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Sample records for annual lupines growing

  1. Lupine consumption by cattle in the scablands of Eastern Washington.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Scabland region of eastern Washington is dominated by annual grasses and in some areas by Lupinus leucophyllus (velvet lupine). The purpose of these trials was to document the consumption of velvet lupine and relate the amount of lupine eaten by pregnant cows with the incidence of crooked calv...

  2. [Allergenicity of lupin flour].

    PubMed

    Leduc, V; Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Guérin, L

    2002-06-01

    Lupin flour is used in human food for its high quality nutritional and functional qualities. The frequency of crossed allergy between lupin flour and peanuts, both members of the family of Leguminosae, is strong, since 68% of patients who are allergic to peanut have shown positive reactions to lupin flour when tested by TPO-DA. Cases of isolated allergy to lupin flour without pre-existence of peanut allergy as well as workplace asthma by inhalation are also rarely seen. The specific allergens of lupin and those that participate in crosses with peanut have been studied by SDS-PAGE and immunoblot. The diversity of allergens contained in different lupin flour has also been studied. Further, the detection of lupin flour in a "pizza" flour which induced a strong allergic reaction exposed its eventual implication as a masked allergen.

  3. Growth performance, gastrointestinal function and meat quality in growing-finishing turkeys fed diets with different levels of yellow lupine (L. luteus) seeds.

    PubMed

    Zduńczyk, Zenon; Jankowski, Jan; Mikulski, Dariusz; Mikulska, Marzena; Lamparski, Grzegorz; Slominski, Bogdan A; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a different dietary content of sweet yellow lupine seed meal (YLM) on gastrointestinal tract development and function, the growth performance (13-18 weeks of age) and meat quality of growing-finishing turkeys. Control grower and finisher diets contained soybean meal (SBM), and in experimental diets, SBM was replaced with YLM at 6%, 12% and 18% (Groups L6, L12 and L18, respectively). The diets were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic. In the first phase of feeding, YLM tended to decrease feed intake (p = 0.087) and body weight gain (BWG, p = 0.078) linearly due to significant deterioration in feed conversion ratio (FCR, p = 0.030). An opposite trend was noted in the second phase of feeding: BWG increased (p = 0.069) and FCR improved significantly (p = 0.004). Over the entire experiment, inclusion of YLM did not affect feed intake, BWG, FCR or excreta dry matter (DM) content. The highest YLM dietary level had no adverse effects on fermentation processes in the caeca. Positive changes, which were observed in turkeys fed YLM-supplemented diets, included an increased gizzard weight, a decreased pH of gizzard contents and a decreased viscosity of small intestinal digesta. The inclusion of YLM at 18% had no effect on carcass quality, the pH and colour intensity of breast meat. The highest inclusion rate of YLM (18%) in turkey diets significantly (p < 0.05) intensified the fatty flavour of meat and increased its hardness, springiness and chewiness, whereas it had no effect on the appearance, aroma and overall acceptability of breast meat. It can be concluded that YLM at the highest dietary rate used in the present experiment (18% of the diet) had no adverse effects on the growth performance or the analysed physiological parameters of turkeys.

  4. Anaphylactic reaction to lupine flour.

    PubMed

    Brennecke, Sabine; Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Lepp, Ute; Jappe, Uta

    2007-09-01

    Roasted lupine seeds have been used as snack food in Mediterranean countries for years. Since the 1990s, lupine flour has been used as a substitute for or additive to other flours in countries of the European Union; usually the amount is so low that no declaration is required. Since 1994, a number of cases of immediate-type allergy to lupine flour-containing products have been published. A 52-year-old woman developed facial and mucosal edema, followed by dizziness and shortness of breath a few minutes after ingestion of a nut croissant containing lupine flour; she required emergency care. Allergy diagnostic tests revealed a total IgE of 116 kU/l, a highly elevated concentration of IgE specific for lupine seed (42.9 kU/l) and birch pollen IgE of 2.57 kU/l. Skin prick test with native lupine flour was strongly positive. Allergy against lupine seeds may develop de novo or via cross-reactivity to legumes, particularly peanuts, the latter being detectable in up to 88% of cases, founded on a strong sequence similarity between lupine and peanut allergens. In our patient, no cross-reactivity could be detected via immunoblotting, indicating a rare monovalent sensitization to lupine flour. Treatment consists of avoidance of lupine flour-containing products. Patients with proven peanut allergy should also avoid lupine flour because of the major risk of cross-reaction.

  5. The utilization of lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) and faba bean globulins by rats is poorer than of soybean globulins or lactalbumin but the nutritional value of lupin seed meal is lower only than that of lactalbumin.

    PubMed

    Rubio, L A; Grant, G; Scislowski, P W; Brown, D; Bardocz, S; Pusztai, A

    1995-08-01

    The effects of dietary sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius, Unicrop) seed meal or its insoluble fiber (nonstarch polysaccharides + lignin) on performance, digestibility and nitrogen utilization in growing rats were studied in four experiments. Globulin proteins isolated from lupin, faba bean (Vicia faba L. minor) or soybean (Glycine max) were also incorporated into purified diets as replacements for lactalbumin (control) and the nutritional effects were evaluated. Isocaloric, legume-based diets supplemented with amino acids were used. Final weight gain, gain:feed ratios, nitrogen retention and net protein utilization of the animals fed whole lupin meal-based diets for 10 d were inferior to those of controls. In contrast, adding lupin insoluble fiber to a control diet produced no adverse effects. Ileal starch and apparent nitrogen digestibilities, and fecal digestibility of starch in lupin-fed rats were higher than those of controls, but fecal true nitrogen digestibility was lower. Replacement of lactalbumin with globulin proteins from lupin or faba bean depressed food intake and protein utilization, but only performance was affected by consumption of soybean globulins. Rats consuming lupin or faba bean globulins excreted significantly more nitrogen, particularly as urea through the urine. This did not occur in rats fed soybean globulins. Urea concentration in plasma was higher in rats fed diets containing lupin meal or legume globulins. The concentrations of urea, arginine and ornithine in plasma increased significantly compared with control values after 3 to 9 h of a lupin diet. After 9 h, plasma lysine was also decreased. We concluded that the main reasons for the low nutritional value of sweet lupin seed meal are likely to be related to the chemical structure of the globulin proteins and their adverse effects on growth and nitrogen metabolism, and not to any known antinutritional factor or poor digestibility.

  6. Effect of feeding growing-fattening rabbits a diet supplemented with whole white lupin (Lupinus albus cv. Amiga) seeds on fatty acid composition and indexes related to human health in hind leg meat and perirenal fat.

    PubMed

    Volek, Zdeněk; Marounek, Milan

    2011-01-01

    A total of 20 weaned rabbits (33 days old) (10 per treatment) were fed one of two diets that included 150 g of sunflower meal (SF)/kg of diet or 120 g of whole white lupin (WL)/kg of diet for 42 days. The WL diet contained less saturated fatty acids (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) but more monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) than the SF diet. The WL diet significantly decreased SFA and PUFA content, as well as the PUFA n-6/PUFA n-3 ratio and saturation, atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in hind leg meat. The fatty acid composition in perirenal fat was similar to that of hind leg meat; however, significantly higher MUFA levels were observed in rabbits fed the WL diet. Thus, feeding rabbits the WL diet affected the fatty acid profile of hind leg meat and perirenal fat in a favourable manner.

  7. Crude protein supplementation to reduce lupine consumption by pregnant cattle in the scablands of eastern Washington.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lupinus leucophyllus (velvet lupine) is prevalent in eastern Washington, and when consumed by pregnant cows, can cause “crooked calf disease.” Rangelands in this region are dominated by poor quality annual grasses. The objective of this study was to determine if feeding supplemental crude protein...

  8. Adverse reaction to lupine-fortified pasta.

    PubMed

    Hefle, S L; Lemanske, R F; Bush, R K

    1994-08-01

    A 5-year-old girl with peanut sensitivity experienced urticaria and angioedema after ingesting a spaghetti-like pasta fortified with sweet lupine seed flour. The pasta was extracted and used in immunologic studies in patients with peanut sensitivity to determine whether such individuals are at similar risk. Results of skin prick tests with the lupine pasta extract were positive in five of seven subjects; these patients also reported a history of adverse reactions to green peas. In direct RAST studies IgE binding from pooled sera from patients with peanut sensitivity to the lupine pasta extract was 7 times that of a nonallergic control serum, and individual serum samples demonstrated binding from 1 to 6 times that of the negative control. Direct RAST studies of lupine seed flour with serum samples from patients with peanut allergy demonstrated IgE binding 1 to 11 times that of the negative control. Immunoblotting studies of electrophoretically separated pasta extract and lupine seed flour proteins showed IgE-binding protein bands at approximately 21 kd and in the range of 35 to 55 kd molecular weight. We conclude that some peanut-sensitive patients may be at risk for adverse reactions to lupine.

  9. Metabolic Adaptations of White Lupin Roots and Shoots under Phosphorus Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Müller, Julia; Gödde, Victoria; Niehaus, Karsten; Zörb, Christian

    2015-01-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is highly adapted to phosphorus-diminished soils. P-deficient white lupin plants modify their root architecture and physiology to acquire sparingly available soil phosphorus. We employed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for metabolic profiling of P-deficient white lupins, to investigate biochemical pathways involved in the P-acquiring strategy. After 14 days of P-deficiency, plants showed reduced levels of fructose, glucose, and sucrose in shoots. Phosphorylated metabolites such as glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate, myo-inositol-phosphate and glycerol-3-phosphate were reduced in both shoots and roots. After 22 days of P-deficiency, no effect on shoot or root sugar metabolite levels was found, but the levels of phosphorylated metabolites were further reduced. Organic acids, amino acids and several shikimate pathway products showed enhanced levels in 22-day-old P-deficient roots and shoots. These results indicate that P-deficient white lupins adapt their carbohydrate partitioning between shoot and root in order to supply their growing root system as an early response to P-deficiency. Organic acids are released into the rhizosphere to mobilize phosphorus from soil particles. A longer period of P-deficiency leads to scavenging of Pi from P-containing metabolites and reduced protein anabolism, but enhanced formation of secondary metabolites. The latter can serve as stress protection molecules or actively acquire phosphorus from the soil. PMID:26635840

  10. Metabolic Adaptations of White Lupin Roots and Shoots under Phosphorus Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Julia; Gödde, Victoria; Niehaus, Karsten; Zörb, Christian

    2015-01-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is highly adapted to phosphorus-diminished soils. P-deficient white lupin plants modify their root architecture and physiology to acquire sparingly available soil phosphorus. We employed gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for metabolic profiling of P-deficient white lupins, to investigate biochemical pathways involved in the P-acquiring strategy. After 14 days of P-deficiency, plants showed reduced levels of fructose, glucose, and sucrose in shoots. Phosphorylated metabolites such as glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate, myo-inositol-phosphate and glycerol-3-phosphate were reduced in both shoots and roots. After 22 days of P-deficiency, no effect on shoot or root sugar metabolite levels was found, but the levels of phosphorylated metabolites were further reduced. Organic acids, amino acids and several shikimate pathway products showed enhanced levels in 22-day-old P-deficient roots and shoots. These results indicate that P-deficient white lupins adapt their carbohydrate partitioning between shoot and root in order to supply their growing root system as an early response to P-deficiency. Organic acids are released into the rhizosphere to mobilize phosphorus from soil particles. A longer period of P-deficiency leads to scavenging of Pi from P-containing metabolites and reduced protein anabolism, but enhanced formation of secondary metabolites. The latter can serve as stress protection molecules or actively acquire phosphorus from the soil. PMID:26635840

  11. Lupine inhalation induced asthma in a child.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Ancillo, Alvaro; Gil-Adrados, Ana C; Domínguez-Noche, Carmen; Cosmes, Pedro M

    2005-09-01

    The ingestion of lupine seed flour has been reported as a cause of allergic reactions. There is some evidence of its allergenic potential after inhalation. An 8-year-old asthmatic child, who was allergic to peanut, was studied in our clinic with the suspicion of an adverse drug reaction due to salbutamol. He suffered an asthma attack while playing with his brother, who had been eating lupine seed as snack; surprisingly, the asthma attack worsened with salbutamol. The skin tests showed a positive result with Lupinus albus extract, peanut, garbanzo bean, navy bean, pea, green bean, lentil, soy, Olea europea pollen, grass pollen and Plantago lanceolata pollen. The prick-by-prick tests both from dried seeds and those preserved in salt and water were strongly positive. Serum specific IgE antibodies were positive to Lupine albus (1.43 kU/l), peanut (4.32 kU/l), soy (2.15 kU/l), lentil (3.12 kU/l) and garbanzo (0.7 kU/l). After informed consent salbutamol was well tolerated but the patient had asthma in 5 min of manipulation of the lupine seeds. In our case, reactivity with other legumes was also demonstrated, but only peanut allergy was relevant because boiled legumes were tolerated. It is also notorious that anamnesis is so important to assess the true etiological agents of asthma.

  12. Organic Weed Control in White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Legumes such as white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) provide a valuable nitrogen source in organic agriculture. With organic farming becoming an increasing sector of US agriculture and white lupin interest increasing in the southeastern USA because winter hardy cultivars are available, non-chemical weed c...

  13. The future of lupin as a protein crop in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, M. Mercedes; Stoddard, Frederick L.; Annicchiarico, Paolo; Frías, Juana; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Sussmann, Daniela; Duranti, Marcello; Seger, Alice; Zander, Peter M.; Pueyo, José J.

    2015-01-01

    Europe has become heavily dependent on soya bean imports, entailing trade agreements and quality standards that do not satisfy the European citizen’s expectations. White, yellow, and narrow-leafed lupins are native European legumes that can become true alternatives to soya bean, given their elevated and high-quality protein content, potential health benefits, suitability for sustainable production, and acceptability to consumers. Nevertheless, lupin cultivation in Europe remains largely insufficient to guarantee a steady supply to the food industry, which in turn must innovate to produce attractive lupin-based protein-rich foods. Here, we address different aspects of the food supply chain that should be considered for lupin exploitation as a high-value protein source. Advanced breeding techniques are needed to provide new lupin varieties for socio-economically and environmentally sustainable cultivation. Novel processes should be optimized to obtain high-quality, safe lupin protein ingredients, and marketable foods need to be developed and offered to consumers. With such an integrated strategy, lupins can be established as an alternative protein crop, capable of promoting socio-economic growth and environmental benefits in Europe. PMID:26442020

  14. The future of lupin as a protein crop in Europe.

    PubMed

    Lucas, M Mercedes; Stoddard, Frederick L; Annicchiarico, Paolo; Frías, Juana; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Sussmann, Daniela; Duranti, Marcello; Seger, Alice; Zander, Peter M; Pueyo, José J

    2015-01-01

    Europe has become heavily dependent on soya bean imports, entailing trade agreements and quality standards that do not satisfy the European citizen's expectations. White, yellow, and narrow-leafed lupins are native European legumes that can become true alternatives to soya bean, given their elevated and high-quality protein content, potential health benefits, suitability for sustainable production, and acceptability to consumers. Nevertheless, lupin cultivation in Europe remains largely insufficient to guarantee a steady supply to the food industry, which in turn must innovate to produce attractive lupin-based protein-rich foods. Here, we address different aspects of the food supply chain that should be considered for lupin exploitation as a high-value protein source. Advanced breeding techniques are needed to provide new lupin varieties for socio-economically and environmentally sustainable cultivation. Novel processes should be optimized to obtain high-quality, safe lupin protein ingredients, and marketable foods need to be developed and offered to consumers. With such an integrated strategy, lupins can be established as an alternative protein crop, capable of promoting socio-economic growth and environmental benefits in Europe. PMID:26442020

  15. Effect of lactic acid fermentation of lupine wholemeal on acrylamide content and quality characteristics of wheat-lupine bread.

    PubMed

    Bartkiene, Elena; Jakobsone, Ida; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva; Pugajeva, Iveta; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2013-11-01

    The effect of supplementing wheat flour at a level of 15% with lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.) wholemeal fermented by different lactic acid bacteria on acrylamide content in bread crumb as well as on bread texture and sensory characteristics was analysed. The use of fermented lupine resulted in a lower specific volume and crumb porosity of bread on an average by 14.1% and 10.5%, respectively, while untreated lupine lowered the latter parameters at a higher level (30.8% and 20.7%, respectively). The addition of lupine resulted in a higher by 43.3% acrylamide content compared to wheat bread (19.4 µg/kg dry weight (d.w.)). Results showed that acrylamide was significantly reduced using proteolytic Lactobacillus sakei and Pediococcus pentosaceus 10 strains for lupine fermentation. Although the bread supplemented with lupine spontaneous sourdough had the lowest level of acrylamide (15.6 µg/kg d.w.), it had the malodorous flavour and was unacceptable to the consumers. The lactofermentation could increase the potential use of lupine as a food ingredient while reducing acrylamide formation and enriching bread with high quality proteins. PMID:23763660

  16. Effect of lactic acid fermentation of lupine wholemeal on acrylamide content and quality characteristics of wheat-lupine bread.

    PubMed

    Bartkiene, Elena; Jakobsone, Ida; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva; Pugajeva, Iveta; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2013-11-01

    The effect of supplementing wheat flour at a level of 15% with lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.) wholemeal fermented by different lactic acid bacteria on acrylamide content in bread crumb as well as on bread texture and sensory characteristics was analysed. The use of fermented lupine resulted in a lower specific volume and crumb porosity of bread on an average by 14.1% and 10.5%, respectively, while untreated lupine lowered the latter parameters at a higher level (30.8% and 20.7%, respectively). The addition of lupine resulted in a higher by 43.3% acrylamide content compared to wheat bread (19.4 µg/kg dry weight (d.w.)). Results showed that acrylamide was significantly reduced using proteolytic Lactobacillus sakei and Pediococcus pentosaceus 10 strains for lupine fermentation. Although the bread supplemented with lupine spontaneous sourdough had the lowest level of acrylamide (15.6 µg/kg d.w.), it had the malodorous flavour and was unacceptable to the consumers. The lactofermentation could increase the potential use of lupine as a food ingredient while reducing acrylamide formation and enriching bread with high quality proteins.

  17. Effect of annual, growing season, and spring precipitation on peak standing crop at three locations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ranchers and range managers in the West are at the mercy of climatic conditions that determine the amount of annual forage available on rangeland. Typically, stocking or de-stocking decisions need to be made before the final forage production level is known. Ranchers and range managers need a decisi...

  18. The influence of lupin seed germination on the chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids in pigs.

    PubMed

    Chilomer, K; Kasprowicz-Potocka, M; Gulewicz, P; Frankiewicz, A

    2013-08-01

    The germination process can modify the chemical composition of nutrients in seeds, which can influence the digestibility and utilization of sprouts in animal diets compared to raw seeds. The aims of research were to provide controlled germination process of lupin seeds, monitor the changes in seed composition and determine the influence of the germination on the coefficients of standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein and amino acids in growing pigs, compared to raw lupin seeds. The seeds of two lupin species were used: yellow (RYL) (Lupinus luteus, cv. Lord) and blue (RBL) (Lupinus angustifolius, cv. Graf). Germination was provided in the dark at 24°C for 4 days. Nutritional and antinutritional compositions of raw and germinated seeds (GYL and GBL, respectively) were analysed. Digestibility study was performed on pigs with an average body weight of 25 kg, and the pigs were surgically fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum, with chromic oxide as an indicator. Seed germination increased the crude protein and fibre concentrations, but reduced the levels of the ether extract, nitrogen-free extracts and all amino acids in protein. The content of alkaloids and raffinose family oligosaccharides decreased in both lupin species. Germination had no positive impact (p>0.05) on the SID of crude protein and amino acids. Germination of lupin seeds negatively influenced the SID of lysine and methionine (p<0.05). The results of the research revealed a decrease in the concentrations of antinutritional factors in the sprouts of yellow and blue lupins compared to raw seeds; however, no positive effect was observed on the coefficients of the standardized ileal apparent digestibility of protein and amino acids.

  19. Temperature drives inter-annual variability of growing season CO2 and CH4 fluxes of Siberian lowland tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutzbach, Lars; Wille, Christian; Runkle, Benjamin; Schreiber, Peter; Sachs, Torsten; Langer, Moritz; Boike, Julia; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

    2015-04-01

    Due to the logistic and technical difficulties associated with experimental work in high latitudes, long-term measurements of CO2 and CH4 fluxes from arctic ecosystems are still rare, and published trace gas balances often rely on measurements from one or few growing seasons. The inter-annual variability of environmental conditions such as temperature, precipitation, snow cover, and timing of snow melt can be high in the Arctic, especially for regions which are influenced by both continental and maritime climates, such as the Siberian arctic lowlands. For these ecosystems, we must also expect a great inter-annual variability in the balance of trace gases. Multi-annual data sets are needed to investigate this variability and its drivers. Here we present multi-annual late summer CO2 and CH4 flux data from the Lena River Delta in the Siberian Arctic (72° N, 126° E). The study site Samoylov Island is characterized by polygonal lowland tundra, a vegetation dominated by mosses and sedges, a soil complex of Glacic, Turbic and Histic Cryosols, and an active layer depth of on average 0.5 m. Seasonal flux measurements were carried out with the eddy covariance technique during the 13-year period 2002 - 2014. Within this period, CO2 flux data overlaps during 37 days (20 July - 25 August) for 12 years, and CH4 flux data overlaps during 25 days (28 July - 21 August) for 9 years. Cumulative net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) during the late summer overlap period is fairly consistent for 9 out of 12 years with a CO2 uptake of 1.9 ± 0.1 mol m-2. Three years show a clearly smaller uptake of

  20. Effects of sweet, bitter and soaked micronised bitter lupins on duckling performance.

    PubMed

    Olver, M D; Jonker, A

    1998-12-01

    1. The feeding value of sweet white lupins (Lupinus albus variety Hanli), bitter lupins (Lupinus angustifolius) and soaked micronised bitter lupins on male Pekin duckling performance was examined. 2. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were formulated with 1 containing no lupin and the other 3 containing 400 g/kg sweet, bitter or soaked micronised bitter lupins. The 3 lupin diets were then blended appropriately to produce 16 experimental diets containing 0, 50, 100, 200, 300 and 400 g/kg sweet, bitter and soaked micronised bitter lupins, and fed to Cherry Valley Super M Pekin ducklings for 6 weeks. 3. The feeding of bitter lupins to ducklings at 200, 300 and 400 g/kg diet resulted in a poorer performance (P < 0.01) with regard to body weight gain, food intake and food conversion ratio than feeding the control diet. Carcase moisture was higher and carcase fat content lower (P < 0.01) at the 400 g/kg concentration only. No significant differences were observed with carcase protein or carcase ash content. No significant differences were observed between treatments and the control when different amounts of sweet or soaked micronised bitter lupins were fed. 4. There were significant linear adverse responses (P < 0.01) with bitter lupins in most of the variables studied whereas no responses were observed with sweet or soaked micronised bitter lupins as the concentration of lupins in the diet increased. The soaked micronised bitter lupins performed as well as the sweet lupins, showing that the amount of bitter lupins used in duckling diets can be increased to 400 g/kg after this treatment.

  1. Proteomic characterization of seeds from yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.).

    PubMed

    Ogura, Takahiro; Ogihara, Jun; Sunairi, Michio; Takeishi, Hidetaka; Aizawa, Tomoko; Olivos-Trujillo, Marcos R; Maureira-Butler, Iván J; Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo E

    2014-06-01

    Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) is a legume crop containing a large amount of protein in its seeds. In this study, we constructed a seed-protein catalog to provide a foundation for further study of the seeds. A total of 736 proteins were identified in 341 2DE spots by nano-LC-MS/MS. Eight storage proteins were found as multiple spots in the 2DE gels. The 736 proteins correspond to 152 unique proteins as shown by UniRef50 clustering. Sixty-seven of the 152 proteins were associated with KEGG-defined pathways. Of the remaining proteins, 57 were classified according to a GO term. The functions of the remaining 28 proteins have yet to be determined. This is the first yellow lupin seed-protein catalog, and it contains considerably more data than previously reported for white lupin (L. albus L.).

  2. Characterisation of different digestion susceptibility of lupin seed globulins.

    PubMed

    Czubinski, Jaroslaw; Dwiecki, Krzysztof; Siger, Aleksander; Neunert, Grazyna; Lampart-Szczapa, Eleonora

    2014-01-15

    This study describes in vitro digestion of lupin seed globulins by pancreatin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. Lupin seed globulins turned out to be almost totally susceptible to chymotrypsin digestion. When panceratin or trypsin were used for digestion of lupin seed globulins, γ-conglutin appeared to be resistant to proteolysis. Different fluorescence spectroscopic methods such as fluorescence anisotropy, fluorescence lifetimes and fluorescence quenching measurements were used for detailed characterisation of this phenomenon. A potential reason for γ-conglutin insensitivity to digestion may be related to the fact that lysine, as well as arginine, are positively charged at cell physiological pH. Simultaneously, flavonoids at this pH are partially ionised, which may lead to the occurrence of ionic interactions between these molecules at pH 7.5. The confirmation of this explanation may be the fact that γ-conglutin and vitexin form a static complex, which was observed using fluorescence quenching measurements.

