Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. This paper provides updated information on the taxonomic composition and distribution of the Annelida - terrestrial Oligochaeta (Megadrili and Enchytraeidae), Aphanoneura and Polychaeta, recorded in Europe. Data on 18 families, 11 autochthonous and 7 allochthonous, represented in our continent by a total of 800 species, are reviewed, beginning from their distinctness, phylogenetic status, diversity and global distribution, and following with major recent developments in taxonomic and faunistic research in Europe. A rich list of relevant references is appended. The Fauna Europaea Annelida - terrestrial Oligochaeta data-set, as completed in 2004, will be updated accordingly. PMID:26379463
Nishi, Eijiroh; Matsuo, Kanako; Capa, Maria; Tomioka, Shinri; Kajihara, Hiroshi; Kupriyanova, Elena K; Polgar, Gianluca
A new species of the genus Sabellaria Lamarck, 1818 (Annelida: Polychaeta: Sabellariidae) is described from the intertidal zone of Jeram, Selangor, Malaysia. Sabellaria jeramae n. sp. is a gregarious species that constructs large reefs several hundreds of meters long and 50-200 m wide. The new species is distinguished from other congeners by the character combination of the presence of a single kind of middle paleae with conspicuous morphology, and outer paleae with long frayed teeth. Morphological features of the species are described and compared to those of all congeneric species. We also compare the reef structure and geographical distribution of the new species to those of the members of the family Sabellariidae around the world, demonstrating the ecological traits of the reefs.
Accurate identification of unknown specimens by means of DNA barcoding is contingent on the presence of a DNA barcoding gap, among other factors, as its absence may result in dubious specimen identifications - false negatives or positives. Whereas the utility of DNA barcoding would be greatly reduced in the absence of a distinct and sufficiently sized barcoding gap, the limits of intraspecific and interspecific distances are seldom thoroughly inspected across comprehensive sampling. The present study aims to illuminate this aspect of barcoding in a comprehensive manner for the animal phylum Annelida. All cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequences (cox1 gene; the chosen region for zoological DNA barcoding) present in GenBank for Annelida, as well as for "Polychaeta", "Oligochaeta", and Hirudinea separately, were downloaded and curated for length, coverage and potential contaminations. The final datasets consisted of 9782 (Annelida), 5545 ("Polychaeta"), 3639 ("Oligochaeta"), and 598 (Hirudinea) cox1 sequences and these were either (i) used as is in an automated global barcoding gap detection analysis or (ii) further analyzed for genetic distances, separated into bins containing intraspecific and interspecific comparisons and plotted in a graph to visualize any potential global barcoding gap. Over 70 million pairwise genetic comparisons were made and results suggest that although there is a tendency towards separation, no distinct or sufficiently sized global barcoding gap exists in either of the datasets rendering future barcoding efforts at risk of erroneous specimen identifications (but local barcoding gaps may still exist allowing for the identification of specimens at lower taxonomic ranks). This seems to be especially true for earthworm taxa, which account for fully 35% of the total number of interspecific comparisons that show 0% divergence.
Sugihara, Yukitaka; Yamada, Toshiyuki; Tamaki, Akio; Yamanishi, Ryohei; Kanai, Kinya
We found aporocotylid larval stages (sporocysts and cercariae) from five individuals of terebellid polychaete Terebella sp., which were collected from seabed substrate and ropes and floats attached to tuna cages in a tuna farm on the coast of Tsushima Island, Nagasaki, Japan. Nucleotide sequences of the regions of internal transcribed spacer 2 ribosomal DNA and 28S ribosomal DNA from these larval stages were 100% identical to those of Cardicola opisthorchis registered in GenBank. C. opisthorchis is a pathogen causing blood fluke infection of Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis, which is considered to have a significant impact on the Japanese Pacific bluefin tuna aquaculture industry. This is the first description of the intermediate host of C. opisthorchis. This indicates that the life cycle of C. opisthorchis is completed within tuna farms in this area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wu, Xuwen; Xu, Kuidong
Sternaspidae is one of the most common groups of polychaetes in the South China Sea, where however, the knowledge of its diversity and distribution is insufficiently understood and reports of the European species Sternaspis scutata are misidentifications. Based on the examination of material deposited in the Marine Biological Museum of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, we made a comprehensive investigation on the sternaspid polychaetes in the northern South China Sea. Five species belonging to two genera are described: Petersenaspis salazari sp. nov., Sternaspis radiata sp. nov., S. spinosa Sluiter, 1882, S. sunae sp. nov. and S. wui sp. nov. A taxonomic key to ten species of Sternaspidae found in the South China Sea is provided.
Parapar, Julio; Moreira, Juan
During the Spanish Antarctic expeditions “Bentart” 1994, 1995 and 2003, a number of trichobranchid (Annelida: Polychaeta) specimens were collected and identified initially as Terebellides stroemii kerguelensis McIntosh, 1885, the only known species of the genus widely recognised as valid in Antarctic waters. In the framework of a worldwide revision of the genus Terebellides, a reconsideration of the taxonomic status of this subspecies of the boreal Terebellides stroemii Sars, 1835 is done through the examination of the syntypes of T. s. kerguelensis compared with recent descriptions of the nominal species from Norwegian waters and material from Icelandic waters. Thus, T. s. kerguelensis is regarded as a valid species, T. kerguelensis stat. nov., and redescribed designating a lectotype and paralectotypes. The species is mainly characterised by the presence of an anterior branchial extension (fifth lobe), lateral lappets in five anterior thoracic chaetigers, segmental organs in chaetigers 1, 4 and 5, and first thoracic acicular neurochaetae sharply bent with pointed tips. The biological role of the segmental organs, the presence and disposition of cilia in branchial lamellae and the finding of new structures located in dorsal part of thoracic notopodia are discussed.
Magalhães, Wagner F; Bailey-Brock, Julie H
Thirteen cirratulid species from the Hawaiian, Mariana and Marshall Islands are described. Nine species are new to science: Aphelochaeta arizonae sp. nov., Aphelochaeta honouliuli sp. nov., Caulleriella cordiformia sp. nov., Chaetozone michellae sp. nov., Chaetozone ronaldi sp. nov., Monticellina anterobranchiata sp. nov., Monticellina hanaumaensis sp. nov., and Tharyx tumulosa sp. nov., from Oahu, Hawaii and Aphelochaeta saipanensis sp. nov., from Saipan in the Mariana Islands. Dodecaceria fewkesi and Monticellina nr. cryptica are newly recorded from the Hawaiian Islands. Dodecaceria laddi is widely distributed in the western Pacific and material collected from the Hawaiian, Mariana and Marshall islands is described. We provide SEM photographs for all species in addition to line drawings and methyl green staining pattern photographs for the new species.
Jones, Auriane G.; Dubois, Stanislas F.; Desroy, Nicolas; Fournier, Jérôme
Sabellaria alveolata is a gregarious polychaete that uses sand particles to build three-dimensional structures known as reefs, fixed atop rocks or built on soft sediments. These structures are known to modify the local grain-size distribution and to host a highly diversified macrofauna, altered when the reef undergoes disturbances. The goal of this study was to investigate the different sedimentary and biological changes associated with the presence of a S. alveolata reef over two contrasting seasons (late winter and late summer), and how these changes were linked. Three different sediments were considered: the engineered sediment (the actual reef), the associated sediment (the soft sediment surrounding the reef structures) and a control soft sediment (i.e. no reef structures in close proximity). Univariate and multivariate comparisons of grain-size distribution, soft sediment characteristics (organic matter content, chlorophyll a, pheopigments and carbohydrate concentrations) and macrofauna were conducted between the different sediment types at both seasons and between the two seasons for each sediment type. A distance-based redundancy analyses (dbRDA) was used to investigate the link between the different environmental parameters and the macrofauna assemblages. Finally, we focused on a disturbance continuum of the engineered sediments proxied by an increase in the mud present in these sediments. The effects of a continuous and increasing disturbance on the associated fauna were investigated using pairwise beta diversity indices (Sørensen and Bray-Curtis dissimilarities and their decomposition into turnover and nestedness). Results showed a significant effect of the reef on the local sediment distribution (coarser sediments compared to the control) and on the benthic primary production (higher in the associated sediments). At both seasons, S. alveolata biomass and sediment principal mode were the environmental parameters which best differentiated the engineered, associated and control sediment assemblages. These two parameters are under the ecosystem engineer's influence stressing its importance in structuring benthic macrofauna. Furthermore, in late summer but not in late winter, presence/absence and abundance-based beta diversity were positively correlated to our disturbance proxy (mud content) a tendency driven by a species replacement and a rise in the associated fauna density. Our first set of results highlight the importance of S. alveolata reefs as benthic primary production enhancers via their physical structure and their biological activity. The results obtained using beta diversity indices emphasize the importance of recruitment in structuring the reef's macrofauna and - paradoxically - the ecological value of S. alveolata degraded forms as biodiversity and recruitment promoters.
Rizzo, Carmen; Michaud, Luigi; Hörmann, Barbara; Gerçe, Berna; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf; De Domenico, Emilio; Lo Giudice, Angelina
A total of 69 bacteria were isolated from crude oil enrichments of the polychaetes Megalomma claparedei, Sabella spallanzanii and Branchiomma luctuosum, and screened for biosurfactant (BS) production by conventional methods. Potential BS-producers (30 isolates) were primarily selected due to the production of both interesting spots on thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates and highly stable emulsions (E₂₄ ≥ 50%). Only few strains grew on cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and blood agar plates, indicating the probable production of anionic surfactants. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that selected isolates mainly belonged to the CFB group of Bacteroidetes, followed by Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. A number of BS-producers belonged to genera (i.e., Cellulophaga, Cobetia, Cohaesibacter, Idiomarina, Pseudovibrio and Thalassospira) that have been never reported as able to produce BSs, even if they have been previously detected in hydrocarbon-enriched samples. Our results suggest that filter-feeding Polychaetes could represent a novel and yet unexplored source of biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pagliosa, Paulo R; Doria, João G; Misturini, Dairana; Otegui, Mariana B P; Oortman, Mariana S; Weis, Wilson A; Faroni-Perez, Larisse; Alves, Alexandre P; Camargo, Maurício G; Amaral, A Cecília Z; Marques, Antonio C; Lana, Paulo C
Networks can greatly advance data sharing attitudes by providing organized and useful data sets on marine biodiversity in a friendly and shared scientific environment. NONATObase, the interactive database on polychaetes presented herein, will provide new macroecological and taxonomic insights of the Southwestern Atlantic region. The database was developed by the NONATO network, a team of South American researchers, who integrated available information on polychaetes from between 5°N and 80°S in the Atlantic Ocean and near the Antarctic. The guiding principle of the database is to keep free and open access to data based on partnerships. Its architecture consists of a relational database integrated in the MySQL and PHP framework. Its web application allows access to the data from three different directions: species (qualitative data), abundance (quantitative data) and data set (reference data). The database has built-in functionality, such as the filter of data on user-defined taxonomic levels, characteristics of site, sample, sampler, and mesh size used. Considering that there are still many taxonomic issues related to poorly known regional fauna, a scientific committee was created to work out consistent solutions to current misidentifications and equivocal taxonomy status of some species. Expertise from this committee will be incorporated by NONATObase continually. The use of quantitative data was possible by standardization of a sample unit. All data, maps of distribution and references from a data set or a specified query can be visualized and exported to a commonly used data format in statistical analysis or reference manager software. The NONATO network has initialized with NONATObase, a valuable resource for marine ecologists and taxonomists. The database is expected to grow in functionality as it comes in useful, particularly regarding the challenges of dealing with molecular genetic data and tools to assess the effects of global environment change. Database URL: http://nonatobase.ufsc.br/.
During the Antarctic summers of 2002-2003 and of 2005-2006, the Spanish BENTART cruises were conducted to the Bellingshausen Sea (Western Antarctica), aiming to study its benthic communities, from depths ranging from 100 to 2,000 m. To achieve it, 30 stations were selected; each one was surveyed in such a way that the infaunal, epifaunal and suprabenthic components of the communities were sufficiently characterized. As a part of the study, some spionid individuals were identified as belonging to a new species of the genus Laonice Malmgren, 1867. The new species belongs to a group within the genus that is characterized by the presence of more than two rows of very numerous capillary chaetae in both noto- and neuropodial fascicles of anterior part of the body. However, it can be readily distinguished from the rest of species within the group by the posterior position in which neuropodial pouches appear (chaetiger 16 or 17) and by the caruncle reaching posteriorly chaetiger 19. In addition, other remarkable features of the new species are the short and triangular occipital tentacle, the rudimentary eyes, the hooded neuropodial hooks first appearing in chaetigers 34-37 and the sabre neurochaetae first occurring in chaetigers 20-27.
Kongsrud, Jon A.; Eilertsen, Mari H.; Alvestad, Tom; Kongshavn, Katrine; Rapp, Hans Tore
Ampharetid polychaetes adapted to live in chemosynthetic environments are well known from the deep Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, but to date no such species have been reported from the Arctic Ocean. Here, we describe two new species, Paramytha schanderi gen. et sp. nov. and Pavelius smileyi sp. nov., from the Arctic Loki's Castle vent field on the Knipovich Ridge north-east of the island of Jan Mayen. The new species are both tube-builders, and are found in a sedimentary area at the NE flank of the vent field, characterized by low-temperature venting and barite chimneys. The new genus, Paramytha, is characterized by a prostomium without lobes or glandular ridges, smooth buccal tentacles, four pairs of cirriform branchiae arranged as 2+1+1 without median gap dorsally on segments II-IV, absence of chaetae (paleae) on segment II, and absence of modified segments. P. smileyi sp. nov. is placed in the previously monotypic genus Pavelius, primarily based on the presence of a rounded prostomium without lobes and four pairs of branchiae arranged in a single transverse row without median gap dorsally on segment III. Pavelius smileyi sp. nov. differs from the type species, Pavelius uschakovi, in the number of thoracic and abdominal chaetigers, and the absence of chaetae (paleae) on segment II. The phylogenetic position of the two new species from Loki's Castle is further explored by use of molecular data. New sequences of mitochondrial (16S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, COI) and nuclear (18S rDNA) markers have been produced for both species from Loki's Castle, as well as for specimens identified as Paramytha sp. from Setùbal Canyon off Portugal, and for the following species: Pavelius uschakovi, Grassleia cf. hydrothermalis, Sosane wireni, Amphicteis ninonae and Samythella neglecta. Results from phylogenetic analysis, including 22 species and 12 genera of Ampharetidae, recovered Paramytha gen. nov. as monophyletic with maximum support, and a close relationship between the genera Pavelius and Grassleia which together form a well supported monophyletic clade.
Pagliosa, Paulo R.; Doria, João G.; Misturini, Dairana; Otegui, Mariana B. P.; Oortman, Mariana S.; Weis, Wilson A.; Faroni-Perez, Larisse; Alves, Alexandre P.; Camargo, Maurício G.; Amaral, A. Cecília Z.; Marques, Antonio C.; Lana, Paulo C.
Networks can greatly advance data sharing attitudes by providing organized and useful data sets on marine biodiversity in a friendly and shared scientific environment. NONATObase, the interactive database on polychaetes presented herein, will provide new macroecological and taxonomic insights of the Southwestern Atlantic region. The database was developed by the NONATO network, a team of South American researchers, who integrated available information on polychaetes from between 5°N and 80°S in the Atlantic Ocean and near the Antarctic. The guiding principle of the database is to keep free and open access to data based on partnerships. Its architecture consists of a relational database integrated in the MySQL and PHP framework. Its web application allows access to the data from three different directions: species (qualitative data), abundance (quantitative data) and data set (reference data). The database has built-in functionality, such as the filter of data on user-defined taxonomic levels, characteristics of site, sample, sampler, and mesh size used. Considering that there are still many taxonomic issues related to poorly known regional fauna, a scientific committee was created to work out consistent solutions to current misidentifications and equivocal taxonomy status of some species. Expertise from this committee will be incorporated by NONATObase continually. The use of quantitative data was possible by standardization of a sample unit. All data, maps of distribution and references from a data set or a specified query can be visualized and exported to a commonly used data format in statistical analysis or reference manager software. The NONATO network has initialized with NONATObase, a valuable resource for marine ecologists and taxonomists. The database is expected to grow in functionality as it comes in useful, particularly regarding the challenges of dealing with molecular genetic data and tools to assess the effects of global environment change. Database URL: http://nonatobase.ufsc.br/ PMID:24573879
Liñero Arana, Ildefonso; Díaz Díaz, Oscar
Seasonal variations of polychaetes in a Thalassia testudinum bed were studied from June 2000 to April 2001 in Chacopata, northeastern Venezuela. Eight replicate samples were taken monthly with a 15 cm diameter core and the sediment was passed through a 0.5 mm mesh sieve. A total of 1,013 specimens, belonging to 35 species, was collected. The monthly density ranged from 387 ind/m2 (September) to 1,735 ind/m2 in May (x = 989+/-449 ind/m2). Species richness was lowest in August and September (8) and highest (25) in April (x = 18.00+/-5.29). The shoot density of Thalassia showed an average of 284+/-77.60 shoots/m2, with extreme values in February (164) and May (422). Species diversity ranged from 1.25 in August and 3.33 bits/ind in December (x = 2.47+/-0.64). Significant positive correlations were detected among the number of Thalassia shoots, polychaete abundance and species richness, as well as among species richness, polychaete abundance and species diversity. Species number and average density were found within the intervals of mean values reported in similar studies. The higher number of species and organisms obtained in March-April and June-July can be attributed to the recruitment correlated with the regional up-welling.
Ribeiro, Rannyele P.
Abstract Syllidae is one of the most species‐rich groups within Annelida, with a wide variety of reproductive modes and different regenerative processes. Syllids have striking ability to regenerate their body anteriorly and posteriorly, which in many species is redeployed during sexual (schizogamy) and asexual (fission) reproduction. This review summarizes the available data on regeneration in syllids, covering descriptions of regenerative mechanisms in different species as well as regeneration in relation to reproductive modes. Our survey shows that posterior regeneration is widely distributed in syllids, whereas anterior regeneration is limited in most of the species, excepting those reproducing by fission. The latter reproductive mode is well known for a few species belonging to Autolytinae, Eusyllinae, and Syllinae. Patterns of fission areas have been studied in these animals. Deviations of the regular regeneration pattern or aberrant forms such as bifurcated animals or individuals with multiple heads have been reported for several species. Some of these aberrations show a deviation of the bilateral symmetry and antero‐posterior axis, which, interestingly, can also be observed in the regular branching body pattern of some species of syllids. PMID:29721325
Gravina, Maria Flavia; Cardone, Frine; Bonifazi, Andrea; Bertrandino, Marta Simona; Chimienti, Giovanni; Longo, Caterina; Marzano, Carlotta Nonnis; Moretti, Massimo; Lisco, Stefania; Moretti, Vincenzo; Corriero, Giuseppe; Giangrande, Adriana
Bio-constructions by Sabellaria worms play a key functional role in the coastal ecosystems being an engineer organism and for this reason are the object of protection. The most widespread reef building species along Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts is S. alveolata (L.), while the aggregations of S. spinulosa are typically limited to the North Sea coasts. This paper constitutes the first detailed description of unusual large S. spinulosa reefs in the Mediterranean Sea. Defining current health status and evaluating the most important threats and impacts is essential to address conservation needs and design management plans for these large biogenic structures. Present knowledge on Mediterranean reefs of S. alveolata is fragmentary compared to Northeast Atlantic reefs, and concerning S. spinulosa, this paper represents a focal point in the knowledge on Mediterranean reefs of this species. A one-year study on temporal changes in reef structure and associated fauna is reported. The annual cycle of S. spinulosa reef shows a spawning event in winter-early spring, a period of growth and tubes aggregation from spring-early summer to autumn and a degeneration phase in winter. The variations exhibited in density of the worm aggregation and the changes in the reef elevation highlight a decline and regeneration of the structure over a year. The many ecological roles of the S. spinulosa reef were mainly in providing a diversity of microhabitats hosting hard and sandy bottom species, sheltering rare species, and producing biogenic structures able to provide coastal protection. The Mediterranean S. spinulosa reef does not shelter a distinctive associated fauna; however the richness in species composition underscores the importance of the reef as a biodiversity hot-spot. Finally, the roles of the biogenic formations and their important biotic and physical dynamics support the adoption of strategies for conservation of Mediterranean S.spinulosa reefs, according to the aims of the Habitat Directive.
Ravara, Ascensão; Ramos, Diana; Teixeira, Marcos A. L.; Costa, Filipe O.; Cunha, Marina R.
The polychaetes of the order Phyllodocida (excluding Nereidiformia and Phyllodociformia incertae sedis) collected from deep-sea habitats of the Iberian margin (Bay of Biscay, Horseshoe continental rise, Gulf of Cadiz and Alboran Sea), and Atlantic seamounts (Gorringe Bank, Atlantis and Nameless) are reported herein. Thirty-six species belonging to seven families - Acoetidae, Pholoidae, Polynoidae, Sigalionidae, Glyceridae, Goniadidae and Phyllodocidae, were identified. Amended descriptions and/or new illustrations are given for the species Allmaniella setubalensis, Anotochaetonoe michelbhaudi, Lepidasthenia brunnea and Polynoe sp. Relevant taxonomical notes are provided for other seventeen species. Allmaniella setubalensis, Anotochaetonoe michelbhaudi, Harmothoe evei, Eumida longicirrata and Glycera noelae, previously known only from their type localities were found in different deep-water places of the studied areas and constitute new records for the Iberian margin. The geographic distributions and the bathymetric range of thirteen and fifteen species, respectively, are extended. The morphology-based biodiversity inventory was complemented with DNA sequences of the mitochondrial barcode region (COI barcodes) providing a molecular tag for future reference. Twenty new sequences were obtained for nine species in the families Acoetidae, Glyceridae and Polynoidae and for three lineages within the Phylodoce madeirensis complex (Phyllodocidae). A brief analysis of the newly obtained sequences and publicly available COI barcode data for the genera herein reported, highlighted several cases of unclear taxonomic assignments, which need further study.
Bedford, A. P.; Moore, P. G.
Platynereis dumerilii is found in large numbers in parchment-like tubes attached to sublittoral accumulations of detached maroalgae (principally Laminaria saccharina) in Kames Bay, Isle of Cumbrae and Lochranza, Isle of Arran. Its rôle in weed decomposition has been examined by comparing its responses (behavioural choice, growth rates, absorption efficiencies of both carbon and protein, gut retention times and rate of faecal output) to fresh and rotting weed. Worms grew significantly on either diet, with older individuals gaining more weight than small individuals. Animals of a standard size (derived from measurements of maximum bite size) feeding on fresh weed, however, grew significantly faster than those feeding on rotting weed. The former had a significantly higher protein absorption efficiency which was linearly related to protein content of ingested weed. This was not so on rotting weed. Organic carbon absorption efficiencies did not differ significantly between the two groups, neither did gut retention times nor rates of faecal output. Given a choice, Platynereis chooses to build its tube, and to feed, on fresh kelp—a strategem which ensures both maximum scope for occupancy before fronds decay and a superabundance of preferred food. Platynereis feeds around its tube entrance, recropping small areas for 2-3 days, prior to switching to another area nearby. Ciliate population densities on Platynereis faeces are much lower than on either homogenized or intact weed, associated with their lower, nutritional value (at first). Platynereis bubes act to bind kelp fronds together stabilizing the faecal input to infaunal detritivores. Platynereis is an example of a detritivore which exploits the detrital substratum directly.
García-Garza, María Elena; León-González, Jesús Angel De
Abstract The main objective of this work is to contribute to the taxonomic knowledge of the species of Capitellidae reported for the Eastern Tropical Pacific. This catalogue includes the original name of each species, new names, synonymies, type localities, the museum or institution where the type material is deposited, revision of the material reported for the region by different authors, new examined material, previous reports from other regions of the world, and comments on systematics and distributions. The catalogue lists 43 species in 19 genera. Of these, 6 species were erroneously recorded for the region (Decamastus gracilis Hartman, 1963; Decamastus nudus Thomassin, 1970; Mastobranchus variabilis Edwing, 1984; Notomastus aberans Day, 1957; Notomastus americanus Day, 1973; Notomastus latericeus Sars, 1851) and 5 species are found here to be questionable records for the Eastern Tropical Pacific (Capitella capitata (Fabricius, 1780); Dasybranchus glabrus Moore, 1909; Decamastus lumbricoides Grube, 1878; Notomastus lineatus Claparède, 1870 and Notomastus tenuis Moore, 1909). PMID:22368451
di Camillo, Cristina Gioia; Martin, Daniel; Britayev, Temir A.
A mimic scale-worm was found associated with the athecate hydroid Solanderia secunda, commonly found on reefs of the NW coast of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. The species resembled Medioantenna clavata Imajima 1997, which was originally described without any reference to a symbiotic mode of life and later reported to be living on a solanderiid hydroid both in Japanese waters. A detailed morphological analysis led us to consider the Indonesian specimens as a new species, namely Medioantenna variopinta sp. nov., which is congeneric with the Japanese species. The new species differs from the type material of M. clavata as it has elytra with one prominent finger-like papilla and all neurochaetae with unidentate tip, instead of an elytral lump and both unidentate and bidentate neurochaetae on segment two. In turn, the Japanese worms associated with Solanderia are here referred to our new species. Two morphological features in M. variopinta sp. nov. are rather unusual among scale-worms. One of them is its extremely high level of bilateral asymmetry and antero-posterior variability in elytral distribution and the other one is its elongated, upwardly directed nephridial papillae. The morphology and geographical distribution of the host together with the known characteristics of the symbiotic association have also been highlighted.
Spatial and Temporal Changes in the Distribution of Blood Fluke Infection in Nicolea gracilibranchis (Polychaeta: Terebellidae), the Intermediate Host for Cardicola orientalis (Digenea: Aporocotylidae), at a Tuna Farming Site in Japan.
Shirakashi, Sho; Tani, Kazuki; Ishimuru, Katsuya; Honryo, Tomoki; Shin, Sang Phil; Uchida, Hiro'omi; Ogawa, Kazuo
Fish blood flukes of the genus Cardicola (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) are important pathogens in tuna aquaculture. Recent advances in marine blood fluke research have led to the elucidation of the lifecycles of 3 Cardicola spp. infecting tuna; all 3 flukes utilize terebellid polychaetes as the intermediate host. In our survey, we obtained large numbers of Nicolea gracilibranchis infected by larval Cardicola orientalis at our tuna farming site. To determine the spatial and temporal changes in the distribution of N. gracilibranchis surrounding tuna culture cages and their infection by C. orientalis, we conducted monthly sampling for a period of 1 yr. Terebellids were most abundant on the floats and ropes of culture cages, but a significantly higher proportion of infected N. gracilibranchis was detected on ropes, particularly up to 4 m in depth. Cardicola orientalis infection in N. gracilibranchis was clearly seasonal, with a higher infection rate between April and July. Our findings indicate that the infected terebellids inhabit specific microhabitats, and both abiotic and biotic factors likely influence blood fluke infection in the intermediate terebellid host. This information is important to better understand the general biology of marine aporocotylids and may be useful to develop a control strategy for blood fluke infection in tuna aquaculture.
Capa, M; San Martín, G; López, E
Four expeditions were made to Coiba National Park between 1996 and 1998 to characterize this part of the poorly known Panamian Pacific polychaete fauna. The samples were collected by SCUBA diving, either by removing 4 kg blocks of dead coral (Pocillopora sp.) or scraping off 25 x 25 cm quadrats of Telesto multiflora or algae (Dyctiota cf. flavellata, Padina cf. durvillaei and another currently unidentified species). This paper deals with the Syllinae from hard substrates. Twenty-two species belonging to six genera of the subfamily Syllinae Grube, 1850 (Syllidae: Polychaeta) are reported. A new species, Syllis castroviejoi, is described. Four species are newly reported for the Eastern Pacific: Syllis beneliahuae (Campoy & Alquézar, 1982), S. botosaneanui (Hartmann-Schröder, 1973), S. corallicola Verrill, 1900 and S. garciai (Campoy, 1982), and, likewise, two species are first reports for the Central American Pacific coast: Branchiosyllis pacifica Rioja, 1941 and Syllis truncata Haswell, 1920. Two species, Syllis magna (Westheide, 1974) and S. pigmentata (Chamberlin, 1919), are newly reported for Panama.
Olivier, Frédéric; Desroy, Nicolas; Retière, Christian
The fate of recently settled populations of soft-bottom invertebrates depends not only on dispersal of pelagic larvae by tidal currents but also on other physical ( e. g. resuspension) and biological mechanisms ( e.g. habitat selection and adult-recruit interactions) acting at the water-substratum interface. To assess the relative importance of such processes under megatidal conditions in the Abra alba community of the eastern Baie de Seine (English Channel), flume experiments were conducted on post-larvae of the dominant polychaete species, Pectinaria koreni. Habitat selection by post-larvae of P. koreni was determined in a first set of experiments, where individuals were sowed either on a suitable or on an unsuitable substratum. Once resuspended, post-larvae were given a choice between two highly contrasting treatments with a natural organic-rich muddy sand and a bare flat PVC surface. P. koreni post-larvae were able to leave an unfavourable substratum into which they had initially burrowed and reach a more suitable substrate by drifting (induced by the secretion of mucus) before final settlement. The influence of adults on habitat selection and survival of P. koreni post-larvae was analysed in a second set of experiments, where individuals were sowed onto a suitable sediment with adults (test treatment) or without (control treatment). The presence of conspecific adults induced a high resuspension rate of the post-larvae. Drifting occurred mainly just after the introduction of the current and affected the whole experimental population, regardless of size. Such a response seems to be related to the intense bioturbation caused by the sub-surface deposit-feeding habit of the adults, which alters the boundary-layer flow. In contrast, the presence of adults of Owenia fusiformis, another dominant polychaete of the Abra alba community, led to an enhanced recruitment by a reduction in post-larvae resuspension. In fact, at low shear velocities, dense aggregates of tubes stabilize the sediment and so act as particle traps. Thus, in the megatidal environment of the Baie de Seine, physical conditions and behavioural responses interact and contribute to structuring the benthic community.
Sendall, Kelly; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I.
Abstract To the memory of William Ronald Sendall Sternaspid polychaetes are common and often abundant in soft bottoms in the world oceans. Some authors suggest that only one species should be recognized, whereas others regard a few species as widely distributed in many seas and variable depths from the low intertidal to about 4400 m. There are some problems with species delineation and the distinctive ventro-caudal shield has been disregarded or barely used for identifying species. In order to clarify these issues, the ventral shield is evaluated in specimens from the same locality and its diagnostic potential is confirmed. On this basis, a revision of Sternaspis Otto, 1821 (Polychaeta: Sternaspidae) is presented based upon type materials, or material collected from type localities. The sternaspid body, introvert hooks and shield show three distinct patterns, two genera have seven abdominal segments and tapered introvert hooks, and one genus has eight abdominal segments and spatulate introvert hooks. The ventro-caudal shield has three different patterns: stiff with ribs, and sometimes concentric lines, stiff with feebly-defined ribs but no concentric lines, and soft with firmly adhered sediment particles. Sternaspis is restricted to include species with seven abdominal segments, falcate introvert hooks, and stiff shields, often exhibiting radial ribs, concentric lines or both. Sternaspis includes, besides the type species, Sternaspis thalassemoides Otto, 1821 from the Mediterranean Sea, Sternaspis affinis Stimpson, 1864 from the Northeastern Pacific, Sternaspis africana Augener, 1918, stat. n. from Western Africa, Sternaspis andamanensis sp. n. from the Andaman Sea, Sternaspis costata von Marenzeller, 1879 from Japan, Sternaspis fossor Stimpson, 1853 from the Northwestern Atlantic, Sternaspis islandica Malmgren, 1867 from Iceland, Sternaspis maior Chamberlin, 1919 from the Gulf of California, Sternaspis princeps Selenka, 1885 from New Zealand, Sternaspis rietschi
Sendall, Kelly; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I
To the memory of William Ronald Sendall Sternaspid polychaetes are common and often abundant in soft bottoms in the world oceans. Some authors suggest that only one species should be recognized, whereas others regard a few species as widely distributed in many seas and variable depths from the low intertidal to about 4400 m. There are some problems with species delineation and the distinctive ventro-caudal shield has been disregarded or barely used for identifying species. In order to clarify these issues, the ventral shield is evaluated in specimens from the same locality and its diagnostic potential is confirmed. On this basis, a revision of Sternaspis Otto, 1821 (Polychaeta: Sternaspidae) is presented based upon type materials, or material collected from type localities. The sternaspid body, introvert hooks and shield show three distinct patterns, two genera have seven abdominal segments and tapered introvert hooks, and one genus has eight abdominal segments and spatulate introvert hooks. The ventro-caudal shield has three different patterns: stiff with ribs, and sometimes concentric lines, stiff with feebly-defined ribs but no concentric lines, and soft with firmly adhered sediment particles. Sternaspis is restricted to include species with seven abdominal segments, falcate introvert hooks, and stiff shields, often exhibiting radial ribs, concentric lines or both. Sternaspis includes, besides the type species, Sternaspis thalassemoides Otto, 1821 from the Mediterranean Sea, Sternaspis affinis Stimpson, 1864 from the Northeastern Pacific, Sternaspis africana Augener, 1918, stat. n. from Western Africa, Sternaspis andamanensis sp. n. from the Andaman Sea, Sternaspis costata von Marenzeller, 1879 from Japan, Sternaspis fossor Stimpson, 1853 from the Northwestern Atlantic, Sternaspis islandica Malmgren, 1867 from Iceland, Sternaspis maior Chamberlin, 1919 from the Gulf of California, Sternaspis princeps Selenka, 1885 from New Zealand, Sternaspis rietschi Caullery
Fiołka, Marta J; Zagaja, Mirosław P; Piersiak, Tomasz D; Wróbel, Marek; Pawelec, Jarosław
The new bacterial strain with antimycobacterial activity has been isolated from the midgut of Dendrobaena veneta (Annelida). Biochemical and molecular characterization of isolates from 18 individuals identified all as Raoultella ornithinolytica genus with 99% similarity. The bacterium is a possible symbiont of the earthworm D. veneta. The isolated microorganism has shown the activity against four strains of fast-growing mycobacteria: Mycobacterium butiricum, Mycobacterium jucho, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium phlei. The multiplication of the gut bacterium on plates with Sauton medium containing mycobacteria has caused a lytic effect. After the incubation of the cell free extract prepared from the gut bacterium with four strains of mycobacteria in liquid Sauton medium, the cells of all tested strains were deformed and divided to small oval forms and sometimes created long filaments. The effect was observed by the use of light, transmission and scanning microscopy. Viability of all examined species of mycobacteria was significantly decreased. The antimycobacterial effect was probably the result of the antibiotic action produced by the gut bacterium of the earthworm. The application of ultrafiltration procedure allowed to demonstrate that antimicrobial substance with strong antimycobacterial activity from bacterial culture supernatant, is a protein with the molecular mass above 100 kDa. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sun, Yanan; Wong, Eunice; ten Hove, Harry A; Hutchings, Pat A; Williamson, Jane E; Kupriyanova, Elena K
Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 is the largest and one of the economically most important genera of calcareous tubeworms (Serpulidae, Annelida) that includes a number of notorious fouling and bioinvading species. Although the representatives of the genus are typically found in shallow waters of tropical and subtropical areas worldwide, the species composition of the genus in Australia has never been revised. We conducted the first detailed regional taxonomic revision of Hydroides species based both on the historical collections from Australian museums (Australian Museum, Museum Victoria, South Australian Museum, Western Australian Museum, Queensland Museum, and Museum and Art Gallery of Northern Territory) and newly collected material from New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Northern Territory, and Western Australia. In total, 25 species are currently considered valid in Australia, including three new species: H. amri n. sp. from NSW, SA, and Vic (previously referred to as H. cf. brachyacantha), as well as H. glasbyi n. sp. and H. qiui n. sp., both from NT, and two new records of H. furcifera and H. multispinosa for Australia. We have synonymised H. spiratubus with H. albiceps, and H. spiculitubus with H. tambalagamensis in this study. The status of the taxon H. cf. recta remains undecided. An identification key and diagnoses accompanied by original high-quality photographs for all species recorded in Australia are provided. Application of molecular genetics is needed to resolve the status of some problematic species.
Brandt, Angelika; Linse, Katrin; Schüller, Myriam
The aim of this study is to compare the depth distributions of four major Southern Ocean macrobenthic epi- and infaunal taxa, the Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Isopoda, and Polychaeta, from subtidal to abyssal depth. All literature data up to summer 2008, as well as the unpublished data from the most recent ANDEEP I-III (Antarctic benthic deep-sea biodiversity: colonisation history and recent community patterns) expeditions to the Southern Ocean deep sea are included in the analysis. Benthic invertebrates in the Southern Ocean are known for their wide bathymetric ranges. We analysed the distributions of four of the most abundant and species-rich taxa from intertidal to abyssal (5200 m) depths in depth zones of 100 m. The depth distributions of three macrofaunal classes (Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Polychaeta) and one order (Isopoda) showed distinct differences. In the case of bivalves, gastropods and polychaetes, the number of species per depth zone decreased from the shelf to the slope at around 1000 m depth and then showed stable low numbers. The isopods showed the opposite trend; they were less species rich in the upper 1000 m but increased in species numbers from the slope to bathyal and abyssal depths. Depth ranges of families of the studied taxa (Bivalvia: 31 families, Gastropoda: 60, Isopoda: 32, and Polychaeta: 46 families) were compiled and illustrated. At present vast areas of the deep sea in the Southern Ocean remain unexplored and species accumulation curves showed that only a fraction of the species have been discovered to date. We anticipate that further investigations will greatly increase the number of species known in the Southern Ocean deep sea.
Wu, Xuwen; Sun, Ruiping; Liu, Ruiyu
A taxonomic survey of benthic marine animals from coastal regions of Hainan Island, South China Sea, revealed specimens of a new species of Eunice (Polychaeta: Eunicida: Eunicidae), Eunice uschakovi n. sp., collected from the intertidal zone. The species belongs to the group of Eunice that has yellow tridentate subacicular hooks and branchiae scattered over an extensive region of the body. It resembles E. miurai and E. havaica in having both bidentate and tridentate falcigers, but can be readily distinguished by branchial features. Comparisons between E. uschakovi and the two related species are presented.
Cuevas, N; Martins, M; Rodrigo, A P; Martins, C; Costa, P M
Motivated by biotechnological prospects, there is increasing evidence that we may just be scraping the tip of the iceberg of poisonous marine invertebrates, among which the Polychaeta are promising candidates for bioprospecting. Here we show that an inconspicuous phyllodocid uses toxins in its uncanny feeding strategy. The worm, a jawless active predator characterised by its bright green colour, preys on larger invertebrates (including conspecifics) by extracting tissue portions with its powerful proboscis through suction. The animal is even able to penetrate through the valves and plates of live molluscs and barnacles. Observations in situ and a series of experiments demonstrated that the worm compensates its simple anatomy with secretion of a novel toxin, or mixture of toxins, referred to by us as "phyllotoxins". These are carried by mucus and delivered via repeated contact with the tip of the proboscis until the prey is relaxed or immobilised (reversibly). Proteolytic action permeabilises material to toxins and softens tissue to enable extraction by suction. The findings show that toxins are a major ecological trait and therefore play a key role in evolutionary success and diversification of Polychaeta, demonstrating also that understanding adaptative features may become the best showcase for novel animal toxins.
Zrzavý, Jan; Říha, Pavel; Piálek, Lubomír; Janouškovec, Jan
Background Annelida is one of the major protostome phyla, whose deep phylogeny is very poorly understood. Recent molecular phylogenies show that Annelida may include groups once considered separate phyla (Pogonophora, Echiurida, and Sipunculida) and that Clitellata are derived polychaetes. SThe "total-evidence" analyses combining morphological and molecular characters have been published for a few annelid taxa. No attempt has yet been made to analyse simultaneously morphological and molecular information concerning the Annelida as a whole. Results Phylogenetic relationships within Annelida were analysed on the basis of 93 morphological characters and sequences of six genes (18S, 28S, and 16S rRNA, EF1α, H3, COI), altogether, 87 terminals of all annelid "families" and 3,903 informative characters, by Bayesian and maximum-parsimony methods. The analysis of the combined dataset yields the following scheme of relationships: Phyllodocida and Eunicida are monophyletic groups, together probably forming monophyletic Aciculata (incl. Orbiniidae and Parergodrilidae that form a sister group of the Eunicida). The traditional "Scolecida" and "Canalipalpata" are both polyphyletic, forming instead two clades: one including Cirratuliformia and the "sabelloid-spionoid clade" (incl. Sternaspis, Sabellidae-Serpulidae, Sabellariidae, Spionida s.str.), the other ("terebelloid-capitelloid clade") including Terebelliformia, Arenicolidae-Maldanidae, and Capitellidae-Echiurida. The Clitellata and "clitellate-like polychaetes" (Aeolosomatidae, Potamodrilidae, Hrabeiella) form a monophyletic group. The position of the remaining annelid groups is uncertain – the most problematic taxa are the Opheliidae-Scalibregmatidae clade, the Amphinomida-Aberranta clade, Apistobranchus, Chaetopteridae, Myzostomida, the Sipunculida-Dinophilidae clade, and the "core Archiannelida" (= Protodrilidae, Nerillidae, Polygordiidae, Saccocirridae). Conclusion The combined ("total-evidence") phylogenetic analysis
Kang, Kyoung Ho; Zhang, Litao; Zhang, Zhifeng; Sui, Zhenghong; Hur, Junwook
The polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis, a key species in estuarine ecosystems, can improve the culture condition of sediment. Endosulfan is an organochlorine pesticide used globally to control insects and mites; however, it is a source of pollution in aquaculture as a result of runoff or accidental release. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of endosulfan to polychaeta and its ability to improve polluted sediment. Specifically, the effects of a series of endosulfan concentrations (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mg/L) were investigated, and the results indicated that the 24-h median lethal concentration (24-h LC50) was 55.57 mg/L, while the 48-h median lethal concentration (48-h LC50) was 15.56 mg/L, and the safe concentration was about 1.556 mg/L. In a 30-d exposure experiment, the animal specimen could decompose endosulfan effectively while improving endosulfan-polluted aquatic sediment.
Capa, M; San Martín, G; López, E
This is the second paper on the Syllidae (Polychaeta) from hard substrata of the Coiba National Park (Pacific coast of Panama) (the first paper treated Syllinae). On this second paper nineteen species belonging to eleven genera of the subfamilies Autolytinae, Eusyllinae and Exogoninae (Syllidae: Polychaeta) are reported. The samples were collected by SCUBA diving, either by removing 4 kg blocks of dead coral (Pocillopora spp.) or scraping off 25 x 25 cm quadrats of Telesto multiflora or algae (Dyctiota cf. flavellata, Padina cf. durvillaei and another currently unidentified species). They were collected during four expeditions carried out between 1996 and 1998. Four species are newly reported for the Eastern Pacific: Eusyllis lamelligera Marion & Bobretzky, 1875, Exogone exmouthensis Hartmann-Schröder, 1980, Proceraea cf. cornuta (Agassiz, 1863) and Sphaerosyllis (S.) magnidentata Perkins, 1981. Ten species are reported for the first time from the Central America Pacific coast: Amblyosyllis cf. granosa Ehlers, 1897 (sensu Westheide 1974), Amblyosyllis speciosa Izuka, 1912, Autolytus multidenticulatus Westheide, 1974, Exogone naidinoides Westheide, 1974, Grubeosyllis concinna (Westheide, 1974), Odontosyllis fulgurans (Audouin & Milne Edward, 1833), Opisthodonta mitchelli Kudenov & Harris, 1995, Pionosyllis articulata Kudenov & Harris, 1995, Sphaerosyllis (S.) californiensis Hartman, 1966 and Syllides cf. reishi Dorsey, 1978. The family Syllidae is represented in the Coiba National Park by 14% of cosmopolitan species, 14% of circumtropical species, 22% of Atlantic and Pacific species and 25% of Pacific species restricted to warm waters. In samples of dead coral the dominant species are S. armillaris (Muller, 1771) and S. gracilis (Campoy, 1982); in samples of telestaceans Grubeosyllis concinna dominates.
Gil, João; Nishi, Eijiroh
Abstract Acromegalomma, nomen novum, is introduced as a replacement name for the polychaete genus Megalomma Johansson, 1926 (Annelida, Sabellidae), preoccupied by Megalomma Westwood, 1842 (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae). The historical background of the homonymy and a full list with 36 new combinations in the new genus are included, while two species are considered as species inquirenda. PMID:28769691
Zhang, Jinghuai; Hutchings, Pat
Benthic ecology monitoring in the northern South China Sea revealed many individuals of the polychaete genus Terebellides (Annelida), which are common in soft sediments in shallow waters (4.5-41.0 m). Three new species of Terebellides are described, including T. guangdongensis n. sp., T. yangi n. sp. and T. ectopium n. sp. Terebellides guangdongensis n. sp. is mainly found in Guangdong waters. Terebellides yangi n. sp. and T. ectopium n. sp. are mainly found in Beibu Gulf. A key to all described species of Terebellides from the Northwestern Pacific is given.
de Melo Tarouco, Fábio; de Godoi, Filipe Guilherme Andrade; Velasques, Robson Rabelo; da Silveira Guerreiro, Amanda; Geihs, Marcio Alberto; da Rosa, Carlos Eduardo
Glyphosate based herbicides, including Roundup, are widely employed in agriculture and urban spaces. The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicological effects of Roundup on the estuarine polychaeta Laeonereis acuta. Biomarkers of oxidative stress as well as acetylcholinesterase and propionilcholinesterase activities were analyzed. Firstly, the LC 50 96h for L. acuta was established (8.19mg/L). After, the animals were exposed to two Roundup concentrations: 3.25mg/L (non-observed effect concentration - NOEC) and 5.35mg/L (LC 10 ) for 24h and 96h. Oxygen consumption was determined and the animals were divided into three body regions (anterior, middle and posterior) for biochemical analysis. An inhibition of both cholinesterase isoforms were observed in animals exposed to both Roundup concentrations after 96h. A significant reactive oxygen species (ROS) reduction was observed in the posterior region of animals in both periods, while antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP) was reduced in the posterior region of animals exposed for 24h. Considering the antioxidant defense system, both GSH levels and enzyme activities (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione s-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and glutamate cysteine ligase) were not altered after exposure. Lipid peroxidation was reduced in all analyzed body regions in both Roundup concentrations after 24h. Animals exposed to the highest concentration presented a reduction in lipid peroxidation in the anterior region after 96h, while animals exposed to the lowest concentration presented a reduction in the middle region. Overall results indicate that Roundup exposure presents toxicity to L. acuta, causing a disruption in ROS and ACAP levels as well as affects the cholinergic system of this invertebrate species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Capa, María; Osborn, Karen J.; Bakken, Torkild
Abstract Sphaerodoridae (Annelida) is a seeming uncommon and minimally diverse group of polychaetes in the northwestern Atlantic, with only seven species reported from the United States, and none from the eastern coast of Canada, before the present study. Review of the large Smithsonian collection (National Museum of Natural History, Washington) revealed the presence of two morphologically extraordinary undescribed species and added a new record to the north-western Atlantic region. Euritmia carolensis sp. n. is characterised by bearing approximately 20 sessile spherical papillae arranged in three transverse rows per segment, ventrum with 4–6 larger papillae near the parapodial bases and parapodia without papillae; bearing 4–5 simple chaetae that are enlarged subdistally. Sphaerephesia amphorata sp. n. is distinguished from other congeners in the presence of four longitudinal rows of sessile, bottle-shaped macrotubercles with exceptionally long digitiform terminal papilla, and parapodia with four rounded and small papillae, bearing 4–7 compound chaetae, with blades 7–11 times as long as wide. Other encountered species are also herein re-described, including intraspecific variation and updated iconography. Comparison of material also allowed some systematic changes in the group, including the synonymisation of the genus Amacrodorum with Euritmia, and the transfer of Ephesiopsis shivae to Ephesiella. A key to the species reported from the Northwestern Atlantic is provided. PMID:27667938
Park, Chungoo; Han, Yong-Hee; Lee, Sung-Gwon; Ry, Kyoung-Bin; Oh, Jooseong; Kern, Elizabeth M A; Park, Joong-Ki; Cho, Sung-Jin
Echiurida is one of the most intriguing major subgroups of annelida because, unlike most other annelids, echiurids lack metameric body segmentation as adults. For this reason, transcriptome analyses from various developmental stages of echiurid species can be of substantial value for understanding precise expression levels and the complex regulatory networks during early and larval development. A total of 914 million raw RNA-Seq reads were produced from 14 developmental stages of Urechis unicinctus and were de novo assembled into contigs spanning 63,928,225 bp with an N50 length of 2700 bp. The resulting comprehensive transcriptome database of the early developmental stages of U. unicinctus consists of 20,305 representative functional protein-coding transcripts. Approximately 66% of unigenes were assigned to superphylum-level taxa, including Lophotrochozoa (40%). The completeness of the transcriptome assembly was assessed using benchmarking universal single-copy orthologs; 75.7% of the single-copy orthologs were presented in our transcriptome database. We observed 3 distinct patterns of global transcriptome profiles from 14 developmental stages and identified 12,705 genes that showed dynamic regulation patterns during the differentiation and maturation of U. unicinctus cells. We present the first large-scale developmental transcriptome dataset of U. unicinctus and provide a general overview of the dynamics of global gene expression changes during its early developmental stages. The analysis of time-course gene expression data is a first step toward understanding the complex developmental gene regulatory networks in U. unicinctus and will furnish a valuable resource for analyzing the functions of gene repertoires in various developmental phases.
Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I
Wesenbergia Hartman, 1955 (Annelida, Hesionidae) is both preoccupied and a junior homonym of Wesenbergia Kryger, 1943 (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae), and must be renamed. Elisesione nom. n. is proposed as a replacement name, derived from the combination of the first name of the discoverer, Elise Wesenberg-Lund, and Hesione Savigny in Lamarck, 1818. Elisesione mezianei sp. n. , is described from the Wallis and Futuna islands (southwest Pacific). A key to separate Elisesione mezianei sp. n. from its congener Elisesione problematica (Wesenberg-Lund, 1950) is included; further, the record of Elisesione problematica for Japan should be regarded as a distinct species because it has palps shorter than antennae (subequal in the type species), and shorter neurochaetal blades (7-9 times longer than wide vs 8-12 times longer than wide in the type species).
Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I.
Abstract Wesenbergia Hartman, 1955 (Annelida, Hesionidae) is both preoccupied and a junior homonym of Wesenbergia Kryger, 1943 (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae), and must be renamed. Elisesione nom. n. is proposed as a replacement name, derived from the combination of the first name of the discoverer, Elise Wesenberg-Lund, and Hesione Savigny in Lamarck, 1818. Elisesione mezianei sp. n., is described from the Wallis and Futuna islands (southwest Pacific). A key to separate Elisesione mezianei sp. n. from its congener Elisesione problematica (Wesenberg-Lund, 1950) is included; further, the record of Elisesione problematica for Japan should be regarded as a distinct species because it has palps shorter than antennae (subequal in the type species), and shorter neurochaetal blades (7–9 times longer than wide vs 8–12 times longer than wide in the type species). PMID:27920600
Shimabukuro, Maurício; Rizzo, Alexandra E.; Alfaro-Lucas, Joan M.; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Sumida, Paulo Y. G.
A new polychaete species, Sphaerodoropsis kitazatoi (Annelida: Phyllodocida: Sphaerodoridae), is described from the abyssal Southwest Atlantic Ocean at the base of São Paulo Ridge (4204 m depth). This species was found in sediments impacted by a whale carcass. The new species has four longitudinal rows of macrotubercles and one transversal row per chaetiger and shares several characters with S. anae Aguado and Rouse, 2006 that is also associated with chemosynthetic environments. They can be clearly distinguished from S. anae and other Sphaerodoropsis species by the arrangement and the number of prostomial, body and parapodial papillae.
James, J; Davidson, K E; Richardson, G; Grimstead, C; Cable, J
Biological invasions are a principal threat to global biodiversity and identifying the determinants of non-native species' success is a conservation priority. Through their ability to regulate host populations, parasites are increasingly considered as important in determining the outcome of species' invasions. Here, we present novel evidence that the common crayfish ecto-symbiont, Xironogiton victoriensis (Annelida: Clitellata) can affect the behaviour of a widespread and ecologically important invader, the signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus). To assess the signal crayfish-X. victoriensis relationship naïve crayfish were infested with an intensity of worms typically observed under natural conditions. Over a 10-week period the growth rate and survivorship of these animals was monitored and compared to those of uninfested counterparts. Complementary dyadic competition and foraging experiments were run to assess the behaviour of infested compared to uninfested animals. These data were analysed using General Linear Models and Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Whilst X. victoriensis did not affect the growth rate or survivorship of signal crayfish under laboratory conditions, infested animals were significantly less aggressive and poorer foragers than uninfested individuals. Through reducing aggression and foraging efficiency, infestation with X. victoriensis may disrupt the social structure, and potentially growth rate and/or dispersal of afflicted crayfish populations, with potential effects on their invasion dynamics. This is important given the widespread invasive range of crayfish and their functional roles as ecosystem engineers and keystone species.
Rodriguez, Pilar; Fend, Steven V.
