Pehlivan, Yavuz; Çağatay, Yonca; Küçükşahin, Orhan; Dönmez, Salim; Çetin, Gözde Yıldırım; Mercan, Rıdvan; Bayındır, Özün; Çefle, Ayşe; Yıldız, Fatih; Balkarlı, Ayşe; Kılıç, Levent; Çakır, Necati; Kısacık, Bünyamin; Öksüz, Mustafa Ferhat; Çobankara, Veli; Onat, Ahmet Mesut; Sayarlıoğlu, Mehmet; Öztürk, Mehmet Akif; Pamuk, Gülsüm Emel; Akkoç, Nurullah
In this multicenter, retrospective study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of biologic therapies, including anti-TNFs, in secondary (AA) amyloidosis patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition, the frequency of secondary amyloidosis in RA and AS patients in a single center was estimated. Fifty-one AS (39M, 12F, mean age: 46.7) and 30 RA patients (11M, 19F, mean age: 51.7) with AA amyloidosis from 16 different centers in Turkey were included. Clinical and demographical features of patients were obtained from medical charts. A composite response index (CRI) to biologic therapy-based on creatinine level, proteinuria and disease activity-was used to evaluate the efficacy of treatment. The mean annual incidence of AA amyloidosis in RA and AS patients was 0.23 and 0.42/1000 patients/year, respectively. The point prevalence in RA and AS groups was 4.59 and 7.58/1000, respectively. In RA group with AA amyloidosis, effective response was obtained in 52.2 % of patients according to CRI. RA patients with RF positivity and more initial disease activity tended to have higher response rates to therapy (p values, 0.069 and 0.056). After biologic therapy (median 17 months), two RA patients died and two developed tuberculosis. In AS group, 45.7 % of patients fulfilled the criteria of good response according to CRI. AS patients with higher CRP levels at the time of AA diagnosis and at the beginning of anti-TNF therapy had higher response rates (p values, 0.011 and 0.017). During follow-up after anti-TNF therapy (median 38 months), one patient died and tuberculosis developed in two patients. Biologic therapy seems to be effective in at least half of RA and AS patients with AA amyloidosis. Tuberculosis was the most important safety concern.
Tinazzi, Elisa; Moretta, Francesca; D’Angelo, Salvatore; Olivieri, Ignazio; Lunardi, Claudio
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis of unknown origin. Its autoimmune origin has been suggested but never proven. Several reports have implicated Klebsiella pneumoniae as a triggering or perpetuating factor in AS; however, its role in the disease pathogenesis remains debated. Moreover, despite extensive investigations, a biomarker for AS has not yet been identified. To clarify these issues, we screened a random peptide library with pooled IgGs obtained from 40 patients with AS. A peptide (AS peptide) selected from the library was recognized by serum IgGs from 170 of 200 (85%) patients with AS but not by serum specimens from 100 healthy controls. Interestingly, the AS peptide shows a sequence similarity with several molecules expressed at the fibrocartilaginous sites that are primarily involved in the AS inflammatory process. Moreover, the peptide is highly homologous to a Klebsiella pneumoniae dipeptidase (DPP) protein. The antibody affinity purified against the AS peptide recognizes the autoantigens and the DPP protein. Furthermore, serum IgG antibodies against the Klebsiella DPP121-145 peptide epitope were detected in 190 of 200 patients with AS (95%), 3 of 200 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (1.5%) and only 1 of 100 (1%) patients with psoriatic arthritis. Such reactivity was not detected in healthy control donors. Our results show that antibodies directed against an epitope of a Klebsiella pneumoniae-derived protein are present in nearly all patients with AS. In the absence of serological biomarkers for AS, such antibodies may represent a useful tool in the diagnosis of the disease. PMID:28135336
Hsieh, Lin-Fen; Chuang, Chih-Cheng; Tseng, Ching-Shiang; Wei, James Cheng-Chung; Hsu, Wei-Chun; Lin, Yi-Jia
Home exercise is often recommended for management of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS); however, what kind of home exercise is more beneficial for patients with AS has not been determined yet. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of combined home exercise (COMB) and range-of-motion home exercise (ROM) in patients with AS. Nineteen subjects with AS completed either COMB (n = 9) or ROM (n = 10) program. The COMB program included range-of-motion, strengthening, and aerobic exercise while the ROM program consisted of daily range-of-motion exercise only. After exercise instruction, subjects in each group performed home exercise for 3 months. Assessment included cardiopulmonary exercise test, pulmonary function test, spinal mobility measurement, chest expansion, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), and other functional ability and laboratory tests. After exercise, the COMB group showed significant improvement in peak oxygen uptake (12.3%, P = 0.008) and BASFI (P = 0.028), and the changed score between pre- and postexercise data was significantly greater in the COMB group regarding peak oxygen uptake and BASFI. Significant improvement in finger-to-floor distance after 3-month exercise was found only in the COMB group (P = 0.033). This study demonstrates that a combined home exercise is more effective than range-of-motion home exercise alone in aerobic capacity and functional ability.
Roşu, Mihaela Oana; Ţopa, Ionuţ; Chirieac, Rodica; Ancuta, Codrina
The optimal management of ankylosis spondylitis (AS) involves a combination of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment aiming to maximize health-related quality of life. The primary objective of our study was to demonstrate the benefits of an original multimodal exercise program combining Pilates, McKenzie and Heckscher techniques on pulmonary function in patients with AS, while secondary objectives were to demonstrate the benefits of the same program on function and disease activity. This is a randomized controlled study on ninety-six consecutive patients with AS (axial disease subset), assigned on a 1:1 rationale into two groups based on their participation in the Pilates, McKenzie and Heckscher (group I) or in the classical kinetic program (group II). The exercise program consisted of 50-min sessions performed 3 times weekly for 48 weeks. Standard assessments were done at week 0 and 48 and included pain, modified Schober test (mST) and finger-floor distance (FFD), chest expansion (CE) and vital capacity (VC), as well as disease activity Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), functional Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) and metrology index Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI). Groups were comparable at baseline; we demonstrated significant improvement between baseline and after 48 weeks of regular kinetic training for all AS-related parameters in both groups. However, significant improvement was found in pain, lumbar spine motility (mST, FFD), BASFI, BASDAI and BASMI in AS performing the specific multimodal exercise program at the end of study (p = 0.001). Although there were significant improvements in CE in both groups as compared to baseline (group I, p = 0.001; group II, p = 0.002), this parameter increased significantly only in group I (p = 0.001). VC measurements were not significantly changed at the end of the study (group I, p = 0.127; group II, p = 0.997), but we found significant differences
Abstract Background: The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitor etanercept has been proven to be effective in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), while genetic polymorphism may affect drug metabolism or drug receptor, resulting in interindividual variability in drug disposition and efficacy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlations between CYP2C9∗3/CYP2D6∗10/CYP3A5∗3 gene polymorphisms and the efficacy of etanercept treatment for patients with AS. Methods: From March 2012 to June 2015, 312 AS patients (174 males and 138 females, mean age: 35.2 ± 5.83 years) from 18 to 56 years old were enrolled in this study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was applied to detect the allele and genotype frequencies of CYP2C9∗3, CYP2D6∗10, and CYP3A5∗3 gene polymorphisms. The joint swelling score, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) level of AS patients were compared before and after 24-week etanercept treatment. Assessment in Ankylosing Spondylitis (ASAS) and bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI) scores were recorded to assess the efficacy of etanercept treatment. Results: The AS patients with wild-type ∗1/∗1 and heterozygous ∗1/∗3 genotypes of CYP2C9∗3 polymorphism accounted for 93.59% and 6.41%, respectively, without ∗3/∗3 genotype. The AS patients with wild-type CC, heterozygous CT, and mutation homozygous TT genotypes of CYP2D6∗10 polymorphism accounted for 19.23%, 39.10%, and 41.67%, respectively. The AS patients with wild-type ∗1/∗1, heterozygous ∗1/∗3, and mutation homozygous ∗3/∗3 genotypes of CYP3A5∗3 polymorphism accounted for 7.69%, 36.22%, and 56.09%, respectively. After 24-week treatment, AS patients with wild-type ∗1/∗1 genotype of CYP2C9∗3, CC genotype of CYP2D6∗10, and ∗3/∗3 genotype of CYP3A5∗3 polymorphisms had lower joint swelling score, ESR, and CRP level. The joint swelling
Liu, Jian-Min; Cui, Ya-Zhou; Zhang, Geng-Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Yan; Pang, Jing-Xiang; Wang, Xue-Zheng; Han, Jin-Xiang
Background: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is the most common rheumatic condition that is slowly progressive and predominantly affects adolescents. Pathological bone formation associated with AS is an important cause of disability. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible involvement of the genes related to endochondral ossification and ectopia ossification in genetic susceptibility to AS in a Chinese Han population. Methods: Sixty-eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 13 genes were genotyped in discovery cohorts including 300 AS patients and 180 healthy controls. The rs10019009 in dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) gene shown as association with AS after multiple testing corrections in discovery cohorts was replicated in a validation independent cohort of 620 AS patients and 683 healthy controls. The rs10019009 was assessed with bioinformatics including phylogenetic context, F-SNP and FastSNP functional predictions, secondary structure prediction, and molecular modeling. We performed a functional analysis of rs10019009 via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells. Results: Interestingly, the SNP rs10019009 was associated with AS in both the discovery cohort (P = 0.0012) and validation cohort (P = 0.0349), as well as overall (P = 0.0004) in genetic case–control association analysis. After a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the effect of this genetic variant was observed to be independent of linkage disequilibrium. Via bioinformatics analysis, it was found that the amino acid change of the rs10019009 led to changes of SNP function, secondary structure, tertiary conformation, and splice mode. Finally, functional analysis of rs10019009 in U2OS cells demonstrated that the risk T allele of the rs10019009 increased enzymatic activity of ALP, compared to that of the nonrisk allele (P = 0.0080). Conclusions: These results suggested that the DMP1 gene seems to be
Deodhar, Atul; Mittal, Manish; Reilly, Patrick; Bao, Yanjun; Manthena, Shivaji; Anderson, Jaclyn; Joshi, Avani
This study aimed to identify providers involved in diagnosing ankylosing spondylitis (AS) following back pain diagnosis in the USA and to identify factors leading to the delay in rheumatology referrals. The Truven Health MarketScan® US Commercial Database was searched for patients aged 18-64 years with back pain diagnosis in a non-rheumatology setting followed by AS diagnosis in any setting during January 2000-December 2012. Patients with a rheumatologist visit on or before AS diagnosis were considered referred. Cox regression was used to determine factors associated with referral time after adjusting for age, sex, comorbidities, physician specialty, drug therapy, and imaging procedures. Of 3336 patients included, 1244 (37 %) were referred to and diagnosed by rheumatologists; the others were diagnosed in primary care (25.7 %), chiropractic/physical therapy (7 %), orthopedic surgery (3.8 %), pain clinic (3.6 %), acute care (3.4 %), and other (19.2 %) settings. Median time from back pain diagnosis to rheumatology referral was 307 days and from first rheumatologist visit to AS diagnosis was 28 days. Referred patients were more likely to be younger (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.986; p < 0.0001), male (HR = 1.15; p = 0.0163), diagnosed with uveitis (HR = 1.49; p = 0.0050), referred by primary care physicians (HR = 1.96; p < 0.0001), prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (HR = 1.55; p < 0.0001), disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (HR = 1.33; p < 0.0001), and tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (HR = 1.40; p = 0.0036), and to have had spinal/pelvic X-ray prior to referral (HR = 1.28; p = 0.0003). During 2000-2012, most patients with AS were diagnosed outside of rheumatology practices. The delay before referral to rheumatology was 10 months; AS diagnosis generally followed within a month. Earlier referral of patients with AS signs and symptoms may lead to more timely diagnosis and appropriate
Liu, Wei; Wu, Yuan-Hao; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Xiao-Ya; Xue, Bin; Wang, Yi; Liu, Bin; Jiang, Qiao; Kwang, Hou-Wen; Wu, Dong-Jing
Purpose: A meta-analysis was undertaken to examine the correlation between ankylosing spondylitis (AS) progression and serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Interleukin-17 (IL-17) in AS patients. Methods: PubMed, EBSCO, Cochrane Library database, Ovid, Springer link, WANFANG, China national knowledge infrastructure (CNKI) and VIP databases(last updated search in October, 2014) were exhaustively searched for published case-control studies using keywords related to IL-6, IL-17 and AS. The search results were screened using stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the data from selected high-quality studies was analyzed with Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 software. Results: Thirteen case-control studies were selected for this meta-analysis and contained a pooled total of 514 AS patients and 358 healthy controls. Our main result revealed strikingly higher serum levels of IL-6 and IL-17 in AS patients, compared to healthy controls (IL-6: SMD = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.33~3.70, P = 0.01; IL-17: SMD = 3.05, 95% CI = 2.09~4.02, P < 0.001). Ethnicity-based subgroup analysis showed a statistically correlation of high IL-6 and IL-17 serum levels with AS both in Asian (IL-6: SMD = 3.15, 95% CI = 0.75~5.55, P < 0.001; IL-17: SMD = 3.30, 95% CI = 1.93~4.66, P < 0.001) and Caucasian populations (IL-6: SMD = 1.34, 95% CI = 0.33~2.35, P = 0.009; IL-17: SMD = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.06~3.98, P = 0.001). Conclusion: Meta-analysis of pooled data from thirteen high-quality studies revealed a strong correlation between elevated IL-6 and IL-17 serum levels and the development of AS. Therefore, IL-6 and IL-17 could be used as markers for diagnosis and assessment of treatment outcomes in AS patients. PMID:26770328
Zitelli, Kristine B; Zedek, Daniel; Ranganathan, Prabha; Amerson, Erin H
Adalimumab is an anti-tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) agent approved for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS); psoriatic arthritis; and moderate to severe cases of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), plaque psoriasis, Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis, and polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Evidence suggests that anti-TNF-α agents may increase a patient's risk for some types of cancers, including cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Cutaneous nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) have occurred during treatment with etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab in the setting of RA and psoriasis, but data related to AS are less clear. We report the case of a 29-year-old woman with AS treated with adalimumab for 2 years who developed invasive SCC of the lower lip. We advocate increased NMSC surveillance in patients undergoing treatment with anti-TNF-α agents.
Braun, J; Zochling, J; Baraliakos, X; Alten, R; Burmester, G; Grasedyck, K; Brandt, J; Haibel, H; Hammer, M; Krause, A; Mielke, F; Tony, H‐P; Ebner, W; Gömör, B; Hermann, J; Zeidler, H; Beck, E; Baumgaertner, M; Sieper, J
Objectives To assess the effect of sulfasalazine (SSZ) on inflammatory back pain (IBP) due to active undifferentiated spondyloarthritis (uSpA) or ankylosing spondylitis in patients with symptom duration <5 years. Methods Patients with IBP and a Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) >3 from 12 centres were randomly assigned to 24 weeks' treatment with SSZ 2 g/day or placebo. The primary outcome variable was the change in BASDAI over 6 months. Secondary outcomes included measures of spinal pain, physical function and inflammation. Results 230 patients (50% men, age range 18–64 years, 67% human leucocyte antigen B27 positive) were treated with either SSZ 2×1 g/day or placebo for 6 months. Enthesitis was found in 50%, and peripheral arthritis in 47% of the patients. The mean (SD) BASDAI dropped markedly in both groups: by 3.7 (2.7) and 3.8 (2.4), respectively, as did most secondary outcome measures. No noticeable difference in treatment was observed between groups. Patients with IBP and no peripheral arthritis had significantly (p = 0.03) more benefit with SSZ (BASDAI 5.1 (1.3) to 2.8 (2.3)) than with placebo (5.2 (1.6) to 3.8 (2.4)). Spinal pain (p = 0.03) and morning stiffness (p = 0.05) improved with SSZ in these patients, but other secondary outcomes were not markedly different. Conclusion SSZ was no better than placebo for the treatment of the signs and symptoms of uSpA; however, SSZ was more effective than placebo in the subgroup of patients with IBP and no peripheral arthritis. PMID:16606646
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... Supplements Changing Your Diet The London AS / Low Starch Diet Complementary Treatments Possible Complications Iritis or Anterior ... Supplements Changing Your Diet The London AS / Low Starch Diet Complementary Treatments Possible Complications Iritis or Anterior ...
Zhang, Yanli; Liao, Zetao; Wei, Qiujing; Pan, Yunfeng; Wang, Xinwei; Cao, Shuangyan; Guo, Zishi; Wu, Yuqiong; Rong, Ju; Jin, Ou; Xu, Manlong; Gu, Jieruo
Objectives To screen susceptibility loci for ankylosing spondylitis (AS) using an affected-only linkage analysis based on high-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a genome-wide manner. Patients and Methods AS patients from ten families with Cantonese origin of China were enrolled in the study. Blood samples were genotyped using genomic DNA derived from peripheral blood leukocytes by Illumina HumanHap 610-Quad SNP Chip. Genotype data were generated using the Illumina BeadStudio 3.2 software. PLINK package was used to remove non-autosomal SNPs and to further eliminate markers of typing errors. An affected-only linkage analysis was carried out using both non-parametric and parametric linkage analyses, as implemented in MERLIN. Result Seventy-eight AS patients (48 males and 30 females, mean age: 39±16 years) were enrolled in the study. The mean age of onset was 23±10 years and mean duration of disease was 16.7±12.2 years. Iritis (2/76, 2.86%), dactylitis (5/78, 6.41%), hip joint involvement (9/78, 11.54%), peripheral arthritis (22/78, 28.21%), inflammatory back pain (IBP) (69/78, 88.46%) and HLA-B27 positivity (70/78, 89.74%) were observed in these patients. Using non-parameter linkage analysis, we found one susceptibility locus for AS, IBP and HLA-B27 in 6p21 respectively, spanning about 13.5Mb, 20.9Mb and 21.2Mb, respectively No significant results were found in the other clinical trait groups including dactylitis, hip involved and arthritis. The identical susceptibility locus region spanning above 9.44Mb was detected in AS IBP and HLA-B27 by the parametric linkage analysis. Conclusion Our genome-wide SNP linkage analysis in ten families with ankylosing spondylitis suggests a susceptibility locus on 6p21 in AS, which is a risk locus for IBP in AS patients. PMID:27973620
Ravani, Annalisa; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Bortoluzzi, Alessandra; Padovan, Melissa; Pasquini, Silvia; Gessi, Stefania; Merighi, Stefania; Borea, Pier Andrea; Govoni, Marcello; Varani, Katia
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) are chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases that affect joints, causing debilitating pain and disability. Adenosine receptors (ARs) play a key role in the mechanism of inflammation, and the activation of A2A and A₃AR subtypes is often associated with a reduction of the inflammatory status. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of ARs in patients suffering from early-RA (ERA), RA, AS and PsA. Messenger RNA (mRNA) analysis and saturation binding experiments indicated an upregulation of A2A and A₃ARs in lymphocytes obtained from patients when compared with healthy subjects. A2A and A₃AR agonists inhibited nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation and reduced inflammatory cytokines release, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6. Moreover, A2A and A₃AR activation mediated a reduction of metalloproteinases (MMP)-1 and MMP-3. The effect of the agonists was abrogated by selective antagonists demonstrating the direct involvement of these receptor subtypes. Taken together, these data confirmed the involvement of ARs in chronic autoimmune rheumatic diseases highlighting the possibility to exploit A2A and A₃ARs as therapeutic targets, with the aim to limit the inflammatory responses usually associated with RA, AS and PsA.
Przepiera-Będzak, Hanna; Fischer, Katarzyna; Brzosko, Marek
Objectives. To assess serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-23 (IL-23) and their correlation with angiogenic cytokines and disease activity in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and SAPHO syndrome. Patients and Methods. We studied 152 spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients: 69 PsA, 61 AS, 22 SAPHO, and 29 controls. We recorded age, sex, disease duration, and treatment. We assessed BASDAI, VAS, and PASI scores. Serum IL-6, IL-23, VEGF, EGF, FGFb, and FGFa levels were determined using ELISA. We estimated ESR and CRP. Results. Serum IL-6 and IL-23 levels were higher in SpA than in control (P < 0.00001 and P = 0.0004, resp.). There was a positive correlation between serum IL-6 and CRP in AS (P = 0.000001), PsA (P = 0.000001), and SAPHO (P = 0.0003) patients. There was a positive correlation between serum IL-6 and ESR in AS (P = 0.000001), PsA (P = 0.002), and SAPHO (P = 0.02) patients. There was no correlation of serum IL-6 and IL-23 with VAS, BASDAI, and angiogenic cytokines in SpA. Conclusions. Serum IL-6 but not serum IL-23 correlated with ESR and CRP in SpA. No correlation was found of serum IL-6 and IL-23 with VAS, BASDAI, and angiogenic cytokines. PMID:26339141
Mörck, Boel; Bremell, Tomas; Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena
The rationale of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of infliximab (IFX) treatment in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to determine whether IFX dose reduction and interval extension sustains the treatment effect. Nineteen patients were included and treated with IFX 5 mg/kg every 6 weeks for 56 weeks. All patients concomitantly received MTX with median dose 7.5 mg/weekly. During the second year, the IFX dose was reduced to 3 mg/kg every 8 weeks. Eighteen patients completed the 1-year and 15 patients the 2-year trial. The ≥50% improvement at week 16 from baseline of BASDAI was achieved in 16/19 (84%) patients. Significant reductions in BASDAI, BASFI, and BASMI scores, decrease in ESR and CRP, and improvement in SF-36 were observed at weeks 16 and 56. The MRI-defined inflammatory changes in the sacroiliac joints disappeared in 10/15 patients (67%) already at 16 weeks. IFX treatment effect was sustained throughout the second year after IFX dose reduction and interval extension. We conclude that IFX treatment is effective in well-established active AS and a dose reduction sustains the treatment effect. These observations are of clinical importance and open the opportunity to reduce the drug costs. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01850121. PMID:24089587
Feltelius, N; Hällgren, R; Venge, P
The possibility of eosinophil involvement in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) was investigated by measuring serum levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), a specific granule constituent of eosinophils. In a group of 48 patients with AS we found a threefold increase of the mean serum levels of ECP compared with a reference group (p less than 0.001). The blood eosinophil counts were similar in patients and controls. A correlation was found between ECP and inflammatory activity defined by erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and serum haptoglobin. Fifteen patients were studied before and after three months' treatment with sulphasalazine (2-3 g/day). The ECP levels decreased in 13/15 and this paralleled reduction of the acute phase reaction and improvement of clinical parameters. The results point to eosinophil activation as part of the inflammatory process in AS. The signs of reduced eosinophil activation during sulphasalazine treatment suggest either a drug mediated, direct effect on eosinophils or an effect on the inflammatory mechanism stimulating eosinophils. PMID:2884933
Liu, Wei; Wu, Yuan-Hao; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Xiao-Ya; Bin Xue; Bin Liu; Wang, Yi; Ji, Yang
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an inflammatory rheumatic disease with impact on axial skeleton, peripheral joints and enthuses, and it may result in severe disabilities of those parts. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitors are considered as an effective treatment for patients with active AS. In this study, we conducted a network meta-analysis to compare the clinical outcomes of active AS patients treated with TNF-α inhibitors. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy and safety of TNF-α inhibitors were retrieved in literature search and selected for meta-analysis. Changes in ASAS20 response, ASAS40 response and BASDAI 50% response were regarded as efficacy outcomes; serious adverse events (SAE) and all cause withdrawals were regarded as safety outcomes. Both traditional pairwise meta-analysis and network meta-analysis were performed. The results showed that adalimumab and infliximab had better clinical outcomes. Infliximab consistently appeared to be the most effective TNF-α inhibitors with a high risk of adverse events for patients with active AS; meanwhile, adalimumab ranked highest with respect to adverse effects with efficacy secondary to infliximab. As a result, we were unable to conclude the optimal TNF-α inhibitor and this issue should be solved by future researchers.
Rashid, Taha; Wilson, Clyde; Ebringer, Alan
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis mainly affecting the spinal joints. It would appear that the most likely causative agent in the development of AS is an environmental factor in the genetically susceptible, HLA-B27 positive, individuals. Extensive data from several countries support the notion that Klebsiella pneumonia bacteria are the most likely culprit in the causation of AS. These microbes possess antigens which resemble HLA-B27 and spinal collagens. Increased intake of high-starch diet is directly proportional to the gut-associated bacterial load, especially in the large intestine, and among these microbial agents, Klebsiella is considered as one of the main constituting components. Therefore, a low-starch diet intake alongside the currently used medical therapeutic modalities could be beneficial in the management of patients with early AS. It is suggested that a change in the dietary habits from high protein, low-starch marine components to the Westernized high-starch diet among the Inuit peoples of Alaska and Canada could be considered as one of the main contributing factors in the increased prevalence of AS during the last few decades within this genetically unmixed native population.
Background Clinical activity of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) predicts the natural course of the disease and the response to treatment. Several molecules are involved in new bone formation resulting in structural damage in patients with AS. However, the link between the clinical and molecular phenomena has not yet been fully established. The aim of the study was to investigate the relation between markers of bone remodeling and inflammation with clinical activity and structural damage in AS. Methods We assessed the serum levels of sclerostin, Dickkopf-1 protein, Wingless protein-3a, bone morphogenic protein-7, matrix metalloproteinase-3, osteoprotegerin, bone alkaline phosphatase and inflammatory markers in 50 AS patients with high disease activity (BASDAI ≥ 4), 28 with low disease activity (BASDAI <4), and 23 healthy controls. Cervical and lumbar spine x-rays were performed in 46 patients to measure structural damage (mSASSS). Results Sclerostin level was significantly greater in high disease activity patients than in controls. Wingless protein-3a and Dikkopf-1 protein levels were significantly lower in high activity group compared to low activity group and controls. Negative correlation was found between sclerostin and Dikkopf-1 protein in high activity group (R = −0.28, P = 0.048). The median mSASSS values were not different between patient groups. Conclusions Higher disease activity in AS may not be per se associated with greater new bone formation. PMID:23509994
Matschke, Verena; Jones, Jeremy G.; Lemmey, Andrew B.; Maddison, Peter J.; Thom, Jeanette M.
