Science.gov

Sample records for anneaux par imagerie

  1. Nanoparticules d'or: De l'imagerie par resonance magnetique a la radiosensibilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, Etienne M.

    Cette thèse approfondit l'étude de nanoparticules d'or de 5 nm de diamètre recouvertes de diamideéthanethioldiethylènetriaminepentacétate de gadolinium (DTDTPA:Gd), un agent de contraste pour l'imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM). En guise de ciblage passif, la taille des nanoparticules a été contrôlée afin d'utiliser le réseau de néovaisseaux poreux et perméable des tumeurs. De plus les tumeurs ont un drainage lymphatique déficient qui permet aux nanoparticules de demeurer plus longtemps dans le milieu interstitiel de la tumeur. Les expériences ont été effectuées sur des souris Balb/c femelles portant des tumeurs MC7-L1. La concentration de nanoparticules a pu être mesurée à l'IRM in vivo. La concentration maximale se retrouvait à la fin de l'infusion de 10 min. La concentration s'élevait à 0.3 mM dans la tumeur et de 0.12 mM dans le muscle environnant. Les nanoparticules étaient éliminées avec une demi-vie de 22 min pour les tumeurs et de 20 min pour le muscle environnant. Les nanoparticules ont été fonctionnalisées avec le peptide Tat afin de leur conférer des propriétés de ciblage actif La rétention de ces nanoparticules a ainsi été augmentée de 1600 %, passant d'une demi-vie d'élimination de 22 min à 350 min. La survie des souris a été mesurée à l'aide de courbes Kaplan-Meier et d'un modèle mathématique évalue l'efficacité de traitements. Le modèle nous permet, à l'aide de la vitesse de croissance des tumeurs et de l'efficacité des traitements, de calculer la courbe de survie des spécimens. Un effet antagoniste a été observé au lieu de l'effet synergétique attendu entre une infusion de Au@DTDTPA:Gd et l'irradiation aux rayons X. L'absence d'effet synergétique a été attribuée à l'épaisseur du recouvrement de DTDTPA:Gd qui fait écran aux électrons produits par l'or. De plus, le moyen d'ancrage du recouvrement utilise des thiols qui peuvent s'avérer être des capteurs de radicaux. De plus

  2. Developpement d'outils quantitatifs pour le suivi par imagerie TEP/TDM de la reponse a la chimiotherapie et de sa toxicite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croteau, Etienne

    L'objectif de ce projet de doctorat est de developper des outils quantitatifs pour le suivi des traitements de chimiotherapie pour le cancer du sein et de leurs effets cardiotoxiques a l'aide de l'imagerie TEP dynamique. L'analyse cinetique en TEP dynamique permet l'evaluation de parametres biologiques in vivo. Cette analyse peut etre utilise pour caracteriser la reponse tumorale a la chimiotherapie et les effets secondaires nefastes qui peuvent en resulter. Le premier article de cette these decrit la mise au point des techniques d'analyse cinetique qui utilisent la fonction d'entree d'un radiotraceur derive de l'image dynamique. Des corrections de contamination radioactive externe (epanchement) et de l'effet de volume partiel ont ete necessaires pour standardiser l'analyse cinetique et la rendre quantitative. Le deuxieme article porte sur l'evaluation d'un nouveau radiotraceur myocardique. Le 11C-acetoacetate, un nouveau radiotraceur base sur un corps cetonique, a ete compare au 11C-acetate, couramment utilise en imagerie cardiaque TEP. L'utilisation de 3H-acetate et 14C-acetoacetate ont permis d'elucider la cinetique de ces traceurs depuis la fonction d'entree et la captation par les mitochondries cardiaques qui reflete la consommation en oxygene, jusqu'a la liberation de leurs principaux metabolites reciproques (3H20 et 14CO2). Le troisieme et dernier article de cette these presente l'integration d'un modele qui evalue la reserve cardiaque de perfusion et de consommation en oxygene. Un modele de cardiomyopathie a ete etabli a l'aide d'un agent chimiotherapeutique contre le cancer du sein, la doxorubicine, reconnu comme etant cardiotoxique. Un protocole de repos/effort a permis d'evaluer la capacite d'augmentation de perfusion et de consommation en oxygene par le coeur. La demonstration d'une reserve cardiaque reduite caracterise la cardiotoxicite. La derniere contribution de cette these porte sur la mise au point de methodes peu invasives pour mesurer la

  3. Imagerie Resolue dans le Temps des Photons et Neutres Metastables Emis D'une Surface Par Stimulation Electronique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclerc, Gregoire

    L'appareil que nous presentons ici a ete mis au point pour permettre d'accumuler des images numeriques, resolues dans le temps, de la desorption par stimulation electronique (DSE) d'ions positifs et negatifs, de photons et de neutres metastables, tout en conservant des capacites de base de diffraction d'electrons lents (DEL) et de transmission d'electrons lents (TEL). Le spectrometre comporte un monochromateur d'electrons a secteur cylindrique de 127^ circ dont l'optique de sortie permet la focalisation du faisceau d'electrons sur une large gamme d'energies. Le detecteur consiste en un empilement de galettes de microcanaux et d'une anode resistive a encodage de division de charges. La reponse spatiale du detecteur a ete calibree et plusieurs causes de non-linearite ont ete localisees et corrigees. Des methodes de correction materielle et logicielle des distorsions spatiales sont presentees. La resolution temporelle des evenements est obtenue en pulsant le faisceau d'electrons, et de facon synchrone la detection, laquelle est couplee a un micro-ordinateur. La premiere partie de ce travail est consacree a la caracterisation du spectrometre et la presentation de nombreux parametres operationnels, obtenus soit au moment de la conception, soit experimentalement. Suit la presentation de donnees de DEL et de DSE pour le systeme Ar/Pt(111) en films minces a 15K. Les sequences temporelles d'images de metastables d'Ar desorbes ont revele la presence de plusieurs populations distinctes, ayant des distributions angulaires et distributions d'energie cinetique que nous avons pu separer. Les fonctions d'excitation de l'emission de photons et de la desorption de differentes composantes de metastables, ainsi que la dependance de ces signaux sur l'epaisseur des films d'Ar, sont aussi presentees et analysees. Les techniques que nous avons developpees ont permis de cerner les mecanismes en jeu pour la desorption et la luminescence.

  4. Identification d'indicateurs de risque des populations victimes de conflits par imagerie satellitaire. Etude de cas: Le nord de l'Irak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubareka, Sarah Betoul

    Remote sensing and security, terms which are not usually associated, have found a common platform this decade with the conjuring of the GMOSS network (Global Monitoring for Security and Stability), whose mandate is to discover new applications for satellite-derived imagery to security issues. This study focuses on human security, concentrating on the characterisation of vulnerable areas to conflict. A time-series of satellite imagery taken from Landsat sensors from 1987 to 2001 and the SRTM mission imagery are used for this purpose over a site in northern Iraq. Human security issues include the exposure to any type of hazard. The region of study is first characterised in order to understand which hazards are and were present in the past for the region of study. The principal hazard for the region of study is armed conflict and the relative field data was analysed to determine the links between geographical indicators and vulnerable areas. This is done through historical research and the study of open-sourced information about disease outbreaks; the movements of refugees and the internally displaced; and humanitarian aid and security issues. These open sources offer information which are not always consistent, objective, or normalized and are therefore difficult to quantify. A method for the rapid mapping and graphing and subsequent analysis of the situation in a region where limited information is available is developed. This information is coupled with population numbers to create a "risk map": A disaggregated matrix of areas most at risk during conflict situations. The results show that describing the risk factor for a population to the hazard conflict depends on three complex indicators: Population density, remoteness and economic diversity. Each of these complex indicators is then derived from Landsat and SRTM imagery and a satellite-driven model is formulated. This model based on satellite imagery is applied to the study site for a temporal study. The output

  5. La place de l'imagerie par résonance magnétique dans le carcinome lobulaire du sein

    PubMed Central

    Bouzoubaa, Wail; Laadioui, Meryem; Alaoui, Fatime Zahra Fdili; Jayi, Sofia; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hikmat; Melhouf, Moulay Abdelilah

    2014-01-01

    Le carcinome lobulaire reste une entité histologique peu fréquente du cancer du sein, toute fois la place qu'occupe le cancer du sein actuellement dans la cancérologie féminine, justifie la connaissance des particularités de ce type de cancer mammaire. Le diagnostic paraclinique est basée sur le couple écho-mammographie a la recherche de multifocalité, multicentricité ou bilatéralité, d'où l'intérêt de l'IRM qui est la technique la plus sensible pour la mise en évidence de ces lésions et qui est devenue un examen de pratique courante dans le carcinome lobulaire du sein. Par le présent travail, et sous la lumière de la revue de la littérature, nous allons essayer de dégager les aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques, et paracliniques, du carcinome lobulaire du sein, et insister sur les indications et l'intérêt de l'IRM dans la prise en charge de ce type histologique. PMID:25368710

  6. Etude par Imagerie à faible Niveau dans le proche Infrarouge d'une Emission de la haute Atmosphère

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pautet, Pierre-Dominique

    2000-12-01

    requises pour de bonnes observations dans le domaine du proche infrarouge ont aussi été étudiées. Ensuite, la construction d'une station mobile de prise de vues est détaillée. Celle-ci doit permettre d'observer l'émission et d'obtenir des résultats exploitables par la suite. Trois méthodes d'observation ont été décrites: visuelle, photographique et à l'aide d'un détecteur CCD. La troisième, qui a été retenue, a été vue plus en détail. Le matériel utilisé, de la caméra à la plate-forme de prise de vues en passant par les objectifs et les filtres optiques, est ensuite décrit. Lorsque le matériel a été choisi, un protocole d'observation a été défini et mis au point. Le choix du site d'observation a été crucial. Plusieurs lieux géographiques ont été retenus et sont présentés dans le mémoire. Le déroulement d'une séance de prise de vue a été décrit afin de faciliter un futur programme d'observation. Deux séquences types d'observations ont été plus particulièrement détaillées: -la réalisation de panoramas permettant une étude des structures que fait apparaître l'émission, -la réalisation de séquences vidéos afin d'étudier la dynamique du phénomène. Dans une quatrième partie, je décris les méthodes de traitement des images qui ont été développées. Tout d'abord, des prétraitements sont appliqués aux images pour corriger les défauts (champ plat, offset,?). Ensuite, une méthode de restitution géographique permet d'obtenir une image plus exploitable de la couche émissive ; elle n'est alors plus observée à partir d'une station au sol, mais en employant une caméra virtuelle située à la verticale du site d'observation. Différents problèmes liés à cette méthode ont aussi été traités: réfraction atmosphérique proche de l'horizon, passage d'une surface atmosphérique à la surface du pixel correspondant, et effet de Van Rhijn. Plusieurs traitements ont été appliqués aux images pour faciliter leur

  7. Etude par Imagerie à faible Niveau dans le proche Infrarouge d'une Emission de la haute Atmosphère

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pautet, Pierre-Dominique

    2000-12-01

    requises pour de bonnes observations dans le domaine du proche infrarouge ont aussi été étudiées. Ensuite, la construction d'une station mobile de prise de vues est détaillée. Celle-ci doit permettre d'observer l'émission et d'obtenir des résultats exploitables par la suite. Trois méthodes d'observation ont été décrites: visuelle, photographique et à l'aide d'un détecteur CCD. La troisième, qui a été retenue, a été vue plus en détail. Le matériel utilisé, de la caméra à la plate-forme de prise de vues en passant par les objectifs et les filtres optiques, est ensuite décrit. Lorsque le matériel a été choisi, un protocole d'observation a été défini et mis au point. Le choix du site d'observation a été crucial. Plusieurs lieux géographiques ont été retenus et sont présentés dans le mémoire. Le déroulement d'une séance de prise de vue a été décrit afin de faciliter un futur programme d'observation. Deux séquences types d'observations ont été plus particulièrement détaillées: -la réalisation de panoramas permettant une étude des structures que fait apparaître l'émission, -la réalisation de séquences vidéos afin d'étudier la dynamique du phénomène. Dans une quatrième partie, je décris les méthodes de traitement des images qui ont été développées. Tout d'abord, des prétraitements sont appliqués aux images pour corriger les défauts (champ plat, offset,?). Ensuite, une méthode de restitution géographique permet d'obtenir une image plus exploitable de la couche émissive ; elle n'est alors plus observée à partir d'une station au sol, mais en employant une caméra virtuelle située à la verticale du site d'observation. Différents problèmes liés à cette méthode ont aussi été traités: réfraction atmosphérique proche de l'horizon, passage d'une surface atmosphérique à la surface du pixel correspondant, et effet de Van Rhijn. Plusieurs traitements ont été appliqués aux images pour faciliter leur

  8. Auditory Imagery: Empirical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Timothy L.

    2010-01-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d)…

  9. De Par en Par (Wide Open), 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Par en Par, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This document consists of the four issues of the serial "De Par en Par" published during 1993. This serial provides lessons in Spanish for elementary school children. It is written by bilingual education teachers for use in the bilingual classroom. The magazine bases itself on the K-6 curriculum and offers a variety of activities for classroom…

  10. Minéralogie de la Lune étudiée par Spectro-imagerie visible et proche infrarouge. Apport des Données NIR de la Sonde Clementine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Mouélic, Stéphane

    2000-09-01

    Cette thèse est consacrée à l'analyse des données multi-spectrales de la caméra infrarouge NIR de la sonde Clementine. La lune est le seul corps planétaire pour lequel on dispose à la fois d'une vérité terrain (échantillons lunaires) et de données de télédétection globales non perturbées par une atmosphère. C'est donc le cas le plus favorable pour tester et valider des méthodes d'analyse de données de télédétection, ces méthodes pouvant ensuite être extrapolées à d'autres corps du système solaire. Les données NIR, bien que dans le domaine public depuis 1995, n'avaient jamais été exploitées auparavant du fait de problèmes majeurs d'étalonnage. La première partie de ce travail a consisté à s'affranchir des problèmes d'étalonnage, donnant ainsi accès à des observations inédites couvrant la totalité de la surface lunaire. Ces observations ont ensuite été mises à profit pour aborder les problèmes plus scientifiques de l'identification des minéraux et de l'extrapolation de la connaissance de quelques sites à l'ensemble du satellite. Des zones riches en olivine, minéral associé au manteau lunaire et rarement détecté en surface, ont été mises en évidence dans les régions des cratères Aristarchus et Copernicus. L'analyse systématique des propriétés spectrales et chimiques d'échantillons lunaires représentatifs, couplée aux données NIR, a ensuite permis de mettre en place une méthode de cartographie quantitative de la teneur en fer des sols observés, clarifiant ainsi le lien entre information spectrale et chimique. Cette méthode permet de discriminer entre les effets de composition et les effets d'altération de la surface suite aux impacts de micrométéorites et de particules du vent solaire. L'expérience acquise dans le cas lunaire est directement transposable à l'étude d'autres surfaces rocheuses sans atmosphère (cas de Mercure et des astéroïdes), et représente un premier pas vers le cas plus

  11. Pars Injuries in Athletes.

    PubMed

    Oren, Jonathan H; Gallina, Jason M

    2016-03-01

    Pars injuries are common causes of low back pain in adolescent athletes. Workup traditionally has included lumbar radiographs with oblique views and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). However, recent literature has demonstrated the accuracy of MRI as a diagnostic modality. Acute injuries may be amenable to bracing with the goal of a healed lesion. Most cases of spondylolysis will result in asymptomatic non-union, though pars repair is an option for symptomatic pars defects without spondylolisthesis. PMID:26977552

  12. Nonconsecutive Pars Interarticularis Defects.

    PubMed

    Elgafy, Hossein; Hart, Ryan C; Tanios, Mina

    2015-12-01

    Lumbar spondylolysis is a well-recognized condition occurring in adolescents because of repetitive overuse in sports. Nonconsecutive spondylolysis involving the lumbar spine is rare. In contrast to single-level pars defects that respond well to conservative treatment, there is no consensus about the management of multiple-level pars fractures; a few reports indicated that conservative management is successful, and the majority acknowledged that surgery is often required. The current study presents a rare case of pars fracture involving nonconsecutive segments and discusses the management options. In this case report, we review the patient's history, clinical examination, radiologic findings, and management, as well as the relevant literature. An 18-year-old man presented to the clinic with worsening lower back pain related to nonconsecutive pars fractures at L2 and L5. After 6 months of conservative management, diagnostic computed tomography-guided pars block was used to localize the symptomatic level at L2, which was treated surgically; the L5 asymptomatic pars fracture did not require surgery. At the last follow-up 2 years after surgery, the patient was playing baseball and basketball, and denied any back pain. This article reports a case of rare nonconsecutive pars fractures. Conservative management for at least 6 months is recommended. Successful management depends on the choice of appropriate treatment for each level. Single-photon emission computed tomography scan, and computed tomography-guided pars block are valuable preoperative tools to identify the symptomatic level in such a case. PMID:26665257

  13. Nonconsecutive Pars Interarticularis Defects.

    PubMed

    Elgafy, Hossein; Hart, Ryan C; Tanios, Mina

    2015-12-01

    Lumbar spondylolysis is a well-recognized condition occurring in adolescents because of repetitive overuse in sports. Nonconsecutive spondylolysis involving the lumbar spine is rare. In contrast to single-level pars defects that respond well to conservative treatment, there is no consensus about the management of multiple-level pars fractures; a few reports indicated that conservative management is successful, and the majority acknowledged that surgery is often required. The current study presents a rare case of pars fracture involving nonconsecutive segments and discusses the management options. In this case report, we review the patient's history, clinical examination, radiologic findings, and management, as well as the relevant literature. An 18-year-old man presented to the clinic with worsening lower back pain related to nonconsecutive pars fractures at L2 and L5. After 6 months of conservative management, diagnostic computed tomography-guided pars block was used to localize the symptomatic level at L2, which was treated surgically; the L5 asymptomatic pars fracture did not require surgery. At the last follow-up 2 years after surgery, the patient was playing baseball and basketball, and denied any back pain. This article reports a case of rare nonconsecutive pars fractures. Conservative management for at least 6 months is recommended. Successful management depends on the choice of appropriate treatment for each level. Single-photon emission computed tomography scan, and computed tomography-guided pars block are valuable preoperative tools to identify the symptomatic level in such a case.

  14. Par Pond water balance

    SciTech Connect

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

    1996-06-01

    A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs.

  15. Imagery Integration Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Tracy; Melendrez, Dave

    2014-01-01

    The Human Exploration Science Office (KX) provides leadership for NASA's Imagery Integration (Integration 2) Team, an affiliation of experts in the use of engineering-class imagery intended to monitor the performance of launch vehicles and crewed spacecraft in flight. Typical engineering imagery assessments include studying and characterizing the liftoff and ascent debris environments; launch vehicle and propulsion element performance; in-flight activities; and entry, landing, and recovery operations. Integration 2 support has been provided not only for U.S. Government spaceflight (e.g., Space Shuttle, Ares I-X) but also for commercial launch providers, such as Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) and Orbital Sciences Corporation, servicing the International Space Station. The NASA Integration 2 Team is composed of imagery integration specialists from JSC, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), who have access to a vast pool of experience and capabilities related to program integration, deployment and management of imagery assets, imagery data management, and photogrammetric analysis. The Integration 2 team is currently providing integration services to commercial demonstration flights, Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1), and the Space Launch System (SLS)-based Exploration Missions (EM)-1 and EM-2. EM-2 will be the first attempt to fly a piloted mission with the Orion spacecraft. The Integration 2 Team provides the customer (both commercial and Government) with access to a wide array of imagery options - ground-based, airborne, seaborne, or vehicle-based - that are available through the Government and commercial vendors. The team guides the customer in assembling the appropriate complement of imagery acquisition assets at the customer's facilities, minimizing costs associated with market research and the risk of purchasing inadequate assets. The NASA Integration 2 capability simplifies the process of securing one

  16. Auditory imagery: empirical findings.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Timothy L

    2010-03-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d) auditory imagery's relationship to perception and memory (detection, encoding, recall, mnemonic properties, phonological loop), and (e) individual differences in auditory imagery (in vividness, musical ability and experience, synesthesia, musical hallucinosis, schizophrenia, amusia) are considered. It is concluded that auditory imagery (a) preserves many structural and temporal properties of auditory stimuli, (b) can facilitate auditory discrimination but interfere with auditory detection, (c) involves many of the same brain areas as auditory perception, (d) is often but not necessarily influenced by subvocalization, (e) involves semantically interpreted information and expectancies, (f) involves depictive components and descriptive components, (g) can function as a mnemonic but is distinct from rehearsal, and (h) is related to musical ability and experience (although the mechanisms of that relationship are not clear). PMID:20192565

  17. Auditory imagery: empirical findings.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Timothy L

    2010-03-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d) auditory imagery's relationship to perception and memory (detection, encoding, recall, mnemonic properties, phonological loop), and (e) individual differences in auditory imagery (in vividness, musical ability and experience, synesthesia, musical hallucinosis, schizophrenia, amusia) are considered. It is concluded that auditory imagery (a) preserves many structural and temporal properties of auditory stimuli, (b) can facilitate auditory discrimination but interfere with auditory detection, (c) involves many of the same brain areas as auditory perception, (d) is often but not necessarily influenced by subvocalization, (e) involves semantically interpreted information and expectancies, (f) involves depictive components and descriptive components, (g) can function as a mnemonic but is distinct from rehearsal, and (h) is related to musical ability and experience (although the mechanisms of that relationship are not clear).

  18. MISR Field Campaign Imagery

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-23

      MISR Support of Field Campaigns Aerosol Arctic Research of the Composition of the ... Daily ARCTAS Aerosol Polar Imagery ​Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study ( GoMACCS ) ​July - ...

  19. MISR Imagery and Articles

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-27

    ... of select parameters available in the MISR Level 3 global data products Field Campaigns :  Imagery supporting field ... explore the links between atmospheric aerosols, climate change, and ultraviolet rays. Following the World Trade Center plume ...

  20. THE MEASURES PAR PROJECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouin, R. J.; Franz, B.

    2009-12-01

    The solar energy available for photosynthesis, known as PAR, controls the growth of phytoplankton and, therefore, regulates the composition and evolution of marine ecosystems. Knowing the spatial and temporal distribution of PAR over the oceans is critical to understanding biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nutrients, and oxygen, and to address important climate and global change issues such as the fate of anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide. In view of this, a 12-year time series of PAR at the ocean surface, starting in September 1997, is being produced by the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group from SeaWiFS, MODIS-Terra, and MODIS-Aqua data. The product covers the global oceans, with a spatial resolution of about 9.3x9.3 km (equal area grid) and a temporal resolution of one day. PAR is computed as the difference between the 400-700 nm solar flux incident on the top of the atmosphere (known) and reflected back to space by the atmosphere and surface (derived from satellite radiance), taking into account atmospheric absorption (modeled). Knowledge of pixel composition is not required, eliminating the need for cloud screening and arbitrary assumptions about sub-pixel cloudiness. Combining data from satellite sensors with different equatorial crossing times accounts for the diurnal variability of clouds and, therefore, increases accuracy on a daily time scale. The processing system, including routine check of accuracy and control of quality, is designed to operate during the entire lifetime of SeaWiFS and MODIS, and to accommodate future sensors with ocean-color capabilities. Maps of daily, weekly, and monthly PAR obtained from individual sensors are presented, as well as merged products. Accuracy is quantified in comparisons with other satellite estimates, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis product, and in-situ measurements from fixed buoys and platforms. The good statistical performance makes the satellite PAR product suitable for large

  1. Measuring creative imagery abilities

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska, Dorota M.; Karwowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative visual imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA), developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail), originality (the ability to produce unique imagery), and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery). TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of nine studies on a total sample of more than 1700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument's validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science. PMID:26539140

  2. La pelade par plaques

    PubMed Central

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre l’épidémiologie, la pathogenèse, l’histologie et l’approche clinique au diagnostic de la pelade par plaques. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant la pathogenèse, le diagnostic et le pronostic de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme de perte pileuse auto-immune dont la prévalence durant une vie est d’environ 2 %. Des antécédents personnels ou familiaux de troubles auto-immuns concomitants, comme le vitiligo ou une maladie de la thyroïde, peuvent être observés dans un petit sous-groupe de patients. Le diagnostic peut souvent être posé de manière clinique en se fondant sur la perte de cheveux non cicatricielle et circulaire caractéristique, accompagnée de cheveux en « point d’exclamation » en périphérie chez ceux dont le problème en est aux premiers stades. Le diagnostic des cas plus complexes ou des présentations inhabituelles peut être facilité par une biopsie et un examen histologique. Le pronostic varie largement et de mauvais résultats sont associés à une apparition à un âge précoce, une perte importante, la variante ophiasis, des changements aux ongles, des antécédents familiaux ou des troubles auto-immuns concomitants. Conclusion La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte de cheveux périodiquement observée en soins primaires. Les médecins de famille sont bien placés pour identifier la pelade par plaques, déterminer la gravité de la maladie et poser le diagnostic différentiel approprié. De plus, ils sont en mesure de renseigner leurs patients à propos de l’évolution clinique de la maladie ainsi que du pronostic général selon le sous-type de patients.

  3. Imagery Production Specialist (AFSC 23350).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

    This course of study is designed to lead the student to full qualification as an Air Force imagery production specialist. The complete course consists of six volumes: general subjects in imagery production (39 hours), photographic fundamentals (57 hours), continuous imagery production (54 hours), chemical analysis and process control (volumes A…

  4. The Imagery-Creativity Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels-McGhee, Susan; Davis, Gary A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews historical highlights of the imagery-creativity connection, including early and contemporary accounts, along with notable examples of imagery in the creative process. It also looks at cross-modal imagery (synesthesia), a model of image-based creativity and the creative process, and implications for strengthening creativity by…

  5. BOREAS Level-0 NS001 TMS Imagery: Digital Counts in BIL Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominguez, Roseanne

    2000-01-01

    For BOREAS, the NS001 TMS imagery, along with the other remotely sensed images, was collected in order to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. This information includes detailed land cover and biophysical parameter maps such as fPAR and LAI. Data collections occurred over the study areas during the 1994 field campaigns.

  6. La pelade par plaques

    PubMed Central

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre les schémas thérapeutiques et les résultats des traitements pour la pelade par plaques, de même que les aider à identifier les patients pour qui une demande de consultation en dermatologie pourrait s’imposer. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant le traitement de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte pileuse qui touche à la fois les enfants et les adultes. Même s’il n’y a pas de mortalité associée à la maladie, la morbidité découlant des effets psychologiques de la perte des cheveux peut être dévastatrice. Lorsque la pelade par plaques et le sous-type de la maladie sont identifiés, un schéma thérapeutique approprié peut être amorcé pour aider à arrêter la chute des cheveux et possiblement faire commencer la repousse. Les traitements de première intention sont la triamcinolone intralésionnelle avec des corticostéroïdes topiques ou du minoxidil ou les 2. Les médecins de famille peuvent prescrire ces traitements en toute sécurité et amorcer ces thérapies. Les cas plus avancés ou réfractaires pourraient avoir besoin de diphénylcyclopropénone topique ou d’anthraline topique. On peut traiter la perte de cils avec des analogues de la prostaglandine. Les personnes ayant subi une perte de cheveux abondante peuvent recourir à des options de camouflage ou à des prothèses capillaires. Il est important de surveiller les troubles psychiatriques en raison des effets psychologiques profonds de la perte de cheveux. Conclusion Les médecins de famille verront de nombreux patients qui perdent leurs cheveux. La reconnaissance de la pelade par plaques et la compréhension du processus pathologique sous-jacent permettent d’amorcer un schéma thérapeutique approprié. Les cas plus graves ou r

  7. Processing Digital Imagery Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, P. K.; Junkin, B. G.; Graham, M. H.; Kalcic, M. T.; Seyfarth, B. R.

    1985-01-01

    Earth Resources Laboratory Applications Software (ELAS) is geobased information system designed for analyzing and processing digital imagery data. ELAS offers user of remotely sensed data wide range of easy to use capabilities in areas of land cover analysis. ELAS system written in FORTRAN and Assembler for batch or interactive processing.

  8. Automated imagery orthorectification pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Johnson, Brad; McMahon, Joe

    2009-10-01

    Automated orthorectification of raw image products is now possible based on the comprehensive metadata collected by Global Positioning Systems and Inertial Measurement Unit technology aboard aircraft and satellite digital imaging systems, and based on emerging pattern-matching and automated image-to-image and control point selection capabilities in many advanced image processing systems. Automated orthorectification of standard aerial photography is also possible if a camera calibration report and sufficient metadata is available. Orthorectification of historical imagery, for which only limited metadata was available, was also attempted and found to require some user input, creating a semi-automated process that still has significant potential to reduce processing time and expense for the conversion of archival historical imagery into geospatially enabled, digital formats, facilitating preservation and utilization of a vast archive of historical imagery. Over 90 percent of the frames of historical aerial photos used in this experiment were successfully orthorectified to the accuracy of the USGS 100K base map series utilized for the geospatial reference of the archive. The accuracy standard for the 100K series maps is approximately 167 feet (51 meters). The main problems associated with orthorectification failure were cloud cover, shadow and historical landscape change which confused automated image-to-image matching processes. Further research is recommended to optimize automated orthorectification methods and enable broad operational use, especially as related to historical imagery archives.

  9. Integrating the services' imagery architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, John F.

    1993-04-01

    Any military organization requiring imagery must deal with one or more of several architectures: the tactical architectures of the three military departments, the theater architectures, and their interfaces to a separate national architecture. A seamless, joint, integrated architecture must meet today's imagery requirements. The CIO's vision of 'the right imagery to the right people in the right format at the right time' would serve well as the objective of a joint, integrated architecture. A joint imagery strategy should be initially shaped by the four pillars of the National Military Strategy of the United States: strategic deterrence; forward presence; crisis response; and reconstitution. In a macro view, it must consist of a series of sub-strategies to include science and technology and research and development, maintenance of the imagery related industrial base, acquisition, resource management, and burden sharing. Common imagery doctrine must follow the imagery strategy. Most of all, control, continuity, and direction must be maintained with regard to organizations and systems development as the architecture evolves. These areas and more must be addressed to reach the long term goal of a joint, integrated imagery architecture. This will require the services and theaters to relinquish some sovereignty over at least systems development and acquisition. Nevertheless, the goal of a joint, integrated imagery architecture is feasible. The author presents arguments and specific recommendations to orient the imagery community in the direction of a joint, integrated imagery architecture.

  10. Alerts of forest disturbance from MODIS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Dan; Kraft, Robin; Wheeler, David

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the methodology and computational strategy for a forest cover disturbance alerting system. Analytical techniques from time series econometrics are applied to imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor to detect temporal instability in vegetation indices. The characteristics from each MODIS pixel's spectral history are extracted and compared against historical data on forest cover loss to develop a geographically localized classification rule that can be applied across the humid tropical biome. The final output is a probability of forest disturbance for each 500 m pixel that is updated every 16 days. The primary objective is to provide high-confidence alerts of forest disturbance, while minimizing false positives. We find that the alerts serve this purpose exceedingly well in Pará, Brazil, with high probability alerts garnering a user accuracy of 98 percent over the training period and 93 percent after the training period (2000-2005) when compared against the PRODES deforestation data set, which is used to assess spatial accuracy. Implemented in Clojure and Java on the Hadoop distributed data processing platform, the algorithm is a fast, automated, and open source system for detecting forest disturbance. It is intended to be used in conjunction with higher-resolution imagery and data products that cannot be updated as quickly as MODIS-based data products. By highlighting hotspots of change, the algorithm and associated output can focus high-resolution data acquisition and aid in efforts to enforce local forest conservation efforts.

  11. Hyperspectral imagery and segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellman, Mark C.; Nasrabadi, Nasser M.

    2002-07-01

    Hyperspectral imagery (HSI), a passive infrared imaging technique which creates images of fine resolution across the spectrum is currently being considered for Army tactical applications. An important tactical application of infra-red (IR) hyperspectral imagery is the detection of low contrast targets, including those targets that may employ camouflage, concealment and deception (CCD) techniques [1,2]. Spectral reflectivity characteristics were used for efficient segmentation between different materials such as painted metal, vegetation and soil for visible to near IR bands in the range of 0.46-1.0 microns as shown previously by Kwon et al [3]. We are currently investigating the HSI where the wavelength spans from 7.5-13.7 microns. The energy in this range of wavelengths is almost entirely emitted rather than reflected, therefore, the gray level of a pixel is a function of the temperature and emissivity of the object. This is beneficial since light level and reflection will not need to be considered in the segmentation. We will present results of a step-wise segmentation analysis on the long-wave infrared (LWIR) hyperspectrum utilizing various classifier architectures applied to both the full-band, broad-band and narrow-band features derived from the Spatially Enhanced Broadband Array Spectrograph System (SEBASS) data base. Stepwise segmentation demonstrates some of the difficulties in the multi-class case. These results give an indication of the added capability the hyperspectral imagery and associated algorithms will bring to bear on the target acquisition problem.

  12. Kinesthetic imagery of musical performance

    PubMed Central

    Lotze, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Musicians use different kinds of imagery. This review focuses on kinesthetic imagery, which has been shown to be an effective complement to actively playing an instrument. However, experience in actual movement performance seems to be a requirement for a recruitment of those brain areas representing movement ideation during imagery. An internal model of movement performance might be more differentiated when training has been more intense or simply performed more often. Therefore, with respect to kinesthetic imagery, these strategies are predominantly found in professional musicians. There are a few possible reasons as to why kinesthetic imagery is used in addition to active training; one example is the need for mental rehearsal of the technically most difficult passages. Another reason for mental practice is that mental rehearsal of the piece helps to improve performance if the instrument is not available for actual training as is the case for professional musicians when they are traveling to various appearances. Overall, mental imagery in musicians is not necessarily specific to motor, somatosensory, auditory, or visual aspects of imagery, but integrates them all. In particular, the audiomotor loop is highly important, since auditory aspects are crucial for guiding motor performance. All these aspects result in a distinctive representation map for the mental imagery of musical performance. This review summarizes behavioral data, and findings from functional brain imaging studies of mental imagery of musical performance. PMID:23781196

  13. Visual Imagery without Visual Perception?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertolo, Helder

    2005-01-01

    The question regarding visual imagery and visual perception remain an open issue. Many studies have tried to understand if the two processes share the same mechanisms or if they are independent, using different neural substrates. Most research has been directed towards the need of activation of primary visual areas during imagery. Here we review…

  14. Imagery Rescripting for Personality Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arntz, Arnoud

    2011-01-01

    Imagery rescripting is a powerful technique that can be successfully applied in the treatment of personality disorders. For personality disorders, imagery rescripting is not used to address intrusive images but to change the implicational meaning of schemas and childhood experiences that underlie the patient's problems. Various mechanisms that may…

  15. Guided Imagery in Career Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, William C.; Eddy, John

    1982-01-01

    Suggests guided imagery can stimulate clients to become more aware of the role of personal values, attitudes, and beliefs in career decision making. Presents guidelines, examples, and implications to enable rehabilitation counselors to use guided imagery exercises in career counseling. (Author)

  16. Par Pond vegetation status 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  17. Evaluation of SPOT imagery data

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Z.; Brovey, R.L.; Merembeck, B.F.; Hopkins, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    SPOT, the French satellite imaging system that became operational in April 1986, provides two major advances in satellite imagery technology: (1) a significant increase in spatial resolution of the data to 20 m multispectral and 10 m panchromatic, and (2) stereoscopic capabilities. The structural and stratigraphic mapping capabilities of SPOT data and compare favorably with those of other available space and airborne remote sensing data. In the Rhine graben and Jura Mountains, strike and dip of folded strata can be determined using SPOT stereoscopic imagery, greatly improving the ability to analyze structures in complex areas. The increased spatial resolution also allows many features to be mapped that are not visible on thematic mapper (TM) imagery. In the San Rafael swell, Utah, TM spectral data were combined with SPOT spatial data to map lithostratigraphic units of the exposed Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks. SPOT imagery provides information on attitude, geometry, and geomorphic expressions of key marker beds that is not available on TM imagery. Over the Central Basin platform, west Texas, SPOT imagery, compared to TM imagery, provided more precise information on the configuration of outcropping beds and drainage patterns that reflect the subtle surface expression of buried structures.

  18. Imagery mismatch negativity in musicians.

    PubMed

    Herholz, Sibylle C; Lappe, Claudia; Knief, Arne; Pantev, Christo

    2009-07-01

    The present study investigated musical imagery in musicians and nonmusicians by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG). We used a new paradigm in which subjects had to continue familiar melodies in their mind and then judged if a further presented tone was a correct continuation of the melody. Incorrect tones elicited an imagery mismatch negativity (iMMN) in musicians but not in nonmusicians. This finding suggests that the MMN component can be based on an imagined instead of a sensory memory trace and that imagery of music is modulated by musical expertise. PMID:19673775

  19. The ASPRS Digital Imagery Product Guideline Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Kuper, Philip; Stanley, Thomas; Mondello, Charles

    2001-01-01

    The American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) Primary Data Acquisition Division is developing a Digital Imagery Product Guideline in conjunction with NASA, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), academia, and industry. The goal of the guideline is to offer providers and users of digital imagery a set of recommendatons analogous those defined by the ASPRS Aerial Photography 1995 Draft Standard for film-based imagery. This article offers a general outline and description of the Digital Imagery Product Guideline and Digital Imagery Tutorial/Reference documents for defining digital imagery requirements.

  20. The Imagery Exchange (TIE): Open Source Imagery Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarcon, C.; Huang, T.; Thompson, C. K.; Roberts, J. T.; Hall, J. R.; Cechini, M.; Schmaltz, J. E.; McGann, J. M.; Boller, R. A.; Murphy, K. J.; Bingham, A. W.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA's Global Imagery Browse Service (GIBS) is the Earth Observation System (EOS) imagery solution for delivering global, full-resolution satellite imagery in a highly responsive manner. GIBS consists of two major subsystems, OnEarth and The Imagery Exchange (TIE). TIE is the GIBS horizontally scaled imagery workflow manager component, an Open Archival Information System (OAIS) responsible for orchestrating the acquisition, preparation, generation, and archiving of imagery to be served by OnEarth. TIE is an extension of the Data Management and Archive System (DMAS), a high performance data management system developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory by leveraging open source tools and frameworks, which includes Groovy/Grails, Restlet, Apache ZooKeeper, Apache Solr, and other open source solutions. This presentation focuses on the application of Open Source technologies in developing a horizontally scaled data system like DMAS and TIE. As part of our commitment in contributing back to the open source community, TIE is in the process of being open sourced. This presentation will also cover our current effort in getting TIE in to the hands of the community from which we benefited from.

  1. Imagery: Paintings in the Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Albert R.

    1986-01-01

    Describes using the overlapping areas of relaxation, meditation, hypnosis, and imagery as a counseling technique. Explains the methods in terms of right brain functioning, a capability children use naturally. (ABB)

  2. New Percepts via Mental Imagery?

    PubMed

    Mast, Fred W; Tartaglia, Elisa M; Herzog, Michael H

    2012-01-01

    We are able to extract detailed information from mental images that we were not explicitly aware of during encoding. For example, we can discover a new figure when we rotate a previously seen image in our mind. However, such discoveries are not "really" new but just new "interpretations." In two recent publications, we have shown that mental imagery can lead to perceptual learning (Tartaglia et al., 2009, 2012). Observers imagined the central line of a bisection stimulus for thousands of trials. This training enabled observers to perceive bisection offsets that were invisible before training. Hence, it seems that perceptual learning via mental imagery leads to new percepts. We will argue, however, that these new percepts can occur only within "known" models. In this sense, perceptual learning via mental imagery exceeds new discoveries in mental images. Still, the effects of mental imagery on perceptual learning are limited. Only perception can lead to really new perceptual experience.

  3. New Percepts via Mental Imagery?

    PubMed

    Mast, Fred W; Tartaglia, Elisa M; Herzog, Michael H

    2012-01-01

    We are able to extract detailed information from mental images that we were not explicitly aware of during encoding. For example, we can discover a new figure when we rotate a previously seen image in our mind. However, such discoveries are not "really" new but just new "interpretations." In two recent publications, we have shown that mental imagery can lead to perceptual learning (Tartaglia et al., 2009, 2012). Observers imagined the central line of a bisection stimulus for thousands of trials. This training enabled observers to perceive bisection offsets that were invisible before training. Hence, it seems that perceptual learning via mental imagery leads to new percepts. We will argue, however, that these new percepts can occur only within "known" models. In this sense, perceptual learning via mental imagery exceeds new discoveries in mental images. Still, the effects of mental imagery on perceptual learning are limited. Only perception can lead to really new perceptual experience. PMID:23060830

  4. Paraplégie compliquant une plaie abdominale antérieure par arme blanche

    PubMed Central

    Elahmadi, Brahim; Awab, Almahdi; El Moussaoui, Rachid; El Hijri, Ahmed; Azzouzi, Abderrahim; Alilou, Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    Les traumatismes médullaires sont des complications rares des plaies abdominales antérieures par arme blanche. Son diagnostic est difficile parfois retardé. L'imagerie par résonance magnétique reste l'examen de choix. Le traitement dépend du tableau clinique et de la gravité de la souffrance médullaire. Le pronostic est corrélé à l’étendue et à la nature de la lésion médullaire. Nous rapportons un cas exceptionnel d'un traumatisme médullaire chez une patiente victime d'une plaie abdominale antérieure par arme blanche. PMID:25995808

  5. Operational Principles for the Dynamics of the In Vitro ParA-ParB System

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Lavisha; Emberly, Eldon

    2015-01-01

    In many bacteria the ParA-ParB protein system is responsible for actively segregating DNA during replication. ParB proteins move by interacting with DNA bound ParA-ATP, stimulating their unbinding by catalyzing hydrolysis, that leads to rectified motion due to the creation of a wake of depleted ParA. Recent in vitro experiments have shown that a ParB covered magnetic bead can move with constant speed over a DNA covered substrate that is bound by ParA. It has been suggested that the formation of a gradient in ParA leads to diffusion-ratchet like motion of the ParB bead but how it forms and generates a force is still a matter of exploration. Here we develop a deterministic model for the in vitro ParA-ParB system and show that a ParA gradient can spontaneously form due to any amount of initial spatial noise in bound ParA. The speed of the bead is independent of this noise but depends on the ratio of the range of ParA-ParB force on the bead to that of removal of surface bound ParA by ParB. We find that at a particular ratio the speed attains a maximal value. We also consider ParA rebinding (including cooperativity) and ParA surface diffusion independently as mechanisms for ParA recovery on the surface. Depending on whether the DNA covered surface is undersaturated or saturated with ParA, we find that the bead can accelerate persistently or potentially stall. Our model highlights key requirements of the ParA-ParB driving force that are necessary for directed motion in the in vitro system that may provide insight into the in vivo dynamics of the ParA-ParB system. PMID:26670738

  6. Death imagery and death anxiety.

    PubMed

    McDonald, R T; Hilgendorf, W A

    1986-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between positive/negative death imagery and death anxiety. Subjects were 179 undergraduate students at a large, private, midwestern university. Results reveal that on five measures of death anxiety the subjects with low death anxiety scores had significantly more positive death images than did those with high death anxiety scores. The few subjects who imagined death to be young (N = 14) had a significantly more positive image of death than those who perceived it to be an old person. Death was seen as male by 92% of the male respondents and 74% of the female respondents. Significant differences in death imagery and death anxiety were found between subjects enrolled in an introductory psychology course and those enrolled in a thanatology course. No sex differences in death anxiety or positive/negative death imagery were found.

  7. IMPROVING BIOGENIC EMISSION ESTIMATES WITH SATELLITE IMAGERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will review how existing and future applications of satellite imagery can improve the accuracy of biogenic emission estimates. Existing applications of satellite imagery to biogenic emission estimates have focused on characterizing land cover. Vegetation dat...

  8. NOAA's Use of High-Resolution Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hund, Erik

    2007-01-01

    NOAA's use of high-resolution imagery consists of: a) Shoreline mapping and nautical chart revision; b) Coastal land cover mapping; c) Benthic habitat mapping; d) Disaster response; and e) Imagery collection and support for coastal programs.

  9. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

  10. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C.; Liu, Jian

    The segregation of DNA prior to cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of the low-copy-number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of ParA ATPase and its stimulator protein ParB. Recent experiments suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion-ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. We develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA-nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB bound cargo. Paradoxically, the resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work sheds light on a new emergent phenomenon in which non-motor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos -- an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria.

  11. Imagery: A Neglected Correlate of Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillmer, H. T.; Parkay, Forrest W.

    Imagery has a significant role in cognitive development. Reading research has established the fact that good readers image spontaneously and that there is a high interrelationship between overall preference for a story, the amount of text-related imagery in the story, comprehension, and recall. Imagery researchers agree that everyone is capable of…

  12. Perceptual evaluation of color transformed multispectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toet, Alexander; de Jong, Michael J.; Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Hooge, Ignace T. C.

    2014-04-01

    Color remapping can give multispectral imagery a realistic appearance. We assessed the practical value of this technique in two observer experiments using monochrome intensified (II) and long-wave infrared (IR) imagery, and color daylight (REF) and fused multispectral (CF) imagery. First, we investigated the amount of detail observers perceive in a short timespan. REF and CF imagery yielded the highest precision and recall measures, while II and IR imagery yielded significantly lower values. This suggests that observers have more difficulty in extracting information from monochrome than from color imagery. Next, we measured eye fixations during free image exploration. Although the overall fixation behavior was similar across image modalities, the order in which certain details were fixated varied. Persons and vehicles were typically fixated first in REF, CF, and IR imagery, while they were fixated later in II imagery. In some cases, color remapping II imagery and fusion with IR imagery restored the fixation order of these image details. We conclude that color remapping can yield enhanced scene perception compared to conventional monochrome nighttime imagery, and may be deployed to tune multispectral image representations such that the resulting fixation behavior resembles the fixation behavior corresponding to daylight color imagery.

  13. Perceptual evaluation of colorized nighttime imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toet, Alexander; de Jong, Michael J.; Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Hooge, Ignace T. C.

    2014-02-01

    We recently presented a color transform that produces fused nighttime imagery with a realistic color appearance (Hogervorst and Toet, 2010, Information Fusion, 11-2, 69-77). To assess the practical value of this transform we performed two experiments in which we compared human scene recognition for monochrome intensified (II) and longwave infrared (IR) imagery, and color daylight (REF) and fused multispectral (CF) imagery. First we investigated the amount of detail observers can perceive in a short time span (the gist of the scene). Participants watched brief image presentations and provided a full report of what they had seen. Our results show that REF and CF imagery yielded the highest precision and recall measures, while both II and IR imagery yielded significantly lower values. This suggests that observers have more difficulty extracting information from monochrome than from color imagery. Next, we measured eye fixations of participants who freely explored the images. Although the overall fixation behavior was similar across image modalities, the order in which certain details were fixated varied. Persons and vehicles were typically fixated first in REF, CF and IR imagery, while they were fixated later in II imagery. In some cases, color remapping II imagery and fusion with IR imagery restored the fixation order of these image details. We conclude that color remapping can yield enhanced scene perception compared to conventional monochrome nighttime imagery, and may be deployed to tune multispectral image representation such that the resulting fixation behavior resembles the fixation behavior for daylight color imagery.

  14. Agency Video, Audio and Imagery Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grubbs, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation was to inform the ISS International Partners of the new NASA Agency Video, Audio and Imagery Library (AVAIL) website. AVAIL is a new resource for the public to search for and download NASA-related imagery, and is not intended to replace the current process by which the International Partners receive their Space Station imagery products.

  15. Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brian Edward

    2013-06-30

    The parallel analysis toolkit (ParCAT) provides parallel statistical processing of large climate model simulation datasets. ParCAT provides parallel point-wise average calculations, frequency distributions, sum/differences of two datasets, and difference-of-average and average-of-difference for two datasets for arbitrary subsets of simulation time. ParCAT is a command-line utility that can be easily integrated in scripts or embedded in other application. ParCAT supports CMIP5 post-processed datasets as well as non-CMIP5 post-processed datasets. ParCAT reads and writes standard netCDF files.

  16. Dialectical Imagery and Postmodern Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Kevin G.

    2006-01-01

    This article suggests utilizing dialectical imagery, as understood by German social philosopher Walter Benjamin, as an additional qualitative data analysis strategy for research into the postmodern condition. The use of images mined from research data may offer epistemological transformative possibilities that will assist in the demystification of…

  17. Satellite imagery and discourses of transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Chad Vincent

    In the last decade there has been a dramatic increase in satellite imagery available in the commercial marketplace and to the public in general. Satellite imagery systems and imagery archives, a knowledge domain formally monopolized by nation states, have become available to the public, both from declassified intelligence data and from fully integrated commercial vendors who create and market imagery data. Some of these firms have recently launched their own satellite imagery systems and created rather large imagery "architectures" that threaten to rival military reconnaissance systems. The increasing resolution of the imagery and the growing expertise of software and imagery interpretation developers has engendered a public discourse about the potentials for increased transparency in national and global affairs. However, transparency is an attribute of satellite remote sensing and imagery production that is taken for granted in the debate surrounding the growing public availability of high-resolution satellite imagery. This paper examines remote sensing and military photo reconnaissance imagery technology and the production of satellite imagery in the interests of contemplating the complex connections between imagery satellites, historically situated discourses about democratic and global transparency, and the formation and maintenance of nation state systems. Broader historical connections will also be explored between satellite imagery and the history of the use of cartographic and geospatial technologies in the formation and administrative control of nation states and in the discursive formulation of national identity. Attention will be on the technology itself as a powerful social actor through its connection to both national sovereignty and transcendent notions of scientific objectivity. The issues of the paper will be explored through a close look at aerial photography and satellite imagery both as communicative tools of power and as culturally relevant

  18. suPAR: The Molecular Crystal Ball

    PubMed Central

    Thunø, Maria; Macho, Betina; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    soluble urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) levels reflect inflammation and elevated suPAR levels are found in several infectious diseases and cancer. suPAR exists in three forms; suPARI-III, suPARII-III and suPARI which show different properties due to structural differences. Studies suggest that full-length suPAR is a regulator of uPAR/uPA by acting as uPA-scavenger, whereas the cleaved suPARII-III act as a chemotactic agent promoting the immune response via the SRSRY sequence in the linker-region. This review focus on the various suPAR fragments and their involvement in inflammation and pathogenic processes. We focus on the molecular mechanisms of the suPAR fragments and the link to the inflammatory process, as this could lead to medical applications in infectious and pathological conditions. PMID:19893210

  19. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C; Liu, Jian

    2015-12-22

    The segregation of DNA before cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of low-copy number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of a nonspecific DNA-binding ATPase, ParA, and its stimulator protein ParB. The ParA/ParB system drives directed and persistent movement of DNA cargo both in vivo and in vitro. Filament-based models akin to actin/microtubule-driven motility were proposed for plasmid segregation mediated by ParA. Recent experiments challenge this view and suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. Here, we develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA-nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB-bound cargo. Paradoxically, this resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work thus sheds light on an emergent phenomenon in which nonmotor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos-an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria.

  20. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C.; Liu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The segregation of DNA before cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of low-copy number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of a nonspecific DNA-binding ATPase, ParA, and its stimulator protein ParB. The ParA/ParB system drives directed and persistent movement of DNA cargo both in vivo and in vitro. Filament-based models akin to actin/microtubule-driven motility were proposed for plasmid segregation mediated by ParA. Recent experiments challenge this view and suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. Here, we develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA–nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB-bound cargo. Paradoxically, this resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work thus sheds light on an emergent phenomenon in which nonmotor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos—an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria. PMID:26647183

  1. Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) and PAR2 but not PAR4 mediate relaxations in lower esophageal sphincter.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Che

    2007-07-01

    Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), PAR2 and PAR4 activation can alter the gastrointestinal motility. To investigate effects mediated by PARs in the lower esophageal sphincter, we measured contraction or relaxation of transverse strips from the guinea-pig lower esophageal sphincter caused by PAR1 (TFLLR-NH2 and SFLLRN-NH2), PAR2 (SLIGKV-NH2 and SLIGRL-NH2) and PAR4 peptide agonists (GYPGKF-NH2, GYPGQV-NH2 and AYPGKF-NH2) as well as PAR protease activators (thrombin and trypsin). In resting lower esophageal sphincter strips, TFLLR-NH2 and SFLLRN-NH2 caused moderate concentration-dependent relaxation whereas thrombin did not cause any relaxation or contraction. Furthermore, in carbachol-contracted strips, TFLLR-NH2 and SFLLRN-NH2 caused marked whereas thrombin caused mild concentration-dependent relaxation. These indicate the existence of PAR1 mediating relaxation. Similarly, in resting lower esophageal sphincter strips, trypsin caused moderate concentration-dependent relaxation whereas SLIGRL-NH2 and SLIGKV-NH2 did not cause any relaxation or contraction. In addition, in carbachol-contracted strips, trypsin caused marked whereas SLIGRL-NH2 and SLIGKV-NH2 caused mild concentration-dependent relaxation. These indicate the existence of PAR2 mediating relaxation. The relaxant response of thrombin, TFLLR-NH2, trypsin and SLIGKV-NH2 was insensitive to atropine or tetrodotoxin, suggesting a direct effect. The relaxant response of trypsin was not affected by apamin, charybdotoxin, indomethacin and capsaicin but was attenuated by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, indicating involvement of NO. FSLLR-NH2, a PAR1 control peptide, and VKGILS-NH2, a PAR2 control peptide, as well as all three PAR4 peptide agonists, GYPGKF-NH2, GYPGQV-NH2 and AYPGKF-NH2, did not cause any relaxation or contraction. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PAR1 and PAR2 but not PAR4 mediate relaxations in the guinea-pig lower esophageal sphincter. PMID:17335921

  2. Gliome du nerf optique révélé par un strabisme divergent

    PubMed Central

    Handor, Hanan; Laghmari, Mina; Hafidi, Zouheir; Daoudi, Rajae

    2014-01-01

    Les gliomes des nerfs optiques sont des tumeurs rares qui s'observent essentiellement chez l'enfant. L'exophtalmie et le strabisme sont les principaux signes révélateurs de la maladie. La neuroimagerie et notamment l'imagerie par résonnance magnétique est d'un grand apport dans le diagnostic et le suivi de ces tumeurs. La prise en charge thérapeutique de ces gliomes fait appel à différents moyens: l'exérèse chirurgicale, la chimiothérapie, la radiothérapie ou l'abstention sous surveillance. Les indications doivent être discutées au cas par cas. PMID:25309656

  3. Resolution Enhancement of Multilook Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Galbraith, Amy E.

    2004-07-01

    This dissertation studies the feasibility of enhancing the spatial resolution of multi-look remotely-sensed imagery using an iterative resolution enhancement algorithm known as Projection Onto Convex Sets (POCS). A multi-angle satellite image modeling tool is implemented, and simulated multi-look imagery is formed to test the resolution enhancement algorithm. Experiments are done to determine the optimal con guration and number of multi-angle low-resolution images needed for a quantitative improvement in the spatial resolution of the high-resolution estimate. The important topic of aliasing is examined in the context of the POCS resolution enhancement algorithm performance. In addition, the extension of the method to multispectral sensor images is discussed and an example is shown using multispectral confocal fluorescence imaging microscope data. Finally, the remote sensing issues of atmospheric path radiance and directional reflectance variations are explored to determine their effect on the resolution enhancement performance.

  4. Bistatic SAR: Imagery & Image Products.

    SciTech Connect

    Yocky, David A.; Wahl, Daniel E.; Jakowatz, Charles V,

    2014-10-01

    While typical SAR imaging employs a co-located (monostatic) RADAR transmitter and receiver, bistatic SAR imaging separates the transmitter and receiver locations. The transmitter and receiver geometry determines if the scattered signal is back scatter, forward scatter, or side scatter. The monostatic SAR image is backscatter. Therefore, depending on the transmitter/receiver collection geometry, the captured imagery may be quite different that that sensed at the monostatic SAR. This document presents imagery and image products formed from captured signals during the validation stage of the bistatic SAR research. Image quality and image characteristics are discussed first. Then image products such as two-color multi-view (2CMV) and coherent change detection (CCD) are presented.

  5. Landsat imagery: a unique resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, H.; Sexton, N.; Koontz, L.

    2011-01-01

    Landsat satellites provide high-quality, multi-spectral imagery of the surface of the Earth. These moderate-resolution, remotely sensed images are not just pictures, but contain many layers of data collected at different points along the visible and invisible light spectrum. These data can be manipulated to reveal what the Earth’s surface looks like, including what types of vegetation are present or how a natural disaster has impacted an area (Fig. 1).

  6. Meditation, yoga, and guided imagery.

    PubMed

    Pettinati, P M

    2001-03-01

    The author presents an introduction to insight or mindfulness meditation, yoga, and guided imagery from theoretical and practical perspectives. She provides clear, easy-to-follow steps to begin using sitting meditation, walking meditation, and yoga for the health care provider and for the patient. She presents the material first for self-knowledge and self-care and secondarily for connecting to others in healing relationships.

  7. Meditation, yoga, and guided imagery.

    PubMed

    Pettinati, P M

    2001-03-01

    The author presents an introduction to insight or mindfulness meditation, yoga, and guided imagery from theoretical and practical perspectives. She provides clear, easy-to-follow steps to begin using sitting meditation, walking meditation, and yoga for the health care provider and for the patient. She presents the material first for self-knowledge and self-care and secondarily for connecting to others in healing relationships. PMID:11342401

  8. Accuracy Comparison of Vhr Systematic-Ortho Satellite Imageries against Vhr Orthorectified Imageries Using Gcp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widyaningrum, E.; Fajari, M.; Octariady, J.