Six new Nearctic species of the aquatic oligochaete genus Rhyacodrilus (Annelida, Clitellata, Rhyacodrilinae), are de-scribed, five (R. saelonae sp. n., R. quileuticus sp. n., R. clio sp. n., R. alcyoneus sp. n. and R. longichaeta sp. n.) from western and one (R. propiporus sp. n.) from eastern North America. The taxonomy of the most common Rhyacodrilus species reported in the Nearctic region has been based largely on chaetal characters, which has generated certain confu-sion. The new species give a new perspective on the genus Rhyacodrilus in North America, suggesting a much higher diversity than previously expected. The description of R. longichaeta sp. n. questions the taxonomic status of R. montana (Brinkhurst), which is here regarded as species inquirenda. The taxonomic status of R. sodalis (Eisen) is discussed based on characters of the reproductive system, the existing Lake Tahoe neotype series is invalidated, and a neotype is described from Eisen's type locality. Based on the discussion of the characters of the genus Rhyacodrilus, the genus Stochidrilus Martínez-Ansemil et al. is proposed as a junior synonym of that genus. The presence of the widely reported species R. coccineus has not been confirmed in the study collections, although the species requires a sound revision. A key to the species bearing hair chaetae is provided, based mainly on features of the reproductive system.
Qu, Fangyuan; Wang, Yuning; Rowe, Gilbert T.
Polychaete worms (Annelida), the dominant macrofaunal taxon in most fine-grained marine sediments, were sampled in 1983-85 and then again in 2000-02 at nine locations at depths of 324-1454 m. on the upper continental slope of the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM). The assemblages exhibited relative stability in abundance and diversity, but fell into six separate groups of species (>35% similarity) that were related to time-of-sampling, location, depth. This depth gradient experiences an increase in oxygen from 2.5 to 4.5 ml/L, a six degree decrease in temperature (10-12° down to 4 °C) and a decline of 30-37 mg C m-2 day-1 down to 7 mg C m-2 day-1 in estimates of the particulate organic carbon (POC) input to the sea floor, but these steep gradients had secondary effects on species turnover or depth-related zonation (Beta diversity). The species composition of four of the six groups was separated on the basis of sampling between 1983-85 and 2000-02 as opposed to depth or location. The species composition of the two groups on the eastern transect was different from the western sites and the two eastern groups differed in species composition from each other between 1983-85 and 2000-02. The two groups of species at the three deeper sites to the west (864-1410 m) were also separated on the basis of time-of-sampling but the group of species located at the three shallow locations (324-625 m) was not; it was a mixture of the two sampling periods. Significantly higher densities (p<0.05) in April 1984, on the eastern transect, suggest that seasonal recruitment may have occurred but the higher densities were attributed to only two species.
Lu, Yonggang; Aitken, Robert John; Lin, Minjie
For the first time, this study has systemically investigated the male reproductive system in a sessile broadcast-spawning marine invertebrate, Galeolaria caespitosa (Polychaeta: Serpulidae), which has significant potential as a bio-indicator species of coastal marine pollution. The abdomen of G. caespitosa was divided by intersegmental septa into over 80 trunk segments. Each segment served as a germinal chamber with a C-shaped gonadal arrangement consisting of several distinct compartments: a seminiferous epithelium (SE) compartment located in the centre of the chamber, with each of its two ends connecting to a nurse cell (NC) compartment and then an efferent duct (ED) compartment. The SE compartment contained a multilayered seminiferous epithelium where spermatogenesis was initiated. Spermatids were released in pairs into the lumen of the SE compartment and then transported to the NC compartment where they underwent spermiogenesis with the support of secretory vesicles released by the nurse cells. Spermatozoa were stored in the ED compartment and subsequently released into the seawater through the vas deferens. Unlike vertebrates where germ cells differentiated in close proximity to the nurse cell population (i.e. Sertoli cells), the spermatogenic cells of G. caespitosa exhibited no direct contact with supporting cells at any spermatogenic stage. This finding suggested that the spermatogenesis in G. caespitosa was more dependent on intrinsic developmental programming than most species. Notwithstanding such differences, there were clear parallels between the male reproductive system of G. caespitosa and mammals, in terms of the structure and function. The independence of spermatogenic cells from supporting cells in G. caespitosa raised the possibility of inducing spermiogenesis in vitro, which would provide a useful tool to dissect the mechanisms underlying this complex cell differentiation process in invertebrates and other higher order animals. PMID:28369153
Cordeiro, Lucas Freitas; Marques, Bianca Fell; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bogo, Maurício Reis; López, Gerardo; Pagano, Gisela; Külkamp-Guerreiro, Irene Clemes; Monserrat, José Maria
This study analyzed the growth and biochemical responses of six bacterial colonies isolated from the mucus of the estuarine polychaeta Laeonereis acuta (Nereididae) after exposure to a water suspension of fullerene (nC60) and nanosilver (nAg) separately (0.01; 0.10; and 1.00 mg/L) and together (0.01; 0.10; and 1.00 mg/L of nanosilver and 1.00 mg/L of fullerene added to each nAg concentration). Exposures were performed in darkness during 24 h and then samples were taken from the worms and inoculated on agar during 24 h to analyze colonies growth. After this the material was analyzed biochemically. Colonies growth (tested by wet biomass weight) was inhibited at 0.01 and 0.10 mg/L of nAg and 0.01 and 0.10 mg/L nAg + constant 1.00 mg/L of nC60 (p < 0.05). Lipid peroxidation damage was significant from the control for the concentrations of 0.01 and 0.10 mg/L of nC60 and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was significantly higher for the concentration of 1.00 mg/L mg/L nAg + constant 1.00 mg/L of nC60 (p < 0.05). Although nC60 did not induced growth inhibition, it triggered lipid peroxidation alone and increased GST activity together with nAg.60 Contrary to nC60, nanosilver inhibited bacterial growth, although the biochemical measurements indicate that this response is not due to reactive oxygen species generation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Yanjie; Sun, Jin; Chen, Chong; Watanabe, Hiromi K.; Feng, Dong; Zhang, Yu; Chiu, Jill M. Y.; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Qiu, Jian-Wen
Polynoid scale worms (Polynoidae, Annelida) invaded deep-sea chemosynthesis-based ecosystems approximately 60 million years ago, but little is known about their genetic adaptation to the extreme deep-sea environment. In this study, we reported the first two transcriptomes of deep-sea polynoids (Branchipolynoe pettiboneae, Lepidonotopodium sp.) and compared them with the transcriptome of a shallow-water polynoid (Harmothoe imbricata). We determined codon and amino acid usage, positive selected genes, highly expressed genes and putative duplicated genes. Transcriptome assembly produced 98,806 to 225,709 contigs in the three species. There were more positively charged amino acids (i.e., histidine and arginine) and less negatively charged amino acids (i.e., aspartic acid and glutamic acid) in the deep-sea species. There were 120 genes showing clear evidence of positive selection. Among the 10% most highly expressed genes, there were more hemoglobin genes with high expression levels in both deep-sea species. The duplicated genes related to DNA recombination and metabolism, and gene expression were only enriched in deep-sea species. Deep-sea scale worms adopted two strategies of adaptation to hypoxia in the chemosynthesis-based habitats (i.e., rapid evolution of tetra-domain hemoglobin in Branchipolynoe or high expression of single-domain hemoglobin in Lepidonotopodium sp.).
Parapar, Julio; Moreira, Juan
The study of material collected during routine monitoring surveys dealing with oil extraction and aquaculture in waters off Myanmar (North Andaman Sea) and in the Gulf of Thailand, respectively, allowed us to analyse the taxonomy and diversity of the polychaete genus Terebellides (Annelida). Three species were found, namely Terebellides cf. woolawa, Terebellides hutchingsae spec. nov. (a new species fully described and illustrated), and Terebellides sp. (likely a new species, but with only one available specimen). The new species is characterised by the combination of some branchial (number, fusion and relative length of lobes and papillation of lamellae), and thoracic (lateral lobes and relative length of notopodia) characters and is compared with all species described or reported in the SW Indo-Pacific area, as well as with those sharing similar morphological characteristics all around the world. The taxonomic relevance of the relative length of branchial lobes and different types of ciliature in branchial lamellae for species discrimination in the genus is discussed. A key to all Terebellides species described in SE Indo-Pacific waters is presented. PMID:27602280
Parapar, Julio; Moreira, Juan; Martin, Daniel
The study of material collected during routine monitoring surveys dealing with oil extraction and aquaculture in waters off Myanmar (North Andaman Sea) and in the Gulf of Thailand, respectively, allowed us to analyse the taxonomy and diversity of the polychaete genus Terebellides (Annelida). Three species were found, namely Terebellides cf. woolawa, Terebellides hutchingsae spec. nov. (a new species fully described and illustrated), and Terebellides sp. (likely a new species, but with only one available specimen). The new species is characterised by the combination of some branchial (number, fusion and relative length of lobes and papillation of lamellae), and thoracic (lateral lobes and relative length of notopodia) characters and is compared with all species described or reported in the SW Indo-Pacific area, as well as with those sharing similar morphological characteristics all around the world. The taxonomic relevance of the relative length of branchial lobes and different types of ciliature in branchial lamellae for species discrimination in the genus is discussed. A key to all Terebellides species described in SE Indo-Pacific waters is presented.
Capa, María; Murray, Anna
This comprehensive taxonomic work is the result of the study of fan worms (Sabellidae, Annelida) collected over the last 40 years from around the Lizard Island Archipelago, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Some species described herein are commonly found in Lizard Island waters but had not previously been formally reported in the literature. Most species appear to be not particularly abundant, and few specimens have been collected despite the sampling effort in the area over this time period. After this study, the overall sabellid diversity of the archipelago has been greatly increased (by more than 650%). Before this revision, only four sabellid species had been recorded for Lizard Island, and in this paper we report 31 species, 13 of which belong to nominal species, six are formally described as new species (Euchone danieloi n. sp., Euchone glennoi n. sp., Jasmineira gustavoi n. sp., Megalomma jubata n. sp., Myxicola nana n. sp., and Paradialychone ambigua n. sp.), and the identity of 12 species is still unknown (those referred as cf. or sp.). Two species are newly recorded in Australia and two in Queensland. The invasive species Branchiomma bairdi is reported for the first time at Lizard Island. The genus Paradialychone is reported for Australia for the first time. Standardised descriptions, general photographs of live and/or preserved specimens and distribution data are provided for all species. New species descriptions are accompanied by detailed illustrations and exhaustive morphological information. A dichotomous key for sabellid identification is also included.
Zhang, Yanjie; Sun, Jin; Chen, Chong; Watanabe, Hiromi K.; Feng, Dong; Zhang, Yu; Chiu, Jill M.Y.; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Qiu, Jian-Wen
Polynoid scale worms (Polynoidae, Annelida) invaded deep-sea chemosynthesis-based ecosystems approximately 60 million years ago, but little is known about their genetic adaptation to the extreme deep-sea environment. In this study, we reported the first two transcriptomes of deep-sea polynoids (Branchipolynoe pettiboneae, Lepidonotopodium sp.) and compared them with the transcriptome of a shallow-water polynoid (Harmothoe imbricata). We determined codon and amino acid usage, positive selected genes, highly expressed genes and putative duplicated genes. Transcriptome assembly produced 98,806 to 225,709 contigs in the three species. There were more positively charged amino acids (i.e., histidine and arginine) and less negatively charged amino acids (i.e., aspartic acid and glutamic acid) in the deep-sea species. There were 120 genes showing clear evidence of positive selection. Among the 10% most highly expressed genes, there were more hemoglobin genes with high expression levels in both deep-sea species. The duplicated genes related to DNA recombination and metabolism, and gene expression were only enriched in deep-sea species. Deep-sea scale worms adopted two strategies of adaptation to hypoxia in the chemosynthesis-based habitats (i.e., rapid evolution of tetra-domain hemoglobin in Branchipolynoe or high expression of single-domain hemoglobin in Lepidonotopodium sp.). PMID:28397791
Combined morphological and molecular data unveils relationships of Pseudobranchiomma (Sabellidae, Annelida) and reveals higher diversity of this intriguing group of fan worms in Australia, including potentially introduced species
Capa, María; Murray, Anna
Abstract Pseudobranchiomma (Sabellidae, Annelida) is a small and heterogeneous group of fan worms found in shallow marine environments and is generally associated with hard substrates. The delineation and composition of this genus is problematic since it has been defined only by plesiomorphic characters that are widely distributed among other sabellids. In this study we have combined morphological and molecular (mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences) data to evaluate species diversity in Australia and assess the phylogenetic relationships of these and other related sabellids. Unlike morphological data alone, molecular data and combined datasets suggest monophyly of Pseudobranchiomma. In this study, a new species of Pseudobranchiomma is described and three others are considered as potential unintentional introductions to Australian waters, one of them reported for the first time for the continent. Pseudobranchiomma pallida sp. n. bears 4–6 serrations along the radiolar flanges, lacks radiolar eyes and has uncini with three transverse rows of teeth over the main fang. In the new species the colour pattern as well is characteristic and species specific. PMID:27843378
Worldwide, there are over 600 species of leeches described which occur in freshwater, marine, estuarine, and moist-terrestrial ecosystems. Leeches are included in the Class Clitellata, Subclass Hirudinida, and Superorder Euhirudinea. Seven of the ten families of leeches occur in...
Amon, Diva J; Ziegler, Amanda F; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Grischenko, Andrei V; Leitner, Astrid B; Lindsay, Dhugal J; Voight, Janet R; Wicksten, Mary K; Young, Craig M; Smith, Craig R
There is growing interest in mining polymetallic nodules from the abyssal Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Despite having been the focus of environmental studies for decades, the benthic megafauna of the CCZ remain poorly known. To predict and manage the environmental impacts of mining in the CCZ, baseline knowledge of the megafauna is essential. The ABYSSLINE Project has conducted benthic biological baseline surveys in the UK Seabed Resources Ltd polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area (UK-1). Prior to ABYSSLINE research cruises in 2013 and 2015, no biological studies had been done in this area of the eastern CCZ. Using a Remotely Operated Vehicle and Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (as well as several other pieces of equipment), the megafauna within the UK Seabed Resources Ltd exploration contract area (UK-1) and at a site ~250 km east of the UK-1 area were surveyed, allowing us to make the first estimates of megafaunal morphospecies richness from the imagery collected. Here, we present an atlas of the abyssal annelid, arthropod, bryozoan, chordate, ctenophore and molluscan megafauna observed and collected during the ABYSSLINE cruises to the UK-1 polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area in the CCZ. There appear to be at least 55 distinct morphospecies (8 Annelida, 12 Arthropoda, 4 Bryozoa, 22 Chordata, 5 Ctenophora, and 4 Mollusca) identified mostly by morphology but also using molecular barcoding for a limited number of animals that were collected. This atlas will aid the synthesis of megafaunal presence/absence data collected by contractors, scientists and other stakeholders undertaking work in the CCZ, ultimately helping to decipher the biogeography of the megafauna in this threatened habitat.
Ziegler, Amanda F; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Grischenko, Andrei V; Leitner, Astrid B; Lindsay, Dhugal J; Voight, Janet R; Wicksten, Mary K; Young, Craig M; Smith, Craig R
Abstract Background There is growing interest in mining polymetallic nodules from the abyssal Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Despite having been the focus of environmental studies for decades, the benthic megafauna of the CCZ remain poorly known. To predict and manage the environmental impacts of mining in the CCZ, baseline knowledge of the megafauna is essential. The ABYSSLINE Project has conducted benthic biological baseline surveys in the UK Seabed Resources Ltd polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area (UK-1). Prior to ABYSSLINE research cruises in 2013 and 2015, no biological studies had been done in this area of the eastern CCZ. New information Using a Remotely Operated Vehicle and Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (as well as several other pieces of equipment), the megafauna within the UK Seabed Resources Ltd exploration contract area (UK-1) and at a site ~250 km east of the UK-1 area were surveyed, allowing us to make the first estimates of megafaunal morphospecies richness from the imagery collected. Here, we present an atlas of the abyssal annelid, arthropod, bryozoan, chordate, ctenophore and molluscan megafauna observed and collected during the ABYSSLINE cruises to the UK-1 polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area in the CCZ. There appear to be at least 55 distinct morphospecies (8 Annelida, 12 Arthropoda, 4 Bryozoa, 22 Chordata, 5 Ctenophora, and 4 Mollusca) identified mostly by morphology but also using molecular barcoding for a limited number of animals that were collected. This atlas will aid the synthesis of megafaunal presence/absence data collected by contractors, scientists and other stakeholders undertaking work in the CCZ, ultimately helping to decipher the biogeography of the megafauna in this threatened habitat. PMID:28874906
Type material of Acanthocephala, Nematoda and other non-helminths phyla (Cnidaria, Annelida, and Arthropoda) housed in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/ FIOCRUZ (CHIOC), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1979 to 2016.
Lopes, Daniela A; Gomes, Delir Corrêa; Knoff, Marcelo
The third part of the catalogue of type material in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/FIOCRUZ (CHIOC), comprising types deposited between 1979 and 2016, is presented to complement the first list of all types that was published in 1979. This part encompasses Acanthocephala, Nematoda and the other non-helminth phyla Cnidaria, Annelida, and Arthropoda. Platyhelminthes was covered in the first (Monogenoidea) and second (Rhabditophora Trematoda and Cestoda) parts of the catalogue published in September 2016 and March 2017, respectively. The present catalogue comprises type material for 116 species distributed across five phyla, nine classes, 50 families, and 80 genera. Specific names are listed systematically, followed by type host, infection site, type locality, and specimens with their collection numbers and references. Species classification and nomenclature are updated.
Type material of Acanthocephala, Nematoda and other non-helminths phyla (Cnidaria, Annelida, and Arthropoda) housed in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/ FIOCRUZ (CHIOC), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1979 to 2016
Lopes, Daniela A.; Gomes, Delir Corrêa; Knoff, Marcelo
Abstract The third part of the catalogue of type material in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/FIOCRUZ (CHIOC), comprising types deposited between 1979 and 2016, is presented to complement the first list of all types that was published in 1979. This part encompasses Acanthocephala, Nematoda and the other non-helminth phyla Cnidaria, Annelida, and Arthropoda. Platyhelminthes was covered in the first (Monogenoidea) and second (Rhabditophora Trematoda and Cestoda) parts of the catalogue published in September 2016 and March 2017, respectively. The present catalogue comprises type material for 116 species distributed across five phyla, nine classes, 50 families, and 80 genera. Specific names are listed systematically, followed by type host, infection site, type locality, and specimens with their collection numbers and references. Species classification and nomenclature are updated. PMID:29134026
A new species and new record of the commensal genus Alcyonosyllis Glasby & Watson, 2001 and a new species of Parahaplosyllis Hartmann-Schröder, 1990, (Annelida: Syllidae: Syllinae) from Philippines Islands.
Alvarez-Campos, Patricia; Martín, Guillermo San; Aguado, M Teresa
A new species of Alcyonosyllis (Annelida: Syllidae), A. aidae n.sp. is described from Luzón island, Philippines, associated with the alcyonacean Dendronephthya sp. (Nephthydae). This is the sixth known species of this genus living in the Indo-Pacific region. The new species differs from other Alcyonosyllis in having long and slender cirri with the first pair of dorsal cirri slightly thicker than remaining, bidentate chaetae with distal tooth larger than proximal one, and a distinct colour pattern, with a median longitudinal, slender reddish line, and two wider lateral bands, giving a tri-lineate appearance. A new report of the recently described species, A. hinterkircheri, previously known only from an area close to Bohol, in Philippines, is also included, being the first report of this species in Luzón Island. A new species of the genus Parahaplosyllis Hartmann-Schröder, 1990, is also described. Up to now, only the type species of the genus was known, from New South Wales, Australia; this is the second known species of this genus. It differs from P. brevicirra Hartmann-Schröder, 1990 by having unidentate dorsal simple chaetae (instead of bidentate ones as in P. brevicirra), ventral simple chaeta with shorter and less curved basal spur, more distinctly articulated dorsal cirri, with a long distal article, and a shorter proventricle. Finally, new different types of stolons are described for both genera.
Wilson, Robin S; Greaves, Elizabeth
The first records of the phyllodocid genus Clavadoce are provided from Australia, where the fifth species in the genus is now known: Clavadoce dorsolobata (Hartmann-Schröder, 1987) comb. nov. which is widely distributed in intertidal habitats in southeastern Australia. Clavadoce dorsolobata was described as Eumida (Sige) dorsolobata Hartmann-Schröder, 1987 and herein transferred to Clavadoce. Five species of Clavadoce are now known world wide, four of which are from different regions on the Pacific Ocean margin, while Clavadoce cristata is from the North Atlantic. The Australian species is the first record of Clavadoce for the southern hemisphere.
Clemo, W. C.; Dorgan, K. M.
Polychaetes exhibit diverse feeding strategies and diets, with some species possessing hardened teeth or jaws of varying complexity. Species in the order Eunicida have complex, rigidly articulated jaws consisting of multiple pairs of maxillae and a pair of mandibles. While all Eunicida possess this general jaw structure, a number of characteristics of the jaw parts vary considerably among families. These differences, described for fossilized and extant species' jaws, were used to infer evolutionary relationships, but current phylogeny shows that jaw structures that are similar among several families are convergent. Little has been done, however, to relate jaw functional morphology and feeding behavior to diet. To explore these relationships, we compared the jaw kinematics of two taxa with similar but evolutionarily convergent jaw structures: Diopatra (Onuphidae) and Lumbrineris (Lumbrineridae). Diopatra species are tube-dwelling and predominantly herbivorous, whereas Lumbrineris species are burrowing carnivores. Jaw kinematics were observed and analyzed by filming individuals biting or feeding and tracking tooth movements in videos. Differences in jaw structure and kinematics between Diopatra and Lumbrineris can be interpreted to be consistent with their differences in diet. Relating jaw morphology to diet would provide insight into early annelid communities by linking fossil teeth (scolecodonts) to the ecological roles of extant species with similar morphologies.
Lücht, Joachim; Pfannenstiel, Hans-Dieter
Stage 1 of spermatogenesis in the protandrous polychaete Platynereis massiliensis is represented by clusters of about 60 spermatogonia which appear in the coelomic cavity. There are no testes in P. massiliensis. The origin of the spermatogonial clusters is not known. Subclusters of approximately 20 primary spermatocytes each represent stage 2. The appearance of synaptonemal figures in the spermatocyte nuclei marks the beginning of stage 3. Cells tend to lose their tight packing during stage 3 but interdigitate with cellular processes. Then very small subclusters of 4 to 8 spermatocytes appear. Meiosis is completed during stage 4, giving rise to secondary spermatocytes and then to spermatid tetrads. Spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes are interconnected by structurally specialized fusomes while secondary spermatocytes and spermatids, which are also in cytoplasmic continuity, show rather simple cell bridges. Synthesis of acrosomal material starts during stage 2. During spermiogenesis the proacrosomal vesicles of Golgi origin travel from the posterior part of the cell to its anterior part to form the acrosome proper. Acrosome formation, nuclear condensation, shaping of the long and slender sperm nucleus, and development of the sperm tail are the main events during spermiogenesis. Sperm morphology is briefly discussed wity respect to its phylogenetic bearings.
Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I.
Abstract Ilyphagus Chamberlin, 1919 includes abyssal, fragile benthic species. Most species have large cephalic cages but chaetae are brittle and easily lost which may explain why the original definition included species with a cephalic cage or without it. The type species, Ilyphagus bythincola Chamberlin, 1919, together with another species (Ilyphagus pluto Chamberlin, 1919) were described as lacking a cephalic cage whereas a third species (Ilyphagus ascendens Chamberlin, 1919) was described with one. To clarify this situation, all available type and non-type materials were studied. Ilyphagus is redefined to include species with digitiform bodies, abundant filiform papillae and a thin body wall; their neurochaetae are thick, anchylosed aristate spines, and all species have a cephalic cage (in the type species the presence of a cage is inferred from the remaining chaetal scars). Ilyphagus pluto, which also lacks a a cephalic cage is determined here to be a holothurian. The redefined genus contains Ilyphagus bythincola (incl. Ilyphagus ascendens), Ilyphagus coronatus Monro, 1939, Ilyphagus hirsutus Monro, 1937, and Ilyphagus wyvillei (McIntosh, 1885). PMID:22639528
Twenty-one lotic and lentic environments throughout central and northern Arkansas were surveyed for the presence of leeches during June 2004, and April, July - October, 2005. Fourteen species of leeches (Desserobdella cryptobranchii, Desserobdella phalera, Desserobdella picta, H...
The toxicity of metals to earthworms and the residues of metals found in earthworms are reviewed. Meta 1 concentrations are rarely high enough to be toxic to worms, but copper may reduce populations in orchards heavily treated with fungicides and in soil contaminated with pig wastes. The metals in some industrial sewage sludges may interfere with using sludge in vermiculture. Storage ratios (the concentration of a metal in worms divided by the concentration in soil) tend to be highest in infertile soil and lowest in media rich in organic matter, such as sewage sludge. Cadmium, gold, and selenium are highly concentrated by worms. Lead concentrations in worms may be very high, but are generally lower than concentrations in soil. Body burdens of both copper and zinc seem to be regulated by worms. Because worms are part of the food webs of many wildlife species, and also because they are potentially valuable feed supplements for domestic animals, the possible toxic effects of cadmium and other metals should be studied. Worms can make metals more available to food webs and can redistribute them in soil.
Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I; González, Norma Emilia; Salazar-Silva, Patricia
Among polychaetes, polynoids have the highest number of symbiotic species found living with a wide variety of marine invertebrates, including other polychaetes. Lepidasthenia Malmgren, 1867 and Lepidametria Webster, 1879 were regarded as synonyms but belong to different subfamilies, although both have species associated with thelepodid or terebellid polychaetes. In this contribution Lepidasthenia loboi sp. n. is described from several specimens associated with the thelepodid Thelepus antarcticus Kinberg, 1867, collected on a rocky shore near Puerto Madryn, Argentina. Lepidasthenia loboi sp. n. can be confused with Lepidasthenia esbelta Amaral & Nonato, 1982 because both live with Thelepus, are of similar sizes with similar pigmentation patterns, and have giant neurochaetae. However, in Lepidasthenia loboi sp. n. all eyes are of the same size, cephalic and parapodial cirri are tapered and mucronate, the second pair of elytra is larger than the third, the ventral cirri arise at the base of parapodia such that they do not reach chaetal lobe tips, and neuraciculae are tapered. On the contrary, in Lepidasthenia esbelta the posterior eyes are larger than anterior ones, cephalic and parapodial appendages are swollen subdistally, the second and third pairs of elytra are of the same size, the ventral cirri arise medially such that their tips reach the neurochaetal lobe tips, and the neuraciculae have falcate tips. Some comments about other genera in the Lepidastheniinae, a simplified key to its genera, and a key to Lepidasthenia species with giant neurochaetae are also included.
Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I.; González, Norma Emilia; Salazar-Silva, Patricia
Abstract Among polychaetes, polynoids have the highest number of symbiotic species found living with a wide variety of marine invertebrates, including other polychaetes. Lepidasthenia Malmgren, 1867 and Lepidametria Webster, 1879 were regarded as synonyms but belong to different subfamilies, although both have species associated with thelepodid or terebellid polychaetes. In this contribution Lepidasthenia loboi sp. n. is described from several specimens associated with the thelepodid Thelepus antarcticus Kinberg, 1867, collected on a rocky shore near Puerto Madryn, Argentina. Lepidasthenia loboi sp. n. can be confused with Lepidasthenia esbelta Amaral & Nonato, 1982 because both live with Thelepus, are of similar sizes with similar pigmentation patterns, and have giant neurochaetae. However, in Lepidasthenia loboi sp. n. all eyes are of the same size, cephalic and parapodial cirri are tapered and mucronate, the second pair of elytra is larger than the third, the ventral cirri arise at the base of parapodia such that they do not reach chaetal lobe tips, and neuraciculae are tapered. On the contrary, in Lepidasthenia esbelta the posterior eyes are larger than anterior ones, cephalic and parapodial appendages are swollen subdistally, the second and third pairs of elytra are of the same size, the ventral cirri arise medially such that their tips reach the neurochaetal lobe tips, and the neuraciculae have falcate tips. Some comments about other genera in the Lepidastheniinae, a simplified key to its genera, and a key to Lepidasthenia species with giant neurochaetae are also included. PMID:26798303
Del-Pilar-Ruso, Yoana; De-la-Ossa-Carretero, Jose Antonio; Giménez-Casalduero, Francisca; Sánchez-Lizaso, Jose Luis
Desalination is a growing activity that has introduced a new impact, brine discharge, which may affect benthic communities. Although the role of polychaetes as indicators to assess organic pollution is well known, their tolerance to salinity changes has not been examined to such a great extent. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of brine discharge over soft bottom polychaete assemblage along the Alicante coast (Southeast Spain) over a two year period. Changes in the polychaete assemblage was analysed using univariate and multivariate techniques. We compared a transect in front of the discharge with two controls. At each transect we sampled at three depths (4, 10 and 15 m) during winter and summer. We have observed different sensitivity of polychaete families to brine discharges, Ampharetidae being the most sensitive, followed by Nephtyidae and Spionidae. Syllidae and Capitellidae showed some resistance initially, while Paraonidae proved to be a tolerant family.
Caudal regeneration was investigated in decerebrate Anaitides mucosa and in brain-intact individuals. Both groups show an identical capacity to regenerate lost caudal segments. Furthermore there is no difference in males and females. Low temperature (5 °C) inhibits the regeneration of caudal segments, but it is necessary for normal oogenesis. Under conditions of high temperature (15 °C), caudal regeneration is very extensive. At the same time degeneration of most oocytes occurs.
De Smet, Bart; Fournier, Jérôme; De Troch, Marleen; Vincx, Magda; Vanaverbeke, Jan
The potential of ecosystem engineers to modify the structure and dynamics of food webs has recently been hypothesised from a conceptual point of view. Empirical data on the integration of ecosystem engineers and food webs is however largely lacking. This paper investigates the hypothesised link based on a field sampling approach of intertidal biogenic aggregations created by the ecosystem engineer Lanice conchilega (Polychaeta, Terebellidae). The aggregations are known to have a considerable impact on the physical and biogeochemical characteristics of their environment and subsequently on the abundance and biomass of primary food sources and the macrofaunal (i.e. the macro-, hyper- and epibenthos) community. Therefore, we hypothesise that L. conchilega aggregations affect the structure, stability and isotopic niche of the consumer assemblage of a soft-bottom intertidal food web. Primary food sources and the bentho-pelagic consumer assemblage of a L. conchilega aggregation and a control area were sampled on two soft-bottom intertidal areas along the French coast and analysed for their stable isotopes. Despite the structural impacts of the ecosystem engineer on the associated macrofaunal community, the presence of L. conchilega aggregations only has a minor effect on the food web structure of soft-bottom intertidal areas. The isotopic niche width of the consumer communities of the L. conchilega aggregations and control areas are highly similar, implying that consumer taxa do not shift their diet when feeding in a L. conchilega aggregation. Besides, species packing and hence trophic redundancy were not affected, pointing to an unaltered stability of the food web in the presence of L. conchilega. PMID:26496349
Fiołka, Marta J; Zagaja, Mirosław P; Hułas-Stasiak, Monika; Wielbo, Jerzy
In the present study, lysozyme-like activity against Micrococcus luteus was detected in the coelomic fluid, the extract from coelomocytes, intestine and in the homogenates from cocoons of Dendrobaena veneta. Four hours after immunization with Escherichia coli, the lysozyme activity in the coelomic fluid increased about three times and in the extract of coelomocytes - four times, in comparison to the control. In three cases: of the coelomic fluid, the homogenates from cocoons and the extract from coelomocytes, the antibody against HEWL (hen egg white lysozyme) recognized only one protein with a molecular mass of about 14.4 kDa. In the coelomic fluid, apart from the protein with molecular mass of 14.4 kDa the antibody directed against human lysozyme recognized an additional protein of 22 kDa. Using the bioautography technique after electrophoretic resolution of native proteins in acidic polyacrylamide gels, two lytic zones of M. luteus were observed in the case of the coelomic fluid and three after the analysis of the extract of coelomocytes and the egg homogenates. The results indicated the existence of several forms of lysozyme with a different electric charge in the analyzed D. veneta samples. The highest lysozyme activity in the intestine of D. veneta was observed in the midgut. The antibody directed against human lysozyme indicated a strong positive signal in epidermal and midgut cells of earthworm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Earthworms are key components of many terrestrial ecosystems; however, little is known of their ecology, distribution, and taxonomy in the eastern interior Columbia River basin assessment area (hereafter referred to as the basin assessment area). This report summarizes the main issues about the ecology of earthworms and their impact on the physical and chemical status...
Background Paired mushroom bodies, an unpaired central complex, and bilaterally arranged clusters of olfactory glomeruli are among the most distinctive components of arthropod neuroarchitecture. Mushroom body neuropils, unpaired midline neuropils, and olfactory glomeruli also occur in the brains of some polychaete annelids, showing varying degrees of morphological similarity to their arthropod counterparts. Attempts to elucidate the evolutionary origin of these neuropils and to deduce an ancestral ground pattern of annelid cerebral complexity are impeded by the incomplete knowledge of annelid phylogeny and by a lack of comparative neuroanatomical data for this group. The present account aims to provide new morphological data for a broad range of annelid taxa in order to trace the occurrence and variability of higher brain centers in segmented worms. Results Immunohistochemically stained preparations provide comparative neuroanatomical data for representatives from 22 annelid species. The most prominent neuropil structures to be encountered in the annelid brain are the paired mushroom bodies that occur in a number of polychaete taxa. Mushroom bodies can in some cases be demonstrated to be closely associated with clusters of spheroid neuropils reminiscent of arthropod olfactory glomeruli. Less distinctive subcompartments of the annelid brain are unpaired midline neuropils that bear a remote resemblance to similar components in the arthropod brain. The occurrence of higher brain centers such as mushroom bodies, olfactory glomeruli, and unpaired midline neuropils seems to be restricted to errant polychaetes. Conclusions The implications of an assumed homology between annelid and arthropod mushroom bodies are discussed in light of the 'new animal phylogeny'. It is concluded that the apparent homology of mushroom bodies in distantly related groups has to be interpreted as a plesiomorphy, pointing towards a considerably complex neuroarchitecture inherited from the last common ancestor, Urbilateria. Within the annelid radiation, the lack of mushroom bodies in certain groups is explained by widespread secondary reductions owing to selective pressures unfavorable for the differentiation of elaborate brains. Evolutionary pathways of mushroom body neuropils in errant polychaetes remain enigmatic. PMID:20441583
Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I; Carrera-Parra, Luis F; Muir, Alexander I; De León-González, Jesús Angel; Piotrowski, Christina; Sato, Masanori
The South China and Philippine Seas are among the most diverse regions in the Western Pacific. Although there are several local polychaete checklists available, there is none comprising the whole of this region. Presented herein is a comprehensive list of the original names of all polychaete species described from the region. The list contains 1037 species, 345 genera and 60 families; the type locality, type depository, and information regarding synonymy are presented for each species.
Schiedek, Doris; Schöttler, Udo
The mode of anaerobic energy production of juvenile Arenicola marina (0-generation) was investigated under experimental conditions and in the biotope. Under experimental anaerobic conditions, juvenile A. marina produce energy by the pathways known from the adults and other euryoxic invertebrates with succinate and the volatile fatty acids, acetate and propionate, as main end products. However, the juvenile lugworms are less resistent to anoxia than the adults. The reasons for this might be their small glycogen stores and their limited ability to reduce the metabolic rate. Nevertheless, on the tidal flats the juveniles settle particularly in the area next to the high tide line, which offers such extreme conditions that adult lugworms cannot live there. This different behaviour can be explained by the dissimilar ability to use oxygen at very low partial pressures. Juveniles maintain an aerobic energy metabolism even at a PWO 2 of 15 Torr at which adults are forced to produce energy exclusively by the less effective anaerobic mode. In the field, no indications of an anaerobic energy metabolism were detected in juveniles even after an exposure of 8 hours.
Background Osedax worms use a proliferative root system to extract nutrients from the bones of sunken vertebrate carcasses. The roots contain bacterial endosymbionts that contribute to the nutrition of these mouthless and gutless worms. The worms acquire these essential endosymbionts locally from the environment in which their larvae settle. Here we report on the temporal dynamics of endosymbiont diversity hosted by nine Osedax species sampled during a three-year investigation of an experimental whale fall at 1820-m depth in the Monterey Bay, California. The host species were identified by their unique mitochondrial COI haplotypes. The endosymbionts were identified by ribotyping with PCR primers specifically designed to target Oceanospirillales. Results Thirty-two endosymbiont ribotypes associated with these worms clustered into two distinct bacterial ribospecies that together comprise a monophyletic group, mostly restricted to deep waters (>1000 m). Statistical analyses confirmed significant changes in the relative abundances of host species and the two dominant endosymbiont ribospecies during the three-year sampling period. Bone type (whale vs. cow) also had a significant effect on host species, but not on the two dominant symbiont ribospecies. No statistically significant association existed between the host species and endosymbiont ribospecies. Conclusions Standard PCR and direct sequencing proved to be an efficient method for ribotyping the numerically dominant endosymbiont strains infecting a large sample of host individuals; however, this method did not adequately represent the frequency of mixed infections, which appears to be the rule rather than an exception for Osedax individuals. Through cloning and the use of experimental dilution series, we determined that minority ribotypes constituting less than 30% of a mixture would not likely be detected, leading to underestimates of the frequency of multiple infections in host individuals. PMID:23006795
Kruse, Inken; Strasser, Matthias; Thiermann, Frank
The concept of ecological speciation implies that habitat differences may split a species by strong selection and rapid adaptation even under sympatric conditions. Studies on the polychaete Scoloplos armiger in the Wadden Sea (North Sea) indicate sibling species existing in sympatry: the intertidal 'Type I' with holobenthic development out of egg cocoons and the subtidal 'Type S' producing pelagic larvae. In the current study, Types I and S are compared in habitat-related traits of reproductive timing and physiological response to hypoxia and sulphide. Spawnings of Type I and Type S recorded over six years overlap in spring and both appear to be triggered by a rise in seawater temperature above 5 °C. Type S exhibits an additional autumn spawning (at seawater temperatures around 10 °C) which was previously unknown and is absent in Type I. The overall abundance of pelagic larvae in the Wadden Sea is higher in spring than in autumn. Tolerance of both sulphide and hypoxia was lower in Type S than in Type I. This correlates with a 5 to 10-fold lower sulphide concentration in the subtidal compared to the intertidal habitat. Physiological tolerance and divergence in developmental mode appear as traits which may have led to reproductive isolation between Type I and Type S. Their role in allopatric and sympatric speciation scenarios in S. armiger is discussed. Since the pelagic dispersal mode has been neglected so far, a reassessment of population dynamics models for S. armiger is suggested.
Blake, James A
The orbiniid polychaetes chiefly from Antarctic and subantarctic seas and off South America are described based on collections of the National Museum of Natural History and new material from surveys conducted by the United States Antarctic Program and other federal and privately funded sources as well as participation in international programs. A total of 44 species of Orbiniidae distributed in 10 genera are reported from the Pacific Ocean and waters off South America and Antarctica. Twenty-one species are new to science; one species is renamed. Berkeleyia heroae n. sp., B. abyssala n. sp., B. weddellia n. sp.; B. hadala n. sp., Leitoscoloplos simplex n. sp., L. plataensis n. sp., L. nasus n. sp., L. eltaninae n. sp., L. phyllobranchus n. sp., L. rankini n. sp., Scoloplos bathytatus n. sp., S. suroestense n. sp., Leodamas hyphalos n. sp., L. maciolekae n. sp., L. perissobranchiatus n. sp., Califia bilamellata n. sp., Orbinia orensanzi n. sp., Naineris antarctica n. sp., N. argentiniensis n. sp., Orbiniella spinosa n. sp., and O. landrumae n. sp. are new to science. A new name, Naineris furcillata, replaces N. chilensis Carrasco, 1977, a junior homonym of N. dendtritica chilensis Hartmann‑Schröder, 1965, which is raised to full species status. Leodamas cochleatus (Ehlers, 1900) is removed from synonymy and redescribed. A neotype is established for Leodamas verax Kinberg, 1966, the type species. A general overview of Leodamas species is provided. The Leitoscoloplos kerguelensis (McIntosh, 1885) complex is reviewed and partially revised. Definitions of the genera of the Orbiniidae are updated to conform to recently described taxa. Several new synonymies are proposed following a reexamination of previously described type specimens. The morphological characters used to identify and classify orbiniids are reviewed. The biogeographic and bathymetric distributions of the South American and Southern Ocean orbiniid fauna are reviewed.
Queirós, José Pedro; Ravara, Ascensão; Eilertsen, Mari H.; Kongsrud, Jon A.; Hilário, Ana
Sunken whale carcasses, known as "whale falls", deliver large, but relatively ephemeral pulses of organic material to the seafloor and serve as habitat for unique assemblages of deep-sea fauna that include generalist-scavenging species, chemosynthetic fauna and bone-specialist species. Despite the great deal of interest that fauna associated with whale falls have attracted, very little is known about this fauna in the deep Atlantic Ocean. Here we describe a new species of Ampharetidae that was found in an experiment using cow carcasses in the Setúbal Canyon (NE Atlantic), as a surrogate of a whale fall. Further, we analyse the size and structure of the population at two different times and use histological analyses to investigate the reproductive biology of this new species. We propose that Paramytha ossicola sp. nov. is a bone-specialist adapted for life in ephemeral habitats. Reproductive traits include rapid maturation, continuous and non-synchronous gametogenesis. Recruitment seems to be controlled by habitat availability and biological interactions that result in post-settlement mortality.
Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I.; Buzhinskaja, Galina
Abstract Diplocirrus Haase, 1915, includes flabelligerids having cylindrical to club-shaped bodies, with cirriform papillae, multiarticulate chaetae in both parapodial rami, 8 branchial filaments of two types (thick and rarely lamellate, or cirriform), gonopodial lobes in chaetigers 5 or 6, or multiple gonopores along some anterior chaetigers. Bradiella Rullier, 1965, has included only the type species: Bradiella branchiata Rullier, 1965, described from Eastern Australia. The original description has been overlooked and it lacked enough details on branchial and chaetal features. Diversibranchius Buzhinskaja, 1993, with Diplocirrus nicolaji Buzhinskaja, 1994, as the type species, was introduced for a similar species from the Japan Sea. These two monotypic genera share the same morphologic features with Diplocirrus, and are herein regarded as its junior synonyms. As herein redefined, Diplocirrus includes, besides its type species, Diplocirrus glaucus (Malmgren, 1867)from Scandinavia : Diplocirrus branchiatus (Rullier, 1965), comb. n. from Queensland, Australia, Diplocirrus capensis Day, 1961 from South Africa, Diplocirrus erythroporus Gallardo, 1968 from Vietnam, Diplocirrus hirsutus (Hansen, 1882) from Arctic and subarctic regions, Diplocirrus incognitus Darbyshire & Mackie, 2009 from South Africa, Diplocirrus kudenovi sp. n. from off Western Mexico, Diplocirrus longisetosus (von Marenzeller, 1890) restricted to the Bering Sea, Diplocirrus micans Fauchald, 1972 from deep water off Oregon and Western Mexico, Diplocirrus nicolaji (Buzhinskaja, 1994), comb. n. from the Japan Sea, Diplocirrus normani (McIntosh, 1908), comb. n. from Scandinavia, Diplocirrus octobranchus (Hartman, 1965), comb. n. from off New England, and Diplocirrus stopbowitzi Darbyshire & Mackie, 2009 from the Irish Sea. PMID:21852920
Wu, Xuwen; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I; Xu, Kuidong
Two species of Sternaspidae, Sternaspis chinensis sp. nov. and S. liui sp. nov., are described based on historic material and recently collected specimens in the sea areas of China. Sternaspis chinensis is abundantly distributed from the Bohai Sea southwards to the East China Sea. It has been frequently misidentified as the nominally cosmopolitan species S. scutata (Ranzani, 1817) in China since the 1950s. However, S. chinensis differs from the latter by possessing concentric bands on the shield (vs. absent) and crenulated posterior margin reaching or slightly expanded beyond the posterolateral corners (vs. posterior margin smooth and markedly expanded beyond the posterolateral corners). Sternaspis chinensis most resembles the NE Pacific species S. affinis Stimpson, 1864, but differs distinctly by its markedly concentric bands decorated from margin to center (vs. mainly restricted in the marginal area). Sternaspis liui is characterized within the genus by its slightly soft shield with firmly adhered sediment particles, which gives it a superficial resemblance to species of Caulleryaspis Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013. However, the shields of the latter are remarkably soft and poorly developed, without ribs and concentric lines, while in Sternaspis liui both the ribs and concentric lines are well defined. Variations of both species with remarks on juvenile shield development are provided.
Dolagaratz Carricavur, Arantxa; Chiodi Boudet, Leila; Romero, María Belén; Polizzi, Paula; Marcovecchio, Jorge Eduardo; Gerpe, Marcela
The objective of this study was to analyze the toxicological responses of the estuarine polychaete Laeonereis acuta after acute (96h), subchronic (7 days) and chronic (14 days) exposure to cadmium (Cd). Concentrations of metallothioneins (MT), lipid peroxidation (LPO), total Cd and metal-rich granules (MRG) were evaluated. Seasonal variations of MT and LPO levels in the wild were also measured. Polychaetes were obtained in the Quequén estuary located southeast of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. For the acute toxicity assay, individuals were exposed to 10; 30, 65; 310; 600; 1300; 2000; 4300; 8100; 16300µgCdL -1 , which included levels of environmental relevance and median lethal concentrations (LC 50 ) for related species of polychaete. Based on 96h LC 50 values, polychaetes were exposed to sublethal doses of Cd. The concentrations for both subchronic and chronic assays were: 10; 30; 65; 310; 600; 1300; 2000; 4300µgCdL -1 . The 96h LC 50 value was 8234.9µgL -1 , which was within the values reported for other species of polychaete, indicating a high tolerance to Cd. MT induction was not observed for any time exposure. In additoin, LPO levels showed no differences with respect to control levels, which indicated an absence of oxidative damage caused by Cd. However, the total Cd and MRG-Cd concentrations in L. acuta in all tested treatments showed significant differences with respect to control levels. L. acuta were able to accumulate Cd in their tissues in the form of granules which are the main mechanism of Cd detoxification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Noernberg, Mauricio Almeida; Fournier, Jérôme; Dubois, Stanislas; Populus, Jacques
This study has exploited aerial photographs and LiDAR digital elevation model to quantify intertidal complex landforms volume. A first volume estimation of the main sabellariid polychaete reef complex of the Bay of Mont-Saint-Michel - France is presented. The Sabellaria alveolata is an engineering species that heavily modifies its environment. This gregarious tube-building annelid forms dense and solid reefs of bioclastic coarse sand which can reach several km 2. Since 1970 a very strong decline of reefs has been observed. The authorities have curbed fishing activities without any noticeable changes in reef health status. The S. alveolata reef volume is estimated to be 132 048 m 3 (96 301 m 3 for Sainte-Anne reef and 35 747 m 3 for Champeaux reef). Further LiDAR data surveys will be needed to be able to understand and quantify the accretion/erosion processes in play in the reef dynamic. Because of the internal variability of topographic complexity of the reef, characterized by crevices, cracks, and holes rather than whole blocks, further studies are needed to calculate more accurately the volume of the reef.
Yang, Dazuo; Chen, Fudi; Zhou, Yibing; Xiu, Zhilong
Polychaetes provide an excellent food resource for fish and represent the dominant zoobenthos in marine ecosystems. Diel variation in the rates of metabolism and ammonia-N excretion of Marphysa sanguinea were studied. The worms were grouped according to their wet body weight into small (S; 1.24±0.06 g), medium (M; 4.00±0.30 g), and large (L; 8.54±1.08 g) categories. Their weight-specific metabolic rates, based on aerobic respiration ( R), were measured at 16°C (±0.2°C) and classed as either routine ( R R) or standard ( R S) rates. Both respiration types decreased with increasing body weight. Respiration was described by R = a W b, where b was -0.400 9 and -0.532 0 for R R and R S, respectively. Diurnal changes in R S for each group was relatively flat, with a slightly increasing trend with time, but was relatively stable as a whole. R R of the diurnal variation of worms was higher than R S, but both had similar overall trends. The peak values of specific dynamic action (SDA) ( R SDA) in the S, M, and L groups were 2.704, 1.149, and 0.682 mg/(g•h), respectively. The durations of SDA were 13, 6, and 6 h, respectively and the energy expenditures of SDA were 377.98, 117.34, and 74.94 J/g, respectively. These data indicate that the metabolic rates were higher in smaller individuals, which is advantageous for their rapid growth.
Bastida-Zavala, J Rolando; Buelna, Alondra Sofía Rodríguez; DE León-González, Jesús Angel; Camacho-Cruz, Karla Andrea; Carmona, Isabel
Sabellids and serpulids are two well represented families in the polychaete fauna of the Tropical Eastern Pacific, with 31 and 34 species respectively; however, most records come from the Gulf of California or the western coast of Baja California Peninsula. Only a few records are from localities in the large expanse of the central and southern Mexican Pacific. Thus, sabellids and serpulids were collected from several shallow water habitats along the coast of Mexican Pacific, such as coastal lagoons, coral reefs, rocky shores and from man-made structures as marinas, piers and ships of several harbors; additionally, specimens from national collections were revised. More than 8,400 specimens of sabellids and serpulids from the states of Baja California, Baja California Sur, Sonora, Sinaloa, Michoacán, Guerrero, Oaxaca and Chiapas, and some specimens from Panamá and Perú were examined. In the present work we record new localities of four sabellids and 24 serpulids. One sabellid, Branchiomma bairdi, is an exotic/invasive species in Oaxaca, Sinaloa and Baja California Sur, while four species of serpulids are exotic and/or cryptogenic species: Ficopomatus uschakovi, Hydroides dirampha, H. elegans and H. sanctaecrucis. Additionally, the geographical range has been extended for five species: the sabellids Pseudobranchiomma punctata from Oahu, Hawaii to La Paz Bay, and Parasabella pallida from California to Puerto Escondido, Baja California Sur; and for three serpulids, Hydroides inermis from the Galápagos Islands to Agua Blanca, Oaxaca, H. gairacensis from Panamá to Puerto Ángel, Oaxaca, and H. panamensis from Panamá to Huatulco, Oaxaca and Faro de Bucerías, Michoacán. Hydroides cf. amri, previously recorded as H. brachyacantha from Oahu, Hawaii, is more similar to H. amri from Australia. The number of sabellids recorded for the Tropical Eastern Pacific increased to 33, the serpulid species to 35.
Abstract Six species of Serpula and Spiraserpula were identified, mainly, from the material of the expeditions of the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, including two new species of Serpula. Serpula madrigalae sp. n. from the Turks and Caicos has a tube with five longitudinal ridges, four rows of alveoli and a medium-sized shallow symmetrical opercular funnel with 17 radii, and an inner surface with opercular tubercles. Serpula vossae sp. n. from the Western Caribbean and Bahamas has a tube with 6–8 longitudinal ridges, and a large, deep symmetrical opercular funnel, with 21–33 radii, and a smooth inner surface. Serpula cf. vermicularis, recorded from the Gulf of Guinea (tropical eastern Atlantic), is distinguished from the nominal species in possessing fewer opercular radii (33–39) and the lack of a proximal rasp in the bayonet chaetae; tubes are missing. The distribution range is extended for the three known Spiraserpula species found in the collections, Spiraserpula caribensis, Spiraserpula karpatensis and Spiraserpula ypsilon. PMID:22707904
Nezlin, L P; Voronezhskaya, E E
A new posterior sensory organ (PSO), located at the dorsal midline of the hyposphere, is described by immunocytochemical detection of acetylated alpha tubulin and serotonin (5-HT) in a laser-scanning microscope, as well as three-dimensional reconstructions after optical serial sectioning in the trochophore larva of the polychaete Phyllodoce maculata (Phyllodocidae). The unpaired PSO consists of five bipolar sensory cells, two of them being 5-HT immunopositive, which send axons to the cerebral ganglion and prototroch nerve. The dendrites of these cells project to the surface and bear one cilium each. A single neuronal fibre from the apical sensory organ innervates the PSO. PMID:14667369
Pia Miglietta, Maria; Hourdez, Stephane; Cowart, Dominique A.; Schaeffer, Stephen W.; Fisher, Charles
At least six morphospecies of vestimentiferan tubeworms are associated with cold seeps in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). The physiology and ecology of the two best-studied species from depths above 1000 m in the upper Louisiana slope (Lamellibrachia luymesi and Seepiophila jonesi) are relatively well understood. The biology of one rare species from the upper slope (escarpiid sp. nov.) and three morphospecies found at greater depths in the GOM (Lamellibrachia sp. 1, L. sp. 2, and Escarpia laminata) are not as well understood. Here we address species distributions and boundaries of cold-seep tubeworms using phylogenetic hypotheses based on two mitochondrial genes. Fragments of the mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit rDNA (16S) and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) genes were sequenced for 167 vestimentiferans collected from the GOM and analyzed in the context of other seep vestimentiferans for which sequence data were available. The analysis supported five monophyletic clades of vestimentiferans in the GOM. Intra-clade variation in both genes was very low, and there was no apparent correlation between the within-clade diversity and collection depth or location. Two of the morphospecies of Lamellibrachia from different depths in the GOM could not be distinguished by either mitochondrial gene. Similarly, E. laminata could not be distinguished from other described species of Escarpia from either the west coast of Africa or the eastern Pacific using COI. We suggest that the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes have little utility as barcoding markers for seep vestimentiferan tubeworms.