  3. Transfer RNA methyltransferases from yellow lupin seeds: purification and properties.

    PubMed Central

    Wierzbicka, H; Jakubowski, H; Pawelkiewicz

    1975-01-01

    tRNA methyltransferases from extract of yellow lupin seeds were purified over 300-fold by the methods based on hydrophobic and affinity chromatography. However, in the most active fractions the methylating enzymes were over 2000 purified. The purified enzyme fractions catalysed the formation of 1-methyladenine and 5-methylcytosine using E. coli B and B. subtilis tRNAs as substrates and S-adenosylmethionine as the methyl donor. They were unable to methylate their own endogenous tRNA but they were capable of methylating tRNA of some other lupinus species. Whereas the patterns of methylated constituents of tRNA of some other lupinus and B. subtilis were quite similar, they differed considerably from those obtained with lupin species tRNAs. Some properties of purified methyltransferases from yellow lupin seeds have been described. PMID:236549

  4. The alternative respiratory pathway mediates carboxylate synthesis in white lupin cluster roots under phosphorus deprivation.

    PubMed

    Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Lambers, Hans; Wang, Xing; Finnegan, Patrick M; Ribas-Carbo, Miquel

    2014-04-01

    Plant adaptations associated with a high efficiency of phosphorus (P) acquisition can be used to increase productivity and sustainability in a world with a growing population and decreasing rock phosphate reserves. White lupin (Lupinus albus) produces cluster roots that release carboxylates to efficiently mobilize P from P-sorbing soils. It has been hypothesized that an increase in the activity of the alternative oxidase (AOX) would allow for the mitochondrial oxidation of NAD(P)H produced during citrate synthesis in cluster roots at a developmental stage when there is a low demand for ATP. We used the oxygen-isotope fractionation technique to study the in vivo respiratory activities of the cytochrome oxidase pathway (COP) and the alternative oxidase pathway (AOP) in different root sections of white lupins grown hydroponically with and without P. In parallel, AOX protein levels and internal carboxylate concentrations were determined in cluster and non-cluster roots. Higher in vivo AOP activity was measured in cluster roots when malate and citrate concentrations were also high, thus confirming our hypothesis. AOX protein levels were not always correlated with in vivo AOP activity, suggesting post-translational regulation of AOX. PMID:24118034

  5. Burkholderia Species Are Major Inhabitants of White Lupin Cluster Roots▿†

    PubMed Central

    Weisskopf, Laure; Heller, Stefanie; Eberl, Leo

    2011-01-01

    The formation of cluster roots by plants represents a highly efficient strategy for acquisition of sparingly available phosphate. This particular root type is characterized by a densely branched structure and high exudation of organic acids and protons, which are likely to influence the resident bacterial community. Until now, the identity of the bacterial populations living in cluster roots has not been investigated. We applied cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent methods to characterize the dominant bacterial genera inhabiting the growing cluster roots of white lupin. We observed a high relative abundance of Burkholderia species (up to 58% of all isolated strains and 44% of all retrieved 16S rRNA sequences) and a significant enrichment with increasing cluster root age. Most of the sequences retrieved clustered together with known plant- or fungus-associated Burkholderia species, while only one of 98 sequences was affiliated with the Burkholderia cepacia complex. In vitro assays revealed that Burkholderia strains were much more tolerant to low pH than non-Burkholderia strains. Moreover, many strains produced large amounts of siderophores and were able to utilize citrate and oxalate as carbon sources. These features seem to represent important traits for the successful colonization and maintenance of Burkholderia species in white lupin cluster roots. PMID:21908626

  6. [Lupine, a contribution to the human food supply. 3. Nutritional physiological study with lupine (Lupinus albus) flour].

    PubMed

    Gross, R; Morales, E; Gross, U; von Baer, E

    1976-12-01

    Lupinus albus flour doses of 58.9 +/- 9.6 g have been given to 20 persons. This sweet lupine flour has been digestible without complications in all cases. There have been no significant changes of hemoglobine, hematocrite, total protein, urea, bilirubine, and SGOT in the blood. So the lupine may be used for improvement of protein supply in men under the criteria that (1) the alkaloid content of the seed does not exceed 0.02%, (2) the seed itself contains no secondary fungi which may cause a lupinosis.

  7. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of lupine residues in foods.

    PubMed

    Kaw, C H; Hefle, S L; Taylor, S L

    2008-10-01

    Lupine has been increasingly used in food applications due to its high nutritional value and excellent functional properties. However, lupine provokes allergic reactions in susceptible individuals. The presence of undeclared lupine residues in foods can pose a serious health risk to lupine-allergic individuals. Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop a sandwich-type ELISA for the detection of lupine residues in foods. Lupine flour derived from Lupinus albus was used to immunize 3 rabbits and a sheep. Pooled lupine-specific antibodies were partially purified from the sera by ammonium sulfate precipitation. A sandwich lupine ELISA with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 1 ppm was developed by utilizing the rabbit antisera as the capture reagent and the sheep antiserum as the detector reagent. The binding of the antigen-antibody complex was visualized by the addition of commercial rabbit antisheep IgG antibody labeled with alkaline phosphatase with subsequent addition of p-nitrophenyl phosphate substrate to produce a colored product for quantification. Minor cross-reactivity was observed with soy (Glycine max) and black bean (Castanospermum australe). The performance of the lupine ELISA was evaluated in reference food standards (beef frankfurter and apple cinnamon muffin) and laboratory-prepared cooked frankfurters and corn muffins. The mean percent recovery for lupine spiked-frankfurters and corn muffins were 108.4%+/- 8.8% and 103.1%+/- 11.5%, respectively. The sandwich-type lupine ELISA developed in this study provides food manufacturers and regulatory agencies with an effective analytical tool to detect and quantify lupine residues in processed foods.

  8. Large-scale variations in the vegetation growing season and annual cycle of atmospheric CO2 at high northern latitudes from 1950 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Barichivich, Jonathan; Briffa, Keith R; Myneni, Ranga B; Osborn, Timothy J; Melvin, Thomas M; Ciais, Philippe; Piao, Shilong; Tucker, Compton

    2013-10-01

    We combine satellite and ground observations during 1950-2011 to study the long-term links between multiple climate (air temperature and cryospheric dynamics) and vegetation (greenness and atmospheric CO(2) concentrations) indicators of the growing season of northern ecosystems (>45°N) and their connection with the carbon cycle. During the last three decades, the thermal potential growing season has lengthened by about 10.5 days (P < 0.01, 1982-2011), which is unprecedented in the context of the past 60 years. The overall lengthening has been stronger and more significant in Eurasia (12.6 days, P < 0.01) than North America (6.2 days, P > 0.05). The photosynthetic growing season has closely tracked the pace of warming and extension of the potential growing season in spring, but not in autumn when factors such as light and moisture limitation may constrain photosynthesis. The autumnal extension of the photosynthetic growing season since 1982 appears to be about half that of the thermal potential growing season, yielding a smaller lengthening of the photosynthetic growing season (6.7 days at the circumpolar scale, P < 0.01). Nevertheless, when integrated over the growing season, photosynthetic activity has closely followed the interannual variations and warming trend in cumulative growing season temperatures. This lengthening and intensification of the photosynthetic growing season, manifested principally over Eurasia rather than North America, is associated with a long-term increase (22.2% since 1972, P < 0.01) in the amplitude of the CO(2) annual cycle at northern latitudes. The springtime extension of the photosynthetic and potential growing seasons has apparently stimulated earlier and stronger net CO(2) uptake by northern ecosystems, while the autumnal extension is associated with an earlier net release of CO(2) to the atmosphere. These contrasting responses may be critical in determining the impact of continued warming on northern terrestrial ecosystems and the

  9. Effects of extracts of lupine seed on blood glucose levels in glucose resistant mice: antihyperglycemic effects of Lupinus albus (white lupine, Egypt) and Lupinus caudatus (tailcup lupine, Mesa Verde National Park).

    PubMed

    Knecht, Kathryn T; Nguyen, Hoa; Auker, Adrienne D; Kinder, David H

    2006-01-01

    Lupine is a medicinal food plant with potential value in the management of diabetes. In white mice, extracts of seeds of the white lupine [Lupinus albus (L. termis L.)] were associated with increased tolerance to an oral glucose bolus. Antihyperglycemic activity was present in extracts of the whole seed but not extracts of the seed coat, and was not detected when glucose was administered intraperitoneally rather than orally. However, in contrast to results seen with the prescription drug, acarbose, lupine extract did not appear to increase the bulk or carbohydrate content of the feces. Antihyperglycemic activity was also seen in extracts of the tailcup lupine (L. caudatus) found in the Four Corners Region of the United States. PMID:17317651

  10. Glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases play an important role in phosphate recycling and phosphate sensing in white lupin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.), a well adapted species to phosphate (Pi) impoverished soils, develops short, densely clustered lateral roots (cluster/proteoid roots) to increase Pi uptake. Here, we report two white lupin glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GPX-PDE) genes which share strong homo...

  11. Evaluation of herbicide efficacy, injury and yield in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin is of increasing interest in the southeastern USA as a winter legume cover crop or as mid-winter forage for ruminants. White lupins are poor weed competitors during early establishment which makes effective weed control necessary, however, only three herbicides are currently registered f...

  12. Management practices to reduce lupine-induced Crooked Calf Syndrome in the Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many factors contribute to the incidence of lupine-induced “Crooked Calf Syndrome” (CCS) in the northwestern U.S. A 1-5% incidence of CCS is common on many ranches and higher incidences occur when environmental conditions are conducive to lupine population increases. Multiple management strategies s...

  13. Influence of grazing pressure on cattle consumption of the teratogenic plant velvet lupine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lupine species may contain teratogenic alkaloids that cause birth defects called crooked calf syndrome. If pregnant cows ingest toxic lupine between days 40 and 100 of gestation, fetal movement is impaired and irreversible skeletal defects occur. There is a need to determine the time and condition...

  14. Effects of water regime during rice-growing season on annual direct N(2)O emission in a paddy rice-winter wheat rotation system in southeast China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuwei; Qin, Yanmei; Zou, Jianwen; Liu, Qiaohui

    2010-01-15

    Annual paddy rice-winter wheat rotation constitutes one of the typical cropping systems in southeast China, in which various water regimes are currently practiced during the rice-growing season, including continuous flooding (F), flooding-midseason drainage-reflooding (F-D-F), and flooding-midseason drainage-reflooding and moisture but without waterlogging (F-D-F-M). We conducted a field experiment in a rice-winter wheat rotation system to gain an insight into the water regime-specific emission factors and background emissions of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) over the whole annual cycle. While flooding led to an unpronounced N(2)O emission during the rice-growing season, it incurred substantial N(2)O emission during the following non-rice season. During the non-rice season, N(2)O fluxes were, on average, 2.61 and 2.48 mg N(2)O-Nm(-)(2) day(-1) for the 250 kg N ha(-1) applied plots preceded by the F and F-D-F water regimes, which are 56% and 49% higher than those by the F-D-F-M water regime, respectively. For the annual rotation system experienced by continuous flooding during the rice-growing season, the relationship between N(2)O emission and nitrogen input predicted the emission factor and background emission of N(2)O to be 0.87% and 1.77 kg N(2)O-Nha(-1), respectively. For the plots experienced by the water regimes of F-D-F and F-D-F-M, the emission factors of N(2)O averaged 0.97% and 0.85%, with background N(2)O emissions of 2.00 kg N(2)O-Nha(-1) and 1.61 kg N(2)O-Nha(-1) for the annual rotation system, respectively. Annual direct N(2)O-N emission was estimated to be 98.1 Gg yr(-1) in Chinese rice-based cropping systems in the 1990s, consisting of 32.3 Gg during the rice-growing season and 65.8 Gg during the non-rice season, which accounts for 25-35% of the annual total emission from croplands in China.

  15. Variably severe systemic allergic reactions after consuming foods with unlabelled lupin flour: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Lupin allergy remains a significant cause of food-induced allergic reactivity and anaphylaxis. Previous work suggests a strong association with legume allergy and peanut allergy in particular. Both doctors and the public have little awareness of lupin as an allergen. Case presentation Case 1 was a 41-year-old Caucasian woman without previous atopy who developed facial swelling, widespread urticaria with asthma and hypotension within minutes of eating a quiche. Her lupin allergy was confirmed by both blood and skin tests. Her lupin sensitivity was so severe that even the miniscule amount of lupin allergen in the skin testing reagent produced a mild reaction. Case 2 was a 42-year-old mildly atopic Caucasian woman with three episodes of worsening urticaria and asthma symptoms over 6 years occurring after the consumption of foods containing lupin flour. Blood and skin tests were positive for lupin allergy. Case 3 was a 38-year-old Caucasian woman with known oral allergy syndrome who had two reactions associated with urticaria and vomiting after consuming foods containing lupin flour. Skin testing confirmed significant responses to a lupin flour extract and to one of the foods inducing her reaction. Case 4 was a 54-year-old mildly atopic Caucasian woman with a 7 year history of three to four episodes each year of unpredictable oral tingling followed by urticaria after consuming a variety of foods. The most recent episode had been associated with vomiting. She had developed oral tingling with lentil and chickpeas over the previous year. Skin and blood tests confirmed lupin allergy with associated sensitivity to several legumes. Conclusions Lupin allergy can occur for the first time in adults without previous atopy or legume sensitivity. Although asymptomatic sensitisation is frequent, clinical reactivity can vary in severity from severe anaphylaxis to urticaria and vomiting. Lupin allergy may be confirmed by skin and specific immunoglobulin E estimation

  16. Assessment of Bioavailable Concentrations of Germanium and Rare Earth Elements in the Rhizosphere of White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiche, Oliver; Fischer, Ronny; Moschner, Christin; Székely, Balázs

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of Germanium (Ge) and Rare Earth Elements in soils are estimated at 1.5 mg kg -1 (Ge), 25 mg kg -1 (La) and 20 mg kg -1 (Nd), which are only roughly smaller than concentrations of Pb and Zn. Germanium and rare earth elements are thus not rare but widely dispersed in soils and therefore up to date, only a few minable deposits are available. An environmental friendly and cost-effective way for Ge and rare earth element production could be phytomining. However, the most challenging part of a phytomining of these elements is to increase bioavailable concentrations of the elements in soils. Recent studies show, that mixed cultures with white lupine or other species with a high potential to mobilize trace metals in their rhizosphere due to an acidification of the soil and release of organic acids in the root zone could be a promising tool for phytomining. Complexation of Ge and rare earth elements by organic acids might play a key role in controlling bioavailability to plants as re-adsorption on soil particles and precipitation is prevented and thus, concentrations in the root zone of white lupine increase. This may also allow the complexes to diffuse along a concentration gradient to the roots of mixed culture growing species leading to enhanced plant uptake. However, to optimize mixed cultures it would be interesting to know to which extend mobilization of trace metals is dependent from chemical speciation of elements in soil due to the interspecific interaction of roots. A method for the identification of complexes of germanium and rare earth elements with organic acids, predominantly citric acid in the rhizosphere of white lupine was developed and successfully tested. The method is based on coupling of liquid chromatography with ICP-MS using a zic-philic column (SeQuant). As a preliminary result, we were able to show that complexes of germanium with citric acid exist in the rhizosphere of white lupin, what may contribute to the bioavailability of this

  17. Comparative study of the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours as affected by pH

    PubMed Central

    Raikos, Vassilios; Neacsu, Madalina; Russell, Wendy; Duthie, Garry

    2014-01-01

    The demand for products of high nutritional value from sustainable sources is growing rapidly in the global food market. In this study, the effect of pH on the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours was investigated and compared with wheat flour. Functional properties included solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties, gelling ability, and water holding capacity (WHC). All flours had minimal solubility at pH 4 and their corresponding values increased with increasing pH. Emulsifying properties were improved at pH 10 for all samples and emulsion stability showed a similar trend. Increasing pH in the range 4–10 enhanced the foaming properties of the flours, particularly buckwheat and hemp. Wheat, green pea, buckwheat, and fava bean were more capable of forming firm gels compared with lupin and hemp, as indicated by least gelling concentrations (LGCs). The ranking of the water binding properties of the different types of flours were lupin>hemp>fava bean>buckwheat>green pea>wheat. Results indicate that underutilized flours from sustainable plant sources could be exploited by the food industry as functional food ingredients or as replacements of wheat flour for various food applications. Depending on the application, flour functionality may be effectively tailored by pH adjustment. PMID:25493199

  18. Comparative study of the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours as affected by pH.

    PubMed

    Raikos, Vassilios; Neacsu, Madalina; Russell, Wendy; Duthie, Garry

    2014-11-01

    The demand for products of high nutritional value from sustainable sources is growing rapidly in the global food market. In this study, the effect of pH on the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours was investigated and compared with wheat flour. Functional properties included solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties, gelling ability, and water holding capacity (WHC). All flours had minimal solubility at pH 4 and their corresponding values increased with increasing pH. Emulsifying properties were improved at pH 10 for all samples and emulsion stability showed a similar trend. Increasing pH in the range 4-10 enhanced the foaming properties of the flours, particularly buckwheat and hemp. Wheat, green pea, buckwheat, and fava bean were more capable of forming firm gels compared with lupin and hemp, as indicated by least gelling concentrations (LGCs). The ranking of the water binding properties of the different types of flours were lupin>hemp>fava bean>buckwheat>green pea>wheat. Results indicate that underutilized flours from sustainable plant sources could be exploited by the food industry as functional food ingredients or as replacements of wheat flour for various food applications. Depending on the application, flour functionality may be effectively tailored by pH adjustment. PMID:25493199

  19. Comparative study of the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours as affected by pH.

    PubMed

    Raikos, Vassilios; Neacsu, Madalina; Russell, Wendy; Duthie, Garry

    2014-11-01

    The demand for products of high nutritional value from sustainable sources is growing rapidly in the global food market. In this study, the effect of pH on the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours was investigated and compared with wheat flour. Functional properties included solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties, gelling ability, and water holding capacity (WHC). All flours had minimal solubility at pH 4 and their corresponding values increased with increasing pH. Emulsifying properties were improved at pH 10 for all samples and emulsion stability showed a similar trend. Increasing pH in the range 4-10 enhanced the foaming properties of the flours, particularly buckwheat and hemp. Wheat, green pea, buckwheat, and fava bean were more capable of forming firm gels compared with lupin and hemp, as indicated by least gelling concentrations (LGCs). The ranking of the water binding properties of the different types of flours were lupin>hemp>fava bean>buckwheat>green pea>wheat. Results indicate that underutilized flours from sustainable plant sources could be exploited by the food industry as functional food ingredients or as replacements of wheat flour for various food applications. Depending on the application, flour functionality may be effectively tailored by pH adjustment.

  20. Growing and Watching: For Profit Organizations Cautious about 2009--Twenty-Second Annual Status Report on for Profit Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger; Weiss, Shasta Zenelle; Wilson, Mike

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the 22nd annual status report on for profit care. Despite a slowing economy, many larger for profit organizations managed to expand last year. During 2008, the second and third largest for profit organizations experienced changes in ownership. This year many of the surveyed organizations shared stories of efforts they are…

  1. Audit of Violence against Asian Pacific Americans, 1996: The Violent Impact on a Growing Community. Fourth Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hui, Elsie V.; Hwang, Victor; Ma, Jacinta S.; OuYang, Elizabeth R.; Su, Julie A.

    This audit, fourth in an annual series, tracks incidents of violence against Asian Pacific Americans in 1996 using data from a variety of sources. There was an increase of 17% in reported anti-Asian incidents in 1996, raising the total of suspected and confirmed incidents to 534. Although data were difficult to obtain, harassment increased by 161%…

  2. Degradation of quinolizidine alkaloids of lupin by Rhizopus oligosporus.

    PubMed

    Ortega-David, Eduar; Rodríguez-Stouvenel, Aida

    2013-06-01

    Rhizopus oligosporus has proven beneficial in the detoxification of lupin seeds. The fermentation process is mainly affected by the initial pH in the medium. In the range of growth of mold, there are maximum enzymatic activities in pH of 3.5 and 5.5. Metabolism change occurs at these pH levels; therefore, we studied the growth, pH changes, dry matter intake, and alkaloid degradation within 48 h of fermentation. Cultures of lupin agar (LA) with pH of 3.5 and 5.5 were made in Petri dishes with lupin flour. Results showed pH directly affects the degradation of alkaloids and fungal growth. Detoxification levels achieved were 16.58 and 63.23 % in treatments LA 3.5 and LA 5.5, respectively. Fungal growth was 0.919 mg/cm(2) in LA 3.5 and 1.081 mg/cm(2) in LA 5.5. Maximum degradation rate in LA 5.5 was given between 16 and 20 h, which coincided with maximum fungal growth. Despite having similar dry matter intake in both treatments, a pH of 3.5 did not show the same degree of detoxification. The analysis with exponential, yield of growth, yield of dry matter intake and luedeking and piret equations, confirm the relation between intake and growth with detoxification. Dry matter intake equation predicts with R (2) of 0.94 the detoxification in LA 5.5. A pH of 5.5 is directly related with detoxification and fungal development. PMID:23435939

  3. Sucrose controls storage lipid breakdown on gene expression level in germinating yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Borek, Sławomir; Nuc, Katarzyna

    2011-10-15

    This study revealed that cytosolic aconitase (ACO, EC 4.2.1.3) and isocitrate lyase (ICL, EC 4.1.3.1, marker of the glyoxylate cycle) are active in germinating protein seeds of yellow lupine. The glyoxylate cycle seems to function not only in the storage tissues of food-storage organs, but also in embryonic tissue of growing embryo axes. Sucrose (60mM) added to the medium of in vitro culture of embryo axes and cotyledons decreased activity of lipase (LIP, EC 3.1.1.3) and activity of glutamate dehydrogenase (NADH-GDH, EC 1.4.1.2). The opposite effect was caused by sucrose on activity of cytosolic ACO, ICL as well as NADP(+)-dependent (EC 1.1.1.42) and NAD(+)-dependent (EC 1.1.1.41) isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-IDH and NAD-IDH, respectively); activity of these enzymes was clearly stimulated by sucrose. Changes in the activity of LIP, ACO, NADP-IDH, and NAD-IDH caused by sucrose were based on modifications in gene expression because corresponding changes in the enzyme activities and in the mRNA levels were observed. The significance of cytosolic ACO and NADP-IDH in carbon flow from storage lipid to amino acids, as well as the peculiar features of storage lipid breakdown during germination of lupine seeds are discussed.

