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Sample records for annealing time effect

  1. Effects of ambient humidity on the optimum annealing time of mixed-halide Perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Harry M; Jayawardena, K D G Imalka; Stoeva, Zlatka; Shkunov, Maxim; Silva, S Ravi P

    2017-03-17

    Mixed halide Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are commonly produced by depositing PbCl2 and CH3NH3I from a common solvent followed by thermal annealing, which in an up-scaled manufacturing process is likely to take place under ambient conditions. However, it has been reported that, similar to the effects of thermal annealing, ambient humidity also affects the crystallisation behaviour and subsequent growth of the Perovskite films. This implies that both of these factors must be accounted for in solar cell production. In this work, we report for the first time the correlation between the annealing time, relative humidity (RH) and device performance for inverted, mixed halide CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl x PSCs with active area ≈1 cm(2). We find a trade-off between ambient humidity and the required annealing time to produce efficient solar cells, with low humidities needing longer annealing times and vice-versa. At around 20% RH, device performance weakly depends on annealing time, but at higher (30%-40% RH) or lower (0%-15% RH) humidities it is very sensitive. Processing in humid environments is shown to lead to the growth of both larger Perovskite grains and larger voids; similar to the effect of thermal annealing, which also leads to grain growth. Therefore, samples which are annealed for too long under high humidity show loss of performance due to low open circuit voltage caused by an increased number of shunt paths. Based on these results it is clear that humidity and annealing time are closely interrelated and both are important factors affecting the performance of PSCs. The findings of this work open a route for reduced annealing times to be employed by control of humidity; critical in roll-to-roll manufacture where low manufacturing time is preferred for cost reductions.

  2. Effects of ambient humidity on the optimum annealing time of mixed-halide Perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, Harry M.; Imalka Jayawardena, K. D. G.; Stoeva, Zlatka; Shkunov, Maxim; Silva, S. Ravi P.

    2017-03-01

    Mixed halide Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are commonly produced by depositing PbCl2 and CH3NH3I from a common solvent followed by thermal annealing, which in an up-scaled manufacturing process is likely to take place under ambient conditions. However, it has been reported that, similar to the effects of thermal annealing, ambient humidity also affects the crystallisation behaviour and subsequent growth of the Perovskite films. This implies that both of these factors must be accounted for in solar cell production. In this work, we report for the first time the correlation between the annealing time, relative humidity (RH) and device performance for inverted, mixed halide CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl x PSCs with active area ≈1 cm2. We find a trade-off between ambient humidity and the required annealing time to produce efficient solar cells, with low humidities needing longer annealing times and vice-versa. At around 20% RH, device performance weakly depends on annealing time, but at higher (30%-40% RH) or lower (0%-15% RH) humidities it is very sensitive. Processing in humid environments is shown to lead to the growth of both larger Perovskite grains and larger voids; similar to the effect of thermal annealing, which also leads to grain growth. Therefore, samples which are annealed for too long under high humidity show loss of performance due to low open circuit voltage caused by an increased number of shunt paths. Based on these results it is clear that humidity and annealing time are closely interrelated and both are important factors affecting the performance of PSCs. The findings of this work open a route for reduced annealing times to be employed by control of humidity; critical in roll-to-roll manufacture where low manufacturing time is preferred for cost reductions.

  3. Effects of annealing time on the structure, morphology, and stress of gold-chromium bilayer film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong; Jin, Yun-Xia; Wang, Hu; Kong, Fang-Yu; Huang, Hao-Peng; Cui, Yun

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a 200-nm-thick gold film with a 10-nm-thick chromium layer used as an adhesive layer is fabricated on fused silica by the electron beam evaporation method. The effects of annealing time at 300 °C on the structure, morphology and stress of the film are studied. We find that chromium could diffuse to the surface of the film by formatting a solid solution with gold during annealing. Meanwhile, chromium is oxidized on the surface and diffused downward along the grain grooves in the gold film. The various operant mechanisms that change the residual stresses of gold films for different annealing times are discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61405225).

  4. Effect of annealing temperature and time on microstructure and mechanical properties of high Cr ferritic casting steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suo, Z. Y.; Fu, L. M.; Zhang, R. N.; Wang, Y. J.; Shan, A. D.

    2017-09-01

    A new-type of high Cr ferrite cast steel was designed and investigated. Effects of annealing temperature and time on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the high Cr ferrite cast steel were studied. The results show that the microstructures of the as-cast and annealing steels are composed of ferrite and (Cr•Fe)23C6 carbide. The morphology of carbides is from long rod and the continuous network to crystal precipitation for the steels with increasing of annealing temperature and time. The impact toughness is slightly increased from 6 J/cm2 to 8 J/cm2 when the annealing temperature increases from 1180 ℃ to 1200 ℃. But the hardness is about HB 200 and no obvious differences between the as-cast and annealing steels. The most suitable annealing temperature and time are 1200 ℃ and 5 h, respectively. The wear resistance of the high Cr ferrite cast steel is increased and improved with annealing temperature and holding time at 260 ℃. The wear mechanism is changed from abrasion wear to abrasive and adhesive wear. The good wear-resistant of the high Cr ferrite cast steel is mainly attributed to the fine uniformly dispersed carbides.

  5. Study of growth time and post annealing effect on the performance of ZnO nanorods ultraviolet photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shasti, M.; Dariani, R. S.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, Zinc Oxide nanorods with different thicknesses are grown on a glass substrate by a hydrothermal method to fabricate an ultraviolet photodetector. The sample is post annealed in an argon environment as an annealing process can have a positive effect on the photodetector performance. The morphology, crystalline structure, and optical properties of ZnO nanorods (NRs) are investigated by SEM, XRD, UV-Visible spectrometer, and PL spectra. The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of both growth time and post annealing on enhancement of photoresponse of the ZnO NR photodetector. Measurements indicate that the sample with higher thickness exhibits a higher photocurrent and photoresponsivity. Also, with post annealing, an increase in photocurrent and photoresponsivity is observed due to decreasing defect levels.

  6. Tritium release from neutron irradiated beryllium: Kinetics, long-time annealing and effect or crack formation

    SciTech Connect

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Werle, H.

    1995-09-01

    Since beryllium is considered as one of the best neutron multiplier materials in the blanket of the next generation fusion reactors, several studies have been started to evaluate its behaviour under irradiation during both operating and accidental conditions. Based on safety considerations, tritium produced in beryllium during neutron irradiation represents one important issue, therefore it is necessary to investigate tritium transport processes by using a comprehensive mathematical model and comparing its predictions with well characterized experimental tests. Because of the difficulties in extrapolating the short-time tritium release tests to a longer time scale, also long-time annealing experiments with beryllium samples from the SIBELIUS irradiation. have been carried out at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Samples were annealed up to 12 months at temperatures up to 650{degrees}C. The inventory after annealing was determined by heating the samples up to 1050{degrees}C with a He+0.1 vo1% H{sub 2} purge gas. Furthermore, in order to investigate the likely effects of cracks formation eventually causing a faster tritium release from beryllium, the behaviour of samples irradiated at low temperature (40-50{degrees}C) but up to very high fast neutron fluences (0.8-3.9{center_dot}10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}, E{sub n}{ge}1 MeV) in the BR2 reactor has been investigated. Tritium was released by heating the beryllium samples up to 1050{degrees}C and purging them with He+0.1 vo1% H{sub 2}. Tritium release from high-irradiated beryllium samples showed a much faster kinetics than from the low-irradiated ones, probably because of crack formation caused by thermal stresses in the brittle material and/or by helium bubbles migration. The obtained experimental data have been compared with predictions of the code ANFIBE with the goal to better understand the physical mechanisms governing tritium behaviour in beryllium and to assess the prediction capabilities of the code.

  7. Effects of copolymer composition, film thickness, and solvent vapor annealing time on dewetting of ultrathin block copolymer films.

    PubMed

    Huang, Changchun; Wen, Gangyao; Li, Jingdan; Wu, Tao; Wang, Lina; Xue, Feifei; Li, Hongfei; Shi, Tongfei

    2016-09-15

    Effects of copolymer composition, film thickness, and solvent vapor annealing time on dewetting of spin-coated polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) films (<20nm thick) were mainly investigated by atomic force microscopy. Surface chemical analysis of the ultrathin films annealed for different times were performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurement. With the annealing of acetone vapor, dewetting of the films with different thicknesses occur via the spinodal dewetting and the nucleation and growth mechanisms, respectively. The PS-b-PMMA films rupture into droplets which first coalesce into large ones to reduce the surface free energy. Then the large droplets rupture into small ones to increase the contact area between PMMA blocks and acetone molecules resulting from ultimate migration of PMMA blocks to droplet surface, which is a novel dewetting process observed in spin-coated films for the first time.

  8. Effect of Annealing Temperature and Time on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Multilayered Steel Composite Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, R.; Yu, X.; Feng, Z.; Ojima, M.; Inoue, J.; Koseki, T.

    2016-12-01

    Multilayered composite steels consisting of alternating layers of martensitic phase and austenitic phase exhibit an excellent combination of strength and elongation compared with conventional advanced high-strength steels. The deformation processes underlying these properties are of considerable interest. In this article, microstructure, grain size, and phase are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron backscattering diffraction. The hardness of each layer is analyzed by a microindentation hardness testing system. Finally, the deformation and failure processes in multilayered steel are investigated by in-situ SEM. The hardness results indicate that various hardening modes occur in the soft austenitic layer and the hard martensitic layer. In- situ SEM results combined with microstructure analysis and hardness results reveal that annealing temperature and annealing time have a significant impact on final microstructure, fracture behavior, strength, hardness, and ductility.

  9. Effect of Annealing Time on Microstructural Evolution and Deformation Characteristics in 10Mn1.5Al TRIP Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Qihang; Zhang, Yulong; Wang, Li

    2015-05-01

    To investigate microstructural evolution and its effects on the deformation behaviors of cold-rolled 10Mn1.5Al TRIP steel, a series of intercritical annealing treatments with various holding times from 3 minutes to 48 hours were conducted. With the increase of the holding time from 3 minutes to 12 hours, the elongation was improved from 15 to 42 pct, while the tensile strength was only reduced from 1210 to 1095 MPa; the strength-ductility combination thus exceeded 45 GPa pct. Austenite was found to coexist with martensite within deformed grains, which reduced the strain concentration at the interface. The austenite transformation fraction, as measured from the {220} peaks, after 3 minutes annealing was half that after 12 hours annealing. This is an indication that the slip systems were more easily activated in the micro-scaled grains compared with nano-scaled grains. Therefore, although the stability of austenite would have increased during annealing, size-induced slip suppression was reduced. Thus, more strain was accommodated in the austenite, facilitating a greater strain-induced transformation and better ductility.

  10. Effect of annealing time of CdCl2 vapor treatment on CdTe/CdS interface properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riech, I.; Peña, J. L.; Ares, O.; Rios-Flores, A.; Rejón-Moo, V.; Rodríguez-Fragoso, P.; Mendoza-Alvarez, J. G.

    2012-04-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was used to study the influence of the CdCl2 annealing time on the CdTe/CdS solar cell structures. The intensity of the PL peaks related to the CdTe and CdS regions drastically changes after chlorine activation. Regardless of the annealing time of the treatment process, the intensity of the CdTe PL-related defect band increases and the CdS-associated PL emission is reduced due to partial consumption of the CdS layer. It was observed that an increase of the annealing time leads to a redshift of the emission around 1.9 eV related to the inclusion of Te into the CdS layer. Additionally, as annealing time increases, a shoulder, which we correlate with intermixing region, appears around 1.55 eV and reaches its maximum intensity for an annealing time of 60 min. The PL measurements were correlated with the electrical characteristic of the solar cells fabricated with this heterostructure. It was observed that after 60 min of annealing time, there was an increase in both the open circuit voltage (VOC) and the short circuit current (JSC), but for higher annealing times these parameters were reduced, decreasing the efficiency of the solar cell.

  11. Enthalpy relaxation and annealing effect in polystyrene.

    PubMed

    Sakatsuji, Waki; Konishi, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yoshihisa

    2013-07-01

    The effects of thermal history on the enthalpy relaxation in polystyrene are studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The temperature dependence of the specific heat in the liquid and the glassy states, that of relaxation time, and the exponent of the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts function are determined by measurements of the thermal response against sinusoidal temperature variation. A phenomenological model equation previously proposed to interpret the memory effect in the frozen state is applied to the enthalpy relaxation and the evolution of entropy under a given thermal history is calculated. The annealing below the glass transition temperature produces two effects on enthalpy relaxation: the decay of excess entropy with annealing time in the early stage of annealing and the increase in relaxation time due to physical aging in the later stage. The crossover of these effects is reflected in the variation of temperature of the maximum specific heat observed in the heating process after annealing and cooling.

  12. Effect of decarburization annealing temperature and time on the carbon content, microstructure, and texture of grain-oriented pure iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hai-jun; Rong, Zhe; Xiang, Li; Qiu, Sheng-tao; Li, Jian-xin; Dong, Ting-liang

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the effect of decarburization annealing temperature and time on the carbon content, microstructure, and texture of grain-oriented pure iron was investigated by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with electron-backscatter diffraction. The results showed that the efficiency of decarburization dramatically increased with increasing decarburization temperature. However, when the annealing temperature was increased to 825°C and 850°C, the steel's carbon content remained essentially unchanged at 0.002%. With increasing decarburization time, the steel's carbon content generally decreased. When both the decarburization temperature and time were increased further, the average grain size dramatically increased and the number of fine grains decreased; meanwhile, some relatively larger grains developed. The main texture types of the decarburized sheets were approximately the same: {001}<110> and {112 115}<110>, with a γ-fiber texture. Furthermore, little change was observed in the texture. Compared with the experimental sheets, the texture of the cold-rolled sheet was very scattered. The best average magnetic induction ( B 800) among the final products was 1.946 T.

  13. Effect of aging heat time and annealing temperature on the properties of nanocrystalline tin dioxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadhim, Imad H.; Abu Hassan, H.

    2017-04-01

    Nanocrystalline tin dioxide (SnO2) thin films have been successfully prepared by sol-gel spin-coating technique on p-type Si (100) substrates. A stable solution was prepared by mixing tin(II) chloride dihydrate, pure ethanol, and glycerin. Temperature affects the properties of SnO2 thin films, particularly the crystallite size where the crystallization of SnO2 with tetragonal rutile structure is achieved when thin films that prepared under different aging heat times are annealed at 400∘C. By increasing aging heat time in the presence of annealing temperatures the FESEM images indicated that the thickness of the fabricated film was directly proportional to solution viscosity, increasing from approximately 380 nm to 744 nm, as well as the crystallization of the thin films improved and reduced defects.

  14. Reactor pressure vessel annealing -- Effective mitigation method

    SciTech Connect

    Brumovsky, M.; Brynda, J.

    1996-09-01

    Reactor pressure vessels of old generation were mostly manufactured from materials with high content of impurities which results in high increase in irradiation embrittlement values. Standard mitigation methods for decrease this damage--application of low-leakage core or dummy elements insertion--are inefficient if applied during the reactor operation. Thermal annealing of reactor pressure vessels has been shown as a very effective method for restoration of initial material properties in a high extent. Even though annealing process is not fully understood from the microstructural changes point of view, results from the testing were so promising that many annealing of WWER RPVs were performed. Nevertheless, some problems still remains, connected mainly with monitoring of the extent of annealing restoration as well as with re-embrittlement rate after such a properties restoration. Experience with WWER-440 RPVs is discussed, mainly because of the austenitic cladding existence. Cladding does not allow to take templates from the inner RPV surface and it is damaged during operation, as well. At the same time, no monitoring of cladding behavior during operation was planned within surveillance programs. Problems connected with material behavior monitoring after annealing as well as during further operation (re-embrittlement rate) are discussed together with the assessment of inaccuracies and possible solutions.

  15. Effects of the annealing temperature and time on the microstructural evolution and corresponding the mechanical properties of cold-drawn steel wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, D. B.; Lee, J. W.; Lee, Y. S.; Park, K. T.; Nam, W. J.

    2008-02-01

    The effects of the annealing temperature and annealing time on the microstructural evolution and corresponding mechanical properties of cold-drawn high carbon steel wires were investigated. During the annealing of cold-drawn steel wires, the increment of the tensile strength at low temperatures found to be due to age hardening, while the decrease in the tensile strength at high temperatures was attributed to age softening, involving the spheroidization of lamellar cementite and recovery of lamellar ferrite. To investigate the mechanisms of strain ageing, a thermal analysis using DSC was performed. The mechanisms for the first and second stages were found to be the diffusion of carbon atoms to dislocations in the lamellar ferrite and the decomposition of lamellar cementite. The third peak of the DSC curves was controlled by the re-precipitation of cementite or by the spheroidization of lamellar cementite.

  16. The effect of vacuum annealing on corrosion resistance of titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Chikanov, V.N.; Peshkov, V.V.; Kireev, L.S.

    1994-09-01

    The effect of annealing on the corrosion resistance of OT4-1 sheet titanium in 25% HCl under various air pressures and self-evacuating conditions has been investigated. From the kinetic corrosion curves it follows that the least corrosion resistance of titanium is observed after vacuum annealing. Even low residual air pressure in a chamber improves corrosion resistance. The corrosion resistance of titanium decreases with vacuum-annealing time.

  17. Effect of Annealing Time Process on the pH Sensitivity of Spin-coated TiO2/ ZnO Bilayer Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, R. A.; Zulkefle, M. A.; Yusof, K. A.; Abdullah, W. F. H.; Rusop, M.; Herman, S. H.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an investigation on titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) bilayer film, which is used as sensing membrane for extended-gate field effect transistor (EGFET) for pH sensing application. TiO2/ZnO thin films were deposited using sol-gel spin coating method on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates. After the deposition, the bilayer films were annealed at constant temperatures which is 400 °C for 15, 30, 40 and 60 minutes. The sensitivity of the TiO2 thin film towards pH buffer solution was measured by dipping the sensing membrane in pH4, pH7 and pH10 buffer solution. By varying the annealing time, we found that the TiO2/ZnO thin film annealed at 400°C for 15 minutes gave the highest sensitivity compared to other annealing conditions, with the value of 64.87 mV/pH.

  18. TiO2 photoanode sensitized with nanocrystalline Bi2S3: the effect of sensitization time and annealing on its photovoltaic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Anil N.; Rajendra Prasad, M. B.; Pathan, Habib M.; Patil, Rajendra S.

    2016-04-01

    This work deals with the sensitization of the porous TiO2 films of thickness about 4 µm deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide with nanocrystalline Bi2S3 for photovoltaic application. The sensitization was achieved for four different sensitization times employing chemical solution deposition with bismuth nitrate and sodium thiosulphate as precursors for Bi3+ and S2-, respectively. The unsensitized and sensitized photoelectrodes were characterized using X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and diffused reflectance spectroscopy. XRD patterns show the signatures of both anatase TiO2 and orthorhombic Bi2S3 in the sensitized photoanodes. However, crystallinity of Bi2S3 increased with increase in sensitization time from 10 to 40 min. The temporal effect of sensitization and annealing on the photovoltaic performance of the solar cells fabricated using four different photoelectrodes was studied using the photocurrent density versus photovoltage curves. Annealing apparently improved the photovoltaic performance of photoanodes. The best performance was obtained for cell fabricated using annealed TiO2/Bi2S3 photoanode after 30 min sensitization time showing V oc ~ 0.37 mV, J sc ~ 0.52 mA/cm2, FF ~ 68 and 0.43 %.

  19. X-ray and cathodoluminescence study on the effect of intentional long time annealing of the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, T. S.; Kim, J. H.; Han, M. S.; Lim, K. Y.; Youn, C. J.

    2005-07-01

    GaN-based InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) structure having a high-quality epilayer and coherent periodicity was grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. After thermal annealing of InGaN/GaN MQWs, the increase in temperature and annealing time caused the intermixing between the barrier and the wells, which in turn caused a decrease in periodicity on the high-resolution X-ray diffraction patterns. Thereby, we confirmed that the structural performance of InGaN MQWs is successively degrading with increasing thermal annealing temperature. Especially, InGaN MQWs of the sample annealed at 950 °C were profoundly damaged. The cathodoluminescence (CL) measurement indicated that MQWs emission intensity decreases with increasing thermal annealing temperature. Thus, the integrated CL intensity ratio of InGaN MQWs to GaN dramatically decreased while thermal annealing temperatures increased. This result caused the intermixing in MQWs to deteriorate the active layer performance. Furthermore, the peak position of MQWs showed a tendency of the red shift after high thermal annealing. It is suggested that the annealing-induced red shift in MQWs is attributed to the reduction of the inhomogeneity of the In content in the MQWs leading to the reduction of the quantized energies. Consequently, it indicates that the high temperature and the long-time thermal annealing would be inevitably followed by the structural destruction of InGaN MQWs.

  20. Investigation of the effect of anodization time and annealing temperature on the physical properties of ZrO2 thin film on a Si substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, Kian Heng; Lee, Hui Jing; Lau, Sze Kuan; Chiew Teh, Pei; Ramesh, S.; Tan, Chou Yong; Hoong Wong, Yew

    2017-08-01

    This research work studied the effects of various anodization times (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 min) and various annealing temperatures (500, 600, 700, 800 and 900 °C) on ZrO2 thin film on a Si substrate. The ZrO2 thin film was prepared via sputtering and anodization processes on a Si substrate. The existence of Si, SiO2, m-ZrO2, t-ZrO2 and ZrSiO4 was confirmed by x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. In addition, NaOH was observed as a residue on the surface of the thin film. The grain size and microstrain of both m-ZrO2, and t-ZrO2 were calculated using the Williamson-Hall and/or Scherrer equation. The morphology of samples was examined by scanning electron microscopy. In contrast to unannealed samples, the annealed samples have a smaller grain size, less NaOH, and SiO2 with a smoother surface. However, the SiO2 existed when being annealed at higher temperatures (⩾800 °C).

  1. Annealing effects on strain and stress sensitivity of polymer optical fibre based sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospori, A.; Marques, C. A. F.; Zubel, M. G.; Sáez-Rodríguez, D.; Nielsen, K.; Bang, O.; Webb, D. J.

    2016-04-01

    The annealing effects on strain and stress sensitivity of polymer optical fibre Bragg grating sensors after their photoinscription are investigated. PMMA optical fibre based Bragg grating sensors are first photo-inscribed and then they were placed into hot water for annealing. Strain, stress and force sensitivity measurements are taken before and after annealing. Parameters such as annealing time and annealing temperature are investigated. The change of the fibre diameter due to water absorption and the annealing process is also considered. The results show that annealing the polymer optical fibre tends to increase the strain, stress and force sensitivity of the photo-inscribed sensor.

  2. Effect of the implantation dose and annealing time on the luminescence properties of (113) defects in silicon implanted by oxygen ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, N. A.; Kalyadin, A. E.; Aruev, P. N.; Zabrodskii, V. V.; Shek, E. I.; Shtel'makh, K. F.; Karabeshkin, K. V.

    2016-12-01

    The photoluminescence properties of (113) defects formed in a silicon structure after the implantation by oxygen ions with an energy of 350 keV and doses of 1.7 × 1013-1.7 × 1015 cm-2 and the subsequent annealing at a temperature of 700°C for 0.5-2.0 h in a chlorine-containing atmosphere have been investigated. Regardless of the implantation dose and annealing time, the photoluminescence spectra are dominated by the line at a wavelength of 1.37 μm, which is attributed to a (113) defect. The dependences of the line intensity on the implantation dose and annealing time are characterized by curves with maxima. As the measurement temperature increases in the range from 64 to 120 K, the line intensity decreases monotonically.

  3. Photothermal deflection technique investigation of annealing temperature and time effects on optical and thermal conductivity of V/V2O5 alternating layers structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalfaoui, A.; Ilahi, S.; Abdel-Rahman, M.; Zia, M. F.; Alduraibi, M.; Ilahi, B.; Yacoubi, N.

    2017-10-01

    The VxOy material is fabricated by alternating multilayer of V/V2O5. Two sets of VxOy are presented annealed at 300 °C and 400 °C for 20, 30 and 40 min. We have determined optical absorption spectra of the two sets by comparison between experimental and theoretical PDS amplitude signal. In fact, a variation of the bandgap energy from 2.34eV to 2.49 eV has found for both set annealed at 300 °C and 400 °C for various annealing time. The variation of bandgap energy is discussed testifying a structural and compositional change. Moreover, thermal conductivity of the set annealed at 400 °C showed a variation from 1.96 W/m K to 6.2 W/m K noting a decrease up to 2.89 W/m K for that annealed for 30 min.

  4. Effects of Nucleus Ice Annealing History on Cometary Outgassing (abstract)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Claudia J.

    1996-01-01

    An important consideration for comet modeling is the dependence of the thermal conductivity on the comet structure. The microporosity of the comet ices changes with time as the phase of the ice and its annealing history progresses. Effects of these [modeled] changes on the overall gas production, as a function of time, are presented.

  5. Origin of reverse annealing effect in hydrogen-implanted silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Di, Zengfeng; Nastasi, Michael A; Wang, Yongqiang

    2009-01-01

    In contradiction to conventional damage annealing, thermally annealed H-implanted Si exhibits an increase in damage or reverse annealing behavior, whose mechanism has remained elusive. On the basis of quantitative high resolution transmission electron microscopy combined with channeling Rutherford backscattering analysis, we conclusively elucidate that the reverse annealing effect is due to the nucleation and growth of hydrogen-induce platelets. Platelets are responsible for an increase in the height and width the channeling damage peak following increased isochronal anneals.

  6. Reduction of Annealing Times for Energy Conservation in Aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony D. Rollett; Hasso Weiland; Mohammed Alvi; Abhijit Brahme

    2005-08-31

    Carnegie Mellon University was teamed with the Alcoa Technical Center with support from the US Dept. of Energy (Office of Industrial Technology) and the Pennsylvania Technology Investment Authority (PTIA) to make processing of aluminum less costly and more energy efficient. Researchers in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering have investigated how annealing processes in the early stages of aluminum processing affect the structure and properties of the material. Annealing at high temperatures consumes significant amounts of time and energy. By making detailed measurements of the crystallography and morphology of internal structural changes they have generated new information that will provide a scientific basis for shortening processing times and consuming less energy during annealing.

  7. Effects of aging time and annealing temperature on structural and optical properties of sol-gel ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jitao; Yang, Dingyu; Zhu, Xinghua

    2017-06-01

    The ZnO thin films have been prepared by sol-gel method at different annealing temperatures and aging time. The structural properties of ZnO thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and atomic force microscope (AFM) images. The results indicated that the film possess a hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferred orientation along the (002) direction. The crystalline quality of films improved with increasing post-annealing temperature, while gradually worsened with prolonging aging time. The optical properties of ZnO thin films were studied by the ultra-violet transmittance (UV-Vis) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The variations of UV-Vis transmittance and energy gap accorded well with the tendency presented in XRD patterns and AFM images. The PL spectra appeared the apparent ultraviolet emission and visible emissions. As the annealing temperature increased, the ultraviolet and visible emissions of films enhanced and decreased respectively. However, as the sol aging time prolonged, the PL emission presented an opposite tendency.

  8. Annealing effects on optical properties of natural alexandrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes Scalvi, Rosa M.; Li, Máximo Siu; Scalvi, Luis V. A.

    2003-11-01

    Natural alexandrite (BeAl2O4:Cr3+) crystals are investigated as regards the effects of annealing on their optical properties. Optical absorption spectra are measured from the ultraviolet (190 nm) to the near infrared (900 nm), for a sample subjected to consecutive annealing processes, where time and temperature are varied. Besides this, luminescence spectra are simultaneously obtained for this sample, excited with a Kr+ laser source, tuned on an ultraviolet multi-line mode (337.5, 350.7 and 356.4 nm). We observe from absorption as well as from emission data that annealing mainly influences the distribution of Cr3+ and Fe3+ ions, located on sites of a mirror plane (Cs symmetry), which are responsible for the optical properties of alexandrite. The results obtained lead to the conclusion that annealing induces a modification of the population of Cr3+ on Cs sites as well as on sites located on an inversion plane (Ci). Annealing could improve the optical properties of this material, as regards its application as a tunable laser.

  9. Effect of the annealing and the spraying time on the properties of CZTS thin films prepared by the "Spray sandwich" technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoubi, S.; Bitri, N.; Bouzouita, H.; Abaab, M.; Ly, I.

    2017-06-01

    We have investigated synthesis conditions and some properties of sprayed Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films to determine the best preparation conditions for the realization of CZTS-based photovoltaic solar cells. The thin films are made by means of spraying sandwich. To optimize the preparation conditions of the CZTS films, two series of experiments are performed. In the first series, the sprayed duration was changed from 20 to 60 min. In each series, effect annealing was investigated. The X-ray diffraction shows, on one hand, that the best crystalline was obtained after annealing for 60 min as sprayed duration. On the other hand, these CZTS films exhibit the Kesterite structure with preferential orientation along the [112] direction. Raman spectrum indicated the presence of principal Stannite peak 336 cm-1. SEM showed that the surface of CZTS was uniform. After the annealing treatment, we estimated the optical band-gap energy of the CZTS thin film exhibiting the best crystalline as 1.5 eV which is quite close to the optimum value for a solar cell.

  10. Effect of ramp rate and annealing temperature on boron transient diffusion in implanted silicon: kinetic Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Caturla, M. J.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Foad, M.

    1998-06-17

    We present results of recent kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of the effect of annealing time and ramp rate on boron transient enhanced diffusion (BTED) in low energy ion implanted silicon. The simulations use a database of defect and dopant energetics derived from first principle calculations. We discuss the complete atomistic details of defect and dopant clustering during the anneals, and the dependence of boron TED on ramp rate. The simulations provide a complete time history of the evolution of the active boron fraction during the anneal for a wide variety of conditions. We also studied the lateral spreading of the boron during the annealing for two different conditions, furnace anneal and ramp anneal.

  11. Watching the Annealing Process One Polymer Chain at a Time

    SciTech Connect

    Vogelsang, Jan; Brazard, Johanna; Adachi, Takuji; Bolinger, Joshua; Barbara, Paul F.

    2011-02-03

    By using single-molecule spectroscopy (SMS) several effects of solvent vapor induced annealing (SVA) were studied directly on single conjugated polymers, e.g.: SVA-induced translocations, folding/unfolding dynamics, and changes in the morphological order. It is shown that single chains can be trapped by spin-coating in a disordered conformation and subsequent SVA leads to an equilibrated, highly ordered conformation.

  12. Effect of High-Temperature Annealing on the Microstructure and Hardness of White Pig Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanas'ev, V. K.; Shcherbedinskii, G. V.; Kol'ba, A. V.; Sochnev, A. V.

    2003-03-01

    The effect of high-temperature annealing of different duration on the microstructure of alloy-free cast iron subjected to thermocycling in the molten state is studied. The variation of the hardness of the obtained white cast iron (without graphite segregations) and of the microhardness of pearlite is determined as a function of the annealing time and the cooling conditions. The influence of the modes of high-temperature annealing on the volume fraction of eutectic cementite is analyzed.

  13. Effects of thermal annealing on the structural properties of CdZnTe crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, G.; Bolotnikov, A. E.; Fochuk, P. M.; Cui, Y.; Camarda, G. S.; Hossain, A.; Kim, K. H.; Horace, J.; McCall, B.; Gul, R.; Kopach, O. V.; Egarievwe, S. U.; James, R. B.

    2011-09-01

    Although cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) is one of leading materials for fabricating room-temperature nuclear-radiation- detectors, different defects in the crystals can degrade the performance of CZT detectors. Post-growth thermal annealing potentially offers a satisfactory way to eliminate the deleterious influence of these defects. Here, we report that the annealing of CZT in Cd vapor effectively lowers the density of Te inclusions. It takes a much longer annealing time to eliminate separate large Te inclusions than small ones; however, the annealing time is greatly reduced when the large Te inclusions are distributed along grain boundaries. We found that sub-grain boundaries still exist after the annealing at 500 °C, indicating that a higher annealing temperature might be needed.

  14. Effect of annealing history on free volume in thermoplastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; St.clair, T. L.

    1986-01-01

    Two different types of thermoplastic glassy polymers have been investigated for the effects of thermal annealing on their free volumes. It has been observed that free volumes in glassy polymers decrease asymptotically to a steady level after about four thermal anneals lasting for 24 hours at a temperature about 50 C below their glass transition temperatures. These results indicate that composites incorporating properly annealed thermoplastic matrices may not experience any additional internal stresses due to subsequent thermal excursions experienced while in service.

  15. Annealing Polymer Nanocomposite Fibers and Films Via Photothermal Heating: Effects On Overall Crystallinity and Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanath, Vidya

    Metal nanoparticles embedded within polymeric systems can act as localized heat sources, facilitating in situ polymer processing. When irradiated with light resonant with the nanoparticle's surface plasmon resonance (SPR), a non-equilibrium electron distribution is generated which rapidly transfers energy into the surrounding medium, resulting in a temperature increase in the immediate region around the particle. This work compares the utility of such photothermal heating versus traditional heating in two different polymeric media i.e. gold nanospheres/poly (ethylene oxide) (AuNP:PEO) nanocomposite films and electrospun nanofibers. Subsequently, a brief study on the usage of gold nanorods (AuNR) to anneal polymeric nanofibers and films has also been presented. Effect of annealing by conventional and photothermal methods has been studied for AuNP:PEO films crystallized from solution and the melt, which have been annealed at average sample temperatures above the glass transition and below the melting point. For all temperatures, photothermally annealed samples reached maximum crystallinity and maximum spherulite size at shorter annealing times. Percentage crystallinity change under conventional annealing was analyzed using time-temperature superposition (TTS). Comparison of the TTS data with results from photothermal experiments enabled determination of an "effective dynamic temperature" achieved under photothermal heating which is significantly higher than the average sample temperature. Thus, the heterogeneous temperature distribution created when annealing with the plasmon-mediated photothermal effect represents a unique tool to achieve processing outcomes that are not accessible via traditional annealing. In addition, the effect of annealing AuNP:PEO electrospun nanofibrous composites via conventional and photothermal annealing has also been studied. From the studies, it was observed that not only is the maximum crystallinity achieved more quickly when the

  16. Annealing Effects of Parylene-Caulked Polydimethylsiloxane as a Substrate of Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jinmo; Chou, Namsun; Lee, Gihyun; Kim, Sohee

    2016-12-18

    This paper investigates the effects of annealing of the electrodes based on parylene-caulked polydimethylsiloxane (pc-PDMS) in terms of mechanical strength and long-term electrical property. Previously, the electrodes based on pc-PDMS showed a better ability to withstand in vivo environments because of the low water absorption and beneficial mechanical properties of the substrate, compared to native PDMS. Moreover, annealing is expected to even strengthen the mechanical strength and lower the water absorption of the pc-PDMS substrate. To characterize the mechanical strength and water absorption of the annealed pc-PDMS, tensile tests were carried out and infrared (IR) spectra were measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy over a month. The results showed that annealed pc-PDMS had higher mechanical strength and lower water absorption than non-annealed pc-PDMS. Then, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was measured to evaluate the electrical stability of the electrodes based on annealed pc-PDMS in phosphate-buffered saline solution at 36.5 °C. The impedance magnitude of the electrodes on annealed pc-PDMS was twice higher than that of the electrodes on non-annealed pc-PDMS in the initial days, but the impedance magnitude of the electrodes based on two different substrates converged to a similar value after eight months, indicating that the annealing effects disappear after a certain period of time in a physiological environment.

  17. Annealing Effects of Parylene-Caulked Polydimethylsiloxane as a Substrate of Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jinmo; Chou, Namsun; Lee, Gihyun; Kim, Sohee

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of annealing of the electrodes based on parylene-caulked polydimethylsiloxane (pc-PDMS) in terms of mechanical strength and long-term electrical property. Previously, the electrodes based on pc-PDMS showed a better ability to withstand in vivo environments because of the low water absorption and beneficial mechanical properties of the substrate, compared to native PDMS. Moreover, annealing is expected to even strengthen the mechanical strength and lower the water absorption of the pc-PDMS substrate. To characterize the mechanical strength and water absorption of the annealed pc-PDMS, tensile tests were carried out and infrared (IR) spectra were measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy over a month. The results showed that annealed pc-PDMS had higher mechanical strength and lower water absorption than non-annealed pc-PDMS. Then, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was measured to evaluate the electrical stability of the electrodes based on annealed pc-PDMS in phosphate-buffered saline solution at 36.5 °C. The impedance magnitude of the electrodes on annealed pc-PDMS was twice higher than that of the electrodes on non-annealed pc-PDMS in the initial days, but the impedance magnitude of the electrodes based on two different substrates converged to a similar value after eight months, indicating that the annealing effects disappear after a certain period of time in a physiological environment. PMID:27999346

  18. Facile Synthesis of Calcium Borate Nanoparticles and the Annealing Effect on Their Structure and Size

    PubMed Central

    Erfani, Maryam; Saion, Elias; Soltani, Nayereh; Hashim, Mansor; Wan Abdullah, Wan Saffiey B.; Navasery, Manizheh

    2012-01-01

    Calcium borate nanoparticles have been synthesized by a thermal treatment method via facile co-precipitation. Differences of annealing temperature and annealing time and their effects on crystal structure, particle size, size distribution and thermal stability of nanoparticles were investigated. The formation of calcium borate compound was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Thermogravimetry (TGA). The XRD patterns revealed that the co-precipitated samples annealed at 700 °C for 3 h annealing time formed an amorphous structure and the transformation into a crystalline structure only occurred after 5 h annealing time. It was found that the samples annealed at 900 °C are mostly metaborate (CaB2O4) nanoparticles and tetraborate (CaB4O7) nanoparticles only observed at 970 °C, which was confirmed by FTIR. The TEM images indicated that with increasing the annealing time and temperature, the average particle size increases. TGA analysis confirmed the thermal stability of the annealed samples at higher temperatures. PMID:23203073

  19. Facile synthesis of calcium borate nanoparticles and the annealing effect on their structure and size.

    PubMed

    Erfani, Maryam; Saion, Elias; Soltani, Nayereh; Hashim, Mansor; Abdullah, Wan Saffiey B Wan; Navasery, Manizheh

    2012-11-08

    Calcium borate nanoparticles have been synthesized by a thermal treatment method via facile co-precipitation. Differences of annealing temperature and annealing time and their effects on crystal structure, particle size, size distribution and thermal stability of nanoparticles were investigated. The formation of calcium borate compound was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Thermogravimetry (TGA). The XRD patterns revealed that the co-precipitated samples annealed at 700 °C for 3 h annealing time formed an amorphous structure and the transformation into a crystalline structure only occurred after 5 h annealing time. It was found that the samples annealed at 900 °C are mostly metaborate (CaB(2)O(4)) nanoparticles and tetraborate (CaB(4)O(7)) nanoparticles only observed at 970 °C, which was confirmed by FTIR. The TEM images indicated that with increasing the annealing time and temperature, the average particle size increases. TGA analysis confirmed the thermal stability of the annealed samples at higher temperatures.

  20. Effect of thermal annealing on the surface properties of electrospun polymer fibers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiun-Tai; Chen, Wan-Ling; Fan, Ping-Wen; Yao, I-Chun

    2014-02-01

    Electrospun polymer fibers are gaining importance because of their unique properties and applications in areas such as drug delivery, catalysis, or tissue engineering. Most studies to control the morphology and properties of electrospun polymer fibers focus on changing the electrospinning conditions. The effects of post-treatment processes on the morphology and properties of electrospun polymer fibers, however, are little studied. Here, the effect of thermal annealing on the surface properties of electrospun polymer fibers is investigated. Poly(methyl methacrylate) and polystyrene fibers are fist prepared by electrospinning, followed by thermal annealing processes. Upon thermal annealing, the surface roughness of the electrospun polymer fibers decreases. The driving force of the smoothing process is the minimization of the interfacial energy between polymer fibers and air. The water contact angles of the annealed polymer fibers also decrease with the annealing time.

  1. Heavy Tails in the Distribution of Time to Solution for Classical and Quantum Annealing.

    PubMed

    Steiger, Damian S; Rønnow, Troels F; Troyer, Matthias

    2015-12-04

    For many optimization algorithms the time to solution depends not only on the problem size but also on the specific problem instance and may vary by many orders of magnitude. It is then necessary to investigate the full distribution and especially its tail. Here, we analyze the distributions of annealing times for simulated annealing and simulated quantum annealing (by path integral quantum Monte Carlo simulation) for random Ising spin glass instances. We find power-law distributions with very heavy tails, corresponding to extremely hard instances, but far broader distributions-and thus worse performance for hard instances-for simulated quantum annealing than for simulated annealing. Fast, nonadiabatic, annealing schedules can improve the performance of simulated quantum annealing for very hard instances by many orders of magnitude.

  2. Heavy Tails in the Distribution of Time to Solution for Classical and Quantum Annealing*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiger, Damian S.; Rønnow, Troels F.; Troyer, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    For many optimization algorithms the time to solution depends not only on the problem size but also on the specific problem instance and may vary by many orders of magnitude. It is then necessary to investigate the full distribution and especially its tail. Here, we analyze the distributions of annealing times for simulated annealing and simulated quantum annealing (by path integral quantum Monte Carlo simulation) for random Ising spin glass instances. We find power-law distributions with very heavy tails, corresponding to extremely hard instances, but far broader distributions—and thus worse performance for hard instances—for simulated quantum annealing than for simulated annealing. Fast, nonadiabatic, annealing schedules can improve the performance of simulated quantum annealing for very hard instances by many orders of magnitude.

  3. Effective dopant activation by susceptor-assisted microwave annealing of low energy boron implanted and phosphorus implanted silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Zhao; Vemuri, Rajitha N. P.; Alford, T. L.; David Theodore, N.; Lu, Wei; Lau, S. S.; Lanz, A.

    2013-12-28

    Rapid processing and reduced end-of-range diffusion result from susceptor-assisted microwave (MW) annealing, making this technique an efficient processing alternative for electrically activating dopants within ion-implanted semiconductors. Sheet resistance and Hall measurements provide evidence of electrical activation. Susceptor-assisted MW annealing, of ion-implanted Si, enables more effective dopant activation and at lower temperatures than required for rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Raman spectroscopy and ion channeling analyses are used to monitor the extent of ion implantation damage and recrystallization. The presence and behavior of extended defects are monitored by cross-section transmission electron microscopy. Phosphorus implanted Si samples experience effective electrical activation upon MW annealing. On the other hand, when boron implanted Si is MW annealed, the growth of extended defects results in reduced crystalline quality that hinders the electrical activation process. Further comparison of dopant diffusion resulting from MW annealing and rapid thermal annealing is performed using secondary ion mass spectroscopy. MW annealed ion implanted samples show less end-of-range diffusion when compared to RTA samples. In particular, MW annealed P{sup +} implanted samples achieve no visible diffusion and equivalent electrical activation at a lower temperature and with a shorter time-duration of annealing compared to RTA. In this study, the peak temperature attained during annealing does not depend on the dopant species or dose, for susceptor-assisted MW annealing of ion-implanted Si.

  4. Effect of Annealing on Elastic Moduli of a FSMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Md Sarowar; Rajini Kanth, B.; Mukhopadhyay, P. K.

    2017-07-01

    Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMA) are both ferromagnetic as well as have structural transformations from austenite to martensite and back. These structural transformations are generally studied through resistivity, magnetisation, etc. It is also known that annealing improves the physical properties of the FSMA systems. In this paper, we studied the effect of annealing on a typical CoNiAl FSMA system. However, in addition to the conventional methods, we also measured the elastic properties across the transition temperatures, and showed how the effect of annealing affects its elastic modulus. The measurements were done using a vibrating reed technique on thin samples that were annealed at two different temperatures. We also compared their properties in this paper.

  5. Annealing effects on microstrain of cobalt oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Deotale, Anjali Jain Nandedkar, R. V.; Sinha, A. K.; Singh, M. N.; Upadhyay, Anuj

    2014-04-24

    Cobalt oxide nanoparticles in different phases have been synthesized using ash supported method. The effect of isochronal annealing on micro-strain of cobalt oxide nanoparticles has been studied. The lattice strain contribution to the x-ray diffraction line broadening in the nanoparticles was analyzed using Williamson Hall (W-H) plot. It is observed that micro-strain was released at higher annealing temperature.

  6. Annealing effects on the migration of ion-implanted cadmium in glassy carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlatshwayo, T. T.; Sebitla, L. D.; Njoroge, E. G.; Mlambo, M.; Malherbe, J. B.

    2017-03-01

    The migration behaviour of cadmium (Cd) implanted into glassy carbon and the effects of annealing on radiation damage introduced by ion implantation were investigated. The glassy carbon substrates were implanted with Cd at a dose of 2 × 1016 ions/cm2 and energy of 360 keV. The implantation was performed at room temperature (RT), 430 °C and 600 °C. The RT implanted samples were isochronally annealed in vacuum at 350, 500 and 600 °C for 1 h and isothermally annealed at 350 °C up to 4 h. The as-implanted and annealed samples were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Raman results revealed that implantation at room temperature amorphized the glassy carbon structure while high temperature implantations resulted in slightly less radiation damage. Isochronal annealing of the RT implanted samples resulted in some recrystallization as a function of increasing temperature. The original glassy carbon structure was not achieved at the highest annealing temperature of 600 °C. Diffusion of Cd in glassy carbon was already taking place during implantation at 430 °C. This diffusion of Cd was accompanied by significant loss from the surface during implantation at 600 °C. Isochronal annealing of the room temperature implanted samples at 350 °C for 1 h caused Cd to diffuse towards the bulk while isothermal annealing at 500 and 600 °C resulted in the migration of implanted Cd toward the surface accompanied by a loss of Cd from the surface. Isothermal annealing at 350 °C for 1 h caused Cd to diffuse towards the bulk while for annealing time >1 h Cd diffused towards the surface. These results were interpreted in terms of trapping and de-trapping of implanted Cd by radiation damage.

  7. Annealing effects in low upper-shelf welds (series 9)

    SciTech Connect

    Iskander, S.K.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of the Ninth Irradiation Series is to evaluate the correlation between fracture toughness and CVN impact energy during irradiation, annealing, and reirradiation (IAR). Results of annealing CVN specimens from the low-USE welds from the Midland beltline and nozzle course welds, as well as HSST plate 02 and HSSI weld 73W are given. Also presented is the effect of annealing on the initiation fracture toughness of annealed material from Midland beltline weld and HSST plate 02. The results from capsule 10-5 specimens of weld 73W confirm those previously obtained on the so-called undersize specimens that were irradiated in the Fifth Irradiation Series, namely that the recovery due to annealing at 343{degrees}C (650{degrees}F) for 1 week is insignificant. The fabrication of major components for the IAR facility for two positions on the east side of the FNR at the University of Michigan has begun. Fabrication of two reusable capsules (one for temperature verification and the other for dosimetry verification), as well as two capsules for IAR, studies is also under way. The design of a reusable capsule capable of reirradiating previously irradiated and annealed CVN and 1T C(T) specimens is also progressing. The data acquisition and control (DAC) instrumentation for the first two IAR facilities is essentially complete and awaiting completion of the IAR facilities and temperature test capsule for checkout and control algorithm development.

  8. Effect of zinc addition and vacuum annealing time on the properties of spin-coated low-cost transparent conducting 1 at% Ga-ZnO thin films.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Jitendra

    2013-12-01

    Pure and 1 at% gallium (Ga)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been prepared with a low-cost spin coating technique on quartz substrates and annealed at 500 °C in vacuum ∼10(-3) mbar to create anion vacancies and generate charge carriers for photovoltaic application. Also, 0.5-1.5 at% extra zinc species were added in the precursor sol to investigate changes in film growth, morphology, optical absorption, electrical properties and photoluminescence. It is shown that 1 at% Ga-ZnO thin films with 0.5 at% extra zinc content after vacuum annealing for 60 min correspond to wurtzite-type hexagonal structure with (0001) preferred orientation, electrical resistivity of ∼9 × 10(-3) Ω cm and optical transparency of ∼65-90% in the visible range. Evidence has been advanced for the presence of defect levels within bandgap such as zinc vacancy (VZn), zinc interstitial (Zni), oxygen vacancy (Vo) and oxygen interstitial (Oi). Further, variation in ZnO optical bandgap occurring with Ga doping and insertion of additional zinc species has been explained by invoking two competing phenomena, namely bandgap widening and renormalization, usually observed in semiconductors with increasing carrier concentration.

  9. Effect of zinc addition and vacuum annealing time on the properties of spin-coated low-cost transparent conducting 1 at% Ga–ZnO thin films

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Jitendra

    2013-01-01

    Pure and 1 at% gallium (Ga)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been prepared with a low-cost spin coating technique on quartz substrates and annealed at 500 °C in vacuum ∼10−3 mbar to create anion vacancies and generate charge carriers for photovoltaic application. Also, 0.5–1.5 at% extra zinc species were added in the precursor sol to investigate changes in film growth, morphology, optical absorption, electrical properties and photoluminescence. It is shown that 1 at% Ga–ZnO thin films with 0.5 at% extra zinc content after vacuum annealing for 60 min correspond to wurtzite-type hexagonal structure with (0001) preferred orientation, electrical resistivity of ∼9 × 10−3 Ω cm and optical transparency of ∼65–90% in the visible range. Evidence has been advanced for the presence of defect levels within bandgap such as zinc vacancy (VZn), zinc interstitial (Zni), oxygen vacancy (Vo) and oxygen interstitial (Oi). Further, variation in ZnO optical bandgap occurring with Ga doping and insertion of additional zinc species has been explained by invoking two competing phenomena, namely bandgap widening and renormalization, usually observed in semiconductors with increasing carrier concentration. PMID:27877622

  10. Effect of zinc addition and vacuum annealing time on the properties of spin-coated low-cost transparent conducting 1 at% Ga-ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Jitendra

    2013-12-01

    Pure and 1 at% gallium (Ga)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been prepared with a low-cost spin coating technique on quartz substrates and annealed at 500 °C in vacuum ˜10-3 mbar to create anion vacancies and generate charge carriers for photovoltaic application. Also, 0.5-1.5 at% extra zinc species were added in the precursor sol to investigate changes in film growth, morphology, optical absorption, electrical properties and photoluminescence. It is shown that 1 at% Ga-ZnO thin films with 0.5 at% extra zinc content after vacuum annealing for 60 min correspond to wurtzite-type hexagonal structure with (0001) preferred orientation, electrical resistivity of ˜9 × 10-3 Ω cm and optical transparency of ˜65-90% in the visible range. Evidence has been advanced for the presence of defect levels within bandgap such as zinc vacancy (VZn), zinc interstitial (Zni), oxygen vacancy (Vo) and oxygen interstitial (Oi). Further, variation in ZnO optical bandgap occurring with Ga doping and insertion of additional zinc species has been explained by invoking two competing phenomena, namely bandgap widening and renormalization, usually observed in semiconductors with increasing carrier concentration.

  11. Thermally annealed silicon nitride films: Electrical characteristics and radiation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, H.J.

    1985-03-15

    Electrical characteristics, including retention under /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-ray irradiation of MNOS (metal-nitride-oxide-semiconductor) structures with LPCVD (low-pressure chemical-vapor-deposited) silicon nitride have been investigated. Capacitance-voltage techniques were used to measure injected, retained, and equilibrium charge. Current-voltage techniques were used to measure voltage and temperature dependence of charge transport. Measurements were made on MNOS with the following nitride annealing histories: (1) as-deposited at 750 /sup 0/C, (2) 950 /sup 0/C in N/sub 2/, and (3) 950 /sup 0/C in N/sub 2/ followed by 900 /sup 0/C in H/sub 2/. Internal IR reflection techniques were used to measure chemically bonded hydrogen in the nitride films. Annealing at 950 /sup 0/C in N/sub 2/ (1) decreased the concentration of hydrogen, (2), decreased equilibrium positive charge, and (3) increased low- and high-field transport. Partial restoration of the as-deposited characteristics was achieved by subsequent annealing in H/sub 2/ at 900 /sup 0/C. Charge loss (retention) under /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-ray irradiation is essentially independent of high-temperature annealing whereas degradation is observed for net negative charge retention measured in the absence of ionizing radiation. Effects of annealing on MNOS structures and models to explain the results are discussed.

  12. Thermally annealed silicon nitride films: Electrical characteristics and radiation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Herman J.

    1985-03-01

    Electrical characteristics, including retention under 60Co γ-ray irradiation of MNOS (metal-nitride-oxide-semiconductor) structures with LPCVD (low-pressure chemical-vapor-deposited) silicon nitride have been investigated. Capacitance-voltage techniques were used to measure injected, retained, and equilibrium charge. Current-voltage techniques were used to measure voltage and temperature dependence of charge transport. Measurements were made on MNOS with the following nitride annealing histories: (1) as-deposited at 750 °C, (2) 950 °C in N2, and (3) 950 °C in N2 followed by 900 °C in H2. Internal IR reflection techniques were used to measure chemically bonded hydrogen in the nitride films. Annealing at 950 °C in N2 (1) decreased the concentration of hydrogen, (2), decreased equilibrium positive charge, and (3) increased low- and high-field transport. Partial restoration of the as-deposited characteristics was achieved by subsequent annealing in H2 at 900 °C. Charge loss (retention) under 60Co γ-ray irradiation is essentially independent of high-temperature annealing whereas degradation is observed for net negative charge retention measured in the absence of ionizing radiation. Effects of annealing on MNOS structures and models to explain the results are discussed.

  13. The Effect of Solution Annealing on Alloy 22 Weld Properties

    SciTech Connect

    El-Dasher, B S; Torres, S G

    2005-11-08

    The effect of solution annealing temperature on the microstructure and observed corrosion attack mode in Alloy 22 welds was assessed. Specimens were examined in the as-welded state as well as solution annealed for 20 minutes at temperatures ranging from 1075 C to 1300 C. The microstructures of the specimens were first mapped using electron backscatter diffraction to determine the grain structure evolution due to solution annealing. Full recrystallization of the fusion zone was only observed in the 1200 C and 1300 C specimens, although the 1300 C specimen showed abnormal grain growth. As-welded, 1121 C and 1200 C specimens were also subjected to electrochemical testing in a 6 molal NaCl + 0.9 molal KNO{sub 3} environment to initiate crevice corrosion. Examination of the specimen surfaces after corrosion testing showed that in the as-welded specimen, corrosion was present in both the weld dendrites as well as around the secondary phases. However, the specimen solution annealed at 1121 C showed corrosion only at secondary phases and the specimen annealed at 1200 C showed pitting corrosion only in a handful of grains.

  14. Annealing time dependence of the physical, electrical and pH response characteristics of spin coated TiO2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkefle, M. A.; Rahman, R. A.; Yusoff, K. A.; Abdullah, W. F. H.; Rusop, M.; Herman, S. H.

    2015-11-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin film was deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate and used as sensing membrane of EGFET pH sensor. The thin film was fabricated using sol- gel spin coating method. All samples were annealed at 400 °C but the annealing time was varied. This is done to study the effects of annealing time on physical and electrical properties of titanium dioxide thin film. The sensitivity of each sample towards H+ ion was measured and result shows that sample annealed for 45 minutes has the highest sensitivity (52.6 mV/pH). It is found that increasing annealing duration will increase the pH sensitivity but a limit will be reached at certain point. Longer annealing processes done beyond this point will results in lower pH sensitivity.

  15. Magnetoimpedance effect in current annealed Co-based amorphous wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanaatshoar, M.; Tehranchi, M. M.; Mohseni, S. M.; Parhizkari, M.; Roozmeh, S. E.; Jazayeri Gharehbagh, A.

    2006-09-01

    Current-annealing of Co68.15Fe4.35Si12.5B15 amorphous wires has been studied at various vacuum orders. Structure-sensitive properties such as the electrical resistance during Joule heating treatment have been monitored to investigate the structural changes. Different driving currents have been flowed through the samples at different vacuums between 6×10-2 and 6×10-5 mbar. Regarding the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect, annealing at different vacuums but with the same current can lead to various responses.

  16. Investigation of solvent annealing time dependence on morphology formation in polystyrene-block-polylactide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnabasik, Ryan; Nelson, Gunnar; Baruth, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Solvent vapor annealing exposes a block polymer film to the vapors of one or more solvents, swelling the film. This process increases polymer mobility and can direct a self-assembly process by tuning the surface energy. Despite its efficacy to produce well-ordered, periodic nanostructures, no standardized production scheme exists. This is primarily due to a lack of understanding the intricate role multiple, incommensurate parameters play. By analogy to thermal annealing of elemental solids, the time a thin film spends in an equilibrium solvent concentration is one factor that will dictate the degree of ordering. To elucidate, optimized annealing conditions for perpendicular cylinder forming polystyrene-block-polylactide exist at solvent concentrations just below the order-disorder transition, where the kinetic and thermal processes required for recrystallization and crystal growth are optimally fast (similar to thermal annealing). By use of a purpose-built, climate-controlled solvent annealing chamber, we map out the annealing time dependence for non-optimized solvent concentrations. Namely, at lower solvent concentrations, where mobility is limited, longer times are required for large lateral correlation lengths. In situ spectral reflectance monitors solvent concentration, regulated viaa mass-flow controlled solvent inlet, offering precision control over annealing. Atomic force microscopy, in conjunction with O2 plasma etching, provides 3-dimensional imaging of the nanoscale morphology. This work was funded by NASA Nebraska Space Grant.

  17. High-temperature measurement with Brillouin optical time domain analysis of an annealed fused-silica single-mode fiber.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yi; Chen, Genda

    2016-07-15

    The effect of annealing is experimentally studied for a fused silica, fully distributed fiber optic sensor based on the pulse pre-pump Brillouin optical time domain analysis (PPP-BOTDA). Within a heating rate of 4.3°C/min and 30.6°C/min, and a sustained peak temperature for 120 and 240 min, annealing extended the sensor's upper operation temperature from 800°C to 1000°C and reduced the sensor's measurement variability over a temperature range of 22°C to 1000°C with a maximum Brillouin frequency variation of 1%. The annealed sensor had a linearly decreasing Brillouin frequency sensitivity from 1.349×10-3  GHz/°C at 22°C to 0.419×10-3  GHz/°C at 1000°C. The time required to achieve a stable annealing effect decayed exponentially with annealing temperature.

  18. Electrochemical capacitance of iron oxide nanotube (Fe-NT): effect of annealing atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Biplab; Jurovitzki, Abraham L; Ray, Rupashree S; Smith, York R; Mohanty, Swomitra K; Misra, Mano

    2015-07-03

    The effect of annealing atmosphere on the supercapacitance behavior of iron oxide nanotube (Fe-NT) electrodes has been explored and reported here. Iron oxide nanotubes were synthesized on a pure iron substrate through an electrochemical anodization process in an ethylene glycol solution containing 3% H2O and 0.5 wt.% NH4F. Subsequently, the annealing of the nanotubes was carried out at 500 °C for 2 h in various gas atmospheres such as air, oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2), and argon (Ar). The morphology and crystal phases evolved after the annealing processes were examined via field emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrochemical capacitance properties of the annealed Fe-NT electrodes were evaluated by conducting cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests in the Li2SO4 electrolyte. Based on these experiments, it was found that the capacitance of the Fe-NT electrodes annealed in air and O2 atmospheres shows mixed behavior comprising both the electric double layer and pseudocapacitance. However, annealing in N2 and Ar environments resulted in well-defined redox peaks in the CV profiles of the Fe-NT electrodes, which are therefore attributed to the relatively higher pseudonature of the capacitance in these electrodes. Based on the galvanostatic charge-discharge studies, the specific capacitance achieved in the Fe-NT electrode after annealing in Ar was about 300 mF cm(-2), which was about twice the value obtained for N2-annealed Fe-NTs and three times higher than those annealed in air and O2. The experiments also demonstrated excellent cycle stability for the Fe-NT electrodes with 83%-85% capacitance retention, even after many charge-discharge cycles, irrespective of the gas atmospheres used during annealing. The increase in the specific capacitance was discussed in terms of increased oxygen vacancies as a result of the

  19. Radiative Thermal Annealing/in Situ X-ray Diffraction Study of Methylammonium Lead Triiodide: Effect of Antisolvent, Humidity, Annealing Temperature Profile, and Film Substrates

    DOE PAGES

    Dou, Benjia; Pool, Vanessa L.; Toney, Michael F.; ...

    2017-07-06

    Organic–inorganic hybrid halide perovskites are one of the most promising emerging photovoltaic materials due to their high efficiency and potentially low processing cost. Here in this paper, we present a well-controlled, manufacturing relevant annealing method, radiative thermal annealing, for the methylammonium lead triiodide (MAPbI3) films formed by a solvent engineering process, with dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as solvent and diethyl ether as the antisolvent. Radiative thermal annealing can produce high quality perovskite films, evidenced by high efficiency solar cell devices (~18% power conversion efficiency), in a shorter time than the widely used hot plate annealing. Using in situmore » X-ray diffraction during the radiative annealing, we show that the role of the antisolvent is not to form an important intermediate compound (a PbI2-MAI-DMSO complex) by washing of the main solvent (DMF), but to achieve a pinhole free, uniform film of MAPbI3 with minimal intermediate compound. Importantly, we show that having a PbI2-MAI-DMSO intermediate compound does not guarantee a high quality (pinhole free) perovskite film. We directly show that humidity induces MAPbI3 to decompose into PbI2 more rapidly and, as such, negatively impacts the reproducibility of the device performance. In conclusion, the study is extended to reveal the effect of annealing temperature profile and deposition substrate to demonstrate the complexity of perovskite processing parameters. This coupled experimental approach allows a better understanding of the effect of processing protocols, including antisolvent, humidity, and annealing profile, on MAPbI3 film quality and the resultant solar cell performance.« less

  20. Radiative Thermal Annealing/in Situ X-ray Diffraction Study of Methylammonium Lead Triiodide: Effect of Antisolvent, Humidity, Annealing Temperature Profile, and Film Substrates

    DOE PAGES

    Dou, Benjia; Pool, Vanessa L.; Toney, Michael F.; ...

    2017-07-06

    Organic-inorganic hybrid halide perovskites are one of the most promising emerging photovoltaic materials due to their high efficiency and potentially low processing cost. Here, we present a well-controlled, manufacturing relevant annealing method, radiative thermal annealing, for the methylammonium lead triiodide (MAPbI3) films formed by a solvent engineering process, with dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as solvent and diethyl ether as the antisolvent. Radiative thermal annealing can produce high quality perovskite films, evidenced by high efficiency solar cell devices (~18% power conversion efficiency), in a shorter time than the widely used hot plate annealing. Using in situ X-ray diffraction duringmore » the radiative annealing, we show that the role of the antisolvent is not to form an important intermediate compound (a PbI2-MAI-DMSO complex) by washing of the main solvent (DMF), but to achieve a pinhole free, uniform film of MAPbI3 with minimal intermediate compound. Importantly, we show that having a PbI2-MAI-DMSO intermediate compound does not guarantee a high quality (pinhole free) perovskite film. We directly show that humidity induces MAPbI3 to decompose into PbI2 more rapidly and, as such, negatively impacts the reproducibility of the device performance. The study is extended to reveal the effect of annealing temperature profile and deposition substrate to demonstrate the complexity of perovskite processing parameters. This coupled experimental approach allows a better understanding of the effect of processing protocols, including antisolvent, humidity, and annealing profile, on MAPbI3 film quality and the resultant solar cell performance.« less

  1. In Situ Hall Effect Monitoring of Vacuum Annealing of In2O3:H Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Wardenga, Hans F.; Frischbier, Mareike V.; Morales-Masis, Monica; Klein, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen doped In2O3 thin films were prepared by room temperature sputter deposition with the addition of H2O to the sputter gas. By subsequent vacuum annealing, the films obtain high mobility up to 90 cm2/Vs. The films were analyzed in situ by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ex situ by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical transmission and Hall effect measurements. Furthermore, we present results from in situ Hall effect measurements during vacuum annealing of In2O3:H films, revealing distinct dependence of carrier concentration and mobility with time at different annealing temperatures. We suggest hydrogen passivation of grain boundaries as the main reason for the high mobility obtained with In2O3:H films. PMID:28787957

  2. Effect of dopants on annealing performance of silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott-Monck, J. A.; Anspaugh, B. E.

    1979-01-01

    The optimum annealing parameters of time and temperature for producing cell output recovery were established. Devices made from gallium doped and boron doped silicon were investigated. The cells ranged in resistivity from 0.1 to 20 ohm-cm and in thickness from 50 to 250 micrometers. The observations can be explained in a qualitative manner by postulating a pair of competing mechanisms to account for the low temperature reverse annealing seen in most boron and gallium doped silicon solar cells. Still another mechanism dominates at higher temperatures (350 C and greater) to complete this model. One of the mechanisms, defined as B, allows migrators to couple with radiation induced recombination sites thus increasing or enhancing their capture cross sections. This would tend to reduce minority carrier diffusion length. The new recombination complex is postulated to be thermally stable up to temperatures of approximately 350 C.

  3. Real-time thermal annealing studies in FePt thin films and nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuza, J. R.; Sestak, M. N.; Lukaszew, R. A.; Walko, D. A.; Clavero, C.; Cebollada, A.

    2007-03-01

    L10-ordered FePt thin films and nanostructures have been heavily studied for ultrahigh-density recording applications taking advantage of the very large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy this phase exhibits (˜10^7 erg/cc). A high degree of L10 order can be achieved by optimizing deposition conditions and/or performing annealing treatments. Here, we report on recent real-time thermal annealing studies of Fe-implanted Pt thin films that begin to exhibit chemical ordering upon annealing at ˜400^o C. Clusters of Fe are implanted onto a Pt thin film using the Toledo Heavy Ion Accelerator (THIA) in which their size and penetration depth can be tailored by modifying the implantation conditions. These annealing studies were partially performed at the MHATT/XOR beam line (Sector 7) at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory.

  4. Effect of post-deposition annealing on the growth and properties of cubic SnS films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalapathi, U.; Poornaprakash, B.; Park, Si-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    We report a detailed investigation of the effect of post-deposition annealing on the growth and physical properties of chemically grown cubic SnS films. Chemically deposited cubic SnS films were subjected to annealing in a graphite box with loaded elemental sulfur under N2 at 150-350 °C for 10, 30, and 60 min in order to understand the grain growth and morphology of the films. Films annealed at 150-250 °C for 10 min showed improved grain size and a more uniform grain morphology. Films annealed at 150-250 °C for 30 and 60 min showed a decrease in the grain size and non-uniform grain morphology for the cubic SnS phase. Films annealed at 300 and 350 °C for 10 min revealed the formation of minor secondary phase SnS2, and the grain morphology changed from round shape to flake-like. Longer annealing at 300 and 350 °C improved the extent of the SnS2 phase, and it was found to be the dominant phase after annealing at 350 °C for 60 min. The direct optical band gap of SnS films is 1.75-1.67 eV, depending on the annealing temperature and time. The films exhibited p-type electrical conductivity. The films annealed at 250 °C for 10 min showed a higher hole mobility of 77.7 cm2V-1s-1. Thus, lower annealing temperatures and shorter annealing times are favorable conditions to produce high-quality cubic SnS films.