Parry, Luke A; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Eibye-Jacobsen, Danny; Vinther, Jakob
As a result of their plastic body plan, the relationships of the annelid worms and even the taxonomic makeup of the phylum have long been contentious. Morphological cladistic analyses have typically recovered a monophyletic Polychaeta, with the simple-bodied forms assigned to an early-diverging clade or grade. This is in stark contrast to molecular trees, in which polychaetes are paraphyletic and include clitellates, echiurans and sipunculans. Cambrian stem group annelid body fossils are complex-bodied polychaetes that possess well-developed parapodia and paired head appendages (palps), suggesting that the root of annelids is misplaced in morphological trees. We present a reinvestigation of the morphology of key fossil taxa and include them in a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of annelids. Analyses using probabilistic methods and both equal- and implied-weights parsimony recover paraphyletic polychaetes and support the conclusion that echiurans and clitellates are derived polychaetes. Morphological trees including fossils depict two main clades of crown-group annelids that are similar, but not identical, to Errantia and Sedentaria, the fundamental groupings in transcriptomic analyses. Removing fossils yields trees that are often less resolved and/or root the tree in greater conflict with molecular topologies. While there are many topological similarities between the analyses herein and recent phylogenomic hypotheses, differences include the exclusion of Sipuncula from Annelida and the taxa forming the deepest crown-group divergences. © 2016 The Authors.
Halanych, Kenneth M; Dahlgren, Thomas G; McHugh, Damhnait
In traditional classification schemes, the Annelida consists of the Polychaeta and the Clitellata (the latter including the Oligochaeta and Hirudinida). However, recent analyses suggest that annelids are much more diverse than traditionally believed, and that polychaetes are paraphyletic. Specifically, some lesser-known taxa (previously regarded as separate phyla) appear to fall within the annelid radiation. Abundant molecular, developmental, and morphological data show that the Siboglinidae, which includes the formerly recognized Pogonophora and Vestimentifera, are derived annelids; recent data from the Elongation Factor-1α (EF-1α) gene also suggest that echiurids are of annelid ancestry. Further, the phylogenetic origins of two other lesser-known groups of marine worms, the Myzostomida and Sipuncula, have recently been called into question. Whereas some authors advocate annelid affinities, others argue that these taxa do not fall within the annelid radiation. With advances in our understanding of annelid phylogeny, our perceptions of body plan evolution within the Metazoa are changing. The evolution of segmentation probably is more plastic than traditionally believed. However, as our understanding of organismal evolution is being revised, we are also forced to reconsider the specific characters being examined. Should segmentation be considered a developmental process or an ontological endpoint?
Xu, Fei; Domazet-Lošo, Tomislav; Fan, Dingding; Dunwell, Thomas L; Li, Li; Fang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Guofan
Animals with trochophore larvae belong to Trochozoa, one of the main branches of Bilateria. In addition to exhibiting spiral cleavage and early cell fate determination, trochozoans typically undergo indirect development, which contributes to the most unique characteristics of their ontogeny. The indirect development of trochozoans has provoked discussion regarding the origin and evolution of marine larvae and is interesting from the perspective of phylogeny-ontogeny correspondence. While these phylo-onto correlations have an hourglass shape in Deuterostomia, Ecdysozoa, plants and even fungi, they have seldom been studied in Trochozoa, and even Lophotrochozoa. Here, we compared the ontogenetic transcriptomes of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Bivalvia, Mollusca), the Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai (Gastropoda, Mollusca), and the sand worm Perinereis aibuhitensis (Polychaeta, Annelida) using several complementary phylotranscriptomic methods to examine their evolutionary trajectories. The results revealed the late trochophore stage as the phylotypic phase. However, this basic pattern is accompanied with increased use of new genes in the trochophore stages which marks specific adaptations of the larval body plans.
Müller, Carsten T; Priesnitz, Frank M; Beckmann, Manfred
Nereis succinea and Platynereis dumerilii (Annelida, Polychaeta) are broadcast spawners and reproduce semelparously. The final events in reproduction, swarming and spawning are co-ordinated by sex pheromones.A water-soluble fraction of crude oil, the volatile fraction (C9-C16) of EKO FISK crude oil was found to induce release of gametes in male nereids at levels <0.3 ppm.Using vacuum distillation, column chromatography, preparative GC and GC-MS analysis we showed that C(5)-alkylated benzenes were most potent in inducing sperm release, of those n-butyl-4-methylbenzene and 1,4-diethyl-2-methylbenzene were found to induce release of gametes at concentrations ≥4 nM. This threshold is lower than those reported for natural pheromones (nereithione: 60 nM, uric acid: 600 nM) but higher than background levels of aromatic compounds of 0.05 nM and below.Other oil fractions showed additional effects, blocking pheromone reception or narcotising and intoxicating animals. Part of these effects could be assigned to naphthalenes at levels down to approx. 320 nM. In the original mixtures, their action was modified or compensated by the presence of gamete release inducing alkylated benzenes. Other highly paralysing substances remained elusive.
Pires, A.; Freitas, R.; Quintino, V.; Rodrigues, A. M.
The regenerative ability of Diopatra neapolitana was evaluated under laboratory conditions following nine experimental amputation levels: before the beginning of the branchiae (chaetiger 3 or 4), in the branchial region, at chaetigers 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 and after the branchiae, at chaetigers 45-55. Specimens amputated at the 20th chaetiger were not able to regenerate and did not survive. The posterior portion of the specimens amputated up to chaetiger 15, regenerated the anterior part but the anterior ends were unable to survive. The anterior end of the specimens amputated at and beyond the 25th chaetiger regenerated the posterior part but the posterior ends were not able to regenerate an anterior part. Percent survival was directly related to the number of branchial segments left in the regenerating specimen and reached 100% only when the specimens were amputated beyond the branchial region. These results indicate that the species has regenerative ability and should survive the loss of a few anterior chaetigers, namely caused by predation. However, the results also indicate that bait digging could impair the survival of the posterior part remaining in the tube, as usually more than 20 chaetigers are harvested by bait collectors. Regarding field-collected specimens, D. neapolitana was found regenerating a mean of 9.0 ± 2.51 chaetigers, and Diopatra marocensis 7.5 ± 1.93 chaetigers, at the anterior end. The higher percentage of field-collected specimens showing regeneration of the anterior end belonged to D. marocensis. Only very few specimens, for both species, were found regenerating the posterior part of the body.
Poinar, G O; Thomas, G M
Studies were conducted on the behavior of the nematode, Rhabditis pellio, in the earthworm, Aporrectodea trapezoides, from southern California. Juvenile and adult nematodes were found in the bladders and tubules of the metanephridia of the host. Similar nematodes that entered the coelom were encapsulated and incorporated into multiple capsules ("brown bodies"). It was demonstrated that this host response is an effective defense reaction since dead and dying nematodes, as well as living forms, were found in the capsules.
Radashevsky, Vasily I; Yurchenko, Olga V; Tyurin, Sergey A; Alexandrova, Yana N
Spermatogenesis and the structure of the spermatozoa of two spionid polychaetes Dipolydora bidentata and Dipolydora carunculata are described by light and transmission electron microscopy. Both species are gonochoristic borers in shells of various molluscs. Proliferation of spermatogonia occurs in paired testes regularly arranged in fertile segments, and the rest of spermatogenesis occurs in the coelomic cavity. Early spermatogenesis occurs quite similarly in the two species but results in formation of tetrads of interconnected spermatids in D. bidentata and octads of spermatids in D. carunculata. Three consecutive stages of spermiogenesis are recognized according to the condensation of chromatin in nucleus: (1) early spermatids with heterogeneous, partly clumped chromatin, (2) middle spermatids with homogeneous, coarsely granular chromatin, and (3) late spermatids with homogeneous fibrillar chromatin. Moreover, late stage of spermatids is further classified into two stages, I and II, according to the position of the acrosome and shape of the nucleus. In late spermatids I, the acrosome is situated in the anterior invagination of the funnel-shaped to oval nucleus, whereas in late spermatids II the acrosome is situated on top of the elongated nucleus. Ultrastructural composition of cells at each stage of spermatogenesis is described and illustrated. The possible process of morphogenesis of organelles during spermato- and spermiogenesis is reconstructed for both species. The proacrosomal vesicle first appears in early spermatids near the Golgi complex and then migrates anteriorly; in the middle spermatids, the acrosome comes to lie in a deep anterior nuclear fossa. In late spermatids I, this fossa evaginates and a posterior fossa develops in the nucleus housing basal body and the anterior part of the axoneme. In late spermatids II, the mitochondria elongate and probably reduce in number due to fusion of some of them. The mature spermatozoa in both species are introsperm with the conical acrosome, subacrosomal plate, long nucleus with short posterior fossa, long midpiece with elongated mitochondria, and long flagellum with 9×2+2 organization of microtubules. Numerous flat rounded platelets with putative glycogen are present throughout most part of the nucleus and the midpiece. The process of spermatogenesis in D. bidentata and D. carunculata is similar to that in other Dipolydora, Polydora and Pseudopolydora species. Spermatozoa in these polydorin spionids have similar composition and differ mainly in size of the nucleus and the midpiece. Elongated spermatozoa are adapted for transfer in spermatophores and an internal fertilization which is characteristic for brooding species. Diversely modified spermatozoa among spionids may be signs of the diversity of fertilization biology within the Spionidae. The exact places where fertilization occurs in brooding spionids however remains unknown. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Langeneck, Joachim; Musco, Luigi; Busoni, Giulio; Conese, Ilaria; Aliani, Stefano; Castelli, Alberto
Despite almost two centuries of research, the diversity of Mediterranean deep-sea environments remain still largely unexplored. This is particularly true for the polychaete family Syllidae. We report herein 14 species; among them, we describe Erinaceusyllis barbarae n. sp., Exogone sophiae n. sp. and Prosphaerosyllis danovaroi n. sp. and report Parexogone wolfi San Martín, 1991, Exogone lopezi San Martín, Ceberio Aguirrezabalaga, 1996 and Anguillosyllis Day, 1963 for the first time from the Western Mediterranean, the latter based on a single individual likely belonging to an undescribed species. Moreover, we re-establish Syllis profunda Cognetti, 1955 based on type and new material. Present data, along with a critical analysis of available literature, show that Syllidae are highly diverse in deep Mediterranean environments, even though they are rarely reported, probably due to the scarce number of studies devoted to the size-fraction of benthos including deep-sea syllids. Most deep-sea Syllidae have wide distributions, which do not include shallow-waters. 100 m depth apparently represents the boundary between the assemblages dominated by generalist shallow water syllids like Exogone naidina Ørsted, 1843 and Syllis parapari San Martín López, 2000, and those deep-water assemblages characterised by strictly deep-water species like Parexogone campoyi San Martín, Ceberio Aguirrezabalaga, 1996, Parexogone wolfi San Martín, 1991 and Syllis sp. 1 (= Langerhansia caeca Katzmann, 1973).
Fend, S.V.; Ohtaka, A.
Yamaguchia toyensis n. sp., n. gen. is described from an oligotrophic caldera lake, Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan. Although the taxonomic affinities are unknown, the genus differs from all other Lumbriculidae in having the combination of testes and atria in X, a single, prosoporous male funnel per atrium, and spermathecae in XI. Unlike other Japanese lakes that have thus far been surveyed, Lake Toya supports abundant populations of lumbriculids in the profundal benthos.
Arias, Andrés; Paxton, Hannelore; Budaeva, Nataliya
A one-year study of the reproductive biology of a population of Diopatra neapolitana at Villaviciosa estuary, northern Spain, was undertaken. Field observations together with a histological study of monthly collected individuals revealed that the population was iteroparous, had a discontinuous reproductive season with a resting period during August and September and a spawning season from March to July. The study showed that D. neapolitana was not dioecious as previously suggested but consisted of protandric sequential hermaphrodites, pure males and pure females with a male biased sex ratio of 3:1. During the peak reproductive period from May to August we observed simultaneous hermaphrodites with two dorsal papillae per segment in the branchial region. Histological studies demonstrated that the papillae were acting as seminal vesicles, storing own sperm, and also as sperm ducts, providing an exit route; hence we termed them 'spermaducal papillae'. The papillae are not the only sperm repositories as the coelom of males and simultaneous hermaphrodites in smaller size classes is also filled with sperm. The worms are broadcast spawners with a brief pelagic larval stage as previously reported but the finer points of this unusual fertilisation system need still to be elaborated. Diopatra cryptornata was recently described as a new species, supposedly differing from D. neapolitana in chaetal detail and the possession of the papillae. We have shown conclusively with morphological and genetical studies that the former species is a junior synonym of the latter. In the absence of type material we are here designating a neotype from recently collected material from Naples.
Jimi, Naoto; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I; Kajihara, Hiroshi
The hesionid polychaete Hesione reticulata von Marenzeller, 1879 was described from Enoshima Island, Japan and has been recorded also from the Red Sea. Depending on researchers, it has been regarded as either a distinct species or synonymous with older established ones. The type specimen has been lost. In order to clarify its taxonomic status, Hesione reticulata is herein redescribed, illustrated, and a neotype is proposed based on recent material collected near the type locality. The diagnostic features include the presence of several dorsal, discontinuous longitudinal bands, interrupted by pale segmental spots; prostomium with tiny antennae; a tuberculated dorsal integument; acicular lobes double; and neurochaetal blades with guards approaching the distal tooth. The dorsal color pattern in life enables a clear distinction from similar species such as Hesione intertexta Grube, 1878 amongst others. Mitochondrial COI barcoding sequences are deposited in the DNA Data Bank of Japan. A key to Hesione species from Japan is also included.
Yoshida-Noro, Chikako; Tochinai, Shin
Enchytraeus japonensis is a small oligochaete species that proliferates asexually via fragmentation and regeneration. As sexual reproduction can also be induced, it is a good model system for the study of both regenerative and germline stem cells. It has been shown by histological study that putative mesodermal stem cells called neoblasts, and dedifferentiated epidermal and endodermal cells are involved in blastema formation. Recently, we isolated three region-specific marker genes expressed in the digestive tract and showed by in situ hybridization that morphallactic as well as epimorphic regulation of the body patterning occurs during regeneration. We also cloned two vasa-related genes and analyzed their expression during development and in mature worms that undergo sexual reproduction. The results arising form these studies suggest that the origin and development of germline stem cells and neoblasts may be independent. Furthermore, we carried out functional analysis using RNA interference (RNAi) and showed that a novel gene termed grimp is required for mesodermal cell proliferation at the initial stages of regeneration. These findings indicate that the stem cell system in E. japonensis is regulated by both internal and external environmental factors.
Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I; Buzhinskaja, Galina
Most sternaspid species have been described from shallow water, and Caulleryaspis Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 includes one deep water species: C. gudmundssoni Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 from Iceland. In Sternaspis Otto, 1821, the most speciose genus, most species were described from shallow water and only three thrive in deep water: S. maior Chamberlin, 1919 from the Gulf of California, S. princeps Selenka, 1885 from New Zealand, and S. riestchi Caullery, 1944 from Indonesia. The study of some deep sea sternaspids from the Pacific Ocean in the collections of six research institutions resulted in the discovery of six undescribed species, and for three of them there were abundant materials showing ventro-caudal shield development. Caulleryaspis fauchaldi sp. n. is described based on specimens from Oregon and California; it differs from the known species because it has a shield with rounded anterior margins and its peg chaetae form thin, small spines. Caulleryaspis nuda sp. n. was collected off Oregon; it is unique because its shield lacks a layer of sediment particles firmly attached, but has instead a thin layer of small particles loosely attached. Four other species are newly described in Sternaspis: S. annenkovae sp. n. was collected east off the northern Kurile Islands in about 4,000 m depth; it differs from other species by having a bicolored body, with the introvert darker than the abdomen, and its ventro-caudal shield plates are divergent resulting in a divided fan. The second species, S. maureri sp. n. was found off Peru in 1296-6489 m water depths and in the Southwestern Pacific in 795-3830 m; it resembles S. williamsae sp. n. but differs because its shield has better-developed ribs, the fan has a shallow or indistinct median notch and has lateral notches well-developed. The third species, S. uschakovi sp. n., was found in the Okhotsk Sea in 592-1366 m, off California in 1585 m, Gulf of California in 1200-1274 m, and Western Mexico in 2548 m; it resembles S. africana Augener, 1918 and S. andamanensis Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 in having shields with a denticulate posterior margin; the latter two species live in shallow water and they differ from each other and from the new species by a combination of shield and papillae features. The fourth species, S. williamsae sp. n., was found off Oregon in 1000-2400 m, and off California in 878-1246 m; it resembles S. annenkovae because both species have shields with fans narrower than the anterior margin width, but differ in the relative development of shield features and in the relative size of prostomium and mouth; as stated above it also resembles S. maureri sp. n. but its shield has poorly-developed ribs, its median notch is distinct, and the lateral notches are poorly developed or indistinct. Keys to identify all species of Caulleryaspis and Sternaspis are also included.
Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I.; Buzhinskaja, Galina
Abstract Most sternaspid species have been described from shallow water, and Caulleryaspis Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 includes one deep water species: C. gudmundssoni Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 from Iceland. In Sternaspis Otto, 1821, the most speciose genus, most species were described from shallow water and only three thrive in deep water: S. maior Chamberlin, 1919 from the Gulf of California, S. princeps Selenka, 1885 from New Zealand, and S. riestchi Caullery, 1944 from Indonesia. The study of some deep sea sternaspids from the Pacific Ocean in the collections of six research institutions resulted in the discovery of six undescribed species, and for three of them there were abundant materials showing ventro-caudal shield development. Caulleryaspis fauchaldi sp. n. is described based on specimens from Oregon and California; it differs from the known species because it has a shield with rounded anterior margins and its peg chaetae form thin, small spines. Caulleryaspis nuda sp. n. was collected off Oregon; it is unique because its shield lacks a layer of sediment particles firmly attached, but has instead a thin layer of small particles loosely attached. Four other species are newly described in Sternaspis: S. annenkovae sp. n. was collected east off the northern Kurile Islands in about 4,000 m depth; it differs from other species by having a bicolored body, with the introvert darker than the abdomen, and its ventro-caudal shield plates are divergent resulting in a divided fan. The second species, S. maureri sp. n. was found off Peru in 1296–6489 m water depths and in the Southwestern Pacific in 795–3830 m; it resembles S. williamsae sp. n. but differs because its shield has better-developed ribs, the fan has a shallow or indistinct median notch and has lateral notches well-developed. The third species, S. uschakovi sp. n., was found in the Okhotsk Sea in 592–1366 m, off California in 1585 m, Gulf of California in 1200–1274 m, and Western Mexico in 2548 m; it resembles S. africana Augener, 1918 and S. andamanensis Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 in having shields with a denticulate posterior margin; the latter two species live in shallow water and they differ from each other and from the new species by a combination of shield and papillae features. The fourth species, S. williamsae sp. n., was found off Oregon in 1000–2400 m, and off California in 878–1246 m; it resembles S. annenkovae because both species have shields with fans narrower than the anterior margin width, but differ in the relative development of shield features and in the relative size of prostomium and mouth; as stated above it also resembles S. maureri sp. n. but its shield has poorly-developed ribs, its median notch is distinct, and the lateral notches are poorly developed or indistinct. Keys to identify all species of Caulleryaspis and Sternaspis are also included. PMID:24294071
Fend, S.V.; Lenat, D.R.
Recent benthic macroinvertebrate collections from North Carolina contained many undescribed oligochaete taxa, mostly belonging to the family Lumbriculidae. Three of the new species had arrangements of spermathecae and atria previously unreported for the family, and were assigned to new two genera. Pilaridrilus is distinguished by the location of spermathecal pores five segments behind the male pores. The single species, Pilaridrilus uliginosus, also has unusually complex penes and spermathecae. Martinidrilus is distinguished by spermathecae beginning more than two segments anterior to the atrial segment, and also by the the vasa deferentia, which join a common duct before joining the atria. The two Martinidrilus species also have unusual digitiform blood vessels in posterior segments. Martinidrilus carolinensis has lateral spermathecae in VI, and Martinidrilus arenosus has dorsolateral spermathecae in VII and VIII. Because arrangement and morphology of reproductive organs do not resemble those of described lumbriculids, the phylogenetic affinities of the new species are not clear. These new genera and species were generally collected from areas of high water quality, suggesting that lumbriculids can be useful in water quality monitoring and conservation evaluation. Copyright ?? 2007 Magnolia Press.
Three taxa within the leech family Glossiphoniidae, Actinobdella inequiannulata, Placobdella hollensis, and Theromyzon spp., though widespread in eastern North America, remain poorly known with respect to their biology and systematics. All three taxa have been collected in New E...
Khan, M A Q; Khan, Munawwar Ali; Hurlock, Peter; Ahmed, S A
Earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) acclimated at 2° and 6°C above their average habitat temperature (10°C) had respectively 15 and 40% higher rate of respiration than those at habitat temperature. At 14°C, the rate of respiration and blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration both increased by ∼60 and 50%, respectively, of the values at habitat temperature. At higher temperatures the rate of respiration and Hb synthesis started decreasing. At 20-23°C, the respiration and Hb concentration decreased respectively by about 85% and 35% of that at 14°C. Decrease in blood Hb concentration at higher temperatures appeared to be due to the lowering of the activity of blood enzyme δ-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD). Exposure of 20-23°C-acclimated pale worms to ALAD inhibitor (lead), lowered the already compromised rate of respiration and blood Hb concentration; while exposure to hexachlorobenzene (HCB, inducer of haeme synthesis) and ferric chloride (enhancer of haeme synthesis) did not overcome the inhibitory effect of high temperature on Hb synthesis. At 20-23°C the affinity of Hb for oxygen also decreased as indicated by the lowering of oxy-Hb (HbO) concentration in blood. The lowering of concentration of blood Hb and its affinity for oxygen may lower the amount of oxygen delivered to cells, which may limit the level of aerobic metabolism (glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation), as indicated by an increase in blood glucose concentration and a decrease in in vitro activities of mitochondrial electron transport system components (ETS) namely NADH-cytochrome c reductase, succinate dehydrogenase, cytochrome c oxidase, and ATPases. Although the oxygen concentration in air, at sea level, does not decrease significantly from 6° to 20-23°C (lack of hypoxia), lowering of both Hb and HbO concentrations by high temperature may cause significant hypoxemia. The latter may lead to inhibition of the activity of muscle mitochondrial respiratory enzymes (ETS). The resulting inhibition of ATP synthesis and hydrolysis may cause deficit of energy needed for peristalsis/fictive locomotion of body and heart muscles (as indicated by a decrease in heart rate) to facilitate diffusion and transport of gases. The upper critical temperature (20-23°C) also slows down the heart rate and causes hyperosmotic stress (hypovolemia). Thus, a rise in soil temperature above 18°C, which inhibits Hb synthesis, Hb oxygenation, and mitochondrial ETS activity, and slows down the heart rate and causes hyperosmotic stress, can make this and higher temperatures lethal to populations of these earthworms, especially in the presence of metabolic inhibitors and respiratory poisons. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Grizelle Gonzalez; Elianid Espinoza; Zhigang Liu; Xiaoming Zou
We used a fluorescence technique to mark and re-count the invasive earthworm, Pontoscolex corethrurus from PVC tubes established in a forest and a recently abandoned pasture in Puerto Rico to test the effects of the labeling treatment on earthworm population survival over time. A fluorescent marker was injected into the earthworms in the middle third section of the...
Little is known specifically on the feeding relationships between parasitic leeches and fish in North America. During an electrofishing survey conducted on the main stem of the Kentucky River in the summer of 2000, the presence of leeches was documented on six species of fish. ...
Gao, Yan; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Libin; Qiu, Tianlong; Xue, Dongxiu; Yang, Hongsheng
Spionid worms of Polydora ciliata inhabit the shells of many commercially important bivalves and cause disease in molluscan aquaculture. Their sperm structure is closely related to their fertilization method. To give an insight into the sperm structure and spermatogenesis, ultrastructure details of the subcellular components of germ cells during spermiogenesis of Polydora ciliata are detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In P. ciliata, during spermiogenesis, chromatin is regularly arranged as dense fibrils and becomes more condensed when the nucleus elongates. Microtubules do not surround the nucleus during its elongation. The Golgi phase is characterized by the formation of proacrosomal granules within the Golgi apparatus. The proacrosomal granules fuse to form a single, spherical acrosomal vesicle that migrates to the anterior pole of the cell. At the time of nuclear condensation, mitochondria become reduced in number but increased in size, causing deep indentation at the base of the nucleus. The mid-piece has a few mitochondria. The cap phase includes the spreading of the acrosomal granule over the surface of the nucleus of the differentiating spermatid. The acrosomal phase of spermiogenesis is typically associated with changes in the shape of the nucleus, acrosome and tail. The relationship of sperm ultrastructure to spermiogenesis in spionidae species was discussed.
Leeches were collected from six fish species distributed among four of ten sites sampled. The leech species observed were Myzobdella reducta (Meyer, 1940) and Myzobdella lugubris Leidy, 1851 of the family Piscicolidae and Placobdella pediculata Hemingway, 1908 of the family Gloss...
Ortmann, Weronika; Kolaczkowska, Elzbieta
Formation of extracellular traps (ETs) capturing and immobilizing pathogens is now a well-established defense mechanism added to the repertoire of vertebrate phagocytes. These ETs are composed of extracellular DNA (extDNA), histones and antimicrobial proteins. Formation of mouse and human ETs depends on enzymes (i) facilitating decondensation of chromatin by citrullination of histones, and (ii) serine proteases degrading histones. In invertebrates, initial reports revealed existence of ETs composed of extDNA and histones, and here we document for the first time that also coelomocytes, immunocompetent cells of an earthworm Eisenia andrei, cast ETs which successfully trap bacteria in a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent and -independent manner. Importantly, the formation of ETs was observed not only when coelomocytes were studied ex vivo, but also in vivo, directly in the earthworm coelom. These ETs were composed of extDNA, heat shock proteins (HSP27) and H3 histones. Furthermore, the formation of E. andrei ETs depended on activity of serine proteases, including elastase-like activity. Moreover, ETs interconnected and hold together aggregating coelomocytes, a processes proceeding encapsulation. In conclusion, the study confirms ET formation by earthworms, and unravels mechanisms leading to ET formation and encapsulation in invertebrates. PMID:27416067
Högström, Anette E.S.; Briggs, Derek E.G.; Bartels, Christoph
A machaeridian, Lepidocoleus hohensteini sp. nov., is described from the Hunsrück Slate (Lower Emsian) of Germany. The available material includes a unique example preserving evidence of the soft tissues, only the second machaeridian specimen to do so and the first lepidocoleid. This specimen shows that the plates are attached to alternate segments in the trunk. The morphology is consistent with an annelid affinity of the Lepidocoleidae and confirms the unity of the Machaeridia. This discovery adds an important group to the known diversity of this famous late Palaeozoic marine Konservat-Lagerstätte. PMID:19324782
Silva, Camila F.; Shimabukuro, Maurício; Alfaro-Lucas, Joan M.; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Sumida, Paulo Y. G.; Amaral, Antonia C. Z.
A new species of the genus Capitella, Capitella iatapiuna sp. nov., has been found in deep sea whale-fall samples, São Paulo Ridge-Southwest Atlantic. The new species is mainly characterized by a bluntly rounded prostomium and a very distinct peristomium forming a complete ring. Ribosomal 16S sequences were obtained and used for inter-specific comparisons. This species is herein described and compared to others species of the genus. Its ecological role in the whale-fall community is also discussed.
Read, Geoffrey B.; ten Hove, Harry A.; Sun, Yanan; Kupriyanova, Elena K.
Abstract As a service to taxonomists and ecologists using names in the well-known and species-rich ship-fouling serpulid genus Hydroides we present an update of all 107 non-synonymised scientific names, with additional information on Hydroides nomenclature, original names, etymologies, and type localities derived from original literature, and in accord with the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) database. An update is needed because the gender of genus Hydroides has from 1 January 2000 reverted to the original feminine, due to a change in the wording of International Code of Zoological Nomenclature which was overlooked at that time, and is contrary to the usage in practice of Hydroides as masculine which had started about 1992, although Code-required from the 1960s. We match 31 further original names of current WoRMS subjective junior synonyms to each non-synonymised name, and also report on the world distribution of the genus as illustrated by type localities of the valid names. We include notes on seven species inquirenda. The correct rendering is given of six names that have been altered for gender agreement for the first time herein. Hydroides gottfriedi nom. n. replaces junior homonym Hydroides rostrata Pillai, 1971. Currently there are 41 non-synonymised species-group names in Hydroides which should be gender invariant, and 23 names which would only change if moved to a neuter genus; the remaining 43 names are fully gender variable. Place-names (23), and personal names (16) make up more than a third (36%) of the species names, with most of the remainder (68) being descriptive of species character states, usually of operculum morphology (54). All species, except Hydroides norvegica (63°N), have type localities in shallow-water coastal locations in temperate to tropical waters below latitude 44°, with the highest number of new species (54) from the adjoining Western Pacific and Indian Ocean areas. The other concentration of new species (31) are those first found on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of North America and in the Caribbean. PMID:28138297
Marotta, Roberto; Crottini, Angelica; Raimondi, Elena; Fondello, Cristina; Ferraguti, Marco
Tubifex tubifex is a widespread annelid characterized by considerable variability in its taxonomic characteristics and by a mixed reproductive strategy, with both parthenogenesis and biparental reproduction. In a molecular phylogenetic analysis, we detected substantial genetic variability among sympatric Tubifex spp. from the Lambro River (Milano, Italy), which we suggested comprise several cryptic species. To gain insights into the evolutionary events that generated this differentiation, we performed a cytogenetic analysis in parallel with a molecular assay. Approximately 80 cocoons of T. tubifex and T. blanchardi were collected and dissected. For each cocoon, we sequenced a fragment of the 16S rRNA from half of the sibling embryos and karyotyped the other half. To generate a robust phylogeny enabling the reconstruction of the evolutionary processes shaping the diversity of these sympatric lineages, we complemented our original 16S rRNA gene sequences with additional COI sequences. The chromosome number distribution was consistent with the presence of at least six sympatric euploid chromosome complements (one diploid, one triploid, three tetraploids and one hexaploid), as confirmed by a FISH assay performed with an homologous 18S rDNA probe. All the worms with 2n = 50 chromosomes belonged to an already identified sibling species of T. tubifex, T. blanchardi. The six euploid sets were coherently arranged in the phylogeny, with each lineage grouping specimens with the same chromosome complement. These results are compatible with the hypothesis that multiple polyploidization events, possibly enhanced by parthenogenesis, may have driven the evolution of the T. tubifex species complex.
Spencer, Douglas R.; Hudson, Patrick L.
An updated oligochaete species list for the Great Lakes region is provided. The list was developed through the reexamination of the taxa reported in a previous report in 1980, addition of new taxa or records collected from the region since 1980, and an update of taxonomy commensurate with systematic and nomenclatural changes over the intervening years since the last review. The authors found 74 papers mentioning Great Lakes oligochaete species. The majority of these papers were published in the 1980s. The literature review and additional collections resulted in 15 species being added to the previous list. Nine taxa were removed from the previous list due to misidentification, synonymies, level of identification, or inability to confirm the identity. Based on this review, 101 species of Oligochaeta are now known from the St. Lawrence Great Lakes watershed. Of these, 95 species are known from the St. Lawrence Great Lakes proper, with an additional 6 species recorded from the inland waters of the watershed. The greatest diversity of oligochaete species was found in the inland waters of the region (81) followed by Lake Huron (72), Lake Ontario (65), Lake Erie (64), Lake Superior (63), Lake Michigan (62), St. Marys River (60), Niagara River (49), Saginaw Bay (44), St. Clair River (37), Lake St. Clair (36), St. Lawrence River (27), and the Detroit River (21). Three species are suspected of being introduced, Branchiura sowerbyi, Gianius aquaedulcisand Ripistes parasita, and two are believed to be endemic, Thalassodrilus hallae andTeneridrilus flexus.
Kerbl, Alexandra; Fofanova, Elizaveta G; Mayorova, Tatiana D; Voronezhskaya, Elena E; Worsaae, Katrine
Several independent meiofaunal lineages are suggested to have originated through progenesis, however, morphological support for this heterochronous process is still lacking. Progenesis is defined as an arrest of somatic development (synchronously in various organ systems) due to early maturation, resulting in adults resembling larvae or juveniles of the ancestors. Accordingly, we established a detailed neuromuscular developmental atlas of two closely related Dinophilidae using immunohistochemistry and CLSM. This allows us to test for progenesis, questioning whether i) the adult smaller, dimorphic Dinophilus gyrociliatus resembles a younger developmental stage of the larger, monomorphic D. taeniatus and whether ii) dwarf males of D. gyrociliatus resemble an early developmental stage of D. gyrociliatus females. Both species form longitudinal muscle bundles first, followed by circular muscles, creating a grid of body wall musculature, which is the densest in adult D. taeniatus , while the architecture in adult female D. gyrociliatus resembles that of prehatching D. taeniatus . Both species display a subepidermal ganglionated nervous system with an anterior dorsal brain and five longitudinal ventral nerve bundles with six sets of segmental commissures (associated with paired ganglia). Neural differentiation of D. taeniatus and female D. gyrociliatus commissures occurs before hatching: both species start out forming one transverse neurite bundle per segment, which are thereafter joined by additional thin bundles. Whereas D. gyrociliatus arrests its development at this stage, adult D. taeniatus condenses the thin commissures again into one thick commissural bundle per segment. Generally, D. taeniatus adults demonstrate a seemingly more organized (= segmental) pattern of serotonin-like and FMRFamide-like immunoreactive elements. The dwarf male of D. gyrociliatus displays a highly aberrant neuromuscular system, showing no close resemblance to any early developmental stage of female Dinophilus , although the onset of muscular development mirrors the early myogenesis in females. The apparent synchronous arrest of nervous and muscular development in adult female D. gyrociliatus, resembling the prehatching stage of D. taeniatus, suggests that D. gyrociliatus have originated through progenesis. The synchrony in arrest of three organ systems, which show opposing reduction and addition of elements, presents one of the morphologically best-argued cases of progenesis within Spiralia.
Britayev, Temir A; Mekhova, Elena; Deart, Yury; Martin, Daniel
To assess whether closely related host species harbour similar symbiotic communities, we studied two polychaetes, Chaetopterus sp. ( n = 11) and Chaetopterus cf. appendiculatus ( n = 83) living in soft sediments of Nhatrang Bay (South China Sea, Vietnam). The former harboured the porcellanid crabs Polyonyx cf. heok and Polyonyx sp., the pinnotherid crab Tetrias sp. and the tergipedid nudibranch Phestilla sp. The latter harboured the polynoid polychaete Ophthalmonoe pettiboneae , the carapid fish Onuxodon fowleri and the porcellanid crab Eulenaios cometes , all of which, except O. fowleri , seemed to be specialized symbionts. The species richness and mean intensity of the symbionts were higher in Chaetopterus sp. than in C. cf. appendiculatus (1.8 and 1.02 species and 3.0 and 1.05 individuals per host respectively). We suggest that the lower density of Chaetopterus sp. may explain the higher number of associated symbionts observed, as well as the 100% prevalence (69.5% in C. cf. appenciculatus ). Most Chaetopterus sp. harboured two symbiotic species, which was extremely rare in C. cf. appendiculatus , suggesting lower interspecific interactions in the former. The crab and nudibranch symbionts of Chaetopterus sp. often shared a host and lived in pairs, thus partitioning resources. This led to the species coexisting in the tubes of Chaetopterus sp., establishing a tightly packed community, indicating high species richness and mean intensity, together with a low species dominance. In contrast, the aggressive, strictly territorial species associated with C. cf. appendiculatus established a symbiotic community strongly dominated by single species and, thus, low species richness and mean intensity. Therefore, we suggest that interspecific interactions are determining species richness, intensity and dominance, while intraspecific interactions are influencing only intensity and abundance. It is possible that species composition may have influenced the differences in community structure observed. We hypothesize that both host species could originally be allopatric. The evolutionary specialization of the symbiotic communities would occur in separated geographical areas, while the posterior disappearance of the existing geographical barriers would lead to the overlapped distribution.
Britayev, Temir A.; Mekhova, Elena; Deart, Yury
To assess whether closely related host species harbour similar symbiotic communities, we studied two polychaetes, Chaetopterus sp. (n = 11) and Chaetopterus cf. appendiculatus (n = 83) living in soft sediments of Nhatrang Bay (South China Sea, Vietnam). The former harboured the porcellanid crabs Polyonyx cf. heok and Polyonyx sp., the pinnotherid crab Tetrias sp. and the tergipedid nudibranch Phestilla sp. The latter harboured the polynoid polychaete Ophthalmonoe pettiboneae, the carapid fish Onuxodon fowleri and the porcellanid crab Eulenaios cometes, all of which, except O. fowleri, seemed to be specialized symbionts. The species richness and mean intensity of the symbionts were higher in Chaetopterus sp. than in C. cf. appendiculatus (1.8 and 1.02 species and 3.0 and 1.05 individuals per host respectively). We suggest that the lower density of Chaetopterus sp. may explain the higher number of associated symbionts observed, as well as the 100% prevalence (69.5% in C. cf. appenciculatus). Most Chaetopterus sp. harboured two symbiotic species, which was extremely rare in C. cf. appendiculatus, suggesting lower interspecific interactions in the former. The crab and nudibranch symbionts of Chaetopterus sp. often shared a host and lived in pairs, thus partitioning resources. This led to the species coexisting in the tubes of Chaetopterus sp., establishing a tightly packed community, indicating high species richness and mean intensity, together with a low species dominance. In contrast, the aggressive, strictly territorial species associated with C. cf. appendiculatus established a symbiotic community strongly dominated by single species and, thus, low species richness and mean intensity. Therefore, we suggest that interspecific interactions are determining species richness, intensity and dominance, while intraspecific interactions are influencing only intensity and abundance. It is possible that species composition may have influenced the differences in community structure observed. We hypothesize that both host species could originally be allopatric. The evolutionary specialization of the symbiotic communities would occur in separated geographical areas, while the posterior disappearance of the existing geographical barriers would lead to the overlapped distribution. PMID:28168108
Pamungkas, Joko; Glasby, Christopher J.
Abstract Multispecies, or mass, spawning of different invertebrate species is well known for coral reef systems; however, incidences involving polychaetes are poorly documented. In this study we report on mass swarming, prior to spawning, of Nereididae at Ambon Island, Maluku, on three occasions: in 1866, inferred from an historical sample deposited in Naturalis, Leiden, and in March, 2009 and 2014, based on newly collected samples. The 2009 and 2014 events co-occurred with spawning of other polychaetes, known locally as wawo and including the widespread Indo-Pacific eunicid, Palola viridis (Gray in Stair). Ten species of reproductive Nereididae are described, including Composetia marmorata (Horst) new combination, formerly Ceratonereis marmorata; epitokous modifications are described for both sexes of each species including taxonomically important features such as body colour and number of pre-natatory chaetigers. Three distinct types of natatory region morphologies are recognized, which appear to characterise groups of genera. The ten new records brings to 13 the total number of nereidid species known to undergo mass swarming at Ambon Island; a key to the 13 species is provided. Species composition varies slightly between the three time periods: four species were common between all three periods, five species were in common between 1866 and 2014, and four species were in common between 1995 and 2009/14. Two species of Neanthes and one of Nereis are identified as potentially new and will be described in subsequent papers. PMID:26448711
Chen, Jing; Jiang, Wanxiang; Xie, Zhicai
The Three Parallel Rivers region is not only an important World Natural Heritage area but also one of the hotspots of world biodiversity with many endemic organisms. However, little is known about the soil fauna of this region, and nothing about enchytraeids. Here we describe two species from the Laojun Mountain, one of the eight eminent mountain chains in this region, Chamaedrilus cf. ozensis Torii, 2015 and Mesenchytraeus laojunensis sp. nov. The latter belongs to a group of Mesenchytraeus species characterized by spermathecae with one ampullar diverticulum and a communication with the oesophagus, and is thus far the southernmost member of this genus in China. It has two exceptional traits within Mesenchytraeus: a large sperm funnel (more than 2000 µm in length) and a subterminal attachment of the vas deferens to the atrium. In addition, it is distinguished from the other congeners within this group by coelomocytes with distinct refractile vesicles, five pairs of preclitellar nephridia, and the presence of abundant and flame-shaped sperm bundles in sperm sacs, which extend backwards into XVII-XXII.
In recent years, the research and development of DNA-based tools has improved both their sensitivity and costs. This technology has the potential to be useful in the early detection of aquatic invasive species, and can increase the scope of surveillance compared with traditional ...
Paresque, Karla; Fukuda, Marcelo Veronesi; Nogueira, João Miguel de Matos
Brazilian specimens of Branchiosyllis cf. exilis, B. tamandarensis sp. n., Haplosyllis lattigae sp. n., H. loboi, Opisthosyllis brunnea and O. viridis are described and illustrated herein, from recently collected material; also, the distributions of Haplosyllis amphimedonicola and H. rosenalessoae are expanded to other localities in the states of Paraíba and Pernambuco. Branchiosyllis tamandarensis sp. n. was found associated with sponges and is characterized by having a flattened, ribbon-like body, with longitudinal line of mid-dorsal papillae, peristomium dorsally inconspicuous, branchiae with up to six lobes, branchiae and ungulae on all parapodia, and falcigers absent. Haplosyllis lattigae sp. n. is characterized by having two kinds of chaetae with different sizes and shapes per parapodium, papillate dorsum from midbody, and midbody dorsal cirri alternating in length. Additionally, we provide keys to the Brazilian species of Branchiosyllis, Haplosyllis and Opisthosyllis, comparative tables of the new species described herein and selected similar congeners, and the first record for Trypanosyllis zebra in the states of Espírito Santo and Paraíba. PMID:27144528
An interstitial polychaete, Microphthalmus mahensis, new species (Phyllodocida), is described from sand sediments of a coral reef flat of the Seychelles island Mahé. A comprehensive discussion includes a complete list of all 38 valid Microphthalmus species, and a key together with critical remarks on problematic species and subspecies.
Cang, Tao; Dai, Dejiang; Yang, Guiling; Yu, Yijun; Lv, Lu; Cai, Leiming; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Yanhua
Although the earthworm Eisenia fetida has been used in many ecotoxicological studies in recent years, most of these studies have only focused on assessing the effects of individual insecticides. In the present study, we aimed to compare the individual and combined toxic effects of imidacloprid and three insecticides (phoxim, chlorpyrifos, and lambda-cyhalothrin) on E. fetida. We showed that imidacloprid had the highest intrinsic toxicity to the worms in filter paper contact test, followed by phoxim and lambda-cyhalothrin, while the least toxicity was found from chlorpyrifos. Moreover, 14-day soil toxicity test revealed that the highest toxicity was still detected for imidacloprid with an LC 50 value of 2.82 (2.61∼3.17) mg a.i. kg -1 dry weight (DW), followed by chlorpyrifos with an LC 50 value of 384.9 (353.5∼440.3) mg a.i. kg -1 DW. Meanwhile, a relatively less toxicity was found for lambda-cyhalothrin with an LC 50 value of 560.3 (475.9∼718.5) mg a.i. kg -1 DW, while the lowest toxicity to E. fetida was observed for phoxim with an LC 50 value of 901.5 (821.3∼1017) mg a.i. kg -1 DW. In addition, significant synergistic responses were found from the ternary mixture of imidacloprid-phoxim-lambda-cyhalothrin and quaternary mixture of imidacloprid-phoxim-chlorpyrifos-lambda-cyhalothrin in both bioassay systems. Therefore, our findings highlighted that the simultaneous presence of several insecticides in the soil environment might lead to increased toxicity, resulting in serious damage to the nontarget organisms compared with individual insecticides.
Delgado-Blas, VÍctor Hugo; DÍaz-dÍaz, Óscar; ViÉitez, JosÉ M
Re-assessment of spionid specimens from Iberian Peninsula initially assigned to Dispio uncinata Hartman, 1951 and Streblospio benedicti Webster, 1879 led to the recognition of two new species from the spionid genera Dispio and Streblospio from coasts around the Iberian Peninsula. Dispio elegans sp. nov. is characterised by having an oblanceolate-shaped prostomium. In addition, the first two notopodial postchaetal lamellae are serrated with digitiform papillae, the anterior neuropodial lamellae are smooth; all branchiae are almost completely fused to the notopodial lamellae, but with the tips free; the notochaetae on chaetiger 1 are smooth, alimbate capillaries; the ventral chaetae located in the position of the sabre chaetae on chaetigers 1-2 are smooth, alimbate capillaries, but becoming granulated on chaetiger 3; and the middle and posterior chaetigers are granulated and reticulated. Streblospio padventralis sp. nov. is characterized by lacking dorsal papillae between the branchiae of chaetiger 1; the hooks have 4-5 pairs of small teeth; sabre chaetae are present from chaetiger 3; the pygidium has two ventral lappets; and brooding structures are present in the coelomic cavities. We suggest raising the status of Streblospio benedicti japonica Imajima, 1990 to full species level as S. japonica Imajima, 1990. A key for Streblospio species is provided.
Conde-Vela, Víctor Manuel
The nereidid polychaete genus Namalycastis Hartman, 1959 has been recorded almost exclusively in non-marine environments. This genus includes species having four pairs of tentacular cirri, and its species mainly differ by the relative size of dorsal cirri in posterior chaetigers. Namalycastis occulta n. sp. is described based upon non-mature and mature specimens collected in the intertidal from Chetumal Bay, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Its distinctive features are the lack of notopodial spinigers, eyes, and teeth in the mandibles. Namalycastis borealis Glasby was found in Tamalcab Island, Chetumal Bay and it is the first record for Mexico. Analyses of the intraspecific variability, a key to the known species in the Grand Caribbean region, and commentaries about some taxonomic topics are also included.
González-Escalante, Luis E; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I
Nereis garwoodi n. sp. is described on the basis of eight syntype specimens (six atokous and two heteronereis) collected in Bahía Chetumal, Mexican Caribbean coast, and the variability in the paragnath numbers in the pharynx is established using 180 specimens; paragnath numbers are I:10(SD = 1.9); II:30 (SD = 2.6); III:41 (SD = 5.2); IV:29 (SD = 3.5), V:1, VI:4, VII-VIII: > 30. Its eyes are big and its longest tentacular cirri reaches setiger 11. A revised key to species of Nereis recorded from the Grand Caribbean Sea is included.
Delgado-Blas, V. H.
Available type material of Prionospio heterobranchia Moore, 1907, P. ( Prionospio) texana Hartman, 1951, P. spongicola Wesenberg-Lund, 1958 and P. ( P.) newportensis Reish, 1959, as well as newly collected material from the Southern Gulf of Mexico and Chetumal Bay in the Caribbean Sea, was examined. Several important differences were found between P. heterobranchia, P. ( Prionospio) texana, P. spongicola and P. ( P.) newportensis, and as a result, these three species are removed from synonymy with P. heterobranchia Moore, 1907, and redescribed and reinstated as valid species. In addition, three new species were identified and described: P. caribensis sp. nov., P. rosariae sp. nov. and P. jamaicensis sp. nov. A key to all species of Prionospio with five pairs of branchiae is provided.
Lu, Yonggang; Lin, Minjie; Aitken, Robert John
In this study, we have investigated the impact of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) on early embryogenesis in a sessile marine invertebrate, Galeolaria caespitosa. DBP was found to induce sperm dysfunction as well as impaired and defective embryogenesis characterised by a particular pattern of abnormality. Thus, after the first cleavage, one blastomere in these abnormal embryos was able to carry out further mitoses, while the other arrested. Analysis of microtubules, chromosomes and actin filaments demonstrated that the mitotic spindles in the abnormal embryos were irregularly bent, shortened and unable to anchor to the cortex, resulting in the defective segregation of chromosomes. Within the non-dividing blastomeres, karyokinesis was found to continue at a slow pace as indicated by the presence of multiple sets of abnormal mitotic spindles. However, cytokinesis had been disrupted in these arrested cells due to a failure to assemble the contractile actin ring, as a result of which one pole of the embryos remained as one large, undivided cell. DBP was found to suppress the activity of superoxide dismutase in spermatozoa and, in association with this change, DBP-treated cells experienced oxidative stress as indicated by the presence of lipid aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) in the sperm acrosome and neck. Adduction of lipid aldehydes at the level of the acrosome would be expected to impede the acrosome reaction and account for the significant decrease in fertilisation rates. 4-HNE generated as a consequence of lipid peroxidation in the sperm neck resulted in alkylation of the sperm centrioles. Such paternally damaged centrioles were inherited by the embryos and disrupted cytoskeletal protein organisation during early cleavage, generating the observed abnormalities in embryonic development. This research emphasises the vulnerability of spermatozoa to oxidative damage and highlights novel potential mechanisms for reproductive toxicity involving the alkylation of subcellular structures in spermatozoa by lipid aldehydes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ravara, Ascensão; Cunha, Marina R
Two new species of scale worms are described from the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic), at depths between 1100 and 2230 m. Australaugeneria iberica sp. nov. (Polynoidae) was obtained from an alcyonarian colony collected at the flank of Carlos Ribeiro mud volcano; it is characterized by the presence of neuropodial hooks only on segment two and by having the first parapodia not enlarged. This is the first report of the genus for the deep sea. The diagnosis of Australaugeneria is emended and a table comparing all species of the genus is provided. Pholoe petersenae sp. nov. (Pholoidae) was collected from the crater of three mud volcanoes (Darwin, Captain Arutyunov and Carlos Ribeiro) in areas of active seepage. This species is characterized by the presence of prostomial peaks and parapodia stylodes and the absence of eyes.
Kegel, B.; Pfannenstiel, H.-D.
Pairs and larger groups of female Ophryotrocha puerilis puerilis were formed from formerly isolated specimens. Neither the diameter of the oocytes present in the coelomic fluid nor the number of setigerous segments (ss) of the partners of a newly formed pair allow us to predict which one of the two animals will exhibit sex reversal. Amputation of the palps showed that these ventrolateral appendages of the prostomium are not responsible for the transmission of the mutual influence which is exerted during the pair-culture effect. Isolated females do not produce egg masses but keep their oocytes in the body cavity until they are eventually resorbed. The shedding of oocytes in one of the females of a newly formed pair was formerly considered to be the first step in the pair-culture effect. The present results demonstrate that egg laying in these cases is unspecific and due rather to the end of isolation than to specific interactions with the partner. In groups consisting of up to 50 animals the sex ratio oscillates around 1:1. The presence of primary males does not influence the sex ratio of adult specimens, although these males are capable of fertilizing egg masses produced by adult females. As a result, a high percentage of both young and old males are found in densely populated bowls. The significance of the pair-culture effect in natural populations is discussed in the light of these findings.
De Assis, José Eriberto; de Brito, Rafael Justino; Christoffersen, Martin Lindsey; de Souza, José Roberto Botelho
Abstract The genus Lepidonotus is the largest in number of species within the Polynoidae, with more than 70 described species and subspecies. A catalogue of 18 nominal species and subspecies of Lepidonotus from South America is provided, with valid names, synonyms and original citations. Redescriptions and illustrations of two species based on new specimens collected along the littoral of the State of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil are included. Lepidonotus carinulatus and Lepidonotus natalensis are reported for the first time for Brazilian waters. A comparative table of characters for all reported species and subspecies of Lepidonotus from South America is provided. PMID:26668541
Díaz-Jaramillo, M; Miglioranza, K S B; Carriquiriborde, P; Marino, D; Pegoraro, C N; Valenzuela, G; Barra, R
Sediment-living organisms can be subjected to a multi-pollution condition due to an increase in the diversity of contaminants. Sediment mixtures of Mercury (Hg) and some polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbons like Pyrene (Pyr) are common in heavily industrialized coastal zones. In the present study, greater than (>) and less than (<) probable effect concentration levels (PELs) of Hg and Pyr were assessed using spiked sediments in order to determine combined (Hg + Pyr) effects in uptake, metabolization and oxidative balance in the polychaete Perinereis gualpensis at short and medium-term exposure. Hg + Pyr significantly influenced the uptake/kinetics of Hg and Pyr metabolite 1-OH-pyrene in polychaete tissues during the exposure time compared with separate treatments of each analyte (p < 0.05). Both the Hg-only and Pyr-only exposures significantly influenced both enzymatic and non-enzymatic responses respect to control groups (p < 0.05). The Hg-only treatment showed the worst scenario related to the activation and subsequent inhibition of glutathione S- transferase (GST) and peroxidase (GPx) activities, high levels of Thiol-groups (SH-groups), low antioxidant capacity (ACAP) and enhanced lipid peroxidation (TBARS) in the last days of exposure (p < 0.05). In contrast, ragworms exposed to Hg + Pyr showed a significant increase in both enzymatic and non-enzymatic activity during the first days of exposure and the absence of lipid peroxidation during the whole experiment. Our results suggest different oxidative stress scenarios in P. gualpensis when exposed to >PEL Hg concentration with
Serpetti, Natalia; Taylor, M. L.; Brennan, D.; Green, D. H.; Rogers, A. D.; Paterson, G. L. J.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.
The polychaete family polynoid is very large and includes a high diversity of behaviours, including numerous examples of commensal species. The comparison between free-living and commensal behaviours and the evolution of the relationships between commensal species and their hosts are valuable case studies of ecological adaptations. Deep-sea species of Polynoidae were sampled at four seamounts in the Southwest Indian Ridge and twenty specimens from seven species were selected to be analysed. Among them, there were free-living species, living within the three-dimensional framework of cold-water coral reefs, on coral rubble and on mobile sediments, and commensal species, associated with octocorals, hydrocorals (stylasterids), antipatharians and echinoderms (holothurian and ophiuroids). We analysed two mitochondrial (COI, 16S) and two nuclear (18S, 28S) ribosomal genetic markers and their combined sequences were compared with other Genbank sequences to assess the taxonomic relationships within the species under study, and the potential role of hosts in speciation processes. Most basal species of the sub-family Polynoinae are obligate symbionts showing specific morphological adaptations. Obligate and facultative commensal species and free-living species have evolved a number of times, although, according to our results, the obligate coral commensal species appear to be monophyletic.