    2016-06-01

    The Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite imageries such us Pleiades, WorldView-2, GeoEye-1 used for precise mapping purpose must be corrected from any distortion to achieve the expected accuracy. Orthorectification is performed to eliminate geometric errors of the VHR satellite imageries. Orthorectification requires main input data such as Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and Ground Control Point (GCP). The VHR systematic-ortho imageries were generated using SRTM 30m DEM without using any GCP data. The accuracy value differences of VHR systematic-ortho imageries and VHR orthorectified imageries using GCP currently is not exactly defined. This study aimed to identified the accuracy comparison of VHR systematic-ortho imageries against orthorectified imageries using GCP. Orthorectified imageries using GCP created by using Rigorous model. Accuracy evaluation is calculated by using several independent check points.

  9. Imagerie par modulation acoustique de conductivite electrique destinee au diagnostic du cancer du sein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gendron, Mathieu

    This thesis describes a new medical imaging technique for determining the electrical conductivity distribution of tissues in a body region with a resolution comparable to that of current ultrasound techniques. The new technique, henceforth referred to as "Acousto-Electric Conductivity Modulation" (AECM) imaging, is based on the interaction of a sound wave with an electrical field. In its simplest form, four electrodes located near the region to be imaged apply a low-amplitude electrical current and measure the potential difference arising from current flow in the tissues. A focused ultrasound transducer directs a pressure wave to a voxel of the region of interest, modifying its conductivity distribution and, as a result, the amplitude of the potential measured by the electrodes. An image of the conductivity distribution can thus be constructed point-by-point by moving the electrodes and transducer to scan the object. In this context, the acoustic wave acts as the localization agent while the electrical potential provides a measure of the local conductivity change that occurs in the voxel. The first model presented in the thesis is based on the use of bipolar acoustic waves for excitation. This waveform is generally used with narrow band transducers. Acoustic waves generated by an ultrasound transducer driven with a burst of sine waves consists of alternating compression and rarefaction phases which tend to cancel each other in terms of the conductivity changes they produce. However when the thickness of the target object is small compared to the wavelength of the acoustic wave, this cancelling effect will not occur and the AECM signals will have sufficiently high amplitude to achieve image reconstruction using successive transducer positions to scan the region of interest. By extracting from the spectra of the AECM signals the amplitude of the peak at the excitation frequency, a map of the acousto-electric sensitivity of the system can be obtained. This map is then used to reconstruct the electrical conductivity distribution. The second model presented in the thesis uses a unipolar acoustic wave to generate AECM signals of relatively large amplitude. There are two aspects related to this type of wave. The first aspect is that the acoustic modulation is unidirectional if the applied pressure is unidirectional. As a result, a positive pressure only produces an increase in electrical conductivity and this will result in a large AECM signal even when the thickness of the object is large. The second aspect concerns the shape of the acoustic field. Since the unipolar acoustic wave is not focused, it modulates the conductivity over a large area, and thus the associated AECM signals needs to be processed through a reconstruction algorithm so as to recover local conductivity. In this model, the data required for image reconstruction are acquired by rotating the transducer around the target object. An experimental setup has been developed during our project to get values of certain parameter that are required to define the numerical models. The setup comprises a large tank which is filled with water and in which are immersed the ultrasound transducer, a hydrophone and a measurement cell. The acousto-electric interaction takes place within this cell. A computer controlled positioning system allows precise displacements of the transducer relative to the hydrophone and the measurement cell. This cell comprises a cavity in which the object to be analyzed is placed and that is then filled with an electrolytic solution. The cavity is closed on two sides by an acoustic window to allow propagation of the ultrasound wave and on another side by six Ag/AgCl electrodes that are used to apply current and to measure the resulting electrical potential. Mammography is presently the most widely used medical imaging procedure for breast cancer screening. The average sensitivity of this technique is 80 % but it is less for younger women. According to recent studies, MRI offers a higher sensitivity and the possibility of detecting very small tumors, thus allowing earlier treatment. The operating costs of MRI systems are at the moment too high to consider using the modality for breast cancer screening on a large scale. AECM imaging could eventually provide an interesting compromise between operating costs and the sensitivity required for screening patients of all ages. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  10. Imagerie par modulation acoustique de conductivite electrique destinee au diagnostic du cancer du sein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gendron, Mathieu

    This thesis describes a new medical imaging technique for determining the electrical conductivity distribution of tissues in a body region with a resolution comparable to that of current ultrasound techniques. The new technique, henceforth referred to as "Acousto-Electric Conductivity Modulation" (AECM) imaging, is based on the interaction of a sound wave with an electrical field. In its simplest form, four electrodes located near the region to be imaged apply a low-amplitude electrical current and measure the potential difference arising from current flow in the tissues. A focused ultrasound transducer directs a pressure wave to a voxel of the region of interest, modifying its conductivity distribution and, as a result, the amplitude of the potential measured by the electrodes. An image of the conductivity distribution can thus be constructed point-by-point by moving the electrodes and transducer to scan the object. In this context, the acoustic wave acts as the localization agent while the electrical potential provides a measure of the local conductivity change that occurs in the voxel. The first model presented in the thesis is based on the use of bipolar acoustic waves for excitation. This waveform is generally used with narrow band transducers. Acoustic waves generated by an ultrasound transducer driven with a burst of sine waves consists of alternating compression and rarefaction phases which tend to cancel each other in terms of the conductivity changes they produce. However when the thickness of the target object is small compared to the wavelength of the acoustic wave, this cancelling effect will not occur and the AECM signals will have sufficiently high amplitude to achieve image reconstruction using successive transducer positions to scan the region of interest. By extracting from the spectra of the AECM signals the amplitude of the peak at the excitation frequency, a map of the acousto-electric sensitivity of the system can be obtained. This map is then used to reconstruct the electrical conductivity distribution. The second model presented in the thesis uses a unipolar acoustic wave to generate AECM signals of relatively large amplitude. There are two aspects related to this type of wave. The first aspect is that the acoustic modulation is unidirectional if the applied pressure is unidirectional. As a result, a positive pressure only produces an increase in electrical conductivity and this will result in a large AECM signal even when the thickness of the object is large. The second aspect concerns the shape of the acoustic field. Since the unipolar acoustic wave is not focused, it modulates the conductivity over a large area, and thus the associated AECM signals needs to be processed through a reconstruction algorithm so as to recover local conductivity. In this model, the data required for image reconstruction are acquired by rotating the transducer around the target object. An experimental setup has been developed during our project to get values of certain parameter that are required to define the numerical models. The setup comprises a large tank which is filled with water and in which are immersed the ultrasound transducer, a hydrophone and a measurement cell. The acousto-electric interaction takes place within this cell. A computer controlled positioning system allows precise displacements of the transducer relative to the hydrophone and the measurement cell. This cell comprises a cavity in which the object to be analyzed is placed and that is then filled with an electrolytic solution. The cavity is closed on two sides by an acoustic window to allow propagation of the ultrasound wave and on another side by six Ag/AgCl electrodes that are used to apply current and to measure the resulting electrical potential. Mammography is presently the most widely used medical imaging procedure for breast cancer screening. The average sensitivity of this technique is 80 % but it is less for younger women. According to recent studies, MRI offers a higher sensitivity and the possibility of detecting very smal

  11. PAR for the Course: A Congruent Pedagogical Approach for a PAR Methods Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Joyce D.; Hicks, Maria; Kalman, Rowenn; Miller, Jason

    2005-01-01

    In the past two years, three graduate students and a senior faculty member have co-taught a participatory action research (PAR) course to undergraduate and graduate students. In this article the co-teachers advocate a set of pedagogical principles and practices in a PAR-oriented classroom that establishes congruency with community PAR projects in…

  12. Advanced Image Processing of Aerial Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodell, Glenn; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Hines, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    Aerial imagery of the Earth is an invaluable tool for the assessment of ground features, especially during times of disaster. Researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center have developed techniques which have proven to be useful for such imagery. Aerial imagery from various sources, including Langley's Boeing 757 Aries aircraft, has been studied extensively. This paper discusses these studies and demonstrates that better-than-observer imagery can be obtained even when visibility is severely compromised. A real-time, multi-spectral experimental system will be described and numerous examples will be shown.

  13. The Functional Equivalence between Movement Imagery, Observation, and Execution Influences Imagery Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sarah E.; Cumming, Jennifer; Edwards, Martin G.

    2011-01-01

    Based on literature identifying movement imagery, observation, and execution to elicit similar areas of neural activity, research has demonstrated that movement imagery and observation successfully prime movement execution. To investigate whether movement and observation could prime ease of imaging from an external visual-imagery perspective, an…

  14. The Intersection of Imagery Ability, Imagery Use, and Learning Style: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolles, Gina; Chatfield, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the intersection of the individual's imagery ability, imagery use in dance training and performance, and learning style. Thirty-four intermediate-level ballet and modern dance students at the University of Oregon completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (MIQ-R) and Kolb's Learning Style Inventory-3 (LSI-3). The four…

  15. Imagerie médicale avec des sources X créées parlaser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorchies, F.; Chen, L. M.; Ichalalene, Z.; Jiang, Z.; Kieffer, J. C.; Chamberlain, C. C.; Krol, A.

    2003-06-01

    L'interaction d'une impulsion laser femtoseconde avec une cible solide peut induire une émission intense de rayonnement X dans la gamme de quelques dizaines de keV. Ce type de source présente potentiellement plusieurs avantages sur les installations X conventionnelles en termes de performances (taille de la source, ganinie de longueur d'onde accessible) et de coût. Ce papier réunit les différents résultats obtenus dans le cadre du projet d'imagerie médicale de I'INRS à Varennes, Québec, Canada. Ces travaux concernent d'une part l'étude quantitative de la source de rayons X-durs: intensité, spectre et taille de la source. D'autre part. des expériences de faisabilité ont montré la pertinence de leur application à l'imagerie médicale. notamment dans le domaine de l'imagerie à grande résolution spatiale (mammographie) et dans celui de l'imagerie par soustraction d'images A deux longueurs d'onde (angiographie cardiaque). La principale limitation de ces expériences était la puissance moyenne de la source bridée par la faible cadence de l'installation laser. Les lois d'échelle déduites des expériences présentées laissent présager la poursuite de ces travaux dans des conditions cliniques réalistes avec le développement actuel de chaîne laser de hautes cadences (100Hz 1kHz).

  16. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  17. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Daedalus TMS Imagery Digital Counts in BIL Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominguez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The level-0 Daedalus Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) imagery, along with the other remotely sensed images, was collected to provide spatially extensive information about radiant energy over the primary BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) study areas. This information includes detailed land cover and biophysical parameter maps such as fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (fPAR) and Leaf Area Index (LAI). Two flights of the Daedalus TMS instrument were made onboard the ER-2 aircraft on 16-Sep-1994 and 17-Sep-1994.

  18. Vividness of Object and Spatial Imagery.

    PubMed

    Blazhenkova, Olesya

    2016-04-01

    Vividness is one of the fundamental characteristics of visual mental imagery. The first research goal was to examine whether vividness that refer to imagery of pictorial object (color, texture, or shape) versus spatial (three dimensional structure, location, or mechanism) properties constitute separate vividness dimensions. The second goal was to develop a vividness questionnaire separately assessing dimensions of imagery vividness. In Study 1, 111 students (M age = 21.8 years, SD = 1.3) evaluated the vividness of imagery evoked by nine object and nine spatial items from the pilot version of the new Vividness of Object and Spatial Imagery (VOSI) questionnaire, completed a self-report assessment of object and spatial imagery, and rated their aptitudes in art and science. Analysis indicated that imagery vividness comprised object and spatial dimensions. Object vividness items were positively associated with the self-report measure and ratings of artistic abilities, whereas spatial vividness items were positively associated with self-report measure and ratings of science abilities. In Study 2, an independent sample of 205 students (M age = 21 years, SD = 1.7) completed the second version of the VOSI, art and science aptitude ratings, and a number of self-report and performance measures assessing object and spatial imagery. Object and spatial imagery vividness items loaded on factors with 28 retained items; this two-factor vividness model fit the data better than a unidimensional vividness model. The questionnaire had satisfactory Cronbach's α for object vividness scale (.88) and for spatial vividness scale (.85). Correlational analyses supported convergent and discriminative validity of the VOSI. While object imagery vividness and spatial imagery vividness share some underlying vividness variance, they are dissociated into separate dimensions. PMID:27166329

  19. Satellite imagery of the earth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merifield, P.M.; Cronin, J.; Foshee, L.L.; Gawarecki, S.J.; Neal, J.T.; Stevenson, R.E.; Stone, R.O.; Williams, R.S., Jr.

    1969-01-01

    Photography of the Earth from spacecraft has application to both atmospheric and Earth sciences. Gemini and Apollo photographs have furnished information on sea surface roughness, areas of potential upwelling and oceanic current systems. Regional geologic structures and geomorphologic features are also recorded in orbital photographs. Infrared satellite imagery provides meteorological and hydrological data and is potentially useful for locating fresh water springs along coastal areas, sources of geothermal power and volcanic activity. Ground and airborne surveys are being undertaken to create a basis for the interpretation of data obtained from future satellite systems.

  20. ParAB Partition Dynamics in Firmicutes: Nucleoid Bound ParA Captures and Tethers ParB-Plasmid Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Lioy, Virginia S.; Volante, Andrea; Soberón, Nora E.; Lurz, Rudi; Ayora, Silvia; Alonso, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    In Firmicutes, small homodimeric ParA-like (δ2) and ParB-like (ω2) proteins, in concert with cis-acting plasmid-borne parS and the host chromosome, secure stable plasmid inheritance in a growing bacterial population. This study shows that (ω:YFP)2 binding to parS facilitates plasmid clustering in the cytosol. (δ:GFP)2 requires ATP binding but not hydrolysis to localize onto the cell’s nucleoid as a fluorescent cloud. The interaction of (δ:CFP)2 or δ2 bound to the nucleoid with (ω:YFP)2 foci facilitates plasmid capture, from a very broad distribution, towards the nucleoid and plasmid pairing. parS-bound ω2 promotes redistribution of (δ:GFP)2, leading to the dynamic release of (δ:GFP)2 from the nucleoid, in a process favored by ATP hydrolysis and protein-protein interaction. (δD60A:GFP)2, which binds but cannot hydrolyze ATP, also forms unstable complexes on the nucleoid. In the presence of ω2, (δD60A:GFP)2 accumulates foci or patched structures on the nucleoid. We propose that (δ:GFP)2 binding to different nucleoid regions and to ω2-parS might generate (δ:GFP)2 gradients that could direct plasmid movement. The iterative pairing and unpairing cycles may tether plasmids equidistantly on the nucleoid to ensure faithful plasmid segregation by a mechanism compatible with the diffusion-ratchet mechanism as proposed from in vitro reconstituted systems. PMID:26161642

  1. Beyond visual imagery: how modality-specific is enhanced mental imagery in synesthesia?

    PubMed

    Spiller, Mary Jane; Jonas, Clare N; Simner, Julia; Jansari, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia based in visual modalities has been associated with reports of vivid visual imagery. We extend this finding to consider whether other forms of synesthesia are also associated with enhanced imagery, and whether this enhancement reflects the modality of synesthesia. We used self-report imagery measures across multiple sensory modalities, comparing synesthetes' responses (with a variety of forms of synesthesia) to those of non-synesthete matched controls. Synesthetes reported higher levels of visual, auditory, gustatory, olfactory and tactile imagery and a greater level of imagery use. Furthermore, their reported enhanced imagery is restricted to the modalities involved in the individual's synesthesia. There was also a relationship between the number of forms of synesthesia an individual has, and the reported vividness of their imagery, highlighting the need for future research to consider the impact of multiple forms of synesthesia. We also recommend the use of behavioral measures to validate these self-report findings.

  2. Beyond visual imagery: how modality-specific is enhanced mental imagery in synesthesia?

    PubMed

    Spiller, Mary Jane; Jonas, Clare N; Simner, Julia; Jansari, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia based in visual modalities has been associated with reports of vivid visual imagery. We extend this finding to consider whether other forms of synesthesia are also associated with enhanced imagery, and whether this enhancement reflects the modality of synesthesia. We used self-report imagery measures across multiple sensory modalities, comparing synesthetes' responses (with a variety of forms of synesthesia) to those of non-synesthete matched controls. Synesthetes reported higher levels of visual, auditory, gustatory, olfactory and tactile imagery and a greater level of imagery use. Furthermore, their reported enhanced imagery is restricted to the modalities involved in the individual's synesthesia. There was also a relationship between the number of forms of synesthesia an individual has, and the reported vividness of their imagery, highlighting the need for future research to consider the impact of multiple forms of synesthesia. We also recommend the use of behavioral measures to validate these self-report findings. PMID:25460242

  3. Alcohol imagery on New Zealand television

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Rob; Ketchel, Juanita; Reeder, Anthony I

    2007-01-01

    Background To examine the extent and nature of alcohol imagery on New Zealand (NZ) television, a content analysis of 98 hours of prime-time television programs and advertising was carried out over 7 consecutive days' viewing in June/July 2004. The main outcome measures were number of scenes in programs, trailers and advertisements depicting alcohol imagery; the extent of critical versus neutral and promotional imagery; and the mean number of scenes with alcohol per hour, and characteristics of scenes in which alcohol featured. Results There were 648 separate depictions of alcohol imagery across the week, with an average of one scene every nine minutes. Scenes depicting uncritical imagery outnumbered scenes showing possible adverse health consequences of drinking by 12 to 1. Conclusion The evidence points to a large amount of alcohol imagery incidental to storylines in programming on NZ television. Alcohol is also used in many advertisements to market non-alcohol goods and services. More attention needs to be paid to the extent of alcohol imagery on television from the industry, the government and public health practitioners. Health education with young people could raise critical awareness of the way alcohol imagery is presented on television. PMID:17270053

  4. Using Mental Imagery to Enhance Athletic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenitzer, Raymond F.; Briddell, W. Bryan

    1991-01-01

    Four steps help coaches implement a mental imagery program to improve their athletes' performance and emotional control: evaluate athletes' imaging ability; provide an imaging warm-up; integrate the senses; and use goal achievement strategies. The article notes that imagery skills must be maintained and practiced consistently. (SM)

  5. Mental Imagery in Creative Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polland, Mark J.

    In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…

  6. Coaches' Encouragement of Athletes' Imagery Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jedlic, Brie; Hall, Nathan; Munroe-Chandler, Krista; Hall, Craig

    2007-01-01

    To investigate whether coaches encourage their athletes to use imagery, two studies were undertaken. In the first, 317 athletes completed the Coaches' Encouragement of Athletes' Imagery Use Questionnaire. In the second, 215 coaches completed a slightly modified version of this questionnaire. It was found that coaches and athletes generally agreed…

  7. Spatial Grouping, Imagery, and Free Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Wayne H.; Wheatley, Paula C.

    1982-01-01

    One hundred undergraduates learned lists of high- or low-imagery nouns in one column (ungrouped) or in three columns (grouped). Grouped-list recall was significantly greater than ungrouped on the third and fourth trials. Spatial grouping seems to provide important cues which are independent of the words learned or imagery level. (Author/CM)

  8. Mental Imagery and Visual Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Keogh, Rebecca; Pearson, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Visual working memory provides an essential link between past and future events. Despite recent efforts, capacity limits, their genesis and the underlying neural structures of visual working memory remain unclear. Here we show that performance in visual working memory - but not iconic visual memory - can be predicted by the strength of mental imagery as assessed with binocular rivalry in a given individual. In addition, for individuals with strong imagery, modulating the background luminance diminished performance on visual working memory and imagery tasks, but not working memory for number strings. This suggests that luminance signals were disrupting sensory-based imagery mechanisms and not a general working memory system. Individuals with poor imagery still performed above chance in the visual working memory task, but their performance was not affected by the background luminance, suggesting a dichotomy in strategies for visual working memory: individuals with strong mental imagery rely on sensory-based imagery to support mnemonic performance, while those with poor imagery rely on different strategies. These findings could help reconcile current controversy regarding the mechanism and location of visual mnemonic storage. PMID:22195024

  9. Mental imagery and visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Rebecca; Pearson, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Visual working memory provides an essential link between past and future events. Despite recent efforts, capacity limits, their genesis and the underlying neural structures of visual working memory remain unclear. Here we show that performance in visual working memory--but not iconic visual memory--can be predicted by the strength of mental imagery as assessed with binocular rivalry in a given individual. In addition, for individuals with strong imagery, modulating the background luminance diminished performance on visual working memory and imagery tasks, but not working memory for number strings. This suggests that luminance signals were disrupting sensory-based imagery mechanisms and not a general working memory system. Individuals with poor imagery still performed above chance in the visual working memory task, but their performance was not affected by the background luminance, suggesting a dichotomy in strategies for visual working memory: individuals with strong mental imagery rely on sensory-based imagery to support mnemonic performance, while those with poor imagery rely on different strategies. These findings could help reconcile current controversy regarding the mechanism and location of visual mnemonic storage.

  10. Imagery, Music, Cognitive Style and Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Valerie N.; Zalanowski, Annette

    Paired associate memory was tested with imagery and repetition instructions, with and without background music. Subjects were 64 students enrolled in an introductory psychology course. Music was found to have no effect with imagery instructions, but significantly improved performance with the repetition instructions. Music had different effects on…

  11. Afar and ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohr, P. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The excellent ERTS-1 imagery of the Afar region of Ethiopia permits a preliminary revision to the analysis of the structures of this triple-rift junction, and also revisions to the outcrops of some lithological formations. The fault-belts of the Afar floor can now be mapped in fine detail. The Danakil horst is identified to be limited on its western side against Afar by a major fault-line, and it seems unlikely that the horst is the exposed, easterly portion of a west-dipping sialic block underlying all northern Afar. The Salt Plain appears to be a true graben. The Ethiopian plateau-Afar margin consists of a series of right-offset sectors, the offsets being marked by silicic volcanic centers. The nature of these offsets is related to the vexed question of cross-rift faulting. Such faulting is identifiable on the ERTS-1 imagery, both on the Afar floor, and in the monoclinally warped western margin. The significance of this faulting, though subordinate to the tensional faults of the fault-belts, awaits elucidation.

  12. Mental Imagery: Functional Mechanisms and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Joel; Naselaris, Thomas; Holmes, Emily A.; Kosslyn, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Mental imagery research has weathered both disbelief of the phenomenon and inherent methodological limitations. Here we review recent behavioral, brain imaging, and clinical research that has reshaped our understanding of mental imagery. Research supports the claim that visual mental imagery is a depictive internal representation that functions like a weak form of perception. Brain imaging work has demonstrated that neural representations of mental and perceptual images resemble one another as early as the primary visual cortex (V1). Activity patterns in V1 encode mental images and perceptual images via a common set of low-level depictive visual features. Recent translational and clinical research reveals the pivotal role that imagery plays in many mental disorders and suggests how clinicians can utilize imagery in treatment. PMID:26412097

  13. Imagining predictions: mental imagery as mental emulation

    PubMed Central

    Moulton, Samuel T.; Kosslyn, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    We argue that the primary function of mental imagery is to allow us to generate specific predictions based upon past experience. All imagery allows us to answer ‘what if’ questions by making explicit and accessible the likely consequences of being in a specific situation or performing a specific action. Imagery is also characterized by its reliance on perceptual representations and activation of perceptual brain systems. We use this conception of imagery to argue that all imagery is simulation—more specifically, it is a specific type of simulation in which the mental processes that ‘run’ the simulation emulate those that would actually operate in the simulated scenario. This type of simulation, which we label emulation, has benefits over other types of simulations that merely mimic the content of the simulated scenario. PMID:19528008

  14. Does motor imagery enhance stretching and flexibility?

    PubMed

    Guillot, Aymeric; Tolleron, Coralie; Collet, Christian

    2010-02-01

    Although several studies have demonstrated that motor imagery can enhance learning processes and improve motor performance, little is known about its effect on stretching and flexibility. The increased active and passive range of motion reported in preliminary research has not been shown to be elicited by motor imagery training alone. We thus compared flexibility scores in 21 synchronized swimmers before and after a 5-week mental practice programme that included five stretching exercises in active and passive conditions. The imagery training programme resulted in selective increased flexibility, independently of the stretching method. Overall, the improvement in flexibility was greater in the imagery group than in the control group for the front split (F(1,18) = 4.9, P = 0.04), the hamstrings (F(1,18) = 5.2, P = 0.035), and the ankle stretching exercises (F(1,18) = 5.6, P = 0.03). There was no difference in shoulders and side-split flexibility (F(1,18) = 0.1, P = 0.73 and F(1,18) = 3.3, P = 0.08 respectively). Finally, there was no correlation between individual imagery ability and improvement in flexibility. Psychological and physiological effects of motor imagery could explain the increase in range of motion, suggesting that imagery enhances joint flexibility during both active and passive stretching.

  15. Binary coding for hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Chang, Chein-I.; Chang, Chein-Chi; Lin, Chinsu

    2004-10-01

    Binary coding is one of simplest ways to characterize spectral features. One commonly used method is a binary coding-based image software system, called Spectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) for remotely sensed imagery developed by Mazer et al. For a given spectral signature, the SPAM calculates its spectral mean and inter-band spectral difference and uses them as thresholds to generate a binary code word for this particular spectral signature. Such coding scheme is generally effective and also very simple to implement. This paper revisits the SPAM and further develops three new SPAM-based binary coding methods, called equal probability partition (EPP) binary coding, halfway partition (HP) binary coding and median partition (MP) binary coding. These three binary coding methods along with the SPAM well be evaluated for spectral discrimination and identification. In doing so, a new criterion, called a posteriori discrimination probability (APDP) is also introduced for performance measure.

  16. Comparative cactus architecture and par interception

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, G.N.; Nobel, P.S. )

    1987-07-01

    Because CO{sup 2} uptake by cacti can be limited by low levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and because plant form affects PAR interception, various cactus forms were studied using a computer model, field measurements, and laboratory phototropic studies. Model predictions indicated that CO{sub 2} uptake by individual stems at an equinox was greatest when the stem were vertical, but at the summer and the winter solstice CO{sub 2} uptake was greatest for stems titled 30{degree} away from the equator. Stem tilting depended on form and taxonomic group. Not only can the shape of cacti be affected by PAR, but also shape influences PAR interception and hence CO{sub 2} uptake.

  17. Effect of modeling on sexual imagery.

    PubMed

    Sachs, D H; Duffy, K G

    1976-07-01

    Social learning theory was used to examine the effects of a model's sexual imagery on the observer's sexual imagery. In the guise of a creative writing experiment, male and female college students were asked to listen to a tape recording of a same- or opposite-sex model relating a story in response to a sample TAT card. The story described a man and a woman in a physical sex encounter (high sex), a romantic date (medium sex), or a casual study date (low sex). The sample TAT picture and model's story were omitted in the control groups. All subjects wrote stories in response to two other TAT cards. These stories were scored for sexual imagery by a male and a female judge who were blind to experimental conditions and who used a standard sexual imagery scoring manual. The following prediction were based on social learning theory: There would be greater sexual imagery in the stories of subjects who heard the high sex model than in the stories of those who heard the medium or low sex model or no model. Past research implied the prediction that the modeling effects would be greater for males than for females in the high sex model condition and greater for females than for males in the medium sex model condition. The results were analyzed using two factorial analyses of variance. There was greater sexual imagery by subjects who heard the high sex model than by those who heard the low sex model or model. The sexual imagery by subjects who heard the medium sex model was intermediate between that by those who heard the high sex model and that by those who heard the low sex model. The modeling effect was greater in males. The results also confirmed the prediction that sexual imagery would be greater for males in the high sex model condition but did not confirm the prediction that sexual imagery would be greater for females in the medium sex model condition.

  18. The Sport Imagery Questionnaire for Children (SIQ-C)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, C. R.; Munroe-Chandler, K. J.; Fishburne, G. J.; Hall, N. D.

    2009-01-01

    Athletes of all ages report using imagery extensively to enhance their sport performance. The Sport Imagery Questionnaire (Hall, Mack, Paivio, & Hausenblas, 1998) was developed to assess cognitive and motivational imagery used by adult athletes. No such instrument currently exists to measure the use of imagery by young athletes. The aim of the…

  19. Digital rectification of ERTS multispectral imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rifman, S. S.

    1973-01-01

    Rectified ERTS multispectral imagery have been produced utilizing all digital techniques, as the first step toward producing precision corrected imagery. Errors arising from attitude and ephemeris sources have been corrected, and the resultant image is represented in a meter/meter mapping utilizing an intensity resampling technique. Early results from available data indicate negligible degradation of the photometric and resolution properties of the source data as a consequence of the geometric correction process. Work utilizing ground control points to produce precision rectified imagery, and including photometric corrections resulting from available sensor calibration data, is currently in progress.

  20. Proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR(1)) and PAR(2) but not PAR(4) mediate contraction in human and guinea-pig gallbladders.

    PubMed

    Lee, M-C; Huang, S-C

    2008-04-01

    Proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR(1)) and PAR(2) mediate contraction in the guinea-pig gallbladder. To investigate and compare the effects mediated by PARs in the human gallbladder with those in the guinea-pig gallbladder, we measured contractions of isolated human and guinea-pig gallbladder strips caused by PAR agonists. Results in human were similar to those in guinea-pig gallbladder. The PAR(1) agonists, thrombin, TFLLR-NH2 and SFLLRN-NH2, as well as the PAR(2) agonists, trypsin, SLIGKV-NH2 and SLIGRL-NH2, caused contraction in both human and guinea-pig gallbladders. These indicate the existence of PAR(1) and PAR(2) mediating gallbladder contraction. Furthermore, the existence of PAR(1) and PAR(2) in the human gallbladder was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In contrast, FSLLR-NH2, a PAR(1) control peptide, and VKGILS-NH2, a PAR(2) control peptide, as well as three PAR(4) agonists, GYPGKF-NH2, GYPGQV-NH2 and AYPGKF-NH2, did not cause any contraction or relaxation. The contractile responses to TFLLR-NH2, SFLLRN-NH2 and trypsin in both human and guinea-pig gallbladders were insensitive to atropine and tetrodotoxin, suggesting direct effects. These results demonstrate that, similar to the guinea-pig gallbladder, both PAR(1) and PAR(2) but not PAR(4) mediate muscle contraction in the human gallbladder. PAR(1) and PAR(2) may play important roles in the control of both human and guinea-pig gallbladder motility. PMID:18179608

  1. Proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) and PAR2 mediate relaxation of guinea pig internal anal sphincter.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Che

    2014-02-10

    Activation of proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) and PAR2 stimulates contraction of the rat but relaxation of the guinea pig colon. The aim of the present study was to investigate PAR effects on internal anal sphincter (IAS) motility. We measured relaxation of isolated muscle strips from the guinea pig IAS caused by PAR agonists using isometric transducers. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to determine the existence of PAR. In the IAS, thrombin and PAR1 peptide agonists TFLLR-NH2 and SFLLRN-NH2 evoked moderate to marked relaxation in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, trypsin and PAR2 peptide agonists 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2, SLIGRL-NH2 and SLIGKV-NH2 produced relaxation. In contrast, both PAR1 and PAR2 inactive control peptides did not elicit relaxation. Furthermore, the selective PAR1 antagonist vorapaxar and PAR2 antagonist GB 83 specifically inhibited thrombin and trypsin-induced relaxations, respectively. RT-PCR revealed the presence of PAR1 and PAR2 in the IAS. This indicates that PAR1 and PAR2 mediate the IAS relaxation. The relaxant responses of TFLLR-NH2 and trypsin were attenuated by N(omega)-Nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), indicating involvement of NO. These responses were not affected by tetrodotoxin, implying that the PAR effects are not neurally mediated. On the other hand, PAR4 agonists GYPGKF-NH2, GYPGQV-NH2 and AYPGKF-NH2 did not cause relaxation or contraction, suggesting that PAR4 is not involved in the sphincter motility. Taken together, these results demonstrate that both PAR1 and PAR2 mediate relaxation of the guinea pig IAS through the NO pathway. PAR1 and PAR2 may regulate IAS tone and might be potential therapeutic targets for anal motility disorders. PMID:24631471

  2. The functional alterations associated with motor imagery training: a comparison between motor execution and motor imagery of sequential finger tapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hang; Yao, Li; Long, Zhiying

    2011-03-01

    Motor imagery training, as an effective strategy, has been more and more applied to mental disorders rehabilitation and motor skill learning. Studies on the neural mechanism underlying motor imagery have suggested that such effectiveness may be related to the functional congruence between motor execution and motor imagery. However, as compared to the studies on motor imagery, the studies on motor imagery training are much fewer. The functional alterations associated with motor imagery training and the effectiveness of motor imagery training on motor performance improvement still needs further investigation. Using fMRI, we employed a sequential finger tapping paradigm to explore the functional alterations associated with motor imagery training in both motor execution and motor imagery task. We hypothesized through 14 consecutive days motor imagery training, the motor performance could be improved and the functional congruence between motor execution and motor imagery would be sustained form pre-training phase to post-training phase. Our results confirmed the effectiveness of motor imagery training in improving motor performance and demonstrated in both pre and post-training phases, motor imagery and motor execution consistently sustained the congruence in functional neuroanatomy, including SMA (supplementary motor cortex), PMA (premotor area); M1( primary motor cortex) and cerebellum. Moreover, for both execution and imagery tasks, a similar functional alteration was observed in fusiform through motor imagery training. These findings provided an insight into the effectiveness of motor imagery training and suggested its potential therapeutic value in motor rehabilitation.

  3. Technical parameters for specifying imagery requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coan, Paul P.; Dunnette, Sheri J.

    1994-01-01

    Providing visual information acquired from remote events to various operators, researchers, and practitioners has become progressively more important as the application of special skills in alien or hazardous situations increases. To provide an understanding of the technical parameters required to specify imagery, we have identified, defined, and discussed seven salient characteristics of images: spatial resolution, linearity, luminance resolution, spectral discrimination, temporal discrimination, edge definition, and signal-to-noise ratio. We then describe a generalizing imaging system and identified how various parts of the system affect the image data. To emphasize the different applications of imagery, we have constrasted the common television system with the significant parameters of a televisual imaging system for technical applications. Finally, we have established a method by which the required visual information can be specified by describing certain technical parameters which are directly related to the information content of the imagery. This method requires the user to complete a form listing all pertinent data requirements for the imagery.

  4. Techniques for measuring intercepted and absorbed PAR in corn canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallo, K. P.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1984-01-01

    The quantity of radiation potentially available for photosynthesis that is captured by the crop is best described as absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Absorbed PAR (APAR) is the difference between descending and ascending fluxes. The four components of APAR were measured above and within two planting densities of corn (Zea mays L.) and several methods of measuring and estimating APAR were examined. A line quantum sensor that spatially averages the photosynthetic photon flux density provided a rapid and portable method of measuring APAR. PAR reflectance from the soil (Typic Argiaquoll) surface decreased from 10% to less than 1% of the incoming PAR as the canopy cover increased. PAR reflectance from the canopy decreased to less than 3% at maximum vegetative cover. Intercepted PAR (1 - transmitted PAR) generally overestimated absorbed PAR by less than 4% throughout most of the growing season. Thus intercepted PAR appears to be a reasonable estimate of absorbed PAR.

  5. Possibilistic context identification for SAS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xiaoxiao; Zare, Alina; Cobb, J. T.

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a possibilistic context identification approach for synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) imagery. SAS seabed imagery can display a variety of textures that can be used to identify seabed types such as sea grass, sand ripple and hard-packed sand, etc. Target objects in SAS imagery often have varying characteristics and features due to changing environmental context. Therefore, methods that can identify the seabed environment can be used to assist in target classification and detection in an environmentally adaptive or context-dependent approach. In this paper, a possibilistic context identification approach is used to identify the seabed contexts. Alternative methods, such as crisp, fuzzy or probabilistic methods, would force one type of context on every sample in the imagery, ignoring the possibility that the test imagery may include an environmental context that has not yet appeared in the training process. The proposed possibilistic approach has an advantage in that it can both identify known contexts as well as identify when an unknown context has been encountered. Experiments are conducted on a collection of SAS imagery that display a variety of environmental features.

  6. NASA's Global Imagery Management System: TIE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarcon, C.; Roberts, J. T.; Huang, T.; Thompson, C. K.; Cechini, M. F.; Hall, J. R.; Murphy, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)' Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) is a system that provides full resolution imagery from a broad set of Earth science disciplines to the public. Using well-accepted standard protocols such as the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Tile Service (WMTS), GIBS delivers global imagery efficiently and responsively. Behind this service, lies The Imagery Exchange (TIE), a workflow data management solution developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. TIE is an Open Archival Information System responsible for orchestrating the workflow for acquisition, preparation, generation, and archiving of imagery to be served by the GIBS' web mapping tile service, OnEarth. The workflow collects imagery provenance throughout a product's lifecycle by leveraging the EOS Clearing House (ECHO) and other long-term metadata repositories in order to promote reproducibility. Through this focus on metadata, TIE provides spatial and temporal searching capabilities such as an OpenSearch interface as well as facilitating the generation of metadata standards such as the OGC GetCapabilities. Designed as a scalable system, TIE's subsystems can scale-up or scale-down depending on the data volume it handles through the usage of popular open source technologies such as Apache Zookeeper and Grails. This presentation will cover the challenges and solutions to developing such a horizontally scalable data management system where science products are often varied with disparate provenance pertaining to source platforms and instruments, spatial resolutions, processing algorithms, metadata models and packaging specifications.

  7. Analysis by gender and Visual Imagery Reactivity of conventional and imagery Rorschach.

    PubMed

    Yanovski, A; Menduke, H; Albertson, M G

    1995-06-01

    Examined here are the effects of gender and Visual Imagery Reactivity in 80 consecutively selected psychiatric outpatients. The participants were grouped by gender and by the amounts of responsiveness to preceding therapy work using imagery (Imagery Nonreactors and Reactors). In the group of Imagery Nonreactors were 13 men and 22 women, and in the Reactor group were 17 men and 28 women. Compared were the responses to standard Rorschach (Conventional condition) with visual associations to memory images of Rorschach inkblots (Imagery condition). Responses were scored using the Visual Imagery Reactivity (VIR) scoring system, a general, test-nonspecific scoring method. Nonparametric statistical analysis showed that critical indicators of Imagery Reactivity encoded as High Affect/Conflict score and its derivatives associated with sexual or bizarre content were not significantly associated with gender; neither was Neutral Content score which categorizes "non-Reactivity." These results support the notion that system's criteria of Visual Imagery Reactivity can be applied equally to both men and women for the classification of Imagery Reactors and Nonreactors. Discussed are also the speculative consequences of extending the tolerance range of significance levels for the interaction between Reactivity and sex above the customary limit of p < .05 in borderline cases. The results of such an analysis may imply a trend towards more rigid defensiveness under Imagery and toward lesser verbal productivity in response to either the Conventional or the Imagery task among women who are Nonreactors. In Reactors, men produced significantly more Sexual Reference scores (in the subcategory not associated with High Affect/Conflict) than women, but this could be attributed to the effect of tester's and subjects' gender combined.

  8. Histopathology reconstruction on digital imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjing; Lieberman, Rich W.; Nie, Sixiang; Xie, Yihua; Eldred, Michael; Oyama, Jody

    2009-02-01

    Diagnosing cervical cancer in a woman is a multi-step procedure involving examination of the cervix, possible biopsy and follow-up. It is open to subjective interpretation and highly dependent upon the skills of cytologists, colposcopists, and pathologists. In an effort to reduce the subjectiveness of the colposcopist-directed biopsy and to improve the diagnostic accuracy of colposcopy, we have developed new colposcopic imaging systems with accompanying computer aided diagnostic (CAD) techniques to guide a colposcopist in deciding if and where to biopsy. If the biopsy's histopathology, the identification of the disease state at the cellular and near-cellular level, is to be used as the gold standard for CAD, then the location of the histopathologic analysis must match exactly to the location of the biopsy tissue in the digital image. Otherwise, no matter how perfect the histopathology and the quality of the digital imagery, the two data sets cannot be matched and the true sensitivity and specificity of the CAD cannot be ascertained. We report here on new approaches to preserving, continuously, the location and orientation of a biopsy sample with respect to its location in the digital image of the cervix so as to preserve the exact spatial relationship throughout the mechanical aspects of the histopathologic analysis. This new approach will allow CAD to produce a linear diagnosis and pinpoint the location of the tissue under examination.

  9. Cognitive aesthetics of alchemical imagery.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Angela M

    2013-02-01

    Jung's contribution to the understanding of the relevance of psychology to alchemy has become increasingly invalidated by the ahistorical nature of his approach, just as his tendency to ignore the importance of cognitive aesthetics for an improved comprehension of the functions of alchemical images has prevented Jungians from further extending Jung's insight of the importance of alchemy for psychology. This paper explores the history of the development of alchemical illustrations in Western Europe from the 14(th) to the 16(th) century, tracing the emergent processes over time. It is only when we take into consideration the historical dimension and the aesthetics of alchemical imagery that it becomes possible to demonstrate how the increasing use of certain aesthetic techniques such as the disjunction and recombination of separate metaphorical elements of previous illustrations, the use of compressive combinations and the use of framing devices worked to gradually increase the cognitive function and the symbolical power of the images. If alchemy is still relevant to psychotherapy it is exactly because it helps us to understand the importance of cognitive aesthetics in our approach to the images, metaphors and narratives of our patients.

  10. Cognitive aesthetics of alchemical imagery.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Angela M

    2013-02-01

    Jung's contribution to the understanding of the relevance of psychology to alchemy has become increasingly invalidated by the ahistorical nature of his approach, just as his tendency to ignore the importance of cognitive aesthetics for an improved comprehension of the functions of alchemical images has prevented Jungians from further extending Jung's insight of the importance of alchemy for psychology. This paper explores the history of the development of alchemical illustrations in Western Europe from the 14(th) to the 16(th) century, tracing the emergent processes over time. It is only when we take into consideration the historical dimension and the aesthetics of alchemical imagery that it becomes possible to demonstrate how the increasing use of certain aesthetic techniques such as the disjunction and recombination of separate metaphorical elements of previous illustrations, the use of compressive combinations and the use of framing devices worked to gradually increase the cognitive function and the symbolical power of the images. If alchemy is still relevant to psychotherapy it is exactly because it helps us to understand the importance of cognitive aesthetics in our approach to the images, metaphors and narratives of our patients. PMID:23350996

  11. Visualizing Airborne and Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bierwirth, Victoria A.

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing is a process able to provide information about Earth to better understand Earth's processes and assist in monitoring Earth's resources. The Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) is one remote sensing instrument dedicated to the cause of collecting data on anthropogenic influences on Earth as well as assisting scientists in understanding land-surface and atmospheric interactions. Landsat is a satellite program dedicated to collecting repetitive coverage of the continental Earth surfaces in seven regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Combining these two aircraft and satellite remote sensing instruments will provide a detailed and comprehensive data collection able to provide influential information and improve predictions of changes in the future. This project acquired, interpreted, and created composite images from satellite data acquired from Landsat 4-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+). Landsat images were processed for areas covered by CAR during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCT AS), Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC), Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEXB), and Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI) 2000 missions. The acquisition of Landsat data will provide supplemental information to assist in visualizing and interpreting airborne and satellite imagery.

  12. Pseudocolor transformation of ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, J. V.; Merifield, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    One of the photographic techniques which shows great promise as an aid in interpreting ERTS imagery is pseudocolor transformation. It is a process where each shade of gray in an original black-and-white image is seen as a different color in the transformation. The well known ERTS-1 MSS image of the Monterey Bay-San Francisco area was transformed using a technique which requires only two intermediate separations. Possible faults were delineated on an overlay of the transformation before referring to geologic maps. The results were quite remarkable in that all large active or recently active faults shown on the latest geologic map of California were interpreted from the image for all, or much, of their length. Perhaps the most interesting result was the Reliz fault. The fault is shown as covered; however, a lineation corresponding to the position of the fault is visible on the image. The usefulness of ERTS image in identifying recently active faults is demonstrable. Although the faults are also visible in the unenhanced image, they are clearly accentuated and more easily mapped on the pseudocolor transformation.

  13. Building detection in SAR imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Steinbach, Ryan Matthew

    2015-04-01

    Current techniques for building detection in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery can be computationally expensive and/or enforce stringent requirements for data acquisition. I present two techniques that are effective and efficient at determining an approximate building location. This approximate location can be used to extract a portion of the SAR image to then perform a more robust detection. The proposed techniques assume that for the desired image, bright lines and shadows, SAR artifact effects, are approximately labeled. These labels are enhanced and utilized to locate buildings, only if the related bright lines and shadows can be grouped. In order to find which of the bright lines and shadows are related, all of the bright lines are connected to all of the shadows. This allows the problem to be solved from a connected graph viewpoint, where the nodes are the bright lines and shadows and the arcs are the connections between bright lines and shadows. For the first technique, constraints based on angle of depression and the relationship between connected bright lines and shadows are applied to remove unrelated arcs. The second technique calculates weights for the connections and then performs a series of increasingly relaxed hard and soft thresholds. This results in groups of various levels on their validity. Once the related bright lines and shadows are grouped, their locations are combined to provide an approximate building location. Experimental results demonstrate the outcome of the two techniques. The two techniques are compared and discussed.

  14. PAR polarity: from complexity to design principles.

    PubMed

    Goehring, Nathan W

    2014-11-01

    The par-titioning-defective or PAR proteins comprise the core of an essential cell polarity network that underlies polarization in a wide variety of cell types and developmental contexts. The output of this network in nearly every case is the establishment of opposing and complementary membrane domains that define a cell׳s polarity axis. Yet, behind this simple pattern is a complex system of interactions, regulation and dynamic behaviors. How these various parts combine to generate polarized patterns of protein localization in cells is only beginning to become clear. This review, part of the Special Issue on Cell Polarity, aims to highlight several emerging themes and design principles that underlie the process of cell polarization by components of the PAR network. PMID:25128809

  15. Humanizing the Protease-Activated Receptor (PAR) Expression Profile in Mouse Platelets by Knocking PAR1 into the Par3 Locus Reveals PAR1 Expression Is Not Tolerated in Mouse Platelets

    PubMed Central

    French, Shauna L.; Paramitha, Antonia C.; Moon, Mitchell J.; Dickins, Ross A.; Hamilton, Justin R.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-platelet drugs are the mainstay of pharmacotherapy for heart attack and stroke prevention, yet improvements are continually sought. Thrombin is the most potent activator of platelets and targeting platelet thrombin receptors (protease-activated receptors; PARs) is an emerging anti-thrombotic approach. Humans express two PARs on their platelets–PAR1 and PAR4. The first PAR1 antagonist was recently approved for clinical use and PAR4 antagonists are in early clinical development. However, pre-clinical studies examining platelet PAR function are challenging because the platelets of non-primates do not accurately reflect the PAR expression profile of human platelets. Mice, for example, express Par3 and Par4. To address this limitation, we aimed to develop a genetically modified mouse that would express the same repertoire of platelet PARs as humans. Here, human PAR1 preceded by a lox-stop-lox was knocked into the mouse Par3 locus, and then expressed in a platelet-specific manner (hPAR1-KI mice). Despite correct targeting and the predicted loss of Par3 expression and function in platelets from hPAR1-KI mice, no PAR1 expression or function was detected. Specifically, PAR1 was not detected on the platelet surface nor internally by flow cytometry nor in whole cell lysates by Western blot, while a PAR1-activating peptide failed to induce platelet activation assessed by either aggregation or surface P-selectin expression. Platelets from hPAR1-KI mice did display significantly diminished responsiveness to thrombin stimulation in both assays, consistent with a Par3-/- phenotype. In contrast to the observations in hPAR1-KI mouse platelets, the PAR1 construct used here was successfully expressed in HEK293T cells. Together, these data suggest ectopic PAR1 expression is not tolerated in mouse platelets and indicate a different approach is required to develop a small animal model for the purpose of any future preclinical testing of PAR antagonists as anti-platelet drugs. PMID

  16. Skylab imagery: Application to reservoir management in New England

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, S.; Anderson, D. (Principal Investigator); Mckim, H. L.; Gatto, L. W.; Merry, C. J.; Haugen, R. K.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. S190B imagery is superior to the LANDSAT imagery for land use mapping and is as useful for level 1 and 2 land use mapping as the RB-57/RC8 high altitude imagery. Detailed land use mapping at levels 3 and finer from satellite imagery requires better resolution. For evaluating factors that are required to determine volume runoff potentials in a watershed, the S190B imagery was found to be as useful as the RB-57/RC8 high altitude aircraft imagery.

  17. Developpement d'algorithmes de reconstruction statistique appliques en tomographie rayons-X assistee par ordinateur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibaudeau, Christian

    de geometrie d'acquisition. Le present memoire se consacre a l'etude de ces algorithmes statistiques en imagerie TDM et a leur implantation logicielle. Le prototype d'imageur TEP/TDM base sur la technologie LabPET(TM) de l'Universite de Sherbrooke possede tous les pre-requis pour beneficier de ces nombreux avantages. Mot-cles : tomodensitometrie (TDM), reconstruction statistique, reconstruction iterative, scanner, rayons-z, tomographie d'emission par positrons (TEP), TEP/TDM

  18. Efficient detection in hyperspectral imagery.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, S M; Moura, J F

    2001-01-01

    Hyperspectral sensors collect hundreds of narrow and contiguously spaced spectral bands of data. Such sensors provide fully registered high resolution spatial and spectral images that are invaluable in discriminating between man-made objects and natural clutter backgrounds. The price paid for this high resolution data is extremely large data sets, several hundred of Mbytes for a single scene, that make storage and transmission difficult, thus requiring fast onboard processing techniques to reduce the data being transmitted. Attempts to apply traditional maximum likelihood detection techniques for in-flight processing of these massive amounts of hyperspectral data suffer from two limitations: first, they neglect the spatial correlation of the clutter by treating it as spatially white noise; second, their computational cost renders them prohibitive without significant data reduction like by grouping the spectral bands into clusters, with a consequent loss of spectral resolution. This paper presents a maximum likelihood detector that successfully confronts both problems: rather than ignoring the spatial and spectral correlations, our detector exploits them to its advantage; and it is computationally expedient, its complexity increasing only linearly with the number of spectral bands available. Our approach is based on a Gauss-Markov random field (GMRF) modeling of the clutter, which has the advantage of providing a direct parameterization of the inverse of the clutter covariance, the quantity of interest in the test statistic. We discuss in detail two alternative GMRF detectors: one based on a binary hypothesis approach, and the other on a "single" hypothesis formulation. We analyze extensively with real hyperspectral imagery data (HYDICE and SEBASS) the performance of the detectors, comparing them to a benchmark detector, the RX-algorithm. Our results show that the GMRF "single" hypothesis detector outperforms significantly in computational cost the RX

  19. Kinesthetic motor imagery modulates intermuscular coherence

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, Cara E.; Oyunerdene, Nominerdene; Matsuoka, Yoky

    2012-01-01

    Intermuscular coherence can identify oscillatory coupling between two electromyographic (EMG) signals, measuring common presynaptic drive to motor neurons. Beta band oscillations (15–30 Hz) are hypothesized to originate largely from primary motor cortex, and are reduced during dynamic relative to static motor tasks. It has yet to be established whether motor imagery modulates beta intermuscular coherence. Using visual feedback, 10 unimpaired participants completed eighteen trials of pinching their right thumb and index finger at a constant force. During the 60-second trials, participants simultaneously engaged in one of three types of kinesthetic imagery: the right thumb and index finger executing a constant force pinch (static), the fingers of the right hand sequentially flexing and extending (dynamic), and the right foot pushing down with constant force (foot). Motor imagery of a dynamic motor task resulted in significantly lower intermuscular beta coherence than imagery of a static motor pinch task, without any difference in task performance or root-mean-square EMG. Thus, motor imagery affects intermuscular coherence in the beta band, even while measures of task performance remain constant. This finding provides insight for incorporation of beta band intermuscular coherence in future motor rehabilitation schemes and brain computer interface design. PMID:21984522

  20. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation

    PubMed Central

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces. To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins. PMID:27248800

  1. Developpement de techniques de diagnostic non intrusif par tomographie optique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubot, Fabien

    Que ce soit dans les domaines des procedes industriels ou de l'imagerie medicale, on a assiste ces deux dernieres decennies a un developpement croissant des techniques optiques de diagnostic. L'engouement pour ces methodes repose principalement sur le fait qu'elles sont totalement non invasives, qu'elle utilisent des sources de rayonnement non nocives pour l'homme et l'environnement et qu'elles sont relativement peu couteuses et faciles a mettre en oeuvre comparees aux autres techniques d'imagerie. Une de ces techniques est la Tomographie Optique Diffuse (TOD). Cette methode d'imagerie tridimensionnelle consiste a caracteriser les proprietes radiatives d'un Milieu Semi-Transparent (MST) a partir de mesures optiques dans le proche infrarouge obtenues a l'aide d'un ensemble de sources et detecteurs situes sur la frontiere du domaine sonde. Elle repose notamment sur un modele direct de propagation de la lumiere dans le MST, fournissant les predictions, et un algorithme de minimisation d'une fonction de cout integrant les predictions et les mesures, permettant la reconstruction des parametres d'interet. Dans ce travail, le modele direct est l'approximation diffuse de l'equation de transfert radiatif dans le regime frequentiel tandis que les parametres d'interet sont les distributions spatiales des coefficients d'absorption et de diffusion reduit. Cette these est consacree au developpement d'une methode inverse robuste pour la resolution du probleme de TOD dans le domaine frequentiel. Pour repondre a cet objectif, ce travail est structure en trois parties qui constituent les principaux axes de la these. Premierement, une comparaison des algorithmes de Gauss-Newton amorti et de Broyden- Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) est proposee dans le cas bidimensionnel. Deux methodes de regularisation sont combinees pour chacun des deux algorithmes, a savoir la reduction de la dimension de l'espace de controle basee sur le maillage et la regularisation par penalisation de Tikhonov

  2. suPAR and Team Nephrology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) accounts for nearly 10 % of patients who require renal replacement therapy. Elevated circulating levels of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) have been identified as a biomarker to discriminate primary FSGS from other glomerulopathies. Subsequent reports have questioned the diagnostic utility of this test. In a study in BMC Medicine, Huang et al. demonstrate that urinary soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) excretion assists in distinguishing primary FSGS from other glomerular diseases, and that high plasma suPAR concentrations are not directly linked to a decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This observation suggests that further investigation of suPAR is warranted in patients with FSGS. It should be interpreted in light of a recent report that B7-1 is expressed in the podocytes of a subset of patients with FSGS, and that blocking this molecule may represent the first successful targeted intervention for this disease. These advances highlight the rapid pace of scientific progress in the field of nephrology. Nephrologists should work together, share resources, and expedite the design of protocols to evaluate these novel biomarkers in a comprehensive and scientifically valid manner. Please see related article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/81. PMID:24885021

  3. An analysis of simulated stereo radar imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisaruck, M. A.; Kaupp, V. H.; Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.

    1983-01-01

    Simulated stereo radar imagery is used to investigate parameters for a spaceborne imaging radar. Incidence angles ranging from small to intermediate to large are used with three digital terrain model areas which are representative of relatively flat, moderately rough, and mountainous terrain. The simulated radar imagery was evaluated by interpreters for ease of stereo perception and information content, and rank order within each class of terrain. The interpreter's results are analyzed for trends between the height of a feature and either parallax or vertical exaggeration for a stereo pair. A model is developed which predicts the amount of parallax (or vertical exaggeration) an interpreter would desire for best stereo perception of a feature of a specific height. Results indicate the selection of angle of incidence and stereo intersection angle depend upon the relative relief of the terrain. Examples of the simulated stereo imagery are presented for a candidate spaceborne imaging radar having four selectable angles of incidence.

  4. Visual mental imagery in congenital prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Grüter, Thomas; Grüter, Martina; Bell, Vaughan; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2009-04-10

    Congenital prosopagnosia (cPA) is a selective impairment in the visual learning and recognition of faces without detectable brain damage or malformation. There is evidence that it can be inherited in an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. We assessed the capacity for visual mental imagery in 53 people with cPA using an adapted Marks' VVIQ (Vividness of Visual Imaging Questionnaire). The mean score of the prosopagnosic group showed the lowest mental imagery scores ever published for a non-brain damaged group. In a subsample of 12 people with cPA, we demonstrated that the cPA is a deficit of configural face processing. We suggest that the 'VVIQ-PA' (VVIQ-Prosopagnosia) questionnaire can help to confirm the diagnosis of cPA. Poor mental imagery, a configural face processing impairment and clinical prosopagnosia should be considered as symptoms of a yet poorly understood hereditary cerebral dysfunction.

  5. Validation and acceptance of synthetic infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Moira I.; Bernhardt, Mark; Angell, Christopher R.; Hickman, Duncan; Whitehead, Philip; Patel, Dilip

    2004-08-01

    This paper describes the use of an image query database (IQ-DB) tool as a means of implementing a validation strategy for synthetic long-wave infrared images of sea clutter. Specifically it was required to determine the validity of the synthetic imagery for use in developing and testing automatic target detection algorithms. The strategy adopted for exploiting synthetic imagery is outlined and the key issues of validation and acceptance are discussed in detail. A wide range of image metrics has been developed to achieve pre-defined validation criteria. A number of these metrics, which include post processing algorithms, are presented. Furthermore, the IQ-DB provides a robust mechanism for configuration management and control of the large volume of data used. The implementation of the IQ-DB is reviewed in terms of its cardinal point specification and its central role in synthetic imagery validation and EOSS progressive acceptance.