  4. The rotation of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) with metal-accumulating plant crops: a strategy to increase the benefits of soil phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Pietro; Comolli, Roberto; Ferrè, Chiara; Ghiani, Alessandra; Gentili, Rodolfo; Citterio, Sandra

    2014-12-01

    Most of the plants employed to remove metals from contaminated soils are annuals and have a seed-to-seed life cycle of a few months, usually over spring and summer. Consequently, for most of the year, fields are not actively cleaned but are completely bare and subject to erosion by water and wind. The objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits of using Lupinus albus as a winter crop in a rotation sequence with a summer crop ideally selected for phytoextraction, such as industrial hemp. Lupin plants were grown in two alkaline soil plots (heavy metal-contaminated and uncontaminated) of approximately 400 m(2) each after the cultivation and harvest of industrial hemp. A smaller-scale parallel pot experiment was also performed to better understand the lupin behavior in increasing concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn. White lupin grew well in alkaline conditions, covering the soil during the winter season. In few months plants were approximately 40-50 cm high in both control and contaminated plots. In fields where the bioavailable fraction of metals was low (less than 12%), plants showed a high tolerance to these contaminants. However, their growth was affected in some pot treatments in which the concentrations of assimilable Cu, Zn and Ni were higher, ranging from approximately 40-70% of the total concentrations. The lupin's ability to absorb heavy metals and translocate them to shoots was negligible with respect to the magnitude of contamination, suggesting that this plant is not suitable for extending the period of phytoextraction. However, it is entirely exploitable as green manure, avoiding the application of chemical amendments during phytoremediation. In addition, in polluted fields, white lupin cultivation increased the soil concentration of live bacteria and the bioavailable percentage of metals. On average live bacteria counts per gram of soil were 65×10(6)±18×10(6) and 99×10(6)±22*10(6) before and after cultivation, respectively. The percentages

  5. The rotation of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) with metal-accumulating plant crops: a strategy to increase the benefits of soil phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Pietro; Comolli, Roberto; Ferrè, Chiara; Ghiani, Alessandra; Gentili, Rodolfo; Citterio, Sandra

    2014-12-01

    Most of the plants employed to remove metals from contaminated soils are annuals and have a seed-to-seed life cycle of a few months, usually over spring and summer. Consequently, for most of the year, fields are not actively cleaned but are completely bare and subject to erosion by water and wind. The objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits of using Lupinus albus as a winter crop in a rotation sequence with a summer crop ideally selected for phytoextraction, such as industrial hemp. Lupin plants were grown in two alkaline soil plots (heavy metal-contaminated and uncontaminated) of approximately 400 m(2) each after the cultivation and harvest of industrial hemp. A smaller-scale parallel pot experiment was also performed to better understand the lupin behavior in increasing concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn. White lupin grew well in alkaline conditions, covering the soil during the winter season. In few months plants were approximately 40-50 cm high in both control and contaminated plots. In fields where the bioavailable fraction of metals was low (less than 12%), plants showed a high tolerance to these contaminants. However, their growth was affected in some pot treatments in which the concentrations of assimilable Cu, Zn and Ni were higher, ranging from approximately 40-70% of the total concentrations. The lupin's ability to absorb heavy metals and translocate them to shoots was negligible with respect to the magnitude of contamination, suggesting that this plant is not suitable for extending the period of phytoextraction. However, it is entirely exploitable as green manure, avoiding the application of chemical amendments during phytoremediation. In addition, in polluted fields, white lupin cultivation increased the soil concentration of live bacteria and the bioavailable percentage of metals. On average live bacteria counts per gram of soil were 65×10(6)±18×10(6) and 99×10(6)±22*10(6) before and after cultivation, respectively. The percentages

  6. Simulation and observations of annual density banding in skeletons of Montastraea (Cnidaria: Scleractinia) growing under thermal stress associated with ocean warming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worum, F.P.; Carricart-Ganivet, J. P.; Benson, L.; Golicher, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a model of annual density banding in skeletons of Montastraea coral species growing under thermal stress associated with an ocean-warming scenario. The model predicts that at sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) <29??C, high-density bands (HDBs) are formed during the warmest months of the year. As temperature rises and oscillates around the optimal calcification temperature, an annual doublet in the HDB (dHDB) occurs that consists of two narrow HDBs. The presence of such dHDBs in skeletons of Montastraea species is a clear indication of thermal stress. When all monthly SSTs exceed the optimal calcification temperature, HDBs form during the coldest, not the warmest, months of the year. In addition, a decline in mean-annual calcification rate also occurs during this period of elevated SST. A comparison of our model results with annual density patterns observed in skeletons of M. faveolata and M. franksi, collected from several localities in the Mexican Caribbean, indicates that elevated SSTs are already resulting in the presence of dHDBs as a first sign of thermal stress, which occurs even without coral bleaching. ?? 2007, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  7. Organ-specific expression of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) subunits in yellow lupine.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Teresa; Dabert, Mirosława; Nowak, Witold

    2011-07-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, EC 1.4.2-4) is present in yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus cv. Juno) in many isoforms. The number and banding pattern of isoenzymes varies with respect to plant organ and developmental stage. To better understand the complex nature of GDH regulation in plants, the levels of GDH transcripts, enzyme activity and isoenzyme patterns in germinating seeds and roots of yellow lupine were examined. The analysis of GDH cDNA sequences in lupine revealed three mRNA types, of which two encoded the β-GDH subunit and one encoded the α-GDH subunit (corresponding to the GDH1(GDH3) and GDH2 genes, respectively). The relative expression of GDH1 and GDH2 genes was analyzed in various lupine organs by using quantitative real-time PCR. Our results indicate that different mRNA types were differently regulated depending on organ type. Although both genes appeared to be ubiquitously expressed in all lupine tissues, the GDH1 transcripts evidently predominated over those of GDH2. Immunochemical analyses confirmed that, during embryo development, varied expression of two GDH subunits takes place. The α-GDH subunit (43kDa) predominated in the early stages of germinating seeds, while the β-GDH subunit (44kDa) was the only GDH polypeptide present in lupine roots. These results firmly support the hypothesis that isoenzyme variability of GDH in yellow lupine is associated with the varied expression of α and β subunits into the complexes of hexameric GDH forms. The presence of several isogenes of GDH in yellow lupine may explain the high number (over 20) of its molecular forms in germinating lupine.

  8. Nutritional, Health, and Technological Functionality of Lupin Flour Addition to Bread and Other Baked Products: Benefits and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Villarino, C B J; Jayasena, V; Coorey, R; Chakrabarti-Bell, S; Johnson, S K

    2016-01-01

    Lupin is an undervalued legume despite its high protein and dietary fiber content and potential health benefits. This review focuses on the nutritional value, health benefits, and technological effects of incorporating lupin flour into wheat-based bread. Results of clinical studies suggest that consuming lupin compared to wheat bread and other baked products reduce chronic disease risk markers; possibly due to increased protein and dietary fiber and bioactive compounds. However, lupin protein allergy has also been recorded. Bread quality has been improved when 10% lupin flour is substituted for refined wheat flour; possibly due to lupin-wheat protein cross-linking assisting bread volume and the high water-binding capacity (WBC) of lupin fiber delaying staling. Above 10% substitution appears to reduce bread quality due to lupin proteins low elasticity and the high WBC of its dietary fiber interrupting gluten network development. Gaps in understanding of the role of lupin flour in bread quality include the optimal formulation and processing conditions to maximize lupin incorporation, role of protein cross-linking, antistaling functionality, and bioactivity of its γ-conglutin protein. PMID:25675266

  9. Effect of species of cool-season annual grass interseeded into Bermudagrass sod on the performance of growing calves.

    PubMed

    Beck, P A; Stewart, C B; Phillips, J M; Watkins, K B; Gunter, S A

    2007-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of species of cool-season annual grass on the growth of stocker cattle over 3 yr. In Exp. 1, the small grains (SG) oat (O), rye (R), and wheat (W), or combinations of SG and annual ryegrass (RG), were interseeded into Bermudagrass sod in a completely randomized design with a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. In Exp. 2, RG was planted alone or with O, R, triticale (T), or W in a completely randomized design. Pastures were planted in late October of each year, and seeding rates were 134.4 and 22.4 kg/ha for SG and RG, respectively. In Exp. 1, grazing was initiated on December 18. In Exp. 2, grazing was initiated on December 23 for SG pastures and January 21 or February 16 for RG pastures in yr 1 and on December 8 for all pastures in yr 2. Grazing was managed using the put-and-take method, in which additional calves were added as needed to maintain equal grazing pressure among pastures. In Exp. 1, no interactions (P > or = 0.28) were detected, so the main effects of SG species and RG addition are discussed. From December 18 to March 12, there were no differences in ADG (P > or = 0.17), whereas during the spring (from March 12 to May 7), addition of RG increased (P = 0.05) ADG. Using RG increased (P < or = 0.01) animal grazing-days/hectare and BW gain/hectare. Wheat tended (P = 0.08) to increase BW gain/hectare compared with the other SG, and O tended (P = 0.09) to produce less BW gain/hectare than the other SG. The treatment x year interaction was significant (P < or = 0.05) in Exp. 2. In yr 1, no differences (P = 0.25) were observed for ADG from December 23 to March 8, but during the spring grazing period (from March 8 to May 5), ADG of calves grazing TRG was less (P < or = 0.04) than that of those grazing RG, RRG, or WRG. The RRG combination produced more (P < or = 0.03) BW gain/hectare than ORG, RG, or TRG and tended (P = 0.06) to produce more BW gain/hectare than WRG. The WRG combination produced more

  10. Iron Stress and Pyoverdin Production by a Fluorescent Pseudomonad in the Rhizosphere of White Lupine (Lupinus albus L.) and Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Marschner, P; Crowley, D E

    1997-01-01

    Induction of high-affinity iron transport during root colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) was examined in lupine and barley growing in microcosms. P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) contains a plasmid carrying pvd-inaZ; thus, in this strain, ice nucleation activity is regulated by pyoverdin production. Lupine or barley plants were grown for 18 or 8 days, respectively, in soil amended with 2% calcium carbonate and inoculated with P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) at a density of 4 x 10(sup8) CFU g (dry weight) of soil(sup-1). A filter paper blotting technique was used to sample cells from the rhizosphere in different root zones, and then the cells were resuspended for enumeration and measurement of ice nucleation activity. The population density of P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) in the rhizosphere decreased by one order of magnitude in both lupine and barley over time. The ice nucleation activity ranged from -3.4 to -3.0 log ice nuclei CFU(sup-1) for lupine and -3.0 to -2.8 log ice nuclei CFU(sup-1) for barley, was similar in all root zones, and did not change over time. An in vitro experiment was conducted to determine the relationship between ice nucleation activity and pyoverdin production in P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ). An ice nucleation activity of approximately -3.0 log ice nuclei CFU(sup-1) was measured in the in vitro experiment at 25 to 50 (mu)M FeCl(inf3). By using the regression between ice nucleation activity and pyoverdin production determined in vitro and assuming a P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) population density of 10(sup8) CFU g of root(sup-1), the maximum possible pyoverdin accumulation by P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) in the rhizosphere was estimated to be 0.5 and 0.8 nmol g of root(sup-1) for lupine and barley, respectively. The low ice nucleation activity measured in the rhizosphere suggests that nutritional competition for iron in the rhizosphere may not be a major factor influencing root colonization by P. fluorescens Pf-5

  11. Risk Assessment of Repetitive Movements in Olive Growing: Analysis of Annual Exposure Level Assessment Models with the OCRA Checklist.

    PubMed

    Proto, A R; Zimbalatti, G

    2015-10-01

    In Italy, one of the main agricultural crops is represented by the cultivation of olive trees. Olive cultivation characterizes the Italian agricultural landscape and national agricultural economics. Italy is the world's second largest producer of olive oil. Because olive cultivation requires the largest labor force in southern Italy, the aim of this research was to assess the risk of biomechanical overload of the workers' upper limbs. The objective, therefore, was to determine the level of risk that workers are exposed to in each phase of the production process. In Calabria, the second most important region in Italy for both the production of olive oil and cultivated area, there are 113,907 olive farms (83% of all farms) and 250,000 workers. To evaluate the risk of repetitive movements, all of the work tasks performed by workers on 100 farms in Calabria were analyzed. A total of 430 workers were interviewed over the four-year research period. To evaluate the level of exposure to repetitive movements, the OCRA (occupational repetitive actions) checklist was adopted. This checklist was the primary analytical tool during the preliminary risk assessment and in a given working situation. The analysis suggested by the OCRA checklist starts with pre-assigned scores (increasing in value with intensification of risk) for each of four main risk factors and additional factors. Between 2010 and 2013, surveys were conducted using the OCRA checklist with the aim of verifying musculoskeletal risks. The results obtained from the study of 430 workers allowed us to identify the level of exposure to risk. This analysis was conducted in the workplace to examine in detail the repetitive movements performed by the workers. The research was divided into two phases: first to provide preliminary information on the different tasks performed in olive growing, and second to assign a percentage to each task of the total hours worked in a year. Based on the results, this method could well

  12. Risk Assessment of Repetitive Movements in Olive Growing: Analysis of Annual Exposure Level Assessment Models with the OCRA Checklist.

    PubMed

    Proto, A R; Zimbalatti, G

    2015-10-01

    In Italy, one of the main agricultural crops is represented by the cultivation of olive trees. Olive cultivation characterizes the Italian agricultural landscape and national agricultural economics. Italy is the world's second largest producer of olive oil. Because olive cultivation requires the largest labor force in southern Italy, the aim of this research was to assess the risk of biomechanical overload of the workers' upper limbs. The objective, therefore, was to determine the level of risk that workers are exposed to in each phase of the production process. In Calabria, the second most important region in Italy for both the production of olive oil and cultivated area, there are 113,907 olive farms (83% of all farms) and 250,000 workers. To evaluate the risk of repetitive movements, all of the work tasks performed by workers on 100 farms in Calabria were analyzed. A total of 430 workers were interviewed over the four-year research period. To evaluate the level of exposure to repetitive movements, the OCRA (occupational repetitive actions) checklist was adopted. This checklist was the primary analytical tool during the preliminary risk assessment and in a given working situation. The analysis suggested by the OCRA checklist starts with pre-assigned scores (increasing in value with intensification of risk) for each of four main risk factors and additional factors. Between 2010 and 2013, surveys were conducted using the OCRA checklist with the aim of verifying musculoskeletal risks. The results obtained from the study of 430 workers allowed us to identify the level of exposure to risk. This analysis was conducted in the workplace to examine in detail the repetitive movements performed by the workers. The research was divided into two phases: first to provide preliminary information on the different tasks performed in olive growing, and second to assign a percentage to each task of the total hours worked in a year. Based on the results, this method could well

  13. Composition of fractional and functional properties of dietary fiber of lupines (L. luteus and L. albus).

    PubMed

    Górecka, D; Lampart-Szczapa, E; Janitz, W; Sokolowska, B

    2000-08-01

    In this study the lupine raw materials (flour and hull) of L. luteus var. Juno and L. albus var. Wat were characterized with regard to the dietary fiber content (NDF) and its fractional composition. Functional properties, i.e. water holding capacity (WHC) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of lupine raw material were determined, with respect to various conditions existing in each part of the human digestive tract (pH-value, time of passage). Experimental products (shortcakes, ginger breads, pancakes, minced meat and dumplings filled with meat) with addition of 5, 10 or 15% of lupine flour or shell were processed and sensory evaluation was performed according to the 5-point scale. The NDF content ranged from 75.7% to 78% in the hull of the Wat and Juno lupine vars. respectively, and 28.8% to 33.4% in the flour. Cellulose was predominant in the hull's NDF while in the flour hemicellulose was major fraction. WHC of samples depended mainly on pH-value and was higher in lupine hulls (up to 5.14 g/g dry matter (d.m.) than in the flours (up to 3.83 g/g d.m.). The CEC of lupine ranged from 0.260 to 0.750 mEq/g d.m. and from 0.330 to 0.870 mEq/g d.m. in flour of the Wat and Juno varieties. The CEC of hull was lower in the Wat var. (0.290 to 0.650 mEq/g d.m.) in comparison with the Juno variety (0.150 to 0.750 mEq/g d.m.) Sensory evaluation showed that 10% addition of flour or hull of lupine to experimental products enables preparation of good quality foodstuffs.

  14. Lupine-Induced 'Crooked Calf Disease' in Washington and Oregon: Identification of the alkaloid profiles of Lupinus sericeus, Lupinus sulphureus, and Lupinus leucophyllus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lupines are common plants found on the rangelands in the western United States. Lupines are known to contain alkaloids that can be toxic and teratogenic causing congenital birth defects (crooked calf disease). Lupine-induced crooked calf disease cases are documented in North-eastern Oregon and the...

  15. A First Glimpse of Wild Lupin Karyotype Variation As Revealed by Comparative Cytogenetic Mapping.

    PubMed

    Susek, Karolina; Bielski, Wojciech K; Hasterok, Robert; Naganowska, Barbara; Wolko, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Insight into plant genomes at the cytomolecular level provides useful information about their karyotype structure, enabling inferences about taxonomic relationships and evolutionary origins. The Old World lupins (OWL) demonstrate a high level of genomic diversification involving variation in chromosome numbers (2n = 32-52), basic chromosome numbers (x = 5-7, 9, 13) and in nuclear genome size (2C DNA = 0.97-2.68 pg). Lupins comprise both crop and wild species and provide an intriguing system to study karyotype evolution. In order to investigate lupin chromosome structure, heterologous FISH was used. Sixteen BACs that had been generated as chromosome markers for the reference species, Lupinus angustifolius, were used to identify chromosomes in the wild species and explore karyotype variation. While all "single-locus" in L. angustifolius, in the wild lupins these clones proved to be "single-locus," "single-locus" with additional signals, "repetitive" or had no detectable BAC-FISH signal. The diverse distribution of the clones in the targeted genomes suggests a complex evolution history, which possibly involved multiple chromosomal changes such as fusions/fissions and repetitive sequence amplification. Twelve BACs were sequenced and we found numerous transposable elements including DNA transposons as well as LTR and non-LTR retrotransposons with varying quantity and composition among the different lupin species. However, at this preliminary stage, no correlation was observed between the pattern of BAC-FISH signals and the repeat content in particular BACs. Here, we describe the first BAC-based chromosome-specific markers for the wild species: L. cosentinii, L. cryptanthus, L. pilosus, L. micranthus and one New World lupin, L. multiflorus. These BACs could constitute the basis for an assignment of the chromosomal and genetic maps of other lupins, e.g., L. albus and L. luteus. Moreover, we identified karyotype variation that helps illustrate the relationships between the

  16. A First Glimpse of Wild Lupin Karyotype Variation As Revealed by Comparative Cytogenetic Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Susek, Karolina; Bielski, Wojciech K.; Hasterok, Robert; Naganowska, Barbara; Wolko, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Insight into plant genomes at the cytomolecular level provides useful information about their karyotype structure, enabling inferences about taxonomic relationships and evolutionary origins. The Old World lupins (OWL) demonstrate a high level of genomic diversification involving variation in chromosome numbers (2n = 32–52), basic chromosome numbers (x = 5–7, 9, 13) and in nuclear genome size (2C DNA = 0.97–2.68 pg). Lupins comprise both crop and wild species and provide an intriguing system to study karyotype evolution. In order to investigate lupin chromosome structure, heterologous FISH was used. Sixteen BACs that had been generated as chromosome markers for the reference species, Lupinus angustifolius, were used to identify chromosomes in the wild species and explore karyotype variation. While all “single-locus” in L. angustifolius, in the wild lupins these clones proved to be “single-locus,” “single-locus” with additional signals, “repetitive” or had no detectable BAC-FISH signal. The diverse distribution of the clones in the targeted genomes suggests a complex evolution history, which possibly involved multiple chromosomal changes such as fusions/fissions and repetitive sequence amplification. Twelve BACs were sequenced and we found numerous transposable elements including DNA transposons as well as LTR and non-LTR retrotransposons with varying quantity and composition among the different lupin species. However, at this preliminary stage, no correlation was observed between the pattern of BAC-FISH signals and the repeat content in particular BACs. Here, we describe the first BAC-based chromosome-specific markers for the wild species: L. cosentinii, L. cryptanthus, L. pilosus, L. micranthus and one New World lupin, L. multiflorus. These BACs could constitute the basis for an assignment of the chromosomal and genetic maps of other lupins, e.g., L. albus and L. luteus. Moreover, we identified karyotype variation that helps illustrate the

  17. Transcript and proteomic analysis of developing white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) roots

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Li; Peel, Gregory J; Lei, Zhentian; Aziz, Naveed; Dai, Xinbin; He, Ji; Watson, Bonnie; Zhao, Patrick X; Sumner, Lloyd W; Dixon, Richard A

    2009-01-01

    Background White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) roots efficiently take up and accumulate (heavy) metals, adapt to phosphate deficiency by forming cluster roots, and secrete antimicrobial prenylated isoflavones during development. Genomic and proteomic approaches were applied to identify candidate genes and proteins involved in antimicrobial defense and (heavy) metal uptake and translocation. Results A cDNA library was constructed from roots of white lupin seedlings. Eight thousand clones were randomly sequenced and assembled into 2,455 unigenes, which were annotated based on homologous matches in the NCBInr protein database. A reference map of developing white lupin root proteins was established through 2-D gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting. High quality peptide mass spectra were obtained for 170 proteins. Microsomal membrane proteins were separated by 1-D gel electrophoresis and identified by LC-MS/MS. A total of 74 proteins were putatively identified by the peptide mass fingerprinting and the LC-MS/MS methods. Genomic and proteomic analyses identified candidate genes and proteins encoding metal binding and/or transport proteins, transcription factors, ABC transporters and phenylpropanoid biosynthetic enzymes. Conclusion The combined EST and protein datasets will facilitate the understanding of white lupin's response to biotic and abiotic stresses and its utility for phytoremediation. The root ESTs provided 82 perfect simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with potential utility in breeding white lupin for enhanced agronomic traits. PMID:19123941

  18. Effects of extrusion, boiling, autoclaving, and microwave heating on lupine allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Alvarez, Javier; Guillamón, Eva; Crespo, Jesús F; Cuadrado, Carmen; Burbano, Carmen; Rodríguez, Julia; Fernández, Consuelo; Muzquiz, Mercedes

    2005-02-23

    Lupine flour has been reported as a causative agent of allergic reactions. However, the allergenicity of lupine after thermal processing is not well-known. For this purpose, the allergenic characteristics of lupine seeds after boiling (up to 60 min), autoclaving (121 degrees C, 1.18 atm, up to 20 min and 138 degrees C, 2.56 atm, up to 30 min), microwave heating (30 min), and extrusion cooking were studied. The IgE-binding capacity was analyzed by IgE-immunoblotting and CAP inhibition using a serum pool from 23 patients with lupine-specific IgE. Skin testing was carried out in four patients. An important reduction in allergenicity after autoclaving at 138 degrees C for 20 min was observed. IgE antibodies from two individual sera recognized bands at 23 and 29 kDa in autoclaved samples at 138 degrees C for 20 min. Autoclaving for 30 min abolished the IgE binding to these two components. A previously undetected band at 70 kDa was recognized by an individual serum. Therefore, prolonged autoclaving might have an important effect on the allergenicity of lupine with the majority of patients lacking IgE reactivity to these processed samples.

  19. Intercropping with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.); a promising tool for phytoremediation and phytomining research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balazs; Moschner, Christin; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2015-04-01

    In recent studies root-soil interactions of white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) have drawn special attention to researchers due to its particularly high potential to increase bioavailability of phosphorous (P) and trace nutrients in soils. In mixed cultures, white lupine has the ability to mobilize P and trace nutrients in soil in excess of its own need and make this excess available for other intercropped companion species. While improved acquisition of P and improved yield parameters have mostly been documented in cereal-lupine intercrops, compared to sole crops, only a few recent studies have evidenced similar effects for trace elements e.g. Fe, Zn and Mn. In this preliminary study we tried to obtain more information about the mobilization of trace elements due to intercropping under field conditions. We hypothesize, that processes that lead to a better acquisition of trace nutrients might also affect other trace elements what could be useful for phytoremediation and phytomining research. Here we report the results of a semi-field experiment were we investigated the effects of an intercropping of white lupine with oat (Avena sativa L.) on the concentrations of trace metals in shoots of oat. We investigated the effects on 12 trace elements, including 4 elements with relevance for plant nutrition (P, Fe, Mn, Zn) and 8 trace elements, belonging to the group of metalloids, lanthanides and actinides with high relevance in phytoremediation (Cd, Pb Th, U) and phytomining research (Sc, La, Nd, Ge). The experiment was carried out on a semi-field lysimer at the off-site soil recycling and remediation center in Hirschfeld (Saxony, Germany). To test the intercropping-dependent mobilization of trace metals in soil and enhanced uptake of elements by oat, white lupine and oat were cultivated on 20 plots (4 m² each) in monocultures and mixed cultures and two different white lupin /oat-ratios (11% and 33%, respectively) applying various treatments. The geometrical arrangement of

  20. Widespread adaptive evolution during repeated evolutionary radiations in New World lupins.

    PubMed

    Nevado, Bruno; Atchison, Guy W; Hughes, Colin E; Filatov, Dmitry A

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary processes that drive rapid species diversification are poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear whether Darwinian adaptation or non-adaptive processes are the primary drivers of explosive species diversifications. Here we show that repeated rapid radiations within New World lupins (Lupinus, Leguminosae) were underpinned by a major increase in the frequency of adaptation acting on coding and regulatory changes genome-wide. This contrasts with far less frequent adaptation in genomes of slowly diversifying lupins and all other plant genera analysed. Furthermore, widespread shifts in optimal gene expression coincided with shifts to high rates of diversification and evolution of perenniality, a putative key adaptation trait thought to have triggered the evolutionary radiations in New World lupins. Our results reconcile long-standing debate about the relative importance of protein-coding and regulatory evolution, and represent the first unambiguous evidence for the rapid onset of lineage- and genome-wide accelerated Darwinian evolution during rapid species diversification. PMID:27498896

  1. Widespread adaptive evolution during repeated evolutionary radiations in New World lupins

    PubMed Central

    Nevado, Bruno; Atchison, Guy W.; Hughes, Colin E.; Filatov, Dmitry A.

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary processes that drive rapid species diversification are poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear whether Darwinian adaptation or non-adaptive processes are the primary drivers of explosive species diversifications. Here we show that repeated rapid radiations within New World lupins (Lupinus, Leguminosae) were underpinned by a major increase in the frequency of adaptation acting on coding and regulatory changes genome-wide. This contrasts with far less frequent adaptation in genomes of slowly diversifying lupins and all other plant genera analysed. Furthermore, widespread shifts in optimal gene expression coincided with shifts to high rates of diversification and evolution of perenniality, a putative key adaptation trait thought to have triggered the evolutionary radiations in New World lupins. Our results reconcile long-standing debate about the relative importance of protein-coding and regulatory evolution, and represent the first unambiguous evidence for the rapid onset of lineage- and genome-wide accelerated Darwinian evolution during rapid species diversification. PMID:27498896

  2. Effect of lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) supplementation on ovarian and pituitary activity in ewes.

    PubMed

    Pearse, B H; McMeniman, N P; Dowsett, K F

    1991-01-01

    In each of three experiments, thirty seasonally anoestrous Border Leicester ewes were fed on a maintenance ration of oaten chaff. Fifteen of them were given a supplement of 500 g lupin grain per head per day. The ewes were treated with 10 mg follicle stimulating hormone (Expt 1), 600 I.U. pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (Expt 2) and either 150 or 300 micrograms gonadotrophin releasing hormone (Expt 3) to determine whether the ovaries and/or the anterior pituitary were capable of responding to the nutrient status of the animals and influencing ovulation rate. In each experiment, the number and size of corpora lutea and follicles in the lupin-supplemented and -unsupplemented groups were similar. It was concluded that the mechanism by which lupins increase the ovulation rate is probably neural and not a result of direct effect on either the pituitary or the ovaries.