Rodrigues, Clara F; Hilário, Ana; Cunha, Marina R; Weightman, Andrew J; Webster, Gordon
Frenulates are a group of gutless marine annelids belonging to the Siboglinidae that are nutritionally dependent upon endosymbiotic bacteria. We have characterized the bacteria associated with several frenulate species from mud volcanoes in the Gulf of Cadiz by PCR-DGGE of bacterial 16S rRNA genes, coupled with analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries. In addition to the primary symbiont, bacterial consortia (microflora) were found in all species analysed. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the primary symbiont in most cases belongs to the Gammaproteobacteria and were related to thiotrophic and methanotrophic symbionts from other marine invertebrates, whereas members of the microflora were related to multiple bacterial phyla. This is the first molecular evidence of methanotrophic bacteria in at least one frenulate species. In addition, the occurrence of the same bacterial phylotype in different Frenulata species, from different depths and mud volcanoes suggests that there is no selection for specific symbionts and corroborates environmental acquisition as previously proposed for this group of siboglinids.
Canyon effect and seasonal variability of deep-sea organisms in the NW Mediterranean: Synchronous, year-long captures of ;swimmers; from near-bottom sediment traps in a submarine canyon and its adjacent open slope
Romano, C.; Flexas, M. M.; Segura, M.; Román, S.; Bahamon, N.; Gili, J. M.; Sanchez-Vidal, A.; Martin, D.
Numerous organisms, including both passive sinkers and active migrators, are captured in sediment traps together with sediments. By capturing these "swimmers", the traps become an extraordinarily tool to obtain relevant information on the biodiversity and dynamics of deep-sea organisms. Here we analyze near-bottom swimmers larger than 500 μm and their fluxes collected from eight near-bottom sediment traps installed on instrumented moorings deployed nearby Blanes Canyon (BC). Our data, obtained from November 2008 to October 2009 with a sampling rate of 15 days, constitutes the first year-long, continuous time series of the whole swimmers' community collected at different traps and bottom depths (from 300 m to 1800 m) inside a submarine canyon and on its adjacent open slope (OS). The traps captured 2155 specimens belonging to 70 taxa, with Crustacea (mainly Copepoda) and Annelida Polychaeta accounting for more than 90% of the total abundance. Almost half of the identified taxa (33) were only present in BC traps, where mean annual swimmer fluxes per trap were almost one order of magnitude higher than in the OS ones. Temporal variability in swimmer fluxes was more evident in BC than in OS. Fluxes dropped in winter (in coincidence with the stormy period in the region) and remained low until the following spring. In spring, there was a switch in taxa composition, including an increase of planktonic organisms. Additionally, we report drastic effects of extreme events, such as major storms, on deep-sea fauna. The impact of such extreme events along submarine canyon systems calls to rethink the influence of climate-driven phenomena on deep-sea ecosystems and, consequently, on their living resources.
Huusgaard, Randi S.; Vismann, Bent; Kühl, Michael; Macnaugton, Martin; Colmander, Veronica; Rouse, Greg W.; Glover, Adrian G.; Dahlgren, Thomas; Worsaae, Katrine
Members of the conspicuous bone-eating genus, Osedax, are widely distributed on whale falls in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. These gutless annelids contain endosymbiotic heterotrophic bacteria in a branching root system embedded in the bones of vertebrates, whereas a trunk and anterior palps extend into the surrounding water. The unique life style within a bone environment is challenged by the high bacterial activity on, and within, the bone matrix possibly causing O2 depletion, and build-up of potentially toxic sulphide. We measured the O2 distribution around embedded Osedax and showed that the bone microenvironment is anoxic. Morphological studies showed that ventilation mechanisms in Osedax are restricted to the anterior palps, which are optimized for high O2 uptake by possessing a large surface area, large surface to volume ratio, and short diffusion distances. The blood vascular system comprises large vessels in the trunk, which facilitate an ample supply of oxygenated blood from the anterior crown to a highly vascularised root structure. Respirometry studies of O. mucofloris showed a high O2 consumption that exceeded the average O2 consumption of a broad line of resting annelids without endosymbionts. We regard this combination of features of the respiratory system of O. mucofloris as an adaptation to their unique nutrition strategy with roots embedded in anoxic bones and elevated O2 demand due to aerobic heterotrophic endosymbionts. PMID:22558289
Guggolz, Theresa; Lins, Lidia; Meißner, Karin; Brandt, Angelika
During the Vema-TRANSIT (Bathymetry of the Vema-Fracture Zone and Puerto Rico TRench and Abyssal AtlaNtic BiodiverSITy Study) expedition from December, 2014 to January, 2015, a transect along the Vema Fracture Zone in the equatorial Atlantic was surveyed and sampled at about 10°N. The Vema Fracture Zone is one of the largest fracture zones of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and it is characterized by a large left-lateral offset. Benthic communities of the transect and the abyssal basins on both sides were investigated to examine whether the Mid-Atlantic Ridge serves as a physical barrier for these organisms, or if there is a potential connection from east to west via the Vema Fracture Zone. Samples comprised 4149 polychaetes, belonging to 42 families. Exemplary, Polynoidae and Spionidae, both typical deep-sea families with high abundances in all investigated regions, were identified up to species level. The present results show significant differences in polychaete faunistic composition between both sides of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Moreover, the eastern and western Vema Fracture Zone characterizes divergent habitats, since the two basins differ in sedimentology and environmental variables (e.g. temperature, salinity), hence characterizing divergent habitats. Most species found were restricted to either eastern or western VFZ, but there was a trans-Mid-Atlantic Ridge distribution of certain abundant species observed, indicating that the Mid-Atlantic Ridge might rather act limiting to dispersal between ocean basins than as an absolute barrier. Given the abyssal valley formed by the Vema Fracture Zone and its role in oceanic currents, this seafloor feature may well represent exchange routes between eastern and western faunas.
Alfaro-Lucas, Joan M.; Shimabukuro, Maurício; Ferreira, Giulia D.; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Sumida, Paulo Y. G.
Although it is well recognized the capital role of "bone-eating" Osedax worms in the degradation of vertebrate skeletons in the deep sea, very little is known about their effects on bone faunal assemblages. Here we aim to shed light on the bone colonization process and determine 1) whether Osedax degradation induces different bone epi/infaunal assemblages and 2) how biodiversity is affected by Osedax colonization. We describe and compare the epi/infaunal assemblage structures of caudal vertebrae colonized and not colonized by Osedax of an abyssal juvenile whale carcass serendipitously found at 4204 m depth in the SW Atlantic Ocean by HOV Shinkai 6500. Our results show that whale skeletons are very heterogeneous habitats that harbor specific and very rich assemblages and that contrasting epi/infaunal community patterns are found depending on the presence of Osedax. Vertebrae not colonized by Osedax were both well preserved and in a highly sulfophilic stage with chemosynthetic bacterial mats and numerous epifaunal organisms that fed on them. On the contrary, vertebrae colonized by Osedax were heavily degraded and did not exhibit evidence of a sulfophilic stage, harboring a distinct epifaunal assemblage. In general, bone infaunal assemblages were dominated by nematodes, especially in vertebrae without Osedax (ca. 77%) where organisms were only found in bone outer layers, showing a colonization pattern similar to that described for bacteria. Infauna in Osedax-colonized bones were present throughout the inner-matrices and were on average three times more abundant (ca. 1800 ind. 100 cm-3) and twice as rich in number of species (16 species). Here, bones had a relatively higher proportion of the polychaete Capitella iatapiuna (ca. 39%) in comparison with nematodes (ca. 52%). Besides, a higher number of rare species were present in bones with Osedax. We suggest that Osedax degradation increases water diffusion through matrices probably modifying reduced-compound fluxes and truncating the sulfophilic stage. Furthermore, it is likely that larger and distinct infaunal biodiversity is a result of an increase in bone structural complexity caused by Osedax, which also facilitates the colonization of inner-bone matrices. We conclude that Osedax is an important ecosystem engineer that enhances biodiversity in deep-sea whale-fall communities.
Actinobdella inequiannulata was found on the white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, and less frequently on the longnose sucker, Catostomus catostomus, in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada. This study established the presence of only one species of leech, Actinobdela inequ...
Di Domenico, Maikon; Amaral, Antonia C. Z.; Paiva, Paulo C.
The sibling species of Capitella capitata are globally known for their tolerance to disturbed habitats and the C. capitata complex is often used as an ecological indicator. A recent re-description proposed that C. capitata, originally described in Greenland is restricted to the Artic and Subarctic regions. Given their ecological relevance, we conducted a morphological and molecular analyses based on mtDNA sequences to investigate the diversity and distribution of the C. capitata complex along the Brazilian coast. Our morphological and molecular data were congruent and revealed the existence of four new species distinct from C. capitata, collected from the type locality. This study is the first characterization of the biodiversity and distribution of Capitella species made along the Brazilian coast and yielded a set of morphological characters corroborated by the mtDNA sequences for species identification. Our results increase the biodiversity of the genus along the Brazilian coast by describing four new species (Capitella aracaensis sp. n., Capitella biota sp. n., Capitella neoaciculata sp. n. and Capitella nonatoi sp. n.). One species was collected from only one sampling site, while the others are distributed along the coast. PMID:28562616
Schulze, Anja; Tovar-Hernández, María Ana; Keppel, Erica; Lezzi, Marco; Gambi, Maria Cristina; Giangrande, Adriana
This study was performed to analyse the genetic and morphological diversity of the sabellid annelid genus Branchiomma, with special emphasis on a taxon so far identified as Branchiomma bairdi. This species, originally described from Bermuda, has frequently been reported as an invader in the Mediterranean, the Atlantic and the Eastern Pacific, but recent observations have raised some taxonomic questions. Samples of this taxon were collected from five sites in the Mediterranean Sea, two sites in the original distribution area of B. bairdi in the Gulf of Mexico and four localities in the east Pacific and Atlantic Oceans where B. bairdi has been reported as invasive. The molecular results revealed a conspicuous genetic divergence (18.5% K2P) between the sampled Mediterranean populations and all the other ones that led to a re-evaluation of their morphological characters. The latter showed that the Mediterranean and extra-Mediterranean populations also differ in some discrete morphological and reproductive features. Consequently, the Mediterranean samples were re-designated as B. boholense, another non-indigenous species originally described from Philippines. Branchiomma bairdi and B. boholense differ in body size, development and shape of micro and macrostylodes, size of radiolar eyes and body pigmentation. Genetic diversity was high in B. boholense from the Mediterranean as well as in B. bairdi from the Gulf of Mexico, but low in B. bairdi populations outside their native range. The phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of connections between the Mediterranean localities as well as between native and introduced B. bairdi populations that focus the attention on the Panama Canal as important passage for the introduction of the species from the Gulf of Mexico to the north-east Pacific Ocean. PMID:29746553
Ribeiro, Rannyele Passos; Alves, Paulo Ricardo; de Almeida, Zafira da Silva; Ruta, Christine
Abstract The polychaete fauna from the mangroves of the Amazon Coast in Maranhão state, Brazil, is reported in this study. Fourteen species are listed, namely Alitta succinea (Leuckart, 1847); Arabella (Arabella) iricolor Montagu, 1804; Capitella capitata (Fabricius, 1780) complex; Exogone (Exogone) breviantennata Hartmann-Schröder, 1959; Heteromastus filiformis (Claparède, 1864); Isolda pulchella Müller, 1858; Mediomastus californiensis Hartman, 1944; Namalycastis fauveli Nageswara Rao, 1981; Namalycastis geayi (Gravier, 1901); Namalycastis senegalensis (Saint-Joseph, 1901); Nephtys simoni Perkins, 1980; Paraonis amazonica sp. n.; Sigambra bassi (Hartman, 1945); and Sigambra grubii Müller, 1858. Among them, Namalycastis fauveli and Namalycastis geayi are recorded for the first time in Brazil. Paraonis amazonica sp. n. is a new species for science, characterized by a rounded prostomium, 4–8 pairs of foliaceous branchiae, absent eyes, and two types of modified neurochaetae, acicular and hook-shaped. PMID:29674886
Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I
Among flabelligerid genera Brada Stimpson, 1853 includes several species whose bodies are fusiform or club-shaped, often with a reduced number of chaetigers, and their members are found in temperate and polar waters. In contrast, Bradabyssa Hartman, 1967 is regarded as a monotypic genus with a single Antarctic species with a cylindrical body and a variable number of chaetigers. After examination of all type and non-type material available of both genera, two distinct body patterns were distinguished: one includes the type species for Brada, B. granosa Stimpson, 1853, has only 8 branchial filaments and the neurochaetae are thick, blunt, often falcate, whereas the other includes the type species of Bradabyssa, B. papillata Hartman, 1967, usually has many branchial filaments and neurochaetae are straighter and mucronate. Consequently, Brada is herein restricted to include only 5 species, one of which is new, Brada kudenovi n. sp. Bradabyssa is herein emended to include many species formerly regarded as belonging in Brada, as new combinations, and species can be separated into four groups according to the development of the tunic and its sediment load. Thirteen new species of Bradabyssa are also described: B. indica n. sp., B. mexicana n. sp., B. alaskensis n. sp., B. elinae n. sp., B. grangieri n. sp., B. levensteinae n. sp., B. harrisae n. sp., B. hartmanae n. sp., B. jirkovi n. sp., B. kirkegaardi n. sp., B. monnioti n. sp., B. mezianei n. sp. and B. willeyi n. sp. The species belonging to Brada are B. granosa, B. granulosa Hansen, 1880, B. incrustata Støp-Bowitz, 1948, B. inhabilis (Rathke, 1843), and B. kudenovi n. sp. The species belonging to Bradabyssa are separated into four groups according to the development of their tunic and its sediment load. Group crustosa includes B. indica n. sp., B. mexicana n. sp., B. minuta (Amoureux, 1986) n. comb., and B. sachalina (Annenkova-Chlopina, 1922) n. comb. Group nuda includes B. alaskensis n. sp., B. antarctica (Hartman, 1978) n. comb., B. bransfieldia (Hartman, 1966) n. comb., B. nuda (Annenkova-Chlopina, 1922) n. comb., B. rugosa (Hansen, 1880) n. comb., and B. strelzovi (Jirkov & Filippova in Jirkov, 2001) n. comb. Group verrucosa contains B. abyssalis (Fauchald, 1972) n. comb., B. annenkovae (Buzhinskaja, 2001) n. comb., B. elinae n. sp., B. grangieri n. sp., B. irenaia (Chamberlin, 1919) n. comb., B. levensteinae n. sp., B. mammillata (Grube, 1877) n. comb., B. ochotensis (Annenkova-Chlopina, 1922) n. comb., B. papillata Hartman, 1967, B. tenebricosa (Berkeley, 1966) n. comb., n. status, and B. verrucosa (Chamberlin, 1919) n. comb. Group villosa contains B. capensis (Day, 1961) n. comb., n. status, B. harrisae n. sp., B. hartmanae n. sp., B. ilyvestis (Hartman, 1960) n. comb., B. intoshi (Caullery, 1944) n. comb., B. jirkovi n. sp., B. kirkegaardi n. sp., B. monnioti n. sp., B. parthenopeia (Lo Bianco, 1893) n. comb., B. pilosa (Moore, 1906) n. comb., B. pluribranchiata (Moore, 1923) n. comb., B. setosa (Verrill, 1873) n. comb., B. mezianei n. sp., B. tzetlini (Jirkov & Filippova in Jirkov, 2001) n. comb, B. villosa (Rathke, 1843) n. comb., B. whiteavesi (McIntosh, 1885) n. comb and B. willeyi n. sp. Keys to aid identification of all genera in Flabelligeridae, to species in Brada, and for the species belonging in the four species groups of Bradabyssa are included.
Terrana, Lucas; Eeckhaut, Igor
Eenymeenymyzostoma nigrocorallium n. sp. is the first species of myzostomid worm associated with black corals to be described. Endoparasitic specimens of E. nigrocorallium were found associated with three species of antipatharians on the Great Reef of Toliara. Individuals inhabit the gastrovascular ducts of their hosts and evidence of infestation is, most of the time, not visible externally. Phylogenetic analyses based on 18S rDNA, 16S rDNA and COI data indicate a close relation to Eenymeenymyzostoma cirripedium, the only other species of the genus. The morphology of E. nigrocorallium is very unusual compared to that of the more conventional E. cirripedium. The new species has five pairs of extremely reduced parapodia located on the body margin and no introvert, cirri or lateral organs. Individuals are hermaphroditic, with the male and female gonads both being located dorsally in the trunk. It also has a highly developed parenchymo-muscular layer on the ventral side, and the digestive system lies in the middle part of the trunk. A three-dimensional digital model of this worm's body plan has been constructed whereby the external morphology and in toto views of the observed organ systems (nervous, digestive and reproductive) can be viewed on-screen: http://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.17911.21923.
Zhadan, Anna E; Tzetlin, Alexander B; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I
Five sternaspid species were found near Vietnam shores: Sternaspis britayevi sp. nov., S. costata von Marenzeller, 1879, S. nana sp. nov., S. papillosa sp. nov., and S. spinosa Sluiter 1882. Sternaspis britayevi is described from the shallow water in Vietnam inhabiting soft bottoms; it resembles S. spinosa described from Java and S. thorsoni Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 described from the Persian Gulf, but differs in having a medially projected and markedly ribbed fan of the ventro-caudal shield and nearly parallel, distally widened and rounded branchial plates. Sternaspis nana sp. nov. is described from Nha Trang Bay; it differs from the other known species by the combination of the following characters: small size, evenly distributed micropapillae and regular rows of long cirriform papillae; posterior chaetal fascicles consisting of single thick chaeta; a ventral shield with smooth integument, without ribs and usually without concentric lines. Sternaspis papillosa sp. nov. is also described from Nha Trang Bay; it resembles S. africana Augener, 1918 and S. andamanensis Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 by having similar ventro-caudal shields but differs by body papillation and details of the ventro-caudal shield. Based upon observations of different species some morphological features are clarified: 1) notochaetae are present in introvert chaetigers as delicate capillaries; 2) peg-chaetae are really a dense group of more than 100 thin individual chaetae, embedded in a fibrous matrix, and covered by a common sheath; 3) the pharynx is an eversible, lobed, axial non-muscular proboscis with a ciliated surface; 4) the body cavity is divided by three septa in the anterior body region, and there are no other septa; and 5) an eversible anal peduncle is confirmed, as has been shown by early taxonomists.
One of 4 (25%) white crappie, Pomoxis annularis from the Ouachita River, Dallas County, Arkansas, was found to be infested with 8 glossiphoniid leeches, Actinobdella inequiannulata Moore, 1901. Leeches were removed from within the oeprculum on gills and gill arches. This leech i...
Abstract Amphinomids, more commonly known as fireworms, are a basal lineage of marine annelids characterized by the presence of defensive dorsal calcareous chaetae, which break off upon contact. It has long been hypothesized that amphinomids are venomous and use the chaetae to inject a toxic substance. However, studies investigating fireworm venom from a morphological or molecular perspective are scarce and no venom gland has been identified to date, nor any toxin characterized at the molecular level. To investigate this question, we analyzed the transcriptomes of three species of fireworms—Eurythoe complanata, Hermodice carunculata, and Paramphinome jeffreysii—following a venomics approach to identify putative venom compounds. Our venomics pipeline involved de novo transcriptome assembly, open reading frame, and signal sequence prediction, followed by three different homology search strategies: BLAST, HMMER sequence, and HMMER domain. Following this pipeline, we identified 34 clusters of orthologous genes, representing 13 known toxin classes that have been repeatedly recruited into animal venoms. Specifically, the three species share a similar toxin profile with C-type lectins, peptidases, metalloproteinases, spider toxins, and CAP proteins found among the most highly expressed toxin homologs. Despite their great diversity, the putative toxins identified are predominantly involved in three major biological processes: hemostasis, inflammatory response, and allergic reactions, all of which are commonly disrupted after fireworm stings. Although the putative fireworm toxins identified here need to be further validated, our results strongly suggest that fireworms are venomous animals that use a complex mixture of toxins for defense against predators. PMID:29293976
Mallik, Partha; Bandyopadhyay, Prabir K
Surveys on aseptate gregarines in earthworm hosts in different districts of West Bengal state of India revealed the existence of one new species of aseptate gregarine of the genus Nematocystis Hesse, 1909 have been identified from the seminal vesicles of the earthworm, Glyphidrilus tuberosus Stephenson, 1916 in the district of Purba Midnapur, West Bengal of India. Gamonts of the organism are very much elongated, cylindrical, nematoid and without mucron. The terminal end adjacent to the nucleus rounded and the distal end pointed. The gamonts measure 846.45-1031.13 (931.86±70.48) μm in length and 18.40-20.45 (19.43±1.05) μm in width. Nucleus elongated or depressed elliptoid, measures 53.17-63.39 (60.33±3.28) μm in length and 13.29-16.36 (14.15±0.89) μm in width. The gametocysts are slightly ovoid, measuring 110.43-120.65 (114.31±3.44) μm in diameter. Oocysts navicular and measure 9.24-10.39 (9.78±0.40) μm×5.77-6.16 (6.04±0.18) μm. Based on critical analysis and comparison with earlier reported species, the species under discussion established as new one.
Mallik, Partha; Bandyopadhyay, Probir K
A survey to know the diversity of endoparasitic protozoan parasites of the earthworms of West Bengal, revealed a new species of the genus Monocystis Stein, 1848, that resides in the seminal vesicle of the earthworm Perionyx excavatus Perrier. Monocystis kuidongae sp. nov. is characterized by ovoidal gamonts (trophozoites) with inconspicuous mucron and measure 69.53-102.25 (86.29 ± 11.48) μm × 24.54-61.35 (35.17 ± 12.82) μm. Shape of the gametocysts are almost rounded and measure 81.80-110.43 (96.11 ± 8.85) μm in diameter. Oocysts are navicular with pointed ends and measure 11.55-12.32 (11.78 ± 0.36) µm × 5.00-5.77 (5.39 ± 0.25) µm.
Higgs, Nicholas D; Glover, Adrian G; Dahlgren, Thomas G; Little, Crispin T S
Osedax worms possess unique "root" tissues that they use to bore into bones on the seafloor, but details of the boring pattern and processes are poorly understood. Here we use X-ray micro-computed tomography to investigate the borings of Osedax mucofloris in bones of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), quantitatively detailing their morphological characteristics for the first time. Comparative thin-sections of the borings reveal how the bone is eroded at the sub-millimeter level. On the basis of these results we hypothesize a model of boring that is dependent on the density and microstructure of the bone. We also present evidence of acidic mucopolysaccharides in the mucus of the root tissue, and hypothesize that this plays an important role in the boring mechanism. We discuss the utility of these new data in evaluating Osedax trace fossils and their relevance for O. mucofloris ecology. Measured rates of bone erosion (6% per year) and evidence of enhanced sulfide release from the borings indicate that Osedax worms are important habitat modifiers in whale-fall communities.
While studying organisms living in association with the solitary tunicate Phallusia nigra (Ascidiacea, Ascidiidae) from a shallow fringing reef at Zeytouna Beach (Egyptian Red Sea), one of the collected ascidians showed peculiar perforations on its tunic. Once dissected, the perforations revealed to be the openings of a network of galleries excavated in the inner tunic (atrium) by at least six individuals of a polychaetous annelid. The worms belonged to the Autolytinae (Syllidae), a subfamily that is well known to include specialized predators and/or symbionts, mostly associated with cnidarians. The Red Sea worms are here described as Proceraea exoryxae sp. nov., which are anatomically distinguished by the combination of simple chaetae only in anterior chaetigers, and a unique trepan with 33 teeth in one outer ring where one large tooth alternates with one medium-sized tricuspid tooth, and one inner ring with small teeth located just behind the large teeth. Male and female epitokes were found together with atokous individuals within galleries. Proceraea exoryxae sp. nov. constitutes the first known miner in the Autolytinae and the second species in this taxon known to live symbiotically with ascidians. The implications of finding this specialized parasite are discussed considering that Phallusia nigra has been introduced worldwide, in tropical and sub-tropical ecosystems, where it has the potential of becoming invasive. PMID:28584710
Seixas, Victor Corrêa; Zanol, Joana; Magalhães, Wagner F.; Paiva, Paulo Cesar
Among the processes that drive biological invasions, the presence of asexual reproduction, as observed in many polychaetes, is an important feature because it allows a rapid spread and colonization in the invaded site. Despite its ecological importance for benthic communities, studies on the biological invasive context are rare for this abundant taxon. Here, the phylogeographic pattern of a common asexual reproducer polychaete, Timarete punctata, was analyzed at five sites along the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans to investigate if its wide distribution is associated to human-mediated transport. Sequences of COI and 16S revealed the presence of two cryptic species. One of them exhibits a wide distribution range (∼14,000 km), very low level of genetic diversity and a high frequency of shared haplotypes along sampled sites. The genetic pattern indicates that this species has probably been introduced in all sampled sites, and its wide distribution is associated to human-mediated transport. In addition, the great capability of T. punctata to reproduce by fragmentation makes the colonization process easier. Thus, the number of alien polychaete species is probably underestimated and future studies are necessary to reach a more realistic perspective.
Jimi, Naoto; Tsujimoto, Megumu; Watanabe, Kentaro; Kakui, Keiichi; Kajihara, Hiroshi
A new species of polychaete, Flabegraviera fujiae sp. nov., is described and the first report of F. mundata (Gravier, 1906) from the shallow water around Syowa Station, Antarctica, is presented. Flabegraviera fujiae sp. nov. resembles F. profunda Salazar-Vallejo, 2012 but is discriminated from the latter by having eyes and an exposed cephalic cage. The specimen of F. mundata was collected from a depth of 8 m, providing the shallowest record of this species to date.
Zhang, Jinghuai; Qiu, Jian-Wen
Pectinariidae is a family of polychaetes building unique ice-cream cone shaped sandy tubes. Pectinaria torquata sp. n. (Pectinariidae) is described from the coastal waters of the northern South China Sea. This new species can be distinguished from all other 25 recognized species in the genus by a combination of characters: 16 chaetigers; 26-32 cirri in the cephalic veil; 11-12 pairs of cephalic spines; uncini with major teeth arranged in two rows, each with 7-8 major teeth; presence of a dorsal posterior lobe on segments 2 and 20; 4-5 pairs of curved scaphal hooks; and an anal flap with a crenulated margin. A key to all recognized pectinariids in the South China Sea is provided.
Zhang, Jinghuai; Qiu, Jian-Wen
Abstract Pectinariidae is a family of polychaetes building unique ice-cream cone shaped sandy tubes. Pectinaria torquata sp. n. (Pectinariidae) is described from the coastal waters of the northern South China Sea. This new species can be distinguished from all other 25 recognized species in the genus by a combination of characters: 16 chaetigers; 26–32 cirri in the cephalic veil; 11–12 pairs of cephalic spines; uncini with major teeth arranged in two rows, each with 7–8 major teeth; presence of a dorsal posterior lobe on segments 2 and 20; 4–5 pairs of curved scaphal hooks; and an anal flap with a crenulated margin. A key to all recognized pectinariids in the South China Sea is provided. PMID:28769730
Uribe, Sheila; Huerta, Esperanza; Geissen, Violette; Mendoza, Manuel; Godoy, Roberto; Jarquín, Aarón
Soil burning has been used in agricultural and forestry systems as a fundamental technique to clean the land and add some nutrients to the soil. In addition, earthworms are known to promote various soil functions since they contribute to aeration and organic matter and nutrients availability to other soil organisms. This study evaluated the effects of tropical forest crops management with presence-absence of Eucalyptus grandis on earthworm population in Huimanquillo, Tabasco, Mexico. Three sites (average area of 1-1.5ha each) with different management conditions were considered for soil and earthworm sampling (two depths and six replicates): without vegetation (SV) and recent slash-burned (38 days), forest crops of five years of production of E. grandis (Euc), and secondary vegetation of 15 years (Acah). Soil physico-chemical properties (apparent density, humidity, texture, pH, Ntot, OM, P, K, cationic capacity) were also evaluated, and earthworms were collected at the end of the rainy season (august-october 2007). We found that the sites soil is an acrisol acid, with pH 3.0-4.5 in the first 30cm depth. Organic matter content (OM) and total nitrogen (Ntot) in the recently burned sites were significantly lower (6-8% y 0.19-0.22%, respectively) than in sites with vegetation (OM=9-11%; el Ntot=0.27-0.33%). Only one species (P. corethrurus) was found in all the sampled areas, where most of the individuals were at juvenile stage (80%). The highest densities and biomass were found in Euc. treatment (166.4ind/m2 y 36.8g/m2) followed by Acah (138.7ind/m2 y 19.1g/m2 respectively), while the SV treatment showed of about an 80% reduced earthworm populations when compared to other treatments. Even though 15 years have passed over the secondary vegetation (Acah) still some perturbations were observed as the low abundance of the oligochaeta group. We concluded that the management used to culture E. grandis produces negative effects over the abundance and diversity of earthworms and soil nutrient availability.
Fragoso, Carlos; Rojas, Patricia
Three new species from the Mexican states of Tabasco and Chiapas are added to the acanthodrilid earthworm genus Ramiellona, R. microscolecina sp. nov., R. tojolabala sp. nov. and R. teapaensis sp. nov. They belong to a group of species with penial setae and last pair of hearts in segment 12. All are holandric and the spermathecae have either a flat circular diverticle in a segment anterior to that of the ampulla (R. microscolecina sp. nov. and R. tojolabala sp. nov.) or two ovoidal and sessile diverticles on opposite sides in the same segment of the ampulla (R. teapaensis sp. nov.). Ramiellona americana (Gates) is re-described from a single specimen from central Guatemala, and the diagnosis of Ramiellona lasiura (Graff) from El Salvador is emended after reinvestigating a paratype specimen from the Senckenberg Naturmuseum Frankfurt. On the basis of several individuals from different populations of the Mexican states of Chiapas and Tabasco, the morphological variation of Ramiellona strigosa setosa Righi is described and its relationship with the Guatemalan Ramiellona strigosa strigosa Gates and Ramiellona eiseni (Michaelsen) is discussed. Finally, the position of Ramiellona within Acanthodrilidae and its relation to genera of the doubtful Octochaetidae is discussed.
Fend, Steven V.; Carter, James L.
The lumbriculid Rhynchelmis subgenus Sutroa Eisen, 1888 new rank is defined for a group of Nearctic species having multiple diverticula originating at the spermathecal ducts and eversible penial bulbs. Characters are confirmed in specimens of the type species, Rhynchelmis (Sutroa) rostrata (Eisen, 1888), collected from the type locality. Rhynchelmis (Sutroa) klamathensis Fend n. sp. is described from open water benthic habitats in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, USA. It resembles other R. (Sutroa) species in the paired spermathecal diverticula, the spermathecal and penial bulbs, the histological structure of the atria, the nonfunctional anterior male funnels, and the arrangement of blood vessels. Rhynchelmis klamathensis differs from all Nearctic Rhynchelmis in lacking a filiform proboscis. The combination of large body size, the elongate spermathecal ducts with paired and usually unbranched diverticula, the highly contorted atria, and the complex male pores with conical penes also distinguish typical R. klamathensis from other Rhynchelmis species. Smaller specimens with otherwise similar morphology, from the Sacramento River Delta, California, are also assigned to this species. Rhynchelmis (Sutroa) diespluviae Fend n. sp. is described from several stream sites, mostly in northern Idaho, USA. Rhynchelmis diespluviae differs from closely related species in morphology of the conical penes, and in the structure and anterolateral position of the paired spermathecae.
Jeong, Man-Ki; Soh, Ho Young; Wi, Jin Hee; Suh, Hae-Lip
Notomastus koreanus sp. n. , collected from the sublittoral muddy bottom of Korean waters, is described as a new species. The Korean new species closely resembles N. torquatus Hutchings & Rainer, 1979 in the chaetal arrangement and the details of abdominal segments, but differs in the position of genital pores and the absence of eyes. DNA sequences (mtCOI, 16S rRNA, and histone H3) of the new species were compared with all the available sequences of Notomastus species in the GenBank database. Three genes showed significant genetic differences between the new species and its congeners (COI: 51.2%, 16S: 38.1-47.3%, H3: 3.7-9.3%). This study also includes a comprehensive comparison of the new Korean Notomastus species with its most closely similar species, based on the morphological and genetic results.
Bandyopadhyay, Probir K; Göçmen, Bayram; Bhowmik, Biplab; Mitra, Amlan Kumar
As a part of an ongoing biodiversity survey of aseptate gregarine fauna of oligochaete hosts of West Bengal, an expedition was carried out in the Darjeeling district of West Bengal and most of the earthworms collected were found to be infested with a species of Monocystis Stein, 1848. The monocystid species was collected from the seminal vesicles of the earthworm and was identified as a new species, Monocystis amynthae sp. nov. The gamont of the new species is characterized by having an elongated body with broad anterior end, separated from the narrow posterior end by a prominent constriction measuring 49.0-77.0 (66.0+/-1.3) microm x 32.0-41.0 (37.0+/-2.8) microm. The gametocysts are oval-shaped, measuring 40.0-65.0 (58.0+/-2.1) microm. The oocysts are navicular, measuring 8.0-12.0 (10.5+/-1.1) microm x 4.0-6.0 (5.5+/-1.1) microm.
Freeman, S. M.; Richardson, C. A.; Seed, R.
The distribution and abundance of Acholoë squamosa, a commensal with the burrowing starfish Astropecten irregularis, at 17 sites off the western and south-western coasts of the British Isles are described. A total of 4329 Astropectenand 3362 Acholoëwere examined. Population density of Astropectenranged from 5 to 592 individuals ha -1with higher densities typically associated with finer-grained sandy or muddy sediments. There was considerable inter-site variability in colonization rates with maximum colonization approaching 90%. The occurrence of Acholoëwas negatively correlated with the modal arm size of the host population and with water depth, factors which were themselves significantly correlated. Most adult worms occurred in the ambulacral grooves, and worms were sometimes observed with their head and anterior body region inside the mouth of the host, presumably feeding on stomach contents. Marked seasonal trends in abundance of the Astropectenpopulation were not accompanied by any comparable changes in the levels of colonization by Acholoë. Never more than one adult worm (i.e. >15 mm in length) occurred on the same starfish, indicating that intra-specific factors may control the distribution of Acholoë; multiple colonization comprised a single adult worm with up to three juveniles (i.e. worms <15 mm). In late autumn and late spring to early summer, newly recruited Acholoëwere found between the inferomarginal plates of the host where they were afforded protection by the over-arching ossicle spines. The sex ratio appeared to be strongly biased (20:1) towards females.
Lu, Yonggang; Aitken, Robert John; Lin, Minjie
Galeolaria gemineoa is a sessile broadcast-spawning marine invertebrate, whose spermatozoa have been regarded as a sensitive indicator for water quality monitoring. In this study, 10 steps of spermiogenesis have been identified at the ultrastructural level and this differentiation process has been recapitulated in vitro up to the point of spermiogenesis (step 7-9 spermatids). On completion of the second meiosis, newly formed spermatids were detached from the seminiferous epithelium and released to the lumen of each germinal chamber. These spermatids were present in pairs and interconnected by a cytoplasmic bridge throughout the entire spermiogenic process. On the basis of morphological events such as formation of the acrosome, elongation of the flagellum, and condensation of the nucleus, spermiogenesis has been temporally divided into Golgi phase, acrosomal phase and maturation phase. During the Golgi phase, proacrosomal vesicles appeared at the posterior pole of the spermatids and gradually fused into a proacrosomal vacuole. Simultaneously, the distal centriole docked onto the plasma membrane and gave rise to a formative flagellum. The acrosomal phase was characterised by differentiation of the acrosome, condensation of the chromatin and formation of a mitochondrial sheath surrounding the initial portion of the flagellum. During the maturation phase, the fully differentiated acrosome migrated to the anterior pole and excess cytoplasm was extruded from the spermatids in the form of residual bodies. In addition, we successfully induced step 1-3 spermatids to differentiate into the step 7-9 spermatids in both male germinal fluid and 10% foetal bovine serum in RPMI 1640 medium, but failed to replicate this process in female or boiled male germinal fluids. This finding supports our concept that spermatid differentiation in this species is dependent on intrinsic developmental programming and does not require input from accompanying nurse cells.
Schloesser, Don W.
Manayunkia speciosa has been a taxonomic curiosity for 150 years with little interest until 1977 when it was identified as an intermediate host of a fish parasite (Ceratomyxa shasta) responsible for fish mortalities (e.g., chinook salmon). Manayunkia was first reported in the Great Lakes in 1929. Since its discovery, the taxon has been reported in 50% (20 of 40 studies) of benthos studies published between 1960 and 2007. When found, Manayunkia comprised 2) and Georgian Bay (1790/m2) than in five other areas (mean = 60 to 553/m2) of the lakes. A 70-year history of Manayunkia in western Lake Erie indicates it was not found in 1930, was most abundant in 1961 (mean = 8039, maximum = 67,748/m2), and decreased in successive periods of 1982 (3529, 49,639/m2), 1993 (1876, 25,332/m2), and 2003 (79, 2583/m2). It occurred at 48% of stations in 1961, 58% in 1982, 52% in 1993, and 6% of stations in 2003. In all years, Manayunkia was distributed primarily near the mouth of the Detroit River. Causes for declines in distribution and abundance are unknown, but may be related to pollution-abatement programs that began in the 1970s, and invasion of dreissenid mussels in the late-1980s which contributed to de-eutrophication of western Lake Erie. At present, importance of the long-term decline of Manayunkia in Lake Erie is unknown.
Kegel, B.; Pfannenstiel, H.-D.
The conditions for moult of the upper jaw of Ophryotrocha puerilis were determined in isolated individuals and in groups of various sizes. The frequency of formation of the complicated upper jaw in both isolated individuals and in groups varies to a considerable extent. Although formation of the upper jaw and sex reversal normally are associated processes, the relationship of these two processes is not very well understood. Histological investigations at the light microscopic level demonstrate that the dental apparatus is an elaboration of the ectodermal stomodaeum which is considered to be a highly specialized part of the cuticle in the pharyngeal region of the gut.
Sui, Jixing; Li, Xinzheng
A new species of scale-worm, Lepidonotopodium okinawae sp. nov. from the Okinawa Trough is described. The new species differs from the other species of Lepidonotopodium by having 24 segments and numerous foveolae on the surface of elytra with one globular micropapilla in every foveola. A new record of the mussel commensal Branchipolynoe pettiboneae Miura & Hashimoto, 1991 is reported and described from the northern South China Sea, where for the first time the scale-worm is noted as occurring at a cold-seep. Keys to distinguish the species of Branchipolynoe and Lepidonotopodium are provided.
Salcedo, Diana L O; Hernández-Alcántara, Pablo; Solís-Weiss, Vivianne
The genus Pisione Grube 1857 was composed up to now of 40 species and 4 subspecies. Although distributed worldwide, in the Mexican Pacific little is known about its taxonomy and distribution, and only two species of this genus have been recorded: Pisione longispinulata Aguado & San Martín, 2004 and Pisione remota (Southern, 1914), but the records of the latter remain questionable. For this study, 406 pisionids from soft sediments of Acapulco Bay, Southern Mexican Pacific, were examined. Two new species are described: Pisione hippocampus n. sp. characterized by having protruding notoaciculae in posterior chaetigers, the second dorsal cirrus elongated and copulatory organs resembling the body shape of a seahorse and Pisione sanmartini n. sp. characterized by having protruding notoaciculae from the first chaetiger, buccal aciculae with a distal crenulate plate resembling the edge of a shell, and prechaetal bifurcated lobes along the body. Pisione galapagoensis Westheide, 1974 is newly recorded for the Mexican Pacific, its known distribution being extended northward from the Galapagos Islands and Panama. A comparative table with the main diagnostic characters and the distribution of all the species so far described in the genus Pisione is included, as well as a key to the species of the Eastern Pacific.
Gillet, P.; Torresani, S.
A survey was carried out from April 1998 to June 2000 to study the structure of the population and the secondary production of Hediste diversicolor (Copenhagen 32 (1776) 274) in the Loire estuary, Atlantic coast of France. Each month, samples were collected in the intertidal zone of the Mindin harbour. In 1999, the mean annual density was 900±594 individuals (ind.) m -2 with a minimum of 304 ind. m -2 in February and a maximum of 2560 ind. m -2 in April. The mean annual biomass (dry weight) was B¯=9.1 g m -2 with a minimum of 1.2 g m -2 in January and a maximum of 26.0 g m -2 in July 1999. The density and the biomass of the population of H. diversicolor decreased during winter and increased during spring/summer. Size frequency histograms allowed the analysis of cohorts and gave the growth curves. Two recruitment periods were detected each year, in June/July and October. The secondary production was estimated by the method of Crisp (Methods for the study of marine benthos, Blackwell, Oxford, 1971). From June 1998 to May 1999, P=5.1 g m-2 with B¯=4.6 g m-2 and the ratio P/ B¯=1.1 and from June 1999 to May 2000, P=34.4 g m-2 with B¯=9.6 g m-2 and P/ B¯=3.6 . The annual secondary production in 1999 was P=32.5 g m-2 with B¯=9.1 g m-2 and P/ B¯=3.6 . The differences observed between the 1986-1988 and 1998-2000 populations of H. diversicolor in the Loire estuary are discussed and could be explained by environmental changes, as competition or by migration of individuals.
Wu, Xuwen; Sun, Ruiping; Liu, Ruiyu; Xu, Kuidong
A taxonomic study of Eunice species based on material deposited in the Marine Biological Museum of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (MBMCAS) including recently collected specimens from coastal regions of Hainan Island, yielded two new species: Eunice hainanensis n. sp. and E. carrerai n. sp. Both species were collected from dead coral rocks in the reefs of the coastal region of Hainan Island, northern South China Sea. Eunice hainanensis has translucent bidentate subacicular hooks and branchiae present over an extensive region of the body. Within the Eunice group possessing these characters, the new species highly resembles E. schizobranchia Claparède, 1870 in having a numerous chaetigers and a very late start of branchiae (348-570 chaetigers with branchiae from chaetigers 69-72 vs. 731 chaetigers with branchiae from chaetiger 67). However, the two species differ by the presence of the maxillary plate VI (MxVI) in the new species (vs. absent in the latter). Besides, E. hainanensis is much smaller (1.7-1.9 mm vs. 5 mm in maximal width). Eunice carrerai belongs to the Eunice group that has dark bidentate subacicular hooks and branchiae present over an extensive region of the body. It can be distinguished from similar congeners that have the branchiae starting from chaetigers 3-4 and prostomial appendages with moniliform articulations by a combination of characters such as the presence of MxVI, notopodial articulations limited to anterior chaetigers, peristomial cirri articulated and extending to anterior edge of first peristomial ring. A key to 16 species of Eunice identified from China seas in the material examined with notes on their distribution is provided. The major characters of these species are briefly summarized.
Brandt, A.; Frutos, I.; Bober, S.; Brix, S.; Brenke, N.; Guggolz, T.; Heitland, N.; Malyutina, M.; Minzlaff, U.; Riehl, T.; Schwabe, E.; Zinkann, A.-C.; Linse, K.
We analyzed composition and variations in benthic macrofaunal communities along a transect of the entire length of the Vema-Fracture Zone on board of RV Sonne (SO-237) between December 2014 and January 2015 in order to test whether the Mid-Atlantic Ridge serves as a barrier limiting benthic taxon distribution in the abyssal basins on both sides of the ridge or whether the fracture zone permits the migration of species between the western and eastern abyssal Atlantic basins. The Puerto Rico Trench, much deeper than the surrounding abyssal West Atlantic, was sampled to determine whether the biodiversity of its hadal macrofauna differs from that of the abyssal Atlantic. The composition of the macrofauna from the epibenthic sledge catches yielded a total of 21,332 invertebrates. Crustacea occurred most frequently (59%) with 12,538 individuals followed by Annelida (mostly Polychaeta) (26%) with 5491 individuals, Mollusca (7%) with 1458 individuals, Echinodermata (4%) with 778 individuals, Nematoda (2%) with 502 individuals and Chaetognatha (1%) with 152 and Porifera (1%) with 131 individuals. All other taxa occurred with overall less than ten individuals (Hemichordata, Phoronida, Priapulida, Brachiopoda, invertebrate Chordata, Echiurida, Foraminifera (here refereed to macrofaunal Komokiacea only), Chelicerata, Platyhelminthes). Within the Crustacea, Peracarida (62.6%) with 7848 individuals and Copepoda (36.1%) with 44,526 individuals were the most abundant taxa. Along the abyssal Vema-Fracture Zone macrofaunal abundances (ind./1000 m2) were generally higher on the eastern side, while the highest normalized abundance value was reported in the Puerto Rico Trench at abyssal station 14-1 2313 individuals/1000 m2. The lowest abundance was reported at station 11-4 with 120 ind./1000 m2 located at the western side of the Vema-Fracture Zone. The number of major macrofaunal taxa (phylum, class) ranged between five (stations 12-5, 13-4 and 13-5 at hadal depths in the Puerto Rico
On the taxonomic status of the European Scolelepis (Scolelepis) squamata (Polychaeta: Spionidae), with description of a new species from southern Europe On the taxonomic status of the European Scolelepis (Scolelepis) squamata (Polychaeta: Spionidae), with description of a new species from southern Europe
In order to clarify taxonomic problems relating to the identity of Scolelepis (Scolelepis) specimens from the Black Sea, the identified material was compared with specimens of Scolelepis cirratulus (Delle Chiaje, 1829) from the Mediterranean, of S. squamata (Abildgaard, in O.F. Müller, 1806) from the North Sea and the Atlantic coast of Spain, and with the syntypes of S. mesnili (Bellan & Lagardère, 1971) from the Atlantic coast of France. The examination of a large number of specimens (both juveniles and adults) reveals that the currently accepted morphological differences distinguishing all species show size-related patterns, suggesting that they all belong to one species. Therefore, this study supports the view that Scolelepis cirratulus and Scolelepis mesnili are junior synonyms of Scolelepis (Scolelepis) squamata. As a result of the re-assessment of the species limits of Scolelepis (Scolelepis) squamata, a new species, Scolelepis (Scolelepis) neglecta sp. nov., is distinguished and described from the Cantabrian coast of Spain. It inhabits shallow sublittoral fine sands and was earlier misidentified and reported from the Atlantic coast of Europe and the Mediterranean Sea as Scolelepis squamata, Scolelepis mesnili, Scolelepis cantabra (Rioja, 1918), or Dispio uncinata Hartman, 1951. The new species is characterized by having a trilobate prostomium with an acuminate medial portion, a short peristomium with well-developed dorso-lateral wings, short palps with two longitudinal bands of elevated lobes, neuropodial postchaetal lamellae notched from chaetigers 14-41, and strongly curved bidentate neuropodial hooded hooks with a slight constriction on the shaft starting from chaetigers 19-49. The morphology, diagnostic characters and ecology of both Scolelepis (Scolelepis) squamata and Scolelepis (Scolelepis) neglecta sp. nov. are discussed.
BRAZIL, *DISEASE VECTORS, *PARASITIC DISEASES, COLOMBIA, ECOLOGY, COLOMBIA, COLOMBIA, INFECTIOUS DISEASES, DIPTERA, HUMANS, EQUINES , BOVINES, REPTILES, TICKS, ANNELIDA, NEMATODA, PLATYHELMINTHES, FILARIAE.
Faisal, M.; Schulz, C.; Eissa, A.; Whelan, G.
Widespread mouth ulcerations were observed in largemouth bass collected from eight inland lakes in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan during the summer months of 2002 and 2003. These ulcerations were associated with, and most likely caused by, leech parasitism. Through the use of morphological dichotomous keys, it was determined that all leeches collected are of one species: Myzobdella lugubris. Among the eight lakes examined, Lake Orion and Devils Lake had the highest prevalence of leech parasitism (34% and 29%, respectively) and mouth ulcerations (53% and 68%, respectively). Statistical analyses demonstrated that leech and ulcer prevalence varied significantly from one lake to the other. Additionally, it was determined that the relationship between the prevalence of ulcers and the prevalence of leech attachment is significant, indicating that leech parasitism is most likely the cause of ulceration. The ulcers exhibited deep hemorrhagic centers and raised irregular edges. Affected areas lost their epithelial lining and submucosa, with masses of bacteria colonizing the damaged tissues. Since largemouth bass is a popular global sportfish and critical to the food web of inland lakes, there are concerns that the presence of leeches, damaged buccal mucosa, and general unsightliness may negatively affect this important sportfishery. PMID:21395209
Arias, Andrés; Fernández-Álvarez, Fernando Á; Martins, Roberto; Anadón, Nuria
The eunicid polychaete, Eunice laurillardi Quatrefages, 1866, originally described from the central Mediterranean, has been discovered on the northern Iberian Peninsula, constituting the first report of the species since its original description. The new specimens are compared with the type collection and the species is redescribed. Furthermore, the species is assigned to the genus Leodice Savigny in Lamarck, 1818, based on information provided by re-examination of type material and the newly collected specimens. A summary of the complex taxonomic history of the species and a discussion of its current status are also provided.
Paoletti, Maurizio G.; Blakemore, Robert J.; Csuzdi, Csaba; Dorigo, Luca; Dreon, Angelo Leandro; Gavinelli, Federico; Lazzarini, Francesca; Manno, Nicola; Moretto, Enzo; Porco, David; Ruzzier, Enrico; Toniello, Vladimiro; Squartini, Andrea; Concheri, Giuseppe; Zanardo, Marina; Alba-Tercedor, Javier
A new Italian earthworm morphologically close to the similarly large and anecic Eophila tellinii (Rosa, 1888) is described. Distribution of Eophila crodabepis sp. nov. extends over 750 km2 from East to West on the Asiago Plateau and Vittorio Veneto Hills, from North to South on mounts Belluno Prealps (Praderadego and Cesen), Asiago, Grappa and onto the Montello foothills. This range abuts that of Eophila tellinii in northern Friuli Venezia Giulia region. Known localities of both E. tellinii and E.crodabepis sp. nov. are mapped. mtDNA barcoding definitively separates the new western species from classical Eophila tellinii (Rosa, 1888). PMID:27019284
Shimabukuro, Maurício; Santos, Cinthya S. G.; Alfaro-Lucas, Joan M.; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Sumida, Paulo Y. G.
A new whale-fall community was discovered in the abyssal SW Atlantic Ocean (4204 m depth) during the Iatá-piúna expedition. Several specimens of a new nereidid were found living in sediments around and immediately below whalebones. This new species, Neanthes shinkai, is described here. The most interesting feature of the new species is the absence of eyes on the prostomium. Although three other deep-sea Neanthes species are also eyeless, the arrangement of paragnaths on the pharynx, the shape of parapodia and the type of neuropodial falcigers chaetae can distinguish N. shinkai n. sp. from these other species. In addition, interspecific comparisons using COI fragment shown a high genetic divergence (23.6-24.9% K2P) from other Neanthes species. Some nereidids have been already known to live in association with deep-sea organic falls and other reducing environments, however this is the first record and description of a Neanthes species in a deep-sea whale-fall community. Observed behavioral and carbon and nitrogen isotopes suggest that N. shinkai n. sp. is an omnivore relying mainly on whale carcass with slightly contribution of chemosynthetic bacterial mats, suggesting that it is an inhabitant of whale-falls from SW Atlantic.
A comprehensive checklist of earthworm species and subspecies from Vietnam (Annelida: Clitellata: Oligochaeta: Almidae, Eudrilidae, Glossoscolecidae, Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae, Moniligastridae, Ocnerodrilidae, Octochaetidae).
Nguyen, Tung T; Nguyen, Anh D; Tran, Binh T T; Blakemore, Robert J
The comprehensive checklist of earthworms in Vietnam is presented here listing 24 genera and 212 species arranged in eight families. For each species, bibliographic citations are given, including the original descriptions as well as notable citations affecting taxonomic status or distributional reports of a species. Distributions of each species are also provided. The bibliography contains all relevant papers for Vietnamese earthworms. Of 212 species, 114 have been recorded only in Vietnam, and 25 are cosmopolitan. New combinations are made for Amynthas acalifornicus (Do & Huynh, 1991) comb. nov., A. binhgiaensis (Le, 1994) comb. nov., Metaphire catbaensis (Thai & Le, 1993) comb. nov., M. khoii (Do & Tran, 1994) comb. nov., M. phaluongana (Do & Huynh, 1992) comb. nov., and M. mangophila (Nguyen, 2011) comb. nov., M. tripidoporophoratus (Thai & Nguyen, 1993) comb. nov. Additionally, Pheretima paraalexandri Nguyen, 2011 is treated as a junior synonym of Amynthas polychaetiferus (Thai, 1984).
A new species, Polymastigos javaensis n. sp., is described from sandy clay sediment (0-30 cm depth) of the Segara Anakan mangroves. The species is described based on the distribution of capillaries and hooks, and the form of the prostomium, thorax, abdomen, lateral organs, genital pores, branchiae and pygidium. Methyl green staining pattern was applied to examine the similarity between the material of this study and Green's material. Polymastigos javaensis n. sp. is the second species belonging to the genus Polymastigos, after P. reishi Green, 2002. It differs from P. reishi in the form of abdominal segments and hooks, and the methyl green staining pattern. A key to distinguish the two species is provided in this paper.