  5. Quality improvement of CdMnTe:In single crystals by an effective post-growth annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Pengfei; Xu, Yadong; Luan, Lijun; Du, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Jiahong; Li, Hui; Jie, Wanqi

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, an effective annealing method in which CdMnTe:In (CMT:In) single crystals were coated with CMT powders of the same composition was used to improve the crystal quality of CMT:In crystals. The results indicated that the density of Te inclusions decreased as the annealing time increased. The resistivity and IR transmittance of annealed CMT:In crystals were enhanced obviously. The resistivity of 120 h annealed crystal increased even two orders of magnitude. The reduction of full-width at-half-maximum (FWHM) and the increase of the intensity of X-ray rocking curve indicated an improvement of the crystal quality. PL measurements also showed the crystal quality improved after annealing. No characteristic peak of 241Am γ-ray could be observed in the detector fabricated with as-grown crystal. Remarkably, for the detector fabricated with annealed crystals, the peak of 241Am γ-ray appeared. And the energy resolution and μτ value were improved as the annealing time increased. Specially, 120 h annealed CMT:In crystal with 10.11% energy resolution and 1.20×10-3 cm2/V μτ value has the best detector performance.

  6. Interrogating the Effects of Radiation Damage Annealing on Helium Diffusion Kinetics in Apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, C. D.; Fox, M.; Shuster, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology is commonly used to study landscape evolution and potential links between climate, erosion and tectonics. The technique relies on a quantitative understanding of (i) helium diffusion kinetics in apatite, (ii) an evolving 4He concentration, (iii) accumulating damage to the crystal lattice caused by radioactive decay[1], and (iv) the thermal annealing of such damage[2],[3], which are each functions of both time and temperature. Uncertainty in existing models of helium diffusion kinetics has resulted in conflicting conclusions, especially in settings involving burial heating through geologic time. The effects of alpha recoil damage annealing are currently assumed to follow the kinetics of fission track annealing (e.g., reference [3]), although this assumption is difficult to fully validate. Here, we present results of modeling exercises and a suite of experiments designed to interrogate the effects of damage annealing on He diffusivity in apatite that are independent of empirical calibrations of fission track annealing. We use the existing experimental results for Durango apatite[2] to develop and calibrate a new function that predicts the effects of annealing temperature and duration on measured diffusivity. We also present a suite of experiments conducted on apatite from Sierra Nevada, CA granite to establish whether apatites with different chemical compositions have the same behavior as Durango apatite. Crystals were heated under vacuum to temperatures between 250 and 500°C for 1, 10, or 100 hours. The samples were then irradiated with ~220 MeV protons to produce spallogenic 3He, the diffusant then used in step-heating diffusion experiments. We compare the results of these experiments and model calibrations to existing models. Citations: [1]Shuster, D., Flowers R., and Farley K., (2006), EPSL 249(3-4), 148-161; [2]Shuster, D. and Farley, K., (2009), GCA 73 (1), 6183-6196; [3]Flowers, R., Ketcham, R., Shuster, D. and Farley, K

  7. Forecasting nonlinear chaotic time series with function expression method based on an improved genetic-simulated annealing algorithm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Zhou, Bi-hua; Zhou, Shu-dao; Sheng, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a novel function expression method to forecast chaotic time series, using an improved genetic-simulated annealing (IGSA) algorithm to establish the optimum function expression that describes the behavior of time series. In order to deal with the weakness associated with the genetic algorithm, the proposed algorithm incorporates the simulated annealing operation which has the strong local search ability into the genetic algorithm to enhance the performance of optimization; besides, the fitness function and genetic operators are also improved. Finally, the method is applied to the chaotic time series of Quadratic and Rossler maps for validation. The effect of noise in the chaotic time series is also studied numerically. The numerical results verify that the method can forecast chaotic time series with high precision and effectiveness, and the forecasting precision with certain noise is also satisfactory. It can be concluded that the IGSA algorithm is energy-efficient and superior.

  8. Forecasting Nonlinear Chaotic Time Series with Function Expression Method Based on an Improved Genetic-Simulated Annealing Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Zhou, Bi-hua; Zhou, Shu-dao; Sheng, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a novel function expression method to forecast chaotic time series, using an improved genetic-simulated annealing (IGSA) algorithm to establish the optimum function expression that describes the behavior of time series. In order to deal with the weakness associated with the genetic algorithm, the proposed algorithm incorporates the simulated annealing operation which has the strong local search ability into the genetic algorithm to enhance the performance of optimization; besides, the fitness function and genetic operators are also improved. Finally, the method is applied to the chaotic time series of Quadratic and Rossler maps for validation. The effect of noise in the chaotic time series is also studied numerically. The numerical results verify that the method can forecast chaotic time series with high precision and effectiveness, and the forecasting precision with certain noise is also satisfactory. It can be concluded that the IGSA algorithm is energy-efficient and superior. PMID:26000011

  9. Modeling the effect of redundant strain factor on the microstructure inhomogeneity of drawn and annealed wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazeminezhad, Mohsen

    2007-10-01

    In assessing of the effect of redundant strain factor on the microstructure inhomogeneity of the drawn wire after annealing, the Upper Bound Model based on spherical velocity field and a computer simulation based on Monte Carlo Model are utilized. Using the models, the strain, stored energy due to deformation and grain size distribution of the wires after different deformation and annealing conditions are calculated. From the achieved results the deformation and microstructure inhomogeneity are computed. It is observed that the deformation inhomogeneity as well as microstructure inhomogeneity is increased with increasing the parameter Δ and redundant strain factor. Also, the results show that in the longer annealing time, the lower microstructure inhomogeneity is achieved. Moreover, the results of modeling are compared with the experimental data and a good agreement is obtained between those.

  10. Thermal annealing effects of defect reduction in GaAs on Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Tachikawa, Masami; Itoh, Yoshio; Sugo, Mitsuru; Kondo, Susumu

    1990-11-01

    High-quality GaAs films with a dislocation density of 2×106 cm-2 on (100) Si substrates have been obtained by thermal cycle annealing using the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition method. Dislocation behavior in GaAs/Si has been considered. Significant reduction effects of dislocation density in the GaAs layers on Si due to thermal annealing have been analyzed by a simple model, in which annihilation such as coalescence of dislocations is assumed to be caused by dislocation movement under high thermal stress and temperature. Numerical analysis suggests that excellent quality GaAs/Si films with a dislocation density of less than 105 cm-2 will be realized if thermal cycle annealing is carried out more than 1000 times without thermal degradation of the GaAs/Si.

  11. Effect of Post-HALT Annealing on Leakage Currents in Solid Tantalum Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Degradation of leakage currents is often observed during life testing of tantalum capacitors and is sometimes attributed to the field-induced crystallization in amorphous anodic tantalum pentoxide dielectrics. However, degradation of leakage currents and the possibility of annealing of degraded capacitors have not been investigated yet. In this work the effect of annealing after highly accelerated life testing (HALT) on leakage currents in various types of solid tantalum capacitors was analyzed. Variations of leakage currents with time during annealing at temperatures from 125 oC to 180 oC, thermally stimulated depolarization (TSD) currents, and I-V characteristics were measured to understand the conduction mechanism and the reason for current degradation. Annealing resulted in a gradual decrease of leakage currents and restored their initial values. Repeat HALT after annealing resulted in reproducible degradation of leakage currents. The observed results are explained based on ionic charge instability (drift/diffusion of oxygen vacancies) in the tantalum pentoxide dielectrics using a modified Schottky conduction mechanism.

  12. Linear and nonlinear optical response of bismuth and antimony implanted fused silica: annealing effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Z.; Morgan, S. H.; Henderson, D. O.; Park, S. Y.; Weeks, R. A.; Magruder, R. H.; Zuhr, R. A.

    1995-10-01

    We report the linear and nonlinear optical response of bismuth and antimony implanted fused silica with doses of 6 × 10 16 ions/cm 2. The nonlinear refractive index, n2, was measured using a Z-scan technique with a mode locked Ti:sapphire laser operating in 140 fs pulse duration at 770 nm wavelength. It is found that the nonlinear refractive index n2 of as-implanted samples is large, in the order of 10 -10 cm 2/W and the n2 value of Bi as-implanted sample is about 2.4 times lager than that of Sb as-implanted sample. The large n2 response is attributed to the presence of nanosized metal particles in the implanted layer observed by transmission electron microscopy. We also report the changes of linear and nonlinear optical response when implanted samples were subsequently annealed at temperatures from 500 to 1000 C in argon and oxygen atmospheres. The annealing effect on optical properties is found to be strongly dependent on the annealing atmospheres. Our results indicate that annealing treatment in O 2 affects the local environment of the implanted metal ions and hence the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the metal-dielectric composite. We suggest that a new phase of metal-oxygen-silicate was formed during annealing in O 2 atmosphere.

  13. Annealing effects on electrical behavior of gold nanoparticle film: Conversion of ohmic to non-ohmic conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimpour, Zeinab; Mansour, Nastaran

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports on the electrical behavior of self-assembled gold nanoparticle films before and after high-temperature annealing in ambient environment. These films are made by depositing gold nanoparticles from a colloidal solution on glass substrates using centrifuge deposition technique. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of these films exhibits ohmic and non-ohmic properties for un-annealed and annealed films respectively. As the annealing time duration increases, the onset of non-ohmic behavior occurs at higher voltages. To understand the underlying mechanisms for the observed electrical conduction behavior in these films and how electrical conduction is effected by film morphology and structural properties before and after annealing, systematic comparative studies based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been performed. The morphology of the films shows that the assembled gold nanoparticles are distributed on the substrate in a random way before annealing. After 2 h annealing gold nanoparticles exhibit a higher filling fraction when examined by SEM, which means that they coalesce, upon annealing, with respect to un-annealed films. The UV-vis absorption spectra of the films show that there is a red-shift and broadening in the absorption band for the annealed films. The observed phenomenon is related to the plasmon near-field coupling effect and suggests that the nanoparticle ensembles interspacing has decreased. The structural and crystallinity of the films exhibit amorphous structure before annealing and pure crystalline phases with a preferential growth direction along the (111) plane after annealing. The XPS analysis further suggests the existence of the stable thin oxide layer in the phase of Au2O3 in the annealed films. The I-V characteristics have been described by Simmons' model for tunnel transport through metal-insulator-metal (MIM) junctions. The Fowler

  14. Structural relaxation dynamics and annealing effects of sodium silicate glass.

    PubMed

    Naji, Mohamed; Piazza, Francesco; Guimbretière, Guillaume; Canizarès, Aurélien; Vaills, Yann

    2013-05-09

    Here we report high-precision measurements of structural relaxation dynamics in the glass transition range at the intermediate and short length scale for a strong sodium silicate glass during long annealing times. We evidence for the first time the heterogeneous dynamics at the intermediate range order by probing the acoustic longitudinal frequency in the GHz region by Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy. Or, from in-situ Raman measurements, we show that relaxation is indeed homogeneous at the interatomic length scale. Our results show that the dynamics at the intermediate range order contains two distinct relaxation time scales, a fast and a slow component, differing by about a 10-fold factor below Tg and approaching to one another past the glass transition. The slow relaxation time agrees with the shear relaxation time, proving that Si-O bond breaking constitutes the primary control of structural relaxation at the intermediate range order.

  15. An Effect of Annealing on Shielding Properties of Shungite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belousova, E. S.; Mahmoud, M. Sh.; Lynkou, L. M.

    2013-05-01

    Annealing of shungite is studied in oxidizing conditions in a chamber with NH4Cl, and in vacuum at 900 °C for 2h. Frequency dependencies of transmission and reflection coefficients of annealed shungite are measured in the frequency range of 8-12 GHz. The minimum reflection at 8-10 GHz was shown for shungite annealed in the oxidizing atmosphere.

  16. Variation of the viscosity of molten potassium niobate with annealing time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Xinguo; Chen, Yufeng

    1996-07-01

    Using the double-wire torsion pendulum method, we have measured the viscosity of a potassium niobate molten system with excess K 2O from 50 to 56 mol% at temperatures up to 1190°C in air. Both the viscosity and its activation energy show strong time dependence. While the values for viscosity increase for melts with 50 and 51 mol% K 2O, which are annealed at 1150°C in air, the viscosity, however, of the melt with more than 2 mol% excess K 2O shows a completely different time dependence, i.e. drastic decrease with annealing time. A similar striking reversed variation of temperature-dependent viscosity with annealing time is observed when the K 2O content in the melt is up to 52 mol%. These anomalous variations in viscosity give clear evidence why the KNbO 3 single crystal should be grown from mother melts with excess K 2O above 51 mol%, and after being annealed for a long time. This result also confirms that the double-wire torsion pendulum method is a useful tool to study the time-dependent viscosity of melts at high temperature in air.

  17. Time evolution of sigma 3 annealing twins in secondary recrystallized nickel.

    PubMed

    Booth, M; Randle, V; Owen, G

    2005-02-01

    Samples of commercially pure nickel have been annealed in air at 0.68T(m) (900 degrees C) for 1, 2 and 3 h in order to study the relationship between the grain growth characteristics and grain boundary misorientation, particularly annealing twins (Sigma 3). Orientation mapping by electron backscatter diffraction was used to obtain the experimental data. Anomalous grain growth was observed in commercially pure nickel after each of the anneals. The main findings are as follows. The texture was mainly {100}<001> and {112}<111> and it was more pronounced in coarse-grained areas than in fine-grained areas. The length fraction of Sigma 3s (annealing twins) increased with annealing time and therefore with the level of anomalous grain growth. Two to three twins per grain were sited in coarse-grained regions whereas less than one twin per grain was sited in fine-grained regions. It is suggested that the nucleation and growth of twinning is mechanistically linked to anomalous grain growth.

  18. The effects of thermal annealing on fracture toughness of low upper-shelf welds

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, M.A.; Nanstad, R.K.; Iskander, S.K.

    1994-12-31

    Experimental results are presented from a study of the effects of thermal annealing on recovery of fracture toughness of low upper-shelf submerged-arc welds (weld designations 61W through 67W) from the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) Program Second and Third Irradiation Series. Most of the study was conducted to evaluate the effects of annealing on the J-R curves of the submerged-arc welds. The recovery of fracture toughness in the transition range as the result of annealing was studied for welds 63W, 64, and 65W only. Compact specimens of 12.7- and 20.3-mm-thick (0.5T and 0.8T, respectively) were tested in this study. The specimens had been previously irradiated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Bulk Shielding Reactor. Each weld was irradiated to a certain value of neutron fluence in the range from 0.4 to 1.3 {times} 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV) in the average temperature range of 275 to 300 C. Annealing of the irradiated specimens was done at 454 C for 168 h. Fracture toughness tests were performed at temperatures selected to match those of the previously conducted unirradiated and irradiated tests.

  19. Annealing effect on Sb2S3-TiO2 nanostructures for solar cell applications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructures composited of vertical rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays and Sb2S3 nanoparticles were prepared on an F:SnO2 conductive glass by hydrothermal method and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method at low temperature. Sb2S3-sensitized TiO2 nanorod solar cells were assembled using the Sb2S3-TiO2 nanostructure as the photoanode and a polysulfide solution as an electrolyte. Annealing effects on the optical and photovoltaic properties of Sb2S3-TiO2 nanostructure were studied systematically. As the annealing temperatures increased, a regular red shift of the bandgap of Sb2S3 nanoparticles was observed, where the bandgap decreased from 2.25 to 1.73 eV. At the same time, the photovoltaic conversion efficiency for the nanostructured solar cells increased from 0.46% up to 1.47% as a consequence of the annealing effect. This improvement can be explained by considering the changes in the morphology, the crystalline quality, and the optical properties caused by the annealing treatment. PMID:23421351

  20. INVESTIGATING ANNEALING EFFECT ON OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF Cd0.8Zn0.2S THIN FILMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, Somayeh; Dizaji, Hamid Rezagholipour; Ehsani, Mohammad Hossein; Mirmahalle, Seyed Feyzolah Ghavami

    2014-08-01

    Cd0.8Zn0.2S thin films deposited on glass substrates by thermal evaporation method were annealed at different temperatures for the first time in order to investigate annealing effect on optical properties. The compositional, structural of nanoparticles precursor synthesized using microwave irradiation method and optical properties of the films were studied using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV-visible spectrophotometer techniques. The annealed films were found to have hexagonal Wurtzite structure with strong preferential orientation along the (002) diffraction peak. Important optical parameters such as extinction coefficient and refractive index revealed the effect of heat treatment on the deposited thin layers. A reduction in the band gap energy from 2.41 eV to 2.29 eV was observed for the annealed samples.

  1. Modeling and Measuring the Effects of Radiation Damage Annealing on Helium Diffusion Kinetics in Apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, C. D.; Fox, M.; Shuster, D. L.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding helium diffusion kinetics in apatite is critical for the accurate interpretation of (U-Th)/He thermochronometric data. This problem is complicated by the observation that helium diffusivity is not a simple function of temperature, but may evolve as a function of damage to the apatite crystal lattice resulting from alpha recoil. This `radiation damage' increases as a function of the amount of radiometric parent products, or effective uranium concentration, and time, but decreases due to thermal annealing of damage, necessitating a detailed understanding of radiation damage production and annealing in cases of burial heating over geologic timescales. Published observations [1,2] suggest that annealing rates of damage caused by alpha recoil and fission tracks in apatite differ. Existing models, however, assume the diffusion kinetics resulting from the two sources of damage are identical [3], demonstrating the need for further investigation of these damage sources. We present modeling and experimental work designed to interrogate the effects of radiation damage and its annealing on helium diffusion kinetics in apatite. Using previously published results [4] that investigated the effects of annealing temperature and duration on measured helium diffusivity, we fit a set of functions that are then integrated into a numerical model that tracks the evolution of radiation damage and apparent (U-Th)/He age. We compare the results of this model calibration to existing models [3]. In addition, we present data from two suites of diffusion experiments. The first suite, intended to test the published methodology and results, uses Durango apatite, while the second uses Sierran (CA) granite as a first test to determine if apatite of varying chemistry and age responds differently to the thermal annealing of radiation damage. Ultimately, the updated model and experimental results will benefit the interpretation of the effects of radiation damage accumulation and

  2. Effect of post annealing temperatures on microstructures and mechanical properties of cryorolled 5052 aluminium sheet alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anas, N. M.; Umar, Z. A. A.; Zuhailawati, H.; Anasyida, A. S.

    2017-07-01

    The effect of post annealing temperature of cryorolled 5052 Al alloy after cryorolling process at 30% thickness reduction was investigated, focusing on the evolution of microstructures and mechanical properties. The evolution of microstructure was investigated using optical microscopy (OM). The mechanical behaviour of the samples have been evaluated through Vickers hardness and tensile test performed at room temperature. The results showed that the post annealing on cryorolled 5052 Al alloy have enhanced the ductility with sacrificing the hardness and strength. The lattice strain of post annealed 5052 Al alloy decreased with increasing of annealing temperatures. The evolution of microstructure of the post annealed 5052 Al alloy showed equiaxed grains at 200°C and grain coarsening as post annealing temperature increases to 350°C. The result of crystallite size confirmed the grain size increased as the post annealing temperature rises.

  3. Asymptotics in Time, Temperature and Size for Optimization by Simulated Annealing: Theory, Practice and Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-19

    and studying the growth of this bound as the tem- perature approaches zero asymptotically. Simulated annealing with a time varying temperature gives...rise to a time inhomogeneous Markov chain. This Markov chain is difficult to analyze and study due to the time-inhomogeneity. We have been able to...problem. Moreover, we can study the growth of this bound as the temperature approaches zero or skewness becomes arbitrarily large; thereby, providing

  4. Structure and effects of annealing in colloidal matrix-free Ge quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanpeng; Karatutlu, Ali; Ersoy, Osman; Little, William; Cibin, Giannantonio; Dent, Andy; Sapelkin, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    The structure of small (2-5 nm) Ge quantum dots prepared by the colloidal synthesis route is examined. Samples were synthesized using either GeO2 or GeCl4 as precursor. As-prepared samples were further annealed under Ar or H2/Ar atmosphere at different temperatures in order to understand the effect of annealing on their structure. It was found that as-prepared samples possess distinctly different structures depending on their synthesis route as indicated by their long-range ordering. An appreciable amount of oxygen was found to be bound to Ge in samples prepared with GeO2 as a precursor; however, not for GeCl4. Based on combined transmission electron microscope, Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption measurements, it is suggested that as-prepared samples are best described by the core-shell model with a small nano-crystalline core and an amorphous outer layer terminated either with oxygen or hydrogen depending on the synthesis route. Annealing in an H2Ar atmosphere leads to sample crystallization and further nanoparticle growth, while at the same time reducing the Ge-O bonding. X-ray diffraction measurements for as-prepared and annealed samples indicate that diamond-type and metastable phases are present.

  5. Effect of thermal annealing on the sensitivity of Si-based MOS diodes to reducing gases

    SciTech Connect

    Balyuba, V. I.; Gritsyk, V. Yu.; Davydova, T. A.; Kalygina, V. M. Nazarov, S. S.; Panin, A. V.; Khludkova, L. S.

    2006-12-15

    We study the effect of thermal annealing in the range of 200-610 deg. C on the sensitivity and time dependences of the response of the Pd-SiO{sub 2}-n-Si diodes to hydrogen and ammonia. The postannealing surface of a Pd electrode was examined using atomic force microscopy. The high-frequency C-V characteristics were measured in air and gas mixtures H{sub 2}-air and NH{sub 3}-air. It is shown that, after annealing at 200 deg. C for 10 min, the response of diode capacitance to hydrogen is higher than that to ammonia. After annealing at 300 deg. C and higher, the sensitivity of MOS diodes to hydrogen nearly vanishes. The response to ammonia still remains high, although it gradually weakens as the annealing temperature is increased. A decrease in sensitivity of the Pd-SiO{sub 2}-n-Si diodes to ammonia with increasing temperature is attributed to worsening of the electrical characteristics of the Pd electrode.

  6. Effect of annealing at different time intervals on the structure, morphology and luminescent properties of MgAl2O4:0.3% In3+ nanophosphor prepared by citrate sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melato, L. T.; Motaung, T. E.; Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.; Motloung, S. V.

    2017-04-01

    Indium-doped magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4:03% In3+) spinel powders were prepared by citrate sol-gel method. The effect of annealing period (AP) at a fixed annealing temperature (800 °C) and dopant concentration (0.3% In3+) on the structure, particle morphology and photoluminescent properties of the powders were investigated. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) results showed that the crystalline quality and crystallite sizes of the powders were influenced by the AP. Doping with 0.3% In3+ did not influence the major crystal structure of the MgAl2O4 (host) material. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) image suggested that the AP influences the particle morphology of the nanophosphor. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image suggested that the crystallites sizes were in the region of 10 nm. The Photoluminescence (PL) results showed that the violet emission at 388 nm and green emission at 560 nm both originated from the host material and there was no evidence of any emission from the dopant (In3+). Increasing the AP up to 2 h lead to luminescence enhancement, while further increase in AP lead to luminescence quenching. The Commision Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) co-ordinates results showed that the emission colour of all samples was in the blue region and it was not tuned by varying the AP.

  7. Effects of gamma-irradiation and air annealing on Yb-doped Y3Al5O12 single crystal.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xionghui; Xu, Xiaodong; Wang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Zhiwei; Zhao, Guangjun; Xu, Jun

    2008-03-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiation on the air-annealed 10at.% Yb:Y(3)Al(5)O(12) (YAG) and air annealing on the gamma-irradiated 10at.% Yb:YAG have been studied by the difference absorption spectra before and after treatment. The gamma-irradiation and air annealing led to opposite changes of the absorption properties of the Yb:YAG crystal. After air annealing, the gamma-irradiation induced centers were totally removed and the concentration of Fe(3+) and Yb(3+) were lightly increased. For the first time, the gamma-irradiation induced valence changes between Yb(3+) and Yb(2+) ions in Yb:YAG crystals have been observed.

  8. [Effects of different annealing conditions on the photoluminescence of nanoporous alumina film].

    PubMed

    Xie, Ning; Ma, Kai-Di; Shen, Yi-Fan; Wang, Qian

    2013-12-01

    effects of different annealing conditions on the photoluminescence of nanoporous alumina film are reasonably explained.

  9. Theory of quantum annealing of an Ising spin glass.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Giuseppe E; Martonák, Roman; Tosatti, Erio; Car, Roberto

    2002-03-29

    Probing the lowest energy configuration of a complex system by quantum annealing was recently found to be more effective than its classical, thermal counterpart. By comparing classical and quantum Monte Carlo annealing protocols on the two-dimensional random Ising model (a prototype spin glass), we confirm the superiority of quantum annealing relative to classical annealing. We also propose a theory of quantum annealing based on a cascade of Landau-Zener tunneling events. For both classical and quantum annealing, the residual energy after annealing is inversely proportional to a power of the logarithm of the annealing time, but the quantum case has a larger power that makes it faster.

  10. Annealing effect on current-driven domain wall motion in Pt/[Co/Ni] wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuta, Masaki; Liu, Yang; Sepehri-Amin, Hossein; Hono, Kazuhiro; Zhu, Jian-Gang Jimmy

    2017-09-01

    The annealing effect on the efficiency of current-driven domain wall motion governed by the spin Hall effect in perpendicularly magnetized Pt/[Co/Ni] wires is investigated experimentally. Important physical parameters, such as the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction (DMI), spin Hall angle, and perpendicular anisotropy field strength, for the domain wall motion are all characterized at each annealing temperature. It is found that annealing of wires at temperatures over 120 °C causes significant reduction of the domain wall velocity. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis shows pronounced Co diffusion across the Pt/Co interface resulted from annealing at relatively high temperatures. The combined modeling study shows that the reduction of DMI caused by annealing is mostly responsible for the domain wall velocity reduction due to annealing.

  11. Hysteresis in Lanthanide Zirconium Oxides Observed Using a Pulse CV Technique and including the Effect of High Temperature Annealing

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qifeng; Zhao, Chun; Mu, Yifei; Zhao, Ce Zhou; Taylor, Stephen; Chalker, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    A powerful characterization technique, pulse capacitance-voltage (CV) technique, was used to investigate oxide traps before and after annealing for lanthanide zirconium oxide thin films deposited on n-type Si (111) substrates at 300 °C by liquid injection Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). The results indicated that: (1) more traps were observed compared to the conventional capacitance-voltage characterization method in LaZrOx; (2) the time-dependent trapping/de-trapping was influenced by the edge time, width and peak-to-peak voltage of a gate voltage pulse. Post deposition annealing was performed at 700 °C, 800 °C and 900 °C in N2 ambient for 15 s to the samples with 200 ALD cycles. The effect of the high temperature annealing on oxide traps and leakage current were subsequently explored. It showed that more traps were generated after annealing with the trap density increasing from 1.41 × 1012 cm−2 for as-deposited sample to 4.55 × 1012 cm−2 for the 800 °C annealed one. In addition, the leakage current density increase from about 10−6 A/cm2 at Vg = +0.5 V for the as-deposited sample to 10−3 A/cm2 at Vg = +0.5 V for the 900 °C annealed one. PMID:28793475

  12. Effect of annealing on the laser induced damage of polished and CO2 laser-processed fused silica surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doualle, T.; Gallais, L.; Cormont, P.; Donval, T.; Lamaignère, L.; Rullier, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the effect of different heat treatments on the laser-induced damage probabilities of fused silica samples. Isothermal annealing in a furnace is applied, with different temperatures in the range 700-1100 °C and 12 h annealing time, to super-polished fused silica samples. The surface flatness and laser damage probabilities at 3 ns, 351 nm are measured before and after the different annealing procedures. We have found a significant improvement of the initial laser damage probabilities of the silica surface after annealing at 1050 °C for 12 h. A similar study has been conducted on CO2 laser-processed sites on the surface of the samples. Before and after annealing, we have studied the morphology of the sites, the evolution of residual stress, and the laser-induced damage threshold measured at 351 nm, 3 ns. In this case, we observe that the laser damage resistance of the laser created craters can reach the damage level of the bare fused silica surface after the annealing process, with a complete stress relieve. The obtained results are then compared to the case of local annealing process by CO2 laser irradiation during 1 s, and we found similar improvements in both cases. The different results obtained in the study are compared to numerical simulations made with a thermo-mechanical model based on finite-element method that allows the simulation of the isothermal or the local annealing process, the evolution of stress and fictive temperature. The simulation results were found to be very consistent with experimental observations for the stresses evolution after annealing and estimation of the heat affected area during laser-processing based on the density dependence with fictive temperature. Following this work, the temperature for local annealing should reach 1330-1470 °C for an optimized reduction of damage probability and be below the threshold for material removal, whereas furnace annealing should be kept below the annealing point to avoid sample

  13. Effects of prior deformation and annealing process on microstructure and annealing twin density in a nickel based alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhigang; Zhang, Lanting; Sun, Nairong; Sun, Yanle; Shan, Aidang

    2014-09-15

    The nickel based alloys with different Σ3 boundary density were achieved by cold-rolling and subsequent annealing treatment. Electron backscattered diffraction analysis showed that the grain size distribution changed with the processing parameters, and the discontinuous Σ3 boundary became continuous with the increase of prior deformation level. Furthermore, the Σ3 boundary density was found to be manipulated by both grain size distribution and Σ3 boundary density per grain which showed an increasing trend with prior deformation level and annealing temperature. - Highlights: • The prior deformation amount influenced the morphology of Σ3 boundary. • The grain size was not the only factor influencing Σ3 boundary density. • The fact that grain size distribution had an important effect on Σ3 boundary density was confirmed. • The nature of grain size distribution on Σ3 boundary density was revealed. • There was a great deviation in Σ3 boundary density between experimental results and predictions.

  14. The effect of size on the strength of FCC metals at elevated temperatures: annealed copper.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Jeffrey M; Kirchlechner, Christoph; Micha, Jean-Sébastien; Michler, Johann; Kiener, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    As the length scale of sample dimensions is reduced to the micron and sub-micron scales, the strength of various materials has been observed to increase with decreasing size, a fact commonly referred to as the 'sample size effect'. In this work, the influence of temperature on the sample size effect in copper is investigated using in situ microcompression testing at 25, 200 and 400 °C in the SEM on vacuum-annealed copper structures, and the resulting deformed structures were analysed using X-ray μLaue diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. For pillars with sizes between 0.4 and 4 μm, the size effect was measured to be constant with temperature, within the measurement precision, up to half of the melting point of copper. It is expected that the size effect will remain constant with temperature until diffusion-controlled dislocation motion becomes significant at higher temperatures and/or lower strain rates. Furthermore, the annealing treatment of the copper micropillars produced structures which yielded at stresses three times greater than their un-annealed, FIB-machined counterparts.

  15. Effects of H2 Atmosphere Annealing on the Properties of CZT:In Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, P. F.; Jie, W. Q.

    2013-12-01

    To improve crystal quality and detector performance, high-resistivity cadmium zinc telluride (CZT):In single crystals were annealed in H2. The concentration of Te inclusions did not change after annealing. Both the resistivity and infrared transmittance increased as the annealing time increased, indicating improvement of crystal quality. Because of the passivation by hydrogen, some interesting phenomena were observed in the photoluminescence spectra of as-grown and annealed CZT:In crystals. Moreover, the energy resolution was remarkably enhanced. After 4 h, 8 h, and 12 h of annealing, the energy resolution was improved 33%, 79%, and 49%, respectively. The crystal annealed for 8 h with energy resolution of 9.29% had the best detector performance.

  16. Effects of annealing and the addition of PEG on the PVA based hydrogel by gamma ray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Seok; Kim, Hyun-A.; Choi, Jong-Bae; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Shin, Young-Min; Lim, Youn-Mook; Khil, Myung Seob; Nho, Young-Chang

    2012-07-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) is an interesting material with good biocompatibility, high elasticity and hydrophilic characteristics. PVA hydrogels have been formed through chemical crosslinking with aldehyde, photopolymerization and physical crosslinking with freeze-thawing. In this study, crosslinked hydrogels based on PVA, and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were prepared by gamma-ray irradiation, and then annealed at 120 °C. The properties of a hydrogel such as gel fraction, swelling behavior, gel strength as a function of PEG content and annealing time were investigated. Also, the thermal behaviors were examined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The gel fraction decreases with an increase in PEG content and decrease in annealing time. The tensile strength increases with an increase in annealing time. The thermal behaviors have shown different patterns according to the annealing time. The improved properties suggest that PVA/PEG blend hydrogel can be a good candidate for applications in the articular cartilage.

  17. Effect of thermal annealing on properties of polycrystalline ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsenko, L. V.; Abdullin, Kh. A.; Gabdullin, M. T.; Kalkozova, Zh. K.; Kumekov, S. E.; Mukash, Zh. O.; Sazonov, A. Yu.; Terukov, E. I.

    2017-01-01

    Electrical properties (density, carriers mobility, resistivity), optical absorption and photoluminescence spectra of ZnO, grown by MOCVD and hydrothermal methods, have been investigated depending on the annealing and treatment modes in a hydrogen plasma. It has been shown that the electrical and photoluminescent (PL) properties of ZnO are strongly dependent on gas atmosphere during annealing. The annealing in oxygen atmosphere causes a sharp drop of carrier mobility and films conductivity due to the absorption of oxygen on grain boundaries. The process of ZnO electrical properties recovery by the thermal annealing in inert atmosphere (nitrogen), in oil (2×10-2 mbar) and oil-free (1×10-5 mbar) vacuum has been investigated. The hydrogen plasma treatment influence on the intensity of near-band-gap emission (NBE) has been studied. The effect of annealing and subsequent plasma treatment on PL intensity depends on the gas atmosphere of preliminary thermal annealing.

  18. Effect of Solution Annealing Temperatures on the Crevice Corrosion Mode of Alloy 22

    SciTech Connect

    El-Dasher, B S; Etien, R; Torres, S G

    2005-10-31

    The effect of solution annealing temperature on the observed corrosion attack mode in Alloy 22 welds was assessed. Three types of specimens were examined, including the as-welded state, solution annealed for 20 minutes at 1121 C, and solution annealed for 20 minutes at 1200 C. The microstructures of the specimens were first mapped using electron backscatter diffraction to determine the grain structure evolution due to solution annealing. The specimens were then subjected to electrochemical testing in a 6 molal NaCl + 0.9 molal KNO{sub 3} environment to initiate crevice corrosion. Examination of the specimen surfaces after corrosion testing showed that in the as-welded specimen, corrosion was present in both the weld dendrites as well as around the secondary phases. However, the specimen solution annealed at 1121 C showed corrosion only at secondary phases and the specimen annealed at 1200 C showed pitting corrosion only in a handful of grains.

  19. The effect of size on the strength of FCC metals at elevated temperatures: annealed copper

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Jeffrey M.; Kirchlechner, Christoph; Micha, Jean-Sébastien; Michler, Johann; Kiener, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As the length scale of sample dimensions is reduced to the micron and sub-micron scales, the strength of various materials has been observed to increase with decreasing size, a fact commonly referred to as the ‘sample size effect’. In this work, the influence of temperature on the sample size effect in copper is investigated using in situ microcompression testing at 25, 200 and 400 °C in the SEM on vacuum-annealed copper structures, and the resulting deformed structures were analysed using X-ray μLaue diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. For pillars with sizes between 0.4 and 4 μm, the size effect was measured to be constant with temperature, within the measurement precision, up to half of the melting point of copper. It is expected that the size effect will remain constant with temperature until diffusion-controlled dislocation motion becomes significant at higher temperatures and/or lower strain rates. Furthermore, the annealing treatment of the copper micropillars produced structures which yielded at stresses three times greater than their un-annealed, FIB-machined counterparts. PMID:28003795

  20. Annealing effects on the optical properties of semiconducting boron carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Billa, R. B.; Robertson, B. W.; Hofmann, T.; Schubert, M.

    2009-08-01

    Infrared vibrations of as-deposited and annealed semiconducting boron carbide thin films were investigated by midinfrared spectroscopic ellipsometry. The strong boron-hydrogen resonance at approx2560 cm{sup -1} in as-deposited films reveals considerable hydrogen incorporation during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Extended annealing at 600 deg. C caused significant reduction in film thickness, substantial reduction of boron-hydrogen bond resonance absorption, and development of distinct blue-shifted boron-carbon and icosahedral vibration mode resonances. Our findings suggest that annealing results in substantial loss of hydrogen and in development of icosahedral structure, accompanied by strain relaxation and densification.

  1. Effect of annealing on the magnetic tunnel junction with Co/Pt perpendicular anisotropy ferromagnetic multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi.; Wang, W. X.; Wei, H. X.; Zhang, B. S.; Zhan, W. S.; Han, X. F.

    2010-05-01

    Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (pMTJs) with tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) as high as 14.7% at room temperature were fabricated. The continuous film and pMTJs with Co/Pt multilayer magnetic electrodes and AlOx tunnel barrier were annealed at different temperatures and the effect of annealing on their properties was investigated. The hysteresis loops and X-ray reflectivity measurement show that the interdiffusion of Co and Pt atoms is slight when annealed below 523 K. However, the patterned magnetic tunnel junction gets TMR ratio from 12.3% to the maximum value of 14.7% after annealing at 483 K for 1 h.

  2. Metallurgical Processes in NbTi Filaments as a Function of Isothermal Annealing Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somerkoski, J.; Zignani, C. Fiamozzi; De Marzi, G.; Muzzi, L.

    In an attempt to improve understanding between pinning behaviour and underlying microstructures, results of the investigation on multifilamentary Cu/Nb-47w%Ti alloy are presented. Wire was drawn to final size without intermediate stage thermomechanical treatments. Cold worked structure was subjected to isothermal annealing at 648 K for various annealing times between 2 minutes to 100 hours. Microstructural and compositional features were studied by transmission electron microscopy, TEM, and analytical TEM equipped with EDS analyzer. The pinning behavior was monitored by the maximum volume pinning force determined using transport current measurements at 4.2 K up to 9 T. According to the present results, the average grain boundary spacing remained rather constant at 45 nm throughout all annealing times while the average grain boundary width increased from the initial dimension of 1 nm to 1.8 nm after 100 hours as a result of precipitation processes at grain boundaries. Further, distributions of the grain boundary widths changed from a sharp shape to a wider spectrum of widths. The precipitation process created titanium concentration gradients in the vicinity of the grain boundaries. As the annealing time increased, the sharp gradients became shallower and Ti concentrations as low as 35 w% Ti were observed after 40 hours. High field pinning at 9 T was associated with structures having a mean grain boundary width of 1.2 nm and titanium concentration gradients on a scale of 2.5 to 5 nm from the grain boundaries. Mid magnetic field pinning was favored by microstructures having titanium gradients on a scale of 5-10 nm and the mean width of 1.5 nm while improved low field pinning at 3 T was associated with microstructures having the mean width of 1.8 nm, shallow gradients and titanium concentrations as low as 35 w% inside of the grains.

  3. Impact of time-dependent annealing on TiO2 films for CMOS application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyanan, Mondal, Sandip; Kumar, Arvind

    2017-05-01

    Post-deposition annealing (PDA) is the inherent part of sol-gel fabrication process to achieve the optimum device performance, especially in CMOS applications. The annealing removes the oxygen vacancies and improves the structural order of dielectric films. The process also reduces the interface related defects and improves the interfacial properties. In this work, we have integrated the sol-gel spin-coating deposited high-κ TiO2 films in MOS. The films are fired at 400°C for the duration of 20, 40, 60 and 80 min. The thicknesses of the films were found to be of ˜ 30 nm using ellipsometry. The (Al/TiO2/p-Si) devices were examined with current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) at room temperature to understand the influence of firing time. The C-V and I-V characteristic showed a significant dependence on annealing time such as variation in dielectric constant and leakage current. The accumulation capacitance (Cox), dielectric constant (κ) and the equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of the film fired for 60 min were found to be 458 pF, 33, and 4.25nm, respectively with a low leakage current density (1.09 × 10-6 A/cm2) fired for 80 min at +1 V.

  4. Annealing effects on CsPbI3-based planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells formed by vacuum deposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonezawa, Kyosuke; Yamamoto, Kohei; Shahiduzzaman, Md.; Furumoto, Yoshikazu; Hamada, Keitaro; Ripolles, Teresa S.; Karakawa, Makoto; Kuwabara, Takayuki; Takahashi, Kohshin; Hayase, Shuzi; Taima, Tetsuya

    2017-04-01

    Cesium iodide (CsI) is attracting attention as a substitute for organic materials such as CH3NH3I. In this work, we fabricated sequential-vacuum-deposited planar heterojunction (PHJ) cesium lead iodide (CsPbI3) perovskite solar cells with enhanced efficiencies by varying the annealing time (0.5, 1, 5, and 10 min). The effect of performance enhancement was investigated as a function of varying annealing time at 350 °C employing a hot plate. The best-performing device was obtained with an annealing time of 1 min, delivered photocurrent density (J SC) of 12.06 mA/cm2, voltage (V OC) of 0.71 V, and fill factor (FF) of 0.67, leading to a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.71% at standard AM 1.5G solar illumination.

  5. Dose rate and annealing effects on total dose response of MOS and bipolar circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Carriere, T.; Beaucour, J.; Gach, A.; Johlander, B.; Adams, L.

    1995-12-01

    Different part types of major technology families were irradiated in order to study dose rate and post irradiation annealing effects. Results confirm that degradation of MOS technologies at low dose rates can be predicted from high dose rate and annealing measurements, while this is not possible for bipolar linear IC`s. The ESA/SCC22900 test method is discussed.

  6. Simulated annealing versus quantum annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troyer, Matthias

    Based on simulated classical annealing and simulated quantum annealing using quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations I will explore the question where physical or simulated quantum annealers may outperform classical optimization algorithms. Although the stochastic dynamics of QMC simulations is not the same as the unitary dynamics of a quantum system, I will first show that for the problem of quantum tunneling between two local minima both QMC simulations and a physical system exhibit the same scaling of tunneling times with barrier height. The scaling in both cases is O (Δ2) , where Δ is the tunneling splitting. An important consequence is that QMC simulations can be used to predict the performance of a quantum annealer for tunneling through a barrier. Furthermore, by using open instead of periodic boundary conditions in imaginary time, equivalent to a projector QMC algorithm, one obtains a quadratic speedup for QMC, and achieve linear scaling in Δ. I will then address the apparent contradiction between experiments on a D-Wave 2 system that failed to see evidence of quantum speedup and previous QMC results that indicated an advantage of quantum annealing over classical annealing for spin glasses. We find that this contradiction is resolved by taking the continuous time limit in the QMC simulations which then agree with the experimentally observed behavior and show no speedup for 2D spin glasses. However, QMC simulations with large time steps gain further advantage: they ``cheat'' by ignoring what happens during a (large) time step, and can thus outperform both simulated quantum annealers and classical annealers. I will then address the question how to optimally run a simulated or physical quantum annealer. Investigating the behavior of the tails of the distribution of runtimes for very hard instances we find that adiabatically slow annealing is far from optimal. On the contrary, many repeated relatively fast annealing runs can be orders of magnitude faster for

  7. Effects of annealing on enthalpy relaxation in lyophilized disaccharide formulations: mathematical modeling of DSC curves.

    PubMed

    Luthra, Suman A; Hodge, Ian M; Pikal, Michael J

    2008-08-01

    The overall objective of these studies was to investigate, by experimental studies and theoretical analysis, the optimum annealing conditions to obtain maximum structural relaxation in lyophilized glasses of pharmaceutical significance. The model formulations used in this work were aspartame: sucrose and aspartame: trehalose (1:10 w/w) freeze-dried glasses. In this article, structural relaxation in amorphous systems was described in terms of the change in the fictive temperature (T(f)) and was measured using the enthalpy relaxation endotherm in a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The theoretical analysis was performed using the Tool-Narayanaswamy-Moynihan (TNM) model. The effect of different annealing conditions (temperature and time) on fictive temperature obtained from the theoretical analysis was calculated and compared with the experimental results. The model reproduced the experimental data very well for samples that were quench cooled from the liquid. However, the model fits were poor for lyophilized samples, indicating an inability to incorporate the complex thermal history of freeze-drying in the TNM model. The optimum aging conditions were determined from both DSC and approximated best-fit parameters of the TNM model, and it was found that annealing when done at a temperature about 15-25 degrees C below T(g) resulted in maximum structural relaxation.

  8. Uniform annealing effect of electron irradiation on ferromagnetic GaMnAs thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jia; Xiang, Gang; Gu, Gangxu; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Hailong; Zhao, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    For more than a decade, researchers have been searching for means to improve the Curie temperature of ferromagnetic GaMnAs samples, among which post-growth annealing in furnace has been treated as the most important one. In this work, we demonstrate that the Curie temperature can be improved by electron irradiation for the first time. Different doses of electron irradiation (1 × 1014, 1 × 1015 and 1 × 1016 electrons/cm2) at 1.7 MeV were applied, the enhancement of magnetic and electrical properties of ferromagnetic GaMnAs films was experimentally confirmed by HR-XRD, SQUID and Magneto-transport measurements. Further SIMS characterizations and analyses reveal that electron irradiation causes bi-directional out-diffusion and redistribution of compensating Mn interstitials towards both the upper surface and the lower interface, a newly found uniform effect clearly different from that of conventional post-growth annealing. The technique of electron irradiation annealing may provide an alternative way to improve the properties of electronic and magnetic compounds such as GaMnAs films.

  9. Effects of different annealing atmospheres on the properties of cadmium sulfide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Yücel, E.; Kahraman, S.; Güder, H.S.

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: The effects of different annealing atmospheres (air and sulfur) on the structural, morphological and optical properties of CdS thin films were studied at three different pH values. - Highlights: • Compactness and smoothness of the films were enhanced after sulfur annealing. • Micro-strain values of some films were improved after sulfur annealing. • Dislocation density values of some films were improved after sulfur annealing. • Band gap values of the films were improved after sulfur annealing. - Abstract: Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films were prepared on glass substrates by using chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The effects of different annealing atmospheres (air and sulfur) on the structural, morphological and optical properties of CdS thin films were studied at three different pH values. Compactness and smoothness of the films (especially for pH 10.5 and 11) enhanced after sulfur annealing. pH value of the precursor solution remarkably affected the roughness, uniformity and particle sizes of the films. Based on the analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the films, micro-strain and dislocation density values of the sulfur-annealed films (pH 10.5 and 11) were found to be lower than those of air-annealed films. Air-annealed films (pH 10.5, 11 and 11.5) exhibited higher transmittance than sulfur-annealed films in the wavelength region of 550–800 nm. Optical band gap values of the films were found between 2.31 eV and 2.36 eV.

  10. High-Temperature-Short-Time Annealing Process for High-Performance Large-Area Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjin; Kim, Gi-Hwan; Oh, Kyoung Suk; Jo, Yimhyun; Yoon, Hyun; Kim, Ka-Hyun; Lee, Heon; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Dong Suk

    2017-06-27

    Organic-inorganic hybrid metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are attracting tremendous research interest due to their high solar-to-electric power conversion efficiency with a high possibility of cost-effective fabrication and certified power conversion efficiency now exceeding 22%. Although many effective methods for their application have been developed over the past decade, their practical transition to large-size devices has been restricted by difficulties in achieving high performance. Here we report on the development of a simple and cost-effective production method with high-temperature and short-time annealing processing to obtain uniform, smooth, and large-size grain domains of perovskite films over large areas. With high-temperature short-time annealing at 400 °C for 4 s, the perovskite film with an average domain size of 1 μm was obtained, which resulted in fast solvent evaporation. Solar cells fabricated using this processing technique had a maximum power conversion efficiency exceeding 20% over a 0.1 cm(2) active area and 18% over a 1 cm(2) active area. We believe our approach will enable the realization of highly efficient large-area PCSs for practical development with a very simple and short-time procedure. This simple method should lead the field toward the fabrication of uniform large-scale perovskite films, which are necessary for the production of high-efficiency solar cells that may also be applicable to several other material systems for more widespread practical deployment.

  11. Effect of Annealing on the Thermoluminescence Properties of ZnO Nanophosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, J. M.; Wary, G.

    2017-02-01

    We report the effect of annealing on the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanophosphor. The sample was synthesised by a wet chemical process. The characterisation report shows that the size of the grains is within 123.0 nm-160.5 nm. TL measured at 2 K/s from a fresh un-annealed sample irradiated to 60 mGy shows a composite glow curve containing three peaks at 353.2 K, 429.1 K, and 455.3 K. On the other hand, samples annealed at 473 K and 573 K followed by irradiation to 60 mGy do not give TL. However, annealing at 673 K and 773 K followed by irradiation to the same dose produces a glow curve comprising two overlapping peaks at 352.3 K and 370.6 K. In the TL emission spectrum of un-annealed sample, two emission peaks were found in green ( 523 nm) and orange ( 620 nm) regions whereas in annealed samples, only a peak was found in the orange region ( 618 nm). Kinetic analysis shows that the activation energy corresponding to TL peaks at 353.2 K, 429.1 K, and 455.3 K of the un-annealed sample are 0.64 eV, 0.80 eV, and 1.20 eV whereas that of the peaks at 352.3 K and 370.6 K of 673 K and 773 K annealed samples are 0.64 eV and 0.70 eV, respectively. All peaks of un-annealed and annealed samples, except the one at 429.1 K of the un-annealed sample, follow first-order kinetics whereas the peak at 429.1 K follows second-order kinetics. Considering the kinetic and spectral features, an energy band model for ZnO nanophosphor has been proposed.

  12. Effect of Annealing on the Thermoluminescence Properties of ZnO Nanophosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, J. M.; Wary, G.

    2017-07-01

    We report the effect of annealing on the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanophosphor. The sample was synthesised by a wet chemical process. The characterisation report shows that the size of the grains is within 123.0 nm-160.5 nm. TL measured at 2 K/s from a fresh un-annealed sample irradiated to 60 mGy shows a composite glow curve containing three peaks at 353.2 K, 429.1 K, and 455.3 K. On the other hand, samples annealed at 473 K and 573 K followed by irradiation to 60 mGy do not give TL. However, annealing at 673 K and 773 K followed by irradiation to the same dose produces a glow curve comprising two overlapping peaks at 352.3 K and 370.6 K. In the TL emission spectrum of un-annealed sample, two emission peaks were found in green ( 523 nm) and orange ( 620 nm) regions whereas in annealed samples, only a peak was found in the orange region ( 618 nm). Kinetic analysis shows that the activation energy corresponding to TL peaks at 353.2 K, 429.1 K, and 455.3 K of the un-annealed sample are 0.64 eV, 0.80 eV, and 1.20 eV whereas that of the peaks at 352.3 K and 370.6 K of 673 K and 773 K annealed samples are 0.64 eV and 0.70 eV, respectively. All peaks of un-annealed and annealed samples, except the one at 429.1 K of the un-annealed sample, follow first-order kinetics whereas the peak at 429.1 K follows second-order kinetics. Considering the kinetic and spectral features, an energy band model for ZnO nanophosphor has been proposed.

  13. Effect of Te atmosphere annealing on the properties of CdZnTe single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Pengfei; Jie, Wanqi; Wang, Tao

    2011-07-01

    Low-resistivity CdZnTe:In (CZT:In) single crystals were annealed under Te atmosphere according to the behaviors of deep-donor Te antisite. The results indicated that the star-like Cd inclusions were completely eliminated after 120 h annealing. Meanwhile, the resistivity is greatly enhanced. The resistivity of the slice annealed after 240 h was achieved as high as 1.8×10 11 Ω cm, five orders of magnitude higher than that of as-grown slice. It suggested that the deep-donor level Te antisites were successfully introduced to pin the Fermi level at the mid band-gap position. The IR transmittances of the slices were also improved, which increased as the annealing time increased. PL measurement revealed that the ( D0, X) peak representing high quality of CZT crystal appeared. It can be concluded that the quality of CZT crystals is obviously improved after annealing under Te atmosphere.

  14. The effects of annealing on mechanical, chemical, and physical properties and structural stability of Parylene C.

    PubMed

    von Metzen, Rene Patrick; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Parylene C is one of the established encapsulation polymers for chronic implants. We investigated the influence of annealing Parylene C on its mechanical properties, chemical structure, and on the stability of Parylene C - platinum - Parylene C sandwich structures as a model of flexible neural interfaces in 0.9 % saline solution. Films of Parylene C were annealed at 200 °C, 300 °C, 350 °C, and 400 °C in nitrogen atmosphere. Temperatures of 350 °C and higher as well as annealing in air destroyed the Parylene C layers; films annealed at lower temperatures showed identical infrared spectra. Higher anneal temperatures produced increased values of elongation at break, tensile and yield strength, and yield strain while at the same time Young's modulus was shown to decrease. Crystallinity increased with annealing temperature. The structural stability of sandwich structures benefitted remarkably from annealing. Sandwich structures annealed at 300 °C maintained their structural integrity during 320 days in saline solution at 37 °C and the insulation capability stayed consistently high.

  15. Pressure Gradients and Annealing Effects in Solid Helium-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhel, Md. Abdul Halim

    The Kim and Chan experiment in 2004 gave the first experimental evidence of a possible supersolid state. Even though the origin of this state is not clear yet, several experimental and theoretical investigations suggest defects are responsible for this curious phase. We have used heat pulses and thermal quenching to study pressure gradients and annealing mechanisms in solid 4He crystals. Large pressure gradients exist in crystals grown at constant volume. These can be enhanced by phase transitions, thermal quenching or by partial melting. Annealing reduces defect densities and hence pressure gradients in crystals. Our measurements show that the pressure at different points in a crystal can behave differently, even if there is little change in the crystal's average pressure. We measured the activation energy that is associated with the annealing process.

  16. Annealing Effect for Supersolid Fraction in 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penzev, Andrey; Yasuta, Yoshinori; Kubota, Minoru

    2007-09-01

    We report on experimental confirmation of the non-classical rotational inertia (NCRI) in solid helium samples originally reported by Kim and Chan. The onset of NCRI was observed at temperatures below ≈400 mK. The ac velocity for initiation of the NCRI suppression is estimated to be ≈10 μm/sec. After an additional annealing of the sample at T=1.8 K for 12 hours, ˜10% relative increase of NCRI fraction was observed. Then after repeated annealing with the same conditions, the NCRI fraction was saturated. It differs from Reppy’s observation on a low pressure solid sample.

  17. Effect of Annealing on the Properties of Vanadium Pentoxide Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yaqiang; Du, Xuelian; Liu, Xueqin

    2014-03-01

    The vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) films were obtained by using sol-gel procedure and then were annealed at different temperature in air. The effect of different annealing temperatures on the composition, the microstructure, the surface morphology and the optical properties of the films were characterized by methods such as by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and spectral transmittance. The results revealed that the film annealed at 150°C has amorphous structure and dense with a smooth surface and the films annealed at 300°C and 450°C have a polycrystalline V2O5 structure with preferred growth orientation along (001) planes, the c-axis and perpendicular to the silicon substrate surface. From the spectral transmittance we determined the absorption edge using the Tauc plot. The results indicated that optical bandgap of V2O5 thin films decreased with annealing temperature.

  18. The effects of annealing a 2-dimensional array of ion-irradiated Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, E. Y.; Kouperine, K.; Zhuo, Y.; Dynes, R. C.; Cybart, S. A.

    2016-09-01

    We have fabricated the two-dimensional arrays of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) using YBa2Cu3O7-δ ion-irradiated Josephson junctions, and we have studied the effects of post-annealing the arrays at 100 ◦C in oxygen. The maximum voltage modulation, V B, in a magnetic field for DC biased arrays at 50 K is initially 1.2 mV, but increases to 3 mV after annealing. Furthermore, the temperature where the largest V B occurs increases from 45 K to 48.5 K after annealing. We present and simulate a model where annealing causes diffusion and recombination of the low-energy oxygen defects that narrows the barrier, resulting in an increase in the Josephson binding energy. We show that this process stabilizes after 40 minutes of annealing and leads to a significant improvement in the properties of the array.

  19. Effect of Annealing Treatment on Mechanical Properties of Nanocrystalline α-iron: an Atomistic Study

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xuhang; Zhang, Hao; Li, D. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Claims are often found in the literature that metallic materials can be nanocrystallized by severe plastic deformation (SPD). However, SPD does not generate a well-defined nanocrystalline (NC) material, which can be achieved by subsequent annealing/recovery treatment. In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is employed to study the effect of annealing on structure and mechanical properties of cyclic deformed NC α-iron, which simulates SPD-processed α-iron. It is demonstrated that grain boundaries in the deformed NC α-iron evolve to a more equilibrium state during annealing, eliminating or minimizing the residual stress. The annealing treatment increases the system's strength by reducing dislocation emission sources, and improves material ductility through strengthening grain boundaries' resistance to intergranular cracks. The results indicate that the annealing treatment is an essential process for obtaining a well-defined NC structure with superior mechanical properties. PMID:25675978

  20. Effect of Annealing Treatment on Mechanical Properties of Nanocrystalline α-iron: an Atomistic Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Xuhang; Zhang, Hao; Li, D. Y.

    2015-02-01

    Claims are often found in the literature that metallic materials can be nanocrystallized by severe plastic deformation (SPD). However, SPD does not generate a well-defined nanocrystalline (NC) material, which can be achieved by subsequent annealing/recovery treatment. In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is employed to study the effect of annealing on structure and mechanical properties of cyclic deformed NC α-iron, which simulates SPD-processed α-iron. It is demonstrated that grain boundaries in the deformed NC α-iron evolve to a more equilibrium state during annealing, eliminating or minimizing the residual stress. The annealing treatment increases the system's strength by reducing dislocation emission sources, and improves material ductility through strengthening grain boundaries' resistance to intergranular cracks. The results indicate that the annealing treatment is an essential process for obtaining a well-defined NC structure with superior mechanical properties.

  1. Effect of annealing treatment on mechanical properties of nanocrystalline α-iron: an atomistic study.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xuhang; Zhang, Hao; Li, D Y

    2015-02-13

    Claims are often found in the literature that metallic materials can be nanocrystallized by severe plastic deformation (SPD). However, SPD does not generate a well-defined nanocrystalline (NC) material, which can be achieved by subsequent annealing/recovery treatment. In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is employed to study the effect of annealing on structure and mechanical properties of cyclic deformed NC α-iron, which simulates SPD-processed α-iron. It is demonstrated that grain boundaries in the deformed NC α-iron evolve to a more equilibrium state during annealing, eliminating or minimizing the residual stress. The annealing treatment increases the system's strength by reducing dislocation emission sources, and improves material ductility through strengthening grain boundaries' resistance to intergranular cracks. The results indicate that the annealing treatment is an essential process for obtaining a well-defined NC structure with superior mechanical properties.

  2. Effect of Pre-annealing on Sintering of Stainless Steel Fiber Felt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, H. P.; Ma, J.; Wang, J. Z.; Li, C. L.

    2017-01-01

    Stainless steel fiber felt is a class of unique porous metal materials. This study investigates the effect of pre-annealing on the sintering of stainless steel fiber felt through quantitative characterization of sintered joints based on synchrotron radiation experiments. The sintered joint size was found to follow a marked normal distribution in fiber felt samples sintered with and without pre-annealing. However, pre-annealing prior to sintering led to a significant reduction in the total number of sintered joints as well as a reduction in the percentage of large sintered joints. Consequently, fiber felt samples sintered with pre-annealing achieved less than half the tensile strength of those sintered without pre-annealing. Delamination through fracture of sintered joints was pronounced in fiber felt samples sintered with pre-annealing, while failure occurred mainly through fracture of individual fibers in those sintered without pre-annealing. It was concluded that sintering without pre-annealing is necessary for the fabrication of high-strength fiber felt products and the reasons are briefly discussed.

  3. Effect of annealing temperature on the stress and structural properties of Ge core fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ziwen; Cheng, Xueli; Xue, Fei; He, Ting; Wang, Tingyun

    2017-09-01

    Effect of annealing temperature on the stress and structural properties of a Ge core fibre via the molten core drawing (MCD) method is investigated using Raman spectroscopy, Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction. The experimental results showed that the Raman peak position of the Ge fibre shifted from 297.6 cm-1 to 300.5 cm-1, and the FWHM value decreased from 4.53 cm-1 to 4.31 cm-1, when the annealing is carried out at 700 °C, 800 °C, and 900 °C, respectively. For the Ge core annealed at 900 °C, an apparent crystal grain can be seen in the SEM image, and the diffraction peaks of the (3 3 1) plane are generated in the X-ray diffraction spectra. These results show that optimising the annealing temperature allows the release of the residual stress in the Ge core. When the Ge core fibre is annealed at 900 °C, it exhibits the lowest residual stress and the highest crystal quality, and the quality improvement relative to that of the sample annealed at 800 °C is significant. Hence, annealing at around 900 °C can greatly improve the quality of a Ge core fibre. Further performance improvement of the Ge core fibre by annealing techniques can be anticipated.

  4. Effect of Annealing Temperature on Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12 Powders for Humidity Sensing Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; He, Jinping; Yuan, Mengjiao; Jiang, Bin; Li, Peiwen; Tong, Yexing; Zheng, Xuejun

    2017-01-01

    Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12 (BLT) powders have been synthesized via the metal-organic decomposition method with annealing of the BLT precursor solution at 350°C, 450°C, 550°C, 650°C or 750°C. The crystalline structure and morphology of the BLT powders were characterized by x-ray diffraction analysis, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and specific surface and pore size analyses. The humidity sensing properties of the BLT powders annealed at the five temperatures were investigated to determine the effect of annealing temperature. The annealing temperature strongly influenced the grain size, pore size distribution, and specific surface area of the BLT powders, being largely correlated to their humidity sensing properties. The specific surface area of the BLT powder annealed at 550°C was 68.2 m2/g, much larger than for the other annealing temperatures, and the majority of the pores in the BLT powder annealed at 550°C were mesoporous, significantly increasing the adsorption efficiency of water vapor onto the surface of the material. The impedance of the BLT powder annealed at 550°C varied by more than five orders of magnitude over the whole humidity range at working frequency of 100 Hz, being approximately five times greater than for BLT powders annealed at other temperatures. The response time was about 8 s, with maximum hysteresis of around 3% relative humidity. The BLT powder annealed at 550°C exhibited the best humidity sensing properties compared with the other annealing temperatures. We expect that these results will offer useful guidelines for preparation of humidity sensing materials.

  5. Effects of annealing on the coercivity of Sm(Co,Fe,Cu,Zr)z ribbons and its temperature dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Chuan-bing; Zhang, Hong-wei; Chen, Ren-jie; Shen, Bao-gen; He, Shu-li; Liu, J. Ping

    2006-02-01

    Sm(CobalFe0.1CuxZr0.03)7 (x = 0.0-0.25) ribbons have been prepared by melt spinning. The effects of annealing parameters on coercivity and its temperature dependence have been studied systematically. It is found that the melt-spinning technique remarkably improves the magnetic properties and simplifies the annealing process. The high-performance precipitation-hardened magnets can be obtained by only short-time ageing and slow cooling from 850 to 400 °C, without the standard solid solution. More interestingly, the temperature coefficient of coercivity of the ribbons can be tuned through adjustments of the processing parameters.

  6. Real-time shape evolution of nanoimprinted polymer structures during thermal annealing.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ronald L; Hu, Tengjiao; Soles, Christopher L; Lin, Eric K; Reano, Ronald M; Pang, Stella W; Casa, Diego M

    2006-08-01

    The real-time shape evolution of nanoimprinted polymer patterns is measured as a function of annealing time and temperature using critical dimension small-angle X-ray scattering (CD-SAXS). Periodicity, line width, line height, and sidewall angle are reported with nanometer resolution for parallel line/space patterns in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) both below and above the bulk glass transition temperature (T(G)). Heating these patterns below T(G) does not produce significant thermal expansion, at least to within the resolution of the measurement. However, above T(G) the fast rate of loss in pattern size at early times transitions to a reduced rate in longer time regimes. The time-dependent rate of polymer flow from the pattern into the underlying layer, termed pattern "melting", is consistent with a model of elastic recovery from stresses induced by the molding process.

  7. Dual time scales in simulated annealing of a two-dimensional Ising spin glass.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Shanon J; Xu, Na; Sandvik, Anders W

    2017-05-01

    We apply a generalized Kibble-Zurek out-of-equilibrium scaling ansatz to simulated annealing when approaching the spin-glass transition at temperature T=0 of the two-dimensional Ising model with random J=±1 couplings. Analyzing the spin-glass order parameter and the excess energy as functions of the system size and the annealing velocity in Monte Carlo simulations with Metropolis dynamics, we find scaling where the energy relaxes slower than the spin-glass order parameter, i.e., there are two different dynamic exponents. The values of the exponents relating the relaxation time scales to the system length, τ∼L^{z}, are z=8.28±0.03 for the relaxation of the order parameter and z=10.31±0.04 for the energy relaxation. We argue that the behavior with dual time scales arises as a consequence of the entropy-driven ordering mechanism within droplet theory. We point out that the dynamic exponents found here for T→0 simulated annealing are different from the temperature-dependent equilibrium dynamic exponent z_{eq}(T), for which previous studies have found a divergent behavior: z_{eq}(T→0)→∞. Thus, our study shows that, within Metropolis dynamics, it is easier to relax the system to one of its degenerate ground states than to migrate at low temperatures between regions of the configuration space surrounding different ground states. In a more general context of optimization, our study provides an example of robust dense-region solutions for which the excess energy (the conventional cost function) may not be the best measure of success.

  8. Dual time scales in simulated annealing of a two-dimensional Ising spin glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Shanon J.; Xu, Na; Sandvik, Anders W.

    2017-05-01

    We apply a generalized Kibble-Zurek out-of-equilibrium scaling ansatz to simulated annealing when approaching the spin-glass transition at temperature T =0 of the two-dimensional Ising model with random J =±1 couplings. Analyzing the spin-glass order parameter and the excess energy as functions of the system size and the annealing velocity in Monte Carlo simulations with Metropolis dynamics, we find scaling where the energy relaxes slower than the spin-glass order parameter, i.e., there are two different dynamic exponents. The values of the exponents relating the relaxation time scales to the system length, τ ˜Lz , are z =8.28 ±0.03 for the relaxation of the order parameter and z =10.31 ±0.04 for the energy relaxation. We argue that the behavior with dual time scales arises as a consequence of the entropy-driven ordering mechanism within droplet theory. We point out that the dynamic exponents found here for T →0 simulated annealing are different from the temperature-dependent equilibrium dynamic exponent zeq(T ) , for which previous studies have found a divergent behavior: zeq(T →0 ) →∞ . Thus, our study shows that, within Metropolis dynamics, it is easier to relax the system to one of its degenerate ground states than to migrate at low temperatures between regions of the configuration space surrounding different ground states. In a more general context of optimization, our study provides an example of robust dense-region solutions for which the excess energy (the conventional cost function) may not be the best measure of success.

  9. Effect of irradiation and thermal annealing on quartz materials luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korovkin, M. V.; Ananyeva, L. G.