  6. Multispectral scanner imagery for plant community classification.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, R. S.; Spencer, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    Optimum channel selection among 12 channels of multispectral scanner imagery identified six as providing the best information for computerized classification of 11 plant communities and two nonvegetation classes. Intensive preprocessing of the spectral data was required to eliminate bidirectional reflectance effects of the spectral imagery caused by scanner view angle and varying geometry of the plant canopy. Generalized plant community types - forest, grassland, and hydrophytic systems - were acceptably classified based on ecological analysis. Serious, but soluble, errors occurred with attempts to classify specific community types within the grassland system. However, special clustering analyses provided for improved classification of specific grassland communities.

  7. Yoga, meditation, and imagery: clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Gimbel, M A

    1998-12-01

    Hatha yoga and meditation as adjunctive therapies for promoting and maintaining wellness offer an excellent example of the mind-body connection at work. Hatha yoga creates balance, physically and emotionally, by using postures, or asanas, combined with breathing techniques, or pranayama. Meditation and guided imagery not only support the physical and emotional work being done by the postures and breathing, they open the door to self-actualization to create the perfect union of the mind, body, and spirit. This report discusses the definitions of hatha yoga, meditation, and imagery and their clinical applications. Three case studies from private practice are presented.

  8. A color prediction model for imagery analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skaley, J. E.; Fisher, J. R.; Hardy, E. E.

    1977-01-01

    A simple model has been devised to selectively construct several points within a scene using multispectral imagery. The model correlates black-and-white density values to color components of diazo film so as to maximize the color contrast of two or three points per composite. The CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) color coordinate system is used as a quantitative reference to locate these points in color space. Superimposed on this quantitative reference is a perceptional framework which functionally contrasts color values in a psychophysical sense. This methodology permits a more quantitative approach to the manual interpretation of multispectral imagery while resulting in improved accuracy and lower costs.

  9. A Physicist's Anschauungen Concerning Mental Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Arthur I.; Kaiser, Mary K.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an integration of historical and psychological analyses, with the goal of understanding the role of mental imagery in three seminal developments of early 20th-century physics: special relativity (1905), general relativity (1915), and quantum mechanics (1925). The book focuses on the insights that can be gleaned from Gesalt psychology, genetic epistemology, and recent theories of imagery in cognitive science. The book is divided into three sections. The first presents the comparative epistemologies of the scientists whose developments provide the data base for analyses. The second section considers the role of aesthetics and "visuability" in the transformation (and evaluation) of scientific concepts.

  10. View from east to west of PAR site storage building; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from east to west of PAR site storage building; formerly PAR dispensary - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Storage Building, Across street from Family Housing Units 110 & 111, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  11. View from west to east of PAR site resident engineer's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from west to east of PAR site resident engineer's office building (REOB) - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Resident Engineers Office Building, Southeast of intersection of PAR Access Road & Fourth Avenue, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  12. A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    B Chaudhuri; S Gupta; V Urban; M Chance; R DMello; L Smith; K Lyons; J Gee

    2011-12-31

    Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

  13. A combined global and local approach to elucidate spatial organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS partition assembly.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Barnali N; Gupta, Sayan; Urban, Volker S; Chance, Mark R; D'Mello, Rhijuta; Smith, Lauren; Lyons, Kelly; Gee, Jessica

    2011-03-22

    Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

  14. A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, Barnali; Gupta, Sayan; Urban, Volker S; Chance, Mark; D'Mello, Rhijuta; Smith, Lauren; Lyons, Kelly; Gee, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

  15. Host response biomarker in sepsis: suPAR detection.

    PubMed

    Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J; Georgitsi, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of our group have shown that suPAR may complement APACHE II score for risk assessment in sepsis. suPAR may be measured in serum of patients by an enzyme immunosorbent assay developed by Virogates (suPARnostic™). Production of suPAR from circulating neutrophils and monocytes may be assessed after isolation of neutrophils and monocytes and ex vivo culture. This is followed by measurement of suPAR in culture supernatants.

  16. 7 CFR 611.22 - Availability of satellite imagery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Availability of satellite imagery. 611.22 Section 611... § 611.22 Availability of satellite imagery. Cloud-free maps of the United States based on imagery received from a satellite are prepared and released to the pubic by NRCS. The maps offer the first image...

  17. 7 CFR 611.22 - Availability of satellite imagery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Availability of satellite imagery. 611.22 Section 611... § 611.22 Availability of satellite imagery. Cloud-free maps of the United States based on imagery received from a satellite are prepared and released to the pubic by NRCS. The maps offer the first image...

  18. 7 CFR 611.22 - Availability of satellite imagery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of satellite imagery. 611.22 Section 611... § 611.22 Availability of satellite imagery. Cloud-free maps of the United States based on imagery received from a satellite are prepared and released to the pubic by NRCS. The maps offer the first image...

  19. 7 CFR 611.22 - Availability of satellite imagery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Availability of satellite imagery. 611.22 Section 611... § 611.22 Availability of satellite imagery. Cloud-free maps of the United States based on imagery received from a satellite are prepared and released to the pubic by NRCS. The maps offer the first image...

  20. 7 CFR 611.22 - Availability of satellite imagery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Availability of satellite imagery. 611.22 Section 611... § 611.22 Availability of satellite imagery. Cloud-free maps of the United States based on imagery received from a satellite are prepared and released to the pubic by NRCS. The maps offer the first image...

  1. The Use of Mental Imagery in the Problem Solving Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hortin, John A.

    Conventional experimental research in mental imagery and visualization presents conflicting findings. Naturalistic inquiry offers an alternative approach for the study of mental imagery and problem solving. Paulo Freire, for example, used a naturalistic approach that emphasized active involvement in learning. Imagery can play an important role in…

  2. Abstract Imagery in Art Therapy: What Does It Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanes, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Explores some of the factors involving abstract imagery in the work of art-therapy patients and presents examples of abstract imagery produced by patients in an acute-patient psychiatric hospital. Examples illustrate that abstract imagery can serve not only a defensive purpose, but a progressive function as well. (Author/MKA)

  3. Laser XUV haute cadence pompé par laser Titane : Saphir, vers la station LASERIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazamias, S.; Cassou, K.; Ros, D.; Plé, F.; Jamelot, G.; Klisnick, A.; Lundh, O.; Lindau, F.; Persson, A.; Wahlström, C.-G.; de Rossi, S.; Joyeux, D.; Zielbauer, B.; Ursescu, D.

    2006-12-01

    Nous présentons des résultats récents de laserX collisionnel transitoire pompé en incidence rasante à haut taux de répétition. Ils ont été obtenus à partir du laser de pompe Titane:Saphir 30 TW disponible sur l'installation européenne du LLC à Lund (Suède). Nous avons démontré lors de cette expérience qu'il était possible d'obtenir en routine près de 3 microjoule par impulsion à 18,9 nm avec seulement 1 J d'énergie de pompe infrarouge. Nous avons plus particulièrement étudié l'influence de l'angle de rasance sur cible de l'impulsion laser qui vient pomper le plasma, quelques centaines de picosecondes après la première impulsion responsable de sa création. Un système d'imagerie XUV à haute résolution nous a en effet permis d'obtenir des informations précieuses sur la pupille de sortie du laserX, comme l'énergie totale dans la tache mais aussi la distance d'émission par rapport à la cible, et encore les dimensions horizontale et verticale de la source.

  4. Motion Imagery and Robotics Application Project (MIRA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grubbs, Rodney P.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the Motion Imagery and Robotics Application (MIRA) Project. A detailed description of the MIRA camera service software architecture, encoder features, and on-board communications are presented. A description of a candidate camera under development is also shown.

  5. Paris Commune Imagery in China's Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiss, Guy T.

    The role of ideology in mass media practices is explored in an analysis of the relation between the Paris Commune of 1871 and the Shanghai Commune of 1967, two attempts to translate the philosophical concept of dictatorship of the proletariat into some political form. A review of the use of Paris Commune imagery by the Chinese to mobilize the…

  6. Incongruent Imagery Interferes with Action Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Richard; Cumming, Jennifer; Eastough, Daniel; Edwards, Martin G.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that representing an action through observation and imagery share neural processes with action execution. In support of this view, motor-priming research has shown that observing an action can influence action initiation. However, there is little motor-priming research showing that imagining an action can modulate action…

  7. Imagery Rescripting across Disorders: A Practical Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stopa, Lusia

    2011-01-01

    Intrusive images occur in many disorders and, as well as causing distress, they frequently represent important negative meanings about the self, other people, or the world. Imagery rescripting describes a set of therapeutic techniques that are aimed at changing these negative meanings. This special series focuses on when and how to do imagery…

  8. Structural geologic interpretations from radar imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, Robert G.

    1969-01-01

    Certain structural geologic features may be more readily recognized on sidelooking airborne radar (SLAR) images than on conventional aerial photographs, other remote sensor imagery, or by ground observations. SLAR systems look obliquely to one or both sides and their images resemble aerial photographs taken at low sun angle with the sun directly behind the camera. They differ from air photos in geometry, resolution, and information content. Radar operates at much lower frequencies than the human eye, camera, or infrared sensors, and thus "sees" differently. The lower frequency enables it to penetrate most clouds and some precipitation, haze, dust, and some vegetation. Radar provides its own illumination, which can be closely controlled in intensity and frequency. It is narrow band, or essentially monochromatic. Low relief and subdued features are accentuated when viewed from the proper direction. Runs over the same area in significantly different directions (more than 45° from each other), show that images taken in one direction may emphasize features that are not emphasized on those taken in the other direction; optimum direction is determined by those features which need to be emphasized for study purposes. Lineaments interpreted as faults stand out on radar imagery of central and western Nevada; folded sedimentary rocks cut by faults can be clearly seen on radar imagery of northern Alabama. In these areas, certain structural and stratigraphic features are more pronounced on radar images than on conventional photographs; thus radar imagery materially aids structural interpretation.

  9. Visual Imagery, Lifecourse Structure and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuller, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Imagery could add an extra dimension to analyses of lifelong learning, which need to draw on diverse sources and techniques. This article has two principal components. First I suggest that the use of images might be divided into three categories: as illustration; as evidence; and as heuristic. I go on to explore the latter two categories, first by…

  10. Imagery as a Facilitator of Semantic Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weed, Keri; Ryan, Ellen Bouchard

    The relationship between processing style (either auditory or visual) and sentence and imagery strategies was investigated with a sample of 80 second-grade children. Assignment to auditory- and visual-processor groups was based on subjects' recall of 16 pictograph sequences, four of which included visual interference and four of which included…

  11. A Role for Imagery in Mentoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Sarah

    2000-01-01

    Examples of imagery and visualization in medicine, sports, and preservice teaching explore the potential of these techniques in mentoring relationships. They help proteges develop a positive self-image in a new role, make mentors' experience more explicit, and depict possible selves toward which proteges can work. (SK)

  12. Investigation of Satellite Imagery for Regional Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harting, W. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Satellite multispectral imagery was found to be useful in regional planning for depicting general developed land patterns, wooded areas, and newly constructed highways by using visual photointerpretation methods. Other characteristics, such as residential and nonresidential development, street patterns, development density, and some vacant land components cannot be adequately detected using these standard methods.

  13. Imagery Rescripting in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackmann, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview of methods of working with imagery to change meanings and ameliorate posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It opens with a description of phenomenology in this disorder, usually characterized by a small number of recurrent images of the trauma, each representing a moment that warned of a threat to the physical or…

  14. Water turbidity detection using ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarger, H. L.; Mccauley, J. R.; James, G. W.; Magnuson, L. M.; Marzolf, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS-1 images of two federal reservoirs in Kansas exhibit good correlation with suspended load. The major reservoirs in Kansas, as well as in other Great Plains states, are playing increasingly important roles in flood control, recreation, agriculture, and urban water supply. Satellite imagery may prove useful for acquiring timely low cost water quality data required for optimum management of these fresh water resources.

  15. Etude des parametres physiques en vue d'applications medicales de l'actionnement magnetique de dispositifs medicaux par un systeme d'imagerie par resonance magnetique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieu, Jean-Baptiste

    An actuation and control method for medical devices based on the magnetic gradient coils of a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was proposed for the first time in 2002 by NanoRobotics Laboratory [1]. The work undertaken in the present thesis began in the context of demonstrating the concept of automatic navigation of a magnetic bead in vivo. From the point of view of actuation, models and experimental data correlate. A maximum velocity of 13cm/s was measured for a 1.5mm diameter chrome steel bead in the carotid artery of a living swine. The bead was under the influence of magnetic gradients applied by a clinical MRI system without any hardware modification. In light of these results, the aim of this thesis is the study of the physical parameters involved in the development of a first medical application: the steering of magnetic particles in MRI in the context of drug targeting. It was demonstrated that an MRI system equipped with a set of magnetic gradient coils with enhanced amplitude was able to apply a high enough actuation force to act upon magnetic microparticles suspended in a liquid. General rules for MRI actuation were identified. First of all, increasing the amplitude of the main magnetic field of the MRI leads to the increase of the actuation force amplitude only until the ferromagnetic body reaches its saturation magnetization. Moreover, soft ferromagnetic bodies appear to be better candidates for MRI based magnetic actuation because they can reach high saturation magnetizations. Magnetic gradient amplitude appears as a foremost factor to increase the amplitude of the magnetic force. Clinical MRI systems do not provide gradients with high enough amplitude for the applications studied here. Theoretical models developed in this thesis predict that a one order of magnitude increase in gradient amplitude would be required. Implementing actuation dedicated gradient coils is therefore suggested. Finally, a larger ferromagnetic body will lead to higher magnetophoretic velocities for magnetic particles. In the context of magnetic microparticle targeting for cancer treatment through embolisation, the scaling laws bridging from the preliminary works with millimeter sized beads to magnetic microparticles suspensions were studied. Magnetic microparticles suspensions injected through branching channels were guided in MRI under the influence of magnetic gradients. The goal of these experiments was to maximize the amount of particles flowing through one of the outlets of the channel. The outcome of the experiments was quantified using an optical set-up as well as by analyzing the suspension at each outlet of the channels. The most important parameters that were identified are the magnetic force amplitude, the interactions and aggregation between magnetic particles of the suspension, the size, geometry and density of the particles or aggregates driven, the dimensions of the channel and the intensity of the flow. Mathematical models based on analyses of particle trajectories and on non dimensionalization of the experimental parameters were proposed. The model predicts steering efficiencies in the order of what was recorded experimentally. Nevertheless, some parameters that remain to be quantified more precisely like the effects of magnetic aggregation and friction forces cause discrepancies between theoretical and experimental data. Despite these differences, the knowledge gained in the field of magnetic suspension steering appears to be sufficient to envision in vivo experiments lead in parallel with improving the theoretical predictions. Hence, an experimental set-up and an experimental protocol are being designed to adapt the steering methods to interventional procedures and animal subjects. Finally, the same principles used for microparticle steering can be applied for magnetic catheter navigation. Hence, on the side of the main subject of this thesis, the deflection of magnetic catheters by MRI was also studied as a second medical application. Using magnetic catheter and guide wires could facilitate the placement of medical instruments and accelerate medical procedures. The recorded deflections are lower than the ones measured with other magnetic guidance systems. The parameters and performances obtained are functions of the amplitude of the applied magnetic force and material strength properties of the catheters or guide wires. Hence, deflection could be enhanced by adapting the mechanical properties of the devices, by increasing the amplitude of the magnetic gradient or the volume and magnetization of the magnetic tip. These latter results are the object of an upcoming patent application. Hence, the paper relating them could not be submitted prior to the submission date of this thesis. For this reason, this paper's manuscript is presented as an annex of the present document

  16. The effect of somatosensory input on motor imagery depends upon motor imagery capability

    PubMed Central

    Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Yamagishi, Takahiro; Nakata, Hiroki; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    We investigated that the relationship between motor imagery ability and the effect of tactile input associated with holding a tennis racket on motor imagery of the forehand and backhand swings. The effect was assessed by the time utilized for motor imagery (mental chronometry). Seventeen tennis players imagined forehand and backhand swings with a forehand grip, a backhand grip or while holding nothing. In all cases, imaging the swings took longer than the time taken for a real swing. For imagery of the backhand swing, holding a racket with a backhand grip decreased the imaging time (p < 0.05) as compared to the trials with a forehand grip or while holding nothing. On the other hand, holding the racket with a backhand grip tended to increase the time required for forehand swing imagery. These results suggest that a congruent grip improves, and an incongruent grip deteriorates, motor imagery of the backhand swing. For players who took a longer time in the condition where they held nothing (i.e., poor imaging ability), the effect of a congruent backhand grip was greater (r = 0.67, p < 0.01). However, a congruent forehand grip did not improve motor imagery of the forehand swing. Since 15 of the participants in the present study favored the forehand swing compared to the backhand swing, the participants would have been more familiar with the forehand swing. Thus it would have been easy to vividly imagine the (familiar) forehand swing even when they were not holding a racket. We speculate that tactile input associated with holding a tool improves a vividness of motor imagery of a less familiar movement, especially for those who have poor imaging ability. In the future, it will be important to clarify whether the effect of tactile input associated with holding a tool is dependent upon movement familiarity/performance level. PMID:25729373

  17. Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) as targets for antiplatelet therapy.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Margaret; McIntosh, Kathryn; Bushell, Trevor; Sloan, Graeme; Plevin, Robin

    2016-04-15

    Since the identification of the proteinase-activated receptor (PAR) family as mediators of serine protease activity in the 1990s, there has been tremendous progress in the elucidation of their pathophysiological roles. The development of drugs that target PARs has been the focus of many laboratories for the potential treatment of thrombosis, cancer and other inflammatory diseases. Understanding the mechanisms of PAR activation and G protein signalling pathways evoked in response to the growing list of endogenous proteases has yielded great insight into receptor regulation at the molecular level. This has led to the development of new selective modulators of PAR activity, particularly PAR1. The mixed success of targeting PARs has been best exemplified in the context of inhibiting PAR1 as a new antiplatelet therapy. The development of the competitive PAR1 antagonist, vorapaxar (Zontivity), has clearly shown the value in targeting PAR1 in acute coronary syndrome (ACS); however the severity of associated bleeding with this drug has limited its use in the clinic. Due to the efficacy of thrombin acting via PAR1, strategies to selectively inhibit specific PAR1-mediated G protein signalling pathways or to target the second thrombin platelet receptor, PAR4, are being devised. The rationale behind these alternative approaches is to bias downstream thrombin activity via PARs to allow for inhibition of pro-thrombotic pathways but maintain other pathways that may preserve haemostatic balance and improve bleeding profiles for widespread clinical use. This review summarizes the structural determinants that regulate PARs and the modulators of PAR activity developed to date.

  18. Les Brulures Chimiques Par Le Laurier Rose

    PubMed Central

    Bakkali, H.; Ababou, M.; Nassim Sabah, T.; Moussaoui, A.; Ennouhi, A.; Fouadi, F.Z.; Siah, S.; Ihrai, H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Le laurier rose ou Nerium oleander est un arbuste qui pousse naturellement dans les régions méditerranéennes. Au Maroc on le trouve dans les lieux humides. Il est réputé par ses risques de toxicité systémique en cas d'empoisonnement à cause de la présence de deux alcaloïdes, surtout l'oléandrine. La littérature illustre des cas d'utilisation locale des feuilles de cette plante contre la gale, les hémorroïdes et les furoncles. Nous rapportons deux cas de brûlures chimiques par le laurier rose de gravité différente. Cela doit aboutir à une information élargie de la population, ainsi qu'une réglementation stricte de sa commercialisation. PMID:21991211

  19. Discovery of Octahydroindenes as PAR1 Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Octahydroindene was identified as a novel scaffold for protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) antagonists. Herein, the 2-position (C2) was explored for structure–activity relationship (SAR) studies. Compounds 14, 19, and 23b showed IC50 values of 1.3, 8.6, and 2.7 nM in a PAR1 radioligand binding assay, respectively, and their inhibitory activities on platelet activation were comparable to that of vorapaxar in a platelet rich plasma (PRP) aggregation assay. This series of compounds showed high potency and no significant cytotoxicity; however, the compounds were metabolically unstable in both human and rat liver microsomes. Current research efforts are focused on optimizing the compounds to improve metabolic stability and physicochemical properties as well as potency. PMID:24900604

  20. BOREAS Level-2 NS001 TMS Imagery: Reflectance and Temperature in BSQ Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobitz, Brad; Spanner, Michael; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Strub, Richard

    2000-01-01

    For BOREAS, the NS001 TMS images, along with the other remotely sensed data, were collected to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. This information includes detailed land cover and biophysical parameter maps such as fPAR and LAI. Collection of the NS001 images occurred over the study areas during the 1994 field campaigns. The level-2 NS001 data are atmospherically corrected versions of some of the best original NS001 imagery and cover the dates of 19-Apr-1994, 07-Jun-1994, 21-Jul-1994, 08-Aug-1994, and 16-Sep-1994. The data are not geographically/geometrically corrected; however, files of relative X and Y coordinates for each image pixel were derived by using the C130 INS data in an NS001 scan model. The data are provided in binary image format files.

  1. Combined DSEK and Transconjunctival Pars Plana Vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Sane, Mona; Shaikh, Naazli

    2016-01-01

    We report here three patients who underwent combined Descemet's stripping with endothelial keratoplasty and transconjunctival pars plana vitrectomy for bullous keratopathy and posterior segment pathology. A surgical technique and case histories are described. Anatomic and visual outcomes of combined Descemet's stripping with endothelial keratoplasty and vitrectomy were excellent. Our experience provides technical guidelines and limitations. The combined minimally invasive techniques allow for rapid anatomical recovery and return of function and visual acuity in a single sitting. PMID:27413563

  2. Par Pond refill water quality sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.

    1996-08-01

    This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column.

  3. Application of ERTS-1 Imagery to Flood Inundation Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallberg, G. R.; Hoyer, B. E.; Rango, A.

    1973-01-01

    Ground data and a variety of low-altitude multispectral imagery were acquired for the East Nishnabotna River on September 14 and 15. This successful effort concluded that a near-visible infrared sensor could map inundated areas in late summer for at least three days after flood recession. ERTS-1 multispectral scanner subsystem (MSS) imagery of the area was obtained on September 18 and 19. Analysis of MSS imagery by IGSRSL, USGS, and NASA reinforced the conclusions of the low-altitude study while increasing the time period critical for imagery acquisition to at least 7 days following flood recession. The capability of satellite imagery to map late summer flooding at a scale of 1:250,000 is exhibited by the agreement of interpreted flood boundaries obtained from ERTS-1 imagery to boundaries mapped by low-altitude imagery and ground methods.

  4. Mental imagery in music performance: underlying mechanisms and potential benefits.

    PubMed

    Keller, Peter E

    2012-04-01

    This paper examines the role of mental imagery in music performance. Self-reports by musicians, and various other sources of anecdotal evidence, suggest that covert auditory, motor, and/or visual imagery facilitate multiple aspects of music performance. The cognitive and motor mechanisms that underlie such imagery include working memory, action simulation, and internal models. Together these mechanisms support the generation of anticipatory images that enable thorough action planning and movement execution that is characterized by efficiency, temporal precision, and biomechanical economy. In ensemble performance, anticipatory imagery may facilitate interpersonal coordination by enhancing online predictions about others' action timing. Overlap in brain regions subserving auditory imagery and temporal prediction is consistent with this view. It is concluded that individual differences in anticipatory imagery may be a source of variation in expressive performance excellence and the quality of ensemble cohesion. Engaging in effortful musical imagery is therefore justified when artistic perfection is the goal.

  5. Selective Effect of Physical Fatigue on Motor Imagery Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Di Rienzo, Franck; Collet, Christian; Hoyek, Nady; Guillot, Aymeric

    2012-01-01

    While the use of motor imagery (the mental representation of an action without overt execution) during actual training sessions is usually recommended, experimental studies examining the effect of physical fatigue on subsequent motor imagery performance are sparse and yielded divergent findings. Here, we investigated whether physical fatigue occurring during an intense sport training session affected motor imagery ability. Twelve swimmers (nine males, mean age 15.5 years) conducted a 45 min physically-fatiguing protocol where they swam from 70% to 100% of their maximal aerobic speed. We tested motor imagery ability immediately before and after fatigue state. Participants randomly imagined performing a swim turn using internal and external visual imagery. Self-reports ratings, imagery times and electrodermal responses, an index of alertness from the autonomic nervous system, were the dependent variables. Self-reports ratings indicated that participants did not encounter difficulty when performing motor imagery after fatigue. However, motor imagery times were significantly shortened during posttest compared to both pretest and actual turn times, thus indicating reduced timing accuracy. Looking at the selective effect of physical fatigue on external visual imagery did not reveal any difference before and after fatigue, whereas significantly shorter imagined times and electrodermal responses (respectively 15% and 48% decrease, p<0.001) were observed during the posttest for internal visual imagery. A significant correlation (r = 0.64; p<0.05) was observed between motor imagery vividness (estimated through imagery questionnaire) and autonomic responses during motor imagery after fatigue. These data support that unlike local muscle fatigue, physical fatigue occurring during intense sport training sessions is likely to affect motor imagery accuracy. These results might be explained by the updating of the internal representation of the motor sequence, due to temporary

  6. Movement imagery for speech in healthy women: influences on articulation accuracy and fluidity, imagery times, and expectations of success.

    PubMed

    Mantie-Kozlowski, Alana; Netsell, Ronald; Daniel, Todd

    2012-12-01

    The use of movement imagery in speech performance has received less attention than it has in many other professional disciplines. 30 healthy monolingual native English speakers participated in this within-subjects study. Participants' speech accuracy and fluidity was compared when they used movement imagery and when they did not. The timing of imagery and articulation were compared using a chronometric paradigm. Participants' expectations of improvement when using movement imagery for speech were compared to their actual performance. The results from this study support the use of movement imagery for speech with a single imaging event for the purpose of improving speech fluidity, but not for improving articulation accuracy. The chronometric system as a tool for monitoring adherence to the movement imagery protocol for speech proved valuable. Finally, while estimation inflation has been reported by some using movement imagery techniques, this was not the case for the participants of this study.

  7. Performance improvements from imagery: evidence that internal visual imagery is superior to external visual imagery for slalom performance

    PubMed Central

    Callow, Nichola; Roberts, Ross; Hardy, Lew; Jiang, Dan; Edwards, Martin Gareth

    2013-01-01

    We report three experiments investigating the hypothesis that use of internal visual imagery (IVI) would be superior to external visual imagery (EVI) for the performance of different slalom-based motor tasks. In Experiment 1, three groups of participants (IVI, EVI, and a control group) performed a driving-simulation slalom task. The IVI group achieved significantly quicker lap times than EVI and the control group. In Experiment 2, participants performed a downhill running slalom task under both IVI and EVI conditions. Performance was again quickest in the IVI compared to EVI condition, with no differences in accuracy. Experiment 3 used the same group design as Experiment 1, but with participants performing a downhill ski-slalom task. Results revealed the IVI group to be significantly more accurate than the control group, with no significant differences in time taken to complete the task. These results support the beneficial effects of IVI for slalom-based tasks, and significantly advances our knowledge related to the differential effects of visual imagery perspectives on motor performance. PMID:24155710

  8. Lyman-alpha imagery of Comet Kohoutek

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, G. R.; Opal, C. B.; Page, T. L.; Meier, R. R.; Prinz, D. K.

    1974-01-01

    Electrographic imagery of Comet Kohoutek in the 1100-1500 A wavelength range was obtained from a sounding rocket on Jan. 8, 1974, and from the Skylab space station on 13 occasions between Nov. 26, 1973 and Feb. 2, 1974. These images are predominantly due to Lyman-alpha (1216 A) emission from the hydrogen coma of the comet. The rocket pictures have been calibrated for absolute sensitivity and a hydrogen production rate has been determined. However, the Skylab camera suffered degradation of its sensitivity during the mission, and its absolute sensitivity for each observation can only be estimated by comparison of the comet images with those taken by the rocket camera, with imagery of the geocoronal Lyman-alpha glow, of the moon in reflected Lyman-alpha, and of ultraviolet-bright stars. The rocket and geocoronal comparisons are used to derive a preliminary, qualitative history of the development of the cometary hydrogen coma and the associated hydrogen production rate.

  9. Seasonal vegetation differences from ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashley, M. D.; Rea, J.

    1975-01-01

    Knowledge of the times when crop and forest vegetation experience seasonally related changes in development is important in understanding growth and yield relationships. This article describes how densitometry of earth resources technology satellite (ERTS-1) multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery can be used to identify such phenological events. Adjustments for instrument calibration, aperture size, gray-scale differences between overpasses, and normalization of changing solar elevation are considered in detail. Seasonal vegetation differences can be identified by densitometry of band 5 (0.6-0.7 microns) and band 7 (0.8-1.1 microns) MSS imagery. Band-to-band ratios of the densities depicted the changes more graphically than the individual band readings.

  10. Assessing mental imagery in clinical psychology: a review of imagery measures and a guiding framework.

    PubMed

    Pearson, David G; Deeprose, Catherine; Wallace-Hadrill, Sophie M A; Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Holmes, Emily A

    2013-02-01

    Mental imagery is an under-explored field in clinical psychology research but presents a topic of potential interest and relevance across many clinical disorders, including social phobia, schizophrenia, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. There is currently a lack of a guiding framework from which clinicians may select the domains or associated measures most likely to be of appropriate use in mental imagery research. We adopt an interdisciplinary approach and present a review of studies across experimental psychology and clinical psychology in order to highlight the key domains and measures most likely to be of relevance. This includes a consideration of methods for experimentally assessing the generation, maintenance, inspection and transformation of mental images; as well as subjective measures of characteristics such as image vividness and clarity. We present a guiding framework in which we propose that cognitive, subjective and clinical aspects of imagery should be explored in future research. The guiding framework aims to assist researchers in the selection of measures for assessing those aspects of mental imagery that are of most relevance to clinical psychology. We propose that a greater understanding of the role of mental imagery in clinical disorders will help drive forward advances in both theory and treatment.

  11. Assessing mental imagery in clinical psychology: A review of imagery measures and a guiding framework

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, David G.; Deeprose, Catherine; Wallace-Hadrill, Sophie M.A.; Heyes, Stephanie Burnett; Holmes, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Mental imagery is an under-explored field in clinical psychology research but presents a topic of potential interest and relevance across many clinical disorders, including social phobia, schizophrenia, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. There is currently a lack of a guiding framework from which clinicians may select the domains or associated measures most likely to be of appropriate use in mental imagery research. We adopt an interdisciplinary approach and present a review of studies across experimental psychology and clinical psychology in order to highlight the key domains and measures most likely to be of relevance. This includes a consideration of methods for experimentally assessing the generation, maintenance, inspection and transformation of mental images; as well as subjective measures of characteristics such as image vividness and clarity. We present a guiding framework in which we propose that cognitive, subjective and clinical aspects of imagery should be explored in future research. The guiding framework aims to assist researchers in the selection of measures for assessing those aspects of mental imagery that are of most relevance to clinical psychology. We propose that a greater understanding of the role of mental imagery in clinical disorders will help drive forward advances in both theory and treatment. PMID:23123567

  12. Active training paradigm for motor imagery BCI.

    PubMed

    Li, Junhua; Zhang, Liqing

    2012-06-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) allows the use of brain activities for people to directly communicate with the external world or to control external devices without participation of any peripheral nerves and muscles. Motor imagery is one of the most popular modes in the research field of brain-computer interface. Although motor imagery BCI has some advantages compared with other modes of BCI, such as asynchronization, it is necessary to require training sessions before using it. The performance of trained BCI system depends on the quality of training samples or the subject engagement. In order to improve training effect and decrease training time, we proposed a new paradigm where subjects participated in training more actively than in the traditional paradigm. In the traditional paradigm, a cue (to indicate what kind of motor imagery should be imagined during the current trial) is given to the subject at the beginning of a trial or during a trial, and this cue is also used as a label for this trial. It is usually assumed that labels for trials are accurate in the traditional paradigm, although subjects may not have performed the required or correct kind of motor imagery, and trials may thus be mislabeled. And then those mislabeled trials give rise to interference during model training. In our proposed paradigm, the subject is required to reconfirm the label and can correct the label when necessary. This active training paradigm may generate better training samples with fewer inconsistent labels because it overcomes mistakes when subject's motor imagination does not match the given cues. The experiments confirm that our proposed paradigm achieves better performance; the improvement is significant according to statistical analysis. PMID:22476215

  13. EXPERIMENTS IN LITHOGRAPHY FROM REMOTE SENSOR IMAGERY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kidwell, R. H.; McSweeney, J.; Warren, A.; Zang, E.; Vickers, E.

    1983-01-01

    Imagery from remote sensing systems such as the Landsat multispectral scanner and return beam vidicon, as well as synthetic aperture radar and conventional optical camera systems, contains information at resolutions far in excess of that which can be reproduced by the lithographic printing process. The data often require special handling to produce both standard and special map products. Some conclusions have been drawn regarding processing techniques, procedures for production, and printing limitations.

  14. Maritime target identification in gated viewing imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Marcus; Hebel, Marcus; Arens, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The growing interest in unmanned surface vehicles, accident avoidance for naval vessels and automated maritime surveillance leads to a growing need for automatic detection, classification and pose estimation of maritime objects in medium and long ranges. Laser radar imagery is a well proven tool for near to medium range, but up to now for higher distances neither the sensor range nor the sensor resolution was satisfying. As a result of the mentioned limitations of laser radar imagery the potential of laser illuminated gated viewing for automated classification and pose estimation was investigated. The paper presents new techniques for segmentation, pose estimation and model-based identification of naval vessels in gated viewing imagery in comparison with the corresponding results of long range data acquired with a focal plane array laser radar system. The pose estimation in the gated viewing data is directly connected with the model-based identification which makes use of the outline of the object. By setting a sufficient narrow gate, the distance gap between the upper part of the ship and the background leads to an automatic segmentation. By setting the gate the distance to the object is roughly known. With this distance and the imaging properties of the camera, the width of the object perpendicular to the line of sight can be calculated. For each ship in the model library a set of possible 2D appearances in the known distance is calculated and the resulting contours are compared with the measured 2D outline. The result is a match error for each reasonable orientation of each model of the library. The result gained from the gated viewing data is compared with the results of target identification by laser radar imagery of the same maritime objects.

  15. Modelisation par elements finis du muscle strie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Mathieu

    Ce present projet de recherche a permis. de creer un modele par elements finis du muscle strie humain dans le but d'etudier les mecanismes engendrant les lesions musculaires traumatiques. Ce modele constitue une plate-forme numerique capable de discerner l'influence des proprietes mecaniques des fascias et de la cellule musculaire sur le comportement dynamique du muscle lors d'une contraction excentrique, notamment le module de Young et le module de cisaillement de la couche de tissu conjonctif, l'orientation des fibres de collagene de cette membrane et le coefficient de poisson du muscle. La caracterisation experimentale in vitro de ces parametres pour des vitesses de deformation elevees a partir de muscles stries humains actifs est essentielle pour l'etude de lesions musculaires traumatiques. Le modele numerique developpe est capable de modeliser la contraction musculaire comme une transition de phase de la cellule musculaire par un changement de raideur et de volume a l'aide des lois de comportement de materiau predefinies dans le logiciel LS-DYNA (v971, Livermore Software Technology Corporation, Livermore, CA, USA). Le present projet de recherche introduit donc un phenomene physiologique qui pourrait expliquer des blessures musculaires courantes (crampes, courbatures, claquages, etc.), mais aussi des maladies ou desordres touchant le tissu conjonctif comme les collagenoses et la dystrophie musculaire. La predominance de blessures musculaires lors de contractions excentriques est egalement exposee. Le modele developpe dans ce projet de recherche met ainsi a l'avant-scene le concept de transition de phase ouvrant la porte au developpement de nouvelles technologies pour l'activation musculaire chez les personnes atteintes de paraplegie ou de muscles artificiels compacts pour l'elaboration de protheses ou d'exosquelettes. Mots-cles Muscle strie, lesion musculaire, fascia, contraction excentrique, modele par elements finis, transition de phase

  16. Videographic enhancement of GRASS imagery: Recent advances

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.G.

    1992-06-01

    The Geographic Resource Analysis Support System (GRASS), a geographic information system, has been fielded at approximately 50 US Army training installations as a land-management decision-making tool. Use of the GRASS geographic information system involves the production of numerous digital maps of environmental parameters, such as elevation, soils, hydrography, etc. A recently emerging technology called computer videographics can be used to graphically enhance GRASS images, thereby creating new ways to visualize GRASS analysis results. The project described in this report explored the enhancement of GRASS images through the use of videographic technology. General image quality of videographically enhanced GRASS images was improved through the use of high-resolution imagery and improved software. Several new types of geographic data visualizations were developed, including three-dimensional shaded-relief maps of GRASS data, overlay of GRASS images with satellite images, and integration of computer-aided-design imagery with GRASS images. GRASS images were successfully enhanced using Macintosh hardware and software, rather than the DOS-based equipment used previously. Images scanned with a document scanner were incorporated into GRASS imagery, and enhanced images were output in an S-VHS high-resolution video format.

  17. Radiometric Characterization of IKONOS Multispectral Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Ryan, Robert E.; Kelly, Michelle; Holekamp, Kara; Zanoni, Vicki; Thome, Kurtis; Schiller, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    A radiometric characterization of Space Imaging's IKONOS 4-m multispectral imagery has been performed by a NASA funded team from the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC), the University of Arizona Remote Sensing Group (UARSG), and South Dakota State University (SDSU). Both intrinsic radiometry and the effects of Space Imaging processing on radiometry were investigated. Relative radiometry was examined with uniform Antarctic and Saharan sites. Absolute radiometric calibration was performed using reflectance-based vicarious calibration methods on several uniform sites imaged by IKONOS, coincident with ground-based surface and atmospheric measurements. Ground-based data and the IKONOS spectral response function served as input to radiative transfer codes to generate a Top-of-Atmosphere radiance estimate. Calibration coefficients derived from each vicarious calibration were combined to generate an IKONOS radiometric gain coefficient for each multispectral band assuming a linear response over the full dynamic range of the instrument. These calibration coefficients were made available to Space Imaging, which subsequently adopted them by updating its initial set of calibration coefficients. IKONOS imagery procured through the NASA Scientific Data Purchase program is processed with or without a Modulation Transfer Function Compensation kernel. The radiometric effects of this kernel on various scene types was also investigated. All imagery characterized was procured through the NASA Scientific Data Purchase program.

  18. Hyperspectral Imagery Data for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garegnani, Jerry; Gualtney, Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    In order for remotely sensed data to be useful in a practical application for agriculture, an information product must be made available to the land management decision maker within 24 to 48 hours of data acquisition. Hyperspectral imagery data is proving useful in differentiation of plant species potentially allowing identification of non-healthy areas and pest infestations within crop fields that may require the farm managers attention. Currently however, extracting the needed site-specific feature information from the vast spectral content of large hyperspectral image files is a labor intensive and time consuming task prohibiting the necessary fast turnaround from raw data to final product. We illustrate the methods, techniques and technologies necessary to produce field-level information products from imagery and other related spatial data that are useful to the farm manager for specific decisions that must be made throughout the growing season. We also propose to demonstrate the cost effectiveness of an integrated system, from acquisition to final product distribution, to utilize imagery for decisions on a working farm in conjunction with a commercial agricultural services company and their crop scouts. The demonstration farm is Chesapeake Farms, a 3000 acre research farm in Chestertown, Maryland on the Eastern Shore and is owned by the DuPont Corporation.

  19. Improved reduced-resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellison, James; Milstein, Jaime

    1995-01-01

    The resolution of satellite imagery is often traded-off to satisfy transmission time and bandwidth, memory, and display limitations. Although there are many ways to achieve the same reduction in resolution, algorithms vary in their ability to preserve the visual quality of the original imagery. These issues are investigated in the context of the Landsat browse system, which permits the user to preview a reduced resolution version of a Landsat image. Wavelets-based techniques for resolution reduction are proposed as alternatives to subsampling used in the current system. Experts judged imagery generated by the wavelets-based methods visually superior, confirming initial quantitative results. In particular, compared to subsampling, the wavelets-based techniques were much less likely to obscure roads, transmission lines, and other linear features present in the original image, introduce artifacts and noise, and otherwise reduce the usefulness of the image. The wavelets-based techniques afford multiple levels of resolution reduction and computational speed. This study is applicable to a wide range of reduced resolution applications in satellite imaging systems, including low resolution display, spaceborne browse, emergency image transmission, and real-time video downlinking.

  20. Motor Imagery in Unipolar Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Bennabi, Djamila; Monnin, Julie; Haffen, Emmanuel; Carvalho, Nicolas; Vandel, Pierre; Pozzo, Thierry; Papaxanthis, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    Background: Motor imagery is a potential tool to investigate action representation, as it can provide insights into the processes of action planning and preparation. Recent studies suggest that depressed patients present specific impairment in mental rotation. The present study was designed to investigate the influence of unipolar depression on motor imagery ability. Methods: Fourteen right-handed patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for unipolar depression were compared to 14 matched healthy controls. Imagery ability was accessed by the timing correspondence between executed and imagined movements during a pointing task, involving strong spatiotemporal constraints (speed/accuracy trade-off paradigm). Results: Compared to controls, depressed patients showed marked motor slowing on both actual and imagined movements. Furthermore, we observed greater temporal discrepancies between actual and mental movements in depressed patients than in healthy controls. Lastly, depressed patients modulated, to some extent, mental movement durations according to the difficulty of the task, but this modulation was not as strong as that of healthy subjects. Conclusion: These results suggest that unipolar depression significantly affects the higher stages of action planning and point out a selective decline of motor prediction. PMID:25538580

  1. Mental representation and motor imagery training

    PubMed Central

    Schack, Thomas; Essig, Kai; Frank, Cornelia; Koester, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Research in sports, dance and rehabilitation has shown that basic action concepts (BACs) are fundamental building blocks of mental action representations. BACs are based on chunked body postures related to common functions for realizing action goals. In this paper, we outline issues in research methodology and an experimental method, the structural dimensional analysis of mental representation (SDA-M), to assess action-relevant representational structures that reflect the organization of BACs. The SDA-M reveals a strong relationship between cognitive representation and performance if complex actions are performed. We show how the SDA-M can improve motor imagery training and how it contributes to our understanding of coaching processes. The SDA-M capitalizes on the objective measurement of individual mental movement representations before training and the integration of these results into the motor imagery training. Such motor imagery training based on mental representations (MTMR) has been applied successfully in professional sports such as golf, volleyball, gymnastics, windsurfing, and recently in the rehabilitation of patients who have suffered a stroke. PMID:24904368

  2. A Knowledge-Based Imagery Exploitation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyrniotis, Chuck; Payton, Paul M.; Barrett, Eamon B.

    1989-03-01

    Automation of major portions of the imagery exploitation process is becoming a necessity for meeting current and future imagery exploitation needs. In this paper we describe a prototype Automated Exploitation System (AES) which addresses requirements for monitoring objects of interest and situation assessment in large geographic areas. The purpose of AES is to aid the image analyst in performing routine, commonplace tasks more effectively. AES consists of four main subsystems: Cue Extractor (CE), Knowledge-Based Exploitation (KBE), Interactive Work-Station (IWS), and a database subsystem. The CE processes raw image data, and identifies objects and target cues based on pixel- and object-model data. Cues and image registration coefficients are passed to KBE for screening and verification, situation assessment and planning. KBE combines the cues with ground-truth and doctrinal knowledge in screening the cues to determine their importance. KBE generates reports on image analysis which passes on to the IWS from which an image analyst can monitor, observe, and evaluate system functionality as well as respond to critical items identified by KBE. The database subsystem stores and shares reference imagery, collateral information and digital terrain data to support both automated and interactive processing. This partitioning of functions to subsystems facilitates hierarchical application of knowledge in image interpretation. The AES current prototype helps in identification, capture, representation, and refinement of knowledge. The KBE subsystem, which is the primary focus of the present paper, runs on a Symbolics 3675 computer and its software is written in the ART expert system and LISP language.

  3. Acquiring functional object knowledge through motor imagery?

    PubMed

    Paulus, Markus; van Elk, Michiel; Bekkering, Harold

    2012-04-01

    A widely investigated question in the research on the acquisition of novel functional object representations is the role of the action system. Whereas most studies so far have investigated the role of active action training on the acquisition of object representation, we investigated whether people are able to acquire object representations by just imagining the use of novel objects, given that previous findings suggested that executed and imagined actions share a common representational format. To this end, participants trained the use of novel objects in a motor imagery condition. Training comprised the particular grip applied to the objects and the objects' typical end location. Subsequently, participants' object representations were assessed by means of an object detection task. The results show that participants responded slower when the novel objects were presented at functionally incorrect end locations, indicating that the participants had acquired functional knowledge about object use. Yet, there was no effect of correct versus incorrect grip. Altogether, the findings suggest that motor imagery can facilitate the acquisition of novel object representations, but point also to differences between first-hand action training and training by imagery.

  4. A Conserved Mode of Protein Recognition and Binding in a ParD−ParE Toxin−Antitoxin Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, Kevin M.; Crosson, Sean

    2010-05-06

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems form a ubiquitous class of prokaryotic proteins with functional roles in plasmid inheritance, environmental stress response, and cell development. ParDE family TA systems are broadly conserved on plasmids and bacterial chromosomes and have been well characterized as genetic elements that promote stable plasmid inheritance. We present a crystal structure of a chromosomally encoded ParD-ParE complex from Caulobacter crescentus at 2.6 {angstrom} resolution. This TA system forms an {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 2} heterotetramer in the crystal and in solution. The toxin-antitoxin binding interface reveals extensive polar and hydrophobic contacts of ParD antitoxin helices with a conserved recognition and binding groove on the ParE toxin. A cross-species comparison of this complex structure with related toxin structures identified an antitoxin recognition and binding subdomain that is conserved between distantly related members of the RelE/ParE toxin superfamily despite a low level of overall primary sequence identity. We further demonstrate that ParD antitoxin is dimeric, stably folded, and largely helical when not bound to ParE toxin. Thus, the paradigmatic model in which antitoxin undergoes a disorder-to-order transition upon toxin binding does not apply to this chromosomal ParD-ParE TA system.

  5. Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) signalling desensitization is counteracted via PAR4 signalling in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Fälker, Knut; Haglund, Linda; Gunnarsson, Peter; Nylander, Martina; Lindahl, Tomas L; Grenegård, Magnus

    2011-06-01

    PARs (protease-activated receptors) 1 and 4 belong to the family of G-protein-coupled receptors which induce both G(α12/13) and G(αq) signalling. By applying the specific PAR1- and PAR4-activating hexapeptides, SFLLRN and AYPGKF respectively, we found that aggregation of isolated human platelets mediated via PAR1, but not via PAR4, is abolished upon homologous receptor activation in a concentration- and time-dependent fashion. This effect was not due to receptor internalization, but to a decrease in Ca²⁺ mobilization, PKC (protein kinase C) signalling and α-granule secretion, as well as to a complete lack of dense granule secretion. Interestingly, subthreshold PAR4 activation rapidly abrogated PAR1 signalling desensitization by differentially reconstituting these affected signalling events and functional responses, which was sufficient to re-establish aggregation. The lack of ADP release and P2Y₁₂ receptor-induced G(αi) signalling accounted for the loss of the aggregation response, as mimicking G(αi/z) signalling with 2-MeS-ADP (2-methylthioadenosine-5'-O-diphosphate) or epinephrine (adrenaline) could substitute for intermediate PAR4 activation. Finally, we found that the re-sensitization of PAR1 signalling-induced aggregation via PAR4 relied on PKC-mediated release of both ADP from dense granules and fibrinogen from α-granules. The present study elucidates further differences in human platelet PAR signalling regulation and provides evidence for a cross-talk in which PAR4 signalling counteracts mechanisms involved in PAR1 signalling down-regulation. PMID:21391917

  6. Threat object identification performance for LADAR imagery: comparison of 2-dimensional versus 3-dimensional imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Matthew A.; Driggers, Ronald G.; Redman, Brian; Krapels, Keith A.

    2006-05-01

    This research was conducted to determine the change in human observer range performance when LADAR imagery is presented in stereo 3D vice 2D. It compares the ability of observers to correctly identify twelve common threatening and non-threatening single-handed objects (e.g. a pistol versus a cell phone). Images were collected with the Army Research Lab/Office of Naval Research (ARL/ONR) Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) Imaging LADAR. A perception experiment, utilizing both military and civilian observers, presented subjects with images of varying angular resolutions. The results of this experiment were used to create identification performance curves for the 2D and 3D imagery, which show probability of identification as a function of range. Analysis of the results indicates that there is no evidence of a statistically significant difference in performance between 2D and 3D imagery.

  7. Apoptosis and Tumor Resistance Conferred by Par-4

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanming; Rangnekar, Vivek M.

    2009-01-01

    Par-4 is a tumor suppressor protein with a pro-apoptotic function. Epigenetic silencing of Par-4 is seen in diverse tumors, and Par-4 knockout mice develop spontaneous tumors in various tissues. Endogenous Par-4 is essential for sensitization of cells to diverse apoptotic stimuli, whereas ectopic expression of Par-4 can selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells. The cancer-specific pro-apoptotic action of Par-4 resides in its centrally located SAC domain. This chapter reviews a novel mouse model with ubiquitous expression of the SAC domain. These SAC transgenic mice display normal development and life span, and, most importantly, are resistant to spontaneous, as well as oncogene-induced, autochthonous tumors. The tumor resistant phenotype and undetectable toxicity of SAC in vivo suggests the SAC domain possesses tremendous therapeutic potential. PMID:18836307

  8. Use of ERTS-1 imagery in forest inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rennie, J. C.; Birth, E. E.

    1974-01-01

    The utility of ERTS-1 imagery when combined with field observations and with aircraft imagery and field observations is evaluated. Satellite imagery consisted of 9-1/2 inch black and white negatives of four multispectral scanner bands taken over Polk County, Tennessee. Aircraft imagery was obtained by a C-130 flying at 23,000 ft over the same area and provided the basis for locating ground plots for field observations. Correspondence between aircraft and satellite imagery was somewhat inaccurate due to seasonal differences in observations and lack of good photogrammetry with the data processing system used. Better correspondence was found between satellite imagery and ground observations. Ways to obtain more accurate data are discussed, and comparisons between aircraft and satellite observations are tabulated.

  9. Imagery for Self-Healing and Integrative Nursing Practice.

    PubMed

    Kubes, Laurie F

    2015-11-01

    Imagery has been used as a healing practice since ancient times. Its reemergence in modern medicine began in the second half of the 20th century, when research suggested that imagery could help reduce patients' pain and anxiety and improve their quality of life and outlook on their illness. While current evidence is insufficient to support claims that imagery affects disease progression, research suggests that this method of inducing relaxation encourages patients' healing process and gives them a greater sense of autonomy in relation to disease and its management. Because imagery is noninvasive, the risks associated with its use are minimal and it is now widely used in integrative nursing. The author discusses imagery's uses and benefits, as well as the potential pitfalls in its use, and describes an imagery technique she has found effective in practice, providing a sample script and explaining how the technique might be used to help patients in various settings.

  10. Tobacco imagery on New Zealand television 2002–2004

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Rob; Ketchel, Juanita

    2006-01-01

    Considerable emphasis has been placed on the importance of tobacco imagery in the movies as one of the “drivers” of smoking among young people. Findings are presented from a content analysis of 98 hours of prime‐time programming on New Zealand television 2004, identifying 152 scenes with tobacco imagery, and selected characteristics of those scenes. About one in four programmes contained tobacco imagery, most of which might be regarded as “neutral or positive”. This amounted to about two scenes containing such imagery for every hour of programming. A comparison with our earlier content analysis of programming in 2002 indicated little change in the level of tobacco imagery. The effect of this imagery in contributing to young viewers taking up smoking, and sustaining the addiction among those already smoking, deserves more research attention. PMID:16998178

  11. Imagery about suicide in depression—“Flash-forwards”?

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Emily. A.; Crane, Catherine; Fennell, Melanie J.V.; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2007-01-01

    Suicide is a significant world health problem, with more deaths by suicide globally than by war. We need to better understand the cognitive processes underlying suicidal thinking for improved treatment development. Cognitive psychology indicates that mental imagery can be causal in determining future behavior, yet the occurrence of suicide-related imagery has not previously been investigated. Interviews with 15 depressed and formerly suicidal patients in remission found that all patients reported experiencing detailed mental imagery in addition to verbal thoughts when at their most despairing, for example images of making a future suicide attempt. A clinical measure of the severity of suicidal ideation was associated with both preoccupation with suicide-related imagery and perceived imagery realness. Echoing flashbacks in posttraumatic stress disorder, the current images appeared like “flash-forwards” to suicide. These results provide the first data to our knowledge on the existence of mental imagery in suicidality, opening a promising new avenue for research. PMID:18037390

  12. When does imagery practice enhance performance on a motor task?

    PubMed

    Bohan, M; Pharmer, J A; Stokes, A F

    1999-04-01

    Imagery practice of motor tasks has been recommended for a wide range of activities as from flight training to basketball. A key question, both from a practical and a theoretical standpoint, is when during the learning process does imagery practice confer the most benefit? However, the literature does not provide clear guidance, in part because of methodological limitations. A 3 x 2 (physical practice x pretest-posttest) split-plot design was employed to investigate the effects of imagery practice on the acquisition of a discrete target at three different stages of learning. Analysis indicated that imagery practice was most beneficial in the early stages of learning and showed an inverse relationship between experience and efficacy of imagery practice. Results are discussed in terms of current theories of imagery practice and suggestions are made regarding when such practice might be best applied during skill development.

  13. A new model for estimating boreal forest fPAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majasalmi, Titta; Rautiainen, Miina; Stenberg, Pauline

    2014-05-01

    Life on Earth is continuously sustained by the extraterrestrial flux of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) from the sun. This flux is converted to biomass by chloroplasts in green vegetation. Thus, the fraction of absorbed PAR (fPAR) is a key parameter used in carbon balance studies, and is listed as one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV). Temporal courses of fPAR for boreal forests are difficult to measure, because of the complex 3D structures. Thus, they are most often estimated based on models which quantify the dependency of absorbed radiation on canopy structure. In this study, we adapted a physically-based canopy radiation model into a fPAR model, and compared modeled and measured fPAR in structurally different boreal forest stands. The model is based on the spectral invariants theory, and uses leaf area index (LAI), canopy gap fractions and spectra of foliage and understory as input data. The model differs from previously developed more detailed fPAR models in that the complex 3D structure of coniferous forests is described using an aggregated canopy parameter - photon recollision probability p. The strength of the model is that all model inputs are measurable or available through other simple models. First, the model was validated with measurements of instantaneous fPAR obtained with the TRAC instrument in nine Scots pine, Norway spruce and Silver birch stands in a boreal forest in southern Finland. Good agreement was found between modeled and measured fPAR. Next, we applied the model to predict temporal courses of fPAR using data on incoming radiation from a nearby flux tower and sky irradiance models. Application of the model to simulate diurnal and seasonal values of fPAR indicated that the ratio of direct-to-total incident radiation and leaf area index are the key factors behind the magnitude and variation of stand-level fPAR values.

  14. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians' encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies), and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies). Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning) or performing without sound (motor learning); following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall). During either Learning (Experiment 1) or Recall (Experiment 2), pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced) and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals) were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists' pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2). Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1): Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2): Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the presence of

  15. Boundary-detection algorithm for locating edges in digital imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I. (Principal Investigator); Russell, M. J.; Moore, D. G.; Nelson, G. D.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Initial development of a computer program which implements a boundary detection algorithm to detect edges in digital images is described. An evaluation of the boundary detection algorithm was conducted to locate boundaries of lakes from LANDSAT-1 imagery. The accuracy of the boundary detection algorithm was determined by comparing the area within boundaries of lakes located using digitized LANDSAT imagery with the area of the same lakes planimetered from imagery collected from an aircraft platform.

  16. Homosexual imagery in print advertisements: attended, remembered, but disliked.

    PubMed

    Angelini, James R; Bradley, Samuel D

    2010-01-01

    This study examines whether print advertisements featuring homosexual imagery elicit greater attention and recall while eliciting more negative responses than advertisements featuring heterosexual images. Data indicate that these advertisements were indeed better remembered and required more time to cognitively process, likely because of the advertisement's imagery being inconsistent with existing gender schema. Other responses demonstrated that homosexual imagery negatively impacted opinions about the advertisement itself and the brand featured, and elicited more negative self-reported valence and arousal. PMID:20391007

  17. Delineation of major soil associations using ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, W. L.; Bodenheimer, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The delineation of a major soil association in the loess region of Obion County has been accomplished using ERTS-1 imagery. Channel 7 provides the clearest differentiation. The separation of other smaller soil associations in an intensive row crop agricultural area is somewhat more difficult. Soil differentiation has been accomplished visually as well as electronically using a scanning microdensitometer. Lower altitude aircraft imagery permits a more refined soil association identification and where imagery is of sufficient scale, even individual soils may be identified.

  18. High-resolution imagery applications in the littorals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abileah, Ronald

    2001-12-01

    We focus on three applications of high-resolution imagery in the littorals: mapping bathymetry, monitoring the health of coral reefs, and taking censuses of marine mammals. All three applications show the importance and potential benefits of higher-resolution imagery. Increased radiometric sensitivity and the simultaneous collection of panchromatic and multispectral imagery are also important. An Ikonos image of Maui is used to demonstrate these applications. We also briefly explain some important differences between multispectral remote sensing over water and land.