  3. Taiwan: growing, growing, gone.

    PubMed

    Hanson, R

    1979-10-01

    Accommodation between Taiwan and the People's Republic of China may not be inconceivable as trade contacts (though officially disallowed) grow. Because of Taiwan's well-established success and the pressing need in China to industrialize, it appears, however, that such an accommodation will occur only after China becomes more like Taiwan. Taiwan owes its success, first, to land reform and then, in the 1960s, to steady industrialization. Besides broad controls over money supply and capital designed to ward off inflationary pressures when needed, and the grand outlines for development, another factor in the island's economic success is that the government has interfered little with private enterprise. The economy has an underpinning of small to medium size businesses. There are more than 10,000 trading companies. This diverse foundation has given the economy as a whole a flexible buffer on which more sophisticated industires can be formed. PMID:12278253

  4. Complete nucleotide sequence of Nootka lupine vein-clearing virus.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Nancy L; Côté, Fabien; Paré, Christine; Leblanc, Eric; Bergeron, Michel G; Leclerc, Denis

    2007-12-01

    The complete genome sequence of Nootka lupine vein-clearing virus (NLVCV) was determined to be 4,172 nucleotides in length containing four open reading frames (ORFs) with a similar genetic organization of virus species in the genus Carmovirus, family Tombusviridae. The order and gene product size, starting from the 5'-proximal ORF consisted of: (1) polymerase/replicase gene, ORF1 (p27) and ORF1RT (readthrough) (p87), (2) movement proteins ORF2 (p7) and ORF3 (p9), and, (3) the 3'-proximal coat protein ORF4, (p37). The genomic 5'- and 3'-proximal termini contained a short (59 nt) and a relatively longer 405 nt untranslated region, respectively. The longer replicase gene product contained the GDD motif common to RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Phylogenetically, NLVCV formed a subgroup with the following four carmoviruses when separately comparing the amino acids of the coat protein or replicase protein: Angelonia flower break virus (AnFBV), Carnation mottle virus (CarMV), Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV), and Saguaro cactus virus (SgCV). Whole genome nucleotide analysis (percent identities) among the carmoviruses with NLVCV suggested a similar pattern. The species demarcation criteria in the genus Carmovirus for the amino acid sequence identity of the polymerase (<52%) and coat (<41%) protein genes restricted NLVCV as a distinct species, and instead, placed it as a tentative strain of CarMV, PFBV, or SgCV when both the polymerase and CP were used as the determining factors. In contrast, the species criteria that included different host ranges with no overlap and lack of serology relatedness between NLVCV and the carmoviruses, suggested that NLVCV was a distinct species. The relatively low cutoff percentages allowed for the polymerase and CP genes to dictate the inclusion/exclusion of a distinct carmovirus species should be reevaluated. Therefore, at this time we have concluded that NLVCV should be classified as a tentative new species in the genus Carmovirus

  5. White lupin cluster root acclimation to phosphorus deficiency and root hair development involve unique glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is a phosphate (Pi) deficiency tolerant legume which develops short, densely clustered tertiary lateral roots (cluster/proteoid roots) in response to Pi limitation. In this report we characterize two glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GPX-PDE) genes (GPX-PDE1 and...

  6. Evolution of arsenate toxicity in nodulated white lupine in a long-term culture.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Saúl; Esteban, Elvira; Carpena, Ramón O

    2008-09-24

    White lupine is an As-resistant legume that is of interest for phytoremediation of As-contaminated soils. To achieve successful phytoremediation, monitoring of the nutritional status of the selected plant species during the entire culture cycle is required to maintain a plant cover with high biomass production. A long-term pot experiment was carried out with nodulated lupine grown on perlite with 10 and 100 microM As concentrations. The reproductive period (from 10 weeks) was the most sensitive phenologic stage of white lupine to long-term As exposure. The 10 microM As treatment increased the uptake and translocation of micronutrients, except for Cu, mainly at flowering with As levels in pods below the statutory limit (1 mg kg (-1) fresh weight). However, the 100 microM As treatment induced significant differences compared to the control. These findings confirm the relatively high resistance of white lupine to arsenate and support the use of this species in phytoremediation and/or revegetation of As-contaminated sites, with special attention on P and Cu nutrition at flowering. PMID:18795759

  7. Diets containing inulin but not lupins help to prevent swine dysentery in experimentally challenged pigs.

    PubMed

    Hansen, C F; Phillips, N D; La, T; Hernandez, A; Mansfield, J; Kim, J C; Mullan, B P; Hampson, D J; Pluske, J R

    2010-10-01

    Swine dysentery is a contagious mucohemorrhagic diarrheal disease caused by the intestinal spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae that colonizes and induces inflammation of the cecum and colon. It has been reported that a diet containing chicory root and sweet lupin can prevent swine dysentery. This experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that inulin in the chicory root rather than galactans in lupins was responsible for protective effects. An experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was undertaken using pigs fed barley- and triticale-based diets, with the main effects being protein source [185 g/kg of canola meal (decreased galactans) or 220 g/kg of lupins (greater galactans)] and inulin supplementation (0 or 80 g/kg). Forty Large White × Landrace pigs weighing 21 ± 3 kg, with 10 pigs per diet, were allowed to adapt to the diets for 2 wk, and then each pig was challenged orally 4 times with a broth culture containing B. hyodysenteriae on consecutive days. Pigs were killed when they showed clinical signs of dysentery or 6 wk postchallenge. Pigs fed diets without inulin had 8.3 times greater risk (P = 0.017) of developing swine dysentery and were 16 times more likely (P = 0.004) to have colon contents that were culture-positive for B. hyodysenteriae, compared with the pigs fed a diet with 80 g/kg of inulin. Diets containing lupins did not prevent pigs from developing clinical swine dysentery; however, inclusion of lupins or inulin or both in the diets delayed the onset of disease compared with the diet based mainly on canola meal (P < 0.05). Diet did not influence the total concentration of organic acids in the ileum, cecum, or upper and lower colon; however, the molar proportions of the organic acids were influenced (P < 0.05). Consequently the pH values in the cecum, and upper and lower colon were not influenced (P > 0.05) by diet. However the pH values of the ileal digesta were decreased in pigs fed the diet with both lupins and

  8. Efficiency of white lupin in the removal of mercury from contaminated soils: soil and hydroponic experiments.

    PubMed

    Zornoza, Pilar; Millán, Rocío; Sierra, M José; Seco, Almudena; Esteban, Elvira

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the ability of the white lupin to remove mercury (Hg) from a hydroponic system (Hg concentrations 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 micromol/L) and from soil in pots and lysimeters (total Hg concentration (19.2 +/- 1.9) mg/kg availability 0.07%, and (28.9 +/- 0.4) mg/kg availability 0.09%, respectively), and investigated the accumulation and distribution of Hg in different parts of the plant. White lupin roots efficiently took up Hg, but its translocation to the harvestable parts of the plant was low. The Hg concentration in the seeds posed no risk to human health according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization, but the shoots should not be used as fodder for livestock, at least when unmixed with other fodder crops. The accumulation of Hg in the hydroponically-grown plants was linear over the concentration range tested. The amount of Hg retained in the roots, relative to the shoots, was almost constant irrespective of Hg dose (90%). In the soil experiments, Hg accumulation increased with exposure time and was the greater in the lysimeter than in the pot experiments. Although Hg removal was the greater in the hydroponic system, revealing the potential of the white lupin to extract Hg, bioaccumulation was the greatest in the lysimeter-grown plants; the latter system more likely reflects the true behaviour of white lupin in the field when Hg availability is a factor that limits Hg removal. The present results suggest that the white lupin could be used in long-term soil reclamation strategies that include the goal of profitable land use in Hg-polluted areas.

  9. Development of a real-time PCR for the detection of lupine DNA (lupinus species) in foods.

    PubMed

    Demmel, Anja; Hupfer, Christine; Ilg Hampe, Evelyn; Busch, Ulrich; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2008-06-25

    Lupine flour, protein, and fiber have become common ingredients in food products. The association of lupine-related allergic incidents with peanut allergy is a cause for concern as the latter may bring about severe reactions. In this study, a hybridization probe-based real-time PCR assay for the detection of lupine DNA in foods was developed. Particular attention was paid to the specificity of the method, which was verified by analysis of DNA extracts from more than 50 potential food ingredients such as legumes, cereals, seeds, nuts, spices, fruits, and meat. The limit of detection of the method was determined as 0.1 mg/kg. The successful detection of the presence/absence of lupine DNA in 20 samples proved the suitability of the assay for the analysis of frequently encountered food matrices.

  10. Evaluation of strategies for the control of canola and lupin seedling diseases caused by Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several methods with potential for the management of Rhizoctonia diseases of canola and lupin including several methods with potential for the management of Rhizoctonia plant resistance, fungicide seed treatment and biological control using binucleate Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups (AGs) were evalua...

  11. Detectability of lupine seeds by ELISA and PCR may be strongly influenced by potential differences between cultivars.

    PubMed

    Röder, Martin; Kleiner, Kornelia; Sachs, Andrea; Keil, Nicole; Holzhauser, Thomas

    2013-06-26

    Accurate methods for allergen detection are needed for the verification of allergen labeling and the avoidance of hidden allergens. But systematic data on the influence of different cultivars of allergenic crop species on their detectability in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are lacking. As one example, seeds of 14 different cultivars of lupine (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus luteus) were investigated for total protein according to a Kjeldahl method, and for their relative quantitative detectability in three commercial lupine-specific ELISA tests and four lupine-specific PCR methods. Total Kjeldahl nitrogen allowed an accurate quantification of total protein. Relative differences in quantitative response between cultivars of 390-5050% and 480-13,600% were observed between ELISA kits and PCR methods, respectively. Hence, quantitative results of selected ELISA and PCR methods may be strongly influenced by the examined lupine cultivar.

  12. Skin prick test reactivity to lupin in comparison to peanut, pea, and soybean in atopic and non-atopic German subjects: A preliminary cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bähr, Melanie; Fechner, Anita; Kaatz, Martin; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2014-08-01

    The increasing use of lupin in food processing poses a problem of potential (cross-)allergic reactions. To evaluate the prevalence of sensitization to lupin in comparison to that of other legumes skin prick tests were performed with lupin, pea, peanut, and soybean in atopic (n = 81) and non-atopic (n = 102) German adults. Of these 183 subjects, 20 subjects had to be excluded due to invalid skin prick tests (reaction to histamine <3 mm or to sodium chloride >2 mm). Thus, skin prick tests of 163 subjects were included in final analyses. Of 163 subjects, 18 had a positive reaction to at least one legume tested. Overall skin prick test reactivity was different among non-atopic and atopic subjects (P = 0.005). Altogether, six subjects (4%) were sensitized to lupin, 12 (7%) to pea, 5 (3%) to peanut, and 8 (5%) to soybean. Two (2%) of the 92 non-atopic subjects and 4 (6%) of the 71 atopic subjects had a positive skin prick test to lupin. Of the 6 subjects sensitized to lupin, 3 (50%) were also sensitized to pea, 3 (50%) to peanut, and 5 (83%) to soybean. In conclusion, the prevalence rates of lupin sensitization were comparable to or even lower than those of pea, peanut, and soybean. To date, lupin allergy is suspected to be relatively uncommon in the overall German population since lupin sensitization occurred in only 2% of non-atopic subjects. However, there is a clear risk of a lupin allergy in predisposed subjects, since the frequency of lupin sensitization was 6% in atopic subjects. In particular, subjects with existing sensitization or allergy to other legumes are at higher risk for a sensitization or allergy to lupin due to cross-reactivity.

  13. Growth Dynamics of Mechanically Impeded Lupin Roots: does Altered Morphology Induce Hypoxia?

    PubMed Central

    HANBURY, COLIN D.; ATWELL, BRIAN J.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Root axes elongate slowly and swell radially under mechanical impedance. However, temporal and spatial changes to impeded root apices have only been described qualitatively. This paper aims (a) to quantify morphological changes to root apices and (b) assess whether these changes pre-dispose young root tissues to hypoxia. • Methods Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) seedlings were grown into coarse sand that was pressurized through a diaphragm to generate mechanical impedance on growing root axes. In situ observations yielded growth rates and root response to hypoxia. Roots were then removed to assess morphology, cell lengths and local growth velocities. Oxygen uptake into excised segments was measured. • Key Results An applied pressure of 15 kPa slowed root extension by 75 % after 10–20 h while the same axes thickened by about 50 %. The most terminal 2–3 mm of axes did not respond morphologically to impedance, in spite of the slower flux of cells out of this region. The basal boundary of root extension encroached to within 4 mm of the apex (cf. 10 mm in unimpeded roots), while radial swelling extended 10 mm behind the apex in impeded roots. Oxygen demand by segments of these short, thick, impeded roots was significantly different from segments of unimpeded roots when the zones of elongation in each treatment were compared. Specifically, impeded roots consumed O2 faster and O2 consumption was more likely to be O2-limited over a substantial proportion of the elongation zone, making these roots more susceptible to O2 deficit. Impeded roots used more O2 per unit growth (measured as either unit of elongation or unit of volumetric expansion) than unimpeded roots. Extension of impeded roots in situ was O2-limited at sub-atmospheric O2 levels (21 % O2), while unimpeded roots were only limited below 11 % O2. • Conclusions The shift in the zone of extension towards the apex in impeded roots coincided with greater vulnerability to

  14. Effects of intercropping of oat (Avena sativa L.) with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on the mobility of target elements for phytoremediation and phytomining in soil solution.

    PubMed

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balazs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Moschner, Christin; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to investigate how intercropping of oat (Avena sativa L.) with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) affects the mobile fractions of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Th, U, Sc, La, Nd, Ge) in soil solution. Oat and white lupin were cultivated in monocultures and mixed cultures with differing oat/white lupin ratios (11% and 33% lupin, respectively). Temporal variation of soil solution chemistry was compared with the mobilization of elements in the rhizosphere of white lupin and concentrations in plant tissues. Relative to the monocrops, intercropping of oat with 11% white lupin significantly increased the concentrations of Fe, Pb, Th, La and Nd in soil solution as well as the concentrations of Fe, Pb, Th, Sc, La and Nd in tissues of oat. Enhanced mobility of the mentioned elements corresponded to a depletion of elements in the rhizosphere soil of white lupin. In mixed cultures with 33% lupin, concentrations in soil solution only slightly increased. We conclude that intercropping with 11% white lupin might be a promising tool for phytoremediation and phytomining research enhancing mobility of essential trace metals as well as elements with relevance for phytoremediation (Pb, Th) and phytomining (La, Nd, Sc) in soil.

  15. Effects of intercropping of oat (Avena sativa L.) with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on the mobility of target elements for phytoremediation and phytomining in soil solution.

    PubMed

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balazs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Moschner, Christin; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to investigate how intercropping of oat (Avena sativa L.) with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) affects the mobile fractions of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Th, U, Sc, La, Nd, Ge) in soil solution. Oat and white lupin were cultivated in monocultures and mixed cultures with differing oat/white lupin ratios (11% and 33% lupin, respectively). Temporal variation of soil solution chemistry was compared with the mobilization of elements in the rhizosphere of white lupin and concentrations in plant tissues. Relative to the monocrops, intercropping of oat with 11% white lupin significantly increased the concentrations of Fe, Pb, Th, La and Nd in soil solution as well as the concentrations of Fe, Pb, Th, Sc, La and Nd in tissues of oat. Enhanced mobility of the mentioned elements corresponded to a depletion of elements in the rhizosphere soil of white lupin. In mixed cultures with 33% lupin, concentrations in soil solution only slightly increased. We conclude that intercropping with 11% white lupin might be a promising tool for phytoremediation and phytomining research enhancing mobility of essential trace metals as well as elements with relevance for phytoremediation (Pb, Th) and phytomining (La, Nd, Sc) in soil. PMID:26940160

  16. Where do roots take up water? Neutron radiography of water flow into the roots of transpiring plants growing in soil.

    PubMed

    Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kim, Yangmin X; Carminati, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    Where and how fast does water flow from soil into roots? The answer to this question requires direct and in situ measurement of local flow of water into roots of transpiring plants growing in soil. We used neutron radiography to trace the transport of deuterated water (D₂O) in lupin (Lupinus albus) roots. Lupins were grown in aluminum containers (30 × 25 × 1 cm) filled with sandy soil. D₂O was injected in different soil regions and its transport in soil and roots was monitored by neutron radiography. The transport of water into roots was then quantified using a convection-diffusion model of D₂O transport into roots. The results showed that water uptake was not uniform along roots. Water uptake was higher in the upper soil layers than in the lower ones. Along an individual root, the radial flux was higher in the proximal segments than in the distal segments. In lupins, most of the water uptake occurred in lateral roots. The function of the taproot was to collect water from laterals and transport it to the shoot. This function is ensured by a low radial conductivity and a high axial conductivity. Lupin root architecture seems well designed to take up water from deep soil layers.

  17. Integration of Lupinus angustifolius L. (narrow-leafed lupin) genome maps and comparative mapping within legumes.

    PubMed

    Wyrwa, Katarzyna; Książkiewicz, Michał; Szczepaniak, Anna; Susek, Karolina; Podkowiński, Jan; Naganowska, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) has recently been considered a reference genome for the Lupinus genus. In the present work, genetic and cytogenetic maps of L. angustifolius were supplemented with 30 new molecular markers representing lupin genome regions, harboring genes involved in nitrogen fixation during the symbiotic interaction of legumes and soil bacteria (Rhizobiaceae). Our studies resulted in the precise localization of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) carrying sequence variants for early nodulin 40, nodulin 26, nodulin 45, aspartate aminotransferase P2, asparagine synthetase, cytosolic glutamine synthetase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. Together with previously mapped chromosomes, the integrated L. angustifolius map encompasses 73 chromosome markers, including 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and 45S rDNA, and anchors 20 L. angustifolius linkage groups to corresponding chromosomes. Chromosomal identification using BAC fluorescence in situ hybridization identified two BAC clones as narrow-leafed lupin centromere-specific markers, which served as templates for preliminary studies of centromere composition within the genus. Bioinformatic analysis of these two BACs revealed that centromeric/pericentromeric regions of narrow-leafed lupin chromosomes consisted of simple sequence repeats ordered into tandem repeats containing the trinucleotide and pentanucleotide simple sequence repeats AGG and GATAC, structured into long arrays. Moreover, cross-genus microsynteny analysis revealed syntenic patterns of 31 single-locus BAC clones among several legume species. The gene and chromosome level findings provide evidence of ancient duplication events that must have occurred very early in the divergence of papilionoid lineages. This work provides a strong foundation for future comparative mapping among legumes and may facilitate understanding of mechanisms involved in shaping legume chromosomes. PMID:27168155

  18. Diversification of Lupine Bradyrhizobium Strains: Evidence from Nodulation Gene Trees▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Stępkowski, Tomasz; Hughes, Colin E.; Law, Ian J.; Markiewicz, Łukasz; Gurda, Dorota; Chlebicka, Agnieszka; Moulin, Lionel

    2007-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium strains isolated in Europe from Genisteae and serradella legumes form a distinct lineage, designated clade II, on nodulation gene trees. Clade II bradyrhizobia appear to prevail also in the soils of Western Australia and South Africa following probably accidental introduction with seeds of their lupine and serradella hosts. Given this potential for dispersal, we investigated Bradyrhizobium isolates originating from a range of native New World lupines, based on phylogenetic analyses of nodulation (nodA, nodZ, noeI) and housekeeping (atpD, dnaK, glnII, recA) genes. The housekeeping gene trees revealed considerable diversity among lupine bradyrhizobia, with most isolates placed in the Bradyrhizobium japonicum lineage, while some European strains were closely related to Bradyrhizobium canariense. The nodA gene tree resolved seven strongly supported groups (clades I to VII) that correlated with strain geographical origins and to some extent with major Lupinus clades. All European strains were placed in clade II, whereas only a minority of New World strains was placed in this clade. This work, as well as our previous studies, suggests that clade II diversified predominately in the Old World, possibly in the Mediterranean. Most New World isolates formed subclade III.2, nested in a large “pantropical” clade III, which appears to be New World in origin, although it also includes strains originating from nonlupine legumes. Trees generated using nodZ and noeI gene sequences accorded well with the nodA tree, but evidence is presented that the noeI gene may not be required for nodulation of lupine and that loss of this gene is occurring. PMID:17400786

  19. Microencapsulation by spray drying of nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with lupin nodules.

    PubMed

    Campos, Daniela C; Acevedo, Francisca; Morales, Eduardo; Aravena, Javiera; Amiard, Véronique; Jorquera, Milko A; Inostroza, Nitza G; Rubilar, Mónica

    2014-09-01

    Plant growth promoting bacteria and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB) used for crop inoculation have important biotechnological potential as a sustainable fertilization tool. However, the main limitation of this technology is the low inoculum survival rate under field conditions. Microencapsulation of bacterial cells in polymer matrices provides a controlled release and greater protection against environmental conditions. In this context, the aim of this study was to isolate and characterize putative NFB associated with lupin nodules and to evaluate their microencapsulation by spray drying. For this purpose, 21 putative NFB were isolated from lupin nodules and characterized (16S rRNA genes). Microencapsulation of bacterial cells by spray drying was studied using a mixture of sodium alginate:maltodextrin at different ratios (0:15, 1:14, 2:13) and concentrations (15 and 30% solids) as the wall material. The microcapsules were observed under scanning electron microscopy to verify their suitable morphology. Results showed the association between lupin nodules of diverse known NFB and nodule-forming bacteria belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. In microencapsulation assays, the 1:14 ratio of sodium alginate:maltodextrin (15% solids) showed the highest cell survival rate (79%), with a microcapsule yield of 27% and spherical microcapsules of 5-50 µm in diameter. In conclusion, diverse putative NFB genera and nodule-forming bacteria are associated with the nodules of lupine plants grown in soils in southern Chile, and their microencapsulation by spray drying using sodium alginate:maltodextrin represents a scalable process to generate a biofertilizer as an alternative to traditional nitrogen fertilization.

  20. Numerical modelling of agricultural products on the example of bean and yellow lupine seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, Andrzej; Kaliniewicz, Zdzisław; Markowski, Piotr

    2015-10-01

    Numerical models of bean seeds cv. Złota Saxa and yellow lupine seeds cv. Juno were generated with the use of a 3D scanner, the geometric parameters of seeds were determined based on the models developed, and compared with the results of digital image analysis and micrometer measurements. Measurements of seed length, width and thickness performed with the use of a micrometer, 3D scanner and digital image analysis produced similar results that did not differ significantly at α = 0.05. The micrometer delivered the simplest and fastest measurements. The mean surface area of bean seeds cv. Złota Saxa and yellow lupine seeds cv. Juno, calculated with the use of mathematical formulas based on the results of micrometer measurements and digital image analysis, differed significantly from the mean surface area determined with a 3D scanner. No significant differences in seed volume were observed when this parameter was measured with a 3D scanner and determined with the use of mathematical formulas based on the results of digital image analysis and micrometer measurements. The only differences were noted when the volume of yellow lupine seeds cv. Juno was measured in a 25 ml liquid pycnometer.

  1. The effect of military training activity on eastern lupine and the Karner blue butterfly at Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark A; Turner, Monica G; Rusch, Donald H

    2002-01-01

    The US Department of Defense (DOD) manages over 10.1 million ha of land, much of which is used for training military personnel. However, vast sections receive little or no use, and military lands have become refuges for many species. At Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA, populations of the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) are found in oak and pine barren communities where wild lupine (Lupinus perennis), a perennial forb required by Karner blue butterfly larvae, still occurs. Oak and pine barren communities are disturbance-dependent, and the barrens ecosystems in the Midwest have declined in extent by 98% because of fire suppression, succession, and habitat fragmentation. We studied the effects of disturbance by military manuever training on the density of lupine and Karner blue butterfly at Fort McCoy. We also wanted to determine whether military training activity could enhance Karner blue butterfly habitat. At locations where tracked vehicles had driven through lupine patches, the abundance of lupine and nectar-producing plants was greater in the median strip between vehicle ruts than in vehicle ruts or 5 m outside the vehicle ruts. The proportion of lupine stems with Karner blue butterfly larvae feeding sign (the ratio of stems fed upon to stems examined) was greater in areas where military vehicles had traveled than where they had not. The proportion of lupine stems with feeding sign and lupine stem density was also positively related to the occurrence of prior bivouacs and fires caused by military munitions. Shrub and forest canopy abundance were lower in areas traveled by tracked vehicles. At the scale of the lupine patch, lupine abundance and the proportion of lupine stems with feeding sign were positively correlated with military training activities, suggesting that maintenance of lupine habitat can be achieved in concert with military training. PMID:11740627

  2. The effect of military training activity on eastern lupine and the Karner blue butterfly at Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark A; Turner, Monica G; Rusch, Donald H

    2002-01-01

    The US Department of Defense (DOD) manages over 10.1 million ha of land, much of which is used for training military personnel. However, vast sections receive little or no use, and military lands have become refuges for many species. At Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA, populations of the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) are found in oak and pine barren communities where wild lupine (Lupinus perennis), a perennial forb required by Karner blue butterfly larvae, still occurs. Oak and pine barren communities are disturbance-dependent, and the barrens ecosystems in the Midwest have declined in extent by 98% because of fire suppression, succession, and habitat fragmentation. We studied the effects of disturbance by military manuever training on the density of lupine and Karner blue butterfly at Fort McCoy. We also wanted to determine whether military training activity could enhance Karner blue butterfly habitat. At locations where tracked vehicles had driven through lupine patches, the abundance of lupine and nectar-producing plants was greater in the median strip between vehicle ruts than in vehicle ruts or 5 m outside the vehicle ruts. The proportion of lupine stems with Karner blue butterfly larvae feeding sign (the ratio of stems fed upon to stems examined) was greater in areas where military vehicles had traveled than where they had not. The proportion of lupine stems with feeding sign and lupine stem density was also positively related to the occurrence of prior bivouacs and fires caused by military munitions. Shrub and forest canopy abundance were lower in areas traveled by tracked vehicles. At the scale of the lupine patch, lupine abundance and the proportion of lupine stems with feeding sign were positively correlated with military training activities, suggesting that maintenance of lupine habitat can be achieved in concert with military training.