    2017-01-01

    X-ray and gamma-quanta irradiation of radiation-resistant quartz materials including natural and synthetic quartz crystals and high-purity quartzite causes the luminescence in the ultraviolet range (365 nm), thermally stimulated luminescence and radiofrequency electromagnetic emission. Preliminary radiation and thermal annealing improves luminescence properties of quartz materials.

  10. Handling time-expensive global optimization problems through the surrogate-enhanced evolutionary annealing-simplex algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoukalas, Ioannis; Kossieris, Panagiotis; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Makropoulos, Christos

    2015-04-01

    In water resources optimization problems, the calculation of the objective function usually presumes to first run a simulation model and then evaluate its outputs. In several cases, however, long simulation times may pose significant barriers to the optimization procedure. Often, to obtain a solution within a reasonable time, the user has to substantially restrict the allowable number of function evaluations, thus terminating the search much earlier than required by the problem's complexity. A promising novel strategy to address these shortcomings is the use of surrogate modelling techniques within global optimization algorithms. Here we introduce the Surrogate-Enhanced Evolutionary Annealing-Simplex (SE-EAS) algorithm that couples the strengths of surrogate modelling with the effectiveness and efficiency of the EAS method. The algorithm combines three different optimization approaches (evolutionary search, simulated annealing and the downhill simplex search scheme), in which key decisions are partially guided by numerical approximations of the objective function. The performance of the proposed algorithm is benchmarked against other surrogate-assisted algorithms, in both theoretical and practical applications (i.e. test functions and hydrological calibration problems, respectively), within a limited budget of trials (from 100 to 1000). Results reveal the significant potential of using SE-EAS in challenging optimization problems, involving time-consuming simulations.

  11. Annealing of paramagnetic centres in electron- and ion-irradiated yttria-stabilized zirconia: effect of yttria content

    SciTech Connect

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Beuneu, Francois; Weber, William J

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the effect of the yttria content on the recovery of paramagnetic centres in electron-irradiated yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2: Y3+). Single crystals with 9.5 mol% or 18 mol% Y2O3 were irradiated with electrons of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 MeV. Paramagnetic centre thermal annealing was studied by X-band EPR spectroscopy. Hole-centres are found to be annealed more quickly, or at a lower temperature, for 18 mol% than for 9.5 mol% Y2O3. At long annealing times, a non-zero asymptotic behaviour is observed in the isothermal annealing curves of hole-centres and F+-type centres between 300 and 500 K. The normalized asymptotic concentration of both defects has a maximum value of about 0.5 for annealing temperatures near 375 K, below the onset of the (isochronal) recovery stage, regardless of the yttria content. Such an uncommon behaviour is analyzed on the basis of either kinetic rate equations of charge transfer or equilibria between point defects with different charge states.

  12. Effect of oxidation and annealing on tunnel barrier structure and composition in IrMn/CoFe/TiOx/CoFe magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, Daniel J.; Cockayne, David J. H.; Petford-Long, Amanda K.; Yi, Ge

    2009-12-01

    The effects of oxidation time and annealing conditions on sputter-deposited magnetic tunnel junctions with a TiOx barrier have been investigated. High resolution electron microscopy showed that longer oxidation times led to a significant increase in barrier layer width and to the formation of large volumes of oxides of Co and Fe. Annealing promoted extensive diffusion of Mn to the barrier region and the oxidation of Mn to MnOx concurrent with the reduction in oxides of Co and Fe. Annealing also increased the peak oxygen content of the barrier region and resulted in a distinct asymmetry in the barrier oxide structure.

  13. Effect of thermal annealing on ZnO:Al thin films grown by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Manouni, A.; Manjón, F. J.; Perales, M.; Mollar, M.; Marí, B.; Lopez, M. C.; Ramos Barrado, J. R.

    2007-07-01

    We report the effect of thermal annealing in air on the structural and optical properties of undoped and aluminium-doped (1%-4%) zinc oxide (AZO) thin films, grown by the spray pyrolysis technique on quartz substrates. Films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, low-temperature photoluminescence, electrical resistivity, and Raman spectroscopy after annealing at temperatures between 500 and 900 ∘C. Annealing in air improves the long-range order crystalline quality of the bulk crystals, but promotes a number of point defects in the surface affecting both the resistivity and the photoluminescence.

  14. Effect of annealing atmospheres on cobalt ferrite nono-particles and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, V.; Pant, R. P.; Jain, V. K.; Yadav, M. S.

    2008-12-01

    Cobalt ferrite nano-particles have been synthesized by co-precipitation and annealed in air and in an inert atmosphere. Change in the physical properties has been analyzed by various analytical techniques like XRD, TEM, VSM, etc. A significant change in the physical properties like structural, particle shape, size, magnetization and microwave absorption has been observed. The effect of annealing on other properties like Curie temperature, electrical conductivity is also investigated. Particles unannealed and annealed in air and in an inert atmosphere are studied for electromagnetic wave interference. Tables 3, Figs 3, Refs 18.

  15. Time-resolved photoluminescence studies of annealed 1.3-μm GaInNAsSb quantum wells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) was applied to study the dynamics of carrier recombination in GaInNAsSb quantum wells (QWs) emitting near 1.3 μm and annealed at various temperatures. It was observed that the annealing temperature has a strong influence on the PL decay time, and hence, it influences the optical quality of GaInNAsSb QWs. At low temperatures, the PL decay time exhibits energy dependence (i.e., the decay times change for different energies of emitted photons), which can be explained by the presence of localized states. This energy dependence of PL decay times was fitted by a phenomenological formula, and the average value of E0, which describes the energy distribution of localized states, was extracted from this fit and found to be smallest (E0 = 6 meV) for the QW annealed at 700°C. In addition, the value of PL decay time at the peak energy was compared for all samples. The longest PL decay time (600 ps) was observed for the sample annealed at 700°C. It means that based on the PL dynamics, the optimal annealing temperature for this QW is approximately 700°C. PMID:24533740

  16. Annealing effect in structural and electrical properties of sputtered Mo thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelvanathan, P.; Zakaria, Z.; Yusoff, Y.; Akhtaruzzaman, M.; Alam, M. M.; Alghoul, M. A.; Sopian, K.; Amin, N.

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the effects of vacuum annealing on the structural and electrical properties of DC-sputtered molybdenum (Mo) thin films have been investigated. Mo thin films were deposited by DC sputtering and subsequently subjected to vacuum annealing in a tube furnace from 350 to 500 °C. Films that were deposited with different temperatures showed good adhesion with soda lime glass substrate after "tape testing". X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra have indicated existence of (1 1 0) and (2 1 1) orientations. However, I(1 1 0)/I(2 1 1) peak intensity ratio decreased for all vacuum annealed Mo films compared to as-sputtered films indicating change of preferential orientation. This suggests vacuum annealing can be employed to tailor the Mo thin film atomic packing density of the plane parallel to the substrate. SEM images of surface morphology clearly show compact and dense triangular like grains for as-sputtered film, while annealed films at 350 °C, 400 °C and 450 °C indicate rice-like grains. Stony grains with less uniformity were detected for films annealed for 500 °C. Meanwhile, electrical resistivity is insensitive to the vacuum annealing condition as all films showed more or less same resistivity in the range of 3 × 10-5-6 × 10-5 Ω cm.

  17. Effect of annealing on Raman spectra of monolayer graphene samples gradually disordered by ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zion, E.; Butenko, A.; Kaganovskii, Yu.; Richter, V.; Wolfson, L.; Sharoni, A.; Kogan, E.; Kaveh, M.; Shlimak, I.

    2017-03-01

    Raman scattering spectra (RS) of two series of monolayer graphene samples irradiated with various doses of C + and Xe + ions were measured after annealing in a high vacuum and in forming gas (95%Ar + 5%H2). It is shown that annealing below 500 °C leads to a significant decrease in both the D-line, associated with defects, and the 2D-line, associated with the intact lattice structure. This can be explained by annealing-induced enhanced doping. Further annealing in a vacuum up to 1000 °C leads to a significant increase in the 2D-line together with a continuous decrease in the D-line. This gives evidence for the partial removal of the defects and restoration of the damaged lattice. Annealing in forming gas is less effective in this sense. A blue shift of all lines is observed after annealing. It is shown that below 500 °C, unintentional doping is the main origin of the shift. At higher annealing temperatures, the blue shift is mainly due to lattice strain arising because of mismatch between the thermal expansion coefficients of graphene and the substrate. Inhomogeneous distribution of stress and doping across the samples lead to the correlated variation of the height and peak position of RS lines.

  18. Distributional behavior of diffusion coefficients obtained by single trajectories in annealed transit time model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, Takuma; Yamamoto, Eiji

    2016-12-01

    Local diffusion coefficients in disordered systems such as spin glass systems and living cells are highly heterogeneous and may change over time. Such a time-dependent and spatially heterogeneous environment results in irreproducibility of single-particle-tracking measurements. Irreproducibility of time-averaged observables has been theoretically studied in the context of weak ergodicity breaking in stochastic processes. Here, we provide rigorous descriptions of equilibrium and non-equilibrium diffusion processes for the annealed transit time model, which is a heterogeneous diffusion model in living cells. We give analytical solutions for the mean square displacement (MSD) and the relative standard deviation of the time-averaged MSD for equilibrium and non-equilibrium situations. We find that the time-averaged MSD grows linearly with time and that the time-averaged diffusion coefficients are intrinsically random (irreproducible) even in the long-time measurements in non-equilibrium situations. Furthermore, the distribution of the time-averaged diffusion coefficients converges to a universal distribution in the sense that it does not depend on initial conditions. Our findings pave the way for a theoretical understanding of distributional behavior of the time-averaged diffusion coefficients in disordered systems.

  19. Effect of Ag nanostructures and annealing process on the localized surface plasmon resonance properties of Ag-based AZO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jing; Hui, Chaoxian; Liu, Can; Shi, Weimin

    2017-08-01

    Ag nanoparticles were obtained in Ag/AZO and AZO/Ag/AZO films by magnetron sputtering method at room temperature with different deposition time. The morphology of Ag nanoparticles is strongly affected by the particle size, shape and distribution as well as annealing temperatures, which determine the optical response of films. The high quality of AZO film with better crystallinity can enhance the optical transmittance and a good coverage by AZO as top layer on Ag nanoparticles can also enhance the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption of Ag in long wavelengths. The mechanisms involved in shifts and broadening of SPR peaks have been explained detailedly. The effect of annealing process on SPR of Ag and photoelectric properties of AZO/Ag/AZO films can be also discussed. It is shown that the SPR peak of 664 nm only appears in AZO/Ag (5 s)/AZO film and no SPR peaks are found in annealed AZO/Ag/AZO films. The AZO/Ag (20 s)/AZO film annealed at 300 °C shows a great figure of merit (F_{{TC}}) of 4.8 × 10-2 Ω-1 because of high visible optical average transmittance of 85% and low sheet resistance (R_{{S}}) of 4.1 Ω/sq. The overall results reveal that annealing process can improve the electrical property of film and may not be able to promote the SPR of Ag nanoparticles, especially when AZO top layer is added. The introduction of Ag nanoparticles in AZO/Ag/AZO films should be very effective for improving the SPR or photoelectric properties of films depending on deposition conditions and annealing process.

  20. Annealing effect on structural and optical properties of chemical bath deposited MnS thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulutas, Cemal; Gumus, Cebrail

    2016-03-01

    MnS thin film was prepared by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method on commercial microscope glass substrate deposited at 30 °C. The as-deposited film was given thermal annealing treatment in air atmosphere at various temperatures (150, 300 and 450 °C) for 1 h. The MnS thin film was characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectrophotometer and Hall effect measurement system. The effect of annealing temperature on the structural, electrical and optical properties such as optical constants of refractive index (n) and energy band gap (Eg) of the film was determined. XRD measurements reveal that the film is crystallized in the wurtzite phase and changed to tetragonal Mn3O4 phase after being annealed at 300 °C. The energy band gap of film decreased from 3.69 eV to 3.21 eV based on the annealing temperature.

  1. Annealing Effects on Creep and Rupture of Polycrystalline Alumina-Based Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsby, J. C.; Yun, H. M.; Morscher, G. N.; DiCarlo, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Continuous-length polycrystalline aluminum-oxide-based fibers are being considered as reinforcements for advanced high-temperature composite materials. For these fine-grained fibers, basic issues arise concerning grain growth and microstructural instability during composite fabrication and the resulting effects on the fiber's thermo-mechanical properties. To examine these issues, commercially available Nextel 610 (alumina) and Altex (alumina-silica) fibers were annealed at 1100 and 1300 C for up to 100 hr in air. Changes in fiber microstructure, fiber tensile creep, stress rupture, and bend stress relaxation (BSR) that occurred with annealing were then determined. BSR tests were also used to compare as-received and annealed fibers to other polycrystalline oxide fibers. Annealing was shown to have a significant effect, particularly on the Altex fiber, and caused it to have increased creep resistance.

  2. Temperature, stress, and annealing effects on the luminescence from electron-irradiated silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. E.; Johnson, E. S.; Compton, W. D.; Noonan, J. R.; Streetman, B. G.

    1973-01-01

    Low-temperature photoluminescence spectra are presented for Si crystals which have been irradiated with high-energy electrons. Studies of isochronal annealing, stress effects, and the temperature dependences of the luminescence are used to discuss the nature of the luminescent transitions and the properties of defects. Two dominant bands present after room-temperature anneal of irradiated material are discussed, and correlations of the properties of these bands are made with known Si defects. A band between 0.8 and 1.0 eV has properties which are related to those of the divacancy, and a band between 0.6 and 0.8 eV has properties related to those of the Si-G15(K) center. Additional peaks appear in the luminescence after high-temperature anneal; the influence of impurities and the effects of annealing of these lines are discussed.

  3. Temperature, stress, and annealing effects on the luminescence from electron-irradiated silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. E.; Johnson, E. S.; Compton, W. D.; Noonan, J. R.; Streetman, B. G.

    1973-01-01

    Low-temperature photoluminescence spectra are presented for Si crystals which have been irradiated with high-energy electrons. Studies of isochronal annealing, stress effects, and the temperature dependences of the luminescence are used to discuss the nature of the luminescent transitions and the properties of defects. Two dominant bands present after room-temperature anneal of irradiated material are discussed, and correlations of the properties of these bands are made with known Si defects. A band between 0.8 and 1.0 eV has properties which are related to those of the divacancy, and a band between 0.6 and 0.8 eV has properties related to those of the Si-G15(K) center. Additional peaks appear in the luminescence after high-temperature anneal; the influence of impurities and the effects of annealing of these lines are discussed.

  4. The effect of vacuum annealing on the remediation abilities of iron and iron-nickel nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, Michelle; Scott, Thomas B.

    2011-09-01

    Zero-valent iron nanoparticles are effective remediators of uranium from solution. It is postulated that the improved core crystallinity and the migration of impurity phases to the nanoparticle surfaces induced by annealing may improve their corrosion resistance and reactive lifespan. The ability of annealed and non-annealed Fe and FeNi nanoparticles to remediate a U-contaminated effluent from AWE, Aldermaston was investigated. Nanoparticles (of diameter typically between 0 and 100 nm) were introduced to the effluent and allowed to react for 7 days during which the liquid and nanoparticulate solids were periodically sampled. In all the systems, the maximum U-uptake occurred within 1 h of introduction, with variable efficiency. The Fe nanoparticles removed 98% of the total U from solution, resulting in a final U-concentration of <4 μg/L. A rapid release of Fe into solution was recorded early in the reaction period: attributed to limited partial dissolution of the nanoparticles. Annealing the Fe nanoparticles did not affect their efficiency but the dissolution of Fe was significantly reduced and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy indicated slower progressive oxidation. The performance of the FeNi nanoparticles was significantly improved by annealing, with U-uptake increasing from 50 to 94%. Although the dissolution of Ni was completely inhibited by annealing, the Fe dissolution increased compared to that observed for the non-annealed FeNi nanoparticles, in contrast to behaviour exhibited by Fe-annealed nanoparticles. In all the systems, U was reduced to U(IV) and retained on the surfaces of the nanoparticulate solids for up to 48 h; the U-stability was not affected by annealing the Fe or the FeNi nanoparticles before use.

  5. Effect of thermal annealing on the structural, optical and dielectrical properties of P3HT:PC{sub 70}BM nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Aloui, Walid; Adhikari, Tham; Nunzi, Jean-Michel; Bouazizi, Abdelaziz

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • A typical structure of ITO/PEDOT: PSS/P3HT: PC{sub 70}BM/Al was fabricated. • Charge carrier diffusion and recombination have been calculated. • AFM and optical results show that thermal annealing promotes the phase separation. • The annealing process improves the transport of charges. - Abstract: The effect of thermal annealing on the optical, structural and the dielectric properties of P3HT:PC{sub 70}BM blended films were investigated. By means of atomic force microscopy, we observed the morphology evolution of the annealed P3HT:PC{sub 70}BM nanocomposites. Raman spectroscopy showed a substantial ordering in the polymer film after annealing. The absorption spectra of the annealed P3HT:PC{sub 70}BM films were improved and red shifted than un-annealed samples. The results indicate that the P3HT in the nanocomposite becomes an ordered structure with annealing. The ordered P3HT facilitates the charge transport. From the photoluminescence measurements, the formation of polymer crystallites was observed upon annealing. Thus, the device efficiency reaches 2.2% after annealing at 150 °C. Impedance spectroscopy shows the classical complex plan curves; the low frequency is related to the effective lifetime of charge carriers and the high frequency corresponds to the diffusion time of these carriers. Global mobilities are in the range 3.8–4.6 × 10{sup −3} cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}.

  6. Effect of annealing and pressure on microstructure of cornstarches with different amylose/amylopectin ratios.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongsheng; Yu, Long; Simon, George; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Dean, Katherine; Chen, Ling

    2009-02-17

    This work focuses on the effect of annealing and pressure on microstructures of starch, in particular the crystal structure and crystallinity to further explore the mechanisms of annealing and pressure treatment. Cornstarches with different amylose/amylopectin ratios were used as model materials. Since the samples covered both A-type (high amylopectin starch: waxy and maize) and B-type (high amylose starch: G50 and G80) crystals, the results can be used to clarify some previous confusion. The effect of annealing and pressure on the crystallinity and double helices were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and (13)C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy. The crystal form of various starches remained unchanged after annealing and pressure treatment. XRD detection showed that the relative crystallinity (RC) of high amylopectin starches was increased slightly after annealing, while the RC of high amylose-rich starches remained unchanged. NMR measurement supported the XRD results. The increase can be explained by the chain relaxation. XRD results also indicated that some of the fixed region in crystallinity was susceptible to outside forces. The effect of annealing and pressure on starch gelatinization temperature and enthalpy are used to explore the mechanisms.

  7. Effects of annealing lyophilized and spray-lyophilized formulations of recombinant human interferon-gamma.

    PubMed

    Webb, Serena D; Cleland, Jeffrey L; Carpenter, John F; Randolph, Theodore W

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of adsorption of recombinant human interferon-gamma (rhIFN-gamma) on ice surfaces and subsequent drying during processing by spray-lyophilization and lyophilization. Ice/liquid interfacial areas were manipulated by the freezing method as well as by the addition of an annealing step during lyophilization; that is, rhIFN-gamma adsorption was modified by the addition of nonionic surfactants. rhIFN-gamma was lyophilized or spray-lyophilized at a concentration of 1 mg/mL in 5% sucrose, 5% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) +/- 0.03% polysorbate 20 in 140 mM KCl, and 10 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.5. After the samples were frozen, half were annealed on the lyophilizer shelf. Recovery of soluble protein was measured at intermediate points during processing. On drying, the secondary structure of rhIFN-gamma was determined by second-derivative infrared (IR) spectroscopy, specific surface areas (SSAs) were measured, scanning electron micrographs (SEM) were taken, and dissolution times were recorded. Adsorption of rhIFN-gamma to ice/liquid interfaces alone was not responsible for aggregation. Rather, drying was necessary to cause aggregation in lyophilized sucrose formulations. Addition of an annealing step to the lyophilization cycle resulted in more native-like secondary protein structure in the dried solid, eliminated cracking of the dried cakes, and suppressed both the formation of air/liquid interfaces and rhIFN-gamma aggregation on reconstitution. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American pharmaceutical Association J Pharm Sci 92:715-729, 2003

  8. Post-annealing effects on ZnS thin films grown by using the CBD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Heejin; Um, Youngho

    2015-09-01

    Herein, the structural, morphological, and optical properties of zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films deposited via the chemical bath deposition method are reported. These films were deposited on soda-lime glass (SLG) substrates by using ZnSO4, thiourea, and 25% ammonia at 90 °C. The effect of changing the annealing temperature from 100 °C to 300 °C on the properties of the ZnS thin films was investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the ZnS thin film annealed at 100 °C had an amorphous structure; however, as the annealing temperature was increased, the crystalline quality of the thin film was enhanced. Moreover, transmission measurements showed that the optical transmittance was about 80% for wavelengths above 500 nm. The band gap energy (E g ) value of the film annealed at 300 °C was decreased to about 3.82 eV.

  9. In situ analysis of post-annealing effect on Sn-doped indium oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hojoon; Yang, Hyeok-Jun; Kim, Ji Woong; Bae, Jong-Seung; Kim, Jin-Woo; Jeong, Beomgyun; Crumlin, Ethan; Park, Sungkyun; Mun, Bongjin Simon

    2016-11-01

    Oxygen post-annealing effects on tin (Sn) doped indium oxide (ITO) film are investigated with various analytical tools as a function of temperature, including in situ XRD, ambient pressure XPS (AP-XPS), and Hall measurement. As the annealing temperature increases up to 200 °C under the oxygen pressure of 100 mTorr, the in situ XRD shows the evidence of crystallization of the film while the AP-XPS reveals the formation of oxygen vacancy and Sn4+ states on surface. In addition, the mobility of ITO thin film is increased as the post-annealing temperature increases, supporting the results of both in situ XRD and AP-XPS. The results of angle-resolved XPS reveal that the degree of Sn segregation changes little after post-annealing procedure.

  10. Annealing effects on magnetic properties of silicone-coated iron-based soft magnetic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shen; Sun, Aizhi; Zhai, Fuqiang; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Qian; Xu, Wenhuan; Logan, Philip; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2012-03-01

    This paper focuses on novel iron-based soft magnetic composites synthesis utilizing high thermal stability silicone resin to coat iron powder. The effect of an annealing treatment on the magnetic properties of synthesized magnets was investigated. The coated silicone insulating layer was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Silicone uniformly coated the powder surface, resulting in a reduction of the imaginary part of the permeability, thereby increasing the electrical resistivity and the operating frequency of the synthesized magnets. The annealing treatment increased the initial permeability, the maximum permeability, and the magnetic induction, and decreased the coercivity. Annealing at 580 °C increased the maximum permeability by 72.5%. The result of annealing at 580 °C shows that the ferromagnetic resonance frequency increased from 2 kHz for conventional epoxy resin coated samples to 80 kHz for the silicone resin insulated composites.

  11. Annealing Effect of PbS Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, J.; Jeong, S.; Semonin, O. E.; Ellingson, R. J.; Nozik, A. J.; Beard, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    We recently reported an NREL certified {approx}3% efficient device with structure of ITO/ZnO/PbS QD/Au. The device is remarkably stable in air without encapsulation for more than 1000 hours. Therefore, in this study we focus on devices with structure of ITO/ZnO/PbS QD/metal fabricated in air. By annealing PbS QD film at low temperature up to 140C, the solar cell efficiency can be achieved to more than 4%.

  12. Radiation and annealing effects on integrated bipolar Operational Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assaf, J.

    2017-02-01

    Integrated bipolar Operational Amplifier (op-amp) type μA 741 was irradiated with neutrons and gamma rays. The radiation on gain factors, slew rate, and power supply current have been evaluated. The experimental results show a decrease of these parameter values after exposing to the radiation. The advantage of the increase of the voltage power supplies and the thermal annealing treatment on the damaged parameters was also explored. The relationship among different frequency response parameters is also studied leading to an analytical formula for the above degraded parameters.

  13. Flexible bottom-gate graphene transistors on Parylene C substrate and the effect of current annealing.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Wook; Kim, Hyungsoo; Bong, Jihye; Mikael, Solomon; Kim, Tong June; Williams, Justin C; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2016-10-10

    Flexible graphene transistors built on a biocompatible Parylene C substrate would enable active circuitry to be integrated into flexible implantable biomedical devices. An annealing method to improve the performance of a flexible transistor without damaging the flexible substrate is also desirable. Here, we present a fabrication method of a flexible graphene transistor with a bottom-gate coplanar structure on a Parylene C substrate. Also, a current annealing method and its effect on the device performance have been studied. The localized heat generated by the current annealing method improves the drain current, which is attributed to the decreased contact resistance between graphene and S/D electrodes. A maximum current annealing power in the Parylene C-based graphene transistor has been extracted to provide a guideline for an appropriate current annealing. The fabricated flexible graphene transistor shows a field-effect mobility, maximum transconductance, and a Ion/Ioff ratio of 533.5 cm(2)/V s, 58.1 μS, and 1.76, respectively. The low temperature process and the current annealing method presented here would be useful to fabricate two-dimensional materials-based flexible electronics.

  14. Flexible bottom-gate graphene transistors on Parylene C substrate and the effect of current annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Dong-Wook; Kim, Hyungsoo; Bong, Jihye; Mikael, Solomon; Kim, Tong June; Williams, Justin C.; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2016-10-01

    Flexible graphene transistors built on a biocompatible Parylene C substrate would enable active circuitry to be integrated into flexible implantable biomedical devices. An annealing method to improve the performance of a flexible transistor without damaging the flexible substrate is also desirable. Here, we present a fabrication method of a flexible graphene transistor with a bottom-gate coplanar structure on a Parylene C substrate. Also, a current annealing method and its effect on the device performance have been studied. The localized heat generated by the current annealing method improves the drain current, which is attributed to the decreased contact resistance between graphene and S/D electrodes. A maximum current annealing power in the Parylene C-based graphene transistor has been extracted to provide a guideline for an appropriate current annealing. The fabricated flexible graphene transistor shows a field-effect mobility, maximum transconductance, and a Ion/Ioff ratio of 533.5 cm2/V s, 58.1 μS, and 1.76, respectively. The low temperature process and the current annealing method presented here would be useful to fabricate two-dimensional materials-based flexible electronics.

  15. The Effect of Grain Size and Dislocation Density on the Tensile Properties of Ni-SiCNP Composites During Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao; Huang, Hefei; Thorogood, Gordon James; Jiang, Li; Ye, Xiangxi; Li, Zhijun; Zhou, Xingtai

    2016-03-01

    The grain size refinement, enhancement of mechanical properties, and static recrystallization behavior of metallic nickel-silicon carbide nano-particle (Ni-3wt.%SiCNP) composites, milled for times ranging from 8 to 48 h have been examined. One set of Ni-SiCNP composite samples were annealed at 300 °C for 250 h, while the other set of samples were maintained at room temperature for control purposes (reference). The electron backscatter diffraction results indicate that the grain size of the annealed Ni-SiCNP composite was refined due to grain restructuring during static recrystallization. The x-ray diffraction results indicate that low-temperature annealing effectively reduced the density of dislocations; this can be explained by the dislocation pile-up model. Additionally, the tensile tests indicated that the annealed Ni-SiCNP composite had a significant increase in strength due to an increase of the Hall-Petch strengthening effect with a slight increase in the total elongation. The decrease of dislocation pile-up in the grain interiors and the increase in grain boundary sliding are assumed to be the main mechanisms at play. The relationship between the microstructural evolution and the variation of tensile properties is examined in this study.

  16. Electrochromic performance, wettability and optical study of copper manganese oxide thin films: Effect of annealing temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falahatgar, S. S.; Ghodsi, F. E.; Tepehan, F. Z.; Tepehan, G. G.; Turhan, İ.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, the nanostructured copper manganese oxide (CMO) thin films were prepared from acetate based sol-gel precursors and deposited on glass and indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates by dip-coating technique. The films were annealed at 300, 400 and 500 °C in ambient atmosphere. The effects of annealing temperature on structural, morphological, wettability, electrochromic and optical properties of CMO thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), water contact angle measurement (WCA), cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometery. The presence of mixed oxide phases comprising of copper manganese oxide (CuMn2O4) and manganese oxide at different annealing temperature was confirmed by XRD patterns. The results showed that the Mn3O4 phase has been changed to Mn2O3 when the annealing temperature is increased from 300 to 500 °C. The FESEM images indicated that the granular surface morphology was sensitive to annealing temperature. EDX studies indicated that the thin films contained O, Mn and Cu species. Wettability studies showed that the water contact angle of the nanostructured CMO thin films coated on glass substrates was influenced by the variation of annealing temperature and the surface nature of thin films was changed from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. The results of CVs measurement indicated that the anodic and cathodic charge density and capacitance of all CMO samples decreased with increasing scan rate in potential range of -1-1 eV. Also, the annealed CMO thin film at 500 °C showed better electrochromic performance with respect to other samples at lower scan rate. The thickness, refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical band gap of thin films coated on glass substrates were calculated from reflectance and transmittance spectra using an iterative numerical method. The optical band gap of

  17. Annealing effects on electrical properties of pure and tin-doped indium oxide thin films.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kazuhiro; Omoto, Hideo; Yonekura, Masaaki

    2012-12-01

    The annealing effects on the properties of ITO and pure In2O3 thin films have been investigated. The thin films were deposited with various O2 flow ratios to total gas flow by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering. The post-deposition annealing of the thin films was carried out for 30 minutes at various temperatures ranging up to 500 degrees C in air. It was found through the comparison of the carrier density of ITO and In2O3 thin films that the carrier electrons of the ITO thin films came from both of the dopant Sn and oxygen vacancies under the annealing less than 400 degrees C. Therefore, the ITO thin films deposited with lower O2 flow ratio exhibited higher carrier density due to many oxygen vacancies; in consequence, they exhibited lower resistivity at the annealing up to 400 degrees C. On the other hand, the carrier density of ITO thin films was almost identical regardless of O2 flow ratio when they were annealed at 500 degrees C. This fact indicates that most carrier electrons of the ITO thin films were brought by the dopant Sn at the annealing temperature of 500 degrees C. However, the ITO thin films deposited with lower O2 flow ratio exhibited higher Hall mobility; as a result, they showed lower resistivity at the annealing of 500 degrees C. Atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity measurements revealed that the ITO thin films deposited with lowe O2 flow ratio exhibited dense structure even after they were annealed at 500 degrees C. Hence, the carrier electrons of the dense ITO thin films deposited with low O2 flow ratio can conduct better, as a result, the ITO thin films exhibited high Hall mobility and low resistivity.

  18. Low temperature magnetothermoelectric effect and magnetoresistance in Te vapor annealed Bi2Te3.

    PubMed

    Hor, Y S; Qu, D; Ong, N P; Cava, R J

    2010-09-22

    The electrical properties of single crystals of p-type Bi(2)Te(3) are shown to be tuned by annealing as-grown crystals in elemental Te vapor at temperatures in the range of 400-420 °C. While as-grown nominally stoichiometric Bi(2)Te(3) has p-type conductivity below room temperature, Te vapor annealed Bi(2)Te(3) shows a cross over from p- to n-type behavior. The temperature dependent resistivity of the Te annealed crystals shows a characteristic broad peak near 100 K. Applied magnetic fields give rise to a large low temperature magnetothermoelectric effect in the Te annealed samples and enhance the low temperature peak in the resistivity. Further, Te annealed Bi(2)Te(3) shows a large positive magnetoresistance, ∼ 200% at 2 K, and ∼ 15% at room temperature. The annealing procedure described can be employed to optimize the properties of Bi(2)Te(3) for study as a topological insulator.

  19. Effect of Metallic Au Seed Layer Annealing on the Properties of Electrodeposited ZnO Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Park, Youngbin; Nam, Giwoong; Kim, Byunggu; Leem, Jae-Young

    2015-11-01

    This study focuses on the effect of annealing the Au seed layer (ASL) on the structural and optical properties of electrodeposited ZnO nanorods. ZnO nanorods were fabricated in a three-step approach. In the first step, ASLs were deposited using an ion sputter technique. In the second step, layers were annealed in air at various temperatures ranging from 400 degrees C to 600 degrees C. Finally, ZnO nanorods were grown using an electrodeposition method. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that better aligned ZnO nanorods are fabricated on the annealed ASL compared with non-annealed ASL The X-ray diffraction analysis showed a notable improvement in directional growth along the (002) crystallographic plane when ZnO nanorods were grown on the annealed ASL. The photoluminescence analysis showed that the UV emission peak of ZnO nanorods on the annealed ASL at 400 degrees C was blue-shifted and increased.

  20. Evolution of microstructural defects with strain effects in germanium nanocrystals synthesized at different annealing temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Minghuan; Cai, Rongsheng; Zhang, Yujuan; Wang, Chao; Wang, Yiqian; Ross, Guy G.; Barba, David

    2014-07-01

    Ge nanocrystals (Ge-ncs) were produced by implantation of {sup 74}Ge{sup +} into a SiO{sub 2} film on (100) Si, followed by high-temperature annealing from 700 °C to 1100 °C. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies show that the average size of Ge-ncs increases with the annealing temperature. High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) investigations reveal the presence of planar and linear defects in the formed Ge-ncs, whose relative concentrations are determined at each annealing temperature. The relative concentration of planar defects is almost independent of the annealing temperature up to 1000 °C. However, from 1000 °C to 1100 °C, its concentration decreases dramatically. For the linear defects, their concentration varies considerably with the annealing temperatures. In addition, by measuring the interplanar spacing of Ge-ncs from the HRTEM images, a strong correlation is found between the dislocation percentage and the stress field intensity. Our results provide fundamental insights regarding both the presence of microstructural defects and the origin of the residual stress field within Ge-ncs, which can shed light on the fabrication of Ge-ncs with quantified crystallinity and appropriate size for the advanced Ge-nc devices. - Highlights: • Growth of Ge nanocrystals at different annealing temperatures was investigated. • Strain field has great effects on the formation of dislocations. • Different mechanisms are proposed to explain growth regimes of Ge nanocrystals.

  1. Large Barkhausen effect and Matteucci effect in cold-drawn and torsion annealed amorphous magnetostrictive wires

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, H.; Mohri, K.; Yamasaki, J.; Ogasawara, I. )

    1988-07-01

    Amorphous magnetostrictive wires fabricated by super-rapid quenching in water exhibit a remarkably stable Barkhausen effect and Matteucci effect in the as-prepared state. The Matteucci effect in as-prepared wire is under 1 mV. When the wire is drawn or made shorter than 70 mm, the Barkhausen effect vanishes. In this work, the amorphous magnetostrictive wire was cold drawn and then annealed under torsional stress; the wires obtained had a large Matteucci effect, as well as a large Barkhausen effect even when as short as 25 mm. These wires were used as devices for pulse generation. Their magnetic properties are studied.

  2. Effect of microwave annealing on electrical characteristics of TiN/Al/TiN/HfO2/Si MOS capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Tzu-Lang; Su, Yin-Hsien; Kuo, Tai-Chen; Lee, Wen-Hsi; Current, Michael Ira

    2017-07-01

    In this letter, microwave annealing over a wide range of power (300-2700 W) in nitrogen ambient was performed on TiN/Al/TiN/HfO2/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors. Capacitors with rapid thermal annealing at 500 °C were also fabricated for comparison at the same wafer temperature measured during microwave annealing at 2700 W. For microwave annealed capacitors, key parameters such as equivalent oxide thickness, interface state density, oxide trapped charge, leakage current density, and breakdown voltage were all improved with increasing microwave annealing power. For the capacitor with rapid thermal annealing at 500 °C, diffusion of Al into TiN and growth of the interfacial oxide layer are detected, leading to the shift in flat-band voltage and increase in equivalent oxide thickness, respectively. The results further indicate that it is more effective to remove the charged traps by microwave annealing than by rapid thermal annealing, and the reduction in leakage current density after microwave annealing corresponds to the reduction in charge traps based on a trap-assisted tunneling model. With no trade-off relationship between the electrical characteristics and no undesired effect such as diffusion of species, microwave annealing demonstrates great potential for the post-metallization annealing process for the high-k/metal gate structure.

  3. Influence of annealing effects on polyaniline for good microstructural modification

    PubMed Central

    Begum, A. Nishara; Dhachanamoorthi, N.; saravanan, M.E. Raja; Jayamurugan, P.; Manoharan, D.; Ponnuswamy, V.

    2013-01-01

    H2SO4 doped polyaniline (PANI) has synthesized by chemical oxidation method. The prepared Polyaniline were annealed at 150 °C, 200 °C and 250 °C for 30 min in vacuum. Crystal size, percentage of crystallinity, total percentage of crystallinity properties of untreated and heat treated PANI samples were studied by using X-ray diffraction pattern. The molecular structure of untreated and heat treated samples were examined by using Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer. UV study shows π–π* transition of untreated and heat treated of polyaniline were found at 328 and 636 nm. The peak at 636 nm reveals the extension of conjugated polymer. Thermal properties of untreated and heat treated PANI sample measured by using thermo gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetric spectroscopy. PMID:23378673

  4. Effect of annealing temperature on properties of RF sputtered Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhou; Yan, Chuanpeng; Yan, Yong; Zhang, Yanxia; Huang, Tao; Huang, Wen; Li, Shasha; Liu, Lian; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Yong

    2012-09-01

    Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) thin films were prepared by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering at room temperature, following vacuum annealing at different temperatures. We have investigated the effect of annealing temperature (150-550 °C) on the phase transformation process of the CIGSe films. The as-deposited precursor films show a near stoichiometry composition and amorphous structure. Composition loss of the films mainly occur in the annealing temperature range of 150-300 °C. Comparing with samples annealed at 300 °C, films annealed at 350 °C or higher temperatures exhibit almost similar composition and polycrystalline chalcopyrite structure. Crystal quality of the films improves with increasing annealing temperature. Reflectance spectra of the annealed films show interference fringe pattern. The calculated refractive indexes of the films are in the range of 2.4-2.5.

  5. Combined current-modulation annealing induced enhancement of giant magnetoimpedance effect of Co-rich amorphous microwires

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jingshun E-mail: faxiang.qin@gmail.com; Qin, Faxiang E-mail: faxiang.qin@gmail.com; Chen, Dongming; Shen, Hongxian; Wang, Huan; Xing, Dawei; Sun, Jianfei; Phan, Manh-Huong

    2014-05-07

    We report on a combined current-modulation annealing (CCMA) method, which integrates the optimized pulsed current (PC) and DC annealing techniques, for improving the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect and its field sensitivity of Co-rich amorphous microwires. Relative to an as-prepared Co{sub 68.2}Fe{sub 4.3}B{sub 15}Si{sub 12.5} wire, CCMA is shown to remarkably improve the GMI response of the wire. At 10 MHz, the maximum GMI ratio and its field sensitivity of the as-prepared wire were, respectively, increased by 3.5 and 2.28 times when subjected to CCMA. CCMA increased atomic order orientation and circumferential permeability of the wire by the co-action of high-density pulsed magnetic field energy and thermal activation energy at a PC annealing stage, as well as the formation of uniform circular magnetic domains by a stable DC magnetic field at a DC annealing stage. The magnetic moment can overcome eddy-current damping or nail-sticked action in rotational magnetization, giving rise to a double-peak feature and wider working field range (up to ±2 Oe) at relatively higher frequency (f ≥ 1 MHz)

  6. Combined current-modulation annealing induced enhancement of giant magnetoimpedance effect of Co-rich amorphous microwires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingshun; Qin, Faxiang; Chen, Dongming; Shen, Hongxian; Wang, Huan; Xing, Dawei; Phan, Manh-Huong; Sun, Jianfei

    2014-05-01

    We report on a combined current-modulation annealing (CCMA) method, which integrates the optimized pulsed current (PC) and DC annealing techniques, for improving the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect and its field sensitivity of Co-rich amorphous microwires. Relative to an as-prepared Co68.2Fe4.3B15Si12.5 wire, CCMA is shown to remarkably improve the GMI response of the wire. At 10 MHz, the maximum GMI ratio and its field sensitivity of the as-prepared wire were, respectively, increased by 3.5 and 2.28 times when subjected to CCMA. CCMA increased atomic order orientation and circumferential permeability of the wire by the co-action of high-density pulsed magnetic field energy and thermal activation energy at a PC annealing stage, as well as the formation of uniform circular magnetic domains by a stable DC magnetic field at a DC annealing stage. The magnetic moment can overcome eddy-current damping or nail-sticked action in rotational magnetization, giving rise to a double-peak feature and wider working field range (up to ±2 Oe) at relatively higher frequency (f ≥ 1 MHz).

  7. Temperature effects on failure and annealing behavior in dynamic random access memories

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkin, N.O.; Self, C.T.

    1982-12-01

    Total dose failure levels and long time anneal characteristics of dynamic random access memories are measured while the devices are exercised under actual use conditions. These measurements were performed over the temperature range of -60 C to +70 C. The total dose failure levels are shown to decrease with increasing temperature. The anneal characteristics are shown to result in both an increase and decrease in the measured number of errors as a function of time. Finally a description of the test instrumentation and irradiation procedures are given.

  8. Temperature effects on failure and annealing behavior in dynamic random access memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkin, N. D.; Self, C. T.

    1982-12-01

    Total dose failure levels and long time anneal characteristics of dynamic random access memories are measured while the devices are exercised under actual use conditions. These measurements were performed over the temperature range of -60 C to +70 C. The total dose failure levels are shown to decrease with increasing temperature. The anneal characteristics are shown to result in both an increase and decrease in the measured number of errors as a function of time. Finally a description of the test instrumentation and irradiation procedures are given.

  9. Effect of annealing on the structural properties of AlN thin films containing Co particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chang-Suk; Kim, Yong-Ha

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach for preparing AlN thin films containing various Co contents by using a two-facing targets type sputtering system. The as-deposited films exhibited a variable nature expected from the AlN-rich phase, as well as an amorphous-like phase, depending on the Co content in the films. The films were annealed isothermally at different temperatures and their microstructure, magnetic properties and resistivity were examined. The saturation magnetization of the as-deposited films was quite small and almost constant, irrespective of the Co content in the films, because Co was not in the crystalline state. At elevated annealing temperatures, the as-deposited AlN-Co amorphous films crystallized into two phases of AlN and Co. The saturation magnetization and resistivity of the films increased with increasing annealing time and temperature. The coercivity of the films was independent of the annealing time, but it increased with increasing annealing temperature due to the increase in grain size. A saturation magnetization, coercivity and resistivity of 360 emu/cm3, ˜25 Oe and 2200 μΩ-cm, respectively, were obtained. Further improvement in the soft magnetic properties might lead to this material being applied as a high density magnetic recording head material.

  10. Influence of multi-deposition multi-annealing on time-dependent dielectric breakdown characteristics of PMOS with high-k/metal gate last process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-Rong; Yang, Hong; Xu, Hao; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Luo, Wei-Chun; Qi, Lu-Wei; Zhang, Shu-Xiang; Wang, Wen-Wu; Yan, Jiang; Zhu, Hui-Long; Zhao, Chao; Chen, Da-Peng; Ye, Tian-Chun

    2015-11-01

    A multi-deposition multi-annealing technique (MDMA) is introduced into the process of high-k/metal gate MOSFET for the gate last process to effectively reduce the gate leakage and improve the device’s performance. In this paper, we systematically investigate the electrical parameters and the time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) characteristics of positive channel metal oxide semiconductor (PMOS) under different MDMA process conditions, including the deposition/annealing (D&A) cycles, the D&A time, and the total annealing time. The results show that the increases of the number of D&A cycles (from 1 to 2) and D&A time (from 15 s to 30 s) can contribute to the results that the gate leakage current decreases by about one order of magnitude and that the time to fail (TTF) at 63.2% increases by about several times. However, too many D&A cycles (such as 4 cycles) make the equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) increase by about 1 Å and the TTF of PMOS worsen. Moreover, different D&A times and numbers of D&A cycles induce different breakdown mechanisms. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. SS2015AA010601) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61176091 and 61306129).

  11. Influence of Annealing Time and Thermo-Mechanical Cycling on Constrained Recovery Properties of a Cold-Worked NiTi Wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiaojun; Ge, Yuli; Van Humbeeck, Jan

    2017-02-01

    In this work, the influence of parameters such as annealing time, pre-strain and thermo-mechanical cycling on recovery stresses of NiTi wires has been investigated by using a dynamic mechanical analyzer. The results show that the maximum recovery stress decreases with increasing annealing time and increases with increasing pre-strain except for 60-min annealed sample with 4% pre-strain, which has a higher recovery stress than 45-min annealed sample with the same pre-strain. The recovery stresses drastically increase during the first two thermo-mechanical cycles for all samples, regardless of annealing time. The observed changes of recovery stress could be attributed to different transformation temperatures and mechanical properties induced by different annealing times and/or thermo-mechanical cycling.

  12. Effect of In Situ Annealing Treatment on the Mobility and Morphology of TIPS-Pentacene-Based Organic Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fuqiang; Wang, Xiaolin; Fan, Huidong; Tang, Ying; Yang, Jianjun; Yu, Junsheng

    2017-08-01

    In this work, organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with a bottom gate top contact structure were fabricated by using a spray-coating method, and the influence of in situ annealing treatment on the OFET performance was investigated. Compared to the conventional post-annealing method, the field-effect mobility of OFET with 60 °C in situ annealing treatment was enhanced nearly four times from 0.056 to 0.191 cm2/Vs. The surface morphologies and the crystallization of TIPS-pentacene films were characterized by optical microscope, atomic force microscope, and X-ray diffraction. We found that the increased mobility was mainly attributed to the improved crystallization and highly ordered TIPS-pentacene molecules.

  13. Effects of stress annealing in nitrogen on the effective contact-potential difference, charges, and traps at the Si/SiO2 interface of metal-oxide-semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przewlocki, Henryk M.; Massoud, Hisham Z.

    2002-08-01

    In this article, we report the results of a study of the effects of high-temperature stress annealing in nitrogen on the electrical properties of metal/oxide/semiconductor devices. In this study, we have experimentally characterized the dependence of the reduced effective contact-potential difference, the effective oxide charge (Neff), and the midgap interface trap density (Dit) on the annealing conditions in nitrogen. We have correlated such properties with the dependence of the index of refraction and oxide stress on the annealing conditions and oxide thickness in a companion article. We consider the contributions of the thermal-relaxation and nitrogen-incorporation processes in determining changes in the electrical properties with annealing time. This model description is consistent with other annealing studies carried out in argon where only the thermal-relaxation process is present.

  14. NEXAFS Study of the Annealing Effect on the Local Structure of FIB-CVD DLC

    SciTech Connect

    Saikubo, Akihiko; Kato, Yuri; Igaki, Jun-ya; Kanda, Kazuhiro; Matsui, Shinji; Kometani, Reo

    2007-01-19

    Annealing effect on the local structure of diamond like carbon (DLC) formed by focused ion beam-chemical vapor deposition (FIB-CVD) was investigated by the measurement of near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectra. Carbon K edge absorption NEXAFS spectrum of FIB-CVD DLC was measured in the energy range of 275-320 eV. In order to obtain the information on the location of the gallium in the depth direction, incidence angle dependence of NEXAFS spectrum was measured in the incident angle range from 0 deg. to 60 deg. . The peak intensity corresponding to the resonance transition of 1s{yields}{sigma}* originating from carbon-gallium increased from the FIB-CVD DLC annealed at 200 deg. C to the FIB-CVD DLC annealed at 400 deg. C and decreased from that at 400 deg. C to that at 600 deg. C. Especially, the intensity of this peak remarkably enhanced in the NEXAFS spectrum of the FIB-CVD DLC annealed at 400 deg. C at the incident angle of 60 deg. . On the contrary, the peak intensity corresponding to the resonance transition of 1s{yields}{pi}* originating from carbon double bonding of emission spectrum decreased from the FIB-CVD DLC annealed at 200 deg. C to that at 400 deg. C and increased from that at 400 deg. C to that at 600 deg. C. Gallium concentration in the FIB-CVD DLC decreased from {approx_equal}2.2% of the as-deposited FIB-CVD DLC to {approx_equal}1.5% of the FIB-CVD DLC annealed at 600 deg. C from the elementary analysis using EDX. Both experimental results indicated that gallium atom departed from FIB-CVD DLC by annealing at the temperature of 600 deg. C.

  15. Annealing Effects on Structure and Optical Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon Films Containing Silver.

    PubMed

    Meškinis, Šarūnas; Čiegis, Arvydas; Vasiliauskas, Andrius; Šlapikas, Kęstutis; Gudaitis, Rimantas; Yaremchuk, Iryna; Fitio, Volodymyr; Bobitski, Yaroslav; Tamulevičius, Sigitas

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, diamond-like carbon films with embedded Ag nanoparticles (DLC:Ag) were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. Structure of the films was investigated by Raman scattering spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopy was used to define thickness of DLC:Ag films as well as to study the surface morphology and size distribution of Ag nanoparticles. Optical absorbance and reflectance spectra of the films were studied in the 180-1100-nm range. Air annealing effects on structure and optical properties of the DLC:Ag were investigated. Annealing temperatures were varied in the 180-400 °C range. Changes of size and shape of the Ag nanoclusters took place due to agglomeration. It was found that air annealing of DLC:Ag films can result in graphitization following destruction of the DLC matrix. Additional activation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect in DLC:Ag films can be achieved by properly selecting annealing conditions. Annealing resulted in blueshift as well as significant narrowing of the plasmonic absorbance and reflectance peaks. Moreover, quadrupole surface plasmon resonance peaks appeared. Modeling of absorption spectra of the nanoclusters depending on the shape and surrounding media has been carried out.

  16. Effects of annealing on antiwear and antibacteria behaviors of TaN-Cu nanocomposite thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, J. H.; Cheng, M. K.; Chang, Y. K.; Li, C.; Chang, C. L.; Liu, P. C.

    2008-07-15

    TaN-Cu nanocomposite films were deposited by reactive cosputtering on Si and tool steel substrates. The films were then annealed using rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 400 deg. C for 2, 4, and 8 min, respectively, to induce the nucleation and growth of Cu particles in TaN matrix and on film surface. Field emission scanning electron microscopy was applied to characterize Cu nanoparticles emerged on the surface of TaN-Cu thin films. The effects of annealing on the antiwear and antibacterial properties of these films were studied. The results reveal that annealing by RTA can cause Cu nanoparticles to form on the TaN surface. Consequently, the tribological behaviors, as well as the antibacterial behavior may vary depending on particle size, particle distribution, and total exposed Cu amount. For the samples with large Cu particles, the reduction of averaged friction and wear rate is obvious. Apparently, it is due to the smeared Cu particles adhered onto the wear tracks. This Cu layer may act as a solid lubricant. From the antibacterial testing results, it is found that both Cu particle size and total exposed Cu amount are critical in making short-term antibacterial effect. Overall, all the annealed TaN-Cu samples can reach >99% antibacterial efficiency in 24 h, with respect to uncoated Si substrate.

  17. Effect of annealing process on the phase formation in poly(vinylidene fluoride) thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, Ibtisam Yahya; Yahaya, Muhammad; Jumali, Mohd Hafizuddin Haji; Shanshool, Haider Mohammed

    2014-09-03

    This work reports the initial study on the effect of annealing process on the crystalline phase of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) thin film. PVDF powder was dissolved in N,N-dimethylformamide before spin-coated onto a glass substrate to form a film. The films were annealed at 30°C, 90°C and 110°C for 5 hrs. The crystalline phase of the powder PVDF as received was investigated by using XRD and FTIR techniques. Moreover, the crystalline phases of thin films after annealing were investigated by using the same techniques. XRD analysis showed that in powder form PVDF exists in α-phase. Each annealed PVDF thin films exhibited identical formation of three-phases material namely γ (as major phase) while α and β phases as the minor phases. The FTIR analysis showed that the powder form of PVDF exists in α and β phases. FTIR measurement further confirmed the XRD results implying that the annealing process has no significant effect on the phase formation in PVDF films.

  18. Effect of annealing on ESR characteristics of zirconia nanopowders with different impurity compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, I. P.; Brik, A. B.; Bagmut, N. N.; Kalinichenko, A. M.; Bevz, V. V.; Vereshchak, V. G.; Yastrabik, L.

    2009-06-01

    An ESR study is performed for four groups of zirconia nanopowder samples: nominally pure ZrO2 powders (first group), zirconia samples with Y2O3 and Sc2O3 impurities (second group), samples with different amounts of Cr2O3 (third group), and samples containing both Y2O3 and Cr2O3 (fourth group). The effect of annealing on ESR signals due to Zr3+ ions (sample groups 1 and 2) and Cr5+ ions (groups 3 and 4) is studied. It is established that, although the Zr3+ and Cr5+ ions have similar ESP characteristics, the annealing exerts different effects on ESR signals of these ions. Annealing in the temperature range 200-900°C leads to a monotonic increase in the amount of Zr3+ ions. Interestingly, the annealing temperature at which Zr3+ ions begin to generate ESR signals is different for samples with different impurity compositions. Unlike the Zr3+ ions, the annealing curves of the ESR signals due to the Cr5+ ions pass through an extremum at T = 500-600°C.

  19. Effect of thermal annealing on electron spin relaxation of beryllium-doped In{sub 0.8}Ga{sub 0.2}As{sub 0.45}P{sub 0.55} bulk

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hao; Harasawa, Ryo; Yasue, Yuya; Aritake, Takanori; Jiang, Canyu; Tackeuchi, Atsushi; Ji, Lian; Lu, Shulong

    2016-08-15

    The effect of thermal annealing on the electron spin relaxation of beryllium-doped In{sub 0.8}Ga{sub 0.2}As{sub 0.45}P{sub 0.55} bulk was investigated by time-resolved spin-dependent pump and probe reflection measurement with a high time resolution of 200 fs. Three similar InGaAsP samples were examined one of which was annealed at 800 °C for 1 s, one was annealed at 700 °C for 1 s and the other was not annealed after crystal growth by molecular beam epitaxy. Although the carrier lifetimes of the 700 °C-annealed sample and the unannealed sample were similar, that of the 800 °C-annealed sample was extended to 11.6 (10.4) ns at 10 (300) K, which was more than two (four) times those of the other samples. However, interestingly the spin relaxation time of the 800 °C-annealed sample was found to be similar to those of the other two samples. Particularly at room temperature, the spin relaxation times are 143 ps, 147 ps, and 111 ps for the 800 °C-annealed sample, 700 °C-annealed sample, and the unannealed sample, respectively.

  20. Effects of stress annealing in nitrogen on the index of refraction of silicon dioxide layers in metal-oxide-semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoud, Hisham Z.; Przewlocki, Henryk M.

    2002-08-01

    In this article, we report the results of a study of the effects of high-temperature stress annealing in nitrogen on the index of refraction of SiO2 layers in metal/oxide/semiconductor (MOS) devices. In this study, we have experimentally characterized the dependence of mechanical stress in the Si-SiO2 system on the oxidation and annealing conditions and correlated such properties with the dependence of the index of refraction on processing conditions and oxide thickness. We consider the contributions of the thermal-relaxation and nitrogen-incorporation processes in determining changes in the index of refraction with annealing time. This description is consistent with other annealing studies carried out in argon where only the thermal-relaxation process is present. Correlations of these experimental observations with the electrical properties of the same MOS devices are presented in a companion article.

  1. Annealing effects on polycrystalline GaN using nitrogen and ammonia ambients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariff, A.; Zainal, N.; Hassan, Z.

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes effects of using post-annealing treatment in different conditions on the properties of polycrystalline GaN layer grown on m-plane sapphire substrate by electron beam (e-beam) evaporator. Without annealing, GaN surface was found to have a low RMS roughness with agglomeration of GaN grains in a specific direction and the sample consisted of gallium oxide (Ga2O3) material. When the post-annealing treatment was carried out in N2 ambient at 650 °C, initial re-crystallization of the GaN grains was observed while the evidence of Ga2O3 almost disappeared. As the NH3 annealing was conducted at 950 °C, more effect of re-crystallization occurred but with less grains coalescence. Three dominant XRD peaks of GaN in (10 1 bar 0) , (0002) and (10 1 bar 1) orientations were evident. Near band edge (NBE) related emission in GaN was also observed. The significant improvement was attributed to simultaneous recrystallization and effective reduction of N deficiency density. The post-annealing in a mixture of N2 and NH3 ambient at 950 °C was also conducted, but has limited the effectiveness of the N atoms to incorporate on the GaN layer due to 'clouding' effect by the inert N2 gas. Further increase in the annealing temperature at 980 °C and 1100 °C, respectively caused severe deteriorations of the structural and optical properties of the GaN layer. Overall, this work demonstrated initial potential in improving polycrystalline GaN material in simple and inexpensive manner.

  2. Thermal annealing effects on ultra-violet luminescence properties of Gd doped AlN

    SciTech Connect

    Kita, Takashi; Ishizu, Yuta; Tsuji, Kazuma; Harada, Yukihiro; Chigi, Yoshitaka; Nishimoto, Tetsuro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Mikihiro; Ishihara, Tsuguo; Izumi, Hirokazu

    2015-04-28

    We studied energy transfer from AlN to doped Gd{sup 3+} ions as a function of the post-thermal annealing temperature. Gd-doped AlN thin films were deposited on fused-silica substrates using a reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering technique. The film is a c-axis oriented polycrystal. The intra-orbital electron transition in Gd{sup 3+} showed an atomically sharp luminescence at 3.9 eV (318 nm). The photoluminescence (PL) excitation spectrum exhibited a resonant peak, indicating efficient energy transfer from the host AlN crystal to Gd{sup 3+} ions. The PL intensity increases approximately ten times by thermal annealing. The PL decay lifetime becomes long with annealing, and mid-gap luminescence relating to the crystal defects in AlN was also found to be reduced by annealing. These results suggest that energy dissipation of excited carriers in AlN was suppressed by annealing, and the efficiency of energy transfer into Gd{sup 3+} was improved.

  3. The annealing effect on structure, magnetoresistance and magnetic properties of Co/Bi/Co thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobiov, S. I.; Shutylieva, O. V.; Pazukha, I. M.; Chornous, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    Co/Bi/Co thin films were prepared by alternately sputtering at substrate temperature 460K. Their structure, magnetoresistance and magnetic properties were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), software-hardware complex with current-in-plane geometries, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The trilayer systems have been investigated as functions of the Bi layer thickness and temperature. The film structure in both as-deposited and annealed at 680K states is a granulated structure which consists of a Co magnetic matrix with embedded Bi granules. The film structure after annealing at 900K depends on Bi concentrations and changes from the fcc-Co+amorphous Bi to a fcc-Co+tetragonal phase of Bi2O3 of around 17 at.%. Magnetoresistance has demonstrated independence from annealing processes in the temperature range from 300 to 680K. Besides, the oscillation dependence of magnetoresistance with Bi thickness has been observed. The saturation and remanent magnetization are reduced with the increase of Bi thickness and increase with increasing the annealing temperature; the coercivity slightly depends on Bi thickness in as-deposited state and increases more than 10 times at t_{Bi}=30 nm after annealing at 680K.

  4. Thermal annealing effects on ultra-violet luminescence properties of Gd doped AlN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, Takashi; Ishizu, Yuta; Tsuji, Kazuma; Harada, Yukihiro; Chigi, Yoshitaka; Nishimoto, Tetsuro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Mikihiro; Ishihara, Tsuguo; Izumi, Hirokazu

    2015-04-01

    We studied energy transfer from AlN to doped Gd3+ ions as a function of the post-thermal annealing temperature. Gd-doped AlN thin films were deposited on fused-silica substrates using a reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering technique. The film is a c-axis oriented polycrystal. The intra-orbital electron transition in Gd3+ showed an atomically sharp luminescence at 3.9 eV (318 nm). The photoluminescence (PL) excitation spectrum exhibited a resonant peak, indicating efficient energy transfer from the host AlN crystal to Gd3+ ions. The PL intensity increases approximately ten times by thermal annealing. The PL decay lifetime becomes long with annealing, and mid-gap luminescence relating to the crystal defects in AlN was also found to be reduced by annealing. These results suggest that energy dissipation of excited carriers in AlN was suppressed by annealing, and the efficiency of energy transfer into Gd3+ was improved.

  5. The Effect of Hydrogen Annealing on the Impurity Content of Alumina-Forming Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    2000-01-01

    Previously, the effect of hydrogen annealing on increasing the adhesion of Al2O3 scales had been related to the effective desulfurization that occurred during this process. The simultaneous reduction of other impurities has now been re-examined for up to 20 impurity elements in the case of five different alloys (NiCrAl, FeCrAl, PWA 1480, Rene'142, and Rene'N5). Hydrogen annealing produced measurable reductions in elemental concentration for B, C, Na, Mg, P, K, Sr, or Sn in varying degrees for at least one and up to three of these alloys. No single element was reduced by hydrogen annealing for all the alloys except sulfur. In many cases spalling occurred at low levels of these other impurities, while in other cases the scales were adherent at high levels of the impurities. No impurity besides sulfur was strongly correlated with adhesion.

  6. Photo-annealing effect of gamma-irradiated erbium-doped fibre by femtosecond pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiung Chang, Sheng; Liu, Ren-Young; Lin, Chu-En; Chou, Fong-In; Tai, Chao-Yi; Chen, Chii-Chang

    2013-12-01

    In this work, a photo-annealing effect of gamma-irradiated erbium-doped glass fibre is investigated. Two commercial erbium-doped fibres (EDFs) with different doping concentrations were sealed inside a chamber with a cobalt-60 gamma source for 6 h to give an accumulated dose of 3.18 kGy. A tunable femtosecond pulsed laser with a repetition rate of 80 MHz was then used to pump EDF to generate 1550 nm fluorescence and green up-conversion emission, resulting in the annealing effect of the gamma-irradiated EDF. The fluorescence power of gamma-irradiated EDF with a moderate level of doping was almost returned to the initial state by photo-annealing, unlike that of a heavily doped EDF. This finding may facilitate the development of anti-irradiated superfluorescence fibre source for space navigation.

  7. Experimental signature of programmable quantum annealing.

    PubMed

    Boixo, Sergio; Albash, Tameem; Spedalieri, Federico M; Chancellor, Nicholas; Lidar, Daniel A

    2013-01-01

    Quantum annealing is a general strategy for solving difficult optimization problems with the aid of quantum adiabatic evolution. Both analytical and numerical evidence suggests that under idealized, closed system conditions, quantum annealing can outperform classical thermalization-based algorithms such as simulated annealing. Current engineered quantum annealing devices have a decoherence timescale which is orders of magnitude shorter than the adiabatic evolution time. Do they effectively perform classical thermalization when coupled to a decohering thermal environment? Here we present an experimental signature which is consistent with quantum annealing, and at the same time inconsistent with classical thermalization. Our experiment uses groups of eight superconducting flux qubits with programmable spin-spin couplings, embedded on a commercially available chip with >100 functional qubits. This suggests that programmable quantum devices, scalable with current superconducting technology, implement quantum annealing with a surprising robustness against noise and imperfections.

  8. The Effect of Annealing on the Elastic Modulus of Orthodontic Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higginbottom, Kyle

    Introduction: Nickel Titanium orthodontic wires are currently used in orthodontic treatment due to their heat activated properties and their delivery of constant force. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of annealing on the elastic modulus of Nickel Titanium, Stainless Steel and Beta-titanium (TMA) wires. Different points along the wire were tested in order to determine how far from the annealed ends the elastic modulus of the wires was affected. Methods: Eighty (80) orthodontic wires consisting of 4 equal groups (SS/TMA/Classic NitinolRTM/Super Elastic NitinolRTM) were used as the specimens for this study. All wires were measured and marked at 5mm measurements, and cut into 33.00mm sections. The wires were heated with a butane torch until the first 13.00mm of the wires were red hot. Load deflection tests using an InstronRTM universal testing machine were run at 5mm distances from the end of the wire that had been annealed. The change in elastic modulus was then determined. Results: There was a significant difference (F = 533.001, p = 0.0005) in the change in elastic modulus for the four distances. There was also a significant difference (F = 57.571, p = 0.0005) in the change in elastic modulus for the four wire types. There was a significant interaction (F = 19.601, p = 0.005) between wire type and distance, however this interaction negated the differences between the wires. Conclusion: 1) There are significant differences in the changes in elastic modulus between the areas of the wires within the annealed section and those areas 5mm and 10mm away from the annealed section. The change in elastic modulus within the annealed section was significantly greater at 8 mm than it was at 13mm, and this was significantly greater than 18mm and 23mm (5mm and 10mm beyond the annealed section). However, there was no statistical difference in the change in elastic modulus between 5mm and 10mm away from the annealed section (18mm and 23mm respectively). 2

  9. Effect of Thermal Annealing in Ammonia on the Properties of InGaN Nanowires with Different Indium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Cristopher; Cordones, Amy; Andrews, Sean; Gao, Hanwei; Fu, Anthony; Leone, Stephen; Yang, Peidong

    2012-10-02

    The utility of an annealing procedure in ammonia ambient is investigated for improving the optical characteristics of InxGa1?xN nanowires (0.07 ≤ x ≤ 0.42) grown on c-Al2O3 using a halide chemical vapor deposition method. Morphological studies using scanning electron microscopy confirm that the nanowire morphology is retained after annealing in ammonia at temperatures up to 800 ?C. However, significant indium etching and composition inhomogeneities are observed for higher indium composition nanowires (x = 0.28, 0.42), as measured by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy. Structural analyses, using X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, indicate that this is a result of the greater thermal instability of higher indium composition nanowires. The effect of these structural changes on the optical quality of InGaN nanowires is examined using steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. Annealing in ammonia enhances the integrated photoluminescence intensity of InxGa1?xN nanowires by up to a factor of 4.11 ? 0.03 (for x = 0.42) by increasing the rate of radiative recombination. Fitting of photoluminescence decay curves to a Kohlrausch stretched exponential indicates that this increase is directly related to a larger distribution of recombination rates from composition inhomogeneities caused by annealing. The results demonstrate the role of thermal instability on the improved optical properties of InGaN nanowires annealed in ammonia.

  10. High-fluence Ga-implanted silicon—The effect of annealing and cover layers

    SciTech Connect

    Fiedler, J. Heera, V.; Hübner, R.; Voelskow, M.; Germer, S.; Schmidt, B.; Skorupa, W.

    2014-07-14

    The influence of SiO{sub 2} and SiN{sub x} cover layers on the dopant distribution as well as microstructure of high fluence Ga implanted Si after thermal processing is investigated. The annealing temperature determines the layer microstructure and the cover layers influence the obtained Ga profile. Rapid thermal annealing at temperatures up to 750 °C leads to a polycrystalline layer structure containing amorphous Ga-rich precipitates. Already after a short 20 ms flash lamp annealing, a Ga-rich interface layer is observed for implantation through the cover layers. This effect can partly be suppressed by annealing temperatures of at least 900 °C. However, in this case, Ga accumulates in larger, cone-like precipitates without disturbing the surrounding Si lattice parameters. Such a Ga-rich crystalline Si phase does not exist in the equilibrium phase diagram according to which the Ga solubility in Si is less than 0.1 at. %. The Ga-rich areas are capped with SiO{sub x} grown during annealing which only can be avoided by the usage of SiN{sub x} cover layers.