  19. 2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

  20. Neuronal correlates of perception, imagery, and memory for familiar tunes.

    PubMed

    Herholz, Sibylle C; Halpern, Andrea R; Zatorre, Robert J

    2012-06-01

    We used fMRI to investigate the neuronal correlates of encoding and recognizing heard and imagined melodies. Ten participants were shown lyrics of familiar verbal tunes; they either heard the tune along with the lyrics, or they had to imagine it. In a subsequent surprise recognition test, they had to identify the titles of tunes that they had heard or imagined earlier. The functional data showed substantial overlap during melody perception and imagery, including secondary auditory areas. During imagery compared with perception, an extended network including pFC, SMA, intraparietal sulcus, and cerebellum showed increased activity, in line with the increased processing demands of imagery. Functional connectivity of anterior right temporal cortex with frontal areas was increased during imagery compared with perception, indicating that these areas form an imagery-related network. Activity in right superior temporal gyrus and pFC was correlated with the subjective rating of imagery vividness. Similar to the encoding phase, the recognition task recruited overlapping areas, including inferior frontal cortex associated with memory retrieval, as well as left middle temporal gyrus. The results present new evidence for the cortical network underlying goal-directed auditory imagery, with a prominent role of the right pFC both for the subjective impression of imagery vividness and for on-line mental monitoring of imagery-related activity in auditory areas. PMID:22360595

  1. Closing the mind's eye: incoming luminance signals disrupt visual imagery.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Rachel; Pearson, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Mental imagery has been associated with many cognitive functions, both high and low-level. Despite recent scientific advances, the contextual and environmental conditions that most affect the mechanisms of visual imagery remain unclear. It has been previously shown that the greater the level of background luminance the weaker the effect of imagery on subsequent perception. However, in these experiments it was unclear whether the luminance was affecting imagery generation or storage of a memory trace. Here, we report that background luminance can attenuate both mental imagery generation and imagery storage during an unrelated cognitive task. However, imagery generation was more sensitive to the degree of luminance. In addition, we show that these findings were not due to differential dark adaptation. These results suggest that afferent visual signals can interfere with both the formation and priming-memory effects associated with visual imagery. It follows that background luminance may be a valuable tool for investigating imagery and its role in various cognitive and sensory processes.

  2. Effet de la composition des materiaux composites sur la caracterisation et detection par ondes de Lamb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostiguy, Pierre-Claude

    Les matériaux composites sont de plus en plus utilisés en aéronautique. Leurs excellentes propriétés mécaniques et leur faible poids leur procurent un avantage certain par rapport aux matériaux métalliques. Ceux-ci étant soumis à diverses conditions de chargement et environnementales, ils sont suceptibles de subir plusieurs types d'endommagements, compromettant leur intégrité. Des méthodes fiables d'inspection sont donc nécessaires pour évaluer leur intégrité. Néanmoins, peu d'approches non destructives, embarquées et efficaces sont présentement utilisées. Ce travail de recherche se penche sur l'étude de l'effet de la composition des matériaux composites sur la détection et la caractérisation par ondes guidées. L'objectif du projet est de développer une approche de caractérisation mécanique embarquée permettant d'améliorer la performance d'une approche d'imagerie par antenne piézoélectriques sur des structures composite et métalliques. La contribution de ce projet est de proposer une approche embarquée de caractérisation mécanique par ultrasons qui ne requiert pas une mesure sur une multitude d'échantillons et qui est non destructive. Ce mémoire par articles est divisé en quatre parties, dont les parties deux A quatre présentant les articles publiés et soumis. La première partie présente l'état des connaissances dans la matière nécessaires à l'acomplissement de ce projet de maîtrise. Les principaux sujets traités portent sur les matériaux composites, propagation d'ondes, la modélisation des ondes guidées, la caractérisation par ondes guidées et la surveillance embarquée des structures. La deuxième partie présente une étude de l'effet des propriétés mécaniques sur la performance de l'algorithme d'imagerie Excitelet. L'étude est faite sur une structure isotrope. Les résultats ont démontré que l'algorithme est sensible à l'exactitude des propriétés mécaniques utilisées dans le modèle. Cette

  3. Source Memory for Mental Imagery: Influences of the Stimuli's Ease of Imagery.

    PubMed

    Krefeld-Schwalb, Antonia; Ellis, Andrew W; Oswald, Margit E

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how ease of imagery influences source monitoring accuracy. Two experiments were conducted in order to examine how ease of imagery influences the probability of source confusions of perceived and imagined completions of natural symmetric shapes. The stimuli consisted of binary pictures of natural objects, namely symmetric pictures of birds, butterflies, insects, and leaves. The ease of imagery (indicating the similarity of the sources) and the discriminability (indicating the similarity of the items) of each stimulus were estimated in a pretest and included as predictors of the memory performance for these stimuli. It was found that confusion of the sources becomes more likely when the imagery process was relatively easy. However, if the different processes of source monitoring-item memory, source memory and guessing biases-are disentangled, both experiments support the assumption that the effect of decreased source memory for easily imagined stimuli is due to decision processes and misinformation at retrieval rather than encoding processes and memory retention. The data were modeled with a Bayesian hierarchical implementation of the one high threshold source monitoring model.

  4. Source Memory for Mental Imagery: Influences of the Stimuli’s Ease of Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Krefeld-Schwalb, Antonia; Ellis, Andrew W.; Oswald, Margit E.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how ease of imagery influences source monitoring accuracy. Two experiments were conducted in order to examine how ease of imagery influences the probability of source confusions of perceived and imagined completions of natural symmetric shapes. The stimuli consisted of binary pictures of natural objects, namely symmetric pictures of birds, butterflies, insects, and leaves. The ease of imagery (indicating the similarity of the sources) and the discriminability (indicating the similarity of the items) of each stimulus were estimated in a pretest and included as predictors of the memory performance for these stimuli. It was found that confusion of the sources becomes more likely when the imagery process was relatively easy. However, if the different processes of source monitoring—item memory, source memory and guessing biases—are disentangled, both experiments support the assumption that the effect of decreased source memory for easily imagined stimuli is due to decision processes and misinformation at retrieval rather than encoding processes and memory retention. The data were modeled with a Bayesian hierarchical implementation of the one high threshold source monitoring model. PMID:26606752

  5. Transcriptome profiling reveals links between ParS/ParR, MexEF-OprN, and quorum sensing in the regulation of adaptation and virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ParS/ParR two component regulatory system plays critical roles for multidrug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It was demonstrated that in the presence of antimicrobials, ParR enhances bacterial survival by distinct mechanisms including activation of the mexXY efflux genes, enhancement of lipopolysaccharide modification through the arn operon, and reduction of the expression of oprD porin. Results In this study, we report on transcriptomic analyses of P. aeruginosa PAO1 wild type and parS and parR mutants growing in a defined minimal medium. Our transcriptomic analysis provides the first estimates of transcript abundance for the 5570 coding genes in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Comparative transcriptomics of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and par mutants identified a total of 464 genes regulated by ParS and ParR. Results also showed that mutations in the parS/parR system abolished expression of the mexEF-oprN operon by down-regulating the regulatory gene mexS. In addition to the known effects on drug resistance genes, transcript abundances of the quorum sensing genes (rhlIR and pqsABCDE-phnAB) were higher in both parS and parR mutants. In accordance with these results, a significant portion of the ParS/ParR regulated genes belonged to the MexEF-OprN and quorum sensing regulons. Deletion of the par genes also led to increased phenazine production and swarming motility, consistent with the up-regulation of the phenazine and rhamnolipid biosynthetic genes, respectively. Conclusion Our results link the ParS/ParR two component signal transduction system to MexEF-OprN and quorum sensing systems in P. aeruginosa. These results expand our understanding of the roles of the ParS/ParR system in the regulation of gene expression in P. aeruginosa, especially in the absence of antimicrobials. PMID:24034668

  6. Mental imagery for musical changes in loudness.

    PubMed

    Bailes, Freya; Bishop, Laura; Stevens, Catherine J; Dean, Roger T

    2012-01-01

    Musicians imagine music during mental rehearsal, when reading from a score, and while composing. An important characteristic of music is its temporality. Among the parameters that vary through time is sound intensity, perceived as patterns of loudness. Studies of mental imagery for melodies (i.e., pitch and rhythm) show interference from concurrent musical pitch and verbal tasks, but how we represent musical changes in loudness is unclear. Theories suggest that our perceptions of loudness change relate to our perceptions of force or effort, implying a motor representation. An experiment was conducted to investigate the modalities that contribute to imagery for loudness change. Musicians performed a within-subjects loudness change recall task, comprising 48 trials. First, participants heard a musical scale played with varying patterns of loudness, which they were asked to remember. There followed an empty interval of 8 s (nil distractor control), or the presentation of a series of four sine tones, or four visual letters or three conductor gestures, also to be remembered. Participants then saw an unfolding score of the notes of the scale, during which they were to imagine the corresponding scale in their mind while adjusting a slider to indicate the imagined changes in loudness. Finally, participants performed a recognition task of the tone, letter, or gesture sequence. Based on the motor hypothesis, we predicted that observing and remembering conductor gestures would impair loudness change scale recall, while observing and remembering tone or letter string stimuli would not. Results support this prediction, with loudness change recalled less accurately in the gestures condition than in the control condition. An effect of musical training suggests that auditory and motor imagery ability may be closely related to domain expertise. PMID:23227014

  7. D Surface Generation from Aerial Thermal Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodaei, B.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadras Javan, F.; Hasani, H.

    2015-12-01

    Aerial thermal imagery has been recently applied to quantitative analysis of several scenes. For the mapping purpose based on aerial thermal imagery, high accuracy photogrammetric process is necessary. However, due to low geometric resolution and low contrast of thermal imaging sensors, there are some challenges in precise 3D measurement of objects. In this paper the potential of thermal video in 3D surface generation is evaluated. In the pre-processing step, thermal camera is geometrically calibrated using a calibration grid based on emissivity differences between the background and the targets. Then, Digital Surface Model (DSM) generation from thermal video imagery is performed in four steps. Initially, frames are extracted from video, then tie points are generated by Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm. Bundle adjustment is then applied and the camera position and orientation parameters are determined. Finally, multi-resolution dense image matching algorithm is used to create 3D point cloud of the scene. Potential of the proposed method is evaluated based on thermal imaging cover an industrial area. The thermal camera has 640×480 Uncooled Focal Plane Array (UFPA) sensor, equipped with a 25 mm lens which mounted in the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The obtained results show the comparable accuracy of 3D model generated based on thermal images with respect to DSM generated from visible images, however thermal based DSM is somehow smoother with lower level of texture. Comparing the generated DSM with the 9 measured GCPs in the area shows the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) value is smaller than 5 decimetres in both X and Y directions and 1.6 meters for the Z direction.

  8. High-Resolution Radar Imagery of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, John K.; Nolan, M. C.

    2009-09-01

    We present high-resolution radar images of Mars obtained during the 2005 and 2007 oppositions. The images were constructed from long-code delay-Doppler observations made with the Arecibo S-band (13-cm) radar. The average image resolution of 3 km represented a better than order-of-magnitude improvement over pre-upgrade Arecibo imagery of the planet. Images of depolarized reflectivity (an indicator primarily of wavelength-scale surface roughness) show the same bright volcanic flow features seen in earlier imagery, but with much finer detail. A new image of the Elysium region shows fine detail in the radar-bright channels of Athabasca Vallis, Marte Vallis, and Grjota Vallis. The new images of Tharsis and Olympus Mons also show a complex array of radar-bright and radar-dark features. Southern Amazonis exhibits some of the most complex and puzzling radar-bright structure on the planet. Another curiosity is the Chryse/Xanthe/Channels region, where we find some radar-bright features in or adjacent to fluvial chaos structures. Chryse/Xanthe is also the only region of Mars showing radar-bright craters (which are rare on Mars but common on the Moon and Mercury). We also obtained the first delay-Doppler image showing the enhanced backscatter from the residual south polar ice cap. In addition to the depolarized imagery, we were able to make the first delay-Doppler images of the circular polarization ratio (an important diagnostic for surface roughness texture). We find that vast areas of the radar-bright volcanic regions have polarization ratios close to unity. Such high ratios are rare for terrestrial lava flows and only seen for extremely blocky surfaces giving high levels of multiple scattering.

  9. Mental Imagery Affects Subsequent Automatic Defense Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hagenaars, Muriel A.; Mesbah, Rahele; Cremers, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Automatic defense responses promote survival and appropriate action under threat. They have also been associated with the development of threat-related psychiatric syndromes. Targeting such automatic responses during threat may be useful in populations with frequent threat exposure. Here, two experiments explored whether mental imagery as a pre-trauma manipulation could influence fear bradycardia (a core characteristic of freezing) during subsequent analog trauma (affective picture viewing). Image-based interventions have proven successful in the treatment of threat-related disorders and are easily applicable. In Experiment 1, 43 healthy participants were randomly assigned to an imagery script condition. Participants executed a passive viewing task with blocks of neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures after listening to an auditory script that was either related (with a positive or a negative outcome) or unrelated to the unpleasant pictures from the passive viewing task. Heart rate was assessed during script listening and during passive viewing. Imagining negative related scripts resulted in greater bradycardia (neutral-unpleasant contrast) than imagining positive scripts, especially unrelated. This effect was replicated in Experiment 2 (n = 51), again in the neutral-unpleasant contrast. An extra no-script condition showed that bradycardia was not induced by the negative-related script, but rather that a positive script attenuated bradycardia. These preliminary results might indicate reduced vigilance after unrelated positive events. Future research should replicate these findings using a larger sample. Either way, the findings show that highly automatic defense behavior can be influenced by relatively simple mental imagery manipulations. PMID:26089801

  10. Mechanism of DNA Segregation in Prokaryotes: Replicon Pairing by parC of Plasmid R1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bugge; Lurz, Rudi; Gerdes, Kenn

    1998-07-01

    Prokaryotic chromosomes and plasmids encode partitioning systems that are required for DNA segregation at cell division. The systems are thought to be functionally analogous to eukaryotic centromeres and to play a general role in DNA segregation. The parA system of plasmid R1 encodes two proteins ParM and ParR, and a cis-acting centromere-like site denoted parC. The ParR protein binds to parC in vivo and in vitro. The ParM protein is an ATPase that interacts with ParR specifically bound to parC. Using electron microscopy, we show here that parC mediates efficient pairing of plasmid molecules. The pairing requires binding of ParR to parC and is stimulated by the ParM ATPase. The ParM mediated stimulation of plasmid pairing is dependent on ATP hydrolysis by ParM. Using a ligation kinetics assay, we find that ParR stimulates ligation of parC-containing DNA fragments. The rate-of-ligation was increased by wild type ParM protein but not by mutant ParM protein deficient in the ATPase activity. Thus, two independent assays show that parC mediates pairing of plasmid molecules in vitro. These results are consistent with the proposal that replicon pairing is part of the mechanism of DNA segregation in prokaryotes.

  11. Photogrammetry of the Viking-Lander imagery.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, S.S.C.; Schafer, F.J.

    1982-01-01

    We have solved the problem of photogrammetric mapping from the Viking Lander photography in two ways: 1) by converting the azimuth and elevation scanning imagery to the equivalent of a frame picture by means of computerized rectification; and 2) by interfacing a high-speed, general-purpose computer to the AS-11A analytical plotter so that all computations of corrections can be performed in real time during the process of model orientation and map compilation. Examples are presented of photographs and maps of Earth and Mars. -from Authors

  12. Barrier Island Shorelines Extracted from Landsat Imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guy, Kristy K.

    2015-10-13

    The shoreline is a common variable used as a metric for coastal erosion or change (Himmelstoss and others, 2010). Although shorelines are often extracted from topographic data (for example, ground-based surveys and light detection and ranging [lidar]), image-based shorelines, corrected for their inherent uncertainties (Moore and others, 2006), have provided much of our understanding of long-term shoreline change because they pre-date routine lidar elevation survey methods. Image-based shorelines continue to be valuable because of their higher temporal resolution compared to costly airborne lidar surveys. A method for extracting sandy shorelines from 30-meter (m) resolution Landsat imagery is presented here.

  13. Common mechanisms of visual imagery and perception.

    PubMed

    Ishai, A; Sagi, D

    1995-06-23

    Detection of a visual target can be facilitated by flanking visual masks. A similar enhancement in detection thresholds was obtained when observers imagined the previously perceived masks. Imagery-induced facilitation was detected for as long as 5 minutes after observation of the masks by the targeted eye. These results indicated the existence of a low-level (monocular) memory that stores the sensory trace for several minutes and enables reactivation of early representations by higher processes. This memory, with its iconic nature, may subserve the interface between mental images and percepts.

  14. Teaching Fair Use with Astronomy Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism among students is most common because of a misunderstanding of copyright and fair use. Images and text are frequently used without proper credit to the original author, and works are frequently acknowledged improperly. For example, space imagery is often used in posters, presentations, on the web, on Facebook, and even in the classrooms, but often are not properly cited. A lesson plan on fair use is presented, outlining what constitutes fair use and how to properly acknowledge the work done by artists and authors everywhere, with examples drawn from the Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD).

  15. Barrier Island Shorelines Extracted from Landsat Imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guy, Kristy K.

    2015-01-01

    The shoreline is a common variable used as a metric for coastal erosion or change (Himmelstoss and others, 2010). Although shorelines are often extracted from topographic data (for example, ground-based surveys and light detection and ranging [lidar]), image-based shorelines, corrected for their inherent uncertainties (Moore and others, 2006), have provided much of our understanding of long-term shoreline change because they pre-date routine lidar elevation survey methods. Image-based shorelines continue to be valuable because of their higher temporal resolution compared to costly airborne lidar surveys. A method for extracting sandy shorelines from 30-meter (m) resolution Landsat imagery is presented here.

  16. Proteases in agricultural dust induce lung inflammation through PAR-1 and PAR-2 activation.

    PubMed

    Romberger, Debra J; Heires, Art J; Nordgren, Tara M; Souder, Chelsea P; West, William; Liu, Xiang-de; Poole, Jill A; Toews, Myron L; Wyatt, Todd A

    2015-08-15

    Workers exposed to aerosolized dust present in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are susceptible to inflammatory lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Extracts of dust collected from hog CAFOs [hog dust extract (HDE)] are potent stimulators of lung inflammatory responses in several model systems. The observation that HDE contains active proteases prompted the present study, which evaluated the role of CAFO dust proteases in lung inflammatory processes and tested whether protease-activated receptors (PARs) are involved in the signaling pathway for these events. We hypothesized that the damaging proinflammatory effect of HDE is due, in part, to the proteolytic activation of PARs, and inhibiting the proteases in HDE or disrupting PAR activation would attenuate HDE-mediated inflammatory indexes in bronchial epithelial cells (BECs), in mouse lung slices in vitro, and in a murine in vivo exposure model. Human BECs and mouse lung slice cultures stimulated with 5% HDE released significantly more of each of the cytokines measured (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, keratinocyte-derived chemokine/CXC chemokine ligand 1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2/CXC chemokine ligand 2) than controls, and these effects were markedly diminished by protease inhibition. Inhibition of PARs also blunted the HDE-induced cytokine release from BECs. In addition, protease depletion inhibited HDE-induced BEC intracellular PKCα and PKCε activation. C57BL/6J mice administered 12.5% HDE intranasally, either once or daily for 3 wk, exhibited increased total cellular and neutrophil influx, bronchial alveolar fluid inflammatory cytokines, lung histopathology, and inflammatory scores compared with mice receiving protease-depleted HDE. These data suggest that proteases in dust from CAFOs are important mediators of lung inflammation, and these proteases and their receptors may provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention in CAFO dust-induced airways disease.

  17. Proteases in agricultural dust induce lung inflammation through PAR-1 and PAR-2 activation.

    PubMed

    Romberger, Debra J; Heires, Art J; Nordgren, Tara M; Souder, Chelsea P; West, William; Liu, Xiang-de; Poole, Jill A; Toews, Myron L; Wyatt, Todd A

    2015-08-15

    Workers exposed to aerosolized dust present in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are susceptible to inflammatory lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Extracts of dust collected from hog CAFOs [hog dust extract (HDE)] are potent stimulators of lung inflammatory responses in several model systems. The observation that HDE contains active proteases prompted the present study, which evaluated the role of CAFO dust proteases in lung inflammatory processes and tested whether protease-activated receptors (PARs) are involved in the signaling pathway for these events. We hypothesized that the damaging proinflammatory effect of HDE is due, in part, to the proteolytic activation of PARs, and inhibiting the proteases in HDE or disrupting PAR activation would attenuate HDE-mediated inflammatory indexes in bronchial epithelial cells (BECs), in mouse lung slices in vitro, and in a murine in vivo exposure model. Human BECs and mouse lung slice cultures stimulated with 5% HDE released significantly more of each of the cytokines measured (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, keratinocyte-derived chemokine/CXC chemokine ligand 1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2/CXC chemokine ligand 2) than controls, and these effects were markedly diminished by protease inhibition. Inhibition of PARs also blunted the HDE-induced cytokine release from BECs. In addition, protease depletion inhibited HDE-induced BEC intracellular PKCα and PKCε activation. C57BL/6J mice administered 12.5% HDE intranasally, either once or daily for 3 wk, exhibited increased total cellular and neutrophil influx, bronchial alveolar fluid inflammatory cytokines, lung histopathology, and inflammatory scores compared with mice receiving protease-depleted HDE. These data suggest that proteases in dust from CAFOs are important mediators of lung inflammation, and these proteases and their receptors may provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention in CAFO dust-induced airways disease. PMID

  18. Proteases in agricultural dust induce lung inflammation through PAR-1 and PAR-2 activation

    PubMed Central

    Heires, Art J.; Nordgren, Tara M.; Souder, Chelsea P.; West, William; Liu, Xiang-de; Poole, Jill A.; Toews, Myron L.; Wyatt, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    Workers exposed to aerosolized dust present in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are susceptible to inflammatory lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Extracts of dust collected from hog CAFOs [hog dust extract (HDE)] are potent stimulators of lung inflammatory responses in several model systems. The observation that HDE contains active proteases prompted the present study, which evaluated the role of CAFO dust proteases in lung inflammatory processes and tested whether protease-activated receptors (PARs) are involved in the signaling pathway for these events. We hypothesized that the damaging proinflammatory effect of HDE is due, in part, to the proteolytic activation of PARs, and inhibiting the proteases in HDE or disrupting PAR activation would attenuate HDE-mediated inflammatory indexes in bronchial epithelial cells (BECs), in mouse lung slices in vitro, and in a murine in vivo exposure model. Human BECs and mouse lung slice cultures stimulated with 5% HDE released significantly more of each of the cytokines measured (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, keratinocyte-derived chemokine/CXC chemokine ligand 1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2/CXC chemokine ligand 2) than controls, and these effects were markedly diminished by protease inhibition. Inhibition of PARs also blunted the HDE-induced cytokine release from BECs. In addition, protease depletion inhibited HDE-induced BEC intracellular PKCα and PKCε activation. C57BL/6J mice administered 12.5% HDE intranasally, either once or daily for 3 wk, exhibited increased total cellular and neutrophil influx, bronchial alveolar fluid inflammatory cytokines, lung histopathology, and inflammatory scores compared with mice receiving protease-depleted HDE. These data suggest that proteases in dust from CAFOs are important mediators of lung inflammation, and these proteases and their receptors may provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention in CAFO dust-induced airways disease. PMID

  19. Improving Long-term Post-wildfire hydrologic simulations using ParFlow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, S. R.; Kinoshita, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfires alter the natural hydrologic processes within a watershed. After vegetation is burned, the combustion of organic material and debris settles into the soil creating a hydrophobic layer beneath the soil surface with varying degree of thickness and depth. Vegetation regrowth rates vary as a function of radiative exposure, burn severity, and precipitation patterns. Hydrologic models used by the Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams use input data and model calibration constraints that are generally either one-dimensional, empirically-based models, or two-dimensional, conceptually-based models with lumped parameter distributions. These models estimate runoff measurements at the watershed outlet; however, do not provide a distributed hydrologic simulation at each point within the watershed. This work uses ParFlow, a three-dimensional, distributed hydrologic model to (1) correlate burn severity with hydrophobicity, (2) evaluate vegetation recovery rate on water components, and (3) improve flood prediction for managers to help with resource allocation and management operations in burned watersheds. ParFlow is applied to Devil Canyon (43 km2) in San Bernardino, California, which was 97% burned in the 2003 Old Fire. The model set-up uses a 30m-cell size resolution over a 6.7 km by 6.4 km lateral extent. The subsurface reaches 30 m and is assigned a variable cell thickness. Variable subsurface thickness allows users to explicitly consider the degree of recovery throughout the stages of regrowth. Burn severity maps from remotely sensed imagery are used to assign initial hydrophobic layer parameters and thickness. Vegetation regrowth is represented with satellite an Enhanced Vegetation Index. Pre and post-fire hydrologic response is evaluated using runoff measurements at the watershed outlet, and using water component (overland flow, lateral flow, baseflow) measurements.

  20. The Role of Mental Imagery in Depression: Negative Mental Imagery Induces Strong Implicit and Explicit Affect in Depression.

    PubMed

    Görgen, Stefanie Maria; Joormann, Jutta; Hiller, Wolfgang; Witthöft, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Mental imagery, seeing with the mind's eyes, can induce stronger positive as well as negative affect compared to verbal processing. Given this emotion-amplifying effect, it appears likely that mental images play an important role in affective disorders. According to the subcomponents model of depression, depressed mood is maintained by both negative imagery (which amplifies negative mood) and less efficient positive imagery processes. Empirical research on the link between mental imagery and affect in clinical depression, however, is still sparse. This study aimed at testing the role of mental imagery in depression, using a modified version of the affect misattribution procedure (AMP) and the self-assessment manikin (SAM) to assess implicit (AMP) and explicit (SAM) affect elicited by mental images, pictures, and verbal processing in clinically depressed participants (n = 32) compared to healthy controls (n = 32). In individuals with a depressive disorder, compared to healthy controls, negative mental images induced stronger negative affect in the explicit as well as implicit measure. Negative mental imagery did not, however, elicit greater increases in explicitly and implicitly assessed negative affect compared to other processing modalities (verbal processing, pictures) in the depressed group. Additionally, a positive imagery deficit in depression was observed in the explicit measure. Interestingly, the two groups did not differ in implicitly assessed affect after positive imagery, indicating that depressed individuals might benefit from positive imagery on an implicit or automatic level. Overall, our findings suggest that mental imagery also plays an important role in depression and confirm the potential of novel treatment approaches for depression, such as the promotion of positive imagery. PMID:26217240

  1. The Role of Mental Imagery in Depression: Negative Mental Imagery Induces Strong Implicit and Explicit Affect in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Görgen, Stefanie Maria; Joormann, Jutta; Hiller, Wolfgang; Witthöft, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Mental imagery, seeing with the mind’s eyes, can induce stronger positive as well as negative affect compared to verbal processing. Given this emotion-amplifying effect, it appears likely that mental images play an important role in affective disorders. According to the subcomponents model of depression, depressed mood is maintained by both negative imagery (which amplifies negative mood) and less efficient positive imagery processes. Empirical research on the link between mental imagery and affect in clinical depression, however, is still sparse. This study aimed at testing the role of mental imagery in depression, using a modified version of the affect misattribution procedure (AMP) and the self-assessment manikin (SAM) to assess implicit (AMP) and explicit (SAM) affect elicited by mental images, pictures, and verbal processing in clinically depressed participants (n = 32) compared to healthy controls (n = 32). In individuals with a depressive disorder, compared to healthy controls, negative mental images induced stronger negative affect in the explicit as well as implicit measure. Negative mental imagery did not, however, elicit greater increases in explicitly and implicitly assessed negative affect compared to other processing modalities (verbal processing, pictures) in the depressed group. Additionally, a positive imagery deficit in depression was observed in the explicit measure. Interestingly, the two groups did not differ in implicitly assessed affect after positive imagery, indicating that depressed individuals might benefit from positive imagery on an implicit or automatic level. Overall, our findings suggest that mental imagery also plays an important role in depression and confirm the potential of novel treatment approaches for depression, such as the promotion of positive imagery. PMID:26217240

  2. Effects of Pretend Imagery on Learning Dance in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacha, Tori J.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2006-01-01

    Play is important in child development and learning. The intent of this study was to assess the effects of play, using physical movement and pretend imagery, on learning dance. Four preschool dance classes, encompassing 32 children ages 3-6, were randomly divided into pretend imagery groups and traditional teaching groups. The classes were…

  3. Geometric rectification of radar imagery using digital elevation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naraghi, M.; Stromberg, W.; Daily, M.

    1983-01-01

    Geologic analysis of radar imagery requires accurate spatial rectification to allow rock type discrimination and meaningful exploitation of multisensor data files. A procedure is described which removes distortions produced by most sources including the heretofore elusive problem of terrain induced effects. Rectified imagery is presented which displays geologic features not apparent in the distorted data.

  4. Small UAV-Acquired, High-resolution, Georeferenced Still Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan Hruska

    2005-09-01

    Currently, small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are primarily used for capturing and down-linking real-time video. To date, their role as a low-cost airborne platform for capturing high-resolution, georeferenced still imagery has not been fully utilized. On-going work within the Unmanned Vehicle Systems Program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is attempting to exploit this small UAV-acquired, still imagery potential. Initially, a UAV-based still imagery work flow model was developed that includes initial UAV mission planning, sensor selection, UAV/sensor integration, and imagery collection, processing, and analysis. Components to support each stage of the work flow are also being developed. Critical to use of acquired still imagery is the ability to detect changes between images of the same area over time. To enhance the analysts’ change detection ability, a UAV-specific, GIS-based change detection system called SADI or System for Analyzing Differences in Imagery is under development. This paper will discuss the associated challenges and approaches to collecting still imagery with small UAVs. Additionally, specific components of the developed work flow system will be described and graphically illustrated using varied examples of small UAV-acquired still imagery.

  5. Face and object imagery in congenital prosopagnosia: a case series.

    PubMed

    Tree, Jeremy J; Wilkie, Jaimie

    2010-10-01

    It has been reported that congenital prosopagnosics may have a general imagery deficit or an imagery deficit specific to faces. However, much of this evidence is based on self-report questionnaires, rather than experimentally based testing (Grüter et al., 2007, 2009). This study tested face and non-face based imagery in a case series of congenital prosopagnosics, utilising both questionnaire based and forced choice accuracy measures. Our findings indicate that all the prosopagnosics showed impaired face based imagery, which contrasted with normal performance on imagery of objects and colours - a pattern that is consistent with reports of acquired prosopagnosia (Barton, 2008; Michelon and Biederman, 2003). Given all our experimentally based testing indicated face imagery impairments, despite no such problems being seen on self-report questionnaires, we would argue that testing based only on the latter must be interpreted with some caution. Overall, we would advocate that our findings demonstrate a category specific visual imagery impairment in congenital prosopagnosia, such that general imagery skill can be intact in such cases.

  6. Studying Action Representation in Children via Motor Imagery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl

    2009-01-01

    The use of motor imagery is a widely used experimental paradigm for the study of cognitive aspects of action planning and control in adults. Furthermore, there are indications that motor imagery provides a window into the process of action representation. These notions complement internal model theory suggesting that such representations allow…

  7. Users guide to high altitude imagery of Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A guide to the high altitude imagery of Michigan outlines the areas of the state covered by selected recent high altitude aircraft and Earth Resources Technology Satellite flights. The types of remote sensing used are described. Maps of the flight coverage areas are included along with price lists of available imagery.

  8. Seeing Is Believing: Using Imagery to Enhance Your Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Imagery is a powerful sport psychology tool easily accessible to coaches. These reminders can help coaches improve their athletes' images and performance: (1) Create vivid and controllable images; (2) Use polysensory images and instructional cues, delivered, ideally, in real time; (3) Use internal and external perspectives; (4) Use imagery during…

  9. A Motion Aftereffect from Visual Imagery of Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winawer, Jonathan; Huk, Alexander C.; Boroditsky, Lera

    2010-01-01

    Mental imagery is thought to share properties with perception. To what extent does the process of imagining a scene share neural circuits and computational mechanisms with actually perceiving the same scene? Here, we investigated whether mental imagery of motion in a particular direction recruits neural circuits tuned to the same direction of…

  10. Comparison of ID performance using real and synthetic imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Eddie L.; Edwards, Timothy C.; Miller, Brian; Hodgkin, Van A.

    2002-07-01

    Recent experiments performed at the U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) provide significant insight into the validation of synthetic imagery for use in human perception experiments. This paper documents the procedures and results of target identification (ID) experiments using real and synthetic thermal imagery. Real imagery representing notional first generation and advanced scanning sensor systems was obtained. Parameters derived from the sensor data were used to generate synthetic imagery using the NVESD Paint the Night simulation. Both image sets were then used in a target identification experiment with trained human observers. Perception test results were analyzed and compared with metrics derived from the imagery. Several parameters missing from the original truth data were found to correlate with differences in the perception data. Synthetic data were regenerated using these additional parameters. A subsequent perception experiment confirmed the importance of these parameters, and a good match was obtained between real and synthetic imagery. While the techniques used in this series of experiments do not constitute a definitive method for validating synthetic imagery, they point to some important observations on validation. The main observation is that both target and local background characteristics must be sufficiently specified in the truth data in order to obtain good agreement between synthetic and real data. The paper concludes with suggestions as to the level of detail necessary for truth data when using synthetic imagery in perception experiments.

  11. Study of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Sources of geometric and radiometric fidelity errors in AN/APQ-102A radar imagery are discussed, along with a digital computer program to correct the distortions. The major effort, a computer program which will process digitalized recorded AN/APQ-102A phase histories into imagery, is described. All computer programs are listed.

  12. Toward a Phenomenology of Dream Imagery and Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Elmer S., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The author partially describes a few of the immanent qualities of dreaming imagery and metaphor. The concept of the ineluctable modality is introduced to illustrate the spontaneous synthesizing of cognitive and noncognitive elements. A short dream excerpt is shared to clarify the pervasive contrapuntallike depth of dreaming imagery. (Author/SJL)

  13. Interactively Browsing NASA's EOS Imagery in Full Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boller, R. A.; Joshi, T.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Ilavajhala, S.; Davies, D.; Murphy, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    Worldview is a new tool designed to interactively browse full-resolution imagery from NASA's fleet of Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites. It is web-based and developed using open standards (JavaScript, CSS, HTML) for cross-platform compatibility. It addresses growing user demands for access to full-resolution imagery by providing a responsive, interactive interface with global coverage, no artificial boundaries, and views in geographic and polar projections. Currently tailored to the near real-time community, Worldview enables the rapid evaluation and comparison of imagery related to such application areas as fires, floods, and air quality. It is supported by the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS), a system that continuously ingests, mosaics, and serves approximately 21GB of imagery daily. This imagery spans over 50 data products that are available within three hours of observation from instruments aboard Terra, Aqua, and Aura. The GIBS image archive began in May 2012 and will have published approximately 4.4TB of imagery as of December 2012. Worldview facilitates rapid access to this archive and is supplemented by socioeconomic data layers from the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC), including products such as population density and economic risk from cyclones. Future plans include the accessibility of additional products that cover the entire Terra/MODIS and Aqua/MODIS missions (>150TB) and the ability to download the underlying science data of the onscreen imagery.

  14. Emotional Imagery and the Differential Diagnosis of Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Edwin W., III; And Others

    1988-01-01

    For 38 anxiety patients, exposure to phobic imagery resulted in significantly larger heart rate and skin conductance increases than control imagery. Results suggest that simple phobia is avoidance disposition, social phobia involves multiple problems of interpersonal dominance, and agoraphobia may be more similar to generalized anxiety disorder…

  15. Can Imagery Training Help Children Who Have Comprehension Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakhill, Jane; Patel, Sima

    1991-01-01

    Explores whether training in mental imagery can improve text comprehension in good and poor nine-year-old comprehenders. Finds that a three-session program of training in imagery benefited the poor, but not the good, comprehenders. Discusses results in relation to possible causes of children's comprehension difficulties. (MG)

  16. Imagery and Information Processing: Some Implications for Therapeutic Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Corwin P.

    This study of the human power to make mental images in the mind, here called "imagery," is studied as a phenomena of empirical psychology. The findings have importance for the process of communication, especially in behavioral modification through psychotherapy. Current research in imagery is reviewed, along with possible applications to…

  17. Imagining the Music: Methods for Assessing Musical Imagery Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Terry; Williamon, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Timing profiles of live and imagined performances were compared with the aim of creating a context-specific measure of musicians' imagery ability. Thirty-two advanced musicians completed imagery use and vividness surveys, and then gave two live and two mental performances of a two-minute musical excerpt, tapping along with the beat of the mental…

  18. Using Imagery Rescripting to Treat Major Depression: Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheatley, Jon; Hackmann, Ann

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the role that intrusive memories may play in maintaining depression and the rationale for using imagery rescripting in order to target these memories. Potential mechanisms of change underlying imagery rescripting are discussed. The relationship between depressive rumination and memories is considered, as well as potential…

  19. Face and object imagery in congenital prosopagnosia: a case series.

    PubMed

    Tree, Jeremy J; Wilkie, Jaimie

    2010-10-01

    It has been reported that congenital prosopagnosics may have a general imagery deficit or an imagery deficit specific to faces. However, much of this evidence is based on self-report questionnaires, rather than experimentally based testing (Grüter et al., 2007, 2009). This study tested face and non-face based imagery in a case series of congenital prosopagnosics, utilising both questionnaire based and forced choice accuracy measures. Our findings indicate that all the prosopagnosics showed impaired face based imagery, which contrasted with normal performance on imagery of objects and colours - a pattern that is consistent with reports of acquired prosopagnosia (Barton, 2008; Michelon and Biederman, 2003). Given all our experimentally based testing indicated face imagery impairments, despite no such problems being seen on self-report questionnaires, we would argue that testing based only on the latter must be interpreted with some caution. Overall, we would advocate that our findings demonstrate a category specific visual imagery impairment in congenital prosopagnosia, such that general imagery skill can be intact in such cases. PMID:20434142

  20. Mental imagery, relaxation, and accuracy of basketball foul shooting.

    PubMed

    Lamirand, M; Rainey, D

    1994-06-01

    18 female college basketball players were pretested on foul shooting, alternately assigned to relaxation or mental imagery training, and posttested after 4 training sessions over 3 weeks. Analysis of covariance indicated that the predicted improvement of the imagery group did not occur. The relaxation group was marginally superior at posttest.

  1. Mental imagery as the adaptationist views it.

    PubMed

    Pani, J R

    1996-09-01

    Mental images are one of the more obvious aspects of human conscious experience. Familiar idioms such as "the mind's eye" reflect the high status of the image in metacognition. Theoretically, a defining characteristic of mental images is that they can be analog representations. But this has led to an enduring puzzle in cognitive psychology: How do "mental pictures" fit into a general theory of cognition? Three empirical problems have constituted this puzzle: The incidence of mental images has been unpredictable, innumerable ordinary concepts cannot be depicted, and images typically do not resemble things well. I argue in this paper that theorists have begun to address these problems successfully. I argue further that the critical theoretical framework involves thinking of mental images as information within a cognitive system that is fundamentally adaptive. The main outline of the adaptationist framework was evident in the school of thought known as American Functionalism, but adaptationism has formed a consistent pattern of theorizing across many authors and decades. I briefly describe Functionalism and then present seven basic claims about imagery that were common in the years before the predominance of behaviorism. I then show how these claims have reappeared and been further articulated in modern cognitive psychology. I end with a brief integration of some of the basic elements of an adaptationist theory of imagery.

  2. Digital techniques for processing Landsat imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of the basic techniques used to process Landsat images with a digital computer, and the VICAR image processing software developed at JPL and available to users through the NASA sponsored COSMIC computer program distribution center is presented. Examples of subjective processing performed to improve the information display for the human observer, such as contrast enhancement, pseudocolor display and band rationing, and of quantitative processing using mathematical models, such as classification based on multispectral signatures of different areas within a given scene and geometric transformation of imagery into standard mapping projections are given. Examples are illustrated by Landsat scenes of the Andes mountains and Altyn-Tagh fault zone in China before and after contrast enhancement and classification of land use in Portland, Oregon. The VICAR image processing software system which consists of a language translator that simplifies execution of image processing programs and provides a general purpose format so that imagery from a variety of sources can be processed by the same basic set of general applications programs is described.

  3. Exploiting range imagery: techniques and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armbruster, Walter

    2009-07-01

    Practically no applications exist for which automatic processing of 2D intensity imagery can equal human visual perception. This is not the case for range imagery. The paper gives examples of 3D laser radar applications, for which automatic data processing can exceed human visual cognition capabilities and describes basic processing techniques for attaining these results. The examples are drawn from the fields of helicopter obstacle avoidance, object detection in surveillance applications, object recognition at high range, multi-object-tracking, and object re-identification in range image sequences. Processing times and recognition performances are summarized. The techniques used exploit the bijective continuity of the imaging process as well as its independence of object reflectivity, emissivity and illumination. This allows precise formulations of the probability distributions involved in figure-ground segmentation, feature-based object classification and model based object recognition. The probabilistic approach guarantees optimal solutions for single images and enables Bayesian learning in range image sequences. Finally, due to recent results in 3D-surface completion, no prior model libraries are required for recognizing and re-identifying objects of quite general object categories, opening the way to unsupervised learning and fully autonomous cognitive systems.

  4. Facial Expression Recognition in Nonvisual Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olague, Gustavo; Hammoud, Riad; Trujillo, Leonardo; Hernández, Benjamín; Romero, Eva

    This chapter presents two novel approaches that allow computer vision applications to perform human facial expression recognition (FER). From a prob lem standpoint, we focus on FER beyond the human visual spectrum, in long-wave infrared imagery, thus allowing us to offer illumination-independent solutions to this important human-computer interaction problem. From a methodological stand point, we introduce two different feature extraction techniques: a principal com ponent analysis-based approach with automatic feature selection and one based on texture information selected by an evolutionary algorithm. In the former, facial fea tures are selected based on interest point clusters, and classification is carried out us ing eigenfeature information; in the latter, an evolutionary-based learning algorithm searches for optimal regions of interest and texture features based on classification accuracy. Both of these approaches use a support vector machine-committee for classification. Results show effective performance for both techniques, from which we can conclude that thermal imagery contains worthwhile information for the FER problem beyond the human visual spectrum.

  5. Automated Detection of Clouds in Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Many different approaches have been used to automatically detect clouds in satellite imagery. Most approaches are deterministic and provide a binary cloud - no cloud product used in a variety of applications. Some of these applications require the identification of cloudy pixels for cloud parameter retrieval, while others require only an ability to mask out clouds for the retrieval of surface or atmospheric parameters in the absence of clouds. A few approaches estimate a probability of the presence of a cloud at each point in an image. These probabilities allow a user to select cloud information based on the tolerance of the application to uncertainty in the estimate. Many automated cloud detection techniques develop sophisticated tests using a combination of visible and infrared channels to determine the presence of clouds in both day and night imagery. Visible channels are quite effective in detecting clouds during the day, as long as test thresholds properly account for variations in surface features and atmospheric scattering. Cloud detection at night is more challenging, since only courser resolution infrared measurements are available. A few schemes use just two infrared channels for day and night cloud detection. The most influential factor in the success of a particular technique is the determination of the thresholds for each cloud test. The techniques which perform the best usually have thresholds that are varied based on the geographic region, time of year, time of day and solar angle.

  6. Standardized rendering from IR surveillance motion imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoski, F. J.

    2014-06-01

    Government agencies, including defense and law enforcement, increasingly make use of video from surveillance systems and camera phones owned by non-government entities.Making advanced and standardized motion imaging technology available to private and commercial users at cost-effective prices would benefit all parties. In particular, incorporating thermal infrared into commercial surveillance systems offers substantial benefits beyond night vision capability. Face rendering is a process to facilitate exploitation of thermal infrared surveillance imagery from the general area of a crime scene, to assist investigations with and without cooperating eyewitnesses. Face rendering automatically generates greyscale representations similar to police artist sketches for faces in surveillance imagery collected from proximate locations and times to a crime under investigation. Near-realtime generation of face renderings can provide law enforcement with an investigation tool to assess witness memory and credibility, and integrate reports from multiple eyewitnesses, Renderings can be quickly disseminated through social media to warn of a person who may pose an immediate threat, and to solicit the public's help in identifying possible suspects and witnesses. Renderings are pose-standardized so as to not divulge the presence and location of eyewitnesses and surveillance cameras. Incorporation of thermal infrared imaging into commercial surveillance systems will significantly improve system performance, and reduce manual review times, at an incremental cost that will continue to decrease. Benefits to criminal justice would include improved reliability of eyewitness testimony and improved accuracy of distinguishing among minority groups in eyewitness and surveillance identifications.

  7. Imagery analysis and the need for standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Barbara G.

    2014-09-01

    While efforts within the optics community focus on the development of high-quality systems and data products, comparatively little attention is paid to their use. Our standards for verification and validation are high; but in some user domains, standards are either lax or do not exist at all. In forensic imagery analysis, for example, standards exist to judge image quality, but do not exist to judge the quality of an analysis. In litigation, a high quality analysis is by default the one performed by the victorious attorney's expert. This paper argues for the need to extend quality standards into the domain of imagery analysis, which is expected to increase in national visibility and significance with the increasing deployment of unmanned aerial vehicle—UAV, or "drone"—sensors in the continental U. S.. It argues that like a good radiometric calibration, made as independent of the calibrated instrument as possible, a good analysis should be subject to standards the most basic of which is the separation of issues of scientific fact from analysis results.

  8. Image processing of underwater multispectral imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zawada, D.G.

    2003-01-01

    Capturing in situ fluorescence images of marine organisms presents many technical challenges. The effects of the medium, as well as the particles and organisms within it, are intermixed with the desired signal. Methods for extracting and preparing the imagery for analysis are discussed in reference to a novel underwater imaging system called the low-light-level underwater multispectral imaging system (LUMIS). The instrument supports both uni- and multispectral collections, each of which is discussed in the context of an experimental application. In unispectral mode, LUMIS was used to investigate the spatial distribution of phytoplankton. A thin sheet of laser light (532 nm) induced chlorophyll fluorescence in the phytoplankton, which was recorded by LUMIS. Inhomogeneities in the light sheet led to the development of a beam-pattern-correction algorithm. Separating individual phytoplankton cells from a weak background fluorescence field required a two-step procedure consisting of edge detection followed by a series of binary morphological operations. In multispectral mode, LUMIS was used to investigate the bio-assay potential of fluorescent pigments in corals. Problems with the commercial optical-splitting device produced nonlinear distortions in the imagery. A tessellation algorithm, including an automated tie-point-selection procedure, was developed to correct the distortions. Only pixels corresponding to coral polyps were of interest for further analysis. Extraction of these pixels was performed by a dynamic global-thresholding algorithm.

  9. Rocket ultraviolet imagery of the Andromeda galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, G. R.; Opal, C. B.; Heckathorn, H. M.

    1978-01-01

    Far-UV electrographic imagery of M31 is presented which was obtained during a sounding-rocket flight with an electrographic Schmidt camera sensitive in the wavelength range from 1230 to 2000 A. The resolution in the imagery is such that 50% of the energy from a point source is confined within a circle 40 arcsec in radius. Two conspicuous features are observed in the UV image of M31: one corresponding to a bright association (NGC 206) in the SW region of the disk and one centered on the galactic nucleus. Indications of the general spiral-arm structure are also evident. Absolute photometry and brightness distributions are obtained for the observed features, and both the central region and NGC 206 are shown to be diffuse sources. It is found that the brightness distribution of the central region is a flat ellipse with its major axis closely aligned with the major axis of the galaxy, which favors a source model consisting of young early-type stars close to the galactic plane and constitutes strong evidence against a nonthermal point source at the galactic center.

  10. The likelihood term in restoration of transform-compressed imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Mark A.

    2004-05-01

    Compression of imagery by quantization of the data's transform coefficients introduces an error in the imagery upon decompression. When processing compressed imagery, often a likelihood term is used to provide a statistical description of how the observed data are related to the original noise-free data. This work derives the statistical relationship between compressed imagery and the original imagery, which is found to be embodied in a (in general) non-diagonal covariance matrix. Although the derivations are valid for transform coding in general, the work is motivated by considering examples for the specific cases of compression using the discrete cosine transform and the discrete wavelet transform. An example application of motion-compensated temporal filtering is provided to show how the presented likelihood term might be used in a restoration scenario.

  11. Facilitating the exploitation of ERTS imagery using snow enhancement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wobber, F. J.; Martin, K. (Principal Investigator); Amato, R. V.; Leshendok, T.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Comparative analysis of snow-free and snow-covered imagery of the New England Test Area has resulted in a larger number of lineaments mapped from snow-covered imagery in three out of four sets of comparative imagery. Analysts unfamiliar with the New England Test Area were utilized; the quality of imagery was independently judged to be uniform. In all image sets, a greater total length of lineaments was mapped with the snow-covered imagery. The value of this technique for fracture mapping in areas with thick soil cover is suggested. A number of potentially useful environmental applications of snow enhancement related to such areas as mining, land use, and hydrology have been identified.

  12. Vegetation mapping from ERTS imagery of the Okavango Delta. [Botswana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willamson, D. T.

    1974-01-01

    The Okavango is Botswana's major water resource. The present study has been specifically directed at mapping vegetation types within the delta and generally concerned with finding what information of value to plant and animal ecologists could be extracted from the imagery. To date it has been found that. (1) It is possible to map broad vegetation types from the imagery. (2) Imagery of the delta records the state of the system in a manner which will facilitate long-term studies of plant succession. (3) Phenological events can be detected. (4) The imagery can be used to detect and map wild fires. This will be useful in determining the role of fire in the ecology of the region. Using the imagery it is thus possible to map existing vegetation and monitor both short and long-term changes.

  13. Proceedings of the 2006 Civil Commercial Imagery Evaluation Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Thomas; Pagnutti, Mary

    2007-01-01

    The Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE) team is a collaborative interagency working group formed to leverage different government agencies' capabilities for the characterization of commercial remote sensing products. The team is composed of staff from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Each JACIE agency has a vested interest in the purchase and use of commercial imagery to support government research and operational applications. The intent of the 2006 workshop is to exchange information regarding the characterization and application of commercial imagery used by the government. The main focus of previous workshops has been on high-resolution satellite imagery from systems; such as, IKONOS (Space Imaging, Inc.), QuickBird (DigitalGlobe, Inc.), and OrbView-3 (ORBIMAGE). This workshop is being expanded to cover all civil medium- and high-resolution commercial imagery used by the government.

  14. SPRY1 promotes the degradation of uPAR and inhibits uPAR-mediated cell adhesion and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiufeng; Lan, Yan; Zhang, Di; Wang, Kai; Wang, Yao; Hua, Zi-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a GPI anchored cell surface protein that is closely associated with invasion, migration, and metastasis of cancer cells. Many functional extracellular proteins and transmembrane receptors interact with uPAR. However, few studies have examined the association of uPAR with cytoplasm proteins. We previously used yeast two-hybrid screening to isolate several novel uPAR-interacting cytoplasmic proteins, including Sprouty1 (SPRY1), an inhibitor of the (Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase) MAPK pathway. In this study, we show that SPRY1 interacts with uPAR and directs it toward lysosomal-mediated degradation. Overexpression of SPRY1 decreased the cell surface and cytoplasmic uPAR protein level. Moreover, SPRY1 overexpression augmented uPAR-induced cell adhesion to vitronectin as well as proliferation of cancer cells. Our results also further support the critical role of SPRY1 contribution to tumor growth. In a subcutaneous tumor model, overexpression of SPRY1 in HCT116 or A549 xenograft in athymic nude mice led to great suppression of tumor growth. These results show that SPRY1 may affect tumor cell function through direct interaction with uPAR and promote its lysosomal degradation. PMID:25520860

  15. Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) - Rapidly Serving NASA Imagery for Applications and Science Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmaltz, J. E.; Ilavajhala, S.; Plesea, L.; Hall, J. R.; Boller, R. A.; Chang, G.; Sadaqathullah, S.; Kim, R.; Murphy, K. J.; Thompson, C. K.

    2012-12-01

    Expedited processing of imagery from NASA satellites for near-real time use by non-science applications users has a long history, especially since the beginning of the Terra and Aqua missions. Several years ago, the Land Atmosphere Near-real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) was created to greatly expand the range of near-real time data products from a variety of Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) began exploring methods to distribute these data as imagery in an intuitive, geo-referenced format, which would be available within three hours of acquisition. Toward this end, EOSDIS has developed the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS, http://earthdata.nasa.gov/gibs) to provide highly responsive, scalable, and expandable imagery services. The baseline technology chosen for GIBS was a Tiled Web Mapping Service (TWMS) developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Using this, global images and mosaics are divided into tiles with fixed bounding boxes for a pyramid of fixed resolutions. Initially, the satellite imagery is created at the existing data systems for each sensor, ensuring the oversight of those most knowledgeable about the science. There, the satellite data is geolocated and converted to an image format such as JPEG, TIFF, or PNG. The GIBS ingest server retrieves imagery from the various data systems and converts them into image tiles, which are stored in a highly-optimized raster format named Meta Raster Format (MRF). The image tiles are then served to users via HTTP by means of an Apache module. Services are available for the entire globe (lat-long projection) and for both polar regions (polar stereographic projection). Requests to the services can be made with the non-standard, but widely known, TWMS format or via the well-known OGC Web Map Tile Service (WMTS) standard format. Standard OGC Web Map Service (WMS) access to the GIBS server is also available. In addition, users may request a

  16. Megestrol acetate NCD oral suspension--Par Pharmaceutical: megestrol acetate nanocrystal dispersion oral suspension, PAR 100.2, PAR-100.2.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Par Pharmaceutical has developed megestrol acetate (Megace ES) oral suspension for the treatment of anorexia, cachexia and a significant weight loss associated with AIDS. Par Pharmaceutical used Elan Corporation's NanoCrystal Dispersion (NCD) technology to develop an advanced, concentrated formulation of megestrol acetate with improved bioavailability, more rapid onset of action, more convenient dosing and a lower dosing regimen compared with the original marketed formulation of megestrol acetate oral suspension. Patients are administered a teaspoon (5mL) of the new NCD formulation once daily, compared with a daily 20mL dosage cup of the original formulation. The new megestrol acetate NCD formulation represents a line-extension of Par's megestrol acetate oral suspension (800mg/20mL, Megace O/S) that has been marketed for anorexia, cachexia and AIDS-related weight loss since July 2001. Par's megestrol acetate is the generic version of Bristol-Myers Squibb's Megace Oral Suspension. NanoCrystal Dispersion (NCD) is a trademark of Elan Corporation. Par Pharmaceutical will market megestol acetate NCD oral suspension under the Megace brand name. The company licensed the Megace name from Bristol-Myers Squib in August 2003. The US FDA approved megestrol acetate oral suspension (625 mg/mL) in July 2005 for the treatment of anorexia, cachexia or a significant, unexplained weight loss in patients with AIDS. The NDA for the product was accepted for review by the agency in September 2004, following its submission in June of that year.Par Pharmaceutical commenced the first of two phase III clinical trials of megestrol acetate oral suspension (PAR 100.2) in cancer-induced anorexia in the first quarter of 2006. However, this trial was discontinued in September 2006 because of slow patient enrolment. The company intends to discuss future development options in this indication with the FDA.New formulations or dosage forms of megestrol acetate concentrated suspension are also in

  17. Megestrol acetate NCD oral suspension -- Par Pharmaceutical: megestrol acetate nanocrystal dispersion oral suspension, PAR 100.2, PAR-100.2.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Par Pharmaceutical has developed megestrol acetate (Megace ES) oral suspension for the treatment of anorexia, cachexia and a significant weight loss associated with AIDS. Par Pharmaceutical used Elan Corporation's NanoCrystal Dispersion (NCD) technology to develop an advanced, concentrated formulation of megestrol acetate with improved bioavailability, more rapid onset of action, more convenient dosing and a lower dosing regimen compared with the original marketed formulation of megestrol acetate oral suspension. Patients are administered a teaspoon (5mL) of the new NCD formulation once daily, compared with a daily 20mL dosage cup of the original formulation. The new megestrol acetate NCD formulation represents a line-extension of Par's megestrol acetate oral suspension (800mg/20mL, Megace O/S) that has been marketed for anorexia, cachexia and AIDS-related weight loss since July 2001. Par's megestrol acetate is the generic version of Bristol-Myers Squibb's Megace Oral Suspension. NanoCrystal Dispersion (NCD) is a trademark of Elan Corporation. Par Pharmaceutical will market megestol acetate NCD oral suspension under the Megace brand name. The company licensed the Megace name from Bristol-Myers Squib in August 2003. The US FDA approved megestrol acetate oral suspension (625 mg/mL) in July 2005 for the treatment of anorexia, cachexia or a significant, unexplained weight loss in patients with AIDS. The NDA for the product was accepted for review by the agency in September 2004, following its submission in June of that year.Par Pharmaceutical commenced the first of two phase III clinical trials of megestrol acetate oral suspension (PAR 100.2) in cancer-induced anorexia in the first quarter of 2006. However, this trial was discontinued in September 2006 because of slow patient enrolment. The company intends to discuss future development options in this indication with the FDA.New formulations or dosage forms of megestrol acetate concentrated suspension are also in

  18. An Evolving Model for Capacity Building with Earth Observation Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylak-Glassman, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    For the first forty years of Earth observation satellite imagery, all imagery was collected by civilian or military governmental satellites. Over this timeframe, countries without observation satellite capabilities had very limited access to Earth observation data or imagery. In response to the limited access to Earth observation systems, capacity building efforts were focused on satellite manufacturing. Wood and Weigel (2012) describe the evolution of satellite programs in developing countries with a technology ladder. A country moves up the ladder as they move from producing satellites with training services to building satellites locally. While the ladder model may be appropriate if the goal is to develop autonomous satellite manufacturing capability, in the realm of Earth observation, the goal is generally to derive societal benefit from the use of Earth observation-derived information. In this case, the model for developing Earth observation capacity is more appropriately described by a hub-and-spoke model in which the use of Earth observation imagery is the "hub," and the "spokes" describe the various paths to achieving that imagery: the building of a satellite (either independently or with assistance), the purchase of a satellite, participation in a constellation of satellites, and the use of freely available or purchased satellite imagery. We discuss the different capacity-building activities that are conducted in each of these pathways, such as the "Know-How Transfer and Training" program developed by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. , Earth observation imagery training courses run by SERVIR in developing countries, and the use of national or regional remote sensing centers (such as those in Morocco, Malaysia, and Kenya) to disseminate imagery and training. In addition, we explore the factors that determine through which "spoke" a country arrives at the ability to use Earth observation imagery, and discuss best practices for achieving the capability to use

  19. How a Better Understanding of Spontaneous Mental Imagery Linked to Pain Could Enhance Imagery-Based Therapy in Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Berna, Chantal; Tracey, Irene; Holmes, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    Therapy with mental images is prevalent in the field of chronic pain, and this has been the case for centuries. Yet few of the recent advances in the cognitive behavioural understanding of spontaneous (i.e. intrusive) mental imagery have been translated to this field. Such advances include imagery as a component of a psychopathological process, as an emotional amplifier and as a cognitive therapeutic target in its own right. Hence very little is known about the contents, prevalence and emotional impact of spontaneous mental imagery in the context of chronic pain. This article discusses the evidence in favour of spontaneous imagery being a potentially important part of patients’ pain experience, and makes a case, based on neurophysiological findings, for imagery having an impact on pain perception. Furthermore, it presents how mental imagery has been used in the treatment of chronic pain. A case report illustrates further how spontaneous negative imagery linked to pain can be distressing, and how this might be addressed in therapy. Additionally, the case report demonstrates the spontaneous use of coping imagery, and raises a discussion of how this might be enhanced. PMID:26457174

  20. Control of cleavage spindle orientation in Caenorhabditis elegans: The role of the genes par-2 and par-3

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, N.N.; Kirby, C.M.; Kemphues, K.J.