Objective. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) lead to inflammation in tendons and peritendinous tissues, but effects on biomechanical tendon function are unknown. This study investigated patellar tendon (PT) properties in stable, established RA and AS patients. Methods. We compared 18 RA patients (13 women, 59.0 ± 2.8 years, mean ± SEM) with 18 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (58.2 ± 3.2 years), and 12 AS patients (4 women, 52.9 ± 3.4 years) with 12 matched controls (54.5 ± 4.7 years). Assessments with electromyography, isokinetic dynamometry, and ultrasound included quadriceps muscle force and cross-sectional area (CSA), PT stiffness, and PT CSA. Additionally, measures of physical function and disease activity were performed. Results. PT stiffness and physical function were lower in RA and AS patients compared to healthy controls, without a significant difference in force production. PT CSA was significantly larger leading to reduction in Young's modulus (YM) in AS, but not in RA. Conclusion. The adverse changes in PT properties in RA and AS may contribute to their impaired physical function. AS, but not RA, leads to PT thickening without increasing PT stiffness, suggesting that PT thickening in AS is a disorganised repair process. Longitudinal studies need to investigate the time course of these changes and their response to exercise training. PMID:23844402
Rocha-Muñoz, Alberto Daniel; Brambila-Tapia, Aniel Jessica Leticia; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Vásquez-Jiménez, José Clemente; De la Cerda-Trujillo, Liliana Faviola; Vázquez-Del Mercado, Mónica; Rodriguez-Jimenez, Norma Alejandra; Díaz-Rizo, Valeria; Díaz-González, Viviana; Cardona-Muñoz, Ernesto German; Dávalos-Rodríguez, Ingrid Patricia; Salazar-Paramo, Mario; Gamez-Nava, Jorge Ivan; Nava-Zavala, Arnulfo Hernan; Gonzalez-Lopez, Laura
Objective. To evaluate the effect of anti-TNF agents plus synthetic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) versus DMARDs alone for ankylosing spondylitis (AS) with reduced pulmonary function vital capacity (FVC%). Methods. In an observational study, we included AS who had FVC% <80% at baseline. Twenty patients were taking DMARDs and 16 received anti-TNF + DMARDs. Outcome measures: changes in FVC%, BASDAI, BASFI, 6-minute walk test (6MWT), Borg scale after 6MWT, and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire at 24 months. Results. Both DMARDs and anti-TNF + DMARDs groups had similar baseline values in FVC%. Significant improvement was achieved with anti-TNF + DMARDs in FVC%, at 24 months, when compared to DMARDs alone (P = 0.04). Similarly, patients in anti-TNF + DMARDs group had greater improvement in BASDAI, BASFI, Borg scale, and 6MWT when compared to DMARDs alone. After 2 years of follow-up, 14/16 (87.5%) in the anti-TNF + DMARDs group achieved the primary outcome: FVC% ≥80%, compared with 11/20 (55%) in the DMARDs group (P = 0.04). Conclusions. Patients with anti-TNF + DMARDs had a greater improvement in FVC% and cardiopulmonary scales at 24 months compared with DMARDs. This preliminary study supports the fact that anti-TNF agents may offer additional benefits compared to DMARDs in patients with AS who have reduced FVC%. PMID:26078986
Yuan, Tong-ling; Chen, Jin; Tong, Yan-li; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Yuan-yuan; Wei, James Cheng-Chung; Liu, Yi; Herrmann, Martin
Backgrounds. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been reported to play a regulatory role in osteoclastogenesis. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathways induce osteoblastic differentiation and bone remodeling. Aims. To identify serum levels of HO-1, BMP-7, and Runt related-transcription factor 2 (Runx2) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to investigate the relationships between HO-1, BMP-7, Runx2, and other common biomarkers for bone metabolism. Results. Serum levels of HO-1 and BMP-7 were revealed to be significantly higher in patients with RA or AS than in healthy controls (p < 0.01). In RA group, HO-1 was positively correlated with BMP-7, Runx2, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b (TRAP-5b) (p < 0.05, resp.), BMP-7 was positively correlated with Runx2 and TRAP-5b (p < 0.05, resp.), and Runx2 was negatively correlated with N-terminal midfragment of osteocalcin (NMID) (p < 0.05). In AS group, we observed identical correlation between HO-1 and BMP-7, but opposite correlations between BMP-7 and TRAP-5b and between Runx2 and NMID, when comparing with the RA cohort. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that HO-1 and BMP-7 are potential biomarkers for bone metabolism in patients with RA and AS. The different correlations between the bone markers point to distinct differences in bone remodeling pathways in the two types of arthritis. PMID:27314037
Zheng, Yongjun; Gu, Minghong; Shi, Dongping; Li, Mingli; Ye, Le; Wang, Xiangrui
Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain is a common symptom in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Palisade sacroiliac joint radiofrequency neurotomy (PSRN) is a novel treatment for the SIJ pain. In the current clinical trial, we treated AS patients with significant SIJ pain using PSRN under computed tomography guidance and compared the results with the celecoxib treatment. The current study included 155 AS patients. Patients were randomly assigned to receive PSRN or celecoxib treatment (400 mg/day for 24 weeks). The primary endpoint was global pain intensity in visual analog scale, at week 12. Secondary endpoints included pain intensity at week 24, disease activity, functional and mobility capacities, and adverse events at week 24. In comparison with the baseline collected immediately prior to the interventions, global pain intensity was significantly lower at both 12 and 24 weeks after the treatment in both arms. Pain reduction was more robust in the PSRN arm (by more than 1.9 and 2.2 cm at 12 and 24 weeks in comparison with the celecoxib arm, P < 0.0001 for both). The PSRN was also more effective in improving physical function and spinal mobility (P < 0.05 vs. celecoxib for both). Gastrointestional irritation was more frequent in the celecoxib arm than in the PSRN arm (P < 0.05). No severe complications were noted in either arm. PSRN is both efficacious and safe in managing SIJ pain in patients with AS.
Leverment, Shaaron; Clarke, Emily; Wadeley, Alison; Sengupta, Raj
This review explores the prevalence and factors associated with disturbed sleep for patients with ankylosing spondylitis and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis in order to clarify consistent findings in this otherwise disparate research field. The association of physical, demographic and psychological factors correlating with poor sleep was explored, and the effectiveness of interventions assessed. Ten electronic databases were searched: AMED, CINAHL, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, OpenGrey and BASE. Following application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 29 articles were critically assessed on the basis of methodology, experimental design, ethics and quality of sleep data, leading to the selection of 15 studies for final review. Poor sleep was reported in 35-90% of patients with axial spondyloarthritis and is more prevalent within this clinical population compared to healthy control subjects. Disturbed sleep is an important aspect of disease for patients and reflects the severity of disease activity, pain, fatigue and functional disability. However, the direction of this relationship is undetermined. Associations with age, gender, years spent in education, quality of life and depression have also been demonstrated. Anti-TNF medication is effective in reducing poor sleep, and exercise has also produced beneficial results. Future research into poor sleep should take account of its multifactorial nature. There is also a current lack of research investigating non-pharmacological interventions or combination therapies. A standardised, validated measurement of poor sleep, appropriate for regular patient screening, would be a useful first step for future research.
Toussirot, Eric; Abbas, Wasim; Khan, Kashif Aziz; Tissot, Marion; Jeudy, Alicia; Baud, Lucile; Bertolini, Ewa; Wendling, Daniel; Herbein, Georges
Objective Acetylation or deacetylation of histone proteins may modulate cytokine gene transcription such as TNF alpha (TNF). We evaluated the balance between histone deacetytlase (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferase (HAT) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or ankylosing spondylitis (AS) compared to healthy controls (HC) and determined the influence of HDAC inhibitors (trichostatin A -TSA- or Sirtinol -Sirt-) on these enzymatic activities and on the PBMC production of TNF. Methods 52 patients with RA, 21 with AS and 38 HC were evaluated. HAT and HDAC activities were measured on nuclear extracts from PBMC using colorimetric assays. Enzymatic activities were determined prior to and after ex vivo treatment of PBMC by TSA or Sirt. TNF levels were evaluated in PBMC culture supernatants in the absence or presence of TSA or Sirt. Results HAT and HDAC activities were significantly reduced in AS, while these activities reached similar levels in RA and HC. Ex vivo treatment of PBMC by HDACi tended to decrease HDAC expression in HC, but Sirt significantly reduced HAT in RA. TNF production by PBMC was significantly down-regulated by Sirt in HC and AS patients. Conclusion HAT and HDAC were disturbed in AS while no major changes were found in RA. HDACi may modulate HDAC and HAT PBMC expression, especially Sirt in RA. Sirtinol was able to down regulate TNF production by PBMC in HC and AS. An imbalance between HAT and HDAC activities might provide the rationale for the development of HDACi in the therapeutic approach to inflammatory rheumatic diseases. PMID:24039666
Mäki-Ikola, O; Lehtinen, K; Toivanen, P; Granfors, K
IgM, IgG and IgA class serum antibodies against the whole Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis bacteria, as well as against K. pneumoniae and E. coli lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) were studied earlier in the sera of 98 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and in 102 healthy blood donors by enzyme immunoassay. In this study the patients were divided into groups according to the clinical picture, i.e. presence or absence of iritis and enthesitis. The previous major finding of increased IgA class antibody levels against the whole K. pneumoniae bacteria in AS patients when compared to the healthy controls was not specifically associated with any single patient group in the present study. However, the patients with iritis had higher levels of IgA class antibodies to LPS of K. pneumoniae and E. coli when compared to the patients without iritis. In addition, the patients without enthesitis had higher level of IgG class antibodies against whole K. pneumoniae bacteria compared to the patients with enthesitis. The increased IgA class antibody levels against K. pneumoniae and E. coli LPS in AS patients with iritis may reflect an inflammatory process in the gut area. Furthermore, there were certain other differences in the immunological parameters between the AS patients with and without iritis or enthesitis and the possibility that they reflect different mechanisms involved in the disease processes cannot be excluded.
Mau, W; Müller, A
Rehabilitation and outpatient physiotherapy were investigated from the perspectives of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and of rheumatologists. In 2007, 204 outpatients with RA and 47 with AS at the Arthritis Center in Halle, Germany, and 117 rheumatologists from all over the country participated in two questionnaire surveys. Patients and rheumatologists gave predominantly positive judgements of physiotherapy, psychological interventions, and patient education programs. However, outpatient care including these interventions was judged to be mainly limited by fixed budgets and other formal restrictions. Even though these therapeutic options are part of (primarily inpatient) rehabilitation programs, the estimate of the need for multidisciplinary rehabilitation programs varied widely among the rheumatologists. Significant objections against rehabilitation include reluctance of the patients, administrative burden for the physicians, payers' rejections, and limited choice of rehabilitation clinic. Despite major functional limitations, a substantial portion of the patients received no multidisciplinary medical rehabilitation, outpatient physiotherapy, psychological interventions, or patient education. Recommendations for the improvement of care are derived from these data.
Serçinoğlu, Onur; Özcan, Gülin; Kabaş, Zeynep Kutlu; Ozbek, Pemra
A single amino acid difference (Asp116His), having a key role in a pathogenesis pathway, distinguishes HLA-B*27:05 and HLA-B*27:09 sub-types as associated and non-associated with ankylosing spondylitis, respectively. In this study, molecular docking simulations were carried out with the aim of comprehending the differences in the binding behavior of both alleles at varying pH conditions. A library of modeled peptides was formed upon single point mutations aiming to address the effect of 20 naturally occurring amino acids at the binding core peptide positions. For both alleles, computational docking was applied using Autodock 4.2. Obtained free energies of binding (FEB) were compared within the peptide library and between the alleles at varying pH conditions. The amino acid preferences of each position were studied enlightening the role of each on binding. The preferred amino acids for each position of pVIPR were found to be harmonious with experimental studies. Our results indicate that, as the pH is lowered, the capacity of HLA-B*27:05 to bind peptides in the library is largely lost. Hydrogen bonding analysis suggests that the interaction between the main anchor positions of pVIPR and their respective binding pocket residues are affected from the pH the most, causing an overall shift in the FEB profiles.
Liu, Wei; Wu, Yuan-hao; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Xiao-ya; Bin Xue, B X; Bin Liu, B L; Wang, Yi; Ji, Yang
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an inflammatory rheumatic disease with impact on axial skeleton, peripheral joints and enthuses, and it may result in severe disabilities of those parts. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitors are considered as an effective treatment for patients with active AS. In this study, we conducted a network meta-analysis to compare the clinical outcomes of active AS patients treated with TNF-α inhibitors. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy and safety of TNF-α inhibitors were retrieved in literature search and selected for meta-analysis. Changes in ASAS20 response, ASAS40 response and BASDAI 50% response were regarded as efficacy outcomes; serious adverse events (SAE) and all cause withdrawals were regarded as safety outcomes. Both traditional pairwise meta-analysis and network meta-analysis were performed. The results showed that adalimumab and infliximab had better clinical outcomes. Infliximab consistently appeared to be the most effective TNF-α inhibitors with a high risk of adverse events for patients with active AS; meanwhile, adalimumab ranked highest with respect to adverse effects with efficacy secondary to infliximab. As a result, we were unable to conclude the optimal TNF-α inhibitor and this issue should be solved by future researchers. PMID:27667027
Introduction A number of genetic-association studies have identified genes contributing to ankylosing spondylitis (AS) susceptibility but such approaches provide little information as to the gene activity changes occurring during the disease process. Transcriptional profiling generates a 'snapshot' of the sampled cells' activity and thus can provide insights into the molecular processes driving the disease process. We undertook a whole-genome microarray approach to identify candidate genes associated with AS and validated these gene-expression changes in a larger sample cohort. Methods A total of 18 active AS patients, classified according to the New York criteria, and 18 gender- and age-matched controls were profiled using Illumina HT-12 whole-genome expression BeadChips which carry cDNAs for 48,000 genes and transcripts. Class comparison analysis identified a number of differentially expressed candidate genes. These candidate genes were then validated in a larger cohort using qPCR-based TaqMan low density arrays (TLDAs). Results A total of 239 probes corresponding to 221 genes were identified as being significantly different between patients and controls with a P-value <0.0005 (80% confidence level of false discovery rate). Forty-seven genes were then selected for validation studies, using the TLDAs. Thirteen of these genes were validated in the second patient cohort with 12 downregulated 1.3- to 2-fold and only 1 upregulated (1.6-fold). Among a number of identified genes with well-documented inflammatory roles we also validated genes that might be of great interest to the understanding of AS progression such as SPOCK2 (osteonectin) and EP300, which modulate cartilage and bone metabolism. Conclusions We have validated a gene expression signature for AS from whole blood and identified strong candidate genes that may play roles in both the inflammatory and joint destruction aspects of the disease. PMID:21470430
Gossec, L; van der Heijde, D; Melian, A; Krupa, D; James, M; Cavanaugh, P; Reicin, A; Dougados, M
Objective: The combined efficacy of selective and non-selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition on the axial manifestations of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in the presence or absence of chronic peripheral arthritis was evaluated. Methods: In a post hoc subgroup analysis of a 6 week, randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial, 387 patients with active axial AS were randomised to receive etoricoxib 90 mg or 120 mg once a day, naproxen 500 mg twice daily, or placebo. Randomisation was stratified by the presence or absence of chronic peripheral arthritis. The primary outcome measure was the time weighted average change from baseline of spine pain intensity. Efficacy data from the three groups receiving active treatment (the NSAID/COX-2 inhibitor group) were combined to improve precision. An analysis of covariance model was used to evaluate the effect of peripheral disease on treatment response. Results: 93 patients were allocated to receive placebo and 294 to active treatment (naproxen or etoricoxib). The combined NSAID/COX-2 inhibitor group had a significant treatment response compared with the placebo group for all efficacy measures, both in patients with and without peripheral arthritis. A significantly greater difference in mean patient assessment of spine pain was found between active and placebo treatments in patients without compared with those with peripheral arthritis (p = 0.005; –32.5 mm v –17.0 mm, respectively). Similar differences, although not statistically significant, were seen for other end points. Conclusion: NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors have a clinically relevant symptomatic effect on axial AS irrespective of the presence of peripheral arthritis. In this exploratory analysis spinal improvement appeared to be greater in patients without peripheral disease. PMID:15731291
Przepiera-Będzak, Hanna; Fischer, Katarzyna; Brzosko, Marek
To examine serum interleukin 18 (IL-18), fetuin-A, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and Synovitis Acne Pustulosis Hyperostosis Osteitis syndrome (SAPHO). We studied 81 AS, 76 PsA, and 34 SAPHO patients. We measured serum IL-18, fetuin-A, sICAM-1, ET-1, IL-6, IL-23, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF). IL-18 levels were higher in AS (p = 0.001), PsA (p = 0.0003), and SAPHO (p = 0.01) than in controls, and were positively correlated with CRP (p = 0.03), VEGF (p = 0.03), and total cholesterol (TC, p = 0.006) in AS and with IL-6 (p = 0.03) in PsA. Serum fetuin-A levels were lower in AS (p = 0.001) and PsA (p = 0.001) than in controls, and negatively correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP) in AS (p = 0.04) and SAPHO (p = 0.03). sICAM-1 positively correlated with CRP (p = 0.01), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, p = 0.01), and IL-6 (p = 0.008) in AS, and with IL-6 (p = 0.001) in SAPHO. Serum ET-1 levels were lower in AS (p = 0.0005) than in controls. ET-1 positively correlated with ESR (p = 0.04) and Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28, p = 0.003) in PsA. In spondyloarthritis, markers of endothelial function correlated with disease activity and TC. PMID:27527149
Przepiera-Będzak, Hanna; Fischer, Katarzyna; Brzosko, Marek
To examine serum interleukin 18 (IL-18), fetuin-A, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and Synovitis Acne Pustulosis Hyperostosis Osteitis syndrome (SAPHO). We studied 81 AS, 76 PsA, and 34 SAPHO patients. We measured serum IL-18, fetuin-A, sICAM-1, ET-1, IL-6, IL-23, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF). IL-18 levels were higher in AS (p = 0.001), PsA (p = 0.0003), and SAPHO (p = 0.01) than in controls, and were positively correlated with CRP (p = 0.03), VEGF (p = 0.03), and total cholesterol (TC, p = 0.006) in AS and with IL-6 (p = 0.03) in PsA. Serum fetuin-A levels were lower in AS (p = 0.001) and PsA (p = 0.001) than in controls, and negatively correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP) in AS (p = 0.04) and SAPHO (p = 0.03). sICAM-1 positively correlated with CRP (p = 0.01), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, p = 0.01), and IL-6 (p = 0.008) in AS, and with IL-6 (p = 0.001) in SAPHO. Serum ET-1 levels were lower in AS (p = 0.0005) than in controls. ET-1 positively correlated with ESR (p = 0.04) and Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28, p = 0.003) in PsA. In spondyloarthritis, markers of endothelial function correlated with disease activity and TC.
Park, Eun-Kyoung; Pak, Kyoungjune; Park, Ji-Heh; Kim, Keunyoung; Kim, Seong-Jang; Kim, In-Joo; Kim, Geun-Tae; Lee, Seung-Geun
The goal of this study was to demonstrate whether increased 18F-fluoride uptake lesions on positron emission tomography (PET) scan can predict new syndesmophyte development in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). In 12 AS patients, 18F-fluoride PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at baseline, and radiography was performed at baseline and the 2-year follow-up. The following data were recorded: the presence of increased 18F-fluoride uptake lesions on PET defined as an uptake greater than the uptake in the adjacent normal vertebral body; acute (type A) and advanced (type B) corner inflammatory lesions (CILs) and fat lesions on MRI; and syndesmophytes on radiography. Of 231 anterior vertebral corners without syndesmophyte at baseline, 13 type A CILs (5.5%), 2 type B CILs (0.9%), and 20 fat lesions (8.7%) on MRI and six increased fluoride uptake lesions (2.6%) on PET were observed. At the 2-year follow-up, 16 new syndesmophytes (6.9%) in eight AS patients (66.7%) occurred. New syndesmophytes developed significantly more frequently in anterior vertebral corners with increased 18F-fluoride uptake lesions (50%) or fat lesions (25%) at baseline than in those without such lesions (5.8 and 5.2%; p = 0.005 and p = 0.007, respectively). After adjusting confounding factors, baseline increased 18F-fluoride uptake lesions was independently associated with new syndesmophytes development (OR 13.8, 95% CI 1.5-124.3, p = 0.019). Fat lesions were also associated with new syndesmophytes formation. Our data suggest that 18F-fluoride PET may be applied to identify AS patients with high risk of future syndesmophyte formation.
Chen, Rui; Han, Su; Dong, Daming; Wang, Yansong; Liu, Qingpeng; Xie, Wei; Li, Mi; Yao, Meng
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a common chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease. Early and accurate detection is essential for effective disease treatment. Recently, research has focused on genomics and proteomics. However, the associated metabolic variations, especially fatty acid profiles, have been poorly discussed. In this study, the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) approach and multivariate statistical analysis were used to investigate the metabolic profiles of serum free fatty acids (FFAs) and esterified fatty acids (EFAs) in AS patients. The results showed that significant differences in most of the FFA (C12:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:3, C20:4, C20:5, C22:5 and C22:6) and EFA (C12:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, C20:4 and C22:6) concentrations were found between the AS patients and healthy controls (p < 0.05). Principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis were performed to classify the AS patients and controls. Additionally, FFAs C20:4, C12:0, C18:3 and EFAs C22:6, C12:0 were confirmed as potential biomarkers to identify AS patients and healthy controls. The present study highlights that differences in the serum FFA and EFA profiles of AS patients reflect the metabolic disorder. Moreover, FFA and EFA biomarkers appear to have clinical applications for the screening and diagnosis of AS.
van der Heijde, D; Schiff, M H; Sieper, J; Kivitz, A J; Wong, R L; Kupper, H; Dijkmans, B A C; Mease, P J; Davis, J C
Objective: To determine the long-term effect of adalimumab on patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) who participated in the Adalimumab Trial Evaluating Long-Term Efficacy and Safety in AS (ATLAS), a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled, 24-week trial. Methods: Patients received adalimumab 40 mg every other week (eow) or placebo for 24 weeks in ATLAS. At week 24, patients were switched to open-label adalimumab 40 mg eow. Efficacy measures included 20% improvement in the Assessment in SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) criteria (ASAS20), ASAS40 and ASAS partial remission responses and changes in individual components of the ASAS20 response evaluations, for example, Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI) and Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). Two-year interim data were analysed based on the total duration of adalimumab exposure, irrespective of the treatment randomisation group. Results: At 2 years, 255 (82.0%) of the original 311 ATLAS patients continued receiving adalimumab treatment. Improvements in ASAS responses observed in ATLAS were sustained during long-term treatment; 64.5% (200/310) were ASAS20 responders, 50.6% (157/310) were ASAS40 responders and 33.5% (104/310) had maintained ASAS-defined partial remission. Changes in individual ASAS response components were sustained or improved during long-term adalimumab treatment. From ATLAS baseline to 2 years of adalimumab exposure, respectively, BASDAI improved from 6.3 (SD 1.7) to 2.4 (SD 2.3) and BASFI improved from 5.2 (SD 2.4) to 2.9 (SD 2.5). Adalimumab was well tolerated. No cases of tuberculosis, congestive heart failure, lupus-like symptoms, or demyelinating disease were reported. Conclusions: Adalimumab reduced the signs and symptoms of AS and induced partial remission for up to 2 years. The long-term safety profile was similar to the short-term safety profile. Trial registration information: NCT00085644 PMID:18701556
Ramos-Remus, Cesar; Castillo-Ortiz, José Dionisio; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos; Paez-Agraz, Francisco; Sanchez-Ortiz, Adriana; Aceves-Avila, Francisco Javier
The aim of this study was to assess whether family members perceive health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of family members with rheumatic illnesses differently from the perceptions of these patients themselves. Cross-sectional study of consecutive patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) attending two outpatient rheumatic clinics. HRQoL was assessed using the Spanish version of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale (WHODAS-II) questionnaire; the "proxy" version is available for relatives. All patients and one proxy per patient separately answered the questionnaire at the clinic. Differences were determined by coefficients of determination (r (2)), Z scores, and meaningful differences of 30 %. Two hundred and ninety-one patients (111 SLE, 100 RA, and 80 AS) and their respective proxies were included. The mean age was 35 ± 13 years in SLE, 49.5 ± 14 years in RA, and 40 ± 14 years in AS patients. Divergent perceptions between patients and their proxies were found in 57 % of the SLE group, in 69 % of the RA group, and in 47 % of the AS group as per WHODAS-II global score. Stronger disagreement occurred for all the three groups in domains representing cognition and interaction with other people: around 60 % in the SLE group, 80 % in the RA group, and 40 % in the AS group. A substantial proportion of family members perceived the HRQoL of rheumatic family members differently from the perception of the patients themselves, most of the time biased toward underestimation, suggesting problems in the dynamics of efficient communication and social support.