  11. Effect of external electric field on morphology of copper phthalocyanine-fullerene blended films during annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parhi, Anukul Prasad; Iyer, S. Sundar Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The thin-film morphology and segregated phases of constituents in blends of organic semiconductors play an important role in determining the performance of devices fabricated with these constituents. In this study, we explored the effect of an external electric field applied during annealing on the morphology and phase of blended films of two popular organic semiconductors, copper pthalocyanine (CuPc) and buckminsterfullerene (C60). Films of different blend ratios annealed at various temperatures in both the presence and absence of an electric field were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. The characteristics of annealed pristine CuPc films were also included for comparison. The observed changes in the properties of the blended films following the annealing, including the abrupt phase segregation of the blended constituents in the films, are discussed. The polarizability of the molecules was calculated using density functional theory (DFT) to explain the interaction, stacking, and segregation of the molecules in the blend. The results showed that application of an electric field during annealing of the blended films is an additional control parameter that can help tune the properties of the blended film. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Effect of annealing ambient on SnO2 thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D. M., Priyadarshini; Mannam, Ramanjaneyulu; Rao, M. S. Ramachandra; DasGupta, Nandita

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the effect of annealing ambient on SnO2 thin film transistors (TFTs) is presented. Phase pure SnO2 films have been deposited using solution processed spin coating technique with SnCl2 as the precursor material. The films are annealed at 500 °C for 1 h in different annealing ambient conditions with varying N2:O2 ratio. Top gate, bottom contact TFTs have been fabricated with SnO2 as the channel layer, silicon as the gate, silicon dioxide as the dielectric and gold as the contact material. XRD patterns reveal the amorphous nature of films. AFM image shows that the spin coated films are pin-hole free with extremely smooth surface morphology. PL and XPS measurements reveal that with increase in N2% during annealing, the defects in the films increase. However, with increase in nitrogen concentration, the device performance improves, the threshold voltage shifts towards lower values and mobility increases, but very high N2% is not suitable for device operation, a 70% N2 + 30% O2 annealing ambient is found to be suitable with devices showing saturation mobility of 0.23 cm2V-1s-1 and threshold voltage of 6.8 V and on/off ratio of 106.

  13. Effects of Thermal Annealing on the Formation of Buried β-SiC by Ion Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poudel, P. R.; Rout, B.; Diercks, D. R.; Paramo, J. A.; Strzhemechny, Y. M.; McDaniel, F. D.

    2011-09-01

    A systematic study of the formation of buried β-SiC structures by carbon ion implantation into Si followed by high-temperature thermal annealing has been carried out. A high fluence of carbon ions (8 × 1017 atoms/cm2) was implanted at 65 keV energy. Formation of the crystalline β-SiC phase was monitored by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The implanted samples were annealed at 900°C and 1100°C to observe the effects of annealing temperature on the formation of crystalline β-SiC. Formation of crystalline β-SiC was clearly observed in the sample annealed at 1100°C in a flowing nitrogen environment for a period of 1 h. Graphitic carbon clusters were observed at the implanted carbon profile peak position by XPS depth profile measurements. Various structural defects such as grain boundaries were also visualized in the annealed sample by high-resolution TEM.

  14. Effect of Post Deposition Annealing Treatments on Properties of AZO Thin Films for Schottky Diode Applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shaivalini; Park, Si-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    High-quality aluminum (Al) doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were deposited on silicon substrates by RF sputtering at room temperature. The deposited films were annealed from the temperatures 350 °C to 650 °C in pure nitrogen (N₂) ambient. The effects of annealing on the microstructural, optical and electrical properties of the AZO films were investigated. A detailed analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Four Probe and Hall measurements was performed to study the properties of these AZO thin films. It was observed that all of the as-deposited and annealed AZO films have homogenous surfaces and hexagonal wurtzite structures with good crystalline quality. The study also suggested that there was an intermediate post annealing temperature (450 °C) at which the deposited ZnO film exhibit best surface characteristics. Pd/AZO Schottky devices were fabricated with 450 °C annealed AZO thin films and the parameters of Schottky devices were extracted from I-V characteristics. These results indicated that the Pd/AZO films were very much suitable for various optoelectronics applications particularly for metal semiconductor metal based UV detector application.

  15. Isothermal anneal effect on microcrack density around leucite particles in dental porcelain.

    PubMed

    Mackert, J R; Rueggeberg, F A; Lockwood, P E; Evans, A L; Thompson, W O

    1994-06-01

    Because of the large differential in thermal expansion coefficient between leucite and the surrounding glass matrix, microcracks form around the leucite crystallites during the manufacture of dental porcelain frits. These microcracks decouple leucite from the surrounding glass matrix and affect the bulk thermal expansion of the porcelain frit (Binns, 1983). The purpose of this study was to determine if the microcrack density in a dental porcelain decreased as a result of isothermal heat treatment. Ten specimens of a commercial dental porcelain that had previously exhibited an increase in thermal expansion as a function of isothermal heat treatment were prepared and divided into two groups. The experimental group was heated to 750 degrees C and held for 16 minutes at that temperature. The control group received no anneal. The mean microcrack densities were determined by quantitative stereology to be 575 cm2/cm3 +/- 75 cm2/cm3 (mean +/- SEM) for the control group (no anneal) and 231 cm2/cm3 +/- 25 cm2/cm3 for the experimental group (16-minute anneal at 750 degrees C). The specimens annealed at 750 degrees C had a significantly lower microcrack density (p < 0.001) than those that received no anneal. A model was developed to estimate the effect of microcracking on thermal expansion of the porcelain, and a 6% increase in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the porcelain was predicted from this model as a result of this decrease in microcrack density.

  16. Investigation of annealing temperature effect on magnetron sputtered cadmium sulfide thin film properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbarnejad, E.; Ghorannevis, Z.; Abbasi, F.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2017-03-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films are deposited on the fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrate using the radio frequency magnetron sputtering setup. The effects of annealing in air on the structural, morphological, and optical properties of CdS thin film are studied. Optimal annealing temperature is investigated by annealing the CdS thin film at different annealing temperatures of 300, 400, and 500 °C. Thin films of CdS are characterized by X-ray diffractometer analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer and four point probe. The as-grown CdS films are found to be polycrystalline in nature with a mixture of cubic and hexagonal phases. By increasing the annealing temperature to 500 °C, CdS film showed cubic phase, indicating the phase transition of CdS. It is found from physical characterizations that the heat treatment in air increased the mean grain size, the transmission, and the surface roughness of the CdS thin film, which are desired to the application in solar cells as a window layer material.

  17. Investigation of annealing temperature effect on magnetron sputtered cadmium sulfide thin film properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbarnejad, E.; Ghorannevis, Z.; Abbasi, F.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2016-12-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films are deposited on the fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrate using the radio frequency magnetron sputtering setup. The effects of annealing in air on the structural, morphological, and optical properties of CdS thin film are studied. Optimal annealing temperature is investigated by annealing the CdS thin film at different annealing temperatures of 300, 400, and 500 °C. Thin films of CdS are characterized by X-ray diffractometer analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer and four point probe. The as-grown CdS films are found to be polycrystalline in nature with a mixture of cubic and hexagonal phases. By increasing the annealing temperature to 500 °C, CdS film showed cubic phase, indicating the phase transition of CdS. It is found from physical characterizations that the heat treatment in air increased the mean grain size, the transmission, and the surface roughness of the CdS thin film, which are desired to the application in solar cells as a window layer material.

  18. Effects of rapid thermal annealing conditions on GaInNAs band gap blueshift and photoluminescence intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Liverini, V.; Rutz, A.; Keller, U.; Schoen, S.

    2006-06-01

    We have studied the effects of various conditions of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on 10 nm GaInNAs/GaAs single quantum wells (SQWs) with fixed indium concentration and increasing nitrogen content to obtain photoluminescence (PL) in the telecom wavelength regime of 1.3 and 1.5 {mu}m. Specifically, we analyzed the results of annealing for a fixed short time but at different temperatures and for longer times at a fixed temperature. In all experiments, InGaAs SQWs with the same In concentration were used as references. For both RTA conditions, the well-known blueshift of the band gap energy and the PL intensity improvement show trends that reveal that these are unrelated effects. At high RTA temperatures the PL efficiency reaches a maximum and then drops independently of N content. On the contrary, the blueshift experiences a rapid increase up to 700 deg. C (strong blueshift regime) and it saturates above this temperature (weak blueshift regime). Both these blueshift regimes are related to the nitrogen content in the SQWs but in different ways. In the strong blueshift regime, we could obtain activation energy for the blueshift process in the range of 1.25 eV, which increases with N content. Analysis with high-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) shows that the blueshift experienced in this regime is not due to a stoichiometric change in the QW. In the weak blueshift regime, the blueshift, which is only partly due to In outdiffusion, saturates more slowly the higher the N content. Annealing at the same temperature (600 deg. C) for a longer time shows that the blueshift saturates earlier than the PL intensity and that samples with higher nitrogen experience a larger blueshift. Only a small In outdiffusion for annealing at high temperatures (>650 deg. C) and long duration was observed. However, this modest stoichiometric change does not explain the large blueshift experienced by the GaInNAs SQWs. We conclude that the mechanism responsible for the drastic blueshift after

  19. Through-vial impedance spectroscopy of the mechanisms of annealing in the freeze-drying of maltodextrin: the impact of annealing hold time and temperature on the primary drying rate.

    PubMed

    Smith, Geoff; Arshad, Muhammad Sohail; Polygalov, Eugene; Ermolina, Irina

    2014-06-01

    The study aims to investigate the impact of annealing hold time and temperature on the primary drying rate/duration of a 10% (w/v) solution of maltodextrin with an emphasis on how the mechanisms of annealing might be understood from the in-vial measurements of the ice crystal growth and the glass transition. The electrical impedance of the solution within a modified glass vial was recorded between 10 and 10(6) Hz during freeze-drying cycles with varying annealing hold times (1-5 h) and temperatures. Primary drying times decreased by 7%, 27% and 34% (1.1, 4.3 and 5.5 h) with the inclusion of an annealing step at temperatures of -15°C, -10°C and -5°C, respectively. The glass transition was recorded at approximately -16°C during the re-heating and re-cooling steps, which is close to the glass transition (Tg ') reported for 10% (w/v) maltodextrin and therefore indicates that a maximum freeze concentration (∼86%, w/w, from the Gordon-Taylor equation) was achieved during first freezing, with no further ice being formed on annealing. This observation, coupled to the decrease in electrical resistance that was observed during the annealing hold time, suggests that the reduction in the drying time was because of improved connectivity of ice crystals because of Ostwald ripening rather than devitrification.

  20. MoO3 Thickness, Thermal Annealing and Solvent Annealing Effects on Inverted and Direct Polymer Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chambon, Sylvain; Derue, Lionel; Lahaye, Michel; Pavageau, Bertrand; Hirsch, Lionel; Wantz, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    Several parameters of the fabrication process of inverted polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells based on titanium oxide as an electron selective layer and molybdenum oxide as a hole selective layer were tested in order to achieve efficient organic photovoltaic solar cells. Thermal annealing treatment is a common process to achieve optimum morphology, but it proved to be damageable for the performance of this kind of inverted solar cells. We demonstrate using Auger analysis combined with argon etching that diffusion of species occurs from the MoO3/Ag top layers into the active layer upon thermal annealing. In order to achieve efficient devices, the morphology of the bulk heterojunction was then manipulated using the solvent annealing technique as an alternative to thermal annealing. The influence of the MoO3 thickness was studied on inverted, as well as direct, structure. It appeared that only 1 nm-thick MoO3 is enough to exhibit highly efficient devices (PCE = 3.8%) and that increasing the thickness up to 15 nm does not change the device performance.

  1. The effects of annealing temperature on CIGS solar cells by sputtering from quaternary target with Se-free post annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leng; Zhuang, Daming; Zhao, Ming; Gong, Qianming; Guo, Li; Ouyang, Liangqi; Sun, Rujun; Wei, Yaowei; Zhan, Shilu

    2017-08-01

    For the two-step method of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) fabrication process in which the selenization step follows the CIGS precursors deposition step, H2Se gas is employed as the selenium source, which may lead to an inhomogeneous gas field and potentially hazardous working condition. In this paper, a method based on sputtering a Se-rich target to deposit CIGS precursor with subsequent annealing in selenium-free atmosphere to obtain CIGS absorber has been proposed. The influence of the annealing temperature on CIGS films and devices has been investigated. It is found that the grain growth of CIGS films is enhanced by the increase of the annealing temperature ranged from 450 °C to 525 °C, which results in the increase of the short circuit current and efficiency of the solar cell. The devices with absorber layers annealed at 525 °C exhibited the best efficiency of 11.8%. However, when the temperature increases further, amount of selenium vacancies appear which might result in the enhancement of recombination rate of free carriers and reduction of the conversion efficiency. Finally, Ohmic contact between Mo and CIGS is found to form for the devices by this method.

  2. Effect on structural, optical and electrical properties of aluminum-doped zinc oxide films using diode laser annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Wen-Tse; Tseng, Shih-Feng; Chung, Chien-Kai; Chiang, Donyau; Huang, Kuo-Cheng; Lin, Keh-Moh; Li, Liang-Yan; Chen, Ming-Fei

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the laser annealing characteristics of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films using a diode laser source (808 nm) combined with moving stage with varying parameters, including laser fluence and speed of moving stage in air atmosphere. The commercial AZO thin films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering on glass substrates. The films characteristics were systematically analyzed using a field emission scanning electron microscope, an atomic force microscope (AFM), an X-ray diffraction (XRD) equipment, an ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectrophotometer, a four points probe instrument, and a Hall effect measurement system. The experimental results indicate that varying the laser fluence and annealing speed affected the optical, electrical, and structural characteristics of the AZO films. After annealing, approximately 90% of transmittance spectra exhibited slight changes in the visible region. All resistivity values of the laser-annealed AZO films decreased substantially from 4×10-2 Ω cm to 2.8×10-2 Ω cm. The absorption band edge moved toward shorter or longer wavelengths, depending on the annealing laser fluence and annealing speed. The optical energy band gap of the annealed AZO films increased because the carrier concentration of the annealed AZO films increased. The grain size increased in conjunction with the annealing speed. The AFM-derived root mean square (RMS) values decreased as the annealing speed increased, and the corresponding RMS values ranged from 1.4 to 1.9 nm.

  3. Effect of annealing atmosphere on phase formation and electrical characteristics of bismuth ferrite thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Simoes, A.Z.; Riccardi, C.S.; Dos Santos, M.L.; Garcia, F. Gonzalez; Longo, E.; Varela, J.A.

    2009-08-05

    Bismuth ferrite thin films were deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates by a soft chemical method and spin-coating technique. The effect of annealing atmosphere (air, N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}) on the structure and electrical properties of the films are reported. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the film annealed in air atmosphere is a single-phase perovskite structure. The films annealed in air showed better crystallinity and the presence of a single BFO phase leading to lower leakage current density and superior ferroelectric hysteresis loops at room temperature. In this way, we reveal that BFO film crystallized in air atmosphere by the soft chemical method can be useful for practical applications, including nonvolatile digital memories, spintronics and data-storage media.

  4. The effect of thermal annealing on pentacene thin film transistor with micro contact printing.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hong-Sik; Yun, Ho-Jin; Baek, Kyu-Ha; Ham, Yong-Hyun; Park, Kun-Sik; Kim, Dong-Pyo; Lee, Ga-Won; Lee, Hi-Deok; Lee, Kijun; Do, Lee-Mi

    2012-07-01

    We used micro contact printing (micro-CP) to fabricate inverted coplanar pentacene thin film transistors (TFTs) with 1-microm channels. The patterning of micro-scale source/drain electrodes without etch process was successfully achieved using Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer stamp. We used the Ag nano particle ink as an electrode material, and the sheet resistance and surface roughness of the Ag electrodes were effectively reduced with the 2-step thermal annealing on a hotplate, which improved the mobility, the on-off ratio, and the subthreshold slope (SS) of the pentacene TFTs. In addition, the device annealing on a hotplate in a N2 atmosphere for 30 sec can enhance the off-current and the mobility properties of OTFTs without damaging the pentacene thin films and increase the adhesion between pentacene and dielectric layer (SiO2), which was investigated with the pentacene films phase change of the XRD spectrum after device annealing.

  5. Heating rate effects during non-isothermal annealing of AIK steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahay, Satyam S.; Joshi, Kishor B.

    2003-04-01

    The effects of heating rate on microstructural size and shape parameters during annealing of cold rolled aluminum killed steel strips have been examined under non-isothermal condition. It is shown that decrease in the heating rate results in accelerated grain growth behavior compared with the prediction by quasi-isothermal based kinetics. The {111} and {112} crystallographic orientations, which enhance the normal anisotropy and deep drawability of cold rolled annealed sheets, are found to exhibit a strong correlation with the grain shape anisotropy. This grain shape anisotropy itself is strongly dependent on heating rates. Lower heating rates result in higher aspect ratios and thus better drawability of the cold rolled sheets. A Hall-Petch type relationship is observed between grain size and hardness of the annealed samples.

  6. Annealing effect on planar waveguides in LiNbO 3 produced by oxygen ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiu-Hong; Huang, Qing; Zhao, Jin-Hua; Liu, Peng; Wang, Xue-Lin; Du, Ji-Fu; Huang, Ning-Kang

    2011-01-01

    We reported on planar waveguides in stoichiometric lithium niobate fabricated by 4.5 MeV oxygen ion implantation with a dose of 6 × 10 14 ions/cm 2 at room temperature. After ion implantation, these samples were annealed at 240 °C, 260 °C, and 300 °C for 30 min. We investigated annealing effect on the guiding modes and near-field images in the waveguides by prism-coupling method and end-face coupling method respectively. We found that for the extraordinary refractive index a positive alternation occurred in the near-surface region while a negative alternation happened at the end of ion track. Moreover, we measured the transmission spectra for the pure sample and implanted samples before and after annealed at different temperatures, and we observed an absorption peak at ˜480 nm (2.6 eV) in all of these SLN samples.

  7. Effect of annealing on the laser induced damage of polished and CO{sub 2} laser-processed fused silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Doualle, T.; Gallais, L.; Cormont, P.; Donval, T.; Lamaignère, L.; Rullier, J. L.

    2016-06-07

    We investigate the effect of different heat treatments on the laser-induced damage probabilities of fused silica samples. Isothermal annealing in a furnace is applied, with different temperatures in the range 700–1100 °C and 12 h annealing time, to super-polished fused silica samples. The surface flatness and laser damage probabilities at 3 ns, 351 nm are measured before and after the different annealing procedures. We have found a significant improvement of the initial laser damage probabilities of the silica surface after annealing at 1050 °C for 12 h. A similar study has been conducted on CO{sub 2} laser-processed sites on the surface of the samples. Before and after annealing, we have studied the morphology of the sites, the evolution of residual stress, and the laser-induced damage threshold measured at 351 nm, 3 ns. In this case, we observe that the laser damage resistance of the laser created craters can reach the damage level of the bare fused silica surface after the annealing process, with a complete stress relieve. The obtained results are then compared to the case of local annealing process by CO{sub 2} laser irradiation during 1 s, and we found similar improvements in both cases. The different results obtained in the study are compared to numerical simulations made with a thermo-mechanical model based on finite-element method that allows the simulation of the isothermal or the local annealing process, the evolution of stress and fictive temperature. The simulation results were found to be very consistent with experimental observations for the stresses evolution after annealing and estimation of the heat affected area during laser-processing based on the density dependence with fictive temperature. Following this work, the temperature for local annealing should reach 1330–1470 °C for an optimized reduction of damage probability and be below the threshold for material removal, whereas furnace annealing should be kept below the

  8. Effect of annealing on the electrical properties of thallium-doped PbTe single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmedova, G. A. Abdinova, G. J.; Abdinov, J. Sh.

    2011-02-15

    It is found that electrical parameters of PbTe single crystals, the character of the dependences of these parameters on temperature and Tl impurity concentration, and the conductivity type (signs of {alpha} and R) are governed to a great extent by the temperature of preliminary annealing. The cause of this effect is that the concentration of doubly charged vacancies in the tellurium sublattice increases with an increase in the annealing temperature, as a result of which the formation of electrically neutral or singly charged complexes of impurity-vacancy type becomes more likely.

  9. Relationship among grain size, annealing twins and shape memory effect in Fe-Mn-Si based shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaixia; Peng, Huabei; Zhang, Chengyan; Wang, Shanling; Wen, Yuhua

    2016-07-01

    In order to clarify the relationship among grain size, annealing twins and the shape memory effect in Fe-Mn-Si based shape memory alloys, the Fe-21.63Mn-5.60Si-9.32Cr-5.38Ni (weight %) alloy with a grain size ranging from 48.9 μm-253.6 μm was obtained by adjusting the heating temperature or heating time after 20% cold-rolling. The densities of grain boundaries and annealing twins increase with a decrease in grain size, whereas the volume fraction and width of stress-induced ɛ martensite after 9% deformation at Ms + 10 K decrease. This result indicates that grain refinement raises the constraint effects of grain boundaries and annealing twins upon martensitic transformation. In this case, the ability to suppress the plastic deformation and facilitate the stress-induced ɛ martensite transformation deteriorates after grain refinement owing to the enhancement of the constraint effects. It is demonstrated by the result that the difference at Ms + 10 K between the critical stress for plastic yielding and that for inducing martensitic transformation is smaller for the specimen with a grain size of 48.9 μm than for the specimen with a grain size of 253.6 μm. Therefore, the shape memory effect declined by decreasing the grain size.

  10. Exploratory Study of Irradiation, Annealing, and Reirradiation Effects on American and Russian Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Chernobaeva, A.A., Kryukov, A.M., Nikolaev, Y.A., Korolev, Y.N. , Sokolov, M.A., Nanstad, R.K.

    1997-12-31

    One of the options to mitigate the effects of irradiation on reactor pressure vessels (RPVS) is to thermally anneal them to restore the toughness properties that have been degraded by neutron irradiation. even though a postirradiation anneal may be deemed successful, a critical aspect of continued RPV operation is the rate of embrittlement upon reirradiation. There are insufficient data available to allow for verification models of reirradiation embrittlement or for the development of a reliable predictive methodology. This is especially true in the case of fracture toughness data. Under the U.S.-Russia Joint Coordinating Committee for Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety (JCCCNRS), Working Group 3 on Radiation Embrittlement, Structural Integrity, and Life Extension of Reactor Vessels and Supports agreed to conduct a comparative study of annealing and reirradiation effects on RPV steels. The working group agreed that each side would irradiate, anneal, reirradiate (if feasible), and test two materials of the other; so far, only charpy impact and tensile specimens have been included. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ornl) conducted such a program (irradiation and annealing) with two weld metals representative of VVER-440 AND VVER-1000 RPVS, while the Russian Research Center-Kurchatov Institute (RRC-KI) conducted a program (irradiation,annealing, reirradiation, and reannealing) with Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) program plate 02 and Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) program weld 73w. The results for each material from each laboratory are compared with those from the other laboratory. the ORNL experiments with the VVER welds included irradiation to about 1 x 10 (exp 19) N/SQ CM ({gt}1 MeV), while the RRC-KI experiments with the U.S. materials included irradiations from about 2 to 18 X 10 (exp 19) N/SQ CM ({gt}1 MeV).

  11. Effect of annealing temperature on structure and electrical properties of topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Urkude, R. R. Palikundwar, U. A.

    2016-05-06

    Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} samples were prepared by precipitation method. The samples were annealed in evacuated quartz tubes and were treated at different temperature for different duration of time. Effects of annealing temperature and time on the structure of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} were studied in detail. The Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} samples annealed at temperature 300°C and 450°C for 48Hrs, 72Hrs and 96Hrs were selected for the present study. The structure of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and related phases were investigated by the X-ray powder diffraction technique. Morphology and chemical compositions of the samples were investigated by scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy respectively. All the samples were indexed in rhombohedral crystal structure, with a space group R-3m. The structure consists of repeated quintuple layers of atoms, Te2-Bi-Te1-Bi-Te2 stacking along the z-axis of the unit cell. Electrical properties of the sample annealed at 300°C for 96Hrs was evaluated by measurements of the electrical resistivity and magnetoresistance. The magnetoresistance data at low temperature (1.5 to 50 K) were analyzed to investigate weak antilocalization (WAL) effect. MR data followed the Hikami–Larkin–Nagaoka (HLN) equation with a fit parameter α close to −1 as expected for topological surface states at 1.5 K, but for other temperatures the small oscillations were observed which may be due to the phenomena like Shubnikov-de Hass effect.

  12. Effect of post-annealing on the plasma etching of graphene-coated-copper.

    PubMed

    Hui, L S; Whiteway, E; Hilke, M; Turak, A

    2014-01-01

    High temperature deposition of graphene on Cu by chemical vapor deposition can be used to produce high quality films. However, these films tend to have a non-equilibrium structure, with relatively low graphene adhesion. In this study, samples of graphene grown on copper foils by high temperature CVD were post-deposition annealed at temperatures well below the critical temperature of Cu. Resistance to etching under plasma was examined to assess the mechanical robustness of the graphene on the Cu surface, analyzed using optical and Raman microscopies. We found a correlation between the post-annealing time and etching time for the complete removal of graphene from Cu. Etching rates, minimum etch times, and surface appearance were observed to vary depending on the etching plasma (air, oxygen or nitrogen). Oxygen plasmas were found to be the least aggressive, emphasizing the improved adhesion with post-annealing treatments. Our results imply that the etching of graphene on Cu, and hence the adhesion of graphene, can be controlled by proper annealing and choice of plasma gas.

  13. Effects of a modular two-step ozone-water and annealing process on silicon carbide graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Matthew J. Lundstedt, Anna; Grennberg, Helena; Polley, Craig; Niu, Yuran; Zakharov, Alexei A.; Balasubramanian, Thiagarajan; Dirscherl, Kai; Burwell, Gregory; Guy, Owen J.; Palmgren, Pål; Yakimova, Rositsa

    2014-08-25

    By combining ozone and water, the effect of exposing epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide to an aggressive wet-chemical process has been evaluated after high temperature annealing in ultra high vacuum. The decomposition of ozone in water produces a number of oxidizing species, however, despite long exposure times to the aqueous-ozone environment, no graphene oxide was observed after the two-step process. The systems were comprehensively characterized before and after processing using Raman spectroscopy, core level photoemission spectroscopy, and angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy together with low energy electron diffraction, low energy electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. In spite of the chemical potential of the aqueous-ozone reaction environment, the graphene domains were largely unaffected raising the prospect of employing such simple chemical and annealing protocols to clean or prepare epitaxial graphene surfaces.

  14. Photo annealing effect on p-doped inverted organic solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafalce, Evan; Toglia, Patrick; Lewis, Jason E.; Jiang, Xiaomei

    2014-06-01

    We report the transient positive photo annealing effect in which over 600% boost of power conversion efficiency was observed in inverted organic photovoltaic devices (OPV) made from P3HT/PCBM by spray method, after 2 hrs of constant solar AM 1.5 irradiation at low temperature. This is opposite to usual photodegradation of OPV, and cannot be explained by thermal activation alone since the mere temperature effect could only account for 30% of the enhancement. We have investigated the temperature dependence, cell geometry, oxygen influence, and conclude that, for p-doped active layer at room temperature, the predominant mechanism is photo-desorption of O2, which eliminates electron traps and reduces space charge screening. As temperature decreases, thermal activation and deep trap-state filling start to show noticeable effect on the enhancement of photocurrent at intermediate low temperature (T = 125 K). At very low temperature, the dominant mechanism for photo annealing is trap-filling, which significantly reduces recombination between free and trapped carriers. At all temperature, photo annealing effect depends on illumination direction from cathode or anode. We also explained the large fluctuation of photocurrent by the capture/reemit of trapped electrons from shallow electron traps of O2- generated by photo-doping. Our study has demonstrated the dynamic process of photo-doping and photo-desorption, and shown that photo annealing in vacuum can be an efficient method to improve OPV device efficiency.

  15. Photo annealing effect on p-doped inverted organic solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Lafalce, Evan; Toglia, Patrick; Lewis, Jason E.; Jiang, Xiaomei

    2014-06-28

    We report the transient positive photo annealing effect in which over 600% boost of power conversion efficiency was observed in inverted organic photovoltaic devices (OPV) made from P3HT/PCBM by spray method, after 2 hrs of constant solar AM 1.5 irradiation at low temperature. This is opposite to usual photodegradation of OPV, and cannot be explained by thermal activation alone since the mere temperature effect could only account for 30% of the enhancement. We have investigated the temperature dependence, cell geometry, oxygen influence, and conclude that, for p-doped active layer at room temperature, the predominant mechanism is photo-desorption of O{sub 2}, which eliminates electron traps and reduces space charge screening. As temperature decreases, thermal activation and deep trap-state filling start to show noticeable effect on the enhancement of photocurrent at intermediate low temperature (T = 125 K). At very low temperature, the dominant mechanism for photo annealing is trap-filling, which significantly reduces recombination between free and trapped carriers. At all temperature, photo annealing effect depends on illumination direction from cathode or anode. We also explained the large fluctuation of photocurrent by the capture/reemit of trapped electrons from shallow electron traps of O{sub 2}{sup -} generated by photo-doping. Our study has demonstrated the dynamic process of photo-doping and photo-desorption, and shown that photo annealing in vacuum can be an efficient method to improve OPV device efficiency.

  16. Effect of thermal annealing on the thermoluminescent properties of nano-calcium fluoride and its dose-response characteristics.

    PubMed

    Mundupuzhakal, J K; Biswas, R H; Chauhan, S; Varma, V; Acharya, Y B; Chakrabarty, B S

    2015-12-01

    Nano-CaF2, prepared by the co-precipitation method, was annealed under different annealing conditions to improve its thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics. Different annealing parameters, such as temperature (400-700°C), duration (1-4 h) and environment (vacuum and air), were explored. The effect on TL sensitivity, peak position (Tm) and full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) with respect to the different annealing conditions are discussed as they are the measure of crystallinity of the material. Annealing temperature of 500°C with annealing duration of two and a half hours in vacuum provided the highest luminescence response (i.e. maximum sensitivity, minimum peak temperature and FWHM). Wide detectable dose range (5 mGy to 2 kGy), absence of thermal quenching and sufficient activation energy (1.04 eV) of this phosphor make it suitable for dosimetric applications.

  17. Numerical analysis on effect of annealing mc-Si ingot grown by DS process for PV application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravindan, G.; Srinivasan, M.; Aravinth, K.; Ramasamy, P.

    2017-10-01

    Silicon solar cells play a crucial role in Photo voltaic (PV) application. We have numerically investigated thermal stress and normal stress components (Sigma 11, Sigma 22, Sigma 33 and sigma 12) by using finite volume method. The maximum thermal stress has low value at the centre region for 900 K and 700 K annealing temperatures comparing all the cases. The maximum thermal stress at peripheral region is low for 700 K annealing compared to 900 K annealing. The annealing effect of mc-Si ingot normal stress components is discussed. At 700 K annealing temperature the normal stress in 11 and 33 direction has lower maximum and at the 900 K annealing temperature the normal stress in 22 and 12 direction has lower maximum.

  18. CrCuAgN PVD nanocomposite coatings: Effects of annealing on coating morphology and nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xingguang; Iamvasant, Chanon; Liu, Chang; Matthews, Allan; Leyland, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    CrCuAgN PVD nanocomposite coatings were produced using pulsed DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering. This investigation focuses on the effects of post-coat annealing on the surface morphology, phase composition and nanostructure of such coatings. In coatings with nitrogen contents up to 16 at.%, chromium exists as metallic Cr with N in supersaturated solid solution, even after 300 °C and 500 °C post-coat annealing. Annealing at 300 °C did not obviously change the phase composition of both nitrogen-free and nitrogen-containing coatings; however, 500 °C annealing resulted in significant transformation of the nitrogen-containing coatings. The formation of Ag aggregates relates to the (Cu + Ag)/Cr atomic ratio (threshold around 0.2), whereas the formation of Cu aggregates relates to the (Cu + Ag + N)/Cr atomic ratio (threshold around 0.5). The primary annealing-induced changes were reduced solubility of Cu, Ag and N in Cr, and the composition altering from a mixed ultra-fine nanocrystalline and partly amorphous phase constitution to a coarser, but still largely nanocrystalline structure. It was also found that, with sufficient Cu content (>12 at.%), annealing at a moderately high temperature (e.g. 500 °C) leads to transportation of both Cu and Ag (even at relatively low concentrations of Ag, ≤3 at.%) from inside the coating to the coating surface, which resulted in significant reductions in friction coefficient, by over 50% compared to that of the substrate (from 0.31 to 0.14 with a hemispherical diamond indenter, and from 0.83 to 0.40 with an alumina ball counterface, respectively). Results indicate that the addition of both Cu and Ag (in appropriate concentrations) to nitrogen-containing chromium is a viable strategy for the development of 'self-replenishing' silver-containing thin film architectures for temperature-dependent solid lubrication requirements or antimicrobial coating applications.

  19. Effect of annealing on proton irradiated AlGaN/GaN based micro-Hall sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Abderrahmane, A.; Takahashi, H.; Tashiro, T.; Ko, P. J.; Okada, H.; Sandhu, A.; Sato, S.; Ohshima, T.

    2014-02-20

    The effect of annealing at 673 K on irradiated micro-Hall sensors irradiated with protons at 380keV and fluences of 10{sup 14}, 10{sup 15} and 10{sup 16} protons/cm{sup 2} is reported. Cathodoluminescence measurements were carried out at room temperature before and after annealing and showed improvement in the band edge band emission of the GaN layer. After annealing a sensor irradiated by 10{sup 15} protons/cm{sup 2} the device became operational with improvements in its magnetic sensitivity. All irradiated sensors showed improvement in their electrical characteristics after annealing.

  20. The effect of mechanical polishing on current annealed Co67Fe5Si15B13 amorphous ribbons: magnetoimpedance response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haj Ali, Mohammad Reza; Khezri, Mahsa; Ehsan Roozmeh, Seyed; Moradi, Mehrdad; Majid Mohseni, Seyed

    2014-01-01

    A systematic current annealing treatment to achieve a high magnetoimpedance (MI) response in CoFeSiB amorphous ribbons is demonstrated. After current annealing in the present of air, although transverse permeability can increase but because of a significant surface oxidization, condition to reach a high MI response cannot be achieved. Additionally, this process leads to asymmetric MI response. In this paper, the effect of mechanical polishing of samples after current annealing is studied. We show a significant MI change by removing the hard magnetic phase on sample surface after current annealing. Results are useful and promising to be employed to reach high MI response for sensing applications.

  1. Effect of annealing and cobalt content on relaxation and crystallization behavior of zirconium based bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yue; Wunderlich, Rainer; Fecht, Hans-Jörg

    2017-08-01

    The effects of annealing and cobalt content on relaxation and the crystallization process of Zr64Ni10Al7Cu19 bulk metallic glasses were investigated. β-relaxation occurs during annealing, leading to increased endotherm before crystallization. α-relaxation during high temperature annealing (higher than Tg) affects the crystallization process. The introduction of cobalt leads to an inhomogeneous amorphous structure and two-step crystallization due to the positive mixing enthalpy between cobalt and copper. Non-affine thermal strain arising from low temperature annealing of heterogeneous structure leads to a reduced endotherm phenomenon during relaxation on the DSC curves and a reduction in hardness.

  2. Effects of sapphire annealing on the structural properties of AIN thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yun; Zhang, Jia

    2010-03-01

    The effects of sapphire annealing on high-quality AlN growth by molecular beam epitaxy have been studied. AlN thin films grown on annealed sapphire (1200 °C, 12 h) were hole-free. The full width at half maximum of the (0 0 0 2) and (1 0 1bar 5)ω-rocking curves for 260 nm-thick AlN thin films grown on annealed sapphires were 200 and 900 arcsec, respectively. The substantial improvement of AlN quality is ascribed to reduction of dislocation density by sapphire annealing.

  3. The Effect of Thermal Annealing on Charge Transport in Organolead Halide Perovskite Microplate Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Li, Dehui; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Wang, Yiliu; Zhao, Zipeng; Wang, Gongming; Wu, Hao; He, Qiyuan; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2017-01-01

    Transformation of unipolar n-type semiconductor behavior to ambipolar and finally to unipolar p-type behavior in CH3 NH3 PbI3 microplate field-effect transistors by thermal annealing is reported. The photoluminescence spectra essentially maintain the same features before and after the thermal annealing process, demonstrating that the charge transport measurement provides a sensitive way to probe low-concentration defects in perovskite materials.

  4. Effect of Annealing Treatment on Erosion-Corrosion of Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass in Saline-Sand Slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xiulin; Shan, Yiping; Chen, Yueyue; Wang, Hui

    2016-06-01

    Bulk metallic glass (BMG) may be a good candidate to solve the erosion-corrosion (E-C) problems of marine pumps in sand-containing seawater. Since annealing treatment is an effective way to improve plasticity of BMGs, the effect of annealing treatment on E-C wear of Zr-based BMG in saline-sand slurry was investigated. All of the annealed BMG samples were crystallized and the quantity of (Zr, Cu) phase increased but that of Al4Cu9 phase decreased with the increase of annealing temperature from 360 to 480 °C. Accordingly, annealing treatment enhances plasticity of the as-cast BMG at the cost of hardness and corrosion resistance. Moreover, 480 °C annealed BMG sample possesses the highest hardness and the lowest corrosion current density in all of the annealed BMG samples. Using a slurry pot erosion tester, the E-C wear of the as-cast and annealed BMG samples was studied under different impingement angles, impact velocities, and concentrations in saline-sand slurry. With the improvement of plasticity, 480 °C annealed BMG sample exhibits the best E-C wear resistance under high impingement angle, high impact velocity, and high sand concentration.

  5. Annealing of Co-Cr dental alloy: effects on nanostructure and Rockwell hardness

    PubMed Central

    Soylu, Elif Hilal; İde, Semra; Kılıç, Selim; Sipahi, Cumhur; Pişkin, Bulent; Gökçe, Hasan Suat

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of annealing on the nanostructure and hardness of Co-Cr metal ceramic samples that were fabricated with a direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS Five groups of Co-Cr dental alloy samples were manufactured in a rectangular form measuring 4 × 2 × 2 mm. Samples fabricated by a conventional casting technique (Group I) and prefabricated milling blanks (Group II) were examined as conventional technique groups. The DMLS samples were randomly divided into three groups as not annealed (Group III), annealed in argon atmosphere (Group IV), or annealed in oxygen atmosphere (Group V). The nanostructure was examined with the small-angle X-ray scattering method. The Rockwell hardness test was used to measure the hardness changes in each group, and the means and standard deviations were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA for comparison of continuous variables and Tukey's HSD test was used for post hoc analysis. P values of <.05 were accepted as statistically significant. RESULTS The general nanostructures of the samples were composed of small spherical entities stacked atop one another in dendritic form. All groups also displayed different hardness values depending on the manufacturing technique. The annealing procedure and environment directly affected both the nanostructure and hardness of the Co-Cr alloy. Group III exhibited a non-homogeneous structure and increased hardness (48.16 ± 3.02 HRC) because the annealing process was incomplete and the inner stress was not relieved. Annealing in argon atmosphere of Group IV not only relieved the inner stresses but also decreased the hardness (27.40 ± 3.98 HRC). The results of fitting function presented that Group IV was the most homogeneous product as the minimum bilayer thickness was measured (7.11 Å). CONCLUSION After the manufacturing with DMLS technique, annealing in argon atmosphere is an essential process for Co-Cr metal ceramic

  6. Annealing of Co-Cr dental alloy: effects on nanostructure and Rockwell hardness.

    PubMed

    Ayyıldız, Simel; Soylu, Elif Hilal; Ide, Semra; Kılıç, Selim; Sipahi, Cumhur; Pişkin, Bulent; Gökçe, Hasan Suat

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of annealing on the nanostructure and hardness of Co-Cr metal ceramic samples that were fabricated with a direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) technique. Five groups of Co-Cr dental alloy samples were manufactured in a rectangular form measuring 4 × 2 × 2 mm. Samples fabricated by a conventional casting technique (Group I) and prefabricated milling blanks (Group II) were examined as conventional technique groups. The DMLS samples were randomly divided into three groups as not annealed (Group III), annealed in argon atmosphere (Group IV), or annealed in oxygen atmosphere (Group V). The nanostructure was examined with the small-angle X-ray scattering method. The Rockwell hardness test was used to measure the hardness changes in each group, and the means and standard deviations were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA for comparison of continuous variables and Tukey's HSD test was used for post hoc analysis. P values of <.05 were accepted as statistically significant. The general nanostructures of the samples were composed of small spherical entities stacked atop one another in dendritic form. All groups also displayed different hardness values depending on the manufacturing technique. The annealing procedure and environment directly affected both the nanostructure and hardness of the Co-Cr alloy. Group III exhibited a non-homogeneous structure and increased hardness (48.16 ± 3.02 HRC) because the annealing process was incomplete and the inner stress was not relieved. Annealing in argon atmosphere of Group IV not only relieved the inner stresses but also decreased the hardness (27.40 ± 3.98 HRC). The results of fitting function presented that Group IV was the most homogeneous product as the minimum bilayer thickness was measured (7.11 Å). After the manufacturing with DMLS technique, annealing in argon atmosphere is an essential process for Co-Cr metal ceramic substructures. The dentists should be familiar with

  7. The effect of hydroxyl groups and surface area of hematite derived from annealing goethite for phosphate removal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haibo; Chen, Tianhu; Chang, Jin; Zou, Xuehua; Frost, Ray L

    2013-05-15

    Synthetic goethite and thermally treated goethite at different temperatures were used to remove phosphate from sewage. The effect of annealing temperature on phosphate removal over time was investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption and desorption (BET), and infrared emission spectrum (FT-IES) were utilized to characterize the phase, morphology, specific surface area, pore distribution, and the surface groups of samples. The results show that annealed products of goethite at temperatures over 250°C are hematite with the similar morphology as the original goethite with different hydroxyl groups and surface area. Increasing temperature causes the decrease in hydroxyl groups, consequential increase in surface area at first and then experiences a decrease (14.8-110.4-12.6 m(2)/g) and the subsequent formation of nanoscale pores. The variation rate of hydroxyl groups and surface area based on FT-IES and BET, respectively, are used to evaluate the effect of annealing temperature on phosphate removal. By using all of the characterization techniques, it is concluded that the changes of phosphate removal basically result from the total variation rate between hydroxyl groups and surface area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Annealing effect on structural and optical properties of chemical bath deposited MnS thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Ulutas, Cemal; Gumus, Cebrail

    2016-03-25

    MnS thin film was prepared by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method on commercial microscope glass substrate deposited at 30 °C. The as-deposited film was given thermal annealing treatment in air atmosphere at various temperatures (150, 300 and 450 °C) for 1 h. The MnS thin film was characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectrophotometer and Hall effect measurement system. The effect of annealing temperature on the structural, electrical and optical properties such as optical constants of refractive index (n) and energy band gap (E{sub g}) of the film was determined. XRD measurements reveal that the film is crystallized in the wurtzite phase and changed to tetragonal Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase after being annealed at 300 °C. The energy band gap of film decreased from 3.69 eV to 3.21 eV based on the annealing temperature.

  9. Temperature effects on the mechanical properties of annealed and HERF 304L stainless steel.

    SciTech Connect

    Antoun, Bonnie R.

    2004-11-01

    The effect of temperature on the tensile properties of annealed 304L stainless steel and HERF 304L stainless steel forgings was determined by completing experiments over the moderate range of -40 F to 160 F. Temperature effects were more significant in the annealed material than the HERF material. The tensile yield strength of the annealed material at -40 F averaged twenty two percent above the room temperature value and at 160 F averaged thirteen percent below. The tensile yield strength for the three different geometry HERF forgings at -40 F and 160 F changed less than ten percent from room temperature. The ultimate tensile strength was more temperature dependent than the yield strength. The annealed material averaged thirty six percent above and fourteen percent below the room temperature ultimate strength at -40 F and 160 F, respectively. The HERF forgings exhibited similar, slightly lower changes in ultimate strength with temperature. For completeness and illustrative purposes, the stress-strain curves are included for each of the tensile experiments conducted. The results of this study prompted a continuation study to determine tensile property changes of welded 304L stainless steel material with temperature, documented separately.

  10. Effect of annealing atmosphere on the thermal coarsening of nanoporous gold films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A. Y.; Shi, S. S.; Liu, F.; Wang, Y.; Li, X.; Gu, J. F.; Xie, X. F.

    2015-11-01

    The coarsening of nanoporous gold (NPG) is significantly influenced by surface adsorbates at elevated temperature. In this paper, the effect of annealing atmosphere on the thermal growth of the porous structure was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The NPG films were annealed in oxidative (air), inert (Ar) and reductive (CO) atmospheres at 100-600 °C for 2 h, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the NPG films show the best stability in the reductive atmosphere and the worst thermal properties in oxidative air. The NPG films annealed in air exhibit a significant pore growth at 200 °C and lose the porous structure at 300 °C, while those annealed in CO gas at 600 °C still remain the porous network. The thermal-induced coarsening of NPG films in air can be attributed to the desorption of O2 from the NPG surface above 200 °C. In contrast, the stabilization of the NPG films in CO gas originates from the strong binding of CO with Au atoms to form a complex adsorption layer, which effectively inhibits the surface diffusion of Au atoms.

  11. Effects of homogenization treatment on recrystallization behavior of 7150 aluminum sheet during post-rolling annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Zhanying; Zhao, Gang; Chen, X.-Grant

    2016-04-15

    The effects of two homogenization treatments applied to the direct chill (DC) cast billet on the recrystallization behavior in 7150 aluminum alloy during post-rolling annealing have been investigated using the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. Following hot and cold rolling to the sheet, measured orientation maps, the recrystallization fraction and grain size, the misorientation angle and the subgrain size were used to characterize the recovery and recrystallization processes at different annealing temperatures. The results were compared between the conventional one-step homogenization and the new two-step homogenization, with the first step being pretreated at 250 °C. Al{sub 3}Zr dispersoids with higher densities and smaller sizes were obtained after the two-step homogenization, which strongly retarded subgrain/grain boundary mobility and inhibited recrystallization. Compared with the conventional one-step homogenized samples, a significantly lower recrystallized fraction and a smaller recrystallized grain size were obtained under all annealing conditions after cold rolling in the two-step homogenized samples. - Highlights: • Effects of two homogenization treatments on recrystallization in 7150 Al sheets • Quantitative study on the recrystallization evolution during post-rolling annealing • Al{sub 3}Zr dispersoids with higher densities and smaller sizes after two-step treatment • Higher recrystallization resistance of 7150 sheets with two-step homogenization.

  12. Effects of neutron irradiation and subsequent annealing on the optical characteristics of sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M. F.; Zhang, H. L.; Han, J. C.; Guo, H. X.; Xu, C. H.; Ying, G. B.; Shen, H. T.; Song, N. N.

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, the effect of neutron irradiation on sapphire single crystal with fast neutron of 1.0×10 18 and 1.0×10 19 neutrons/cm 2 has been investigated along with the effect of annealing temperature. It is found that the colorless transparent sapphire single crystals were turned yellow after 10 MeV fast neutron irradiation at room temperature. There are peaks at 206, 230, 258, 305, 358 and 452 nm after neutron irradiation. And the intensity of optical absorption bands decrease with wavelength and annealing temperature. A new absorption peak at 452 nm was found after isothermal annealing at 400 °C for 10 min, which was ascribed to F 2+ color center. Because of the recombination of interstitial ions and vacancies, color centers were almost removed after annealing at 1000 °C. The TL peaks were found to shift to higher temperature after neutron irradiation. And a higher fluence of the neutron irradiation would result in deep traps revealed as the new TL peaks at 176 and 227 °C.

  13. Effect of Annealing Process on the Properties of Ni(55%)Cr(40%)Si(5%) Thin-Film Resistors

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Huan-Yi; Chen, Ying-Chung; Li, Pei-Jou; Yang, Cheng-Fu; Huang, Hong-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Resistors in integrated circuits (ICs) are implemented using diffused methods fabricated in the base and emitter regions of bipolar transistor or in source/drain regions of CMOS. Deposition of thin films on the wafer surface is another choice to fabricate the thin-film resistors in ICs’ applications. In this study, Ni(55%)Cr(40%)Si(5%) (abbreviated as NiCrSi) in wt % was used as the target and the sputtering method was used to deposit the thin-film resistors on Al2O3 substrates. NiCrSi thin-film resistors with different thicknesses of 30.8 nm~334.7 nm were obtained by controlling deposition time. After deposition, the thin-film resistors were annealed at 400 °C under different durations in N2 atmosphere using the rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process. The sheet resistance of NiCrSi thin-film resistors was measured using the four-point-probe method from 25 °C to 125 °C, then the temperature coefficient of resistance could be obtained. We aim to show that resistivity of NiCrSi thin-film resistors decreased with increasing deposition time (thickness) and the annealing process had apparent effect on the sheet resistance and temperature coefficient of resistance. We also aim to show that the annealed NiCrSi thin-film resistors had a low temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) between 0 ppm/°C and +50 ppm/°C. PMID:28793598

  14. Application of a model for treatment of time dependent effects on irradiation of microelectronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.B.; Jenkins, W.C. ); Johnston, A.H. )

    1989-12-01

    A simple model for interpreting and extrapolating time dependent effects is tested by fitting to published and previously unpublished experimental data. The goal is to evaluate the applicability of such a model to hardness assurance testing in cases where defect growth and annealing processes (time dependent effects) are significant. Data is presented indicating hole annealing times varying by more than six orders of magnitude. The implications of the large variation in hole annealing times for hardness assurance testing are explored.

  15. The effect of annealing on the recovery of irradiated Ni and Fe wires by detection of magnetic property changes

    SciTech Connect

    Shong, W.J.; Stubbins, J.F.

    1995-12-31

    Neutron irradiated Ni and Fe wires with doses ranging from 6.8 {times} 10{sup 17} to 3.6 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV) at 288 C were annealed isothermally and isochronally. Magnetic coercivity was measured to monitor the recovery process. Iron displayed significant changes while the coercivity of Ni decreased monotonically with increasing annealing temperature. Microhardness was also performed on unirradiated wires following annealing. Hardness was found to show a similar trend to coercivity. The annealing behavior of the Fe and Ni wires and the similarity between coercivity and hardness responses to annealing are interpreted in terms of internal stress relief and clustering of point defects. This investigation indicates that magnetic detection can be a useful nondestructive method for monitoring radiation damage and recovery in nuclear pressure vessel steel.

  16. The effect of final annealing after β-quenching on the corrosion resistance of Zircaloy-4 in lithiated water with 0.04 M LiOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, M. Y.; Shen, Y. F.; Li, Q.; Peng, J. C.; Zhou, B. X.; Zhang, J. L.

    2013-04-01

    To further understand the effect of heat treatments on the corrosion resistance of Zircaloy-4, some specimens were treated by β-quenching at 1020 °C for 20 min and then annealing at 480-600 °C for 2-200 h. The specimens were corroded in lithiated water with 0.04 M LiOH at 360 °C/18.6 MPa. The microstructures of the specimens and the oxide films were observed by TEM and SEM. The results show that the β-quenched specimen with the cooling rate of 100 °C/s behaves the best corrosion resistance. After annealing at 480-600 °C, the corrosion resistance gets worse with increasing annealing temperature. The annealing time has little effect on the corrosion resistance for the specimens annealed at 480 and 540 °C after β-quenching. However, the corrosion resistance of the specimens annealed at 600 °C becomes worse with the increase of annealing time. The grain size of the oxide on the specimen with high Fe and Cr concentrations in α-Zr is coarser than that on the specimen with low Fe and Cr concentrations in α-Zr, and the pores and cracks are fewer in the oxide film on the former specimen than those on the latter specimen. This indicates that a suitable increase in Fe and Cr concentrations in α-Zr matrix is beneficial to retarding the microstructural evolution of oxide, thereby improving the corrosion resistance.

  17. Effect of low temperature anneals and nonthermal treatments on the properties of gap fill oxides used in SiGe and III-V devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, E. Todd; Morin, Pierre; Madan, Anita; Mehta, Sanjay

    2016-07-01

    Silicon dioxide is used to electrically isolate CMOS devices such as fin field effect transistors by filling gaps between the devices (also known as shallow trench isolation). The gap fill oxide typically requires a high temperature anneal in excess of 1000 °C to achieve adequate electrical properties and oxide densification to make the oxide compatible with subsequent fabrication steps such as fin reveal etch. However, the transition from Si-based devices to high mobility channel materials such as SiGe and III-V semiconductors imposes more severe thermal limitations on the processes used for device fabrication, including gap fill oxide annealing. This study provides a framework to quantify and model the effect of anneal temperature and time on the densification of a flowable silicon dioxide as measured by wet etch rate. The experimental wet etch rates allowed the determination of the activation energy and anneal time dependence for oxide densification. Dopant and self-diffusion can degrade the channel material above a critical temperature. We present a model of self-diffusion of Ge and Si in SiGe materials. Together these data allowed us to map the thermal process space for acceptable oxide wet etch rate and self-diffusion. The methodology is also applicable to III-V devices, which require even lower thermal budget. The results highlight the need for nonthermal oxide densification methods such as ultraviolet (UV) and plasma treatments. We demonstrate that several plasma treatments, in place of high temperature annealing, improved the properties of flowable oxide. In addition, UV curing prior to thermal annealing enables acceptable densification with dramatically reduced anneal temperature.

  18. Effects of thermal annealing and reirradiation on toughness of reactor pressure vessel steels

    SciTech Connect

    Nanstad, R.K.; Iskander, S.K.; Sokolov, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    One of the options to mitigate the effects of irradiation on reactor pressure vessels (RPV) is to thermally anneal them to restore the toughness properties that have been degraded by neutron irradiation. This paper summarizes recent experimental results from work performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to study the annealing response, or {open_quotes}recovery,{close_quotes} of several irradiated RPV steels; it also includes recent results from both ORNL and the Russian Research Center-Kurchatov Institute (RRC-KI) on a cooperative program of irradiation, annealing and reirradiation of both U.S. and Russian RPV steels. The cooperative program was conducted under the auspices of Working Group 3, U.S./Russia Joint Coordinating Committee for Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety (JCCCNRS). The materials investigated are an RPV plate and various submerged-arc welds, with tensile, Charpy impact toughness, and fracture toughness results variously determined. Experimental results are compared with applicable prediction guidelines, while observed differences in annealing responses and reirradiation rates are discussed.

  19. Effect of thermal annealing on the spectroscopic parameters of Er3+-doped sodium silicate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Morais, Rodrigo F.; Serqueira, Elias Oliveira; Dantas, Noelio Oliveira

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents the optical characteristics of Er3+ ions in sodium silicate glass (SiO2-Na2O), synthesized by the fusion method and later annealed for 0, 30, 60 and 90 min. Thermograms, X-ray diffraction, optical absorption, luminescence spectroscopy measurements were performed in order to determine the thermal and structural of the samples and the radiative characteristics of Er3+ ions under influence of thermal annealing of the samples. Differential thermal analysis provided evidence of a phase change in the system. This phase change was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, which showed the formation and growth of Na2SiO3 crystals for the annealed samples. These crystals affect the neighborhood (from second vicinity) of Er3+ ions. These effects were noted by the J-O parameters (Ω2 and Ω4), which were calculated from the optical absorption spectra. Judd-Ofelt calculations also confirmed that heat treatment induced structural rearrangement of the samples that was dependent on Er2O3 concentration. This resulted in changes in the optical and physical properties of the samples, including stimulated emission cross section and rigidity. Analysis of the spectroscopy parameters after of thermal annealing indicate samples are potential materials for in optical device applications.

  20. Effects of thermal annealing and reirradiation on toughness of reactor pressure vessel steels

    SciTech Connect

    Nanstad, R.K.; Iskander, S.K.; Sokolov, M.A.

    1997-02-01

    One of the options to mitigate the effects of irradiation on reactor pressure vessels (RPV) is to thermally anneal them to restore the toughness properties that have been degraded by neutron irradiation. This paper summarizes recent experimental results from work performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to study the annealing response, or {open_quotes}recovery,{close_quotes} of several irradiated RPV steels; it also includes recent results from both ORNL and the Russian Research Center-Kurchatov Institute (RRC-KI) on a cooperative program of irradiation, annealing and reirradiation of both U.S. and Russian RPV steels. The cooperative program was conducted under the auspices of Working Group 3, U.S./Russia Joint Coordinating Committee for Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety (JCCCNRS). The materials investigated are an RPV plate and various submerged-arc welds, with tensile, Charpy impact toughness, and fracture toughness results variously determined. Experimental results are compared with applicable prediction guidelines, while observed differences in annealing responses and reirradiation rates are discussed.

  1. Annealing temperature effect on microstructure, magnetic and microwave properties of Fe-based amorphous alloy powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jinghua; Wang, Wei; Wang, Aimin; Guan, Jianguo

    2012-09-01

    Fe74Ni3Si13Cr6W4 amorphous alloy powders were annealed at different temperature (T) for 1.5 h to fabricate the corresponding amorphous and nanocrystalline powders. The influences of T on the crystalline structure, morphology, magnetic and microwave electromagnetic properties of the resultant samples were investigated via X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and vector network analyzer. The results show that the powder samples obtained at T of 650 °C or more are composed of lots of ultra-fine α-Fe(Si) grains embedded in an amorphous matrix. When T increases from 350 to 750 °C, the saturated magnetization and coercivity of the as-annealed powder samples both increase monotonously whereas the relative real permittivity shows a minimal value and the relative real permeability shows a maximal value at T of 650 °C. Thus the powder samples annealed at 650 °C show optimal reflection loss under -10 dB in the whole C-band. These results here suggest that the annealing heat treatment of Fe-based amorphous alloy is an effective approach to fabricate high performance microwave absorber with reasonable permittivity and large permeability simultaneously via adjusting T.

  2. Tellurium precipitates in (Cd,Mn)Te:V crystals: Effects of annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Kochanowska,D.; Mycielski, A.; Witkowska-Baran, M.; Szadkowski, A.; Witkowska, B.; Kaliszek, W.; Cui, Y.; James, R. B.

    2008-10-19

    We suggest that (Cd,Mn)Te is a suitable material for fabricating gamma- and X-ray detectors. Our investigations, reported here, are focused on producing high-quality (Cd,Mn)Te crystals with high resistivity (10{sup 9} {Omega}-cm) by the Bridgman method. As-grown, undoped (Cd,Mn)Te crystals are typically p-type, signifying that they contain excess Cd vacancies (acting as acceptors), accumulated during growth. Doping with vanadium atoms, which function as compensating centers, results in a semi-insulating material (Cd,Mn)Te:V. Properly annealing the platelets in cadmium vapors at uniform temperature reduces the number of cadmium vacancies, and lowers the level of the vanadium doping required for compensation. We found that annealing in cadmium vapors not only decreases the concentration of the native cadmium vacancies but also improves the crystal's quality. Infrared observations of the interior of the samples show that annealing in a temperature gradient perpendicular to the platelet has an additional effect, viz., the tellurium precipitates migrate towards the side where the temperature is higher. We demonstrate, with IR pictures of monocrystalline (Cd,Mn)Te:V platelets cut parallel to the (111) crystal planes, the influence on tellurium inclusions and precipitates of various conditions of annealing in cadmium vapors.

  3. Irradiation, Annealing, and Reirradiation Effects on American and Russian Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Chernobaeva, A.A.; Korolev, Y.N.; Nanstad, R.K.; Nikolaev, Y.A.; Sokolov, M.A.

    1998-06-16

    One of the options to mitigate the effects of irradiation on reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) is to thermally anneal them to restore the toughness properties that have been degraded by neutron irradiation. Even though a postirradiation anneal may be deemed successful, a critical aspect of continued RPV operation is the rate of embrittlement upon reirradiation. There are insufficient data available to allow for verification of available models of reirradiation embrittlement or for the development of a reliable predictive methodology. This is especially true in the case of fracture toughness data. Under the U.S.-Russia Joint Coordinating Committee for Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety (JCCCNRS), Working Group 3 on Radiation Embrittlement, Structural Integrity, and Life Extension of Reactor Vessels and Supports agreed to conduct a comparative study of annealing and reirradiation effects on RPV steels. The Working Group agreed that each side would irradiate, anneal, reirradiate (if feasible ), and test two materials of the other. Charpy V-notch (CVN) and tensile specimens were included. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducted such a program (irradiation and annealing, including static fracture toughness) with two weld metals representative of VVER-440 and VVER-1000 RPVs, while the Russian Research Center-Kurchatov Institute (RRC-KI) conducted a program (irradiation, annealing, reirradiation, and reannealing) with Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program Plate 02 and Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) Program Weld 73W. The results for each material from each laboratory are compared with those from the other laboratory. The ORNL experiments with the VVER welds included irradiation to about 1 x 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} (>1 MeV), while the RRC-KI experiments with the U.S. materials included irradiations from about 2 to 18 x 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} (>l MeV). In both cases, irradiations were conducted at {approximately}290 C and annealing treatments were conducted

  4. Effect of solution annealing temperature on precipitation in 2205 duplex stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiwar, A.; Vennela, N. Phani; Kamath, S.L.; Khatirkar, R.K.

    2012-12-15

    In the present study, effect of solution annealing temperature (1050 Degree-Sign C and 1100 Degree-Sign C) and isothermal ageing (700 Degree-Sign C: 15 min to 6 h) on the microstructural changes in 2205 duplex stainless steel has been investigated systematically. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were adopted to follow the microstructural evolution, while an energy dispersive spectrometer attached to scanning electron microscope was used to obtain localised chemical information of various phases. The ferritic matrix of the two phase 2205 duplex stainless steel ({approx} 45% ferrite and {approx} 55% austenite) undergoes a series of metallurgical transformations during ageing-formation of secondary austenite ({gamma}{sub 2}) and precipitation of Cr and Mo rich intermetallic (chi-{chi} and sigma-{sigma}) phases. For solution annealing at 1050 Degree-Sign C, significant amount of carbides were observed in the ferrite grains after 1 h of ageing at 700 Degree-Sign C. {chi} Phase precipitated after the precipitation of carbides-preferentially at the ferrite-ferrite and also at the ferrite-austenite boundaries. {sigma} Phase was not observed in significant quantity even after 6 h of ageing. The sequence of precipitation in samples solution annealed at 1050 Degree-Sign C was found to be carbides {yields} {chi} {yields} {sigma}. On the contrary, for samples solution annealed at 1100 Degree-Sign C, the precipitation of {chi} phase was negligible. {chi} Phase precipitated before {sigma} phase, preferentially along the ferrite-ferrite grain boundaries and was later consumed in the {sigma} phase precipitation. The {sigma} phase precipitated via the eutectoid transformation of ferrite to yield secondary austenite {gamma}{sub 2} and {sigma} phase in the ferrite and along the ferrite-austenite grain boundaries. An increase in the volume fraction of {gamma}{sub 2} and {sigma} phase with simultaneous decrease in the ferrite was evidenced with ageing. - Highlights

  5. Effect of Crystal Orientation on Self-Assembly Nanocones Formed on Tungsten Surface Induced by Helium Ion Irradiation and Annealing

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shilin; Ran, Guang; Lei, Penghui; Wu, Shenghua; Chen, Nanjun; Li, Ning

    2016-01-01

    The self-assembly nanocone structures on the surface of polycrystalline tungsten were created by He+ ion irradiation and then annealing, and the resulting topography and morphology were characterized using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The cross-sectional samples of the self-assembly nanocones were prepared using an in situ–focused ion beam and then observed using transmission electron microscopy. The self-assembly nanocones were induced by the combined effect of He+ ion irradiation, the annealing process and the chromium impurity. The distribution characteristics, density and morphology of the nanocones exhibited a distinct difference relating to the crystal orientations. The highest density of the nanocones was observed on the grain surface with a (1 1 1) orientation, with the opposite for that with a (0 0 1) orientation and a medium value on the (1 0 1)-oriented grain. The size of the self-assembly nanocones increased with increasing the annealing time which met a power-law relationship. Irradiation-induced defects acted as the nucleation locations of the protrusions which attracted the migration of the tiny amount of chromium atoms. Under the action of temperature, the protrusions finally evolved into the nanocones. PMID:28335337

  6. Effects of annealing temperature on shape transformation and optical properties of germanium quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alireza, Samavati; Othaman, Z.; K. Ghoshal, S.; K. Mustafa, M.

    2015-02-01

    The influences of thermal annealing on the structural and optical features of radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtered self-assembled Ge quantum dots (QDs) on Si (100) are investigated. Preferentially oriented structures of Ge along the (220) and (111) directions together with peak shift and reduced strain (4.9% to 2.7%) due to post-annealing at 650 °C are discerned from x-ray differaction (XRD) measurement. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images for both pre-annealed and post-annealed (650 °C) samples reveal pyramidal-shaped QDs (density ˜ 0.26× 1011 cm-2) and dome-shape morphologies with relatively high density ˜ 0.92 × 1011 cm-2, respectively. This shape transformation is attributed to the mechanism of inter-diffusion of Si in Ge interfacial intermixing and strain non-uniformity. The annealing temperature assisted QDs structural evolution is explained using the theory of nucleation and growth kinetics where free energy minimization plays a pivotal role. The observed red-shift ˜ 0.05 eV in addition to the narrowing of the photoluminescence peaks results from thermal annealing, and is related to the effect of quantum confinement. Furthermore, the appearance of a blue-violet emission peak is ascribed to the recombination of the localized electrons in the Ge-QDs/SiO2 or GeOx and holes in the ground state of Ge dots. Raman spectra of both samples exhibit an intense Ge-Ge optical phonon mode which shifts towards higher frequency compared with those of the bulk counterpart. An experimental Raman profile is fitted to the models of phonon confinement and size distribution combined with phonon confinement to estimate the mean dot sizes. A correlation between thermal annealing and modifications of the structural and optical behavior of Ge QDs is established. Tunable growth of Ge QDs with superior properties suitable for optoelectronic applications is demonstrated. Project supported by Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Study, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

  7. Annealing effects on the structural and magnetic properties of off-stoichiometric Fe-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Yan; Bei, Hongbin; Dela Cruz, Clarina R; ...