    1995-02-01

    Polarized asymmetric divisions play important roles in the development of plants and animals. The first two embryonic cleavages of Caenorhabditis elegans provide an opportunity to study the mechanisms controlling polarized asymmetric divisions. The first cleavage is unequal, producing daughters with different sizes and fates. The daughter blastomeres divide with different orientations at the second cleavage; the anterior blastomere divides equally across the long axis of the egg, whereas the posterior blastomere divides unequally along the long axis. We report here the results of our analysis of the genes par-2 and par-3 with respect to their contribution to the polarity of these divisions. Strong loss-of-function mutations in both genes lead to an equal first cleavage and an altered second cleavage. Interestingly, the mutations exhibit striking gene-specific differences at the second cleavage. The par-2 mutations lead to transverse spindle orientations in both blastomeres, whereas par-3 mutations lead to longitudinal spindle orientations in both blastomeres. The spindle orientation defects correlate with defects in centrosome movements during both the first and the second cell cycle. Temperature shift experiments with par-2 (it5ts) indicate that the par-2(+) activity is not required after the two-cell stage. Analysis of double mutants shows that par-3 is epistatic to par-2. We propose a model wherein par-2(+) and par-3(+) act in concert during the first cell cycle to affect asymmetric modification of the cytoskeleton. This polar modification leads to different behaviors of centrosomes in the anterior and posterior and leads ultimately to blastomere-specific spindle orientations at the second cleavage. 44 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Preliminary Results from the Portable Imagery Quality Assessment Test Field (PIQuAT) of Uav Imagery for Imagery Reconnaissance Purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowski, R.; Orych, A.; Jenerowicz, A.; Walczykowski, P.

    2015-08-01

    The article presents a set of initial results of a quality assessment study of 2 different types of sensors mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle, carried out over an especially designed and constructed test field. The PIQuAT (Portable Imagery Quality Assessment Test Field) field had been designed especially for the purposes of determining the quality parameters of UAV sensors, especially in terms of the spatial, spectral and radiometric resolutions and chosen geometric aspects. The sensor used include a multispectral framing camera and a high-resolution RGB sensor. The flights were conducted from a number of altitudes ranging from 10 m to 200 m above the test field. Acquiring data at a number of different altitudes allowed the authors to evaluate the obtained results and check for possible linearity of the calculated quality assessment parameters. The radiometric properties of the sensors were evaluated from images of the grayscale target section of the PIQuAT field. The spectral resolution of the imagery was determined based on a number of test samples with known spectral reflectance curves. These reference spectral reflectance curves were then compared with spectral reflectance coefficients at the wavelengths registered by the miniMCA camera. Before conducting all of these experiments in field conditions, the interior orientation parameters were calculated for the MiniMCA and RGB sensor in laboratory conditions. These parameters include: the actual pixel size on the detector, distortion parameters, calibrated focal length (CFL) and the coordinates of the principal point of autocollimation (miniMCA - for each of the six channels separately.

  2. Scleral Buckling for Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Associated with Pars Planitis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jae Kyoun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the surgical outcome of scleral buckling (SB) in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) patients associated with pars planitis. Methods. Retrospective review of RRD patients (32 eyes of pars planitis RRD and 180 eyes of primary RRD) who underwent SB. We compared primary and final anatomical success rates and visual outcomes between two groups. Results. Primary and final anatomical success were achieved in 25 (78.1%) and 31 (96.8%) eyes in the pars planitis RRD group and in 167 eyes (92.7%) and 176 eyes (97.7%) in primary RRD group, respectively. Both groups showed significant visual improvement (p < 0.001) and there were no significant differences in final visual acuity. Pars planitis RRD group was associated with higher rate of postoperative proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) development (12.5% versus 2.8%, p = 0.031). Pars planitis and high myopia were significant preoperative risk factors and pseudophakia was borderline risk for primary anatomical failure after adjusting for various clinical factors. Conclusions. Pars planitis associated RRD showed inferior primary anatomical outcome after SB due to postoperative PVR development. However, final anatomical and visual outcomes were favorable. RRD cases associated with pars planitis, high myopia, and pseudophakia might benefit from different surgical approaches, such as combined vitrectomy and SB. PMID:27688907

  3. Scleral Buckling for Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Associated with Pars Planitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Kyu; Yoon, Wontae; Ahn, Jae Kyoun; Park, Sung Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the surgical outcome of scleral buckling (SB) in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) patients associated with pars planitis. Methods. Retrospective review of RRD patients (32 eyes of pars planitis RRD and 180 eyes of primary RRD) who underwent SB. We compared primary and final anatomical success rates and visual outcomes between two groups. Results. Primary and final anatomical success were achieved in 25 (78.1%) and 31 (96.8%) eyes in the pars planitis RRD group and in 167 eyes (92.7%) and 176 eyes (97.7%) in primary RRD group, respectively. Both groups showed significant visual improvement (p < 0.001) and there were no significant differences in final visual acuity. Pars planitis RRD group was associated with higher rate of postoperative proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) development (12.5% versus 2.8%, p = 0.031). Pars planitis and high myopia were significant preoperative risk factors and pseudophakia was borderline risk for primary anatomical failure after adjusting for various clinical factors. Conclusions. Pars planitis associated RRD showed inferior primary anatomical outcome after SB due to postoperative PVR development. However, final anatomical and visual outcomes were favorable. RRD cases associated with pars planitis, high myopia, and pseudophakia might benefit from different surgical approaches, such as combined vitrectomy and SB. PMID:27688907

  4. Scleral Buckling for Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Associated with Pars Planitis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jae Kyoun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the surgical outcome of scleral buckling (SB) in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) patients associated with pars planitis. Methods. Retrospective review of RRD patients (32 eyes of pars planitis RRD and 180 eyes of primary RRD) who underwent SB. We compared primary and final anatomical success rates and visual outcomes between two groups. Results. Primary and final anatomical success were achieved in 25 (78.1%) and 31 (96.8%) eyes in the pars planitis RRD group and in 167 eyes (92.7%) and 176 eyes (97.7%) in primary RRD group, respectively. Both groups showed significant visual improvement (p < 0.001) and there were no significant differences in final visual acuity. Pars planitis RRD group was associated with higher rate of postoperative proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) development (12.5% versus 2.8%, p = 0.031). Pars planitis and high myopia were significant preoperative risk factors and pseudophakia was borderline risk for primary anatomical failure after adjusting for various clinical factors. Conclusions. Pars planitis associated RRD showed inferior primary anatomical outcome after SB due to postoperative PVR development. However, final anatomical and visual outcomes were favorable. RRD cases associated with pars planitis, high myopia, and pseudophakia might benefit from different surgical approaches, such as combined vitrectomy and SB.

  5. Multi-scale photoacoustic remote sensing (PARS) (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji Reza, Parsin; Bell, Kevan; Shi, W.; Zemp, Roger J.

    2016-03-01

    We introduce a novel multi-scale photoacoustic remote sensing (PARS) imaging system. Our system can provide optical resolution details for superficial structures as well as acoustic resolution for deep-tissue imaging down to 5 cm, in a non-contact setting. PARS system does not require any contact with the sample or ultrasound coupling medium. The optical resolution PARS (OR-OARS) system uses optically focused pulsed excitation with optical detection of photoacoustic signatures using a long-coherence interrogation beam co-focused and co-scanned with the excitation spot. In the OR-PARS initial pressures are sampled right at their subsurface origin where acoustic pressures are largest. The Acoustic resolution PARS (AR-PARS) picks up the surface oscillation of the tissue caused by generated photoacoustic signal using a modified version of Michelson interferometry. By taking advantage of 4-meters polarization maintaining single-mode fiber and a green fiber laser we have generated a multi-wavelength source using stimulated Raman scattering. Remote functional imaging using this multi-wavelength excitation source and PARS detection mechanism has been demonstrated. The oxygen saturation estimations are shown for both phantom and in vivo studies. Images of blood vessel structures for an In vivo chicken embryo model is demonstrated. The Phantom studies indicates ~3µm and ~300µm lateral resolution for OR-PARS and AR-PARS respectively. To the best of our knowledge this is the first dual modality non-contact optical and acoustic resolution system used for in vivo imaging.

  6. Holoprosencephalie alobaire dans un contexte de syndrome polymalformatif: apport de l'imagerie, à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Amadou, Dia Aliou; Franck, D'Almeida; Mamadou, Mbodji; Mourtalla, Ka Mamadou

    2013-01-01

    L'holoprosencéphalie est une malformation cérébrale rare, d’étiologies multiples et souvent associée à des anomalies faciales évocatrices. Cette pathologie, résultant d'un défaut de développement précoce du prosencéphale, est de pronostic fœtal extrêmement réservé en particulier pour la forme alobaire. Nous rapportons à travers ce cas clinique, une holoproséncéphalie alobaire diagnostiquée à l'imagerie (ETF, tomodensitométrie) et relevée par un syndrome polymalformatif chez un nouveau-né de 03 mois. PMID:24171066

  7. Development of Bayesian-based transformation method of Landsat imagery into pseudo-hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Nguyen Tien; Koike, Katsuaki

    2015-10-01

    It has been generally accepted that hyperspectral remote sensing is more effective and provides greater accuracy than multispectral remote sensing in many application fields. EO-1 Hyperion, a representative hyperspectral sensor, has much more spectral bands, while Landsat data has much wider image scene and longer continuous space-based record of Earth's land. This study aims to develop a new method, Pseudo-Hyperspectral Image Synthesis Algorithm (PHISA), to transform Landsat imagery into pseudo hyperspectral imagery using the correlation between Landsat and EO-1 Hyperion data. At first Hyperion scene was precisely pre-processed and co-registered to Landsat scene, and both data were corrected for atmospheric effects. Bayesian model averaging method (BMA) was applied to select the best model from a class of several possible models. Subsequently, this best model is utilized to calculate pseudo-hyperspectral data by R programming. Based on the selection results by BMA, we transform Landsat imagery into 155 bands of pseudo-hyperspectral imagery. Most models have multiple R-squared values higher than 90%, which assures high accuracy of the models. There are no significant differences visually between the pseudo- and original data. Most bands have Pearson's coefficients < 0.95, and only a small fraction has the coefficients < 0.93 like outliers in the data sets. In a similar manner, most Root Mean Square Error values are considerably low, smaller than 0.014. These observations strongly support that the proposed PHISA is valid for transforming Landsat data into pseudo-hyperspectral data from the outlook of statistics.

  8. Limnological database for Par Pond: 1959 to 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Tilly, L.J.

    1981-03-01

    A limnological database for Par Pond, a cooling reservoir for hot reactor effluent water at the Savannah River Plant, is described. The data are derived from a combination of research and monitoring efforts on Par Pond since 1959. The approximately 24,000-byte database provides water quality, primary productivity, and flow data from a number of different stations, depths, and times during the 22-year history of the Par Pond impoundment. The data have been organized to permit an interpretation of the effects of twenty years of cooling system operations on the structure and function of an aquatic ecosystem.

  9. Predicted PAR1 inhibitors from multiple computational methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Jinfeng; Zhu, Tong; Zhang, Lujia; He, Xiao; Zhang, John Z. H.

    2016-08-01

    Multiple computational approaches are employed in order to find potentially strong binders of PAR1 from the two molecular databases: the Specs database containing more than 200,000 commercially available molecules and the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) database. By combining the use of popular docking scoring functions together with detailed molecular dynamics simulation and protein-ligand free energy calculations, a total of fourteen molecules are found to be potentially strong binders of PAR1. The atomic details in protein-ligand interactions of these molecules with PAR1 are analyzed to help understand the binding mechanism which should be very useful in design of new drugs.

  10. An electromagnetic PIC code on the MasPar

    SciTech Connect

    MacNeice, P.

    1993-12-31

    A 3D electromagnetic particle-in-cell code has been rewritten to run on the MasPar. The original code; known as TRISTAN which was written by Oscar Buneman was rewritten in MPL and its data structure altered to suit the MasPar architecture and exploit the fully local property of the algorithm. We discuss the significant issues associated with porting the code and present a comparative analysis of the code run times on the MasPar and on the CRAY YMP and C90. Results of a simulation of the interaction of the solar wind with the earth`s magnetosphere are shown.

  11. Protease-Activated Receptor (PAR)2, but Not PAR1, Is Involved in Collateral Formation and Anti-Inflammatory Monocyte Polarization in a Mouse Hind Limb Ischemia Model

    PubMed Central

    Nossent, Anne Yael; van Oeveren-Rietdijk, Annemarie M.; de Vries, Margreet R.; Spek, C. Arnold; van Zonneveld, Anton Jan; Reitsma, Pieter H.; Hamming, Jaap F.; de Boer, Hetty C.; Versteeg, Henri H.; Quax, Paul H. A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims In collateral development (i.e. arteriogenesis), mononuclear cells are important and exist as a heterogeneous population consisting of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory/repair-associated cells. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)1 and PAR2 are G-protein-coupled receptors that are both expressed by mononuclear cells and are involved in pro-inflammatory reactions, while PAR2 also plays a role in repair-associated responses. Here, we investigated the physiological role of PAR1 and PAR2 in arteriogenesis in a murine hind limb ischemia model. Methods and Results PAR1-deficient (PAR1-/-), PAR2-deficient (PAR2-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice underwent femoral artery ligation. Laser Doppler measurements revealed reduced post-ischemic blood flow recovery in PAR2-/- hind limbs when compared to WT, while PAR1-/- mice were not affected. Upon ischemia, reduced numbers of smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive collaterals and CD31-positive capillaries were found in PAR2-/- mice when compared to WT mice, whereas these parameters in PAR1-/- mice did not differ from WT mice. The pool of circulating repair-associated (Ly6C-low) monocytes and the number of repair-associated (CD206-positive) macrophages surrounding collaterals in the hind limbs were increased in WT and PAR1-/- mice, but unaffected in PAR2-/- mice. The number of repair-associated macrophages in PAR2-/- hind limbs correlated with CD11b- and CD115-expression on the circulating monocytes in these animals, suggesting that monocyte extravasation and M-CSF-dependent differentiation into repair-associated cells are hampered. Conclusion PAR2, but not PAR1, is involved in arteriogenesis and promotes the repair-associated response in ischemic tissues. Therefore, PAR2 potentially forms a new pro-arteriogenic target in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. PMID:23637930

  12. Building and road detection from large aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shunta; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

    2015-02-01

    Building and road detection from aerial imagery has many applications in a wide range of areas including urban design, real-estate management, and disaster relief. The extracting buildings and roads from aerial imagery has been performed by human experts manually, so that it has been very costly and time-consuming process. Our goal is to develop a system for automatically detecting buildings and roads directly from aerial imagery. Many attempts at automatic aerial imagery interpretation have been proposed in remote sensing literature, but much of early works use local features to classify each pixel or segment to an object label, so that these kind of approach needs some prior knowledge on object appearance or class-conditional distribution of pixel values. Furthermore, some works also need a segmentation step as pre-processing. Therefore, we use Convolutional Neural Networks(CNN) to learn mapping from raw pixel values in aerial imagery to three object labels (buildings, roads, and others), in other words, we generate three-channel maps from raw aerial imagery input. We take a patch-based semantic segmentation approach, so we firstly divide large aerial imagery into small patches and then train the CNN with those patches and corresponding three-channel map patches. Finally, we evaluate our system on a large-scale road and building detection datasets that is publicly available.

  13. Brief guided imagery and body scanning interventions reduce food cravings.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jonathan; Fawson, Sophie; May, Jon; Andrade, Jackie; Kavanagh, David J

    2013-12-01

    Elaborated Intrusion (EI) Theory proposes that cravings occur when involuntary thoughts about food are elaborated; a key part of elaboration is affectively-charged imagery. Craving can be weakened by working memory tasks that block imagery. EI Theory predicts that cravings should also be reduced by preventing involuntary thoughts being elaborated in the first place. Research has found that imagery techniques such as body scanning and guided imagery can reduce the occurrence of food thoughts. This study tested the prediction that these techniques also reduce craving. We asked participants to abstain from food overnight, and then to carry out 10 min of body scanning, guided imagery, or a control mind wandering task. They rated their craving at 10 points during the task on a single item measure, and before and after the task using the Craving Experience Questionnaire. While craving rose during the task for the mind wandering group, neither the guided imagery nor body scanning group showed an increase. These effects were not detected by the CEQ, suggesting that they are only present during the competing task. As they require no devices or materials and are unobtrusive, brief guided imagery strategies might form useful components of weight loss programmes that attempt to address cravings.

  14. Iterative fragmentation of cognitive maps in a visual imagery task.

    PubMed

    Fourtassi, Maryam; Hajjioui, Abderrazak; Urquizar, Christian; Rossetti, Yves; Rode, Gilles; Pisella, Laure

    2013-01-01

    It remains unclear whether spontaneous eye movements during visual imagery reflect the mental generation of a visual image (i.e. the arrangement of the component parts of a mental representation). To address this specificity, we recorded eye movements in an imagery task and in a phonological fluency (non-imagery) task, both consisting in naming French towns from long-term memory. Only in the condition of visual imagery the spontaneous eye positions reflected the geographic position of the towns evoked by the subjects. This demonstrates that eye positions closely reflect the mapping of mental images. Advanced analysis of gaze positions using the bi-dimensional regression model confirmed the spatial correlation of gaze and towns' locations in every single individual in the visual imagery task and in none of the individuals when no imagery accompanied memory retrieval. In addition, the evolution of the bi-dimensional regression's coefficient of determination revealed, in each individual, a process of generating several iterative series of a limited number of towns mapped with the same spatial distortion, despite different individual order of towns' evocation and different individual mappings. Such consistency across subjects revealed by gaze (the mind's eye) gives empirical support to theories postulating that visual imagery, like visual sampling, is an iterative fragmented processing.

  15. Infrared Imagery of Solid Rocket Exhaust Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Robert P.; Houston, Janice D.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test program consisted of a series of 18 solid rocket motor static firings, simulating the liftoff conditions of the Ares I five-segment Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Vehicle. Primary test objectives included acquiring acoustic and pressure data which will be used to validate analytical models for the prediction of Ares 1 liftoff acoustics and ignition overpressure environments. The test article consisted of a 5% scale Ares I vehicle and launch tower mounted on the Mobile Launch Pad. The testing also incorporated several Water Sound Suppression Systems. Infrared imagery was employed during the solid rocket testing to support the validation or improvement of analytical models, and identify corollaries between rocket plume size or shape and the accompanying measured level of noise suppression obtained by water sound suppression systems.

  16. Impervious surface mapping with Quickbird imagery

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Dengsheng; Hetrick, Scott; Moran, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    This research selects two study areas with different urban developments, sizes, and spatial patterns to explore the suitable methods for mapping impervious surface distribution using Quickbird imagery. The selected methods include per-pixel based supervised classification, segmentation-based classification, and a hybrid method. A comparative analysis of the results indicates that per-pixel based supervised classification produces a large number of “salt-and-pepper” pixels, and segmentation based methods can significantly reduce this problem. However, neither method can effectively solve the spectral confusion of impervious surfaces with water/wetland and bare soils and the impacts of shadows. In order to accurately map impervious surface distribution from Quickbird images, manual editing is necessary and may be the only way to extract impervious surfaces from the confused land covers and the shadow problem. This research indicates that the hybrid method consisting of thresholding techniques, unsupervised classification and limited manual editing provides the best performance. PMID:21643434

  17. Application of ERTS imagery to geological mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, A.; Aranibar, O.; Ballon, P.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In comparing the interpretation of the imagery with that of photomosaics, the following results were derived. The drainage networks of the RBV images show information in greater detail than the photomosaics, and maps, yet maintain scale differences. However, for the basins the mosaics and maps provide better information. The geomorphology is best interpreted in the images of the ERTS-1, not only for the regional countryside, but also for the morphological formations. It was concluded that the satellite images offer the better possibility for identifying the alignment of joints and faults. In the images the relation is 4 to 1. The considered N-S alignments were identified in both systems with a ratio of 2 to 1. The E-W alignments for the areas considered in the ERTS-1 images show a basic Paleozoic formation not previously detected.

  18. Evaluation of reforested areas using LANDSAT imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Visual and automatic interpretation of LANDSAT imagery was used to classify the general Pinus and Eucalyptus according to their age and species. A methodology was derived, based on training areas, to define the legend and spectral characteristics of the analyzed classes. Imager analysis of the training areas show that Pinus taeda is separable from the other Pinus species based on JM distance measurement. No difference of JM measurements was observed among Eucalyptus species. Two classes of Eucalyptus were separated according to their ages: those under and those over two years of age. Channel 6 and 7 were suitable for the discrimination of the reforested classes. Channel 5 was efficient to separated reforested areas from nonforested targets in the region. The automatic analysis shows the highest classification precision was obtained for Eucalyptus over two years of age (95.12 percent).

  19. Toward interactive search in remote sensing imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Reid B; Hush, Do; Harvey, Neal; Theile, James

    2010-01-01

    To move from data to information in almost all science and defense applications requires a human-in-the-loop to validate information products, resolve inconsistencies, and account for incomplete and potentially deceptive sources of information. This is a key motivation for visual analytics which aims to develop techniques that complement and empower human users. By contrast, the vast majority of algorithms developed in machine learning aim to replace human users in data exploitation. In this paper we describe a recently introduced machine learning problem, called rare category detection, which may be a better match to visual analytic environments. We describe a new design criteria for this problem, and present comparisons to existing techniques with both synthetic and real-world datasets. We conclude by describing an application in broad-area search of remote sensing imagery.

  20. Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jucht, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing data are vital to understanding the physical world and to answering many of its needs and problems. The United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Remote Sensing Technologies (RST) Project, working with its partners, is proud to sponsor the annual Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE) Workshop to help understand the quality and usefulness of remote sensing data. The JACIE program was formed in 2001 to leverage U.S. Federal agency resources for the characterization of commercial remote sensing data. These agencies sponsor and co-chair JACIE: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) JACIE is an effort to coordinate data assessments between the participating agencies and partners and communicate the knowledge and results of the quality and utility of the remotely sensed data available for government and private use.

  1. AVHRR imagery reveals Antarctic ice dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bindschadler, R.A.; Vornberger, P.L. STX Corp., Lanham, MD )

    1990-06-01

    A portion of AVHRR data taken on December 5, 1987 at 06:15 GMT over a part of Antarctica is used here to show that many of the most significant dynamic features of ice sheets can be identified by a careful examination of AVHRR imagery. The relatively low resolution of this instrument makes it ideal for obtaining a broad view of the ice sheets, while its wide swath allows coverage of areas beyond the reach of high-resolution imagers either currently in orbit or planned. An interpretation is given of the present data, which cover the area of ice streams that drain the interior of the West Antarctic ice sheet into the Ross Ice Shelf. 21 refs.

  2. Optical imagery and spectrophotometry of CTB 80

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hester, J. Jeff; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.

    1989-01-01

    Narrow-band imagery and spectrophotometry of the central region of CTB 80 are presented. The images show weak forbidden O III and ubiquitous filamentary forbidden S II and H-alpha emission from the extended radio lobes in which the core is embedded. The data indicate that the extended component is shock heated. Balmer line-dominated emission is observed around the perimeter of the core. Assuming that the volume of the radio shell is similar to the volume of the thermal shell, it is found that a magnetic field of about 600 microG and a cosmic-ray proton-to-electron ratio of about 200 are required to explain the pressure and synchrotron volume emissivity in the radio shell. It is suggested that the optical emission form the core of CTB 80 arises behind shocks which are being driven into a magnetized thermal plasma by the confined relativistic wind from PSR 1951+32.

  3. An algorithm for segmenting polarimetric SAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geaga, Jorge V.

    2015-05-01

    We have developed an algorithm for segmenting fully polarimetric single look TerraSAR-X, multilook SIR-C and 7 band Landsat 5 imagery using neural nets. The algorithm uses a feedforward neural net with one hidden layer to segment different surface classes. The weights are refined through an iterative filtering process characteristic of a relaxation process. Features selected from studies of fully polarimetric complex single look TerraSAR-X data and multilook SIR-C data are used as input to the net. The seven bands from Landsat 5 data are used as input for the Landsat neural net. The Cloude-Pottier incoherent decomposition is used to investigate the physical basis of the polarimetric SAR data segmentation. The segmentation of a SIR-C ocean surface scene into four classes is presented. This segmentation algorithm could be a very useful tool for investigating complex polarimetric SAR phenomena.

  4. Thermal imagery for census of ungulates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wride, M. C.; Baker, K.

    1977-01-01

    A Daedalus thermal linescanner mounted in a light single engine aircraft was used to image the entire 270 square kilometers within the fenced perimeter of ElK Island Park, Alberta, Canada. The data were collected during winter, 1976 in morning and midday (overcast conditions) processed and analyzed to obtain a number for total ungulates. Five different ungulate species were present during the survey. Ungulates were easily observed during the analysis of linescanner imagery and the total number of ungulates was established at 2175 compared to figures of 1010 and 1231 for visual method aerial survey results of the same area that year. It was concluded that the scanner was much more accurate and precise for census of ungulates than visual techniques.

  5. Eliminating Topographic Illumination Effects from Landsat Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, J.; Small, C.

    2013-12-01

    The solar illumination across a single satellite image is variable due to tree cover, slope, aspect and flux density. This makes it difficult to discern differences in land cover. In order to extract different land cover types from multispectral moderate resolution imagery, many techniques (mainly supervised and unsupervised classifications) have been used. These methods often perform adequately, but often must ignore finer resolution phenomena. Supervised classification suffers from this flaw, while unsupervised classification also often detects large differences in solar illumination as different classes. This makes lower flux density vegetation classify differently than illuminated vegetation, even of the same species. Existing topographic correction methods may overcorrect, rely on site-specific empirical terms or require data often unavailable in areas of interest (Kane et al. 2008). We present a new technique to remove topographic illumination effects with available global data and spectral unmixing. It uses a three endmember mixing model of substrate, vegetation, and dark (SVD) on Landsat imagery (Small 2004). The dark fraction is then plotted against a simulated incidence angle image derived from ASTER GDEM data to see the incidence angle-dark fraction space. This technique minimizes the trend between solar illumination values calculated from ASTER GDEM and the SVD dark fraction. This trend is then minimized to the nominal flux density of a level surface. With this minimization, the fraction estimates are reduced on sun-facing slopes and increased on sun-backing slopes. The resulting image can then be used to study variations in land cover without the overprinting of topographic shadow or variations in solar flux.

  6. Atmospheric Correction Algorithm for Hyperspectral Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    R. J. Pollina

    1999-09-01

    In December 1997, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established a Center of Excellence (Hyperspectral-Multispectral Algorithm Research Center, HyMARC) for promoting the research and development of algorithms to exploit spectral imagery. This center is located at the DOE Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, and is operated for the DOE by Bechtel Nevada. This paper presents the results to date of a research project begun at the center during 1998 to investigate the correction of hyperspectral data for atmospheric aerosols. Results of a project conducted by the Rochester Institute of Technology to define, implement, and test procedures for absolute calibration and correction of hyperspectral data to absolute units of high spectral resolution imagery will be presented. Hybrid techniques for atmospheric correction using image or spectral scene data coupled through radiative propagation models will be specifically addressed. Results of this effort to analyze HYDICE sensor data will be included. Preliminary results based on studying the performance of standard routines, such as Atmospheric Pre-corrected Differential Absorption and Nonlinear Least Squares Spectral Fit, in retrieving reflectance spectra show overall reflectance retrieval errors of approximately one to two reflectance units in the 0.4- to 2.5-micron-wavelength region (outside of the absorption features). These results are based on HYDICE sensor data collected from the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site during overflights conducted in July of 1997. Results of an upgrade made in the model-based atmospheric correction techniques, which take advantage of updates made to the moderate resolution atmospheric transmittance model (MODTRAN 4.0) software, will also be presented. Data will be shown to demonstrate how the reflectance retrieval in the shorter wavelengths of the blue-green region will be improved because of enhanced modeling of multiple scattering effects.

  7. Infrared Flight Simulation Using Computer Generated Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weathersby, Marshall R.; Finlay, W. Mark

    1985-01-01

    A sophisticated deterministic interactive software model for computer generation of three-dimensionally projected infrared scenes has been developed. Scenes can be produced using either a self-emission or near infrared reflectance model. The software allows for generation of flight paths through a data base consisting of both feature and topography and near real-time display of stored precomputed images. The emphasis in the model development has been in computer generation of infrared scenes which accurately reproduce the characteristics of real-world imagery. The software combines computer graphics and infrared physics to produce synthetic scenes with the statistical properties of real scenes. Options exist for generation of images in near-infrared, 3-5 or 8-12 micron spectral bands including atmospheric attenuation effects. The three-dimensional projection algorithms allow for viewing of the scenes from any geometry and include concave and convex surfaces as well as hidden objects. Features exist for insertion of additional objects into the three-dimensional scenes. Thus targets, buildings, and other natural or man-made objects can be inserted with any orientation anywhere in the scenes. This allows full simulation of varying depression angles, range closure, and fly-over. The three-dimensional infrared background clutter model is an evaluation tool capable of both assessing system performance in clutter and increasing our understanding of clutter itself. The model in its current form represents a powerful tool for the fundamental understanding of infrared clutter. Possible applications include, but are most certainly not limited to, sensor operator training in the area of target discrimination with dynamic imagery, evaluation of automatic target recognizer (ATR) algorithms, and simulations allowing pilots to pre-fly missions.

  8. What Do Eye Gaze Metrics Tell Us about Motor Imagery?

    PubMed

    Poiroux, Elodie; Cavaro-Ménard, Christine; Leruez, Stéphanie; Lemée, Jean Michel; Richard, Isabelle; Dinomais, Mickael

    2015-01-01

    Many of the brain structures involved in performing real movements also have increased activity during imagined movements or during motor observation, and this could be the neural substrate underlying the effects of motor imagery in motor learning or motor rehabilitation. In the absence of any objective physiological method of measurement, it is currently impossible to be sure that the patient is indeed performing the task as instructed. Eye gaze recording during a motor imagery task could be a possible way to "spy" on the activity an individual is really engaged in. The aim of the present study was to compare the pattern of eye movement metrics during motor observation, visual and kinesthetic motor imagery (VI, KI), target fixation, and mental calculation. Twenty-two healthy subjects (16 females and 6 males), were required to perform tests in five conditions using imagery in the Box and Block Test tasks following the procedure described by Liepert et al. Eye movements were analysed by a non-invasive oculometric measure (SMI RED250 system). Two parameters describing gaze pattern were calculated: the index of ocular mobility (saccade duration over saccade + fixation duration) and the number of midline crossings (i.e. the number of times the subjects gaze crossed the midline of the screen when performing the different tasks). Both parameters were significantly different between visual imagery and kinesthesic imagery, visual imagery and mental calculation, and visual imagery and target fixation. For the first time we were able to show that eye movement patterns are different during VI and KI tasks. Our results suggest gaze metric parameters could be used as an objective unobtrusive approach to assess engagement in a motor imagery task. Further studies should define how oculomotor parameters could be used as an indicator of the rehabilitation task a patient is engaged in. PMID:26605915

  9. What Do Eye Gaze Metrics Tell Us about Motor Imagery?

    PubMed Central

    Poiroux, Elodie; Cavaro-Ménard, Christine; Leruez, Stéphanie; Lemée, Jean Michel; Richard, Isabelle; Dinomais, Mickael

    2015-01-01

    Many of the brain structures involved in performing real movements also have increased activity during imagined movements or during motor observation, and this could be the neural substrate underlying the effects of motor imagery in motor learning or motor rehabilitation. In the absence of any objective physiological method of measurement, it is currently impossible to be sure that the patient is indeed performing the task as instructed. Eye gaze recording during a motor imagery task could be a possible way to “spy” on the activity an individual is really engaged in. The aim of the present study was to compare the pattern of eye movement metrics during motor observation, visual and kinesthetic motor imagery (VI, KI), target fixation, and mental calculation. Twenty-two healthy subjects (16 females and 6 males), were required to perform tests in five conditions using imagery in the Box and Block Test tasks following the procedure described by Liepert et al. Eye movements were analysed by a non-invasive oculometric measure (SMI RED250 system). Two parameters describing gaze pattern were calculated: the index of ocular mobility (saccade duration over saccade + fixation duration) and the number of midline crossings (i.e. the number of times the subjects gaze crossed the midline of the screen when performing the different tasks). Both parameters were significantly different between visual imagery and kinesthesic imagery, visual imagery and mental calculation, and visual imagery and target fixation. For the first time we were able to show that eye movement patterns are different during VI and KI tasks. Our results suggest gaze metric parameters could be used as an objective unobtrusive approach to assess engagement in a motor imagery task. Further studies should define how oculomotor parameters could be used as an indicator of the rehabilitation task a patient is engaged in. PMID:26605915

  10. Spatial Classification of Orchards and Vineyards with High Spatial Resolution Panchromatic Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, Timothy; Steinmaus, Karen L.

    2005-02-01

    New high resolution single spectral band imagery offers the capability to conduct image classifications based on spatial patterns in imagery. A classification algorithm based on autocorrelation patterns was developed to automatically extract orchards and vineyards from satellite imagery. The algorithm was tested on IKONOS imagery over Granger, WA, which resulted in a classification accuracy of 95%.

  11. Environmental studies of Iceland with ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. S., Jr.; Boovarsson, A.; Frioriksson, S.; Thorsteinsson, I.; Palmason, G.; Rist, S.; Saemundsson, K.; Sigtryggsson, H.; Thorarinsson, S.

    1974-01-01

    Imagery from the ERTS-1 satellite can be used to study geological and geophysical phenomena which are important in relation to Iceland's natural resources. Multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery can be used to map areas of altered ground, intense thermal emission, fallout from volcanic eruptions, lava flows, volcanic geomorphology, erosion or build-up of land, snow cover, the areal extent of glaciers and ice caps, etc. At least five distinct vegetation types and barren areas can be mapped using MSS false-color composites. Stereoscopic coverage of iceland by side-lapping ERTS imagery permits precise analysis of various natural phenomena.

  12. Congruency of gaze metrics in action, imagery and action observation.

    PubMed

    Causer, Joe; McCormick, Sheree A; Holmes, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a review of eye movements during action execution, action observation, and movement imagery. Furthermore, the paper highlights aspects of congruency in gaze metrics between these states. The implications of the imagery, observation, and action gaze congruency are discussed in terms of motor learning and rehabilitation. Future research directions are outlined in order to further the understanding of shared gaze metrics between overt and covert states. Suggestions are made for how researchers and practitioners can structure action observation and movement imagery interventions to maximize (re)learning. PMID:24068996

  13. Same same but different: the case of olfactory imagery

    PubMed Central

    Arshamian, Artin; Larsson, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the present work we present an overview of experimental findings corroborating olfactory imagery observations with the visual and auditory modalities. Overall, the results indicate that imagery of olfactory information share many features with those observed in the primary senses although some major differences are evident. One such difference pertains to the considerable individual differences observed, with the majority being unable to reproduce olfactory information in their mind. Here, we highlight factors that are positively related to an olfactory imagery capacity, such as semantic knowledge, perceptual experience, and olfactory interest that may serve as potential moderators of the large individual variation. PMID:24550862

  14. Kernel based color estimation for night vision imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xiaojing; Sun, Shaoyuan; Fang, Jian'an; Zhou, Peng

    2012-04-01

    Displaying night vision (NV) imagery with colors can largely improve observer's performance of scene recognition and situational awareness comparing to the conventional monochrome representation. However, estimating colors for single-band NV imagery has two challenges: deriving an appropriate color mapping model and extracting sufficient image features required by the model. To address these, a kernel based regression model and a set of multi-scale image features are used here. The proposed method can automatically render single-band NV imagery with natural colors, even when it has abnormal luminance distribution and lacks identifiable details.

  15. Improved Prediction of Momentum and Scalar Fluxes Using MODIS Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crago, Richard D.; Jasinski, Michael F.

    2003-01-01

    There are remote sensing and science objectives. The remote sensing objectives are: To develop and test a theoretical method for estimating local momentum aerodynamic roughness length, z(sub 0m), using satellite multispectral imagery. To adapt the method to the MODIS imagery. To develop a high-resolution (approx. 1km) gridded dataset of local momentum roughness for the continental United States and southern Canada, using MODIS imagery and other MODIS derived products. The science objective is: To determine the sensitivity of improved satellite-derived (MODIS-) estimates of surface roughness on the momentum and scalar fluxes, within the context of 3-D atmospheric modeling.

  16. Hyperspectral imagery classification based on relevance vector machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guopeng; Yu, Xuchu; Feng, Wufa; Xu, Weixiao; Zhang, Pengqiang

    2009-10-01

    The relevance vector machine is sparse model in the Bayesian framework, its mathematics model doesn't have regularization coefficient and its kernel functions don't need to satisfy Mercer's condition. RVM present the good generalization performance, and its predictions are probabilistic. In this paper, a hyperspectral imagery classification method based on the relevance machine is brought forward. We introduce the sparse Bayesian classification model, regard the RVM learning as the maximization of marginal likelihood, and select the fast sequential sparse Bayesian learning algorithm. Through the experiment of PHI imagery classification, the advantages of the relevance machine used in hyperspectral imagery classification are given out.

  17. Uses of motion imagery in activity-based intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lash, Thomas D.

    2013-05-01

    Activity-Based Intelligence (ABI) was defined by the Office of the Undersecretary of Defense for Intelligence as "a discipline of intelligence where the analysis and subsequent collection is focused on activity and transactions associated with an entity, population, or area of interest." ABI is inherently multi-INT, and motion imagery is a rich data source for ABI analysis. Motion imagery provides a unique temporal aspect which is critical for activity detection and classification. Additionally, motion imagery tends to have high spatial oversampling useful for determining activities and patterns above the noise threshold.

  18. Croissance epitaxiale de GaAs sur substrats de Ge par epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belanger, Simon

    La situation energetique et les enjeux environnementaux auxquels la societe est confrontee entrainent un interet grandissant pour la production d'electricite a partir de l'energie solaire. Parmi les technologies actuellement disponibles, la filiere du photovoltaique a concentrateur solaire (CPV pour concentrator photovoltaics) possede un rendement superieur et mi potentiel interessant a condition que ses couts de production soient competitifs. La methode d'epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques (CBE pour chemical beam epitaxy) possede plusieurs caracteristiques qui la rendent interessante pour la production a grande echelle de cellules photovoltaiques a jonctions multiples a base de semi-conducteurs III-V. Ce type de cellule possede la meilleure efficacite atteinte a ce jour et est utilise sur les satellites et les systemes photovoltaiques a concentrateur solaire (CPV) les plus efficaces. Une des principales forces de la technique CBE se trouve dans son potentiel d'efficacite d'utilisation des materiaux source qui est superieur a celui de la technique d'epitaxie qui est couramment utilisee pour la production a grande echelle de ces cellules. Ce memoire de maitrise presente les travaux effectues dans le but d'evaluer le potentiel de la technique CBE pour realiser la croissance de couches de GaAs sur des substrats de Ge. Cette croissance constitue la premiere etape de fabrication de nombreux modeles de cellules solaires a haute performance decrites plus haut. La realisation de ce projet a necessite le developpement d'un procede de preparation de surface pour les substrats de germanium, la realisation de nombreuses sceances de croissance epitaxiale et la caracterisation des materiaux obtenus par microscopie optique, microscopie a force atomique (AFM), diffraction des rayons-X a haute resolution (HRXRD), microscopie electronique a transmission (TEM), photoluminescence a basse temperature (LTPL) et spectrometrie de masse des ions secondaires (SIMS). Les experiences ont permis

  19. Par-4 secretion: stoichiometry of 3-arylquinoline binding to vimentin.

    PubMed

    Sviripa, Vitaliy M; Burikhanov, Ravshan; Obiero, Josiah M; Yuan, Yaxia; Nickell, Justin R; Dwoskin, Linda P; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Liu, Chunming; Tsodikov, Oleg V; Rangnekar, Vivek M; Watt, David S

    2016-01-01

    Advanced prostate tumors usually metastasize to the lung, bone, and other vital tissues and are resistant to conventional therapy. Prostate apoptosis response-4 protein (Par-4) is a tumor suppressor that causes apoptosis in therapy-resistant prostate cancer cells by binding specifically to a receptor, Glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP78), found only on the surface of cancer cells. 3-Arylquinolines or "arylquins" induce normal cells to release Par-4 from the intermediate filament protein, vimentin and promote Par-4 secretion that targets cancer cells in a paracrine manner. A structure-activity study identified arylquins that promote Par-4 secretion, and an evaluation of arylquin binding to the hERG potassium ion channel using a [(3)H]-dofetilide binding assay permitted the identification of structural features that separated this undesired activity from the desired Par-4 secretory activity. A binding study that relied on the natural fluorescence of arylquins and that used the purified rod domain of vimentin (residues 99-411) suggested that the mechanism behind Par-4 release involved arylquin binding to multiple sites in the rod domain.

  20. Improvements in the Visualization of Stereoscopic 3D Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurrieri, Luis E.

    2015-09-01

    A pleasant visualization of stereoscopic imagery must take into account factors that may produce eye strain and fatigue. Fortunately, our binocular vision system has embedded mechanisms to perceive depth for extended periods of time without producing eye fatigue; however, stereoscopic imagery may still induce visual discomfort in certain displaying scenarios. An important source of eye fatigue originates in the conflict between vergence eye movement and focusing mechanisms. Today's eye-tracking technology makes possible to know the viewers' gaze direction; hence, 3D imagery can be dynamically corrected based on this information. In this paper, I introduce a method to improve the visualization of stereoscopic imagery on planar displays based on emulating vergence and accommodation mechanisms of binocular human vision. Unlike other methods to improve the visual comfort that introduce depth distortions, in the stereoscopic visual media, this technique aims to produce a gentler and more natural binocular viewing experience without distorting the original depth of the scene.

  1. Noun Imagery in Verbal Discrimination Learning and Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulkerson, Frank E.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This experiment was designed to further investigate how noun imagery as a task variable may supplement the operation of an experimental-frequency mechanism (Ekstrand, Wallace, and Underwood, 1966) in verbal-discrimination learning. (Author)

  2. Effects of microgravity on cognition: The case of mental imagery.

    PubMed

    Grabherr, Luzia; Mast, Fred W

    2010-01-01

    Human cognitive performance is an important factor for the successful and safe outcome of commercial and non-commercial manned space missions. This article aims to provide a systematic review of studies investigating the effects of microgravity on the cognitive abilities of parabolic or space flight participants due to the absence of the gravito-inertial force. We will focus on mental imagery: one of the best studied cognitive functions. Mental imagery is closely connected to perception and motor behavior. It aids important processes such as perceptual anticipation, problem solving and motor simulation, all of which are critical for space travel. Thirteen studies were identified and classified into the following topics: spatial representations, mental image transformations and motor imagery. While research on spatial representation and mental image transformation continues to grow and specific differences in cognitive functioning between 1 g and 0 g have been observed, motor imagery has thus far received little attention.

  3. APPLYING SATELLITE IMAGERY TO TRIAGE ASSESSMENT OF ECOSYSTEM HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Considerable evidence documents that certain changes in vegetation and soils result in irreversibly degraded rangeland ecosystems. We used Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)imagery to develop calibration patterns of change in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Ind...

  4. Data annotation of aerial reconnaissance imagery and exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wareberg, P. Gunnar; Prunes, V.; Scholes, Richard W.

    1995-09-01

    This paper reviews the use of LED recording head assemblies (RHAs) for film annotation in aerial reconnaissance cameras and discusses code matrix block readers (CMBRs). Annotation of video imagery is also covered.

  5. ASE Floodwater Classifier Development for EO-1 HYPERION Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ip, F.; Dohm, J. M.; Baker, V. R.; Doggett, T.; Davies, A. G.; Castano, B.; Chien, S.; Cichy, B.; Greeley, R.; Sherwood, R.

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this investigation is to develop a prototype floodwater detection algorithm for Hyperion imagery. It will be run autonomously onboard the EO-1 spacecraft under the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE).

  6. Summary of space imagery studies in Utah and Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An enhanced enlargement of a S190B color image at a scale of 1/19,200 of the Bingham porphyry copper deposit has compared a geological map of the area with the space imagery map as fair for the intrusion boundaries and total lack of quality for mapping the sediments. Hydrothermal alteration is only slightly evident on space imagery at Bingham, but in the Tintic mining district and the volcanic piles of the Keg and Thomas ranges, Utah, hydrothermal alteration is readily mapped on color enlargements of S190B. Several sites of calderas were recognized and new ones located on space imagery. One of the tools developed is a mercury soil-gas analyzer that is becoming significant as an aid in locating hidden mineralized zones which were suggested from space imagery. In addition, this tool is a prime aid in locating and better delineating geothermal sites.

  7. An Information-Processing Analysis of a Piagetian Imagery Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Anne L.; Harvey, Wade O.

    1979-01-01

    Children at three age levels (4-6, 7-9, and 10-14 years) performed a reaction-time version of Piaget and Inhelder's rotating squares imagery task and a pivot and shape conservation recognition task. (JMB)

  8. Bulimia: Using Fantasy-Imagery and Relaxation Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnison, Hugh; Renick, T. F.

    1985-01-01

    The rationale and theoretical foundations for fantasy relaxation and fantasy imagery procedures, designed to contact right hemisphere functions, are presented for specific use in the treatment of bulimia. (BL)

  9. Small scale thematic mapping - A case for radar imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, F. M.

    1974-01-01

    Small scale thematic maps (1:250,000 and smaller) of physical and cultural phenomena manifested on the landscape are a major concern to scientists and investigators in diverse disciplines. A strip of K-band radar imagery consisting of a traverse from eastern Minnesota to northern Utah was employed to evaluate the potential of radar imagery for small scale land use mapping. In the course of this investigation, it was discovered that certain borders derived from radar imagery were compatible with borders found on the nonland use thematic maps used for comparison. Specifically, numerous borders and regions of small scale maps of landforms, soils, vegetation, and geology are found to be similar to the radar land use regions. Although far from conclusive it appears that radar imagery can be employed in the small scale mapping of landforms and possibly for mapping physiognomic or economic vegetation.

  10. Evaluation of terrestrial photogrammetric point clouds derived from thermal imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalf, Jeremy P.; Olsen, Richard C.

    2016-05-01

    Computer vision and photogrammetric techniques have been widely applied to digital imagery producing high density 3D point clouds. Using thermal imagery as input, the same techniques can be applied to infrared data to produce point clouds in 3D space, providing surface temperature information. The work presented here is an evaluation of the accuracy of 3D reconstruction of point clouds produced using thermal imagery. An urban scene was imaged over an area at the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, viewing from above as with an airborne system. Terrestrial thermal and RGB imagery were collected from a rooftop overlooking the site using a FLIR SC8200 MWIR camera and a Canon T1i DSLR. In order to spatially align each dataset, ground control points were placed throughout the study area using Trimble R10 GNSS receivers operating in RTK mode. Each image dataset is processed to produce a dense point cloud for 3D evaluation.

  11. Users, uses, and value of Landsat satellite imagery: results from the 2012 survey of users

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Holly; Richardson, Leslie A.; Koontz, Stephen R.; Loomis, John; Koontz, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Landsat satellites have been operating since 1972, providing a continuous global record of the Earth’s land surface. The imagery is currently available at no cost through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Social scientists at the USGS Fort Collins Science Center conducted an extensive survey in early 2012 to explore who uses Landsat imagery, how they use the imagery, and what the value of the imagery is to them. The survey was sent to all users registered with USGS who had accessed Landsat imagery in the year prior to the survey and over 11,000 current Landsat imagery users responded. The results of the survey revealed that respondents from many sectors use Landsat imagery in myriad project locations and scales, as well as application areas. The value of Landsat imagery to these users was demonstrated by the high importance of and dependence on the imagery, the numerous environmental and societal benefits observed from projects using Landsat imagery, the potential negative impacts on users’ work if Landsat imagery was no longer available, and the substantial aggregated annual economic benefit from the imagery. These results represent only the value of Landsat to users registered with USGS; further research would help to determine what the value of the imagery is to a greater segment of the population, such as downstream users of the imagery and imagery-derived products.

  12. Application of NASA ERTS-1 satellite imagery in coastal studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magoon, O. T.; Berg, D. W. (Principal Investigator); Hallermeier, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. Review of ERTS-1 imagery indicates that it contains information of great value in coastal engineering studies. A brief introduction is given to the methods by which imagery is generated, and examples of its application to coastal engineering. Specific applications discussed include study of the movement of coastal and nearshore sediment-laden water masses and information for planning and construction in remote areas of the world.

  13. Imagery in the clinical setting: a tool for healing.

    PubMed

    Reed, Terry

    2007-06-01

    This article addresses the why and how of imagery and its relation with holistic theories. The description of clinical applications, program development, and research demonstrates successful interventions in virtually every area of nursing. Case examples show the profound healing that is experienced by the patient and the nurse simultaneously through this work. Imagery is harmless, is time- and cost-effective, and creates a healing partnership between the nurse and patient. PMID:17544682

  14. The use of ERTS imagery in reservoir management and operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. Preliminary analysis of ERTS-1 imagery suggests that the configuration and areal coverage of surface waters, as well as other hydrologically related terrain features, may be obtained from ERTS-1 imagery to an extent that would be useful. Computer-oriented pattern recognition techniques are being developed to help automate the identification and analysis of hydrologic features. Considerable man-machine interaction is required while training the computer for these tasks.

  15. Sea-Ice Feature Mapping using JERS-1 Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maslanik, James; Heinrichs, John

    1994-01-01

    JERS-1 SAR and OPS imagery are examined in combination with other data sets to investigate the utility of the JERS-1 sensors for mapping fine-scale sea ice conditions. Combining ERS-1 C band and JERS-1 L band SAR aids in discriminating multiyear and first-year ice. Analysis of OPS imagery for a field site in the Canadian Archipelago highlights the advantages of OPS's high spatial and spectral resolution for mapping ice structure, melt pond distribution, and surface albedo.

  16. Distinguishing saline from nonsaline rangelands with Skylab imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everitt, J. H.; Gerbermann, A. H.; Cuellar, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    A flight line in Starr County, Texas, was used to test the feasibility of distinguishing saline from nonsaline rangelands using very small scale (1:3,000,000), Skylab satellite imagery. Film optical density readings were made on six different films (four black-and-white, one conventional, and one infrared color) using various film/filter combinations. Differentiating between saline and nonsaline rangelands was possible by using microdensitometry on black-and-white Skylab imagery.

  17. Overall evaluation of Skylab imagery for mapping of Latin America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staples, J. E.; Eoldan, J. J. M.; Fernandez, O. W.; Alves, M.; Mutis, J.; Fletcher, A. G.; Ferrero, M. B.; Morell, J. J. H.; Romero, L. E.; Garcia, J. A. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab imagery is both desired and needed by the Latin American catographic agencies. The imagery is cost beneficial for the production of new mapping and maintenance of existing maps at national topographic series scales. If this information was available on a near time routine coverage basis, it would provide an excellent additional data base to the Latin American cartographic community, specifically Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Venezuela.

  18. Worry tendencies predict brain activation during aversive imagery.

    PubMed

    Schienle, Anne; Schäfer, Axel; Pignanelli, Roman; Vaitl, Dieter

    2009-09-25

    Because of its abstract nature, worrying might function as an avoidance response in order to cognitively disengage from fearful imagery. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated neural correlates of aversive imagery and their association with worry tendencies, as measured by the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ). Nineteen healthy women first viewed, and subsequently imagined pictures from two categories, 'threat' and 'happiness'. Worry tendencies were negatively correlated with brain activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, the prefrontal cortex (dorsolateral, dorsomedial, ventrolateral), the parietal cortex and the insula. These negative correlations between PSWQ scores and localized brain activation were specific for aversive imagery. Moreover, activation in the above mentioned regions was positively associated with the experienced vividness of both pleasant and unpleasant mental pictures. As the identified brain regions are involved in emotion regulation, vivid imagery and memory retrieval, a lowered activity in high PSWQ scorers might be associated with cognitive disengagement from aversive imagery as well as insufficient refresh rates of mental pictures. Our preliminary findings encourage future imagery studies on generalized anxiety disorder patients, as one of the main symptoms of this disorder is excessive worrying. PMID:19545612

  19. STS-114: Discovery Return to Flight Imagery Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    George Diller, from NASA Public Affairs, introduces Bob Page who is the chairman of the NASA Intercenter Photo Working Group. Page discusses the purpose of the group which is to perform an analysis of all imagery captured of spacecraft launches. He presents charts to discuss return to flight optics. The charts consist of: 1) Overall Shuttle Imagery Plan; 2) Baseline Configuration Imagery; 3) Upgraded Operational Television (OTV) Cameras; 4) Mobile Launch Platform Cameras; 5) Fixed Service Structure Cameras; 6) Kimeto Tracking Mount (KMT); 7) MOTS (Mobile Optical Tracking System); 8) Intermediate Focal Length Optical Tracker (IFLOT); 9) Distant Object Attitude Measurement System (DOAMS); 10) Advanced Transportable Optical Tracking System (ATOTS); 11) STS-114 Pad Fixed Tracker Camera Configuration; 12) STS-114 Camera Medium and Long Range Tracker Configuration; 13) WB-57 Ascent Visualization Experiment (WAVE); 14) WAVE Profile, Plan View, CAD Flight Training, and Test Flight; 15) Minimum STS-114 Flight Cameras Configuration; 16) External Tank (ET) Separation Cameras; 17) ET Imagery; Umbilical and Handheld; 18) On-Orbit Imagery; and 19) Imagery Data Distribution Plan. The presentation ends with a brief question and answer period.

  20. Implications for intervention: categorising the quantitative mental imagery of children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jonathan Norris; Harkness, Shelly Sheats

    2013-06-01

    Unlike a child's observable, physical interactions with mathematical tools (e.g., physically touching blocks in order to count them), the subtle manifestations of imagery construction can be considerably more challenging to identify and act upon. Although there have been substantive examinations of mental imagery in a variety of mathematical contexts (i.e., spatial patterns, geometric rotation, etc.) there is a paucity of study regarding the nature of mathematical imagery with respect to initial counting acts. Towards that end, we conducted clinical interviews and longitudinal teaching experiments to ascertain the salient features of early quantitative mental imagery. Our findings indicate that children construct imagined units that are variably connected to the mathematical tool of the moment. Moreover, while this variability appears congruent with existing mathematical progressions, attending to nuances in children's mental imagery provides a platform for more refined instructional design. Indeed, identification of and attention to the child's quantitative imagery in whatever form it may take is essential to maximising mathematical experiences.

  1. Processing of SeaMARC swath sonar imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Pratson, L.; Malinverno, A.; Edwards, M.; Ryan, W. )

    1990-05-01

    Side-scan swath sonar systems have become an increasingly important means of mapping the sea floor. Two such systems are the deep-towed, high-resolution SeaMARC I sonar, which has a variable swath width of up to 5 km, and the shallow-towed, lower-resolution SeaMARC II sonar, which has a swath width of 10 km. The sea-floor imagery of acoustic backscatter output by the SeaMARC sonars is analogous to aerial photographs and airborne side-looking radar images of continental topography. Geologic interpretation of the sea-floor imagery is greatly facilitated by image processing. Image processing of the digital backscatter data involves removal of noise by median filtering, spatial filtering to remove sonar scans of anomalous intensity, across-track corrections to remove beam patterns caused by nonuniform response of the sonar transducers to changes in incident angle, and contrast enhancement by histogram equalization to maximize the available dynamic range. Correct geologic interpretation requires submarine structural fabrics to be displayed in their proper locations and orientations. Geographic projection of sea-floor imagery is achieved by merging the enhanced imagery with the sonar vehicle navigation and correcting for vehicle attitude. Co-registration of bathymetry with sonar imagery introduces sea-floor relief and permits the imagery to be displayed in three-dimensional perspectives, furthering the ability of the marine geologist to infer the processes shaping formerly hidden subsea terrains.