  3. The Effect of Military Training Activity on Eastern Lupine and the Karner Blue Butterfly at Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Mark A.; Turner, Monica G.; Rusch, Donald H.

    2002-01-01

    The US Department of Defense (DOD) manages over 10.1 million ha of land, much of which is used for training military personnel. However, vast sections receive little or no use, and military lands have become refuges for many species. At Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA, populations of the endangered Karner blue butterfly ( Lycaeides melissa samuelis) are found in oak and pine barren communities where wild lupine ( Lupinus perennis), a perennial forb required by Karner blue butterfly larvae, still occurs. Oak and pine barren communities are disturbance-dependent, and the barrens ecosystems in the Midwest have declined in extent by 98% because of fire suppression, succession, and habitat fragmentation. We studied the effects of disturbance by military manuever training on the density of lupine and Karner blue butterfly at Fort McCoy. We also wanted to determine whether military training activity could enhance Karner blue butterfly habitat. At locations where tracked vehicles had driven through lupine patches, the abundance of lupine and nectar-producing plants was greater in the median strip between vehicle ruts than in vehicle ruts or 5 m outside the vehicle ruts. The proportion of lupine stems with Karner blue butterfly larvae feeding sign (the ratio of stems fed upon to stems examined) was greater in areas where military vehicles had traveled than where they had not. The proportion of lupine stems with feeding sign and lupine stem density was also positively related to the occurrence of prior bivouacs and fires caused by military munitions. Shrub and forest canopy abundance were lower in areas traveled by tracked vehicles. At the scale of the lupine patch, lupine abundance and the proportion of lupine stems with feeding sign were positively correlated with military training activities, suggesting that maintenance of lupine habitat can be achieved in concert with military training.

  4. European Origin of Bradyrhizobium Populations Infecting Lupins and Serradella in Soils of Western Australia and South Africa† ‡

    PubMed Central

    Stępkowski, Tomasz; Moulin, Lionel; Krzyżańska, Agnieszka; McInnes, Alison; Law, Ian J.; Howieson, John

    2005-01-01

    We applied a multilocus phylogenetic approach to elucidate the origin of serradella and lupin Bradyrhizobium strains that persist in soils of Western Australia and South Africa. The selected strains belonged to different randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR clusters that were distinct from RAPD clusters of applied inoculant strains. Phylogenetic analyses were performed with nodulation genes (nodA, nodZ, nolL, noeI), housekeeping genes (dnaK, recA, glnII, atpD), and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer sequences. Housekeeping gene phylogenies revealed that all serradella and Lupinus cosentinii isolates from Western Australia and three of five South African narrow-leaf lupin strains were intermingled with the strains of Bradyrhizobium canariense, forming a well supported branch on each of the trees. All nodA gene sequences of the lupin and serradella bradyrhizobia formed a single branch, referred to as clade II, together with the sequences of other lupin and serradella strains. Similar patterns were detected in nodZ and nolL trees. In contrast, nodA sequences of the strains isolated from native Australian legumes formed either a new branch called clade IV or belonged to clade I or III, whereas their nonsymbiotic genes grouped outside the B. canariense branch. These data suggest that the lupin and serradella strains, including the strains from uncultivated L. cosentinii plants, are descendants of strains that most likely were brought from Europe accidentally with lupin and serradella seeds. The observed dominance of B. canariense strains may be related to this species' adaptation to acid soils common in Western Australia and South Africa and, presumably, to their intrinsic ability to compete for nodulation of lupins and serradella. PMID:16269740

  5. The effects of a lupin-enriched diet on oxidative stress and factors influencing vascular function in overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xingbin; Croft, Kevin D; Lee, Ya P; Mori, Trevor A; Puddey, Ian B; Sipsas, Sofia; Barden, Anne; Swinny, Ewald; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2010-11-15

    A diet enriched in lupin kernel flour can lower blood pressure, but mechanisms responsible are unclear. Lupin is a source of polyphenols, protein, and L-arginine, factors that may influence blood pressure via effects on oxidative stress and vascular function. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effects of a lupin-enriched diet on oxidative stress and factors influencing vascular function as potential mechanisms for demonstrated benefits on blood pressure. Overweight men and women (n = 88) were recruited to a 16-week parallel-design study. Participants were randomly assigned to replace 15%-20% of their usual daily energy intake with white bread (control) or lupin kernel flour-enriched bread (lupin). All measurements were taken at baseline and 16 weeks. At baseline, plasma F₂-isoprostanes and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) were positively associated with blood pressure, and plasma nitrite was negatively associated with blood pressure (p < 0.05). For lupin relative to control, the estimated differences in plasma F₂-isoprostanes (45 pmol/L; 95%CI: -68, 158), urinary F₂-isoprostanes (17 pmol/mmol creatinine; 95%CI: -43, 76), plasma 20-HETE (75 pmol/L; 95%CI: -91, 241), and plasma nitrite (-0.3 μmol/L; 95%CI: -1.1, 0.4) were not significant. Although regular consumption of lupin-enriched bread can lower blood pressure, these results do not support for the hypothesis that this is via effects on oxidative stress or vascular function.

  6. Creativity Growing Out of Austerity. Proceedings of the Annual National Conference of the People United for Rural Education (5th, Des Moines, Iowa, February 4-5, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losure, Joyce

    The fifth annual conference of People United for Rural Education (PURE) focused on developing alternative strategies in a time of austerity. In two general sessions recognized national leaders gave a conference overview and spoke on the roots of rural education inequity and the National Institute of Education's rural education research initiative.…

  7. 'We owe it to society to give the wealth back'. Gates tops annual 100 Most Powerful list, spotlighting growing role of philanthropy in fighting healthcare's ills.

    PubMed

    Romano, Michael

    2006-08-28

    Modern Healthcare's fifth annual listing of the 100 Most Powerful People in Healthcare spotlights executives, providers and other insiders who have their fingers on the pulse of the biggest industry trends, such as electronic health records, health savings accounts and rising numbers of uninsured patients. Who's the most influential person in healthcare? One hint: It's not the president.

  8. A comprehensive draft genome sequence for lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), an emerging health food: Insights into plant-microbe interactions and legume evolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lupins are important grain legume crops that form a critical part of sustainable farming systems, by reducing the need for fertilizer and providing disease breaks. Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is gaining popularity as a human health food, as a non-GM alternative to soybean with the...

  9. [Canning of "humitas" prepared with opaque-2 corn, supplemented with sweet lupine (Lupinus albus var. Multolupa). Nutritional and quality changes].

    PubMed

    Camacho, L; Bañados, E; Fernández, E

    1989-06-01

    The effects of opaque-2 corn and the complementation with lupin flour on the sensory quality and nutritive value of "humitas" were evaluated. Moreover, the nutritional and quality changes which occur during the retorting of the product canned in two can sizes, were studied. Hybrid and opaque-2 corn were replaced with 6%, 8%, 10% and 12% lupin flour, being 8% the complementation level with the best sensory and nutritional quality. Heat penetration studies of the product canned in N2 and N6 tin cans, were carried out. Total process time at 121 degrees C was 73 min and 147 min, respectively. "Humitas" prepared with hybrid and opaque-2 corn, with and without 8% lupin flour, prior and after sterilization, were subjected to proximate analysis, pH, titratible acidity and available lysine determinations. Biological evaluation of the protein by the net protein ratio (NPR) and digestibility, as well as organoleptic quality and acceptability analyses were also determined. It was concluded that the complementation with 8% lupin flour improves significantly the nutritional value of hybrid corn "humitas", but not that of opaque-2 corn. The canning process affected lysine availability and was directly related to the amino acid concentration, and to the retorting duration. On the other hand, the thermal processing adversely affected the biological quality of protein and some sensory attributes. The 8% lupin complementation was also detrimental for the organoleptic quality of the product. PMID:2487029

  10. Comparison of sweet white lupin seeds with soybean meal as a protein supplement for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, B; Otterby, D E; Linn, J G; Stern, M D; Johnson, D G

    1987-11-01

    Data were from 45 Holstein cows (23 multiparous, 22 primiparous) assigned by calving date and parity within groups to one of two isonitrogenous (16% crude protein) diets. The diets were 50% forages (corn silage, alfalfa silage) and 50% concentrate, dry basis. In diet A, soybean meal supplied 34.2% of total crude protein; in diet B, ground sweet white lupin seeds provided 37.9% of total crude protein. Cows were fed once daily during the experimental period (d 4 to 116 postpartum). Cows fed lupins consumed significantly less dry matter, produced 1.8 kg/d less milk (but not significantly different), and had lower milk protein percent. Milk fat and total solids percents were similar. Reasons for reduced intake of cows fed lupins were not evident. Traces of alkaloids (.005% dry basis) were present in diet B. Combined results of in vitro continuous culture fermentation and in situ degradation measurements indicated that crude protein from lupins was more degradable than that of soybean meal. Poor performances of cows fed lupins could be partly due to a reduced true protein supply to the small intestine.

  11. Effect of different debittering processes on mineral and phytic acid content of lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ertaş, Nilgün; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2014-11-01

    Lupin is a valuable ancient legume which contains high amount of protein, dietary fiber, oil, minerals and different functional components. Bitter lupin seeds cannot be consumed directly since its high toxic alkaloid content. Cooking and soaking are effective processes for removing these toxic substances and antinutrients as phytic acid, trypsin inhibitors and oligosaccharides. In this study, debittering process containing cooking and soaking up to 144 h was applied to lupin seeds. Raw lupin seeds had 3.3 % ash and 41.3 % protein content. Ash and protein content of debittered seeds changed between 2.1 and 2.5 %, 39.5 and 40.9 % respectively. After debittering process, significant (p < 0.05) decreases (between % 5.7 and 75.7) were observed in calcium, phosphorus, zinc, iron, magnesium and manganese contents of the lupin seeds. Phytic acid was removed from raw lupin seeds up to 71.4 % ratio by debittering processes, and soaking in distilled water at 55 °C and long soaking time (144 h) was found the most effective methods on phytic acid loss. While more lighter (L*) seeds were obtained with soaking in distilled water at 25 °C, soaking in 0.5 % NaHCO3 solution gave more yellowish (b*) seed properties compared to other soaking methods. Soaking in 0.5 % NaHCO3 solution at 144 h gave the most liked products in terms of sensorial evaluation. PMID:26396330

  12. Influence of graded inclusion of white lupin (Lupinus albus) meal on performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, S A; Hejdysz, M; Kubiś, M; Rutkowski, A

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of white lupin (Lupinus albus) meal (WLM) addition on the intestinal viscosity, bird performance, nutrient utilisation and villi morphology of growing broiler chicks. The experiment was conducted with 480 broiler chicks divided into 6 dietary treatments, including a maize-soybean meal control diet (CON) and 5 experimental diets containing 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 g/kg WLM. During the period from d 0 to 35, birds fed on 200 or higher WLM/kg were characterised by lower body weight gain and feed intake than CON. The use of 150 g of WLM/kg increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to CON treatment. Apparent metabolisable energy corrected to zero N balance (AMEN) and apparent ileal digestibility of dry matter, ether extract, crude protein and starch, linearly decreased as WLM increased from 0 to 300 g/kg. There was a quadratic effect of WLM dose on sialic acid excretion. A strong negative linear correlation was found between the excretion of sialic acid and AMEN. The viscosity of ileal digesta was linearly increased as WLM increased. The effect of WLM dose on ileum villus height (VH) was linear, while that on ileum villus area (VA) was quadratic. Both parameters decreased as WLM increased from 0 to 300 g/kg. In conclusion, the use of over 150 g/kg of WLM in broiler diets depressed performance results. However, depression of nutrient utilisation was only observed when 250 or 300 g/kg of WLM was used. PMID:27025275

  13. Heavy metal immobilization by chemical amendments in a polluted soil and influence on white lupin growth.

    PubMed

    Castaldi, Paola; Santona, Laura; Melis, Pietro

    2005-07-01

    The effects of chemical amendments (zeolite, compost and calcium hydroxide) on the solubility of Pb, Cd and Zn in a contaminated soil were determined. The polluted soil was from the Southwest Sardinia, Italy. It showed very high total concentrations of Pb (19663 mgkg(-1) d.m.), Cd (196 mgkg(-1) d.m.) and Zn (14667 mgkg(-1) d.m.). The growth and uptake of heavy metals by white lupin (Lupinus albus L., cv. Multitalia) in amended soils were also studied in a pot experiment under greenhouse conditions. Results showed that the amendments increased the residual fraction of heavy metals in the soils, and decreased the heavy metals uptake by white lupin compared with the unamended control. Among the three amendments, compost and Ca(OH)2 were the most efficient at reducing Pb and Zn uptake, while zeolite was the most efficient at reducing Cd uptake by the plants. White lupin growth was better in amended soils than in unamended control. The above ground biomass increased with a factor 1.8 (soil amended with zeolite), 3.6 (soil amended with compost) and 3.1 (soil amended with Ca(OH)2) with respect to unamended soil. The roots biomass increased with a factor 1.4 (soil amended with zeolite), 5.6 (soil amended with compost) and 4.8 (soil amended with Ca(OH)2). Results obtained suggest that the soil chemical treatment improved the performance of crops by reducing bioavailability of metals in the soils. However it would be therefore interesting to find a suitable mixture of these amendments to contemporarily immobilize the three main pollutants in the polluted soils.

  14. Response of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle to re-aeration following hypoxia in lupine roots.

    PubMed

    Garnczarska, Małgorzata

    2005-06-01

    The response of the enzymes and metabolites of the ascorbate-glutathione pathway to oxidative stress caused by re-aeration following hypoxia was studied in roots of hydroponically grown lupine (Lupinus luteus L. cv. Juno) seedlings. Lupine roots were deprived of oxygen by subjecting them to hypoxia for 48 and 72 h and then re-aerated for up to 4 h. An increased content of total ascorbate was observed in lupine roots immediately after hypoxia, whereas total glutathione level decreased. However, a significant increase in the reduced forms of both metabolites was found directly after hypoxia. Re-admission of oxygen caused the decrease of the ratios of reduced to oxidized forms of ascorbate and glutathione, indicating oxidative stress. While monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR, EC 1.6.5.4) activity remained unaltered during re-aeration the increase in activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) was observed 30 min after transfer from hypoxic condition. Dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1) activity approached the control level during a whole re-aeration period. Native gel electrophoresis combined with specific activity staining revealed seven isoforms of APX, five isoforms of GR and three different proteins with DHA reductase activity in roots extracts. However, immediately after hypoxic treatment APX-5 isoform and GR-1 isoform were not observed in roots. This experimental system was also used to investigate superoxide anion level in roots utilizing the superoxide anion-specific indicator dihydroethidium (DHE). Intense DHE-derived fluorescence was found in re-aerated root tips as compared to control roots, indicating that re-aeration induced superoxide anion production in hypoxically pretreated roots.

  15. Molecular analysis of SCARECROW genes expressed in white lupin cluster roots.

    PubMed

    Sbabou, Laila; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Miller, Susan; Liu, Junqi; Berhada, Fatiha; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Allan, Deborah; Vance, Carroll

    2010-03-01

    The Scarecrow (SCR) transcription factor plays a crucial role in root cell radial patterning and is required for maintenance of the quiescent centre and differentiation of the endodermis. In response to phosphorus (P) deficiency, white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) root surface area increases some 50-fold to 70-fold due to the development of cluster (proteoid) roots. Previously it was reported that SCR-like expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were expressed during early cluster root development. Here the cloning of two white lupin SCR genes, LaSCR1 and LaSCR2, is reported. The predicted amino acid sequences of both LaSCR gene products are highly similar to AtSCR and contain C-terminal conserved GRAS family domains. LaSCR1 and LaSCR2 transcript accumulation localized to the endodermis of both normal and cluster roots as shown by in situ hybridization and gene promoter::reporter staining. Transcript analysis as evaluated by quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR) and RNA gel hybridization indicated that the two LaSCR genes are expressed predominantly in roots. Expression of LaSCR genes was not directly responsive to the P status of the plant but was a function of cluster root development. Suppression of LaSCR1 in transformed roots of lupin and Medicago via RNAi (RNA interference) delivered through Agrobacterium rhizogenes resulted in decreased root numbers, reflecting the potential role of LaSCR1 in maintaining root growth in these species. The results suggest that the functional orthologues of AtSCR have been characterized.

  16. Crystal growing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neville, J. P.

    1990-01-01

    One objective is to demonstrate the way crystals grow and how they affect the behavior of material. Another objective is to compare the growth of crystals in metals and nonmetals. The procedures, which involve a supersaturated solution of a salt that will separate into crystals on cooling and the pouring off of an eutectic solution to expose the crystals formed by a solid solution when an alloy of two metals forms a solid and eutectic solution on cooling, are described.

  17. Protein distribution in lupin protein isolates from Lupinus angustifolius L. prepared by various isolation techniques.

    PubMed

    Muranyi, Isabel S; Volke, Daniela; Hoffmann, Ralf; Eisner, Peter; Herfellner, Thomas; Brunnbauer, Markus; Koehler, Peter; Schweiggert-Weisz, Ute

    2016-09-15

    Differences in the protein distribution of various protein isolates from Lupinus angustifolius L. Vitabor were identified as affected by the isolation procedure (alkaline and/or salt-induced extraction followed by isoelectric and/or dilutive precipitation). Protein isolates extracted in alkaline solution showed higher protein yields (26.4-31.7%) compared to salt-induced extraction (19.8-30.0%) or combined alkaline and salt-induced extraction (23.3-25.6%). Chemical variations among the protein isolates especially occurred within the albumins. Protein isolates precipitated isoelectrically showed the highest contents, whereas protein isolates precipitated by dilutive showed the lowest contents of conglutin δ. Furthermore, the alkaline subunits of conglutin α and conglutin γ decreased during alkaline extraction compared to salt-induced extraction. A decrease in protein-bound polar and basic amino acids was shown after protein isolation. In contrast, the amounts of nonpolar, aliphatic, aromatic, hydroxylated and sulfur-rich amino acids were higher in the lupin protein isolates compared to the lupin flakes. However, the functional side chains could not be related to the specific molecular arrangements of the protein isolates, as a similar amino acid composition was found among the protein isolates. PMID:27080873

  18. A new version of the LUPIN detector: Improvements and latest experimental verification

    SciTech Connect

    Caresana, M.; Varoli, V.; Ferrarini, M.; Hohmann, E.; Mayer, S.; Manessi, G. P.; Silari, M.

    2014-06-15

    LUPIN-II is an upgraded version of LUPIN, a novel rem counter first developed in 2010 specifically conceived to work in pulsed neutron fields (PNFs). The new version introduces some modifications that improve the performance of the detector, in particular extending its upper detection limit in PNFs. This paper discusses the characteristics and the performance of the instrument. Measurements have been carried out in radiation fields characterized by very different conditions: the detector has first been exposed in PNFs with intensity up to 5 μSv per burst, where it could keep the H*(10) underestimation below 20% up to 500 nSv per burst. It has then been tested in operational conditions around particle accelerators, where it has shown performances similar to that of ionization chambers. Its proper functioning has also been verified in high energy mixed fields, where the experimental results matched the Monte Carlo predictions. Its neutron/photon discrimination capability has been tested in a steady-state photon field where, via an innovative technique based on a threshold set on the derivative of the current signal, it was capable of rejecting a photon H*(10) rate of about 25 mSv/h, and in a mixed neutron/photon field, where a time-based discrimination method was employed.

  19. A new version of the LUPIN detector: improvements and latest experimental verification.

    PubMed

    Caresana, M; Cassell, C; Ferrarini, M; Hohmann, E; Manessi, G P; Mayer, S; Silari, M; Varoli, V

    2014-06-01

    LUPIN-II is an upgraded version of LUPIN, a novel rem counter first developed in 2010 specifically conceived to work in pulsed neutron fields (PNFs). The new version introduces some modifications that improve the performance of the detector, in particular extending its upper detection limit in PNFs. This paper discusses the characteristics and the performance of the instrument. Measurements have been carried out in radiation fields characterized by very different conditions: the detector has first been exposed in PNFs with intensity up to 5 μSv per burst, where it could keep the H*(10) underestimation below 20% up to 500 nSv per burst. It has then been tested in operational conditions around particle accelerators, where it has shown performances similar to that of ionization chambers. Its proper functioning has also been verified in high energy mixed fields, where the experimental results matched the Monte Carlo predictions. Its neutron/photon discrimination capability has been tested in a steady-state photon field where, via an innovative technique based on a threshold set on the derivative of the current signal, it was capable of rejecting a photon H*(10) rate of about 25 mSv/h, and in a mixed neutron/photon field, where a time-based discrimination method was employed.

  20. Protein distribution in lupin protein isolates from Lupinus angustifolius L. prepared by various isolation techniques.

    PubMed

    Muranyi, Isabel S; Volke, Daniela; Hoffmann, Ralf; Eisner, Peter; Herfellner, Thomas; Brunnbauer, Markus; Koehler, Peter; Schweiggert-Weisz, Ute

    2016-09-15

    Differences in the protein distribution of various protein isolates from Lupinus angustifolius L. Vitabor were identified as affected by the isolation procedure (alkaline and/or salt-induced extraction followed by isoelectric and/or dilutive precipitation). Protein isolates extracted in alkaline solution showed higher protein yields (26.4-31.7%) compared to salt-induced extraction (19.8-30.0%) or combined alkaline and salt-induced extraction (23.3-25.6%). Chemical variations among the protein isolates especially occurred within the albumins. Protein isolates precipitated isoelectrically showed the highest contents, whereas protein isolates precipitated by dilutive showed the lowest contents of conglutin δ. Furthermore, the alkaline subunits of conglutin α and conglutin γ decreased during alkaline extraction compared to salt-induced extraction. A decrease in protein-bound polar and basic amino acids was shown after protein isolation. In contrast, the amounts of nonpolar, aliphatic, aromatic, hydroxylated and sulfur-rich amino acids were higher in the lupin protein isolates compared to the lupin flakes. However, the functional side chains could not be related to the specific molecular arrangements of the protein isolates, as a similar amino acid composition was found among the protein isolates.

  1. A novel technique for compensation of space charge effects in the LUPIN-II detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassell, C.; Ferrarini, M.; Rosenfeld, A.; Caresana, M.

    2015-12-01

    A new method for improving REM counter performance in Pulsed Neutron Fields (PNFs) has been developed. This method uses an analysis of the build-up of space charge in the counter to compensate for an underestimation of Ambient Dose Equivalent (H*(10)) in intense pulsed fields. It was applied to three sets of experimental data acquired using the LUPIN-II REM counter device, which is designed for use in PNFs. The data was acquired using the cyclotron at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH (HZB), at the HiRadMat facility at CERN and at the 'Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste' (ELETTRA), Italy. A comparison of the data with and without this compensation method is used to highlight its effectiveness. The LUPIN-II performance, which has already been shown to be able to cope with fields of up to hundreds of nSv/burst, is improved by at least one order of magnitude, with further potential for improvement.

  2. Crooked Calf Syndrome: Managing Lupines on Rangelands of the Channel Scablands of East-Central Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Crooked calf syndrome”, the contracture-type skeletal defects and cleft palate caused by velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) on the channel Scablands of east-central Washington State are the same as those defects induced by Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock) and Nicotiana spp. (wild tobacco) in rum...

  3. Intermittent grazing: A management tool to reduce the impact of lupine-induced Crooked Calf Syndrome (CCS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lupinus genus is a large group of legumes, some of which cause a congenital condition in cattle referred to as “Crooked Calf Syndrome” (CCS). Only Lupines that contain the alkaloids anagyrine or ammodendrine are problematic to cattle producers. The syndrome is manifest by a series of multiple ...

  4. How a phosphorus-acquisition strategy based on carboxylate exudation powers the success and agronomic potential of lupines (Lupinus, Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Lambers, Hans; Clements, Jon C; Nelson, Matthew N

    2013-02-01

    Lupines (Lupinus species; Fabaceae) are an ancient crop with great potential to be developed further for high-protein feed and food, cover crops, and phytoremediation. Being legumes, they are capable of symbiotically fixing atmospheric nitrogen. However, Lupinus species appear to be nonmycorrhizal or weakly mycorrhizal at most; instead some produce cluster roots, which release vast amounts of phosphate-mobilizing carboxylates (inorganic anions). Other lupines produce cluster-like roots, which function in a similar manner, and some release large amounts of carboxylates without specialized roots. These traits associated with nutrient acquisition make lupines ideally suited for either impoverished soils or soils with large amounts of phosphorus that is poorly available for most plants, e.g., acidic or alkaline soils. Here we explore how common the nonmycorrhizal phosphorus-acquisition strategy based on exudation of carboxylates is in the genus Lupinus, concluding it is very likely more widespread than generally acknowledged. This trait may partly account for the role of lupines as pioneers or invasive species, but also makes them suitable crop plants while we reach "peak phosphorus".