    2016-05-07

    Annealing plays an important role in modifying structures and properties of ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMAs). The annealing effect on the structures and magnetic properties of off-stoichiometric Fe45Mn26Ga29 FSMA has been investigated at different elevated temperatures. Rietveld refinements of neutron diffraction patterns display that the formation of the γ phase in Fe45Mn26Ga29 annealed at 1073 K increases the martensitic transformation temperature and reduces the thermal hysteresis in comparison to the homogenized sample. The phase segregation of a Fe-rich cubic phase and a Ga-rich cubic phase occurs at the annealing temperature of 773 K. The atomic occupancies of the alloys aremore » determined thanks to the neutron's capability of differentiating transition metals. The annealing effects at different temperatures introduce a different magnetic characteristic that is associated with distinctive structural changes in the crystal.« less

  8. Effect of Cold Work and Partial Annealing on Thermomechanical Behaviour of Ti-50.5at%Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, Abdus Samad; Wu, Zhigang; Yang, Hong; Liu, Yinong

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of cold work and partial annealing on the thermal and mechanical behaviour of NiTi. It is well understood that the thermomechanical properties of near-equiatomic NiTi are highly dependent on the microstructure, and hence the history of thermomechanical treatments has undergone through. It has been generally accepted that a sufficiently high cold work is necessary prior to annealing but detailed knowledge of the influence of the level of prior cold work on annealing is unclear. This study determined the threshold effective levels of cold work required for annealing and demonstrated that the thermal and mechanical properties of Ti-50.5at%Ni are sensitive to the level of cold work as well as temperature of partial annealing.

  9. Size Dependence of Oxygen-Annealing Effects on Superconductivity of Fe1+yTe1-xSx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Teruo; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Yaguchi, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    For the Fe-based superconductor Fe1+yTe1-xSx, superconductivity is induced by annealing treatment in oxygen atmosphere, whereas as-grown samples do not show superconductivity. We investigated the sample-size dependence of O2-annealing effects in Fe1.01Te0.91S0.09. The annealing conditions were fixed to 1 atm, 200 °C, and 2 h. We carried out magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements in order to evaluate the superconducting volume fraction. We found that Fe1+yTe1-xSx has an optimal size for the induction of bulk superconductivity by O2 annealing. Our results indicate that O2 annealing is probably effective near the surface of samples over a length of a few tens of micro meters.

  10. Enhanced memory characteristics in organic ferroelectric field-effect transistors through thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Sugano, Ryo; Tashiro, Tomoya; Sekine, Tomohito; Fukuda, Kenjiro; Kumaki, Daisuke; Tokito, Shizuo

    2015-11-15

    We report on the memory characteristics of organic ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FeFETs) using spin-coated poly(vinylidene difluoride/trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF/TrFE)) as a gate insulating layer. By thermal annealing the P(VDF/TrFE) layer at temperatures above its melting point, we could significantly improve the on/off current ratio to over 10{sup 4}. Considerable changes in the surface morphology and x-ray diffraction patterns were also observed in the P(VDF/TrFE) layer as a result of the annealing process. The enhanced memory effect is attributed to large polarization effects caused by rearranged ferroelectric polymer chains and improved crystallinity in the organic semiconductor layer of the FeFET devices.

  11. Effects of cooling rate and stabilization annealing on fatigue behavior of β-processed Ti-6Al-4V alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Wongyu; Jeong, Daeho; Lee, Dongjun; Sung, Hyokyung; Kwon, Yongnam; Kim, Sangshik

    2017-07-01

    The effects of stabilization annealing and cooling rate on high cycle fatigue (HCF) and fatigue crack propagation (FCP) behaviors of β-processed Ti64 alloys were examined. After β-process heating above β transus, two different cooling rates of air cooling (β-annealing) and water quenching (β-quenching) were utilized. Selected specimens were then underwent stabilization annealing. The tensile tests, HCF and FCP tests on conducted on the β-processed Ti64 specimens with and without stabilization annealing. No notable microstructural and mechanical changes with stabilization annealing was observed for the β-annealed Ti64 alloys. However, significant effect of stabilization annealing was found on the FCP behavior of β-quenched Ti64 alloys, which appeared to be related to the built-up of residual stress after quenching. The mechanical behavior of β-processed Ti64 alloys with and with stabilization annealing was discussed based on the micrographic examination, including crack growth path and crack nucleation site, and fractographic analysis.

  12. The Effect of Hydrogen Annealing and Sulfur Content on the Oxidation Resistance of PWA 1480

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    1997-01-01

    For many decades the dramatic effect of trace amounts of reactive elements on alumina and chromia scale adhesion has been recognized and widely studied. Although various theories have been used to account for such behavior, the connection between scale adhesion and sulfur segregation was initially reported by Smeggil et al. This study found strong surface segregation of sulfur from very low levels in the bulk which could then be curtailed by the addition of reactive elements. It was assumed that the reactive elements, which are strong sulfide formers, acted by getting sulfur in the bulk thus precluding sulfur segregation and weakening of the oxide-metal bond. Subsequent studies confirmed that adhesion could be produced by reducing the sulfur impurity level, without reactive elements. The understanding of this phenomenon has been applied to modern single crystal superalloys, where the addition of Y, although very effective, is problematic. Also problematic is definition of the level of sulfur that is acceptable and below which no further adhesion benefit is reached. Published works have indicated a broad transition defined by various materials and oxidation tests. The present study describes the oxidation behavior of one superalloy (PWA 1480) as a function of various sulfur contents produced by hydrogen annealing for various temperatures, times, and sample thicknesses. The purpose is to define more precisely a criterion for adhesion based on total sulfur reservoir and segregation potential.

  13. Effect of annealing over optoelectronic properties of graphene based transparent electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Shriniwas; Kaur, Inderpreet

    2016-04-01

    Graphene, an atom-thick two dimensional graphitic material have led various fundamental breakthroughs in the field of science and technology. Due to their exceptional optical, physical and electrical properties, graphene based transparent electrodes have shown several applications in organic light emitting diodes, solar cells and thin film transistors. Here, we are presenting effect of annealing over optoelectronic properties of graphene based transparent electrodes. Graphene based transparent electrodes have been prepared by wet chemical approach over glass substrates. After fabrication, these electrodes tested for optical transmittance in visible region. Sheet resistance was measured using four probe method. Effect of thermal annealing at 200 °C was studied over optical and electrical performance of these electrodes. Optoelectronic performance was judged from ratio of direct current conductivity to optical conductivity (σdc/σopt) as a figure of merit for transparent conductors. The fabricated electrodes display good optical and electrical properties. Such electrodes can be alternatives for doped metal oxide based transparent electrodes.

  14. Investigation of effect of annealing on thermally evaporated ZnSe thin films through spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahesha, M. G.; Rashmitha; Meghana, N.; Padiyar, Meghavarsha

    2017-09-01

    ZnSe thin films have been grown on clean glass substrates by thermal evaporation technique and deposited films have been annealed at 473 K. William-Hall method has been adopted to extract information on crystallite size and internal strain in the film from X-ray diffractogram. Effect of annealing on ZnSe films has been analyzed by spectroscopic techniques which include optical absorption, Raman, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. From optical absorption, band gap has been estimated along with other optical parameters like refractive index and extinction coefficient. Also, Urbach tail, which originates near bad edge due to structural disorders, has been characterized. Raman spectra have been analyzed to get the information on the influence of crystallite size and strain effect on peak position, intensity and width. Photoluminescence spectra have been recorded and analyzed to get an insight on defect levels induced due to vacancies, interstadials, and impurity complexes.

  15. Effect of Thermal Annealing on the Electrical Conductivity of Copper-Tin Polymer Composites.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing; Beers, Megan Hoarfrost; Mehta, Vishrut; Gao, Ting; Parkinson, Dilworth

    2017-01-11

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) copolymer conductive composites containing 40 vol % copper (Cu) and tin (Sn) fillers are prepared by injection molding. Postmolding thermal annealing is found to increase the electrical conductivity of the composites by an order of magnitude. The volume ratio between Cu and Sn is found to have a significant effect on filler distribution but a weaker effect on electrical conductivity compared to the annealing conditions. Synchrotron X-ray tomography is used to visualize and quantitatively analyze the morphology and distribution of the filler particles, indicating that higher conductivity can be attributed to better dispersion of the low-melting-point Sn filler, which provides better interparticle contact in the Cu network.

  16. Hydrogen blistering of silicon: Effect of implantation temperature, isotope dependence, and key role of dynamic annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Giguere, Alexandre; Terreault, Bernard

    2007-11-15

    Blistering of (001) Cz-Si crystals (>1 {omega} cm), by either protium (H) or deuterium (D) ions of 5 keV energy, was studied as a function of the sample temperature during implantation in the range of 150-450 K. It was found that the blistering dose thresholds decreased with temperature, and very dramatically so in the case of D ions, revealing new aspects of the giant isotope effect. An optimal implantation temperature for ion cutting was found around 100 deg. C, where the required dose is reduced and the isotope effect is minimized. The results are interpreted in terms of models of the interaction of implanted hydrogen with radiation defects, and they show that dynamic annealing is incomparably more efficient in promoting blistering than purely thermal annealing.

  17. Effects of pre-annealing on the uni- and bi-axial stretching behavior of poly(ethylene naphthalate) films

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, T. Takarada, W. Kikutani, T.

    2014-05-15

    Effect of pre-annealing on stress and birefringence behavior of poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN) films during stretching and relaxation processes was investigated. Amorphous and non-oriented PEN films were pre-annealed under the conditions of different temperatures and periods. The pre-annealed films were stretched uniaxially or equi-biaxially and then relaxed at fixed length. It was found that pre-annealing did not cause any notable change for the initial behavior of refractive indices variation, whereas the behaviors after necking were significantly affected. Through the comparison between in-plane and out-of-plane birefringence and the analysis of wide-angle x-ray diffraction patterns of drawn films of both stretching modes, it was confirmed that the orientation of naphthalene ring in the film plane was enhanced by pre-annealing.

  18. Effects of post-metal annealing on the electrical characteristics of HfO x -based resistive switching memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Kai-Chi; Lin, Kuan-Yu; Luo, Jun-Dao; Li, Wei-Shuo; Li, Yi-Shao; Chu, Chi-Yan; Cheng, Huang-Chung

    2017-06-01

    Post-metal annealing (PMA) has been adopted to reduce the operation voltages of HfO x -based resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices, especially the forming voltage (V Forming). TiN/Ti/HfO x /TiN stack structures were fabricated and annealed via rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and furnace annealing (FA) to investigate the annealing effects. The result of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicates that the distribution of oxygen towards the interposing Ti layer increases after the annealing process, which facilitates the formation of conductive filaments in the dielectric layer. As a result, V Forming can be decreased from 4.60 to 3.24 and 3.36 V via RTA for 30 s at 400 °C and via FA for 60 min at 300 °C, respectively, as compared with that without PMA. However, the V Forming of the device annealed via FA for 60 min at 400 °C was higher than that at 300 °C. This turn-around phenomenon of the forming voltages of RRAM devices annealed via FA was found. It was attributed to the conversion of the interposing Ti layer into a highly resistive TiO2 film.

  19. Effect of high-temperature annealing on AlN thin film grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei-Ying; Jin, Peng; Liu, Gui-Peng; Li, Wei; Liu, Bin; Liu, Xing-Fang; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2014-08-01

    The effect of high-temperature annealing on AlN thin film grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition was investigated using atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and deep ultra-violet photoluminescence (PL) with the excitation wavelength as short as ~ 177 nm. Annealing experiments were carried out in either N2 or vacuum atmosphere with the annealing temperature ranging from 1200 °C to 1600 °C. It is found that surface roughness reduced and compressive strain increased with the annealing temperature increasing in both annealing atmospheres. As to optical properties, a band-edge emission peak at 6.036 eV and a very broad emission band peaking at about 4.7 eV were observed in the photoluminescence spectrum of the as-grown sample. After annealing, the intensity of the band-edge emission peak varied with the annealing temperature and atmosphere. It is also found that a much stronger emission band ranging from 2.5 eV to 4.2 eV is superimposed on the original spectra by annealing in either N2 or vacuum atmosphere. We attribute these deep-level emission peaks to the VAL—ON complex in the AlN material.

  20. On the Stressing of Annealed NITINOL: The Electrical Resistance and Calorimetric Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    Security Classification) On the Stressing of Annealed NITINOL : The Electrical Resistance and Calorimetric Effects 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Goldstein, David...COSATI CODES 18 SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by blck numbher) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP NITINOL 06 Shape Memory Alloy 13 o i...calorimetry curves of NITINOL during its phase transformation are substantial. The generation of a peak occurs in the resistance curve, and an additional

  1. Effect of annealing on the structural, morphological and photoluminescence properties of ZnO thin films prepared by spin coating.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Kumar, Vijay; Som, S; Yousif, A; Singh, Neetu; Ntwaeaborwa, O M; Kapoor, Avinashi; Swart, H C

    2014-08-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on silicon substrates by a sol-gel method using the spin coating technique. The ZnO films were annealed at 700°C in an oxygen environment using different annealing times ranging from 1 to 4 h. It was observed that all the annealed films exhibited a hexagonal wurtzite structure. The particle size increased from 65 to 160 nm with the increase in annealing time, while the roughness of the films increased from 2.3 to 10.6 nm with the increase in the annealing time. Si diffusion from the substrate into the ZnO layer occurred during the annealing process. It is likely that the Si and O2 influenced the emission of the ZnO by reducing the amount of Zn defects and the creation of new oxygen related defects during annealing in the O2 atmosphere. The emission intensity was found to be dependent on the reflectance of the thin films.

  2. Effects of post-annealing and temperature/humidity treatments on the interfacial adhesion energy of the Cu/SiN x interface for Cu interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Minsu; Bae, Byung-Hyun; Lee, Hyeonchul; Kang, Hee-Oh; Hwang, Wook-Jung; Yang, Jun-Mo; Park, Young-Bae

    2016-06-01

    The effects of 200 °C post-annealing and 85 °C and 85% relative humidity temperature and humidity (T/H) treatments on the interfacial adhesion energy of a Cu/SiN x interface were systematically investigated. The results of a four-point bending test, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that the interfacial adhesion energy during T/H treatment decreased with time faster than during annealing treatment, which is closely related to the faster Cu oxidation of SiN x /Cu interfaces.

  3. Effects of Post-Deposition Annealing on the Properties of Calcium Manganese Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrone, Natalie; Chaudhry, Adeel; Hart, Cacie; Lawson, Bridget; Houston, David; Neubauer, Samuel; Johnson, Anthony; Schaefer, David; Kolagani, Rajeswari

    We will present our results on the effects of post-deposition annealing on the structural and electrical properties of CaMnO3-d thin films grown by Pulsed Laser deposition. The thin films are epitaxially grown on (100) LaAlO3 which has larger in-plane lattice parameters than that of bulk CaMnO3, which leads to bi-axial tensile strain in the thin films. Results from our laboratory show that bi-axial tensile strain leads to low resistivity in thinner films, the resistivity increasing with increasing thickness. These results are suggestive of a coupling between strain and oxygen stoichiometry in the thin films. We have investigated the effects of post-deposition annealing in various gas ambients towards the goal of understanding the effects of relaxation and oxygen stoichiometric changes. We will present a comparison of the structural and electrical properties of as-grown and post-annealed films over a range of thicknesses. Support from Towson University Office of Undergraduate Research, Fisher Endowment Grant & Undergraduate Research Grant from the Fisher College of Science & Mathematics, Seed Funding Grant from the School of Emerging technologies, & NSF Grant ECCS 112856.

  4. The effect of post oxide deposition annealing on the effective work function in metal/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs gate stack

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, R.; Krylov, I.; Eizenberg, M.; Ahn, J.; McIntyre, P. C.

    2014-05-19

    The effect of post oxide deposition annealing on the effective work function in metal/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ InGaAs gate stacks was investigated. Using a systematic method for effective work function extraction, a shift of 0.3 ± 0.1 eV was found between the effective work function of forming gas annealed samples and vacuum annealed samples. The electrical measurements enabled us to obtain the band alignment of the metal/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs gate stack. This band alignment was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The measured shift in the effective work function between different annealing ambient may be attributed to indium out-diffusion during post oxide deposition annealing that is observed in forming gas anneal to a much larger extent than in vacuum.

  5. Effects of oxygen-reducing atmosphere annealing on LaMnO3 epitaxial thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, W. S.; Marton, Zsolt; Jang, S. Y.; Moon, S. J.; Jeon, B. C.; Shin, J. H.; Seo, Sung Seok A; Noh, Tae Won; Myung-Whun, Kim; Lee, Ho Nyung; Lee, Y. S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effects of annealing on LaMnO{sub 3} epitaxial thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and propose an efficient method of characterizing their stoichiometry. Structural, magnetic and optical properties coherently indicate non-stoichiometric ferromagnetic and semiconducting phases for as-grown LaMnO{sub 3} films. By annealing in an oxygen-reducing atmosphere, we recovered the antiferromagnetic and insulating phases of bulk-like stoichiometric LaMnO{sub 3}. We show that non-destructive optical spectroscopy at room temperature is one of the most convenient tools for identifying the phases of LaMnO{sub 3} films. Our results serve as a prerequisite for studying LaMnO{sub 3} based heterostructures grown by PLD.

  6. Effect of annealing treatment on electroluminescence from GaN/Si nanoheterostructure array.

    PubMed

    Han, Chang Bao; He, Chuan; Meng, Xiao Bo; Wan, Ya Rui; Tian, Yong Tao; Zhang, Ying Jiu; Li, Xin Jian

    2012-02-27

    A GaN/Si nanoheterostructure array was prepared by growing GaN nanostructures on silicon nanoporous pillar array (Si-NPA). Based on as-grown and annealed GaN/Si-NPA, two light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated. It was found that after the annealing treatment, both the turn-on voltage and the leakage current density of the nanoheterostructure varied greatly, together with the electroluminescence (EL) changed from a yellow band to a near infrared band. The EL variation was attributed to the radiative transition being transformed from a defect-related recombination in GaN to an interfacial recombination of GaN/Si-NPA. Ours might have provided an effective approach for fabricating GaN/Si-based LEDs with different emission wavelengths.

  7. Effect of acetylation, oxidation and annealing on physicochemical properties of bean starch.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Senay; Ovando-Martínez, Maribel; Whitney, Kristin; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2012-10-15

    Black and Pinto bean starches were physically and chemically modified to investigate the effect of modification on digestibility and physicochemical properties of bean starch. The impact of acetylation, oxidation (ozonation) and annealing on the chemical composition, syneresis, swelling volume, pasting, thermal properties and digestibility of starches was evaluated. The physicochemical and estimated glycemic index (eGI) of the Black and Pinto bean starches treated with ozone were not significantly (P>0.05) different than that of their respective control starches. Annealed starches had improved thermal and pasting properties compared to native starches. Acetylated starches presented reduced syneresis, good pasting properties and lower eGI. Also, all modified starches had increased levels of resistant starch (RS). Therefore, the digestibility and physicochemical properties of bean starch were affected by the type of modification but there were no significant (P>0.05) differences between the Black and Pinto bean starches.

  8. Annealing effect of double dip coated ZnAl2O4 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandramohan, R.; Dhanasekaran, V.; Sundaram, K.; Mahalingam, T.

    2013-02-01

    Thin films of ZnAl2O4 were prepared by dip technique involving chemical solutions. Investigations on the effect of post heat treatment on the structural, optical properties of ZnAl2O4 thin films were studied and reported. Xray diffraction patterns revealed that the thin films are polycrystalline cubic structure of ZnAl2O4. The microstructural properties of ZnAl2O4 thin films were calculated and crystallite size tends to increase with increase of annealing temperatures. The texture coefficients have been evaluated and found to be greater than unity revealing high texturing of the architecture of the film. The optical band gap values were found to be in the range of 3.48 - 3.62 eV. The n and k were found to decrease with increase of post annealing temperature. The SEM revealed the uniform distribution of spherical grains.

  9. Radiation effects on MOS devices - dosimetry, annealing, irradiation sequence, and sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Brucker, G. J.; Van Gunten, O.; Knudson, A. R.; Jordan, T. M.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports on some investigations of dosimetry, annealing, irradiation sequences, and radioactive sources, involved in the determination of radiation effects on MOS devices. Results show that agreement in the experimental and theoretical surface to average doses support the use of thermo-luminescent dosimeters (manganese activated calcium fluoride) in specifying the surface dose delivered to thin gate insulators of MOS devices. Annealing measurements indicate the existence of at least two energy levels,,s or a activation energies, for recovery of soft oxide MOS devices after irradiation by electrons, protons, and gammas. Damage sensitivities of MOS devices were found to be independent of combinations and sequences of radiation type or energies. Comparison of various gamma sources indicated a small dependence of damage sensitivity on the Cobalt facility, but a more significant dependence in the case of the Cesium source. These results were attributed to differences in the spectral content of the several sources.

  10. Effects of annealing on structure and composition of LSMO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Haipeng; Huang, Han; Cao, Ningtong; Zhou, Conghua; Niu, Dongmei; Gao, Yongli

    2015-11-01

    The effects of annealing on structure and composition of LSMO thin films grown by the means of DC magnetron sputtering have been investigated with the assistance of X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The first LSMO-related diffraction peak (A) appears on the sample prepared at 1023 K and shifts toward low-angle direction at higher temperature. A new diffraction peak (B) related to LaMnOx is observed on the sample prepared at 1073 K that becomes stronger with increasing annealing temperature. AFM images display the corresponding morphology evolutions. XPS results reveal that LaMnOx is formed due to strontium segregation on the LSMO surface at a temperature higher than 1023 K. Meanwhile, we find that a new ingredient appears from 973 to 1023 K and disappears from 1073 K to 1123 K, which is predicted to exist as semiconductor or insulator on the surface.

  11. Effect of initial-annealing on the microstructure of C-SiC/Cu composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, D.; Du, J. F.; Xiao, T.; Yang, B.; Liu, B.; Lin, L. W.

    2013-07-01

    A copper layer as "binder" was added between C-SiC coating and the stainless steel substrate, before C-SiC coatings were prepared by using ion beam mixing and followed initial-annealing in vacuum. The surface microstructures scanned by atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed the increase or rupture of argon bubbles with the increasing temperature, which showed that initial-annealing could effectively eliminate residual gas in the coatings. The profile microstructure images obtained by scanning electron microscope (SEM) demonstrated that the interfaces of not only between C-SiC films but also between the coatings and the substrates transformed from clear to obscure, which implied the interdiffusion and stress release near these interfaces due to initial-annealing. Further depth profile analyses of major element including Cu, Si and Fe measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) also confirmed the interdiffusion, which could effectively enhance the adhesion strength of the coatings to the substrates by forming a wider extended transition layer.

  12. Effect of Solvents, Their Mixture and Thermal Annealing on the Performance of Solution Processed Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Mohammad Hashem; Farajollahi, Farid; Nikfarjam, Alireza; Bakhtiarpour, Parisa; Saydanzad, Erfan

    2013-05-15

    In this study, we first investigated changes seen in electrical and optical properties of a polymer light-emitting diode due to using different kinds of solvents and their mixture. Two-layer light emitting diodes with organic small molecules doped in a PVK polymer host were fabricated using (i) non-aromatic solvent chloroform with a high evaporation rate; (ii) aromatic solvent chlorobenzene with a low evaporation rate, and (iii) their mixture with different relative ratios. The effect of nano-scale layer thickness, surface roughness and internal nano-morphology on threshold voltage and the amount of electric current, the luminance and efficiency of a device were assessed. Results indicated the importance of majority charge carriers' type in the selection of solvent and tuning its properties. Then, the effect of thermal annealing on electrical and optical properties of polymer light emitting diodes was investigated. During the device fabrication, pre-annealing in 80 and/or 120 °C and post-annealing in 120 °C were performed. The nano-scale effect of annealing on polymer-metal interface and electric current injection was described thoroughly. A comparison between threshold voltage, luminance and electric current efficiency of luminescence for different annealing processes was undertaken, so that the best electric current efficiency of luminescence achieved at 120 °C pre-annealing accompanied with 120 °C post-annealing.

  13. Atomic layer etching of silicon nitride using infrared annealing for short desorption time of ammonium fluorosilicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Nobuya; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Shinoda, Kazunori; Kurihara, Masaru; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Kouzuma, Yutaka; Yokogawa, Kenetsu; Sakai, Satoshi; Izawa, Masaru

    2017-06-01

    An atomic layer etching process for silicon nitride (Si3N4) has been developed in which ammonium fluorosilicate [(NH4)2SiF6] is formed and desorbed using infrared annealing. The cycle of forming and removing ammonium fluorosilicate was repeated, demonstrating that the Si3N4 etching depth was accurately controlled with high selectivity to SiO2 by changing the number of cycle. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy peak, which had been previously assigned as N-H bond of an ammonium salt, was observed after radical exposure, indicating that the ammonium fluorosilicate-based modified layer had formed. This peak disappeared after infrared annealing for 10 s, demonstrating desorption of the modified layer. In thermal desorption spectroscopy, NH3, HF, and SiF x were detected, providing further evidence for the formation of the ammonium fluorosilicate-based modified layer. In addition, this layer has a multilayer structure, protecting the Si3N4 from exposure to reactive radicals.

  14. Effects of Low Temperature Anneal on the Interface Properties of Thermal Silicon Oxide for Silicon Surface Passivation.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Nagarajan; Park, Cheolmin; Chung, Sungyoun; Ju, Minkyu; Raja, Jayapal; Yi, Junsin

    2016-05-01

    High quality surface passivation has gained a significant importance in photovoltaic industry for reducing the surface recombination and hence fabricating low cost and high efficiency solar cells using thinner wafers. The formation of good-quality SiO2 films and SiO2/Si interfaces at low processing temperatures is a prerequisite for improving the conversion efficiency of industrial solar cells with better passivation. High-temperature annealing in inert ambient is promising to improve the SiO2/Si interface. However, annealing treatments could cause negative effects on SiO2/Si interfaces due to its chemical at high temperatures. Low temperature post oxidation annealing has been carried out to investigate the structural and interface properties of Si-SiO2 system. Quasi Steady State Photo Conductance measurements shows a promising effective carrier lifetime of 420 μs, surface recombination velocity of 22 cm/s and a low interface trap density (D(it)) of 4 x 10(11) states/cm2/eV after annealing. The fixed oxide charge density was reduced to 1 x 10(11)/cm2 due to the annealing at 500 degrees C. The FWHM and the Si-O peak wavenumber corresponding to the samples annealed at 500 degrees C reveals that the Si dangling bonds in the SiO2 films due to the oxygen defects was reduced by the low temperature post oxidation annealing.

  15. Effects of molybdenum doping and thermal annealing on the physical properties of amorphous In–Zn–O films

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shiu-Jen; Wu, Kuei-Ching; Peng, Kun-Cheng

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • The effects of Mo doping and thermal annealing on a-IZO films were studied. • The carrier mobility of Mo-doped a-IZO films was enhanced by thermal annealing. • The optical bandgap of a-IZO films was unaffected by Mo doping. • Ferromagnetism was observed in Mo-doped a-IZO films after annealing. - Abstract: Amorphous In–Zn–O (a-IZO) films doped with Mo were prepared on glass substrates by using magnetron co-sputtering technique. The Mo concentration was controlled by varying the sputtering power applied on the Mo target. The effects of Mo doping and thermal annealing on the electrical, optical and magnetic properties of the a-IZO films were studied. The electrical properties of a-IZO films were found to be strongly affected by Mo doping and thermal annealing. The optical transmission near the absorption edge of a-IZO films is enhanced by Mo doping due to the decrease in reflection. The optical bandgap estimated to be 3.2 eV of a-IZO films is unaffected by Mo doping and thermal annealing. Moreover, some of Mo-doped films exhibit room-temperature ferromagnetism after annealing.

  16. Effects of thermal annealing on photoluminescence of Si+/C+ implanted SiO2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yin-Yu; Chao, Der-Sheng; Tsai, Hsu-Sheng; Liang, Jenq-Horng

    2016-04-01

    The mechanisms of photoluminescence (PL) originating from Si+/C+ implanted SiO2 are still unclear and need to be clarified. Thus, the purpose of this study is to thoroughly investigate the effects of ion implantation and post-annealing temperature on microstructures and PL characteristics of the Si+/C+ implanted SiO2 films. A comparative analysis was also conducted to clarify the different optical properties between the Si+ and Si+/C+ implanted SiO2 films. In this study, thermally-grown SiO2 films on Si substrates were used as the matrix materials. The Si+ ions and C+ ions were separately implanted into the SiO2 films at room temperature. After ion implantation, the post-annealing treatments were carried out using the furnace annealing (FA) method at various temperatures (600-1100 °C) for 1 h in a N2 ambient. The PL characteristics of the implanted SiO2 films were analyzed using a fluorescence spectrophotometer. The results revealed that the distinct PL peaks were observed at approximately 310, 450 and 650 nm in the Si+-implanted SiO2 films, which can be attributed to the defects, the so-called oxygen deficiency centers (ODCs) and non-bridging oxygen hole centers (NBOHCs), in the materials. In contrast to the Si+ ion implantation, the SiO2 films which were sequentially implanted with Si+ and C+ ions and annealed at 1100 °C can emit white light corresponding to the PL peaks located at around 420, 520 and 720 nm, those can be assigned to the Si-C bonding, C-C graphite-like structure (sp2), and Si nanocrystals, respectively. Moreover, a correlation between the optical properties, microstructures, and bonding configurations of the Si+/C+ implanted SiO2 films was also established in this study.

  17. Effect of thermal annealing on structural and optical properties of In2S3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Sonu

    2015-08-01

    There is a highly need of an alternate of toxic materials CdS for solar cell applications and indium sulfide is found the most suitable candidate to replace CdS due to its non-toxic and environmental friendly nature. In this paper, the effect of thermal annealing on the structural and optical properties of indium sulfide (In2S3) thin films is undertaken. The indium sulfide thin films of 121 nm were deposited on glass substrates employing thermal evaporation method. The films were subjected to the X-ray diffractometer and UV-Vis spectrophotometer respectively for structural and optical analysis. The XRD pattern show that the as-deposited thin film was amorphous in nature and crystallinity is found to be varied with annealing temperature. The optical analysis reveals that the optical band gap is varied with annealing. The optical parameters like absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient and refractive index were calculated. The results are in good agreement with available literature.

  18. Annealing effect on thermodynamic and physical properties of mesoporous silicon: A simulation and nitrogen sorption study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pushpendra; Huber, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Discovery of porous silicon formation in silicon substrate in 1956 while electro-polishing crystalline Si in hydrofluoric acid (HF), has triggered large scale investigations of porous silicon formation and their changes in physical and chemical properties with thermal and chemical treatment. A nitrogen sorption study is used to investigate the effect of thermal annealing on electrochemically etched mesoporous silicon (PS). The PS was thermally annealed from 200˚C to 800˚C for 1 hr in the presence of air. It was shown that the pore diameter and porosity of PS vary with annealing temperature. The experimentally obtained adsorption / desorption isotherms show hysteresis typical for capillary condensation in porous materials. A simulation study based on Saam and Cole model was performed and compared with experimentally observed sorption isotherms to study the physics behind of hysteresis formation. We discuss the shape of the hysteresis loops in the framework of the morphology of the layers. The different behavior of adsorption and desorption of nitrogen in PS with pore diameter was discussed in terms of concave menisci formation inside the pore space, which was shown to related with the induced pressure in varying the pore diameter from 7.2 nm to 3.4 nm.

  19. Effect of Post-Growth Annealing on Morphology of Ge Mesa Selectively Grown on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sungbong; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Yamada, Koji; Itabashi, Sei-Ichi; Wada, Kazumi

    Effect of the post-growth annealing on the morphology of a Ge mesa selectively grown on Si was studied from the viewpoint of near-infrared photodiode applications. By ultrahigh-vacuum chemical vapor deposition, Ge mesas were selectively grown at 600°C on Si (001) substrates partially covered with SiO2 masks. The as-grown Ge mesas showed trapezoidal cross-sections having a top (001) surface and {311} sidewall facets, as similar to previous reports. However, after the subsequent post-growth annealing at -800°C in the ultrahigh-vacuum chamber, the mesas were deformed into rounded shapes having a depression at the center and mounds near the edges. Such a deformation cannot be observed for the samples annealed once after cooled and exposed to the air. The residual hydrogen atoms on the Ge surface from the germane (GeH4) decomposition is regarded as a trigger to the observed morphological instability, while the final mesa shape is determined in order to minimize a sum of the surface and/or strain energies.

  20. Annealing effect on thermodynamic and physical properties of mesoporous silicon: A simulation and nitrogen sorption study

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Pushpendra; Huber, Patrick

    2016-04-13

    Discovery of porous silicon formation in silicon substrate in 1956 while electro-polishing crystalline Si in hydrofluoric acid (HF), has triggered large scale investigations of porous silicon formation and their changes in physical and chemical properties with thermal and chemical treatment. A nitrogen sorption study is used to investigate the effect of thermal annealing on electrochemically etched mesoporous silicon (PS). The PS was thermally annealed from 200°C to 800°C for 1 hr in the presence of air. It was shown that the pore diameter and porosity of PS vary with annealing temperature. The experimentally obtained adsorption / desorption isotherms show hysteresis typical for capillary condensation in porous materials. A simulation study based on Saam and Cole model was performed and compared with experimentally observed sorption isotherms to study the physics behind of hysteresis formation. We discuss the shape of the hysteresis loops in the framework of the morphology of the layers. The different behavior of adsorption and desorption of nitrogen in PS with pore diameter was discussed in terms of concave menisci formation inside the pore space, which was shown to related with the induced pressure in varying the pore diameter from 7.2 nm to 3.4 nm.

  1. Nanomechanical and wettability properties of Bi2Te3 thin films: Effects of post-annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Sheng-Rui; Le, Phuoc Huu; Luo, Chih-Wei; Juang, Jenh-Yih

    2017-05-01

    In this study, Bi2Te3 thin films were deposited on SiO2/Si(100) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at 250 °C. The films were then annealed in-situ in the deposition chamber at various annealing temperatures (Ta) ranging from 200 to 300 °C. The microstructural, morphological, and nanomechanical properties of the Bi2Te3 thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, and nanoindentation techniques, respectively. The XRD results indicated that all the Bi2Te3 thin films have high crystalline quality with predominant (0015) texture. Nano-indentation measurements performed with a Berkovich nanoindenter operating under the continuous contact stiffness measurement mode revealed that both the hardness and Young's modulus of the Bi2Te3 films decreased with increasing Ta. In addition, the water contact angle measurements were carried out to delineate the effects of annealing on the changes in the surface energy and wettability of the films.

  2. Quantum simulated annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boixo, Sergio; Somma, Rolando; Barnum, Howard

    2008-03-01

    We develop a quantum algorithm to solve combinatorial optimization problems through quantum simulation of a classical annealing process. Our algorithm combines techniques from quantum walks and quantum phase estimation, and can be viewed as the quantum analogue of the discrete-time Markov Chain Monte Carlo implementation of classical simulated annealing.

  3. Effects of hydrogen annealing, sulfur segregation and diffusion on the cyclic oxidation resistance of superalloys: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J. L.; Jayne, D. T.; Schaeffer, J. C.; Murphy, W. H.

    1994-01-01

    This review is based on the phenomenon of improved oxide scale adhesion for desulfurized superalloys. The proposed adhesion mechanism involves sulfur interfacial segregation and scale-metal bond weakening. Sulfur surface segregation on superalloys is examined as a function of temperature and sulfur content, and is related to the classical behavior predicted by the McLean isotherm. Effective desulfurization to less than 1 ppmw can be accomplished by hydrogen annealing and is described by sulfur diffusion kinetics in nickel. Hydrogen annealing results in excellent cyclic oxidation resistance for a number of advanced superalloys. The concept of a critical sulfur content is discussed in terms of practical annealing conditions and section thicknesses.

  4. Effects of hydrogen annealing, sulfur segregation and diffusion on the cyclic oxidation resistance of superalloys: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J. L.; Jayne, D. T.; Schaeffer, J. C.; Murphy, W. H.

    1994-01-01

    This review is based on the phenomenon of improved oxide scale adhesion for desulfurized superalloys. The proposed adhesion mechanism involves sulfur interfacial segregation and scale-metal bond weakening. Sulfur surface segregation on superalloys is examined as a function of temperature and sulfur content, and is related to the classical behavior predicted by the McLean isotherm. Effective desulfurization to less than 1 ppmw can be accomplished by hydrogen annealing and is described by sulfur diffusion kinetics in nickel. Hydrogen annealing results in excellent cyclic oxidation resistance for a number of advanced superalloys. The concept of a critical sulfur content is discussed in terms of practical annealing conditions and section thicknesses.

  5. Effects of various annealing conditions on (Nd, Mg, Zr)(Ni, Al, Co)3.74 metal hydride alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, K.; Ouchi, T.; Huang, B.

    2014-02-01

    Annealing Nd-only AB3.74 metal hydride alloy was found to effectively increase composition homogeneity, main A2B7 phase abundance, and both gaseous phase and electrochemical hydrogen storage capacities, as well as to facilitate activation, and improve battery high-rate performance, charge retention, and cycle life. As the phase abundance of the main A2B7 phase increases in the alloy with higher annealing temperatures, the general electrochemical performance improves. Extending the annealing period from 5 to 16 h further increases the A2B7 phase abundance, but deteriorates the high-rate dischargeability due to the reduction of AB5 catalytic phase.

  6. Effect of magnetic field annealing on the magneto-elastic properties of nanocrystalline NiFe2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowmya, N. Shara; Srinivas, A.; Saravanan, P.; Reddy, K. Venu Gopal; Reddy, Monaji Vinitha; Das, Dibakar; Kamat, S. V.

    2017-08-01

    The effect of magnetic-field annealing on the strain sensitivity (q) and saturation magnetostriction (λs) of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles synthesized by citrate-gel method was investigated. The use of field-annealing resulted in improved magnetoelastic properties at the expense of coercivity. A maximum λs of -40 ppm at 2 kOe, associated with q value of -3.3 ppm/Oe at 5 Oe was achieved in the field-annealed NiFe2O4.

  7. Effects of Hydrogen Annealing, Sulfur Segregation and Diffusion on the Cyclic Oxidation Resistance of Superalloys: a Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J. L.; Jayne, D. T.; Schaeffer, J. C.; Murphy, W. H.

    1994-01-01

    This review is based on the phenomenon of improved oxide scale adhesion for desulfurized superalloys. The proposed adhesion mechanism involves sulfur interfacial segregation and scale-metal bond weakening. Sulfur surface segregation on superalloys is examined as a function of temperature and sulfur content and related to classical behavior predicted by the McLean isotherm. Effective desulfurization to less than 1 ppmw can be accomplished by hydrogen annealing and is governed by sulfur diffusion kinetics in nickel. Hydrogen annealing results in excellent cyclic oxidation resistance for a number of advanced superalloys. The concept of a critical sulfur content is discussed in terms of practical annealing conditions and section thicknesses.

  8. Effect of annealing on exchange stiffness of ultrathin CoFeB film with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Noriyuki; White, Robert M.; Wang, Shan X.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of annealing on the exchange stiffness of ultrathin CoFeB films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy was investigated through the observation of magnetic domain structures by magneto-optic Kerr-effect microscopy. A significant reduction of the exchange stiffness after an annealing process was observed, which is in striking contrast to a previous report that studied thick CoFeB films with in-plane magnetic anisotropy. Our results suggest that interdiffusion of non-magnetic atoms from the adjacent layer into CoFeB layer reduces the exchange stiffness, which explains the difference between the annealing effect on ultrathin and the thick CoFeB films. Thus, it is critical to prevent annealing-induced interdiffusion in order to suppress undesired sub-volume switching that degrades thermal stability of a free-layer in spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory.

  9. Effect of δ-ferrite evolution and high-temperature annealing on mechanical properties of 11Cr3W3Co ferritic/martensitic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Zhongxia; Shen, Yinzhong; Ji, Bo; Zhang, Lanting

    2016-03-01

    An 11Cr3W3Co ferritic/martensitic steel was annealed at 1100 °C for different time to gradually dissolve δ-ferrite, and then conducted tensile, hardness, and short-term creep tests in combination with microstructural characterization to study the effect of δ-ferrite on the mechanical properties of high-Cr ferritic/martensitic steels. The amount of δ-ferrite gradually decreased to a minimum value with increasing annealing time up to 10 h, and then tended to an ascending tendency when annealed for 15 and 20 h. Accordingly the tensile strength at 300 and 650 °C, and Vickers hardness of the steel had an increase and a decrease tendency when δ-ferrite amount decreased down to its minimum value and increased again, respectively. The short-term creep property at 210 MPa at 650 °C of the steel exhibited a serious degradation as annealing time gradually increased to 15 h. The morphology and orientation of δ-ferrite grains seriously affected the short-term creep property of the steel. δ-ferrite with a continuously bamboo-like shape parallel to loading direction effectively improved the short-term creep property of the steel at high temperature, while δ-ferrite with a granular or block shape seriously damaged the short-term creep property of the steel. These findings have also been discussed.

  10. Effects of ultra-fast solvent evaporation in solvent vapor annealed cylinder-forming block polymer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruth, A.; Nelson, G.; Drapes, C.; Wong, J.; Grant, M.

    Despite continued advances in directed self-assembly of block polymer thin films viasolvent vapor annealing, a standardized process remains absent. There remain several complicating factors, notably solvent evaporation rate. Recent theoretical models point to this rate dominating the propagation of a given morphology into the bulk of a thin film following nucleation from the free surface. During this drying process, the film undergoes a competition between thermodynamically driven phase separation and kinetically controlled chain mobility. We, among others, have demonstrated that faster solvent removal can enhance propagation down to the substrate. Perpendicularly aligned cylinders are one illustrative example. To further quantify this effect, and look at ultra-fast time scales, we have constructed a solvent vapor annealing chamber that computer-controls evaporation times down to 15 ms. In situ spectral reflectance, with 10 ms temporal resolution, monitors the swelling and evaporation. We will present results on cylinder-forming polystyrene-block-polylactide thin films swollen to near disorder with tetrahydrofuran, followed by immediate solvent evaporation. Our data reveals control over evaporation times, ranging from 15 ms to several seconds, and the discovery of various evaporation types, previously undetected, including linear, exponential and combinations. Furthermore, atomic force micrographs correlate surface morphologies (both free and substrate) of the resultant films with each evaporation condition. Funded by Nebraska EPSCoR.

  11. Study on effect of annealing conditions on structural, magnetic and superconducting properties of MgB{sub 2} bulk samples

    SciTech Connect

    Phaneendra, Konduru Asokan, K. Kanjilal, D.; Awana, V. P. S.; Sastry, S. Sreehari

    2014-04-24

    Effect of annealing conditions on structural, magnetic and superconducting properties of Magnesium Diboride (MgB{sub 2}) bulk superconductor samples prepared by solid state route method are compared. The samples are made by taking Magnesium and Boron powders in stoichiometric ratio, grounded well and pelletized at pressure of about 10Tonnes. These pellets are annealed in both Argon and vacuum environment separately up to 800°c for two hours. Both the samples show clear superconducting transition at Tc ∼ 38 k. This is further conformed by AC/DC magnetization (M-T), Resistivity [ρ (T, H)] measurements under magnetic field up to 14 Tesla as well. Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction of both samples conformed the MgB{sub 2} phase formation with P6/mmm space group symmetry. Scanning Electron Microscopy images of the surface revile more agglomeration of grains in case of Argon annealed samples. This result in more critical current density (J{sub c}) of Argon annealed samples than vacuum annealed one calculated from Bean's critical state model. This high Jc is explained in terms of more inter grain connectivity for Argon annealed sample than vacuum annealed sample.

  12. Effect of Post-Deposition Annealing on RF-Sputtered Catalyst-Free Grown ZnO Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Amit; Kumar, Naresh

    2017-08-01

    Catalyst-free zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-structures were synthesized on silicon (100) substrate by radio frequency sputtering. The as-deposited films were post-annealed at 200°C, 400°C, 600°C, and 800°C. The effects of annealing temperature on the structural, morphological and optical properties of these nanostructures were investigated using x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectroscopic ellipsometry. XRD showed c-axis-oriented growth with the increase in crystallinity at the higher annealing temperature of these ZnO nanostructures. The crystallite size calculated using Scherrer's formula in the XRD data was found to increase with the annealing temperature. AFM images confirmed the growth of grains at higher annealing temperatures. Optical band gaps of these ZnO nanostructures were calculated using reflectance spectra in the ultraviolet-visible region and found to decrease from 3.19 eV to 3.09 eV as the annealing temperature increased from 200°C to 800°C. The decrease in band gap may be attributed to the decrease in oxygen vacancies at higher annealing temperatures and may be useful for different applications.

  13. The effect of annealing temperature on the electrical characterization of Co/n type GaP Schottky diode

    SciTech Connect

    Orak, İ.; Ejderha, K.; Sönmez, E.; Alanyalıoğlu, M.; Turut, A.

    2015-01-15

    The Co/n-GaP nano-Schottky diodes have been fabricated to investigate effect of annealing temperature on the characteristics of the device. DC Magnetron sputtering technique has been used for Co metallic contact. The samples have been annealed for three minutes at 400 °C and 600 °C. XRD analyzes of the devices subjected to thermal annealing process have been investigated. Surface images have been taken with atomic force microscopy (AFM) in order to examine the morphology of the surface of the metal layer before and after the annealing the sample. The current–voltage (I–V) measurements taken at room temperature have shown that the ideality factor and series resistance decrease with the increasing annealing temperature. The ideality factor was found to be 1.02 for sample annealed at 400 °C. Before and after annealing, depending on the temperature measurement, the capacitance–frequency (C–f), and conductance–frequency (G–f) have been measured, and graphs have been plotted.

  14. Effect of post thermal annealing on the structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films prepared from polymer precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Jijoy P.; Mathew, Jacob; Varghese, George

    2012-06-01

    ZnO thin films were synthesized in a new method which uses Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) as polymer precursor. The films are annealed at different temperatures to study the effect of post thermal annealing on the structural and optical properties of grown films. It was found that all the films possess tensile strain which increases as annealing temperature increases. The structural parameters like grain size, lattice constants, optical band gap and Urbach energy depend on the annealing temperature.

  15. Annealing of gold nanostructures sputtered on glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švorčík, V.; Siegel, J.; Šutta, P.; Mistrík, J.; Janíček, P.; Worsch, P.; Kolská, Z.

    2011-03-01

    The effects of annealing at 300 °C on gold nanostructures sputtered onto glass substrate were studied using XRD, SAXSees, the Van der Pauw method and ellipsometry. As-sputtered and annealed samples exhibit a different dependence of the gold lattice parameter on the sputtering time. With increasing sputtering time the average thickness of the layer and the size of gold crystallites increased. Another rapid enlargement of the crystallites is observed after annealing. The volume resistivity decreases rapidly with the increasing sputtering time for both, as-deposited and annealed structures. With increasing sputtering time initially discontinuous gold coverage changes gradually in a continuous one. Electrically continuous gold coverage on the as-sputtered and annealed samples exhibits the same concentration of free charge carriers and Hall mobility. Optical constants of as-deposited and annealed gold films determined by ellipsometry support resistivity measurements and clearly manifest the presence of plasmons in discontinuous films.

  16. Effect of recrystallization annealing on the inelastic properties of TiNi alloy under bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishkov, V. N.; Lotkov, A. I.; Baturin, A. A.; Cherniavsky, A. G.; Timkin, V. N.; Zhapova, D. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    The data reported here show that recrystallization annealing at 973 K transforms the initial nanocrystalline structure of Ti49.1Ni50.9 (at %) into a microcrystalline structure with an average grain size of ≤11.4 µm and changes the sequence of martensite transformations from B2→R→B19' to B2→B19'. Also dependences of the superelasticity effect (SE), shape memory effect (SME), summary reversible inelastic strain (SIS = SE + SME), and plastic strain on total strain for the alloy exposed to bending in isothermal (295 K) loading-unloading cycles with post-unloading heating are presented.

  17. Effect of NO annealing on charge traps in oxide insulator and transition layer for 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yifan; Lv, Hongliang; Niu, Yingxi; Li, Ling; Song, Qingwen; Tang, Xiaoyan; Li, Chengzhan; Zhao, Yanli; Xiao, Li; Wang, Liangyong; Tang, Guangming; Zhang, Yimen; Zhang, Yuming

    2016-09-01

    The effect of nitric oxide (NO) annealing on charge traps in the oxide insulator and transition layer in n-type 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices has been investigated using the time-dependent bias stress (TDBS), capacitance-voltage (C-V), and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). It is revealed that two main categories of charge traps, near interface oxide traps (Nniot) and oxide traps (Not), have different responses to the TDBS and C-V characteristics in NO-annealed and Ar-annealed samples. The Nniot are mainly responsible for the hysteresis occurring in the bidirectional C-V characteristics, which are very close to the semiconductor interface and can readily exchange charges with the inner semiconductor. However, Not is mainly responsible for the TDBS induced C-V shifts. Electrons tunneling into the Not are hardly released quickly when suffering TDBS, resulting in the problem of the threshold voltage stability. Compared with the Ar-annealed sample, Nniot can be significantly suppressed by the NO annealing, but there is little improvement of Not. SIMS results demonstrate that the Nniot are distributed within the transition layer, which correlated with the existence of the excess silicon. During the NO annealing process, the excess Si atoms incorporate into nitrogen in the transition layer, allowing better relaxation of the interface strain and effectively reducing the width of the transition layer and the density of Nniot. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61404098 and 61274079), the Doctoral Fund of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 20130203120017), the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB759600), the National Grid Science & Technology Project, China (Grant No. SGRI-WD-71-14-018), and the Key Specific Project in the National Science & Technology Program, China (Grant Nos. 2013ZX02305002-002 and 2015CB759600).

  18. Annealing effects of tantalum films on Si and SiO2/Si substrates in various vacuums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ling; Wang, Yue; Gong, Hao

    2001-07-01

    The annealing effects of 550 nm thick β-Ta films sputtered on Si and SiO2 substrates have been investigated under various vacuum conditions. Phase transformation from the tetragonal β-Ta into body-centered-cubic α-Ta of much higher conductivity occurred at annealing temperatures lower than 500 °C and 80% of β-Ta transformed into α-Ta after annealing at 600 °C for Ta on a Si substrate. For Ta on a SiO2 substrate, no phase transformation was observed at 500 °C annealing, and only 20% of β-Ta transformed into α-Ta at 600 °C. Oxygen diffusion into the Ta film at the interface of Ta/SiO2 could hinder β-Ta to α-Ta transformation. Both Ta on Si and Ta on SiO2 samples have smooth surfaces after annealing in 2×10-5 Torr. After annealing in a vacuum lower than 2×10-4 Torr, surface oxidation of the Ta thin films was detected. The increase of oxygen content in the Ta films caused higher compressive stress, and resulted in the film peeling in a serpentine pattern during annealing at 500 °C in 2×10-2 Torr for Ta on a SiO2 substrate. The Ta films cracked and detached from the SiO2 substrate after being annealed at 750 °C in 2×10-2 Torr. In contrast, no crack was found in Ta on Si, probably because of the relief of film stress due to more β-Ta being transformed into α-Ta during annealing. The residual oxygen and moisture in low vacuum may build up stress in Ta thin films during thermal processes, which can cause major reliability problems in electronic and other applications.

  19. Effect of annealing on structural and optical properties of Ni(1-x)MnxO nanostructures thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodair, Ziad T.; Kamil, Asaad A.; Abdalaah, Yamamah K.

    2016-12-01

    Nanostructured Nickel-Manganese oxide (Ni(1-x)MnxO) thin films, where (x=0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8%) have been prepared by a simple and inexpensive chemical spray pyrolysis technique (CSP) on glass substrates at a temperature of (400 °C) and thickness of about (300 nm). The effect of annealing on structural properties has been investigated. The structural properties of these films have been studied using X-ray diffraction. The X-ray results showed that all films before and after annealing are polycrystalline in nature with cubic structure and preferred orientation along (111) plane. The average crystallite size (Dav) was calculated using Scherrer formula for Nickel-Manganese oxide (Ni(1-x)MnxO) thin films before and after annealing and it is found that the (Dav) increases as the Mn-concentration increases and increases after annealing too, and the (Dav) values after annealing were in the range of (11.260-19.943) nm. The Structural parameters including (Lattice Constant (a○), Dislocation Density (δ), Number of Crystal Per Unite area (No) and Texture coeffecient (Tc) were also calculated. AFM results showed the average grain size estimated from the AFM granularity report confirms the XRD results. The optical properties of the films prepared before and after annealing were studied by recording the transmittance and absorbance spectrum in the range of (300-900) nm, the results showed that the absorbance increases with increasing the percentage of doping and it is also found that the energy band gap for the allowed direct transition decreass with increasing the percentage of doping for all films prepared before and after annealing and the values were in the range of (3.59-3.53 eV) before annealing and increased to the range of (3.64-3.57 eV) after annealing.

  20. Annealing effects in plated-wire memory elements. I - Interdiffusion of copper and Permalloy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knudson, C. I.; Kench, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Results of investigations using X-ray diffraction and electron-beam microprobe techniques have shown that copper and Permalloy platings interdiffuse at low temperatures when plated-wire memory elements are annealed for times as short as 50 hr. Measurable interdiffusion between Permalloy platings and gold substrates does not occur in similar conditions. Both magnetic and compositional changes during aging are found to occur by a thermally activated process with activation energies around 38 kcal/mol. It is shown, however, that copper-diffusion and magnetic-dispersion changes during aging are merely concurrent processes, neither being the other's cause.

  1. Annealing effects in plated-wire memory elements. I - Interdiffusion of copper and Permalloy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knudson, C. I.; Kench, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Results of investigations using X-ray diffraction and electron-beam microprobe techniques have shown that copper and Permalloy platings interdiffuse at low temperatures when plated-wire memory elements are annealed for times as short as 50 hr. Measurable interdiffusion between Permalloy platings and gold substrates does not occur in similar conditions. Both magnetic and compositional changes during aging are found to occur by a thermally activated process with activation energies around 38 kcal/mol. It is shown, however, that copper-diffusion and magnetic-dispersion changes during aging are merely concurrent processes, neither being the other's cause.

  2. Effect of air annealing on structural and magnetic properties of Ni/NiO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, K.; Ullah, Asmat; Mushtaq, M.; Kamran, M.; Hussain, S. S.; Mumtaz, M.

    2016-11-01

    We reported systematic study on structural and magnetic properties of nickel/nickel oxide (Ni/NiO) nanoparticles annealed under air atmosphere at different temperatures in the range 400-800 °C. The XRD spectra revealed two phases such as Ni and NiO. The average crystallite size increases with increasing annealing temperature. A phase diagram was developed between two phases versus annealing temperature using XRD analysis. At lower annealing temperatures, Ni phase is dominant which does not easily undergo oxidation to form NiO. The NiO phase increases with increasing annealing temperature. FTIR spectroscopy revealed an increase in the NiO phase content at higher annealing temperature, which is in agreement with the XRD analysis. SEM images showed that nanoparticles are well separated at lower annealing temperatures but get agglomerated at higher annealing temperatures. The ferromagnetic (FM) Ni phase content and saturation magnetization (Ms) showed nearly the same trend with increasing annealing temperature. The nanoparticles annealed at 500 °C and 800 °C revealed highest and lowest Ms values, respectively, which is in accordance with the XRD phase diagram. Coercivity showed an overall decreasing trend with increasing annealing temperature due to decreased concentration of FM Ni phase and increasing average crystallite size. All these measurements indicate that the structural and magnetic properties of Ni/NiO nanoparticles are strongly influenced by the annealing temperature.

  3. Effect of laser annealing of pressure gradients in a diamond-anvil cell using common solid pressure media.

    PubMed

    Uts, Ilya; Glazyrin, Konstantin; Lee, Kanani K M

    2013-10-01

    Pressure media are one of the most effective deterrents of pressure gradients in diamond-anvil cell (DAC) experiments. The media, however, become less effective with increasing pressure, particularly for solid pressure media. One of the most popular ways of alleviating the increase in pressure gradients in DAC samples is through laser annealing of the sample. We explore the effectiveness of this technique for six common solid pressure media that include: alkali metal halides LiF, NaCl, KCl, CsCl, KBr, as well as amorphous SiO2. Pressure gradients are determined through the analysis of the first-order diamond Raman band across the sample before and after annealing the sample with a near-infrared laser to temperatures between ~2000 and 3000 K. As expected, we find that in the absence of sample chamber geometrical changes and diamond anvil damage, laser annealing reduces pressure gradients, albeit to varying amounts. We find that under ideal conditions, NaCl provides the best deterrent to pressure gradients before and after laser annealing, at least up to pressures of 60 GPa and temperatures between ~2000 and 3000 K. Amorphous SiO2, on the other hand, transforms in to harder crystalline stishovite upon laser annealing at high pressures resulting in increased pressure gradients upon further compression without laser annealing.

  4. Effect of continuous induction annealing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of copper-clad aluminum flat bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin-hua; Jiang, Yan-bin; Zhang, Hong-jie; Xie, Jian-xin

    2016-12-01

    Copper-clad aluminum (CCA) flat bars produced by the continuous casting-rolling process were subjected to continuous induction heating annealing (CIHA), and the effects of induction heating temperature and holding time on the microstructure, interface, and mechanical properties of the flat bars were investigated. The results showed that complete recrystallization of the copper sheath occurred under CIHA at 460°C for 5 s, 480°C for 3 s, or 500°C for 1 s and that the average grain size in the copper sheath was approximately 10.0 μm. In the case of specimens subjected to CIHA at 460-500°C for longer than 1 s, complete recrystallization occurred in the aluminum core. In the case of CIHA at 460-500°C for 1-5 s, a continuous interfacial layer with a thickness of 2.5-5.5 μm formed and the thickness mainly increased with increasing annealing temperature. After CIHA, the interfacial layer consisted primarily of a Cu9Al4 layer and a CuAl2 layer; the average interface shear strength of the CCA flat bars treated by CIHA at 460-500°C for 1-5 s was 45-52 MPa. After full softening annealing, the hardness values of the copper sheath and the aluminum core were HV 65 and HV 24, respectively, and the hardness along the cross section of the CCA flat bar was uniform.

  5. Estimation of effective temperatures in a quantum annealer: Towards deep learning applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Realpe-Gómez, John; Benedetti, Marcello; Perdomo-Ortiz, Alejandro

    Sampling is at the core of deep learning and more general machine learning applications; an increase in its efficiency would have a significant impact across several domains. Recently, quantum annealers have been proposed as a potential candidate to speed up these tasks, but several limitations still bar them from being used effectively. One of the main limitations, and the focus of this work, is that using the device's experimentally accessible temperature as a reference for sampling purposes leads to very poor correlation with the Boltzmann distribution it is programmed to sample from. Based on quantum dynamical arguments, one can expect that if the device indeed happens to be sampling from a Boltzmann-like distribution, it will correspond to one with an instance-dependent effective temperature. Unless this unknown temperature can be unveiled, it might not be possible to effectively use a quantum annealer for Boltzmann sampling processes. In this work, we propose a strategy to overcome this challenge with a simple effective-temperature estimation algorithm. We provide a systematic study assessing the impact of the effective temperatures in the quantum-assisted training of Boltzmann machines, which can serve as a building block for deep learning architectures. This work was supported by NASA Ames Research Center.

  6. Effects of QD concentrations and thermal annealing on the performance of self-assembly QD-OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Uddin, A; Teo, C C

    2011-12-01

    We have fabricated and investigated the effect of CdSe/ZnS quantum dot (QD) concentrations on the performance of self-assembly hybrid inorganic/organic light emitting diodes (QD-OLEDs). The uniform distribution of QDs with controllable density was achieved using the conventional spin-coating method. There was a QD threshold concentration for the emission of QDs in QD-OLED. Below that threshold concentration we did not observe the QD emission from the QD-OLED. The best performance of QD-OLED was found for the QD concentration of -9 x 10(11) cm(-2). The QD electroluminescence intensity was increased about three times after the annealing of QD-OLED at 80 degrees C for about 20 minutes in nitrogen atmosphere. The QD electroluminescence peak energy was remain same before and after the annealing of QD-OLED. The maximum external quantum efficiency was around 2.1%. The effect of process parameters and the QD emission mechanism are discussed.

  7. Effect of irradiation parameters on defect aggregation during thermal annealing of LiF irradiated with swift ions and electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, K.; Neumann, R.; Trautmann, C.; Volkov, A. E.; Sorokin, M. V.

    2010-10-01

    Absorption spectroscopy were performed to study the effects of thermal annealing on the aggregation of color centers in LiF crystals irradiated with different ions between carbon and uranium of megaelectron volt-gigaelectron volt energy. The beam parameters such as energy, energy loss, and fluence have a pronounced influence on the initial defect composition and concentration as well as their evolution upon thermal annealing. A distinct phenomenon was observed, viz., the enhancement of F{sub n} centers for annealing temperatures between 500 and 700 K, followed by Li colloid formation above 700 K. The phenomenon requires specific irradiation conditions whereas the formation of Mg colloids from Mg impurities occurs in all irradiated crystals. The mechanisms of annealing and colloid formation are discussed.

  8. Effects of annealing on the structure and magnetic properties of Fe27Co23Pb50 nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R. L.; Tang, S. L.; Shi, Y. G.; Fei, X. L.; Nie, B.; Du, Y. W.

    2008-04-01

    Ferromagnetic-nonmagnetic heterogeneous Fe27Co23Pb50 ternary metal nanowire arrays were successfully fabricated by alternating current electrodeposition into anodic alumina oxide (AAO) template. The effects of the different annealing temperatures (100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600°C) on the structure and magnetic properties have been discussed. X-ray diffraction observations indicated that FeCo and Pb phases coexist for the as-deposited and annealed samples. Magnetic measurements indicate that the nanowire arrays have high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with their easy axis parallel to the nanowire arrays. The coercivity and remanence ratio increases as the annealing temperature rises, reaches their maximum at 400°C, and then decreases as the annealing temperature rises further. The mechanism of the magnetic properties and magnetic variety should be attributed to the special structure of the nanowires/AAO.

  9. Effect of annealing temperature on the morphology and optical properties of PMMA films by spin-coating method

    SciTech Connect

    Aadila, A. Afaah, A. N.; Asib, N. A. M.; Mohamed, R.; Rusop, M.; Khusaimi, Z.

    2016-07-06

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films were deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel spin-coating method. The films were annealed for 10 minutes in furnace at different annealing temperature of room temperature, 50, 100, 150 and 200 °C. The effect of annealing temperatures to the surface and optical properties of PMMA films spin-coated on the substrate were investigated by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) Spectroscopy. It was observed in AFM analysis all the annealed films show excellent smooth surface with zero roughness. All the samples demonstrate a high transmittance of 80% in UV region as shown in UV-Vis measurement. Highly transparent films indicate the films are good optical properties and could be applied in various optical applications and also in non-linear optics.

  10. Annealing effect on Cu{sub 2}S thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    SciTech Connect

    More, Pawan; Dhanayat, Swapnali; Gattu, Ketan; Mahajan, Sandeep; Upadhye, Deepak; Sharma, Ramphal

    2016-05-06

    In present work Cu{sub 2}S thin film fabricated on glass substrate by simple, cost effective chemical bath deposition method subsequently it annealed at 150°C. These films were studied for their structural, optical and electrical properties using X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectrophotometer and I-V system. The results show successful synthesis of Cu{sub 2}S thin films and improvement in crystalline nature of the thin film which resulted in reduced bad gap and resistance of the film. Thus these thin films prove to be a promising candidate for solar cell application.

  11. Formation of n-type pyrite films from electrodeposited iron sulphides: effect of annealing temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, A.; Ares, J.R.; Ferrer, I.J.; Silva Pereira, M.I. da; Sanchez, C

    2003-06-19

    The n-type polycrystalline pyrite films were obtained by annealing mackinawite electrodeposited on metallic titanium substrates in sulphur atmosphere in the temperature range 523-773 K. The detailed structural and morphological characterisation of the films shows that an increase of crystallite size and a porosity decrease was achieved by increasing the sulphuration temperature. The measurement of thermoelectric effect indicates that pyrite films present n-type conduction, which is attributed to the diffusion of Ti atoms from the substrate. The Seebeck coefficient varies from -54 to -24 {mu}V/K, depending on pyrite grain size.

  12. Annealing effect on Cu2S thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Pawan; Dhanayat, Swapnali; Gattu, Ketan; Mahajan, Sandeep; Upadhye, Deepak; Sharma, Ramphal

    2016-05-01

    In present work Cu2S thin film fabricated on glass substrate by simple, cost effective chemical bath deposition method subsequently it annealed at 150°c.These films were studied for their structural, optical and electrical properties using X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectrophotometer and I-V system. The results show successful synthesis of Cu2S thin films and improvement in crystalline nature of the thin film which resulted in reduced bad gap and resistance of the film. Thus these thinfilms prove to be a promising candidate for solar cell application.

  13. Neutron, gamma ray and post-irradiation thermal annealing effects on power semiconductor switches

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarze, G.E.; Frasca, A.J.

    1994-09-01

    The effects of neutrons and gamma rays on the electrical and switching characteristics of power semiconductor switches must be known and understood by the designer of the power conditioning, control, and transmission subsystem of space nuclear power systems. The SP-100 radiation requirements at 25 m from the nuclear source are a neutron fluence of 10{sup 13} n/cm {sup 2} and a gamma dose of 0.5 Mrads. Experimental data showing the effects of neutrons and gamma rays on the performance characteristics of power-type NPN Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs), Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs), and Static Induction Transistors (SITs) are given in this paper. These three types of devices were tested at radiation levels which met or exceeded the SP-100 requirements. For the SP-100 radiation requirements, the BJTs were found to be most sensitive to neutrons, the MOSFETs were most sensitive to gamma rays, and the SITs were only slightly sensitive to neutrons. Post-irradiation thermal anneals at 300 K and up to 425 K were done on these devices and the effectiveness of these anneals are also discussed.

  14. Neutron, gamma ray and post-irradiation thermal annealing effects on power semiconductor switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, G. E.; Frasca, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of neutron and gamma rays on the electrical and switching characteristics of power semiconductor switches must be known and understood by the designer of the power conditioning, control, and transmission subsystem of space nuclear power systems. The SP-100 radiation requirements at 25 m from the nuclear source are a neutron fluence of 10(exp 13) n/sq cm and a gamma dose of 0.5 Mrads. Experimental data showing the effects of neutrons and gamma rays on the performance characteristics of power-type NPN Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs), Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs), and Static Induction Transistors (SITs) are presented. These three types of devices were tested at radiation levels which met or exceeded the SP-100 requirements. For the SP-100 radiation requirements, the BJTs were found to be most sensitive to neutrons, the MOSFETs were most sensitive to gamma rays, and the SITs were only slightly sensitive to neutrons. Post-irradiation thermal anneals at 300 K and up to 425 K were done on these devices and the effectiveness of these anneals are also discussed.

  15. The effect of annealing ambient on the characteristics of an indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin film transistor.