  2. The functional impact of mental imagery on conscious perception.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Joel; Clifford, Colin W G; Tong, Frank

    2008-07-01

    Mental imagery has been proposed to contribute to a variety of high-level cognitive functions, including memory encoding and retrieval, navigation, spatial planning, and even social communication and language comprehension. However, it is debated whether mental imagery relies on the same sensory representations as perception, and if so, what functional consequences such an overlap might have on perception itself. We report novel evidence that single instances of imagery can have a pronounced facilitatory influence on subsequent conscious perception. Either seeing or imagining a specific pattern could strongly bias which of two competing stimuli reach awareness during binocular rivalry. Effects of imagery and perception were location and orientation specific, accumulated in strength over time, and survived an intervening visual task lasting several seconds prior to presentation of the rivalry display. Interestingly, effects of imagery differed from those of feature-based attention. The results demonstrate that imagery, in the absence of any incoming visual signals, leads to the formation of a short-term sensory trace that can bias future perception, suggesting a means by which high-level processes that support imagination and memory retrieval may shape low-level sensory representations.

  3. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- June survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-06-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the shoreline aquatic plant communities in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level, indicated that much of the original plant communities and the intermediate shoreline communities present on the exposed sediments have been lost. The extensive old-field and emergent marsh communities that were present on the exposed shoreline during the drawdown have been flooded and much of the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities have not had sufficient time for re-establishment. The shoreline does, however, have extensive beds of maidencane which extend from the shoreline margin to areas as deep as 2 and perhaps 3 meters. Scattered individual plants of lotus and watershield are common and may indicate likely directions of future wetland development in Par Pond. In addition, within isolated coves, which apparently received ground water seepage and/or stream surface flows during the period of the Par Pond draw down, extensive beds of waterlilies and spike rush are common. Invasion of willow and red maple occurred along the lake shoreline as well. Although not absent from this survey, evidence of the extensive redevelopment of the large cattail and eel grass beds was not observed in this first survey of Par Pond. Future surveys during the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997 along with the evaluation of satellite date to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond are planned.

  4. Pars Planitis: Epidemiology, Clinical Characteristics, Management and Visual Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Ozdal, Pinar Cakar; Berker, Nilufer; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur

    2015-01-01

    Pars planitis is an idiopathic chronic intermediate uveitis which predominantly affects children and adolescents, and accounts for 5-26.7% of pediatric uveitis. Although an autoimmune process with a genetic predisposition has been suggested, its etiology still remains unknown. The most common presenting symptoms are floaters and blurred vision. Diffuse vitreous cells, haze, snowballs and snowbanks are typical findings of pars planitis. Peripheral retinal vasculitis, optic disc edema and anterior segment inflammation are other well-known findings. Although pars planitis is known to be a benign form of uveitis in most cases, it may become a potentially blinding disease due to complications including cataract, cystoid macular edema, vitreous opacities and optic disc edema. Cystoid macular edema is the most common cause of visual morbidity. Band keratopathy, epiretinal membrane formation, vitreous condensation, neovascularizations, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, cyclitic membranes, glaucoma and amblyopia may develop as a consequence of the chronic course of the disease. Exclusion of infectious and non-infectious causes which may present with intermediate uveitis is of utmost importance before starting treatment. Treatment of pars planitis has been a controversial issue. There is no consensus specifically for treatment of cases with minimal inflammation and relatively good visual acuity. However, current experience shows that pars planitis may cause severe inflammation and needs an aggressive treatment. A stepladder approach including corticosteroids, immunosupressive agents, anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha and pars plana vitrectomy and/or laser photocoagulation is the most commonly used method for treatment of pars planitis. Adequate control of inflammation and prompt detection of associated complications are crucial in order to improve the overall prognosis of the disease. PMID:27051493

  5. Pars Planitis: Epidemiology, Clinical Characteristics, Management and Visual Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Ozdal, Pinar Cakar; Berker, Nilufer; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur

    2015-01-01

    Pars planitis is an idiopathic chronic intermediate uveitis which predominantly affects children and adolescents, and accounts for 5-26.7% of pediatric uveitis. Although an autoimmune process with a genetic predisposition has been suggested, its etiology still remains unknown. The most common presenting symptoms are floaters and blurred vision. Diffuse vitreous cells, haze, snowballs and snowbanks are typical findings of pars planitis. Peripheral retinal vasculitis, optic disc edema and anterior segment inflammation are other well-known findings. Although pars planitis is known to be a benign form of uveitis in most cases, it may become a potentially blinding disease due to complications including cataract, cystoid macular edema, vitreous opacities and optic disc edema. Cystoid macular edema is the most common cause of visual morbidity. Band keratopathy, epiretinal membrane formation, vitreous condensation, neovascularizations, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, cyclitic membranes, glaucoma and amblyopia may develop as a consequence of the chronic course of the disease. Exclusion of infectious and non-infectious causes which may present with intermediate uveitis is of utmost importance before starting treatment. Treatment of pars planitis has been a controversial issue. There is no consensus specifically for treatment of cases with minimal inflammation and relatively good visual acuity. However, current experience shows that pars planitis may cause severe inflammation and needs an aggressive treatment. A stepladder approach including corticosteroids, immunosupressive agents, anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha and pars plana vitrectomy and/or laser photocoagulation is the most commonly used method for treatment of pars planitis. Adequate control of inflammation and prompt detection of associated complications are crucial in order to improve the overall prognosis of the disease. PMID:27051493

  6. Comparison of the effects of PAR1 antagonists, PAR4 antagonists, and their combinations on thrombin-induced human platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chin-Chung; Teng, Che-Ming

    2006-09-28

    Thrombin activates human platelets through proteolytic activation of two protease-activated receptors (PARs), PAR1 and PAR4. In the present study, we show that, RWJ-56110, a potent synthetic PAR1 antagonist, inhibited platelet aggregation caused by a low concentration (0.05 U/ml) of thrombin, but lost its effectiveness when higher concentrations of thrombin were used as stimulators. YD-3, a non-peptide PAR4 antagonist, alone had little or no effect on thrombin-induced platelet aggregation, significantly enhanced the anti-aggregatory activity of PAR1 antagonist. In addition, we demonstrate for the first time that P-selectin expression in thrombin-stimulated platelets can be synergistically prevented by combined treatment of PAR1 antagonist and PAR4 antagonist. These results indicate that thrombin-induced platelet activation cannot be effectively inhibited by just blocking either single thrombin receptor pathway, and suggest a rationale for potential combination therapy in arterial thrombosis. PMID:16890935

  7. Automated rectification and geocoding of SAR imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, R.; Curlander, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    An automated post-processing system has been developed for rectification and geocoding of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) imagery. The system uses as input a raw uncorrected image from the operational SAR correlator, and produces as a standard output a rectified and geocoded product. The accurate geolocation of SAR image pixels is provided by a spatial transformation model which maps the slant range-azimuth SAR image pixels into their location on a prespecified map grid. This model predicts the geodetic location of each pixel by utilizing: the sensor platform position; a geoid model; the parameters of the data collection system and the processing parameters used in the SAR correlator. Based on their geodetic locations, the pixels are mapped by using the desired cartographic projection equations. This rectification and geocoding technique has been tested with Seasat and SIR-B images. The test results demonstrate absolute location uncertainty of less than 50 m and relative distortion (scale factor and skew) of less than 0.1 percent relative to local variations from the assumed geoid.

  8. Automated rendezvous and docking with video imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, Mike; Kennedy, Larry Z.

    1991-01-01

    For rendezvous and docking, assessing and tracking relative orientation is necessary within a minimum approach distance. Special target light patterns have previously been considered for use with video sensors for ease of determining relative orientation. A generalization of those approaches is addressed. At certain ranges, the entire structure of the target vehicle constitutes an acceptable target; at closer ranges, substructures will suffice. Acting on the same principle as the human intelligence, these structures can be compared with a memory model to assess the relative orientation and range. Models for comparison are constructed from a CAD facet model and current imagery. This approach requires fast image handling, projection, and comparison techniques which rely on rapidly developing parallel processing technology. Relative orientation and range assessment consists of successful comparison of the perceived target aspect with a known aspect. Generating a known projection from a model within required times, say subsecond times, is only now approaching feasibility. With this capability, rates of comparison used by the human brain can be approached and arbitrary known structures can be compared in reasonable times. Future space programs will have access to powerful computation devices which far exceed even this capability. For example, the possibility will exist to assess unknown structures and then control rendezvous and docking, all at very fast rates. The first step which has the current utility, namely applying this to known structures, is taken.

  9. Semantic segmentation of multispectral overhead imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Lakshman; Pope, Paul A.; Sentz, Kari

    2016-05-01

    Land cover classification uses multispectral pixel information to separate image regions into categories. Image segmentation seeks to separate image regions into objects and features based on spectral and spatial image properties. However, making sense of complex imagery typically requires identifying image regions that are often a heterogeneous mixture of categories and features that constitute functional semantic units such as industrial, residential, or commercial areas. This requires leveraging both spectral classification and spatial feature extraction synergistically to synthesize such complex but meaningful image units. We present an efficient graphical model for extracting such semantically cohesive regions. We employ an initial hierarchical segmentation of images into features represented as nodes of an attributed graph that represents feature properties as well as their adjacency relations with other features. This provides a framework to group spectrally and structurally diverse features, which are nevertheless semantically cohesive, based on user-driven identifications of features and their contextual relationships in the graph. We propose an efficient method to construct, store, and search an augmented graph that captures nonadjacent vicinity relationships of features. This graph can be used to query for semantic notional units consisting of ontologically diverse features by constraining it to specific query node types and their indicated/desired spatial interaction characteristics. User interaction with, and labeling of, initially segmented and categorized image feature graph can then be used to learn feature (node) and regional (subgraph) ontologies as constraints, and to identify other similar semantic units as connected components of the constraint-pruned augmented graph of a query image.

  10. Updating Maps Using High Resolution Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alrajhi, Muhamad; Shahzad Janjua, Khurram; Afroz Khan, Mohammad; Alobeid, Abdalla

    2016-06-01

    Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the most dynamic countries of the world. We have witnessed a very rapid urban development's which are altering Kingdom's landscape on daily basis. In recent years a substantial increase in urban populations is observed which results in the formation of large cities. Considering this fast paced growth, it has become necessary to monitor these changes, in consideration with challenges faced by aerial photography projects. It has been observed that data obtained through aerial photography has a lifecycle of 5-years because of delay caused by extreme weather conditions and dust storms which acts as hindrances or barriers during aerial imagery acquisition, which has increased the costs of aerial survey projects. All of these circumstances require that we must consider some alternatives that can provide us easy and better ways of image acquisition in short span of time for achieving reliable accuracy and cost effectiveness. The approach of this study is to conduct an extensive comparison between different resolutions of data sets which include: Orthophoto of (10 cm) GSD, Stereo images of (50 cm) GSD and Stereo images of (1 m) GSD, for map updating. Different approaches have been applied for digitizing buildings, roads, tracks, airport, roof level changes, filling stations, buildings under construction, property boundaries, mosques buildings and parking places.

  11. Microscale Effects from Global Hot Plasma Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Fok, M.-C.; Perez, J. D.; Keady, J. P.

    1995-01-01

    We have used a three-dimensional model of recovery phase storm hot plasmas to explore the signatures of pitch angle distributions (PADS) in global fast atom imagery of the magnetosphere. The model computes mass, energy, and position-dependent PADs based on drift effects, charge exchange losses, and Coulomb drag. The hot plasma PAD strongly influences both the storm current system carried by the hot plasma and its time evolution. In turn, the PAD is strongly influenced by plasma waves through pitch angle diffusion, a microscale effect. We report the first simulated neutral atom images that account for anisotropic PADs within the hot plasma. They exhibit spatial distribution features that correspond directly to the PADs along the lines of sight. We investigate the use of image brightness distributions along tangent-shell field lines to infer equatorial PADS. In tangent-shell regions with minimal spatial gradients, reasonably accurate PADs are inferred from simulated images. They demonstrate the importance of modeling PADs for image inversion and show that comparisons of models with real storm plasma images will reveal the global effects of these microscale processes.

  12. Automated rendezvous and docking with video imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Mike; Kennedy, Larry Z.

    For rendezvous and docking, assessing and tracking relative orientation is necessary within a minimum approach distance. Special target light patterns have previously been considered for use with video sensors for ease of determining relative orientation. A generalization of those approaches is addressed. At certain ranges, the entire structure of the target vehicle constitutes an acceptable target; at closer ranges, substructures will suffice. Acting on the same principle as the human intelligence, these structures can be compared with a memory model to assess the relative orientation and range. Models for comparison are constructed from a CAD facet model and current imagery. This approach requires fast image handling, projection, and comparison techniques which rely on rapidly developing parallel processing technology. Relative orientation and range assessment consists of successful comparison of the perceived target aspect with a known aspect. Generating a known projection from a model within required times, say subsecond times, is only now approaching feasibility. With this capability, rates of comparison used by the human brain can be approached and arbitrary known structures can be compared in reasonable times. Future space programs will have access to powerful computation devices which far exceed even this capability. For example, the possibility will exist to assess unknown structures and then control rendezvous and docking, all at very fast rates. The first step which has the current utility, namely applying this to known structures, is taken.

  13. Daylight coloring for monochrome infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabura, James

    2015-05-01

    The effectiveness of infrared imagery in poor visibility situations is well established and the range of applications is expanding as we enter a new era of inexpensive thermal imagers for mobile phones. However there is a problem in that the counterintuitive reflectance characteristics of various common scene elements can cause slowed reaction times and impaired situational awareness-consequences that can be especially detrimental in emergency situations. While multiband infrared sensors can be used, they are inherently more costly. Here we propose a technique for adding a daylight color appearance to single band infrared images, using the normally overlooked property of local image texture. The simple method described here is illustrated with colorized images from the visible red and long wave infrared bands. Our colorizing process not only imparts a natural daylight appearance to infrared images but also enhances the contrast and visibility of otherwise obscure detail. We anticipate that this colorizing method will lead to a better user experience, faster reaction times and improved situational awareness for a growing community of infrared camera users. A natural extension of our process could expand upon its texture discerning feature by adding specialized filters for discriminating specific targets.

  14. BOREAS Landsat MSS Imagery: Digital Counts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Strub, Richard; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) Staff Science Satellite Data Acquisition Program focused on providing the research teams with the remotely sensed satellite data products they needed to compare and spatially extend point results. The Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) Program launched the first of a series of satellites (ERTS-1) in 1972. Part of the NASA Earth Resources Survey Program, the ERTS Program and the ERTS satellites were later renamed Landsat to better represent the civil satellite program's prime emphasis on remote sensing of land resources. Landsat satellites 1 through 5 carry the Multispectral Scanner (MSS) sensor. Canada for Remote Sensing (CCRS) and BOREAS personnel gathered a set of MSS images of the BOREAS region from Landsat satellites 1, 2, 4, and 5 covering the dates of 21 Aug 1972 to 05 Sep 1988. The data are provided in binary image format files of various formats. The Landsat MSS imagery is available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  15. Regulation of protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4 signaling in human platelets by compartmentalized cyclic nucleotide actions.

    PubMed

    Bilodeau, Matthew L; Hamm, Heidi E

    2007-08-01

    Thrombin potently regulates human platelets by the G protein-coupled receptors protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4. Platelet activation by thrombin and other agonists is broadly inhibited by prostacyclin and nitric oxide acting through adenylyl and guanylyl cyclases to elevate cAMP and cGMP levels, respectively. Using forskolin and YC-1 [3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole] to selectively activate the adenylyl and guanylyl cyclases, respectively, and the membrane-permeable analogs N(6),2'-O-dibutyryladenosine-3'-5'-cAMP (dibutyryl-cAMP) and 8-(4-parachlorophenylthoi)-cGMP (8-pCPT-cGMP), we sought to identify key antiplatelet steps for cyclic nucleotide actions in blocking platelet activation by PAR1 versus PAR4. Platelet aggregation by PAR1 or PAR4 was inhibited with similar EC(50) of 1.2 to 2.1 microM forskolin, 31 to 33 microM YC-1, 57 to 150 microM dibutyryl-cAMP, and 220 to 410 microM 8-pCPT-cGMP. There was a marked left shift in the inhibitory potencies of forskolin and YC-1 for alpha-granule release and glycoprotein IIbIIIa/integrin alphaIIbbeta3 activation (i.e., EC(50) of 1-60 and 40-1300 nM, respectively) that was not observed for dibutyryl-cAMP and 8-pCPT-cGMP (i.e., EC(50) of 200-600 and 40-140 microM, respectively). This inhibition was essentially instantaneous, and measurements of cyclic nucleotide levels and kinase activities support a model of compartmentation involving the cyclic nucleotide effectors and regulators and the key molecular targets for this platelet inhibition. The different sensitivities of PAR1 and PAR4 to inhibition of calcium mobilization and dense granule release identify key antiplatelet steps for cyclic nucleotide actions and are consistent with the signaling models for these receptors. Specifically, PAR4 inhibition depends on the regulation of both calcium mobilization and dense granule release, and PAR1 inhibition depends predominantly on the regulation of dense granule release. PMID:17525299

  16. Music to the inner ears: exploring individual differences in musical imagery.

    PubMed

    Beaty, Roger E; Burgin, Chris J; Nusbaum, Emily C; Kwapil, Thomas R; Hodges, Donald A; Silvia, Paul J

    2013-12-01

    In two studies, we explored the frequency and phenomenology of musical imagery. Study 1 used retrospective reports of musical imagery to assess the contribution of individual differences to imagery characteristics. Study 2 used an experience sampling design to assess the phenomenology of musical imagery over the course of one week in a sample of musicians and non-musicians. Both studies found episodes of musical imagery to be common and positive: people rarely wanted such experiences to end and often heard music that was personally meaningful. Several variables predicted musical imagery, including personality, musical preferences, and positive mood. Musicians tended to hear musical imagery more often, but they reported less frequent episodes of deliberately-generated imagery. Taken together, the present research provides new insights into individual differences in musical imagery, and it supports the emerging view that such experiences are common, positive, and more voluntary than previously recognized.

  17. Music to the inner ears: exploring individual differences in musical imagery.

    PubMed

    Beaty, Roger E; Burgin, Chris J; Nusbaum, Emily C; Kwapil, Thomas R; Hodges, Donald A; Silvia, Paul J

    2013-12-01

    In two studies, we explored the frequency and phenomenology of musical imagery. Study 1 used retrospective reports of musical imagery to assess the contribution of individual differences to imagery characteristics. Study 2 used an experience sampling design to assess the phenomenology of musical imagery over the course of one week in a sample of musicians and non-musicians. Both studies found episodes of musical imagery to be common and positive: people rarely wanted such experiences to end and often heard music that was personally meaningful. Several variables predicted musical imagery, including personality, musical preferences, and positive mood. Musicians tended to hear musical imagery more often, but they reported less frequent episodes of deliberately-generated imagery. Taken together, the present research provides new insights into individual differences in musical imagery, and it supports the emerging view that such experiences are common, positive, and more voluntary than previously recognized. PMID:24021845

  18. Stochastic Self-Assembly of ParB Proteins Builds the Bacterial DNA Segregation Apparatus.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Aurore; Cattoni, Diego I; Walter, Jean-Charles; Rech, Jérôme; Parmeggiani, Andrea; Nollmann, Marcelo; Bouet, Jean-Yves

    2015-08-26

    Many canonical processes in molecular biology rely on the dynamic assembly of higher-order nucleoprotein complexes. In bacteria, the assembly mechanism of ParABS, the nucleoprotein super-complex that actively segregates the bacterial chromosome and many plasmids, remains elusive. We combined super-resolution microscopy, quantitative genome-wide surveys, biochemistry, and mathematical modeling to investigate the assembly of ParB at the centromere-like sequences parS. We found that nearly all ParB molecules are actively confined around parS by a network of synergistic protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. Interrogation of the empirically determined, high-resolution ParB genomic distribution with modeling suggests that instead of binding only to specific sequences and subsequently spreading, ParB binds stochastically around parS over long distances. We propose a new model for the formation of the ParABS partition complex based on nucleation and caging: ParB forms a dynamic lattice with the DNA around parS. This assembly model and approach to characterizing large-scale, dynamic interactions between macromolecules may be generalizable to many unrelated machineries that self-assemble in superstructures. PMID:27135801

  19. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- September survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this mid-September survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys during the late growing seasons of 1995, and throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  20. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- October survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-11-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this late October survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maiden cane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  1. Water Area Extraction Using RADARSAT SAR Imagery Combined with Landsat Imagery and Terrain Information

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seunghwan; Jang, Hyoseon; Kim, Namhoon; Sohn, Hong-Gyoo

    2015-01-01

    This paper exploits an effective water extraction method using SAR imagery in preparation for flood mapping in unpredictable flood situations. The proposed method is based on the thresholding method using SAR amplitude, terrain information, and object-based classification techniques for noise removal. Since the water areas in SAR images have the lowest amplitude value, the thresholding method using SAR amplitude could effectively extract water bodies. However, the reflective properties of water areas in SAR imagery cannot distinguish the occluded areas caused by steep relief and they can be eliminated with terrain information. In spite of the thresholding method using SAR amplitude and terrain information, noises which interfered with users’ interpretation of water maps still remained and the object-based classification using an object size criterion was applied for the noise removal and the criterion was determined by a histogram-based technique. When only using SAR amplitude information, the overall accuracy was 83.67%. However, using SAR amplitude, terrain information and the noise removal technique, the overall classification accuracy over the study area turned out to be 96.42%. In particular, user accuracy was improved by 46.00%. PMID:25808768

  2. Water area extraction using RADARSAT SAR imagery combined with Landsat imagery and terrain information.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seunghwan; Jang, Hyoseon; Kim, Namhoon; Sohn, Hong-Gyoo

    2015-03-19

    This paper exploits an effective water extraction method using SAR imagery in preparation for flood mapping in unpredictable flood situations. The proposed method is based on the thresholding method using SAR amplitude, terrain information, and object-based classification techniques for noise removal. Since the water areas in SAR images have the lowest amplitude value, the thresholding method using SAR amplitude could effectively extract water bodies. However, the reflective properties of water areas in SAR imagery cannot distinguish the occluded areas caused by steep relief and they can be eliminated with terrain information. In spite of the thresholding method using SAR amplitude and terrain information, noises which interfered with users' interpretation of water maps still remained and the object-based classification using an object size criterion was applied for the noise removal and the criterion was determined by a histogram-based technique. When only using SAR amplitude information, the overall accuracy was 83.67%. However, using SAR amplitude, terrain information and the noise removal technique, the overall classification accuracy over the study area turned out to be 96.42%. In particular, user accuracy was improved by 46.00%.

  3. Adaptive large-scale clutter removal from imagery with application to high-resolution sonar imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobeck, Gerald J.

    2010-04-01

    The ability to reliably detect targets having signatures comprised of bright pixels (highlight) and dark pixels (shadow) is challenging when the background texture of the imagery also possesses bright and dark characteristics. This is especially difficult when the background contains large bright and dark areas that can mask target signatures. Detection and classification algorithms would benefit from an adaptive denoising algorithm that would remove or mitigate such background artifacts. This paper presents a Fourier-based denoising algorithm. The large support of the Fourier basis is used to capture and remove large-scale artifacts while leaving the smaller target-size features nearly unchanged. Datadriven soft thresholds allow the algorithm to automatically adapt to changing backgrounds. Preliminary investigations have demonstrated excellent performance. The algorithm is computationally fast and suitable for real-time application. The denoising algorithm is general in nature and can be applied to many types of high-resolution gray-scale imagery; e.g., side-looking sonar and SAR.

  4. Disentangling visual imagery and perception of real-world objects.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sue-Hyun; Kravitz, Dwight J; Baker, Chris I

    2012-02-15

    During mental imagery, visual representations can be evoked in the absence of "bottom-up" sensory input. Prior studies have reported similar neural substrates for imagery and perception, but studies of brain-damaged patients have revealed a double dissociation with some patients showing preserved imagery in spite of impaired perception and others vice versa. Here, we used fMRI and multi-voxel pattern analysis to investigate the specificity, distribution, and similarity of information for individual seen and imagined objects to try and resolve this apparent contradiction. In an event-related design, participants either viewed or imagined individual named object images on which they had been trained prior to the scan. We found that the identity of both seen and imagined objects could be decoded from the pattern of activity throughout the ventral visual processing stream. Further, there was enough correspondence between imagery and perception to allow discrimination of individual imagined objects based on the response during perception. However, the distribution of object information across visual areas was strikingly different during imagery and perception. While there was an obvious posterior-anterior gradient along the ventral visual stream for seen objects, there was an opposite gradient for imagined objects. Moreover, the structure of representations (i.e. the pattern of similarity between responses to all objects) was more similar during imagery than perception in all regions along the visual stream. These results suggest that while imagery and perception have similar neural substrates, they involve different network dynamics, resolving the tension between previous imaging and neuropsychological studies.

  5. Exceptional visuospatial imagery in schizophrenia; implications for madness and creativity

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Taylor L.; Park, Sohee

    2013-01-01

    Biographical and historical accounts suggest a link between scientific creativity and schizophrenia. Longitudinal studies of gifted children indicate that visuospatial imagery plays a pivotal role in exceptional achievements in science and mathematics. We asked whether visuospatial imagery is enhanced in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ). We compared SZ and matched healthy controls (HC) on five visuospatial tasks tapping parietal and frontoparietal functions. Two aspects of visuospatial transformation, spatial location and mental imagery manipulation were examined with Paper Folding Test (PFT) and jigsaw puzzle task (JPT), respectively. Visuospatial intelligence was assessed with Ravens Progressive Matrices, which is associated with frontoparietal network activity. Hemispatial inattention implicating parietal function was assessed with line bisection (LB) task. Mediated by prefrontal cortex, spatial delayed response task (DRT) was used to index working memory maintenance, which was impaired in SZ compared to HC. In contrast, SZ showed intact visuospatial intelligence and transformation of location. Further, SZ performed significantly better than HC on JPT indicating enhanced mental imagery manipulation. Spatial working memory (SWM) maintenance and mental imagery manipulation were strongly associated in HC but dissociated in SZ. Thus, we observed enhanced mental imagery manipulation in SZ but the dissociation of mental imagery from working memory suggests a disrupted frontoparietal network. Finally, while HC showed the expected leftward pseudoneglect, SZ showed increased rightward LB bias implicating left hemispatial inattention and impaired right parietal control of spatial attention. The current results chart a unique profile of impaired, spared and enhanced parietal-mediated visuospatial functions implicating parietal abnormalities as a biobehavioral marker for SZ. We discuss these results in relation to creative cognition. PMID:24273503

  6. Marijuana effects on visual imagery in a paired-associate task.

    PubMed

    Block, R I; Wittenborn, J R

    1984-06-01

    Marijuana effects on visual imagery, examined using a paired-associate learning task, differed from expectations based on previous subjective reports that marijuana enhances visual imagery. Subjects (48 men, mean age 22.4 yr.) were assigned to four groups (12 subjects per group) differing in (a) whether or not they received specific instructions to use imagery to facilitate learning and (b) whether they received marijuana or placebo. Imagery instructions improved recall, but marijuana did not influence the amount of this improvement. After the memory tests, subjects instructed to use imagery described their images. Marijuana decreased the rated vividness of these imagery descriptions.

  7. LANDSAT imagery: Description of products available from the CSIR Satellite Remote Sensing Centre

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    An overview of the LANDSAT system is provided along with information to assist prospective users in establishing whether imagery for their areas of interest is available and how to obtain such imagery. Spectral bands, spatial resolution, and digital data are explained as well as worldwide reference system indexing and the identification number assigned to images. The sizes and scales of standard black and white imagery and of false color composite imagery are listed. The format is given for computer compatible tapes and standard enhanced imagery is described. Other information available to users include LANDSAT index maps, catalogs of available imagery, a schedule of overpass dates, and a list of product prices.

  8. Preferences for hypnotic imagery for hot-flash reduction: a brief communication.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Gary; Marcus, Joel; Bunn, Jennifer; Perfect, Michelle; Palamara, Lynn; Stearns, Vered; Dove, Jacqueline

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this brief report is to identify imagery preferences of women receiving hypnotherapy to alleviate hot flashes. As part of a larger study, 51 breast cancer survivors were asked to identify their own personal preferences for imagery for reducing hot flashes. Most of the participants identified personal imagery associated with coolness; none of the participants selected imagery for warmth or heat. The most widely used was imagery involving water associated with coolness (27.0%). It is recommended that clinicians using hypnosis for reduction of hot flashes attend to patients' preferences as specific imagery may moderate the effectiveness of hypnosis for hot flashes. PMID:20509073

  9. Photogrammetric Processing Using ZY-3 Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornus, W.; Magariños, A.; Pla, M.; Soler, E.; Perez, F.

    2015-03-01

    This paper evaluates the stereoscopic capacities of the Chinese sensor ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3) for the generation of photogrammetric products. The satellite was launched on January 9, 2012 and carries three high-resolution panchromatic cameras viewing in forward (22º), nadir (0º) and backward direction (-22º) and an infrared multi-spectral scanner (IRMSS), which is slightly looking forward (6º). The ground sampling distance (GSD) is 2.1m for the nadir image, 3.5m for the two oblique stereo images and 5.8m for the multispectral image. The evaluated ZY-3 imagery consists of a full set of threefold-stereo and a multi-spectral image covering an area of ca. 50km x 50km north-west of Barcelona, Spain. The complete photogrammetric processing chain was executed including image orientation, the generation of a digital surface model (DSM), radiometric image correction, pansharpening, orthoimage generation and digital stereo plotting. All 4 images are oriented by estimating affine transformation parameters between observed and nominal RPC (rational polynomial coefficients) image positions of 17 ground control points (GCP) and a subsequent calculation of refined RPC. From 10 independent check points RMS errors of 2.2m, 2.0m and 2.7m in X, Y and H are obtained. Subsequently, a DSM of 5m grid spacing is generated fully automatically. A comparison with the Lidar data results in an overall DSM accuracy of approximately 3m. In moderate and flat terrain higher accuracies in the order of 2.5m and better are achieved. In a next step orthoimages from the high resolution nadir image and the multispectral image are generated using the refined RPC geometry and the DSM. After radiometric corrections a fused high resolution colour orthoimage with 2.1m pixel size is created using an adaptive HSL method. The pansharpen process is performed after the individual geocorrection due to the different viewing angles between the two images. In a detailed analysis of the colour orthoimage artifacts are

  10. PAR-1 phosphorylates Mind bomb to promote vertebrate neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ossipova, Olga; Ezan, Jerome; Sokol, Sergei Y.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Generation of neurons in the vertebrate central nervous system requires complex transcriptional regulatory network and signaling processes in polarized neuroepithelial progenitor cells. Here we demonstrate that neurogenesis in the Xenopus neural plate in vivo and mammalian neural progenitors in vitro involves intrinsic antagonistic activities of the polarity proteins PAR-1 and aPKC. Furthermore, we show that Mind bomb (Mib), a ubiquitin ligase that promotes Notch ligand trafficking and activity, is a crucial molecular substrate for PAR-1. The phosphorylation of Mib by PAR-1 results in Mib degradation, repression of Notch signaling and stimulation of neuronal differentiation. These observations suggest a conserved mechanism for neuronal fate determination that might operate during asymmetric divisions of polarized neural progenitor cells. PMID:19686683

  11. Regional tsunami vulnerability analysis through ASTER imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osso, Filippo; Cavalletti, Alessandra; Immordino, Francesco; Gonella, Marco

    2010-05-01

    Analysis of vulnerability to natural hazards is a key issue of prevention measures within ICZM. Knowledge of susceptibility to damage and how this is distributed along the coast allows to optimize possible prevention and mitigation actions. The present study focuses on tsunami vulnerability of a large extension of coastline: the entire westerly Thailand's coast. The work is a follow up of the CRATER project (Coastal Risk Analysis for Tsunamis and Environmental Remediation) carried out on the aftermath of the 26th December 2004 Tsunami event. Vulnerability is analyzed considering an inundation scenario given by a tsunami of seismic origin, causing a maximum run-up of 25m.. An innovative methodology have been here developed and applied, based on the combined use of ASTER (Advanced Spaceborn Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) satellite imagery, SRTM v-3 (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission - version #3) DEMs and GIS. Vulnerability level has been calculated combining information on coastal geomorphology, land use, topography and distance from the shoreline. Land use has been extrapolated from ASTER images through a multi-spectral analysis (a pixel-based and supervised classification process) of ASTER bands 1 to 9, plus one band for the NDVI index (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). Coastal geomorphology has been obtained through a photo-interpretation process. Results have been organized in a set of vectorial vulnerability maps with horizontal resolution of 90m. The proposed methodology has the great advantage of being repeatable for any case of vulnerability analysis at small-medium scale (i.e. at Regional/National level) with a moderate investment in term of costs and human resources.

  12. Radiometric Characteristics of Cassini RADAR Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiles, B. W.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G. A.; Johnson, W. T.; Shimada, J. G.; West, R. D.

    2004-12-01

    The Cassini RADAR instrument on-board the Cassini Orbiter is currently being employed to obtain SAR imagery of the surface of Saturn's largest moon, Titan. The viewing geometry of Cassini RADAR is different from most imaging radars because the Cassini Orbiter flies by Titan rather than entering into orbit about it. This unusual viewing geometry leads to variable noise characteristics throughout the SAR swath. Due to large changes in range to target and number of looks, noise characteristics and effective resolution vary widely throughout the swath. A good understanding of these parameters is important in order to draw scientific conclusions from the SAR images. Changes in noise bias could be misinterpreted as changes in reflectivity from the surface. Changes in resolution or noise variance could be misinterpreted as changes in the heterogeneity of the surface. The purpose of this paper is to quantify noise variance, bias, and effective radiometric resolution throughout the SAR swath in order to aid scientists in interpreting the data. Of the three parameters, the easiest to model is noise bias which increases with the range to the target. Noise variance is more complicated. The thermal noise (SNR) contribution to the overall variance increases with range, but the fading (speckle) noise contribution varies inversely with number of looks and thus with range. Effective resolution becomes coarser as range increases, but cross track and along track resolution vary differently. Along track resolution varies continuously, but cross track resolution has a discontinuity at 1600 km altitude, due to a change in commanded bandwidth. This paper presents the equations governing the noise characteristics and effective resolution as well as providing pseudo-color images of each quantity in SAR image coordinates for the October 2004 Cassini RADAR observation of Titan. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract with

  13. Water quality mapping using Landsat TM imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.; Alias, A. N.; Wong, C. J.; Mustapha-Rosli, M. R.; Mohd Saleh, N.

    2009-05-01

    Environmental monitoring through the method of traditional ship sampling is time consuming and requires a high survey cost. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of Landsat TM imagery for total suspended solids (TSS) mapping using a newly developed algorithm over Penang Island. The study area is the seawater region around Penang Island, Malaysia. Water samples were collected during a 3-hour period simultaneously with the satellite image acquisition and later analyzed in the laboratory above the study area. The samples locations were determined using a handheld GPS. The satellite image was geometrically corrected using the second order polynomial transformation. The satellite image also was atmospheric corrected by using ATCOR2 image processing software. The digital numbers for each band corresponding to the sea-truth locations were extracted and then converted into reflectance values for calibration of the water quality algorithm. The proposed algorithm is based on the reflectance model that is a function of the inherent optical properties of water, which can be related to its constituent's concentrations. The generated algorithm was developed for three visible wavelenghts, red, green and blue for this study. Results indicate that the proposed developed algorithm was superior based on the correlation coefficient (R) and root-mean-square deviation (RMS) values. Finally the proposed algorithm was used for TSS mapping at Penang Island, Malaysia. The generated TSS map was colour-coded for visual interpretation and image smoothing was performed on the map to remove random noise. This preliminary study has produced a promising result. This study indicates that the empirical algorithm is suitable for TSS mapping around Penang Island by using satellite Landsat TM data.

  14. Efficient target detection in cluttered FLIR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Jesmin F.; Alam, Mohammad S.

    2005-03-01

    from cluttered background. In addition, the clutter rejecters are capable of maintaining a low false alarm rate and excellent discrimination competence. The performance of the proposed techniques has been tested with real life FLIR imagery supplied by the Army Missile Command (AMCOM).

  15. Harnessing Satellite Imageries in Feature Extraction Using Google Earth Pro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Sim Joseph; Milano, Alan

    2016-07-01

    Climate change has been a long-time concern worldwide. Impending flooding, for one, is among its unwanted consequences. The Phil-LiDAR 1 project of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), Republic of the Philippines, has developed an early warning system in regards to flood hazards. The project utilizes the use of remote sensing technologies in determining the lives in probable dire danger by mapping and attributing building features using LiDAR dataset and satellite imageries. A free mapping software named Google Earth Pro (GEP) is used to load these satellite imageries as base maps. Geotagging of building features has been done so far with the use of handheld Global Positioning System (GPS). Alternatively, mapping and attribution of building features using GEP saves a substantial amount of resources such as manpower, time and budget. Accuracy-wise, geotagging by GEP is dependent on either the satellite imageries or orthophotograph images of half-meter resolution obtained during LiDAR acquisition and not on the GPS of three-meter accuracy. The attributed building features are overlain to the flood hazard map of Phil-LiDAR 1 in order to determine the exposed population. The building features as obtained from satellite imageries may not only be used in flood exposure assessment but may also be used in assessing other hazards and a number of other uses. Several other features may also be extracted from the satellite imageries.

  16. An Adaptive Ship Detection Scheme for Spaceborne SAR Imagery.

    PubMed

    Leng, Xiangguang; Ji, Kefeng; Zhou, Shilin; Xing, Xiangwei; Zou, Huanxin

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and the increasing need of ship detection, research on adaptive ship detection in spaceborne SAR imagery is of great importance. Focusing on practical problems of ship detection, this paper presents a highly adaptive ship detection scheme for spaceborne SAR imagery. It is able to process a wide range of sensors, imaging modes and resolutions. Two main stages are identified in this paper, namely: ship candidate detection and ship discrimination. Firstly, this paper proposes an adaptive land masking method using ship size and pixel size. Secondly, taking into account the imaging mode, incidence angle, and polarization channel of SAR imagery, it implements adaptive ship candidate detection in spaceborne SAR imagery by applying different strategies to different resolution SAR images. Finally, aiming at different types of typical false alarms, this paper proposes a comprehensive ship discrimination method in spaceborne SAR imagery based on confidence level and complexity analysis. Experimental results based on RADARSAT-1, RADARSAT-2, TerraSAR-X, RS-1, and RS-3 images demonstrate that the adaptive scheme proposed in this paper is able to detect ship targets in a fast, efficient and robust way. PMID:27563902

  17. Enhancing voluntary imitation through attention and motor imagery.

    PubMed

    Bek, Judith; Poliakoff, Ellen; Marshall, Hannah; Trueman, Sophie; Gowen, Emma

    2016-07-01

    Action observation activates brain areas involved in performing the same action and has been shown to increase motor learning, with potential implications for neurorehabilitation. Recent work indicates that the effects of action observation on movement can be increased by motor imagery or by directing attention to observed actions. In voluntary imitation, activation of the motor system during action observation is already increased. We therefore explored whether imitation could be further enhanced by imagery or attention. Healthy participants observed and then immediately imitated videos of human hand movement sequences, while movement kinematics were recorded. Two blocks of trials were completed, and after the first block participants were instructed to imagine performing the observed movement (Imagery group, N = 18) or attend closely to the characteristics of the movement (Attention group, N = 15), or received no further instructions (Control group, N = 17). Kinematics of the imitated movements were modulated by instructions, with both Imagery and Attention groups being closer in duration, peak velocity and amplitude to the observed model compared with controls. These findings show that both attention and motor imagery can increase the accuracy of imitation and have implications for motor learning and rehabilitation. Future work is required to understand the mechanisms by which these two strategies influence imitation accuracy. PMID:26892882

  18. Mapping Crop Yield and Sow Date Using High Resolution Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royal, K.

    2015-12-01

    Keitasha Royal, Meha Jain, Ph.D., David Lobell, Ph.D Mapping Crop Yield and Sow Date Using High Resolution ImageryThe use of satellite imagery in agriculture is becoming increasingly more significant and valuable. Due to the emergence of new satellites, such as Skybox, these satellites provide higher resolution imagery (e.g 1m) therefore improving the ability to map smallholder agriculture. For the smallholder farm dominated area of northern India, Skybox high-resolution satellite imagery can aid in understanding how to improve farm yields. In particular, we are interested in mapping winter wheat in India, as this region produces approximately 80% of the country's wheat crop, which is important given that wheat is a staple crop that provides approximately 20% of household calories. In northeast India, the combination of increased heat stress, limited irrigation access, and the difficulty for farmers to access advanced farming technologies results in farmers only producing about 50% of their potential crop yield. The use of satellite imagery can aid in understanding wheat yields through time and help identify ways to increase crop yields in the wheat belt of India. To translate Skybox satellite data into meaningful information about wheat fields, we examine vegetation indices, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), to measure the "greenness" of plants to help determine the health of the crops. We test our ability to predict crop characteristics, like sow date and yield, using vegetation indices of 59 fields for which we have field data in Bihar, India.

  19. An Adaptive Ship Detection Scheme for Spaceborne SAR Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Xiangguang; Ji, Kefeng; Zhou, Shilin; Xing, Xiangwei; Zou, Huanxin

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and the increasing need of ship detection, research on adaptive ship detection in spaceborne SAR imagery is of great importance. Focusing on practical problems of ship detection, this paper presents a highly adaptive ship detection scheme for spaceborne SAR imagery. It is able to process a wide range of sensors, imaging modes and resolutions. Two main stages are identified in this paper, namely: ship candidate detection and ship discrimination. Firstly, this paper proposes an adaptive land masking method using ship size and pixel size. Secondly, taking into account the imaging mode, incidence angle, and polarization channel of SAR imagery, it implements adaptive ship candidate detection in spaceborne SAR imagery by applying different strategies to different resolution SAR images. Finally, aiming at different types of typical false alarms, this paper proposes a comprehensive ship discrimination method in spaceborne SAR imagery based on confidence level and complexity analysis. Experimental results based on RADARSAT-1, RADARSAT-2, TerraSAR-X, RS-1, and RS-3 images demonstrate that the adaptive scheme proposed in this paper is able to detect ship targets in a fast, efficient and robust way. PMID:27563902

  20. Exploration applications of satellite imagery in mature basins - A summation

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Z. )

    1991-08-01

    A series of examples supported by surface and subsurface controls illustrates procedures used to integrate satellite imagery interpretation into a conventional exploration program, and the potential contribution of such an approach to the recognition of new hydrocarbon plays in mature basins. Integrated analysis of satellite imagery data consists of four major steps. The first step focuses on the recognition of style, trend, and timing of deformation of exposed structures located at the basin interior or around its margins. This information is obtained through an integrated analysis of satellite imagery data, stereo aerial photography, surface geological mapping, and field observations. The second step consists of integrating the satellite imagery with gravity and magnetic data to recognize obscured and/or buried structures. The third step involves the analysis of available seismic data which is specifically processes to enhance subtle basement topography in order to determine influences on reservoir quality. In the fourth step, subsurface structure, isopach, show, and pool maps derived from available well information are integrated into the structural interpretation. These four analytical steps are demonstrated with examples form the Powder River basin, Western Canada basin, Paris basin, and Central basin platform of west Texas. In all of these highly mature basins, it is easy to demonstrate that (1) hydrocarbon migration and accumulation was largely controlled by subtle basement structures, and (2) these structures can be detected through the integrated analysis of satellite imagery.

  1. Alcohol imagery on popularly viewed television in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to alcohol consumption and product imagery in films is associated with increased alcohol consumption among young people, but the extent to which exposure also occurs through television is not clear. We have measured the occurrence of alcohol imagery in prime-time broadcasting on UK free-to-air television channels. Methods Occurrence of alcohol imagery (actual use, implied use, brand appearances or other reference to alcohol) was measured in all broadcasting on the five most popular UK television stations between 6 and 10 p.m. during 3 weeks in 2010, by 1-min interval coding. Results Alcohol imagery occurred in over 40% of broadcasts, most commonly soap operas, feature films, sport and comedies, and was equally frequent before and after the 9 p.m. watershed. Brand appearances occurred in 21% of programmes, and over half of all sports programmes, a third of soap operas and comedies and a fifth of advertising/trailers. Three brands, Heineken, Budweiser and Carlsberg together accounted for ∼40% of all brand depictions. Conclusions Young people are exposed to frequent alcohol imagery, including branding, in UK prime-time television. It is likely that this exposure has an important effect on alcohol consumption in young people. PMID:23929886

  2. An Adaptive Ship Detection Scheme for Spaceborne SAR Imagery.

    PubMed

    Leng, Xiangguang; Ji, Kefeng; Zhou, Shilin; Xing, Xiangwei; Zou, Huanxin

    2016-08-23

    With the rapid development of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and the increasing need of ship detection, research on adaptive ship detection in spaceborne SAR imagery is of great importance. Focusing on practical problems of ship detection, this paper presents a highly adaptive ship detection scheme for spaceborne SAR imagery. It is able to process a wide range of sensors, imaging modes and resolutions. Two main stages are identified in this paper, namely: ship candidate detection and ship discrimination. Firstly, this paper proposes an adaptive land masking method using ship size and pixel size. Secondly, taking into account the imaging mode, incidence angle, and polarization channel of SAR imagery, it implements adaptive ship candidate detection in spaceborne SAR imagery by applying different strategies to different resolution SAR images. Finally, aiming at different types of typical false alarms, this paper proposes a comprehensive ship discrimination method in spaceborne SAR imagery based on confidence level and complexity analysis. Experimental results based on RADARSAT-1, RADARSAT-2, TerraSAR-X, RS-1, and RS-3 images demonstrate that the adaptive scheme proposed in this paper is able to detect ship targets in a fast, efficient and robust way.

  3. Current insights in the development of children’s motor imagery ability

    PubMed Central

    Spruijt, Steffie; van der Kamp, John; Steenbergen, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the number of studies on motor imagery in children has witnessed a large expansion. Most studies used the hand laterality judgment paradigm or the mental chronometry paradigm to examine motor imagery ability. The main objective of the current review is to collate these studies to provide a more comprehensive insight in children’s motor imagery development and its age of onset. Motor imagery is a form of motor cognition and aligns with forward (or predictive) models of motor control. Studying age-related differences in motor imagery ability in children therefore provides insight in underlying processes of motor development during childhood. Another motivation for studying age-related differences in motor imagery is that in order to effectively apply motor imagery training in children (with motor impairments), it is pertinent to first establish the age at which children are actually able to perform motor imagery. Overall, performance in the imagery tasks develops between 5 and 12 years of age. The age of motor imagery onset, however, remains equivocal, as some studies indicate that children of 5 to 7 years old can already enlist motor imagery in an implicit motor imagery task, whereas other studies using explicit instructions revealed that children do not use motor imagery before the age of 10. From the findings of the current study, we can conclude that motor imagery training is potentially a feasible method for pediatric rehabilitation in children from 5 years on. We suggest that younger children are most likely to benefit from motor imagery training that is presented in an implicit way. Action observation training might be a beneficial adjunct to implicit motor imagery training. From 10 years of age, more explicit forms of motor imagery training can be effectively used. PMID:26113832

  4. A cognitive-psychological perspective on Gillespie's "Lights and lattices": some relations among perception, imagery, and thought.

    PubMed

    Hunt, H

    1989-04-01

    George Gillespie's valuable observations on light and lattice imageries are played in the context of current research and theory on cognitive imagery (Kosslyn, Pylyshyn), ordinary and lucid dreaming, representational geometric imagery in scientific thought, the author's previous writings on altered states of consciousness, and Gibson's views on perception and imagery. Gillespie's reports show categories of imagery deconstruction and abstraction that link these areas and suggest an integrative model of the varieties of symbolic imagery. PMID:2654881

  5. A cognitive-psychological perspective on Gillespie's "Lights and lattices": some relations among perception, imagery, and thought.

    PubMed

    Hunt, H

    1989-04-01

    George Gillespie's valuable observations on light and lattice imageries are played in the context of current research and theory on cognitive imagery (Kosslyn, Pylyshyn), ordinary and lucid dreaming, representational geometric imagery in scientific thought, the author's previous writings on altered states of consciousness, and Gibson's views on perception and imagery. Gillespie's reports show categories of imagery deconstruction and abstraction that link these areas and suggest an integrative model of the varieties of symbolic imagery.

  6. Sonification enhances target detection in multi-band imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, John M.; Israel, Steven A.

    2005-05-01

    Growing military requirements and shorter timelines are placing greater demands on imagery analysts. At the same time, advances in sensor technology have vastly increased the quantity and types of imagery data available. Together, these factors are driving toward greater reliance on automated exploitation tools, such as automated target cueing (ATC). Several studies indicate that operational performance depends not only on the accuracy of the ATC algorithm, but also on effectively conveying the ATC information to the user. Sonification, the presentation of information through audio signals, provides a novel method for assisting analysts with visual search tasks. This paper presents a recent proof-of-concept experiment in which analysts search for geometric targets in synthetic, two-band color imagery. The performance results indicate that sonification can enhance performance, particularly through false alarm mitigation. The range of performance across users also suggests that user training may play a big role in effective operational use of sonification methods.

  7. Determination of Saharan dust radiance and chlorophyll from CZCS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carder, K. L.; Costello, D. K.; Gregg, W. W.; Haddad, K.; Prospero, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm, called the two-component method, to distinguish between two aerosol types in a remote color-scanner image and to determine their relative concentrations by observing the radiance contribution from each aerosol type at the satellite. The algorithm is applied to data from a time series of CZCS orbits during which both the Saharan dust and a bluish haze due to chlorophyll presence have been observed in the coastal zone. The results are compared with in situ measurements and to values derived from CZCS imagery by single-component methods, showing reasonable agreement between in situ measurements and values estimated by the two-component method. In imagery derived using single-component methods, the aerosol and chlorophyll fields appeared confounded in imagery where several types of aerosol were present.

  8. Monitoring arctic habitat and goose production by satellite imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, H.M.; Cooch, F.G.; Munro, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Spacecraft imagery, especially from the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration's Improved TIROS (Television Infra-Red Observational Satellite) Operational Satellites, permits timely evaluations of snow and ice conditions encountered by arctic nesting geese. Imagery from the TIROS satellite for 5 wide]y scattered locations in arctic North America was obtained for three 3-day intervals in June 1973 and 1974. These pictures were used to expand fragmentary habitat data available from ground observations. Late disappearance of snow and ice may prevent or retard nesting effort and reproductive success. Our immediate aim is to recognize years of catastrophic or very good production; however, supporting information from ground studies, LANDSAT imagery, analyses of banding data, and studies of age ratios in popu]ations and harvests eventua

  9. A qualitative evaluation of Landsat imagery of Australian rangelands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graetz, R.D.; Carneggie, David M.; Hacker, R.; Lendon, C.; Wilcox, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    The capability of multidate, multispectral ERTS-1 imagery of three different rangeland areas within Australia was evaluated for its usefulness in preparing inventories of rangeland types, assessing on a broad scale range condition within these rangeland types, and assessing the response of rangelands to rainfall events over large areas. For the three divergent rangeland test areas, centered on Broken W, Alice Springs and Kalgoorlie, detailed interpretation of the imagery only partially satisfied the information requirements set. It was most useful in the Broken Hill area where fenceline contrasts in range condition were readily visible. At this and the other sites an overstorey of trees made interpretation difficult. Whilst the low resolution characteristics and the lack of stereoscopic coverage hindered interpretation it was felt that this type of imagery with its vast coverage, present low cost and potential for repeated sampling is a useful addition to conventional aerial photography for all rangeland types.

  10. Automatic Extraction of Building Outline from High Resolution Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yandong

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a new approach for automated extraction of building boundary from high resolution imagery is proposed. The proposed approach uses both geometric and spectral properties of a building to detect and locate buildings accurately. It consists of automatic generation of high quality point cloud from the imagery, building detection from point cloud, classification of building roof and generation of building outline. Point cloud is generated from the imagery automatically using semi-global image matching technology. Buildings are detected from the differential surface generated from the point cloud. Further classification of building roof is performed in order to generate accurate building outline. Finally classified building roof is converted into vector format. Numerous tests have been done on images in different locations and results are presented in the paper.

  11. Evaluation of Skylab earth laser beacon imagery. [spaceborne photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piech, K. R.; Schott, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    During the Skylab 3 and 4 missions the Skylab spacecraft was illuminated by a low power argon ion and dye laser. The earth laser beacon was studied visually by the astronauts. In addition, they collected 35 mm hand-held color photographs of the beacons. Photographs are shown that were obtained on Skylab 3 and Skylab 4. The imagery collected during the Skylab mission was analyzed to evaluate the utility of beacon lasers as terrestial 'artificial stars' for space navigation. The analyses of the imagery revealed two unusual features of the earth laser beacon: (1) The beacon, even though of a low power (approximately 1 watt), is considerably brighter than any other terrain feature and is readily visible on imagery at a distance in excess of 1500 km (900 miles). (2) Another feature of the beacon is its large size. The typical beacon extends over about 5 resolution areas with a characteristic dimension of about 200 m.

  12. Genetic programming approach to extracting features from remotely sensed imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Theiler, J. P.; Perkins, S. J.; Harvey, N. R.; Szymanski, J. J.; Brumby, Steven P.

    2001-01-01

    Multi-instrument data sets present an interesting challenge to feature extraction algorithm developers. Beyond the immediate problems of spatial co-registration, the remote sensing scientist must explore a complex algorithm space in which both spatial and spectral signatures may be required to identify a feature of interest. We describe a genetic programming/supervised classifier software system, called Genie, which evolves and combines spatio-spectral image processing tools for remotely sensed imagery. We describe our representation of candidate image processing pipelines, and discuss our set of primitive image operators. Our primary application has been in the field of geospatial feature extraction, including wildfire scars and general land-cover classes, using publicly available multi-spectral imagery (MSI) and hyper-spectral imagery (HSI). Here, we demonstrate our system on Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) MSI. We exhibit an evolved pipeline, and discuss its operation and performance.

  13. Biased normalized cuts for target detection in hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuewen; Dorado-Munoz, Leidy P.; Messinger, David W.; Cahill, Nathan D.

    2016-05-01

    The Biased Normalized Cuts (BNC) algorithm is a useful technique for detecting targets or objects in RGB imagery. In this paper, we propose modifying BNC for the purpose of target detection in hyperspectral imagery. As opposed to other target detection algorithms that typically encode target information prior to dimensionality reduction, our proposed algorithm encodes target information after dimensionality reduction, enabling a user to detect different targets in interactive mode. To assess the proposed BNC algorithm, we utilize hyperspectral imagery (HSI) from the SHARE 2012 data campaign, and we explore the relationship between the number and the position of expert-provided target labels and the precision/recall of the remaining targets in the scene.

  14. Texture mapping based on multiple aerial imageries in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guoqing; Ye, Siqi; Wang, Yuefeng; Han, Caiyun; Wang, Chenxi

    2015-12-01

    In the realistic 3D model reconstruction, the requirement of the texture is very high. Texture is one of the key factors that affecting realistic of the model and using texture mapping technology to realize. In this paper we present a practical approach of texture mapping based on photogrammetry theory from multiple aerial imageries in urban areas. By collinearity equation to matching the model and imageries, and in order to improving the quality of texture, we describe an automatic approach for select the optimal texture to realized 3D building from the aerial imageries of many strip. The texture of buildings can be automatically matching by the algorithm. The experimental results show that the platform of texture mapping process has a high degree of automation and improve the efficiency of the 3D modeling reconstruction.

  15. Automatic target detection in UAV imagery using image formation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Huibao; Si, Jennie; Abousleman, Glen P.

    2003-09-01

    This paper is about automatic target detection (ATD) in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery. Extracting reliable features under all conditions from a 2D projection of a target in UAV imagery is a difficult problem. However, since the target size information is usually invariant to the image formation proces, we propose an algorithm for automatically estimating the size of a 3D target by using its 2D projection. The size information in turn becomes an important feature to be used in a knowledge-driven, multi-resolution-based algorithm for automatically detecting targets in UAV imagery. Experimental results show that our proposed ATD algorithm provides outstanding detection performance, while significantly reducing the false alarm rate and the computational complexity.

  16. Phenomenology of passive multi-band submillimeter-wave imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enestam, Sissi; Kajatkari, Perttu; Kivimäki, Olli; Leivo, Mikko M.; Rautiainen, Anssi; Tamminen, Aleksi A.; Luukanen, Arttu R.

    2016-05-01

    In 2015, Asqella Oy commercialized a passive multi-band submillimeter-wave camera system intended for use in walk-by personnel security screening applications. In this paper we study the imagery acquired with the prototype of the ARGON passive multi-band submm-wave video camera. To challenge the system and test its limits, imagery has been obtained in various environments with varying background surface temperatures, with people of different body types, with different clothing materials and numbers of layers of clothing and with objects of different materials. In addition to the phenomenological study, we discuss the detection statistics of the system, evaluated by running blind trials with human operators. While significant improvements have been made particularly in the software side since the beginning of the testing, the obtained imagery enables a comprehensive evaluation of the capabilities and challenges of the multiband submillimeter-wave imaging system.