  5. Comparative analysis of the contribution of phytochelatins to cadmium and arsenic tolerance in soybean and white lupin.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Saúl; Goldsbrough, Peter; Carpena, Ramón O

    2009-01-01

    The biosynthesis of phytochelatins (PCs) plays a crucial role in the detoxification and homeostasis of heavy metals and metalloids in plants. However, in an increasing number of plant species metal(loid) tolerance is not well correlated with the accumulation of PCs: tolerant ecotypes frequently contain lower levels of PCs than non-tolerant ecotypes. In this study we have compared the responses of soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Resnik) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Marta) to cadmium and arsenate in order to assess the role of homophytochelatins (hPCs) in the tolerance of soybean to these toxic elements. Soybean plants treated with Cd and As showed a high contribution of homo-glutathione (hGSH) to the pool of thiols in shoots in comparison to white lupin. Higher levels of hPCs in Cd-treated soybeans compared to PCs in lupins did not prevent growth inhibition. In contrast, the role of hPCs in the detoxification mechanism to arsenate in soybean seems to be clearer, showing higher thiol concentrations and lower growth reductions than those present in lupin plants.

  6. RNA-Seq atlas of white lupin: a guide to the phosphorus deficiency response pathway in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most limiting macronutrients in soils for plant growth and development. White lupin (Lupinus albus) has evolved unique adaptation systems for growth in P-deficient conditions (-P) in soils including: 1) development of densely clustered determinant lateral roots called pr...

  7. Effect of jasmonic acid-methyl ester on the composition of carbohydrates and germination of yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Kazimierz; Nitkiewicz, Bartosz; Lahuta, Lesław B; Głowacka, Katarzyna; Socha, Aleksander; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2010-08-15

    Mature seeds of yellow lupine contained sucrose, raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), and galactosyl cyclitols as major soluble carbohydrates. The study showed that RFOs dominated in lupine seeds (16% DW). The disappearance of both types of alpha-d-galactosides in germinating lupine seeds was strongly inhibited by the presence of jasmonic acid-methyl ester (JA-Me) at a concentration of 10(-3)M in the incubation medium. JA-Me inhibited the activity of alpha-D-galactosidase (fraction I) during seed germination. Anatomical studies of lupine roots have shown certain cell structure differences between control and JA-Me-treated seedlings. The cross-sections of plant roots treated with JA-Me showed a characteristic folding of the cell walls in all root tissues, starting from the rhyzodermis, cortex and vascular cylinder. In water-treated (control) plants, the cell walls were rounded with no folding.

  8. Development of a real-time PCR method for the simultaneous detection of soya and lupin mitochondrial DNA as markers for the presence of allergens in processed food.

    PubMed

    Galan, Antonio M Gomez; Brohée, Marcel; de Andrade Silva, Eugénia; van Hengel, Arjon J; Chassaigne, Hubert

    2011-07-15

    Lupin and soya are members of the Leguminosae family which are recognised as some of the richest source of vegetable proteins. Lupin- and soya-containing products are available on the EU market and could cause severe adverse reactions in allergic individuals, even if consumed at low concentrations. In this context the development of methods for reliable detection of these allergens in food products is a useful tool for the surveillance of established legislation on food labelling within the EU. This work described the development of a duplex real-time PCR method allowing the simultaneous detection of traces of lupin and soya in processed food based on a specific TaqMan® probe designed on a mitochondrial tRNA-MET gene. A set of primers and probes was designed for the amplification of a 168 and 175bp fragment of lupin and soya mitochondrial DNA, respectively. The performance of the method was established using lupin and soya flours and cookies baked from lupin- and soya-containing dough (different concentrations and baking times). The PCR platform yielded consistent and repeatable results. The specificity of the system was tested with DNA from 28 plant species. The sensitivity of the method was suitable to detect allergenic ingredients in the low mg per kg range. Both lupin and soya at a level of 2.5mg per kg food matrix could be detected in cookies baked at 180°C for 10min. The method was successfully applied to bakery (e.g. bread) and vegetarian (e.g. non-meat sausages) food products that contain or may contain soya and/or lupin as ingredient or contaminant (according to the declaration on the product label).

  9. Dietary micronized-dehulled white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) in meat-type guinea fowls and its influence on growth performance, carcass traits and meat lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, V; Demauro, R; Laudadio, V

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with micronized-dehulled white lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Multitalia) in guinea fowl broilers on their growth performance, carcass traits, and meat fatty acids composition. A total of 120 one-day-old guinea fowl females were randomly assigned to 2 treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 wk of age. Birds were fed 2 wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (195 g/kg) and a test diet containing micronized-dehulled lupin (240 g/kg) as the main protein source. Replacing SBM with treated lupin had no adverse effect on growth traits, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscles relative to the weight of guinea fowls. A decrease (P < 0.05) of abdominal fat was found in guinea fowls fed lupin-diet. Breast muscle from birds fed lupin had higher lightness (L*) (P < 0.01) and redness (a*) (P < 0.05) scores and water-holding capacity (P < 0.05) than the SBM-control diet. Meat from guinea fowls fed lupin had less total lipids (P < 0.05) and cholesterol (P < 0.01), and higher concentrations of phospholipids (P < 0.01). Feeding treated lupin increased polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels in breast meat and decreased saturated fatty acid (SFA) concentrations. Our findings suggest that replacing SBM as protein source with micronized-dehulled lupin in meat-type guinea fowl diet can improve carcass qualitative characteristics, enhancing also meat lipid profile with no effect on growth traits.

  10. Oxalotrophy, a widespread trait of plant-associated Burkholderia species, is involved in successful root colonization of lupin and maize by Burkholderia phytofirmans

    PubMed Central

    Kost, Thomas; Stopnisek, Nejc; Agnoli, Kirsty; Eberl, Leo

    2014-01-01

    Plant roots and shoots harbor complex bacterial communities. Early seed and plantlet colonization plays a key role in determining which bacterial populations will successfully invade plant tissues, yet the mechanisms enabling plants to select for beneficial rather than harmful populations are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate a role of oxalate as a determinant in this selection process, using members of the genus Burkholderia as model organisms. Oxalotrophy, i.e., the ability to use oxalate as a carbon source, was found to be a property strictly associated with plant-beneficial species of the Burkholderia genus, while plant pathogenic (B. glumae, B. plantarii) or human opportunistic pathogens (Burkholderia cepacia complex strains) were unable to degrade oxalate. We further show that oxalotrophy is required for successful plant colonization by the broad host endophyte Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN: an engineered Δoxc mutant, which lost the ability to grow on oxalate, was significantly impaired in early colonization of both lupin and maize compared with the wild-type. This work suggests that in addition to the role of oxalate in heavy metal tolerance of plants and in virulence of phytopathogenic fungi, it is also involved in specifically recruiting plant-beneficial members from complex bacterial communities. PMID:24409174

  11. 5'-methylthioadenosine nucleosidase from yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus): molecular characterization and mutational analysis.

    PubMed

    Bretes, Ewa; Guranowski, Andrzej; Nuc, Katarzyna

    2011-08-01

    This is report of mutational analysis of higher plant 5'-methylthioadenosine nucleosidase (MTAN). We identified and characterized the gene encoding yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus) MTAN (LlMTAN). The role of active site amino acids residues Glu24, Phe134, Glu188 and Asp211 was analyzed by site-directed mutagenesis. The Glu24Gln and Asp211Asn substitutions completely abolished the enzyme activity. The Glu188Gln mutant showed only trace activity toward 5'-methylthioadenosine. These results indicate that these three amino acid residues are necessary for enzyme activity. Furthermore, as the result of replacement of Phe134 by less bulky leucine, LlMTAN acquired the ability to bind and hydrolyze S-adenosylhomocysteine. We also analyzed the sequence of the LlMTAN promoter region. It appeared that there may be a direct link between LlMTAN expression regulation and sulfate metabolism.

  12. A cell-free yellow lupin extract containing activities of pseudouridine 35 and 55 synthases.

    PubMed

    Pieńkowska, J; Wrzesiński, J; Szweykowska-Kulińska, Z

    1998-01-01

    Plant cytoplasmic tyrosine tRNA was pseudouridylated at three different positions: 35, 39 and 55. These pseudouridines were introduced by three different enzymes--pseudouridine synthases. Variants of the Arabidopsis thaliana pre-tRNA(Tyr) were constructed that allow to monitor specifically pseudouridylation at different nucleotide positions. Using such RNAs to assay pseudouridine synthesis we have prepared an extract from Lupinus luteus cv. Ventus seeds containing activities of at least psi35 and psi55 synthases. This is the first report describing the preparation of the lupin seed extract that specifically modifies plant pre-tRNA(Tyr) transcribed by T7 RNA polymerase. U35 is converted to psi35 only in an intron-dependent manner, while pseudouridylation of U55 is insensitive to the presence or absence of an intron.

  13. Adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate phosphohydrolase from yellow lupin seeds: purification to homogeneity and some properties.

    PubMed Central

    Guranowski, A; Starzyńska, E; Brown, P; Blackburn, G M

    1997-01-01

    Adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate phosphohydrolase (EC 3.6.1.14) has been purified to homogeneity from the meal of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) seeds. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain of 25+/-1 kDa. It catalyses the hydrolysis of a nucleoside 5'-tetraphosphate to a nucleoside triphosphate and orthophosphate, and hydrolysis of tripolyphosphate but neither pyrophosphate nor tetraphosphate. A divalent cation, Mg2+, Co2+, Ni2+ or Mn2+, is required for these reactions. The pH optimum for hydrolysis of adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate (p4A) is 8.2, Vmax is 21+/-1.7 micromol/min per mg of protein and the Km for p4A is 3+/-0.6 microM. At saturating p4A concentrations, the rate constant for the reaction is 8.5+/-0.7 s-1 [at 30 degrees C, in 50 mM Hepes/KOH (pH8.2)/5 mM MgCl2/0.1 mM dithiothreitol]. p4A and guanosine 5'-tetraphosphate are hydrolysed at the same rate. Adenosine 5'-pentaphosphate (p5A) is degraded 1/200 as fast and is converted into ATP and two molecules of orthophosphate, which are liberated sequentially. This contrasts with the cleavage of p5A by the lupin diadenosine tetraphosphate hydrolase (EC 3.6.1.17), which gives ATP and pyrophosphate. Zn2+, F- and Ca2+ ions inhibit the hydrolysis of p4A with I50 values of 0.1, 0.12 and 0.2 mM respectively. PMID:9359862

  14. RNA-seq analysis identifies an intricate regulatory network controlling cluster root development in white lupin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Highly adapted plant species are able to alter their root architecture to improve nutrient uptake and thrive in environments with limited nutrient supply. Cluster roots (CRs) are specialised structures of dense lateral roots formed by several plant species for the effective mining of nutrient rich soil patches through a combination of increased surface area and exudation of carboxylates. White lupin is becoming a model-species allowing for the discovery of gene networks involved in CR development. A greater understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms driving these developmental processes is important for the generation of smarter plants for a world with diminishing resources to improve food security. Results RNA-seq analyses for three developmental stages of the CR formed under phosphorus-limited conditions and two of non-cluster roots have been performed for white lupin. In total 133,045,174 high-quality paired-end reads were used for a de novo assembly of the root transcriptome and merged with LAGI01 (Lupinus albus gene index) to generate an improved LAGI02 with 65,097 functionally annotated contigs. This was followed by comparative gene expression analysis. We show marked differences in the transcriptional response across the various cluster root stages to adjust to phosphate limitation by increasing uptake capacity and adjusting metabolic pathways. Several transcription factors such as PLT, SCR, PHB, PHV or AUX/IAA with a known role in the control of meristem activity and developmental processes show an increased expression in the tip of the CR. Genes involved in hormonal responses (PIN, LAX, YUC) and cell cycle control (CYCA/B, CDK) are also differentially expressed. In addition, we identify primary transcripts of miRNAs with established function in the root meristem. Conclusions Our gene expression analysis shows an intricate network of transcription factors and plant hormones controlling CR initiation and formation. In addition

  15. A transfer of carbon atoms from fatty acids to sugars and amino acids in yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Borek, Sławomir; Ratajczak, Wiktoria; Ratajczak, Lech

    2003-05-01

    The metabolism of 14C-acetate was investigated during the in vitro germination of yellow lupine seeds. Carbon atoms (14C) from the C-2 position of acetate were incorporated mainly into amino acids: aspartate, glutamate, and glutamine and into sugars: glucose, sucrose, and fructose. In contrast to this, 14C from the C-1 position of acetate was released mainly as 14CO2. Incorporation of 1-14C and 2-14C from acetate into amino acids and sugars in seedling axes was more intense when sucrose was added to the medium. However, in cotyledons where lipids are converted to carbohydrates, this process was inhibited by exogenous sucrose. Since acetate is the product of fatty acid beta-oxidation, our results indicate that, at least in lupine, seed storage lipids can be converted not only to sucrose, but mainly to amino acids. Inhibitory effects of sucrose on the incorporation of 14C from acetate into amino acids and sugars in cotyledons of lupine seedlings may be explained as the effect of regulation of the glyoxylate cycle by sugars. PMID:12806783

  16. Real-time RT-PCR profiling of transcription factors including 34 MYBs and signaling components in white lupin reveals their P status dependent and organ-specific expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is often a limiting macronutrient because of its low availability in soils. White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) plants are well adapted to growth under P-deficient conditions. White lupin acclimation to P-deficiency includes changes in root architecture and enhanced expression of numerous ...

  17. Lactic fermentation to improve the aroma of protein extracts of sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius).

    PubMed

    Schindler, Sabrina; Wittig, Maximilian; Zelena, Kateryna; Krings, Ulrich; Bez, Jürgen; Eisner, Peter; Berger, Ralf G

    2011-09-15

    Lupin protein extracts (LPE) are prone to the emission of a beany off-flavour during storage, which confines its application in foods. Fermentation of LPE using several lactic acid bacteria was conducted to reduce off-flavour formation in stored samples. The aroma profile of untreated LPE was compared to those of fermented protein extracts (LPEF). Hexanal and n-hexanol were used as indicator substances of progressing lipid oxidation. The most powerful odourants were evaluated by GC-olfactometry-flavour dilution analysis and identified according to their mass spectra, odour descriptions, and retention indices. Twenty two volatile substances with dilution factors equal to or higher than 100 were determined in both LPE and LPEF, amongst them n-pentanal, n-hexanal, 1-pyrroline, dimethyl trisulfide, 1-octen-3-one, 3-octen-2-one, 1-octen-3-ol, and β-damascenone. The aroma profile was significantly modified by the fermentation process and the off-flavours were reduced and/or masked by newly formed compounds.

  18. Influence of diets to Wistar rats supplemented with soya, flaxseed and lupine products treated by lactofermentation to improve their gut health.

    PubMed

    Bartkiene, E; Juodeikiene, G; Vidmantiene, D; Zdunczyk, Z; Zdunczyk, P; Juskiewicz, J; Cizeikiene, D; Matusevicius, P

    2013-09-01

    The present study proposes the contribution of lactic acid bacteria and plants rich in bioactive substances and high-quality proteins as alternative products for human diets in improving the gut environment as potential against pathogenic bacteria. The effect of diets supplemented with soya, flaxseed and lupine flours fermented with a Pediococcus acidilactici KTU05-7 probiotic strain in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of Wistar rats were analyzed. In vivo experiments showed a positive effect of long time lactofermentation of plant material on the body weight of rats. Diets with fermented yellow lupine resulted in enhanced activities of α-glucosidase, β-galactosidases, as well as high levels of lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria and enterococci in the GIT were determined. Lactofermentation of analyzed plant products had a significantly lowering effect on Escherichia coli compared with the control group. The dominant flora of large intestines like Bifidobacterium and anaerobic cocci were found in high levels after diets with fermented lupine.

  19. Growing and Growing: Promoting Functional Thinking with Geometric Growing Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markworth, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Design research methodology is used in this study to develop an empirically-substantiated instruction theory about students' development of functional thinking in the context of geometric growing patterns. The two research questions are: (1) How does students' functional thinking develop in the context of geometric growing patterns? (2) What are…

  20. Use of lupin, Lupinus perennis, mango, Mangifera indica, and stinging nettle, Urtica dioica, as feed additives to prevent Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Awad, E; Austin, B

    2010-05-01

    Feeding rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), with 1% lupin, Lupinus perennis, mango, Mangifera indica, or stinging nettle, Urtica dioica, for 14 days led to reductions in mortality after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila. In addition, there was significant enhancement in serum bactericidal activity, respiratory burst and lysozyme activity in the treatment groups compared to the controls. Use of lupin and mango led to the highest number of red blood and white blood cells in recipient fish, with use of stinging nettle leading to the highest haematocrit and haemoglobin values; the highest value of mean corpuscular volume and haemoglobin was in the control groups and those fed with stinging nettle.

  1. Response of embryo axes of germinating seeds of yellow lupine to Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Morkunas, Iwona; Bednarski, Waldemar; Kozłowska, Monika

    2004-06-01

    Defence responses of embryo axes of Lupinus luteus L. cv. Polo were studied 48-96 h after inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f.sp. lupini. The infection restricted the growth of embryo axes, the lengths of infected embryo axes 72 and 96 h after inoculation were 11 and 12 mm less in the controls, respectively, while their masses c. 0.03 g less than in the controls. The concentration of H2O2 in embryo axes of inoculated germinating seeds was higher than in the control. This was probably a consequence of oxidative burst as well as H2O2 generation by the invading necrotrophic fungal pathogen. EPR-based analyses detected the presence of free radicals with g1 and g2 values of 2.0052 +/- 0.0004 and 2.0031 +/- 0.0005, respectively. Concentrations of the radicals 72 and 96 h after inoculation were 50% higher than in the control. The values of the spectroscopic splitting coefficients suggest that they are quinone radicals. However, inoculated embryo axes possess a number of adaptive mechanisms protecting them from oxidative damage. A twofold increase in catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity was evidenced in embryo axes infected with F. oxysporum Schlecht f. sp. lupini, as compared to the control 48-96 h after inoculation. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) activity 96 h after inoculation was 80% higher than in the control. Furthermore, EPR-based analyses revealed a higher concentration of Mn2+ ions after 72 h for inoculated embryo axes, as compared to the control. On the other hand, no increase was detected in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (products of lipid peroxidation) in infected embryo axes. The protective mechanisms induced in lupine embryo axes in response to F. oxysporum Schlecht f.sp. lupini were compared with responses to infections with pathogenic fungi elicited in other plant families.

  2. Macromolecular composition of phloem exudate from white lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Members of the legume genus Lupinus exude phloem 'spontaneously' from incisions made to the vasculature. This feature was exploited to document macromolecules present in exudate of white lupin (Lupinus albus [L.] cv Kiev mutant), in particular to identify proteins and RNA molecules, including microRNA (miRNA). Results Proteomic analysis tentatively identified 86 proteins from 130 spots collected from 2D gels analysed by partial amino acid sequence determination using MS/MS. Analysis of a cDNA library constructed from exudate identified 609 unique transcripts. Both proteins and transcripts were classified into functional groups. The largest group of proteins comprised those involved in metabolism (24%), followed by protein modification/turnover (9%), redox regulation (8%), cell structural components (6%), stress and defence response (6%) with fewer in other groups. More prominent proteins were cyclophilin, ubiquitin, a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein, a group of proteins that comprise a glutathione/ascorbate-based mechanism to scavenge oxygen radicals, enzymes of glycolysis and other metabolism including methionine and ethylene synthesis. Potential signalling macromolecules such as transcripts encoding proteins mediating calcium level and the Flowering locus T (FT) protein were also identified. From around 330 small RNA clones (18-25 nt) 12 were identified as probable miRNAs by homology with those from other species. miRNA composition of exudate varied with site of collection (e.g. upward versus downward translocation streams) and nutrition (e.g. phosphorus level). Conclusions This is the first inventory of macromolecule composition of phloem exudate from a species in the Fabaceae, providing a basis to identify systemic signalling macromolecules with potential roles in regulating development, growth and stress response of legumes. PMID:21342527

  3. Growth of fast- and slow-growing rhizobia on ethanol. [Bradyrhizobium sp. ; Rhizobium meliloti; Rhizobium loti; Rhizobium leguminosarum; Rhizobium fredii; Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowsky, M.J.; Bohlool, B.B.

    1986-10-01

    Free-living soybean rhizobia and Bradyrhizobium spp. (lupine) have the ability to catabolize ethanol. Of the 30 strains of rhizobia examined, only the fast- and slow-growing soybean rhizobia and the slow-growing Bradyrhizobium sp (lupine) were capable of using ethanol as a sole source of carbon and energy for growth. Two strains from each of the other Rhizobium species examined (R. meliloti, R. loti, and R. leguminosarum biovars phaseoli, trifolii, and viceae) failed to grow on ethanol. One Rhizobium fredii (fast-growing) strain, USDA 191, and one (slow-growing) Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain, USDA 110, grew in ethanol up to concentrations of 3.0 and 1.0%, respectively. While three of the R. fredii strains examined (USDA 192, USDA 194, and USDA 205) utilized 0.2% acetate, only USDA 192 utilized 0.1% n-propanol. None of the three strains utilized 0.1% methanol, formate, or n-butanol as the sole carbon source.

  4. Construction of integrated linkage map of a recombinant inbred line population of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Vipin, Cina Ann; Luckett, David J.; Harper, John D.I.; Ash, Gavin J.; Kilian, Andrzej; Ellwood, Simon R.; Phan, Huyen T.T.; Raman, Harsh

    2013-01-01

    We report the development of a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) marker panel and its utilisation in the development of an integrated genetic linkage map of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) using an F8 recombinant inbred line population derived from Kiev Mutant/P27174. One hundred and thirty-six DArT markers were merged into the first genetic linkage map composed of 220 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and 105 genic markers. The integrated map consists of 38 linkage groups of 441 markers and spans a total length of 2,169 cM, with an average interval size of 4.6 cM. The DArT markers exhibited good genome coverage and were associated with previously identified genic and AFLP markers linked with quantitative trait loci for anthracnose resistance, flowering time and alkaloid content. The improved genetic linkage map of white lupin will aid in the identification of markers for traits of interest and future syntenic studies. PMID:24273424

  5. Isoflavonoid exudation from white lupin roots is influenced by phosphate supply, root type and cluster-root stage.

    PubMed

    Weisskopf, Laure; Tomasi, Nicola; Santelia, Diana; Martinoia, Enrico; Langlade, Nicolas Bernard; Tabacchi, Raffaele; Abou-Mansour, Eliane

    2006-01-01

    The internal concentration of isoflavonoids in white lupin (Lupinus albus) cluster roots and the exudation of isoflavonoids by these roots were investigated with respect to the effects of phosphorus (P) supply, root type and cluster-root developmental stage. To identify and quantify the major isoflavonoids exuded by white lupin roots, we used high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization (ESI) in mass spectrometry (MS). The major exuded isoflavonoids were identified as genistein and hydroxygenistein and their corresponding mono- and diglucoside conjugates. Exudation of isoflavonoids during the incubation period used was higher in P-deficient than in P-sufficient plants and higher in cluster roots than in noncluster roots. The peak of exudation occurred in juvenile and immature cluster roots, while exudation decreased in mature cluster roots.Cluster-root exudation activity was characterized by a burst of isoflavonoids at the stage preceding the peak of organic acid exudation. The potential involvement of ATP-citrate lyase in controlling citrate and isoflavonoid exudation is discussed, as well as the possible impact of phenolics in repelling rhizosphere microbial citrate consumers. PMID:16866966

  6. Identification of genes induced in proteoid roots of white lupin under nitrogen and phosphorus deprivation, with functional characterization of a formamidase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is considered a model system for understanding plant acclimation to nutrient deficiency. It acclimates to phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe) deficiency by the development of short, densely clustered lateral roots called proteoid (or cluster) roots; proteoid-root development ...

  7. Copper microlocalisation and changes in leaf morphology, chloroplast ultrastructure and antioxidative response in white lupin and soybean grown in copper excess.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pardo, Beatriz; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes; Zornoza, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    The microlocalisation of Cu was examined in the leaves of white lupin and soybean grown hydroponically in the presence of 1.6 (control) or 192 μM (excess) Cu, along with its effect on leaf morphology, (ultra)structure and the antioxidative response. The 192 μM dose led to a reduction in the total leaf area and leaf thickness in both species, although more strongly so in white lupin. In the latter species it was also associated with smaller spongy parenchyma cells, and smaller spaces between them, while in the soybean it more strongly reduced the size of the palisade parenchyma and epidermal cells. Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis showed that under Cu excess the metal was mainly localised inside the spongy parenchyma cells of the white lupin leaves, and in the lower epidermis cell walls in those of the soybean. Cu excess also promoted ultrastructural chloroplast alterations, reducing the photosynthetic capacity index and the green area of the leaves, especially in the soybean. Despite this, soybean appeared to be more tolerant to Cu excess than white lupin, because soybean displayed (1) lower accumulation of Cu in the leaves, (2) enhanced microlocalisation of Cu in the cell walls and (3) greater levels of induced total -SH content and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities that are expected for better antioxidative responses.