    PubMed

    Park, Soyeon; Bang, Seokhwan; Lee, Seungjun; Park, Joohyun; Ko, Youngbin; Jeon, Hyeongtag

    2011-07-01

    In this study, the effects of different annealing conditions (air, O2, N2, vacuum) on the chemical and electrical characteristics of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFT) were investigated. The contact resistance and interface properties between the IGZO film and the gate dielectric improved after an annealing treatment. However, the chemical bonds in the IGZO bulk changed under various annealing atmospheres, which, in turn, altered the characteristics of the TFTs. The TFTs annealed in vacuum and N2 ambients exhibited undesired switching properties due to the high carrier concentration (>10(17) cm(-3)) of the IGZO active layer. In contrast, the IGZO TFTs annealed in air and oxygen ambients displayed clear transfer characteristics due to an adequately adjusted carrier concentration in the operating range of the TFT. Such an optimal carrier concentration arose through the stabilization of unstable chemical bonds in the IGZO film. With regard to device performance, the TFTs annealed in O2 and air exhibited saturation mobility values of 8.29 and 7.54 cm2/Vs, on-off ratios of 7.34 x 10(8) and 3.95 x 10(8), and subthreshold swing (SS) values of 0.23 and 0.19 V/decade, respectively. Therefore, proper annealing ambients contributed to internal modifications in the IGZO structure and led to an enhancement in the oxidation state of the metal. As a result, defects such as oxygen vacancies were eliminated. Oxygen annealing is thus effective for controlling the carrier concentration of the active layer, decreasing electron traps, and enhancing TFT performance.

  16. Effect of solvent annealing on the tensile deformation mechanism of a colloidal crystalline polymeric latex film.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianqi; Yi, Zhiyong; Wang, Qiao; Liu, Zhenyu; Perlich, Jan; Gehrke, Rainer; Men, Yongfeng

    2011-10-04

    The influence of solvent annealing on microscopic deformational behavior of a styrene/n-butyl acrylate copolymer latex film subjected to uniaxial tensile deformation was studied by small-angle X-ray scattering. It was demonstrated that the microscopic deformation mechanism of the latex films transformed from a nonaffine deformation behavior to an affine deformation behavior after solvent annealing. This was attributed to the interdiffusion of polymeric chains between adjacent swollen latex particles in the film. It turns out that solvent annealing is much more efficient than thermal annealing due to a much slow evaporation process after solvent annealing. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  17. Evolution of Self-Assembled Au NPs by Controlling Annealing Temperature and Dwelling Time on Sapphire (0001).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jihoon; Pandey, Puran; Sui, Mao; Li, Ming-Yu; Zhang, Quanzhen; Kunwar, Sundar

    2015-12-01

    Au nanoparticles (NPs) have been utilized in a wide range of device applications as well as catalysts for the fabrication of nanopores and nanowires, in which the performance of the associated devices and morphology of nanopores and nanowires are strongly dependent on the size, density, and configuration of the Au NPs. In this paper, the evolution of the self-assembled Au nanostructures and NPs on sapphire (0001) is systematically investigated with the variation of annealing temperature (AT) and dwelling time (DT). At the low-temperature range between 300 and 600 °C, three distinct regimes of the Au nanostructure configuration are observed, i.e., the vermiform-like Au piles, irregular Au nano-mounds, and Au islands. Subsequently, being provided with relatively high thermal energy between 700 and 900 °C, the round dome-shaped Au NPs are fabricated based on the Volmer-Weber growth model. With the increased AT, the size of the Au NPs is gradually increased due to a more favorable surface diffusion while the density is gradually decreased as a compensation. On the other hand, with the increased DT, the size and density of Au NPs decrease due to the evaporation of Au at relatively high annealing temperature at 950 °C.

  18. Real-Time observation of PS-PDMS block copolymer self-assembly under solvent vapor annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Wubin; Yager, Kevin; Ross, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    Solvent annealing provides a convenient way to produce microphase separation in films of block copolymers, but the morphology transition of the film during the solvent absorption, equilibrium solvent-BCP concentration and solvent desorption process are not well known. An in situ study of solvent annealing of polystyrene-block-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-PDMS, 16 kg/mol, fPDMS = 30%, period 17 nm) diblock copolymer was carried by synchrotron grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). The swollen film morphology was found to be strongly dependent on swelling ratio. A transition from the disordered state to a highly ordered state which contained multiple layers of in-plane cylinders was observed at a swelling ratio around 1.45 from samples with 100nm to 1000nm as-cast thickness. The rate of solvent absorption was found to be less important to the dried morphology, while the time of equilibrium solvent-BCP concentration stage was found to influence the orientation of self-assembled microdomains and the drying rate was found to affect the degree of structure deformation. The implications of the results to pattern generation for block copolymer directed self-assembly will be discussed. Semiconductor Research Corporation, National Science Foundation.

  19. Effect of annealing on morphology and photoluminescence of beta-Ga2O3 nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiying; Zhuang, Huizhao; Xue, Chengshan; Li, Baoli

    2008-07-01

    A novel method was applied to prepare one-dimensional beta-Ga2O3 nanostructure films. In this method, beta-Ga2O3 nanostructures have been successfully synthesized on Si(111) substrates through annealing sputtered Ga22O3/Mo films for differernt time under flowing ammonia. The as-synthesized beta-Ga2O3 nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. The results show that the formed nanostructures are single-crystalline Ga2O3 with monoclinic structure. The annealing time of the samples has an evident influence on the morphology and optical property of the nanostructured beta-Ga2O3 synthesized. The representative photoluminescence spectrum at room temperature exhibits a strong and broad emission band centered at 411.5 nm and a relatively weak emission peak located at 437.6 nm. The growth mechanism of the beta-Ga2O3 nanostructured materials is also discussed briefly.

  20. The Effects of Annealing Temperatures on Composition and Strain in SixGe1−x Obtained by Melting Growth of Electrodeposited Ge on Si (100)

    PubMed Central

    Abidin, Mastura Shafinaz Zainal; Morshed, Tahsin; Chikita, Hironori; Kinoshita, Yuki; Muta, Shunpei; Anisuzzaman, Mohammad; Park, Jong-Hyeok; Matsumura, Ryo; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop; Sadoh, Taizoh; Hashim, Abdul Manaf

    2014-01-01

    The effects of annealing temperatures on composition and strain in SixGe1−x, obtained by rapid melting growth of electrodeposited Ge on Si (100) substrate were investigated. Here, a rapid melting process was performed at temperatures of 1000, 1050 and 1100°C for 1 s. All annealed samples show single crystalline structure in (100) orientation. A significant appearance of Si-Ge vibration mode peak at ~00 cm−1 confirms the existence of Si-Ge intermixing due to out-diffusion of Si into Ge region. On a rapid melting process, Ge melts and reaches the thermal equilibrium in short time. Si at Ge/Si interface begins to dissolve once in contact with the molten Ge to produce Si-Ge intermixing. The Si fraction in Si-Ge intermixing was calculated by taking into account the intensity ratio of Ge-Ge and Si-Ge vibration mode peaks and was found to increase with the annealing temperatures. It is found that the strain turns from tensile to compressive as the annealing temperature increases. The Si fraction dependent thermal expansion coefficient of SixGe1−x is a possible cause to generate such strain behavior. The understanding of compositional and strain characteristics is important in Ge/Si heterostructure as these properties seem to give significant effects in device performance. PMID:28788521

  1. Irradiate-anneal screening of total dose effects in semiconductor devices. [radiation hardening of spacecraft components of Mariner spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Price, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    An extensive investigation of irradiate-anneal (IRAN) screening against total dose radiation effects was carried out as part of a program to harden the Mariner Jupiter/Saturn 1977 (MJS'77) spacecraft to survive the Jupiter radiation belts. The method consists of irradiating semiconductor devices with Cobalt-60 to a suitable total dose under representative bias conditions and of separating the parts in the undesired tail of the distribution from the bulk of the parts by means of a predetermined acceptance limit. The acceptable devices are then restored close to their preirradiation condition by annealing them at an elevated temperature. IRAN was used when lot screen methods were impracticable due to lack of time, and when members of a lot showed a diversity of radiation response. The feasibility of the technique was determined by testing of a number of types of linear bipolar integrated circuits, analog switches, n-channel JFETS and bipolar transistors. Based on the results of these experiments a number of device types were selected for IRAN of flight parts in the MJS'77 spacecraft systems. The part types, screening doses, acceptance criteria, number of parts tested and rejected as well as the program steps are detailed.

  2. No adverse effects of submelt-annealed highly crosslinked polyethylene in cemented cups

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Highly crosslinked polyethylene (PE) is in standard use worldwide. Differences in the crosslinking procedure may affect the clinical performance. Experimenatal data from retrieved cups have shown free radicals and excessive wear of annealed highly crosslinked PE. We have previously reported low wear and good clinical performance after 6 years with this implant, and now report on the 10-year results. Patients and methods In 8 patients, we measured wear of annealed highly crosslinked PE prospectively with radiostereometry after 10 years. Activity was assessed by UCLA activity score and a specifically designed activity score. Conventional radiographs were evaluated for osteolysis and clinical outcome by the Harris hip score (HHS). Results The mean (95% CI) proximal head penetration for highly crosslinked PE after 10 years was 0.07 (–0.015 to 0.153) mm, and the 3D wear was 0.2 (0.026 to 0.36) mm. Without creep, proximal head penetration was 0.02 (–0.026 to 0.066) mm and for 3D penetration was 0.016 (–0.47 to 0.08) mm. This represents an annual proximal wear of less than 2 µm. All cups were clinically and radiographically stable but showed a tendency of increased rotation after 5 years. Interpretation Wear for annealed highly crosslinked PE is extremely low up to 10 years. Free radicals do not affect mechanical performance or lead to clinically adverse effects. Creep stops after the first 6 months after implantation. Highly crosslinked PE is a true competitor of hard-on-hard bearings. PMID:22248172

  3. The effect of annealing temperature on the stability of gallium tin zinc oxide thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Ngoc; McCall, Briana; Alston, Robert; Collis, Ward; Iyer, Shanthi

    2015-10-01

    With the growing need for large area display technology and the push for a faster and cheaper alternative to the current amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) as the active channel layer for pixel-driven thin film transistors (TFTs) display applications, gallium tin zinc oxide (GSZO) has shown to be a promising candidate due to the similar electronic configuration of Sn4+ and In3+. In this work TFTs of GSZO sputtered films with only a few atomic % of Ga and Sn have been fabricated. A systematic and detailed comparison has been made of the properties of the GSZO films annealed at two temperatures: 140 °C and 450 °C. The electrical and optical stabilities of the respective devices have been studied to gain more insight into the degradation mechanism and are correlated with the initial TFT performance prior to the application of stress. Post deposition annealing at 450 °C of the films in air was found to lead to a higher atomic concentration of Sn4+ in these films and a superior quality of the film, as attested by the higher film density and less surface and interface roughness in comparison to the lower annealed temperature device. These result in significantly reduced shallow and deep interface traps with improved performance of the device exhibiting VON of -3.5 V, ION/IOFF of 108, field-effect mobility (μFE) of 4.46 cm2 V-1s-1, and sub-threshold swing of 0.38 V dec-1. The device is stable under both electrical and optical bias for wavelengths of 550 nm and above. Thus, this work demonstrates GSZO-based TFTs as a promising viable option to the IGZO TFTs by further tailoring the film composition and relevant processing temperatures.

  4. Effect of annealing environments on self-organized TiO2 nanotubes for efficient photocatalytic applications.

    PubMed

    Hyam, Rajeshkumar Shankar; Lee, Jongseok; Cho, Eunju; Khim, Jeehyeong; Lee, Haigun

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, amorphous titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes were synthesized by one-step anodization technique and subsequently annealed in different environments to investigate the effect of annealing atmospheres on the formation of different crystalline phases. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns clearly showed the presence of anatase TiO2 phase with various crystallite sizes. The samples annealed in oxygen and air atmospheres at 500 degrees C showed a dominant anatase phase and a small amount of rutile phase, on the other hand, the samples annealed in nitrogen and argon atmospheres and in a vacuum at 500 degrees C contained the anatase phase only. XPS analysis of the samples showed a broadening in the binding energy curves with respect to variation in annealing atmosphere, confirming the variation in surface defects, which in turn affect photocatalytic degradation. The vacuum-annealed sample showed superior photocatalytic degradation efficiency as it had relatively higher pseudo-first order rate constants (k) of 0.009/min.

  5. Effects of rapid thermal annealing on device characteristics of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, L.; Tan, H.H.; McKerracher, I.; Wong-Leung, J.; Jagadish, C.; Vukmirovic, N.; Harrison, P.

    2006-06-01

    In this work, rapid thermal annealing was performed on InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) at different temperatures. The photoluminescence showed a blueshifted spectrum in comparison with the as-grown sample when the annealing temperature was higher than 700 deg. C, as a result of thermal interdiffusion of the quantum dots (QDs). Correspondingly, the spectral response from the annealed QDIP exhibited a redshift. At the higher annealing temperature of 800 deg. C, in addition to the largely redshifted photoresponse peak of 7.4 {mu}m (compared with the 6.1 {mu}m of the as-grown QDIP), a high energy peak at 5.6 {mu}m (220 meV) was also observed, leading to a broad spectrum linewidth of 40%. This is due to the large interdiffusion effect which could greatly vary the composition of the QDs and thus increase the relative optical absorption intensity at higher energy. The other important detector characteristics such as dark current, peak responsivity, and detectivity were also measured. It was found that the overall device performance was not affected by low annealing temperature, however, for high annealing temperature, some degradation in device detectivity (but not responsivity) was observed. This is a consequence of increased dark current due to defect formation and increased ground state energy.

  6. Effect of annealing on structural and magnetic properties of Al substituted nanocrystalline Fe-Si-Co alloy powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyni, P. C.; Alagarsamy, Perumal

    2016-11-01

    We report effects of annealing and substitution of Al on structural and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe80-xAlxCo5Si15 (x=0-10) alloy powders prepared by mechanical alloying process using a planetary ball mill technique. All the as-milled powders exhibit non-equilibrium solid solution of α-Fe (Si,Co,Al). While the average size of crystals decreases, the lattice constant and dislocation density increase with increasing Al content. On the other hand, the annealing at elevated temperatures increases the size of the crystals and decreases the dislocation density. In addition, the substitution of Al in FeAlCoSi alloy powders controls growth of the crystals during annealing. As a result, coercivity (HC) of the annealed powders decreases considerably. However, the variation in HC is dominated by the dislocation density. Fe70Al10Co5Si15 powder annealed at 900 °C exhibits improved magnetic properties (HC~14 Oe and moderate magnetization of 160 emu/g) due to optimum nanocrystalline microstructure with fine nanocrystals (~18 nm) and reduced dislocation density. Systematic correlations observed between structural and magnetic properties for Fe80-xAlxCo5Si15 powders reveal a promising approach to control the growth of the crystals in the annealed nanocrystalline alloys and to improve the magnetic properties of mechanically alloyed Fe-Si based nanocrystalline alloys by adding suitable substituting elements.

  7. The effect of annealing temperature on the magnetic anisotropy in Co ultrathin film on MgO(001) substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong-Sheng; He, Wei; Tang, Jin; Ahmad, Syed Sheraz; Zhang, Wei; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiang-Qun; Cheng, Zhao-Hua

    2017-05-01

    Co epitaxial thin films with 2.5nm thickness were prepared on single-crystal MgO(001) substrates and annealed at different temperatures. The contribution of each interface of the MgO/Co/Cu trilayer to the in-plane magnetic anisotropy (IMA) was studied by changing interfacial coupling through annealing. The structure was measured by low energy electron diffraction (LEED), and the magnetic properties were measured using the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) measurements and the longitudinal Magneto-optical Kerr effect magnetometer (MOKE). We found that the magnetic anisotropy of the as-deposited one shows superposition of a two-fold symmetry with a weak four-fold contribution caused by the stress of the interface between Co/Cu, which is along the easy axis [-110]. After annealing at 200°C, the symmetry of magnetic anisotropy was changed from uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA) into four-fold symmetry due to the significant increasing of four-fold magnetocrystalline anisotropy. When the films were annealed above 300°C, the damage of the MgO/Co interface additionally decreased the IMA to isotropy. Meanwhile, the coercivity raised from 45Oe (without annealing) to 1200Oe (annealed at 400°C) along the easy axis direction. Our experimental results prove that the Co/Cu interface and the MgO/Co interface play an essential role in manipulating the four-fold and the UMA in the system.

  8. Effect of annealing over optoelectronic properties of graphene based transparent electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Shriniwas Kaur, Inderpreet

    2016-04-13

    Graphene, an atom–thick two dimensional graphitic material have led various fundamental breakthroughs in the field of science and technology. Due to their exceptional optical, physical and electrical properties, graphene based transparent electrodes have shown several applications in organic light emitting diodes, solar cells and thin film transistors. Here, we are presenting effect of annealing over optoelectronic properties of graphene based transparent electrodes. Graphene based transparent electrodes have been prepared by wet chemical approach over glass substrates. After fabrication, these electrodes tested for optical transmittance in visible region. Sheet resistance was measured using four probe method. Effect of thermal annealing at 200 °C was studied over optical and electrical performance of these electrodes. Optoelectronic performance was judged from ratio of direct current conductivity to optical conductivity (σ{sub dc}/σ{sub opt}) as a figure of merit for transparent conductors. The fabricated electrodes display good optical and electrical properties. Such electrodes can be alternatives for doped metal oxide based transparent electrodes.

  9. Effects of annealing heat treatment on the corrosion resistance of Zn/Mg/Zn multilayer coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, KiTae; La, JoungHyun; Lee, InGyu; Lee, SangYul; Nam, KyungHoon

    2017-05-01

    Zn coatings alloyed with magnesium offer superior corrosion resistance compared to pure Zn or other Zn-based alloy coatings. In this study, Zn/Mg/Zn multilayer coatings with various Mg layer thicknesses were synthesized using an unbalanced magnetron sputtering process and were annealed to form Zn-Mg intermetallic phases. The effects of the annealing heat treatment on the corrosion resistance of the Zn/Mg/Zn multilayer coatings were evaluated using electrochemical measurements. The extensive diffusion of magnesium species into the upper and lower zinc layer from the magnesium layer in the middle of the coating was observed after the heat treatment. This phenomenon caused (a) the porous microstructure to transition into a dense structure and (b) the formation of a MgZn2 intermetallic phase. The results of the electrochemical measurements demonstrated that the heat treated Zn/Mg/Zn multilayer coatings possessed higher levels of corrosion resistance than the non-heat treated coatings. A Zn/Mg/Zn multilayer coating with MgZn2 and (Zn) phases showed the best corrosion resistance among the heat treated coatings, which could be attributed to the reduced galvanic corrosion effects due to a small potential gradient between the MgZn2 and zinc.

  10. Carbon effect on the survival of vacancies in Czochralski silicon during rapid thermal anneal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jian; Dong, Peng; Yuan, Kang; Qiu, Xiaodong; Zhou, Junwei; Zhao, Jianjiang; Yu, Xuegong; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren

    2017-07-01

    Rapid thermal anneal (RTA) at high temperatures can be employed to introduce vacancies to control oxygen precipitation (OP) behavior in Czochralski (CZ) silicon. Such excessive vacancies survive from the recombination of silicon-interstitials and vacancies (V-I recombination) during the RTA. In this work, we aim to elucidate the carbon effect on the survival of vacancies in CZ silicon during the high temperature RTA by means of gold diffusion in combination with deep-level transient spectroscopy. It is revealed that the existence of ˜1017 cm-3 carbon atoms significantly increases the amount of survival vacancies in the form of vacancy-oxygen (VOm, m ≥ 2) complexes in CZ silicon when subjected to the 1250 °C/60 s RTA. Moreover, such an increase in the number of vacancies becomes more significant with the increase in the cooling rate of RTA. The density functional theory calculations suggest that the V-I recombination is to some extent unfavorable as a carbon atom is close to the silicon-interstitial. Alternatively, it is believed that the substitutional carbon (Cs) atoms tend to trap the silicon-interstitials, thus forming Ci complexes (Cs + I → Ci) in CZ silicon during the RTA. In this context, the V-I recombination is suppressed in a manner, leading to the survival of more vacancies, thus generating more VOm complexes. Furthermore, after the 1250 °C/60 s RTA, the oxide precipitate nucleation based on the VOm complexes is more significant in carbon-rich CZ (CCZ) silicon than in the conventional CZ counterpart. Hence, when subjected to the same OP anneal consisting of the nucleation anneal at 650 or 800 °C for 4 h and the subsequent growth anneal at 1000 °C for 16 h, CCZ silicon possesses a higher density of bulk microdefects and therefore stronger internal gettering capability than CZ silicon. However, the nucleation temperature for OP should be carefully selected as 650 °C for CCZ silicon in order to form an oxide precipitate-free denuded zone.

  11. Effects of thermal annealing on the radiation produced electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of bovine and equine tooth enamel: Fossil and modern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeks, Robert A.; Bogard, James S.; Elam, J. Michael; Weinand, Daniel C.; Kramer, Andrew

    2003-06-01

    The concentration of stable radiation-induced paramagnetic states in fossil teeth can be used as a measure of sample age. Temperature excursions >100 °C, however, can cause the paramagnetic state clock to differ from the actual postmortem time. We have heated irradiated enamel from both fossilized bovid and modern equine (MEQ) teeth for 30 min in 50 °C increments from 100 to 300 °C, measuring the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum after each anneal, to investigate such effects. Samples were irradiated again after the last anneal, with doses of 300-1200 Gy from 60Co photons, and measured. Two unirradiated MEQ samples were also annealed for 30 min at 300 °C, one in an evacuated EPR tube and the other in a tube open to the atmosphere, and subsequently irradiated. The data showed that hyperfine components attributed to the alanine radical were not detected in the irradiated MEQ sample until after the anneals. The spectrum of the MEQ sample heated in air and then irradiated was similar to that of the heat treated fossil sample. We conclude that the hyperfine components are due to sample heating to temperatures/times >100 °C/30 min and that similarities between fossil and MEQ spectra after the 300 °C/30 min MEQ anneal are also due to sample heating. We conclude that the presence of the hyperfine components in spectra of fossil tooth enamel indicate that such thermal events occurred either at the time of death, or during the postmortem history.

  12. Remarkable changes in interface O vacancy and metal-oxide bonds in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors by long time annealing at 250 °C

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, Md Delwar Hossain; Um, Jae Gwang; Jang, Jin

    2014-12-08

    We have studied the effect of long time post-fabrication annealing on negative bias illumination stress (NBIS) of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film-transistors. Annealing for 100 h at 250 °C increased the field effect mobility from 14.7 cm{sup 2}/V s to 17.9 cm{sup 2}/V s and reduced the NBIS instability remarkably. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the oxygen vacancy and OH were found to exist at the interfaces of a-IGZO with top and bottom SiO{sub 2}. Long time annealing helps to decrease the vacancy concentration and increase the metal-oxygen bonds at the interfaces; this leads to increase in the free carrier concentrations in a-IGZO and field-effect mobility. X-ray reflectivity measurement indicated the increment of a-IGZO film density of 5.63 g cm{sup −3} to 5.83 g cm{sup −3} (3.4% increase) by 100 h annealing at 250 °C. The increase in film density reveals the decrease of O vacancy concentration and reduction of weak metal-oxygen bonds in a-IGZO, which substantially helps to improve the NBIS stability.

  13. Effect of post-pattern annealing on the grain structure and reliability of Al-based interconnects

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.H.; Kim, C.; Morris, J.W. Jr. |; Genin, F.Y.

    1996-06-01

    The possibility is addressed of improving the electromigration resistance of Al and Al{endash}Cu thin-film conductors with {open_quote}{open_quote}quasi-bamboo{close_quote}{close_quote} structures by post-pattern anneals that decrease the maximum polygranular segment length. Pure Al, Al{endash}2Cu, and Al{endash}2Cu{endash}1Si lines were patterned and annealed at temperatures high enough to stimulate grain growth. Appropriate anneals led to predominantly bamboo structures with short polygranular segments. These grain structures had a high median time to failure with a relatively low deviation of the time to failure. Metallographic analyses showed that polygranular segment length was a dominant factor in determining the failure site. Post-pattern annealing promotes a preferential shortening of the relatively long polygranular segments that cause early failures. However, even after annealing, failure occurred at the longest residual polygranular segments, even when these were significantly shorter than the {open_quote}{open_quote}Blech length{close_quote}{close_quote} under the test conditions. Statistical analysis of the failure of alloy lines revealed a simple exponential relation between the failure time and the longest polygranular segment length within a line, which is functionally identical to that previously found for lines tested in the as-patterned condition.

  14. Coherent Coupled Qubits for Quantum Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Steven J.; Samach, Gabriel O.; Hover, David; Gustavsson, Simon; Kim, David K.; Melville, Alexander; Rosenberg, Danna; Sears, Adam P.; Yan, Fei; Yoder, Jonilyn L.; Oliver, William D.; Kerman, Andrew J.

    2017-07-01

    Quantum annealing is an optimization technique which potentially leverages quantum tunneling to enhance computational performance. Existing quantum annealers use superconducting flux qubits with short coherence times limited primarily by the use of large persistent currents Ip. Here, we examine an alternative approach using qubits with smaller Ip and longer coherence times. We demonstrate tunable coupling, a basic building block for quantum annealing, between two flux qubits with small (approximately 50-nA) persistent currents. Furthermore, we characterize qubit coherence as a function of coupler setting and investigate the effect of flux noise in the coupler loop on qubit coherence. Our results provide insight into the available design space for next-generation quantum annealers with improved coherence.

  15. Effect of thermal annealing on the microstructures and photocatalytic performance of silver orthophosphate: The synergistic mechanism of Ag vacancies and metallic Ag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Tingjiang; Guan, Wenfei; Xiao, Ying; Tian, Jun; Qiao, Zheng; Zhai, Huishan; Li, Wenjuan; You, Jinmao

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a simple thermal annealing route has been developed to improve the photocatalytic performance of silver orthophosphate (Ag3PO4) photocatalyst toward organic pollutants degradation under visible light irradiation. The experimental results indicated that thermal treatment of Ag3PO4 led to an obvious lattice shift towards right and significantly narrowed band gap energies due to the formation of Ag vacancies and metallic Ag during Ag3PO4 decomposition. These structural variations notably affected the photocatalytic performance of Ag3PO4 photocatalysts. The activity of the annealed samples was found to be significantly enhanced toward the degradation of MO dye. The highest activity was observed over the sample annealed at 400 °C, which exceeded that of pristine Ag3PO4 by a factor of about 21 times. By means of photoluminescence spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical measurements, we propose that the enormous enhancement in activity was mainly attributed to the efficient separation of photogenerated electrons and holes driven by the synergistic effect of Ag vacancies and metallic Ag. The strong interaction between annealed particles also inhibited the dissolution of Ag+ from Ag3PO4 into aqueous solution, contributing to an improved photocatalytic stability. The strategy presented here provides an ideal platform for the design of other highly efficient and stable Ag-based photocatalysts for broad applications in the field of photocatalysis.

  16. Donor-deactivating defects above the equilibrium doping limit in GaAs:Te,Ge and GaAs:Te studied by annealing and Hall effect under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slupinski, T.; Wasik, D.; Przybytek, J.

    2017-06-01

    High temperature annealing experiments of n-type double-doped (co-doped) GaAs:Te,Ge single crystal samples close to or above the equilibrium doping limit are presented and compared to annealing results of very highly doped GaAs:Te known for a long time, but still not clarified satisfactorily. An addition of Ge impurity to GaAs:Te shifted the equilibrium doping limit to a lower free electron concentration - a result which is difficult to describe within models of doping limit assuming an electrical compensation mainly by native acceptors. Hall effect under hydrostatic pressure up to 1.5 GPa allowed to directly measure the change of concentration of GeGa donors caused by annealing, in addition to free electron concentration changes in GaAs:Te,Ge. GeGa donors were detected by the capture of free electrons by Ge DX states at high pressure, following the method described by Baj et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett.71, 3529 (1993)]. In highly doped GaAs:Te,Ge, the measured ratio of changes of free electrons and GeGa donors concentrations caused by high temperature annealing at 1100 °C, Δn / Δ [ GeGa ] =4.2+/- 0.6, supports the model of chemically bonded impurity-impurity molecules, probably of type Ge-Tem (where m =3÷4 atoms), which may be consistent with recently proposed models of paired impurities: DDX or double-DX centers.

  17. Effects of low temperature periodic annealing on the deep-level defects in 200 keV proton irradiated AlGaAs-GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, S. S.; Chiu, T. T.; Loo, R. Y.

    1981-01-01

    The GaAs solar cell has shown good potential for space applications. However, degradation in performance occurred when the cells were irradiated by high energy electrons and protons in the space environment. The considered investigation is concerned with the effect of periodic thermal annealing on the deep-level defects induced by the 200 keV protons in the AlGaAs-GaAs solar cells. Protons at a fluence of 10 to the 11th P/sq cm were used in the irradiation cycle, while annealing temperatures of 200 C (for 24 hours), 300 C (six hours), and 400 C (six hours) were employed. The most likely candidate for the E(c) -0.71 eV electron trap observed in the 200 keV proton irradiated samples may be due to GaAs antisite, while the observed E(v) +0.18 eV hole trap has been attributed to the gallium vacancy related defect. The obtained results show that periodic annealing in the considered case does not offer any advantages over the one time annealing process.

  18. Post annealing effect on the electrical properties of top-gate SWNT network transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Un Jeong; Suh, D Y; Min, S C; Park, Wanjun

    2011-07-01

    High performance top-gate single walled carbon nanotube network transistors are fabricated with aluminum oxide (Al2O3) layer as a gate dielectric by atomic layer deposition. It exhibits large on/off ratio (>10(4)) due to selective growth of semiconducting tubes by the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. I-V characteristics show p-type or n-type depending on the deposition temperature. We investigate the type dependent characteristics for the carrier polarities with the post annealing effect on the top-gate SWNT network transistors. The dramatic change in the polarity of the top-gate SWNT network transistors, from n-type to p-type due to conversion of I-V characteristics is observed by post-annealing at 350 degrees C for 30 minutes under vacuum. Our observation suggests that competition between electron transfer from the Al2O3 layers to the SWNT surface and electron capture by oxygen molecules adsorbed on the tube walls seems to be the key point for the V(th) change as a function of Al2O3 deposition temperature.

  19. Infrared spectroscopy of water clusters isolated in methane matrices: Effects of isotope substitution and annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakawa, Koichiro; Ehara, Namika; Ozawa, Nozomi; Arakawa, Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    Using infrared-active solvents of CH4 and CD4 for matrix isolation, we measured infrared spectra of H2O and D2O clusters at 7 K. The solute-concentration dependence of the spectrum of H2O clusters in a CH4 matrix was investigated and was used for the peak assignment. Annealing procedures were found to promote the size growth of water clusters in methane matrices for all the combinations of (H2O, CH4), (H2O, CD4), (D2O, CH4), and (D2O, CD4). We also monitored the ν3 absorption due to methane to find the annealing-induced structural change only of solid CH4. The matrix effects on the vibrations of the clusters are discussed on the basis of "Tc plots", where their frequencies are plotted as a function of the square root of the matrix critical temperature, Tc. The obtained plots assure the validity of the assignment of the cluster peaks.

  20. Infrared spectroscopy of water clusters isolated in methane matrices: Effects of isotope substitution and annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Yamakawa, Koichiro Ehara, Namika; Ozawa, Nozomi; Arakawa, Ichiro

    2016-07-15

    Using infrared-active solvents of CH{sub 4} and CD{sub 4} for matrix isolation, we measured infrared spectra of H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O clusters at 7 K. The solute-concentration dependence of the spectrum of H{sub 2}O clusters in a CH{sub 4} matrix was investigated and was used for the peak assignment. Annealing procedures were found to promote the size growth of water clusters in methane matrices for all the combinations of (H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}), (H{sub 2}O, CD{sub 4}), (D{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}), and (D{sub 2}O, CD{sub 4}). We also monitored the ν{sub 3} absorption due to methane to find the annealing-induced structural change only of solid CH{sub 4}. The matrix effects on the vibrations of the clusters are discussed on the basis of “T{sub c} plots”, where their frequencies are plotted as a function of the square root of the matrix critical temperature, T{sub c}. The obtained plots assure the validity of the assignment of the cluster peaks.

  1. Effects of annealing pressure and Ar+ sputtering cleaning on Al-doped ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiwei; Mei, Yong; Lu, Xuemei; Fan, Xiaoxing; Kang, Dawei; Xu, Panfeng; Tan, Tianya

    2016-11-01

    Post-treatments of Al-doped ZnO films fabricated by sol-gel method were studied in condition of annealing in air, vacuum and protective ambient, as well as the follow-up Ar+ sputtering cleaning. The effect of annealing pressure on resistivity of AZO films was investigated from 105 to 10-4 Pa, where the resistivity decreased four orders of magnitude as the pressure decreased and approached to its minimum at 10 Pa. It was observed that the main decreasing of resistivity occurred in a very narrow range of middle vacuum (between 100 and 10 Pa) and high vacuum was dispensable. The XRD and XPS characterizations demonstrated that the radical increasing of oxygen vacancy, Zn interstitial and substitution of Al3+ for Zn2+ under middle vacuum were responsible for the significant enhancement of conductivity. The follow-up Ar+ sputtering cleaning can further decrease the resistivity through removing the chemisorbed oxygen on film surface and grain boundaries, meanwhile fulfil the surface texture process, and thus improve both electrical and optical performances for applications.

  2. High-temperature annealing effects on multiwalled carbon nanotubes: electronic structure, field emission and magnetic behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sekhar Chandra; Pao, Chih-Wen; Tsai, Huang-Ming; Chen, Huang-Chin; Chen, Yu-Shin; Wu, Shang-Lun; Ling, Dah-Chin; Lin, I-Nan; Pong, Way-Faung; Gupta, Sanju; Giorcelli, Mauro; Bianco, Stefano; Musso, Simone; Tagliaferro, Alberto

    2009-12-01

    This work elucidates the effects of high-temperature annealing on the microscopic and electronic structure of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and valence-band photoemission spectroscopy (VBPES), respectively. The field emission and magnetization behaviors are also presented. The results of annealing are as follows: (1) MWCNTs tend to align in the form of small fringes along their length, promote graphitization and be stable in air, (2) XANES indicates an enhancement in oxygen content on the sample, implying that it can be adopted for sensing and storing oxygen gas, (3) the electron field emission current density (J) is enhanced and the turn-on electric field (E(TOE)) reduced, suggesting potential use in field emission displays and as electron sources in microwave tube amplifiers and (4) as-grown MWCNTs with embedded iron nanoparticles exhibits significantly higher coercivity approximately 750 Oe than its bulk counterpart (Fe(bulk) approximately 0.9 Oe), suggesting its potential use as low-dimensional high-density magnetic recording media.

  3. Synthesis Mechanism and Strengthening Effects of Laminated NiAl by Reaction Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yan; Fan, Guohua; Wang, Qingwei; Geng, Lin

    2017-01-01

    N iA l with a laminated microstructure has been fabricated by reaction annealing of Ni-Al system at 1473 K (1200 °C). The laminated NiAl shows heterogeneity of chemical gradient and bimodal grain size distribution. The objective of this study is to investigate the synthesis mechanism and the strengthening effect of this laminated NiAl, therefore to promote further application of NiAl as a high-temperature structural material. Heat treatments at 1473 K (1200 °C) and subsequent characterization were utilized to study the synthesis mechanism. It shows that in original Al regions NiAl nuclei precipitate from Al(Ni) liquid phase and form fine-grained NiAl layers, whereas in original Ni regions NiAl nuclei precipitate from Ni(Al) saturated solution through diffusion and form coarse-grained NiAl layers. Moreover, heterogeneity of chemical gradient is generated through diffusion during annealing. The mechanical properties of laminated NiAl have also been studied via nanoindentation method. It shows that both chemical gradient and bimodal grain size distribution could strengthen the laminated NiAl.

  4. Effect of argon-annealing and subsequent oxygen-annealing on the superconductivity and structure of Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O 8- x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, I. K.; Sastry, P. V. P. S. S.; Rajagopal, H.; Sequeira, A.; Yakhmi, J. V.; Iyer, R. M.

    1989-08-01

    Annealing the single-phase Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O 8 superconductor ( Tc=108 K) in argon environment at 950 K for 24 h brings the Tc down to ≅80 K. Re-annealing the samples in oxygen under similar conditions restores the Tc to 105±5 K. Rietveld profile refinement of the neutron diffraction spectra of the argon-annealed samples indicates that some Tl-ions, presumably Tl 1+, move from the Tl double-layers to occupy Ca-sites. Upon subsequent annealing in oxygen, however, these Tl-ions escape from the lattice. Implications of this and other structural features are described.

  5. Effect of annealing procedure on the bonding of ceramic to cobalt-chromium alloys fabricated by rapid prototyping.

    PubMed

    Tulga, Ayca

    2017-08-22

    An annealing procedure is a heat treatment process to improve the mechanical properties of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys. However, information is lacking about the effect of the annealing process on the bonding ability of ceramic to Co-Cr alloys fabricated by rapid prototyping. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of the fabrication techniques and the annealing procedure on the shear bond strength of ceramic to Co-Cr alloys fabricated by different techniques. Ninety-six cylindrical specimens (10-mm diameter, 10-mm height) made of Co-Cr alloy were prepared by casting (C), milling (M), direct process powder-bed (LaserCUSING) with and without annealing (CL+, CL), and direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) with annealing (EL+) and without annealing (EL). After the application of ceramic to the metal specimens, the metal-ceramic bond strength was assessed using a shear force test at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Shear bond strength values were statistically analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison tests (α=.05). Although statistically significant differences were found among the 3 groups (M, 29.87 ±2.06; EL, 38.92 ±2.04; and CL+, 40.93 ±2.21; P=.002), no significant differences were found among the others (P>.05). The debonding surfaces of all specimens exhibited mixed failure mode. These results showed that the direct process powder-bed method is promising in terms of metal-ceramic bonding ability. The manufacturing technique of Co-Cr alloys and the annealing process influence metal-ceramic bonding. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Temperature dependence and annealing effects of absorption edges for selenium quantum dots formed by ion implantation in silica glass

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, A.; Wu, M.; Mu, R.

    1998-12-31

    The authors have fabricated Se nanoparticles in silica substrates by ion implantation followed by thermal annealing up to 1000 C, and studied the Se nanoparticle formation by optical absorption spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The sample with the highest dose (1 {times} 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}) showed the nanoparticle formation during the ion implantation, while the lower dose samples (1 and 3 {times} 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}) required thermal treatment to obtain nano-sized particles. The Se nanoparticles in silica were found to be amorphous. After thermal annealing, the particle doses approached the value of bulk after thermal annealing. The temperature dependent absorption spectra were also measured for this system in a temperature range from 15 to 300 K.

  7. A hydrogen curing effect on surface plasmon resonance fiber optic hydrogen sensors using an annealed Au/Ta₂O₅/Pd multi-layers film.

    PubMed

    Hosoki, Ai; Nishiyama, Michiko; Igawa, Hirotaka; Seki, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    2014-07-28

    In this paper, a response time of the surface plasmon resonance fiber optic hydrogen sensor has successfully improved with keeping sensor sensitivity high by means of hydrogen curing (immersing) process of annealed Au/Ta2O5/ Pd multi-layers film. The hydrogen curing effect on the response time and sensitivity has been experimentally revealed by changing the annealing temperatures of 400, 600, 800°C and through observing the optical loss change in the H2 curing process. When the 25-nm Au/60-nm Ta2O5/10-nm Pd multi-layers film annealed at 600°C is cured with 4% H2/N2 mixture, it is found that a lot of nano-sized cracks were produced on the Pd surface. After H2 curing process, the response time is improved to be 8 s, which is two times faster than previous reported one in the case of the 25-nm Au/60-nm Ta2O5/3-nm Pd multi-layers film with keeping the sensor sensitivity of 0.27 dB for 4% hydrogen adding. Discussions most likely responsible for this effect are given by introducing the α-β transition Pd structure in the H2 curing process.

  8. Effect of Prior Recovery Treatment on the Evolution of Cube Texture During Annealing of Severely Warm-Rolled Al-2.5 wt pctMg Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatti, J. R.; Bhattacharjee, Pinaki Prasad

    2015-11-01

    The effect of prior recovery on the evolution of cube texture ({001}<100>) in severely warm-rolled and annealed Al-2.5 wt pctMg alloy was studied. The Al-2.5 wt pctMg alloy was warm rolled to 97 pct reduction in thickness at 473 K (200 °C). The warm-rolled sheets were isochronally annealed for 1 hour at temperatures ranging from 523 K to 673 K (250 °C to 400 °C) without and with prior recovery treatments. In case of prior recovery, the sheets were pre-treated at 473 K (200 °C) for different time intervals ranging from 3.6 × 103 seconds (1 hour) to 8.64 × 104 seconds (24 hours) before the annealing. The warm-rolled alloy showed finely subdivided lamellar structure and strong presence of pure metal type texture. The annealed materials without any prior recovery treatment showed strong cube texture after annealing which could be attributed to the oriented nucleation of cube grains resulting from the preferentially recovered structure of cube regions in the warm-rolled state. In contrast, the cube texture was significantly weakened in materials subjected to different prior recovery treatments. The prior recovery treatments resulted in homogenous recovery which was confirmed by microstructural, textural, and conductivity measurements. Homogenous recovery eliminated the nucleation advantage of cube regions originating from the preferentially recovered structure and weakened the cube texture significantly. The present results indicated that prior recovery treatment could be effectively used to control recrystallization cube texture in severely warm-rolled aluminum alloys.

  9. Effect of Nano-Particle Addition on Grain Structure Evolution of Friction Stir-Processed Al 6061 During Postweld Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Junfeng; Lee, Bing Yang; Du, Zhenglin; Bi, Guijun; Tan, Ming Jen; Wei, Jun

    2016-08-01

    The fabrication of nano-composites is challenging because uniform dispersion of nano-sized reinforcements in metallic substrate is difficult to achieve using powder metallurgy or liquid processing methods. In the present study, Al-based nano-composites reinforced with Al2O3 particles have been successfully fabricated using friction stir processing. The effects of nano-Al2O3 particle addition on grain structure evolution of friction stir-processed Al matrix during post-weld annealing were investigated. It was revealed that the pinning effect of Al2O3 particles retarded grain growth and completely prevented abnormal grain growth during postweld annealing at 470°C. However, abnormal grain growth can still occur when the composite material was annealed at 530°C. The mechanism involved in the grain structure evolution and the effect of nano-sized particle addition on the mechanical properties were discussed therein.

  10. Effect of thermal annealing on optical properties of CR-39 polymeric track detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nidhi; Gupta, Renu; Sharma, Tanu; Aggarwal, Sanjeev; Kumar, S.

    2009-07-01

    The samples of CR-39 polymer (TASTRAK, Bristol, England) were annealled thermally at various temperatures ranging from 100°C to 180°C for 1 hour, in air. FTIR spectroscopy reveals the structural degradation of CR-39 polymer due to thermal annealing above its glass transition temperature. Optical band gap of pristine and thermally annealed samples has been determined using UV-Visible absorption spectra. It has been observed that the optical band gap decreases continuously as a result of annealing.

  11. Effect of low and high temperature anneal on process-induced damage of gate oxide

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.C.; Hu, C. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences)

    1994-11-01

    The authors have investigated the ability of high and low temperature anneals to repair the gate oxide damage due to simulated electrical stress caused by wafer charging resulting from plasma etching, etc. Even 800 C anneal cannot restore the stability in interface trap generation. Even 900 C anneal cannot repair the deteriorated charge-to-breakdown and oxide charge trapping. As a small consolation, the ineffectiveness of anneal in repairing the process-induced damage allows them to monitor the damages even at the end of the fabrication process.

  12. Effect of annealing on the thermal properties of poly (lactic acid)/starch blends.

    PubMed

    Lv, Shanshan; Gu, Jiyou; Cao, Jun; Tan, Haiyan; Zhang, Yanhua

    2015-03-01

    A comparative study of the thermal behavior of PLA/starch blends annealed at different temperatures has been conducted. Annealing was found to be beneficial to weaken and even eliminate the enthalpy relaxation near Tg. The degree of crystallinity was evaluated by means of DSC, and the results showed that the crystallinity of the samples increased as the annealing temperatures were increased. It was observed that, during the annealing process, the disorder α (α') crystal modification tended to transform into the order α crystal modification. All of the PLA/starch blends showed a double melting behavior. With the increase of annealing temperatures, the lower Tm1 increased, while the Tm2 showed no evident change. The XRD patterns also showed that annealing was beneficial to the samples to form higher crystallinity. The TGA results indicated that the annealed samples did not show any higher thermal stability than the virgin samples. The activation energy calculated by the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method at lower conversion degrees confirmed that the annealing slightly slowed the degradation. The activation energy did not show any dependence on the conversion degree, which indicated that there existed a complex degradation process of the PLA/starch blends. The average activation energy did not show obvious differences, indicating that the annealing treatment had little influence on the degradation activation energy.

  13. Effect of antireflection coating on the crystallization of amorphous silicon films by flash lamp annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonoda, Yuki; Ohdaira, Keisuke

    2017-04-01

    We succeed in decreasing the fluence of a flash-lamp pulse required for the crystallization of electron-beam (EB)-evaporated amorphous silicon (a-Si) films using silicon nitride (SiN x ) antireflection films. The antireflection effect of SiN x is confirmed not only when SiN x is placed on the surface of a-Si or flash lamp annealing (FLA) is performed from the film side, but also when SiN x is inserted between glass and a-Si and a flash pulse is supplied from the glass side. We also quantitatively confirm, by calculating flash-lamp pulse energies actually reaching a-Si films using reflectance spectra, that the reduction in the fluence of a flash-lamp pulse for the crystallization of a-Si films is due to the antireflection effect of SiN x .

  14. Annealing effect on the dielectric response of novel polymer/nano-quasicrystalline composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, Ch.; Rao, V. V.

    2013-06-01

    In the earlier paper (Ch. Venkatesh et al. Solid State Comm., 2010), a dielectric percolation has been reported in composites of nano-quasicrystalline (nQc) Al-Cu-Fe (filler) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) (matrix). Though a high value of dielectric constant is observed near to the percolation threshold, these composites show higher dielectric loss values at lower frequencies. An effect of annealing has been investigated on the same composites which lead to decrement in dielectric loss values appreciably. The low dielectric loss values have been attributed due to the formation of thick grain boundaries in polymer matrix which completely surrounds the nQc cluster that weakens the effective tunneling of charge carriers near the filler-polymer interfacial region. Finally, a dielectric constant of 500 with tanδ<1 at 1 KHz is observed which may make the composite useful for low loss capacitive applications.

  15. Effects of High-Temperature Annealing in Air on Hi-Nicalon Fiber-Reinforced Celsian Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    2008-01-01

    BN/SiC-coated Hi-Nicalon fiber-reinforced celsian matrix composites (CMC) were annealed for 100 h in air at various temperatures to 1200 C, followed by flexural strength measurements at room temperature. Values of yield stress and strain, ultimate strength, and composite modulus remain almost unchanged for samples annealed up to 1100 C. A thin porous layer formed on the surface of the 1100 C annealed sample and its density decreased from 3.09 to 2.90 g/cu cm. The specimen annealed at 1200 C gained 0.43 wt%, was severely deformed, and was covered with a porous layer of thick shiny glaze which could be easily peeled off. Some gas bubbles were also present on the surface. This surface layer consisted of elongated crystals of monoclinic celsian and some amorphous phase(s). The fibers in this surface ply of the CMC had broken into small pieces. The fiber-matrix interface strength was characterized through fiber push-in technique. Values of debond stress, alpha(sub d), and frictional sliding stress, tau(sub f), for the as-fabricated CMC were 0.31+/-0.14 GPa and 10.4+/-3.1 MPa, respectively. These values compared with 0.53+/-0.47 GPa and 8.33+/-1.72 MPa for the fibers in the interior of the 1200 C annealed sample, indicating hardly any change in fiber-matrix interface strength. The effects of thermal aging on microstructure were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Only the surface ply of the 1200 C annealed specimens had degraded from oxidation whereas the bulk interior part of the CMC was unaffected. A mechanism is proposed explaining the various steps involved during the degradation of the CMC on annealing in air at 1200 C.

  16. Annealing effects on the structural and magnetic properties of off-stoichiometric Fe-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yan; Bei, Hongbin; Dela Cruz, Clarina R; Wang, Yandong; An, Ke

    2016-05-07

    Annealing plays an important role in modifying structures and properties of ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMAs). The annealing effect on the structures and magnetic properties of off-stoichiometric Fe45Mn26Ga29 FSMA has been investigated at different elevated temperatures. Rietveld refinements of neutron diffraction patterns display that the formation of the γ phase in Fe45Mn26Ga29 annealed at 1073 K increases the martensitic transformation temperature and reduces the thermal hysteresis in comparison to the homogenized sample. The phase segregation of a Fe-rich cubic phase and a Ga-rich cubic phase occurs at the annealing temperature of 773 K. The atomic occupancies of the alloys are determined thanks to the neutron's capability of differentiating transition metals. The annealing effects at different temperatures introduce a different magnetic characteristic that is associated with distinctive structural changes in the crystal.

  17. Effect of annealing conditions on the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of Ta/CoFeB/MgO multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Hao, Liang; Cao, Jiangwei

    2016-04-01

    Films with a structure of Ta (5 nm)/Co20Fe60B20 (0.8-1.5 nm)/MgO (1 nm)/Ta (1 nm) were deposited on Corning glass substrates by magnetron sputtering. The as-deposited films with CoFeB layer thickness from 0.8 to 1.3 nm show perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). After annealing at a proper temperature, the PMA of the films can be enhanced remarkably. A maximum effective anisotropy field of up to 9 kOe was obtained for 1.0- and 1.1-nm-thick CoFeB layers annealed at an optimum temperature of 300 °C. A 4-kOe magnetic field was applied during annealing to study its effect on the PMA of the CoFeB layers. The results confirmed that applying a perpendicular magnetic field during annealing did not improve the maximum PMA of the films, but it did enhance the PMA of the thinner films at a lower annealing temperature.

  18. Effects of annealing on the microstructures and photoactivity of fluorinated N-doped TiO2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shengwei; Yu, Jiaguo; Wang, Wenguang

    2010-10-14

    We investigated the effects of annealing in air on fluorinated N-doped TiO(2) (F/N-TiO(2)) photocatalysts prepared by hydrothermal process. The textural properties (specific surface areas) and surface properties (surface defect density, surface [triple bond]Ti-F density) were significantly modified upon annealing. In contrast, due to the shielding effect of surface fluorination, the phase transformation from anatase to rutile as well as removal of N-dopants during annealing was greatly inhibited. The evolution of the chemical nature of doped nitrogen species upon annealing in air was investigated and correlated with the generation and annihilation of oxygen deficiency. The defect density dominated the visible-light absorption and production of active ˙OH. The textural properties and the surface characteristics were crucial for UV-light photocatalytic performance, while the visible-light photocatalytic activity was mainly associated with the defect density. The 300 °C-annealed F/N-TiO(2) sample showed considerable photocatalytic activity under both UV and visible-light irradiation.

  19. Effect of Annealing Treatments on the Microstructure and Texture Development in API 5L X60 Microalloyed Pipeline Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joodaki, R.; Alavi Zaree, S. R.; Gheisari, Kh.; Eskandari, M.

    2017-05-01

    Effect of annealing treatments at 600, 800, 1000 and 1200 °C on the microstructure, texture, grain boundary characteristic and recrystallization fraction of Nb-microalloyed X60 steel is evaluated by using x-ray diffraction and EBSD techniques. The results indicate that bimodal as-received microstructure is changed to a homogeneous equiaxed grain structure above annealing at 1000 °C. Macro-texture investigations depict that increasing annealing temperature results in considerable variation of texture intensity, especially at 1200 °C. Maximum intensity corresponds to {001}<310>, Goss, copper texture components as well as near γ-fiber at 1200 °C. Recrystallization analysis shows that volume fraction of recrystallization noticeably is increased by annealing temperature at 1200 °C. Recrystallized grains are mainly oriented along γ-fiber, especially close to {111}<112> texture component. Moreover, coincidence site lattice (CSL) analysis shows that the effect of annealing temperature on the volume fraction of Σ3 boundary is negligible.

  20. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Mechanical and Corrosion Behavior of a Newly Developed Novel Lean Duplex Stainless Steel.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanjun; Hu, Jincheng; Li, Jin; Jiang, Laizhu; Liu, Tianwei; Wu, Yanping

    2014-09-12

    The effect of annealing temperature (1000-1150 °C) on the microstructure evolution, mechanical properties, and pitting corrosion behavior of a newly developed novel lean duplex stainless steel with 20.53Cr-3.45Mn-2.08Ni-0.17N-0.31Mo was studied by means of optical metallographic microscopy (OMM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), magnetic force microscopy (MFM), scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), uniaxial tensile tests (UTT), and potentiostatic critical pitting temperature (CPT). The results showed that tensile and yield strength, as well as the pitting corrosion resistance, could be degraded with annealing temperature increasing from 1000 up to 1150 °C. Meanwhile, the elongation at break reached the maximum of 52.7% after annealing at 1050 °C due to the effect of martensite transformation induced plasticity (TRIP). The localized pitting attack preferentially occurred at ferrite phase, indicating that the ferrite phase had inferior pitting corrosion resistance as compared to the austenite phase. With increasing annealing temperature, the pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) of ferrite phase dropped, while that of the austenite phase rose. Additionally, it was found that ferrite possessed a lower Volta potential than austenite phase. Moreover, the Volta potential difference between ferrite and austenite increased with the annealing temperature, which was well consistent with the difference of PREN.

  1. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Mechanical and Corrosion Behavior of a Newly Developed Novel Lean Duplex Stainless Steel

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanjun; Hu, Jincheng; Li, Jin; Jiang, Laizhu; Liu, Tianwei; Wu, Yanping

    2014-01-01

    The effect of annealing temperature (1000–1150 °C) on the microstructure evolution, mechanical properties, and pitting corrosion behavior of a newly developed novel lean duplex stainless steel with 20.53Cr-3.45Mn-2.08Ni-0.17N-0.31Mo was studied by means of optical metallographic microscopy (OMM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), magnetic force microscopy (MFM), scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), uniaxial tensile tests (UTT), and potentiostatic critical pitting temperature (CPT). The results showed that tensile and yield strength, as well as the pitting corrosion resistance, could be degraded with annealing temperature increasing from 1000 up to 1150 °C. Meanwhile, the elongation at break reached the maximum of 52.7% after annealing at 1050 °C due to the effect of martensite transformation induced plasticity (TRIP). The localized pitting attack preferentially occurred at ferrite phase, indicating that the ferrite phase had inferior pitting corrosion resistance as compared to the austenite phase. With increasing annealing temperature, the pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) of ferrite phase dropped, while that of the austenite phase rose. Additionally, it was found that ferrite possessed a lower Volta potential than austenite phase. Moreover, the Volta potential difference between ferrite and austenite increased with the annealing temperature, which was well consistent with the difference of PREN. PMID:28788201

  2. Effects of rolling temperature and subsequent annealing on mechanical properties of ultrafine-grained Cu–Zn–Si alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiangkai; Yang, Xuyue; Chen, Wei; Qin, Jia; Fouse, Jiaping

    2015-08-15

    The effects of rolling temperature and subsequent annealing on mechanical properties of Cu–Zn–Si alloy were investigated by using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, electron back scattered diffraction and tensile tests. The Cu–Zn–Si alloy has been processed at cryogenic temperature (approximately 77 K) and room temperature up to different rolling strains. It has been identified that the cryorolled Cu–Zn–Si alloy samples show a higher strength compared with those room temperature rolled samples. The improved strength of cryorolled samples is resulted from grain size effect and higher densities of dislocations and deformation twins. And subsequent annealing, as a post-heat treatment, enhanced the ductility. An obvious increase in uniform elongation appears when the volume fraction of static recrystallization grains exceeds 25%. The strength–ductility combination of the annealed cryorolled samples is superior to that of annealed room temperature rolled samples, owing to the finer grains, high fractions of high angle grain boundaries and twins. - Highlights: • An increase in hardness of Cu–Zn–Si alloy is noticed during annealing process. • Thermal stability is reduced in Cu–Zn–Si alloy by cryorolling. • An obvious enhancement in UE is noticed when fraction of SRX grains exceeds 25%. • A superior strength–ductility combination is achieved in the cryorolling samples.

  3. Annealing effects on the structural and magnetic properties of off-stoichiometric Fe-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yan; Bei, Hongbin; Dela Cruz, Clarina R; Wang, Yandong; An, Ke

    2016-05-07

    Annealing plays an important role in modifying structures and properties of ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMAs). The annealing effect on the structures and magnetic properties of off-stoichiometric Fe45Mn26Ga29 FSMA has been investigated at different elevated temperatures. Rietveld refinements of neutron diffraction patterns display that the formation of the γ phase in Fe45Mn26Ga29 annealed at 1073 K increases the martensitic transformation temperature and reduces the thermal hysteresis in comparison to the homogenized sample. The phase segregation of a Fe-rich cubic phase and a Ga-rich cubic phase occurs at the annealing temperature of 773 K. The atomic occupancies of the alloys are determined thanks to the neutron's capability of differentiating transition metals. The annealing effects at different temperatures introduce a different magnetic characteristic that is associated with distinctive structural changes in the crystal.

  4. Post-annealing effects on the surface structure and carrier lifetime of evaporated BaSi2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Kosuke O.; Thi Trinh, Cham; Kurokawa, Yasuyoshi; Arimoto, Keisuke; Yamanaka, Junji; Nakagawa, Kiyokazu; Usami, Noritaka

    2017-04-01

    To improve the surface quality for photovoltaic applications, we have investigated the effects of post-annealing on the surface structure and carrier lifetime of evaporated BaSi2 films. Structural characterizations by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis show that there is an optimum post-annealing duration for fabricating a homogeneous film up to around the surface. By detailed surface analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the existence of a surface oxidation layer consisting of BaCO3 and barium silicate is revealed, and the thickness of the oxidation layer is found to be smallest for the optimum post-annealing duration. These surface structural changes are discussed from a thermodynamic viewpoint. Carrier lifetime is also investigated by the microwave-detected photoconductivity decay method, which shows that the structural change around the surface by post-annealing has negligible effects on carrier lifetime, possibly because the silicate layer covers the BaSi2 surface irrespective of post-annealing duration.

  5. Giant stress-impedance effect in amorphous and current annealed Fe 73.5Cu 1Nb 3Si 13.5B 9 wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei; Li, Deren; Lu, Zhichao; Zhou, Shaoxiong; Zhang, Honghao

    2002-02-01

    The giant stress-impedance (GSI) effect in Fe 73.5Cu 1Nb 3Si 13.5B 9 wires is measured to investigate the influence of Joule heating and pulse current annealing as well as tensile stress applied during the annealing process on it. The results show that the GSI effect changes drastically with annealing techniques and the maximum stress-impedance ratio of 80% is obtained at 5.5 MHz under applied tensile stress of 20 MPa.

  6. Effects of annealing conditions on the dielectric properties of solution-processed Al2O3 layers for indium-zinc-tin-oxide thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hoon; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Park, Sung Kyu

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, the effects of annealing conditions on the dielectric properties of solution-processed aluminum oxide (Al2O3) layers for indium-zinc-tin-oxide (IZTO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) have been investigated. The dielectric properties of Al2O3 layers such as leakage current density and dielectric strength were largely affected by their annealing conditions. In particular, oxygen partial pressure in rapid thermal annealing, and the temperature profile of hot plate annealing had profound effects on the dielectric properties. From a refractive index analysis, the enhanced dielectric properties of Al2O3 gate dielectrics can be attributed to higher film density depending on the annealing conditions. With the low-temperature-annealed Al2O3 gate dielectric at 350 degrees C, solution-processed IZTO TFTs with a field-effect mobility of approximately 2.2 cm2/Vs were successfully fabricated.

  7. Annealing effect on threading dislocations in a GaN grown on Si substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, H.; Kobayashi, H.; Kamiya, T.; Kamei, R.; Saka, H.; Sawaki, N.; Irie, M.; Honda, Y.; Amano, H.

    2017-06-01

    Effect of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on crystal defects in a GaN layer grown on a (111)Si substrate was investigated by photoluminescence (PL) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. The PL spectra suggested that the density of gallium vacancy is not changed by the heat treatment up to 700 °C. In the TEM specimen, we had dislocation half loops generated by off-axis propagation of the threading dislocation. We found that the half-loop of c-type dislocation shrinks/moves by a repetitive RTA at 600-700 °C. In contrast, we could find no remarkable changes in the a-type or a+c-type dislocations.

  8. Effects of thermal annealing on the structural and optical properties of carbon-implanted SiO2.

    PubMed

    Poudel, P R; Paramo, J A; Poudel, P P; Diercks, D R; Strzhemechny, Y M; Rout, B; McDaniel, F D

    2012-03-01

    Amorphous carbon (a-C) nanoclusters were synthesized by the implantation of carbon ions (C-) into thermally grown silicon dioxide film (-500 nm thick) on a Si (100) wafer and processed by high temperature thermal annealing. The carbon ions were implanted with an energy of 70 keV at a fluence of 5 x 10(17) atoms/cm2. The implanted samples were annealed at 1100 degrees C for different time periods in a gas mixture of 96% Ar+4% H2. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) were used to study the structural properties of both the as-implanted and annealed samples. HRTEM reveals the formation of nanostructures in the annealed samples. The Raman spectroscopy also confirms the formation of carbon nano-clusters in the samples annealed for 10 min, 30 min, 60 min and 90 min. No Raman features originating from the carbon-clusters are observed for the sample annealed further to 120 min, indicating a complete loss of implanted carbon from the SiO2 layer. The loss of the implanted carbon in the 120 min annealed sample from the SiO2 layer was also observed in the XPS depth profile measurements. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy revealed visible emissions from the samples pointing to carbon ion induced defects as the origin of a broad 2.0-2.4 eV band, and the intrinsic defects in SiO2 as the possible origin of the -2.9 eV bands. In low temperature photoluminescence spectra, two sharp and intense photoluminescence lines at -3.31 eV and -3.34 eV appear for the samples annealed for 90 min and 120 min, whereas no such bands are observed in the samples annealed for 10 min, 30 min, and 60 min. The Si nano-clusters forming at the Si-SiO2 interface could be the origin of these intense peaks.

  9. Microstructure and Texture Evolution in a Yttrium-Containing ZM31 Alloy: Effect of Pre- and Post-deformation Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahreen, N.; Zhang, D. F.; Pan, F. S.; Jiang, X. Q.; Li, D. Y.; Chen, D. L.

    2016-12-01

    Microstructure and texture evolution of as-extruded ZM31 magnesium alloys with different amounts of yttrium (Y) during pre- and post-deformation annealing were examined with special attention given to the effect of Y on recrystallization. It was observed that the extruded ZM31 alloys exhibited a basal texture with the basal planes parallel to the extrusion direction (ED). The compression of the extruded alloys in the ED to a strain amount of 10 pct resulted in c-axes of hcp unit cells rotating toward the anti-compression direction due to the occurrence of extension twinning. Annealing of the extruded alloys altered the microstructure and texture, and the subsequent compression after annealing showed a relatively weak texture and a lower degree of twinning. A reverse procedure of pre-compression and subsequent annealing was found to further weaken the texture with a more scattered distribution of orientations and to lead to the vanishing of the original basal texture. With increasing Y content, both the extent of extension twinning during compression and the fraction of recrystallization during annealing decreased due to the role of Y present in the substitutional solid solution and in the second-phase particles, leading to a significant increase in the compressive yield strength.

  10. The Effect of Thermal Annealing on Structural-phase Changes in the Ni-Ti Alloy Implanted with Krypton Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poltavtseva, V. P.; Kislitsin, S. B.; Ghyngazov, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    The influence of thermal annealing within the temperature range 100-300°C on the structural-phase state of a Ni-Ti alloy with shape memory effect (SME) implanted with 84Kr ions at the energies E = 280 keV and 1.75 MeV/nucl and the fluences within 5·1012-1·1020 ion/m2 is investigated. For the samples modified by 84Kr ions at E = 1.75 MeV/nucl up to the fluences 1·1020 and 5·1012 ion/m2, the formation of a martensitic NiTi phase with the B19 ' structure, responsible for the SME, is revealed at the annealing temperatures 100 and 300°C, respectively, in the near-surface region corresponding to the outrange area. This is accompanied by the formation of nanosized NiTi particles in the R-phase. As the implantation fluence increases, the probability of their formation decreases. It is shown that annealing of the implanted structures can increase the strength of the Ni-Ti alloy. The degree of hardening is determined by the value of annealing temperature, and an increase in strength is primarily due to ordering of the radiation-induced defect structures (phases). A correlation between the onset temperature of a forward martensitic transition and the structural-phase state of the thermally annealed Ni-Ti alloy is established.

  11. Effect of annealing temperature on gelatinization of rice starch suspension as studied by rheological and thermal measurements.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Kazumi; Katsuta, Keiko; Matoba, Teruyoshi; Takemasa, Makoto; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi

    2005-11-16

    The effect of annealing temperature (Ta) on the rheological behavior of 10 wt % rice starch suspension was investigated by the dynamic viscoelasticity, the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and the amount of leached out amylose and the swelling ratio of starch suspension. The rheological behaviors of the annealed samples are classified into three types in terms of Ta: Ta1, 48 and 55 degrees C, which are much lower than the gelatinization temperature, Tgel (=62 degrees C); Ta2, 58, 60, and 62 degrees C, which are almost the same as Tgel; and Ta3, 65, 68, 70, and 73 degrees C, which are much higher than Tgel. For the samples annealed at Ta2, the onset temperature of the storage and the loss moduli, G' and G'', increased with increasing T(a), and G' and G" in the temperature range from 65 to 90 degrees C gradually increased though smaller than those for the nonannealed sample, the control. This can be understood by the partial gelatinization; i.e., the leached out amylose prevents further amylose from leaching out. The rheological property of the samples annealed at Ta1 is not so different from that of the control, and the samples annealed at Ta3 are almost gelatinized. The rheological behavior of starch suspension can be controlled by Ta.

  12. Effect of annealing treatments on photoluminescence and charge storage mechanism in silicon-rich SiNx:H films

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a wide range of a-SiNx:H films with an excess of silicon (20 to 50%) were prepared with an electron-cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system under the flows of NH3 and SiH4. The silicon-rich a-SiNx:H films (SRSN) were sandwiched between a bottom thermal SiO2 and a top Si3N4 layer, and subsequently annealed within the temperature range of 500-1100°C in N2 to study the effect of annealing temperature on light-emitting and charge storage properties. A strong visible photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature has been observed for the as-deposited SRSN films as well as for films annealed up to 1100°C. The possible origins of the PL are briefly discussed. The authors have succeeded in the formation of amorphous Si quantum dots with an average size of about 3 to 3.6 nm by varying excess amount of Si and annealing temperature. Electrical properties have been investigated on Al/Si3N4/SRSN/SiO2/Si structures by capacitance-voltage and conductance-voltage analysis techniques. A significant memory window of 4.45 V was obtained at a low operating voltage of ± 8 V for the sample containing 25% excess silicon and annealed at 1000°C, indicating its utility in low-power memory devices. PMID:21711712

  13. Effects of annealing temperature on the properties of Ga-doped In2O3 Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Shinho

    2015-10-01

    Ga-doped In2O3 (GIO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates at a growth temperature of 300 °C by using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The deposited films were then subjected to rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at various temperatures. The annealed films were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, and Hall-effect measurements. The optical bandgap, electrical resistivity, and figure of merit of the GIO thin films were found to depend significantly on the RTA temperature. The XRD patterns of the films indicated that all the films had a body-centered cubic structure, with the primary peak being the (222) diffraction peak. The average optical transmittance of the GIO thin films for wavelengths of 500 - 1100 nm increased from 44.5% before annealing to 87.2% after annealing at 450 °C; the figure of merit was also the highest after annealing at this temperature. These results indicate that the properties of GIO thin films can be varied by controlling the RTA temperature.