  17. Generating high temporal and spatial resolution thermal band imagery using robust sharpening approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal infrared band imagery provides key information for detecting wild fires, mapping land surface energy fluxes and evapotranspiration, monitoring urban heat fluxes and drought monitoring. Thermal infrared (TIR) imagery at fine resolution is required for field scale applications. However, therma...

  18. MISR Stereo Imagery of Blue Mountain Fires in New South Wales, Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-12-17

    article title:  MISR Stereo Imagery of Blue Mountain Fires in New South Wales, Australia     ... October 24, 2013 - MISR Stereo Imagery of Blue Mountain Fires in New South Wales, Australia project:  MISR ...

  19. Effects of risk-focused and recommendation-focused mental imagery on occupational risk communication.

    PubMed

    Welbourne, Jennifer L; Hartley, Tara A; Ott, Sybil D; Robertson, Sherrilyn

    2008-09-01

    This study examined the impact of mental imagery instructions in a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) safety document conveying risk and safety information to farmers. A sample of 314 farmers recruited from a large Southeastern state fair was randomly assigned to conditions in a 2 x 2 design. Participants received a NIOSH safety document about skid steer loader safety in which 2 types of mental imagery instructions were manipulated: (a) risk-focused (imagery vs. control) and (b) recommendation-focused (imagery vs. control). Results indicate that risk-focused imagery influenced perceptions of susceptibility to workplace accidents, whereas recommendation-focused imagery influenced attitudes toward engaging in safety behaviors, intentions to share safety information with others, and perceptions of the safety message. Further analyses indicated that ease of imagery partially mediated the relationship between the imagery manipulations and these outcomes. Other potential mechanisms for these effects are discussed. PMID:18850394

  20. NASA's Open Source Software for Serving and Viewing Global Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, J. T.; Alarcon, C.; Boller, R. A.; Cechini, M. F.; Gunnoe, T.; Hall, J. R.; Huang, T.; Ilavajhala, S.; King, J.; McGann, M.; Murphy, K. J.; Plesea, L.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Thompson, C. K.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS), which provide open access to an enormous archive of historical and near real time imagery from NASA supported satellite instruments, has also released most of its software to the general public as open source. The software packages, originally developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Goddard Space Flight Center, currently include: 1) the Meta Raster Format (MRF) GDAL driver—GDAL support for a specialized file format used by GIBS to store imagery within a georeferenced tile pyramid for exceptionally fast access; 2) OnEarth—a high performance Apache module used to serve tiles from MRF files via common web service protocols; 3) Worldview—a web mapping client to interactively browse global, full-resolution satellite imagery and download underlying data. Examples that show developers how to use GIBS with various mapping libraries and programs are also available. This stack of tools is intended to provide an out-of-the-box solution for serving any georeferenced imagery.Scientists as well as the general public can use the open source software for their own applications such as developing visualization interfaces for improved scientific understanding and decision support, hosting a repository of browse images to help find and discover satellite data, or accessing large datasets of geo-located imagery in an efficient manner. Open source users may also contribute back to NASA and the wider Earth Science community by taking an active role in evaluating and developing the software.This presentation will discuss the experiences of developing the software in an open source environment and useful lessons learned. To access the open source software repositories, please visit: https://github.com/nasa-gibs/

  1. Using Hyperspectral Imagery to Identify Turfgrass Stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutto, Kendall; Shaw, David

    2008-01-01

    The use of a form of remote sensing to aid in the management of large turfgrass fields (e.g. golf courses) has been proposed. A turfgrass field of interest would be surveyed in sunlight by use of an airborne hyperspectral imaging system, then the raw observational data would be preprocessed into hyperspectral reflectance image data. These data would be further processed to identify turfgrass stresses, to determine the spatial distributions of those stresses, and to generate maps showing the spatial distributions. Until now, chemicals and water have often been applied, variously, (1) indiscriminately to an entire turfgrass field without regard to localization of specific stresses or (2) to visible and possibly localized signs of stress for example, browning, damage from traffic, or conspicuous growth of weeds. Indiscriminate application is uneconomical and environmentally unsound; the amounts of water and chemicals consumed could be insufficient in some areas and excessive in most areas, and excess chemicals can leak into the environment. In cases in which developing stresses do not show visible signs at first, it could be more economical and effective to take corrective action before visible signs appear. By enabling early identification of specific stresses and their locations, the proposed method would provide guidance for planning more effective, more economical, and more environmentally sound turfgrass-management practices, including application of chemicals and water, aeration, and mowing. The underlying concept of using hyperspectral imagery to generate stress maps as guides to efficient management of vegetation in large fields is not new; it has been applied in the growth of crops to be harvested. What is new here is the effort to develop an algorithm that processes hyperspectral reflectance data into spectral indices specific to stresses in turfgrass. The development effort has included a study in which small turfgrass plots that were, variously, healthy or

  2. SAR imagery in non-Cartesian geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dendal, Didier

    1995-11-01

    The subject of the reported work is the improvement of geometrical models for a SAR scanning in pushbroom, spotlight, scansar or bistatic imaging modes. This research has been motivated by the planetary cornerstone mission of ESA's long term program for European Space Science ('rendezvous' with a comet, and fly-bys of asteroids). In this specific context, the synthetic aperture radar is destined for an important role, but the rules and standard backgrounds of the Cartesian geometry are no longer justified. Several new techniques are proposed to handle with an optimal precision the data relative to celestial bodies with a complex geometry (coherent and non-coherent imagery). On the basis of a mathematical rigor (singleness of solutions, convergence of processes, biunivocity of transformations and generalizations), a lot of scenarios are discussed with key relations established (plane and spherical models, bodies with a symmetry of revolution and general bodies, specific sensor(s) trajectories as fly-bys or flight into orbit with the possibility of an approaching probe). The four methods developed are the tomographic analogy of radar principles (only known, previously, in the usual case of a straight line flight at constant altitude over a plane surface) and Hilbertian techniques for a direct adaptation to the scanned surface geometry, an automated autofocusing which enhances the contrast resulting from a Cartesian reconstruction and the coordinates transformation where the real space is converted into a fictitious space where Cartesian algorithms are fully rigorous. Beyond the fact that an interpolation step is often unavoidable, the major conclusion of the research is that all the prospected techniques are complementary and that the choice between the methods has to be made according to geometry, objectives and time requirements (reconstruction on board or not). In particular, coordinates transformation techniques are worthy of commendation in the case of plane

  3. Feature Detection Systems Enhance Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    In 1963, during the ninth orbit of the Faith 7 capsule, astronaut Gordon Cooper skipped his nap and took some photos of the Earth below using a Hasselblad camera. The sole flier on the Mercury-Atlas 9 mission, Cooper took 24 photos - never-before-seen images including the Tibetan plateau, the crinkled heights of the Himalayas, and the jagged coast of Burma. From his lofty perch over 100 miles above the Earth, Cooper noted villages, roads, rivers, and even, on occasion, individual houses. In 1965, encouraged by the effectiveness of NASA s orbital photography experiments during the Mercury and subsequent Gemini manned space flight missions, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) director William Pecora put forward a plan for a remote sensing satellite program that would collect information about the planet never before attainable. By 1972, NASA had built and launched Landsat 1, the first in a series of Landsat sensors that have combined to provide the longest continuous collection of space-based Earth imagery. The archived Landsat data - 37 years worth and counting - has provided a vast library of information allowing not only the extensive mapping of Earth s surface but also the study of its environmental changes, from receding glaciers and tropical deforestation to urban growth and crop harvests. Developed and launched by NASA with data collection operated at various times by the Agency, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Earth Observation Satellite Company (EOSAT, a private sector partnership that became Space Imaging Corporation in 1996), and USGS, Landsat sensors have recorded flooding from Hurricane Katrina, the building boom in Dubai, and the extinction of the Aral Sea, offering scientists invaluable insights into the natural and manmade changes that shape the world. Of the seven Landsat sensors launched since 1972, Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 are still operational. Though both are in use well beyond their intended lifespans, the mid

  4. Aspects of dem Generation from Uas Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiwe, A.; Gehrke, R.; Spreckels, V.; Schlienkamp, A.

    2013-08-01

    Since a few years, micro UAS (unmanned aerial systems) with vertical take off and landing capabilities like quadro- or octocopter are used as sensor platform for Aerophotogrammetry. Since the restricted payload of micro UAS with a total weight up of 5 kg (payload only up to 1.5 kg), these systems are often equipped with small format cameras. These cameras can be classified as amateur cameras and it is often the case, that these systems do not meet the requirements of a geometric stable camera for photogrammetric measurement purposes. However, once equipped with a suitable camera system, an UAS is an interesting alternative to expensive manned flights for small areas. The operating flight height of the above described UAS is about 50 up to 150 meters above ground level. This low flight height lead on the one hand to a very high spatial resolution of the aerial imagery. Depending on the cameras focal length and the sensor's pixel size, the ground sampling distance (GSD) is usually about 1 up to 5 cm. This high resolution is useful especially for the automatic generation of homologous tie-points, which are a precondition for the image alignment (bundle block adjustment). On the other hand, the image scale depends on the object's height and the UAV operating height. Objects like mine heaps or construction sites show high variations of the object's height. As a result, operating the UAS with a constant flying height will lead to high variations in the image scale. For some processing approaches this will lead to problems e.g. the automatic tie-point generation in stereo image pairs. As precondition to all DEM generating approaches, first of all a geometric stable camera, sharp images are essentially. Well known calibration parameters are necessary for the bundle adjustment, to control the exterior orientations. It can be shown, that a simultaneous on site camera calibration may lead to misaligned aerial images. Also, the success rate of an automatic tie-point generation

  5. Geometric registration and rectification of spaceborne SAR imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curlander, J. C.; Pang, S. N.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the development of automated location and geometric rectification techniques for digitally processed synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. A software package has been developed that is capable of determining the absolute location of an image pixel to within 60 m using only the spacecraft ephemeris data and the characteristics of the SAR data collection and processing system. Based on this location capability algorithms have been developed that geometrically rectify the imagery, register it to a common coordinate system and mosaic multiple frames to form extended digital SAR maps. These algorithms have been optimized using parallel processing techniques to minimize the operating time. Test results are given using Seasat SAR data.

  6. Viking image processing. [digital stereo imagery and computer mosaicking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses the camera systems capable of recording black and white and color imagery developed for the Viking Lander imaging experiment. Each Viking Lander image consisted of a matrix of numbers with 512 rows and an arbitrary number of columns up to a maximum of about 9,000. Various techniques were used in the processing of the Viking Lander images, including: (1) digital geometric transformation, (2) the processing of stereo imagery to produce three-dimensional terrain maps, and (3) computer mosaicking of distinct processed images. A series of Viking Lander images is included.

  7. Wedding Imagery and Public Support for Gay Marriage.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Paul R; Wilson, David C; Habegger, Michael

    2016-08-01

    This study uses an experiment embedded in a large, nationally representative survey to test whether exposure to imagery of a gay or lesbian couple's wedding influences support for gay marriage. It also tests whether any such effects depend on the nature of the image (gay or lesbian couple, kissing or not) and viewer characteristics (sex, age, race, education, religion, and ideology). Results show that exposure to imagery of a gay couple kissing reduced support for gay marriage relative to the baseline. Other image treatments (gay couple not kissing, lesbian couple kissing, lesbian couple not kissing) did not significantly influence opinion.

  8. Development of RGB Composite Imagery for Operational Weather Forecasting Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Fuell, Kevin K.; Oswald, Hayden, K; Knaff, John A.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center, in collaboration with the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA), is providing red-green-blue (RGB) color composite imagery to several of NOAA s National Centers and National Weather Service forecast offices as a demonstration of future capabilities of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) to be implemented aboard GOES-R. Forecasters rely upon geostationary satellite imagery to monitor conditions over their regions of responsibility. Since the ABI will provide nearly three times as many channels as the current GOES imager, the volume of data available for analysis will increase. RGB composite imagery can aid in the compression of large data volumes by combining information from multiple channels or paired channel differences into single products that communicate more information than provided by a single channel image. A standard suite of RGB imagery has been developed by the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), based upon the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI). The SEVIRI instrument currently provides visible and infrared wavelengths comparable to the future GOES-R ABI. In addition, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard the NASA Terra and Aqua satellites can be used to demonstrate future capabilities of GOES-R. This presentation will demonstrate an overview of the products currently disseminated to SPoRT partners within the GOES-R Proving Ground, and other National Weather Service forecast offices, along with examples of their application. For example, CIRA has used the channels of the current GOES sounder to produce an "air mass" RGB originally designed for SEVIRI. This provides hourly imagery over CONUS for looping applications while demonstrating capabilities similar to the future ABI instrument. SPoRT has developed similar "air mass" RGB imagery from MODIS, and through

  9. The physics of vibrating scatterers in SAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, D. B.; Blacknell, D.; Muff, D. G.; Nottingham, M. R.

    2011-06-01

    Measurement times for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image collection can take from the order of seconds to minutes and consequently the technique is subject to imaging artefacts due to target motion. For example, imaged moving targets can be displaced and unfocussed and similarly for vibrating targets. Current understanding of this phenomenon is somewhat esoteric however this paper puts forward and demonstrates a visual explanation via the physics of modulated scatterer SAR images in the Fourier domain. This novel approach has led to an imagery analyst aid which associates a distinctive signature to modulated scatterer artefacts in SAR imagery and to an associated filter.

  10. Application of ERTS imagery to environmental studies of Lake Champlain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, A. O.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS Imagery has provided data relating to a number of environmental and limnological concerns such as water quality, lake flooding and lake ice formation. Pollution plume data provided by ERTS was recently used in the Supreme Court case involving the States of Vermont and New York and a paper company. Flooding of lowland tracts has been a major concern due to a repetitive pattern of high lake levels over the past three years, and ERTS imagery is being used to construct the first series of flood maps of the affected areas. Lake ice development and turbidity patterns have also been studied from ERTS, since these have significance for shore erosion studies.

  11. Acquisition and registration of aerial video imagery of urban traffic

    SciTech Connect

    Loveland, Rohan C

    2008-01-01

    The amount of information available about urban traffic from aerial video imagery is extremely high. Here we discuss the collection of such video imagery from a helicopter platform with a low-cost sensor, and the post-processing used to correct radial distortion in the data and register it. The radial distortion correction is accomplished using a Harris model. The registration is implemented in a two-step process, using a globally applied polyprojective correction model followed by a fine scale local displacement field adjustment. The resulting cleaned-up data is sufficiently well-registered to allow subsequent straight-forward vehicle tracking.

  12. Facilitating the exploitation of ERTS imagery using snow enhancement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Martin, K. R.; Amato, R. V.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Detection and analysis of fracture systems can be more effectively conducted utilizing snow cover as an enhancement tool. From analysis within the Great Barrington Test Site it appears that the use of aeromagnetic data effectively supplements lineament data acquired using ERTS imagery. Coincidence of lineaments derived from aeromagnetics with lineaments interpreted from ERTS imagery apparently indicate the presence of mineralized fracture systems and dikes. Utilizing both tools can increase the speed and efficiency of mineral exploration and geological mapping in areas where bedrock is obscured by a thick unconsolidated sediment cover.

  13. Wedding Imagery and Public Support for Gay Marriage.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Paul R; Wilson, David C; Habegger, Michael

    2016-08-01

    This study uses an experiment embedded in a large, nationally representative survey to test whether exposure to imagery of a gay or lesbian couple's wedding influences support for gay marriage. It also tests whether any such effects depend on the nature of the image (gay or lesbian couple, kissing or not) and viewer characteristics (sex, age, race, education, religion, and ideology). Results show that exposure to imagery of a gay couple kissing reduced support for gay marriage relative to the baseline. Other image treatments (gay couple not kissing, lesbian couple kissing, lesbian couple not kissing) did not significantly influence opinion. PMID:26849489

  14. Par Pond vegetation status summer 1995 - July survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-07-01

    A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant, communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet (61 meters) above mean sea level, and continued with this July survey. Aquatic plant communities, similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond communities, are becoming reestablished. Beds of maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), lotus (Nelumbo lutea), water lily (Nymphaea odorata), and watershield (Brasenia schreberi) are now extensive and well established. In addition, within isolated coves, extensive beds of water lilies and spike-rush (Eleocharis sp.) are common. Cattail occurrence has increased since refill, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Invasion of willow (Salix sp.) and red maple (Acer rubrum) occurred along the lake shoreline during drawdown. The red maples along the present shoreline are beginning to show evidence of stress and mortality from flooding over the past four months. Some of the willows appear to be stressed as well. The loblolly pines (Pinus taeda), which were flooded in all but the shallow shoreline areas, are now dead. Future surveys are planned for the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data for mapping the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond.

  15. The Pars Triangularis in Dyslexia and ADHD: A Comprehensive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibby, Michelle Y.; Kroese, Judith M.; Krebbs, Hillery; Hill, Crystal E.; Hynd, George W.

    2009-01-01

    Limited research has been conducted on the structure of the pars triangularis (PT) in dyslexia despite functional neuroimaging research finding it may play a role in phonological processing. Furthermore, research to date has not examined PT size in ADHD even though the right inferior frontal region has been implicated in the disorder. Hence, one…

  16. Aqueous misdirection following pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil injection

    PubMed Central

    Ghoraba, Hammouda H; Ghali, Ali Ahmed; Mansour, Hosam Othman

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report a retrospective series of seven phakic eyes of seven patients suffering from a malignant glaucoma-like syndrome following pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil (SO) injection. Materials and methods Seven eyes with retinal detachment treated with pars plana vitrectomy with or without scleral buckling with SO tamponade. This was followed by cataract extraction to manage the elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Results This was a retrospective review of seven cases that received pars plana vitrectomy and SO with or without scleral buckling for different causes of retinal detachment (three were rhegmatogenous and four were tractional). After a period ranging from 1 week to 1 month, they presented with malignant glaucoma-like manifestations; high IOP, shallow axial anterior chamber, and remarkable decrease of visual acuity. Atropine eye drops and anti-glaucoma medical treatment (topical and systemic) had been tried but failed to improve the condition. Dramatic decrease of IOP and deepening of the axial anterior chamber was observed in all cases in the first postoperative day after phacoemulsification and posterior chamber foldable intraocular lens implantation with posterior capsulotomy. Conclusion Aqueous misdirection syndrome may be observed following pars plana vitrectomy and SO tamponade. This must be differentiated from other causes of post vitrectomy glaucoma. Cataract extraction with posterior capsulotomy controls the condition. PMID:26056429

  17. Radiological impact of Par Pond drawdown from liquid effluent pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.; Hamby, D.M.

    1991-10-25

    The water level of Par Pond has been lowered over the past several months to reduce the effects in the event of catastrophic dam failure while assessing the condition of the dam and determining if repairs are necessary. In lowering the level of Par Pond, 60 billion liters of water containing low levels of tritium and cesium-137 were discharged to several onsite streams. SRS surface streams flow to the Savannah River. An assessment made to determine the total amount of tritium and Cs-137 discharged and to estimate the consequences to downstream Savannah River users. It is estimated that a total of 160 curies of tritium were displaced from Par Pond to the Savannah River between June 28, 1991 and September 19, 1991. This release could hypothetically result in a maximum individual dose of 3. 2{times}10{sup {minus}4} mrem and a total (80-km and drinking water populations) population dose of 1.4{times}10{sup {minus}2} person-rem. Likewise, a maximum individual dose of 5.0{times}10{sup {minus}2} mrem and a total population dose of 1.7{times}10{sup {minus}1} person- rem are predicted as a result of an estimated 0.21 curies of Cs-137 being discharged from Par Pond to the Savannah River.

  18. BOREAS RSS-10 TOMS Circumpolar One-Degree PAR Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, Dennis G.; Holben, Brent; Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Remote Sensing Science (RSS)-10 team investigated the magnitude of daily, seasonal, and yearly variations of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) from ground and satellite observations. This data set contains satellite estimates of surface-incident PAR (400-700 nm, MJ/sq m) at one-degree spatial resolution. The spatial coverage is circumpolar from latitudes of 41 to 66 degrees north. The temporal coverage is from May through September for years 1979 through 1989. Eleven-year statistics are also provided: (1) mean, (2) standard deviation, and (3) coefficient of variation for 1979-89. The PAR estimates were derived from the global gridded ultraviolet reflectivity data product (average of 360, 380 nm) from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Image mask data are provided for identifying the boreal forest zone, and ocean/land and snow/ice-covered areas. The data are available as binary image format data files. The PAR data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  19. Competing ParA structures space bacterial plasmids equally over the nucleoid.

    PubMed

    Ietswaart, Robert; Szardenings, Florian; Gerdes, Kenn; Howard, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Low copy number plasmids in bacteria require segregation for stable inheritance through cell division. This is often achieved by a parABC locus, comprising an ATPase ParA, DNA-binding protein ParB and a parC region, encoding ParB-binding sites. These minimal components space plasmids equally over the nucleoid, yet the underlying mechanism is not understood. Here we investigate a model where ParA-ATP can dynamically associate to the nucleoid and is hydrolyzed by plasmid-associated ParB, thereby creating nucleoid-bound, self-organizing ParA concentration gradients. We show mathematically that differences between competing ParA concentrations on either side of a plasmid can specify regular plasmid positioning. Such positioning can be achieved regardless of the exact mechanism of plasmid movement, including plasmid diffusion with ParA-mediated immobilization or directed plasmid motion induced by ParB/parC-stimulated ParA structure disassembly. However, we find experimentally that parABC from Escherichia coli plasmid pB171 increases plasmid mobility, inconsistent with diffusion/immobilization. Instead our observations favor directed plasmid motion. Our model predicts less oscillatory ParA dynamics than previously believed, a prediction we verify experimentally. We also show that ParA localization and plasmid positioning depend on the underlying nucleoid morphology, indicating that the chromosomal architecture constrains ParA structure formation. Our directed motion model unifies previously contradictory models for plasmid segregation and provides a robust mechanistic basis for self-organized plasmid spacing that may be widely applicable.

  20. ParA-mediated plasmid partition driven by protein pattern self-organization

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ling Chin; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G; Han, Yong-Woon; Mizuuchi, Michiyo; Harada, Yoshie; Funnell, Barbara E; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    DNA segregation ensures the stable inheritance of genetic material prior to cell division. Many bacterial chromosomes and low-copy plasmids, such as the plasmids P1 and F, employ a three-component system to partition replicated genomes: a partition site on the DNA target, typically called parS, a partition site binding protein, typically called ParB, and a Walker-type ATPase, typically called ParA, which also binds non-specific DNA. In vivo, the ParA family of ATPases forms dynamic patterns over the nucleoid, but how ATP-driven patterning is involved in partition is unknown. We reconstituted and visualized ParA-mediated plasmid partition inside a DNA-carpeted flowcell, which acts as an artificial nucleoid. ParA and ParB transiently bridged plasmid to the DNA carpet. ParB-stimulated ATP hydrolysis by ParA resulted in ParA disassembly from the bridging complex and from the surrounding DNA carpet, which led to plasmid detachment. Our results support a diffusion-ratchet model, where ParB on the plasmid chases and redistributes the ParA gradient on the nucleoid, which in turn mobilizes the plasmid. PMID:23443047

  1. PH motifs in PAR1&2 endow breast cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Kancharla, A; Maoz, M; Jaber, M; Agranovich, D; Peretz, T; Grisaru-Granovsky, S; Uziely, B; Bar-Shavit, R

    2015-01-01

    Although emerging roles of protease-activated receptor1&2 (PAR1&2) in cancer are recognized, their underlying signalling events are poorly understood. Here we show signal-binding motifs in PAR1&2 that are critical for breast cancer growth. This occurs via the association of the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain with Akt/PKB as a key signalling event of PARs. Other PH-domain signal-proteins such as Etk/Bmx and Vav3 also associate with PAR1 and PAR2 through their PH domains. PAR1 and PAR2 bind with priority to Etk/Bmx. A point mutation in PAR2, H349A, but not in R352A, abrogates PH-protein association and is sufficient to markedly reduce PAR2-instigated breast tumour growth in vivo and placental extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion in vitro. Similarly, the PAR1 mutant hPar1-7A, which is unable to bind the PH domain, reduces mammary tumours and EVT invasion, endowing these motifs with physiological significance and underscoring the importance of these previously unknown PAR1 and PAR2 PH-domain-binding motifs in both pathological and physiological invasion processes. PMID:26600192

  2. PH motifs in PAR1&2 endow breast cancer growth

    PubMed Central

    Kancharla, A.; Maoz, M.; Jaber, M.; Agranovich, D.; Peretz, T.; Grisaru-Granovsky, S.; Uziely, B.; Bar-Shavit, R.

    2015-01-01

    Although emerging roles of protease-activated receptor1&2 (PAR1&2) in cancer are recognized, their underlying signalling events are poorly understood. Here we show signal-binding motifs in PAR1&2 that are critical for breast cancer growth. This occurs via the association of the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain with Akt/PKB as a key signalling event of PARs. Other PH-domain signal-proteins such as Etk/Bmx and Vav3 also associate with PAR1 and PAR2 through their PH domains. PAR1 and PAR2 bind with priority to Etk/Bmx. A point mutation in PAR2, H349A, but not in R352A, abrogates PH-protein association and is sufficient to markedly reduce PAR2-instigated breast tumour growth in vivo and placental extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion in vitro. Similarly, the PAR1 mutant hPar1-7A, which is unable to bind the PH domain, reduces mammary tumours and EVT invasion, endowing these motifs with physiological significance and underscoring the importance of these previously unknown PAR1 and PAR2 PH-domain-binding motifs in both pathological and physiological invasion processes. PMID:26600192

  3. Results of peripheral laser photocoagulation in pars planitis.

    PubMed Central

    Pulido, J S; Mieler, W F; Walton, D; Kuhn, E; Postel, E; Hartz, A; Jampol, L M; Weinberg, D V; Logani, S

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the effect of peripheral retinal laser photocoagulation (PLP) on visual acuity, intraocular inflammation, and other ocular findings, including retinal neovascularization in eyes with pars planitis. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of eyes with pars planitis that had undergone PLP. RESULTS: Twenty-two eyes in 17 patients with pars planitis had undergone treatment with PLP at 2 centers. The mean age at the time of treatment was 19.3 years. Following treatment, mean follow-up was 16.3 months (range, 6 to 37 months). Mean visual acuity was 20/60 preoperatively and 20/50 postoperatively. This level of improvement was not statistically significant (P > .10), but there was a statistically significant decrease in the use of corticosteroids between the preoperative examination and the last postoperative examination (86% versus 27%, P < .05). There was also a statistically significant decrease in vitritis at the last follow-up (P = .0008) and a decrease in neovascularization of the vitreous base (P = .03) and in clinically apparent cystoid macular edema (P = .02). Epiretinal membranes were noted in 23% of eyes preoperatively and in 45% of eyes postoperatively. Only one of these epiretinal membranes was considered to be visually significant. One eye developed a tonic dilated pupil, which slowly improved. CONCLUSIONS: Although the long-term natural history of clinical findings in pars planitis is not well documented, PLP appears to decrease the need for corticosteroids while stabilizing visual acuity. It also appears to decrease vitreous inflammation. PLP has few complications and should be considered in patients with pars planitis who are unresponsive or have adverse reactions to corticosteroids. PMID:10360286

  4. The Therapeutic Use of Mental Imagery: A Review of Recent Empirical Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garman, Steven Lee

    Mental imagery, an internal representational process that enables an individual to experience an event in imagination, has been used effectively in treating psychological conditions, changing behavioral patterns, and altering physiological processes. Research on the psychological effects of imagery has focused on the influences imagery has on…

  5. The Role of Visual Mental Imagery in the Speed-Accuracy Tradeoff: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodes, Carol L.

    This study investigates the relationship between speed of recognition and accuracy of the responses when visual mental imagery is controlled through imagery instructions. The procedure was to compare the achievement of learners where the independent variable was imagery instructions. The subjects were two 20-person groups of undergraduates from a…

  6. Mixed Messages: The Relationship between Sexual and Religious Imagery in Rock, Country, and Christian Videos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Kathy B.; Pardun, Carol J.

    1996-01-01

    Finds sexual imagery more common than religious imagery in a sample of 207 rock, country, and Christian videos, although religious imagery was present in approximately 30% of the videos. Finds that the presence of sexual and religious images in combination occurred more often than would be expected by chance and in relatively equal proportions…

  7. The role of pars flaccida in human middle ear sound transmission.

    PubMed

    Aritomo, H; Goode, R L; Gonzalez, J

    1988-04-01

    The role of the pars flaccida in middle ear sound transmission was studied with the use of twelve otoscopically normal, fresh, human temporal bones. Peak-to-peak umbo displacement in response to a constant sound pressure level at the tympanic membrane was measured with a noncontacting video measuring system capable of repeatable measurements down to 0.2 micron. Measurements were made before and after pars flaccida modifications at 18 frequencies between 100 and 4000 Hz. Four pars flaccida modifications were studied: (1) acoustic insulation of the pars flaccida to the ear canal with a silicone rubber baffle, (2) stiffening the pars flaccida with cyanoacrylate cement, (3) decreasing the tension of the pars flaccida with a nonperforating incision, and (4) perforation of the pars flaccida. All of the modifications (except the perforation) had a minimal effect on umbo displacement; this seems to imply that the pars flaccida has a minor acoustic role in human beings. PMID:3132684

  8. Degraded Imagery/Art Technique for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agard, Richard

    Developed for handicapped artists, Degraded Imagery is a technique whereby images can be extracted and refined from a photograph or a collage of photographs. The advantage of this process is that it requires a lower degree of fine motor skills to produce a quality image from a photograph than it does to create a quality image on a blank piece of…

  9. Tobacco imagery in Bollywood films: 2006–2008

    PubMed Central

    Nazar, Gaurang P; Gupta, Vinay K; Millett, Christopher; Arora, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate exposure to tobacco imagery in youth-rated Bollywood films, and examine the results in light of recent developments in India's film rating system. Methods Content coding of 44 top grossing Bollywood films (including 38 youth-rated films) released during 2006–2008 was undertaken to estimate tobacco occurrences and impressions. Results Out of the 38 youth-rated (U and U/A) films coded, 50% contained tobacco imagery. Mean tobacco occurrences were 1.9, 2.9 and 13.7 per U, U/A and adult (A) rated films, respectively. Top grossing youth-rated films delivered 1.91 billion tobacco impressions to Indian cinema audiences. Conclusions Half the youth-rated Bollywood films contain tobacco imagery resulting in large population level exposure in India, relative to other countries. Measures to reduce youth exposure to tobacco imagery through films, such as restricting access through the rating system, will complement other tobacco control measures. PMID:27326073

  10. Spatial and Linguistic Aspects of Visual Imagery in Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen, Benjamin K.; Lindsay, Shane; Matlock, Teenie; Narayanan, Srini

    2007-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that language comprehension involves the activation of mental imagery of the content of utterances (Barsalou, 1999; Bergen, Chang, & Narayan, 2004; Bergen, Narayan, & Feldman, 2003; Narayan, Bergen, & Weinberg, 2004; Richardson, Spivey, McRae, & Barsalou, 2003; Stanfield & Zwaan, 2001; Zwaan, Stanfield, & Yaxley, 2002).…

  11. Effects of Action on Children's and Adults' Mental Imagery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Andrea; Daum, Moritz M.; Wilson, Margaret; Wilkening, Friedrich

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether and which aspects of a concurrent motor activity can facilitate children's and adults' performance in a dynamic imagery task. Children (5-, 7-, and 9-year-olds) and adults were asked to tilt empty glasses, filled with varied amounts of imaginary water, so that the imagined water would reach the rim.…

  12. Combined action observation and imagery facilitates corticospinal excitability

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David J.; Williams, Jacqueline; Holmes, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Observation and imagery of movement both activate similar brain regions to those involved in movement execution. As such, both are recommended as techniques for aiding the recovery of motor function following stroke. Traditionally, action observation and movement imagery (MI) have been considered as independent intervention techniques. Researchers have however begun to consider the possibility of combining the two techniques into a single intervention strategy. This study investigated the effect of combined action observation and MI on corticospinal excitability, in comparison to either observation or imagery alone. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was delivered to the hand representation of the left motor cortex during combined action observation and MI, passive observation (PO), or MI of right index finger abduction-adduction movements or control conditions. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles of the right hand. The combined action observation and MI condition produced MEPs of larger amplitude than were obtained during PO and control conditions. This effect was only present in the FDI muscle, indicating the facilitation of corticospinal excitability during the combined condition was specific to the muscles involved in the observed/imagined task. These findings have implications for stroke rehabilitation, where combined action observation and MI interventions may prove to be more effective than observation or imagery alone. PMID:25505880

  13. Uses of Metaphors & Imagery in Counseling. Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladding, Samuel T.

    This document presents an instructor's manual designed to accompany the videotape, "Uses of Metaphors and Imagery in Counseling," a tool to teach beginning and experienced counselors how to more efficiently help their clients by focusing on the use of non-literal language and thoughts (i.e., metaphors and images). The format and content of the…

  14. Understanding Mnemonic Imagery Effects: A Dozen "Obvious" Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Joel R.; Pressley, Michael

    Using Atkinson's Keyword Method--an imagery mnemonic for vocabulary learning--as a vehicle, this paper argues that even the most well-reasoned and explainable psychological outcomes need to be validated empirically. The paper provides 12 examples of applications of the keyword method in which an eminently reasonable cognitive outcome was…

  15. Imagery Associated with Menstruation in Advertising Targeted to Adolescent Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havens, Beverly; Swenson, Ingrid

    1988-01-01

    Analyzed imagery in advertisements in "Seventeen" magazine for sanitary products and products for relief of menstrual symptoms, looking for recurrent themes in text, context, and tone. Found menstruation depicted as a "hygienic crisis" best managed by an effective "security system" affording protection and "peace of mind," with menstruating women…

  16. Infrared photography and imagery in water resources research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinove, Charles J.

    1965-01-01

    Infrared photography has restricted usefulness in general water resources studies but is particularly useful in special problems such as shoreline mapping. Infrared imagery is beginning to be used in water resources studies for the identification of surface and sub surface thermal anomalies as expressed at the surface and the measurement of apparent water surface temperatures. It will attain its maximum usefulness only when interpretation criteria for infrared imagery are fully developed. Several important hydrologic problems to which infrared imagery may be applied are: (1) determination of circulation and cooling of water in power plant cooling ponds, (2) measurement of river temperature and temperature decline downstream from power plants discharging heated water, (3) identification of submarine springs along coasts, and (4) measurement of temperature differences along streams as indicators of effluent seepage of ground water. Although it is possible at this time to identify many features of importance to hydrology by the use of infrared imagery, the task remaining is to develop criteria to show the hydrologic significance of the features.

  17. Capacity for imagery and creative self-perceptions.

    PubMed

    González Fontao, M P

    1996-12-01

    The influence of capacity for imagery was studied in the creativity of students in secondary school. Several questionnaires were administered to 1125 students. Analysis of scores indicated few significant correlations as well as low predictive control between scores on the sensorial modalities of the Betts questionnaire, spatial tests, and creativity. PMID:9017740

  18. Self-Attitude Enhancement through Positive Mental Imagery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrizi, Fredric M.

    Enhanced self-attitudes following a psychotherapeutic encounter almost always serve as an indicator of therapy success. In an attempt to enhance self-attitudes through the use of positive mental imagery, undergraduate students (N=72), divided into 4 groups, participated in 4 experimental sessions. The experimental groups imagined themselves…

  19. The Role of Imagery in the Production of Written Definitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Ernest T.; Sadoski, Mark; Stricker, Andrew G.; White, Teresa S.; Wang, Zhongmiao

    2007-01-01

    The effect of word concreteness and imagery on the production of written definitions was investigated using procedures designed to produce more generalizable results than previous investigations. A random sample of words was drawn from the Paivio, Yuille, and Madigan (1968) norms, and college undergraduates were presented with a randomly selected,…

  20. Facilitating the exploitation of ERTS imagery using snow enhancement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Martin, K. R.; Sheffield, C.; Russell, O.; Amato, R. V.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Analysis of all available (Gemini, Apollo, Nimbus, NASA aircraft) small scale snow covered imagery has been conducted to develop and refine snow enhancement techniques. A detailed photographic interpretation of ERTS-simulation imagery covering the Feather River/Lake Tahoe area was completed and the 580-680nm. band was determined to be the optimum band for fracture detection. ERTS-1 MSS bands 5 and 7 are best suited for detailed fracture mapping. The two bands should provide more complete fracture detail when utilized in combination. Analysis of early ERTS-1 data along with U-2 ERTS simulation imagery indicates that snow enhancement is a viable technique for geological fracture mapping. A wealth of fracture detail on snow-free terrain was noted during preliminary analysis of ERTS-1 images 1077-15005-6 and 7, 1077-15011-5 and 7, and 1079-15124-5 and 7. A direct comparison of data yield on snow-free versus snow-covered terrain will be conducted within these areas following receipt of snow-covered ERTS-1 imagery.

  1. Encoding and analyzing aerial imagery using geospatial semantic graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Jean-Paul; Strip, David R.; McLendon, William C.; Parekh, Ojas D.; Diegert, Carl F.; Martin, Shawn Bryan; Rintoul, Mark Daniel

    2014-02-01

    While collection capabilities have yielded an ever-increasing volume of aerial imagery, analytic techniques for identifying patterns in and extracting relevant information from this data have seriously lagged. The vast majority of imagery is never examined, due to a combination of the limited bandwidth of human analysts and limitations of existing analysis tools. In this report, we describe an alternative, novel approach to both encoding and analyzing aerial imagery, using the concept of a geospatial semantic graph. The advantages of our approach are twofold. First, intuitive templates can be easily specified in terms of the domain language in which an analyst converses. These templates can be used to automatically and efficiently search large graph databases, for specific patterns of interest. Second, unsupervised machine learning techniques can be applied to automatically identify patterns in the graph databases, exposing recurring motifs in imagery. We illustrate our approach using real-world data for Anne Arundel County, Maryland, and compare the performance of our approach to that of an expert human analyst.

  2. Mental Imagery Abilities in Adolescents with Spastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courbois, Yanick; Coello, Yann; Bouchart, Isabelle

    2004-01-01

    Four visual imagery tasks were presented to three groups of adolescents with or without spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. The first group was composed of six adolescents with cerebral palsy who had associated visual-perceptual deficits (CP-PD), the second group was composed of five adolescents with cerebral palsy and no associated visual-perceptual…

  3. Feature Masking in Computer Game Promotes Visual Imagery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Glenn Gordon; Morey, Jim; Tjoe, Edwin

    2007-01-01

    Can learning of mental imagery skills for visualizing shapes be accelerated with feature masking? Chemistry, physics fine arts, military tactics, and laparoscopic surgery often depend on mentally visualizing shapes in their absence. Does working with "spatial feature-masks" (skeletal shapes, missing key identifying portions) encourage people to…

  4. Parallax visualization of UAV FMV and WAMI imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayhew, Christopher A.; Mayhew, Craig M.

    2012-06-01

    The US Military is increasingly relying on the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) missions. Complex arrays of Full-Motion Video (FMV), Wide-Area Motion Imaging (WAMI) and Wide Area Airborne Surveillance (WAAS) technologies are being deployed on UAV platforms for ISR applications. Nevertheless, these systems are only as effective as the Image Analyst's (IA) ability to extract relevant information from the data. A variety of tools assist in the analysis of imagery captured with UAV sensors. However, until now, none has been developed to extract and visualize parallax three-dimensional information. Parallax Visualization (PV) is a technique that produces a near-three-dimensional visual response to standard UAV imagery. The overlapping nature of UAV imagery lends itself to parallax visualization. Parallax differences can be obtained by selecting frames that differ in time and, therefore, points of view of the area of interest. PV is accomplished using software tools to critically align a common point in two views while alternately displaying both views in a square-wave manner. Humans produce an autostereoscopic response to critically aligned parallax information presented alternately on a standard unaided display at frequencies between 3 and 6 Hz. This simple technique allows for the exploitation of spatial and temporal differences in image sequences to enhance depth, size, and spatial relationships of objects in areas of interest. PV of UAV imagery has been successfully performed in several US Military exercises over the last two years.

  5. The Disposition of AIDS Imagery in "New York Times" Obituaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alali, A. Odasuo

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of 100 AIDS death obituaries indicates imageries reflect much about American society, such as attitudes toward homosexuality, attitudes toward AIDS, and understanding of linkages between sexual practices and AIDS. Analysis suggests construction of AIDS obituaries may be manifestations of sociopolitical structure and a consequence of bias…

  6. Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Camera Asset Planning: Imagery Previsualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaulieu, K.

    2014-01-01

    Using JSC-developed and other industry-standard off-the-shelf 3D modeling, animation, and rendering software packages, the Image Science Analysis Group (ISAG) supports Orion Project imagery planning efforts through dynamic 3D simulation and realistic previsualization of ground-, vehicle-, and air-based camera output.

  7. Imagery Measures of Ego, Id, Superego, and Identity: Validity Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, D.; DeBruin, J.

    1988-01-01

    Five validity studies of the id, ego, superego, and identity scales of the Study of Imagery are reported, using undergraduate students. Multistage Bonferroni procedures are used to evaluate the significance of results. The scales are related to each other and to toughmindedness, self-control, and behavioral conflict. (TJH)

  8. Relationship between Fractal Dimension and Agreeability of Facial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama-Higa, Mayumi; Miao, Tiejun; Ito, Tasuo

    2007-11-01

    Why do people feel happy and good or equivalently empathize more, with smiling face imageries than with ones of expressionless face? To understand what the essential factors are underlying imageries in relating to the feelings, we conducted an experiment by 84 subjects asked to estimate the degree of agreeability about expressionless and smiling facial images taken from 23 young persons to whom the subjects were no any pre-acquired knowledge. Images were presented one at a time to each subject who was asked to rank agreeability on a scale from 1 to 10. Fractal dimensions of facial images were obtained in order to characterize the complexity of the imageries by using of two types of fractal analysis methods, i.e., planar and cubic analysis methods, respectively. The results show a significant difference in the fractal dimension values between expressionless faces and smiling ones. Furthermore, we found a well correlation between the degree of agreeability and fractal dimensions, implying that the fractal dimension optically obtained in relation to complexity in imagery information is useful to characterize the psychological processes of cognition and awareness.

  9. Parameterization of Vegetation Aerodynamic Roughness of Natural Regions Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, Michael F.; Crago, Richard; Stewart, Pamela

    1998-01-01

    Parameterizations of the frontal area index and canopy area index of natural or randomly distributed plants are developed, and applied to the estimation of local aerodynamic roughness using satellite imagery. The formulas are expressed in terms of the subpixel fractional vegetation cover and one non-dimensional geometric parameter that characterizes the plant's shape. Geometrically similar plants and Poisson distributed plant centers are assumed. An appropriate averaging technique to extend satellite pixel-scale estimates to larger scales is provided. The parameterization is applied to the estimation of aerodynamic roughness using satellite imagery for a 2.3 sq km coniferous portion of the Landes Forest near Lubbon, France, during the 1986 HAPEX-Mobilhy Experiment. The canopy area index is estimated first for each pixel in the scene based on previous estimates of fractional cover obtained using Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. Next, the results are incorporated into Raupach's (1992, 1994) analytical formulas for momentum roughness and zero-plane displacement height. The estimates compare reasonably well to reference values determined from measurements taken during the experiment and to published literature values. The approach offers the potential for estimating regionally variable, vegetation aerodynamic roughness lengths over natural regions using satellite imagery when there exists only limited knowledge of the vegetated surface.

  10. Autonomous rendezvous and feature detection system using TV imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. B., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Algorithms and equations are used for conversion of standard television imaging system information into directly usable spatial and dimensional information. System allows utilization of spacecraft imagery system as sensor in application to operations such as deriving spacecraft steering signal, tracking, autonomous rendezvous and docking and ranging.

  11. Weakly stationary noise filtering of satellite-acquired imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palgen, J. J. O.; Tamches, I.; Deutsch, E. S.

    1971-01-01

    A type of weakly stationary noise called herringbone noise was observed in satellite imagery. The characteristics of this noise are described; a model for its simulation was developed. The model is used to degrade pictorial data for comparison with similar noise degraded Nimbus data. Two filtering methods are defined and evaluated. A user's application demonstration is discussed.

  12. Estimating true color imagery for GOES-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossberg, Michael D.; Shahriar, Fazlul; Gladkova, Irina; Alabi, Paul K.; Hillger, Donald W.; Miller, Steven D.

    2011-06-01

    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on GOES-R will help NOAA's objective of engaging and educating the public on environmental issues by providing near real-time imagery of the earth-atmosphere system. True color satellite images are beneficial to the public, as well as to scientists, who use these images as an important "decision aid" and visualization tool. Unfortunately, ABI only has two visible bands (cyan and red) and does not directly produce the three bands (blue, green, and red) used to create true color imagery. We have developed an algorithm that will produce quantitative true color imagery from ABI. Our algorithm estimates the three tristimulus values of the international standard CIE 1931 XYZ colorspace for each pixel of the ABI image, and thus is compatible with a wide range of software packages and hardware devices. Our algorithm is based on a non-linear statistical regression framework that incorporate both classification and local multispectral regression using training data. We have used training data from the hyper-spectral imager Hyperion. Our algorithm to produce true color images from the ABI is not specific to ABI and may be applicable to other satellites which, like the ABI, do not have the ability to directly produce RGB imagery.

  13. Coastal applications of the ERTS-1 satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magoon, O. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. Samples are given of the possible applications of ERTS-1 imagery to coastal and nearshore studies. Briefly discussed are: (1) obtaining regional views of extended coastal areas; (2) distribution of sediments; (3) coastal configurations and changes; (4) barrier islands; (5) underwater penetration, and (6) coastal waves.

  14. Imagery Rescripting of Early Traumatic Memories in Social Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Jennifer; Clark, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Negative self-images appear to play a role in the maintenance of social phobia and research suggests they are often linked to earlier memories of socially traumatic events. Imagery rescripting is a clinical intervention that aims to update such unpleasant or traumatic memories, and is increasingly being incorporated in cognitive behavioral therapy…

  15. American Indian Imagery and the Miseducation of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staurowsky, Ellen J.

    1999-01-01

    Examines cultural fallout related to the issue of American Indian imagery in school athletics as it has been perpetuated by school districts and communities, suggesting that it is symptomatic of cultural illiteracy and noting that these images contribute not only to a hostile culture and classroom climate for American Indians but also miseducate…

  16. BOREAS Level-0 TIMS Imagery: Digital Counts in BIL Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominquez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOREAS, the TIMS imagery, along with the other remotely sensed images, was collected to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. The level-0 TIMS images cover the time periods of 16-Apr-1994 to 20-Apr-1994 and 06-Sep-1994 to 17-Sep-1994. The images are available in their original uncalibrated format.

  17. Hearing Story Characters' Voices: Auditory Imagery during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunraj, Danielle N.; Klin, Celia M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the longstanding belief in an inner voice, there is surprisingly little known about the perceptual features of that voice during text processing. This article asked whether readers infer nonlinguistic phonological features, such as speech rate, associated with a character's speech. Previous evidence for this type of auditory imagery has…

  18. Adding Insult to Imagery? Art Education and Censorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The "Adding Insult to Imagery? Artistic Responses to Censorship and Mass-Media" exhibition opened in January 16, 2006, Kipp Gallery on the Indiana University of Pennsylvania campus. Eleven gallery-based works, 9 videos, and 10 web-based artworks comprised the show; each dealt with the relationship between censorship and mass mediated images. Many…

  19. Imagery and spectroscopy of supernova remnants and H-2 regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufour, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Research activities relating to supernova remnants were summarized. The topics reviewed include: progenitor stars of supernova remnants, UV/optical/radio/X-ray imagery of selected regions in the Cygnus Loop, UV/optical spectroscopy of the Cygnus Loop spur, and extragalactic supernova remnant spectra.

  20. Neural Dissociations between Action Verb Understanding and Motor Imagery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willems, Roel M.; Toni, Ivan; Hagoort, Peter; Casasanto, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    According to embodied theories of language, people understand a verb like "throw", at least in part, by mentally simulating "throwing". This implicit simulation is often assumed to be similar or identical to motor imagery. Here we used fMRI to test whether implicit simulations of actions during language understanding involve the same cortical…

  1. Interpretation of Thermal Infrared Imagery for Irrigation Water Resource Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nellis, M. Duane

    1985-01-01

    Water resources play a major role in the character of agricultural development in the arid western United States. This case study shows how thermal infrared imagery, which is sensitive to radiant or heat energy, can be used to interpret crop moisture content and associated stress in irrigated areas. (RM)

  2. Developing a Method to Mask Trees in Commercial Multispectral Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, S. J.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Jain, D.; Karlekar, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    The US Army has an increasing focus on using automated remote sensing techniques with commercial multispectral imagery (MSI) to map urban and peri-urban agricultural and vegetative features; however, similar spectral profiles between trees (i.e., forest canopy) and other vegetation result in confusion between these cover classes. Established vegetation indices, like the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), are typically not effective in reliably differentiating between trees and other vegetation. Previous research in tree mapping has included integration of hyperspectral imagery (HSI) and LiDAR for tree detection and species identification, as well as the use of MSI to distinguish tree crowns from non-vegetated features. This project developed a straightforward method to model and also mask out trees from eight-band WorldView-2 (1.85 meter x 1.85 meter resolution at nadir) satellite imagery at the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center in Beltsville, MD spanning 2012 - 2015. The study site included tree cover, a range of agricultural and vegetative cover types, and urban features. The modeling method exploits the product of the red and red edge bands and defines accurate thresholds between trees and other land covers. Results show this method outperforms established vegetation indices including the NDVI, Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index, Normalized Difference Water Index, Simple Ratio, and Normalized Difference Red Edge Index in correctly masking trees while preserving the other information in the imagery. This method is useful when HSI and LiDAR collection are not possible or when using archived MSI.

  3. Imagery, Concept Formation and Creativity--From Past to Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, Ora. N. Asael

    At the center of the conceptual framework there is visual imagery. Man's emotional and mental behavior is built on archetypal symbols that are the source of creative ideas. Native American pictography, in particular, illustrates this in the correlation between gesture speech and verbal speech. The author's research in this area has included a…

  4. Similarities between explicit and implicit motor imagery in mental rotation of hands: an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Osuagwu, Bethel A; Vuckovic, Aleksandra

    2014-12-01

    Chronometric and imaging studies have shown that motor imagery is used implicitly during mental rotation tasks in which subjects for example judge the laterality of human hand pictures at various orientations. Since explicit motor imagery is known to activate the sensorimotor areas of the cortex, mental rotation is expected to do similar if it involves a form of motor imagery. So far, functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography have been used to study mental rotation and less attention has been paid to electroencephalogram (EEG) which offers a high time-frequency resolution. The time-frequency analysis is an established method for studying explicit motor imagery. Although hand mental rotation is claimed to involve motor imagery, the time-frequency characteristics of mental rotation have never been compared with those of explicit motor imagery. In this study, time-frequency responses of EEG recorded during explicit motor imagery and during a mental rotation task, inducing implicit motor imagery, were compared. Fifteen right-handed healthy volunteers performed motor imagery of hands in one condition and hand laterality judgement tasks in another while EEG of the whole head was recorded. The hand laterality judgement was the mental rotation task used to induce implicit motor imagery. The time-frequency analysis and sLORETA localisation of the EEG showed that the activities in the sensorimotor areas had similar spatial and time-frequency characteristics in explicit motor imagery and implicit motor imagery conditions. Furthermore this sensorimotor activity was different for the left and for the right hand in both explicit and implicit motor imagery. This result supports that motor imagery is used during mental rotation and that it can be detected and studied with EEG technology. This result should encourage the use of mental rotation of body parts in rehabilitation programmes in a similar manner as motor imagery.

  5. Is There an "F" in Your PAR? Understanding, Teaching and Doing Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzetti, Liza; Walsh, Christine Ann

    2014-01-01

    Participatory Action Research (PAR) is increasingly recognized within academic research and pedagogy. What are the benefits of including feminism within participatory action research and teaching? In responding to this question, we discuss the similarities and salient differences between PAR and feminist informed PAR (FPAR). There are eight themes…

  6. ParA resolvase catalyzes site-specific excision of DNA from the Arabidopsis genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small serine resolvase ParA from bacterial plasmids RK2 and RP4 catalyzes the recombination of two identical 133 bp recombination sites known as MRS. Previously, we reported that ParA is active in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In this work, the parA recombinase gene was placed un...

  7. The Role of Prostate Apoptosis Response-4 (Par-4) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infected Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ji-Ye; Lim, Yun-Ji; Choi, Ji-Ae; Lee, Jung-hwan; Jo, Sung-Hee; Oh, Sung-Man; Song, Chang-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a tumor suppressor protein that forms a complex with glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) to induce apoptosis. Previously, we reported that ER stress-induced apoptosis is a critical host defense mechanism against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We sought to understand the role of Par-4 during ER stress-induced apoptosis in response to mycobacterial infection. Par-4 and GRP78 protein levels increased in response Mtb (strain: H37Ra) infection. Furthermore, Par-4 and GRP78 translocate to the surface of Mtb H37Ra-infected macrophages and induce apoptosis via caspase activation. NF-κB activation, Mtb-mediated ER stress, and Par-4 production were significantly diminished in macrophages with inhibited ROS production. To test Par-4 function during mycobacterial infection, we analyzed intracellular survival of Mtb H37Ra in macrophages with Par-4 overexpression or knockdown. Mtb H37Ra growth was significantly reduced in Par-4 overexpressing macrophages and increased in knockdown macrophages. We also observed increased Par-4, GRP78, and caspases activation in Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-infected prostate cancer cells. Our data demonstrate that Par-4 is associated with ER stress-induced apoptosis resulting in reduced intracellular survival of mycobacteria. BCG treatment increases Par-4-dependent caspase activation in prostate cancer cells. These results suggest ER stress-induced Par-4 acts as an important defense mechanism against mycobacterial infection and regulates cancer. PMID:27552917

  8. Alternative 3' UTR selection controls PAR-5 homeostasis and cell polarity in C. elegans embryos.

    PubMed

    Mikl, Martin; Cowan, Carrie R

    2014-09-11

    Cell polarity in one-cell C. elegans embryos guides asymmetric cell division and cell-fate specification. Shortly after fertilization, embryos establish two antagonistic cortical domains of PAR proteins. Here, we find that the conserved polarity factor PAR-5 regulates PAR domain size in a dose-dependent manner. Using quantitative imaging and controlled genetic manipulation, we find that PAR-5 protein levels reflect the cumulative output of three mRNA isoforms with different translational efficiencies mediated by their 3' UTRs. 3' UTR selection is regulated, influencing PAR-5 protein abundance. Alternative splicing underlies the selection of par-5 3' UTR isoforms. 3' UTR splicing is enhanced by the SR protein kinase SPK-1, and accordingly, SPK-1 is required for wild-type PAR-5 levels and PAR domain size. Precise regulation of par-5 isoform selection is essential for polarization when the posterior PAR network is compromised. Together, strict control of PAR-5 protein levels and feedback from polarity to par-5 3' UTR selection confer robustness to embryo polarization. PMID:25199833

  9. Biased signalling and proteinase-activated receptors (PARs): targeting inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Hollenberg, M D; Mihara, K; Polley, D; Suen, J Y; Han, A; Fairlie, D P; Ramachandran, R

    2014-03-01

    Although it has been known since the 1960s that trypsin and chymotrypsin can mimic hormone action in tissues, it took until the 1990s to discover that serine proteinases can regulate cells by cleaving and activating a unique four-member family of GPCRs known as proteinase-activated receptors (PARs). PAR activation involves the proteolytic exposure of its N-terminal receptor sequence that folds back to function as a 'tethered' receptor-activating ligand (TL). A key N-terminal arginine in each of PARs 1 to 4 has been singled out as a target for cleavage by thrombin (PARs 1, 3 and 4), trypsin (PARs 2 and 4) or other proteases to unmask the TL that activates signalling via Gq , Gi or G12 /13 . Similarly, synthetic receptor-activating peptides, corresponding to the exposed 'TL sequences' (e.g. SFLLRN-, for PAR1 or SLIGRL- for PAR2) can, like proteinase activation, also drive signalling via Gq , Gi and G12 /13 , without requiring receptor cleavage. Recent data show, however, that distinct proteinase-revealed 'non-canonical' PAR tethered-ligand sequences and PAR-activating agonist and antagonist peptide analogues can induce 'biased' PAR signalling, for example, via G12 /13 -MAPKinase instead of Gq -calcium. This overview summarizes implications of this 'biased' signalling by PAR agonists and antagonists for the recognized roles the PARs play in inflammatory settings. PMID:24354792

  10. Independent Confirmation of the MODIS LAI/fPAR Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapol, B. D.; Dungan, J. L.

    2001-12-01

    The Leaf Canopy Model (LCM)-2 is a nested model that combines leaf radiative transfer with a full canopy reflectance model through the phase function (Ganapol et al. 1999). The basic components of the model include inversion for a leaf scattering coefficient, construction of a representative absorption coefficient and the determination of canopy reflectance given leaf area index (LAI) values and information on canopy type and structure. It can also be used to calculate the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR) for the canopy. It therefore serves as an independent means of confirming the results of the MOD15 algorithm (Knyazikhin et al. 1998) that produces LAI and fPAR fields from reflectance measured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS). In LCM2, relatively simple first principles of radiative transfer are used whereas in the MOD15 algorithm, scene variability is accounted for by specifying distributions and a response surface in a table-lookup procedure. The distributions are generated by various radiative transfer models with a host of underlying assumptions. The attempt to compare results from these two models is a useful means of addressing the structural uncertainty in the Earth Observing System prediction problem. We compared LCM2 results with those from the MOD15 algorithm for fPAR calculation. 100 pixels for an EOS Core Validation Site where there were coincident reflectance, vegetation index, fPAR and LAI products were chosen. The 8-day 500 m reflectance product was spatially degraded to coincide with 8-day 1 km LAI and fPAR products and LAI and land cover products were used to parameterize LCM2. Most fPAR results agreed to within 10 percent, though a bias was observed. Poor agreement was seen with vegetation index products. Ganapol, B.D., L.F. Johnson, C.A. Hlavka, D.L. Peterson, and B. Bond, LCM2: A coupled leaf/canopy radiative transfer model, Remote Sensing of Environment, 70:153-166, 1999. Knyazikhin, Y., J

  11. ParCAT: A Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugen, B.; Smith, B.; Steed, C.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Thornton, P. E.; Shipman, G.