Adalimumab: long-term safety in 23 458 patients from global clinical trials in rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, psoriasis and Crohn's disease
Burmester, Gerd R; Panaccione, Remo; Gordon, Kenneth B; McIlraith, Melissa J; Lacerda, Ana P M
Background As long-term treatment with antitumour necrosis factor (TNF) drugs becomes accepted practice, the risk assessment requires an understanding of anti-TNF long-term safety. Registry safety data in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are available, but these patients may not be monitored as closely as patients in a clinical trial. Cross-indication safety reviews of available anti-TNF agents are limited. Objective To analyse the long-term safety of adalimumab treatment. Methods This analysis included 23 458 patients exposed to adalimumab in 71 global clinical trials in RA, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis, psoriasis (Ps) and Crohn's disease (CD). Events per 100 patient-years were calculated using events reported after the first dose through 70 days after the last dose. Standardised incidence rates for malignancies were calculated using a National Cancer Institute database. Standardised death rates were calculated using WHO data. Results The most frequently reported serious adverse events across indications were infections with greatest incidence in RA and CD trials. Overall malignancy rates for adalimumab-treated patients were as expected for the general population; the incidence of lymphoma was increased in patients with RA, but within the range expected in RA without anti-TNF therapy; non-melanoma skin cancer incidence was raised in RA, Ps and CD. In all indications, death rates were lower than, or equivalent to, those expected in the general population. Conclusions Analysis of adverse events of interest through nearly 12 years of adalimumab exposure in clinical trials across indications demonstrated individual differences in rates by disease populations, no new safety signals and a safety profile consistent with known information about the anti-TNF class. PMID:22562972
Gossec, L; Dougados, M; Phillips, C; Hammoudeh, M; de Vlam, K; Pavelka, K; Pham, T; Braun, J; Sieper, J; Olivieri, I; van der Heijde, D; Collantes, E; Stone, M; Kvien, T K
Background: Ten ASAS/EULAR recommendations for the management of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) were published in 2006. Objectives: (a) To disseminate and (b) to evaluate conceptual agreement with, and (c) application of, these recommendations as well as (d) potential barriers to the application. Methods: A questionnaire was sent to rheumatologists in 10 countries. It included (a) the text of the recommendations; (b) rheumatologists’ demographic variables; (c) two numerical rating scales from 1 to 10 for each recommendation: conceptual agreement with, and application of, the recommendation (10 indicates maximal agreement and maximal application); and (d) a list of potential barriers to the application of the recommendation. Statistical analysis included descriptive and multivariate analyses. Results: 7206 questionnaires were sent out; 1507 (21%) were returned. Of the 1507 answering rheumatologists, 62% were men, mean (SD) age 49 (9) years, and 34% had an academic position. Conceptual agreement with the recommendations was high (mean (SD) for all recommendations 8.9 (0.9)). Self-reported application was also high (8.2 (1.0)). The difference between agreement and application varied across recommendations and countries. The most pronounced discrepancies were reported for use of anti-tumour necrosis factor drugs in a few countries, with funding as the most commonly reported barrier for application of this recommendation. Conclusion: This large project has helped the dissemination of the ASAS/EULAR recommendations for the management of AS and shows that conceptual agreement with the recommendations is very high. The project also highlights inequalities in access to healthcare for European citizens with AS. PMID:18055468
Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Boonen, Annelis; Vázquez-Mellado, Janitzia; Reyes-Lagunes, Isabel; Hernández-Garduño, Adolfo; Goycochea, Maria Victoria; Bernard-Medina, Ana G; Rodríguez-Amado, Jacqueline; Casasola-Vargas, Julio; Garza-Elizondo, Mario A; Aceves, Francisco J; Shumski, Clara; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben
This article aims to identify the strategies for coping with health and daily-life stressors of Mexican patients with chronic rheumatic disease. We analyzed the baseline data of a cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and gout. Their strategies for coping were identified with a validated questionnaire. Comparisons between health and daily-life stressors and between the 3 clinical conditions were made. With regression analyses, we determined the contribution of individual, socioeconomic, educational, and health-related quality-of-life variables to health status and coping strategy. We identified several predominant coping strategies in response to daily-life and health stressors in 261 patients with RA, 226 with AS, and 206 with gout. Evasive and reappraisal strategies were predominant when patients cope with health stressors; emotional/negative and evasive strategies predominated when coping with daily-life stressors. There was a significant association between the evasive pattern and the low short-form health survey (SF-36) scores and health stressors across the 3 diseases. Besides some differences between diagnoses, the most important finding was the predominance of the evasive strategy and its association with low SF-36 score and high level of pain in patients with gout. Patients with rheumatic diseases cope in different ways when confronted with health and daily-life stressors. The strategy of coping differs across diagnoses; emotional/negative and evasive strategies are associated with poor health-related quality of life. The identification of the coping strategies could result in the design of psychosocial interventions to improve self-management.
Chen, C; Zhang, X
Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) has been confirmed to be associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in Caucasian. However, whether they are associated with AS in East Asian population remains unidentified. We investigated this relationship by a new Chinese case-control study and a meta-analysis of published series. 368 cases and 460 controls were recruited in the Chinese case-control study. Genotyping was completed using the chip-based matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Allelic associations were analysed using contingency tables. In the meta-analysis, up to 2748 cases and 2774 controls from seven different studies and the new Chinese study were combined using Review Manager software version 5.1.1. Mantel-Haenszel or Inverse Variance test was used to calculate fixed or random-effects pooled ORs. In the new Chinese study, strong association with AS was observed for marker rs10050860, rs27434 and rs1065407 at P value of <0.001. Moderate association was observed for rs30187 at P value of <0.01, while no association was observed for rs27044 (P = 0.37) and rs2287987 (P = 0.23). The meta-analysis showed that rs27037 and rs30187 were strongly associated with AS (P < 0.00001). Significant association was also observed for rs27434 (P = 0.001). No association was shown for rs27044 (P = 0.70). We concluded that ERAP1 variants are associated with AS in East Asian population, indicating a common pathogenic mechanism for AS in East Asians and Caucasians.
Fatemi, Gita; Gensler, Lianne S.; Learch, Thomas J.; Weisman, Michael H.
Background Ankylosing spondylitis (AS), an inflammatory arthritis that affects the axial skeleton, predisposes patients with severe disease to falls and spinal fractures. Advanced imaging has improved the process of fracture detection. In spite of increased knowledge about early diagnosis and management of AS, little attention is being paid to the environmental hazards that pose a risk for patient outcome. Objectives To identify risk factors for falls and fractures and evaluate imaging modalities in the detection of fractures in AS patients. Methods A case report and review of the literature using PubMed for English articles from 2000 to 2013 regarding AS patients’ risk factors for falls and fractures and imaging modalities used to diagnose fracture in this population. Results Potential impairments in balance and coordination in the AS population include vestibular dysfunction, thoracolumbar kyphosis, and deficits in proprioception. A common and significant environmental risk factor for falls includes the use of a tub-shower arrangement. Furthermore, osteoporosis is a well-known complication of AS that can predispose to fracture. Lastly, there are no comprehensive studies that have evaluated the ability of advanced imaging modalities to identify an acute spine fracture in this patient population. Conclusions AS patients with advanced disease are at increased risk of falls and fractures due to many factors including but not limited to a rigid spine and difficulty with peripheral vision. A tub-shower arrangement commonly found in homes and hotel rooms is a major hazard. A consistent approach to diagnosis of fractures involving advanced imaging recommendations should be considered. PMID:25087159
Bolge, Susan C; Eldridge, Helen M; Lofland, Jennifer H; Ravin, Caitlin; Hart, Philip J; Ingham, Michael P
Objective The objective of this study was to describe patient experience with intravenous (IV) biologics for ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn’s disease, psoriatic arthritis, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, or ulcerative colitis. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted in 405 patients with these autoimmune diseases who were receiving an IV biologic to treat their disease. Results On a 7-point scale (1= not at all satisfied; 7= very satisfied), mean satisfaction with IV medication was rated 6.1; 77% of patients rated satisfaction as 6 or 7. The most frequently perceived benefits of IV therapy were related to supervision provided by health care professionals. Most patients (82%, n=332) preferred their IV medication to subcutaneous injection. The three most common reasons for preferring IV were not wanting to self-inject (43%), less frequent dosing (34%), and preference for administration by a health care professional (24%). African–American/black patients had a stronger preference for IV administration than Caucasian/white patients (97% vs 80%, P<0.05) and a greater dislike of needles/self-injection (71% vs 40%, P<0.05). Hospital outpatient departments were not rated as well as physician in-office infusion. Only half (49%) of the patients reported that both they and their physician equally influenced the choice to switch from subcutaneous to IV therapy, and only 30% were given a choice of infusion center. Conclusion Users of IV biologics are highly satisfied with their medications and perceive the opportunity for health care provider interaction at their infusion facilities as an advantage of their regimen. These findings support continued need for IV therapeutic options and shared decision-making between patients and physicians while selecting biologic treatments.
Monti, Sara; Boffini, Nicola; Lucioni, Marco; Paulli, Marco; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; Caporali, Roberto
We report the case of a 52-year-old man with long-standing HLAB27-positive ankylosing spondylitis treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) alpha therapy who was admitted to our rheumatology department complaining of increasing lumbar and buttock pain radiating to the posterior thigh, associated with numbness in the leg, gait disturbance and low-grade fever. The clinical picture was initially interpreted as a flare of disease but was not responsive to treatment. A contrast-enhanced spinal MRI was performed with evidence of a diffuse signal abnormality involving the sacroiliac joints and the spine, with evidence of spondylodiscitis of L5 and with a lesion causing L5-S1 root compression and infiltrating the iliopsoas muscle. These findings confirmed the possibility of a reactivation of disease associated with an infectious process. The most frequent causes of infectious spondylodiscitis were excluded, and a biopsy was then performed. Histological analysis revealed a high-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the spine. This case highlights how a differential diagnosis of low back pain with neurological symptoms can be particularly troublesome in ankylosing spondylitis and that continuous vigilance is warranted in patients treated with long-term immunosuppressive therapies.
Yan, Rui-Jian; Lou, Ting-Ting; Wu, Yi-Fang; Chen, Wei-Shan
Abstract Background: Etanercept was highly recommended for patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), as its efficacy has been confirmed in AS, while genetic polymorphisms, by affecting drug metabolism or drug receptor, lead to interindividual variability in drug disposition and efficacy. Therefore, this study aims to investigate whether ABCB1 gene polymorphisms can predict therapeutic response to etanercept in patients with AS. Methods: A total of 185 patients with AS in our hospital were recruited into our study from December 2012 to May 2015. The frequency distributions of genotype and allele of rs2032582, rs1128503, and rs1045642 were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and electrophoresis verification enzyme products method. AS patients received etanercept treatment for 12 weeks, followed by this would be evaluated by the bath AS disease activity index (BASDAI) score improvement and the assessment of spondyloArthritis international society 20/50/70 (ASAS20/50/70) score improvements to explore the relationship between genotype of ABCB1 gene polymorphisms and therapeutic response to etanercept in patients with AS. Results: After 12 weeks, the BASDAI score mean improvement value of rs2032582 A/A genotype was 2.87 ± 0.52. The ratios of patients with rs2032582 A/A genotype reaching the BASDAI50 and ASAS20 evaluation criteria were 64.29% and 92.86%, respectively. The results indicated that efficacy of etanercept was promoted in rs2032582 A/A genotype. The BASDAI score mean improvement value of rs1128503 C/C genotype was 2.79 ± 0.54 after 12 weeks. The ratios of patients with rs1128503 C/C genotype reaching the BASDAI50 and ASAS20 evaluation criteria were 66.67% and 93.94%, respectively. The results indicated that efficacy of etanercept was promoted in rs1128503 C/C genotype. However, no significant associations were observed between rs1045642 and therapeutic response to etanercept in AS patients. Conclusion: ABCB1 gene rs2032582 and rs1128503
Rahman, Proton; Choquette, Denis; Bensen, William G; Khraishi, Majed; Chow, Andrew; Zummer, Michel; Shaikh, Saeed; Sheriff, Maqbool; Dixit, Sanjay; Sholter, Dalton; Psaradellis, Eliofotisti; Sampalis, John S; Letourneau, Vincent; Lehman, Allen J; Nantel, François; Rampakakis, Emmanouil; Otawa, Susan; Shawi, May
Objectives To describe the profile of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) treated with infliximab in Canadian routine care and to assess the effectiveness and safety of infliximab in real world. Setting 46 primary care rheumatology practices across Canada. Participants 303 biological-naïve patients with AS or patients previously treated with a biological for <6 months and who were eligible for infliximab treatment as per routine care within the Biologic Treatment Registry Across Canada (BioTRAC). Intervention Not applicable (non-interventional study). Primary and secondary outcomes Effectiveness was assessed with changes in disease parameters (AS Disease Activity Score (ASDAS), Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI), Health Assessment Questionnaire Disease Index (HAQ-DI), physician global assessment of disease activity (MDGA), patient global disease activity (PtGA), back pain, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), morning stiffness). Safety was assessed with the incidence of adverse events (AEs). Results Of the 303 patients included, 44.6% were enrolled in 2005–2007 and 55.4% in 2008–2013. Patients enrolled in 2005–2007 had significantly higher MDGA and ESR at baseline while all other disease parameters examined were numerically higher with the exception of PtGA. Treatment with infliximab significantly (p<0.001) improved all disease parameters over time in both groups. At 6 months, 56% and 31% of patients achieved clinically important (change≥1.1) and major (change≥2.0) improvement in ASDAS, respectively; at 48 months, these proportions increased to 75% and 50%, respectively. Among patients unemployed due to disability at baseline, 12.1% returned to work (mean Kaplan-Meier (KM)-based time=38.8 months). The estimated retention rate at 12 and 24 months was 78.3% and 60.1%, respectively. The profile and incidence of AEs were comparable to data previously reported for tumour necrosis
Wu, Li-Chih; Leong, Pui-Ying; Yeo, Kai-Jieh; Li, Ting-Yu; Wang, Yu-Hsun; Chiou, Jeng-Yuan; Wei, James Cheng-Chung
The aim of the study is to assess the effects of celecoxib and sulfasalazine on the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS).Using the claims data of Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) database, a nationally representative data that contain the medical records of 23 million Taiwan residents, we randomly selected 1 million cohort from the database, and then we enrolled only patients who were newly diagnosed with AS (n = 4829) between year 2001 and 2010, excluding patients who had CAD (ICD-9- CM codes: 410-414) before the diagnosis of AS (n = 4112). According to propensity score matched 1:2 on age, gender, AS duration, Charlson comorbidity index, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, 236 and 472 patients were included in the case (AS with CAD) and control (AS without CAD) groups, respectively. We used the WHO defined daily dose (DDD) as a tool to assess the dosage of sulfasalazine and celecoxib exposure. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the risk of CAD associated with use of sulfasalazine and celecoxib.Among 4112 AS patients, 8.4% (346/4112) developed CAD. CAD in AS patients were positively associated with age of 35 to 65, Charlson comorbidities index (CCI), hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. There was no gender difference between case and control groups. After adjustment for age, gender, CCI, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, sulfasalazine users with an average daily dose ≥ 0.5 DDD (0.5 gm/day) had negative association with CAD events as compared to sulfasalazine nonusers (OR 0.63; 95% CI, 0.40-0.99, P < 0.05). NSAIDs, including celecoxib, etoricoxib, but no naproxen and diclofenac were negatively associated with CAD. Celecoxib users, with an average daily dose > 1.5 DDD, were negatively associated with CAD events, compared to celecoxib nonusers (OR 0.34; 95% CI, 0.13-0.89; P < 0.05).In this 10-year population
Wu, Meng-Huang; Dubey, Navneet Kumar; Lee, Ching-Yu; Li, Yen-Yao; Cheng, Chin-Chang; Shi, Chung-Sheng; Huang, Tsung-Jen
This study was aimed at evaluating the safety and efficacy of using intraoperative computed tomography- (iCT-) guided navigation in simultaneous minimally invasive anterior and posterior surgery for infectious spondylitis. Nine patients with infectious spondylitis were enrolled in this study. The average operative time was 327.6 min (range, 210-490) and intraoperative blood loss was 407 cc (range, 50-1,200). The average duration of hospital stay was 48.9 days (range, 11-76). Out of a total of 54 pedicle screws employed, 53 screws (98.1%) were placed accurately. A reduced visual analog scale on back pain (from 8.2 to 2.2) and Oswestry disability index (from 67.1% to 25.6%) were found at the 2-year follow-up. All patients had achieved resolution of spinal infection with reduced average erythrocyte sedimentation rate (from 83.9 to 14.1 mm/hr) and average C-reactive protein (from 54.4 to 4.8 mg/dL). Average kyphotic angle correction was 10.5° (range, 8.4°-12.6°) postoperatively and 8.5° (range, 6.9°-10.1°) after 2 years. In conclusion, the current iCT-guided navigation approach has been demonstrated to be an alternative method during simultaneous minimally invasive anterior and posterior surgery for infectious spondylitis. It can provide a good intraoperative orientation and visualization of anatomic structures and also a high pedicle screw placement accuracy in patient's lateral decubitus position.
Dubey, Navneet Kumar; Lee, Ching-Yu; Li, Yen-Yao; Cheng, Chin-Chang; Shi, Chung-Sheng
This study was aimed at evaluating the safety and efficacy of using intraoperative computed tomography- (iCT-) guided navigation in simultaneous minimally invasive anterior and posterior surgery for infectious spondylitis. Nine patients with infectious spondylitis were enrolled in this study. The average operative time was 327.6 min (range, 210–490) and intraoperative blood loss was 407 cc (range, 50–1,200). The average duration of hospital stay was 48.9 days (range, 11–76). Out of a total of 54 pedicle screws employed, 53 screws (98.1%) were placed accurately. A reduced visual analog scale on back pain (from 8.2 to 2.2) and Oswestry disability index (from 67.1% to 25.6%) were found at the 2-year follow-up. All patients had achieved resolution of spinal infection with reduced average erythrocyte sedimentation rate (from 83.9 to 14.1 mm/hr) and average C-reactive protein (from 54.4 to 4.8 mg/dL). Average kyphotic angle correction was 10.5° (range, 8.4°–12.6°) postoperatively and 8.5° (range, 6.9°–10.1°) after 2 years. In conclusion, the current iCT-guided navigation approach has been demonstrated to be an alternative method during simultaneous minimally invasive anterior and posterior surgery for infectious spondylitis. It can provide a good intraoperative orientation and visualization of anatomic structures and also a high pedicle screw placement accuracy in patient's lateral decubitus position. PMID:28299317
Rudwaleit, M; Siegert, S; Yin, Z; Eick, J; Thiel, A; Radbruch, A; Sieper, J; Braun, J
OBJECTIVE—To test the hypothesis that ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a T helper cell type 2 polarised disease by quantifying the T cell cytokines interferon γ (IFNγ), interleukin 4 (IL4), tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), and IL10 at the single cell level in patients with AS in comparison with healthy HLA-B27 negative and HLA-B27 positive controls. METHODS—Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 65 subjects (25 HLA-B27 positive patients with active AS, 18 healthy HLA-B27 positive controls, and 22 healthy HLA-B27 negative controls) were stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin for six hours, surface stained for CD3 and CD8, intracellularly stained for the cytokines IFNγ, TNFα, IL4, and IL10, and analysed by flow cytometry. TNFα production was related to the genotype of the TNFα promoter at the -308 and -238 polymorphisms. RESULTS—In peripheral blood the percentage of TNFα+ T cells was significantly lower in HLA-B27 positive patients with AS (median 5.1% for CD4+ T cells) than in healthy HLA-B27 negative controls (median 9.5%; p=0.008). Surprisingly, the percentage of TNFα+ T cells was also significantly lower in healthy HLA-B27 positive controls (median 7.48%) than in healthy HLA-B27 negative controls (p=0.034). Furthermore, the percentage of IFNγ+ T cells was lower in patients with AS and in healthy HLA-B27 positive controls than in healthy HLA-B27 negative controls (p=0.005 and p=0.003, respectively). The percentage of IL10+/CD8+ T cells was higher in patients with AS than in both control groups. In HLA-B27 positive subjects, TNF1/2 heterozygosity at -308 (n=6) was associated with a higher percentage of TNFα+ T cells than TNF1/1 homozygosity (n=25; median 9.97% v 5.11% for CD4+ T cells; p=0.017). In contrast, in HLA-B27 negative controls (n=18) there was no such genotype/phenotype correlation (median 9.4% v 10.6%). CONCLUSIONS—The lower T cell production of TNFα and IFNγ shown at the single cell level in HLA-B27
Toufan, Mehrnoush; Pourafkari, Leili; Nader, Nader D.
A 58 years old male with a long-standing history of HLA-B27 positive ankylosing spondylitis presented with increasing fatigue and dyspnea on exertion. He had left ventricular dysfunction and enlargement, flail right coronary leaflet of aortic valve with severe eccentric aortic insufficiency along with left ventricular non-compaction in echocardiography. The most common cardiac manifestations of ankylosing spondylitis are aortic insufficiency and conduction disturbances. Involvement of myocardium, in the form of dilated cardiomyopathy and restrictive cardiomyopathy, has also been reported. This case presents a very rare association of ankylosing spondylitis with non-compaction cardiomyopathy. PMID:28210476
... part of a family of genes called the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex . The HLA complex helps the immune system distinguish the body's own proteins from proteins made by foreign invaders ( ...
Corbett, Mark; Soares, Marta; Jhuti, Gurleen; Rice, Stephen; Spackman, Eldon; Sideris, Eleftherios; Moe-Byrne, Thirimon; Fox, Dave; Marzo-Ortega, Helena; Kay, Lesley; Woolacott, Nerys; Palmer, Stephen
BACKGROUND Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors (anti-TNFs) are typically used when the inflammatory rheumatologic diseases ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-AxSpA) have not responded adequately to conventional therapy. Current National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance recommends treatment with adalimumab, etanercept and golimumab in adults with active (severe) AS only if certain criteria are fulfilled but it does not recommend infliximab for AS. Anti-TNFs for patients with nr-AxSpA have not previously been appraised by NICE. OBJECTIVE To determine the clinical effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness within the NHS of adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, golimumab and infliximab, within their licensed indications, for the treatment of severe active AS or severe nr-AxSpA (but with objective signs of inflammation). DESIGN Systematic review and economic model. DATA SOURCES Fifteen databases were searched for relevant studies in July 2014. REVIEW METHODS Clinical effectiveness data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were synthesised using Bayesian network meta-analysis methods. Results from other studies were summarised narratively. Only full economic evaluations that compared two or more options and considered both costs and consequences were included in the systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies. The differences in the approaches and assumptions used across the studies, and also those in the manufacturer's submissions, were examined in order to explain any discrepancies in the findings and to identify key areas of uncertainty. A de novo decision model was developed with a generalised framework for evidence synthesis that pooled change in disease activity (BASDAI and BASDAI 50) and simultaneously synthesised information on function (BASFI) to determine the long-term quality-adjusted life-year and cost burden of the disease in the economic model. The decision model was
Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3 score (RAPID3) correlates well with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity index (BASDAI) in the assessment of disease activity and monitoring progression of axial spondyloarthritis.
Danve, Abhijeet; Reddy, Anusha; Vakil-Gilani, Kiana; Garg, Neha; Dinno, Alexis; Deodhar, Atul
Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3 (RAPID3) is a composite index, very useful for assessment of disease activity of various rheumatic diseases including RA. If RAPID3 can also reliably measure disease activity in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), it may prove to be a practical and effective quantitative assessment tool in busy practices. We studied the association of RAPID3 with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) seen from 2007 to 2012 were classified as having AS or non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) using modified New York criteria and Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society criteria, respectively. Patients with simultaneous BASDAI and RAPID3 scores were enrolled (N = 112; 105 with AS, seven with nr-axSpA). Multiple regression and nonparametric receiver operating characteristics were used. Baseline mean (SD) BASDAI and RAPID3 were 4.2 (2.5) and 3.8 (2.3), respectively. Multiple linear regressions modeled a quadratic relationship between BASDAI and RAPID3 for 321 observations in 112 patients with axSpA (1) cross-sectionally: BASDAI predicted by RAPID3 (β = 1.171; s.e. = 0.113, p < 0.001) and RAPID3(2) (β = -0.037; s.e. = 0.014, p = 0.011) with an adjusted R (2) of 0.676; and (2) longitudinally: BASDAI predicted by RAPID3 (β = 1.196; s.e. = 0.111, p < 0.001), RAPID3(2) (β = -0.042; s.e. = 0.014, p = 0.004), and visit number (β = -0.142; s.e. = 0.038, p < 0.001) with an adjusted R (2) of 0.689. RAPID3 (correctly classified) corresponded to BASDAI scores of 2, 4, and 6: 1.40 (85.8 %), 3.33 (81.9 %), and 5.43 (87.1 %), respectively. RAPID3 correlates well with BASDAI in monitoring axSpA patients (including AS) in cross-sectional and longitudinal follow-up. Since it also correlates with measures of disease activity of other rheumatic diseases including RA, RAPID3 could be an attractive measure
Infrared sauna in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. A pilot study showing good tolerance, short-term improvement of pain and stiffness, and a trend towards long-term beneficial effects.
Oosterveld, Fredrikus G J; Rasker, Johannes J; Floors, Mark; Landkroon, Robert; van Rennes, Bob; Zwijnenberg, Jan; van de Laar, Mart A F J; Koel, Gerard J
To study the effects of infrared (IR) Sauna, a form of total-body hyperthermia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients were treated for a 4-week period with a series of eight IR treatments. Seventeen RA patients and 17 AS patients were studied. IR was well tolerated, and no adverse effects were reported, no exacerbation of disease. Pain and stiffness decreased clinically, and improvements were statistically significant (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001 in RA and AS patients, respectively) during an IR session. Fatigue also decreased. Both RA and AS patients felt comfortable on average during and especially after treatment. In the RA and AS patients, pain, stiffness, and fatigue also showed clinical improvements during the 4-week treatment period, but these did not reach statistical significance. No relevant changes in disease activity scores were found, indicating no exacerbation of disease activity. In conclusion, infrared treatment has statistically significant short-term beneficial effects and clinically relevant period effects during treatment in RA and AS patients without enhancing disease activity. IR has good tolerability and no adverse effects.
Can Whole-Body Cryotherapy with Subsequent Kinesiotherapy Procedures in Closed Type Cryogenic Chamber Improve BASDAI, BASFI, and Some Spine Mobility Parameters and Decrease Pain Intensity in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis?