  14. Effect of thermal annealing Super Yellow emissive layer on efficiency of OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Burns, Samantha; MacLeod, Jennifer; Trang Do, Thu; Sonar, Prashant; Yambem, Soniya D

    2017-01-20

    Thermal annealing of the emissive layer of an organic light emitting diode (OLED) is a common practice for solution processable emissive layers and reported annealing temperatures varies across a wide range of temperatures. We have investigated the influence of thermal annealing of the emissive layer at different temperatures on the performance of OLEDs. Solution processed polymer Super Yellow emissive layers were annealed at different temperatures and their performances were compared against OLEDs with a non-annealed emissive layer. We found a significant difference in the efficiency of OLEDs with different annealing temperatures. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) reached a maximum of 4.09% with the emissive layer annealed at 50 °C. The EQE dropped by ~35% (to 2.72%) for OLEDs with the emissive layers annealed at 200 °C. The observed performances of OLEDs were found to be closely related to thermal properties of polymer Super Yellow. The results reported here provide an important guideline for processing emissive layers and are significant for OLED and other organic electronics research communities.

  15. Effect of thermal annealing Super Yellow emissive layer on efficiency of OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Samantha; MacLeod, Jennifer; Trang Do, Thu; Sonar, Prashant; Yambem, Soniya D.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal annealing of the emissive layer of an organic light emitting diode (OLED) is a common practice for solution processable emissive layers and reported annealing temperatures varies across a wide range of temperatures. We have investigated the influence of thermal annealing of the emissive layer at different temperatures on the performance of OLEDs. Solution processed polymer Super Yellow emissive layers were annealed at different temperatures and their performances were compared against OLEDs with a non-annealed emissive layer. We found a significant difference in the efficiency of OLEDs with different annealing temperatures. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) reached a maximum of 4.09% with the emissive layer annealed at 50 °C. The EQE dropped by ~35% (to 2.72%) for OLEDs with the emissive layers annealed at 200 °C. The observed performances of OLEDs were found to be closely related to thermal properties of polymer Super Yellow. The results reported here provide an important guideline for processing emissive layers and are significant for OLED and other organic electronics research communities.

  16. Effect of thermal annealing Super Yellow emissive layer on efficiency of OLEDs

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Samantha; MacLeod, Jennifer; Trang Do, Thu; Sonar, Prashant; Yambem, Soniya D.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal annealing of the emissive layer of an organic light emitting diode (OLED) is a common practice for solution processable emissive layers and reported annealing temperatures varies across a wide range of temperatures. We have investigated the influence of thermal annealing of the emissive layer at different temperatures on the performance of OLEDs. Solution processed polymer Super Yellow emissive layers were annealed at different temperatures and their performances were compared against OLEDs with a non-annealed emissive layer. We found a significant difference in the efficiency of OLEDs with different annealing temperatures. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) reached a maximum of 4.09% with the emissive layer annealed at 50 °C. The EQE dropped by ~35% (to 2.72%) for OLEDs with the emissive layers annealed at 200 °C. The observed performances of OLEDs were found to be closely related to thermal properties of polymer Super Yellow. The results reported here provide an important guideline for processing emissive layers and are significant for OLED and other organic electronics research communities. PMID:28106082

  17. Optical transitions and point defects in F:SnO2 films: Effect of annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Akkad, Fikry; Paulose, Tressia A. P.

    2014-03-01

    FTO films were deposited on borosilicate glass using chemical spray pyrolysis at 450 °C then subjected to post deposition annealing in air at 500, 550 and 600 °C. The films are characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), optical and electrical measurements. They are found to have the Rutile structure with strong orientation along the (1 1 0) and (2 0 0) planes and with grain size varying with annealing temperature in the range 20-100 nm. Electron concentration and oxygen vacancy concentration in the range (2.61-7.07) × 1020 cm-3 and (1.49-2.41) × 1022 cm-3 were determined using Hall and XPS measurements respectively. The analysis of optical absorption spectra revealed the presence of three direct optical transitions of energies E1 = 3.78 ± 0.07 eV, E2 = 4.39 ± 0.07 eV and E3 = 4.81 ± 0.08 eV. Taking into account the Moss-Burstein and the Urbach tailing effects, E2 was identified as being due to a direct optical transition across the Γ3v+-Γ1c+ gap. The mean value of the width of this gap is determined to be 3.86 ± 0.14 eV. The two other energies E1 and E3 are assigned to electronic transitions originating from the lower valence bands Γ5v- and Γ1v+ respectively to a defect level at Ec -0.61 ± 0.02 eV attributed to the second ionization state of the oxygen vacancy. On the other hand, the analysis of the Hall mobility results on the basis of current theories provides evidence that fluorine is at the origin of a double donor which, according to XPS measurements, must contain FSn bonds. This double donor, suggested to be the complex center [F-Sn-F]++, dominates the electrical properties of as-deposited films and creates isolated substitutional fluorine FO at higher annealing temperatures possibly by thermal dissociation.

  18. Thermal annealing effects on AlGaAsSb/GaSb laser structure: Bandgap energy blueshift and thermal conductivity enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilahi, S.; Yacoubi, N.; Genty, F.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the effects of thermal annealing on optical properties and thermal conductivity of AlGaAsSb/GaSb laser structure using photo-thermal deflection spectroscopy PDS. In fact, optical absorption spectrum and thermal conductivity have been determined by comparison between experimental and theoretical phase of PDS signal. We have found that band gap energy is blue shifted of 70 meV for the as grown to the sample annealed for 1 h. Indeed, the highest thermal conductivity is found around of 11 W/m.K for AlGaAsSb/GaSb annealed for 1 h, which presents a promising result for vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs).

  19. Effect of annealing on the optical properties of the ion beam sputtered NiO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouhan, Romita; Baraskar, Priyanka; Dar, Tanveer A.; Agrawal, Arpana; Gupta, Mukul; Sen, Pranay K.; Sen, Pratima.

    2017-05-01

    Effect of annealing on optical characteristics of Nickel oxide thin films deposited by ion beam sputtering technique from a Ni target in a mixture of oxygen and argon gas on to a glass substrate has been studied. The deposited films were characterized in as deposited state(S1) and after annealing(S2) at temp of 523 K. Crystalline properties of films were investigated using X-ray diffraction technique from which we found that both S1 and S2 shows the polycrystalline nature with preferential growth along (111) plane. The transmittance of the S2 films was decreased. The surface morphology of the film was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The nonlinear optical properties of the films were obtained using z-scan technique which reveals that the nonlinear absorption coefficient of S2 films is larger than that of S1 samples. Improved nonlinearity suggests the utility of the grown films for optoelectronic device application.

  20. Effect of annealing on VmHn complexes in hydrogen ion irradiated Fe and Fe-0.3%Cu alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Jin, Shuoxue; Lu, Eryang; Wang, Baoyi; Zheng, Yongnan; Yuan, Daqing; Cao, Xingzhong

    2015-04-01

    The effect of annealing on VmHn complexes and Cu precipitate behaviours in hydrogen ion irradiated Fe and Fe-0.3%Cu alloys was investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy using a slow positron beam. The results of S parameters indicated that the room temperature irradiation was benefit for the formation of the VmHn complex compared to the elevated temperature irradiation. The S-W results confirmed the formation of Cu precipitates in Fe-0.3%Cu even at the irradiation dose of 0.1 dpa. The formation of the evident S value peaks in the damage region after annealing treatment suggested that the VmHn complexes were broken and a larger of hydrogen atoms were escaping. The residual vacancy defects would migrate towards both the surface region and the opposite direction with the increasing annealing temperature.

  1. Effects of rapid thermal annealing on the optical properties of strain-free quantum ring solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang; Wang, Zhiming M; Dorogan, Vitaliy G; Li, Shibin; Lee, Jihoon; Mazur, Yuriy I; Kim, Eun Soo; Salamo, Gregory J

    2013-01-02

    Strain-free GaAs/Al0.33Ga0.67As quantum rings are fabricated by droplet epitaxy. Both photoresponse and photoluminescence spectra confirm optical transitions in quantum rings, suggesting that droplet epitaxial nanomaterials are applicable to intermediate band solar cells. The effects of post-growth annealing on the quantum ring solar cells are investigated, and the optical properties of the solar cells with and without thermal treatment are characterized by photoluminescence technique. Rapid thermal annealing treatment has resulted in the significant improvement of material quality, which can be served as a standard process for quantum structure solar cells grown by droplet epitaxy.

  2. Effect of rapid thermal annealing on InP1-xBix grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X. Y.; Wang, K.; Pan, W. W.; Wang, P.; Li, Y. Y.; Song, Y. X.; Gu, Y.; Yue, L.; Xu, H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Cui, J.; Gong, Q.; Wang, S. M.

    2015-09-01

    The effect of post-growth rapid thermal annealing on structural and optical properties of InP1-xBix thin films was investigated. InPBi shows good thermal stability up to 500 °C and a modest improvement in photoluminescence (PL) intensity with an unchanged PL spectral feature. Bismuth outdiffusion from InPBi and strain relaxation are observed at about 600 °C. The InPBi sample annealed at 800 °C shows an unexpected PL spectrum with different energy transitions.

  3. Distribution of relaxation times from dielectric spectroscopy using Monte Carlo simulated annealing: Application to α-PVDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bello, A.; Laredo, E.; Grimau, M.

    1999-11-01

    The existence of a distribution of relaxation times has been widely used to describe the relaxation function versus frequency in glass-forming liquids. Several empirical distributions have been proposed and the usual method is to fit the experimental data to a model that assumes one of these functions. Another alternative is to extract from the experimental data the discrete profile of the distribution function that best fits the experimental curve without any a priori assumption. To test this approach a Monte Carlo algorithm using the simulated annealing is used to best fit simulated dielectric loss data, ɛ''(ω), generated with Cole-Cole, Cole-Davidson, Havriliak-Negami, and Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) functions. The relaxation times distribution, G(ln(τ)), is obtained as an histogram that follows very closely the analytical expression for the distributions that are known in these cases. Also, the temporal decay functions, φ(t), are evaluated and compared to a stretched exponential. The method is then applied to experimental data for α-polyvinylidene fluoride over a temperature range 233 K<=T<=278 K and frequencies varying from 3 MHz to 0.001 Hz. These data show the existence of two relaxation processes: the fast segmental αa process associated with the glass transition and a αc mode, which is slower and due to changes in conformation that can occur in the crystalline regions. The experimental curves are fitted by the simulated annealing direct signal analysis procedure, and the relaxation times distributions are calculated and found to vary with temperature. The decay function is also evaluated and it shows clearly its bimodal character and a good agreement with a KWW function with a temperature dependent β for each mode. The relaxation plots are drawn for each mode and the Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher and Arrhenius parameters are found. The fragility parameter for polyvinylidene flouride (PVDF) is found to be 87, which characterizes this polymer as a

  4. The Effect of Annealing at 1500 C on Migration and Release of Ion Implanted Silver in CVD Silicon Carbide

    SciTech Connect

    HJ MacLean; RG Ballinger; LE Kolaya; SA Simonson; N Lewis; M Hanson

    2004-10-07

    The transport of silver in CVD {beta}-SiC has been studied using ion implantation. Silver ions were implanted in {beta}-SiC using the ATLAS accelerator facility at the Argonne National Laboratory. Ion beams with energies of 93 and 161 MeV were used to achieve deposition with peak concentrations at depths of approximately 9 and 13 {micro}m, respectively. As-implanted samples were then annealed at 1500 C for 210 or 480 hours. XPS, SEM, TEM, STEM, and optical methods were used to analyze the material before and after annealing. Silver concentration profiles were determined using XPS before and after annealing. STEM and SEM equipped with quantitative chemical analysis capability were used to more fully characterize the location and morphology of the silver before and after annealing. The results show that, within the uncertainty of measurement techniques, there is no silver migration, via either inter- or intragrannular paths, for the times and temperature studied. Additionally, the silver was observed to phase separate within the SiC after annealing. The irradiation damage from the implantation process resulted in a three-layer morphology in the as-implanted condition: (1) a layer of unaltered SiC, followed by (2) a layer of crystallized SiC, followed by (3) an amorphized layer which contained essentially all of the implanted silver. After annealing the layer structure changed. Layer 1 was unaltered. The grains in layer 2 recrystallized to form an epitaxial (columnar) layer. Layer 3 recrystallized to form a fine grain equiaxed layer. The results of this work do not support the long held assumption that silver release from CVD SiC, used for gas-reactor coated particle fuel, is dominated by grain boundary diffusion.

  5. Effect of Long Term, High Temperature Annealing on the Strength of Beta''-Alumina Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, James R.; Williams, Roger M.; Kisor, Adam K.

    2003-01-01

    It has been recently reported that subjecting beta''-alumina ceramics to a long term, high temperature anneal for the purpose of reducing the residual sodium aluminate content within the ceramic results in an apparent increase in the strength of the ceramic as well. In order to examine this hypothesis, a carefully controlled experiment was conducted. Ten tubes were cut into 100 rings 1.5 mm long. A third of the rings (randomly selected) were broken in diametral ring fracture tests, while the remaining rings were packaged and shipped to Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) where half of them were annealed, and the other half were unpacked and stored under appropriate dry conditions to act a shipping and handling control group. Once the annealing was completed, both groups of rings were repackaged and returned to Advanced Modular Power Systems (AMPS) and broken in diametral ring tests. The annealed group had the lowest strength as indicated by the Weibull characteristic strengths. Weibull characteristic strengths for the unannealed, control, and annealed groups were 376 MPa, 326 MPa, and 294 MPa, respectively. The Weibull moduli of the unannealed and annealed groups were nominally the same at 9.0 and 8.6, respectively. That for the handling control group was lower at 6.8. The lower strength of the annealed ceramics is consistent with earlier work showing a decrease in ceramic strength with increasing grain size.

  6. Annealing effect on microstructure and mechanical properties of amorphous Al-C-N films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Q. H.; Lu, Y. H.; Lou, Y. Z.

    2011-05-01

    Al-C-N thin films with different Al contents were deposited on Si (1 0 0) substrates by closed-field unbalanced reactive magnetron sputtering in the mixture of argon and nitrogen gases. These films were subsequently vacuum-annealed at 700 °C and 1000 °C, respectively. The microstructures of as-deposited and annealed films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM); while the hardness and elastic modulus values were measured by nano-indention method. The results indicated that the microstructure of both as-deposited and annealed Al-C-N films strongly depended on Al content. For thin films at low Al content, film delamination rather than crystallization occurred after the sample was annealed at 1000 °C. For thin films at high Al content, annealing led to the formation of AlN nanocrystallites, which produced nanocomposites of AlN embedded into amorphous matrices. Both the density and size of AlN nanocrystallites were found to decrease with increasing depth from the film surface. With increasing of annealing temperature, both hardness and elastic modulus values were decreased; this trend was decreased at high Al content. Annealing did not change elastic recovery property of Al-C-N thin films.

  7. Annealing effect for SnS thin films prepared by high-vacuum evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Revathi, Naidu Bereznev, Sergei; Loorits, Mihkel; Raudoja, Jaan; Lehner, Julia; Gurevits, Jelena; Traksmaa, Rainer; Mikli, Valdek; Mellikov, Enn; Volobujeva, Olga

    2014-11-01

    Thin films of SnS are deposited onto molybdenum-coated soda lime glass substrates using the high-vacuum evaporation technique at a substrate temperature of 300 °C. The as-deposited SnS layers are then annealed in three different media: (1) H{sub 2}S, (2) argon, and (3) vacuum, for different periods and temperatures to study the changes in the microstructural properties of the layers and to prepare single-phase SnS photoabsorber films. It is found that annealing the layers in H{sub 2}S at 400 °C changes the stoichiometry of the as-deposited SnS films and leads to the formation of a dominant SnS{sub 2} phase. Annealing in an argon atmosphere for 1 h, however, causes no deviations in the composition of the SnS films, though the surface morphology of the annealed SnS layers changes significantly as a result of a 2 h annealing process. The crystalline structure, surface morphology, and photosensitivity of the as-deposited SnS films improves significantly as the result of annealing in vacuum, and the vacuum-annealed films are found to exhibit promising properties for fabricating complete solar cells based on these single-phase SnS photoabsorber layers.

  8. Annealing effects on the ferromagnetic resonance linewidths of sputter-deposited Fe{sub 100−x}Co{sub x}(001) thin films (x < 11)

    SciTech Connect

    Kusaoka, A.; Kimura, J.; Takahashi, Y. Inaba, N.; Kirino, F.; Ohtake, M.; Futamoto, M.

    2015-05-07

    Effects of post-growth annealing on the magnetic damping of 3d transition alloy thin films were investigated. Fe{sub 100−x}Co{sub x} (x < 11 at. %) thin films were epitaxially deposited on GaAs(001) substrates by rf magnetron sputtering, and some of them were annealed without exposing to atmosphere. Electrical measurement showed that in-plane resistivity was smaller in the annealed films than in the as-deposited ones, indicating that the annealing mitigates crystalline imperfections and leads to reduced electron scattering rates. Magnetic damping was evaluated by the peak widths of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra obtained by a conventional Q-band spectrometer. Comparison of as-deposited and annealed specimens showed that the damping was decreased by annealing. Combined with the electrical and FMR measurements, these observations are consistent with the theoretical predictions that crystalline imperfections strongly influence the magnetic damping, both in intrinsic and extrinsic origins.

  9. Effects of annealing and electromigration on surface morphology of polycrystalline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chi-Yang; Huang, Huei-Li

    1983-05-01

    The capillarity-induced surface mass transport has been extended to cases where there is a notch and/or a ridge on a bicrystal system. Changes in the surface morphology caused by capillarity-induced and electromigration-induced surface diffusions and grain boundary diffusions have been analyzed. Thermal grooving is shown to develop only when the initial slope of a notch on the crystal surface is less than γb/2γs (γb and γs are, respectively, the grain boundary and the surface Gibbs free energy) or when the initial surface contains a ridge at the grain boundary. The slope of the grooving profile is invariant with time but its depth develops as the one fourth power of time. Surface fluxes due to the electromigration origin change the morphology in an asymmetric manner, biased in the direction of the electron flow. When combined with fluxes from grain boundary diffusion, severe mass depletion and accumulation can occur, giving rise to characteristic electromigration damage of open circuit failures. Finally, the concept of an optimum annealing time in relation to electromigration is explored.

  10. Post-deposition annealing effect on RF-sputtered TiO2 thin-film properties for photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjoub, Ilhem; Touam, Tahar; Chelouche, Azeddine; Atoui, Mohamed; Solard, Jeanne; Chakaroun, Mahmoud; Fischer, Alexis; Boudrioua, Azzedine; Peng, Lung-Han

    2016-02-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were grown on glass substrates at room temperature using RF magnetron sputtering technique. Effect of the post-annealing for 1 h at 400-600 °C on the structural, morphological, optical and waveguide properties was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-visible spectrophotometry and m-lines spectroscopy (MLS). XRD studies show that as-grown and post-annealed TiO2 films exhibit (101) XRD peak corresponding to the anatase phase of TiO2. Higher annealing temperatures result in a significant increase in crystallinity. The grain size values were calculated and found to be about 15-37 nm. From the analyses made on the SEM micrographs and AFM images, it was revealed that the morphology and surface roughness of the thin films were influenced by the heat treatment temperature. The UV-visible spectroscopy analyses show that as-grown TiO2 films were transparent in the visible region with an average transmittance of more than 75 % and the transmittance decreases slightly with an increase in annealing temperature. Annealed TiO2 films also exhibit an increase in the values of direct optical band gap. MLS measurements at 633-nm wavelength put into evidence that TiO2 planar waveguides demonstrate a well-guided fundamental mode for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarized light. Moreover, the refractive index was found to increase with temperature and to approach to the anatase TiO2 single-crystal value for the TiO2 film annealed at 600 °C.

  11. Effects of annealing in N2 ambient on traps and persistent conduction in hydrothermally grown ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Z.-Q.; Claflin, B.; Look, D. C.

    2008-04-01

    Thermally stimulated current (TSC) spectroscopy and temperature-dependent dark current (DC) measurements have been applied to study traps and photoinduced persistent surface conduction in two hydrothermally grown bulk ZnO samples, as-grown, and annealed at 600°C in N2 ambient for 30min, respectively. The as-grown sample had a room-temperature (RT) resistivity of 1.6×103Ωcm, mobility of 2.1×102cm2/Vs, and carrier concentration of 1.8×1013cm-3, while the annealed sample was highly resistive, with RT resistivity of 3.6×106Ωcm, mobility of 4.4cm2/Vs, and carrier concentration of 3.9×1011cm-3. The as-grown sample showed strong conduction at low temperatures, which has been shown to be due to near-surface carriers in other studies. The annealed sample did not demonstrate this phenomenon. The dominant trap in the as-grown sample had an activation energy of 0.16eV, was strongest near the surface, and is possibly related to VZn. In the annealed sample, however, the dominant trap had an activation energy of 0.22eV, was of bulk nature, and is tentatively assigned to LiZn. After several routine TSC measurements, the DC for the as-grown sample increased by more than one order of magnitude at low temperatures (T<180K), while for the annealed sample, the DC increased by a factor of 2 at high temperatures (T>200K). These effects are generated by the TSC trap-filling illumination and can persist for many days under vacuum. At RT, the DC in the annealed sample returns to its equilibrium state if the sample is vented to air.

  12. Effect of sulfur hexafluoride gas and post-annealing treatment for inductively coupled plasma etched barium titanate thin films

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aerosol deposition- (AD) derived barium titanate (BTO) micropatterns are etched via SF6/O2/Ar plasmas using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching technology. The reaction mechanisms of the sulfur hexafluoride on BTO thin films and the effects of annealing treatment are verified through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, which confirms the accumulation of reaction products on the etched surface due to the low volatility of the reaction products, such as Ba and Ti fluorides, and these residues could be completely removed by the post-annealing treatment. The exact peak positions and chemicals shifts of Ba 3d, Ti 2p, O 1 s, and F 1 s are deduced by fitting the XPS narrow-scan spectra on as-deposited, etched, and post-annealed BTO surfaces. Compared to the as-deposited BTOs, the etched Ba 3d 5/2 , Ba 3d 3/2 , Ti 2p 3/2 , Ti 2p 1/2 , and O 1 s peaks shift towards higher binding energy regions by amounts of 0.55, 0.45, 0.4, 0.35, and 0.85 eV, respectively. A comparison of the as-deposited film with the post-annealed film after etching revealed that there are no significant differences in the fitted XPS narrow-scan spectra except for the slight chemical shift in the O 1 s peak due to the oxygen vacancy compensation in O2-excessive atmosphere. It is inferred that the electrical properties of the etched BTO film can be restored by post-annealing treatment after the etching process. Moreover, the relative permittivity and loss tangent of the post-annealed BTO thin films are remarkably improved by 232% and 2,695%, respectively. PMID:25249824

  13. Effect of Annealing Twins on Electromigration in Ag-8Au-3Pd Bonding Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Tung-Han; Wang, Hsi-Ching; Chuang, Chien-Hsun; Lee, Jun-Der; Tsai, Hsing-Hua

    2013-03-01

    An innovative Ag-8Au-3Pd bonding wire with a high twin density has been produced. The grain size of this annealing-twinned wire changes moderately during electrical stressing, unlike that of the conventional grained wire, which increases drastically and even leads to a bamboo structure. In addition, the durability against electromigration of the annealing-twinned Ag-8Au-3Pd alloy wire is higher than that of the conventional grained wire. This higher durability can be ascribed to the surface reconstruction of a stepwise morphology and slow grain growth resulting from the abundance of annealing twins in this wire.

  14. The Effect of Hydrogen Annealing on the Oxidation Resistance of Four EPM Single Crystal Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Barrett, Charles A.; Garlick, Ralph G.

    2001-01-01

    Four single crystal EPM (enabling propulsion materials) developmental airfoil superalloys were hydrogen annealed at 1300 C for up to 100 hours to remove sulfur and improve oxidation resistance. Although the 1100 and 1150 C cyclic oxidation resistance was remarkably improved by annealing for 24 or 100 hours, the behavior was still considerably inferior to that of commercially available single crystal superalloys, especially those that are either Y-doped or hydrogen annealed. Excessive degradation in the developmental alloys appeared to be correlated with low Cr contents and, to a lesser extent, high Co and Re contents.

  15. Effect of anodizing voltage and annealing temperature on the growth of titanium dioxide nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainuddin, Ainun Rahmahwati; Sulaiman, Mohammad Syazwan

    2017-04-01

    Self-aligned TiO2 nanotube array were produced by anodizing of pure Ti foil in ethylene glycol electrolyte at different anodizing voltages and annealing temperature. The morphologies of the oxide produced were compared. It appers that the nanotubes formed are clearer showing significant changes based on the anodizing voltages and annealing temperature. The TiO2 nanotubes formed were increased in diameter as the anodizing voltages increased. The annealed TiO2 shows the decreasing in surface roughness as the temperature increased.

  16. Improved cost-effectiveness of the block co-polymer anneal process for DSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathangi, Hari; Stokhof, Maarten; Knaepen, Werner; Vaid, Varun; Mallik, Arindam; Chan, Boon Teik; Vandenbroeck, Nadia; Maes, Jan Willem; Gronheid, Roel

    2016-04-01

    This manuscript first presents a cost model to compare the cost of ownership of DSA and SAQP for a typical front end of line (FEoL) line patterning exercise. Then, we proceed to a feasibility study of using a vertical furnace to batch anneal the block co-polymer for DSA applications. We show that the defect performance of such a batch anneal process is comparable to the process of record anneal methods. This helps in increasing the cost benefit for DSA compared to the conventional multiple patterning approaches.

  17. Effect of annealing on the martensitic transformation and magnetocaloric effect in Ni44.1Mn44.2Sn11.7 ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, H. C.; Xie, K. X.; Wang, D. H.; Han, Z. D.; Zhang, C. L.; Gu, B. X.; Du, Y. W.

    2008-06-01

    The Ni44.1Mn44.2Sn11.7 ribbons were prepared by melt spinning. A single-phase austenite with L21 structure was confirmed in the melt-spun ribbons at room temperature. After the heat treatment, the martensitic transformation temperature increases obviously in the annealed ribbons. This method may be an effective way to tune the characteristic temperatures in the ferromagnetic shape memory alloys. Giant magnetic entropy changes are observed in the annealed ribbons. The peak values at 10kOe are 32.1 and 20.1J /kgK, for the ribbons annealed at 1123 and 1173K, respectively.

  18. Effect of low-temperature post-growth annealing on anisotropic strain in epitaxial Fe layers deposited on GaAs(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Tholapi, R. Liefeith, L.; Ekindorf, G.; Slobodskyy, T.; Hansen, W.; Perumal, K.

    2016-06-28

    We study the effect of low-temperature post growth annealing on the Fe layer in an epitaxial Fe/GaAs(001) heterojunction. High resolution X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity were used to probe the Fe layer before and after annealing. No change in morphological features like annealing induced intermixing and thickness variation of the Fe layer are observed. However, annealing leads to increase in the compressive strain and improves isotropy of the ferromagnetic layer as revealed by measuring both lateral and out-of-plane lattice components.

  19. Composition Dependence of Thermal Annealing Effect on 1.3 μm GaInNAs/GaAs Quantum Well Lasers Grown by Chemical Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Shigeki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Kageyama, Takeo; Ikenaga, Yoshihiko; Arai, Masakazu; Koyama, Fumio; Iga, Kenichi

    2001-11-01

    The thermal annealing process is effective to improve the optical quality of GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells (QWs). However, a blue shift of the emission peak wavelength occurs during the annealing and it is strongly related to the annealing condition and the composition of GaInNAs/GaAs QWs. In this study, we investigated the dependences of both the annealing condition and the composition on the lasing characteristics of 1.3 μm GaInNAs/GaAs QW lasers.

  20. Influence of air annealing temperature and time on the optical properties of Yb:YAG single crystal grown by HDS method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Ying; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Yequan; Zhang, Mingfu

    2015-08-01

    8 at.% Yb:YAG plate single crystal with the dimension of 170 mm × 150 mm × 30 mm was grown in vacuum by Horizontal Directional Solidification method. Aimed at blue-green color centers, annealing treatments of 15 mm × 15 mm × 1 mm samples from 900 °C to 1400 °C for 5 h and at 900 °C from 5 h to 40 h in air were conducted. The absorption spectra, emission spectra, fluorescence lifetime and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of samples under different annealing conditions were measured at room temperature, respectively. Annealing at above 1000 °C for 5 h or at 900 °C for 40 h made the blue-green color centers disappear and the samples turned to transparent. Absorption coefficients decreased in the 300 nm-800 nm wavelength range, emission intensities increased and emission bands broadened around 486 nm and 1029 nm with increasing temperature up to 1200 °C, then varied inversely. These values decreased or increased monotonically with increasing annealing time at 900 °C. The maximal increases of fluorescence lifetime were 62.3% and 64.7%, respectively. The calculated emission cross section of 1200 °C for 5 h was up to 4.4 × 10-20 cm2. In X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the concentrations of oxygen vacancies reduced from 1.28% down to absence by annealing. These experiments show that color centers are detrimental to the optical properties of HDS-Yb:YAG laser crystal and optimal annealing treatments should be conducted.

  1. Photoelectrochemical conversion in a WO3 coated p-Si photoelectrode: Effect of annealing temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Ki Hyun; Shin, Choul Woo; Kang, Dong Heon

    1997-05-01

    The photoelectrochemical properties of a p-type silicon (100) electrode coated with tungsten oxide thin film were investigated as a function of annealing temperature. The variation in the annealing temperature affected the photocurrent of a WO3/p-Si electrode. A maximum photocurrent was obtained when the 500 Å WO3 thin film coated p-Si electrode was annealed at 350 °C for 1 h. A further increase in the annealing temperature and film thickness degraded the photocurrent. This can be explained in terms of electrical resistivity, carrier concentration, and depletion layer width. A WO3 thin film deposition on the p-Si shifted the flatband potential of the p-Si electrode by 0.3 V in the anodic direction, resulting in an improvement in conversion efficiency. These results are supported by x-ray diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, and capacitance measurements.

  2. Effect of rapid thermal annealing on Ti AlN interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Youxiang; Chen, Xin

    1999-07-01

    The interface diffusion, reaction, and adherence of rapid thermal annealed Ti/ALN were investigated by RBS, AES, SIMS, XRD and a scratch test. The experimental results show that diffusion and reaction occurs at the interface of Ti/AlN when the sample is rapidly annealed. During annealing, both the O adsorbed on the surface and doped in the AlN substrate diffuse into the Ti film. At low temperature TiO 2 is produced. At higher temperature O reacts with the diffused Al in the Ti film and produces an Al 2O 3 layer in the middle of the film. N diffuses into the Ti film and produces TiN with an interface reaction. Ti oxide is produced at the interface between the film and the substrate. Scratch test results show that interface adherence is distinctly improved by rapid annealing at low temperature and decreases at higher temperature.

  3. Effects of annealing on properties of Al2O3 monolayer film at 355 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Feifei; Wang, Hu; Xing, Huanbin; Zheng, Ruxi; Zhang, Weili; Yi, Kui

    2015-07-01

    Al2O3 monolayer films were deposited on fused silica substrate and K9 glass substrate by electron-beam deposition. Annealing as a general post-treatment was used to enhance the quality of the Al2O3 coatings. The optical properties of the films were analyzed from the transmission spectra of the samples. The composition of the samples before and after annealing were measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). According to the analysis of the results, it can be found that the oxidation degree of the coatings increases after annealing in O2 inside coating chamber. The laser-induced damage thresholds of the Al2O3 films can be increased after the annealing process. Finally, the damage morphologies of the Al2O3 coatings were analyzed.

  4. Effect of Laser Annealing of Common Solid Pressure Media on Pressure Gradients in a Diamond Anvil Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uts, I.; Glazyrin, K.; Lee, K. K.

    2012-12-01

    Advances in experimental techniques allow for the studying of geophysics and planetary science related materials under high pressure and high temperature conditions. With the intrinsic limits of the multianvil apparatus, compression in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) has become the preferred method for creating the extreme conditions of planetary interiors. High pressures up to 1 Mbar can be routinely obtained in laboratories with the use of DACs. Additionally, as in situ laser heating is becoming progressively more affordable for DACs, it is becoming more common to find laser heating setups in many large scale facilities. After the sample material, the pressure medium is the second most important ingredient for a successful high pressure DAC experiment. Not every pressure medium is equally suitable for every experiment. For example, solid pressure media are more persistent than gaseous pressure media if high temperature heating is required. The melting point of the former is much higher, and melting of pressure media may induce undesirable sample shift in the pressure chamber. However, the most important characteristic of a pressure medium is its ability to maintain hydrostaticity in the DAC. The media, particularly solid pressure media, become less effective with increasing pressure. One of the most popular ways of alleviating pressure gradients is through laser annealing of the sample. We explore the effectiveness of this technique in relation to common pressure media, namely, alkali metal halides NaCl, CsCl, KCl, LiF, and oxide MgO. The samples were laser annealed at temperatures above 2000 K. Pressure gradients were determined through the analysis of diamond Raman and ruby fluorescence peaks before and after annealing the sample with a near-infrared laser. We find that the effect of annealing varies for different materials. For some (NaCl and KCl), it reduces pressure gradients considerably, but for the others (MgO), the effect of annealing is less profound.

  5. Effect of aging and annealing on perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of ultra-thin CoPt films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, R.; Hayakawa, K.; Ebata, K.; Sugita, R.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of aging and annealing on the magnetic properties of ultra-thin CoPt films with a Ru underlayer was investigated. For the 3 nm thick CoPt film aged in the air, the decrease of the saturation magnetic moment ms, the drastic increase of the perpendicular coercivity Hc⊥ and the perpendicular anisotropy were observed. This is because the surface layer of the CoPt film was oxidized and the bottom layer with high perpendicular anisotropy due to lattice distortion remained. For the annealed 3 nm thick CoPt film with a Pt protective layer, rising the annealing temperature Ta led to the decrease of ms, the decrease after increase of Hc⊥, and the decrease of the perpendicular squareness ratio S⊥ at Ta of 400 ∘C. The origins of effect of annealing were considered to be the grain boundary diffusion and the bulk diffusion of Ru and Pt into the CoPt film, and relaxation of the lattice distortion.

  6. Microstructure analysis of silicon nanocrystals formed from silicon rich oxide with high excess silicon: Annealing and doping effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomoto, K.; Yang, T. C. J.; Ceguerra, A. V.; Zhang, T.; Lin, Z.; Breen, A.; Wu, L.; Puthen-Veettil, B.; Jia, X.; Conibeer, G.; Perez-Wurfl, I.; Ringer, S. P.

    2017-07-01

    Thin films consisting of silicon nanocrystals fabricated by high silicon content in silicon rich oxide show unique properties of decreasing resistivity and increasing light absorption while maintaining quantum confinement effects. With that said, the effect of the annealing temperature and doping element on the microscopic structure of silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) and the film are still under research. In this study, individual intrinsic, boron-, and phosphorus-doped films are annealed at various temperatures, and their structural properties are analyzed via atom probe tomography together with glancing incidence x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy (Raman), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy filtered TEM. In addition, photoluminescence (PL) is performed and linked with their microstructural properties. The Si NC growth is confirmed at annealing temperatures of 1000 °C and 1100 °C. The microstructure of the Si NCs in the whole film is dramatically changed by increasing the annealing temperature from 1000 °C to 1100 °C. In addition, doping changes the arrangement of the Si NCs by assisting their penetration across the SiO2 barrier layers. This study helps to understand the relationship between the microscopic and macroscopic properties of the Si NC film, showing that the size and distribution of the Si NCs are correlated with the obtained PL profiles.

  7. The effect of substrate on high-temperature annealing of GaN epilayers: Si versus sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Pastor, D.; Cusco, R.; Artus, L.; Gonzalez-Diaz, G.; Iborra, E.; Jimenez, J.; Peiro, F.; Calleja, E.

    2006-08-15

    We have studied the effects of rapid thermal annealing at 1300 deg.C on GaN epilayers grown on AlN buffered Si(111) and on sapphire substrates. After annealing, the epilayers grown on Si display visible alterations with craterlike morphology scattered over the surface. The annealed GaN/Si layers were characterized by a range of experimental techniques: scanning electron microscopy, optical confocal imaging, energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis, Raman scattering, and cathodoluminescence. A substantial Si migration to the GaN epilayer was observed in the crater regions, where decomposition of GaN and formation of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} crystallites as well as metallic Ga droplets and Si nanocrystals have occurred. The average diameter of the Si nanocrystals was estimated from Raman scattering to be around 3 nm. Such annealing effects, which are not observed in GaN grown on sapphire, are a significant issue for applications of GaN grown on Si(111) substrates when subsequent high-temperature processing is required.

  8. Correlation of annealing time with crystal structure, composition, and electronic properties of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx mixed-halide perovskite films.

    PubMed

    Ralaiarisoa, Maryline; Busby, Yan; Frisch, Johannes; Salzmann, Ingo; Pireaux, Jean-Jacques; Koch, Norbert

    2016-12-21

    Using 3D imaging with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) complemented by grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), we spatially resolve changes in both the composition and structure of CH3NH3I3-xClx perovskite films on conducting polymer substrates at different annealing stages, in particular, before and after complete perovskite crystallization. The early stage of annealing is characterized by phase separation throughout the entire film into domains with perovskite and domains with a dominating chloride-rich phase. After sufficiently long annealing, one single perovskite phase of homogeneous composition on the (lateral) micrometer scale is observed, along with pronounced film texture. This composition evolution is accompanied by diffusion of chloride from the perovskite layer towards the conducting polymer substrate, and even accumulation there. Photoelectron spectroscopy analysis further shows that perovskite films become increasingly n-type with annealing time and upon full conversion, which correlates with the change of film composition. Our results accentuate the importance of chloride for the formation of crystalline and textured films, which are crucial for enhancing the PV performance of perovskite-based solar cells.

  9. The Effect of Annealing Above Glass Transition Temperature on the Optical Properties of Se85Te10Bi5 Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atyia, H. E.; Farid, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Se85Te10Bi5 films have been deposited using the thermal evaporation technique. Films with different thicknesses in the thickness range 590.2-273.9 nm were annealed at different annealing temperatures above the glass transition temperature for 120 min. The structure of the annealed films was checked by x-ray diffraction analysis, which indicated a polycrystalline nature for all annealed films, and that the degree of crystallinity increased with increasing annealing temperature. From the reflectance ( R) and transmittance ( T) measurements, the values of the optical absorption coefficient ( α) for the annealed films were estimated to be in the wavelength range of 500-2500 nm. Analysis of the absorption coefficient data reveals allowed indirect transitions and the values of optical band gap ( E g). The values of ( E g) were found to be obeying the Tauc's relation and decreasing with increasing annealing temperature. This behavior is discussed as due to thermal disordering with the structural changes upon annealing. Optical parameters such as lattice and the infinite frequency dielectric constant as ( ɛ L and ɛ ∞), plasma frequency ( ω p), carrier concentration to the effective mass ratio ( N/m*), single- oscillator and dispersion energies ( E o and E d) were found. The dependence of the optical parameters on the annealing temperature was studied and discussed.

  10. Effects of annealing, acid and alcoholic beverages on Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Taen, T.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Shi, Z. X.; Tamegai, T.

    2013-01-01

    We have systematically investigated and compared different methods to induce superconductivity in the iron chalcogenide Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4, including annealing in a vacuum, N2, O2 and I2 atmospheres and immersing samples into acid and alcoholic beverages. Vacuum and N2 annealing are proved to be ineffective in inducing superconductivity in a Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4 single crystal. Annealing in O2 and I2 and immersion in acid and alcoholic beverages can induce superconductivity by oxidizing the excess Fe in the sample. Superconductivity in O2 annealed samples is of a bulk nature, while I2, acid and alcoholic beverages can only induce superconductivity near the surface. By comparing the different effects of O2, I2, acid and alcoholic beverages we propose a scenario to explain how the superconductivity is induced in the non-superconducting as-grown Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4.

  11. Effects of Annealing Ambient on the Characteristics of LaAlO3 Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lu; Liu, Hong-xia; Wang, Xing; Fei, Chen-xi; Feng, Xing-yao; Wang, Yong-te

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the effects of different annealing ambients on the physical and electrical properties of LaAlO3 films grown by atomic layer deposition. Post-grown rapid thermal annealing (RTA) was carried out at 600 °C for 1 min in vacuum, N2, and O2, respectively. It was found that the chemical bonding states at the interfacial layers (ILs) between LaAlO3 films and Si substrate were affected by the different annealing ambients. The formation of IL was enhanced during the RTA process, resulting in the decrease of accumulation capacitance, especially in O2 ambient. Furthermore, based on the capacitance-voltage characteristics of LaAlO3/Si MIS capacitors, positive V FB shifting tendency could be observed, indicating the decrease of positive oxide charges. Meanwhile, both trapped charge density and interface trap density showed decreased trends after annealing treatments. In addition, RTA process in various gaseous ambients can reduce the gate leakage current due to the enhancement of valence band offset and the reduction of defects in the LaAlO3/Si structure in varying degrees.

  12. Effect of low-temperature annealing on the electronic- and band-structures of (Ga,Mn)As epitaxial layers

    SciTech Connect

    Yastrubchak, O. Gluba, L.; Żuk, J.; Wosinski, T. Andrearczyk, T.; Domagala, J. Z.; Sadowski, J.

    2014-01-07

    The effect of outdiffusion of Mn interstitials from (Ga,Mn)As epitaxial layers, caused by post-growth low-temperature annealing, on their electronic- and band-structure properties has been investigated by modulation photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopy. The annealing-induced changes in structural and magnetic properties of the layers were examined with high-resolution X-ray diffractometry and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, respectively. They confirmed an outdiffusion of Mn interstitials from the layers and an enhancement in their hole concentration, which were more efficient for the layer covered with a Sb cap acting as a sink for diffusing Mn interstitials. The PR results demonstrating a decrease in the band-gap-transition energy in the as-grown (Ga,Mn)As layers, with respect to that in the reference GaAs one, are interpreted by assuming a merging of the Mn-related impurity band with the GaAs valence band. Whereas an increase in the band-gap-transition energy caused by the annealing treatment of the (Ga,Mn)As layers is interpreted as a result of annealing-induced enhancement of the free-hole concentration and the Fermi level location within the valence band. The experimental results are consistent with the valence-band origin of itinerant holes mediating ferromagnetic ordering in (Ga,Mn)As, in agreement with the Zener model for ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  13. Effect of annealing on down-conversion properties of monoclinic Gd2O3:Er3+ nanophosphors.

    PubMed

    Tamrakar, Raunak Kumar; Bisen, D P; Upadhyay, Kanchan

    2015-09-01

    Erbium-doped nano-sized Gd2O3 phosphor was prepared by a solution combustion method in the presence of urea as a fuel. The phosphor was characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results of the XRD shows that the phosphor has a monoclinic phase, which was further confirmed by the TEM results. Particle size was calculated by the Debye-Scherrer formula. The erbium-doped Gd2O3 nanophosphor was revealed to have good down-conversion (DC) properties and the intensity of phosphor could be modified by annealing. The effects of annealing at 900°C on the particle size and luminescence properties were studied and compared with freshly prepared Gd2O3:Er(3+) nanoparticles. The average particle sizes were calculated as 8 and 20 nm for the freshly prepared samples and samples annealed at 900°C for 1 h, respectively. The results show that both freshly prepared and annealed Gd2O3:Er(3+) have monoclinic structure. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Single-Crystal-like Perovskite for High-Performance Solar Cells Using the Effective Merged Annealing Method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanliang; Shin, Insoo; Hwang, In-Wook; Kim, Seungmin; Lee, Jihoon; Yang, Mi-Sun; Jung, Yun Kyung; Jang, Jae-Won; Jeong, Jung Hyun; Park, Sung Heum; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2017-04-12

    We report a simple, low cost, and quite effective method for achieving single-crystal-like CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite leading to a significant enhancement in the performance and stability of inverted planar perovskite solar cells (IPSCs). By employing a merged annealing method during the fabrication of an IPSC for preparing the perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 film, we remarkably increase the crystallinity of the CH3NH3PbI3 film and enhance the device performance and stability. An IPSC with the indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate)/CH3NH3PbI3 (active layer)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester/Al structure was fabricated using the merged annealing method and exhibited significantly enhanced performance with a high power conversion efficiency of 18.27% and a fill factor of 81.34%. Moreover, since two separate annealing processes are merged in the proposed annealing method, the fabrication step becomes much simpler and easier, leading to a reduction in fabrication costs.

  15. Effects of Annealing Ambient on the Characteristics of LaAlO3 Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lu; Liu, Hong-Xia; Wang, Xing; Fei, Chen-Xi; Feng, Xing-Yao; Wang, Yong-Te

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the effects of different annealing ambients on the physical and electrical properties of LaAlO3 films grown by atomic layer deposition. Post-grown rapid thermal annealing (RTA) was carried out at 600 °C for 1 min in vacuum, N2, and O2, respectively. It was found that the chemical bonding states at the interfacial layers (ILs) between LaAlO3 films and Si substrate were affected by the different annealing ambients. The formation of IL was enhanced during the RTA process, resulting in the decrease of accumulation capacitance, especially in O2 ambient. Furthermore, based on the capacitance-voltage characteristics of LaAlO3/Si MIS capacitors, positive V FB shifting tendency could be observed, indicating the decrease of positive oxide charges. Meanwhile, both trapped charge density and interface trap density showed decreased trends after annealing treatments. In addition, RTA process in various gaseous ambients can reduce the gate leakage current due to the enhancement of valence band offset and the reduction of defects in the LaAlO3/Si structure in varying degrees.

  16. Effect of Variants of Thermomechanical Working and Annealing Treatment on Titanium Alloy Ti6Al4V Closed Die Forgings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, R. K.; Kumar, V. Anil; Kumar, P. Ram

    2016-06-01

    Performance of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V pressure vessels made of closed die forged domes of route `B' (multiple step forged and mill annealed) is reported to be better than route `A' (single/two step forged and mill annealed). Analysis revealed that forgings processed through route `B' have uniformity in microstructure and yield strength at various locations within the forging, as compared to that of route `A.' It is attributed to in-process recrystallization (dynamic as well as static) of route `B' forgings as compared to limited recrystallization of route `A' forgings. Further, post-forging recrystallization annealing (RA) effect is found to be more significant for route `A' forgings in achieving uniform microstructure and mechanical properties, since route `B' forgings have already undergone similar phenomenon during the thermomechanical working process itself. Considering prime importance of yield strength, statistical scatter in yield strength values within the forgings have been evaluated for forgings of both the routes. Standard deviation in the yield strength of route `B' forgings was lower (<10 MPa) as compared to route `A' (>15 MPa), which later became lower (~10 MPa) after RA with a minor decrease in yield strength. The present work discusses these variants of thermomechanical processing along with annealing to achieve better uniformity in properties and microstructure.

  17. Effect of Austenite Stability on Microstructural Evolution and Tensile Properties in Intercritically Annealed Medium-Mn Lightweight Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hyejin; Sohn, Seok Su; Kwak, Jai-Hyun; Lee, Byeong-Joo; Lee, Sunghak

    2016-06-01

    The microstructural evolution with varying intercritical-annealing temperatures of medium-Mn ( α + γ) duplex lightweight steels and its effects on tensile properties were investigated in relation to the stability of austenite. The size and volume fraction of austenite grains increased as the annealing temperature increased from 1123 K to 1173 K (850 °C to 900 °C), which corresponded with the thermodynamic calculation data. When the annealing temperature increased further to 1223 K (950 °C), the size and volume fraction were reduced by the formation of athermal α'-martensite during the cooling because the thermal stability of austenite deteriorated as a result of the decrease in C and Mn contents. In order to obtain the best combination of strength and ductility by a transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) mechanism, an appropriate mechanical stability of austenite was needed and could be achieved when fine austenite grains (size: 1.4 μm, volume fraction: 0.26) were homogenously distributed in the ferrite matrix, as in the 1123 K (850 °C)—annealed steel. This best combination was attributed to the requirement of sufficient deformation for TRIP and the formation of many deformation bands at ferrite grains in both austenite and ferrite bands. Since this medium-Mn lightweight steel has excellent tensile properties as well as reduced alloying costs and weight savings, it holds promise for new automotive applications.

  18. In Situ Monitoring of the Thermal-Annealing Effect in a Monolayer of MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Liqin; Yu, Yifei; Cao, Linyou; Zhang, Yong

    2017-03-01

    We perform in situ two-cycle thermal-annealing studies for a transferred CVD-grown monolayer MoS2 on a SiO2/Si substrate, using spatially resolved micro-Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The evolution in film morphology and film-substrate bonding is continuously monitored by Raman spectroscopy. After the thermal cycling and being annealed at 305 °C twice, the film morphology and film-substrate bonding are significantly modified, which together with the removal of polymer residues causes major changes in the strain and doping distribution over the film, and thus the optical properties. Before annealing, the strain associated with ripples in the transferred film dominates the spatial distributions of the photoluminescence peak position and intensity over the film; after annealing, the variation in film-substrate bonding, affecting both strain and doping, becomes the leading factor. This work reveals that the film-substrate bonding, and thus the strain and doping, is nonstationary under thermal stress, which is important for understanding the substrate effects on the optical and transport properties of the 2D material and their impact on device applications.

  19. Effects of annealing on self-assembled InAs quantum dots and wetting layer in GaAs matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Jasinski, J.; Babinski, A.; Bozek, R.; Szepielow, A.; Baranowski, J.M.

    2001-04-18

    Post-growth thermal annealing effects on InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) near Stransky-Krastanow transformation were investigated. Self-assembled QDs of average size of about 10 nm were grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy. The photoluminescence (PL) due to emission from QDs as well as two peaks due to emission from the strained InAs wetting layer (WL) were observed in as-grown samples. Bimodal structure of the WL PL was attributed to WL regions of different thickness. There was almost no difference in the PL spectrum after 30 s annealing at 600 C. However, annealing at temperatures in the range between 700 C and 950 C resulted in quenching of the PL from QDs and the thinner WL. The PL peak from the new, thicker WL blue-shifted and narrowed with increasing annealing temperature. This behavior was in agreement with TEM observations. Complete dissolution of the QDs and substantial broadening of the WL was observed. All our results indicate that thermally induced modifications of the WL rather than QDs can be responsible for the blue-shift and narrowing of the PL peaks in structures containing InAs QDs.

  20. Effect of low-temperature annealing on the electronic- and band-structures of (Ga,Mn)As epitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yastrubchak, O.; Wosinski, T.; Gluba, L.; Andrearczyk, T.; Domagala, J. Z.; Żuk, J.; Sadowski, J.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of outdiffusion of Mn interstitials from (Ga,Mn)As epitaxial layers, caused by post-growth low-temperature annealing, on their electronic- and band-structure properties has been investigated by modulation photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopy. The annealing-induced changes in structural and magnetic properties of the layers were examined with high-resolution X-ray diffractometry and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, respectively. They confirmed an outdiffusion of Mn interstitials from the layers and an enhancement in their hole concentration, which were more efficient for the layer covered with a Sb cap acting as a sink for diffusing Mn interstitials. The PR results demonstrating a decrease in the band-gap-transition energy in the as-grown (Ga,Mn)As layers, with respect to that in the reference GaAs one, are interpreted by assuming a merging of the Mn-related impurity band with the GaAs valence band. Whereas an increase in the band-gap-transition energy caused by the annealing treatment of the (Ga,Mn)As layers is interpreted as a result of annealing-induced enhancement of the free-hole concentration and the Fermi level location within the valence band. The experimental results are consistent with the valence-band origin of itinerant holes mediating ferromagnetic ordering in (Ga,Mn)As, in agreement with the Zener model for ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  1. Effect of Solution Annealing on Susceptibility to Intercrystalline Corrosion of Stainless Steel with 20% Cr and 8% Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taiwade, R. V.; Patil, A. P.; Patre, S. J.; Dayal, R. K.

    2013-06-01

    In general, as-received (AR) austenitic stainless steels (ASSs) contain complex carbide precipitates due to manufacturing operations, subsequent annealing treatment, or due to the fabrication processes such as welding. The presence of pre-existing carbides leads to cumulative sensitization and make the steel susceptible to intercrystalline corrosion (ICC)/intergranular corrosion (IGC) which causes premature failure during service. Solution annealing (SA) is one of the ways to deal with such situations. In this present investigation, the AR (hot rolled and mill annealed) chromium-nickel (Cr-Ni) ASS is compared with SA Cr-Ni ASS. The extent of ICC/IGC was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively by various electrochemical tests including ASTM standard A-262 Practice A and Practice E, double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The degree of sensitization for hot rolled mill annealed AR condition is found to be substantially higher (51.55%) than that of SA condition (26.9%) for thermally aged samples (at 700 °C). The chemical composition across the grain boundary was measured using electron probe micro-analyzer for both (AR and SA) conditions and confirms that the pre-sensitization effect was completely removed after SA treatment.

  2. Effects of annealing on self-assembled InAs quantum dots and wetting layer in GaAs matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Jasinski, J.; Babinski, A.; Bozek, R.; Szepielow, A.; Baranowski, J.M.

    2001-04-18

    Post-growth thermal annealing effects on InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) near Stransky-Krastanow transformation were investigated. Self-assembled QDs of average size of about 10 nm were grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. The photoluminescence (PL) due to emission from QDs as well as two peaks due to emission from the strained InAs wetting layer (WL) were observed in as-grown samples. Bimodal structure of the WL PL was attributed to WL regions of different thickness. There was almost no difference in the PL spectrum after 30 s annealing at 600 C. However, annealing at temperatures in the range between 700 C and 950 C resulted in quenching of the PL from QDs and the thinner WL. The PL peak from the new, thicker WL blue-shifted and narrowed with increasing annealing temperature. This behavior was in agreement with TEM observations. Complete dissolution of the QDs and substantial broadening of the WL was observed. All our results indicate that thermally induced modifications of the WL rather than QDs can be responsible for the blue-shift and narrowing of the PL peaks in structures containing InAs QDs.

  3. Effects of oxygen partial pressure and annealing on dispersive optical nonlinearity in NiO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouhan, Romita; Baraskar, Priyanka; Agrawal, Arpana; Gupta, Mukul; Sen, Pranay K.; Sen, Pratima

    2017-07-01

    We report annealing induced sign reversal of dispersive optical nonlinearity in ion beam sputtered NiO thin films deposited at 30% and 70% oxygen partial pressures. In the Ultraviolet-visible spectra of the samples, the transmission peak corresponding to d-d transitions is observed near 2 eV. A shift in this peak towards higher energy was observed when the same films were annealed at 523 K. The near resonant photoinduced transitions produced giant nonlinear optical susceptibilities of both third- and fifth- orders when the annealed film was irradiated by a continuous wave 632.8 nm He-Ne laser. The role of the thermo-optic effect has been examined critically. Experimental studies further reveal that the oxygen partial pressure influences the growth direction of the grains in the thin films. The well known Z-scan experimental procedure has been followed for measurements of optical nonlinearities in all the NiO films. The nonlinear refractive indices of both the as-deposited and annealed NiO thin films are defined in terms of the thermo-optic coefficients (d/nd T ) T =T0 and (d/2nd T2 ) T =T0 .

  4. Effect of in situ annealing on structure and optical properties of ZnTe nanoparticles produced by pulsed laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orii, Takaaki; Hirasawa, Makoto; Seto, Takafumi

    2007-04-01

    An improvement in morphology, crystallinity, and optical property of ZnTe nanoparticles produced by pulsed laser ablation (PLA) was achieved by in situ annealing. ZnTe nanoparticles produced in argon gas ambience by PLA were annealed in the gas flow at a temperatures Ta ranging from 300 °C to 800 °C and size-selected by a differential mobility analyzer. The bimodal size distribution of the ZnTe nanoparticles changed to unimodal at Ta = 600 °C. In this condition, the shape of the monodispersed ZnTe nanoparticles, classified into around 20 nm, became uniformly spherical and their crystallinity estimated by x-ray diffraction was extremely improved. These improvements by the in situ annealing were examined for ZnTe nanoparticles produced from off-stoichiometric target. Although the optical property of ZnTe nanoparticles produced from a zinc rich target was improved, those produced from a tellurium rich target could not be improved. It was found that the effect of in situ annealing on optical properties of ZnTe nanoparticles was dependent upon its content.

  5. Effect of solvent annealing on heterojunction polymer solar cells based on P3HT/PCBM.

    PubMed

    Park, Hanok; Ambade, Rohan B; Lee, Soo-Hyoung

    2013-12-01

    Heterojunction (HJ) structure has the advantages of high charge collection and transport efficiency, but it also has the disadvantage of low charge collection, due to limited p-n interfaces, compared with bulkheterojunction (BHJ) structure. In order to overcome this disadvantage of HJ, we fabricated HJ solar cells with large p-n interfaces, based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butylric acid methyl ester (PC61 BM), treated by a solvent annealing (SA) process under atmospheric condition, which is a simple and low-cost process. The SA process induced a P3HT-PC61 BM interdiffusion layer between the P3HT and PC61 BM layers, by a diffusion of each component, and resulted in an increase of p-n interface areas. These results were confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS). The performance of a HJ device fabricated with a SA process achieved a 30% higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) value (approximately 3.3%), than that without a SA process. Interestingly, the HJ SA device showed higher long-term stability, than that without a SA process.

  6. Effect of composition and annealing on electrodeposited CoxPt1-X nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatri, Manvendra Singh; Agarwal, Shivani; Hsu, Jen-Hwa; Chien, Chia-Hua; Chen, Cheng-Lung; Chen, Yang-Yuan

    2016-05-01

    Highly ordered CoxPt1-x (x ≤ 0.82) magnetic nanowire arrays of 60 nm diameter have been fabricated successfully by electrodeposition process into the pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. Electrodeposition process has been used as it is one of the simplest and most inexpensive, easily controlled method for the synthesis of nanowires.It was found that deposition potential is a key factor to control the composition and thus the magnetic properties of the nanowires. The as-deposited CoxPt1-x nanowires were characterized by XRD to have fcc structure with preferred orientation of (111) or (001) along the nanowire. Co-rich nanowires exhibit ferromagnetic behavior in contrast to near superparamagnetic response of the Pt-rich nanowires. Upon annealing the effects of crystallization cause the decrease of anisotropy along the wire axis for Co82Pt18 nanowires due to the increase of magnetocrystalline anisotropy perpendicular to the wire axis. In the next phase of our work segmented CoPtP/Pt multilayers nanowires will be deposited within the AAO template. Such multilayers nanowires are expected to have the high anisotropy due to the formation of ordered Co-Pt alloy phase at the interface.

  7. Heterogeneous patterns on block copolymer thin film via solvent annealing: Effect on protein adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Lei; Zhu, Jintao; Liang, Haojun

    2015-03-01

    Heterogeneous patterns consisting of nanometer-scaled hydrophobic/hydrophilic domains were generated by self-assembly of poly(styrene)-block-poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PHEMA) block copolymer thin film. The effect of the heterogeneity of the polymer film surface on the nonspecific adsorption of the protein human plasma fibrinogen (FBN, 5.0 × 5.0 × 47.5 nm3) was investigated. The kinetics of the FBN adsorption varies from a single-component Langmuir model on homogeneous hydrophilic PHEMA to a two-stage spreading relaxation model on homogeneous hydrophobic PS surface. On a heterogeneous PS-b-PHEMA surface with majority PS part, the initial FBN adsorption rate remains the same as that on the homogeneous PS surface. However, hydrophilic PHEMA microdomains on the heterogeneous surface slow down the second spreading stage of the FBN adsorption process, leading to a surface excess of adsorbed FBN molecules less than the presumed one simply calculated as adsorption onto multiple domains. Importantly, when the PS-b-PHEMA surface is annealed to form minority domelike PS domains (diameter: ˜50-100 nm) surrounded by a majority PHEMA matrix, such surface morphology proves to be strongly protein-repulsive. These interesting findings can be attributed to the enhancement of the spread FBN molecule in a mobile state by the heterogeneity of polymer film surface before irreversible adsorption occurs.

  8. Effect of postdeposition annealing on the structure, composition, and the mechanical and optical characteristics of niobium and tantalum oxide films.

    PubMed

    Cetinörgü-Goldenberg, Eda; Klemberg-Sapieha, Jolanta-Ewa; Martinu, Ludvik

    2012-09-20

    Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of optical thin films are very important for a reliable device performance. In the present work, the effect of annealing on the stability and the characteristics of niobium and tantalum oxide films grown at room temperature (RT) by dual ion beam sputtering were studied. The refractive index (n(λ)), extinction coefficient (k(λ)), hardness (H), reduced Young's modulus (E(r)), and film stress (σ) were investigated as a function of the annealing temperature (T(A)). X-ray diffraction analysis showed that all as-deposited films were amorphous, and crystallization was observed only after annealing at 700°C. Compositional analyses confirmed that the atomic ratio of oxygen to metal in as-deposited and annealed films was close to 2.5, indicating that the films were stoichiometric pentoxides of Nb and Ta. The properties of Nb(2)O(5) and Ta(2)O(5) films were, respectively, affected by postdeposition annealing: n(λ) values (at 550 nm) decreased from 2.30 to 2.20 and from 2.14 to 2.08, the average H and E(r) values increased from 5.6 to 7.4 GPa, and from 121 to 132 GPa for Nb(2)O(5), and from 6.5 to 8.3 GPa, and from 132 to 144 GPa for Ta(2)O(5), and the initial low compressive stress for both materials changed to tensile. We explain the variation of the coating material properties in terms of film stoichiometry, crystallinity, electronic structure, and possible reactions at the film-substrate interface.

  9. Effect of annealing temperature on wettability of TiO2 nanotube array films.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Zhang, Miao; Shi, Shiwei; Lv, Jianguo; Song, Xueping; He, Gang; Sun, Zhaoqi

    2014-01-01

    Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube array (TN) films were prepared by anodization of titanium foil in a mixed electrolyte solution of glycerin and NH4F and then annealed at 200°C, 400°C, 600°C, and 800°C, respectively. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), water contact angle (WCA), and photoluminescence (PL). It was found that low temperature (below 600°C) has no significant influence on surface morphology, but the diameter of the nanotube increases from 40 to 50 nm with increasing temperature. At 800°C, the nanotube arrays are completely destroyed and only dense rutile film is observed. Samples unannealed and annealed at 200°C are amorphous. At 400°C, anatase phase appears. At 600°C, rutile phase appears. At 800°C, anatase phase changes into rutile phase completely. The wettability of the TN films shows that the WCAs for all samples freshly annealed at different temperatures are about 0°. After the annealed samples have been stored in air for 1 month, the WCAs increase to 130°, 133°, 135°, 141°, and 77°, respectively. Upon ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, they exhibit a significant transition from hydrophobicity to hydrophilicity. Especially, samples unannealed and annealed at 400°C show high photoinduced hydrophilicity.

  10. Annealing temperature effect on the properties of untreated and treated copper films with oxygen plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hojabri, Alireza; Hajakbari, Fatemeh; Soltanpoor, Nasrin; Hedayati, Maryam Sadat

    2014-06-01

    In this work, the copper films were deposited on quartz substrates by DC magnetron sputtering method and then, the prepared films were annealed in air atmosphere at different annealing temperatures. Before annealing, some of the copper films, treated by oxygen plasma, for comparison of the results. The structural and morphological properties of the films have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy, and four point probe techniques. XRD results exhibited that the cuprous oxide phase changes to cupric oxide by enhancing of annealing temperatures. Also, oxygen plasma treatment can cause the better crystallinity for the prepared copper oxide films. The results confirm that oxygen plasma treatment, affected the crystal size, grain size, average roughness, sheet resistivity and strain of the films. The optical characteristics of the oxygen plasma treated films, such as refractive index, extinction coefficient and absorption coefficient were calculated by straight forward method proposed by Swanepoel using transmittance measurements. Moreover it was found that annealing temperature augmentation lead to decrease the optical band gap energy calculated using Tauc's relation from 2.45 to 1.80 eV.

  11. Annealing effect on the magnetic properties of evaporated CoCr thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharmouche, Ahmed; Djouada, Intissar; Schmerber, Guy

    2013-08-01

    Series of CoxCr1-x thin films have been evaporated under vacuum onto monocrystalline silicon substrate, x being atomic percent of cobalt. The thickness ranges from 17 to 220 nm, values measured by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The samples have been annealed under vacuum for one hour at 700 °C. The as deposited films show a hexagonal close packed (hcp) structure while the annealed films show both hexagonal close packed and face centered cubic (fcc) structures. While the as deposited films are under a compressive stress, the annealed films, on the contrary, are under a tensile stress. The hysteresis loops present the same features for the as deposited and annealed films concerning the in-plane and out-of-plane anisotropies. Nevertheless, the coercive field is strongly improved for the annealed films. Moreover, these latter films present very high values of the squareness. A squareness value up to 0.96 has been measured. All these results and others are analyzed and discussed.

  12. Annealing effects and DLTS study on NPN silicon bipolar junction transistors irradiated by heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chaoming; Li, Xingji; Yang, Jianqun; Rui, Erming

    2014-01-01

    Isochronal anneal sequences have been carried out on 3DG112 silicon NPN bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) irradiated with 20 MeV bromine (Br) heavy ions. The Gummel curve is utilized to characterize the annealing behavior of defects in both the emitter-base depletion region and the neutral base. We find that the base current (IB) decreases with the increasing annealing temperature, while the collector current (IC) remains invariable. The current gain varies slightly, when the annealing temperature (TA) is lower than 400 K, while varies rapidly at TA<450 K, and the current gain of the 3DG112 BJT annealing at 700 K almost restore to that of the pre-radiation transistor. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) data is used to assign the relative magnitude of each of the important defects. Based on the in situ electrical measurement and DLTS spectra, it is clear that the V2(-/0)+V-P traps are the main contribution to the degradation of current gain after the 20 MeV Br ions irradiation. The V2(-/0)+V-P peak has many of the characteristics expected for the current gain degradation.

  13. Effects of vacuum annealing treatment on microstructures and residual stress of AlSi10Mg parts produced by selective laser melting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tian; Wang, Linzhi; Tan, Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM)-fabricated AlSi10Mg parts were heat-treated under vacuum to eliminate the residual stress. Microstructure evolutions and tensile properties of the SLM-fabricated parts before and after vacuum annealing treatment were studied. The results show that the crystalline structure of SLM-fabricated AlSi10Mg part was not modified after the vacuum annealing treatment. Additionally, the grain refinement had occurred after the vacuum annealing treatment. Moreover, with increasing of the vacuum annealing time, the second phase increased and transformed to spheroidization and coarsening. The SLM-produced parts after vacuum annealing at 300∘C for 2 h had the maximum ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS) and elongation, while the elastic modulus decreased significantly. In addition, the tensile residual stress was found in the as-fabricated AlSi10Mg samples by the microindentation method.