    2012-12-01

    Climate science has employed increasingly complex models and simulations to analyze the past and predict the future of our climate. The size and dimensionality of climate simulation data has been growing with the complexity of the models. This growth in data is creating a widening gap between the data being produced and the tools necessary to analyze large, high dimensional data sets. With single run data sets increasing into 10's, 100's and even 1000's of gigabytes, parallel computing tools are becoming a necessity in order to analyze and compare climate simulation data. The Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT) provides basic tools that efficiently use parallel computing techniques to narrow the gap between data set size and analysis tools. ParCAT was created as a collaborative effort between climate scientists and computer scientists in order to provide efficient parallel implementations of the computing tools that are of use to climate scientists. Some of the basic functionalities included in the toolkit are the ability to compute spatio-temporal means and variances, differences between two runs and histograms of the values in a data set. ParCAT is designed to facilitate the "heavy lifting" that is required for large, multidimensional data sets. The toolkit does not focus on performing the final visualizations and presentation of results but rather, reducing large data sets to smaller, more manageable summaries. The output from ParCAT is provided in commonly used file formats (NetCDF, CSV, ASCII) to allow for simple integration with other tools. The toolkit is currently implemented as a command line utility, but will likely also provide a C library for developers interested in tighter software integration. Elements of the toolkit are already being incorporated into projects such as UV-CDAT and CMDX. There is also an effort underway to implement portions of the CCSM Land Model Diagnostics package using ParCAT in conjunction with Python and gnuplot. Par

  12. Assessing the value of Landsat imagery: Results from a 2012 comprehensive user survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, H. M.; Richardson, L.; Loomis, J.; Koontz, S.; Koontz, L.

    2012-12-01

    Landsat satellite imagery has long been recognized as unique among remotely sensed data due to the combination of its extensive archive, global coverage, and relatively high spatial and temporal resolution. Since the imagery became available at no cost in 2008, the number of users registered with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has increased tenfold while the number of scenes downloaded annually has increased a hundredfold. It is clear that the imagery is being used extensively, and understanding the benefits provided by this imagery can help inform decisions involving its provision. However, the value of Landsat imagery is difficult to measure for a variety of reasons, one of which stems from the fact that the imagery has characteristics of a public good and does not have a direct market price to reflect its value to society. Further, there is not a clear understanding of the full range of users of the imagery, as well as how these users are distributed across the many different end uses this data is applied to. To assess the value of Landsat imagery, we conducted a survey of users registered with USGS in early 2012. Over 11,000 current users of Landsat imagery responded to the survey. The value of the imagery was measured both qualitatively and quantitatively. To explore the qualitative value of the imagery, users were asked about the importance of the imagery to their work, their dependence on the imagery, and the impacts on their work if there was no Landsat imagery. The majority of users deemed Landsat imagery important to their work and stated they were dependent on Landsat imagery to do their work. Additionally, if Landsat imagery was no longer available, over half of the users would have to discontinue some of their work. On average, these users would discontinue half of their current work if the imagery was no longer available. The focus of this presentation will be the quantitative results of a double-bounded contingent valuation analysis which reveals

  13. Psychometric quality of a revised version Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Campos, Alfredo; Pérez-Fabello, María José

    2009-06-01

    In this study, reliability and construct validity of the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (VVIQ) and of a revised version, the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire-2 (VVIQ-2) were assessed with a total of 279 undergraduate psychology students who were also administered other measures of imagery. Cronbach a reliabilities for both the VVIQ and the VVIQ-2 were high. A Pearson correlation between scores on the two versions of the questionnaire was high and similar to correlations with other measures of imagery. Estimates of internal consistency reliability and construct validity were similar for the two versions. New lines of research involving both imagery questionnaires are proposed.

  14. Monitoring Areal Snow Cover Using NASA Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harshburger, Brian J.; Blandford, Troy; Moore, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop products and tools to assist in the hydrologic modeling process, including tools to help prepare inputs for hydrologic models and improved methods for the visualization of streamflow forecasts. In addition, this project will facilitate the use of NASA satellite imagery (primarily snow cover imagery) by other federal and state agencies with operational streamflow forecasting responsibilities. A GIS software toolkit for monitoring areal snow cover extent and producing streamflow forecasts is being developed. This toolkit will be packaged as multiple extensions for ArcGIS 9.x and an opensource GIS software package. The toolkit will provide users with a means for ingesting NASA EOS satellite imagery (snow cover analysis), preparing hydrologic model inputs, and visualizing streamflow forecasts. Primary products include a software tool for predicting the presence of snow under clouds in satellite images; a software tool for producing gridded temperature and precipitation forecasts; and a suite of tools for visualizing hydrologic model forecasting results. The toolkit will be an expert system designed for operational users that need to generate accurate streamflow forecasts in a timely manner. The Remote Sensing of Snow Cover Toolbar will ingest snow cover imagery from multiple sources, including the MODIS Operational Snowcover Data and convert them to gridded datasets that can be readily used. Statistical techniques will then be applied to the gridded snow cover data to predict the presence of snow under cloud cover. The toolbar has the ability to ingest both binary and fractional snow cover data. Binary mapping techniques use a set of thresholds to determine whether a pixel contains snow or no snow. Fractional mapping techniques provide information regarding the percentage of each pixel that is covered with snow. After the imagery has been ingested, physiographic data is attached to each cell in the snow cover image. This data

  15. Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery for the Detection of Agricultural Crop Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassady, Philip E.; Perry, Eileen M.; Gardner, Margaret E.; Roberts, Dar A.

    2001-01-01

    Multispectral digital imagery from aircraft or satellite is presently being used to derive basic assessments of crop health for growers and others involved in the agricultural industry. Research indicates that narrow band stress indices derived from hyperspectral imagery should have improved sensitivity to provide more specific information on the type and cause of crop stress, Under funding from the NASA Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP) we are identifying and evaluating scientific and commercial applications of hyperspectral imagery for the remote characterization of agricultural crop stress. During the summer of 1999 a field experiment was conducted with varying nitrogen treatments on a production corn-field in eastern Nebraska. The AVIRIS (Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) hyperspectral imager was flown at two critical dates during crop development, at two different altitudes, providing images with approximately 18m pixels and 3m pixels. Simultaneous supporting soil and crop characterization included spectral reflectance measurements above the canopy, biomass characterization, soil sampling, and aerial photography. In this paper we describe the experiment and results, and examine the following three issues relative to the utility of hyperspectral imagery for scientific study and commercial crop stress products: (1) Accuracy of reflectance derived stress indices relative to conventional measures of stress. We compare reflectance-derived indices (both field radiometer and AVIRIS) with applied nitrogen and with leaf level measurement of nitrogen availability and chlorophyll concentrations over the experimental plots (4 replications of 5 different nitrogen levels); (2) Ability of the hyperspectral sensors to detect sub-pixel areas under crop stress. We applied the stress indices to both the 3m and 18m AVIRIS imagery for the entire production corn field using several sub-pixel areas within the field to compare the relative

  16. Motor imagery of hand actions: Decoding the content of motor imagery from brain activity in frontal and parietal motor areas.

    PubMed

    Pilgramm, Sebastian; de Haas, Benjamin; Helm, Fabian; Zentgraf, Karen; Stark, Rudolf; Munzert, Jörn; Krüger, Britta

    2016-01-01

    How motor maps are organized while imagining actions is an intensely debated issue. It is particularly unclear whether motor imagery relies on action-specific representations in premotor and posterior parietal cortices. This study tackled this issue by attempting to decode the content of motor imagery from spatial patterns of Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) signals recorded in the frontoparietal motor imagery network. During fMRI-scanning, 20 right-handed volunteers worked on three experimental conditions and one baseline condition. In the experimental conditions, they had to imagine three different types of right-hand actions: an aiming movement, an extension-flexion movement, and a squeezing movement. The identity of imagined actions was decoded from the spatial patterns of BOLD signals they evoked in premotor and posterior parietal cortices using multivoxel pattern analysis. Results showed that the content of motor imagery (i.e., the action type) could be decoded significantly above chance level from the spatial patterns of BOLD signals in both frontal (PMC, M1) and parietal areas (SPL, IPL, IPS). An exploratory searchlight analysis revealed significant clusters motor- and motor-associated cortices, as well as in visual cortices. Hence, the data provide evidence that patterns of activity within premotor and posterior parietal cortex vary systematically with the specific type of hand action being imagined. PMID:26452176

  17. Motor imagery of hand actions: Decoding the content of motor imagery from brain activity in frontal and parietal motor areas

    PubMed Central

    Pilgramm, Sebastian; de Haas, Benjamin; Helm, Fabian; Zentgraf, Karen; Stark, Rudolf; Munzert, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    Abstract How motor maps are organized while imagining actions is an intensely debated issue. It is particularly unclear whether motor imagery relies on action‐specific representations in premotor and posterior parietal cortices. This study tackled this issue by attempting to decode the content of motor imagery from spatial patterns of Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) signals recorded in the frontoparietal motor imagery network. During fMRI‐scanning, 20 right‐handed volunteers worked on three experimental conditions and one baseline condition. In the experimental conditions, they had to imagine three different types of right‐hand actions: an aiming movement, an extension–flexion movement, and a squeezing movement. The identity of imagined actions was decoded from the spatial patterns of BOLD signals they evoked in premotor and posterior parietal cortices using multivoxel pattern analysis. Results showed that the content of motor imagery (i.e., the action type) could be decoded significantly above chance level from the spatial patterns of BOLD signals in both frontal (PMC, M1) and parietal areas (SPL, IPL, IPS). An exploratory searchlight analysis revealed significant clusters motor‐ and motor‐associated cortices, as well as in visual cortices. Hence, the data provide evidence that patterns of activity within premotor and posterior parietal cortex vary systematically with the specific type of hand action being imagined. Hum Brain Mapp 37:81–93, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26452176

  18. Sub-meter Commercial Imagery Coverage for the Earth's Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, P. J.; Peterman, K.

    2013-12-01

    A complete, high resolution satellite imagery view of the Earth's Polar Regions is important to understand a wide variety of scientific, logistical and geospatial problems. To address this need, near complete sub-meter licensed commercial imagery coverage of the Earth's Polar Regions and all ice on earth is now available to US federal employees and US federally funded researchers with a US federal purpose through the NGA Commercial Imagery Program and the Polar Geospatial Center. Included are historical sub-meter mono and stereo imagery from DigitalGlobe, Inc.'s IKONOS, Geoeye-1, and Quickbird as well as historical imagery and new collects from Worldview-1 and 2. The imagery is available in both 'unprocessed' and orthorectified formats. The orthos are both image strips and mosaics. An orthomosaic of the earth became available in August. Additionally, multispectral imagery is aquired by NGA from WV-2 (8 band) and IKONOS (4 band) with every pan shot. The Polar Geospatial Center has developed the capacity to process as many as 5000 scenes or approximately one third of the US lower 48 states a day. This enables researchers to request imagery for large geographic areas to be custom processed to their specifications. To make this imagery more easily accessible for researchers, the Polar Geospatial Center has developed an imagery mosaic, viewer and web services for 60% of Antarctica, 80% of Greenland and 50% of Alaska. Areas are updated as new imagery is collected. We will discuss data access requirements and limitations, current capabilities, and future direction.

  19. Partial dissociation in the neural bases of VSTM and imagery in the early visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Elyana; Wojciechowska, Maria; Silvanto, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) and visual imagery are believed to involve overlapping neuronal representations in the early visual cortex. While a number of studies have provided evidence for this overlap, at the behavioral level VSTM and imagery are dissociable processes; this begs the question of how their neuronal mechanisms differ. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine whether the neural bases of imagery and VSTM maintenance are dissociable in the early visual cortex (EVC). We intentionally used a similar task for VSTM and imagery in order to equate their assessment. We hypothesized that any differential effect of TMS on VSTM and imagery would indicate that their neuronal bases differ at the level of EVC. In the “alone” condition, participants were asked to engage either in VSTM or imagery, whereas in the “concurrent” condition, each trial required both VSTM maintenance and imagery simultaneously. A dissociation between VSTM and imagery was observed for reaction times: TMS slowed down responses for VSTM but not for imagery. The impact of TMS on sensitivity did not differ between VSTM and imagery, but did depend on whether the tasks were carried concurrently or alone. This study shows that neural processes associated with VSTM and imagery in the early visual cortex can be partially dissociated. PMID:26026256

  20. EEG dynamics reflects the partial and holistic effects in mental imagery generation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Tang, Yi-yuan; Zhou, Li; Yu, Qing-bao; Li, Song; Sui, Dan-ni

    2010-12-01

    Mental imagery generation is essential in the retrieval and storage of knowledge. Previous studies have indicated that the holistic properties of mental imagery generation can be evaluated more easily than the partial properties. However, the relationship between partial and holistic mental imagery generations has not been clearly demonstrated. To address this issue, we designed a task to investigate the changes in the spectrum of the electroencephalogram (EEG) during partial or holistic imagery generation. EEG signals were obtained from 18 healthy subjects, and a statistical measure of spectral dynamics between two EEG signals in per frequency band was performed. Additionally, a bicoherence spectrum analysis was used to detect the phase coupling within these two imagery conditions. Our results indicated that EEG of the partial imagery appeared earlier and stronger than that of the holistic imagery in the theta (5-8 Hz) range in a time window around 220 to 300 ms after cue onset, and a slight decrease in the alpha (8-12 Hz) band was observed at around 270 ms. The scalp topography of these changes in the theta and alpha bands distributed overall significantly in the frontal and central-temporal areas. The significant phase coupling within two conditions was remarkable at high frequency. From these results, we infer that there are complex relations between partial and holistic imageries. The generation of partial mental imagery is not a subprocess of holistic imagery, but it is relevant to holistic imagery and requires correct modification from the holistic information.

  1. The Study of Object-Oriented Motor Imagery Based on EEG Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lili; Wang, Jing; Xu, Guanghua; Li, Min; Xie, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Motor imagery is a conventional method for brain computer interface and motor learning. To avoid the great individual difference of the motor imagery ability, object-oriented motor imagery was applied, and the effects were studied. Kinesthetic motor imagery and visual observation were administered to 15 healthy volunteers. The EEG during cue-based simple imagery (SI), object-oriented motor imagery (OI), non-object-oriented motor imagery (NI) and visual observation (VO) was recorded. Study results showed that OI and NI presented significant contralateral suppression in mu rhythm (p < 0.05). Besides, OI exhibited significant contralateral suppression in beta rhythm (p < 0.05). While no significant mu or beta contralateral suppression could be found during VO or SI (p > 0.05). Compared with NI, OI showed significant difference (p < 0.05) in mu rhythm and weak significant difference (p = 0.0612) in beta rhythm over the contralateral hemisphere. The ability of motor imagery can be reflected by the suppression degree of mu and beta frequencies which are the motor related rhythms. Thus, greater enhancement of activation in mirror neuron system is involved in response to object-oriented motor imagery. The object-oriented motor imagery is favorable for improvement of motor imagery ability. PMID:26641241

  2. The Effect of Chronic Deafferentation on Mental Imagery: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    ter Horst, Arjan C.; Cole, Jonathan; van Lier, Rob; Steenbergen, Bert

    2012-01-01

    Visual- and motor imagery rely primarily on perceptual and motor processes, respectively. In healthy controls, the type of imagery used to solve a task depends on personal preference, task instruction, and task properties. But how does the chronic loss of proprioceptive and tactile sensory inputs from the body periphery influence mental imagery? In a unique case study, we investigated the imagery capabilities of the chronically deafferented patient IW when he was performing a mental rotation task. We found that IW's motor imagery processes were impaired and that visual imagery processes were enhanced compared to controls. These results suggest that kinaesthetic afferent signals from the body periphery play a crucial role in enabling and maintaining central sensorimotor representations and hence the ability to incorporate kinaesthetic information into the imagery processes. PMID:22880095

  3. Interference Effects Demonstrate Distinct Roles for Visual and Motor Imagery during the Mental Representation of Human Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments were completed to characterize the utilization of visual imagery and motor imagery during the mental representation of human action. In Experiment 1, movement time functions for a motor imagery human locomotion task conformed to a speed-accuracy trade-off similar to Fitts' Law, whereas those for a visual imagery object motion task…

  4. Cross ambiguity functions on the MasPar MP-2

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, D.A.; Pryor, D.V.; Frock, C.K.

    1995-12-01

    In a signal processing environment, cross ambiguity functions are often used to detect when one signal is a time and/or frequency shift of another. They consist of multiple cross-correlations, which can be computed efficiently using complex valued FFTs. This paper discusses the implementation of cross ambiguity functions on the MasPar MP-2, a SIMD processor array. Two different implementations are developed. The first computes each cross ambiguity function serially, using FFT code that parallelizes across the complete set of processors. The second uses the MasPar IORAM to realign the data so that the cross ambiguity functions can be computed in parallel. In this case, multiple FFTs are executed in parallel on subsets of the processors, which lowers the overall amount of communication required.

  5. Design, construction, and wire calibration of PAR BPM striplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellyey, W.; Barr, D.; Erwin, L.

    1995-05-01

    The Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) is part of the APS injection system. It received 24 30-ns FWHM bursts of 450-meV positrons, and compresses them into 6-nC, 290-ps rms bunches. Striplines were selected as beam position monitors (BPMs) to assure that good position sensitivity is achieved. This paper will describe the design, construction, and wire calibration of the 16 PAR BPMs. It will be demonstrated that all relevant stripline parameters can be determined by solving the two-dimensional LaPlace equation. This was done numerically using the electrostatic part of the PE2D computer program. The construction of the units will be briefly discussed. Wire calibration data on one of the final units will be compared with theory at four frequencies.

  6. Macroinvertebrates of Par Pond and Pond B: Final report, January 1984-June 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Kondratieff, B.C.; Chimney, M.J.; Painter, W.B.

    1985-08-01

    This document reports on the Par Pond and Pond B macroinvertebrate sampling program from January 1984 through June 1985. It includes data on quantitative and qualitative benthic sampling, quantitative meroplankton sampling and quarterly diel sample. The basic objectives were to: (1) characterize the benthic and meroplankton macroinvertebrate communities of Par Pond and Pond B, with respect to taxonomic composition and diversity, density and relative abundance of functional feeding groups; (2) assess the impact of thermal discharges on the macroinvertebrate community of Par Pond; (3) assess the impact and significance of entrainment losses of macroinvertebrate meroplankton from Par Pond; and (4) compare Par Pond macroninvertebrate communities with those in Pond B.

  7. The Pars Interarticularis Stress Reaction, Spondylolysis, and Spondylolisthesis Progression

    PubMed Central

    Motley, Gina; Nyland, John; Jacobs, Jake; Caborn, David N. M.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To review the classification, etiology, clinical and radiologic evaluation, and management of the pars interarticularis stress reaction, spondylolysis, and spondylolisthesis progression. Data Sources: Grateful Med was searched from 1980 to 1998 using the terms “spondylolysis,” “spondylolisthesis,” “female athlete” “spondylogenic,” and “pars interarticularis.” Data Synthesis: The progression from pars interarticularis stress reaction through spondylolysis to spondylolisthesis is common in adolescent athletes, and, because of hormonal influences and cheerleading and gymnastic maneuvers, females are particularly at risk. Proper diagnosis and management include a thorough evaluation, radiographs (possibly with technetium bone scan or single-photon emission computed tomography), activity modification, dietary counseling, a therapeutic exercise program focusing on proper trunk and hip muscle strength and extensibility balances, and education regarding proper back postures, positioning, lifting mechanics, and jump landings. Conclusions/Recommendations: The athletic trainer plays an integral part in managing this injury progression, particularly with identifying at-risk individuals and intervening appropriately. ImagesFigure 4. PMID:16558534

  8. Restauration adaptative des contours par une approche inspiree de la prediction des performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Kami

    En teledetection, les cartes de contours peuvent servir, entre autres choses, a la restitution geometrique, a la recherche d'elements lineaires, ainsi qu'a la segmentation. La creation de ces cartes est faite relativement tot dans la chaine de traitements d'une image. Pour assurer la qualite des operations subsequentes, il faut veiller a obtenir une carte de contours precise. Notre problematique est de savoir s'il est possible de diminuer la perte de temps liee au choix d'algorithme et de parametre en corrigeant automatiquement la carte de contours. Nous concentrerons donc nos efforts sur le developpement d'une methode de detection/restauration de contours adaptative. Notre methode s'inspire d'une technique de prediction des performances d'algorithmes de bas niveau. Elle consiste a integrer un traitement par reseau de neurones a une methode " classique " de detection de contours. Plus precisement, nous proposons de combiner la carte de performances avec la carte de gradient pour permettre des decisions plus exactes. La presente etude a permis de developper un logiciel comprenant un reseau de neurones entraine pour predire la presence de contours. Ce reseau de neurones permet d'ameliorer les decisions de detecteurs de contours, en reduisant le nombre de pixels de fausses alarmes et de contours manques. La premiere etape de ce travail consiste en une methode d'evaluation de performance pour les cartes de contours. Une fois ce choix effectue, il devient possible de comparer les cartes entre elles. Il est donc plus aise de determiner, pour chaque image, la meilleure detection de contours. La revue de la litterature realisee simultanement a permis de faire un choix d'un groupe d'indicateurs prometteurs pour la restauration de contours. Ces derniers ont servi a la calibration et a l'entrainement d'un reseau de neurones pour modeliser les contours. Par la suite, l'information fournie par ce reseau a ete combinee par multiplication arithmetique avec les cartes d

  9. Oscillatory brain activity in the alpha range is modulated by the content of word-prompted mental imagery

    PubMed Central

    Bartsch, Felix; Hamuni, Gilava; Miskovic, Vladimir; Lang, Peter J.; Keil, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Mental imagery is a fundamental cognitive process of interest to basic scientists and clinical researchers. This study examined large-scale oscillatory brain activity in the alpha band (8–12 Hz) during language-driven mental imagery using dense-array EEG. Three experiments demonstrated relative increases in alpha amplitude (1) during imagery prompted by words compared to fixation without imagery instruction, (2) during imagery of word content compared to imagery of geometric shapes, and (3) during imagery of emotionally evocative words compared to imagery of less emotionally arousing content. Alpha increases for semantically loaded imagery were observed in parieto-occipital regions, sustained throughout the imagery period. Findings imply that alpha oscillations index active memory and internal cognitive processing, reflecting neural communication in cortical networks representing motor, semantic, and perceptual aspects of the imagined scene. PMID:25616004

  10. ParB Partition Proteins: Complex Formation and Spreading at Bacterial and Plasmid Centromeres

    PubMed Central

    Funnell, Barbara E.

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria, active partition systems contribute to the faithful segregation of both chromosomes and low-copy-number plasmids. Each system depends on a site-specific DNA binding protein to recognize and assemble a partition complex at a centromere-like site, commonly called parS. Many plasmid, and all chromosomal centromere-binding proteins are dimeric helix-turn-helix DNA binding proteins, which are commonly named ParB. Although the overall sequence conservation among ParBs is not high, the proteins share similar domain and functional organization, and they assemble into similar higher-order complexes. In vivo, ParBs “spread,” that is, DNA binding extends away from the parS site into the surrounding non-specific DNA, a feature that reflects higher-order complex assembly. ParBs bridge and pair DNA at parS and non-specific DNA sites. ParB dimers interact with each other via flexible conformations of an N-terminal region. This review will focus on the properties of the HTH centromere-binding protein, in light of recent experimental evidence and models that are adding to our understanding of how these proteins assemble into large and dynamic partition complexes at and around their specific DNA sites. PMID:27622187

  11. ParB Partition Proteins: Complex Formation and Spreading at Bacterial and Plasmid Centromeres

    PubMed Central

    Funnell, Barbara E.

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria, active partition systems contribute to the faithful segregation of both chromosomes and low-copy-number plasmids. Each system depends on a site-specific DNA binding protein to recognize and assemble a partition complex at a centromere-like site, commonly called parS. Many plasmid, and all chromosomal centromere-binding proteins are dimeric helix-turn-helix DNA binding proteins, which are commonly named ParB. Although the overall sequence conservation among ParBs is not high, the proteins share similar domain and functional organization, and they assemble into similar higher-order complexes. In vivo, ParBs “spread,” that is, DNA binding extends away from the parS site into the surrounding non-specific DNA, a feature that reflects higher-order complex assembly. ParBs bridge and pair DNA at parS and non-specific DNA sites. ParB dimers interact with each other via flexible conformations of an N-terminal region. This review will focus on the properties of the HTH centromere-binding protein, in light of recent experimental evidence and models that are adding to our understanding of how these proteins assemble into large and dynamic partition complexes at and around their specific DNA sites.

  12. Proteinase-Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1) Regulates Leukemic Stem Cell Functions

    PubMed Central

    Bäumer, Nicole; Krause, Annika; Köhler, Gabriele; Lettermann, Stephanie; Evers, Georg; Hascher, Antje; Bäumer, Sebastian; Berdel, Wolfgang E.

    2014-01-01

    External signals that are mediated by specific receptors determine stem cell fate. The thrombin receptor PAR1 plays an important role in haemostasis, thrombosis and vascular biology, but also in tumor biology and angiogenesis. Its expression and function in hematopoietic stem cells is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed expression and function of PAR1 in primary hematopoietic cells and their leukemic counterparts. AML patients' blast cells expressed much lower levels of PAR1 mRNA and protein than CD34+ progenitor cells. Constitutive Par1-deficiency in adult mice did not affect engraftment or stem cell potential of hematopoietic cells. To model an AML with Par1-deficiency, we retrovirally introduced the oncogene MLL-AF9 in wild type and Par1−/− hematopoietic progenitor cells. Par1-deficiency did not alter initial leukemia development. However, the loss of Par1 enhanced leukemic stem cell function in vitro and in vivo. Re-expression of PAR1 in Par1−/− leukemic stem cells delayed leukemogenesis in vivo. These data indicate that Par1 contributes to leukemic stem cell maintenance. PMID:24740120

  13. ParB Partition Proteins: Complex Formation and Spreading at Bacterial and Plasmid Centromeres.

    PubMed

    Funnell, Barbara E

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria, active partition systems contribute to the faithful segregation of both chromosomes and low-copy-number plasmids. Each system depends on a site-specific DNA binding protein to recognize and assemble a partition complex at a centromere-like site, commonly called parS. Many plasmid, and all chromosomal centromere-binding proteins are dimeric helix-turn-helix DNA binding proteins, which are commonly named ParB. Although the overall sequence conservation among ParBs is not high, the proteins share similar domain and functional organization, and they assemble into similar higher-order complexes. In vivo, ParBs "spread," that is, DNA binding extends away from the parS site into the surrounding non-specific DNA, a feature that reflects higher-order complex assembly. ParBs bridge and pair DNA at parS and non-specific DNA sites. ParB dimers interact with each other via flexible conformations of an N-terminal region. This review will focus on the properties of the HTH centromere-binding protein, in light of recent experimental evidence and models that are adding to our understanding of how these proteins assemble into large and dynamic partition complexes at and around their specific DNA sites. PMID:27622187

  14. Dynamic Filament Formation by a Divergent Bacterial Actin-Like ParM Protein

    PubMed Central

    Brzoska, Anthony J.; Jensen, Slade O.; Barton, Deborah A.; Davies, Danielle S.; Overall, Robyn L.; Skurray, Ronald A.; Firth, Neville

    2016-01-01

    Actin-like proteins (Alps) are a diverse family of proteins whose genes are abundant in the chromosomes and mobile genetic elements of many bacteria. The low-copy-number staphylococcal multiresistance plasmid pSK41 encodes ParM, an Alp involved in efficient plasmid partitioning. pSK41 ParM has previously been shown to form filaments in vitro that are structurally dissimilar to those formed by other bacterial Alps. The mechanistic implications of these differences are not known. In order to gain insights into the properties and behavior of the pSK41 ParM Alp in vivo, we reconstituted the parMRC system in the ectopic rod-shaped host, E. coli, which is larger and more genetically amenable than the native host, Staphylococcus aureus. Fluorescence microscopy showed a functional fusion protein, ParM-YFP, formed straight filaments in vivo when expressed in isolation. Strikingly, however, in the presence of ParR and parC, ParM-YFP adopted a dramatically different structure, instead forming axial curved filaments. Time-lapse imaging and selective photobleaching experiments revealed that, in the presence of all components of the parMRC system, ParM-YFP filaments were dynamic in nature. Finally, molecular dissection of the parMRC operon revealed that all components of the system are essential for the generation of dynamic filaments. PMID:27310470

  15. Spot detection from MODIS imagery using 2P-CFAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xianwen; Li, Xiaofeng

    2015-12-01

    Oil spills are one of the major environmental concerns, especially in the coastal zones of the ocean. Satellite remote sensing imagery has proved to be a useful tool for monitoring oil spills in the marine environment. With its two daily acquisitions and the possibility to obtain near-real-time data free of charge, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows interesting potential as such a cost-effective supplementary tool. Several researches on oil spill detection in MODIS imagery has been carried out for the past few years. Basically, oil spills were manually detected from MODIS imagery [1,2]. The disadvantage of the manual detection method is inefficient and subjective. Shi et al. proposed an oil spill detection method from MODIS imagery by using fuzzy cluster and texture feature extraction [3]. It works in an automatic manner and does not require any priori knowledge of occurrence or the spectral attributes of spills. But its efficiency in very near shore regions is limited. Chen and Zhao detected oil spills from the oil-water contrast ratio image by using a thresholding method [4].They found that the oil-water contrast ratio can be enhanced by replacing the original image with the ratio image of two different band ones in 400-800 nm. To obtain the oil-water contrast ratio image from the MODIS imagery, they selected the oil spill area and the background sea area and then calculated the mean radiance or emissivity value in those areas. By doing so, the automation and the accuracy of the method were reduced. Adamo et al. [5] and Kudryavtsev et al. [6] proposed physical methods for oil spill detection from MODIS imagery acquired in sunglint conditions. These two methods take imaging geometry into consideration and have the aid of other models or functions such as the Cox and Munk (1954) model [7],the CMOD4 model [8,9], the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) atmospheric model, and the transfer function, which increase the

  16. Mapping the Distribution of Cloud Forests Using MODIS Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, M. W.; Mejia, J.; Murillo, J.; Orozco, R.

    2007-05-01

    Tropical cloud forests - those forests that are frequently immersed in clouds or otherwise very humid, are extremely difficult to map from the ground, and are not easily distinguished in satellite imagery from other forest types, but they have a very different flora and fauna than lowland rainforest. Cloud forests, although found in many parts of the tropics, have a very restricted vertical extent and thus are also restricted horizontally. As a result, they are subject to both human disturbance (coffee growing for example) and the effects of possible climate change. Motivated by a desire to seek meteorological explanations for the distribution of cloud forests, we have begun to map cloudiness using MODIS Terra and Aqua visible imagery. This imagery, at ~1030 LT and 1330 LT, is an approximation for mid-day cloudiness. In tropical regions the amount of mid-day cloudiness strongly controls the shortwave radiation and thus the potential for evaporation (and aridity). We have mapped cloudiness using a simple algorithm that distinguishes between the cloud-free background brightness and the generally more reflective clouds to separate clouds from the underlying background. A major advantage of MODIS imagery over many other sources of satellite imagery is its high spatial resolution (~250m). This, coupled with precisely navigated images, means that detailed maps of cloudiness can be produced. The cloudiness maps can then be related to the underlying topography to further refine the location of the cloud forests. An advantage of this technique is that we are mapping the potential cloud forest, based on cloudiness, rather than the actual cloud forest, which are commonly based on forest estimates from satellite and digital elevation data. We do not derive precipitation, only estimates of daytime cloudiness. Although only a few years of MODIS imagery has been used in our studies, we will show that this is sufficient to describe the climatology of cloudiness with acceptable

  17. The physical association of the P2Y12 receptor with PAR4 regulates arrestin-mediated Akt activation.

    PubMed

    Khan, Aasma; Li, Dongjun; Ibrahim, Salam; Smyth, Emer; Woulfe, Donna S

    2014-07-01

    It is now well accepted that protease activated receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4 have differential roles in platelet activation. PAR4, a low-affinity thrombin receptor in human platelets, participates in sustained platelet activation in a P2Y12-dependent manner; however, the mechanisms are not defined. Our previous studies demonstrated that thrombin induces the association of PAR4 with P2Y12, together with arrestin recruitment to the complex. Here we show that PAR4 and P2Y12 directly interact to coregulate Akt signaling after PAR4 activation. We observed direct and specific interaction of P2Y12 with PAR4 but not PAR1 by bioluminescent resonance energy transfer when the receptors were coexpressed in human embryonic kidney 293T cells. PAR4-P2Y12 dimerization was promoted by PAR4-AP and inhibited by P2Y12 antagonist. By using sequence comparison of the transmembrane domains of PAR1 and PAR4, we designed a mutant form of PAR4, "PAR4SFT," by replacing LGL194-196 at the base of transmembrane domain 4 with the corresponding aligned PAR1 residues SFT 220-222. PAR4SFT supported only 8.74% of PAR4-P2Y12 interaction, abolishing P2Y12-dependent arrestin recruitment to PAR4 and Akt activation. Nonetheless, PAR4SFT still supported homodimerization with PAR4. PAR4SFT failed to induce a calcium flux when expressed independently; however, coexpression of increasing concentrations of PAR4SFT, together with PAR4 potentiated PAR4-mediated calcium flux, suggested that PAR4 act as homodimers to signal to Gq-coupled calcium responses. In conclusion, PAR4 LGL (194-196) governs agonist-dependent association of PAR4 with P2Y12 and contributes to Gq-coupled calcium responses. PAR4-P2Y12 association supports arrestin-mediated sustained signaling to Akt. Hence, PAR4-P2Y12 dimerization is likely to be important for the PAR4-P2Y12 dependent stabilization of platelet thrombi.

  18. The physical association of the P2Y12 receptor with PAR4 regulates arrestin-mediated Akt activation.

    PubMed

    Khan, Aasma; Li, Dongjun; Ibrahim, Salam; Smyth, Emer; Woulfe, Donna S

    2014-07-01

    It is now well accepted that protease activated receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4 have differential roles in platelet activation. PAR4, a low-affinity thrombin receptor in human platelets, participates in sustained platelet activation in a P2Y12-dependent manner; however, the mechanisms are not defined. Our previous studies demonstrated that thrombin induces the association of PAR4 with P2Y12, together with arrestin recruitment to the complex. Here we show that PAR4 and P2Y12 directly interact to coregulate Akt signaling after PAR4 activation. We observed direct and specific interaction of P2Y12 with PAR4 but not PAR1 by bioluminescent resonance energy transfer when the receptors were coexpressed in human embryonic kidney 293T cells. PAR4-P2Y12 dimerization was promoted by PAR4-AP and inhibited by P2Y12 antagonist. By using sequence comparison of the transmembrane domains of PAR1 and PAR4, we designed a mutant form of PAR4, "PAR4SFT," by replacing LGL194-196 at the base of transmembrane domain 4 with the corresponding aligned PAR1 residues SFT 220-222. PAR4SFT supported only 8.74% of PAR4-P2Y12 interaction, abolishing P2Y12-dependent arrestin recruitment to PAR4 and Akt activation. Nonetheless, PAR4SFT still supported homodimerization with PAR4. PAR4SFT failed to induce a calcium flux when expressed independently; however, coexpression of increasing concentrations of PAR4SFT, together with PAR4 potentiated PAR4-mediated calcium flux, suggested that PAR4 act as homodimers to signal to Gq-coupled calcium responses. In conclusion, PAR4 LGL (194-196) governs agonist-dependent association of PAR4 with P2Y12 and contributes to Gq-coupled calcium responses. PAR4-P2Y12 association supports arrestin-mediated sustained signaling to Akt. Hence, PAR4-P2Y12 dimerization is likely to be important for the PAR4-P2Y12 dependent stabilization of platelet thrombi. PMID:24723492

  19. The Pitch Imagery Arrow Task: Effects of Musical Training, Vividness, and Mental Control

    PubMed Central

    Gelding, Rebecca W.; Thompson, William Forde; Johnson, Blake W.

    2015-01-01

    Musical imagery is a relatively unexplored area, partly because of deficiencies in existing experimental paradigms, which are often difficult, unreliable, or do not provide objective measures of performance. Here we describe a novel protocol, the Pitch Imagery Arrow Task (PIAT), which induces and trains pitch imagery in both musicians and non-musicians. Given a tonal context and an initial pitch sequence, arrows are displayed to elicit a scale-step sequence of imagined pitches, and participants indicate whether the final imagined tone matches an audible probe. It is a staircase design that accommodates individual differences in musical experience and imagery ability. This new protocol was used to investigate the roles that musical expertise, self-reported auditory vividness and mental control play in imagery performance. Performance on the task was significantly better for participants who employed a musical imagery strategy compared to participants who used an alternative cognitive strategy and positively correlated with scores on the Control subscale from the Bucknell Auditory Imagery Scale (BAIS). Multiple regression analysis revealed that Imagery performance accuracy was best predicted by a combination of strategy use and scores on the Vividness subscale of BAIS. These results confirm that competent performance on the PIAT requires active musical imagery and is very difficult to achieve using alternative cognitive strategies. Auditory vividness and mental control were more important than musical experience in the ability to perform manipulation of pitch imagery. PMID:25807078

  20. The Pitch Imagery Arrow Task: effects of musical training, vividness, and mental control.

    PubMed

    Gelding, Rebecca W; Thompson, William Forde; Johnson, Blake W

    2015-01-01

    Musical imagery is a relatively unexplored area, partly because of deficiencies in existing experimental paradigms, which are often difficult, unreliable, or do not provide objective measures of performance. Here we describe a novel protocol, the Pitch Imagery Arrow Task (PIAT), which induces and trains pitch imagery in both musicians and non-musicians. Given a tonal context and an initial pitch sequence, arrows are displayed to elicit a scale-step sequence of imagined pitches, and participants indicate whether the final imagined tone matches an audible probe. It is a staircase design that accommodates individual differences in musical experience and imagery ability. This new protocol was used to investigate the roles that musical expertise, self-reported auditory vividness and mental control play in imagery performance. Performance on the task was significantly better for participants who employed a musical imagery strategy compared to participants who used an alternative cognitive strategy and positively correlated with scores on the Control subscale from the Bucknell Auditory Imagery Scale (BAIS). Multiple regression analysis revealed that Imagery performance accuracy was best predicted by a combination of strategy use and scores on the Vividness subscale of BAIS. These results confirm that competent performance on the PIAT requires active musical imagery and is very difficult to achieve using alternative cognitive strategies. Auditory vividness and mental control were more important than musical experience in the ability to perform manipulation of pitch imagery.

  1. Influence of mental imagery on spatial presence and enjoyment assessed in different types of media.

    PubMed

    Weibel, David; Wissmath, Bartholomäus; Mast, Fred W

    2011-10-01

    Previous research studies on spatial presence point out that the users' imagery abilities are of importance. However, this influence has not yet been tested for different media. This is surprising because theoretical considerations suggest that mental imagery comes into play when a mediated environment lacks vividness. The aim of this study was to clarify the influence mental imagery abilities can have on the sensation of presence and enjoyment in different mediated environments. We presented the participants (n = 60) a narrative text, a movie sequence, and a computer game. Across all media, no effect of mental imagery abilities on presence and enjoyment was found, but imagery abilities marginally interacted with the mediated environment. Individuals with high imagery abilities experienced more presence and enjoyment in the text condition. The results were different for the film condition: here, individuals with poor imagery abilities reported marginally higher enjoyment ratings, whereas the presence ratings did not differ between the two groups. Imagery abilities had no influence on presence and enjoyment within the computer game condition. The results suggest that good imagery abilities contribute to the sensations of presence and enjoyment when reading a narrative text. The results for this study have an applied impact for media use because their effectiveness can depend on the individual mental imagery abilities.

  2. Contrast and strength of visual memory and imagery differentially affect visual perception.

    PubMed

    Saad, Elyana; Silvanto, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) and visual imagery have been shown to modulate visual perception. However, how the subjective experience of VSTM/imagery and its contrast modulate this process has not been investigated. We addressed this issue by asking participants to detect brief masked targets while they were engaged either in VSTM or visual imagery. Subjective experience of memory/imagery (strength scale), and the visual contrast of the memory/mental image (contrast scale) were assessed on a trial-by-trial basis. For both VSTM and imagery, contrast of the memory/mental image was positively associated with reporting target presence. Consequently, at the sensory level, both VSTM and imagery facilitated visual perception. However, subjective strength of VSTM was positively associated with visual detection whereas the opposite pattern was found for imagery. Thus the relationship between subjective strength of memory/imagery and visual detection are qualitatively different for VSTM and visual imagery, although their impact at the sensory level appears similar. Our results furthermore demonstrate that imagery and VSTM are partly dissociable processes.

  3. Classifying EEG Signals Preceding Right Hand, Left Hand, Tongue, and Right Foot Movements and Motor Imageries

    PubMed Central

    Morash, Valerie; Bai, Ou; Furlani, Stephen; Lin, Peter; Hallett, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Objective To use the neural signals preceding movement and motor imagery to predict which of four movements/motor imageries is about to occur, and to access this utility for brain-computer interface (BCI) applications. Methods Eight naive subjects performed or kinesthetically imagined four movements while electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from 29 channels over sensorimotor areas. The task was instructed with a specific stimulus (S1) and performed at a second stimulus (S2). A classifier was trained and tested offline at differentiating the EEG signals from movement/imagery preparation (the 1.5 seconds preceding movement/imagery execution). Results Accuracy of movement/imagery preparation classification varied between subjects. The system preferentially selected event related (de)synchronization (ERD/ERS) signals for classification, and high accuracies were associated with classifications that relied heavily on the ERD/ERS to discriminate movement/imagery planning. Conclusions The ERD/ERS preceding movement and motor imagery can be used to predict which of four movements/imageries is about to occur. Prediction accuracy depends on this signal’s accessibility. Significance The ERD/ERS is the most specific pre-movement/imagery signal to the movement/imagery about to be performed. PMID:18845473

  4. The Effects of Guided Imagery on Heart Rate Variability in Simulated Spaceflight Emergency Tasks Performers

    PubMed Central

    Yijing, Zhang; Xiaoping, Du; Fang, Liu; Xiaolu, Jing; Bin, Wu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of guided imagery training on heart rate variability in individuals while performing spaceflight emergency tasks. Materials and Methods. Twenty-one student subjects were recruited for the experiment and randomly divided into two groups: imagery group (n = 11) and control group (n = 10). The imagery group received instructor-guided imagery (session 1) and self-guided imagery training (session 2) consecutively, while the control group only received conventional training. Electrocardiograms of the subjects were recorded during their performance of nine spaceflight emergency tasks after imagery training. Results. In both of the sessions, the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), the standard deviation of all normal NN (SDNN), the proportion of NN50 divided by the total number of NNs (PNN50), the very low frequency (VLF), the low frequency (LF), the high frequency (HF), and the total power (TP) in the imagery group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Moreover, LF/HF of the subjects after instructor-guided imagery training was lower than that after self-guided imagery training. Conclusions. Guided imagery was an effective regulator for HRV indices and could be a potential stress countermeasure in performing spaceflight tasks. PMID:26137491

  5. Applications of Landsat imagery to a coastal inlet stability study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Y.-H.

    1981-01-01

    Polcyn and Lyzenga (1975) and Middleton and Barber (1976) have demonstrated that it is possible to correlate the radiance values of a multispectral imagery, such as Landsat imagery, with the depth related information. The present study is one more example of such an effort. Two sets of Landsat magnetic tape were obtained and displayed on the screen of an Image-100 computer. Spectral analysis was performed to produce various signatures, their extent, and location. Subsequent ground truth observations and measurements were gathered by means of hydrographic surveys and low altitude aerial photographs for interpretation and calibration of the Landsat data. Finally, a coastal engineering assessment based on the Landsat data was made. Recommendations regarding the navigational canal alignment and dredging practice are presented in the light of inlet stability.

  6. Emotion regulation through execution, observation, and imagery of emotional movements

    PubMed Central

    Shafir, Tal; Taylor, Stephan F.; Atkinson, Anthony P.; Langenecker, Scott A.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2014-01-01

    According to Damasio’s somatic marker hypothesis, emotions are generated by conveying the current state of the body to the brain through interoceptive and proprioceptive afferent input. The resulting brain activation patterns represent unconscious emotions and correlate with subjective feelings. This proposition implies a corollary that the deliberate control of motor behavior could regulate feelings. We tested this possibility, hypothesizing that engaging in movements associated with a certain emotion would enhance that emotion and/or the corresponding valence. Furthermore, because motor imagery and observation are thought to activate the same mirror-neuron network engaged during motor execution, they might also activate the same emotional processing circuits, leading to similar emotional effects. Therefore, we measured the effects of motor execution, motor imagery and observation of whole-body dynamic expressions of emotions (happiness, sadness, fear) on affective state. All three tasks enhanced the corresponding affective state, indicating their potential to regulate emotions. PMID:23561915

  7. Spatial reasoning to determine stream network from LANDSAT imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haralick, R. M.; Wang, S.; Elliott, D. B.

    1983-01-01

    In LANDSAT imagery, spectral and spatial information can be used to detect the drainage network as well as the relative elevation model in mountainous terrain. To do this, mixed information of material reflectance in the original LANDSAT imagery must be separated. From the material reflectance information, big visible rivers can be detected. From the topographic modulation information, ridges and valleys can be detected and assigned relative elevations. A complete elevation model can be generated by interpolating values for nonridge and non-valley pixels. The small streams not detectable from material reflectance information can be located in the valleys with flow direction known from the elevation model. Finally, the flow directions of big visible rivers can be inferred by solving a consistent labeling problem based on a set of spatial reasoning constraints.

  8. Structural lineament and pattern analysis of Missouri, using LANDSAT imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. A.; Kisvarsanyi, G. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Major linear, circular, and arcuate traces were observed on LANDSAT imagery of Missouri. Lineaments plotted within the state boundaries range from 20 to nearly 500 km in length. Several extend into adjoining states. Lineaments plots indicate a distinct pattern and in general reflect structural features of the Precambrian basement of the platform. Coincidence of lineaments traced from the imagery and known structural features in Missouri is high, thus supporting a causative relation between them. The lineament pattern apparently reveals a fundamental style of the deformation of the intracontinental craton. Dozens of heretofore unknown linear features related to epirogenic movements and deformation of this segment of the continental crust were delineated. Lineaments and mineralization are interrelated in a geometrically classifiable pattern.

  9. Onboard Algorithms for Data Prioritization and Summarization of Aerial Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve A.; Hayden, David; Thompson, David R.; Castano, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Many current and future NASA missions are capable of collecting enormous amounts of data, of which only a small portion can be transmitted to Earth. Communications are limited due to distance, visibility constraints, and competing mission downlinks. Long missions and high-resolution, multispectral imaging devices easily produce data exceeding the available bandwidth. To address this situation computationally efficient algorithms were developed for analyzing science imagery onboard the spacecraft. These algorithms autonomously cluster the data into classes of similar imagery, enabling selective downlink of representatives of each class, and a map classifying the terrain imaged rather than the full dataset, reducing the volume of the downlinked data. A range of approaches was examined, including k-means clustering using image features based on color, texture, temporal, and spatial arrangement

  10. Arctic and subarctic environmental analyses utilizing ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. M. (Principal Investigator); Mckim, H. L.; Gatto, L. W.; Haugen, R. K.; Crowder, W. K.; Slaughter, C. W.; Marlar, T. L.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery provides a means of distinguishing and monitoring estuarine surface water circulation patterns and changes in the relative sediment load of discharging rivers on a regional basis. Physical boundaries mapped from ERTS-1 imagery in combination with ground truth obtained from existing small scale maps and other sources resulted in improved and more detailed maps of permafrost terrain and vegetation for the same area. Snowpack cover within a research watershed has been analyzed and compared to ground data. Large river icings along the proposed Alaska pipeline route from Prudhoe Bay to the Brooks Range have been monitored. Sea ice deformation and drift northeast of Point Barrow, Alaska have been measured during a four day period in March and shore-fast ice accumulation and ablation along the west coast of Alaska have been mapped for the spring and early summer seasons.

  11. Neural network for change detection of remotely sensed imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. F.; Chen, Kun S.; Chang, J. S.

    1995-11-01

    The use of a neural network for determining the change of landcover/land-use with remotely sensed data is proposed. In this study, a single image contains both spectral and temporal information is created from a multidate satellite imagery. The proposed change detection method can be divided into two main steps: training data selection and change detection. At the training step, the training set, basically consists of the classes of no-change and possible change data, is obtained from the composited image. Then the training data is used to input the neural network and obtain the network's weights. At the change detection step, the network's weights is employed to detect the change and no-change classes in the combined image. The proposed method is tested using a multidate SPOT imageries and a satisfied change pattern detection is obtained.

  12. Parallel computation for blood cell classification in medical hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Wu, Lucheng; Qiu, Xianbo; Ran, Qiong; Xie, Xiaoming

    2016-09-01

    With the advantage of fine spectral resolution, hyperspectral imagery provides great potential for cell classification. This paper provides a promising classification system including the following three stages: (1) band selection for a subset of spectral bands with distinctive and informative features, (2) spectral-spatial feature extraction, such as local binary patterns (LBP), and (3) followed by an effective classifier. Moreover, these three steps are further implemented on graphics processing units (GPU) respectively, which makes the system real-time and more practical. The GPU parallel implementation is compared with the serial implementation on central processing units (CPU). Experimental results based on real medical hyperspectral data demonstrate that the proposed system is able to offer high accuracy and fast speed, which are appealing for cell classification in medical hyperspectral imagery.

  13. Determination of stack plume properties from satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staylor, W. F.

    1977-01-01

    LANDSAT imagery data were analyzed to determine the quantitative properties of a stack plume emitted from a moderate-sized pulp mill. Overlapping, consecutive-day MSS data provided plume/no plume radiances upwelling from the area of interest. These values from both the plume and its shadow were used to evaluate plume radius, height, particle concentration and scattering function, and total particle loading. Imagery data from a 10 by 10 km region in the vicinity of the mill were normalized to correct for minor atmospheric, solar and viewing angle changes for the two observation days, and cloud shadow data were used to evaluate sky radiance. The effects of the Sun angle, surface reflectance, SNR and spatial resolution are treated in the paper.

  14. Proceedings of the 2004 High Spatial Resolution Commercial Imagery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Topics covered include: NASA Applied Sciences Program; USGS Land Remote Sensing: Overview; QuickBird System Status and Product Overview; ORBIMAGE Overview; IKONOS 2004 Calibration and Validation Status; OrbView-3 Spatial Characterization; On-Orbit Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) Measurement of QuickBird; Spatial Resolution Characterization for QuickBird Image Products 2003-2004 Season; Image Quality Evaluation of QuickBird Super Resolution and Revisit of IKONOS: Civil and Commercial Application Project (CCAP); On-Orbit System MTF Measurement; QuickBird Post Launch Geopositional Characterization Update; OrbView-3 Geometric Calibration and Geopositional Accuracy; Geopositional Statistical Methods; QuickBird and OrbView-3 Geopositional Accuracy Assessment; Initial On-Orbit Spatial Resolution Characterization of OrbView-3 Panchromatic Images; Laboratory Measurement of Bidirectional Reflectance of Radiometric Tarps; Stennis Space Center Verification and Validation Capabilities; Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE) Team; Adjacency Effects in High Resolution Imagery; Effect of Pulse Width vs. GSD on MTF Estimation; Camera and Sensor Calibration at the USGS; QuickBird Geometric Verification; Comparison of MODTRAN to Heritage-based Results in Vicarious Calibration at University of Arizona; Using Remotely Sensed Imagery to Determine Impervious Surface in Sioux Falls, South Dakota; Estimating Sub-Pixel Proportions of Sagebrush with a Regression Tree; How Do YOU Use the National Land Cover Dataset?; The National Map Hazards Data Distribution System; Recording a Troubled World; What Does This-Have to Do with This?; When Can a Picture Save a Thousand Homes?; InSAR Studies of Alaska Volcanoes; Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) Data Products; Improving Access to the USGS Aerial Film Collections: High Resolution Scanners; Improving Access to the USGS Aerial Film Collections: Phoenix Digitizing System Product Distribution; System and Product Characterization: Issues Approach

  15. Analysis of optical imagery for Seyfert's Sextet and VV 172

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulentic, J. W.; Lorre, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    Seyfert's Sextet and VV 172, 5-m photographs have been subjected to image processing to yield field-galaxy density analysis, redshift-scaled imagery, interaction morphology display and enhancement, color difference imagery,modeling of the VV 172 halo, and image texture analysis of the spiral galaxy components of Seyfert's Sextet. An effort is made to evaluate the evidence for physical association of the discordant redshift components of these groups. An especially noteworthy characteristic of the groups is their extended luminous halos. The halo of VV 172 cannot be explained by the overlapping envelopes of galaxies with normal luminosity profiles, and the high redshift spiral galaxy in the Sextet is found to have an asymmetric internal structure and associated filament which suggest gravitational perturbation by the other members of the group.

  16. Semi-automatic crop inventory from sequential ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. W.; Coleman, V. B.

    1973-01-01

    The detection of a newly introduced crop into the Imperial (California) Valley by sequential ERTS-1 imagery is proving that individual crop types can be identified by remote sensing techniques. Initial results have provided an extremely useful product for water agencies. A system for the identification of field conditions enables the production of a statistical summary within two to three days of receipt of the ERTS-1 imagery. The summary indicates the total acreage of producing crops and irrigated planted crops currently demanding water and further indicates freshly plowed fields that will be demanding water in the near future. Relating the field conditions to the crop calendar of the region by means of computer techniques will provide specific crop identification for the 8000 plus fields.

  17. Generation of infrared imagery from an aviation synthetic vision database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonjean, Maxime E.; Verly, Jacques G.; Schiefele, Jens

    2005-05-01

    We describe a multisensor (or multimodal) flight simulator (FS), which is currently capable of generating forwardlooking infrared (FLIR) imagery and is designed in such a way that modules can easily be added to produce other types of imagery such as for millimeter-wave radar (MMWR). Such sensors are the basis for the enhanced vision systems (EVS) that are currently considered for installation aboard commercial and military aircraft to enhance the safety of operation in poor-visibility weather or even in zero-visibility weather. The main source of information for our simulator is an airport database, which is, in part, intended for driving synthetic vision systems (SVS). We describe the architecture of the simulator and of its FLIR module. Preliminary simulation examples are also shown.

  18. Mapping cultivable land from satellite imagery with clustering algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arango, R. B.; Campos, A. M.; Combarro, E. F.; Canas, E. R.; Díaz, I.

    2016-07-01

    Open data satellite imagery provides valuable data for the planning and decision-making processes related with environmental domains. Specifically, agriculture uses remote sensing in a wide range of services, ranging from monitoring the health of the crops to forecasting the spread of crop diseases. In particular, this paper focuses on a methodology for the automatic delimitation of cultivable land by means of machine learning algorithms and satellite data. The method uses a partition clustering algorithm called Partitioning Around Medoids and considers the quality of the clusters obtained for each satellite band in order to evaluate which one better identifies cultivable land. The proposed method was tested with vineyards using as input the spectral and thermal bands of the Landsat 8 satellite. The experimental results show the great potential of this method for cultivable land monitoring from remote-sensed multispectral imagery.

  19. Remote sensing of ocean currents using ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, G. A.

    1973-01-01

    Major ocean currents such as the Loop Current in the eastern Gulf of Mexico have surface manifestations which can be exploited for remote sensing. Surface chlorophyll-a concentrations, which contribute to the shift in color from blue to green in the open sea, were found to have high spatial variability; significantly lower concentrations were observed in the current. The cyclonic edge of the current is an accumulation zone which causes a peak in chlorophyll concentration. The dynamics also cause surface concentrations of algae, which have a high reflectance in the near infrared. Combining these observations gives rise to an edge effect which can show up as a bright lineation on multispectral imagery delimiting the current's boundary under certain environmental conditions. When high seas introduce bubbles, white caps, and foam, the reflectance is dominated by scattering rather than absorption. This has been detected in ERTS imagery and used for current location.

  20. Height Gradient Approach for Occlusion Detection in Uav Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, H. C.; Habib, A. F.; Dal Poz, A. P.; Galo, M.

    2015-08-01

    The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) significantly increased in the last years. It is used for several different applications, such as mapping, publicity, security, natural disasters assistance, environmental monitoring, 3D building model generation, cadastral survey, etc. The imagery obtained by this kind of system has a great potential. To use these images in true orthophoto generation projects related to urban scenes or areas where buildings are present, it is important to consider the occlusion caused by surface height variation, platform attitude, and perspective projection. Occlusions in UAV imagery are usually larger than in conventional airborne dataset due to the low-altitude and excessive change in orientation due to the low-weight and wind effects during the flight mission. Therefore, this paper presents a method for occlusion detection together with some obtained results for images acquired by a UAV platform. The proposed method shows potential in occlusion detection and true orthophoto generation.