Yáñez-Rivera, Beatriz; Carrera-Parra, Luis Fernando
Abstract The species of the genus Notopygos Grube, 1855 are characterized by an ovate body, a prominent caruncle with three lobes, dendritic branchiae, and double dorsal cirri. Twenty-two species belonging to Notopygos have been described, mostly from the Indo-Pacific region. In America, few species are frequently recorded: Notopygos crinita Grube, 1855 from St. Helena Island (Atlantic) and Notopygos ornata Grube and Ørsted in Grube 1857 from Costa Rica (Pacific). Notopygos crinita is a widely distributed species in the Western Atlantic with additional reports in the Mediterranean Sea (as a questionable alien species) and in the Pacific Ocean. However, only the genus features have been considered, consequently some records could be misidentifications. During a revision of materials from collections and the barcode project, ‘Mexican Barcode of Life, MEXBOL’, we found specimens of Notopygos megalops and an undescribed species from reef zones in the Caribbean; the former had been considered a junior synonym of Notopygos crinita. Herein, Notopygos megalops is reestablished and Notopygos caribea sp. n. is described. A morphological and DNA barcode approach was used to explain the records of Notopygos ornata in the Atlantic and to show the differences with the new species, since both species share features such as complex pigmentation patterns, and circular projections in the median lobe of the caruncle. PMID:23459182
Conde-Vela, Víctor M; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I
Type material of several polychaete species described by Enrique Rioja from Mexican coasts are lost, and the current status of some species is doubtful. Nereis oligohalina (Rioja, 1946) was described from the Gulf of Mexico, but it has been considered a junior synonym of Nereis occidentalis Hartman, 1945, or regarded as a distinct species with an amphiamerican distribution. On the other hand, Nereis garwoodi González-Escalante & Salazar-Vallejo, 2003, described from Chetumal Bay, Caribbean coasts, could be confused with Nereis oligohalina. In order to clarify these uncertainties, Nereis oligohalina is redescribed based on specimens from the Mexican Gulf of Mexico, including a proposed neotype; further, Nereis garwoodi is redescribed including the selection of lectotype and paralectotypes, and Nereis confusa sp. n. is described with material from the Gulf of California. A key for the identification of similar species and some comments about speciation in nereidid polychaetes are also included.
Buch, Andressa Cristhy; Schmelz, Rüdiger M; Niva, Cintia Carla; Correia, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira
Soil provides many ecosystem services that are essential to maintain its quality and healthy development of the flora, fauna and human well-being. Environmental mercury levels may harm the survival and diversity of the soil fauna. In this respect, efforts have been made to establish limit values of mercury (Hg) in soils to terrestrial fauna. Soil organisms such as earthworms and enchytraeids have intimate contact with trace metals in soil by their oral and dermal routes, reflecting the potentially adverse effects of this contaminant. The main goal of this study was to obtain Hg critical concentrations under normal and extreme conditions of moisture in tropical soils to Enchytraeus crypticus to order to assess if climate change may potentiate their acute and chronic toxicity effects. Tropical soils were sampled from of two Forest Conservation Units of the Rio de Janeiro State - Brazil, which has been contaminated by Hg atmospheric depositions. Worms were exposed to three moisture conditions, at 20%, 50% and 80% of water holding capacity, respectively, and in combination with different Hg (HgCl 2 ) concentrations spiked in three types of tropical soil (two natural soils and one artificial soil). The tested concentrations ranged from 0 to 512mg Hg kg -1 dry weight. Results indicate that the Hg toxicity is higher under increased conditions of moisture, significantly affecting survival and reproduction rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Conde-Vela, Víctor M.; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I.
Abstract Type material of several polychaete species described by Enrique Rioja from Mexican coasts are lost, and the current status of some species is doubtful. Nereis oligohalina (Rioja, 1946) was described from the Gulf of Mexico, but it has been considered a junior synonym of Nereis occidentalis Hartman, 1945, or regarded as a distinct species with an amphiamerican distribution. On the other hand, Nereis garwoodi González-Escalante & Salazar-Vallejo, 2003, described from Chetumal Bay, Caribbean coasts, could be confused with Nereis oligohalina. In order to clarify these uncertainties, Nereis oligohalina is redescribed based on specimens from the Mexican Gulf of Mexico, including a proposed neotype; further, Nereis garwoodi is redescribed including the selection of lectotype and paralectotypes, and Nereis confusa sp. n. is described with material from the Gulf of California. A key for the identification of similar species and some comments about speciation in nereidid polychaetes are also included. PMID:26448699
Musk, Will; Faulwetter, Sarah; McIlwaine, Paul
During a benthic survey of a Marine Conservation Zone located on the Skerries Bank in the English Channel off the south-west coast of England, three specimens of Streptosyllis nunezi Faulwetter et al., 2008 were found. This is the second ever record of the species after its original description, and the first record from waters around the U.K. and a significant northerly range extension for a species previously only recorded from the Canary Islands and the Mediterranean Sea. A single simple ventral chaeta in each of the two posterior-most segments was discovered in this and two other species of Streptosyllis Webster & Benedict, 1884. The generic definition of Streptosyllis is emended to include this feature previously unknown for the genus, and an updated key to the Streptosyllis found in UK waters is provided.
Bonyadi-Naeini, Alieh; Rastegar-Pouyani, Nasrullah; Rastegar-Pouyani, Eskandar; Glasby, Christopher J; Rahimian, Hassan
Currently, only 31 nereidid species are known from the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman. The present study was carried out in order to investigate the poorly known diversity of nereidid polychaetes from seas of the southern coasts of Iran. Specimens were collected from 23 locations along the intertidal zones of the two water bodies. Among the 26 species found: two are new, and are described here, including Simplisetia qeshmensis sp. nov. and Neanthes biparagnatha sp. nov.; 11 are new geographical records. Neanthes biparagnatha sp. nov. is most similar to N. deplanata (Mohammed, 1971), which is also found in the Persian Gulf, but can be most easily distinguished from it by the presence of bars in addition to cones in Area IV of the pharynx. Simplisetia qeshmensis sp. nov. may be distinguished from its closest congener, S. erythraeensis (Fauvel, 1918), also reported from the Persian Gulf, by having a greater number of paragnaths in Area I of the pharynx, an additional type of chaeta (homogomph spinigers) in the ventral neuropodial fascicle and having a reduced notopodial lobe in posterior chaetigers. The list of new records includes: one species from both areas, Neanthes glandicincta (Southern, 1921); eight species from the Persian Gulf, Leonnates decipiens Fauvel, 1929, Neanthes acuminata (Ehlers, 1868), Neanthes sp., Neanthes sp. cf. N. acuminata, Nereis sp. cf. N. pelagica Linnaeus, 1758, Perinereis cultrifera (Grube, 1840) species complex., Pseudonereis trimaculata (Horst, 1924), Pseudonereis sp. cf. P. variegata (Grube, 1857) and two from the Gulf of Oman, Leonnates persicus Wesenberg-Lund, 1949 and Perinereis kuwaitensis Mohammed, 1970. The present study brings to 40 the number of nereidid species currently known from the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman. A taxonomic key to nereidid species from the intertidal zones of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman is presented to facilitate future investigations.
Darabi-Darestani, Kaveh; Sari, Alireza; Sarafrazi, Alimorad; Utevsky, Serge
Phylogenetic relationships between species of the genus Hirudo plus genetic variation in the entire distribution range of Hirudo orientalis were investigated based on mitochondrial (COI and 12S rDNA) and nuclear (ITS1+5.8S+ITS2) genome regions. The sister relationship of Hirudo orientalis and H. medicinalis was revealed with a high posterior probability. A broad and patchy distribution with minor genetic differences was observed in populations of H. orientalis along the central and Middle Eastern parts of Asia. The known distribution range occurred in topographically heterogeneous landscapes around the Caspian Sea. The demographic analysis suggests the selection of the COI locus under unfavourable respiratory conditions, but population size expansion cannot be fully rejected. The genetic variation trend indicated northward dispersal. Higher haplotype diversity in the South Caspian region potentially suggests the area as a historical refugium for the species. The vast dispersal is assumed to occur after the Pleistocene glaciations via vertebrate hosts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dong, Zhijun; Sun, Tingting; Wang, Lei
Blooms of the moon jellyfish Aurelia coerulea frequently occur in coastal waters. The increased availability of substrates for the settlement and proliferation of polyps due to the expansion of artificial structures in coastal areas has been proposed as a possible contributing factor in jellyfish blooms. This paper investigates whether a marine artificial lake (Fenghuang Lake) provides additional substrates for A. coerulea polyps and contributes to jellyfish blooms. High densities of A. coerulea ephyrae were discovered in this lake, with a mean density of 41 individuals/m 3 and a maximum measured density of 128 individuals/m 3 . Meanwhile, A. coerulea ephyrae were also found in the two emptying channels outside the lake, with a mean density of 13 individuals/m 3 . Underwater surveys revealed that dense colonies of A. coerulea polyps occurred mainly on biogenic reefs formed by a polychaete, which was identified as an invasive serpulid species Hydroides dianthus, based on the phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial COI gene sequences. Our study highlights the potential modification of habitats by the alien polychaete H. dianthus, which might provide complex benthic habits suitable for the settlement and proliferation of A. coerulea polyps and may contribute to jellyfish blooms in the marine artificial lake and nearby coastal waters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The taxonomy of eastern Atlantic species of the genus Onuphis has been confused due to the somewhat cursory and misleading descriptions of species and the disregard of the true identity of the type species of the genus, O. eremita, which has been commonly reported from West Africa, along with O. geophiliformis and O. rullieriana. However, all three species are now considered as unlikely to occur in western Africa. This work recognises three species of Onuphis from this region. Two of them, Onuphis augeneri sp. nov. and O. hanneloreae sp. nov., are newly described from Nyanga estuary (Gabon) and Sal Island (Cape Verde) respectively. Furthermore, Onuphis landanaensis, a species described from the Gulf of Guinea and subsequently synonymised with O. eremita, is formally reinstated and redescribed based upon the re-examination of the original types. Detailed descriptions and illustrations of all species are presented as well as the ontogenetic changes of the brooder O. hanneloreae sp. nov. Furthermore, the genus Mooreonuphis is recorded for the first time in Africa with the description of M. nunezi sp. nov. from Cape Verde archipelago. Additionally, a dichotomous key to all species of the genera Onuphis and Mooreonuphis from the eastern Atlantic is included.
Zhang, Jinghuai; Zhang, Yanjie; Osborn, Karen; Qiu, Jian-Wen
Eulepethidae is a family of scale-bearing polychaetes. Although members of this family are common inhabitants of tropical and subtropical coastal waters, their diversity is low, with only 22 recognized species in six genera. Here we describe Eulepethus nanhaiensis sp. nov. based on 12 specimens collected from the coastal waters of the northern South China Sea. This new species can be distinguished from Eulepethus hamifer, the only previously described species in this genus, by having up to two spade-shaped lateral processes in some of the anterior elytrae, a blunt-tipped acicular chaeta in the neuropodia of segment 3, and a pair of non-overlapping elytrae in each posterior segment. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Grubeulepis and Mexieulepis are sister genera, and these two genera form the sister clade of Eulepethus.
Eilertsen, Mari H; Kongsrud, Jon A; Alvestad, Tom; Stiller, Josefin; Rouse, Greg W; Rapp, Hans T
A range of higher animal taxa are shared across various chemosynthesis-based ecosystems (CBEs), which demonstrates the evolutionary link between these habitats, but on a global scale the number of species inhabiting multiple CBEs is low. The factors shaping the distributions and habitat specificity of animals within CBEs are poorly understood, but geographic proximity of habitats, depth and substratum have been suggested as important. Biogeographic studies have indicated that intermediate habitats such as sedimented vents play an important part in the diversification of taxa within CBEs, but this has not been assessed in a phylogenetic framework. Ampharetid annelids are one of the most commonly encountered animal groups in CBEs, making them a good model taxon to study the evolution of habitat use in heterotrophic animals. Here we present a review of the habitat use of ampharetid species in CBEs, and a multi-gene phylogeny of Ampharetidae, with increased taxon sampling compared to previous studies. The review of microhabitats showed that many ampharetid species have a wide niche in terms of temperature and substratum. Depth may be limiting some species to a certain habitat, and trophic ecology and/or competition are identified as other potentially relevant factors. The phylogeny revealed that ampharetids have adapted into CBEs at least four times independently, with subsequent diversification, and shifts between ecosystems have happened in each of these clades. Evolutionary transitions are found to occur both from seep to vent and vent to seep, and the results indicate a role of sedimented vents in the transition between bare-rock vents and seeps. The high number of ampharetid species recently described from CBEs, and the putative new species included in the present phylogeny, indicates that there is considerable diversity still to be discovered. This study provides a molecular framework for future studies to build upon and identifies some ecological and evolutionary hypotheses to be tested as new data is produced.
Álvarez-Campos, Patricia; Riesgo, Ana; Hutchings, Pat; San Martín, Guillermo
The taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships within Syllis Savigny in Lamarck, 1818, the type genus of the family Syllidae, are still a matter of debate because the group does not show clear synapomorphies and because of the lack of molecular data for many of the species. In order to help understand some of the phylogenetic relationships within the genus Syllis, we have performed a morphological revision of part of the material collected during decades by the Australian Museum staff, and provide molecular data for species not sequenced before. In particular, seven poorly known Australian species of the genus Syllis Savigny in Lamarck, 1818 have been re-described in detail and sequenced to analyze their phylogenetic position: Syllis broomensis n. comb., S. crassicirrata (Treadwell, 1925) n. comb., Syllis cruzi Núñez & San Martín, 1991, S. edensis (Hartmann-Schröder, 1989), Syllis gracilis Grube, 1840, Syllis picta (Kinberg, 1866) n. comb., and S. setoensis (Imajima, 1966). The results obtained indicate the paraphyly of Typosyllis and a possible new organization of Syllis, which contains at least four well-supported clades.
Díaz Cosín, Darío J.; Novo, Marta; Fernández, Rosa; Fernández Marchán, Daniel; Gutiérrez, Mónica
Abstract The morphological and anatomical simplicity of soil dwelling animals, such as earthworms, has limited the establishment of a robust taxonomy making it sometimes subjective to authors’ criteria. Within this context, integrative approaches including molecular information are becoming more popular to solve the phylogenetic positioning of conflictive taxa. Here we present the description of a new lumbricid species from the region of Extremadura (Spain), Eiseniona gerardoi sp. n. The assignment to this genus is based on both a morphological and a phylogenetic study. The validity of the genus Eiseniona, one of the most controversial within Lumbricidae, is discussed. A synopsis of the differences between the type species and the west-European members of the genus is provided. PMID:24843253
Ramírez Hernández, Adriana; Hernández-Alcántara, Pablo; Solís-Weiss, Vivianne
A new species of polychaete, Nereis alacranensis n. sp., was found in dead coral rocks in the intertidal zone of Alacranes reef, southern Gulf of Mexico. N. alacranensis n. sp. can be included in a group of nereidids characterized by the absence of paragnaths in areas I and V of the pharynx, the presence of cones in a single row or absent in areas VII-VIII, and short blades in notopodial homogomph falcigers. The new species can be separated from the other species of the group by the presence of 3-7 cones in area VI and 7 cones arranged in a row in areas VII-VIII, finely dentate blades in notopodial homogomph falcigers, but most of all, by the presence of an unusual brown coarse arc shaped plate on the external ventral region of the peristomium. This structure has not yet been reported, at least in this genus. A taxonomic key of the species of Nereis recorded from the Grand Caribbean region is included.
Fragoso, Carlos; Rojas, Patricia
A new acanthodriline earthworm species, Lavellodrilus notosetosus sp. nov., is described from tropical rain forests of southern Mexico. The new species is placed within the genus Lavellodrilus by the presence of mesial spermathecal pores. It is separated from other species of the genus by the dorsal location of setae cd in most of the body, last hearts in segment 13, first intestinal segment in 20 and genital setae in segment 12. A preliminary morphological revision of all genera and species of Acanthodrilinae was undertaken in order to: i) evaluate if the mesial spermathecal pores justify the status of Lavellodrilus, ii) determine how common (expressed as percentages of species having the character) the diagnostic characters of the new species are in the subfamily, iii) clarify if these characters exhibit a geographical pattern, and iv) contribute towards a comprehensive analysis of the Acanthodrilinae. In this revision, species were separated in nine geographical regions: USA, northern Mexico, southern Mexico, Caribbean Islands (northern hemisphere), and South America, South Africa, Madagascar, Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia and Antarctic Islands (southern hemisphere). As a result of the revision it was found that among the 511 recognized species of Acanthodrilinae only 11 species have a mesial location of the spermathecal pores, in two cases probably representing monophyletic groups (Lavellodrilus and a group of South African Parachilota species). It was also found that the distinguishing characters in L. notosetosus sp. nov., notably the location of last hearts, genital setae and the first intestinal segment, are uncommon characters in the acanthodriline earthworm fauna of southern Mexico and Central America, but more frequent in North America, the Caribbean, and the southern hemisphere. We conclude that the acanthodrilines from the northern hemisphere are morphologically more similar to those from Australia, New Zealand, and New Caledonia than to those of South Africa and South America.
Colombo, Valentina; Pettigrove, Vincent J; Hoffmann, Ary A; Golding, Lisa A
Classical laboratory-based single-species sediment bioassays do not account for modifications to toxicity from bioturbation by benthic organisms which may impact predictions of contaminated sediment risk to biota in the field. This study aims to determine the effects of bioturbation on the toxicity of zinc measured in a standard laboratory bioassay conducted with chironomid larvae (Chironomus tepperi). The epi-benthic chironomid larvae were exposed to two different levels of sediment contamination (1600 and 1980 mg/kg of dry weight zinc) in the presence or absence of annelid worms (Lumbriculus variegatus) which are known to be tolerant to metal and to have a large impact on sediment properties through bioturbation. Chironomids had 5-6x higher survival in the presence of L. variegatus which shows that bioturbation had a beneficial effect on the chironomid larvae. Chemical analyses showed that bioturbation induced a flux of zinc from the pore water into the water column, thereby reducing the bioavailability of zinc in pore water to the chironomid larvae. This also suggested that pore water was the major exposure path for the chironomids to metals in sediment. During the study, annelid worms (Oligochaetes) produced a thin layer of faecal pellets at the sediment surface, a process known to: (i) create additional adsorption sites for zinc, thus reducing its availability, (ii) increase the microbial abundance that in turn could represent an additional food source for opportunistic C. tepperi larvae, and (iii) modify the microbial community's structure and alter the biogeochemical processes it governs thus indirectly impact zinc toxicity. This study represents a contribution in recognising bioturbating organisms as "ecological engineers" as they directly and indirectly influence metal bioavailability and impact other sediment-inhabiting species. This is significant and should be considered in risk assessment of zinc levels (and other metals) in contaminated sediment when extrapolating from laboratory studies to the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
were represented by six different phyla, namely Annelida, Sipuncula, Arthropoda, Cnidaria , Mollusca and Echinodermata (Table II). The phylum Annelida...was solely represented by polychaetes and the phylum Cnidaria was represented solely by hydroids. However, the phylum Mollusca was represented by
Delgado-Blas, Víctor Hugo; Díaz-Díaz, Oscar
Available type material of Dispio uncinata Hartman, 1951 and D. mororoi Gibbs, 1971, as well as newly collected material from Venezuela and material deposited in the Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History, was examined. Several important differences were found between D. uncinata, D. mororoi, the new material deposited in the museum and the newly collected material from Venezuela, Panama and California. Dispio uncinata and D. mororoi are redescribed and five new species are also identified and described: D. anauncinata sp. nov., D. lenislamellata sp. nov., and D. longibranchiata sp. nov. are from Southern California, D. panamensis sp. nov. from Panama, and D. bescanzae sp. nov. from Venezuela. Morphological differences between species were recorded, particularly in reference to the shape of prostomium, and caruncle, size of peristomium, shape of notopodial and neuropodial postchaetal lamellae, branchiae from anterior chaetigers fused completely or partially to the notopodial lamellae, presence or abscent of accessory branchial pairs, structure of notopodial and neuropodial chaetae, notopodial and neuropodial lamellae overlapping or touching and other consistent characters. Results of the review of the material from Southern California indicates that D. uncinata is not found in this area of the Pacific, and we recommend that the wide distribution of this species should be taken with caution especially for those distant records from the type locality. A key to all species of Dispio is provided.
Molina-Acevedo, Isabel C; Carrera-Parra, Luis F
Nine species of Marphysa from the Grand Caribbean Region are recognized and described based on the type and non-type specimens. One species is formally described as new: M. emiliae n. sp., and one is re-established as a valid species: M. fragilis Treadwell, 1911. The diagnosis of Nicidion Kinberg, 1865 is restricted based on novel features of the maxillary apparatus. Nicidion angeli (Carrera-Parra & Salazar-Vallejo, 1998) is redescribed, and two species that previously belonged to Marphysa, are transferred to Nicidion: N. longula (Ehlers, 1887) n. comb. and N. obtusa (Verrill, 1900) n. comb.. A new genus Treadwellphysa n. gen. is proposed to include those species having a newly described type of chaetae named spinifalcigers (exhibiting a mixture of falciger and spiniger blades), the base of maxillae II with a small elevation, and the ventral cirri with swollen base as transverse welt with short digitiform tip. Treadwellphysa n. gen. includes a new species, T. yucatanensis n. sp. and three other species previously included in Marphysa: T. amadae (Fauchald, 1977) n. comb., T. languida (Treadwell, 1921) n. comb., and T. veracruzensis (de León-González & Díaz-Castañeda, 2006) n. comb. Some morphological features are evaluated to clarify their variability with respect to specimen size. A key to Eunicidae genera, and keys to species of Marphysa and Treadwellphysa n. gen. from the Grand Caribbean region are given.
Kirkegaardia (Polychaeta, Cirratulidae), new name for Monticellina Laubier, preoccupied in the Rhabdocoela, together with new records and descriptions of eight previously known and sixteen new species from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Southern Oceans.
Blake, James A
A new name, Kirkegaardia, is proposed to replace Monticellina Laubier, 1961, a bitentaculate cirratulid polychaete genus, that is a junior homonym of the turbellarian Monticellina Westblad, 1953 (Platyhelminthes, Rhabdocoela). In addition, the opportunity is taken to complete a major revision of the genus including the redescription, revalidation, and separation of three species previously referred to synonymy with K. dorsobranchialis (Kirkegaard, 1959) and five other previously described species. In addition, 16 new species are described from the western North Atlantic, eastern and central Pacific, off western South America, and seas around Antarctica, bringing the total number of species in the genus to 38. Included are two new species of the unusual mud ball worms, first reported as Tharyx luticastellus Jumars, 1975, from southern California deep basins. A review of all 38 species reveals that three distinct species groups may be identified within the genus in addition to 5-6 species that may eventually be referred elsewhere. This review includes a discussion of the taxonomic characters and various newly defined character states that are found among species of Kirkegaardia. Several of these are unique among the Cirratulidae.
Nolella stipate 1 Phylum S ipuncula Sipunculid (undet.) 14 Phylum Echiura Echiurid (undet.) 1 Phylum-. Annelida Hvdroides dianthus 27 Sabellaria...undet.) LEr-idomotus subievi.s Sab)ellaria \\’ulgaris HIvdroides dianthus 9 lu- Mloliusca * Polinices duplicatus0 Modiclus mocilolus squarnosus...tenuis Microporella ciliata Schizoporella cornuta Phvlum Annelida H-vdroides dianthus Sabelliaria x’ulgaris 41Ph’iu MToi 7lusca Creoidula olana Phylum
BIOLOGY OF THE LEECH ACTINOBDELLA INEQUIANNULATA MOORE, 1901 (ANNELIDA: HIRUDINEA: RHYNCHOBDELLIDA: GLOSSIPHONIIDAE), PARASITIC ON THE WHITE SUCKER, CATOSTOMUS COMMERSONI LACEPEDE, 1803 AND THE LONGNOSE SUCKER, CATOSTOMUS CATOSTOMUS FORSTER, 1773, IN ALGONQUIN PROVINCIAL PARK, ONTARIO, CANADA
Actinobdella inequiannulata was found on the white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, and less frequently on the longnose sucker, Catostomus catostomus, in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada. Catostomus commersoni parasitized with Act. inequiannulata was collected from July ...
Seven new species of Paleanotus (Annelida: Chrysopetalidae) described from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, and coral reefs of northern Australia and the Indo-Pacific: two cryptic species pairs revealed between western Pacific Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean.
Morphological investigation into the paleate genus Paleanotus Schmarda 1861 of the family Chrysopetalidae from northern Australian coral reefs, primarily Lizard Island and outlying reefs, included a complex of very small, slender individuals (length < 5 mm). This complex resolved into 7 new species, described herein: Paleanotus inornatus n. sp., P. adornatus n. sp., P. chrysos n. sp., P. aquifolia n. sp., P. latifolia n. sp., P. silus n. sp., and P. silopsis n. sp. A key is provided to the new species and Paleanotus distinguished from Treptopale and Hyalopale, two closely related genera. Diagnostic features of the apical structure and shape of the notochaetal main paleae plus median paleae shape and raised rib pattern, differentiates each species from the other. Gametous states are described. Two cryptic species pairs (Paleanotus silopsis n. sp. and P. silus n. sp.; Paleanotus aquifolia n. sp. and P. latifolia n. sp.) were identified. In each case one species is restricted to either the NE or NW Australian coast. In each pair the most eastern point for the NW Australian species range occurs at Darwin, western Arnhemland, Northern Territory. Additional material for each species pair extends their respective ranges northwards: NW Australia to Thailand, Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean or NE Australia, Great Barrier Reef to the Philippines, western Pacific Ocean. Cryptic morphology and potential genetic diversity is discussed in Paleanotus inornatus n. sp. and P. adornatus n. sp. that possess overlapping widespread distribution patterns across northern Australia and Indo-Pacific reefs. The smallest bodied taxon, Paleanotus chrysos n. sp. is the only species with a Coral Sea range encompassing Lizard Island, Heron Island and New Caledonia.
Passino, Dora R.M.; Brown, G.W.
Allantoinase, an enzyme in the purine-urea cycle, was found in Eudistylia vancouveri (Polychaeta). The enzyme had a pH optimum at 7.6. The Km was 0.012 M allantoin, and the Arrhenius energy of activation was 12.6 to 14.6 kcal/mol.
bucera Polychaeta Ascophyllum nodosum Phaeophyta Tellina tenera Bivalvia Fucus vesiculosus Phaeophyta Ninoe nigripes Polychaeata Chondrus crispus...Because the current and future environmental health of these types of embayments can be directly influenced by activities within contributing watersheds...restricted coastal embayments, while natural and anthropogenic influences responsible for present and future changes to bay systems are the focus of Chap
Ascidia zara Thermal DO Chordata Botrylloides violaceus Thermal DO Chordata Diplosoma listerianum Thermal DO Annelida Brania complex Thermal DO Annelida...x x Ascidia Zara x? x? x x Ascidia sp x? x x x x Styela canopus x x x x x Styela clava x x x x x Styela plicata x x x x x Polyandrocarpa zorritensis...Estuarine Marine Seasonally Hypersaline Thermal Native Pre ID Region(a) Aplidium californicum x x x Ascidia ceratodes x x Ascidia zara x Estuarine
4. HYDROIDS (Phylum Cnidaria , Class Hydrozoa) 7 4.1 General 7 4.2 Common Species 7 4.3 Other Species 8 4.4 References 8 5. TUBEWORMS (Phylum Annelida...Classification of the Calcareous Sponges, British Museum (National History), London, England. 693 pp. 4. HYDROIDS (Phylum Cnidaria , Class Hydrozoa) 4.1
April 17-21, immediately after the solid ice cover had been broken up by heavy vessel traffic. 4. 1acroinvertebrates of 56 taxa were identified in 75...clams), Amphipoda (scuds), Polychaeta, Ephemeroptera (mayflies), and Trichoptera (caddisflies) were common in all samples and collectively made up about...period of solid ice cover. Comparison of drift net catches in March when there was solid ice cover and moderate vessel traffic with catches in April
Hamouda, Amr Z.; Abdel-Salam, Khaled M.
The present paper describes a submarine survey using the acoustic discrimination system QTC VIEW (Series V) as an exploratory tool to adjust final route alignment of a new pipeline. By using acoustic sound survey as an exploratory tool described in this paper to adjust final route alignment of a new pipeline to minimize the environmental impact caused and ultimately to avoid any mitigation measures. The transmission pipeline extended from the shore line of Abu-Qir Bay, on the Mediterranean Sea in Egypt, out to 70 nautical miles at sea (60 m water depth). Four main surface sediment types were defined in the study area, namely fine sand, silty sand, silt and clay. Results of the acoustic classification revealed four acoustic classes. The first acoustic class corresponded to fine sand, absence of shell debris and very poor habitats characteristics. The second acoustic class is predominant in the study area and corresponds to the region occupied by silt. It is also characterized by intermediate diversity of macrobenthic invertebrate community which is mainly characterized by polychaeta. The third acoustic class is characterized by silt to silty clay. It is characterized by a high diversity of macrobenthic invertebrate community which is mainly polychaeta with an intermediate diversity of gastropoda and bivalvia. The final acoustic class is characterized by clay and high occurrence of shell debris of gastropoda, bivalvia and polychaeta.
Shirakashi, Sho; Tani, Kazuki; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Shin, Sang Phil; Honryo, Tomoki; Uchida, Hiro'omi; Ogawa, Kazuo
Fish blood flukes (Aporocotylidae) are important pathogens of farmed finfish around the world. Among them, Cardicola spp. infecting farmed tuna are considered to be serious threats to tuna farming and have received tremendous attention. We conducted periodical samplings at a tuna farming site in Japan between January and May, 2015 to determine the life cycle of Cardicola spp. We collected over 4700 terebellid polychaetes from ropes, floats and frames of tuna culture cages and found nearly 400 infected worms. Sporocysts and cercariae found in Nicolea gracilibranchis were genetically identified as Cardicola orientalis by 28S and ITS2 ribosomal DNA sequences. This was the first discovery of the intermediate host for this parasite species. Infection prevalence and the abundance of N. gracilibranchis significantly varied between sampling points and the highest number of infected terebellids were collected from ropes. We also demonstrated morphologically and molecularly that asexual stages found in a single Amphitrite sp. (Terebellidae) and adult worms isolated from farmed juvenile tuna were Cardicola forsteri. This is the first report of C. forsteri in Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT) Thunnus orientalis in Japan. Our results demonstrated that all three species of Cardicola orientalis, C. forsteri and Cardicola opisthorchis exist in Japanese farmed PBTs and that they all use terebellid polychaetes as the intermediate hosts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Folmer, O; Black, M; Hoeh, W; Lutz, R; Vrijenhoek, R
We describe "universal" DNA primers for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a 710-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI) from 11 invertebrate phyla: Echinodermata, Mollusca, Annelida, Pogonophora, Arthropoda, Nemertinea, Echiura, Sipuncula, Platyhelminthes, Tardigrada, and Coelenterata, as well as the putative phylum Vestimentifera. Preliminary comparisons revealed that these COI primers generate informative sequences for phylogenetic analyses at the species and higher taxonomic levels.
patent tongs. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION I Hydrography and Sediments The Little River Inlet system conforms with Pritchard’s (1955) de - finition of an estuary...operations are planned within the immediate vicinity of these reefs. Provided that no extensive sand ~ I transport from the inlet channel dredging occurs...19 15 Heteromasts filiformis (P) 35 Polychaeta (undet.) 12 23 Sigambra -as-si (P’) 8 23 Ttirbonilla into~ rutA (G) 27 1Aop~j~h.mus verrilli (P) 12 12
The Paramyxea are parasitic in marine invertebrates. Their development is a sporulation involving the differentiation within a stem cell of several sporonts which produce spores made of cells enclosed inside each other. Three genera are recognized according to the number of spores and sporal cells, and the taxonomic position of the host (Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea). The Paramyxea exhibit both protistan and metazoan characters. Their nine singlets centrioles are observed in different Protoctists whereas the fact that their sporal cells acquire distinctive cytological features may be interpreted as an evolution towards multicellularity.
Fernandez-Jover, D.; Toledo-Guedes, K.; Valero-Rodríguez, J. M.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, V.; Sanchez-Jerez, P.
Coastal aquaculture activities influence wild macrofauna in natural environments due to the introduction of artificial structures, such as floating cages, that provide structural complexity in the pelagic system. This alters the abundance and distribution of the affected species and also their feeding behaviour and diet. Despite this, the effects of coastal aquaculture on zooplankton assemblages and the potential changes in their abundance and distribution remain largely unstudied. Traditional plankton sampling hauls between the farm mooring systems entail some practical difficulties. As an alternative, light traps were deployed at 2 farms in the SW Mediterranean during a whole warm season. Total zooplankton capture by traps at farms was higher than at control locations on every sampling night. It ranged from 3 to 10 times higher for the taxonomic groups: bivalvia, cladocera, cumacea, fish early-life-stages, gastropoda, polychaeta and tanaidacea; 10-20 times higher for amphipoda, chaetognatha, isopoda, mysidacea and ostracoda, and 22 times higher for copepoda and the crustacean juvenile stages zoea and megalopa. Permutational analysis showed significant differences for the most abundant zooplankton groups (copepoda, crustacean larvae, chaetognatha, cladocera, mysidacea and polychaeta). This marked incremental increase in zooplankton taxa at farms was consistent, irrespective of the changing environmental variables registered every night. Reasons for the greater abundance of zooplankton at farms are discussed, although results suggest a retention effect caused by cage structures rather than active attraction through physical or chemical cues.
protected from wave action by the jetty, ocean swells were a major environmental feature at the site. In addition, strong tidal currents sweep along thc...2 ) BIOMS j2 SURFACE OF ROCK 1 2Mean 1I Mean Crustacea 0 0 0 0 0 0 Corophium spinicorne 125,758 67,425 96,592 25.432 21.364 23,398 Annelida 0 0 0 0 0...variety of p 127 *I factors, both biotic (e.g., reproductive and distributive patterns of key species) and abiotic (e.g., salinity regimes). The most
Pedersen, Troels Møller; Hansen, Jørgen L. S.; Josefson, Alf B.; Hansen, Benni W.
The present survey covers one spawning season of marine benthic invertebrates in a large geographical area, the inner Danish waters, and includes a wide range of habitats with steep salinity and nutrient load gradients. The loss ratios of soft-bottom marine invertebrates from one development stage to the next is calculated based on average abundances of pelagic larvae, benthic post-larvae and adults of Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Polychaeta and Echinodermata, with planktonic development. This gives a rough estimate of the larval and post-larval mortality. Loss ratios between post-larvae stage and adult stage (post-larval mortality) varies from 3:1 to 7:1 (71.2-84.9%) and loss ratios between larvae and post-larvae (larval mortality) and between larvae and adult, ranging from 7:1 to 42:1 (85.2-97.6%) and from 45:1 to 210:1 (97.8-99.5%), respectively. The results show a remarkable unity in loss ratios (mortality) between the mollusc taxa (Bivalvia and Gastropoda) at the phylum/class level. This similarity in loss ratios among the mollusc taxa exhibiting the same developmental pathways suggests that the mortality is governed by the same biotic and abiotic factors. Larval mortality is estimated to range from 0.10 d - 1 to 0.32 d - 1 for Bivalvia and ranging from 0.09 d - 1 to 0.23 d - 1 for Polychaeta. The species loss ratios combined with specific knowledge of the reproduction cycles give estimated loss ratios (mortality) between the post-larvae and the adult stage of 25:1 and 14:1 for the bivalves Abra spp. and Mysella bidentata. For the polychaete Pygospio elegans the loss ratio (larval mortality) between the larvae and the post-larval stage is 154:1 and between the post-larvae and the adult stage 41:1. For Pholoe inornata the loss ratio between post-larvae and adults is 7:1. The present results confirm that the larval stage, metamorphosis and settlement are the critical phase in terms of mortality in the life cycle for Bivalvia. Assuming steady state based on actual
Thabet, Rahma; Rouault, J-D; Ayadi, Habib; Leignel, Vincent
The Na(+)/K(+) ATPase is a ubiquitous pump coordinating the transport of Na(+) and K(+) across the membrane of cells and its role is fundamental to cellular functions. It is heteromer in eukaryotes including two or three subunits (α, β and γ which is specific to the vertebrates). The catalytic functions of the enzyme have been attributed to the α subunit. Several complete α protein sequences are available, but only few gene structures were characterized. We identified the genomic sequences coding the α-subunit of the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, from the whole-genome shotgun contigs (WGS), NCBI Genomes (chromosome), Genomic Survey Sequences (GSS) and High Throughput Genomic Sequences (HTGS) databases across distinct phyla. One copy of the α subunit gene was found in Annelida, Arthropoda, Cnidaria, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Mollusca, Placozoa, Porifera, Platyhelminthes, Urochordata, but the nematodes seem to possess 2 to 4 copies. The number of introns varied from 0 (Platyhelminthes) to 26 (Porifera); and their localization and length are also highly variable. Molecular phylogenies (Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony methods) showed some clusters constituted by (Chordata/(Echinodermata/Hemichordata)) or (Plathelminthes/(Annelida/Mollusca)) and a basal position for Porifera. These structural analyses increase our knowledge about the evolutionary events of the α subunit genes in the invertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Barucca, Marco; Canapa, Adriana; Biscotti, Maria Assunta
Hox genes are regulators of animal embryonic development. Changes in the number and sequence of Hox genes as well as in their expression patterns have been related to the evolution of the body plan. Lophotrochozoa is a clade of Protostomia characterized by several phyla which show a wide morphological diversity. Despite that the works summarized in this review emphasize the fragmentary nature of the data available regarding the presence and expression of Hox genes, they also offer interesting insight into the evolution of the Hox cluster and the role played by Hox genes in several phyla. However, the number of genes involved in the cluster of the lophotrochozoan ancestor is still a question of debate. The data presented here suggest that at least nine genes were present while two other genes, Lox4 and Post-2, may either have been present in the ancestor or may have arisen as a result of duplication in the Brachiopoda-Mollusca-Annelida lineage. Spatial and temporal collinearity is a feature of Hox gene expression which was probably present in the ancestor of deuterostomes and protostomes. However, in Lophotrochozoa, it has been detected in only a few species belonging to Annelida and Mollusca. PMID:29615580
Mastrototaro, F.; D'Onghia, G.; Corriero, G.; Matarrese, A.; Maiorano, P.; Panetta, P.; Gherardi, M.; Longo, C.; Rosso, A.; Sciuto, F.; Sanfilippo, R.; Gravili, C.; Boero, F.; Taviani, M.; Tursi, A.
The biodiversity of the Santa Maria di Leuca (SML) coral bank is summarized and its description is updated using data collected by means of underwater video systems, benthic samplers and fishing gears. A total of 222 living species have been recorded within the coral bank area in the depth range 280-1121 m. The most abundant benthic taxa recorded are Porifera (36 species) followed by Mollusca (35) and Cnidaria (31). The scleractinian corals Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa are the main colonial species in the structure of the SML bank. Annelida, Crustacea and Bryozoa have been found with 24, 23 and 19 species, respectively. A total of 40 species of demersal fish have been recorded. Other faunal taxa were found with small numbers of species. One hundred and thirty-five species are new for the SML bank, 31 of which represent new records for the north-western Ionian Sea (2 Porifera, 17 Cnidaria, 1 Mollusca, 3 Annelida, 2 Crustacea, 4 Bryozoa and 4 Echinodermata). The finding of the annelid Harmothoë vesiculosa represents the first record for the Mediterranean Sea. The SML coral bank represents a biodiversity "hot-spot" on the bathyal bottoms of the Mediterranean Sea.
Moreira, Susana M; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Guilhermino, Lúcia; Ribeiro, Rui
This study developed and evaluated a short-term sublethal in situ toxicity assay for estuarine sediment-overlying waters, with the crab Carcinus maenas (L.) based on postexposure feeding. It consisted of a 48-h in situ exposure period followed by a short postexposure feeding period (30 min). A precise method for quantifying feeding, using the Polychaeta Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor Müller as food source, was first developed. The sensitivity of the postexposure feeding response was verified by comparing it to that of lethality, upon cadmium exposure. The influence of environmental conditions prevailing during exposure (salinity, temperature, substrate, light regime, and food availability) on postexposure feeding was also addressed. The potential of this in situ assay was then investigated by deploying organisms at ten sites, located in reference and contaminated Portuguese estuaries. Organism recovery ranged between 90% and 100% and a significant postexposure feeding depression (16.3-72.7%) was observed at all contaminated sites relatively to references.
Sohtome, Tadahiro; Wada, Toshihiro; Mizuno, Takuji; Nemoto, Yoshiharu; Igarashi, Satoshi; Nishimune, Atsushi; Aono, Tatsuo; Ito, Yukari; Kanda, Jota; Ishimaru, Takashi
Radioactive cesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) concentrations in invertebrates of benthic food web (10 taxonomic classes with 46 identified families) collected from wide areas off Fukushima Prefecture (3-500 m depth) were inspected from July 2011, four months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, to August 2013 to elucidate time-series trends among taxa and areas. Cesium-137 was detected in seven classes (77% of 592 specimens). Higher (137)Cs concentrations within detected data were often found in areas near or south of the FDNPP, which is consistent with the reported spatial distribution of (137)Cs concentrations in highly contaminated seawater and sediments after the FDNPP accident. Overall (137)Cs concentrations in invertebrates, the maxima of which (290 Bq kg(-1)-wet in the sea urchin Glyptocidaris crenularis) were lower than in many demersal fishes, had decreased exponentially with time, and exhibited taxon-specific decreasing trends. Concentrations in Bivalvia and Gastropoda decreased clearly with respective ecological half-lives of 188 d and 102 d. In contrast, decreasing trends in Malacostraca and Polychaeta were more gradual, with longer respective ecological half-lives of 208 d and 487 d. Echinoidea showed no consistent trend, presumably because of effects of contaminated sediments taken into their digestive tract. Comparison of (137)Cs concentrations in the invertebrates and those in seawater and sediments suggest that contaminated sediments are the major source of continuing contamination in benthic invertebrates, especially in Malacostraca and Polychaeta. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Haddadi Moghaddam, Kourosh
Precipitation is the main driver of the water balance variability of the water over space and time, and changes in precipitation have very important implications for hydrology and water resources. Variations in precipitation over daily, seasonal, annual, and decadal time scales influence hydrological variability over time in a catchment. Flood frequency is affected by changes in the year-to-year variability in precipitation and by changes in short-term rainfall properties. Desiccation of the Caspian Sea is one of the world's most serious ecosystem catastrophes. The Persian Sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) caught under 10 m depth using bottom trawl net by research vessel during winter 2012, summer and winter 2013 and spring 2014 in east, central and west of southern parts of Caspian Sea, then, their diets were investigated. During 136 trawling in the aimed seasons, Persian sturgeon with 1 to 2 years old and 179.67 × 0.2 g (body weight) and 29.97 ± 0.4 cm (Total length) captured. Examination of stomach contents in the sturgeon specimens revealed that the food spectrum was composed of bony fishes (Neogobius sp., Atherina sp. and Clupeonella delicatula), invertebrates belonging to the family Ampharetidae polychaeta worms including (Hypanai sp. and Nereis diversicolor), various crustaceans (Gammarus sp. and Paramysis sp.). Investigation on stomach contents of sturgeon Acipenser persicus caught under 10 m depth in 2012 to 2013 surveys showed that there is significant difference in the consumed food. The most food diversity have been observed in winter 2013, also Polychaeta is the primary consumed food and crustacean is the secondary one (P > 0.05), no new types of food (such as bony fishes or benthics) have been observed on food chain of Acipenser persicus and shows no significant difference (P > 0.05).
Jang, Kuem Hee; Hwang, Ui Wook
Background The phylogenetic position of Bryozoa is one of the most controversial issues in metazoan phylogeny. In an attempt to address this issue, the first bryozoan mitochondrial genome from Flustrellidra hispida (Gymnolaemata, Ctenostomata) was recently sequenced and characterized. Unfortunately, it has extensive gene translocation and extremely reduced size. In addition, the phylogenies obtained from the result were conflicting, so they failed to assign a reliable phylogenetic position to Bryozoa or to clarify lophophorate phylogeny. Thus, it is necessary to characterize further mitochondrial genomes from slowly-evolving bryozoans to obtain a more credible lophophorate phylogeny. Results The complete mitochondrial genome (15,433 bp) of Bugula neritina (Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata, Cheilostomata), one of the most widely distributed cheliostome bryozoans, is sequenced. This second bryozoan mitochondrial genome contains the set of 37 components generally observed in other metazoans, differing from that of F. hispida (Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata, Ctenostomata), which has only 36 components with loss of tRNAser(ucn) genes. The B. neritina mitochondrial genome possesses 27 multiple noncoding regions. The gene order is more similar to those of the two remaining lophophorate phyla (Brachiopoda and Phoronida) and a chiton Katharina tunicate than to that of F. hispida. Phylogenetic analyses based on the nucleotide sequences or amino acid residues of 12 protein-coding genes showed consistently that, within the Lophotrochozoa, the monophyly of the bryozoan class Gymnolaemata (B. neritina and F. hispida) was strongly supported and the bryozoan clade was grouped with brachiopods. Echiura appeared as a subtaxon of Annelida, and Entoprocta as a sister taxon of Phoronida. The clade of Bryozoa + Brachiopoda was clustered with either the clade of Annelida-Echiura or that of Phoronida + Entoprocta. Conclusion This study presents the complete mitochondrial genome of a cheliostome bryozoan, B
Gopi Daisy, Nino; Subramanian, Elaiya Raja; Selvan Christyraj, Jackson Durairaj; Sudalai Mani, Dinesh Kumar; Selvan Christyraj, Johnson Retnaraj Samuel; Ramamoorthy, Kalidas; Arumugaswami, Vaithilingaraja; Sivasubramaniam, Sudhakar
Earthworms are segmented invertebrates that belong to the phylum Annelida. The segments can be divided into the anterior, clitellar and posterior parts. If the anterior part of the earthworm, which includes the brain, is amputated, the worm would essentially survive even in the absence of the brain. In these brain amputee-derived worms, the nerve cord serves as the primary control center for neurological function. In this current work, we studied changes in the expression levels of anti-acetylated tubulin and serotonin as the indicators of neuro-regenerative processes. The data reveal that the blastemal tissues express the acetylated tubulin and serotonin from day four and that the worm amputated at the 7th segment takes 30 days to complete the regeneration of brain. The ability of self-assemblage is one of the specific functions of the earthworm's brain. The brain amputee restored the ability of self-assemblage on the eighth day.
Patek, S N; Summers, A P
Invertebrate biomechanics focuses on mechanical analyses of non-vertebrate animals, which at root is no different in aim and technique from vertebrate biomechanics, or for that matter the biomechanics of plants and fungi. But invertebrates are special - they are fabulously diverse in form, habitat, and ecology and manage this without the use of hard, internal skeletons. They are also numerous and, in many cases, tractable in an experimental and field setting. In this Primer, we will probe three axes of invertebrate diversity: worms (Phylum Annelida), spiders (Class Arachnida) and insects (Class Insecta); three habitats: subterranean, terrestrial and airborne; and three integrations with other fields: ecology, engineering and evolution. Our goal is to capture the field of invertebrate biomechanics, which has blossomed from having a primary focus on discoveries at the interface of physics and biology to being inextricably linked with integrative challenges that span biology, physics, mathematics and engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Borgonie, G; Linage-Alvarez, B; Ojo, A O; Mundle, S O C; Freese, L B; Van Rooyen, C; Kuloyo, O; Albertyn, J; Pohl, C; Cason, E D; Vermeulen, J; Pienaar, C; Litthauer, D; Van Niekerk, H; Van Eeden, J; Sherwood Lollar, B; Onstott, T C; Van Heerden, E
Following the discovery of the first Eukarya in the deep subsurface, intense interest has developed to understand the diversity of eukaryotes living in these extreme environments. We identified that Platyhelminthes, Rotifera, Annelida and Arthropoda are thriving at 1.4 km depths in palaeometeoric fissure water up to 12,300 yr old in South African mines. Protozoa and Fungi have also been identified; however, they are present in low numbers. Characterization of the different species reveals that many are opportunistic organisms with an origin due to recharge from surface waters rather than soil leaching. This is the first known study to demonstrate the in situ distribution of biofilms on fissure rock faces using video documentation. Calculations suggest that food, not dissolved oxygen is the limiting factor for eukaryal population growth. The discovery of a group of Eukarya underground has important implications for the search for life on other planets in our solar system.
The summer of 2003 was the warmest summer in Europe since the 16th century. Its consequences on the fauna of a transitional ecosystem were studied through biodiversity, functional and ecological indicators, from summer 2002 to winter 2005. The heatwave caused considerable changes in the benthic community structure and relative composition, persisting in 2005. Animal assemblages switched from mollusc- to annelida-dominated. Biodiversity and functional indicators captured changes in community structure and composition, proving to be powerful tools to detect responses related to global warming. Ecological indicators rendered a monotonic response oscillating between bad and poor ecological status across the study period. The resilience of mollusc biocoenosis resulted limited with respect to other taxa, posing concerns about their conservation if, as predicted, the frequency of summers as hot as that of 2003 will progressively increase to become the norm at the end of this century. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Petrov, N B; Vladychenskaia, N S
Reliability of reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships within a group of protostome moulting animals was evaluated by means of comparison of 18 and 28S rRNA gene sequences sets both taken separately and combined. Reliability of reconstructions was evaluated by values of the bootstrap support of major phylogenetic tree nodes and by degree of congruence of phylogenetic trees inferred by various methods. By both criteria, phylogenetic trees reconstructed from the combined 18 and 28S rRNA gene sequences were better than those inferred from 18 and 28S sequences taken separately. Results obtained are consistent with phylogenetic hypothesis separating protostome animals into two major clades, moulting Ecdysozoa (Priapulida + Kinorhyncha, Nematoda + Nematomorpha, Onychophora + Tardigrada, Myriapoda + Chelicerata, Crustacea + Hexapoda) and unmoulting Lophotrochozoa (Plathelminthes, Nemertini, Annelida, Mollusca, Echiura, Sipuncula). Clade Cephalorhyncha does not include nematomorphs (Nematomorpha). Conclusion was taken that it is necessary to use combined 18 and 28S data in phylogenetic studies.
Quave, Cassandra Leah; Lohani, Usha; Verde, Alonso; Fajardo, José; Rivera, Diego; Obón, Concepción; Valdes, Arturo; Pieroni, Andrea
Zootherapy is the treatment of human ailments with remedies derived from animals and their products. Despite its prevalence in traditional medical practices worldwide, research on this phenomenon has often been neglected in comparison to medicinal plant research. Interviews regarding zootherapeutic traditions were conducted with informants from Albania, Italy, Nepal and Spain. We identified 80 species used in zootherapeutic remedies, representing 4 phyla in the animal kingdom: Annelida, Arthropoda, Chordata, and Mollusca. Remedies were ranked by consensus indices. Our studies show that the selection of medicinal fauna is mediated by human subsistence patterns. Concepts of health and disease differ among our study sites in the Mediterranean and Asia, and these differences also play a substantive role in the selection and use of animal-based remedies. PMID:21625340
Lang, Shirley A; Saglam, Naim; Kawash, Joseph; Shain, Daniel H
Segmented worms (Annelida) are among the most successful animal inhabitants of extreme environments worldwide. An unusual group of enchytraeid oligochaetes of genus Mesenchytraeus are abundant in the Pacific northwestern region of North America and occupy geographically proximal ecozones ranging from low elevation rainforests and waterways to high altitude glaciers. Along this altitudinal transect, Mesenchytraeus representatives from disparate habitat types were collected and subjected to deep mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenetic analyses. Our data identify significant topological discordance among gene trees, and near equivalent interspecific divergence levels indicative of a rapid radiation event. Collectively, our results identify a Mesenchytraeus 'explosion' coincident with mountain building in the Pacific northwestern region that gave rise to closely related aquatic, ice, snow and terrestrial worms. © 2017 The Author(s).
Borgonie, G.; Linage-Alvarez, B.; Ojo, A. O.; Mundle, S.O.C.; Freese, L B.; Van Rooyen, C.; Kuloyo, O.; Albertyn, J.; Pohl, C.; Cason, E. D.; Vermeulen, J.; Pienaar, C.; Litthauer, D.; Van Niekerk, H.; Van Eeden, J.; Lollar, B. Sherwood.; Onstott, T. C.; Van Heerden, E.
Following the discovery of the first Eukarya in the deep subsurface, intense interest has developed to understand the diversity of eukaryotes living in these extreme environments. We identified that Platyhelminthes, Rotifera, Annelida and Arthropoda are thriving at 1.4 km depths in palaeometeoric fissure water up to 12,300 yr old in South African mines. Protozoa and Fungi have also been identified; however, they are present in low numbers. Characterization of the different species reveals that many are opportunistic organisms with an origin due to recharge from surface waters rather than soil leaching. This is the first known study to demonstrate the in situ distribution of biofilms on fissure rock faces using video documentation. Calculations suggest that food, not dissolved oxygen is the limiting factor for eukaryal population growth. The discovery of a group of Eukarya underground has important implications for the search for life on other planets in our solar system. PMID:26597082
Mizuno, J; Takeda, N
1. A phylogenetic study of arg-vasotocin (AVT)/arg-vasopressin (AVP)-like immunoreactive cells was performed by the PAP method in the central nervous system of invertebrates. 2. The immunoreactivity was detected in the nerve cells of Hydra magnipapillata of the Coelenterata; Neanthes japonica and Pheretima communissima of the Annelida; Pomacea canaliculata, Aplysia kurodai, Oncidium verrucosum, Bradybaena similaris, Achatina fulica, Limax marginatus and Meretrix lamarckii of the Mollusca; Gnorimosphaeroma rayi, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Gryllus bimaculatus and Baratha brassicae of the Arthropoda; Asterina pectinifera of the Echinodermata; and Halocynthia roretzi of the Protochordata. 3. No immunoreactivity was detected in Bipalium sp. of the Platyhelminthes, or in Procambarus clarkii and Helice tridens of the Arthropoda. 4. From these results, it appears that AVT/AVP is a phylogenetically ancient peptide which is present in a wide variety of invertebrates. 5. The actions of AVT/AVP and its presence in invertebrates are discussed.