  14. Inert gas annealing effect in solution-processed amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungwoon; Jeong, Jaewook

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the annealing effect of solution-processed amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs), under ambient He (He-device), is systematically analyzed by comparison with those under ambient O2 (O2-device) and N2 (N2-device), respectively. The He-device shows high field-effect mobility and low subthreshold slope owing to the minimization of the ambient effect. The degradation of the O2- and N2-device performances originate from their respective deep acceptor-like and shallow donor-like characteristics, which can be verified by comparison with the He-device. However, the three devices show similar threshold voltage instability under prolonged positive bias stress due to the effect of excess oxygen. Therefore, annealing in ambient He is the most suitable method for the fabrication of reference TFTs to study the various effects of the ambient during the annealing process in solution-processed a-IGZO TFTs.

  15. Recombination luminescence in irradiated silicon - Effects of thermal annealing and lithium impurity.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, E. S.; Compton, W. D.

    1971-01-01

    Use of luminescence in irradiated silicon to determine the thermal stability of the defects responsible for the recombination. It is found that the defect responsible for the zero-phonon line at 0.97 eV has an annealing behavior similar to that of the divacancy and that the zero-phonon line at 0.79 eV anneals in a manner similar to the G-15 or K-center. Annealing at temperatures up to 500 C generates other defects whose luminescence is distinct from that seen previously. Addition of lithium to the material produces defects with new characteristic luminescence. Of particular importance is a defect with a level at E sub g -1.045 eV.

  16. Thermal annealing effects on non-peripheral octahexylphthalocyanine doped polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Romeo Banoukepa, Gilles; Masuda, Tetsuya; Fujii, Akihiko; Shimizu, Yo; Ozaki, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the thermal annealing temperature dependence of the photovoltaic properties of organic thin film solar cells based on a bulk heterojunction of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and 1-(3-methoxy-carbonyl)-propyl-1-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 (PCBM) doped with the soluble phthalocyanine derivative 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octahexylphthalocyanine (C6PcH2). The photocurrent density was increased by 45% and the power conversion efficiency was improved to 3.9% by annealing at 130 °C. The annealing temperature dependence of the photovoltaic properties is discussed by considering the result of X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements.

  17. Effects of annealing on the ripple texture and mechanical properties of suspended bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annamalai, M.; Mathew, S.; Jamali, M.; Zhan, D.; Palaniapan, M.

    2013-04-01

    Periodic ripples of amplitude ˜15 nm were formed in suspended bilayer graphene after nanoindentation with incremental forces up to 600 nN. The structure was annealed at ˜620 K in high vacuum and the corresponding modifications in the mechanical properties and surface morphology were investigated. The pre-tension of the pristine sample was found to be 1.46 N m-1 and after annealing it was reduced to 0.72 N m-1. The nanometre-sized ripples induced by mechanical excitation were found to be flattened after annealing. Tailoring surface corrugations in bilayer graphene through nanoindentation and thermal engineering of these ripples thus provides an innovative fabrication route for flexible electronic devices and strain sensors.

  18. The effect of α-damage on fission-track annealing in zircon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kasuya, M.; Naeser, C.W.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal stability of confined fission-track lengths in four zircon samples having different spontaneous track densities (i.e. different amounts of ??-damage) has been studied by one hour isochronal annealing experiments. The thermal stability of spontaneous track lengths is independent of initial spontaneous track density. The thermal stability of induced track lengths in pre-annealed zircon, however, is significantly higher than that of spontaneous track lengths. The results indicate that the presence of ??-damage lowers the thermal stability of fission-tracks in zircon. ?? 1988.

  19. Effect of α-damage on fission-track annealing in zircon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kasuya, Masao; Naeser, Charles W.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal stability of confined fission-track lengths in four zircon samples having different spontaneous track densities (i.e., different amounts of ??-damage) has been studied by one-hour isochronal annealing experiments. The thermal stability of spontaneous track lengths is independent of initial spontaneous track density. The thermal stability of induced track lengths in pre-annealed zircon, however, is significantly higher than that of spontaneous track lengths. The results indicate that the presence of ??-damage lowers the thermal stability of fission-tracks in zircon.

  20. Effect of annealing on the structure of chemically synthesized SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Kulwinder; Kumar, Akshay; Kumar, Virender; Vij, Ankush; Kumari, Sudesh; Thakur, Anup

    2016-05-06

    Tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles have been synthesized by co-precipitation method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. XRD analysis confirmed the single phase formation of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The Raman shifts showed the typical feature of the tetragonal phase of the as-synthesized SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles. At low annealing temperature, a strong distortion of the crystalline structure and high degree of agglomeration was observed. It is concluded that the crystallinity of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles improves with the increase in annealing temperature.

  1. Annealing effect and photovoltaic properties of nano-ZnS/textured p-Si heterojunction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of heterojunction solar cell with ZnS nanocrystals synthesized by chemical bath deposition method were studied in this work. The ZnS nanocrystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Lower reflectance spectra were found as the annealing temperature of ZnS film increased on the textured p-Si substrate. It was found that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the AZO/ZnS/textured p-Si heterojunction solar cell with an annealing temperature of 250°C was η = 3.66%. PMID:24206942

  2. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of aged graphene: Effects of annealing in vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yingying; Li Aizhi; Qu Shiliang; Ni Zhenhua; Zafar, Zainab; Qiu Teng; Zhang Yan; Ni Zhonghua; Yu Ting; Shen Zexiang

    2011-12-05

    In this paper, we report a simple method to recover the surface enhanced Raman scattering activity of aged graphene. The Raman signals of Rhodamine molecules absorbed on aged graphene are dramatically increased after vacuum annealing and comparable to those on fresh graphene. Atomic force microscopy measurements indicate that residues on aged graphene surface can efficiently be removed by vacuum annealing, which makes target molecule closely contact with graphene. We also find that the hole doping in graphene will facilitate charge transfer between graphene and molecule. These results confirm the strong Raman enhancement of target molecule absorbed on graphene is due to the charge transfer mechanism.

  3. Plasmonic analog of microstrip transmission line and effect of thermal annealing on its propagation loss.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiting; Wang, Jing; Chen, Xi; Yan, Min; Qiu, Min

    2013-01-28

    We fabricated a plasmonic analog of the microwave microstrip transmission line and measured its propagation loss before and after thermal annealing. It is found that its propagation loss at 980 nm wavelength can be reduced by more than 50%, from 0.45 to 0.20 dB/μm, after thermal annealing at 300 °C. The reduction in loss can be attributed to the improved gold surface condition and probably also to the change in the metal's inner structure. Less evident loss reduction is noticed at 1550 nm, which is owing to extremely small portion of the modal electric field located in the metal regions at this wavelength.

  4. Substrate heating and emitter dopant effects in laser-annealed solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, R. T.; Wood, R. F.; Christie, W. H.; Jellison, G. E., Jr.

    1981-08-01

    Experimental evidence is presented to demonstrate that substrate heating during pulsed-laser annealing (PLA) of ion-implanted silicon can significantly improve the electrical properties of the laser-recrystallized region, due to regrowth velocity reduction. Use of the optimum PLA condition shows qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions in that (1) the open-circuit voltage and fill factor of ion-implanted, laser-annealed solar cells are improved by the increase of emitter dopant concentrations, while (2) the short-circuit current remains fairly constant.

  5. Degradation and annealing effects caused by oxygen in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, R. Chen, J.; Duan, G. X.; Zhang, E. X.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Shen, X.; Fleetwood, D. M.; Kaun, S. W.; Kyle, E. C. H.; Speck, J. S.; Pantelides, S. T.

    2016-07-11

    Hot-carrier degradation and room-temperature annealing effects are investigated in unpassivated ammonia-rich AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors. Devices exhibit a fast recovery when annealed after hot carrier stress with all pins grounded. The recovered peak transconductance can exceed the original value, an effect that is not observed in control passivated samples. Density functional theory calculations suggest that dehydrogenation of pre-existing O{sub N}-H defects in AlGaN plays a significant role in the observed hot carrier degradation, and the resulting bare O{sub N} can naturally account for the “super-recovery” in the peak transconductance.

  6. Effect of Annealing on the Electrical Resistivity and Strengthening of Low-Alloy Alloys of the Al - Zr - Si System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alabin, A. N.; Belov, N. A.; Korotkova, N. O.; Samoshinal, M. E.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of annealing at up to 550°C on the electrical resistivity ρ and HB hardness of low-alloy alloys of the Al - Zr - Si system containing up to 0.3% Zr and 0.3% Si is studied. The Thermo-Calc software is used to analyze the phase composition of the system. The computed and experimental data are used to determine the lower and upper limits for heating of cast preforms from Al - Zr alloys (shaped castings and ingots). It is shown that heating below 400°C and above 450°C is not expedient, because it increases the duration of the annealing in the former case and lowers the hardening effect due to coarsening of the Zr-containing particles in the latter case.

  7. Effects of annealing on performances of 1.3-μm InAs-InGaAs-GaAs quantum dot electroabsorption modulators

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the effects of quantum dot (QD) annealing (as-grown, 600°C-annealed, and 750°C-annealed) on the preliminary performances of 1.3-μm InAs-InGaAs-GaAs quantum dot electroabsorption modulators (QD-EAMs). Both extinction ratio and insertion loss were found to vary inversely with the annealing temperature. Most importantly, the 3-dB response of the 750°C-annealed lumped-element QD-EAM was found to be 1.6 GHz at zero reverse bias voltage - the lowest reverse bias voltage reported. We believe that this work will be beneficial to researchers working on on-chip integration of QD-EAMs with other devices since energy consumption will be an important consideration. PMID:23388169

  8. Effects of the experimental conditions on the growth of crystalline NiCx nanorods via pulsed laser deposition accompanied by N2 annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Xu, Zhuoqi; Wu, Zhicheng; Sun, Jian; Wu, Jiada; Xu, Ning

    2017-05-01

    Crystalline NiCx nanorods (NCNRs) were successfully prepared on fused silica and sapphire (0001) substrates with different shapes and growth orientations via the pulsed laser deposition accompanied by N2 annealing. The effects of experimental parameters including substrates, annealing duration, temperature and environment on the growth of crystalline NCNRs were studied in detail. Densely and uniformly distributed NCNRs with varied crystal orientations of hexagonal structure could be grown on silica and sapphire substrates, and only groups of SiO2 nanowires were grown on Si substrates. The NCNRs can be formed within only 3 min in pure N2 atmosphere at the annealing temperature of 1200 °C. It was found that the pure N2 atmosphere in the annealing process was necessary for the NCNR growth and the annealing in air could only obtain sparsely distributed nano-scaled particles. Besides, the NCNR films demonstrated excellent transmittance in visible light.

  9. Anomalous post-annealing effects on magnetic and electrical properties of La 0.8Ca 0.2MnO 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Chang Seop; Kim, Wan Seop; Hur, Nam Hwi

    2001-11-01

    We report anomalous post-annealing effects of La 0.8Ca 0.2MnO 3 under O 2 and Ar atmospheres. We have found that the critical temperature ( TC) of the as-prepared sample increases after Ar-annealing and decreases upon O 2 annealing. The temperature-dependent magnetization data of the as-prepared compound agree well with the sum of those of the O 2- and Ar-annealed samples. Colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) below 60 K that reaches to almost 100% is observed in the O 2-annealed sample. These unusual results are discussed in terms of global homogenization over the sample and magnetic inhomogeneity induced by the Mn deficiency.

  10. Simulated annealing model of acupuncture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2015-05-01

    The growth control singularity model suggests that acupuncture points (acupoints) originate from organizers in embryogenesis. Organizers are singular points in growth control. Acupuncture can cause perturbation of a system with effects similar to simulated annealing. In clinical trial, the goal of a treatment is to relieve certain disorder which corresponds to reaching certain local optimum in simulated annealing. The self-organizing effect of the system is limited and related to the person's general health and age. Perturbation at acupoints can lead a stronger local excitation (analogous to higher annealing temperature) compared to perturbation at non-singular points (placebo control points). Such difference diminishes as the number of perturbed points increases due to the wider distribution of the limited self-organizing activity. This model explains the following facts from systematic reviews of acupuncture trials: 1. Properly chosen single acupoint treatment for certain disorder can lead to highly repeatable efficacy above placebo 2. When multiple acupoints are used, the result can be highly repeatable if the patients are relatively healthy and young but are usually mixed if the patients are old, frail and have multiple disorders at the same time as the number of local optima or comorbidities increases. 3. As number of acupoints used increases, the efficacy difference between sham and real acupuncture often diminishes. It predicted that the efficacy of acupuncture is negatively correlated to the disease chronicity, severity and patient's age. This is the first biological - physical model of acupuncture which can predict and guide clinical acupuncture research.

  11. Annealing temperature and barrier thickness effect on the structural and optical properties of silicon nanocrystals/SiO₂ superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    López-Vidrier, J. Hernández, S.; López-Conesa, L.; Peiró, F.; Garrido, B.; Hiller, D.; Gutsch, S.; Zacharias, M.; Estradé, S.

    2014-10-07

    The effect of the annealing temperature and the SiO₂ barrier thickness of silicon nanocrystal (NC)/SiO₂ superlattices (SLs) on their structural and optical properties is investigated. Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the SL structure is maintained for annealing temperatures up to 1150 °C, with no variation on the nanostructure morphology for different SiO₂ barrier thicknesses. Nevertheless, annealing temperatures as high as 1250 °C promote diffusion of Si atoms into the SiO₂ barrier layers, which produces larger Si NCs and the loss of the NC size control expected from the SL approach. Complementary Raman scattering measurements corroborated these results for all the SiO₂ and Si-rich oxynitride layer thicknesses. In addition, we observed an increasing crystalline fraction up to 1250 °C, which is related to a decreasing contribution of the suboxide transition layer between Si NCs and the SiO₂ matrix due to the formation of larger NCs. Finally, photoluminescence measurements revealed that the emission of the superlattices exhibits a Gaussian-like lineshape with a maximum intensity after annealing at 1150 °C, indicating a high crystalline degree in good agreement with Raman results. Samples submitted to higher annealing temperatures display a progressive emission broadening, together with an increase in the central emission wavelength. Both effects are related to a progressive broadening of the size distribution with a larger mean size, in agreement with TEM observations. On the other hand, whereas the morphology of the Si NCs is unaffected by the SiO₂ barrier thickness, the emission properties are slightly modified. These observed modifications in the emission lineshape allow monitoring the precipitation process of Si NCs in a direct non-destructive way. All these experimental results evidence that an annealing temperature of 1150 °C and 1-nm SiO₂ barrier can be reached whilst preserving the SL structure, being

  12. Effect of thermal annealing on the emission properties of heterostructures containing a quantum-confined GaAsSb layer

    SciTech Connect

    Dikareva, N. V. Vikhrova, O. V.; Zvonkov, B. N.; Malekhonova, N. V.; Nekorkin, S. M.; Pirogov, A. V.; Pavlov, D. A.

    2015-01-15

    Heterostructures containing single GaAsSb/GaAs quantum wells and bilayer GaAsSb/InGaAs quantum wells are produced by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy at atmospheric pressure. The growth temperature of the quantum-confined layers is 500–570°C. The structural quality of the samples and the quality of heterointerfaces of the quantum wells are studied by the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy of cross sections. The emission properties of the heterostructures are studied by photoluminescence measurements. The structures are subjected to thermal annealing under conditions chosen in accordance with the temperature and time of growth of the upper cladding p-InGaP layer during the formation of GaAs/InGaP laser structures with an active region containing quantum-confined GaAsSb layers. It is found that such heat treatment can have a profound effect on the emission properties of the active region, only if a bilayer GaAsSb/InGaAs quantum well is formed.

  13. Effect of anneal temperature on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) nanostructured fabricated using hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, M. K.; Marzuki, N. A.; Soon, C. F.; Nafarizal, N.; Sanudin, R.; Suriani, A. B.; Mohamed, A.; Shimomura, M.; Murakami, K.; Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.

    2017-01-01

    FTO thin films were prepared by the hydrothermal method at anneal temperature of 100°C-400°C using pentahydrate stannic chloride (SnCl4.5H2O) and ammonium fluoride (NH4F) as precursors, and a mixture of DI water, acetone and hydrochloride as a solvent. The X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the tetragonal structure with polycrystalline nature. The preferred directions of crystal growth appeared in the diffractogram of FTO thin films prepared with different anneal temperature were correspond to the reflection from the (101), (200) and (211) planes, respectively. The electrical study reveals that the films have degenerate and exhibit n-type electrical conductivity. For films prepared at 400°C, the relatively higher transmittance of about 85-90% at 800nm has been observed. The transmission attained in this study is greater than the values reported for tin oxide films prepared at anneal temperature 400°C, from an aqueous solution of SnCl4.5H2O precursor. Resistivity is smaller than the value reported. The obtained results revealed that the structures and properties of the films were greatly affected by anneal temperature

  14. Hydrophilic CdSe thin films by low cost spray pyrolysis technique and annealing effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logu, T.; Sankarasubramanian, K.; Soundarrajan, P.; Sethuraman, K.

    2015-03-01

    Cadmium selenide (CdSe) thin films were deposited on glass substrates at 200°C by homemade chemical spray pyrolysis technique. The as-deposited films were annealed in air atmosphere for 3 hrs, at two different temperatures (350 and 450°C). The as-deposited film has been observed to possess uniform surface with crystalline sphalerite cubic structure and optical band gap of E g = 2.4 eV. It is worth noting that after annealing, metastable cubic sphalerite phase transforms into stable well crystalline hexagonal wurtzite phase. The optical band gap was found to decrease from 2.4 eV to 1.75 eV. The average surface roughness is 1.5 nm for the as-deposited film which rises to 4.2 nm after annealing the film in air atmosphere. The contact angle was found to vary from 94° ± 1° to 81° ± 1° with annealing temperature. In addition, from Wenzel's relation it is concluded that CdSe thin film is hydrophilic in nature. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Annealing Effects on the Surface Plasmon of MgO Implanted with Gold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueda, A.; Mu, R.; Tung, Y. -S.; Henderson, D. O.; White, C. W.; Zuhr, R. A.; Zhu, Jane G.; Wang, P. W.

    1997-01-01

    Gold ion implantation was carried out with the energy of 1.1 MeV into (100) oriented MgO single crystal. Implanted doses are 1, 3, 6, 10 x 10(exp 16) ions/sq cm. The gold irradiation results in the formation of gold ion implanted layer with a thickness of 0.2 microns and defect formation. In order to form gold colloids from the as-implanted samples, we annealed the gold implanted MgO samples in three kinds of atmospheres: (1)Ar only, (2)H2 and Ar, and (3)O2 and Ar. The annealing over 1200 C enhanced the gold colloid formation which shows surface plasmon resonance band of gold. The surface plasmon bands of samples annealed in three kinds of atmospheres were found to be at 535 nm (Ar only), 524 nm(H2+Ar), and 560 nm (02+Ar), The band positions of surface plasmon can be reversibly changed by an additional annealing.

  16. Effect of annealing on the surface and band gap alignment of CdZnS thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, T. Prem; Saravanakumar, S.; Sankaranarayanan, K.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of the annealing temperature on structural, optical and surface properties of chemically deposited cadmium zinc sulfide (CdZnS) films were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the grown CdZnS thin films formed were polycrystalline with hexagonal structure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies showed that the surface roughness of the CdZnS thin films was about 60-400 nm. Grain sizes of the CdZnS thin films varied between 70 and 300 nm as a function of annealing temperature. The root mean square surface roughness of the selected area, particular point, average roughness profile, topographical area of roughness were measured using the reported AFM software. The band gaps of CdZnS thin films were determined from absorbance measurements in the visible range as 300 nm and 1100 nm, respectively, using Tauc theory.

  17. The Effects of Helium Bubble Microstructure on Ductility in Annealed and HERF 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Tosten, M.H.; Morgan, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the effects of microstructure on the ambient temperature embrittlement from hydrogen isotopes and decay helium in 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn stainless steel. Hydrogen and tritium-exposed 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn stainless steel tensile samples were pulled to failure and then characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and optical microscopy. This study determined that ductility differences between annealed and high-energy-rate-forged (HERF) stainless steel containing tritium and its decay product, helium, could be related to differences in the helium bubble microstructures. The HERF microstructures were more resistant to tritium-induced embrittlement than annealed microstructures because the high number density of helium bubbles on dislocations trap tritium within the matrix and away from the grain boundaries.

  18. Effects of NIR annealing on the characteristics of al-doped ZnO thin films prepared by RF sputtering

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by employing radio frequency (RF) sputtering method for transparent conducting oxide applications. For the RF sputtering process, a ZnO:Al2O3 (2 wt.%) target was employed. In this paper, the effects of near infrared ray (NIR) annealing technique on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the AZO thin films have been researched. Experimental results showed that NIR annealing affected the microstructure, electrical resistance, and optical transmittance of the AZO thin films. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that all films have a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with the preferentially c-axis oriented normal to the substrate surface. Optical transmittance spectra of the AZO thin films exhibited transmittance higher than about 80% within the visible wavelength region, and the optical direct bandgap (Eg) of the AZO films was increased with increasing the NIR energy efficiency. PMID:22673232

  19. Effects of NIR annealing on the characteristics of al-doped ZnO thin films prepared by RF sputtering.

    PubMed

    Jun, Min-Chul; Koh, Jung-Hyuk

    2012-06-06

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by employing radio frequency (RF) sputtering method for transparent conducting oxide applications. For the RF sputtering process, a ZnO:Al2O3 (2 wt.%) target was employed. In this paper, the effects of near infrared ray (NIR) annealing technique on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the AZO thin films have been researched. Experimental results showed that NIR annealing affected the microstructure, electrical resistance, and optical transmittance of the AZO thin films. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that all films have a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with the preferentially c-axis oriented normal to the substrate surface. Optical transmittance spectra of the AZO thin films exhibited transmittance higher than about 80% within the visible wavelength region, and the optical direct bandgap (Eg) of the AZO films was increased with increasing the NIR energy efficiency.

  20. Hydrophobic switching nature of methylcellulose ultra-thin films: thickness and annealing effects.

    PubMed

    Innis-Samson, Vallerie Ann; Sakurai, Kenji

    2011-11-02

    We have studied the thermosensitive property of methylcellulose (MC) thin films supported on Si substrate by static sessile drop contact angle measurements, and their surface properties and thin film structure by x-ray reflectivity (XRR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. From the static sessile drop contact angle measurements, the MC thin films showed the characteristic hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic transition at ∼70 °C, which is the lower critical solution temperature of the bulk solution volume phase separation transition. For films with thickness d ≤ R(g), the onset of such a transition is affected by the film thickness while very thick films, d ≫ R(g), yielded higher contact angles. Annealing the MC thin films with thicknesses ∼200 Å (near the radius of gyration, R(g), of the polymer) below the bulk glass transition temperature (T(g) ∼ 195 ° C) would not change the hydrophobic switch nature of the film but annealing 'at' and above the bulk T(g) would change its surface property. From surface topography images by AFM, there were no significant changes in either the roughness or the film texture before and after annealing. With XRR data, we were able to determine that such changes in the surface properties are highly correlated to the film thickness changes after the annealing process. This study, we believe, is the first to examine the thermal annealing affects on the thermal response function of a thermoresponsive polymer and is important for researching how to tailor the hydrophobic switching property of MC thin films for future sensing applications.

  1. Hydrophobic switching nature of methylcellulose ultra-thin films: thickness and annealing effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Innis-Samson, Vallerie Ann; Sakurai, Kenji

    2011-11-01

    We have studied the thermosensitive property of methylcellulose (MC) thin films supported on Si substrate by static sessile drop contact angle measurements, and their surface properties and thin film structure by x-ray reflectivity (XRR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. From the static sessile drop contact angle measurements, the MC thin films showed the characteristic hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic transition at ˜70 °C, which is the lower critical solution temperature of the bulk solution volume phase separation transition. For films with thickness d ≤ Rg, the onset of such a transition is affected by the film thickness while very thick films, d ≫ Rg, yielded higher contact angles. Annealing the MC thin films with thicknesses ˜200 Å (near the radius of gyration, Rg, of the polymer) below the bulk glass transition temperature (Tg ˜ 195 ° C) would not change the hydrophobic switch nature of the film but annealing ‘at’ and above the bulk Tg would change its surface property. From surface topography images by AFM, there were no significant changes in either the roughness or the film texture before and after annealing. With XRR data, we were able to determine that such changes in the surface properties are highly correlated to the film thickness changes after the annealing process. This study, we believe, is the first to examine the thermal annealing affects on the thermal response function of a thermoresponsive polymer and is important for researching how to tailor the hydrophobic switching property of MC thin films for future sensing applications.

  2. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Water Contact Angle of PVD Hard Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu-Sen; Cho, Ting-Pin

    2013-01-01

    Various PVD (physical vapor deposition) hard coatings including nitrides and metal-doped diamond-like carbons (Me-DLC) were applied in plastic injection and die-casting molds to improve wear resistance and reduce sticking. In this study, nitrides hcp-AlN (hexagonal close-packed AlN), Cr2N, (CrAl)2N) and Me-DLC (Si-DLC and Cr-DLC) coatings were prepared using a closed field unbalanced magnetron reactive sputtering system. The coatings were annealed in air for 2 h at various temperatures, after which the anti-sticking properties were assessed using water contact angle (WCA) measurements. The as-deposited hcp-AlN, Cr2N and (CrAl)2N coatings exhibit hydrophobic behavior and exhibit respective WCAs of 119°, 106° and 101°. The as-deposited Si-DLC and Cr-DLC coatings exhibit hydrophilic behavior and exhibit respective WCAs of 74° and 88°. The annealed Cr2N and (CrAl)2N coatings exhibit hydrophobic behavior with higher WCAs, while the annealed hcp-AlN, Si-DLC and Cr-DLC coatings are hydrophilic. The increased WCA of the annealed Cr2N and (CrAl)2N coatings is related to their crystal structure and increased roughness. The decreased WCA of the annealed hcp-AlN, Si-DLC and Cr-DLC coatings is related to their crystal structures and has little correlation with roughness. PMID:28811440

  3. Controlling Spatial Confinement Effects in La0.3Pr0.4Ca0.3MnO3 Microbridges via Post Ar and Air Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Jaechun; Jung, Jan; Chow, Kim H.

    2017-08-01

    We report the effects of post Ar and air annealing of La0.3Pr0.4Ca0.3MnO3 microbridges which do not initially show spatial confinement effects. The removal or addition of oxygen via the post annealing changes the sizes and distribution of the metallic and insulating phase domains within these films and can create spatial confinement effects such as percolation induced resistance jumps and tunneling magnetoresistance.

  4. Effect of rapid thermal annealing temperature on the dispersion of Si nanocrystals in SiO{sub 2} matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Nupur Kumar, Pragati; Gupta, Vinay

    2015-05-15

    Effect of rapid thermal annealing temperature on the dispersion of silicon nanocrystals (Si-NC’s) embedded in SiO{sub 2} matrix grown by atom beam sputtering (ABS) method is reported. The dispersion of Si NCs in SiO{sub 2} is an important issue to fabricate high efficiency devices based on Si-NC’s. The transmission electron microscopy studies reveal that the precipitation of excess silicon is almost uniform and the particles grow in almost uniform size upto 850 °C. The size distribution of the particles broadens and becomes bimodal as the temperature is increased to 950 °C. This suggests that by controlling the annealing temperature, the dispersion of Si-NC’s can be controlled. The results are supported by selected area diffraction (SAED) studies and micro photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The discussion of effect of particle size distribution on PL spectrum is presented based on tight binding approximation (TBA) method using Gaussian and log-normal distribution of particles. The study suggests that the dispersion and consequently emission energy varies as a function of particle size distribution and that can be controlled by annealing parameters.

  5. Effects of annealing conditions on the photoelectrochemical properties of dye-sensitized solar cells made with ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Lanlan; Li, Renjie; Fan, Ke; Peng, Tianyou

    2010-05-15

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated by using porous ZnO electrodes derived from home-made ZnO nanoparticles. Electrochemical impedance spectra and open-circuit photovoltage decay curves measurements were performed to investigate the photoelectrochemical characteristics of ZnO films annealed at different temperatures. The experimental results indicate that the effects of the bulk traps and the surface states within the ZnO films on the recombination processes of the photoinjected electrons in DSSCs depend on the annealing temperature. The DSSC based on the ZnO electrode annealed at 400 C exhibits an optimal energy conversion efficiency of 3.92% under the illumination of one sun simulated sunlight because the farthest decrease in the effects of both bulk traps and surface states at this film can maintain a lower charge recombination probability. This result indicates that the ZnO film electrode has promising application in the field of DSSCs, and the optimization of porous film fabrication condition is efficient for the improvement of ZnO-based DSSC's performances. (author)

  6. Structure, optical and electronic properties of solid solution Zn(O,S) thin films and the effect of annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jani, Margi; Raval, Dhyey; Pati, Ranjan; Mukhopadhyay, Indrajit; Ray, Abhijit

    2017-06-01

    Structure, optical and electronic properties of solid solution thin films of Zn(O,S) developed by spray pyrolysis are investigated, and the effect of annealing is investigated for a possible improvement in its electrical properties. A variation in the initial sulphur (S) precursor concentration with fixed Zn-precursor concentration during the spray deposition produces a solid solution of ZnO and ZnS. Both the lower (<20%) and higher (>80%) concentrations of the S-precursor cause isovalent substitution in the system, retaining hexagonal ZnO and cubic ZnS structures, respectively, whereas other concentrations lead to the formation of films in a phase-separated solid solution of ZnO and ZnS. A strain-induced shift in optical band gap in the range of 3.3-3.6 eV is unique in the system with a strong bowing effect. A post-annealing at 370 °C in air is found to improve electron mobility in the film, whereas the annealing in argon ambient improves its electrical conductivity.

  7. Effect of moderate magnetic annealing on the microstructure, quasi-static and viscoelastic mechanical behavior of a structural epoxy

    SciTech Connect

    Tehrani, Mehran; Al-Haik, Marwan; Garmestani, Hamid; Li, Dongsheng

    2012-01-01

    In this study the effect of moderate magnetic fields on the microstructure of a structural epoxy system was investigated. The changes in the microstructure have been quantitatively investigated using wide angle x-ray diffraction (WAXD) and pole figure analysis. The mechanical properties (modulus, hardness and strain rate sensitivity parameter) of the epoxy system annealed in the magnetic field were probed with the aid of instrumented nanoindentation and the results are compared to the reference epoxy sample. To further examine the creep response of the magnetically annealed and reference samples, short 45 min duration creep tests were carried out. An equivalent to the macro scale creep compliance was calculated using the aforementioned nano-creep data. Using the continuous complex compliance (CCC) analysis, the phase lag angle, tan (δ), between the displacement and applied force in an oscillatory nanoindentation test was measured for both neat and magnetically annealed systems through which the effect of low magnetic fields on the viscoelastic properties of the epoxy was invoked. The comparison of the creep strain rate sensitivity parameter , A/d(0), from short term(80 ), creep tests and the creep compliance J(t) from the long term(2700 s) creep tests with the tan(δ) suggests that former parameter is a more useful comparative creep parameter than the creep compliance. The results of this investigation reveal that under low magnetic fields both the quasi-static and viscoelastic mechanical properties of the epoxy have been improved.

  8. Effect of annealing and hydrogen plasma treatment on the luminescence and persistent photoconductivity of polycrystalline ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullin, Kh. A.; Cicero, G.; Gritsenko, L. V.; Kumekov, S. E.; Markhabaeva, A. A.

    2017-06-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) and electrical properties of boron doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films, deposited by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition on a glass substrate, were investigated. The effects of annealing in air, as well as the influence of the radiofrequency—plasma treatment in hydrogen atmosphere, on the PL and electrical conductivity of the ZnO films were studied. A correlation between photoluminescence and electrical properties during annealing was observed. Hydrogen plasma treatment causes an increase in the carrier mobility and concentration and results in a very intensive near band edge emission (NBE). It was found that defects responsible for the dramatic increase in the intensity of NBE band in the hydrogen-treated ZnO films are hydrogen-related complexes formed near or at the surface of the samples. The intensity of NBE in hydrogen-treated samples decreases after aging in the dark, and, conversely, the NBE intensity increases under UV light illumination. This effect is fully reversible and depends on the gas atmosphere during the UV exposure and subsequent aging. It was proposed that the NBE band in the ZnO films annealed in the air and treated in hydrogen plasma emerges due to O-H complexes forming at zinc vacancy sites, n(O-H)-VZn.

  9. Melt crystallization/dewetting of ultrathin PEO films via carbon dioxide annealing: the effects of polymer adsorbed layers.

    PubMed

    Asada, Mitsunori; Jiang, Naisheng; Sendogdular, Levent; Sokolov, Jonathan; Endoh, Maya K; Koga, Tadanori; Fukuto, Masafumi; Yang, Lin; Akgun, Bulent; Dimitriou, Michael; Satija, Sushil

    2014-09-14

    The effects of CO2 annealing on the melting and subsequent melt crystallization processes of spin-cast poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) ultrathin films (20-100 nm in thickness) prepared on Si substrates were investigated. By using in situ neutron reflectivity, we found that all the PEO thin films show melting at a pressure as low as P = 2.9 MPa and at T = 48 °C which is below the bulk melting temperature (Tm). The films were then subjected to quick depressurization to atmospheric pressure, resulting in the non-equilibrium swollen state, and the melt crystallization (and/or dewetting) process was carried out in air via subsequent annealing at given temperatures below Tm. Detailed structural characterization using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and polarized optical microscopy revealed two unique aspects of the CO2-treated PEO films: (i) a flat-on lamellar orientation, where the molecular chains stand normal to the film surface, is formed within the entire film regardless of the original film thickness and the annealing temperature; and (ii) the dewetting kinetics for the 20 nm thick film is much slower than that for the thicker films. The key to these phenomena is the formation of irreversibly adsorbed layers on the substrates during the CO2 annealing: the limited plasticization effect of CO2 at the polymer-substrate interface promotes polymer adsorption rather than melting. Here we explain the mechanisms of the melt crystallization and dewetting processes where the adsorbed layers play vital roles.

  10. Electrodeposition on Ni from a Sulfamate Electrolyte Part 1: Effect of a Stress Relief on Annealing Behavior and Film Metallurgy

    SciTech Connect

    James J. Kelly

    2002-02-01

    Ni and Ni alloys are being developed as baseline materials for LIGA technology and prototyping at Sandia National Laboratories. A conventional, additive-free sulfamate electrolyte has been chosen for pure Ni electrodeposition due to its simplicity and ability to produce ductile, low-stress films. When depositing certain Ni alloys, saccharin is typically employed as an electrolyte bath additive. While saccharin is well known and effective as a stress reliever, it has a significant impact on the microstructure of the deposit and its annealing behavior. The electrodeposition of pure Ni in the presence of saccharin is studied here to understand its effects in the absence of an alloying element (such as Co or Fe). The grain structure and Vickers hardness of Ni deposited with and without saccharin on a rotating disk electrode were all found to be consistent with previous studies available in the literature. The following observations were made: (1) The fine, columnar morphology obtained without saccharin became an equiaxed, nano-sized grain structure with saccharin (from {approx}1.5 {micro}m to {approx}40 nm nominal grain size, respectively). The grain refinement resulting from saccharin is not accompanied with an increase in film stress, in contrast to the grain refinement associated with certain Ni alloys. (2) A change in the deposit texture from weak (210) to (111) along the film growth direction with the addition of saccharin. (3) An increase in Vickers hardness by a factor of {approx}2 (from {approx}170 to {approx}320) upon the addition of saccharin. (4) A rapid decrease in hardness with annealing from the high, as-deposited values for films deposited with saccharin to a value lower than that of annealed Ni from an additive-free bath. (5) Accelerated grain growth during annealing for films deposited with saccharin; this has not been observed previously in the literature to the authors' best knowledge.

  11. The effect of different annealing temperatures on tin and cadmium telluride phases obtained by a modified chemical route

    SciTech Connect

    Mesquita, Anderson Fuzer; Porto, Arilza de Oliveira; Magela de Lima, Geraldo; Paniago, Roberto; Ardisson, José Domingos

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Synthesis of cadmium and tin telluride. ► Chemical route to obtain pure crystalline cadmium and tin telluride. ► Effect of the annealing temperature on the crystalline phases. ► Removal of tin oxide as side product through thermal treatment. -- Abstract: In this work tin and cadmium telluride were prepared by a modification of a chemical route reported in the literature to obtain metallacycles formed by oxidative addition of tin-tellurium bonds to platinum (II). Through this procedure it was possible to obtain tin and cadmium telluride. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to identify the crystalline phases obtained as well as the presence of side products. In the case of tin telluride it was identified potassium chloride, metallic tellurium and tin oxide as contaminants. The tin oxidation states were also monitored by {sup 119}Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy. The annealing in hydrogen atmosphere was chosen as a strategy to reduce the tin oxide and promote its reaction with the excess of tellurium present in the medium. The evolution of this tin oxide phase was studied through the annealing of the sample at different temperatures. Cadmium telluride was obtained with high degree of purity (98.5% relative weight fraction) according to the Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction data. The modified procedure showed to be very effective to obtain amorphous tin and cadmium telluride and the annealing at 450 °C has proven to be useful to reduce the amount of oxide produced as side product.

  12. Radiation damage annealing kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dresselhaus, M. S.

    1971-01-01

    Various spectral response studies are reported that assess lithium doping effects on the recovery process of electron damaged silicon solar cells. Measurements of both the minority carrier lifetimes and the energy level spectrum of the defects are used to predict lifetime damage constants and carrier removal rates relevant to the operation of the solar lithium-doped cell and its annealing kinetics.

  13. A rapid response time and highly sensitive amperometric glucose biosensor based on ZnO nanorod via citric acid-assisted annealing route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zao; Ye, Zhizhen; Zhao, Binghui; Zong, Xiaolin; Wang, Ping

    2010-04-01

    ZnO nanorods were synthesized by citric acid-assisted annealing route. In a phosphate buffer solution with a pH value of 7.4, glucose oxidase was immobilized on the surface of ZnO nanorod through chitosan-assisted cross-linking technique. The one-dimensional ZnO nanorods provide a large effective surface area with high surface-to-volume ratio and provide a favorable environment for the immobilization of GO x. The response time of this biosensor is less than 2 s. This biosensor has a very high sensitivity of 25.7 μA cm -2 mM -1. The low detection limit was estimated to be 0.01 mM. Two linear response ranges are 0.01-0.25 mM and 0.3-0.7 mM. The Michaelis-Menten constant is found to be 1.95 mM. These results demonstrate that zinc oxide nanorods have potential applications in biosensors.

  14. Effects of annealing on properties of ZnO thin films prepared by electrochemical deposition in chloride medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupan, O.; Pauporté, T.; Chow, L.; Viana, B.; Pellé, F.; Ono, L. K.; Roldan Cuenya, B.; Heinrich, H.

    2010-01-01

    The development of cost-effective and low-temperature synthesis techniques for the growth of high-quality zinc oxide thin films is paramount for fabrication of ZnO-based optoelectronic devices, especially ultraviolet (UV)-light-emitting diodes, lasers and detectors. We demonstrate that the properties, especially UV emission, observed at room temperature, of electrodeposited ZnO thin films from chloride medium (at 70 °C) on fluor-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates is strongly influenced by the post-growth thermal annealing treatments. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements show that the films have preferably grown along (0 0 2) direction. Thermal annealing in the temperature range of 150-400 °C in air has been carried out for these ZnO thin films. The as-grown films contain chlorine which is partially removed after annealing at 400 °C. Morphological changes upon annealing are discussed in the light of compositional changes observed in the ZnO crystals that constitute the film. The optical quality of ZnO thin films was improved after post-deposition thermal treatment at 150 °C and 400 °C in our experiments due to the reducing of defects levels and of chlorine content. The transmission and absorption spectra become steeper and the optical bandgap red shifted to the single-crystal value. These findings demonstrate that electrodeposition have potential for the growth of high-quality ZnO thin films with reduced defects for device applications.

  15. Effects of annealing temperature on optical, morphological, and electrical characteristics of polyfluorene-derivative thin films on ITO glass substrate.

    PubMed

    Lim, Way Foong; Quah, Hock Jin; Hassan, Zainuriah

    2016-02-20

    The effects of postdeposition annealing temperature (125°C-200°C) toward optical, morphological, and electrical characteristics of poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-(1,4-phenylene)] end capped with dimethylphenyl group deposited on indium tin oxide glass substrates were investigated. Green and red-infrared photoluminescence emissions, originating from П-conjugation aggregates and keto-type defects did not attenuate the intensity of the blue emission peak. This suggested that the aggregates and defects might serve as local traps for radiative recombination. In samples annealed at 125°C-175°C, a decreasing optical energy gap (E(g)) that decreased barrier height as well as an increasing amount of traps have increased current conduction via thermionic emission and trap-assisted tunneling. Nonetheless, an acquisition of the largest E(g) and amount of traps testified that thermionic emission was dominating current conduction, surpassing trap-assisted tunneling in samples annealed at 200°C.

  16. Effects of annealing temperature on ZnO and AZO films prepared by sol-gel technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Zi-Neng; Chan, Kah-Yoong; Tohsophon, Thanaporn

    2012-10-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) films have the potential in the emerging thin-film technologies which can be employed in thin-film solar cells, transistors, sensors and other optoelectronic devices. In this work, low cost sol-gel spin-coating technique was used to synthesize the ZnO films. The influences of annealing temperature on the structural and optical properties of ZnO and aluminum doped ZnO (AZO) films were investigated. The structural properties of the ZnO films such as surface morphology and crystallinity were determined using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD), respectively. The optical properties of the ZnO films were characterized by the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and Tauc method was adopted to estimate the optical gap. The experimental results reveal that the thermal annealing treatment affects the properties of the ZnO films. The effects of the low range annealing temperature on the sol-gel ZnO films addressed in this investigation will be discussed in this paper.

  17. Effect of annealing temperature on the structural and optical properties of CeO2:Ni thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugan, R.; Vijayaprasath, G.; Sakthivel, P.; Mahalingam, T.; Ravi, G.

    2016-05-01

    High quality Ni-doped CeO2 (CeO2:Ni) thin films were deposited on glass substrates at room temperature by using radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The effect of annealing temperature on structural and optical properties of the CeO2:Ni films was investigated. The structural, optical and vibrational properties of the films were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence spectrometer (PL) and Raman spectrometer. It was found that the as-deposited film has a fluorite cubic structure. By increasing annealing temperature from 100°C to 300°C, the crystalline quality of the thin films could be improved. The UV and visible band emissions were observed in the photoluminescence spectra, due to exciton, defect related emissions respectively. The micro-Raman results show the characteristic peak of CeO2 F2g at 465 cm-1 and 2L0 at 1142 cm-1. Defect peaks like D and 0 bands were observed at 641 cm-1 and 548 cm-1 respectively. It is found from the spectra that the peak intensity of the films increased with increase of annealing temperature.

  18. Photoluminescence profiles and fast/slow annealing effects of Eu(III)/Tb(III)-codoped silica phosphor materials.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hee Jung; Choi, Young In; Kang, Jun-Gill; Sohn, Youngku

    2016-05-01

    A silica (SiO2) nanoparticle matrix was codoped with luminescent Eu(III) and Tb(III) ions using a modified Stöber method. The effects of fast and slow thermal annealing on photoluminescence profile imaging were examined. Slow annealing treatment suppressed more quenching sites than fast thermal annealing to further increase the photoluminescence signals. The photoluminescence signals observed between 450 and 720 nm were assigned to the (5)D(0)  → (7)F(J) (J = 0,1,2,3,4) of Eu(III) and the (5)D(4)  → (7)F(J) (J = 6,5,4,3) transitions of Tb(III). Photoluminescence was largely sensitized by indirect excitation and was much stronger than that generated by direct excitation. The Eu(III) and Tb(III) ions were doped at lower symmetry sites in the silica matrix. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Effect of annealing on mechanical and optical properties of in-situ doped SiC thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Hoa T. M.; de Boer, Charles R.; Visser, Cassan C. C.; Sarro, Pasqualina M.

    2001-10-01

    In this paper we present the effect of the doping and annealing on the mechanical and optical properties of thin films of silicon carbide prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique at 400 degree(s)C and using methane (CH4) as a C precursor and silane (SiH4) as a Si source. Diborane (B2H6) and phosphine (PH3) are employed as doping gas. A clear changes in internal stress when adding doping gas is observed. After an annealing cycle up to 650 degree(s)C the internal stress is increased for both doped and undoped films and it shifts from compressive to tensile stress region. Spectroscopic ellipsometer is used to investigate structural and optical properties of these films. The thickness of silicon carbide film is decreased for both doped and undoped films after annealing. The index of refraction and coefficient of extinction of undoped and in-situ doped silicon carbide film as a function of photon energy are obtained. Complex dielectric constant as a function of photon energy and energy bandgap of these films are calculated as well.

  20. Effect of annealing on the properties of nanocrystalline CuInSSe thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shrotriya, Vipin Rajaram, P.

    2015-08-28

    The effect of annealing CuInSSe thin films, which were grown on glass substrates using the spray pyrolysis technique from spray solutions having S/Se ionic ratio 0.6, were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and optical transmission measurements. The CuInSSe films were co-deposited from an aqueous solution containing CuCl{sub 2}, InCl{sub 3}, thiourea and SeO{sub 2}. EDC was used as a complexing agent and films were deposited at the constant temperature 300°C. Post annealing (at 350°C) was used to improve the structural, morphological and optical properties of CuInSSe thin films. From the results, it is found that the films are single phase, p-type in conductivity having the chalcopyrite structure. From the Scherrer formula the average size of the films was found to be in the range (15-28) nm. Optical studies show that the optical band gap value increases slightly from 1.35 eV to 1.37 eV with annealing for films grown from spray solutions having S/Se ionic ratio 0.6.

  1. Effect of thermal annealing on structural and optical properties of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhary, Sonu

    2015-08-28

    There is a highly need of an alternate of toxic materials CdS for solar cell applications and indium sulfide is found the most suitable candidate to replace CdS due to its non-toxic and environmental friendly nature. In this paper, the effect of thermal annealing on the structural and optical properties of indium sulfide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films is undertaken. The indium sulfide thin films of 121 nm were deposited on glass substrates employing thermal evaporation method. The films were subjected to the X-ray diffractometer and UV-Vis spectrophotometer respectively for structural and optical analysis. The XRD pattern show that the as-deposited thin film was amorphous in nature and crystallinity is found to be varied with annealing temperature. The optical analysis reveals that the optical band gap is varied with annealing. The optical parameters like absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient and refractive index were calculated. The results are in good agreement with available literature.

  2. Effect of annealing on the properties of nanocrystalline CuInSSe thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrotriya, Vipin; Rajaram, P.

    2015-08-01

    The effect of annealing CuInSSe thin films, which were grown on glass substrates using the spray pyrolysis technique from spray solutions having S/Se ionic ratio 0.6, were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and optical transmission measurements. The CuInSSe films were co-deposited from an aqueous solution containing CuCl2, InCl3, thiourea and SeO2. EDC was used as a complexing agent and films were deposited at the constant temperature 300°C. Post annealing (at 350°C) was used to improve the structural, morphological and optical properties of CuInSSe thin films. From the results, it is found that the films are single phase, p-type in conductivity having the chalcopyrite structure. From the Scherrer formula the average size of the films was found to be in the range (15-28) nm. Optical studies show that the optical band gap value increases slightly from 1.35 eV to 1.37 eV with annealing for films grown from spray solutions having S/Se ionic ratio 0.6.

  3. Effects of Co layer thickness and annealing temperature on the magnetic properties of inverted [Pt/Co] multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Tae Young; Chan Won, Young; Su Son, Dong; Lee, Seong-Rae; Ho Lim, Sang

    2013-11-07

    The effects of Co layer thickness and annealing temperature on the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) properties of inverted [Pt (0.2 nm)/Co (t{sub Co})]{sub 6} multilayers (where t{sub Co} indicates the thickness of the Co layer) have been investigated. The cross-sectional microstructure, as observed from the high-resolution transmission electron microscope images, shows a clear layered structure with atomically flat interfaces both in the as-deposited state as well as after annealing, indicating the interface effects for PMA. The effective PMA energy density (K{sub eff}) increases significantly with an increase in t{sub Co} from 0.2 to 0.28 nm and then becomes almost saturated with further increases in t{sub Co}, followed by a slight reduction at the highest Co thickness, t{sub Co} = 0.6 nm. In order to explain the t{sub Co} dependence on K{sub eff}, the intrinsic PMA energy density (K{sub i}) is calculated by additionally measuring a similar set of results for the saturation magnetization. The K{sub i} value increases nearly linearly with the increase in t{sub Co} from 0.2 to 0.5 nm, followed by saturation at a higher t{sub Co} value of 0.6 nm. Owing to a close relationship between K{sub i} and the quality of the interfaces, these results indicate a similar t{sub Co} dependence on the quality of the interfaces. This is further supported from the magnetic measurements of the samples annealed at the highest temperature of 500 °C, where a second phase is formed, which show a similar t{sub Co} dependence on the amount of the second phase. The K{sub i} value is nearly independent of the annealing temperature at t{sub Co} ≤ 0.4 nm, above which a substantial reduction is observed, when the annealing temperature exceeds 500 °C.

  4. Effects of annealing temperature on the physicochemical, optical and photoelectrochemical properties of nanostructured hematite thin films prepared via electrodeposition method

    SciTech Connect

    Phuan, Yi Wen; Chong, Meng Nan; Zhu, Tao; Yong, Siek-Ting; Chan, Eng Seng

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Nanostructured hematite thin films were synthesized via electrodeposition method. • Effects of annealing on size, grain boundary and PEC properties were examined. • Photocurrents generation was enhanced when the thin films were annealed at 600 °C. • The highest photocurrent density of 1.6 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0.6 V vs Ag/AgCl was achieved. - Abstract: Hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is a promising photoanode material for hydrogen production from photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting due to its wide abundance, narrow band-gap energy, efficient light absorption and high chemical stability under aqueous environment. The key challenge to the wider utilisation of nanostructured hematite-based photoanode in PEC water splitting, however, is limited by its low photo-assisted water oxidation caused by large overpotential in the nominal range of 0.5–0.6 V. The main aim of this study was to enhance the performance of hematite for photo-assisted water oxidation by optimising the annealing temperature used during the synthesis of nanostructured hematite thin films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-based photoanodes prepared via the cathodic electrodeposition method. The resultant nanostructured hematite thin films were characterised using field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for their elemental composition, average nanocrystallites size and morphology; phase and crystallinity; UV-absorptivity and band gap energy; and the functional groups, respectively. Results showed that the nanostructured hematite thin films possess good ordered nanocrystallites array and high crystallinity after annealing treatment at 400–600 °C. FE-SEM images illustrated an increase in the average hematite nanocrystallites size from 65 nm to 95 nm when the annealing temperature was varied from 400 °C to 600

  5. High dose neutron irradiation of MgAl2O4 spinel: effects of post-irradiation thermal annealing on EPR and optical absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, A.; Bravo, D.; Lopez, F J.; Garner, Francis A.

    2005-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical absorption spectra were measured during thermal annealing for stoichiometric MgAl2O4 spinel that was previously irradiated in FFTF-MOTA at {approx}405 C to {approx}50 dpa. Both F and F+ centres are to persist up to very high temperatures (over 700C), suggesting the operation of an annealing mechanism based on evaporation from extended defects Using x-ray irradiation following the different annealing steps it was shown that the optical absorption band is related to a sharp EPR band at g=2.0005 and that the defect causing these effects is the F+ centre.

  6. Effect of recrystallization annealing on the formation of a perfect cube texture in FCC nickel alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionov, D. P.; Gervas'eva, I. V.; Khlebnikova, Yu. V.; Kazantsev, V. A.; Vinogradova, N. I.; Sazonova, V. A.

    2011-06-01

    Based on the data of X-ray diffraction, dilatometry, transmission electron microscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction, the optimum regimes of heat treatment of cold-rolled (to 98.5-99%) tapes made of binary Ni-W, Ni-Cr, Ni-Fe and ternary tungsten-containing Ni-Pd-W and Ni-Cr-W alloys that are widely utilized in the world practice for the fabrication of high-temperature superconducting cables of the second generation, which make it possible to obtain a perfect cube texture. In all five alloys, the spreed of the texture upon slow heating and two-step annealing decreases by 0.2°-1.5° around the RD and by 0.1°-0.6° around the RD in comparison with the single-stage high-temperature annealing.

  7. Restorative effect of oxygen annealing on device performance in HfIZO thin-film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Tae-Jun

    2015-03-15

    Metal-oxide based thin-film transistors (oxide-TFTs) are very promising for use in next generation electronics such as transparent displays requiring high switching and driving performance. In this study, we demonstrate an optimized process to secure excellent device performance with a favorable shift of the threshold voltage toward 0V in amorphous hafnium-indium-zinc-oxide (a-HfIZO) TFTs by using post-treatment with oxygen annealing. This enhancement results from the improved interfacial characteristics between gate dielectric and semiconductor layers due to the reduction in the density of interfacial states related to oxygen vacancies afforded by oxygen annealing. The device statistics confirm the improvement in the device-to-device and run-to-run uniformity. We also report on the photo-induced stability in such oxide-TFTs against long-term UV irradiation, which is significant for transparent displays.

  8. Effects of Voltage-Bias Annealing on Metastable Defect Populations in CIGS and CZTSe Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Steven P.; Johnston, Steve; Teeter, Glenn

    2016-11-21

    We report on voltage-bias annealing (VBA) experiments performed on CIGS and CZTSe solar cells. In these experiments, completed devices were annealed at moderate temperatures and subsequently quenched with continuously applied voltage bias. These treatments resulted in substantial reversible changes in device characteristics. Photovoltaic (PV) conversion efficiency of the CIGS device varied from below 3% to above 15%, with corresponding changes in CIGS hole density from ~1014 cm-3 to ~1017 cm-3. In the CZTSe device, open-circuit voltage varied from 289 meV to 446 meV, caused by an approximately factor of fifty change in the CZTSe hole density. We interpret these findings in terms of reversible changes to the metastable point-defect populations that control key properties in these materials. Implications for optimization of PV materials and connections to long-term stability of PV devices are discussed.

  9. Restorative effect of oxygen annealing on device performance in HfIZO thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Tae-Jun

    2015-03-01

    Metal-oxide based thin-film transistors (oxide-TFTs) are very promising for use in next generation electronics such as transparent displays requiring high switching and driving performance. In this study, we demonstrate an optimized process to secure excellent device performance with a favorable shift of the threshold voltage toward 0V in amorphous hafnium-indium-zinc-oxide (a-HfIZO) TFTs by using post-treatment with oxygen annealing. This enhancement results from the improved interfacial characteristics between gate dielectric and semiconductor layers due to the reduction in the density of interfacial states related to oxygen vacancies afforded by oxygen annealing. The device statistics confirm the improvement in the device-to-device and run-to-run uniformity. We also report on the photo-induced stability in such oxide-TFTs against long-term UV irradiation, which is significant for transparent displays.

  10. Annealing effects on recombinative activity of nickel at direct silicon bonded interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Takuto; Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2015-09-01

    By performing capacitance transient analyses, the recombination activity at a (110)/(100) direct silicon bonded (DSB) interface contaminated with nickel diffused at different temperatures, as a model of grain boundaries in multicrystalline silicon, was studied. The trap level depth from the valence band, trap density of states, and hole capture cross section peaked at an annealing temperature of 300 °C. At temperatures ⩾400 °C, the hole capture cross section increased with temperature, but the density of states remained unchanged. Further, synchrotron-based X-ray analyses, microprobe X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF), and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses were performed. The analysis results indicated that the chemical phase after the sample was annealed at 200 °C was a mixture of NiO and NiSi2.

  11. The effect of magnetic annealing on the magnetostriction for Sm-Dy-Fe rod alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bowen; Wang, Zhihua; Weng, Ling; Huang, Wenmei; Sun, Ying; Cui, Baozhi

    2013-05-01

    The Sm0.86Dy0.14Fex (x = 1.85-2.05) magnetostrictive alloys have been prepared with arc-melting and then cast into a copper mold with a diameter of 8 mm. It is found that the magnetostriction (λ// - λ⊥) increases from -900 × 10-6 for untreated rod alloys to -1200 × 10-6 for magnetically annealed rod alloys at the magnetic field of 640 kA/m. In the magnetic annealing temperature range of 483-643 K, the magnetostriction value exhibits a peak at 543 K. The variation of magnetostriction and magnetization with magnetic fields has been determined and the mechanism of domains' movements has been discussed. This result is very important to improve the magnetostrictive property of Sm-Dy-Fe rod alloys.

  12. Annealing effects on recombinative activity of nickel at direct silicon bonded interface

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, Takuto Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2015-09-15

    By performing capacitance transient analyses, the recombination activity at a (110)/(100) direct silicon bonded (DSB) interface contaminated with nickel diffused at different temperatures, as a model of grain boundaries in multicrystalline silicon, was studied. The trap level depth from the valence band, trap density of states, and hole capture cross section peaked at an annealing temperature of 300 °C. At temperatures ⩾400 °C, the hole capture cross section increased with temperature, but the density of states remained unchanged. Further, synchrotron-based X-ray analyses, microprobe X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF), and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses were performed. The analysis results indicated that the chemical phase after the sample was annealed at 200 °C was a mixture of NiO and NiSi{sub 2}.

  13. Post-annealing effects on EPR response of irradiated nano-structure hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowlatshah, F.; Ziaie, F.; Hajiloo, N.; Amraie, R.; Fathollahi, H.

    2012-12-01

    In this work, the nano-structure hydroxyapatite was synthesized via the hydrolysis method. The produced powders were thermally treatment at different temperatures from 400 to 1200°C. The morphological and chemical analyses were carried out using the Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction system. Then, the samples were irradiated at different absorbed doses from 1 to 80 kGy using 60Co γ -ray. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) responses of the samples were measured at room temperature in air. Subsequently, the variations of EPR signal intensities were constructed as the peak-to-peak signal amplitude and results were compared with those of non-annealed samples. The results show that the EPR responses of non-annealed samples are higher rather than other samples and also are saturated at higher doses in comparison with the others.

  14. The effect of annealing on the structural and magnetic properties of Ni-ferrite nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ojha, Chaturbhuj Chauhan, S. S.; Shrivastava, A. K.; Verma, A. K.

    2015-06-24

    Magnetic nanoparticles NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were prepared by chemical co-precipitation technique using the chlorides of Ni, Fe (III) and oleic acid. The precursors were annealed at different temperature 500, 700, and 900 °C. The XRD of samples show the presence of inverse cubic spinel structure. Grain size was determined using Scherrer formula and SEM technique. The Particle size, Lattice parameter and X-ray density were also estimated from X-ray diffraction data. The particles size was found to vary from 17nm to 37 nm and largely depends on the annealing temperature. Magnetization measurements have also carried out using VSM and it was found that saturation magnetization (Ms), Remanance (Mr) and coercivity (H{sub c}) of nano ferrite materials are lower compared to bulk materials.

  15. Effect of annealing on intrinsic magnetic properties in experimentally shocked magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontny, Agnes; Reznik, Boris; Boubnov, Alexey; Göttlicher, Jörg; Steininger, Ralph

    2017-04-01

    Magnetite is an important magnetic carrier on planetary bodies and one of the most significant magnetic minerals in shocked crustal rocks on Earth. This study focuses on the intrinsic magnetic properties and chemical stability of magnetite, shocked experimentally between 5 and 30 GPa and subsequently heated in argon atmosphere up to 700°C. From pre-shocked, shocked and afterwards annealed samples temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility and saturation isothermal magnetization as well as the Curie and Verwey transition temperature were measured. Shocked magnetite used for the heating experiments is characterized by decreasing magnetic susceptibility, increasing SIRM, a multidomain to pseudo single domain transition, and a decrease in apparent crystallite size seen in X-ray diffraction pattern with increasing shock pressure (Reznik et al., 2016). All these features are in agreement with magnetic domain size reduction caused either by grain fragmentation or a pinning of domain walls at crystal defects and dislocations. However, an increasing width and temperature of the Verwey transition, along with a very small expansion in the lattice cell parameter indicates also distortion of the tetrahedral and octahedral crystal sites. Annealing of the shocked samples strongly modifies the intrinsic magnetic properties and suggests a significant amount of non-permanent magnetic changes in impacted rocks. Therefore, special attention was given to the identification of the iron oxidation state and its coordination geometry in shocked and annealed magnetite using synchrotron-assisted X-ray absorption spectroscopy. In addition to defect healing, the ordering of ferric and ferrous iron on tetrahedral and octahedral sites seems to play a crucial role in the interpretation of the intrinsic magnetic properties modifications in shocked and annealed magnetite. Reznik, B., Kontny, A., Fritz, J., Gerhards, U., 2016, Shock-induced deformation phenomena in magnetite and their

  16. Post-annealing effect on optical absorbance of hydrothermally grown zinc oxide nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Mohar, Rahmat Setiawan; Djuhana, Dede; Imawan, Cuk; Harmoko, Adhi; Fauzia, Vivi; Iwan, S.

    2016-04-19

    In this study, the optical absorbance of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods was investigated. The ZnO thin film were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) layers using ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) method and then grown by hydrothermal method. In order to improve the optical absorbance, the ZnO nanorods were then post-annealed for one hour at three different of temperatures, namely 250, 400, and 500 °C. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra and FESEM images show that the ZnO nanorods have the hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure and the increasing of post-annealing temperature resulted in the increasing of crystallite size from 38.2 nm to 48.4 nm. The UV-vis spectra shows that all samples of ZnO nanorods exhibited the identical sharp absorption edge at 390 nm indicating that all samples have the same bandgap. The post-annealing process seemed to decrease the optical absorbance in the region of 300-550 nm and increase the optical absorbance in the region of 550-700 nm..

  17. Effect of Hot Band Annealing on Forming Limit Diagrams of Ultra-Pure Ferritic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Jun; Bi, Hongyun; Li, Xin; Xu, Zhou

    2014-03-01

    In order to better understand the texture evolution, coincidence site lattice (CSL) and forming limit diagrams (FLDs) of ferritic stainless steels with and without hot band annealing, the texture evolution and CSL of ferritic stainless steels with 15% Cr content were studied by using x-ray diffraction and electron back-scattered diffraction technique. The strain hardening exponent n value, the strength coefficient K value, and Plastic strain ratio r value are the key parameters for the FLD. It was found out that the FLDo of plane strain condition and the stretchability were mainly influenced by their n value and K value, respectively. The higher n value and K value, better was the stretchability of investigated steels. The intensity of the γ-fiber dominated by {111} <112> was improved significantly in the cold rolled and annealed sheets because of a hot band annealing treatment and the sharp increase of Σ13b CSL boundaries. The increase of the formability is attributed to the significantly increase of the r value.

  18. The effect of annealing on vacuum-evaporated copper selenide and indium telluride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Peranantham, P.; Jeyachandran, Y.L.; Viswanathan, C.; Praveena, N.N.; Chitra, P.C.; Mangalaraj, D. . E-mail: dmraj800@yahoo.com; Narayandass, Sa. K.

    2007-08-15

    Copper selenide and indium telluride thin films were prepared by a vacuum evaporation technique. The as-deposited films were annealed in a vacuum at different temperatures and the influence on composition, structure and optical properties of copper selenide and indium telluride films was investigated using energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and optical transmission measurements. From the compositional analysis, the as-deposited copper selenide and indium telluride films which were annealed at 473 and 523 K, respectively, were found to possess the nearly stoichiometric composition of CuSe and InTe phases. However, the films annealed at 673 K showed the composition of Cu{sub 2}Se and In{sub 4}Te{sub 3} phases. The structural parameters such as, particle size and strain were determined using X-ray diffractograms of the films. Optical transmittance measurements indicated the existence of direct and indirect transitions in copper selenide films and an indirect allowed transition in indium telluride films.

  19. Effect of annealing on magnetic properties and structure of Fe-Ni based magnetic microwires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukova, V.; Korchuganova, O. A.; Aleev, A. A.; Tcherdyntsev, V. V.; Churyukanova, M.; Medvedeva, E. V.; Seils, S.; Wagner, J.; Ipatov, M.; Blanco, J. M.; Kaloshkin, S. D.; Aronin, A.; Abrosimova, G.; Orlova, N.; Zhukov, A.

    2017-07-01

    We studied the magnetic properties and domain wall (DW) dynamics of Fe47.4Ni26.6Si11B13C2 and Fe77.5Si7.5B15 microwires. Both samples present rectangular hysteresis loop and fast magnetization switching. Considerable enhancement of DW velocity is observed in Fe77.5Si7.5B15, while DW velocity of samples Fe47.4Ni26.6Si11B13C2 is less affected by annealing. The other difference is the magnetic field range of the linear region on dependence of domain wall velocity upon magnetic field: in Fe47.4Ni26.6Si11B13C2 sample is considerably shorter and drastically decreases after annealing. We discussed the influence of annealing on DW dynamics considering different magnetoelastic anisotropy of studied microwires and defects within the amorphous state in Fe47.4Ni26.6Si11B13C2. Consequently we studied the structure of Fe47.4Ni26.6Si11B13C2 sample using X-ray diffraction and the atom probe tomography. The results obtained using the atom probe tomography supports the formation of the B-depleted and Si-enriched precipitates in the metallic nucleus of Fe-Ni based microwires.

  20. Annealing effects on the characteristics of AuCl3-doped graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hee Shin, Dong; Min Kim, Jong; Wook Jang, Chan; Hwan Kim, Ju; Kim, Sung; Choi, Suk-Ho

    2013-02-01

    Single-layer graphene sheets grown on Cu foils by chemical vapor deposition were transferred on 300 nm SiO2/n-type Si wafers and subsequently doped with 10 mM AuCl3 solution. The doped graphene sheets were annealed at various temperatures (TA) under vacuum below 10-3 Torr for 10 min and characterized by atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and 4-probe van der Pauw method. The XPS studies show that the compositions of Cl and Au3+ ions in doped graphene sheets increase slightly by annealing at 50 °C, but by further increase of TA above 50 °C, they monotonically decrease and become almost negligible at TA = 500 °C. These XPS results are consistent with the corresponding TA-dependent behaviors of the Raman scattering and the sheet resistance, implying that the doping efficiency is maximized at TA = 50 °C and the Cl and Au3+ ions play a major role in the doping/dedoping processes that are very reversible, different from the case of carbon nanotubes. These results suggest that the annealing temperature is a crucial factor to determine the structural and electrical properties of AuCl3-doped graphene. Possible mechanisms are discussed to explain the doping/dedoping processes of graphene sheets.