Stanek, Agata; Cholewka, Armand; Gadula, Jolanta; Drzazga, Zofia; Sieron, Aleksander; Sieron-Stoltny, Karolina
The present study investigated whether whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) procedures could potentially have more beneficial effects on index of BASDAI and BASFI, pain intensity, and spine mobility parameters: Ott test, modified Schober test, chest expansion in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients, than kinesiotherapy procedures used separately. AS patients were exposed to a cycle of WBC procedures lasting 3 minutes a day, with a subsequent 60 minutes of kinesiotherapy or 60 minutes of kinesiotherapy only, for 10 consecutive days excluding weekend. After the completion of the cycle of WBC procedures with subsequent kinesiotherapy in the AS patients, BASDAI index decreased about 40% in comparison with the input value, whereas in the group of patients who received only kinesiotherapy it decreased only about 15% in comparison with the input value. After the completion of the treatment in the WBC group, BASFI index decreased about 30% in comparison with the input value, whereas in the kinesiotherapy group it only decreased about 16% in comparison with the input value. The important conclusion was that, in WBC group with subsequent kinesiotherapy, we observed on average about twice better results than in the group treated only by kinesiotherapy. PMID:26273618
Assessment of clinical efficacy and safety in a randomized double-blind study of etanercept and sulfasalazine in patients with ankylosing spondylitis from Eastern/Central Europe, Latin America, and Asia.
Damjanov, Nemanja; Shehhi, Waleed Al; Huang, Feng; Kotak, Sameer; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Shirazy, Khalid; Bananis, Eustratios; Szumski, Annette; Llamado, Lyndon J Q; Mahgoub, Ehab
Despite the demonstrated efficacy of etanercept for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), sulfasalazine is often prescribed, especially in countries with limited access to biologic agents. The objective of this subset analysis of the ASCEND trial was to compare the efficacy of etanercept and sulfasalazine in treating patients with AS from Asia, Eastern/Central Europe, and Latin America. A total of 287 patients, 190 receiving etanercept 50 mg once weekly and 97 receiving sulfasalazine 3 g daily, from eight countries were included in this subset analysis. Differences in disease activity and patient-reported outcomes assessing health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) parameters in response to treatment were analyzed using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test for categorical efficacy endpoints and analysis of covariance model for continuous variables. At week 16, a significantly greater proportion of patients receiving etanercept achieved ASAS20 (79.0 %) compared with patients receiving sulfasalazine (61.9 %; p = 0.002). At week 16, treatment with etanercept also resulted in significantly better responses than sulfasalazine for ASAS40 (64.7 vs. 35.1 %; p < 0.001), ASAS5/6 (48.1 vs. 26.3 %; p < 0.001), proportion of patients achieving 50 % response in Bath AS Disease Activity Index (65.8 vs. 42.3 %; p < 0.001), partial remission (35.3 vs. 17.5 %; p = 0.002), and all HRQoL parameters. Both treatments were well tolerated. Etanercept was significantly more effective than sulfasalazine in the treatment of patients with AS from Asia, Central/Eastern Europe, and Latin America.
Safety of Resuming Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors in Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients Concomitant with the Treatment of Active Tuberculosis: A Retrospective Nationwide Registry of the Korean Society of Spondyloarthritis Research
Kim, Hye Won; Kwon, Seong Ryul; Jung, Kyong-Hee; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Baek, Han Joo; Seo, Mi Ryung; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Suh, Chang-Hee; Jung, Ju Yang; Son, Chang-Nam; Shim, Seung Cheol; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Geun; Lee, Yeon-Ah; Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Tae-Hwan
Backgrounds Patients who develop an active tuberculosis infection during tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor treatment typically discontinue TNF inhibitor and receive standard anti-tuberculosis treatment. However, there is currently insufficient information on patient outcomes following resumption of TNF inhibitor treatment during ongoing anti- tuberculosis treatment. Our study was designed to investigate the safety of resuming TNF inhibitors in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients who developed tuberculosis as a complication of the use of TNF inhibitors. Methods Through the nationwide registry of the Korean Society of Spondyloarthritis Research, 3929 AS patients who were prescribed TNF inhibitors were recruited between June 2003 and June 2014 at fourteen referral hospitals. Clinical information was analyzed about the patients who experienced tuberculosis after exposure to TNF inhibitors. The clinical features of resumers and non-resumers of TNF inhibitors were compared and the outcomes of tuberculosis were surveyed individually. Findings Fifty-six AS patients were treated for tuberculosis associated with TNF inhibitors. Among them, 23 patients resumed TNF inhibitors, and these patients were found to be exposed to TNF inhibitors for a longer period of time and experienced more frequent disease flare-up after discontinuation of TNF inhibitors compared with those who did not resume. Fifteen patients resumed TNF inhibitors during anti-tuberculosis treatment (early resumers) and 8 after completion of anti-tuberculosis treatment (late resumers). Median time to resuming TNF inhibitor from tuberculosis was 3.3 and 9.0 months in the early and late resumers, respectively. Tuberculosis was treated successfully in all resumers and did not relapse in any of them during follow-up (median 33.8 [IQR; 20.8–66.7] months). Conclusions Instances of tuberculosis were treated successfully in our AS patients, even when given concomitantly with TNF inhibitors. We suggest that early
Baraliakos, Xenofon; van der Heijde, Desirée; Braun, Jurgen; Landewé, Robert B M
The ASAS/OMERACT MRI group recently described and defined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in sacroiliac joints (SIJ) that are essential for the diagnosis of sacroiliitis in patients with axial spondyloarthritis, including ankylosing spondylitis (AS). At the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials (OMERACT) 2010 meeting, a special interest group (SIG) was formed to design a research agenda for the definition and description of structural lesions in the SIJ and the spine in patients with established AS. During the SIG, a summary of the previous work of the group was presented to all participants, containing: (1) a description of the current definitions of structural SIJ changes; (2) available scoring methods for SIJ changes; (3) data from a previous pilot MRI exercise on chronic SIJ changes performed by members of the group; and (4) a proposal for a research agenda for OMERACT 11. The group agreed on the project's scientific merits and the need to evaluate all available scoring methods and to have clear definitions for all possible abnormalities that can be seen on MRI, prior to the start of the exercise. It was also agreed that the exercise should include scoring of both structural and inflammatory lesions, due to lack of agreement about the best scoring method for assessing both types of lesions in AS. Participants agreed that longitudinal MRI over a certain period are needed to learn about the time sequence of pathologic changes and to understand the course of the disease. Finally, participants asked the group to add the development of a scoring method for structural changes in the spine in a subsequent exercise. Further to these objectives, all experts who agreed to contribute in the exercise will collaborate to achieve consensus on definitions and to organize training in the different scoring systems prior to the start of the project, with the aim to finalize the multiple reader exercise by the end of 2011, in time for OMERACT 11.
Gemmel, Filip; de Coningh, Arwin van Vrijberghe; Collins, James; Rijk, Paul
A 16-year-old, nonpregnant, healthy, and sportive teenager suffers from intermittent low back pain. Pelvic x-ray complemented by bone-SPECT/CT demonstrated an uncommon benign condition called osteitis condensans ilii. In the early phase, it is of paramount importance to distinguish osteitis condensans ilii from sacroiliitis or ankylosing spondylitis. This case report highlights the incremental value of performing one-stop shop hybrid SPECT/low-dose CT bone imaging in diagnosing and managing this rare benign skeletal condition.
Koza, Yavuzer; Taş, Muhammed Hakan; Şimşek, Ziya; Gündoğdu, Fuat
Cardiac conduction defects are commonly observed in patients with ankylosing spondylitis, infective endocarditis, and aortic valve replacement. Each of these clinical situations can also present with ventricular tacyhcardia by different mechanisms. Here we report the case of a 53-year-old man with a medical history of untreated ankylosing spondylitis and aortic valve replacement who presented with ventricular tachycardia and underwent successful catheter ablation. Most ventricular tachycardia episodes were intermittent and drug resistant, which could have been caused by abnormal automaticity rather than re-entry. PMID:28149150
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Ward, Michael M
The American College of Rheumatology, the Spondyloarthritis Research and Treatment Network, and the Spondylitis Association of America have begun collaborating on a project to develop treatment guidelines for axial spondyloarthritis. The project will use the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) method, which is based on systematic literature reviews and quantitative evidence summaries, to develop treatment recommendations for the use of pharmacological interventions, rehabilitation, surgery, preventive care, and disease monitoring in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis.
Ward, Michael M.
The American College of Rheumatology, the Spondyloarthritis Research and Treatment Network, and the Spondylitis Association of America have begun collaborating on a project to develop treatment guidelines for axial spondyloarthritis. The project will use the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) method, which is based on systematic literature reviews and quantitative evidence summaries, to develop treatment recommendations for the use of pharmacological interventions, rehabilitation, surgery, preventive care, and disease monitoring in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis. PMID:24810702
Godeau, P; Bletry, O; Herreman, G
The authors have collected 19 cases of ankylosing spondylitis with an alteration of intracardiac conduction. The lesions are usually situated high in the bundle of His, as shown by successive electrocardiograms and endocavitary studies. Progression by regressive acute episodes and the response to anti-inflammatory agents suggests that the disorder of conduction is inflammatory in origin. Syncopal attacks are rare (1 case out of 19) and a pacemaker is rarely indicated. Almost half the patients had aortic insufficiency, one patient had tricuspid stenosis and two patients had heart failure in the absence of any valvular lesion. The associated ankylosing spondylitis is characterised by the severity of the inflammatory signs (average sedimentation rate 50 mm in the first hour) and by the extent of peripheral articular involvement and extra-rheumatological manifestations. Almost one in two patients had iritis, with the same proportion applying to a past history of Reiters syndrome.
Joo, Eun-Jeong; Yeom, Joon-Sup; Ha, Young Eun; Park, So Yeon; Lee, Chong-Suh; Kim, Eun-Sang; Kang, Cheol-In; Chung, Doo-Ryeon; Song, Jae-Hoon; Peck, Kyong Ran
Background/Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of computed tomography (CT)-guided bone biopsy for the diagnosis of spinal infection and compared the clinical outcomes between tuberculous and pyogenic spinal infections. Methods: The retrospective cohort study included patients who received CT-guided bone biopsy at a tertiary hospital over the 13 years. Results: Among 100 patients, 67 had pyogenic spondylitis and 33 had tuberculous spondylitis. Pathogens were isolated from bone specimens obtained by CT-guided biopsy in 42 cases, with diagnostic yields of 61% (20/33) for tuberculous spondylitis and 33% (22/67) for pyogenic spondylitis. For 36 culture-proven pyogenic cases, Staphylococcus aureus was the most commonly isolated organism. Patients with pyogenic spondylitis more frequently presented with fever accompanied by an increase in inflammatory markers than did those with tuberculosis. Among all patients who underwent surgery, the incidence of late surgery performed one month after diagnosis was higher in patients with tuberculous infection (56.3%) than in those with pyogenic disease (23.3%, p = 0.026). Conclusions: Results obtained by CT-guided bone biopsy contributed to prompt diagnoses of spinal infections, especially those caused by tuberculosis. Despite administration of anti-tuberculous agents, patients with tuberculous spondylitis showed an increased tendency to undergo late surgery. PMID:27079327
Takigawa, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Masato; Nakanishi, Kazuo; Misawa, Haruo; Sugimoto, Yoshihisa; Takahata, Tomohiro; Nakahara, Hiroyuki; Nakahara, Shinnosuke; Ozaki, Toshifumi
The concept of synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome has been well clarified, after Chamot et al. suggested this peculiar disorder in 1987. The most commonly affected site in SAPHO syndrome is the anterior chest, followed by the spine. However, the clinical course and taxonomic concept of SAPHO spinal lesions are poorly understood. This study was performed to analyze: (1) the detailed clinical course of spinal lesions in SAPHO syndrome, and (2) the relationship between SAPHO syndrome with spinal lesions and seronegative spondyloarthropathy. Thirteen patients with spondylitis in SAPHO syndrome were analyzed. The features of spinal lesions were a chronic onset with a slight inflammatory reaction, and slowly progressing non-marginal syndesmophytes at multi spinal levels, besides the coexistence of specific skin lesions. SAPHO syndrome, especially spinal lesions related to palmoplantar pustulosis, can be recognized as a subtype of seronegative spondyloarthropathy.
Braun, Jürgen; Kudrin, Alex
Biosimilars are biologic medical products whose active drug substance is made by a living organism or derived from it. The term is used to describe a subsequent version of an innovator biopharmaceutical product aiming at approval following patent expiry on the reference product. Biosimilars of monoclonal need to demonstrate similar but not identical quality of nonclinical and clinical attributes. Not all data of the originator product need to be recapitulated, as large numbers of patient-years of exposure data are already available. Thus, biosimilar development is largely based on the safety profiles of the originator product. The evaluation of biosimilarity includes immunogenicity attributed risks. CT-P13 (Remsima™/Inflectra™, Celltrion/Hospira), a biosimilar of the innovator drug infliximab (INF), was the first approved complex biosimilar monoclonal antibody in the EU, within the framework of WHO, EMA and US FDA biosimilar guidelines. CT-P13 has shown analytical and nonclinical features highly similar to INF including pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety and immunogenicity profiles in ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis. The objective of this article is to highlight the recent biosimilar development and to review the results from the studies PLANETRA and PLANETAS, which have supported the approval of CT-P13 for several indications.
Karthik, Rajiv; Jeyaraj, Veena; Amritanand, Rohit; Krishnan, Venkatesh; David, Kenny Samuel; Sundararaj, Gabriel David
Study Design Retrospective clinical analysis. Purpose To delineate the clinical presentation of melioidosis in the spine and to create awareness among healthcare professionals, particularly spine surgeons, regarding the diagnosis and treatment of melioidotic spondylitis. Overview of Literature Melioidosis is an emerging disease, particularly in developing countries, associated with a high mortality rate. Its causative pathogen, Burkholderia pseudomallei, has been labeled as a bio-terrorism agent. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of patients who were culture positive for B. pseudomallei. Assessment of patients was performed using clinical, radiological, and blood parameters. Clinical measures included pain, neurological deficit, and return to work. Radiological measures included plain radiography of the spine and magnetic resonance imaging. Blood tests included erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels. Results Four patients having melioidosis with spondylitis were evaluated. All of them had diabetes mellitus; three had multiple abscesses which required incision and drainage. Their clinical spectrum was similar to that of tuberculous spondylitis; all had back pain and radiology revealed infective spondylodiscitis with prevertebral and paravertebral collections with psoas abscess. Three patients underwent ultrasound-guided drainage of the psoas abscess and one had aspiration of the subcutaneous abscess. Bacteriological cultures showed presence of B. pseudomallei, and histopathology showed non-caseating granulomatous inflammation. All patients were treated with intravenous Ceftazidime for 2 weeks, followed by oral bactrim double strength and Doxycycline for 20 weeks. All patients improved with treatment and were healed at follow up. Conclusions Melioidosis presents with a clinical spectrum similar to that of tuberculosis. A diagnosis of melioidotic spondylitis should be considered, particularly in patients with diabetes with
Blair, Hannah A; Deeks, Emma D
Infliximab biosimilar (CT-P13/infliximab-dyyb; Remsima(®), Inflectra(®)) is approved in several countries for use in all indications for which reference infliximab (Remicade(®)) is approved, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis, psoriasis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis. Clinical data contributing to the EU approval of infliximab biosimilar were obtained from two pivotal double-blind clinical trials in patients with AS (PLANETAS) or RA (PLANETRA). Infliximab biosimilar demonstrated equivalence to reference infliximab in terms of its pharmacokinetic profile in patients with AS, patients with RA, and in healthy volunteers, and in terms of its efficacy in patients with RA. Clinical response rates in patients with RA or AS were maintained over the longer term (up to 102 weeks). In addition, the efficacy of infliximab biosimilar in patients with RA or Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis [i.e. inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)] has been demonstrated in the real-world setting. Infliximab biosimilar was generally well tolerated, with a tolerability profile similar to that of reference infliximab. Switching from reference infliximab to infliximab biosimilar had no detrimental effect on efficacy, safety, or immunogenicity compared with continuous infliximab biosimilar therapy, according to the extensions of PLANETAS and PLANETRA, and real-world data in IBD. Current evidence therefore suggests that infliximab biosimilar is a useful alternative to reference infliximab in patients with autoimmune inflammatory diseases.
Grubisić, Frane; Grazio, Simeon; Znika, Matea
Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease that primarily affects the sacroiliac joints and spine, although it may involve entheses, peripheral joints and extraarticular organs. Disease treatment is directed toward the suppression of the inflammatory process and the improvement of the musculoskeletal system function. There are several treatment modalities: education of the patient and members of the family, pharmacological treatment, physical therapy and, in some cases, surgical treatment. An important segment of various modalities of physical therapy belongs to kinesitherapy, sports and recreation whose duration and intensity largely depends not only on the actual functional impairments, but also on the presence of some other disease or contraindications. Kinesitherapy is directed toward maintenance and improvement of the function of the spine, thoracic cavity and large synovial joints as well as the prevention of deformities or contractures. Kinesitherapy and sports programmes may involve individual or group approach. Patients are encouraged to participate in sports activities that may imitate or substitute specific forms of exercises.
Robinson, P C; Benham, H
The field of spondyloarthritis (SpA) has seen huge advances over the past 5 years. The classification of axial disease has been redefined by the axial SpA criteria that incorporate disease captured before radiographic damage is evident as well as established erosive sacroiliac joint disease. Our knowledge of genetics and basic immunological pathways has progressed significantly. In addition, revolutionary progress has been achieved with the availability of tumour necrosis factor inhibitors for treating patients with moderate to severe disease. In parallel, several of novel biomarkers have been identified that show significant promise for the future. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging have helped define positive disease. We have identified that T1 and short tau inversion recovery sequences are best for the diagnosis of axial SpA, and gadolinium contrast is not additive for diagnosis. Progress has been made in identifying potential agents and strategies that reduce radiographic progression. Several referral strategies aimed at appropriate identification of patients have been trialled and found to be effective. There is still substantial work ahead, but the advances of the last 5 years have made a huge and tangible difference at the clinical coalface, and we suggest that this trend will continue.
Hernández-Flórez, Diana; Valor, Lara; de la Torre, Inmaculada; Nieto, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Estupiñán, Lina; González, Carlos; López-Longo, Francisco Javier; Monteagudo, Indalecio; Garrido, Jesús; Naredo, Esperanza; Carreño, Luis
There are various immunosorbent assays which can be used to determine infliximab (IFX) levels. Results vary between assays complicating reliability in everyday clinical practice. The aim of this study was to determine whether quantitative or qualitative assay data prove more accurate in the assessment of infliximab levels in AS patients. We analyzed 40 serum samples, taken prior to infusion, from AS patients who had been undergoing IFX therapy as a first-line of biological treatment for more than a year. IFX levels and IFX-anti-drug antibodies (ADA) were measured using two different ELISA assays [Promonitor IFX R1 and R2 (version 1), Promonitor IFX and anti-IFX (version 2) (Progenika Biopharma, Spain)] strictly following the manufacturer's guidelines. Cohen's unweighted kappa and the intraclass correlation coefficient determined qualitative and quantitative agreement for serum levels in version 1 and version 2. Bland-Altman plots were drawn to compare both assays. The comparison of data measuring IFX levels for version 1 and version 2 resulted in questionable quantitative agreement (ICC 0.659; 95% CI 0.317-0.830) and moderate qualitative agreement (κ 0.607; 95% CI 0.387-0.879) owing to systematically higher values in version 2 than version 1. Version 2 consistently detected higher levels of infliximab, particularly when analyzed in a quantitative context. Further research is needed to synchronize cutoff levels between essays and diseases so therapeutic drug ranges can be established.
Feydy, A; Gossec, L; Bazeli, R; Pluot, E; Rousseau, J; Campagna, R; Guerini, H; Dougados, M; Drapé, J-L
The new diagnostic criteria for spondyloarthropathy include MRI. MRI frequently allows early diagnosis of inflammatory lesions of the spine and sacroiliac joints in patients with normal plain films. Moreover, MRI is useful for the detection and quantification of inflammatory and structural lesions, and to assess disease activity.
Mendes, Stéphanie; Bémer, Pascale; Corvec, Stéphane; Faure, Alexis; Redon, Hervé; Drugeon, Henri B
The diverse clinical spectrum of meningococcal infections includes frequent clinical forms, such as meningitis or septicemia, and uncommon manifestations, such as septic arthritis. Neisseria meningitidis is not generally considered to be a causative agent of osteoarticular infections. We report the first case of acute primary cervical spondylitis in a 48-year-old man.
Swanson, Megan A; Huo, Michael H
Altered biomechanics secondary to hip ankylosis often result in degeneration of the lumbar spine, ipsilateral knee, and contralateral hip and knee. Symptoms in these joints may be reduced with conversion total hip arthroplasty (THA) of the ankylosed hip. THA in the ankylosed hip is a technically challenging procedure, and the overall clinical outcome is generally less satisfactory than routine THA performed for osteoarthritis and other etiologies. Functional integrity of the hip abductor muscles is the most important predictor of walking ability following conversion THA. Many patients experience persistent limp, and it can take up to 2 years to fully assess final functional outcome. Risk factors cited for increased risk of failed THA include prior surgical ankylosis and age <50 years at the time of conversion THA.
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... obstructions and Crohn’s disease. CT scanning is fast, painless, noninvasive and accurate. CT enterography is better able ... the benefits vs. risks? Benefits CT scanning is painless, noninvasive and accurate. A major advantage of CT ...
Liu, Huawei; Zhang, Xuesong; Wang, Yan
The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of a spinal osteotomy technique, Y shape osteotomy, for correcting kyphosis in AS patients planned preoperatively with computer software-assistance. 36 consecutive AS patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis were treated with one-stage posterior Y shape osteotomy and preoperative surgical planning was done with the aid of the Surgimap Spine. Radiological parameters of simulation and immediate postoperation were documented. Clinical and radiological results were evaluated in the preoperative, the early postoperative periods and during the last follow-up. The lumbar lordosis was found as 40.7 ± 4.1 degrees in the surgical planning and 49.7 ± 3.9 degrees postoperatively (p<0.01). PI-LL was 3.8± 0.9°in the simulation procedure and 6.6± 1.5°postoperatively (p<0.01). At the final follow-up, Global sagittal balance was restored and Both Oswestry Disability Index and Scoliosis Research Society scores improved largely. In conclusion, Y shape osteotomy is a safe and effective treatment option for AS patients with kyphosis deformity. PMID:27936020
Lyberg, Torstein; Bottazzi, Barbara; Meroni, Pier Luigi; Leone, Roberto; Hjeltnes, Gunnbjorg
Background Pentraxin 3 is proposed to be a marker of inflammation and cardiovascular risk, but its role in inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRDs) is still uncertain. Therefore, we wanted to examine if anti-rheumatic treatment reduced serum PTX3 (s-PTX3) levels in IRDs, and if s-PTX3 levels were related to other markers of inflammation and to endothelial function (EF). Methods We examined s-PTX3, EF and established inflammatory biomarkers in 114 IRD patients from the PSARA study before and after 6 weeks and 6 months of treatment with methotrexate (MTX) or anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF) therapy with or without MTX co-medication. Results s-PTX3 levels in all IRD diagnoses were above the upper limit of the reference range. In contrast to established inflammatory markers, in particular CRP and ESR, s-PTX3 levels did not change significantly after 6 weeks and 6 months of anti-rheumatic therapy. There was no difference in change in s-PTX3 levels from baseline to 6 weeks and 6 months between MTX monotherapy and anti-TNF regimens. CRP, ESR and EF were not related to changes in s-PTX3 neither in crude nor adjusted analyses. Conclusion IRD patients have increased s-PTX3 levels, which, in contrast to other inflammatory markers, do not seem to improve within 6 months of therapy with MTX and/or anti-TNF. Thus, s-PTX3 might reflect a persisting immune process, even a causal factor of inflammation, not inhibited by the standard anti-rheumatic treatment. Furthermore, even though s-PTX3 is thought to be a strong predictor of cardiovascular prognosis, it was not related to EF. PMID:28225768
Grubisić, Frane; Jajić, Zrinka; Alegić-Karin, Anita; Borić, Igor; Jajić, Ivo
To determine the frequency of advanced clinical and radiological features of AS with reference to gender, onset of symptoms and disease duration. Fifty-seven patients diagnosed with AS were included in this study. Functional evaluation of the musculoskeletal system detected advanced clinical features: rubber-ball phenomenon, flattening of the chest anterior wall, diastasis of rectus abdominis muscle, steel back phenomenon, umbilical extrusion, skiing posture. Conventional radiographs of sacroiliac joints, pelvis and axial skeleton were obtained in order to analyze signs of sacroiliitis, syndesmophytes, vertebral squaring and ligamentous ossification. Statistical significance is found in the distribution of particular advanced clinical and radiological features of AS between men and women: rubber-ball phenomenon (p = 0.002), flat chest (p = 0.002), diastasis of rectus abdominis muscle (p = 0.002), skiing position (p = 0.000), syndesmophytes (p = 0.009) and ligamentous ossification (p = 0.030) in thoracic and lumbar spine. Onset of first disease symptoms (> 20 years of age) is significantly associated with radiological changes in thoracic spine (ligamentous ossification, p = 0.015) and cervical spine (vertebral squaring, p = 0.032). Longer disease duration (> 10 years) is significantly associated with the appearance of particular clinical features: rubber-ball phenomenon, p < 0.01; rectus abdominis diastasis, p=0.042) and radiological changes of sacroiliac joints (grade IV sacroileitis, p = 0.012), thoracic and lumbar spine (syndesmophytes, p = 0.015; ligamentous ossification, p = 0.027). Our study shows that the occurrence of clinical and some radiological features of AS appears to be gender dependent. Furthermore, onset of first disease symptoms (> 20 years of age) and longer disease duration (> 10 years) are associated with the higher risk of developing particular clinical signs and radiological features in sacroiliac joints and axial skeleton.