  8. An RNA-Seq Transcriptome Analysis of Orthophosphate-Deficient White Lupin Reveals Novel Insights into Phosphorus Acclimation in Plants1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    O’Rourke, Jamie A.; Yang, S. Samuel; Miller, Susan S.; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Liu, Junqi; Rydeen, Ariel; Bozsoki, Zoltan; Uhde-Stone, Claudia; Tu, Zheng Jin; Allan, Deborah; Gronwald, John W.; Vance, Carroll P.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus, in its orthophosphate form (Pi), is one of the most limiting macronutrients in soils for plant growth and development. However, the whole-genome molecular mechanisms contributing to plant acclimation to Pi deficiency remain largely unknown. White lupin (Lupinus albus) has evolved unique adaptations for growth in Pi-deficient soils, including the development of cluster roots to increase root surface area. In this study, we utilized RNA-Seq technology to assess global gene expression in white lupin cluster roots, normal roots, and leaves in response to Pi supply. We de novo assembled 277,224,180 Illumina reads from 12 complementary DNA libraries to build what is to our knowledge the first white lupin gene index (LAGI 1.0). This index contains 125,821 unique sequences with an average length of 1,155 bp. Of these sequences, 50,734 were transcriptionally active (reads per kilobase per million reads ≥ 3), representing approximately 7.8% of the white lupin genome, using the predicted genome size of Lupinus angustifolius as a reference. We identified a total of 2,128 sequences differentially expressed in response to Pi deficiency with a 2-fold or greater change and P ≤ 0.05. Twelve sequences were consistently differentially expressed due to Pi deficiency stress in three species, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), potato (Solanum tuberosum), and white lupin, making them ideal candidates to monitor the Pi status of plants. Additionally, classic physiological experiments were coupled with RNA-Seq data to examine the role of cytokinin and gibberellic acid in Pi deficiency-induced cluster root development. This global gene expression analysis provides new insights into the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the acclimation to Pi deficiency. PMID:23197803

  9. Microbial Communities in Subpermafrost Saline Fracture Water at the Lupin Au Mine, Nunavut, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Onstott, Tullis; McGown, Daniel; Bakermans, Corien; Ruskeeniemi, T; Ahonen, L; Telling, J; Soffientino, B; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Sherwood-Lollar, Barbara; Frape, S; Stotler, R; Johnson, E; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Rothmel, Randi; Pratt, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first investigation of a deep subpermafrost microbial ecosystem, a terrestrial analog for the Martian subsurface. Our multidisciplinary team analyzed fracture water collected at 890 and 1,130 m depths beneath a 540-m-thick permafrost layer at the Lupin Au mine (Nunavut, Canada). 14C, 3H, and noble gas isotope analyses suggest that the Na Ca Cl, suboxic, fracture water represents a mixture of geologically ancient brine, ~25-kyr-old, meteoric water and a minor modern talik-water component. Microbial planktonic concentrations were ~103 cells mL 1. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene from extracted DNA and enrichment cultures revealed 42 unique operational taxonomic units in 11 genera with Desulfosporosinus, Halothiobacillus, and Pseudomonas representing the most prominent phylotypes and failed to detect Archaea. The abundance of terminally branched and midchain-branched saturated fatty acids (5 to 15 mol%) was consistent with the abundance of Grampositive bacteria in the clone libraries. Geochemical data, the ubiquinone (UQ) abundance (3 to 11 mol%), and the presence of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria indicated that the environment was suboxic, not anoxic. Stable sulfur isotope analyses of the fracture water detected the presence of microbial sulfate reduction, and analyses of the vein-filling pyrite indicated that it was in isotopic equilibrium with the dissolved sulfide. Free energy calculations revealed that sulfate reduction and sulfide oxidation via denitrification and not methanogenesis were the most thermodynamically viable consistent with the principal metabolisms inferred from the 16S rRNA community composition and with CH4 isotopic compositions. The sulfate-reducing bacteria most likely colonized the subsurface during the Pleistocene or earlier, whereas aerobic bacteria may have entered the fracture water networks either during deglaciation prior to permafrost formation 9,000 years ago or from the nearby talik through the hydrologic gradient

  10. Hydrogeochemistry of groundwaters in and below the base of thick permafrost at Lupin, Nunavut, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotler, Randy L.; Frape, Shaun K.; Ruskeeniemi, Timo; Ahonen, Lasse; Onstott, Tullis C.; Hobbs, Monique Y.

    2009-06-01

    SummaryShield fluids are commonly understood to evolve through water-rock interaction. However, fluids may also concentrate during ice formation. Very little is currently known about groundwater conditions beneath thick permafrost in crystalline environments. This paper evaluates three possible Shield fluid evolution pathways at a crystalline Shield location currently under 500+ meters of permafrost, including surfical cryogenic concentration of seawater, in situ cryogenic concentration and water-rock interaction. A primary goal of this study was to further scientific understanding of permafrost and its role in influencing deep flow system evolution, fluid movement and chemical evolution of waters in crystalline rocks. Precipitation, surface, permafrost and subpermafrost water samples were collected, as well as dissolved and free gas samples, fracture fillings and matrix fluid samples to characterize the site. Investigations of groundwater conditions beneath thick permafrost provides valuable information which can be applied to safety assessment of deep, underground nuclear waste repositories, effects of long-term mining in permafrost areas and understanding analogues to potential life-bearing zones on Mars. The study was conducted in the Lupin gold mine in Nunavut, Canada, located within the zone of continuous permafrost. Through-taliks beneath large lakes in the area provided potential hydraulic connections through the permafrost. Na-Cl and Na-Cl-SO 4 type permafrost waters were contaminated by mining activities, affecting the chloride and nitrate concentrations. High nitrate concentrations (423-2630 mg L -1) were attributed to remnants of blasting. High sulfate concentrations in the permafrost (578-5000 mg L -1) were attributed to naturally occurring and mining enhanced sulfide oxidation. Mine dewatering created an artificial hydraulic gradient, resulting in methane hydrate dissociation at depth. Less contaminated basal waters had medium sulfate concentrations

  11. Microbial communities in subpermafrost saline fracture water at the Lupin Au mine, Nunavut, Canada.

    PubMed

    Onstott, T C; McGown, Daniel J; Bakermans, Corien; Ruskeeniemi, Timo; Ahonen, Lasse; Telling, Jon; Soffientino, Bruno; Pfiffner, Susan M; Sherwood-Lollar, Barbara; Frape, Shaun; Stotler, Randy; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Rothmel, Randi; Pratt, Lisa M

    2009-11-01

    We report the first investigation of a deep subpermafrost microbial ecosystem, a terrestrial analog for the Martian subsurface. Our multidisciplinary team analyzed fracture water collected at 890 and 1,130 m depths beneath a 540-m-thick permafrost layer at the Lupin Au mine (Nunavut, Canada). 14C, 3H, and noble gas isotope analyses suggest that the Na-Ca-Cl, suboxic, fracture water represents a mixture of geologically ancient brine, approximately25-kyr-old, meteoric water and a minor modern talik-water component. Microbial planktonic concentrations were approximately10(3) cells mL(-1). Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene from extracted DNA and enrichment cultures revealed 42 unique operational taxonomic units in 11 genera with Desulfosporosinus, Halothiobacillus, and Pseudomonas representing the most prominent phylotypes and failed to detect Archaea. The abundance of terminally branched and midchain-branched saturated fatty acids (5 to 15 mol%) was consistent with the abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in the clone libraries. Geochemical data, the ubiquinone (UQ) abundance (3 to 11 mol%), and the presence of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria indicated that the environment was suboxic, not anoxic. Stable sulfur isotope analyses of the fracture water detected the presence of microbial sulfate reduction, and analyses of the vein-filling pyrite indicated that it was in isotopic equilibrium with the dissolved sulfide. Free energy calculations revealed that sulfate reduction and sulfide oxidation via denitrification and not methanogenesis were the most thermodynamically viable consistent with the principal metabolisms inferred from the 16S rRNA community composition and with CH4 isotopic compositions. The sulfate-reducing bacteria most likely colonized the subsurface during the Pleistocene or earlier, whereas aerobic bacteria may have entered the fracture water networks either during deglaciation prior to permafrost formation 9,000 years ago or from the nearby talik through

  12. Microbial communities in subpermafrost saline fracture water at the Lupin Au mine, Nunavut, Canada.

    PubMed

    Onstott, T C; McGown, Daniel J; Bakermans, Corien; Ruskeeniemi, Timo; Ahonen, Lasse; Telling, Jon; Soffientino, Bruno; Pfiffner, Susan M; Sherwood-Lollar, Barbara; Frape, Shaun; Stotler, Randy; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Rothmel, Randi; Pratt, Lisa M

    2009-11-01

    We report the first investigation of a deep subpermafrost microbial ecosystem, a terrestrial analog for the Martian subsurface. Our multidisciplinary team analyzed fracture water collected at 890 and 1,130 m depths beneath a 540-m-thick permafrost layer at the Lupin Au mine (Nunavut, Canada). 14C, 3H, and noble gas isotope analyses suggest that the Na-Ca-Cl, suboxic, fracture water represents a mixture of geologically ancient brine, approximately25-kyr-old, meteoric water and a minor modern talik-water component. Microbial planktonic concentrations were approximately10(3) cells mL(-1). Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene from extracted DNA and enrichment cultures revealed 42 unique operational taxonomic units in 11 genera with Desulfosporosinus, Halothiobacillus, and Pseudomonas representing the most prominent phylotypes and failed to detect Archaea. The abundance of terminally branched and midchain-branched saturated fatty acids (5 to 15 mol%) was consistent with the abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in the clone libraries. Geochemical data, the ubiquinone (UQ) abundance (3 to 11 mol%), and the presence of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria indicated that the environment was suboxic, not anoxic. Stable sulfur isotope analyses of the fracture water detected the presence of microbial sulfate reduction, and analyses of the vein-filling pyrite indicated that it was in isotopic equilibrium with the dissolved sulfide. Free energy calculations revealed that sulfate reduction and sulfide oxidation via denitrification and not methanogenesis were the most thermodynamically viable consistent with the principal metabolisms inferred from the 16S rRNA community composition and with CH4 isotopic compositions. The sulfate-reducing bacteria most likely colonized the subsurface during the Pleistocene or earlier, whereas aerobic bacteria may have entered the fracture water networks either during deglaciation prior to permafrost formation 9,000 years ago or from the nearby talik through

  13. Effects of feeding finisher pigs with chicory or lupine feed for one week or two weeks before slaughter with respect to levels of Bifidobacteria and Campylobacter.

    PubMed

    Jensen, A N; Hansen, L L; Baggesen, D L; Mølbak, L

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess whether inclusion of chicory or lupine (prebiotics) in the diet of pre-slaughter pigs for just 1 or 2 weeks could change the composition of their intestinal microbiota, stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria and help to lower the amount of thermoplilic Campylobacter spp. (mainly Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli), which are a major cause of food-borne infections in humans. A total of 48 pigs that had an initial live weight of 90 kg were fed with either a lupine (organic concentrate with 25% blue lupine seeds), chicory (organic concentrate with 10% dried chicory roots) or control (100% organic concentrate) diet for 1 week (24 pigs) or 2 weeks (24 pigs) before slaughter. The Campylobacter spp. level in rectal faecal samples after 0, 1 and 2 weeks of feeding and in the luminal content from ileum, caecum and colon at slaughter was determined by direct plating on modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar plates. DNA extracted from the luminal content of distal ileum and caecum was used for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the composition of intestinal microbiota and for measuring the amount of bifidobacterial and total bacterial DNA by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Campylobacter spp. were excreted by all pigs and present in the luminal content from distal ileum to midway colon with particularly high numbers in the caecum, but the excretion was reduced by 10-fold in pigs fed lupines for 1 week as compared with control- and chicory-fed pigs (mean log(10) 2.9 v. 4.1 CFU/g; P < 0.05). The qPCR analysis showed that feeding with lupines resulted in higher levels of bifidobacteria in caecum as compared with the other diets (P < 0.05). T-RFLP analysis showed that four of the most abundant bacteria with terminal restriction fragment values >5% relative to the intensity of total abundance differed between the feed treatments (P < 0.05). Therefore, this study showed that even a short

  14. Enrichment of gluten-free cakes with lupin (Lupinus albus L.) or buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) flours.

    PubMed

    Levent, Hacer; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, the effect of debittered lupin flour (LF) and whole buckwheat flour (BF) on the nutritional and sensory quality of gluten-free cake was studied. LF (10, 20, 30 and 40%) and BF (5, 10, 15 and 20%) were partially replaced with corn starch and rice flour mixture (1:1 w/w) in the gluten-free cake recipe. LF increased the protein, calcium, iron, manganese, phosphorus and zinc contents of the cakes, while BF caused a significant increase (P < 0.05) especially in potassium and magnesium contents of the gluten-free cakes. According to the overall acceptability rating, it was concluded that gluten-free cake could be produced with satisfactory results by the addition of LF and BF up to 30% and 10%, respectively. PMID:21568822

  15. Enrichment of gluten-free cakes with lupin (Lupinus albus L.) or buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) flours.

    PubMed

    Levent, Hacer; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, the effect of debittered lupin flour (LF) and whole buckwheat flour (BF) on the nutritional and sensory quality of gluten-free cake was studied. LF (10, 20, 30 and 40%) and BF (5, 10, 15 and 20%) were partially replaced with corn starch and rice flour mixture (1:1 w/w) in the gluten-free cake recipe. LF increased the protein, calcium, iron, manganese, phosphorus and zinc contents of the cakes, while BF caused a significant increase (P < 0.05) especially in potassium and magnesium contents of the gluten-free cakes. According to the overall acceptability rating, it was concluded that gluten-free cake could be produced with satisfactory results by the addition of LF and BF up to 30% and 10%, respectively.

  16. [Development of a high content protein beverage from Chilean mesquite, lupine and quinoa for the diet of pre-schoolers].

    PubMed

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Acosta Barrientos, E; Rojas Valdivia, G; Romero Palacios, N; Arcos Zavala, R

    2012-01-01

    This research was aimed at developing a high content protein beverage from the mixture of liquid extracts of a pseudocereal, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and two legumes: mesquite (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stunz) and lupine (Lupinus albus L.), native from the Andean highlands of the Chilean northern macro-zone, flavored with raspberry pulp, to help in the feeding of children between 2 and 5 years of lower socioeconomic status with nutritional deficiencies. The formulation was defined by linear programming, its composition was determined by proximate analysis and physical, microbiological and sensory acceptance tests were performed. After 90 days of storage time, the beverage got a protein content of 1.36%, being tryptophan the limiting amino acid; for its part, the chromaticity coordinates of CIEL*a*b* color space showed no statistical significant differences (p < 0.05) maintaining the "dark pink" tonality, the viscosity and the sensory evaluation were acceptable for drinking.

  17. Nylon Filter Arrays Reveal Differential Gene Expression in Proteoid Roots of White Lupin in Response to Phosphorus Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Uhde-Stone, Claudia; Zinn, Kelly E.; Ramirez-Yáñez, Mario; Li, Aiguo; Vance, Carroll P.; Allan, Deborah L.

    2003-01-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus) adapts to phosphorus deficiency (−P) by the development of short, densely clustered lateral roots called proteoid (or cluster) roots. In an effort to better understand the molecular events mediating these adaptive responses, we have isolated and sequenced 2,102 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from cDNA libraries prepared with RNA isolated at different stages of proteoid root development. Determination of overlapping regions revealed 322 contigs (redundant copy transcripts) and 1,126 singletons (single-copy transcripts) that compile to a total of 1,448 unique genes (unigenes). Nylon filter arrays with these 2,102 ESTs from proteoid roots were performed to evaluate global aspects of gene expression in response to −P stress. ESTs differentially expressed in P-deficient proteoid roots compared with +P and −P normal roots include genes involved in carbon metabolism, secondary metabolism, P scavenging and remobilization, plant hormone metabolism, and signal transduction. PMID:12644659

  18. Ability of lupine seeds to germinate and to tolerate desiccation as related to changes in free radical level and antioxidants in freshly harvested seeds.

    PubMed

    Garnczarska, Małgorzata; Bednarski, Waldemar; Jancelewicz, Mariusz

    2009-01-01

    Seeds of yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L. cv. Juno) were collected throughout their development on the mother plant to determine whether the ability to germinate and to tolerate desiccation is related to the level of free radicals and the changes in the redox state of ascorbate and glutathione as well as the activities of antioxidative enzymes. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-based analyses showed that development of lupine seed was accompanied by generation of free radicals with g(1) and g(2) values of 2.0049+/-0.0004 and 2.0029+/-0.0003, respectively. Free radical level increased significantly 25 DAF and decreased thereafter. The amount of hydrogen peroxide was high in fresh immature seeds and decreased during maturation drying. Ascorbate accumulated in lupine embryos during early seed filling stage whereas glutathione content increased during late seed filling phase. During maturation drying the redox state of both ascorbate and glutathione pools shifted towards the oxidized forms. While superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) activities remained high at the early seed filling stage the activities of both dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) and that of catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) increased before seeds reached physiological maturity and decreased thereafter. The changes of isoform patterns of antioxidative enzymes were observed during seed maturation. Immature lupine seeds tested immediately after harvest acquired the ability to germinate when less than half-filled and reached high tolerance to desiccation just after physiological maturity. The physiological implications of the changes in antioxidative machinery for the acquisition of desiccation tolerance and seeds germinability are discussed.

  19. In vitro fermentation of lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) and broad beans (Vicia faba): dynamic modulation of the intestinal microbiota and metabolomic output.

    PubMed

    Gullón, Patricia; Gullón, Beatriz; Tavaria, Freni; Vasconcelos, Marta; Gomes, Ana Maria

    2015-10-01

    Broad beans (Vicia faba) and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) are legumes rich in a wide range of compounds, which may represent a useful dietary approach for modulating the human gut microbiome. In this work, after in vitro digestion, legume samples were used as carbon sources in anaerobic batch cultures to evaluate their impact on the intestinal microbiota composition and on their metabolic products. The fermentations were monitored by a decrease in pH, generation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactate and the changes in the dynamic bacterial populations by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The total SCFA at the end of fermentation was 81.52 mM for lupin seeds and 78.41 mM for broad beans accompanied by a decrease of the pH for both legumes. The microbial groups that increased significantly (P < 0.05) were Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus-Enterococcus, Atopobium, Bacteroides-Pretovella, Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia intestinalis. This impact on the intestinal microbiota suggests that lupin seeds and broad beans may be used in the development of novel functional foods, which can be included in dietary strategies for human health promotion. PMID:26252418

  20. In vitro fermentation of lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) and broad beans (Vicia faba): dynamic modulation of the intestinal microbiota and metabolomic output.

    PubMed

    Gullón, Patricia; Gullón, Beatriz; Tavaria, Freni; Vasconcelos, Marta; Gomes, Ana Maria

    2015-10-01

    Broad beans (Vicia faba) and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) are legumes rich in a wide range of compounds, which may represent a useful dietary approach for modulating the human gut microbiome. In this work, after in vitro digestion, legume samples were used as carbon sources in anaerobic batch cultures to evaluate their impact on the intestinal microbiota composition and on their metabolic products. The fermentations were monitored by a decrease in pH, generation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactate and the changes in the dynamic bacterial populations by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The total SCFA at the end of fermentation was 81.52 mM for lupin seeds and 78.41 mM for broad beans accompanied by a decrease of the pH for both legumes. The microbial groups that increased significantly (P < 0.05) were Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus-Enterococcus, Atopobium, Bacteroides-Pretovella, Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia intestinalis. This impact on the intestinal microbiota suggests that lupin seeds and broad beans may be used in the development of novel functional foods, which can be included in dietary strategies for human health promotion.

  1. Internalisation and multiple phosphorylation of γ-Conglutin, the lupin seed glycaemia-lowering protein, in HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Capraro, Jessica; Magni, Chiara; Faoro, Franco; Maffi, Dario; Scarafoni, Alessio; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Maffioli, Elisa; Parolari, Anna; Manzoni, Cristina; Lovati, Maria Rosa; Duranti, Marcello

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •A glycaemia-reducing lupin seed protein is internalized by HepG2 cells. •The protein accumulates in the cytosol in an intact form. •The internalized protein is multiply phosphorylated. -- Abstract: Lupin seed γ-Conglutin is a protein capable of reducing glycaemia in mammalians and increasing glucose uptake by model cells. This work investigated whether γ-Conglutin is internalised into the target cells and undergoes any covalent change during the process, as a first step to understanding its mechanism of action. To this purpose, γ-Conglutin-treated and untreated HepG2 cells were submitted to confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Immune-revelation of γ-Conglutin at various intervals revealed its accumulation inside the cytosol. In parallel, 2D-electrophoresis of the cell lysates and antibody reaction of the blotted maps showed the presence of the protein intact subunits inside the treated cells, whilest no trace of the protein was found in the control cells. However, γ-Conglutin-related spots with an unexpectedly low pI were also observed in the maps. These spots were excised, trypsin-treated and submitted to MS/MS spectrometric analysis. The presence of phosphorylated amino acids was detected. These findings, by showing that γ-Conglutin is internalised by HepG2 cells in an intact form and is modified by multiple phosphorylation, open the way to the understanding of the lupin γ-Conglutin insulin-mimetic activity.

  2. Application of the High Resolution Melting analysis for genetic mapping of Sequence Tagged Site markers in narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.).

    PubMed

    Kamel, Katarzyna A; Kroc, Magdalena; Święcicki, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Sequence tagged site (STS) markers are valuable tools for genetic and physical mapping that can be successfully used in comparative analyses among related species. Current challenges for molecular markers genotyping in plants include the lack of fast, sensitive and inexpensive methods suitable for sequence variant detection. In contrast, high resolution melting (HRM) is a simple and high-throughput assay, which has been widely applied in sequence polymorphism identification as well as in the studies of genetic variability and genotyping. The present study is the first attempt to use the HRM analysis to genotype STS markers in narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.). The sensitivity and utility of this method was confirmed by the sequence polymorphism detection based on melting curve profiles in the parental genotypes and progeny of the narrow-leafed lupin mapping population. Application of different approaches, including amplicon size and a simulated heterozygote analysis, has allowed for successful genetic mapping of 16 new STS markers in the narrow-leafed lupin genome.

  3. Apparatus for growing crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, Thomas J. (Inventor); Witt, August F. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method for growing crystals from a melt employing a heat pipe, consisting of one or more sections, each section serving to control temperature and thermal gradients in the crystal as it forms inside the pipe.

  4. How Your Baby Grows

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain, the heart and lungs, are forming. The placenta grows in your uterus and supplies the baby ... like alcohol, cigarette smoke and drugs through the placenta, too. So don’t drink alcohol , smoke , use ...

  5. Annual Review 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard Van Leer Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands).

    This document provides an annual report and financial review for 1995 of the Bernard van Leer Foundation, a private institution created in 1949 for broad humanitarian purposes. The report includes feature articles highlighting specific aspects of the year's activities: (1) "Growing Up in France: Parental Creches"; (2) "Changing the Nature of…

  6. Growing Enrollment with Kindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Earl E.

    2015-01-01

    "While community college enrollment has generally declined by about 2 or 3 percent annually in recent years--due to some extent to the improving economy--some colleges have bucked the trend" (Ashford 2015). What made the difference? Like many community colleges, College of DuPage has been concerned with access and affordability. The…

  7. Interactions between light intensity and phosphorus nutrition affect the phosphate-mining capacity of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lingyun; Tang, Xiaoyan; Vance, Carroll P; White, Philip J; Zhang, Fusuo; Shen, Jianbo

    2014-07-01

    Light intensity affects photosynthetic carbon (C) fixation and the supply of carbon to roots. To evaluate interactions between carbon supply and phosphorus (P) supply, effects of light intensity on sucrose accumulation, root growth, cluster root formation, carboxylate exudation, and P uptake capacity were studied in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) grown hydroponically with either 200 µmol m(-2) s(-1) or 600 µmol m(-2) s(-1) light and a sufficient (50 µM P) or deficient (1 µM P) P supply. Plant biomass and root:shoot ratio increased with increasing light intensity, particularly when plants were supplied with sufficient P. Both low P supply and increasing light intensity increased the production of cluster roots and citrate exudation. Transcripts of a phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase gene (LaPEPC3) in cluster roots (which is related to the exudation of citrate), transcripts of a phosphate transporter gene (LaPT1), and P uptake all increased with increasing light intensity, under both P-sufficient and P-deficient conditions. Across all four experimental treatments, increased cluster root formation and carboxylate exudation were associated with lower P concentration in the shoot and greater sucrose concentration in the roots. It is suggested that C in excess of shoot growth capabilities is translocated to the roots as sucrose, which serves as both a nutritional signal and a C-substrate for carboxylate exudation and cluster root formation.