Mizuno, J; Takeda, N
1. A phylogenetic study of oxytocin (OXT)-like immunoreactive cells was performed by the PAP method in the central nervous system of invertebrates. 2. The immunoreactivity was detected in the nerve cells of Hydra magnipapillata of the Coelenterata; Neanthes japonica and Pheretima communissima of the Annelida; Oncidium verrucosum, Limax marginatus and Meretrix lamarckii of the Mollusca; and Baratha brassica of the Arthropoda. 3. No immunoreactive cells were found in Bipalium sp. of the Platyhelminthes; Pomacea canaliculata, Aplysia kurodai, Bradybaena similaris and Achatina fulica of the Mollusca; and Gnorimosphaeroma rayi, Procambarus clarkii, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Helice tridens and Gryllus bimaculatus of the Arthropoda; Asterina pectinifera of the Echinodermata; and Halocynthia roretzi of the Protochordata. 4. These results demonstrate that an OXT-immunoreactive substance is widely present not only in vertebrates but also in invertebrates. 5. OXT seems to have been introduced into these invertebrates at an early stage of their phylogenetic history.
Boore, Jeffrey L.; Staton, Joseph
We have determined the sequence of about half (7470 nts) of the mitochondrial genome of the sipunculid Phascolopsis gouldii, the first representative of this phylum to be so studied. All of the 19 identified genes are transcribed from the same DNA strand. The arrangement of these genes is remarkably similar to that of the oligochaete annelid Lumbricus terrestris. Comparison of both the inferred amino acid sequences and the gene arrangements of a variety of diverse metazoan taxa reveals that the phylum Sipuncula is more closely related to Annelida than to Mollusca. This requires reinterpretation of the homology of several embryologicalmore » features and of patterns of animal body plan evolution.« less
Laumer, Christopher E; Bekkouche, Nicolas; Kerbl, Alexandra; Goetz, Freya; Neves, Ricardo C; Sørensen, Martin V; Kristensen, Reinhardt M; Hejnol, Andreas; Dunn, Casey W; Giribet, Gonzalo; Worsaae, Katrine
Despite rapid advances in the study of metazoan evolutionary history , phylogenomic analyses have so far neglected a number of microscopic lineages that possess a unique combination of characters and are thus informative for our understanding of morphological evolution. Chief among these lineages are the recently described animal groups Micrognathozoa and Loricifera, as well as the two interstitial "Problematica" Diurodrilus and Lobatocerebrum . These genera show a certain resemblance to Annelida in their cuticle and gut [3, 4]; however, both lack primary annelid characters such as segmentation and chaetae . Moreover, they show unique features such as an inverted body-wall musculature or a novel pharyngeal organ. This and their ciliated epidermis have led some to propose relationships with other microscopic spiralians, namely Platyhelminthes, Gastrotricha, and in the case of Diurodrilus, with Micrognathozoa [6, 7]-lineages that are grouped by some analyses into "Platyzoa," a clade whose status remains uncertain [1, 8-11]. Here, we assess the interrelationships among the meiofaunal and macrofaunal members of Spiralia using 402 orthologs mined from genome and transcriptome assemblies of 90 taxa. Lobatocerebrum and Diurodrilus are found to be deeply nested members of Annelida, and unequivocal support is found for Micrognathozoa as the sister group of Rotifera. Analyses using site-heterogeneous substitution models further recover a lophophorate clade and position Loricifera + Priapulida as sister group to the remaining Ecdysozoa. Finally, with several meiofaunal lineages branching off early in the diversification of Spiralia, the emerging concept of a microscopic, acoelomate, direct-developing ancestor of Spiralia is reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wijnhoven, S.; Sistermans, W.; Hummel, H.
Water works during the 1960s and 1970s changed the northern part of the Rhine-Meuse estuary in the south-west of the Netherlands into a freshwater lake, from west to east divided into three basins called the Haringvliet, the Hollands Diep and the Biesbosch. Concurrently water quality parameters (e.g. nutrients and pollutants) changed drastically during the last 50 years. This study combines macrozoobenthic monitoring data from the region from 1960 to 2001 with trends in abiotic parameters to evaluate historic developments of the communities, including densities, species numbers and diversity, and assess future developments as a first step to a rehabilitation of the estuary as planned for January 01, 2008. During the 1960s, the macrozoobenthic densities of Oligochaeta and/or Polychaeta dominated communities increased with a gradual decrease of saltwater intrusion and salinity variability. The first years after the basins became stagnant, the species numbers per sample and the Shannon diversity were high due to the coexistence of salt and freshwater species. An increase in nutrient and pollutant loads led to a decrease in the macrozoobenthos densities. As water and sediment quality gradually improved, nowadays the former estuary contains high diversity and high density macrozoobenthic communities, whereas Oligochaeta and/or Polychaeta were dominant in the 1960s, and Bivalvia and Gastropoda were more abundant during the 1970s. Macrozoobenthic communities moved from the east to west with a time-lag, which may primarily be attributed to changing salinities, salinity variances and oxygen levels. Therefore, the current communities of the Haringvliet show similarities with the communities that occurred already during the 1960s in the Biesbosch. This study shows the value of macrozoobenthos monitoring data over longer periods. The possible impact of a new saltwater inlet in the west of the Haringvliet, allowing in the near future saltwater to enter 11.5 km eastward, yet
Wang, Bao-cheng; Park, Jecheol; Watabe, Hide-aki; Gao, Jian-jun; Xiangyu, Jing-gong; Aotsuka, Tadashi; Chen, Hong-wei; Zhang, Ya-ping
Regardless of the well-documented virilis species group, most groups of the Drosophila virilis section have not been completely studied at molecular level since it was suggested. Therefore, phylogenetic relationships among and within species groups of the virilis section are generally unknown. In present paper, the complete mitochondrial ND2 gene and fragment of COI gene in combination with a nuclear gene, Adh coding region, were used to derive the most extensive molecular phylogeny to date for the Drosophila virilis section. A total of 111 individuals covering 61 species were sampled in this study. Novel phylogenetic findings included (1) support for the paraphyly of the melanica and robusta species group and at least two subgroups of the robusta species group, the lacertosa and okadai subgroups, were distinguished as paraphyletic taxa. In addition, (2) present results revealed the sister relationship between D. moriwakii and the robusta subgroup, conflicting with current taxonomy regarding D. moriwakii, which was shifted from the robusta species group to the melanica group. (3) In contrast to the robusta and melanica species groups, monophyly of the polychaeta species group, the angor group and the virilis group was confirmed, respectively. However, the monophyletic quadrisetata species group was resolved with uncertainty. (4) Our analyses of combined data set suggested close relationship between the quadrisetata species group and the unpublished clefta group, and the okadai subgroup is sister to the clade comprising of the quadrisetata and clefta species groups. Within the virilis section, D. fluvialis and three tropical species groups, the polychaeta group, the angor group and the repleta group, are found to branch off earlier than other ingroup taxa. This suggests that the virilis section might have originated in the Old World tropics. Besides, the derived status of the close affinities of the quadrisetata group, the clefta group, and the melanica and robusta
The faunal colonization of the leaves and inflorescences of intertidal Zostera marina L. and of the ambient water has been studied at the Island of Sylt (North Sea). The abundance of the snail Littorina littorea L. and the isopod Jaera albifrons Leach correlates significantly with leaf surface area. This is not the case with the abundance of meiofaunal Plathelminthes, Nematoda, Copepoda, and Polychaeta. However, they increase significantly with the numbers of generative shoots in the sampled seagrass bunches. Members of these taxa inhabit the Zostera inflorescences, and average abundance increases with the degree of decay of inflorescences. This temporary microhabitat presumably offers food and shelter. Copepods and ostracods dominate in the ambient water. Planktonic calanoid copepods correlate with the amount of sampled seawater, while Ostracoda correlate with the amount of resuspended detritus suggesting that they were resuspended themselves. The study shows that some meiofaunal taxa can rapidly exploit a short-lived habitat such as the Zostera inflorescences. Juvenile polychaetes use inflorescences as a nursery.
Chinnadurai, Gunasekaran; Fernando, Olivia Jegaletchmi
The spatial variations of meiofauna population density and the assemblage of free-living marine nematodes in areas with Avicennia marina and Rhizophora apiculata cover of Pichavaram and Parangipettai (southeast coast of India) are described. Seven meiofauna taxa were recorded, with maximum density of meiofauna (890 ind. 10 cm -2) being recorded in an area with A. marina cover. Nematodes accounted for up to 93.1% of the total densities; other common taxa were foraminifera and polychaeta. A total of 44 species of nematodes belonging to 36 genera and 20 families were recorded. Of these, 37 species belonging to 30 genera and 17 families were recorded from Pichavaram mangrove and 14 species belonging to 10 families from a nearby artificial mangrove environment. While 16 species were common to both A. marina and R. apiculata cover, 15 species were restricted to areas with A. marina cover and 13 to areas with R. apiculata cover. Dorylaimopsis sp. was the abundant genera in areas with A. marina cover and Daptonema sp. in areas with R. apiculata cover. Only three species were common in all the five stations. Epistrate-feeders were the most abundant nematodes in areas with A. marina cover and deposit-feeders/ciliate feeders in areas with R. apiculata cover.
Quang, Ngo Xuan; Vanreusel, Ann; Smol, Nic; Chau, Nguyen Ngoc
Meiobenthos assemblages in eight estuaries of the Mekong river system were investigated in August 2008 (from the Cua Tieu estuary to the Tran De estuary). In each estuary, one sampling station was established for meiobenthos sampling. Twelve major taxa of meiobenthos were recorded in this estuarine system, including Nematoda, Copepoda, Turbellaria, Polychaeta, Oligochaeta, Tardigrada, Bivalvia, Ostracoda, Amphipoda, Cumacea, Gastrotricha, Gastropoda, and Crustacean Nauplii larvae. The densities of the meiobenthos range from 581 to 3168 inds/10 cm2. Nematodes always occupy the highest numbers with a percentage ranging from 64-99%. There are 135 nematode genera recorded in this study with the following as dominant genera Desmodora, Leptolaimus, Halalaimus, Thalassomonhystera, Theristus, Daptonema, Rhynchonema, Parodontophora, and Oncholaimus. Although the biodiversity of the meiobenthos at higher taxa level is not high compared to other marine environments, the estimates of nematode biodiversity at the genus level indicates high values. The increase in number of genera with increasing sampling intensity illustrate that the diversity is underestimated and would have been higher if the authors had considered a larger number of individuals, more replicates per station, and more sampling stations.
Wäge, Janine; Lerebours, Adelaide; Hardege, Jörg D; Rotchell, Jeanette M
Fossil fuel emissions and changes in net land use lead to an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration and a subsequent decrease of ocean pH. Noticeable effects on organisms' calcification rate, shell structure and energy metabolism have been reported in the literature. To date, little is known about the molecular mechanisms altered under low pH exposure, especially in non-calcifying organisms. We used a suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH) approach to characterise differentially expressed genes isolated from Platynereis dumerilii, a non-calcifying marine polychaeta species, kept at normal and low pH conditions. Several gene sequences have been identified as differentially regulated. These are involved in processes previously considered as indicators of environment change, such as energy metabolism (NADH dehydrogenase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, cytochrome c oxidase and ATP synthase subunit F), while others are involved in cytoskeleton function (paramyosin and calponin) and immune defence (fucolectin-1 and paneth cell-specific alpha-defensin) processes. This is the first study of differential gene expression in a non-calcifying, marine polychaete exposed to low pH seawater conditions and suggests that mechanisms of impact may include additional pathways not previously identified as impacted by low pH in other species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wu, Bin; Song, Jinming; Li, Xuegang
The objective of the present study was to examine the relationships between benthic community structure and toxic metals using bivariate/multivariate techniques at 17 sediment locations in Laizhou Bay, North China. Sediment chemical data were evaluated against geochemical background values and sediment quality guidelines, which identified Cu and As as contaminants of concern with a moderate potential for adverse effects. Benthic community data were subjected to non-metric multidimensional scaling, which generated four groups of stations. Spearman rank correlation was then employed to explore the relationships between the major axes of heavy metals and benthic community structure. However, weak and insignificant correlations were found between these axes, indicating that contaminants of concern may not be the primary explanatory factors. Polychaeta were abundant in southern Laizhou Bay, serving as a warning regarding the health status of the ecosystem. Integrated sediment quality assessment showed sediments from northern central locations were impaired, displaying less diverse benthos and higher metal contamination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Goerke, H; Weber, K
Elimination kinetics of tetra-, penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls (IUPAC Nos. 44, 52, 87, 95, 101, 153) were investigated by laboratory experiments in three species of different phyla: Nereis diversicolor (Polychaeta), Palaemon longirostris (Crustacea) and Platichthys flesus (Pisces). Half-lives were species-specific and structure-dependent. Palaemon longirostris eliminated all components fastest. N. diversicolor was faster than Platichthys flesus except for components 95 and 153. Contrary to the fish species, the two invertebrates contained significant amounts of polar transformation products of No. 52, which had been applied as 14C labelled. Therefore, the faster elimination by Palaemon longirostris and N. diversicolor was assumed to be generally due to increased biotransformation. Elimination was in accordance with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residue patterns obtained from field samples of the species. Congeners with vicinal H atoms in m,p positions were under-represented in Palaemon longirostris and so were congeners with > or = 7 Cl in N. diversicolor, while the PCB residue pattern in Platichthys flesus was similar to that of Clophen A60. By comparing percentages of the experimental congeners in sigma PCB and their elimination half-lives in the three species, it was revealed that residue patterns were also influenced by species-dependent uptake, e.g. feeding habits. Extractable organic matter-based sigma PCB levels increased with trophic levels of the three species.
Kristiningsih, A.; Sugianto, D. N.; Munasik; Pribadi, R.; Suprijanto, J.
The coast of Semarang and Demak has suffered some damage to its coastal areas. This damage is caused by natural factors and also human activities. There are number of mitigation methods such as hard, soft and hybrid that available for mitigation erosion. In Semarang and Demak coastal area using hard and hybrid option as their mitigation erotion. Breakwater is one of the way beach structure that often used as mitigation erosion di coastal area. Breakwater will cause sediment deposits that will become the living place of various organisms such as makrozoobenthos. The aim of this research is compare the abudance of makrozoobenthos in different type breakwater in Semarang and Demak coastal area.This research held on December 2016 - January 2017 in five different location with different breakwater type. Hard structure in Mangkang (West Semarang), Morosari (Demak district) and Tambak Lorok (North Semarang) and the hybrid engineering in Morosari 2 (Demak district) and Timbulsloko (Demak district). The method used in this study is descriptive comparative. Makrozoobenthos has been found in each station and the highest indeks is in hybrid engineering location. Polychaeta is a genus that dominates at every location because muddy sand is its main habitat.
Abu Hena, M K; Kohinoor, S M S; Siddique, M A M; Ismail, J; Idris, M H; Amin, S M N
Macrobenthos in coastal environment that play a significant role in the food web. It could also use as a good indicator of aquatic ecosystem health. The abundance and composition of macrobenthos in Bakkhali channel system, Cox's Bazar were conducted in relation to the soil parameters. Samples were collected using Ekman Berge bottom grab from five different stations of Bakkhali channel. Macrobenthos were comprised of five major groups namely Polychaeta (9.96-30.31%), Oligochaeta (3.68-59.707%), Crustacea (0.02-58.40%), Bivalvia (1.40-82.09%) and Gastropoda (0.08-4.25%). Total number of macrobenthos was higher at station I (9000 individuals m(-2)) and station II (8517 individuals m(-2)) compared to other stations. Shannon diversity index among the stations ranged from 0.65-1.04. Soil pH and soil moisture ranged from 6.1-6.4 and 23.44-31.29%, respectively. The highest organic carbon concentration was observed at station I (2.11%) and lowest at station III (1.40%). Maximum fraction of sand by weight was found at stations II (81.88%) and III (87.88) while the highest fraction of clay (21.52%) and silt (8.0%) were recorded in station I. It was observed that benthic bivalves were positively correlated (r = 0.891, p > 0.05) with silt fraction of the sediments.
Sharani, Jeanny; Hidayat, Jafron W.; Putro, Sapto P.
Macrobenthic community play important role in sedimentary habitats as a part of food chain. Their structure may be influenced by environmental characteristic spatially and temporally. The purpose of this study is to access the correlation between macrobenthic structure (biotic) and water-sediment characteristics (abiotic) adjacent aquaculture areas at Tembelas Island, Indonesia. Water and sediments samples were taken twice, where the first and second sampling time were taken in June and October 2016, respectively. Samples were taken in the area of fish farming at coastal area of policulture/IMTA (as Location I), site of 1 km away from fish farming area as a reference site (as Location II), and monoculture sites (as Location III), with three stations for each location. Data of abiotic parameters included the composition of sediment substrate and DO, pH, salinity, temperature, and. Sediment samples were taken using Ekman grab. The organisms were 1 mm -size sieved and fixed using 10% formalin for further analysis, i.e. sorting, preserving, enumerating, identifying, and grouping. The relationship between biotics (macrobentos) and abiotics (physical-chemical factors) was assessed using a non-parametric multivariate procedure (BIOENV). This study found 61 species consisting of 46 families and 5 classes of macrobenthos. The most common classes were member of Mollusca and Polychaeta. Total nitrogen, silt, and clay were the abiotic factors most influencing macrobenthic structure (BIO-ENV; r = 0.46; R2 = 21.16%).
Ronowicz, Marta; Kukliński, Piotr; Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria
Kelp forests are complex underwater habitats that support diverse assemblages of animals ranging from sessile filter feeding invertebrates to fishes and marine mammals. In this study, the diversity of invertebrate fauna associated with kelp holdfasts was surveyed in a high Arctic glacial fjord (76 N, Hornsund, Svalbard). The effects of algal host identity (three kelp species: Laminaria digitata, Saccharina latissima and Alaria esculenta), depth (5 and 10 m) and glacier-derived disturbance (three sites with varying levels of mineral sedimentation) on faunal species richness and composition were studied based on 239 collected algal holdfasts. The species pool was mostly made up by three taxa: colonial Bryozoa and Hydrozoa, and Polychaeta. While the all-taxa species richness did not differ between depths, algal hosts and sites, the patterns varied when the two colonial sessile filter-feeding taxa were analysed alone (Hydrozoa and Bryozoa). The Hydrozoa sample species richness and average taxonomic distinctness were the highest at undisturbed sites, whereas Bryozoa species richness was higher in sediment-impacted localities, indicating relative insensitivity of this phylum to the increased level of mineral suspension in the water column. The average taxonomic distinctness of Bryozoa did not vary between sites. The species composition of kelp-associated fauna varied between sites and depths for the whole community and the most dominant taxa (Bryozoa, Hydrozoa). The high load of inorganic suspension and sedimentation did not cause pauperization of kelp holdfast-associated fauna but instead triggered the changes in species composition and shifts between dominant taxonomic groups.
Akopian, M.; Usseglio-Polatera, P.
Macrobenthic assemblages of the lower, regulated and canalized Marne River (France) are dominated by several "exotic", recently introduced species. Arrival, installation and spread of such alien species were certainly promoted by (1) the close connection between French and other European river systems (Rhine, Danube), (2) the modification of natural river flow and benthic habitats. Both habitat characteristics (e.g. granulometric composition, organic content) and corresponding benthic assemblage structure were analysed to identify the substrate affinity of major taxa in the lower Marne River. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the possible biotic interactions (i.e. competition for food and/or space) among dominant taxa as function of habitat features and to predict the future development of newly established species, already known as potential invaders: Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia), Hypania invalida (Polychaeta), Chelicorophium curvispinum (Amphipoda), etc. Most of the newly established species, coming from the same biogeographical area ("invasional meltdown" hypothesis?), are eurytopic, with high fecundity and large food spectrum. First results demonstrated the co-existence of such species in the Marne River. But the future ecological importance of these organisms in benthic assemblages of the river depends on their present population size, population dynamics, and ability to colonize bottom substrates.
Renaud-Mornant, Jeanne; Gourbault, Nicole
Meiobenthos were sampled from 17 stations in the abyssal deep-sea system of the central Pacific centered around 14°N, 130°W at depths 4960-5154m, during the Nixo 47 R/V Jean Charcot cruise. Meiofaunal density range from 45-89 ind. 10cm 2. Predominant taxa are nematodes (84-100%) and copepods (0-10%). Rotifera, Polychaeta, and Acarina also occur. Nematodes are uniformly distributed spatially with 45 species or so; Monhysteridae is the dominant taxon, and Syringolaimus sp. (Ironidae) co-occurs faithfully. Low biomass (0.4-70.6μg 10cm 2) are attributed to supposed dwarfism of metazoan meiofauna and very high proportion (60-80%) of juveniles and pre-adult forms. The majority of protozoans and metazoans are detritus- or deposit-feeders; in addition symbiotic associations, coprophagy and gardening activities are frequent. In such an oligotrophic environment, low food supply may limit meiofaunal abundance, biomass and maturation, and to a lesser extent species richness.
Sea-cage farming results in a constant rain of organic waste onto the surrounding benthos. In Baja California there is growing concern over the effects of sea-cages on the local environment: sediment chemistry and benthic communities. Samples were taken in 18 stations using a Van veen grab (0.1 m2) in Bahía Salsipuedes, Baja California in 2003, 2004, 2006 and 2008. Organisms belonging to 7 Phyla were collected: Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, Echinodermata, Cnidaria, Sipuncula and Bryozoa. Polychaetes were the dominant group followed by crustaceans and mollusks. Polychaetes were represented by 37 families and 157 species. Best represented families were Paraonidae, Cirratulidae, Spionidae, Glyceridae and Maldanidae. This study shows that in the NW area of the bay organic carbon (2.54%) and organic nitrogen (0.95%) are being accumulated (higher concentrations and lower Eh values) and smaller opportunistic species are increasing rapidly near the tuna pens. It is crucial to maintain "healthy" macrofaunal populations in order to enhance decomposition of organic matter and to prevent its excessive accumulation. The most abundant polychaete species were Aphelochaeta multifinis, Mediomastus ambiseta, Prionospio steenstrupi Spiophanes bombyx, Apoprionospio pygnaea, Paraonella sp, Monticellina sp, Aricidea (Allia) ramosa, Spiophanes bombyx and Levinsenia gracilis. The dominant trophic groups were deposit-feeders and carnivores. The buildup of organic matter on the seafloor has attracted scavenger species particularly peracarid crustaceans. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) separated stations depending of the distance to the tuna pens.
Schejter, Laura; López Gappa, Juan; Bremec, Claudia Silvia
The continental slope of the southern SW Atlantic Ocean has many distinguishable deep submarine canyons, varying in depth and extension. The benthic fauna within one of them, detected in April 2005 by means of a multibeam SIMRAD EM1002 sonar, and located at 43°35‧S to 59°33‧W, 325 m depth, was studied to discuss faunal affinities with the neighbouring Patagonian scallop fishing grounds located at upper slope depths. In order to add faunal information to the previous general study, we studied the epibiotic species settled on Patagonian scallops (the dominant species in the area) collected in the reference sampling site using a 2.5-m mouth-opening dredge, 10 mm mesh size. We sampled 103 scallops with shell heights between 22 and 69 mm; epibionts were recorded on both valves. We found 53 epibiotic taxa, which were most conspicuous on the upper valve. Bryozoa was the most diverse group (34 species) while Polychaeta was the most abundant group, recorded on 94% of the scallops. Stylasteridae (2 species) and Clavulariidae (Cnidaria) conform newly recorded epibionts on Z. patagonica and the sponge Tedania (Tedaniopsis) infundibuliformis also represents a new record for the SW Atlantic Ocean.
Li, X.; Xu, Y.
The seasonal and spatial characteristics of macrobenthic community in South Yellow Sea were studied based on the data from three voyages carried out in spring, summer and autumn, 2012. A total of 218 species were obtained, including 80 species of Polychaeta, 75 of Crustacea, 35 of Mollusca, 15 of Echinodermata and 13 of other groups. Mean abundance varied from 151.4 ind./m2 in spring to 188 ind./m2 in autumn showing an increasing trend with season and mean biomass ranged from 12.1 g/m2 in spring to 33.4 g/m2 in summer. Mean secondary productivity varied from 2.5 g(AFDW)/(m2·a) in spring to 5.7 g(AFDW)/(m2·a) in summer. Two-way ANOVA indicated that biomass were significantly different among seasons and number of species and Shannon-Weiner index had significant differences among stations. But abundance, Pielou's evenness index and average taxonomic distinctness were not significantly different among either seasons or stations. Non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant differences of secondary productivity among tations. Two-way crossed ANOSIM indicated overall significant differences of community structure among both seasons and stations. The stations were divided into four groups in spring and five in summer and autumn through the CLUSTER and nMDS analysis. Depth was an important factor influencing distribution of macrobenthos in the South Yellow Sea.
Hong, Sang Hee; Kannan, Narayanan; Yim, Un Hyuk; Choi, Jin-Woo; Shim, Won Joon
Benthic ecosystem in Gwangyang Bay, a fast developing industrial area with steel production, port container handling, petroleum and other chemical processing in South Korea was studied. The average levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB) in the benthic components were: seawater 2.99 ± 0.13 (ng/L); sediment 294 ± 118 (ng/g TOC); [biota=ng/g lipid] starfish 92; prawn 131 ± 2; mussels 127 ± 22; crab 182 ± 114; clam 187; polychaeta 215; sea cucumber 497 ± 90; squill 603 ± 38; fish 396 ± 159. Levels in the inner bay samples were higher than the outer bay samples suggesting land based pollution. Good correlation (r(2)=0.79; p<0.05) existed between PCB concentration and lipid content indicating partitioning processes in action. PCB signature in the abiotic and biotic components shows enrichment of lower chlorinated congeners emitted by a unique source nearby, viz. steel manufacturing plant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Christensen, Sarah C B; Nissen, Erling; Arvin, Erik; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen
Danish drinking water supplies based on ground water without chlorination were investigated for the presence of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, microinvertebrates (<2 mm) and annelida. In total, 52 water samples were collected from fire hydrants at 31 locations, and two elevated tanks (6000 and 36,000 m(3)) as well as one clean water tank at a waterworks (700 m(3)) were inspected. Several types of invertebrates from the phyla: arthropoda, annelida (worms), plathyhelminthes (flatworms) and mollusca (snails) were found. Invertebrates were found at 94% of the sampling sites in the piped system with A. aquaticus present at 55% of the sampling sites. Populations of A. aquaticus were present in the two investigated elevated tanks but not in the clean water tank at a waterworks. Both adult and juvenile A. aquaticus (length of 2-10 mm) were found in tanks as well as in pipes. A. aquaticus was found only in samples collected from two of seven investigated distribution zones (zone 1 and 2), each supplied directly by one of the two investigated elevated tanks containing A. aquaticus. Microinvertebrates were distributed throughout all zones. The distribution pattern of A. aquaticus had not changed considerably over 20 years when compared to data from samples collected in 1988-89. Centrifugal pumps have separated the distribution zones during the whole period and may have functioned as physical barriers in the distribution systems, preventing large invertebrates such as A. aquaticus to pass alive. Another factor characterising zone 1 and 2 was the presence of cast iron pipes. The frequency of A. aquaticus was significantly higher in cast iron pipes than in plastic pipes. A. aquaticus caught from plastic pipes were mainly single living specimens or dead specimens, which may have been transported passively trough by the water flow, while cast iron pipes provided an environment suitable for relatively large populations of A. aquaticus. Sediment volume for each sample was
Bourlat, Sarah J; Nielsen, Claus; Economou, Andrew D; Telford, Maximilian J
The new animal phylogeny inferred from ribosomal genes some years ago has prompted a number of radical rearrangements of the traditional, morphology based metazoan tree. The two main bilaterian clades, Deuterostomia and Protostomia, find strong support, but the protostomes consist of two sister groups, Ecdysozoa and Lophotrochozoa, not seen in morphology based trees. Although widely accepted, not all recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have supported the tripartite structure of the new animal phylogeny. Furthermore, even if the small ribosomal subunit (SSU) based phylogeny is correct, there is a frustrating lack of resolution of relationships between the phyla that make up the three clades of this tree. To address this issue, we have assembled a dataset including a large number of aligned sequence positions as well as a broad sampling of metazoan phyla. Our dataset consists of sequence data from ribosomal and mitochondrial genes combined with new data from protein coding genes (5139 amino acid and 3524 nucleotide positions in total) from 37 representative taxa sampled across the Metazoa. Our data show strong support for the basic structure of the new animal phylogeny as well as for the Mandibulata including Myriapoda. We also provide some resolution within the Lophotrochozoa, where we confirm support for a monophyletic clade of Echiura, Sipuncula and Annelida and surprising evidence of a close relationship between Brachiopoda and Nemertea.
Creatine kinase and arginine kinase are the typical representatives of an eight-member phosphagen kinase family, which play important roles in the cellular energy metabolism of animals. The phylum Annelida underwent a series of evolutionary processes that resulted in rapid divergence and radiation of these enzymes, producing the greatest diversity of the phosphagen kinases within this phylum. Lombricine kinase (EC 18.104.22.168) is one of such enzymes and sequence information is rather limited compared to other phosphagen kinases. This study presents data on the cDNA sequences of lombricine kinase from two oligochaete species, the California blackworm (Lumbriculus variegatus) and the sludge worm (Tubifex tubifex). The deduced amino acid sequences are analyzed and compared with other selected phosphagen kinases, including two additional lombricine kinase sequences extracted from DNA databases and provide further insights in the evolution and position of these enzymes within the phosphagen kinase family. The data confirms the presence of a deleted region within the flexible loop (the GS region) of all six examined lombricine kinases. A phylogenetic analysis of these six lombricine kinases clearly positions the enzymes together in a small subcluster within the larger creatine kinase (EC 22.214.171.124) clade. 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Brandt, A.; Havermans, C.; Janussen, D.; Jörger, K. M.; Meyer-Löbbecke, A.; Schnurr, S.; Schüller, M.; Schwabe, E.; Brandão, S. N.; Würzberg, L.
An epibenthic sledge (EBS) was deployed at seven different deep-sea stations along the South Polar Front of the Atlantic in order to explore the composition and abundance of macrofaunal organisms and to identify the most abundant taxa in this transition zone to the Southern Ocean. In total 3,130 specimens were sampled by means of the EBS on board of RV Polarstern during the expedition ANT-XXVIII/3 in the austral summer of 2012. Benthic and suprabenthic Crustacea occurred to be most frequent in the samples. Among those, copepods were by far most numerous, with 1,585 specimens followed by the peracarid taxa Isopoda (236 ind.), Amphipoda (103 ind.), Tanaidacea (78 ind.) and Cumacea (50 ind.). Annelida were represented by a high number of specimens belonging to different polychaete taxa (404 ind.). The molluscan fauna was clearly dominated by Bivalvia (255 ind.), followed in numbers of specimens by Gastropoda (47 ind.). The deep-sea benthos sampled along the Southern Polar Front occurred in surprisingly low abundances, contrasting the largely high surface productivity of the area. Numbers of specimens across different macrofaunal taxa and especially of peracarid crustaceans underscored by far those from South Ocean sites at higher latitudes in the Weddell Sea.
Yu, Xue; Yu, Hong; Kong, Lingfeng; Li, Qi
The deduced amino acid sequence characteristics, classification and phylogeny of tyrosinase gene family in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg) were analyzed using bioinformatics methods. The results showed that gene duplication was the major cause of tyrosinase gene expansion in the Pacific oyster. The tyrosinase gene family in the Pacific oyster can be further classified into three types: secreted form (Type A), cytosolic form (Type B) and membrane-bound form (Type C). Based on the topology of the phylogenetic tree of the Pacific oyster tyrosinases, among Type A isoforms, tyr18 seemed divergent from other Type A tyrosinases early, while tyr2 and tyr9 appeared divergent early in Type B. In Type C tyrosinses, tyr8 was divergent early. The cluster of the Pacific oyster tyrosinasesis determined by their classifications and positions in the scaffolds. Further analysis suggested that Type A tyrosinases of C. gigas clustered with those from cephalopods and then with nematodes and cnidarians. Type B tyrosinases were generally clustered with the same type of tyrosinases from molluscas and nematodes, and then with those from platyhelminths, cnidarians and chordates. Type A tyrosinases in the Pacific oyster and the Pearl oyster expanded independently and were divergent from membrane-bound form of tyrosinases in chordata, platyhelminthes and annelida. These observations suggested that Type C tyrosinases in the bivalve had a distinct evolution direction.
Arunkumar, K. P.; Nagaraju, Javaregowda
Background Palindromes are known to be involved in a variety of biological processes. In the present investigation we carried out a comprehensive analysis of palindromes in the mitochondrial control regions (CRs) of several animal groups to study their frequency, distribution and architecture to gain insights into the origin of replication of mtDNA. Methodology/Principal Findings Many species of Arthropoda, Nematoda, Mollusca and Annelida harbor palindromes and inverted repeats (IRs) in their CRs. Lower animals like cnidarians and higher animal groups like chordates are almost devoid of palindromes and IRs. The study revealed that palindrome occurrence is positively correlated with the AT content of CRs, and that IRs are likely to give rise to longer palindromes. Conclusions/Significance The present study attempts to explain possible reasons and gives in silico evidence for absence of palindromes and IRs from CR of vertebrate mtDNA and acquisition and retention of the same in insects. Study of CRs of different animal phyla uncovered unique architecture of this locus, be it high abundance of long palindromes and IRs in CRs of Insecta and Nematoda, or short IRs of 10–20 nucleotides with a spacer region of 12–14 bases in subphylum Chelicerata, or nearly complete of absence of any long palindromes and IRs in Vertebrata, Cnidaria and Echinodermata. PMID:17205114
Moffitt, Sarah E.; Hill, Tessa M.; Roopnarine, Peter D.; Kennett, James P.
Anthropogenic climate change is predicted to decrease oceanic oxygen (O2) concentrations, with potentially significant effects on marine ecosystems. Geologically recent episodes of abrupt climatic warming provide opportunities to assess the effects of changing oxygenation on marine communities. Thus far, this knowledge has been largely restricted to investigations using Foraminifera, with little being known about ecosystem-scale responses to abrupt, climate-forced deoxygenation. We here present high-resolution records based on the first comprehensive quantitative analysis, to our knowledge, of changes in marine metazoans (Mollusca, Echinodermata, Arthropoda, and Annelida; >5,400 fossils and trace fossils) in response to the global warming associated with the last glacial to interglacial episode. The molluscan archive is dominated by extremophile taxa, including those containing endosymbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Lucinoma aequizonatum) and those that graze on filamentous sulfur-oxidizing benthic bacterial mats (Alia permodesta). This record, from 16,100 to 3,400 y ago, demonstrates that seafloor invertebrate communities are subject to major turnover in response to relatively minor inferred changes in oxygenation (>1.5 to <0.5 mL⋅L−1 [O2]) associated with abrupt (<100 y) warming of the eastern Pacific. The biotic turnover and recovery events within the record expand known rates of marine biological recovery by an order of magnitude, from <100 to >1,000 y, and illustrate the crucial role of climate and oceanographic change in driving long-term successional changes in ocean ecosystems. PMID:25825727
Merlo-Serna, Aldo Iván; García-Prieto, Luis
Abstract A comprehensive and updated summary of the literature and unpublished records contained in scientific collections on the helminth parasites of the elasmobranchs from Mexico is herein presented for the first time. At present, the helminth fauna associated with Elasmobranchii recorded in Mexico is composed of 132 (110 named species and 22 not assigned to species), which belong to 70 genera included in 27 families (plus 4 incertae sedis families of cestodes). These data represent 7.2% of the worldwide species richness. Platyhelminthes is the most widely represented, with 128 taxa: 94 of cestodes, 22 of monogeneans and 12 of trematodes; Nematoda and Annelida: Hirudinea are represented by only 2 taxa each. These records come from 54 localities, pertaining to 15 states; Baja California Sur (17 sampled localities) and Baja California (10), are the states with the highest species richness: 72 and 54 species, respectively. Up to now, 48 elasmobranch species have been recorded as hosts of helminths in Mexico; so, approximately 82% of sharks and 67% of rays distributed in Mexican waters lack helminthological studies. The present list provides the host, distribution (with geographical coordinates), site of infection, accession number in scientific collections, and references for the parasites. A host-parasite list is also provided. PMID:27047240
Merlo-Serna, Aldo Iván; García-Prieto, Luis
A comprehensive and updated summary of the literature and unpublished records contained in scientific collections on the helminth parasites of the elasmobranchs from Mexico is herein presented for the first time. At present, the helminth fauna associated with Elasmobranchii recorded in Mexico is composed of 132 (110 named species and 22 not assigned to species), which belong to 70 genera included in 27 families (plus 4 incertae sedis families of cestodes). These data represent 7.2% of the worldwide species richness. Platyhelminthes is the most widely represented, with 128 taxa: 94 of cestodes, 22 of monogeneans and 12 of trematodes; Nematoda and Annelida: Hirudinea are represented by only 2 taxa each. These records come from 54 localities, pertaining to 15 states; Baja California Sur (17 sampled localities) and Baja California (10), are the states with the highest species richness: 72 and 54 species, respectively. Up to now, 48 elasmobranch species have been recorded as hosts of helminths in Mexico; so, approximately 82% of sharks and 67% of rays distributed in Mexican waters lack helminthological studies. The present list provides the host, distribution (with geographical coordinates), site of infection, accession number in scientific collections, and references for the parasites. A host-parasite list is also provided.
Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the “invertebrates,” but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a “Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance” (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major challenges (e.g., species selection, sample collection and storage, sequence assembly, annotation, analytical tools) associated with genome/transcriptome sequencing across a large taxonomic spectrum. We aim to promote standards that will facilitate comparative approaches to invertebrate genomics and collaborations across the international scientific community. Candidate study taxa include species from Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Bryozoa, and Platyhelminthes, among others. GIGA will target 7000 noninsect/nonnematode species, with an emphasis on marine taxa because of the unrivaled phyletic diversity in the oceans. Priorities for selecting invertebrates for sequencing will include, but are not restricted to, their phylogenetic placement; relevance to organismal, ecological, and conservation research; and their importance to fisheries and human health. We highlight benefits of sequencing both whole genomes (DNA) and transcriptomes and also suggest policies for genomic-level data access and sharing based on transparency and inclusiveness. The GIGA Web site (http://giga.nova.edu) has been launched to facilitate this collaborative venture. PMID:24336862
Rouse, Greg W; Wilson, Nerida G; Worsaae, Katrine; Vrijenhoek, Robert C
Darwin hypothesized that sexes in a species should be similar unless sexual selection, fecundity selection, or resource partitioning has driven them apart. Male dwarfism has evolved multiple times in a range of animals, raising questions about factors that drive such extreme size dimorphism. Ghiselin noted that dwarf males are more common among smaller marine animals, and especially among sedentary and sessile species living at low densities, where mates are difficult to find, or in deep-sea environments with limited energy sources. These benefits of male dwarfism apply well to Osedax (Annelida: Siboglinidae), bone-eating marine worms. Osedax males, notable for extreme sexual size dimorphism (SSD), are developmentally arrested larvae that produce sperm from yolk reserves. Harems of dwarf males reside in the lumen of the tube surrounding a female. Herein, we describe Osedax priapus n. sp., a species that deviates remarkably by producing males that anchor into, and feed on, bone via symbiont-containing "roots," just like female Osedax. Phylogenetic analyses revealed O. priapus n. sp. as a derived species, and the absence of dwarf males represents a character reversal for this genus. Some dwarf male features are retained due to functional and morphological constraints. Since O. priapus n. sp. males are anchored in bone, they possess an extensible trunk that allows them to roam across the bone to contact and inseminate females. Evolutionary and ecological implications of a loss of male dwarfism are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mennillo, Elvira; Casu, Valentina; Tardelli, Federica; De Marchi, Lucia; Freitas, Rosa; Pretti, Carlo
Cholinesterases of Diopatra neapolitana were characterized for their activity in whole body and different body segments (apical, intermediate, posterior), substrate affinity (acetyl-, butyryl-, propionylthiocholine), kinetic parameters (K m and V max ) and in vitro response to model inhibitors (eserine hemisulfate, isoOMPA, BW284C51) and carbamates (carbofuran, methomyl, aldicarb and carbaryl). Results showed that the rate of hydrolysis for acetyl- and propionylthiocholine was higher in the posterior segment than the apical/intermediate segments and whole body. Cholinesterases of D. neapolitana showed a substrate preference for acetylthiocholine followed by propionylthiocholine; butyrylthioline was poorly hydrolyzed indicating, together with the absence of inhibition by the specific inhibitor and the absence of reactive bands in native electrophoresis, a lack of an active butyrylcholinesterase, differently than that observed in other Annelida species. The degree of inhibition by selected carbamates of cholinesterase activity with propionylthiocholine as substrate was higher than that observed with ATChI-ChE activity; aldicarb showed the highest inhibitory effect. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Li, Chenhong; Riethoven, Jean-Jack M; Naylor, Gavin J P
Recent innovations in next-generation sequencing have lowered the cost of genome projects. Nevertheless, sequencing entire genomes for all representatives in a study remains expensive and unnecessary for most studies in ecology, evolution and conservation. It is still more cost-effective and efficient to target and sequence single-copy nuclear gene markers for such studies. Many tools have been developed for identifying nuclear markers, but most of these have focused on particular taxonomic groups. We have built a searchable database, EvolMarkers, for developing single-copy coding sequence (CDS) and exon-primed-intron-crossing (EPIC) markers that is designed to work across a broad range of phylogenetic divergences. The database is made up of single-copy CDS derived from BLAST searches of a variety of metazoan genomes. Users can search the database for different types of markers (CDS or EPIC) that are common to different sets of input species with different divergence characteristics. EvolMarkers can be applied to any taxonomic group for which genome data are available for two or more species. We included 82 genomes in the first version of EvolMarkers and have found the methods to be effective across Placozoa, Cnidaria, Arthropod, Nematoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Chordata and plants. We demonstrate the effectiveness of searching for CDS markers within annelids and show how to find potentially useful intronic markers within the lizard Anolis. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Woodman, N.; Merritt, J.F.; Churchfield, S.; Hutterer, R.; Sheftel, B.A.
Fossils of Cryptotis goodwini from Honduras indicate that body sizes of modern individuals average at least 18% larger than among members of the late Pleistocene population of this species. Palynological and other paleoenvironmental studies provide evidence that the Neotropical montane environments that these shrews inhabit were cooler and drier in the late Pleistocene than at present and supported communities of plants without modern analog. Therefore, the most likely cause of this change in size ultimately was related to climatic change at the end of the Pleistocene?but to what specific factors did the species respond? I examined the possibilities that this species changed in size: to accommodate a change in temperature regime; to escape from predators; as a response to a change in intensity of interspecific competition; to take advantage of a newly abundant food resource. Based on evidence from studies of modern communities of shrews and niche partitioning, I hypothesized that size evolution in C. goodwini was directly related to changes in the community of soil and soil-surface invertebrates upon which the species depends, specifically an increase in the availability of earthworms (Annelida).
Vrijenhoek, R C; Johnson, S B; Rouse, G W
Extreme male dwarfism occurs in Osedax (Annelida: Siboglinidae), marine worms with sessile females that bore into submerged bones. Osedax are hypothesized to use environmental sex determination, in which undifferentiated larvae that settle on bones develop as females, and subsequent larvae that settle on females transform into dwarf males. This study addresses several hypotheses regarding possible recruitment sources for the males: (i) common larval pool--males and females are sampled from a common pool of larvae; (ii) neighbourhood--males are supplied by a limited number of neighbouring females; and (iii) arrhenotoky--males are primarily the sons of host females. Osedax rubiplumus were sampled from submerged whalebones located at 1820-m and 2893-m depths in Monterey Bay, California. Immature females typically did not host males, but mature females maintained male 'harems' that grew exponentially in the number of males as female size increased. Allozyme analysis of the females revealed binomial proportions of nuclear genotypes, an indication of random sexual mating. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences from the male harems and their host females allowed us to reject the arrhenotoky and neighbourhood hypotheses for male recruitment. No significant partitioning of mitochondrial diversity existed between the male and female sexes, or between subsamples of worms collected at different depths or during different years (2002-2007). Mitochondrial sequence diversity was very high in these worms, suggesting that as many as 10(6) females contributed to a common larval pool from which the two sexes were randomly drawn.
KRISTOF, ALEN; WOLLESEN, TIM; MAIOROVA, ANASTASSYA S.; WANNINGER, ANDREAS
Sipuncula is a lophotrochozoan taxon with annelid affinities, albeit lacking segmentation of the adult body. Here, we present data on cell proliferation and myogenesis during development of three sipunculan species, Phascolosoma agassizii, Thysanocardia nigra, and Themiste pyroides. The first anlagen of the circular body wall muscles appear simultaneously and not subsequently as in the annelids. At the same time, the rudiments of four longitudinal retractor muscles appear. This supports the notion that four introvert retractors were part of the ancestral sipunculan bodyplan. The longitudinal muscle fibers form a pattern of densely arranged fibers around the retractor muscles, indicating that the latter evolved from modified longitudinal body wall muscles. For a short time interval, the distribution of S-phase mitotic cells shows a metameric pattern in the developing ventral nerve cord during the pelagosphera stage. This pattern disappears close to metamorphic competence. Our findings are congruent with data on sipunculan neurogenesis, as well as with recent molecular analyses that place Sipuncula within Annelida, and thus strongly support a segmental ancestry of Sipuncula. PMID:21246707
Kristof, Alen; Wollesen, Tim; Maiorova, Anastassya S; Wanninger, Andreas
Sipuncula is a lophotrochozoan taxon with annelid affinities, albeit lacking segmentation of the adult body. Here, we present data on cell proliferation and myogenesis during development of three sipunculan species, Phascolosoma agassizii, Thysanocardia nigra, and Themiste pyroides. The first anlagen of the circular body wall muscles appear simultaneously and not subsequently as in the annelids. At the same time, the rudiments of four longitudinal retractor muscles appear. This supports the notion that four introvert retractors were part of the ancestral sipunculan bodyplan. The longitudinal muscle fibers form a pattern of densely arranged fibers around the retractor muscles, indicating that the latter evolved from modified longitudinal body wall muscles. For a short time interval, the distribution of S-phase mitotic cells shows a metameric pattern in the developing ventral nerve cord during the pelagosphera stage. This pattern disappears close to metamorphic competence. Our findings are congruent with data on sipunculan neurogenesis, as well as with recent molecular analyses that place Sipuncula within Annelida, and thus strongly support a segmental ancestry of Sipuncula. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Schulze, Anja; Rice, Mary E
Molecular phylogenetics suggests that the Sipuncula fall into the Annelida, although they are morphologically very distinct and lack segmentation. To understand the evolutionary transformations from the annelid to the sipunculan body plan, it is important to reconstruct the ancestral states within the respective clades at all life history stages. Here we reconstruct the ancestral states for the head/introvert retractor muscles and the body wall musculature in the Sipuncula using Bayesian statistics. In addition, we describe the ontogenetic transformations of the two muscle systems in four sipunculan species with different developmental modes, using F-actin staining with fluorescent-labeled phalloidin in conjunction with confocal laser scanning microscopy. All four species, which have smooth body wall musculature and less than the full set of four introvert retractor muscles as adults, go through developmental stages with four retractor muscles that are eventually reduced to a lower number in the adult. The circular and sometimes the longitudinal body wall musculature are split into bands that later transform into a smooth sheath. Our ancestral state reconstructions suggest with nearly 100% probability that the ancestral sipunculan had four introvert retractor muscles, longitudinal body wall musculature in bands and circular body wall musculature arranged as a smooth sheath. Species with crawling larvae have more strongly developed body wall musculature than those with swimming larvae. To interpret our findings in the context of annelid evolution, a more solid phylogenetic framework is needed for the entire group and more data on ontogenetic transformations of annelid musculature are desirable.
Schrago, Carlos G.; Halanych, Kenneth M.
Abstract Animal tissues need to be properly oxygenated for carrying out catabolic respiration and, as such, natural selection has presumably favored special molecules that can reversibly bind and transport oxygen. Hemoglobins, hemocyanins, and hemerythrins (Hrs) fulfill this role, with Hrs being the least studied. Knowledge of oxygen-binding proteins is crucial for understanding animal physiology. Hr genes are present in the three domains of life, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota; however, within Animalia, Hrs has been reported only in marine species in six phyla (Annelida, Brachiopoda, Priapulida, Bryozoa, Cnidaria, and Arthropoda). Given this observed Hr distribution, whether all metazoan Hrs share a common origin is circumspect. We investigated Hr diversity and evolution in metazoans, by employing in silico approaches to survey for Hrs from of 120 metazoan transcriptomes and genomes. We found 58 candidate Hr genes actively transcribed in 36 species distributed in 11 animal phyla, with new records in Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Mollusca, Nemertea, Phoronida, and Platyhelminthes. Moreover, we found that “Hrs” reported from Cnidaria and Arthropoda were not consistent with that of other metazoan Hrs. Contrary to previous suggestions that Hr genes were absent in deuterostomes, we find Hr genes present in deuterostomes and were likely present in early bilaterians, but not in nonbilaterian animal lineages. As expected, the Hr gene tree did not mirror metazoan phylogeny, suggesting that Hrs evolutionary history was complex and besides the oxygen carrying capacity, the drivers of Hr evolution may also consist of secondary functional specializations of the proteins, like immunological functions. PMID:29016798
Halanych, Kenneth M; Kocot, Kevin M
The growing volume of genomic data from across life represents opportunities for deriving valuable biological information from data that were initially collected for another purpose. Here, we use transcriptomes collected for phylogenomic studies to search for toll-like receptor (TLR) genes in poorly sampled lophotrochozoan clades (Annelida, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Phoronida, and Entoprocta) and one ecdysozoan clade (Priapulida). TLR genes are involved in innate immunity across animals by recognizing potential microbial infection. They have an extracellular leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain connected to a transmembrane domain and an intracellular toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. Consequently, these genes are important in initiating a signaling pathway to trigger defense. We found at least one TLR ortholog in all but two taxa examined, suggesting that a broad array of lophotrochozoans may have innate immune systems similar to those observed in vertebrates and arthropods. Comparison to the SMART database confirmed the presence of both the LRR and the TIR protein motifs characteristic of TLR genes. Because we looked at only one transcriptome per species, discovery of TLR genes was limited for most taxa. However, several TRL-like genes that vary in the number and placement of LRR domains were found in phoronids. Additionally, several contigs contained LRR domains but lacked TIR domains, suggesting they were not TLRs. Many of these LRR-containing contigs had other domains (e.g., immunoglobin) and are likely involved in innate immunity. © 2014 Marine Biological Laboratory.
Podsiadlowski, Lars; Braband, Anke; Struck, Torsten H; von Döhren, Jörn; Bartolomaeus, Thomas
Background The new animal phylogeny established several taxa which were not identified by morphological analyses, most prominently the Ecdysozoa (arthropods, roundworms, priapulids and others) and Lophotrochozoa (molluscs, annelids, brachiopods and others). Lophotrochozoan interrelationships are under discussion, e.g. regarding the position of Nemertea (ribbon worms), which were discussed to be sister group to e.g. Mollusca, Brachiozoa or Platyhelminthes. Mitochondrial genomes contributed well with sequence data and gene order characters to the deep metazoan phylogeny debate. Results In this study we present the first complete mitochondrial genome record for a member of the Nemertea, Lineus viridis. Except two trnP and trnT, all genes are located on the same strand. While gene order is most similar to that of the brachiopod Terebratulina retusa, sequence based analyses of mitochondrial genes place nemerteans close to molluscs, phoronids and entoprocts without clear preference for one of these taxa as sister group. Conclusion Almost all recent analyses with large datasets show good support for a taxon comprising Annelida, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Phoronida and Nemertea. But the relationships among these taxa vary between different studies. The analysis of gene order differences gives evidence for a multiple independent occurrence of a large inversion in the mitochondrial genome of Lophotrochozoa and a re-inversion of the same part in gastropods. We hypothesize that some regions of the genome have a higher chance for intramolecular recombination than others and gene order data have to be analysed carefully to detect convergent rearrangement events. PMID:19660126
Widianingsih; Zainuri, Muhammad; Anggoro, Sutrisno; Pancasakti Kusumaningrum, Hermin
Microphytobentos and their associated mieofauna (‘klekap”) have important role in milkfish pond ecosystem expecially traditional fish pond. Microphytobenthos and their associated meiofauna not only consists of unicellular microalgae from class Bacillariophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae but also a lot of meiofauna such as Nematoda, Annelida, Mollusc, Arthropoda, etc. Microphytobenthos and their associated meiofauna inhabit in the upper most surface sediment layer. They also have important role in the primary and secondary productivity. This research has purpose to investigate the composition of proximate in the microphytobenthos and their associated meiofauna. Microphytobenthos and their associated meiofauna were taken from three milkfish ponds in Pati area, Central of Jawa, Indonesia. Samples were taken directly by hand core from 3 stations with 3 replications. The research result showed that the value of protein content had range 6.9±0.33 - 7.73±0.37 %-dw, the value of carbohydrate content had range 10.44±1.2 - 12.59±0.15 %-dw, the value of lipid content had range 0.86±0.07 - 0.96±0.07 %-dw. It concluded that the third station has higher value of protein, lipid and carbohydrate compared than the first and the second station.
Yue, Yuan; Hou, Shouqing; Wang, Xiu; Zhan, Leilei; Cao, Guozheng; Li, Guoli; Shi, Yang; Zhang, Peng; Hong, Weiling; Lin, Hao; Liu, Baoping; Shi, Feng; Yang, Yun; Jin, Yongfeng
Exon or cassette duplication is an important means of expanding protein and functional diversity through mutually exclusive splicing. However, the mechanistic basis of this process in non-arthropod species remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that MRP1 genes underwent tandem exon duplication in Nematoda, Platyhelminthes, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and early-diverging Chordata but not in late-diverging vertebrates. Interestingly, these events were of independent origin in different phyla, suggesting convergent evolution of alternative splicing. Furthermore, we showed that multiple sets of clade-conserved RNA pairings evolved to guide species-specific mutually exclusive splicing in Arthropoda. Importantly, we also identified a similar structural code in MRP exon clusters of the annelid, Capitella teleta, and chordate, Branchiostoma belcheri, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved competing pairing-guided mechanism in bilaterians. Taken together, these data reveal the molecular determinants and RNA pairing-guided evolution of species-specific mutually exclusive splicing spanning more than 600 million years of bilaterian evolution. These findings have a significant impact on our understanding of the evolution of and mechanism underpinning isoform diversity and complex gene structure.