Yen, Ju-Chuan; Hsu, Chia-An; Hsiao, Sheng-Huang; Hsu, Min-Huei
Introduction: In clinical settings, acute anterior uveitis (AAU) could be the first presentation of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Based on this hypothesis, we investigate whether AAU is a risk factor in developing AS later by using National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan. Materials and Methods: This cohort comparison study used longitudinal Taiwanese NHIRD to probe the relative risk odds of AAU for AS development, and consisted of all patients diagnosed with AAU (n = 5621) (ICD-9-CM codes 364.00). The relative risks of AS between AAU patients and controls were compared by estimating the crude hazard ratio with logistic regression. Kaplan–Meier analysis was used to calculate the cumulative incidence rates of developing AS, and a log-rank test was used to analyze the differences between the survival curves. Separate Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed to compute the AS-free rate after adjusting for possible confounding factors such as age and sex. Results: The crude hazard ratio was 2.667 for the AAU group, and the adjusted hazard ratio was 2.705 for the AAU group. The observation time of the AS-free group was shorter for AAU patients compared with the control group (1507 versus 1578 days). Moreover, in the AAU patients, the younger age onset of AAU (less than 30 years old here) would lead to an earlier diagnosis of AS later with a median of 1445.5 (742–2241) versus 1544 (819–2289) days of survival for the group of age onset of AAU greater than 30 years old. The difference is statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusions: AAU was a risk factor for AS. To identify AAU as an extra-articular manifestation is crucial for early diagnosis and treatment of AS and containing functional loss accordingly. PMID:28124984
Suhodolčan, Lovro; Mihelak, Marko; Brecelj, Janez; Vengust, Rok
We describe a case of a 19-year-old young man with oligoarthritis type of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, who presented with several month duration of lower neck pain and progressive muscular weakness of all four limbs. X-rays of the cervical spine demonstrated spontaneous apophyseal joint fusion from the occipital condyle to C6 and from C7 to Th2 with marked instability between C6 and C7. Surgical intervention began with anterolateral approach to the cervical spine performing decompression, insertion of cage and anterior vertebral plate and screws, followed by posterior approach and fixation. Care was taken to restore sagittal balance. The condition was successfully operatively managed with multisegmental, both column fixation and fusion, resulting in pain cessation and resolution of myelopathy. Postoperatively, minor swallowing difficulties were noted, which ceased after three days. Patient was able to move around in a wheelchair on the sixth postoperative day. Stiff neck collar was advised for three months postoperatively with neck pain slowly decreasing in the course of first postoperative month. On the follow-up visit six months after the surgery patient exhibited no signs of spastic tetraparesis, X-rays of the cervical spine revealed solid bony fusion at single mobile segment C6-C7. He was able to gaze horizontally while sitting in a wheelchair. Signs of myelopathy with stiff neck and single movable segment raised concerns about intubation, but were successfully managed using awake fiber-optic intubation. Avoidance of tracheostomy enabled us to perform an anterolateral approach without increasing the risk of wound infection. Regarding surgical procedure, the same principles are obeyed as in management of fracture in ankylosing spondylitis or Mb. Forestrier. PMID:27458558
... cross-sectional pictures of your body. Doctors use CT scans to look for Broken bones Cancers Blood clots Signs of heart disease Internal bleeding During a CT scan, you lie still on a table. The table ...
Brain CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... conditions: Birth (congenital) defect of the head or brain Brain infection Brain tumor Buildup of fluid inside ...
Dougados, M; Oudart, F; Jungers, P; Vallée, P; Chevrot, A; Amor, B
Fifteen cases of ankylosing spondylarthritis, associated to an IgA nephropathy have been reported in the literature. This association may be fortuitous, or on the contrary suggest a common pathogenic link between the two diseases and the authors have compared the incidence of radiological abnormalities of the sacro-iliac joints as well as the incidence of rheumatoid clinical signs in 186 patients suffering from an IgA nephropathy to those observed in 192 reference patients. This study could not demonstrate any difference between the two groups and, therefore, suggests that the cases reported in the literature are secondary to a simple fortuitous association.
Kang, Seung-Ji; Jang, Hee-Chang; Jung, Sook-In; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Park, Wan Beom; Kim, Chung-Jong; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Kim, Eu Suk; Kim, Hong Bin; Oh, Myoung-don
Background There are limited data describing the clinical characteristics of pyogenic spondylitis caused by Gram-negative bacteria (GNB). The aim of this study was to investigate the predisposing factors and clinical characteristics of pyogenic spondylitis caused by GNB compared to Gram-positive cocci (GPC). Methods We performed a retrospective review of medical records from patients with culture-confirmed pyogenic spondylitis at four tertiary teaching hospitals over an 8-year period. Results A total of 344 patients with culture-confirmed pyogenic spondylitis were evaluated. There were 62 patients (18.0%) with pyogenic spondylitis caused by GNB and the most common organism was Escherichia coli (n = 35, 10.2%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 10, 2.9%). Pyogenic spondylitis caused by GNB was more frequently associated with the female gender (64.5 vs. 35.5%, P <0.01), preexisting or synchronous genitourinary tract infection (32.3 vs. 2.1%, P< 0.01), and intra-abdominal infection (12.9 vs. 0.4%, P< 0.01) compared to patients with GPC. Although pyogenic spondylitis caused by GNB presented with severe sepsis more frequently (24.2 vs. 11.3%, P = 0.01), the mortality rate (6.0 vs. 5.2%) and the proportion of patients with residual disability (6.0 vs. 9.0%), defined as grade 3 or 4 (P = 0.78) 3 months after completion of treatment, were not significantly different compared to GPC patients. Conclusion GNB should be considered as the etiologic organism when infectious spondylitis develops in a patient with preexisting or synchronous genitourinary tract and intra-abdominal infection. In addition, the mortality rate and clinical outcomes are not significantly different between pyogenic spondylitis caused by GNB and GPC. PMID:25978839
... Z CT Colonography Computed tomography (CT) colonography or virtual colonoscopy uses special x-ray equipment to examine ... and blood vessels. CT colonography, also known as virtual colonoscopy, uses low dose radiation CT scanning to ...
Spanish Rheumatology Society and Hospital Pharmacy Society Consensus on recommendations for biologics optimization in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis
Martínez-Fernández, Carmen; Dorantes-Calderón, Benito; García-Vicuña, Rosario; Hernández-Cruz, Blanca; Herrero-Ambrosio, Alicia; Ibarra-Barrueta, Olatz; Martín-Mola, Emilio; Monte-Boquet, Emilio; Morell-Baladrón, Alberto; Sanmartí, Raimon; Sanz-Sanz, Jesús; de Toro-Santos, Francisco Javier; Vela, Paloma; Román Ivorra, José Andrés; Poveda-Andrés, José Luis; Muñoz-Fernández, Santiago
Objective. The aim of this study was to establish guidelines for the optimization of biologic therapies for health professionals involved in the management of patients with RA, AS and PsA. Methods. Recommendations were established via consensus by a panel of experts in rheumatology and hospital pharmacy, based on analysis of available scientific evidence obtained from four systematic reviews and on the clinical experience of panellists. The Delphi method was used to evaluate these recommendations, both between panellists and among a wider group of rheumatologists. Results. Previous concepts concerning better management of RA, AS and PsA were reviewed and, more specifically, guidelines for the optimization of biologic therapies used to treat these diseases were formulated. Recommendations were made with the aim of establishing a plan for when and how to taper biologic treatment in patients with these diseases. Conclusion. The recommendations established herein aim not only to provide advice on how to improve the risk:benefit ratio and efficiency of such treatments, but also to reduce variability in daily clinical practice in the use of biologic therapies for rheumatic diseases. PMID:25526976
Fabrikant, J.I.; Lyman, J.T.
The estimates of absorbed doses of x rays and excess risk of cancer in bone marrow and heavily irradiated sites are extremely crude and are based on very limited data and on a number of assumptions. Some of these assumptions may later prove to be incorrect, but it is probable that they are correct to within a factor of 2. The excess cancer risk estimates calculated compare well with the most reliable epidemiological surveys thus far studied. This is particularly important for cancers of heavily irradiated sites with long latent periods. The mean followup period for the patients was 16.2 y, and an increase in cancers of heavily irradiated sites may appear in these patients in the 1970s in tissues and organs with long latent periods for the induction of cancer. The accuracy of these estimates is severely limited by the inadequacy of information on doses absorbed by the tissues at risk in the irradiated patients. The information on absorbed dose is essential for an accurate assessment of dose-cancer incidence analysis. Furthermore, in this valuable series of irradiated patients, the information on radiation dosimetry on the radiotherapy charts is central to any reliable determination of somatic risks of radiation with regard to carcinogenesis in man. The work necessary to obtain these data is under way; only when they are available can more precise estimates of risk of cancer induction by radiation in man be obtained.
Yang, Baohui; Lu, Teng
For patients with AS and lower cervical spine fractures, surgical methods have mainly included the single anterior approach, single posterior approach, and combined anterior-posterior approach. However, various surgical procedures were utilized because the fractures have not been clearly classified according to presence of displacement in these previous studies. Consequently, controversies have been raised regarding the selection of the surgical procedure. This study retrospective analysis was conducted in 12 patients with AS and lower cervical spine fractures and dislocations and explored single-session combined anterior-posterior approach for the treatment of AS with obvious displaced lower cervical spine fractures and dislocations which has demonstrated advantages such as good stabilization, satisfied fracture healing, and easy postoperative cares. However, to some extent, the difficulty and risk of this approach should be considered. Attention should be paid to the prevention of perioperative complications. PMID:28133616
Yang, Baohui; Lu, Teng; Li, Haopeng
For patients with AS and lower cervical spine fractures, surgical methods have mainly included the single anterior approach, single posterior approach, and combined anterior-posterior approach. However, various surgical procedures were utilized because the fractures have not been clearly classified according to presence of displacement in these previous studies. Consequently, controversies have been raised regarding the selection of the surgical procedure. This study retrospective analysis was conducted in 12 patients with AS and lower cervical spine fractures and dislocations and explored single-session combined anterior-posterior approach for the treatment of AS with obvious displaced lower cervical spine fractures and dislocations which has demonstrated advantages such as good stabilization, satisfied fracture healing, and easy postoperative cares. However, to some extent, the difficulty and risk of this approach should be considered. Attention should be paid to the prevention of perioperative complications.
Widhiasi, Dhanti Erma
Study Design Observational analytic design with a cross-sectional approach. Purpose To analyze the suitability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in distinguishing radiology images with a corresponding delineation of spondylitis and vertebral metastasis confirmed by histology results. Overview of Literature MRI is an accurate modality for assessing vertebrae and their disorders. Infections and metastasis are most commonly found in the vertebrae. It is difficult to differentiate between these two disorders both clinically and radiographically, particularly in atypical cases. Methods McNemar statistical test was used to analyze the data. Samples were chosen using the consecutive method. There were 35 samples (14 males and 21 females), consisting of 22 samples of spondylitis and 13 samples of metastasis confirmed on histology examination. Results Nineteen (86%) out of the 22 samples of histological spondylitis were diagnosed as having spondylitis on MRI, whereas all 13 samples of metastasis were 100% accurately diagnosed on MRI. Conclusions There was no statistically significant difference between diagnostic radiology using MRI and histological diagnosis with a p=0.250 (p>0.05). In this respect, MRI was more precise in diagnosing metastasis. Typical MRI description of spondylitis was the involvement of anterior vertebrae and components of intervertebral discs, stiffening of discs, paravertebral abscess, and involvement of the vertebral segment sequence. Typical MRI delineation of metastasis was involvement of the anterior posterior vertebral component, paravertebral mass, and skip lesions. PMID:26435798
Kim, Jin-Hyun; Kang, Jung-Il; Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Jongmin; Lee, In-Sik; Jung, Heeyoune
The postoperative infectious spondylitis has been reported to occur among every 1% to 12%. It is difficult to early diagnose in some cases. If the diagnosis is delayed, it can be a life-threatening condition. We report a 32-year-old male patient with postoperative infectious spondylitis. He had surgical treatments for traumatic intervertebral disc herniations in L3-4 and L4-5. Three weeks after surgery, he complained for fever and paraplegia. Cervicothoracic magnetic resonance imaging showed the collapsed T2 and T3 vertebral body with changes of bone marrow signal intensity. Moreover, it showed anterior and posterior epidural masses causing spinal cord compressions which suggested infectious spondylitis. After the use of antibiotics and surgical decompressions T2-T3, his general conditions were improved and muscle power of lower extremities began to be gradually restored. However, we could not identify the exact organisms that may be the cause of infectious spondylitis. It could be important that the infectious spondylitis, which is presented away from the primary operative level, should be observed in patients with fevers of unknown origin and paraplegia. PMID:24236263
Kizilbash, Quratulain Fatima; Seaworth, Barbara Joyce
While tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis is an ancient scourge, multi-drug resistant-tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a modern major public health concern. The objective of this study was to review and summarize the data available on MDR-TB spondylitis. An extensive search of the PubMed database was conducted for articles in English relevant to MDR-TB spondylitis by December 2015. Tuberculous spondylitis accounts for 0.5–1% of all TB cases, and it is estimated that there are probably 5000 MDR-TB spondylitis cases each year worldwide. The diagnosis of MDR-TB spondylitis requires a high index of suspicion based on epidemiologic, clinical, and radiologic features. Cultures and susceptibility testing remain the gold standard for the diagnosis of MDR-TB, but this can take several weeks to obtain. Medical treatment is the mainstay of therapy, and ideally, it should be based on drug susceptibility testing. If empiric treatment is necessary, it should be based on drug exposure history, contact history, epidemiology, and local drug resistance data, if available. The total duration of treatment should not be <18–24 months. Clinical, radiographic, and if possible, bacteriologic improvement should be used to assess the treatment success. Surgery should be reserved for neurologic deterioration, significant kyphosis, spinal instability, severe pain, and failure of medical management. PMID:27803747
Reşorlu, Hatice; Saçar, Suzan; Inceer, Beşir Şahin; Akbal, Ayla; Gökmen, Ferhat; Zateri, Coskun; Savaş, Yilmaz
Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease widely seen in endemic regions and that can lead to systemic involvement. The musculoskeletal system is frequently affected, and the disease can exhibit clinical involvements such as arthritis, spondylitis, spondylodiscitis, osteomyelitis, tenosynovitis and bursitis. Spondylitis and spondylodiscitis, common complications of brucellosis, predominantly affect the lumbar and thoracic vertebrae. Epidural abscess may occur as a rare complication of spondylitis. Spinal brucellosis and development of epidural abscess in the cervical region are rare. Development of epidural abscess affects the duration and success of treatment. Spinal brucellosis should be considered in patients presenting with fever and lower back-neck pain in endemic regions, and treatment must be initiated with early diagnosis in order to prevent potential complications.
Bozbaş, Gülnur Taşcı; Ünübol, Ayşe İyiyapıcı; Gürer, Gülcan
Brucellosis is an infectious disease that affects many organ systems. Osteoarticular involvement, especially spondylitis, is the most common complication of brucellosis, but psoas abscess is very rare. Serological tests at diagnosis of the disease are very valuable and most widely used. Herein, we report a case of psoas abscess secondary to brucellar spondylitis. In this case, interestingly, the serological test results were negative, and the diagnosis could be made by abscess culture. In patients, particularly those who live in areas endemic for brucellosis, as in our case, it should be kept in mind that a negative serological test result should not exclude the diagnosis of brucellosis. PMID:28149665
Computed tomography scan - abdomen; CT scan - abdomen; CT abdomen and pelvis ... 2016:chap 133. Radiologyinfo.org. Computed tomography (CT) - abdomen and pelvis. Updated June 16, 2016. www.radiologyinfo. ...
... test used to help diagnose—or rule out—spinal column damage in injured patients. CT scanning is fast, ... CT is to detect—or to rule out—spinal column damage in patients who have been injured. CT ...
Baek, Kyeong Hee; Kang, Dong Ho; Lee, Chul Hee; Hwang, Soo Hyun; Park, In Sung
Objective Infectious spondylitis is mostly managed by appropriate antibiotic treatment options, and some patients may require surgical interventions. However, surgical interventions that use spinal instrumentation to correct the mechanical instability may be associated with the risk of an increase in the recurrence rate. In this study, we investigated whether spinal instrumentation effects on recurrence of infectious spondylitis. Methods The study was conducted as a retrospective study by dividing the subjects into the noninstrumentation surgery and instrumentation surgery groups among a total of 95 patients who had received surgical interventions in infectious spondylitis from 2009 to 2014. The study investigated patient variables such as underlying illness, presumed source of infection, clinical data, laboratory and radiological data, and ultimate outcome, and compared them between the 2 groups. Results In the 95 patients, instrumentation was not used in 21 patients but it was used in 74 patients. When the disease involved ≥3 vertebral bodies, lumbosacral level and epidural part, noninstrumentation surgery was mainly conducted, but when the disease involved the thoracic level and psoas muscle part, instrumentation surgery was mainly conducted. However, there were no differences between the 2 groups in terms of the recurrence rate and the incidence of primary failure. Conclusion The use of instrumentation in treating infectious spondylitis was determined by the level of involvement and part of the infection, but the use of instrumentation did not cause any increases in the recurrence rate and the incidence of primary failure. PMID:27799990
NETL's CT Scanner laboratory is equipped with three CT scanners and a mobile core logging unit that work together to provide characteristic geologic and geophysical information at different scales, non-destructively.
... may increase the risk of an unusual adverse effect. Women should always inform their physician and the CT ... of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of your body, which are then displayed on a monitor. CT ...
Kim, Kyong-Young; Hur, Jaehyung; Jo, Wonyong; Hong, Jeongmin; Cho, Oh-Hyun; Kang, Dong Ho; Kim, Sunjoo
Roseomonas are a gram-negative bacteria species that have been isolated from environmental sources. Human Roseomonas infections typically occur in immunocompromised patients, most commonly as catheter-related bloodstream infections. However, Roseomonas infections are rarely reported in immunocompetent hosts. We report what we believe to be the first case in Korea of infectious spondylitis with bacteremia due to Roseomonas mucosa in an immunocompetent patient who had undergone vertebroplasty for compression fractures of his thoracic and lumbar spine. PMID:26483995
Momjian, Rita; George, Mina
Spinal tuberculosis in its typical form that shows destruction of two adjacent vertebral bodies and opposing end plates, destruction of the intervening intervertebral disc and a paravertebral or psoas abscess, is easily recognized and readily treated. Atypical tuberculous spondylitis without the above mentioned imaging features, although seen infrequently, has been well documented. We present, in this report, a case of atypical tuberculous spondylitis showing involvement of contiguous lower dorsal vertebral bodies and posterior elements with paravertebral and epidural abscess but with preserved intervertebral discs. The patient presented in advanced stage with progressive severe neurological symptoms due to spinal cord compression. Non-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging led to misdiagnosis of the lesion as a neoplastic process. It was followed by contrast enhanced computed tomography of the chest and abdomen that raised the possibility of an infectious process and, post-operatively, histopathological examination of the operative specimen confirmed tuberculosis. This case indicates the difficulty in differentiating atypical spinal tuberculosis from other diseases causing spinal cord compression. The different forms of atypical tuberculous spondylitis reported in the literature are reviewed. The role of the radiologist in tuberculous spondylitis is not only to recognize the imaging characteristics of the disease by best imaging modality, which is contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, but also to be alert to the more atypical presentations to ensure early diagnosis and prompt treatment to prevent complications. However, when neither clinical examination nor magnetic resonance imaging findings are reliable in differentiating spinal infection from one another and from neoplasm, adequate biopsy, either imaging guided or surgical biopsy is essential for early diagnosis. PMID:25926906
Yang, Baohui; Hu, Hongbo; Chen, Jie; He, Xijing
Objective. To evaluate the clinical, laboratory, and radiological presentation of 16 cases of brucellar spondylitis. Methods. The clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, and imaging findings of 16 patients (aged from 24 to 66 years) with brucellar spondylitis treated between September 2012 and September 2014 at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University (Xi'an, China) were retrospectively analyzed. Results. Clinical manifestations included high fever, severe pain, sweating, and fatigue. One patient had epididymitis, and two showed clear signs of spinal nerve damage. Laboratory tests showed elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein content. Serum brucella agglutination tests were positive, and 11 brucella blood cultures were positive. Imaging manifestations mainly consisted of abnormal signals in the intervertebral space or abnormal signals in the adjacent vertebral bodies (16/16, 100%) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), disc space narrowing (14/16, 88%) in X-ray and MRI, or bone destruction and sclerosis around the damaged zone (13/16, 81%) in computed tomography, with rare cases of psoas abscess (2/16, 13%) and sequestrum (1/16, 6%). Conclusion. Since brucellar spondylitis exhibited characteristic clinical and imaging manifestations, it could be diagnosed with specific laboratory tests. Early MRI examination of suspected cases could improve rapid diagnosis. PMID:27672661
Motta, Alexandre; Louro, Rafael Seabra; Medeiros, Paulo José D'Albuquerque; Capelli, Jonas
This article describes the surgical and orthodontic treatment of a girl with facial deformities and functional involvement. The left temporomandibular joint was ankylosed, and the lower third of the face was markedly deficient, with mandibular retrusion and severe laterognathism to the left side. Mouth-opening was limited, and the patient had problems speaking and chewing. Two surgical procedures had been performed previously at another institution. We treated the patient with condylar surgery while she was still growing, followed by orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery after growth was complete. Twelve-year follow-up records are presented.
Computed tomography angiography - thorax; CTA - lungs; Pulmonary embolism - CTA chest; Thoracic aortic aneurysm - CTA chest; Venous thromboembolism - CTA lung; Blood clot - CTA lung; Embolus - CTA lung; CT ...
Namisato, Shun; Nakasone, Chikara; Okudaira, Shoko; Touyama, Masato; Ishikawa, Naoki; Higa, Hajime; Fujita, Jiro
We present a case of a 78-year-old woman who visited our hospital for chronic atrial fibrillation. She consulted an orthopedic surgeon for lumbar pain in August 2009 and has been followed up for osteoporosis. However, her lumbar pain became exacerbated. In December 2009, clinical examination revealed that the pain was caused by tuberculous spondylitis and iliopsoas abscess. Diffuse miliary shadow, which was undetected earlier, was noted on chest roentgenogram; she was diagnosed with miliary tuberculosis. Lumbar pain is common in elderly individuals and should be regarded as one of the tuberculosis symptoms, considering its atypical course in elderly patients.
Rheumatoid Arthritis; Ankylosing Spondylitis; Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Psoriasis; Behcet's Disease; Wegener's Granulomatosis; Takayasu's Disease; Crohn's Disease; Ulcerative Colitis; Autoimmune Hepatitis; Sclerosing Cholangitis; Gougerot-sjögren
... More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses Computed tomography (CT) of the sinuses uses special x-ray equipment to evaluate the paranasal sinus cavities – hollow, air-filled spaces within the bones of the face surrounding the ...
Nocini, Pier Francesco; De Santis, Daniele; Ferrari, Francesca; Bertele, Gian Paolo
The purpose of this study was to develop an extraosseous, tooth-supported miniature intraoral device that could produce prosthetically driven bone distraction of small atrophic alveolar ridge segments. Extraosseous distraction requires that the distraction device be anchored to a dental implant previously placed into the ridge according to its anatomic axis. A distractor can also correct the position of implants placed in young patients before skeletal growth is completed. Similarly, it allows the alignment of ankylosed teeth not treatable by orthodontics. The device is made of (1) an engine consisting of an orthodontic micrometric screw; (2) a joint between the implant and the engine, ie, the ball attachment/o-ring system; and (3) an anchorage system to the oral cavity provided by an orthodontic appliance and a mini-implant for possible additional support. Surgery involves an osteotomy of the atrophic alveolar ridge segment, incorporating the implant, from the basal bone; afterward the device can be applied and distraction of the segment can be carried out. Distraction was successfully performed in 3 clinical cases: 2 bone-implant segments and 1 bone-ankylosed tooth segment. All cases were clinically uneventful. This mini-device for osteogenic distraction of small atrophic ridge segments can provide for accurate and precise ridge augmentation, as is required for ideal prosthetic rehabilitation.
Tsunoda, Kazuhiko; Iizuka, Haku; Sorimachi, Yasunori; Ara, Tsuyoshi; Nishinome, Masahiro; Takechi, Yasuhiko; Takagishi, Kenji
This report presents a case of atlanto-axial subluxation after treatment of pyogenic spondylitis of the atlanto-occipital joint. A 60-year-old male had 1-month history of neck pain with fever. Magnetic resonance imaging showed inflammation around the odontoid process. Intravenous antibiotic therapy was administrated immediately. After 6 weeks, CRP had returned almost to normal. After 4 months, laboratory data was still normal, but the patient experienced increasing neck pain. Lateral cervical radiography in the neutral position showed instability between C1 and C2. Computed tomography showed a bony union of the atlanto-occipital joint and severe destruction of the atlanto-axial joint on the left side. Transarticular screw fixation for the atlanto-axial joint was performed. A lateral cervical radiograph in the neutral position after surgery showed a solid bony union. Neck pain improved following surgery. We speculate that spondylitis of the atlanto-occipital joint induced a loosening of the transverse ligament and articulation of the atlanto-axial joint. A bony fusion of the atlanto-occipital joint after antibiotic treatment resolved the pyogenic inflammation concentrated stress to the damaged atlanto-axial joint, resulting in further damage. The atlanto-axial instability was finally managed by the insertion of a transarticular screw.