Yue, Yuan; Hou, Shouqing; Wang, Xiu; Zhan, Leilei; Cao, Guozheng; Li, Guoli; Shi, Yang; Zhang, Peng; Hong, Weiling; Lin, Hao; Liu, Baoping; Shi, Feng; Yang, Yun; Jin, Yongfeng
ABSTRACT Exon or cassette duplication is an important means of expanding protein and functional diversity through mutually exclusive splicing. However, the mechanistic basis of this process in non-arthropod species remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that MRP1 genes underwent tandem exon duplication in Nematoda, Platyhelminthes, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and early-diverging Chordata but not in late-diverging vertebrates. Interestingly, these events were of independent origin in different phyla, suggesting convergent evolution of alternative splicing. Furthermore, we showed that multiple sets of clade-conserved RNA pairings evolved to guide species-specific mutually exclusive splicing in Arthropoda. Importantly, we also identified a similar structural code in MRP exon clusters of the annelid, Capitella teleta, and chordate, Branchiostoma belcheri, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved competing pairing-guided mechanism in bilaterians. Taken together, these data reveal the molecular determinants and RNA pairing-guided evolution of species-specific mutually exclusive splicing spanning more than 600 million years of bilaterian evolution. These findings have a significant impact on our understanding of the evolution of and mechanism underpinning isoform diversity and complex gene structure. PMID:28277933
Mugnai, R; Messana, G; Di Lorenzo, T
In the Neotropical Region, information concerning hyporheic communities is virtually non-existent. We carried out a sampling survey in the hyporheic zone of the Tijuca River, in the Tijuca National Park, located in the urban area of the city of Rio de Janeiro. Biological samples from the hyporheic zone were collected in three different stream reaches, in June 2012. The main objectives were: 1) to describe the structure of invertebrate assemblages in the hyporheic zone of a neotropical stream; 2) to apply a reach-scale approach in order to investigate spatial patterns of the hyporheic assemblages in relation to hydrology, depth and microhabitat typology. A total of 1460 individuals were collected and identified in 31 taxa belonging to Nematoda, Annelida, Crustacea, Hydrachnidia and Insecta. The class Insecta dominated the upper layer of the hyporheic zone. Copepods were the most abundant taxon among crustaceans and occurred mostly in the upwelling areas of the reaches. The results of this study represent one of the few contributions so far about hyporheic invertebrate assemblages of the Neotropical Region.
De Schrijver, Adinda; Devos, Yann; De Clercq, Patrick; Gathmann, Achim; Romeis, Jörg
The potential risks that genetically modified plants may pose to non-target organisms and the ecosystem services they contribute to are assessed as part of pre-market risk assessments. This paper reviews the early tier studies testing the hypothesis whether exposure to plant-produced Cry34/35Ab1 proteins as a result of cultivation of maize 59122 is harmful to valued non-target organisms, in particular Arthropoda and Annelida. The available studies were assessed for their scientific quality by considering a set of criteria determining their relevance and reliability. As a case-study, this exercise revealed that when not all quality criteria are met, weighing the robustness of the study and its relevance for risk assessment is not obvious. Applying a worst-case expected environmental concentration of bioactive toxins equivalent to that present in the transgenic crop, confirming exposure of the test species to the test substance, and the use of a negative control were identified as minimum criteria to be met to guarantee sufficiently reliable data. This exercise stresses the importance of conducting studies meeting certain quality standards as this minimises the probability of erroneous or inconclusive results and increases confidence in the results and adds certainty to the conclusions drawn.
Vannevel, Rudy; Brosens, Dimitri; Cooman, Ward De; Gabriels, Wim; Frank Lavens; Mertens, Joost; Vervaeke, Bart
The Flanders Environment Agency (VMM) has been performing biological water quality assessments on inland waters in Flanders (Belgium) since 1989 and sediment quality assessments since 2000. The water quality monitoring network is a combined physico-chemical and biological network, the biological component focusing on macro-invertebrates. The sediment monitoring programme produces biological data to assess the sediment quality. Both monitoring programmes aim to provide index values, applying a similar conceptual methodology based on the presence of macro-invertebrates. The biological data obtained from both monitoring networks are consolidated in the VMM macro-invertebrates database and include identifications at family and genus level of the freshwater phyla Coelenterata, Platyhelminthes, Annelida, Mollusca, and Arthropoda. This paper discusses the content of this database, and the dataset published thereof: 282,309 records of 210 observed taxa from 4,140 monitoring sites located on 657 different water bodies, collected during 22,663 events. This paper provides some background information on the methodology, temporal and spatial coverage, and taxonomy, and describes the content of the dataset. The data are distributed as open data under the Creative Commons CC-BY license.
Gündoğdu, Sedat; Çevik, Cem; Karaca, Serkan
The Mediterranean is an ecosystem that faces more and more microplastic pollution every day. This causes the whole of the Mediterranean to face the negative effects of plastic pollution. This study examines the state of plastic debris and fouling organisms found on it in one of the areas most affected by plastic pollution, Mersin Bay. As a result, a total of 3.88kg plastic (mean=0,97kg; n=120; 2670item/km 2 ; 86,3kg/km 2 ) was collected and based on the ATR-FTIR analysis, it was determined that this total contained 9 types of plastics. 17 different fouling species belonging to 6 phylum (Annelida, Arthropoda, Bryozoa, Chordata, Cnidaria, Mollusca) 7 class and 11 order were discovered on plastics. Spirobranchus triqueter, Hydroides sp. and Neopycnodonte cochlear were the most abundant species. In the end, the example of Mersin Bay shows that plastic debris as a substrate can contain a very high diversity of life just like natural substrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Clements, Thomas; Dolocan, Andrei; Martin, Peter; Purnell, Mark A; Vinther, Jakob; Gabbott, Sarah E
Tullimonstrum gregarium is an iconic soft-bodied fossil from the Carboniferous Mazon Creek Lagerstätte (Illinois, USA). Despite a large number of specimens and distinct anatomy, various analyses over the past five decades have failed to determine the phylogenetic affinities of the 'Tully monster', and although it has been allied to such disparate phyla as the Mollusca, Annelida or Chordata, it remains enigmatic. The nature and phylogenetic affinities of Tullimonstrum have defied confident systematic placement because none of its preserved anatomy provides unequivocal evidence of homology, without which comparative analysis fails. Here we show that the eyes of Tullimonstrum possess ultrastructural details indicating homology with vertebrate eyes. Anatomical analysis using scanning electron microscopy reveals that the eyes of Tullimonstrum preserve a retina defined by a thick sheet comprising distinct layers of spheroidal and cylindrical melanosomes. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics provide further evidence that these microbodies are melanosomes. A range of animals have melanin in their eyes, but the possession of melanosomes of two distinct morphologies arranged in layers, forming retinal pigment epithelium, is a synapomorphy of vertebrates. Our analysis indicates that in addition to evidence of colour patterning, ecology and thermoregulation, fossil melanosomes can also carry a phylogenetic signal. Identification in Tullimonstrum of spheroidal and cylindrical melanosomes forming the remains of retinal pigment epithelium indicates that it is a vertebrate; considering its body parts in this new light suggests it was an anatomically unusual member of total group Vertebrata.
Aguado, M Teresa; Glasby, Christopher J; Schroeder, Paul C; Weigert, Anne; Bleidorn, Christoph
Ramisyllis multicaudata is a member of Syllidae (Annelida, Errantia, Phyllodocida) with a remarkable branching body plan. Using a next-generation sequencing approach, the complete mitochondrial genomes of R. multicaudata and Trypanobia sp. are sequenced and analysed, representing the first ones from Syllidae. The gene order in these two syllids does not follow the order proposed as the putative ground pattern in Errantia. The phylogenetic relationships of R. multicaudata are discerned using a phylogenetic approach with the nuclear 18S and the mitochondrial 16S and cox1 genes. Ramisyllis multicaudata is the sister group of a clade containing Trypanobia species. Both genera, Ramisyllis and Trypanobia, together with Parahaplosyllis, Trypanosyllis, Eurysyllis, and Xenosyllis are located in a long branched clade. The long branches are explained by an accelerated mutational rate in the 18S rRNA gene. Using a phylogenetic backbone, we propose a scenario in which the postembryonic addition of segments that occurs in most syllids, their huge diversity of reproductive modes, and their ability to regenerate lost parts, in combination, have provided an evolutionary basis to develop a new branching body pattern as realised in Ramisyllis.
Xie, Yuwei; Wang, Jizhong; Yang, Jianghua; Giesy, John P; Yu, Hongxia; Zhang, Xiaowei
Land-use intensification threatens freshwater biodiversity. Freshwater eukaryotic communities are affected by multiple chemical contaminants with a land-use specific manner. However, biodiversities of eukaryotes and their associations with multiple chemical contaminants are largely unknown. This study characterized in situ eukaryotic communities in sediments exposed to mixtures of chemical contaminants and assessed relationships between various environmental variables and eukaryotic communities in sediments from the Nanfei River. Eukaryotic communities in the sediment samples were dominated by Annelida, Arthropoda, Rotifera, Ochrophyta, Chlorophyta and Ciliophora. Alpha-diversities (Shannon entropy) and structures of eukaryotic communities were significantly different between land-use types. According to the results of multiple statistical tests (PCoA, distLM, Mantel and network analysis), dissimilarity of eukaryotic community structures revealed the key effects of pyrethroid insecticides, manganese, zinc, lead, chromium and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on eukaryotic communities in the sediment samples from the Nanfei River. Furthermore, taxa associated with land-use types were identified and several sensitive eukaryotic taxa to some of the primary contaminants were identified as potential indicators to monitor effects of the primary chemical contaminants. Overall, environmental DNA metabarcoding on in situ eukaryotic communities provided a powerful tool for biomonitoring and identifying primary contaminants and their complex effects on benthic eukaryotic communities in freshwater sediments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moffitt, Sarah E.; Hill, Tessa M.; Roopnarine, Peter D.; Kennett, James P.
Anthropogenic climate change is predicted to decrease oceanic oxygen (O2) concentrations, with potentially significant effects on marine ecosystems. Geologically recent episodes of abrupt climatic warming provide opportunities to assess the effects of changing oxygenation on marine communities. Thus far, this knowledge has been largely restricted to investigations using Foraminifera, with little being known about ecosystem-scale responses to abrupt, climate-forced deoxygenation. We here present high-resolution records based on the first comprehensive quantitative analysis, to our knowledge, of changes in marine metazoans (Mollusca, Echinodermata, Arthropoda, and Annelida; >5,400 fossils and trace fossils) in response to the global warming associated with the last glacial to interglacial episode. The molluscan archive is dominated by extremophile taxa, including those containing endosymbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Lucinoma aequizonatum) and those that graze on filamentous sulfur-oxidizing benthic bacterial mats (Alia permodesta). This record, from 16,100 to 3,400 y ago, demonstrates that seafloor invertebrate communities are subject to major turnover in response to relatively minor inferred changes in oxygenation (>1.5 to <0.5 mLṡL-1 [O2]) associated with abrupt (<100 y) warming of the eastern Pacific. The biotic turnover and recovery events within the record expand known rates of marine biological recovery by an order of magnitude, from <100 to >1,000 y, and illustrate the crucial role of climate and oceanographic change in driving long-term successional changes in ocean ecosystems.
Liu, Xiaoshou; Wang, Lu; Li, Shuai; Huo, Yuanzi; He, Peimin; Zhang, Zhinan
To evaluate spatial distribution pattern of intertidal macrofauna, quantitative investigation was performed in January to February, 2013 around Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands. A total of 34 species were identified, which were dominated by Mollusca, Annelida and Arthropoda. CLUSTER analysis showed that macrofaunal assemblages at sand-bottom sites belonged to one group, which was dominated by Lumbricillus sp. and Kidderia subquadrata. Macrofaunal assemblages at gravel-bottom sites were divided into three groups while Nacella concinna was the dominant species at most sites. The highest values of biomass and Shannon-Wiener diversity index were found in gravel sediment and the highest value of abundance was in sand sediment of eastern coast. In terms of functional group, detritivorous and planktophagous groups had the highest values of abundance and biomass, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that macrofaunal abundance and biomass had significant positive correlations with contents of sediment chlorophyll a, phaeophorbide and organic matter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Irradiation effects in the phylum Annelida are almost entirely unknown, nor is it know why the LD/sub 50/30// for amoebae is 100 kr, whereas mammals show LD/sub 50/ doses of approximates 0.5 kr. To shed more light on comparative radiosensitivity, Lumbricus terrestris was irradiated at a rate of 1 kr/min with 250-kr x rays to total doses of 10 to l00 kr. No lethal effect occurs at 45 kr or below in Lumbricus, whereas a definite mortality occurs with 75 kr. All worms died within 2 months after 100 kr. The LD/sub 50/35//and LD/sub 100/67// are approximates 100 kr. Thismore » is in contrast to the mollusk Radix which has a for lethal effects. The annelid Enchytraeus shows no apparent effect after 90 kr. It is suggested that some feature of biological organization, which has up to the present escaped discovery, may hold a clue to the fundamental nature of radiobiological action, and may explain the extremes of radiosensitivity present within a few selected invertebrate types. (BBB)« less
Bracken-Grissom, Heather; Collins, Allen G; Collins, Timothy; Crandall, Keith; Distel, Daniel; Dunn, Casey; Giribet, Gonzalo; Haddock, Steven; Knowlton, Nancy; Martindale, Mark; Medina, Mónica; Messing, Charles; O'Brien, Stephen J; Paulay, Gustav; Putnam, Nicolas; Ravasi, Timothy; Rouse, Greg W; Ryan, Joseph F; Schulze, Anja; Wörheide, Gert; Adamska, Maja; Bailly, Xavier; Breinholt, Jesse; Browne, William E; Diaz, M Christina; Evans, Nathaniel; Flot, Jean-François; Fogarty, Nicole; Johnston, Matthew; Kamel, Bishoy; Kawahara, Akito Y; Laberge, Tammy; Lavrov, Dennis; Michonneau, François; Moroz, Leonid L; Oakley, Todd; Osborne, Karen; Pomponi, Shirley A; Rhodes, Adelaide; Santos, Scott R; Satoh, Nori; Thacker, Robert W; Van de Peer, Yves; Voolstra, Christian R; Welch, David Mark; Winston, Judith; Zhou, Xin
Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the "invertebrates," but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a "Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance" (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major challenges (e.g., species selection, sample collection and storage, sequence assembly, annotation, analytical tools) associated with genome/transcriptome sequencing across a large taxonomic spectrum. We aim to promote standards that will facilitate comparative approaches to invertebrate genomics and collaborations across the international scientific community. Candidate study taxa include species from Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Bryozoa, and Platyhelminthes, among others. GIGA will target 7000 noninsect/nonnematode species, with an emphasis on marine taxa because of the unrivaled phyletic diversity in the oceans. Priorities for selecting invertebrates for sequencing will include, but are not restricted to, their phylogenetic placement; relevance to organismal, ecological, and conservation research; and their importance to fisheries and human health. We highlight benefits of sequencing both whole genomes (DNA) and transcriptomes and also suggest policies for genomic-level data access and sharing based on transparency and inclusiveness. The GIGA Web site (http://giga.nova.edu) has been launched to facilitate this collaborative venture.
Struck, Torsten H
Phylogenies of species or genes are commonplace nowadays in many areas of comparative biological studies. However, for phylogenetic reconstructions one must refer to artificial signals such as paralogy, long-branch attraction, saturation, or conflict between different datasets. These signals might eventually mislead the reconstruction even in phylogenomic studies employing hundreds of genes. Unfortunately, there has been no program allowing the detection of such effects in combination with an implementation into automatic process pipelines. TreSpEx (Tree Space Explorer) now combines different approaches (including statistical tests), which utilize tree-based information like nodal support or patristic distances (PDs) to identify misleading signals. The program enables the parallel analysis of hundreds of trees and/or predefined gene partitions, and being command-line driven, it can be integrated into automatic process pipelines. TreSpEx is implemented in Perl and supported on Linux, Mac OS X, and MS Windows. Source code, binaries, and additional material are freely available at http://www.annelida.de/research/bioinformatics/software.html. PMID:24701118
Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Aida; González, Verónica; Braña, Alfredo F; Palacios, Juan J; Otero, Luis; Fernández, Jonathan; Molina, Axayacatl; Kulik, Andreas; Vázquez, Fernando; Acuña, José L; García, Luis A; Blanco, Gloria
Marine Actinobacteria are emerging as an unexplored source for natural product discovery. Eighty-seven deep-sea coral reef invertebrates were collected during an oceanographic expedition at the submarine Avilés Canyon (Asturias, Spain) in a range of 1500 to 4700 m depth. From these, 18 cultivable bioactive Actinobacteria were isolated, mainly from corals, phylum Cnidaria, and some specimens of phyla Echinodermata, Porifera, Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca and Sipuncula. As determined by 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, all isolates belong to the phylum Actinobacteria, mainly to the Streptomyces genus and also to Micromonospora, Pseudonocardia and Myceligenerans. Production of bioactive compounds of pharmacological interest was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques and subsequent database comparison. Results reveal that deep-sea isolated Actinobacteria display a wide repertoire of secondary metabolite production with a high chemical diversity. Most identified products (both diffusible and volatiles) are known by their contrasted antibiotic or antitumor activities. Bioassays with ethyl acetate extracts from isolates displayed strong antibiotic activities against a panel of important resistant clinical pathogens, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as fungi, all of them isolated at two main hospitals (HUCA and Cabueñes) from the same geographical region. The identity of the active extracts components of these producing Actinobacteria is currently being investigated, given its potential for the discovery of pharmaceuticals and other products of biotechnological interest.
Molnar, Laszlo; Pollak, Edit; Skopek, Zuzanna; Gutt, Ewa; Kruk, Jerzy; Morgan, A John; Plytycz, Barbara
Earthworm decerebration causes temporary inhibition of reproduction which is mediated by certain brain-derived neurohormones; thus, cocoon production is an apposite supravital marker of neurosecretory center functional recovery during brain regeneration. The core aim of the present study was to investigate aspects of the interactions of nervous and immune systems during brain regeneration in adult Dendrobaena veneta (Annelida; Oligochaeta). Surgical brain extirpation was combined, either with (i) maintenance of immune-competent coelomic cells (coelomocytes) achieved by surgery on prilocaine-anesthetized worms or (ii) prior extrusion of fluid-suspended coelomocytes by electrostimulation. Both brain renewal and cocoon output recovery were significantly faster in earthworms with relatively undisturbed coelomocyte counts compared with individuals where coelomocyte counts had been experimentally depleted. These observations provide empirical evidence that coelomocytes and/or coelomocyte-derived factors (e.g. riboflavin) participate in brain regeneration and, by implication, that there is close functional synergy between earthworm neural and immune systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, M.; Cooper, L. W.; Biasatti, D. M.; Grebmeier, J. M.
The Chukchi Sea is known for locally high standing stocks of benthic macrofauna and strong coupling between pelagic-benthic components of the ecosystem. However, benthic food structure is not fully understood, due to varied sources of particulate organic matter (POM) and the high diversity of benthic invertebrates. We provide the first demonstration of the application of compound-specific amino acid isotope analysis to study the dietary sources and trophic structure for this Arctic marginal sea. About 20 stations in Chukchi Sea were sampled during cruises in August of 2012 and 2013. At each station, phytoplankton, POM and benthic fauna were collected, processed and analyzed using GC-C-IRMS (gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry). Among benthic fauna, dominant species included the following taxonomic groups: Ophiuroidea, Amphipoda, Polychaeta, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, and Cnidaria. The benthic fauna showed similar patterns of individual amino acid δ13C, with glycine the most enriched in 13C and leucine the most depleted in 13C. Specific amino acids including phenylalanine showed spatial variability in δ13C and δ15N values within the sampled area, indicating contributions of different dietary sources including phytoplankton, sea ice algae, benthic algae and terrestrial organic materials. δ15N values of individual amino acids such as the difference between glutamic acid and phenylalanine, i.e. Δ15Nglu-phe (δ15Nglu - δ15Nphe), were also used to identify trophic levels of benthic invertebrates relative to estimates available from bulk δ15N values. These data will ultimately be used to evaluate the spatial variability of organic carbon sources and trophic level interactions of dominant benthic species in the Chukchi Sea.
Niehoff, B.; Schmithüsen, T.; Knüppel, N.; Daase, M.; Czerny, J.; Boxhammer, T.
The increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere caused by burning fossil fuels leads to increasing pCO2 and decreasing pH in the world ocean. These changes may have severe consequences for marine biota, especially in cold-water ecosystems due to higher solubility of CO2. However, studies on the response of mesozooplankton communities to elevated CO2 are still lacking. In order to test whether abundance and taxonomic composition change with pCO2, we have sampled nine mesocosms, which were deployed in Kongsfjorden, an Arctic fjord at Svalbard, and were adjusted to eight CO2 concentrations, initially ranging from 185 μatm to 1420 μatm. Vertical net hauls were taken weekly over about one month with an Apstein net (55 μm mesh size) in all mesocosms and the surrounding fjord. In addition, sediment trap samples, taken every second day in the mesocosms, were analysed to account for losses due to vertical migration and mortality. The taxonomic analysis revealed that meroplanktonic larvae (Cirripedia, Polychaeta, Bivalvia, Gastropoda, and Decapoda) dominated in the mesocosms while copepods (Calanus spp., Oithona similis, Acartia longiremis and Microsetella norvegica) were found in lower abundances. In the fjord copepods prevailed for most of our study. With time, abundance and taxonomic composition developed similarly in all mesocosms and the pCO2 had no significant effect on the overall community structure. Also, we did not find significant relationships between the pCO2 level and the abundance of single taxa. Changes in heterogeneous communities are, however, difficult to detect, and the exposure to elevated pCO2 was relatively short. We therefore suggest that future mesocosm experiments should be run for longer periods.
Nóbrega-Silva, Climélia; Patrício, Joana; Marques, João Carlos; Olímpio, Monalisa dos Santos; Farias, Jéssica Natyelle Barros; Molozzi, Joseline
Regular, robust monitoring programs set up to assess the environmental conditions of aquatic systems often target different biological groups. And, of these, macroinvertebrate communities and particularly the class Polychaeta are frequently used. Identifying these organisms takes time, money and specialized expertise to ensure correct identification to the lowest possible taxonomic level. Identification errors can lead to an erroneous assessment. The concept of taxonomic sufficiency has been proposed both to minimize errors and to save time and money. This study tested the usefulness of this concept in tropical estuaries in northeast Brazil. We selected two transitional systems with different degrees of human impact due to different land uses and different conservation systems: the Mamanguape estuary, which is in an environmental conservation unit for sustainable use, and the highly impacted, urban Paraíba do Norte estuary. The results clearly showed that nutrient concentrations were markedly higher in the Paraíba do Norte estuary in the dry season and that the composition of the polychaete assemblages differed between the two estuaries as well as along the spatial gradient of each estuary. The use of either genus or family level led to equivalent representation in each system in terms of taxon richness and both the Margalef and Shannon-Wiener diversity indices. Both taxonomic levels described similar changes in the polychaete assemblage along the estuarine gradients. Based on our findings, the use of a coarser taxonomic level (i.e., family) is a good option when the aim is to implement a monitoring program in tropical estuaries with the polychaete assemblages as one of the target groups. This time-efficient taxonomic resolution can help improve sampling designs and allow long-term monitoring studies without losing much vital information.
Kersken, Daniel; Göcke, Christian; Brandt, Angelika; Lejzerowicz, Franck; Schwabe, Enrico; Anna Seefeldt, Meike; Veit-Köhler, Gritta; Janussen, Dorte
Due to their high abundance and large body size sponges have a central position in Antarctic zoobenthos, where they form the most extensive sponge grounds of the world. Though research on Antarctic benthos communities is quite established, research on sponge-associated infauna communities is scarce. We analyzed associated infauna of fifteen individuals of the sponge species Mycale (Oxymycale) acerata Kirkpatrick, 1907 (Demospongiae: Mycalina), Rossella antarctica Carter, 1872 and R. racovitzae Topsent, 1901 (both Hexactinellida: Lyssacinosida). Samples were collected from the deep Ekström Shelf at 602 m in the South-Eastern Weddell Sea, Antarctica, during the ANT XXIV-2 (SYSTCO I) expedition of RV Polarstern. The number of species, α- and β-diversity and the significantly different species composition of infauna communities related to sponge species were calculated, the latter via cluster analysis. The sponge-associated infauna consisted of five phyla: Foraminifera, Nematoda, Polychaeta, Mollusca and Arthropoda. In total 11,463 infaunal specimens were extracted and we found at least 76 associated species. Highest values of α-diversity were calculated for a sample of R. antarctica with a Shannon-Index of 1.84 and Simpson-Index of 0.72 respectively. Our results of the cluster-analysis show significant differences between infauna communities and a unique species composition for single sponge species. Polychaetes of the genus Syllis Lamarck, 1818 were numerous in M. acerata and genera like Pionosyllis Malmgren, 1867 and Cirratulus Lamarck, 1801 were numerous in R. antarctica. Individuals of the amphipod species Seba cf. dubia Schellenberg, 1926 were often found in R. antarctica and R. racovitzae while Colomastix fissilingua Schellenberg, 1926 was frequent in samples of M. acerata. Molluscs were present in M. acerata and R. antarctica but absent in R. racovitzae.
Sarmento, V. C.; Souza, T. P.; Esteves, A. M.; Santos, P. J. P.
Despite the increasing risk that ocean acidification will modify benthic communities, great uncertainty remains about how this impact will affect the lower trophic levels, such as members of the meiofauna. A mesocosm experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of water acidification on a phytal meiofauna community from a coral reef. Community samples collected from the coral reef subtidal zone (Recife de Fora Municipal Marine Park, Porto Seguro, Bahia, Brazil), using artificial substrate units, were exposed to a control pH (ambient seawater) and to three levels of seawater acidification (pH reductions of 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 units below ambient) and collected after 15 and 30 d. After 30 d of exposure, major changes in the structure of the meiofauna community were observed in response to reduced pH. The major meiofauna groups showed divergent responses to acidification. Harpacticoida and Polychaeta densities did not show significant differences due to pH. Nematoda, Ostracoda, Turbellaria, and Tardigrada exhibited their highest densities in low-pH treatments (especially at the pH reduction of 0.6 units, pH 7.5), while harpacticoid nauplii were strongly negatively affected by low pH. This community-based mesocosm study supports previous suggestions that ocean acidification induces important changes in the structure of marine benthic communities. Considering the importance of meiofauna in the food web of coral reef ecosystems, the results presented here demonstrate that the trophic functioning of coral reefs is seriously threatened by ocean acidification.
Krautz, M C; Hernández-Miranda, E; Veas, R; Bocaz, P; Riquelme, P; Quiñones, R A
Non-predatory dead variability in zooplankton remains poorly quantified worldwide. Here, we make the first estimation of the percentage of dead organisms in coastal zooplankton communities in the Humboldt Current System (HCS) under in situ conditions. The study was conducted in four coastal sites of the southern HCS (between 36 and 37°S) over a period of one year. Percentages of dead organisms were based on the classification as live or dead of 158,220 holoplankton and 17,591 meroplankton individuals using neutral red staining technique. The percentage of dead organisms in total-zooplankton was between 4.3% in Coronel Bay (summer) and 76.9% in Llico (autumn). The percentage of dead total-holoplankton varied from 4.2% (Itata River Mouth; autumn) to 77.6% (Llico; autumn), while the percentage of dead total-meroplankton ranged from 1.5% to 56.8% in Coronel Bay and Coliumo Bay, respectively. The most abundant taxa analyzed were the copepods Acartia sp., Paracalanus sp., Calanoides sp., Cladocera, Polychaeta, and the eggs of anchoveta Engraulis ringens. Among these taxa, there was a high degree of interspecific variability in the estimation of the dead organisms. The Pearson correlation shows significant relationships between maximum temperature, and minimum salinity, with the percentage of dead individuals of Acartia sp. and Paracalanus sp. Environmental factors explaining those relationships were: the El Niño 2015-2016 event, and freshwater river runoff. The use of vital staining to estimate non-predatory death for total-zooplankton and selected sentinel species is a promising tool to establish baselines to evaluate natural perturbations (e.g. ENSO), and anthropogenic alterations in coastal pelagic ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Barry, J. P.; Buck, K. R.; Lovera, C.; Brewer, P. G.; Seibel, B. A.; Drazen, J. C.; Tamburri, M. N.; Whaling, P. J.; Kuhnz, L.; Pane, E. F.
The effects of low-pH, high-pCO2 conditions on deep-sea organisms were examined during four deep-sea CO2 release experiments simulating deep-ocean C sequestration by the direct injection of CO2 into the deep sea. We examined the survival of common deep-sea, benthic organisms (microbes; macrofauna, dominated by Polychaeta, Nematoda, Crustacea, Mollusca; megafauna, Echinodermata, Mollusca, Pisces) exposed to low-pH waters emanating as a dissolution plume from pools of liquid carbon dioxide released on the seabed during four abyssal CO2-release experiments. Microbial abundance in deep-sea sediments was unchanged in one experiment, but increased under environmental hypercapnia during another, where the microbial assemblage may have benefited indirectly from the negative impact of low-pH conditions on other taxa. Lower abyssal metazoans exhibited low survival rates near CO2 pools. No urchins or holothurians survived during 30-42 days of exposure to episodic, but severe environmental hypercapnia during one experiment (E1; pH reduced by as much as ca. 1.4 units). These large pH reductions also caused 75% mortality for the deep-sea amphipod, Haploops lodo, near CO2 pools. Survival under smaller pH reductions (ΔpH<0.4 units) in other experiments (E2, E3, E5) was higher for all taxa, including echinoderms. Gastropods, cephalopods, and fish were more tolerant than most other taxa. The gastropod Retimohnia sp. and octopus Benthoctopus sp. survived exposure to pH reductions that episodically reached -0.3 pH units. Ninety percent of abyssal zoarcids (Pachycara bulbiceps) survived exposure to pH changes reaching ca. -0.3 pH units during 30-42 day-long experiments.
Careddu, Giulio; Calizza, Edoardo; Costantini, Maria Letizia; Rossi, Loreto
Knowledge of the trophic ecology of predators is key to understanding how they affect food web structure and ecosystem functioning. The harbour crab Liocarcinus depurator (L.) (Brachyura: Portunidae) is one of the most abundant decapod species in soft-bottom areas of the Mediterranean Sea and northeast Atlantic Ocean. It is both a common prey and predator of commercial and non-commercial marine species and its predation pressure appears to have little effect on the subtidal community assemblage. However, there are few studies of its diet and little is known about its role in mediating energy flows in marine ecosystems. In this study, carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope analysis (SIA) and Bayesian analytical tools were used to characterise the trophic niche of L. depurator and to quantify the most important prey supporting this species under various environmental conditions. Specimens of L. depurator, their potential prey and basal resources were collected from two different subtidal areas of the Gulf of Gaeta, one affected by human activities (north side) and the other seasonally influenced by freshwater inputs originating from the River Garigliano (south side). While there were differences between the two sampling areas in terms of the abundance and δ15N and δ13C values of the macrobenthic prey community, no differences in the δ15N values and trophic position of L. depurator were observed. Specifically, Bayesian mixing models showed Polychaeta Errantia as the main source of crab diets in both areas. The observed differences in the δ13C values and the analysis of trophic pathways also indicate that the terrestrial organic matter originating from the discharge of the River Garigliano was integrated along the food web up to L. depurator. Although this species is usually considered an opportunistic feeder, it appears to be highly selective and its trophic habits did not influence food web topology, which in contrast was found to be strongly
Van Ael, Evy; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven
To investigate the relationship between metal concentrations in abiotic compartments and in aquatic species, sediment, suspended matter and several aquatic species (Polychaeta, Oligochaeta, four crustacean species, three mollusc species and eight fish species) were collected during three seasons at six locations along the Scheldt estuary (the Netherlands-Belgium) and analysed on their metal content (Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and the metalloid As). Sediment and biota tissue concentrations were significantly influenced by sampling location, but not by season. Measurements of Acid Volatile Sulphides (AVS) concentrations in relation to Simultaneously Extracted Metals (SEM) in the sediment suggested that not all metals in the sediment will be bound to sulphides and some metals might be bioavailable. For all metals but zinc, highest concentrations were measured in invertebrate species; Ag and Ni in periwinkle, Cr, Co and Pb in Oligochaete worms and As, Cd and Cu in crabs and shrimp. Highest concentrations of Zn were measured in the kidney of European smelt. In fish, for most of the metals, the concentrations were highest in liver or kidney and lowest in muscle. For Zn however, highest concentrations were measured in the kidney of European smelt. For less than half of the metals significant correlations between sediment metal concentrations and bioaccumulated concentrations were found (liver/hepatopancreas or whole organism). To calculate the possible human health risk by consumption, average and maximum metal concentrations in the muscle tissues were compared to the minimum risk levels (MRLs). Concentrations of As led to the highest risk potential for all consumable species. Cadmium and Cu posed only a risk when consuming the highest contaminated shrimp and shore crabs. Consuming blue mussel could result in a risk for the metals As, Cd and Cr. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tang, L.; Li, H. X.; Yan, Y.
Spatial and temporal biodiversity patterns of the meiobenthos were studied for the first time in Daya Bay, which is a tropical semi-enclosed basin located in the South China Sea. The abundance, biomass, and composition of the meiobenthos and the basic environmental factors in the bay were investigated. The following 19 taxonomic groups were represented in the meiofauna: Nematoda, Copepoda, Polychaeta, Oligochaeta, Kinorhyncha, Gastrotricha, Ostracoda, Bivalvia, Turbellaria, Nemertinea, Sipuncula, Hydroida, Amphipoda, Cumacea, Halacaroidea, Priapulida, Echinodermata, Tanaidacea, and Rotifera. Total abundance and biomass of the meiobenthos showed great spatial and temporal variation, with mean values of 993.57 ± 455.36 ind cm-2 and 690.51 ± 210.64 μg 10 cm-2, respectively. Nematodes constituted 95.60 % of the total abundance and thus had the greatest effect on meiofauna quantity and distribution, followed by copepods (1.55 %) and polychaetes (1.39 %). Meiobenthos abundance was significantly negatively correlated with water depth at stations (r=-0.747, P<0.05) and significantly negatively correlated with silt-clay content (r=-0.516, P<0.01) and medium diameter (r=-0.499, P<0.01) of the sediment. Similar results were found for correlations of biomass and abundance of nematodes with environmental parameters. Polychaete abundance was positively correlated with the bottom water temperature (r=0.456, P<0.01). Meiobenthos abundance differed significantly among seasons (P<0.05), although no significant difference among stations and the interaction of station × season was detected by two-way ANOVA. In terms of vertical distribution, most of the meiobenthos was found in the surface layer of sediment. This pattern was apparent for nematodes and copepods, but a vertical distribution pattern for polychaetes was not as obvious. Based on the biotic indices and analyses of their correlations and variance, the diversity of this community was likely to be influenced by
Churchwell, Roy T.; Kendall, Steve J.; Blanchard, Amy L.; Dunton, Kenneth H.; Powell, Abby N.
Unlike lower latitude coastlines, the estuarine nearshore zones of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea are icebound and frozen up to 9 months annually. This annual freezing event represents a dramatic physical disturbance to fauna living within intertidal sediments. The main objectives of this study were to describe the benthic communities of Beaufort Sea deltas, including temporal changes and trophic structure. Understanding benthic invertebrate communities provided a baseline for concurrent research on shorebird foraging ecology at these sites. We found that despite continuous year-to-year episodes of annual freezing, these estuarine deltas are populated by a range of invertebrates that represent both marine and freshwater assemblages. Freshwater organisms like Diptera and Oligochaeta not only survive this extreme event, but a marine invasion of infaunal organisms such as Amphipoda and Polychaeta rapidly recolonizes the delta mudflats following ice ablation. These delta sediments of sand, silt, and clay are fine in structure compared to sediments of other Beaufort Sea coastal intertidal habitats. The relatively depauperate invertebrate community that ultimately develops is composed of marine and freshwater benthic invertebrates. The composition of the infauna also reflects two strategies that make life on Beaufort Sea deltas possible: a migration of marine organisms from deeper lagoons to the intertidal and freshwater biota that survive the 9-month ice-covered period in frozen sediments. Stable isotopic analyses reveal that both infaunal assemblages assimilate marine and terrestrial sources of organic carbon. These results provide some of the first quantitative information on the infaunal food resources of shallow arctic estuarine systems and the long-term persistence of these invertebrate assemblages. Our data help explain the presence of large numbers of shorebirds in these habitats during the brief summer open-water period and their trophic importance to migrating
Zhang, Heng; Ye, Jin Yu; Liang, Xiao Li; Zhu, Xiao Jing; Jin, Shao Fei; Chen, Yuan Ge; Zhang, Jia Rui; Dai, Yang
Based on the data of the benthic macro-invertebrates community in the Phragmites australis marsh in the Dongtan Wetland of the Yangtze River estuary collected from May 2015 to April 2016, we evaluated the monthly variations in the species composition, biodiversity and community structure of the benthic macro-invertebrates. The results showed that the average height and degree of coverage for P. australis increased monthly from March to August, and then deceased from September. The density and aboveground biomass (dry mass, g) of P. australis peaked in July. A total of twenty species (including 2 species only identified to genus level and 2 species identified to family level) were found in the survey periods, including 11 Gastropoda, 5 Malacostraca, 2 Insecta and 2 Polychaeta. Three snail species (Assiminea latericea, Assiminea violacea and Cerithideopsis largillierti) dominated the benthic communities in terms of numerical abundance. The number of epifauna species was the most (11 species), followed by 5 burrowing species and 4 infauna species. There were significant monthly variations in the density and biomass of the macro-invertebrates. The density and biomass of benthic community reached the maximum in August. The Margalef's species richness index (D) and Shannon index (H) showed significant differences monthly, but Pielou's index (J) except in November. Three macro-zoobenthic assemblages were identified with the 42% similarity level. The non-Metric Multidimensional scaling plot indicates that the benthic community in May, October and November was distinct compared to that in the other months. The present study suggested the density of the benthic macro-invertebrates community in the P. australis marshes was somewhat correlated with water temperature, underground biomass and salinity. But those correlation were not significant (P>0.05). Because of the continuous impact of anthropogenic activities, the biodiversity of the benthic macro-invertebrate community has
Yan, Jiaguo; Cui, Baoshan; Zheng, Jingjing; Xie, Tian; Wang, Qing; Li, Shanze
Managing and identifying the sources of anthropogenic stress in coastal wetlands requires an in-depth understanding of relationships between species diversity and human activities. Empirical and experimental studies provide clear evidence that coastal reclamation can have profound impacts on marine organisms, but the focus of such studies is generally on comparative or laboratory research. We developed a compound intensity index (reclamation intensity index, RI) on hybrid coastal reclamation, to quantify the impacts of reclamation on coastal ecosystems. We also made use of mean annual absolute changes to a number of biotic variables (biodiversity, species richness, biomass of total macrozoobenthos, and species richness and biomass of Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, and Echinodermata) to determine Hedges’d index, which is a measure of the potential effects of coastal reclamation. Our results showed that there was significant difference of coastal reclamation intensity between Yellow Sea, East China Sea and South China Sea, the biological changes in effect sizes of the three regions differed greatly over time. Our modelling analyses showed that hybrid coastal reclamation generally had significant negative impacts on species diversity and biomass of macrozoobenthos. These relationships varied among different taxonomic groups and included both linear and nonlinear relationships. The results indicated that a high-intensity of coastal reclamation contributed to a pronounced decline in species diversity and biomass, while lower-intensity reclamation, or reclamation within certain thresholds, resulted in a small increase in species diversity and biomass. These results have important implications for biodiversity conservation and the ecological restoration of coastal wetlands in face of the intensive reclamation activities.
Ries, J. B.; Cohen, A. L.; McCorkle, D. C.
We have conducted 6-month laboratory experiments to investigate the effect of pCO2-induced reductions in seawater CaCO3 saturation state on biocalcification by 18 aragonitic and calcitic (low-high Mg) taxa representing eight of the major marine calcifying groups: Chlorophyta; Rhodophyta; Crustacea; Bivalvia; Gastropoda; Annelida; Cnidaria; and Echinodermata. The CaCO3 saturation states of the experimental seawaters, constrained by intercalibrated determinations of pH, alkalinity, and DIC, were attained with bubbled air-CO2 mixtures of 400 (ambient), 600, 900, and 2850 ppm pCO2, yielding Ωarag of 2.5 (ambient), 2.0, 1.5, 0.7, respectively. We previously showed that while rates of net calcification obtained from buoyant weighing declined with increasing pCO2 for nearly half of the species investigated, a nearly equal number exhibited constant or, in some cases, increased calcification under moderately (600 ppm) or extremely (900 or 2850 ppm) elevated pCO2. The organisms' investigated in this study secrete various forms of CaCO3, which differ in crystallographic structure and therefore solubility: aragonite and high-Mg are generally more soluble than low-Mg calcite. We have employed powder x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy to quantify changes in the organisms' skeletal mineralogy (aragonite:calcite ratio) and Mg-content (MgCO3:CaCO3 ratio) that occurred in response to the prescribed reductions in seawater CaCO3 saturation state. We will compare calcification and mineralogical response patterns amongst the organisms to elucidate the role of mineral lability in driving species-specific responses to CO2-induced ocean acidification.
Verdes, Aida; Gruber, David F
Bioluminescence, the ability to produce light by living organisms, has evolved independently in numerous lineages across the tree of life. Luminous forms are found in a wide range of taxonomic groups from bacteria to vertebrates, although the great majority of bioluminescent organisms are marine taxa. Within the phylum Annelida, bioluminescence is widespread, present in at least 98 terrestrial and marine species that represent 45 genera distributed in thirteen lineages of clitellates and polychaetes. The ecological diversity of luminous annelids is unparalleled, with species occupying a great variety of habitats including both terrestrial and marine ecosystems, from coastal waters to the deep-sea, in benthic and pelagic habitats from polar to tropical regions. This great taxonomic and ecological diversity is matched by the wide array of bioluminescent colors-including yellow light, which is very rare among marine taxa-different emission wavelengths even between species of the same genus, and varying patterns, chemical reactions and kinetics. This diversity of bioluminescence colors and patterns suggests that light production in annelids might be involved in a variety of different functions, including defensive mechanisms like sacrificial lures or aposematic signals, and intraspecific communication systems. In this review, we explore the world of luminous annelids, particularly focusing on the current knowledge regarding their taxonomic and ecological diversity and discussing the putative functions and chemistries of their bioluminescent systems. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
Takahashi, Hirokazu; Kamiya, Akiko; Ishiguro, Akira; Suzuki, Atsushi C; Saitou, Naruya; Toyoda, Atsushi; Aruga, Jun
Msx (/msh) family genes encode homeodomain (HD) proteins that control ontogeny in many animal species. We compared the structures of Msx genes from a wide range of Metazoa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Nematoda, Arthropoda, Tardigrada, Platyhelminthes, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Annelida, Echiura, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, and Chordata) to gain an understanding of the role of these genes in phylogeny. Exon-intron boundary analysis suggested that the position of the intron located N-terminally to the HDs was widely conserved in all the genes examined, including those of cnidarians. Amino acid (aa) sequence comparison revealed 3 new evolutionarily conserved domains, as well as very strong conservation of the HDs. Two of the three domains were associated with Groucho-like protein binding in both a vertebrate and a cnidarian Msx homolog, suggesting that the interaction between Groucho-like proteins and Msx proteins was established in eumetazoan ancestors. Pairwise comparison among the collected HDs and their C-flanking aa sequences revealed that the degree of sequence conservation varied depending on the animal taxa from which the sequences were derived. Highly conserved Msx genes were identified in the Vertebrata, Cephalochordata, Hemichordata, Echinodermata, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, and Anthozoa. The wide distribution of the conserved sequences in the animal phylogenetic tree suggested that metazoan ancestors had already acquired a set of conserved domains of the current Msx family genes. Interestingly, although strongly conserved sequences were recovered from the Vertebrata, Cephalochordata, and Anthozoa, the sequences from the Urochordata and Hydrozoa showed weak conservation. Because the Vertebrata-Cephalochordata-Urochordata and Anthozoa-Hydrozoa represent sister groups in the Chordata and Cnidaria, respectively, Msx sequence diversification may have occurred differentially in the course of evolution. We speculate that selective loss of the conserved domains in Msx family
Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Strom, Douglas G.
From April 20 through July 15, 2010, approximately 4.93 million barrels of crude oil spilled into the Gulf of Mexico from the British Petroleum Macondo-1 well, representing the largest spill in U.S. waters. Baseline benthic community conditions were assessed from shoreline sediment samples collected from 56 stations within the swash zone (for example, sample depth ranged from 0 to 1.5 feet) along the northern Gulf of Mexico coastline. These sites were selected because they had a high probability of being impacted by the oil. Cores collected at 24 stations contained no sediment infauna. Benthic community metrics varied greatly among the remaining stations. Mississippi stations had the highest mean abundances (38.9 ± 23.9 individuals per 32 square centimeters (cm2); range: 0 to 186), while Texas had the lowest abundances, 4.9 ± 3 individuals per 32 cm2 (range: 0 to 25). Dominant phyla included Annelida, Arthropoda, and Mollusca, but proportional contributions of each group varied by State. Diversity indices Margalef's richness (d) and Shannon-Wiener diversity (H') were highest at Louisiana and Mississippi stations (0.4 and 0.4, for both, respectively) and lowest at Texas (values for both indices were 0.1 ± 0.1). Evenness (J') was low for all the States, ranging from 0.2 to 0.3, indicating a high degree of patchiness at these sites. Across stations within a State, average similarity ranged from 11.1 percent (Mississippi) to 41.1 percent (Louisiana). Low within-state similarity may be a consequence of differing habitat and physical environment conditions. Results provide necessary baseline information that will facilitate future comparisons with post-spill community metrics.
Zaller, Johann G; Wechselberger, Katharina F; Gorfer, Markus; Hann, Patrick; Frank, Thomas; Wanek, Wolfgang; Drapela, Thomas
Earthworms (Annelida: Oligochaeta) deposit several tons per hectare of casts enriched in nutrients and/or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and create a spatial and temporal soil heterogeneity that can play a role in structuring plant communities. However, while we begin to understand the role of surface casts, it is still unclear to what extent plants utilize subsurface casts. We conducted a greenhouse experiment using large mesocosms (volume 45 l) to test whether (1) soil microsites consisting of earthworm casts with or without AMF (four Glomus taxa) affect the biomass production of 11 grassland plant species comprising the three functional groups grasses, forbs, and legumes, (2) different ecological groups of earthworms (soil dwellers- Aporrectodea caliginosa vs. vertical burrowers- Lumbricus terrestris ) alter potential influences of soil microsites (i.e., four earthworms × two subsurface microsites × two AMF treatments). Soil microsites were artificially inserted in a 25-cm depth, and afterwards, plant species were sown in a regular pattern; the experiment ran for 6 months. Our results show that minute amounts of subsurface casts (0.89 g kg -1 soil) decreased the shoot and root production of forbs and legumes, but not that of grasses. The presence of earthworms reduced root biomass of grasses only. Our data also suggest that subsurface casts provide microsites from which root AMF colonization can start. Ecological groups of earthworms did not differ in their effects on plant production or AMF distribution. Taken together, these findings suggest that subsurface earthworm casts might play a role in structuring plant communities by specifically affecting the growth of certain functional groups of plants.
McMullen, Laura E; Lytle, David A
Floods are a key component of the ecology and management of riverine ecosystems around the globe, but it is not clear whether floods have predictable effects on organisms that can allow us to generalize across regions and continents. To address this, we conducted a global-scale meta-analysis to investigate effects of natural and managed floods on invertebrate resistance, the ability of invertebrates to survive flood events. We considered 994 studies for inclusion in the analysis, and after evaluation based on a priori criteria, narrowed our analysis to 41 studies spanning six of the seven continents. We used the natural-log-ratio of invertebrate abundance before and within 10 days after flood events because this measure of effect size can be directly converted to estimates of percent survival. We conducted categorical and continuous analyses that examined the contribution of environmental and study design variables to effect size heterogeneity, and examined differences in effect size among taxonomic groups. We found that invertebrate abundance was lowered by at least one-half after flood events. While natural vs. managed floods were similar in their effect, effect size differed among habitat and substrate types, with pools, sand, and boulders experiencing the strongest effect. Although sample sizes were not sufficient to examine all taxonomic groups, floods had a significant, negative effect on densities of Coleoptera, Eumalacostraca, Annelida, Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera. Results from this study provide guidance for river flow regime prescriptions that will be applicable across continents and climate types, as well as baseline expectations for future empirical studies of freshwater disturbance.
Ogino, Tetsuya; Maegawa, Shingo; Shigeno, Shuichi; Fujikura, Katsunori; Toyohara, Haruhiko
The environments around deep-sea hydrothermal vents are very harsh conditions for organisms due to the possibility of exposure to highly toxic compounds and extremely hot venting there. Despite such extreme environments, some indigenous species have thrived there. Alvinellid worms (Annelida) are among the organisms best adapted to high-temperature and oxidatively stressful venting regions. Although intensive studies of the adaptation of these worms to the environments of hydrothermal vents have been made, little is known about the worms' sensory adaptation to the severe chemical conditions there. To examine the sensitivity of the vent-endemic worm Paralvinella hessleri to low pH and oxidative stress, we determined the concentration of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide that induced avoidance behavior of this worm, and compared these concentrations to those obtained for related species inhabiting intertidal zones, Thelepus sp. The concentrations of the chemicals that induced avoidance behavior of P. hessleri were 10-100 times lower than those for Thelepus sp. To identify the receptors for these chemicals, chemical avoidance tests were performed with the addition of ruthenium red, a blocker of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. This treatment suppressed the chemical avoidance behavior of P. hessleri, which suggests that TRP channels are involved in the chemical avoidance behavior of this species. Our results revealed for the first time hypersensitive detection systems for acid and for oxidative stress in the vent-endemic worm P. hessleri, possibly mediated by TRP channels, suggesting that such sensory systems may have facilitated the adaptation of this organism to harsh vent environments.
Kousteni, Vasiliki; Karachle, Paraskevi K.; Megalofonou, Persefoni
Knowledge of the diet and trophic level of marine predators is essential to develop an understanding of their ecological role in ecosystems. Research conducted on the trophic ecology of the deep-sea sharks is rather limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the diet of the longnose spurdog Squalus blainville, a deep-sea shark categorized as "data deficient" within its distribution range, with respect to sex, maturity, age, season and sampling location. The stomach contents of 211 specimens, captured in the Aegean (off Skyros and the Cyclades Islands) and Cretan Seas, using commercial bottom-trawlers from 2005 to 2012, were analysed. The cumulative prey curve showed that the sample size was adequate to describe the species' diet. The identified prey items belonged to five major groups: Teleostei, Crustacea, Cephalopoda, Annelida and Phanerogams. Higher diet diversity was observed in females compared to males, in immature individuals compared to mature ones, regardless of sex, and in spring and winter compared to other seasons. Age and sampling location seemed to influence both the diet diversity and trophic spectrum of the species. Feeding intensity based on the vacuity index was not significantly influenced by any of the factors examined, while the stomach filling degree was significantly influenced by all factors, except sex, showing significantly higher values in mature females compared to immature ones, in older individuals, in autumn compared to winter, and a significantly lower value in the Cyclades Islands compared to other locations. Females showed a significant larger mouth length compared to males of the same length, while no between-sex differences were found in gut morphometrics. The estimated fractional trophic level (TROPH=4.41) classified the species as carnivore with a preference for Teleostei and Cephalopoda, confirming its high trophic position.