Cvjetičanin, Miljenko; Jajić, Zrinka
By the quantitative dermatoglyphic analysis of digitopalmar ridge count in fifty male psoriatic spondylitis patients were researched 25 dermatoglyphics traits: number of epidermal ridges on the all ten fingers, their sum for five and ten fingers, four traits on the both palms, i.e. between a-b, b-c, c-d and a-d triradii, and atd angles and their bilateral sum in degrees. The data obtained were compared with those recorded in a control group of 200 pairs of imprints of phenotypically healthy males from the Zagreb area. Statistically significant differences to control were found in 13 variables in decreased ridge count in second, third, fourth and fifth finger on the right palm, and in their sum on the all five fingers, than in second, third, fourth and fifth finger on the left palm, and in their sum in the all fingers, and in the all ten fingers. Atd angle was decreased on the left palm, and on the both palm together. Accordingly a polygenetic system identical in some loci to polygenetic system predisposing to male psoriatic spondylitis susceptibility might be found responsible for dermatogliyphic pattern development.
... CT Angiography? Angiography is a minimally invasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Angiography uses one of three imaging technologies and, in most cases, a contrast material injection ...
CAT scan - leg; Computed axial tomography scan - leg; Computed tomography scan - leg; CT scan - leg ... scanners can perform the exam without stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the body area, called ...
CAT scan - arm; Computed axial tomography scan - arm; Computed tomography scan - arm; CT scan - arm ... scanners can perform the exam without stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the arm area, called ...
... to urinate; however, this is actually a contrast effect and subsides quickly. When you enter the CT scanner room, special light lines may be seen projected onto your body, and are used to ensure that you are ...
... to urinate; however, this is actually a contrast effect and subsides quickly. When you enter the CT scanner room, special light lines may be seen projected onto your body, and are used to ensure that you are ...
... Narrowing of the spine ( spinal stenosis ) Scoliosis Tumor Risks Risks of CT scans include: Exposure to radiation ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...
CAT scan - lumbar spine; Computed axial tomography scan - lumbar spine; Computed tomography scan - lumbar spine; CT - lower back ... stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the spine area, called slices. These images can be stored, ...
The Radiation Epidemiology Branch and collaborators have initiated a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the relationship between radiation exposure from CT scans conducted during childhood and adolescence and the subsequent development of cancer.
... lives. CT has been shown to be a cost-effective imaging tool for a wide range of ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...
... CT Scan Related Topics Aneurysm Coronary Calcium Scan Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack Pulmonary Embolism Send a link to ... imaging test can help doctors detect or evaluate coronary heart disease, calcium buildup in the coronary arteries, problems with ...
Fong, T.C.; Johns, R.D.; Long, M.; Myles, S.T.
Pituitary abscess is a rare condition, with only 50 cases reported in the literature. Of those, 29 cases were well documented for analysis. Preoperative diagnosis of pituitary abscess is difficult. The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of pituitary abscess was first described in 1983; the abscess was depicted by axial images with coronal reconstruction. The authors recently encountered a case of pituitary abscess documented by direct coronal CT of the sella turcica.
Talebi, Alireza; Taifebagherlu, Jafar; Sharifi, Arian; Delkhosh-Kasmaie, Fatemeh
Spondylitis is a reemerging epidemic spinal infection in male broiler chickens (5 to 7 weeks of age) as well as broiler breeder roosters (15 to 18 weeks of age). Among various causative agents, Enterococcus species and in particular E. cecorum, a gram-positive bacterium as a gastrointestinal flora of birds, have mostly been isolated. On late September 2015, a number of 10 weeks old roosters with characteristic clinical signs of lameness and hock-sitting posture were autopsied. During thorough general routine post-mortem examinations, abnormalities like nodular masses correlated well with the hock-sitting posture and posterior paresis/paralysis were observed in joint spaces on the caudal thoracic vertebral column (T6-T7) immediately anterior to the kidneys in all affected birds. At histopathological examinations, osteomyelitis with limited pathological lesions including mononuclear inflammatory cells infiltration and edema in spinal cord were seen and the infection was diagnosed as an acute spondylosis.
Talebi, Alireza; Taifebagherlu, Jafar; Sharifi, Arian; Delkhosh-Kasmaie, Fatemeh
Spondylitis is a reemerging epidemic spinal infection in male broiler chickens (5 to 7 weeks of age) as well as broiler breeder roosters (15 to 18 weeks of age). Among various causative agents, Enterococcus species and in particular E. cecorum, a gram-positive bacterium as a gastrointestinal flora of birds, have mostly been isolated. On late September 2015, a number of 10 weeks old roosters with characteristic clinical signs of lameness and hock-sitting posture were autopsied. During thorough general routine post-mortem examinations, abnormalities like nodular masses correlated well with the hock-sitting posture and posterior paresis/paralysis were observed in joint spaces on the caudal thoracic vertebral column (T6-T7) immediately anterior to the kidneys in all affected birds. At histopathological examinations, osteomyelitis with limited pathological lesions including mononuclear inflammatory cells infiltration and edema in spinal cord were seen and the infection was diagnosed as an acute spondylosis. PMID:28144429
Rathinavelu, Barani; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Amritanand, Rohit; Sundararaj, Gabriel David
Study Design Retrospective clinical series. Purpose To study the clinical, functional and radiological results of patients with tuberculous spondylitis with and without paraplegia, treated surgically using the "Extended Posterior Circumferential Decompression (EPCD)" technique. Overview of Literature With the increasing possibility of addressing all three columns by a single approach, posterior and posterolateral approaches are gaining acceptance. A single exposure for cases with neurological deficit and kyphotic deformity requiring circumferential decompression, anterior column reconstruction and posterior instrumentation is helpful. Methods Forty-one patients with dorsal/dorsolumbar/lumbar tubercular spondylitis who were operated using the EPCD approach between 2006 to 2009 were included. Postoperatively, patients were started on nine-month anti-tuberculous treatment. They were serially followed up to thirty-six months and both clinical measures (including pain, neurological status and ambulatory status) and radiological measures (including kyphotic angle correction, loss of correction and healing status) were used for assessment. Results Disease-healing with bony fusion (interbody fusion) was seen in 97.5% of cases. Average deformity (kyphosis) correction was 54.6% in dorsal spine and 207.3% in lumbar spine. Corresponding loss of correction was 3.6 degrees in dorsal spine and 1.9 degrees in the lumbar spine. Neurological recovery in Frankel B and C paraplegia was 85.7% and 62.5%, respectively. Conclusions The EPCD approach permits all the advantages of a single or dual session anterior and posterior surgery, with significant benefits in terms of decreased operative time, reduced hospital stay and better kyphotic angle correction. PMID:25558312
Li, Tao; Liu, Tao; Jiang, Zhensong; Cui, Xingang; Sun, Jianmin
The present study examined the histopathological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of pyogenic, brucella and tuberculous spondylitis (PS, BS and TS, respectively). A total of 22 PS, 20 BS and 20 TS patients were included in the study. Histopathological examination was used to assess the lesion structure and composition, and the MRI observation identified the lesion location and signal features. The following histopathological and MRI features were identified significantly more in patients with PS than in patients with BS and TS: Predominant neutrophil infiltration, abnormal intervertebral disk signal, lesions on the ventral and lateral sides of the vertebral bodies, and thick and irregular abscess walls. The following histopathological and MRI features were identified significantly more in patients with BS than in patients with PS and TS: Predominant lymphocyte infiltration, new bone formation, epithelioid granuloma, lesions on the ventral sides of the vertebral bodies, no, or very mild, vertebral body deformation, no abnormal paraspinal soft tissue signal, no intraosseous or paraspinal abscesses, and thin and irregular abscess walls. The following histopathological and MRI features were identified significantly more in patients with TS than in patients with BS and PS: Sequestrum, Langerhans giant cells, caseous necrosis, lesions primarily in the thoracic region and on the lateral sides of the vertebral bodies, no obvious intervertebral disk damage, obvious vertebral body deformation, abnormal paraspinal soft tissue signal, intraosseous or paraspinal abscesses, and thin and smooth abscess walls. In conclusion, it can be suggested that these significant differences in histopathological and MRI features between the three different types of spondylitis may contribute towards the differential diagnosis of the diseases. PMID:27698694
Epstein, B.M.; Mann, J.H.
Intraabdominal tuberculosis (TB) presents with a wide variety of clinical and radiologic features. Besides the reported computed tomographic (CT) finding of high-density ascites in tuberculous peritonitis, this report describes additional CT features highly suggestive of abdominal tuberculosis in eight cases: (1) irregular soft-tissue densities in the omental area; (2) low-density masses surrounded by thick solid rims; (3) a disorganized appearance of soft-tissue densities, fluid, and bowel loops forming a poorly defined mass; (4) low-density lymph nodes with a multilocular appearance after intravenous contrast administration; and (5) possibly high-density ascites. The differential diagnosis of these features include lymphoma, various forms of peritonitis, peritoneal carcinomatosis, and peritoneal mesothelioma. It is important that the CT features of intraabdominal tuberculosis be recognized in order that laparotomy be avoided and less invasive procedures (e.g., laparoscopy, biopsy, or a trial of antituberculous therapy) be instituted.
... the machine as the actual CT scanning is performed. Depending on the type of CT scan, the machine may make several passes. The contrast material will then be injected through an intravenous line ( ...
sulfonamide used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis and ankylosing spondylitis . Its mechanism of action is not fully...interventions for immune- mediated diseases . One such therapy invoivt %j,_ sulfonamide, sulfasalazine, an -- 4- 4-inflammatory drug used in the treatment of...rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, and ankylosing spondylitis2 . The exact mode of action of sulfasalazine and its active metabolites, 5
Kuszyk, B S; Fishman, E K
The basic tasks of spiral CT acquisition, image processing, and image display are the foundations underlying CT angiography regardless of the anatomic region of interest. Volume rendering is a rapidly emerging image processing technique for creating three-dimensional (3D) images from CT datasets, which has important advantages over other 3D rendering techniques including maximum intensity projection and surface rendering. This articles reviews the techniques that are commonly used in CT angiography and key considerations for optimization.
Besson, G. M.
A new dual-drum CT system architecture has been recently introduced with the potential to achieve significantly higher temporal resolution than is currently possible in medical imaging CT. The concept relies only on known technologies; in particular rotation speeds several times higher than what is possible today could be achieved leveraging typical x-ray tube designs and capabilities. However, the architecture lends itself to the development of a new arrangement of x-ray sources in a toroidal vacuum envelope containing a rotating cathode ring and a (optionally rotating) shared anode ring to potentially obtain increased individual beam power as well as increase total exposure per rotation. The new x-ray source sub-system design builds on previously described concepts and could make the provision of multiple conventional high-power cathodes in a CT system practical by distributing the anode target between the cathodes. In particular, relying on known magnetic-levitation technologies, it is in principle possible to more than double the relative speed of the electron-beam with respect to the target, thus potentially leading to significant individual beam power increases as compared to today's state-of-the-art. In one embodiment, the proposed design can be naturally leveraged by the dual-drum CT concept previously described to alleviate the problem of arranging a number of conventional rotating anode-stem x-ray tubes and power conditioners on the limited space of a CT gantry. In another embodiment, a system with three cathodes is suggested leveraging the architecture previously proposed by Franke.
Fukuda, Tatsuya; Bouchi, Ryotaro; Minami, Isao; Ohara, Norihiko; Nakano, Yujiro; Nishitani, Rie; Murakami, Masanori; Takeuchi, Takato; Akihisa, Momoko; Fujita, Masamichi; Izumiyama, Hajime; Hashimoto, Koshi; Yoshimoto, Takanobu; Ogawa, Yoshihiro
We present a case of a 62-year-old diabetic woman with acute pyelonephritis and spondylitis caused by Salmonella typhi. She was admitted to Tokyo Medical Dental University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan, because of unconsciousness and was diagnosed with sepsis by retrograde pyelonephritis as a result of Salmonella typhi. Antibiotics treatment was immediately started; however, she subsequently developed lumbar spondylitis, and long-term conservative treatment with antibiotics and a fixing device were required. This is the first report of a diabetic patient who developed retrograde urinary tract infection with Salmonella typhi, followed by sepsis and spondylitis. The infection could be a result of diabetic neuropathy, presenting neurogenic bladder and hydronephrosis. The patient was successfully treated with antibiotics and became asymptomatic with normal inflammatory marker levels, and no clinical sign of recurrence was observed in the kidney and spine at 4 months.
Borst, Luke B; Suyemoto, M Mitsu; Robbins, Kabel M; Lyman, Roberta L; Martin, Michael P; Barnes, H John
Enterococcus cecorum, a normal intestinal inhabitant, is increasingly responsible for outbreaks of arthritis and osteomyelitis in chickens worldwide. Enterococcal spondylitis (ES) is a specific manifestation of E. cecorum-associated disease in which increased flock morbidity and mortality result from chronic infection involving the free thoracic vertebra. In this study the genetic relatedness and antimicrobial resistance of isolates recovered from ES-affected flocks in the southeastern United States were determined. ES outbreaks from 2007 to 2011 were investigated in North Carolina (15 flocks, 13 farms, four integrators), South Carolina (one flock, one farm, one integrator) and Alabama (six flocks, six farms, one integrator). From these 22 epidemiologically distinct outbreaks, 326 isolates of E. cecorum were recovered. Isolates from spinal lesions and caeca of affected birds (cases) and caeca of unaffected birds (controls) were genotyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; phenotyped using both GenIII MicroPlate™ (Biolog; Hayward, CA, USA) microbial identification plates and antimicrobial sensitivity testing; and compared with each other. Isolates from spinal lesions were incapable of mannitol metabolism and the majority of these isolates were genetically clonal. In contrast, caecal isolates from control birds varied in their ability to metabolize mannitol and were genetically diverse. Isolates from both case and control birds had high levels of antimicrobial resistance. These findings indicate that the increase in E. cecorum-associated disease in the southeast United States is due to the emergence of new clones with increased pathogenicity and multidrug resistance.
Wing, V.W.; Jeffrey, R.B. Jr.; Federle, M.P.; Helms, C.A.; Trafton, P.
CT examination of 25 patients who had acute exacerbations of chronic osteomyelitis allowed for the correct identification of single or multiple sequestra in 14 surgical patients. Plain radiographs were equivocal for sequestra in seven of these patients, because the sequestra were too small or because diffuse bony sclerosis was present. CT also demonstrated a foreign body and five soft tissue abscesses not suspected on the basis of plain radiographs. CT studies, which helped guide the operative approach, were also useful in treating those patients whose plain radiographs were positive for sequestra. The authors review the potential role of CT in evaluating patients with chronic osteomyelitis.
Machado, Dianne Melo; Zanetti, Gláucia; Araujo, Cesar Augusto; Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Pereira e Silva, Jorge Luiz; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Souza, Arthur Soares; Hochhegger, Bruno; Marchiori, Edson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze chest CT scans of patients with thoracic textiloma. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 16 patients (11 men and 5 women) with surgically confirmed thoracic textiloma. The chest CT scans of those patients were evaluated by two independent observers, and discordant results were resolved by consensus. RESULTS: The majority (62.5%) of the textilomas were caused by previous heart surgery. The most common symptoms were chest pain (in 68.75%) and cough (in 56.25%). In all cases, the main tomographic finding was a mass with regular contours and borders that were well-defined or partially defined. Half of the textilomas occurred in the right hemithorax and half occurred in the left. The majority (56.25%) were located in the lower third of the lung. The diameter of the mass was ≤ 10 cm in 10 cases (62.5%) and > 10 cm in the remaining 6 cases (37.5%). Most (81.25%) of the textilomas were heterogeneous in density, with signs of calcification, gas, radiopaque marker, or sponge-like material. Peripheral expansion of the mass was observed in 12 (92.3%) of the 13 patients in whom a contrast agent was used. Intraoperatively, pleural involvement was observed in 14 cases (87.5%) and pericardial involvement was observed in 2 (12.5%). CONCLUSIONS: It is important to recognize the main tomographic aspects of thoracic textilomas in order to include this possibility in the differential diagnosis of chest pain and cough in patients with a history of heart or thoracic surgery, thus promoting the early identification and treatment of this postoperative complication. PMID:25410842
Doust, B D; Milbrath, J R; Doust, V L
Using a conventional body CT scanner, computed tomography of the breast was performed on 32 patients known to have or suspected of having breast masses. Xeromammograms were available for comparison in all cases. All mass lesions were histologically proved. Seven patients were examined prone, 25 supine. The prone position yielded pictures that resembled craniocaudal mammograms. Breast asymmetry, skin thickening, stranding from a mass to the chest wall, calcification, and axillary lymphadenopathy could be demonstrated by means of CT. The portion of the breast adjacent to the chest wall was more readily examined by means of CT than by conventional mammography. Internal mammary nodes could not be demonstrated.
Novelline, R A; Rhea, J T; Rao, P M; Stuk, J L
Today, a wide range of traumatic and nontraumatic emergency conditions are quickly and accurately diagnosed with helical computed tomography (CT). Many traditional emergency imaging procedures have been replaced with newer helical CT techniques that can be performed in less time and with greater accuracy, less patient discomfort, and decreased cost. The speed of helical technology permits CT examination of seriously ill patients in the emergency department, as well as patients who might not have been taken to CT previously because of the length of the examinations of the past. Also, helical technology permits multiple, sequential CT scans to be quickly obtained in the same patient, a great advance for the multiple-trauma patient. Higher quality CT examinations result from decreased respiratory misregistration, enhanced intravenous contrast material opacification of vascular structures and parenchymal organs, greater flexibility in image reconstruction, and improved multiplanar and three-dimensional reformations. This report summarizes the role and recommended protocols for the helical CT diagnosis of thoracic aortic trauma; aortic dissection; pulmonary embolism; acute conditions of the neck soft tissues; abdominal trauma; urinary tract stones; appendicitis; diverticulitis; abdominal aortic aneurysm; fractures of the face, spine, and extremities; and acute stroke.
Cherry, Simon R.
Multimodality imaging with PET/CT and SPECT/CT has become commonplace in clinical practice and in preclinical and basic medical research. Do other combinations of imaging modalities have a similar potential to impact medical science and clinical medicine? The combination of PET or SPECT with MRI is an area of active research at the present time, while other, perhaps less obvious combinations, including CT/MR and PET/optical also are being studied. In addition to the integration of the instrumentation, there are parallel developments in synthesizing imaging agents that can be viewed by multiple imaging modalities. Is the fusion of PET and SPECT with CT the ultimate answer in multimodality imaging, or is it just the first example of a more general trend towards harnessing the complementary nature of the different modalities on integrated imaging platforms? PMID:19646559
Trilisky, Igor; Ward, Emily; Dachman, Abraham H
CT colonography (CTC) is a colorectal cancer screening modality which is becoming more widely implemented and has shown polyp detection rates comparable to those of optical colonoscopy. CTC has the potential to improve population screening rates due to its minimal invasiveness, no sedation requirement, potential for reduced cathartic examination, faster patient throughput, and cost-effectiveness. Proper implementation of a CTC screening program requires careful attention to numerous factors, including patient preparation prior to the examination, the technical aspects of image acquisition, and post-processing of the acquired data. A CTC workstation with dedicated software is required with integrated CTC-specific display features. Many workstations include computer-aided detection software which is designed to decrease errors of detection by detecting and displaying polyp-candidates to the reader for evaluation. There are several pitfalls which may result in false-negative and false-positive reader interpretation. We present an overview of the potential errors in CTC and a systematic approach to avoid them.
This Greening America's Capitals report gives Hartford, CT, a new vision for Capitol Avenue that highlights existing assets and fills in gaps along the mile-long area of focus and into the surrounding neighborhoods.
Rothman, S.L.G.; Glenn, W.V. Jr.
This is an illustrated text on computed tomography (CT) of the lumbar spine with an emphasis on the role and value of multiplanar imaging for helping determine diagnoses. The book has adequate discussion of scanning techniques for the different regions, interpretations of various abnormalities, degenerative disk disease, and different diagnoses. There is a 50-page chapter on detailed sectional anatomy of the spine and useful chapters on the postoperative spine and the planning and performing of spinal surgery with CT multiplanar reconstruction. There are comprehensive chapters on spinal tumors and trauma. The final two chapters of the book are devoted to CT image processing using digital networks and CT applications of medical computer graphics.
... ray beam follows a spiral path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create ... process. Nearly all CT scanners now have special computer programs that help to increase image quality at lower ...
Weber, Edward C.; Vilensky, Joel A.
Maximum intensity and volume rendered CT displays of caput medusae are provided to demonstrate both the anatomy and physiology of this portosystemic shunt associated with portal hypertension. (Contains 2 figures.)
Huebener, K.H.; Treugut, H.
The computed tomographic appearance of the adrenal gland was studied in 302 patients with possible endocrinologic disease and 107 patients undergoing CT for nonendocrinologic reasons. Measurements of adrenal size were also made in 100 adults with no known adrenal pathology. CT proved to be a sensitive diagnostic tool in combination with clinical studies. When blood hormone levels are increased, CT can differentiate among homogeneous organic hyperplasia, nodular hyperplasia, benign adenoma, and malignant cortical adenoma. When blood hormone levels are decreased, CT can demonstrate hypoplasia or metastatic tumorous destruction. Calcifications can be demonstrated earlier than on plain radiographs. When hormone elimination is increased, the morphologic substrate can be identified; tumorous changes can be localized and infiltration of surrounding organs recognized.
... What are the limitations of Children's CT? A person who is very large may not fit into ... facility staff and/or your insurance provider to get a better understanding of the possible charges you ...
... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007677.htm CT angiography - head and neck To use the sharing features on this page, ... create pictures of the blood vessels in the head and neck. How the Test is Performed You will be ...
Rothman, S.L.G.; Glenn, W.V.
This book contains 16 chapters. Some of the topics are: CT of the Sacrum, The Postoperative Spine, Film Organizations and Case Reporting, Degeneration and Disc Disease of the Intervertebral Joint, Lumbar Spinal Stenosis, and Cervical and Thoracic Spine.
Espe, B J; Newmark, H
A case of a large tonsillolith visualized by computerized tomography is presented. Although otolaryngologists are well aware of this entity, few radiologists are. The importance of distinguishing tonsilloliths from other structures by CT scan is discussed.
This upper abdominal CT scan shows multiple cysts in the liver, caused by dog tapeworm (echinococcus). Note the large circular cyst (seen on the left side of the screen) and multiple smaller cysts throughout ...
Gamba, J.L.; Silverman, P.M.; Ling, D.; Dunnick, N.R.; Korobkin, M.
The CT findings of two cases of primary lymphedema of the lower extremities are presented. CT showed a coarse, nonenhancing, reticular pattern in an enlarged subcutaneous compartment. CT excluded the diagnosis of secondary lymphedema from an obstructing mass by demonstrating a normal retroperitoneum and pelvis. The CT findings are correlated with pedal lymphangiograms.
Ebihara, Shin; Date, Fumiko; Dong, Yupeng; Ono, Masao
Ankylosis is a major pathological manifestation of spondyloarthropathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of anti-IL-17 therapy on spontaneous ankylosing enthesitis in mice. In this study, we used male DBA/1 mice as a spontaneous ankylosis model. Serum IL-17 concentrations were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Male DBA/1 mice from different litters were mixed and caged together preceding the treatment at 10 weeks (wk) of age (prophylaxis) or 21 wk of age (intervention). Treatment with anti-IL-17 antibodies or saline was initiated after caging in groups of mice and administered weekly. The onset of tarsal ankylosis was assessed by ankle swelling and histopathological examination. Pathological changes and mRNA expression levels were assessed in joints and ears obtained at the experimental end-point. We found that circulating IL-17 increased with the onset of ankylosis in male DBA/1 mice, coinciding with the onset of dermatitis. The symptoms of dermatitis corresponded to the pathological characteristics of psoriasis: acanthosis with mild hyperkeratosis, scaling, epidermal microabscess formation and augmented expression of K16, S100A8 and S100A9. Prophylactic administration of anti-IL-17 antibodies significantly prevented the development of both ankylosis and dermatitis in male DBA/1 mice caged together. On the other hand, administration of anti-IL-17 antibodies after disease onset had a lesser but significant effect on ankylosis progression but did not affect dermatitis progression. In conclusion, IL-17 is a key mediator in the pathogenic process of tarsal ankylosis and psoriasis-like dermatitis in male DBA/1 mice caged together. Thus, IL-17 is a potential therapeutic target in ankylosing enthesitis and psoriasis in humans.
Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan; Maglinte, Dean D; Rajesh, Arumugam; Akisik, Fatih M
The purpose of this study was to analyze the CT signs of primary epiploic appendagitis. A retrospective search of the CT database over 12 months for this diagnosis revealed 11 cases. The clinical findings were recorded. Softcopy CT images were reviewed by two experienced abdominal radiologists (KS, DM) for location of lesion, size, shape, presence of central hyperdense focus, degree of bowel wall thickening, mass effect, and ancillary signs. Abdominal pain was the primary symptom in all patients. Preliminary diagnoses were appendicitis (n=2), diverticulitis (n=5), pancreatitis (n=1), ovarian lesion (n=1), or unknown (n=2). Abdominal examination and white blood cell count were uninformative. CT examination revealed a solitary (n=11), ovoid (n=9) fatty lesion with some soft tissue stranding adjacent to the left colon (n=6), transverse colon (n=3), or right colon (n=2). Central hyperdensity (n=5), mild bowel wall thickening (n=2), and parietal peritoneal thickening (n=4) were also seen. In 4 patients the lesions were not visible on follow-up CT examination performed 23-184 days later. Primary epiploic appendagitis can clinically mimic other, more serious inflammatory conditions. Knowledge of its findings on CT would help the radiologist make the diagnosis and allow a more conservative approach to patient care.
Rios Rodriguez, Valeria; Poddubnyy, Denis
Axial spondyloarthritis comprises two forms: nonradiographic (nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis) and radiographic (better known as ankylosing spondylitis), which are often considered as two stages of one disease. Historically, all currently available TNF-α inhibitors were first investigated in ankylosing spondylitis and later on in nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis. This year, EMA has granted golimumab approval for the treatment of active nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis based on the recently published data from the GO-AHEAD study. This article summarizes recent data on efficacy and safety of golimumab in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis.
Manzke, Robert . E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
This doctoral thesis addresses imaging of the heart with retrospectively gated helical cone-beam computed tomography (CT). A thorough review of the CT reconstruction literature is presented in combination with a historic overview of cardiac CT imaging and a brief introduction to other cardiac imaging modalities. The thesis includes a comprehensive chapter about the theory of CT reconstruction, familiarizing the reader with the problem of cone-beam reconstruction. The anatomic and dynamic properties of the heart are outlined and techniques to derive the gating information are reviewed. With the extended cardiac reconstruction (ECR) framework, a new approach is presented for the heart-rate-adaptive gated helical cardiac cone-beam CT reconstruction. Reconstruction assessment criteria such as the temporal resolution, the homogeneity in terms of the cardiac phase, and the smoothness at cycle-to-cycle transitions are developed. Several reconstruction optimization approaches are described: An approach for the heart-rate-adaptive optimization of the temporal resolution is presented. Streak artifacts at cycle-to-cycle transitions can be minimized by using an improved cardiac weighting scheme. The optimal quiescent cardiac phase for the reconstruction can be determined automatically with the motion map technique. Results for all optimization procedures applied to ECR are presented and discussed based on patient and phantom data. The ECR algorithm is analyzed for larger detector arrays of future cone-beam systems throughout an extensive simulation study based on a four-dimensional cardiac CT phantom. The results of the scientific work are summarized and an outlook proposing future directions is given. The presented thesis is available for public download at www.cardiac-ct.net.
Filippi, Andreas; Pohl, Yango; von Arx, Thomas
The present clinical study investigated the outcome of intentional replantation using resection of the ankylosed sites of the root, extraoral endodontic treatment using titanium posts and Emdogain for periodontal healing following trauma-related ankylosis. During an evaluation period of 6 years, 16 ankylosed teeth affected by replacement resorption were treated as described. Evaluation parameters before treatment and during the follow-up period included Periotest scores, percussion sound and periapical radiographs. All findings were compared to those of the adjacent teeth. In a second accident, one tooth was lost after 7 months and was excluded as a dropout. Ankylosis did not recur in seven replanted teeth, which were observed for an average of 52.3 months (range: 24-68 months). Ankylosis recurred in eight teeth after an average period of 12 months (range: 4-26 months). An infraocclusion, normal or only slightly reduced Periotest scores and normal percussion sound were preoperatively found in six of seven successfully replanted teeth, which corresponded to a relatively small area of ankylosis. The majority of the teeth showing recurrent ankylosis preoperatively presented with normal position, negative Periotest scores and a high percussion sound which corresponded to an extended area of ankylosis. Statistically significant relationship between preoperative findings and the treatment outcome (P = 0.031) have become apparent. The results indicate that the treatment of minor areas of ankylosis by intentional replantation, resection of the ankylosed sites and Emdogain appeared to prevent or delay the recurrence of ankylosis in 7 of 15 teeth.
Curtin, H.D.; Wolfe, P.; May, M.
Malignant external otitis is an aggressive infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that most often occurs in elderly diabetics. Malignant external otitis often spreads inferiorly from the external canal to involve the subtemporal area and progresses medially towards the petrous apex leading to multiple cranial nerve palsies. The computed tomographic (CT) findings in malignant external otitis include obliteration of the normal fat planes in the subtemporal area as well as patchy destruction of the bony cortex of the mastoid. The point of exit of the various cranial nerves can be identified on CT scans, and the extent of the inflammatory mass correlates well with the clinical findings. Four cases of malignant external otitis are presented. In each case CT provided a good demonstration of involvement of the soft tissues at the base of the skull.
Sukkarieh, F; Brasseur, P; Bissen, L
The authors report the case of a 93-year old woman referred to the emergency department and presenting with an intestinal obstruction. Abdominal CT reveals a biliary ileus caused by the migration and the impaction of a 3 cm gallstone in the small bowel. Surgical treatment by enterolithotomy was successful. In over 90% of cases, gallstone ileus is a complication of cholelithiasis and accounts for 25% of intestinal obstruction in patients over 65 years. To reduce morbidity and mortality, early diagnosis and prompt treatment are essential. Abdominal CT-scan is the gold standard technique.
Pomeranz, S.J.; Hawkins, H.H.; Towbin, R.; Lisberg, W.N.; Clark, R.A.
Nests of granulocytic tumor cells in patients who have myelogeneous leukemia are termed chloromas. Eight cases of chloroma seen on CT were reviewed. Lymph nodes, subcutaneous tissues, peritoneum, pleural space, pelvis, and portal hepatis were involved. The extracranial appearance of chloroma on CT is that of small, nonenhancing, nodular densities that resemble lymphoma. Cranial involvement is characteristically in the orbit. The central nervous system appearance is variable, however, and high attenuation masses may occur that mimic lymphoma, hematoma, and metastatic neuroblastoma. The recognition of these lesions is important, since radiation, not chemotherapy, is often the preferred treatment for localized chloroma.
Héja, Gergely; Surján, György; Varga, Péter
Background SNOMED CT is the most comprehensive medical terminology. However, its use for intelligent services based on formal reasoning is questionable. Methods The analysis of the structure of SNOMED CT is based on the formal top-level ontology DOLCE. Results The analysis revealed several ontological and knowledge-engineering errors, the most important are errors in the hierarchy (mostly from an ontological point of view, but also regarding medical aspects) and the mixing of subsumption relations with other types (mostly 'part of'). Conclusion The found errors impede formal reasoning. The paper presents a possible way to correct these problems. PMID:19007445
Pan, Tinsu; Mawlawi, Osama
PET/CT is an effective tool for the diagnosis, staging and restaging of cancer patients. It combines the complementary information of functional PET images and anatomical CT images in one imaging session. Conventional stand-alone PET has been replaced by PET/CT for improved patient comfort, patient throughput, and most importantly the proven clinical outcome of PET/CT over that of PET and that of separate PET and CT. There are over two thousand PET/CT scanners installed worldwide since 2001. Oncology is the main application for PET/CT. Fluorine-18 deoxyglucose is the choice of radiopharmaceutical in PET for imaging the glucose uptake in tissues, correlated with an increased rate of glycolysis in many tumor cells. New molecular targeted agents are being developed to improve the accuracy of targeting different disease states and assessing therapeutic response. Over 50% of cancer patients receive radiation therapy (RT) in the course of their disease treatment. Clinical data have demonstrated that the information provided by PET/CT often changes patient management of the patient and/or modifies the RT plan from conventional CT simulation. The application of PET/CT in RT is growing and will become increasingly important. Continuing improvement of PET/CT instrumentation will also make it easier for radiation oncologists to integrate PET/CT in RT. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the current PET/CT technology, to project the future development of PET and CT for PET/CT, and to discuss some issues in adopting PET/CT in RT and potential improvements in PET/CT simulation of the thorax in radiation therapy.
Wu, Tung-Hsin; Zhang, Geoffrey; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Chen, Chih-Hao; Yang, Bang-Hung; Wu, Nien-Yun; Huang, Tzung-Chi
Because of the advantages in the use of high photon flux and thus the short scan times of CT imaging, the traditional 68Ge scans for positron emission tomography (PET) image attenuation correction have been replaced by CT scans in the modern PET/CT technology. The combination of fast CT scan and slow PET scan often causes image misalignment between the PET and CT images due to respiration motion. Use of the average CT derived from cine CT images is reported to reduce such misalignment. However, the radiation dose to patients is higher with cine CT scans. This study introduces a method that uses breath-hold CT images and their interpolations to generate the average CT for PET image attenuation correction. Breath-hold CT sets are taken at end-inspiration and end-expiration. Deformable image registration is applied to generate a voxel-to-voxel motion matrix between the two CT sets. The motion is equally divided into 5 steps from inspiration to expiration and 5 steps from expiration to inspiration, generating a total of 8 phases of interpolated CT sets. An average CT image is generated from all the 10 phase CT images, including original inhale/exhale CT and 8 interpolated CT sets. Quantitative comparison shows that the reduction of image misalignment artifacts using the average CT from the interpolation technique for PET attenuation correction is at a similar level as that using cine average CT, while the dose to the patient from the CT scans is reduced significantly. The interpolated average CT method hence provides a low dose alternative to cine CT scans for PET attenuation correction.
... combines a CT scan with the injection of dye. This technique is able to create pictures of ... Some exams require a special dye, called contrast, to be injected into your body before the test. Contrast helps certain areas show up better on the x- ...
Weinstein, J.B.; Lee, J.K.T.; Sagel, S.S.
This book is a quick reference for interpreting CT scans of the extracranial organs. This collection of 41 CT scans covers all the major organs of the body: neck and larynx; chest; abdomen; male pelvis; and female pelvis.
Zissin, R; Osadchy, A; Gayer, G
Small bowel perforation is an emergent medical condition for which the diagnosis is usually not made clinically but by CT, a common imaging modality used for the diagnosis of acute abdomen. Direct CT features that suggest perforation include extraluminal air and oral contrast, which are often associated with secondary CT signs of bowel pathology. This pictorial review illustrates the CT findings of small bowel perforation caused by various clinical entities.
... الأشعة المقطعية الحاسوبية - العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) CT (Computerized Tomography) Scan CT ( ... 扫描 - 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) CT (Computerized Tomography) Scan CT ( ...
Ben-Horin, Shomron; Heap, Graham A; Ahmad, Tariq; Kim, HoUng; Kwon, TaekSang; Chowers, Yehuda
Biopharmaceuticals or 'biologics' have revolutionized the treatment of many diseases. However, some patients generate an immune response to such drugs, potentially limiting clinical efficacy and safety. Infliximab (Remicade(®)) is a monoclonal antibody used to treat several immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. A biosimilar of infliximab, CT-P13 (Remsima(®), Inflectra(®)), has recently been approved in Europe for all indications in which infliximab is approved. Approval of CT-P13 was based in part on extrapolation of clinical trial data from two indications (rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis) to all other indications, including inflammatory bowel disease. This review discusses the validity of extrapolating immunogenicity data across indications - a process adopted by the EMA as part of their biosimilar approval process - with a focus on CT-P13.
... osteoarthritis (arthritis caused by a breakdown of the lining of the joints), rheumatoid arthritis (arthritis caused by swelling of the lining of the joints), and ankylosing spondylitis (arthritis that ...
... osteoarthritis (arthritis caused by a breakdown of the lining of the joints), rheumatoid arthritis (arthritis caused by swelling of the lining of the joints), and ankylosing spondylitis (arthritis that ...
Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis; Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Mixed Connective Tissue Disease; Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis; Juvenile Dermatomyositis; Localized Scleroderma; Systemic Sclerosis; Vasculitis; Sarcoid; Fibromyalgia, Primary; Auto-inflammatory Disease; Idiopathic Uveitis Idiopathic
... is a prescription medication used to treat some autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriasis, psoriatic ... MotherToBaby is currently conducting a study looking at autoimmune diseases and the medications used to treat autoimmune diseases ...
... are: Ankylosing spondylitis Psoriasis Reactive arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Sarcoidosis Ulcerative colitis Uveitis can also be caused by ... tuberculosis Reactive arthritis Retina Retinal detachment Rheumatoid arthritis Sarcoidosis Sclera Shingles Systemic Toxoplasmosis Ulcerative colitis Uvea Vision ...
... Well with Rheumatic Disease Genetics and Rheumatic Disease Genetics and Rheumatic Disease Fast Facts Studying twins has ... 70%, and for non-identical pairs, even lower. Genetics and ankylosing spondylitis Each rheumatic disease has its ...
... Osteoarthritis News Gout News Osteoporosis News Lupus News Fibromyalgia News Patient Corner Arthritis Drug Information Sheets Managing ... exercise and resistance News Categories Ankylosing Spondylitis News Fibromyalgia News Gout News Lupus News Osteoarthritis News Osteoporosis ...
Reede, D.L.; Bergeron, R.T.
Cervical tuberculous adenitis is being seen with increasing frequency in the United States; in the appropriate clinical setting it should be included in the differential diagnosis of an asymptomatic neck mass. Patients are typically young adults who are recent arrivals from Southeast Asia. A history of tuberculosis is not always elicited nor is the chest radiograph always abnormal. All of these patients have positive purified protein derivative tests unless they are anergic. The CT findings may lead to the diagnosis. Several CT patterns of nodal disease can be seen in tuberculous adenitis; some may mimic benign and neoplastic disease. The presence of a multiloculated or multichambered (conglomerate nodal) mass with central lucency and thick rims of enhancement and minimally effaced fascial planes is highly suggestive of tuberculous adenitis, especially if the patient has a strongly positive tuberculosis skin test.
Xia, Ting; Alessio, Adam M.; Kinahan, Paul E.
Purpose: The authors evaluate the energy dependent noise and bias properties of monoenergetic images synthesized from dual-energy CT (DECT) acquisitions. These monoenergetic images can be used to estimate attenuation coefficients at energies suitable for positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. This is becoming more relevant with the increased use of quantitative imaging by PET/CT and SPECT/CT scanners. There are, however, potential variations in the noise and bias of synthesized monoenergetic images as a function of energy. Methods: The authors used analytic approximations and simulations to estimate the noise and bias of synthesized monoenergetic images of water-filled cylinders with different shapes and the NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantom from 40 to 520 keV, the range of SPECT and PET energies. The dual-kVp spectra were based on the GE Lightspeed VCT scanner at 80 and 140 kVp with added filtration of 0.5 mm Cu. The authors evaluated strategies of noise suppression with sinogram smoothing and dose minimization with reduction of tube currents at the two kVp settings. The authors compared the impact of DECT-based attenuation correction with single-kVp CT-based attenuation correction on PET quantitation for the NCAT phantom for soft tissue and high-Z materials of bone and iodine contrast enhancement. Results: Both analytic calculations and simulations displayed the expected minimum noise value for a synthesized monoenergetic image at an energy between the mean energies of the two spectra. In addition the authors found that the normalized coefficient of variation in the synthesized attenuation map increased with energy but reached a plateau near 160 keV, and then remained constant with increasing energy up to 511 keV and beyond. The bias was minimal, as the linear attenuation coefficients of the synthesized monoenergetic images were within 2.4% of the known true values across the entire energy range
Xia, Ting; Alessio, Adam M.; De Man, Bruno; Manjeshwar, Ravindra; Asma, Evren; Kinahan, Paul E.
A challenge for positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) quantitation is patient respiratory motion, which can cause an underestimation of lesion activity uptake and an overestimation of lesion volume. Several respiratory motion correction methods benefit from longer duration CT scans that are phase matched with PET scans. However, even with the currently available, lowest dose CT techniques, extended duration cine CT scans impart a substantially high radiation dose. This study evaluates methods designed to reduce CT radiation dose in PET/CT scanning. We investigated selected combinations of dose reduced acquisition and noise suppression methods that take advantage of the reduced requirement of CT for PET attenuation correction (AC). These include reducing CT tube current, optimizing CT tube voltage, adding filtration, CT sinogram smoothing and clipping. We explored the impact of these methods on PET quantitation via simulations on different digital phantoms. CT tube current can be reduced much lower for AC than that in low dose CT protocols. Spectra that are higher energy and narrower are generally more dose efficient with respect to PET image quality. Sinogram smoothing could be used to compensate for the increased noise and artifacts at radiation dose reduced CT images, which allows for a further reduction of CT dose with no penalty for PET image quantitation. When CT is not used for diagnostic and anatomical localization purposes, we showed that ultra-low dose CT for PET/CT is feasible. The significant dose reduction strategies proposed here could enable respiratory motion compensation methods that require extended duration CT scans and reduce radiation exposure in general for all PET/CT imaging.
problems which are often very difficult to resolve. Is arthritis post-traumatic? Is "infectious rheumatism" (ankylosing spondylitis or rheumatoid ...spontaneously or as the result of trauma in some infectious processes (Grisel’s torticollis, high foci of rheumatoid arthritis , ankylosing spondylitis). 209...variation. As with arthritis in the limbs, the state of the cartilage and the fibro cartilage varied with the individual . This variability is probably
Schweitzer, Wolf; Thali, Michael; Giugni, Giannina; Winklhofer, Sebastian
Fatal hypothermia has been associated with pulmonary edema. With postmortem full body computed tomography scanning (PMCT), the lungs can also be examined for CT attenuation. In fatal hypothermia cases low CT attenuation appeared to prevail in the lungs. We compared 14 cases of fatal hypothermia with an age-sex matched control group. Additionally, 4 cases of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning were examined. Furthermore, 10 test cases were examined to test predictability based on PMCT. Two readers measured CT attenuation on four different axial slices across the lungs (blinded to case group and other reader's results). Hypothermia was associated with statistically significantly lower lung PMCT attenuation and lower lung weights than controls, and there was a dose-effect relationship at an environmental temperature cutoff of 2 °C. CO poisoning yielded low pulmonary attenuation but higher lung weights. General model based prediction yielded a 94% probability for fatal hypothermia deaths and a 21% probability for non-hypothermia deaths in the test group. Increased breathing rate is known to accompany both CO poisoning and hypothermia, so this could partly explain the low PMCT lung attenuation due to an oxygen dissociation curve left shift. A more marked distension in fatal hypothermia, compared to CO poisoning, indicates that further, possibly different mechanisms, are involved in these cases. Increased dead space and increased stiffness to deflation (but not inflation) appear to be effects of inhaling cold air (but not CO) that may explain the difference in low PMCT attenuation seen in hypothermia cases.
Stanley, James H.; Yancey, Robert N.
The next century will witness at least two great revolutions in the way goods are produced. First, workers will use the medium of virtual reality in all aspects of marketing, research, development, prototyping, manufacturing, sales and service. Second, market forces will drive manufacturing towards small-lot production and just-in-time delivery. Already, we can discern the merging of these megatrends into what some are calling agile manufacturing. Under this new paradigm, parts and processes will be designed and engineered within the mind of a computer, tooled and manufactured by the offspring of today's rapid prototyping equipment, and evaluated for performance and reliability by advanced nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and sophisticated computational models. Computed tomography (CT) is the premier example of an NDE method suitable for future agile manufacturing activities. It is the only modality that provides convenient access to the full suite of engineering data that users will need to avail themselves of computer- aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, and computer- aided engineering capabilities, as well as newly emerging reverse engineering, rapid prototyping and solid freeform fabrication technologies. As such, CT is assured a central, utilitarian role in future industrial operations. An overview of this exciting future for industrial CT is presented.
Jordan, B D; Jahre, C; Hauser, W A; Zimmerman, R D; Zarrelli, M; Lipsitz, E C; Johnson, V; Warren, R F; Tsairis, P; Folk, F S
Computed tomography (CT) was performed in 338 active professional boxers. CT scans were abnormal in 25 boxers (7%). The most common CT abnormality was brain atrophy (22 cases). Focal lesions of low attenuation consistent with posttraumatic encephalomalacia were noted in only three boxers. Boxers with abnormal CT scans did not differ from those with borderline or normal CT scans in regard to age, win-loss record, number of bouts, or history of an abnormal electroencephalogram. Thirty-seven boxers with borderline CT scans (49%) and 17 with abnormal CT scans (68%) reported a previous technical knockout (TKO) or knockout (KO), compared with only 89 (37%) of the 238 boxers with normal CT scans (P < .01). Brain atrophy was noted more frequently in boxers with a large cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) than in those with a small or no CSP (P < .05). Boxers with abnormal or borderline CT scans who experienced a TKO or KO were slightly older than those with normal CT scans and a history of a TKO or KO (P < .05).
Garland, Melissa R; Lawler, Leo P; Whitaker, Brent R; Walker, Ian D F; Corl, Frank M; Fishman, Elliot K
Although computed tomography (CT) is used primarily for diagnosis in humans, it can also be used to diagnose disease in veterinary patients. CT and associated three-dimensional reconstruction have a role in diagnosis of a range of illnesses in a variety of animals. In a sea turtle with failure to thrive, CT showed a nodal mass in the chest, granulomas in the lungs, and a ball in the stomach. CT of a sea dragon with balance and movement problems showed absence of the swim bladder. In a sloth with failure to thrive, CT allowed diagnosis of a coin in the intestine. CT of a puffin with failure to thrive showed a mass in the chest, which was found to be a hematoma. In a smooth-sided toad whose head was tilted to one side and who was circling in that direction, CT showed partial destruction of the temporal bone. CT of a domestic cat with listlessness showed a mass with focal calcification, which proved to be a leiomyosarcoma. CT of a sea otter showed pectus excavatum, which is caused by the animal smashing oysters against its chest. In a Japanese koi with abdominal swelling, CT allowed diagnosis of a hepatoma.
Waller, John; Sullivan, Emma; Piercy, James; Black, Christopher M; Kachroo, Sumesh
Objectives We examined rheumatologists’ motivation for prescribing biosimilars, assessed their treatment preferences in relation to prescribing behavior and explored patient attitudes to biosimilars. Methods Data were taken from the Adelphi Real World Biosimilars Programme, a real-world, cross-sectional study undertaken with German rheumatologists and patients with rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondyloarthritis or psoriatic arthritis in 2015–2016. Rheumatologists provided data on their prescribing behavior and attitudes toward biosimilars and invited the next eight eligible consecutive consulting patients to complete a questionnaire. Rheumatologists were split into “investigative”, “conservative” and “other” groups. Results Overall, 50 rheumatologists and 261 patients participated. Biosimilars accounted for <10% of all biologic therapy prescriptions, and >95% of rheumatologists would prescribe a biooriginator rather than biosimilar as the first- or second-line therapy if unrestricted. Patients showed some reluctance to accept biosimilars, and a small proportion of patients were unhappy when switched from a biooriginator to a biosimilar. Satisfaction with treatment was highest in patients who started treatment with a biooriginator prior to biosimilar availability. Patient concerns when starting treatment with a biooriginator or a biosimilar included not knowing enough about the drug (25%–41%), potential side effects (26%–32%) and potential long-term problems (19%–30%). Conclusion Study results demonstrate that there is some reluctance from patients to accept biosimilars and the need to educate patients who are unsure to allow them to be involved in decision making, highlighting the importance of patient and physician communication. There remains a need for further research into nonclinical switching and the long-term impact of prescribing biosimilars. PMID:28331299
van Beek, Edwin JR; Hoffman, Eric A
Synopsis Numerous imaging techniques permit evaluation of regional pulmonary function. Contrast-enhanced CT methods now allow assessment of vasculature and lung perfusion. Techniques using spirometric controlled MDCT allow for quantification of presence and distribution of parenchymal and airway pathology, Xenon gas can be employed to assess regional ventilation of the lungs and rapid bolus injections of iodinated contrast agent can provide quantitative measure of regional parenchymal perfusion. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lung include gadolinium-enhanced perfusion imaging and hyperpolarized helium imaging, which can allow imaging of pulmonary ventilation and .measurement of the size of emphysematous spaces. PMID:18267192
Termsarasab, Pichet; Frucht, Steven J
Cortical tremor (CT) is a form of cortical reflex myoclonus that can mimic essential tremor (ET). Clinical features that are helpful in distinguishing CT from ET are the irregular and jerky appearance of the movements. We report two patients with CT with coexisting orthostatic movements, either orthostatic tremor (OT) or myoclonus, who experienced functional improvement in both cortical myoclonus and orthostatic movements when treated with levetiracetam.
Frush, Donald P.
In order to discuss the cost-benefit ratio of CT examinations in children, one must be familiar with the reasons why CT can provide a high collective or individual dose. The reasons include increasing CT use as well as lack of attention to dose reduction strategies. While those have been substantial efforts for dose reduction, additional work is necessary to prevent unnecessary radiation exposure. This responsibility is shared between science and medicine, industry, regulatory agencies, and patients as well.
Ledezma, Carlos J; Wintermark, Max
A multimodal CT protocol provides a comprehensive noninvasive survey of acute stroke patients with accurate demonstration of the site of arterial occlusion and its hemodynamic tissue status. It combines widespread availability with the ability to provide functional characterization of cerebral ischemia, and could potentially allow more accurate selection of candidates for acute stroke reperfusion therapy. This article discusses the individual components of multimodal CT and addresses the potential role of a combined multimodal CT stroke protocol in acute stroke therapy.
Sabarudin, Akmal; Sun, Zhonghua
Coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography is associated with high radiation dose and this has raised serious concerns in the literature. Awareness of various parameters for dose estimates and measurements of coronary CT angiography plays an important role in increasing our understanding of the radiation exposure to patients, thus, contributing to the implementation of dose-saving strategies. This article provides an overview of the radiation dose quantity and its measurement during coronary CT angiography procedures. PMID:24392190
Grogan, J.P.; Daniels, D.L.; Williams, I.L.; Rauschning, W.; Haughton, V.M.
The normal CT configuration and dimension of the conus medullaris and adjacent spinal cord were determined in 30 patients who had no clinical evidence of conus compression. CT studies were also correlated with anatomic sections in cadavers. The normal conus on CT has a distinctive oval configuration, an arterior sulcus, and a posterior promontory. The anteroposterior diameter ranged from 5 to 8 mm; the transverse diameter from 8 to 11 mm. Intramedullary processes altered both the dimensions and configuration of the conus.
Gladman, Dafna D
The definition of axial disease in psoriatic arthritis has varied from isolated unilateral grade 2 sacroiliitis to criteria similar to those used for ankylosing spondylitis. Depending on the definition used, the prevalence of axial disease varies from 25% to 70% of patients with psoriatic arthritis. This article reviews the prevalence, clinical and radiologic features, pathogenesis, prognosis, and treatment of psoriatic spondylitis.
Gratama van Andel, H. A. F.; Venema, H. W.; Majoie, C. B.; Den Heeten, G. J.; Grimbergen, C. A.; Streekstra, G. J.