Curini-Galletti, Marco; Artois, Tom; Delogu, Valentina; De Smet, Willem H.; Fontaneto, Diego; Jondelius, Ulf; Leasi, Francesca; Martínez, Alejandro; Meyer-Wachsmuth, Inga; Nilsson, Karin Sara; Tongiorgi, Paolo; Worsaae, Katrine; Todaro, M. Antonio
Background Biogeographical and macroecological principles are derived from patterns of distribution in large organisms, whereas microscopic ones have often been considered uninteresting, because of their supposed wide distribution. Here, after reporting the results of an intensive faunistic survey of marine microscopic animals (meiofauna) in Northern Sardinia, we test for the effect of body size, dispersal ability, and habitat features on the patterns of distribution of several groups. Methodology/Principal Findings As a dataset we use the results of a workshop held at La Maddalena (Sardinia, Italy) in September 2010, aimed at studying selected taxa of soft-bodied meiofauna (Acoela, Annelida, Gastrotricha, Nemertodermatida, Platyhelminthes and Rotifera), in conjunction with data on the same taxa obtained during a previous workshop hosted at Tjärnö (Western Sweden) in September 2007. Using linear mixed effects models and model averaging while accounting for sampling bias and potential pseudoreplication, we found evidence that: (1) meiofaunal groups with more restricted distribution are the ones with low dispersal potential; (2) meiofaunal groups with higher probability of finding new species for science are the ones with low dispersal potential; (3) the proportion of the global species pool of each meiofaunal group present in each area at the regional scale is negatively related to body size, and positively related to their occurrence in the endobenthic habitat. Conclusion/Significance Our macroecological analysis of meiofauna, in the framework of the ubiquity hypothesis for microscopic organisms, indicates that not only body size but mostly dispersal ability and also occurrence in the endobenthic habitat are important correlates of diversity for these understudied animals, with different importance at different spatial scales. Furthermore, since the Western Mediterranean is one of the best-studied areas in the world, the large number of undescribed species (37
Curini-Galletti, Marco; Artois, Tom; Delogu, Valentina; De Smet, Willem H; Fontaneto, Diego; Jondelius, Ulf; Leasi, Francesca; Martínez, Alejandro; Meyer-Wachsmuth, Inga; Nilsson, Karin Sara; Tongiorgi, Paolo; Worsaae, Katrine; Todaro, M Antonio
Biogeographical and macroecological principles are derived from patterns of distribution in large organisms, whereas microscopic ones have often been considered uninteresting, because of their supposed wide distribution. Here, after reporting the results of an intensive faunistic survey of marine microscopic animals (meiofauna) in Northern Sardinia, we test for the effect of body size, dispersal ability, and habitat features on the patterns of distribution of several groups. As a dataset we use the results of a workshop held at La Maddalena (Sardinia, Italy) in September 2010, aimed at studying selected taxa of soft-bodied meiofauna (Acoela, Annelida, Gastrotricha, Nemertodermatida, Platyhelminthes and Rotifera), in conjunction with data on the same taxa obtained during a previous workshop hosted at Tjärnö (Western Sweden) in September 2007. Using linear mixed effects models and model averaging while accounting for sampling bias and potential pseudoreplication, we found evidence that: (1) meiofaunal groups with more restricted distribution are the ones with low dispersal potential; (2) meiofaunal groups with higher probability of finding new species for science are the ones with low dispersal potential; (3) the proportion of the global species pool of each meiofaunal group present in each area at the regional scale is negatively related to body size, and positively related to their occurrence in the endobenthic habitat. Our macroecological analysis of meiofauna, in the framework of the ubiquity hypothesis for microscopic organisms, indicates that not only body size but mostly dispersal ability and also occurrence in the endobenthic habitat are important correlates of diversity for these understudied animals, with different importance at different spatial scales. Furthermore, since the Western Mediterranean is one of the best-studied areas in the world, the large number of undescribed species (37%) highlights that the census of marine meiofauna is still very far
Rincón, Beatriz; Kenchington, Ellen L
We examined the habitat of juvenile haddock on the eastern Scotian Shelf (off Nova Scotia, Canada) in relation to grab-sampled benthic macrofaunal invertebrate species assemblages in order to determine whether there were significant differences in benthic macrofauna between areas of historically persistent high and low juvenile haddock abundance. Our analyses were conducted over two spatial scales in each of two years: among banks (Emerald, Western and Sable Island), approximately 60 km distant from each other, and between areas of high and low juvenile haddock abundance at distances of 10 to 30 km-all in an area that had not experienced groundfishing in the decade prior to sampling. We also examined fine-scale (10s of metres) within-site variability in the macrofauna and used surficial sediment characteristics, along with hydrographic variables, to identify environmental correlates. PERMANOVA identified statistically significant differences in biomass, density and composition of the benthos associated with juvenile haddock abundance; however it was difficult to determine whether the results had biological relevance. Post hoc tests showed that these differences occurred only on Sable Island Bank where both fish and benthos may have been independently responding to sediment type which was most different there (100% sand in the area of low haddock abundance vs. 22% gravel in the area of high haddock abundance). In total, 383 benthic taxa representing 13 phyla were identified. Annelida was the most specious phylum (36.29% of taxa, representing 33 families), followed by Arthropoda (with Crustaceans, mostly Amphipoda, accounting for 25.07% of the total number of taxa). The strongest pattern in the macrofauna was expressed at the largest scale, between banks, accounting for approximately 25% of the variation in the data. Emerald Bank, deeper, warmer and saltier than the Western and Sable Island Banks, had a distinctive fauna.
We examined the habitat of juvenile haddock on the eastern Scotian Shelf (off Nova Scotia, Canada) in relation to grab-sampled benthic macrofaunal invertebrate species assemblages in order to determine whether there were significant differences in benthic macrofauna between areas of historically persistent high and low juvenile haddock abundance. Our analyses were conducted over two spatial scales in each of two years: among banks (Emerald, Western and Sable Island), approximately 60 km distant from each other, and between areas of high and low juvenile haddock abundance at distances of 10 to 30 km–all in an area that had not experienced groundfishing in the decade prior to sampling. We also examined fine-scale (10s of metres) within-site variability in the macrofauna and used surficial sediment characteristics, along with hydrographic variables, to identify environmental correlates. PERMANOVA identified statistically significant differences in biomass, density and composition of the benthos associated with juvenile haddock abundance; however it was difficult to determine whether the results had biological relevance. Post hoc tests showed that these differences occurred only on Sable Island Bank where both fish and benthos may have been independently responding to sediment type which was most different there (100% sand in the area of low haddock abundance vs. 22% gravel in the area of high haddock abundance). In total, 383 benthic taxa representing 13 phyla were identified. Annelida was the most specious phylum (36.29% of taxa, representing 33 families), followed by Arthropoda (with Crustaceans, mostly Amphipoda, accounting for 25.07% of the total number of taxa). The strongest pattern in the macrofauna was expressed at the largest scale, between banks, accounting for approximately 25% of the variation in the data. Emerald Bank, deeper, warmer and saltier than the Western and Sable Island Banks, had a distinctive fauna. PMID:27649419
Ivanova-Kazas, O M
Science has accumulated to date such amounts of valuable and diverse information that no scientists can be encyclopedists (like those of the 17th and 18th centuries). Now every scientist is usually well informed only in one particular area and often needs consultations of other specialists. The current situation in biology is similar. In addition to evolutionary morphology, which represents fundamentals of zoology, there is a new, clearly cutting-edge and progressive area of studies, molecular genetics, which has already revealed many important general biological patterns. But the conclusions that follow from examining natural phenomena from this new point of view using new methods sometimes prove to be at odds with conventional notions. Considerable controversies have emerged on the phylogenetic position of the type Arthropoda. The peculiar features of the general body plan and the type of development of these animals seem to give evidence that they evolved from Annelida, with which they are often combined under the name Articulata. But attempts have been made to replace this concept by the idea that the clade Ecdysozoa, which includes Arthropods as well as such animals with low levels of organization as Nematoda and Priapulida, emerged early in the evolution of Bilateria. The main reason for combining the said animals in this clade is the fact that they have molts regulated with ecdysone; this point of view is supported by molecular genetic arguments. Although in this review this controversial problem is considered from the morphological point of view, the main purpose of the review is to emphasize the need to establish mutual understanding.between morphologists and molecular biologists and carefully find out the causes of the existing disagreements. Rather than ideological opponents, the two areas of science should be allies helping each other to solve complicated problems.
Costa-Paiva, Elisa M; Schrago, Carlos G; Halanych, Kenneth M
Animal tissues need to be properly oxygenated for carrying out catabolic respiration and, as such, natural selection has presumably favored special molecules that can reversibly bind and transport oxygen. Hemoglobins, hemocyanins, and hemerythrins (Hrs) fulfill this role, with Hrs being the least studied. Knowledge of oxygen-binding proteins is crucial for understanding animal physiology. Hr genes are present in the three domains of life, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota; however, within Animalia, Hrs has been reported only in marine species in six phyla (Annelida, Brachiopoda, Priapulida, Bryozoa, Cnidaria, and Arthropoda). Given this observed Hr distribution, whether all metazoan Hrs share a common origin is circumspect. We investigated Hr diversity and evolution in metazoans, by employing in silico approaches to survey for Hrs from of 120 metazoan transcriptomes and genomes. We found 58 candidate Hr genes actively transcribed in 36 species distributed in 11 animal phyla, with new records in Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Mollusca, Nemertea, Phoronida, and Platyhelminthes. Moreover, we found that "Hrs" reported from Cnidaria and Arthropoda were not consistent with that of other metazoan Hrs. Contrary to previous suggestions that Hr genes were absent in deuterostomes, we find Hr genes present in deuterostomes and were likely present in early bilaterians, but not in nonbilaterian animal lineages. As expected, the Hr gene tree did not mirror metazoan phylogeny, suggesting that Hrs evolutionary history was complex and besides the oxygen carrying capacity, the drivers of Hr evolution may also consist of secondary functional specializations of the proteins, like immunological functions. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Nemitz, Markus P.; Mihaylov, Pavel; Barraclough, Thomas W.; Ross, Dylan
Abstract In this study, we present a modular worm-like robot, which utilizes voice coils as a new paradigm in soft robot actuation. Drive electronics are incorporated into the actuators, providing a significant improvement in self-sufficiency when compared with existing soft robot actuation modes such as pneumatics or hydraulics. The body plan of this robot is inspired by the phylum Annelida and consists of three-dimensional printed voice coil actuators, which are connected by flexible silicone membranes. Each electromagnetic actuator engages with its neighbor to compress or extend the membrane of each segment, and the sequence in which they are actuated results in an earthworm-inspired peristaltic motion. We find that a minimum of three segments is required for locomotion, but due to our modular design, robots of any length can be quickly and easily assembled. In addition to actuation, voice coils provide audio input and output capabilities. We demonstrate transmission of data between segments by high-frequency carrier waves and, using a similar mechanism, we note that the passing of power between coupled coils in neighboring modules—or from an external power source—is also possible. Voice coils are a convenient multifunctional alternative to existing soft robot actuators. Their self-contained nature and ability to communicate with each other are ideal for modular robotics, and the additional functionality of sound input/output and power transfer will become increasingly useful as soft robots begin the transition from early proof-of-concept systems toward fully functional and highly integrated robotic systems. PMID:28078195
Pirooznia, Mehdi; Gong, Ping; Guan, Xin; Inouye, Laura S; Yang, Kuan; Perkins, Edward J; Deng, Youping
Background Eisenia fetida, commonly known as red wiggler or compost worm, belongs to the Lumbricidae family of the Annelida phylum. Little is known about its genome sequence although it has been extensively used as a test organism in terrestrial ecotoxicology. In order to understand its gene expression response to environmental contaminants, we cloned 4032 cDNAs or expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from two E. fetida libraries enriched with genes responsive to ten ordnance related compounds using suppressive subtractive hybridization-PCR. Results A total of 3144 good quality ESTs (GenBank dbEST accession number EH669363–EH672369 and EL515444–EL515580) were obtained from the raw clone sequences after cleaning. Clustering analysis yielded 2231 unique sequences including 448 contigs (from 1361 ESTs) and 1783 singletons. Comparative genomic analysis showed that 743 or 33% of the unique sequences shared high similarity with existing genes in the GenBank nr database. Provisional function annotation assigned 830 Gene Ontology terms to 517 unique sequences based on their homology with the annotated genomes of four model organisms Drosophila melanogaster, Mus musculus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Caenorhabditis elegans. Seven percent of the unique sequences were further mapped to 99 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways based on their matching Enzyme Commission numbers. All the information is stored and retrievable at a highly performed, web-based and user-friendly relational database called EST model database or ESTMD version 2. Conclusion The ESTMD containing the sequence and annotation information of 4032 E. fetida ESTs is publicly accessible at . PMID:18047730
Zhou, Ying; Carpenter, Zachary W.; Brennan, Gregory
Drosophila Morgue is a unique ubiquitination protein that facilitates programmed cell death and associates with DIAP1, a critical cell death inhibitor with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Morgue possesses a unique combination of functional domains typically associated with distinct types of ubiquitination enzymes. This includes an F box characteristic of the substrate-binding subunit in Skp, Cullin, and F box (SCF)-type ubiquitin E3 ligase complexes and a variant ubiquitin E2 conjugase domain where the active site cysteine is replaced by a glycine. Morgue also contains a single C4-type zinc finger motif. This architecture suggests potentially novel ubiquitination activities for Morgue. In this study, we address the evolutionary origins of this distinctive protein utilizing a combination of bioinformatics and molecular biology approaches. We find that Morgue exhibits widespread but restricted phylogenetic distribution among metazoans. Morgue proteins were identified in a wide range of Protostome phyla, including Arthropoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Nematoda, and Platyhelminthes. However, with one potential exception, Morgue was not detected in Deuterostomes, including Chordates, Hemichordates, or Echinoderms. Morgue was also not found in Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, or Porifera. Characterization of Morgue sequences within specific animal lineages suggests that gene deletion or acquisition has occurred during divergence of nematodes and that at least one arachnid expresses an atypical form of Morgue consisting only of the variant E2 conjugase domain. Analysis of the organization of several morgue genes suggests that exon-shuffling events have contributed to the evolution of the Morgue protein. These results suggest that Morgue mediates conserved and distinctive ubiquitination functions in specific cell death pathways. PMID:19602541
Triploblastic relationships with emphasis on the acoelomates and the position of Gnathostomulida, Cycliophora, Plathelminthes, and Chaetognatha: a combined approach of 18S rDNA sequences and morphology.
Giribet, G; Distel, D L; Polz, M; Sterrer, W; Wheeler, W C
Triploblastic relationships were examined in the light of molecular and morphological evidence. Representatives for all triploblastic "phyla" (except Loricifera) were represented by both sources of phylogenetic data. The 18S ribosomal (rDNA) sequence data for 145 terminal taxa and 276 morphological characters coded for 36 supraspecific taxa were combined in a total evidence regime to determine the most consistent picture of triploblastic relationships for these data. Only triploblastic taxa are used to avoid rooting with distant outgroups, which seems to happen because of the extreme distance that separates diploblastic from triploblastic taxa according to the 18S rDNA data. Multiple phylogenetic analyses performed with variable analysis parameters yield largely inconsistent results for certain groups such as Chaetognatha, Acoela, and Nemertodermatida. A normalized incongruence length metric is used to assay the relative merit of the multiple analyses. The combined analysis having the least character incongruence yields the following scheme of relationships of four main clades: (1) Deuterostomia [((Echinodermata + Enteropneusta) (Cephalochordata (Urochordata + Vertebrata)))]; (2) Ecdysozoa [(((Priapulida + Kinorhyncha) (Nematoda + Nematomorpha)) ((Onychophora + Tardigrada) Arthropoda))]; (3) Trochozoa [((Phoronida + Brachiopoda) (Entoprocta (Nemertea (Sipuncula (Mollusca (Pogonophora (Echiura + Annelida)))))))]; and (4) Platyzoa [((Gnathostomulida (Cycliophora + Syndermata)) (Gastrotricha + Plathelminthes))]. Chaetognatha, Nemertodermatida, and Bryozoa cannot be assigned to any one of these four groups. For the first time, a data analysis recognizes a clade of acoelomates, the Platyzoa (sensu Cavalier-Smith, Biol. Rev. 73:203-266, 1998). Other relationships that corroborate some morphological analyses are the existence of a clade that groups Gnathostomulida + Syndermata (= Gnathifera), which is expanded to include the enigmatic phylum Cycliophora, as sister group
Schiffer, Philipp H; Robertson, Helen E; Telford, Maximilian J
The animal groups of Orthonectida and Dicyemida are tiny, extremely simple, vermiform endoparasites of various marine animals and have been linked in the Mesozoa (Figure 1). The Orthonectida (Figures 1A and 1B) have a few hundred cells, including a nervous system of just ten cells , and the Dicyemida (Figure 1C) are even simpler, with ∼40 cells . They are classic "Problematica" -the name Mesozoa suggests an evolutionary position intermediate between Protozoa and Metazoa (animals)  and implies that their simplicity is a primitive state, but molecular data have shown they are members of Lophotrochozoa within Bilateria [6-9], which means that they derive from a more complex ancestor. Their precise affinities remain uncertain, however, and it is disputed whether they even constitute a clade. Ascertaining their affinities is complicated by the very fast evolution observed in their genes, potentially leading to the common systematic error of long-branch attraction (LBA) . Here, we use mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequence data and show that both dicyemids and orthonectids are members of the Lophotrochozoa. Carefully addressing the effects of unequal rates of evolution, we show that the Mesozoa is polyphyletic. While the precise position of dicyemids remains unresolved within Lophotrochozoa, we identify orthonectids as members of the phylum Annelida. This result reveals one of the most extreme cases of body-plan simplification in the animal kingdom; our finding makes sense of an annelid-like cuticle in orthonectids  and suggests that the circular muscle cells repeated along their body  may be segmental in origin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McLeod, Rebecca J.; Wing, Stephen R.
In Fiordland, New Zealand, large volumes of organic matter are deposited into the marine environment from pristine forested catchments. Analyses of δ15N, δ13C and δ34S were employed to determine whether these inputs were contributing to marine food webs via assimilation by common macroinvertebrates inhabiting the inner reaches of the fjords. Terrestrially derived organic matter (TOM) had values of δ15N, δ13C and δ34S that were distinct from other carbon source pools, providing sufficient power to quantify the contribution of TOM to the benthic food web. Isotopic values among macroinvertebrates varied significantly, with consistently low values of δ15N, δ13C and δ34S for the abundant deposit feeders Echinocardium cordatum (Echinodermata) and Pectinaria australis (Annelida), indicating assimilation of TOM. High concentrations of bacterial fatty acid biomarkers in E. cordatum, and values of δ13C of these biomarkers similar to TOM (-27 to -30‰) confirmed that TOM is indirectly assimilated by these sea urchins via heterotrophic bacteria. TOM was also found to enter the infaunal food web via chemoautotrophic bacteria that live symbiotically within Solemya parkinsonii (Bivalvia). Echinocardium cordatum, Pectinaria australis and S. parkinsonii comprised up to 33.5% of the biomass of the macroinfaunal community, and thus represent strong pathways for movement of organic matter from the forested catchments into the benthic food web. This demonstration of connectivity among adjacent marine and terrestrial habitats has important implications for coastal land management, and highlights the importance of intact coastal forests to marine ecosystem function.
Nemitz, Markus P; Mihaylov, Pavel; Barraclough, Thomas W; Ross, Dylan; Stokes, Adam A
In this study, we present a modular worm-like robot, which utilizes voice coils as a new paradigm in soft robot actuation. Drive electronics are incorporated into the actuators, providing a significant improvement in self-sufficiency when compared with existing soft robot actuation modes such as pneumatics or hydraulics. The body plan of this robot is inspired by the phylum Annelida and consists of three-dimensional printed voice coil actuators, which are connected by flexible silicone membranes. Each electromagnetic actuator engages with its neighbor to compress or extend the membrane of each segment, and the sequence in which they are actuated results in an earthworm-inspired peristaltic motion. We find that a minimum of three segments is required for locomotion, but due to our modular design, robots of any length can be quickly and easily assembled. In addition to actuation, voice coils provide audio input and output capabilities. We demonstrate transmission of data between segments by high-frequency carrier waves and, using a similar mechanism, we note that the passing of power between coupled coils in neighboring modules-or from an external power source-is also possible. Voice coils are a convenient multifunctional alternative to existing soft robot actuators. Their self-contained nature and ability to communicate with each other are ideal for modular robotics, and the additional functionality of sound input/output and power transfer will become increasingly useful as soft robots begin the transition from early proof-of-concept systems toward fully functional and highly integrated robotic systems.
Tessler, Michael; Marancik, David; Champagne, Donald; Dove, Alistair; Camus, Alvin; Siddall, Mark E; Kvist, Sebastian
Leeches (Annelida: Hirudinea) possess powerful salivary anticoagulants and, accordingly, are frequently employed in modern, authoritative medicine. Members of the almost exclusively marine family Piscicolidae account for 20% of leech species diversity, and feed on host groups (e.g., sharks) not encountered by their freshwater and terrestrial counterparts. Moreover, some species of Ozobranchidae feed on endangered marine turtles and have been implicated as potential vectors for the tumor-associated turtle herpesvirus. In spite of their ecological importance and unique host associations, there is a distinct paucity of data regarding the salivary transcriptomes of either of these families. Using next generation sequencing, we profiled transcribed, putative anticoagulants and other salivary bioactive compounds that have previously been linked to bloodfeeding from 7 piscicolid species (3 elasmobranch-feeders; 4 non-cartilaginous fish-feeders) and 1 ozobranchid species (2 samples). In total, 149 putative anticoagulants and bioactive loci were discovered in varying constellations throughout the different samples. The putative anticoagulants showed a broad spectrum of described antagonistic pathways, such as inhibition of factor Xa and platelet aggregation, that likely have similar bioactive roles in marine fish and turtles. A transcript with homology to ohanin, originally isolated from king cobras, was found in Cystobranchus vividus but is otherwise unknown from leeches. Estimation of selection pressures for the putative anticoagulants recovered evidence for both positive and purifying selection along several isolated branches in the gene trees and positive selection was also estimated for a few select codons in a variety of marine species. Similarly, phylogenetic analyses of the amino acid sequences for several anticoagulants indicated divergent evolution.
Estrada, Rafael; Harvey, Michel; Gosselin, Michel; Starr, Michel; Galbraith, Peter S.; Straneo, Fiammetta
Zooplankton communities were examined for the first time in three different hydrographic regions of the Hudson Bay system (HBS) in early August to early September from 2003 to 2006. Sampling was conducted at 50 stations distributed along different transects located in Hudson Bay (HB), Hudson Strait (HS), and Foxe Basin (FB). Variations in zooplankton biomass, abundance, taxonomic composition, and diversity in relation to environmental variables were studied using multivariate techniques. During all sampling years, the total zooplankton biomass was on average four times lower in HB than in HS and FB. Clustering samples by their relative species compositions revealed no interannual variation in zooplankton community but showed a marked interregional variability between the three regions. Water column stratification explained the greatest proportion (25%) of this spatial variability. According to redundancy analysis (RDA), the zooplankton taxa that contribute most to the separation of the three regions are Microcalanus spp., Oithona similis, Oncaea borealis, Aeginopsis laurentii, Sagitta elegans, Fritillaria sp., and larvae of cnidaria, chaetognatha, and pteropoda in HB; hyperiid amphipods in FB; and Pseudocalanus spp. CI-CV, Calanus glacialis CI-CVI, Calanus finmarchicus CI-CVI, Calanus hyperboreus CV-CVI, Acartia longiremis CI-CV, Metridia longa N3-N6 CI-CIII CVIf, Eukrohnia hamata, larvae of echinodermata, mollusca, cirripedia, appendicularia, and polychaeta in the northwestern and southeastern HS transects. For the HB transect, the RDA analyzed allowed us to distinguish three regions (HB west, central, and east) with different environmental gradients and zooplankton assemblages, in particular higher concentration of Pseudocalanus spp. nauplii and CI-CVI, as well as benthic macrozooplankton and meroplankton larvae in western HB. In HS, Calanoid species (mainly C. finmarchicus and C. glacialis) were mostly observed at the north shore stations associated with the
Herrera, S.; Munro, C.; Nganro, N.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Wirasantosa, S.; Sibert, E.; Hammond, S. R.; Bors, E.; Butterfield, D.; Holden, J. F.; Baker, E. T.; Sherrin, J.; Makarim, S.; Troa, R.; Shank, T. M.
The benthic ecosystems found in the deep-sea promontories of Sangihe Talaud region were explored, between June and August 2010, using the ROV Little Hercules aboard the NOAA ship Okeanos Explorer. The Sangihe-Talaud region is part of the Coral Triangle (CT) an area known for harboring the most biodiverse shallow-water coral reefs in the world. Notwithstanding the significant research efforts that have been undertaken to catalog and protect the biodiversity of the CT prior this expedition, virtually nothing was known about the life inhabiting the deep sea. The high-resolution imagery obtained from the 27 ROV dives revealed remarkably high abundances and diversity of animal species, many of which appear to be novel. On hard bottom substrates, cold-water corals were the dominant sessile macrofauna, in terms of biomass, followed by glass sponges (Hexactinellida) and sea lilies (Crinoidea). The coral taxa observed in this area represent six large orders of cnidarians: antipatharians (black corals), scleractinians (stony corals), zoanthideans (gold corals), alcyonaceans (octocorals), pennatulaceans (sea pens), and anthoathecates (hydrocorals). Most sessile species, independently of their size class or taxonomic affiliation, harbor a wide variety of associated fauna. Brittle stars (Ophiuroidea), squat lobsters (Galatheoidea), shrimp (Caridea), amphipods (Amphipoda), anemones (Actinaria), zanthideans, barnacles (Cirripedia), hydroids (Hydrozoa) and worms (Polychaeta) are the animal groups most commonly found forming these associations. In contrast, soft bottom habitats were dominated by stalked sponges, sea pens, sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea) and brittle stars. Other conspicuous fauna include fish, hermit crabs (Paguridae), urchins (Echinoidea) and octopuses (Cephalopoda). The abundance of habitats generated by the high number of geological and biological features and depth ranges present in the deep coral triangle (e.g., ridges, seamounts, island margins, plains, and rock
Levin, Lisa A.; Ziebis, Wiebke; Mendoza, Guillermo F.; Bertics, Victoria J.; Washington, Tracy; Gonzalez, Jennifer; Thurber, Andrew R.; Ebbe, Brigitte; Lee, Raymond W.
Organisms inhabiting methane seep sediments are exposed to stress in the form of high levels of hydrogen sulfide, which result mainly from sulfate reduction coupled to anaerobic methane oxidation. Dorvilleidae (Polychaeta) have successfully invaded this ecosystem, and multiple species in divergent genetic clades co-occur at high densities. At methane seeps in the NE Pacific off California and Oregon, the genera Ophryotrocha, Parougia and Exallopus are especially well represented. To test the hypothesis that dorvilleid coexistence is facilitated by niche partitioning through sulfide tolerance and trophic patterns, we examined dorvilleid species-specific patterns of occurrence and nutrition at methane seeps off Eel R. [ER] on the Californian continental slope and at Hydrate Ridge [HR] on the Oregon continental slope, and in two habitats (clam bed and microbial mat) characterized by lower and higher hydrogen sulfide levels, respectively. Microelectrode measurements of hydrogen sulfide enabled characterization of environmental sulfide levels for species sampled in background sediment cores and in colonization trays. Dorvilleids tolerated H2S levels from 10 μM to over 2.6 mM, with the majority of species inhabiting sediments with similar environmental H2S concentrations (median 85-100 μM). Dorvilleid species richness was greater at HR than ER, but did not differ between clam bed and microbial mat habitats. Species distribution patterns reflected preferences for ER clam bed (lower sulfide levels), ER mat and HR clam bed (moderate sulfide levels), or HR mat (very high sulfide levels). Nutritional patterns, including trophic diversity and functional similarity, were examined using community stable isotope metrics based on δ15N and δ13C. Within each region, dorvilleid species exhibited multiple trophic strategies. Co-existing congeners typically exhibited distinct isotope signatures, suggesting trophic partitioning. Trophic diversity and δ15N range for whole
Demina, Ludmila L.; Holm, Nils G.; Galkin, Sergey V.; Lein, Alla Yu.
Along with summarizing the published literature and our own data some new results on properties of the trace metal biogeochemistry in the deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystems at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and East Pacific Rise (EPR) are shown. Differences in mean concentrations of big group of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Co, As, Pb, Cd, Ag, Hg) between the biotope water of the low- and high-temperature hydrothermal vent fields were firstly revealed. The same trace metals were studied in different groups of organisms within different temperature zones at one and the same vent field (9°50‧N EPR), as well as in fauna inhabiting geochemically different vent sites. Distribution patterns of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, Ag, Ni, Cr, Co, As, Se, Sb, and Hg in different taxa gave an evidence of the influence of environmental and biological parameters on their bioaccumulation in organisms. Among the animals a particular “champion” with respect to the trace metal content was found to be a polychaeta Alvinella pompejana that inhabits the hottest places of the vent sulfide chimneys of the 9°50‧N field, EPR. New data on the trace metal distribution between soft tissues and carbonate shell let us estimate a role of biomineralization in the accumulation of metals in the Bathimodiolus mussels. Contrasting geochemical behavior was revealed for Cu that is enriched in soft tissues of mussels and depleted in shells, on the one hand, and Mn that is accumulated almost totally in mussel shells, on the other hand. Deep-sea hydrothermal biological communities demonstrate a strong concentration function, and bioconcentration factors (BCF) of trace metals estimated for Bathimodiolus mussels collected at the four hydrothermal fields vary within the limits of n102-n105 and are similar to that of the littoral mussels. Due to this and to the high values of biomasses per square meter, the hydrothermal fauna may be considered as a newly discovered biological filter of the oceans.
Acolas, M. L.; Le Pichon, C.; Rochard, E.
Post release habitat selection was studied on forty eight 10-month-old hatchery reared European sturgeon (mean fork length 31.0 cm ± 3.0) in the tidal part of their native catchment using acoustic telemetry. Most of the fish reached the oligohaline estuary within 2-4 days (70 km downstream the release site). Seventy four percent of the fish migrated rapidly downstream of the estuary into mesohaline waters while 26% selected habitat in the freshwater/oligohaline part of the estuary based on their linearity and residency indices. We focused on individual habitat use of these fish. The home range size (HR) was calculated using two methods: the kernel utilization distribution (KUD) which is driven by the maximum detection location density, and the Brownian Bridge (BB) approach which allows the time component of the trajectory path to be taken into account. The average 50% HR KUD was 5.6 ± 2.7 km2 (range 1.1-10.3 km2) and it was estimated to be 6 times larger using the 50% HR BB method (average reaching 31.9 ± 20.7 km2, range 5.2-77.8 km2). Habitat characterization (available prey, substrate and depth) in the studied area was described and the Ivlev electivity index was calculated using the habitat within the 50% HR BB for each individual. Despite the spatial use of different core areas among the fish tagged, we observed a convergence in habitat preference. For substrates, sturgeons showed avoidance of gravel and large rocks as well as fine and medium gravel. There was a significant preference for sand, silts and clay. For depth, they exhibited a preference firstly for the 5-8 m depth range and secondly for the 2-5 m range, a strong avoidance of depth range 8-20 m and a slight avoidance of shallow (0-2 m) and intertidal areas. For prey, individual variability was high. The most homogenous results were found for annelid polychaeta, with a slight preference for areas with this group of preys which are abundant in the saline estuary. For some individuals, a preference
Fachin, Diego Aguilar; Amorim, Dalton De Souza
The Neotropical genus Acrochaeta Wiedemann is revised and a cladistics analysis of the genus based on morphological characters is presented. This paper raises the total number of extant Acrochaeta species from 10 to 14 with the description of nine new species, the synonymy of one species, the transfer of five species to other genera and the transfer of one species of Merosargus to Acrochaeta. The new species described (of which eight are from Brazil and one from Bolivia and Peru) are Acrochaeta asapha nov. sp., A. balbii nov. sp., A. dichrostyla nov. sp., A. polychaeta nov. sp., A. pseudofasciata nov. sp., A. pseudopolychaeta nov. sp., A. rhombostyla nov. sp. A. ruschii nov. sp. and A. stigmata nov. sp. The primary types of all Acrochaeta species were studied at least from photos, when possible with the study of dissected male or female terminalia. A. mexicana Lindner is proposed as a junior synonym of A. flaveola Bigot. M. chalconota (Brauer) comb. nov., M. degenerata (Lindner) comb. nov., M. longiventris (Enderlein) comb. nov. and M. picta (Brauer) comb. nov. are herein transferred from Acrochaeta to Merosargus Loew, and Chrysochlorina elegans (Perty) comb. nov. is transferred from Acrochaeta to Chrysochlorina James. A. convexifrons (McFadden) comb. nov. is transferred from Merosargus to Acrochaeta. The limits of the genus and its insertion in the Sarginae are considered, and an updated generic diagnosis is provided. All species of the genus are redescribed and diagnosed, and illustrated with photos of the habitus, thorax, wing, and drawings of the antenna and male and female terminalia. Distribution maps are provided for the species, along with an identification key for adults of all species. Parsimony analyses were carried out under equal and implied weight. Our matrix includes 43 terminal taxa--of which 26 are outgroup species from four different sargine genera--and 59 adult morphological characters. The phylogenetic analysis supports the monophyly of
Introduction Traditionally, genomic or transcriptomic data have been restricted to a few model or emerging model organisms, and to a handful of species of medical and/or environmental importance. Next-generation sequencing techniques have the capability of yielding massive amounts of gene sequence data for virtually any species at a modest cost. Here we provide a comparative analysis of de novo assembled transcriptomic data for ten non-model species of previously understudied animal taxa. Results cDNA libraries of ten species belonging to five animal phyla (2 Annelida [including Sipuncula], 2 Arthropoda, 2 Mollusca, 2 Nemertea, and 2 Porifera) were sequenced in different batches with an Illumina Genome Analyzer II (read length 100 or 150 bp), rendering between ca. 25 and 52 million reads per species. Read thinning, trimming, and de novo assembly were performed under different parameters to optimize output. Between 67,423 and 207,559 contigs were obtained across the ten species, post-optimization. Of those, 9,069 to 25,681 contigs retrieved blast hits against the NCBI non-redundant database, and approximately 50% of these were assigned with Gene Ontology terms, covering all major categories, and with similar percentages in all species. Local blasts against our datasets, using selected genes from major signaling pathways and housekeeping genes, revealed high efficiency in gene recovery compared to available genomes of closely related species. Intriguingly, our transcriptomic datasets detected multiple paralogues in all phyla and in nearly all gene pathways, including housekeeping genes that are traditionally used in phylogenetic applications for their purported single-copy nature. Conclusions We generated the first study of comparative transcriptomics across multiple animal phyla (comparing two species per phylum in most cases), established the first Illumina-based transcriptomic datasets for sponge, nemertean, and sipunculan species, and generated a tractable
Pearman, John K; Anlauf, Holger; Irigoien, Xabier; Carvalho, Susana
Coral reefs harbor the most diverse assemblages in the ocean, however, a large proportion of the diversity is cryptic and, therefore, undetected by standard visual census techniques. Cryptic and exposed communities differ considerably in species composition and ecological function. This study compares three different coral reef assessment protocols: i) visual benthic reef surveys: ii) visual census of Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) plates; and iii) metabarcoding techniques of the ARMS (including sessile, 106-500 μm and 500-2000 μm size fractions), that target the cryptic and exposed communities of three reefs in the central Red Sea. Visual census showed a dominance of Cnidaria (Anthozoa) and Rhodophyta on the reef substrate, while Porifera, Bryozoa and Rhodophyta were the most abundant groups on the ARMS plates. Metabarcoding, targeting the 18S rRNA gene, significantly increased estimates of the species diversity (p < 0.001); revealing that Annelida were generally the dominant phyla (in terms of reads) of all fractions and reefs. Furthermore, metabarcoding detected microbial eukaryotic groups such as Syndiniophyceae, Mamiellophyceae and Bacillariophyceae as relevant components of the sessile fraction. ANOSIM analysis showed that the three reef sites showed no differences based on the visual census data. Metabarcoding showed a higher sensitivity for identifying differences between reef communities at smaller geographic scales than standard visual census techniques as significant differences in the assemblages were observed amongst the reefs. Comparison of the techniques showed no similar patterns for the visual techniques while the metabarcoding of the ARMS showed similar patterns amongst fractions. Establishing ARMS as a standard tool in reef monitoring will not only advance our understanding of local processes and ecological community response to environmental changes, as different faunal components will provide complementary information but
Bouchard Marmen, Mariève; Kenchington, Ellen; Ardyna, Mathieu; Archambault, Philippe
The Canadian Arctic shelters millions of seabirds each year during the breeding season. By the excretion of important quantities of guano, seabirds locally concentrate nutrient-rich organic matter in the marine areas surrounding colonies. Seabirds, acting as biological vectors of nutrients, can markedly affect terrestrial ecosystems, but their influence on the structure of marine benthic communities is still under-studied. Sessile and long-lived megabenthic species can integrate environmental variation into marine food webs over long time frames. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the epifaunal and infaunal communities of the Lancaster Sound Region (LSR) and (2) to test the influence of the presence of seabird colonies and other environmental parameters on the structure of those benthic communities. Our prediction was that benthic diversity, number of taxa, total biomass of infauna and total density of epifauna and infauna, would be higher in areas with colonies present. Photos of the seafloor (data on epifauna) and grab samples (data on infauna) were taken at three control areas and at five areas near seabird colonies, within a depth range of 122 to 442 m. A database of 26 environmental parameters was built to study the environment-benthos relationships. Infauna, which was relatively uniform across the LSR, was numerically dominated by Annelida. Epifauna was much patchier, with each study area having unique epibenthic assemblages. Brittle stars were highly abundant in epifaunal communities, reaching 600 individuals per square meter. The presence of seabird colonies was not a major driver of benthic community structure in the LSR at the depths studied. Negative effects of colonies were detected on the density and number of taxa of infauna, perhaps due to top-down effects transmitted by the seabirds which feed in the water column and can directly reduce the quantity of food reaching the seabed. Sediment concentration of pigment, percent cover of
Doss, W. C.
Surface ocean absorption of anthropogenic CO2 emissions resulting in ocean acidification may interfere with the ability of calcifying marine organisms to biomineralize, since the drop in pH is accompanied by reductions in CaCO3 saturation state. However, recent experiments show that net calcification rates of cultured benthic invertebrate taxa exhibit diverse responses to pCO2-induced changes in saturation state (Ries et al., 2009). Advancement of geochemical tools as biomineralization indicators will enable us to better understand these results and therefore help predict the impacts of ongoing and future decrease in seawater pH on marine organisms. Here we build upon previous work on these specimens by measuring the elemental composition of biogenic calcite and aragonite precipitated in four pCO2 treatments (400; 600; 900; and 2850 ppm). Element ratios (including Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, Li/Ca, B/Ca, U/Ca, Ba/Ca, Cd/Ca, and Zn/Ca) were analyzed in 18 macro-invertebrate species representing seven phyla (crustacea, cnidaria, echinoidea, rhodophyta, chlorophyta, gastropoda, bivalvia, annelida), then compared to growth rate data and experimental seawater carbonate system parameters: [CO32-], [HCO3-], pH, saturation state, and DIC. Correlations between calcite or aragonite composition and seawater carbonate chemistry are highly taxa-specific, but do not resemble trends observed in growth rate for all species. Apparent carbonate system sensitivities vary widely by element, ranging from strongly correlated to no significant response. Interpretation of these results is guided by mounting evidence for the capacity of individual species to modulate pH and/or saturation state at the site of calcification in response to ambient seawater chemistry. Such biomineralization pathways and strategies in turn likely influence elemental fractionation during CaCO3 precipitation. Ries, J.B., A.L. Cohen, A.L., and D.C. McCorkle (2009), Marine calcifiers exhibit mixed responses to CO2-induced ocean
Schmidt, Christina; Martínez Arbizu, Pedro
We studied meiofauna standing stocks and community structure in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and its adjacent abyssal plains in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. In general, the Nematoda were dominant (93%) followed by the Copepoda (4%). Nematode abundances ranged from 87% to 96%; those of copepods from 2% to 7%. The most diverse deployment yielded 17 taxa: Acari, Amphipoda, Annelida, Bivalvia, Coelenterata, Copepoda, Cumacea, Gastrotricha, Isopoda, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Nematoda, Ostracoda, Priapulida, Tanaidacea, Tantulocarida, and Tardigrada. Nauplii were also present. Generally, the trench slope and the southernmost deployments had the highest abundances (850-1392 individuals/cm2). The results of non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated that these deployments were similar to each other in meiofauna community structure. The southernmost deployments were located in a zone of higher particulate organic carbon (POC) flux (g Corg m-2 yr-1), whereas the trench slope should have low POC flux due to depth attenuation. Also, POC and abundance were significantly correlated in the abyssal plains. This correlation may explain the higher abundances at the southernmost deployments. Lateral transport was also assumed to explain high meiofauna abundances on the trench slope. Abundances were generally higher than expected from model results. ANOSIM revealed significant differences between the trench slope and the northern abyssal plains, between the central abyssal plains and the trench slope, between the trench slope and the southern abyssal plains, between the central and the southern abyssal plains, and between the central and northern deployments. The northern and southern abyssal plains did not differ significantly. In addition, a U-test revealed highly significant differences between the trench-slope and abyssal deployments. The taxa inhabited mostly the upper 0-3 cm of the sediment layer (Nematoda 80-90%; Copepoda 88-100%). The trench-slope and abyssal did not differ
Meyer-Wolfarth, Friederike; Schrader, Stefan; Oldenburg, Elisabeth; Weinert, Joachim; Brunotte, Joachim
In 2011 and 2013, a field experiment was conducted in a winter wheat field at Adenstedt (northern Germany) to investigate biocontrol and interaction effects of important members of the soil food web (Lumbricus terrestris, Annelida; Folsomia candida, Collembola and Aphelenchoides saprophilus, Nematoda) on the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium culmorum in wheat straw. Therefore, soil fauna was introduced in mesocosms in defined numbers and combinations and exposed to either Fusarium-infected or non-infected wheat straw. L. terrestris was introduced in all faunal treatments and combined either with F. candida or A. saprophilus or both. Mesocosms filled with a Luvisol soil, a cover of different types of wheat straw and respective combinations of faunal species were established outdoors in the topsoil of a winter wheat field after harvest of the crop. After a time span of 4 and 8 weeks, the degree of wheat straw coverage of mesocosms was quantified to assess its attractiveness for the soil fauna. The content of Fusarium biomass in residual wheat straw and soil was determined using a double-antibody sandwich (DAS)-ELISA method. In both experimental years, the infected wheat straw was incorporated more efficiently into the soil than the non-infected control straw due to the presence of L. terrestris in all faunal treatments than the non-infected control straw. In addition, Fusarium biomass was reduced significantly in all treatments after 4 weeks (2011: 95-99%; 2013:15-54%), whereupon the decline of fungal biomass was higher in faunal treatments than in non-faunal treatments and differed significantly from them. In 2011, Fusarium biomass of the faunal treatments was below the quantification limit after 8 weeks. In 2013, a decline of Fusarium biomass was observed, but the highest content of Fusarium biomass was still found in the non-faunal treatments after 8 weeks. In the soil of all treatments, Fusarium biomass was below the quantification limit. The earthworm species
Cunha, Marina R.; Paterson, Gordon L. J.; Amaro, Teresa; Blackbird, Sabena; de Stigter, Henko C.; Ferreira, Clarisse; Glover, Adrian; Hilário, Ana; Kiriakoulakis, Konstadinos; Neal, Lenka; Ravara, Ascensão; Rodrigues, Clara F.; Tiago, Áurea; Billett, David S. M.
The macrofaunal assemblages from three Portuguese submarine canyons, Nazaré, Cascais and Setúbal were studied from samples collected at their upper (900-1000 m), middle (3200-3500 m) and lower sections (4200-4500 m) and at the adjacent open slopes (˜1000 m), during the HERMES cruises D297 (R.R.S. Discovery, 2005) CD179 (R.R.S. Charles Darwin, 2006) and 64PE252 (R.V. Pelagia, 2006). The taxonomic composition and patterns in biodiversity, abundance and community structure of the benthic macrofauna were described. Annelida (42.1% of total abundance; 137 species) and Arthropoda (20.6%; 162 species) were, respectively, the most abundant and the most species-rich Phyla among the 342 taxa identified during this study. Multivariate analyses showed significant differences between and within canyons and between canyons and open slope assemblages. At their upper section, canyons supported higher macrofauna abundance but slightly lower biodiversity than the adjacent slopes at similar depth. In all canyons abundance reached the highest value in the middle section and the lowest in the upper section, with marked fluctuations in Nazaré (474-4599 ind. m -2) and lower variability in Cascais (583-1125 ind. m -2). The high abundance and dominance of the assemblages in the middle section of Nazaré and Setúbal was accompanied by depressed biodiversity, while in Cascais, Hurlbert's expected species richness showed increasing values from the upper to the middle canyon, and maintained the high values at the lower section. Overall, the Nazaré Canyon showed the lowest expected species richness (ES (100): 16-39) and the Cascais Canyon the highest (39-54). There was a significant negative Kendall's correlation between total organic carbon concentrations in the superficial sediments and ES (100) and a significant positive correlation between total nitrogen and macrofauna density. The influences of organic enrichment, sediment heterogeneity and hydrodynamic regime on the abundance
Kocot, Kevin M; Struck, Torsten H; Merkel, Julia; Waits, Damien S; Todt, Christiane; Brannock, Pamela M; Weese, David A; Cannon, Johanna T; Moroz, Leonid L; Lieb, Bernhard; Halanych, Kenneth M
. Moreover, our systematic approach for dissection of phylogenomic data can be applied to explore sources of incongruence and poor support in any phylogenomic data set. [Annelida; Brachiopoda; Bryozoa; Entoprocta; Mollusca; Nemertea; Phoronida; Platyzoa; Polyzoa; Spiralia; Trochozoa.]. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Long-term disturbance effects of a physical disturbance experiment on the benthic macrofauna (>500 μm), with particular emphasis on the dominant Polychaeta, were investigated in connection with the German ATESEPP joint programme in 4150 m depth in the Peru Basin of the tropical southeast (SE) Pacific. The study site was the 10.8 km 2 experimental field of the disturbance and re colonization experiment (DISCOL) conducted in early 1989. This programme had the objective to simulate some of the potential disturbance effects of manganese nodule mining on the bottom-dwelling biota with a towed "plough-harrow" disturber, and subsequently to investigate the resultant community responses with three post-impact samplings during a period of 3 years. Seven years after disturbance, in early 1996, the DISCOL site was revisited, and this study focuses on temporal development of the macrofauna over that extended period. Box core samples obtained during all post-impact expeditions from the disturber tracks ( disturbed treatment) were compared with unploughed sediments from the experimental field ( undisturbed treatment) and with samples from unimpacted sites of the surrounding ( reference treatment). The experiment did not cause the disastrous long-term community changes in the sediment dwelling macrofauna that previously were predicted to follow large-scale disturbances. Abundance recoveries of the macrofaunal taxa were largely terminated after 7 years. Major differences in the faunal compositions at the selected taxonomic levels of higher macrofauna taxa, polychaete families and polychaete species between disturbed and control sites were not observed, but certain disturbance effects remained present over the entire 7-year period: Within-treatment data heterogeneity for the higher macrofauna taxa and the polychaete families was greater in the disturber track samples than in undisturbed and reference treatments. Enhanced heterogeneity was expressed by significantly steeper
Jennings, J B; Gelder, S R
1. The aberrant annelid Histriobdella homari (Polychaeta:Eunicida) lives in the branchial chambers of the marine lobsters Homarus americanus and H. vulgaris where it feeds on the rich microflora of bacteria, blue-green algae and related organisms which grow on the inner surface of the branchial chamber, the setae fringing the edges of the carapace, the gill filaments and, especially, the surfaces and setae of the epipodite plates between the gills. H. homari, therefore, is to be regarded as an epizoic microphagous cleaning symbiote of the lobsters. 2. The alimentary canal consists of mouth, buccal cavity, oesophagus, proventriculus, stomach, intestine and anus. The much-modified proboscis lies ventrally below the oesophagus and proventriculus, with its anterior portions protruding into the rear of the buccal cavity. 3. The proboscis consists of two fixed parallel mandibles, a transverse carrier which slides upon the mandibles and to which is attached, posteriorly, a median flexible dorsal rod and, anteriorly, four pairs of movable articulated maxillae, paired external and internal retractor muscles and various tensor, flexor and extensor muscles. 4. Contraction of the retractor muscles withdraws the carrier and maxillae posteriorly, causing bowing of the dorsal rod which is fixed at its posterior end. Relaxation of the muscles allows the rod to straighten and, thus, causes protraction of the carrier and protraction and lateral expansion of the maxillae. Contraction and relaxation of the relaxation of the retractor muscles are supplemented by appropriate changes in the other muscular components of the proboscis. 5. During feeding the serrated anterior ends of the mandibles are applied to the food, the maxillae are fully expanded and then dawn ventro-posteriorly toward the mid-line by contraction of the retractor muscles in the effective movement of the feeding mechanism. This draws the food organisms across the anterior ends of the mandibles, detaching them from the
Schonberg, Susan V.; Clarke, Janet T.; Dunton, Kenneth H.
In summer 2009 and 2010, as part of Chukchi Sea Offshore Monitoring in Drilling Area - Chemical and Benthos (COMIDA CAB) program, we performed a quantitative assessment of the biomass, abundance, and community structure of benthic infaunal populations of the Northeastern Chukchi Sea. This analysis documented a benthic species inventory of 361 taxa collected from 142 individual van Veen grab samples (0.1 m-2) at 52 stations. Infaunal abundance was dominated by Polychaeta, Mollusca, and Crustacea. Large concentrations of bivalves (up to 1235 m-2; 920.2 gww m-2) were collected south of Hanna Shoal where flow from two water masses converge and deposit labile carbon to the seafloor, as indicated by low surface sediment C:N ratios. Amphipods (up to 1640 m-2; 26.0 gww m-2), and polychaetes (up to 4665 m-2; 114.7 gww m-2) were documented from multiple stations west of and within Barrow Canyon. This high productivity was most likely due to the "canyon effect", where marine and coastal detrital carbon supplies are channeled by the canyon structure, enhancing carbon deposition and flux, which supports rich benthic communities within the canyon and surrounding areas. To examine the relationships between infaunal distributions of all collected taxa with the physical environment, we used a Biota and Environment matching (BIO-ENV) routine. A combination of water depth, bottom-water temperature and salinity, surface sediment total organic nitrogen (TON) and sediment C:N molar ratios correlated closest with infaunal abundance distribution (ρ=0.54), indicating that multiple factors influence the success of benthic communities. BIO-ENV routines produced similar correlation results when performed on targeted walrus prey items (bivalves (ρ=0.50), polychaetes (ρ=0.53), but gray whale prey items (amphipods) were not strongly correlated to any combination of physical environmental factors (ρ=0.24). Distributions of primary prey items for gray whales (amphipods) and walruses (bivalves
Swarzenski, Christopher M.; Mize, Scott V.; Thompson, Bruce A.; Peterson, Gary W.
, floating rafts of aquatic plants). Individuals from 84 genera belonging to 51 families were identified. Diptera (true flies) was the most diverse group. Malacostraca (crustaceans), especially Amphipoda (scuds and sideswimmers), were the most abundant (36 percent). Total abundance and taxa richness of aquatic invertebrates were comparable during the March and July sampling in 1999, but were lower in samples collected from the same habitat at all three sites in April 2000. About 106 individuals were identified and enumerated from the depositional-targeted habitat (DTH, bottom material). Individuals from 7 genera belonging to 9 families were identified. Diptera was the most diverse group, and Annelida, especially tubificid worms, were the most abundant organisms identified (52 percent). Total abundance and composition of aquatic invertebrate communities differed between RTH and DTH at all three sites in April 2000. Organic compounds in whole fish, and trace elements, iron, and manganese in fillets, were analyzed in bowfin (Amia calva), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Organic compounds were not detected. Mercury was detected in fillets of all four species. Highest concentrations of mercury were detected in fillets from bowfin and largemouth bass. Mercury concentrations increased with increasing weight in the three predatory fish species (bowfin, bluegill, and largemouth bass), but were much lower, relative to weight, in the omnivore, common carp. Chromium concentrations were detected in tissue of the two larger fish, bowfin and common carp. Cadmium and lead were not detected in any samples. Mercury concentrations for larger predatory fish caught in Preserve waterways may be a concern if the fish are frequently consumed by humans. The process of mercury accumulation appears to be natural, and not related to a local source problem. Mercury concentrations in comparable fish tissue at
Evenhuis, Neal L; Pape, Thomas; Pont, Adrian C
]; Euprosopia Macquart, 1847 [Platystomatidae]; Grapholostylum Macquart, 1851 [Tachinidae]; Graphomyzina Macquart, 1835 [Sciomyzidae]; Gymnostylina Macquart, 1835 [Tachinidae]; Heterometopia Macquart, 1846 [Tachinidae]; Laxenecera Macquart, 1838 [Asilidae]; Leptomyza Macquart, 1835 [Anthomyzidae]; Megistogaster Macquart, 1851 [Tachinidae]; Microtrichodes Macquart, 1846 [Tachinidae]; Microtropesa Macquart, 1846 [Tachinidae]; Ogcodocera Macquart, 1840 [Bombyliidae]; Onuxicera Macquart, 1855 [Tachinidae]; Ozodicera Macquart, 1834 [Tipulidae]; Pachymerina Macquart, 1834 [Empididae]; Pachyrhina Macquart, 1834 [Tipulidae]; Pachystylum Macquart, 1848 [Tachinidae]; Physegaster Macquart, 1847 [Acroceridae]; Plesionevra Macquart, 1855 [Tachinidae]; Rhopalia Macquart, 1838 [Mydidae]; Semiomyia Macquart, 1848 [Tachinidae]; Senostoma Macquart, 1847 [Tachinidae]; Silbomyia Macquart, 1844 [Calliphoridae]; Sumpigaster Macquart, 1855 [Tachinidae]; Tapinocera Macquart, 1838 [Apioceridae]; Teretrophora Macquart, 1851 [Tachinidae]; Toxocnemis Macquart, 1855 [Tachinidae]; Toxotarsus Macquart, 1851 [Calliphoridae]; Trichostylum Macquart, 1851 [Tachinidae]; Trigonometopus Macquart, 1835 [Lauxaniidae]; Tritaxys Macquart, 1847 [Tachinidae]; Vermileo Macquart, 1834 [Vermileonidae]. Acting as First Reviser, the following correct original spellings for multiple original spellings are selected by us-(for genus-group names): Choeteprosopa Macquart, 1851 [Tachinidae]; Dichoetometopia Macquart, 1855 [Sarcophagidae]; Discocerina Macquart, 1835 [Ephydridae]; Dolichocephala Macquart, 1823 [Empididae]; Dolichomerus Macquart, 1850 [Syrphidae]; Graphalostylum Macquart, 1851 [Tachinidae]; Hemilampra Macquart, 1850 [Syrphidae]; Leptomyza Macquart, 1835 [Anthomyzidae]; Microcheilosia Macquart, 1855 [Tachinidae]; Phrissopodia Macquart, 1835 [Sarcophagidae]; Platytainia Macquart, 1851 [Tachinidae]; Polychaeta Macquart, 1851 [Tachinidae]; Stachynia Macquart, 1835 [Conopidae]-(for species-group names