CT perfusion (CTP) examinations of the brain are performed increasingly for the evaluation of cerebral blood flow in patients with stroke and vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Of the same patient often also a CT angiography (CTA) examination is performed. This study investigates the possibility to obtain CTA images from the CTP examination, thereby possibly obviating the CTA examination. This would save the patient exposure to radiation, contrast, and time. Each CTP frame is a CTA image with a varying amount of contrast enhancement and with high noise. To improve the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) we combined all 3D images into one 3D image after registration to correct for patient motion between time frames. Image combination consists of weighted averaging in which the weighting factor of each frame is proportional to the arterial contrast. It can be shown that the arterial CNR is maximized in this procedure. An additional advantage of the use of the time series of CTP images is that automatic differentiation between arteries and veins is possible. This feature was used to mask veins in the resulting 3D images to enhance visibility of arteries in maximum intensity projection (MIP) images. With a Philips Brilliance 64 CT scanner (64x0.625 mm) CTP examinations of eight patients were performed on 80 mm of brain using the toggling table technique. The CTP examination consisted of a time series of 15 3D images (2x64x0.625 mm; 80 kV; 150 mAs each) with an interval of 4 s. The authors measured the CNR in images obtained with weighted averaging, images obtained with plain averaging, and images with maximal arterial enhancement. The authors also compared CNR and quality of the images with that of regular CTA examinations and examined the effectiveness of automatic vein masking in MIP images. The CNR of the weighted averaged images is, on the average, 1.73 times the CNR of an image at maximal arterial enhancement in the CTP series, where the use of plain averaging
Solovieva, Natalia; Mushkin, Alexander; Manicheva, Olga; Vishnevsky, Boris; Zhuravlev, Viacheslav; Narvskaya, Olga
Extrapulmonary and, in particular, spinal tuberculosis (TB) constitutes a minor but significant part of the total TB incidence. In spite of this, almost no studies on the genetic diversity and drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from spinal TB patients have been published to date. Here, we report results of the first Russian and globally largest molecular study of M. tuberculosis isolates recovered from patients with tuberculous spondylitis (TBS). The majority of 107 isolates were assigned to the Beijing genotype (n = 80); the other main families were T (n = 11), Ural (n = 7), and LAM (n = 4). Multidrug resistance (MDR) was more frequently found among Beijing (90.5%) and, intriguingly, Ural (71.4%) isolates than other genotypes (5%; P < 0.001). The extremely drug-resistant (XDR) phenotype was exclusively found in the Beijing isolates (n = 7). A notable prevalence of the rpoB531 and katG315 mutations in Beijing strains that were similarly high in both TBS (this study) and published pulmonary TB (PTB) samples from Russia shows that TBS and PTB Beijing strains follow the same paradigm of acquisition of rifampin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistance. The 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit–variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) subtyping of 80 Beijing isolates further discriminated them into 24 types (Hunter Gaston index [HGI] = 0.83); types 100-32 and 94-32 represented the largest groups. A genotype of Russian successful clone B0/W148 was identified in 30 of 80 Beijing isolates. In conclusion, this study highlighted a crucial impact of the Beijing genotype and the especially prominent role of its MDR-associated successful clone B0/W148 cluster in the development of spinal MDR-TB in Russian patients. PMID:25645851
Zilber, Karina; Gorenberg, Miguel; Rimar, Doron; Boulman, Nina; Kaly, Lisa; Rozenbaum, Michael; Rosner, Itzhak; Slobodin, Gleb
Sacroiliitis, inflammation of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ), is the hallmark of ankylosing spondylitis and spondyloarthritis (SpA) in general. The arsenal of recommended diagnostic modalities for imaging of the SIJ is scanty and, in practice, includes only conventional X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This review suggests that bone scintigraphy, particularly single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with calculation of indices, or SPECT in combination with low-dose computed tomography (CT) can be a sensitive and specific tool for the diagnosis of sacroiliitis and can be used as part of the individualized approach to the diagnosis of axial SpA. In addition, [18F]fluoride positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging and immunoscintigraphy, using labeled monoclonal anti-cytokine antibodies, are promising methods of current scientific interest in this field. PMID:27824544
Choi, Hong Sang; Shin, Sung Un; Bae, Eun Hui; Ma, Seong Kwon; Kim, Soo Wan
We report the first case of spondylitis with bacteremia caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum identified by 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequencing. An 81-year-old man presented with fever and general weakness. His medical history included end-stage renal disease, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. Despite empirical antibiotic treatment, his fever and back pain persisted. Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium enhancement showed a low-signal-intensity lesion in T1-weighted imaging and a high-signal-intensity lesion in T2-weighted imaging at the L3 vertebral body. C. fetus grew on 1 pair of blood cultures. C. fetus subsp. testudinum was identified via 16S rRNA sequencing of the cultivated organisms. The patient recovered uneventfully after 6 weeks of optimal antibiotic treatment, selected using susceptibility tests. C. fetus spondylitis is a very rare disease. In this unique case involving end-stage renal disease, the underlying pathogen was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing.
Minordi, L M; Vecchioli, A; Mirk, P; Bonomo, L
Objective The aim of the study is to compare CT enterography with polyethylene glycol solution (PEG-CT) with CT enteroclysis (CT-E) in patients with suspected small bowel disease. Methods 145 patients underwent abdominal contrast-enhanced 16-row multidetector CT after administration of 2000 ml of PEG by mouth (n = 75) or after administration of 2000 ml of methylcellulose by nasojejunal tube (n = 70). Small bowel distension, luminal and extraluminal findings were evaluated and compared with small bowel follow-through examination in 60 patients, double contrast enema in 50, surgery in 25 and endoscopy in 35. Statistical evaluation was carried out by χ2 testing. For both techniques we have also calculated the effective dose and the equivalent dose in a standard patient. Results Crohn's disease was diagnosed in 64 patients, neoplasms in 16, adhesions in 6. Distension of the jejunum was better with CT-E than PEG-CT (p<0.05: statistically significant difference). No significant difference was present for others sites (p>0.05). Evaluation of pathological ileal loops was good with both techniques. The values of sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were respectively 94%, 100% and 96% with CT-E, and 93%, 94% and 93% with PEG-CT. The effective dose for PEG-CT was less than the dose for the CT-E (34.7 mSv vs 39.91 mSv). Conclusion PEG-CT shows findings of Crohn's disease as well as CT-E does, although CT-E gives better bowel distension, especially in the jejunum, and has higher specificity than PEG-CT. PMID:20959377
Ling, D.; Korobkin, M.; Silverman, P.M.; Dunnick, N.R.
Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage with subsequent adrenal insufficiency is a recognized complication of anticoagulant therapy. Because the clinical manifestations are often nonspecific, the antemortem diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage has been a difficult clinical problem. Computed tomography (CT) provides detailed images of the adrenal glands that are not possible with conventional imaging methods. The CT findings of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage in an anticoagulated patient are reported.
Divin, C. J.
Misalignment errors for x-ray computed tomography (CT) systems can manifest as artifacts and a loss of spatial and contrast resolution. To mitigate artifacts, significant effort is taken to determine the system geometry and minimizing any residual error in the system alignment. This project improved our ability to post-correct data which was acquired on a misaligned CT system.
Fataar, S.; Bassiony, H.; Satyanath, S.; Rudwan, M.; Hebbar, G.; Khalifa, A.; Cherian, M.J.
The spectrum of schistosomal colonic calcification on abdominal radiographs has been described. The appearance on computed tomography (CT) is equally distinctive and occurs with varying degrees of genitourinary calcification. The authors have experience in three cases with the appearance on CT of intestinal calcification due to schistosomiasis.
Halliburton, Sandra; Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Dey, Damini; Einstein, Andrew J.; Gentry, Ralph; George, Richard T.; Gerber, Thomas; Mahesh, Mahadevappa; Weigold, Wm. Guy
Multidetector row computed tomography (CT) allows noninvasive anatomic and functional imaging of the heart, great vessels, and the coronary arteries. In recent years, there have been several advances in CT hardware, which have expanded the clinical utility of CT for cardiovascular imaging; such advances are ongoing. This review article from the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (SCCT) Basic and Emerging Sciences and Technology (BEST) Working Group summarizes the technical aspects of current state-of-the-art CT hardware and describes the scan modes this hardware supports for cardiovascular CT imaging. PMID:22551595
Halliburton, Sandra; Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Dey, Damini; Einstein, Andrew J; Gentry, Ralph; George, Richard T; Gerber, Thomas; Mahesh, Mahadevappa; Weigold, Wm Guy
Multidetector row computed tomography (CT) allows noninvasive anatomic and functional imaging of the heart, great vessels, and coronary arteries. In recent years, there have been several advances in CT hardware, which have expanded the clinical utility of CT for cardiovascular imaging; such advances are ongoing. This review article from the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography Basic and Emerging Sciences and Technology Working Group summarizes the technical aspects of current state-of-the-art CT hardware and describes the scan modes this hardware supports for cardiovascular CT imaging.
Yeh, Benjamin M; FitzGerald, Paul F; Edic, Peter M; Lambert, Jack W; Colborn, Robert E; Marino, Michael E; Evans, Paul M; Roberts, Jeannette C; Wang, Zhen J; Wong, Margaret J; Bonitatibus, Peter J
The introduction of spectral CT imaging in the form of fast clinical dual-energy CT enabled contrast material to be differentiated from other radiodense materials, improved lesion detection in contrast-enhanced scans, and changed the way that existing iodine and barium contrast materials are used in clinical practice. More profoundly, spectral CT can differentiate between individual contrast materials that have different reporter elements such that high-resolution CT imaging of multiple contrast agents can be obtained in a single pass of the CT scanner. These spectral CT capabilities would be even more impactful with the development of contrast materials designed to complement the existing clinical iodine- and barium-based agents. New biocompatible high-atomic number contrast materials with different biodistribution and X-ray attenuation properties than existing agents will expand the diagnostic power of spectral CT imaging without penalties in radiation dose or scan time.
Walz-Flannigan, A.; Schmidt, B.,; Apel, A.; Eusemann, C.; Yu, L.; McCollough, C. H.
Obese patients present challenges in obtaining sufficient x-ray exposure over reasonable time periods for acceptable CT image quality. To overcome this limitation, the exposure can be divided between two x-ray sources using a dualsource (DS) CT system. However, cross-scatter issues in DS CT may also compromise image quality. We evaluated a DS CT system optimized for imaging obese patients, comparing the CT number accuracy and uniformity to the same images obtained with a single-source (SS) acquisition. The imaging modes were compared using both solid cylindrical PMMA phantoms and a semi-anthropomorphic thorax phantom fitted with extension rings to simulate different size patients. Clinical protocols were used and CTDIvol and kVp were held constant between SS and DS modes. Results demonstrated good agreement in CT number between SS and DS modes in CT number, with the DS mode showing better axial uniformity for the largest phantoms.
Hernandez, Daniel; Michel, Eric; Kim, Hye S.; Kim, Jae G.; Han, Byung H.; Cho, Min H.; Lee, Soo Y.
Scan time of spectral-CTs is much longer than conventional CTs due to limited number of x-ray photons detectable by photon-counting detectors. However, the spectral pixel information in spectral-CT has much richer information on physiological and pathological status of the tissues than the CT-number in conventional CT, which makes the spectral- CT one of the promising future imaging modalities. One simple way to reduce the scan time in spectral-CT imaging is to reduce the number of views in the acquisition of projection data. But, this may result in poorer SNR and strong streak artifacts which can severely compromise the image quality. In this work, spectral-CT projection data were obtained from a lab-built spectral-CT consisting of a single CdTe photon counting detector, a micro-focus x-ray tube and scan mechanics. For the image reconstruction, we used two iterative image reconstruction methods, the simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT) and the total variation minimization based on conjugate gradient method (CG-TV), along with the filtered back-projection (FBP) to compare the image quality. From the imaging of the iodine containing phantoms, we have observed that SIRT and CG-TV are superior to the FBP method in terms of SNR and streak artifacts.
Eun-Young Kang; Patz, E.F. Jr.; Mueller, N.L.
Our goal was to assess the CT findings of cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia in transplant patients. The study included 10 transplant patients who had chest CT scan and pathologically proven isolated pulmonary CMV infection. Five patients had bone marrow transplant and five had solid organ transplant. The CT scans were retrospectively reviewed for pattern and distribution of disease and the CT findings compared with the findings on open lung biopsy (n = 9) and autopsy (n = 1). Nine of 10 patients had parenchymal abnormalities apparent at CT and I had normal CT scans. The findings in the nine patients included small nodules (n = 6), consolidation (n = 4), ground-glass attenuation (n = 4), and irregular lines (n = 1). The nodules had a bilateral and symmetric distribution and involved all lung zones. The consolidation was most marked in the lower lung zones. The CT findings of CMV pneumonia in transplant patients are heterogeneous. The most common patterns include small nodules and areas of consolidation. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Moyers, Michael F.; Sardesai, Milind; Sun, Sean; Miller, Daniel W.
One of the advantages of ion beam therapy is the steep dose gradient produced near the ion's range. Use of this advantage makes knowledge of the stopping powers for all materials through which the beam passes critical. Most treatment planning systems calculate dose distributions using depth dose data measured in water and an algorithm that converts the kilovoltage X-ray computed tomography (CT) number of a given material to its linear stopping power relative to water. Some materials present in kilovoltage scans of patients and simulation phantoms do not lie on the standard tissue conversion curve. The relative linear stopping powers (RLSPs) of 21 different tissue substitutes and positioning, registration, immobilization, and beamline materials were measured in beams of protons accelerated to energies of 155, 200, and 250 MeV; carbon ions accelerated to 290 MeV/n; and iron ions accelerated to 970 MeV/n. These same materials were scanned with both kilovoltage and megavoltage CT scanners to obtain their CT numbers. Measured RLSPs and CT numbers were compared with calculated and/or literature values. Relationships of RLSPs to physical densities, electronic densities, kilovoltage CT numbers, megavoltage CT numbers, and water equivalence values converted by a treatment planning system are given. Usage of CT numbers and substitution of measured values into treatment plans to provide accurate patient and phantom simulations are discussed.
Xia, Tingting; Guan, Yubao; Chen, Yongxin; Li, Jingxu
The aim of the study was to describe the imaging findings of Askin tumors on computed tomography (CT) and fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET/CT).Seventeen cases of Askin tumors confirmed by histopathology were retrospectively analyzed in terms of CT (17 cases) and FDG-PET/CT data (6 cases).Fifteen of the tumors were located in the chest wall and the other 2 were in the anterior middle mediastinum. Of the 15 chest wall cases, 13 demonstrated irregular, heterogeneous soft tissue masses with cystic degeneration and necrosis, and 2 demonstrated homogeneous soft tissue masses on unenhanced CT scans. Two mediastinal tumors demonstrated the irregular, heterogeneous soft tissue masses. Calcifications were found in 2 tumors. The tumors demonstrated heterogeneously enhancement in 16 cases and homogeneous enhancement in 1 case on contrast-enhanced scans. FDG-PET/CT images revealed increased metabolic activity in all 6 cases undergone FDG-PET/CT scan, and the lesion SUVmax ranged from 4.0 to 18.6. At initial diagnosis, CT and FDG-PET/CT scans revealed rib destruction in 9 cases, pleural effusion in 9 cases, and lung metastasis in 1 case. At follow-up, 12 cases showed recurrence and/or metastases, 4 cases showed improvement or remained stable, and 1 was lost to follow-up.In summary, CT and FDG-PET/CT images of Askin tumors showed heterogeneous soft tissue masses in the chest wall and the mediastinum, accompanied by rib destruction, pleural effusion, and increased FDG uptake. CT and FDG-PET/CT imaging play important roles in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with Askin tumors.
Hatcher, David C
The orbits can be visualized easily on routine or customized protocols for computed tomography (CT) or cone beam CT (CBCT) scans. Detailed orbital investigations are best performed with 3-dimensional imaging methods. CT scans are preferred for visualizing the osseous orbital anatomy and fissures while magnetic resonance imaging is preferred for evaluating tumors and inflammation. CBCT provides high-resolution anatomic data of the sinonasal spaces, airway, soft tissue surfaces, and bones but does not provide much detail within the soft tissues. This article discusses CBCT imaging of the orbits, osseous anatomy of the orbits, and CBCT investigation of selected orbital pathosis.
Huda, Walter; Tipnis, Sameer V
The aim of this study was to investigate how effective dose and size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) change with patient age (size) for routine head and abdominal/pelvic CT examinations. Heads and abdomens of patients were modelled as a mass-equivalent cylinder of water corresponding to the patient 'effective diameter'. Head CT scans were performed at CTDIvol(S) of 40 mGy, and abdominal CT scans were performed at CTDIvol(L) of 10 mGy. Values of SSDE were obtained using conversion factors in AAPM Task Group Report 204. Age-specific scan lengths for head and abdominal CT scans obtained from the authors' clinical practice were used to estimate the dose-length product for each CT examination. Effective doses were calculated from previously published age- and sex-specific E/DLP conversion factors, based on ICRP 103 organ-weighting factors. For head CT examinations, the scan length increased from 15 cm in a newborn to 20 cm in adults, and for an abdominal/pelvic CT, the scan length increased from 20 cm in a newborn to 45 cm in adults. For head CT scans, SSDE ranged from 37.2 mGy in adults to 48.8 mGy in a newborn, an increase of 31 %. The corresponding head CT effective doses range from 1.4 mSv in adults to 5.2 mSv in a newborn, an increase of 270 %. For abdomen CT scans, SSDE ranged from 13.7 mGy in adults to 23.0 mGy in a newborn, an increase of 68 %. The corresponding abdominal CT effective doses ranged from 6.3 mSv in adults to 15.4 mSv in a newborn, an increase of 140 %. SSDE increases much less than effective dose in paediatric patients compared with adults because it does not account for scan length or scattered radiation. Size- and age-specific effective doses better quantify the total radiation received by patients in CT by explicitly accounting for all organ doses, as well as their relative radio sensitivity.
Tellkamp, H; Klein, W; Rosenkranz, G; Köhler, K
The results of CT examination of meniscopathies in 54 patients, most of them competitive athletes, are presented. CT has an overall accuracy of about 90 per cent and can hence be used for diagnosing a lesion of the meniscus with a reasonable amount of safety, while being rapid and avoiding unnecessary exposure to stress. This method, therefore, should be a focal point of the imaging methods and thus be placed between the specialist doctor's findings and possible surgery. The pros and cons of CT compared with other imaging methods are discussed.
Ell, S.R.; Jolles, H.; Keyes, W.D.; Galvin, J.R.
The advent of cine CT scanning with its 50-msec data acquisition time promises a much wider range of dynamic CT studies. The authors describe a method for dynamic evaluation of the extrathoracic airway, which they believe has considerable potential application in nonfixed upper-airway disease, such as sleep apnea and stridor of unknown cause. Conventional CT is limited in such studies by long data acquisition time and can be used to study only prolonged maneuvers such as phonation. Fluoroscopy and digital subtraction studies are limited by relatively high radiation dose and inability to image all wall motions simultaneously.
Russo, Paolo; Larobina, Michele; Di Lillo, Francesca; Del Vecchio, Silvana; Mettivier, Giovanni
In the field of nuclear medicine imaging, breast imaging for cancer diagnosis is still mainly based on 2D imaging techniques. Three-dimensional tomographic imaging with whole-body PET or SPECT scanners, when used for imaging the breast, has performance limits in terms of spatial resolution and sensitivity, which can be overcome only with a dedicated instrumentation. However, only few hybrid imaging systems for PET/CT or SPECT/CT dedicated to the breast have been developed in the last decade, providing complementary functional and anatomical information on normal breast tissue and lesions. These systems are still under development and clinical trials on just few patients have been reported; no commercial dedicated breast PET/CT or SPECT/CT is available. This paper reviews combined dedicated breast PET/CT and SPECT/CT scanners described in the recent literature, with focus on their technological aspects.
DeStefano, Zachary; Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Li, Ming; Wood, Bradford J.; Summers, Ronald M.; Yao, Jianhua
Monitoring temperature during a cone-beam CT (CBCT) guided ablation procedure is important for prevention of over-treatment and under-treatment. In order to accomplish ideal temperature monitoring, a thermometry map must be generated. Previously, this was attempted using CBCT scans of a pig shoulder undergoing ablation.1 We are extending this work by using CBCT scans of real patients and incorporating more processing steps. We register the scans before comparing them due to the movement and deformation of organs. We then automatically locate the needle tip and the ablation zone. We employ a robust change metric due to image noise and artifacts. This change metric takes windows around each pixel and uses an equation inspired by Time Delay Analysis to calculate the error between windows with the assumption that there is an ideal spatial offset. Once the change map is generated, we correlate change data with measured temperature data at the key points in the region. This allows us to transform our change map into a thermal map. This thermal map is then able to provide an estimate as to the size and temperature of the ablation zone. We evaluated our procedure on a data set of 12 patients who had a total of 24 ablation procedures performed. We were able to generate reasonable thermal maps with varying degrees of accuracy. The average error ranged from 2.7 to 16.2 degrees Celsius. In addition to providing estimates of the size of the ablation zone for surgical guidance, 3D visualizations of the ablation zone and needle are also produced.
Suresh, Pamidighantam; Ratnam, S V; Rao, K V J
Using a technology that "takes a look" at people's insides and promises early warnings of cancer, cardiac disease, and other abnormalities, clinics and medical imaging facilities nationwide are touting a new service for health conscious people: "Whole body CT screening" this typically involves scanning the body from the chin to below the hips with a form of x-ray imaging that produces cross-sectional images. In USA direct-to-consumer marketing of whole body CT is occurring today in many metropolitan areas. Free standing CT screening centres are being sited in shopping malls and other high density public areas, and these centres are being advertised in the electronic and print media. In this context the present article discussed the pros and cons of having such centres in India with the advent of multislice CT leading to fast scan times.
Daneman, A.; Mancer, K.; Sonley, M.
In neutrofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen disease), peripheral nerves may develop enlarged diameters or focal fusiform enlargement due to neurofibromatous involvement. Their appearance on computed tomography (CT) forms the basis of this report.
Mafee, M.F.; Henrikson, G.C.; Deitch, R.L.; Norouzi, P.; Kumar, A.; Kriz, R.; Valvassori, G.E.
Otosclerosis (otospongiosis) is a primary focal disease of the labyrinthine capsule. The stapes footplate is fixed when the spongiotic focus expands and invades the oval window. Persons with stapedial otosclerosis experience a progressive conductive hearing loss. In many cases, cochlear degeneration is observed, in which a mixed hearing loss occurs. Using computed tomography (CT), the authors studied the ears of 45 selected patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss. CT proved valuable in determining otosclerotic changes of the oval window and otic capsule. Spongiotic changes of the otic capsule are better appreciated by CT than complex motion tomography. The usefulness of CT in diagnosing other causes of conductive or mixed hearing loss is also described.
Weekes, R.G.; McLeod, R.A.; Reiman, H.M.; Pritchard, D.J.
The computed tomographic scans (CT) of 84 patients with untreated soft-tissue neoplasms were studied, 75 with primary and nine with secondary lesions. Each scan was evaluated using several criteria: homogeneity and density, presence and type of calcification, presence of bony destruction, involvement of multiple muscle groups, definition of adjacent fat, border definition, and vessel or nerve involvement. CT demonstrated the lesion in all 84 patients and showed excellent anatomic detail in 64 of the 75 patients with primary neoplasms. The CT findings were characteristic enough to suggest the histology of the neoplasm in only 13 lesions (nine lipomas, three hemangiomas, one neurofibroma). No malignant neoplasm had CT characteristics specific enough to differentiate it from any other malignant tumor. However, malignant neoplasms could be differentiated from benign neoplasms in 88% of the cases.
Goldman, S.M.; Fishman, E.K.; Gatewood, O.M.B.; Jones, B.; Siegelman, S.S.
Enterovesical fistulae are difficult to demonstrate by conventional radiographic methods. Computed tomography (CT), a sensitive, noninvasive method of documenting the presence of such fistulae, is unique in its ability to outline the extravesical component of the primary disease process. Twenty enterovesical fistulae identified by CT were caused by diverticulitis (nine), carcinoma of the rectosigmoid (two), Crohn disease (three), gynecologic tumors (two), bladder cancer (one), cecal carcinoma (one), prostatic neoplasia (one), and appendiceal abscess (one). The CT findings included intravesical air (90%), passage of orally or rectally administered contrast medium into the bladder (20%), focal bladder-wall thickening (90%), thickening of adjacent bowel wall (85%), and an extraluminal mass that often contained air (75%). CT proved to be an important new method in the diagnosis of enterovesical fistulae.
Rhodes, Michael L.; Rothman, Stephen L. G.; Schwarz, Melvyn S.; Tivattanasuk, Eva S.
Reformatted CT images of the mandible and maxilla are described as a planning aid to the surgical implantation of dental fixtures. Precisely scaled and cross referenced axial, oblique, CT generated panorex, and 3-D images are generated to help indicate where and how critical anatomic structures are positioned. This information guides the oral surgeon to those sites where dental implants have optimal osteotic support and least risk to sensitive neural tissue. Oblique images are generated at 1-2 mm increments along the arch of the mandible (or maxilla). Each oblique is oriented perpendicular to the local arch curvature. The adjoining five CT generated panorex views match the patient's mandibular (or maxilla) arch, with each of the views separated by twice the distance between axial CT slices. All views are mutually cross-referenced to show fine detail of the underlying mandibular (or maxilla) structure. Several exams are illustrated and benefit to subsequent surgery is assessed.
Kemp, J.L.; Kessler, R.M.; Raizada, V.; Williamson, M.R.
We present a case of cardiac hemangioma in a symptomatic patient. MR and CT each have specific characteristics that should make one consider including or excluding this in the differential diagnosis of a cardiac tumor. 7 refs., 3 figs.