  8. Liking of health-functional foods containing lupin kernel fibre following repeated consumption in a dietary intervention setting.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ramon S; Baxter, Amynta L; Fryirs, Cathy; Johnson, Stuart K

    2010-10-01

    Liking of a particular food after repeated consumption may be reduced, limiting the effectiveness of health-functional foods requiring on-going consumption to deliver their benefits. This study examined the effect of repeated consumption of foods containing the novel ingredient, Australian sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) kernel fibre (LKFibre) on sensory acceptability in the dietary intervention setting. In a single-blind randomised crossover 4-week intervention, participants consumed both control and equivalent LKFibre-containing products daily on separate interventions separated by a 4-week period on habitual diet. Seven products: muesli, bread, muffin, chocolate brownie, chocolate milk drink, pasta and instant mashed potato were assessed twice (days 4 and 18 of intervention), by 38 participants for appearance, texture, flavour and general acceptability using a structured graphic hedonic scale. Overall the results showed there was no reduction (P=0.594) in general acceptability of LKFibre foods after repeated consumption, suggesting potential for long-term consumption. The control food products were however generally preferred (P<0.001) over the LKFibre foods; the mean difference for general acceptability between being <6% (0.82cm) of the 15cm hedonic scale used, suggesting LKF addition did not severely affect product palatability.

  9. Storage lipids as a source of carbon skeletons for asparagine synthesis in germinating seeds of yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.).

    PubMed

    Borek, Sławomir; Ratajczak, Lech

    2010-06-15

    The (14)C-acetate metabolism and regulatory functions of sucrose and sodium fluoride (NaF) were examined in embryo axes and cotyledons isolated from yellow lupine seeds and grown in vitro. After 15 min of incubating organs in solutions of labeled acetate, more radioactivity was found in amino acids (particularly in glutamate, asparagine and glutamine) than in sugars. After 120 min of incubation, (14)C was still localized mainly in amino acids (particularly in asparagine and glutamate). The (14)C atoms from position C-1 of acetate were mostly localized in the liberated (14)CO(2), whereas those from position C-2 were incorporated chiefly into amino acids, sugars and the insoluble fraction of the studied organs. The addition of NaF caused a decrease in the amount of (14)C incorporated into amino acids and in the insoluble fraction. The influence of NaF on incorporation of (14)C into sugars differed between organs. In embryo axes, NaF inhibited this process, but in cotyledons it stimulated (14)C incorporation into glucose. The release of (14)CO(2) with the C-1 and C-2 carbon atoms from acetate was more intensive in embryo axes and cotyledons grown on a medium without sucrose. This process was markedly limited by NaF, which inhibits glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Alternative pathways of carbon flow from fatty acids to asparagine are discussed. PMID:20170979

  10. Interactions between light intensity and phosphorus nutrition affect the phosphate-mining capacity of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lingyun; Tang, Xiaoyan; Vance, Carroll P; White, Philip J; Zhang, Fusuo; Shen, Jianbo

    2014-07-01

    Light intensity affects photosynthetic carbon (C) fixation and the supply of carbon to roots. To evaluate interactions between carbon supply and phosphorus (P) supply, effects of light intensity on sucrose accumulation, root growth, cluster root formation, carboxylate exudation, and P uptake capacity were studied in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) grown hydroponically with either 200 µmol m(-2) s(-1) or 600 µmol m(-2) s(-1) light and a sufficient (50 µM P) or deficient (1 µM P) P supply. Plant biomass and root:shoot ratio increased with increasing light intensity, particularly when plants were supplied with sufficient P. Both low P supply and increasing light intensity increased the production of cluster roots and citrate exudation. Transcripts of a phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase gene (LaPEPC3) in cluster roots (which is related to the exudation of citrate), transcripts of a phosphate transporter gene (LaPT1), and P uptake all increased with increasing light intensity, under both P-sufficient and P-deficient conditions. Across all four experimental treatments, increased cluster root formation and carboxylate exudation were associated with lower P concentration in the shoot and greater sucrose concentration in the roots. It is suggested that C in excess of shoot growth capabilities is translocated to the roots as sucrose, which serves as both a nutritional signal and a C-substrate for carboxylate exudation and cluster root formation. PMID:24723402

  11. Recovering root system traits using image analysis exemplified by two-dimensional neutron radiography images of lupine.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Daniel; Felderer, Bernd; Vontobel, Peter; Schnepf, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Root system traits are important in view of current challenges such as sustainable crop production with reduced fertilizer input or in resource-limited environments. We present a novel approach for recovering root architectural parameters based on image-analysis techniques. It is based on a graph representation of the segmented and skeletonized image of the root system, where individual roots are tracked in a fully automated way. Using a dynamic root architecture model for deciding whether a specific path in the graph is likely to represent a root helps to distinguish root overlaps from branches and favors the analysis of root development over a sequence of images. After the root tracking step, global traits such as topological characteristics as well as root architectural parameters are computed. Analysis of neutron radiographic root system images of lupine (Lupinus albus) grown in mesocosms filled with sandy soil results in a set of root architectural parameters. They are used to simulate the dynamic development of the root system and to compute the corresponding root length densities in the mesocosm. The graph representation of the root system provides global information about connectivity inside the graph. The underlying root growth model helps to determine which path inside the graph is most likely for a given root. This facilitates the systematic investigation of root architectural traits, in particular with respect to the parameterization of dynamic root architecture models. PMID:24218493

  12. Recovering root system traits using image analysis exemplified by two-dimensional neutron radiography images of lupine.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Daniel; Felderer, Bernd; Vontobel, Peter; Schnepf, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Root system traits are important in view of current challenges such as sustainable crop production with reduced fertilizer input or in resource-limited environments. We present a novel approach for recovering root architectural parameters based on image-analysis techniques. It is based on a graph representation of the segmented and skeletonized image of the root system, where individual roots are tracked in a fully automated way. Using a dynamic root architecture model for deciding whether a specific path in the graph is likely to represent a root helps to distinguish root overlaps from branches and favors the analysis of root development over a sequence of images. After the root tracking step, global traits such as topological characteristics as well as root architectural parameters are computed. Analysis of neutron radiographic root system images of lupine (Lupinus albus) grown in mesocosms filled with sandy soil results in a set of root architectural parameters. They are used to simulate the dynamic development of the root system and to compute the corresponding root length densities in the mesocosm. The graph representation of the root system provides global information about connectivity inside the graph. The underlying root growth model helps to determine which path inside the graph is most likely for a given root. This facilitates the systematic investigation of root architectural traits, in particular with respect to the parameterization of dynamic root architecture models.

  13. Growing Plants in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salt, Bernard

    1990-01-01

    Background information on the methods and varieties used to demonstrate the cultivation of plants without the use of chemical pesticides is provided. Discussed are species and variety selection, growing plants from seed and from seedlings, soil preparation, using cuttings, useful crops, and pest control. (CW)

  14. GROWING SEEDS, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE IS DESIGNED FOR USE WITH AN ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT, "GROWING SEEDS," IN WHICH SUCH BASIC SCIENCE SKILLS AND PROCESSES AS MEASUREMENT, OBSERVATION, AND HYPOTHESIS FORMATION ARE INTRODUCED THROUGH STUDENT ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SEEDS, GERMINATION, AND SEEDLING GROWTH. THE MATERIALS WERE DEVELOPED FOR USE IN ELEMENTARY…

  15. Growing Up with "1984."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franza, August

    1983-01-01

    Relates changing student reaction to George Orwell's "1984" over 20 years of teaching. Finds present high school students' acceptance of Orwell's bleak world vision both a sign of student honesty and a frightening indication of the growing reality of the book. (MM)

  16. Growing Backyard Textiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Eleanor Hall

    1975-01-01

    For those involved in creative work with textiles, the degree of control possible in texture, finish, and color of fiber by growing and processing one's own (perhaps with students' help) can make the experience rewarding. The author describes the processes for flax and nettles and gives tips on necessary equipment. (Author/AJ)

  17. Growing through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Barbara J.

    "Growing through Literature" is a curriculum using Joan M. and Erik H. Erikson's theory of the Life Cycle as a structure for selecting and teaching literature to inner-city high school students at Brighton High School in Massachusetts. The program consists of four component parts: Journals, Selected Stories, Discussion, and Autobiography. By…

  18. And Away We Grow!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeece, Pauline Davey

    1994-01-01

    Notes the difficulty of developing and managing a child care business well. Describes Sharlit and McConnell's (1989) five-phase model of business growth as it might apply to a growing child care program. The phases of development described are creativity; direction; delegation; coordination; and collaboration. (TJQ)

  19. A Growing Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwynn, Mary Loleta

    1988-01-01

    Describes the "Grow Lab" program which is sponsored by the National Gardening Association. Discusses how eight square feet of classroom space are converted into a mini-ecosystem. Mentions the development of a curriculum guide to accompany the indoor garden. (TW)

  20. Structure, expression profile and phylogenetic inference of chalcone isomerase-like genes from the narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) genome

    PubMed Central

    Przysiecka, Łucja; Książkiewicz, Michał; Wolko, Bogdan; Naganowska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Lupins, like other legumes, have a unique biosynthesis scheme of 5-deoxy-type flavonoids and isoflavonoids. A key enzyme in this pathway is chalcone isomerase (CHI), a member of CHI-fold protein family, encompassing subfamilies of CHI1, CHI2, CHI-like (CHIL), and fatty acid-binding (FAP) proteins. Here, two Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin) CHILs, LangCHIL1 and LangCHIL2, were identified and characterized using DNA fingerprinting, cytogenetic and linkage mapping, sequencing and expression profiling. Clones carrying CHIL sequences were assembled into two contigs. Full gene sequences were obtained from these contigs, and mapped in two L. angustifolius linkage groups by gene-specific markers. Bacterial artificial chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization approach confirmed the localization of two LangCHIL genes in distinct chromosomes. The expression profiles of both LangCHIL isoforms were very similar. The highest level of transcription was in the roots of the third week of plant growth; thereafter, expression declined. The expression of both LangCHIL genes in leaves and stems was similar and low. Comparative mapping to reference legume genome sequences revealed strong syntenic links; however, LangCHIL2 contig had a much more conserved structure than LangCHIL1. LangCHIL2 is assumed to be an ancestor gene, whereas LangCHIL1 probably appeared as a result of duplication. As both copies are transcriptionally active, questions arise concerning their hypothetical functional divergence. Screening of the narrow-leafed lupin genome and transcriptome with CHI-fold protein sequences, followed by Bayesian inference of phylogeny and cross-genera synteny survey, identified representatives of all but one (CHI1) main subfamilies. They are as follows: two copies of CHI2, FAPa2 and CHIL, and single copies of FAPb and FAPa1. Duplicated genes are remnants of whole genome duplication which is assumed to have occurred after the divergence of Lupinus, Arachis, and Glycine

  1. The effects of nitrogen form on root morphological and physiological adaptations of maize, white lupin and faba bean under phosphorus deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haitao; Tang, Caixian; Li, Chunjian

    2016-01-01

    Root morphological/physiological modifications are important for phosphorus (P) acquisition of plants under P deficiency, but strategies differ among plant species. Detailed studies on the response of maize roots to P deficiency are limited. Nitrogen (N) form influences root morphology/physiology, and thus may influence root responses to P deficiency. This work investigated adaptive mechanisms of maize roots to low P by comparison with white lupin and faba bean supplied with two N forms. Plants were grown for 7–16 days in hydroponics with sufficient (250 µmol L−1) and deficient P supply (1 µmol L−1) under supply of NH4NO3 or Ca(NO3)2. Plant growth and P uptake were measured, and release of protons and organic acid anions, and acid phosphatase activity in the root were monitored. The results showed that P deficiency significantly decreased shoot growth while increased root growth and total root length of maize and faba bean, but not white lupin. It enhanced the release of protons and organic acid anions, and acid phosphatase activity, from the roots of both legumes but not maize. Compared with Ca(NO3)2, NH4NO3 dramatically increased proton release by roots but did not alter root morphology or physiology of the three species in response to low P. It is concluded that the N form did not fundamentally change root morphological/physiological responses of the three species to P deficiency. Morphological variation in maize and morpho-physiological modifications in white lupin and faba bean were the main adaptive strategies to P deficiency. PMID:27519912

  2. The effects of nitrogen form on root morphological and physiological adaptations of maize, white lupin and faba bean under phosphorus deficiency.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haitao; Tang, Caixian; Li, Chunjian

    2016-01-01

    Root morphological/physiological modifications are important for phosphorus (P) acquisition of plants under P deficiency, but strategies differ among plant species. Detailed studies on the response of maize roots to P deficiency are limited. Nitrogen (N) form influences root morphology/physiology, and thus may influence root responses to P deficiency. This work investigated adaptive mechanisms of maize roots to low P by comparison with white lupin and faba bean supplied with two N forms. Plants were grown for 7-16 days in hydroponics with sufficient (250 µmol L(-1)) and deficient P supply (1 µmol L(-1)) under supply of NH4NO3 or Ca(NO3)2 Plant growth and P uptake were measured, and release of protons and organic acid anions, and acid phosphatase activity in the root were monitored. The results showed that P deficiency significantly decreased shoot growth while increased root growth and total root length of maize and faba bean, but not white lupin. It enhanced the release of protons and organic acid anions, and acid phosphatase activity, from the roots of both legumes but not maize. Compared with Ca(NO3)2, NH4NO3 dramatically increased proton release by roots but did not alter root morphology or physiology of the three species in response to low P. It is concluded that the N form did not fundamentally change root morphological/physiological responses of the three species to P deficiency. Morphological variation in maize and morpho-physiological modifications in white lupin and faba bean were the main adaptive strategies to P deficiency. PMID:27519912

  3. Macromolecular crystal growing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Robert S. (Inventor); Herren, Blair J. (Inventor); Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Yost, Vaughn H. (Inventor); Bugg, Charles E. (Inventor); Delucas, Lawrence J. (Inventor); Suddath, Fred L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A macromolecular crystal growing system especially designed for growing crystals in the low gravity of space as well as the gravity of earth includes at least one tray assembly, a carrier assembly which receives the tray, and a refrigeration-incubation module in which the carrier assembly is received. The tray assembly includes a plurality of sealed chambers with a plastic syringe and a plug means for the double tip of the syringe provided therein. Ganging mechanisms operate the syringes and plugs simultaneously in a precise and smooth operation. Preferably, the tray assemblies are mounted on ball bearing slides for smooth operation in inserting and removing the tray assemblies into the carrier assembly. The plugging mechanism also includes a loading control mechanism. A mechanism for leaving a syringe unplugged is also provided.

  4. Growing up with Retinoblastoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maley, Tom

    2005-01-01

    An account is given of growing up as a child blinded as a result of a cancer of the eye known as retinoblastoma. The role of his mother is brought out, variously as a source of objective knowledge, of one's personal worth, and of the worth of other people in one's community. The strengths and weaknesses of his first school in his home area and…

  5. How to grow tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Seisuke; Sinha, Neelima

    2008-11-01

    INTRODUCTIONTomatoes can be easily grown in a field, in a greenhouse, or in a growth cabinet. They need acidic soil (pH 6.0-6.8), a lot of light, and water. The optimum temperature for growing tomato plants and fruit is 18°C-24°C. This protocol describes how to germinate tomato seeds, cultivate adult plants, and harvest seeds from fruit.

  6. Hydrolysis of some mRNA 5'-cap analogs catalyzed by the human Fhit protein--and lupin ApppA hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Bojarska, E; Kraciuk, R; Wierzchowski, J; Wieczorek, Z; Stepiński, J; Jankowska, M; Starzyńska, E; Guranowski, A; Darzynkiewicz, E

    1999-01-01

    Hydrolysis of the following four cap analogs: m7G(5')ppp(5')A, m7G(5')ppp(5')m6A, m7G(5')ppp(5')m2'OG and m7G(5')ppp(5')2'dG catalyzed by homogeneous human Fhit protein and yellow lupin Ap3A hydrolase has been investigated. The hydrolysis products were identified by HPLC analysis and the K(m) and Vmax values calculated based on the data obtained by the fluorimetric method. PMID:10432746

  7. Esophageal malignancy: A growing concern

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jianyuan; Jamal, M Mazen

    2012-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is mainly found in Asia and east Africa and is one of the deadliest cancers in the world. However, it has not garnered much attention in the Western world due to its low incidence rate. An increasing amount of data indicate that esophageal cancer, particularly esophageal adenocarcinoma, has been rising by 6-fold annually and is now becoming the fastest growing cancer in the United States. This rise has been associated with the increase of the obese population, as abdominal fat puts extra pressure on the stomach and causes gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Long standing GERD can induce esophagitis and metaplasia and, ultimately, leads to adenocarcinoma. Acid suppression has been the main strategy to treat GERD; however, it has not been proven to control esophageal malignancy effectively. In fact, its side effects have triggered multiple warnings from regulatory agencies. The high mortality and fast growth of esophageal cancer demand more vigorous efforts to look into its deeper mechanisms and come up with better therapeutic options. PMID:23236223

  8. Asia: fastest growing AIDS problem.

    PubMed

    A recent UN report noted that the HIV/AIDS epidemic is growing faster in Asia than in any other region. Recent figures indicate that 2.3% of adults in Thailand are infected, and 50,000 die annually from AIDS. It is estimated that, by the year 2000, 12 million Asians could be infected and that the economic burden of this epidemic could be as high as $52 billion as the work force is lost to the disease. The increased incidence of tuberculosis (TB) is adding to the problem, with India, China, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Indonesia, and the Philippines together contributing half of the world's TB cases. Efforts to fight these epidemics are hampered by political unrest, religious opposition, the economic crisis, and poverty. Worldwide, 5.8 million people have become infected with HIV/AIDS this year, bringing the total number of those infected to 33 million. Children under age 15 account for 90% of the 590,000 new cases in sub-Sahara Africa, a region which expects 2 million AIDS deaths this year. In developed countries, new drug therapies have reduced AIDS deaths, but the rate of new infection remains unchanged.

  9. Growing Unculturable Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The bacteria that can be grown in the laboratory are only a small fraction of the total diversity that exists in nature. At all levels of bacterial phylogeny, uncultured clades that do not grow on standard media are playing critical roles in cycling carbon, nitrogen, and other elements, synthesizing novel natural products, and impacting the surrounding organisms and environment. While molecular techniques, such as metagenomic sequencing, can provide some information independent of our ability to culture these organisms, it is essentially impossible to learn new gene and pathway functions from pure sequence data. A true understanding of the physiology of these bacteria and their roles in ecology, host health, and natural product production requires their cultivation in the laboratory. Recent advances in growing these species include coculture with other bacteria, recreating the environment in the laboratory, and combining these approaches with microcultivation technology to increase throughput and access rare species. These studies are unraveling the molecular mechanisms of unculturability and are identifying growth factors that promote the growth of previously unculturable organisms. This minireview summarizes the recent discoveries in this area and discusses the potential future of the field. PMID:22661685

  10. Nonlinear growing neutrino cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayaita, Youness; Baldi, Marco; Führer, Florian; Puchwein, Ewald; Wetterich, Christof

    2016-03-01

    The energy scale of dark energy, ˜2 ×10-3 eV , is a long way off compared to all known fundamental scales—except for the neutrino masses. If dark energy is dynamical and couples to neutrinos, this is no longer a coincidence. The time at which dark energy starts to behave as an effective cosmological constant can be linked to the time at which the cosmic neutrinos become nonrelativistic. This naturally places the onset of the Universe's accelerated expansion in recent cosmic history, addressing the why-now problem of dark energy. We show that these mechanisms indeed work in the growing neutrino quintessence model—even if the fully nonlinear structure formation and backreaction are taken into account, which were previously suspected of spoiling the cosmological evolution. The attractive force between neutrinos arising from their coupling to dark energy grows as large as 106 times the gravitational strength. This induces very rapid dynamics of neutrino fluctuations which are nonlinear at redshift z ≈2 . Nevertheless, a nonlinear stabilization phenomenon ensures only mildly nonlinear oscillating neutrino overdensities with a large-scale gravitational potential substantially smaller than that of cold dark matter perturbations. Depending on model parameters, the signals of large-scale neutrino lumps may render the cosmic neutrino background observable.

  11. Sleep to grow smart?

    PubMed

    Volk, Carina; Huber, Reto

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is undisputable an essential part of our life, if we do not sleep enough we feel the consequences the next day. The importance of sleep for healthy brain functioning has been well studied in adults, but less is known for the role of sleep in the paediatric age. Childhood and adolescence is a critical phase for brain development. The increased need for sleep during this developmental phase fosters the growing recognition for a central role of sleep during development. In this review we summarize the findings that demonstrate a close relationship between sleep and brain maturation, discuss the consequences of insufficient sleep during childhood and adolescence and outline initial attempts that have been made in order to improve sleep in this age range. PMID:26742664

  12. Growing a market economy

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

  13. The reallocation of carbon in P deficient lupins affects biological nitrogen fixation.

    PubMed

    Kleinert, Aleysia; Venter, Mauritz; Kossmann, Jens; Valentine, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    It is not known how phosphate (P) deficiency affects the allocation of carbon (C) to biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in legumes. The alteration of the respiratory and photosynthetic C costs of BNF was investigated under P deficiency. Although BNF can impose considerable sink stimulation on host respiratory and photosynthetic C, it is not known how the change in the C and energy allocation during P deficiency may affect BNF. Nodulated Lupinus luteus plants were grown in sand culture, using a modified Long Ashton nutrient solution containing no nitrogen (N) for ca. four weeks, after which one set was exposed to a P-deficient nutrient medium, while the other set continued growing on a P-sufficient nutrient medium. Phosphorus stress was measured at 20 days after onset of P-starvation. During P stress the decline in nodular P levels was associated with lower BNF and nodule growth. There was also a shift in the balance of photosynthetic and respiratory C toward a loss of C during P stress. Below-ground respiration declined under limiting P conditions. However, during this decline there was also a shift in the proportion of respiratory energy from maintenance toward growth respiration. Under P stress, there was an increased allocation of C toward root growth, thereby decreasing the amount of C available for maintenance respiration. It is therefore possible that the decline in BNF under P deficiency may be due to this change in resource allocation away from respiration associated with direct nutrient uptake, but rather toward a long term nutrient acquisition strategy of increased root growth.

  14. Fungus-growing ants.

    PubMed

    Weber, N A

    1966-08-01

    Fungus-growing ants (Attini) are in reality unique fungus-culturing insects.There are several hundred species in some dozen genera, of which Acromyrmex and Atta are the conspicuous leaf-cutters. The center of their activities is the fungus garden, which is also the site of the queen and brood. The garden, in most species, is made from fresh green leaves or other vegetal material. The ants forage for this, forming distinct trails to the vegetation that is being harvested. The cut leaves or other substrate are brought into the nest and prepared for the fungus. Fresh leaves and flowers are cut into pieces a millimeter or two in diameter; the ants form them into a pulpy mass by pinching them with the mandibles and adding saliva. Anal droplets are deposited on the pieces, which are then forced into place in the garden. Planting of the fungus is accomplished by an ant's picking up tufts of the adjacent mycelium and dotting the surface of the new substrate with it. The combination of salivary and anal secretions, together with the constant care given by the ants, facilitates the growth of the ant fungus only, despite constant possibilities for contamination. When the ants are removed, alien fungi and other organisms flourish. A mature nest of Atta Sexdens may consist of 2000 chambers, some temporarily empty, some with refuse, and the remainder with fungus gardens. Thousands of kilograms of fresh leaves will have been used. A young laboratory colony of Atta cephalotes will use 1 kilogram of fresh leaves for one garden. The attines are the chief agents for introducing organic matter into the soil in tropical rain forests; this matter becomes the nucleus for a host of other organisms, including nematodes and arthropods, after it is discarded by the ants. One ant species cultures a yeast; all others grow a mycelium. In the higher species the mycelium forms clusters of inflated hyphae. Mycologists accept as valid two names for confirmed fruiting stages: Leucocoprinus ( or

  15. Growing for different ends.

    PubMed

    Catts, Oron; Zurr, Ionat

    2014-11-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative biology are usually discussed in relation to biomedical research and applications. However, hand in hand with developments of this field in the biomedical context, other approaches and uses for non-medical ends have been explored. There is a growing interest in exploring spin off tissue engineering and regenerative biology technologies in areas such as consumer products, art and design. This paper outlines developments regarding in vitro meat and leather, actuators and bio-mechanic interfaces, speculative design and contemporary artistic practices. The authors draw on their extensive experience of using tissue engineering for non-medical ends to speculate about what lead to these applications and their possible future development and uses. Avoiding utopian and dystopian postures and using the notion of the contestable, this paper also mentions some philosophical and ethical consideration stemming from the use of non-medical approaches to tissue constructs. This article is part of a directed issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: the challenge of translation.

  16. Growing for different ends.

    PubMed

    Catts, Oron; Zurr, Ionat

    2014-11-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative biology are usually discussed in relation to biomedical research and applications. However, hand in hand with developments of this field in the biomedical context, other approaches and uses for non-medical ends have been explored. There is a growing interest in exploring spin off tissue engineering and regenerative biology technologies in areas such as consumer products, art and design. This paper outlines developments regarding in vitro meat and leather, actuators and bio-mechanic interfaces, speculative design and contemporary artistic practices. The authors draw on their extensive experience of using tissue engineering for non-medical ends to speculate about what lead to these applications and their possible future development and uses. Avoiding utopian and dystopian postures and using the notion of the contestable, this paper also mentions some philosophical and ethical consideration stemming from the use of non-medical approaches to tissue constructs. This article is part of a directed issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: the challenge of translation. PMID:25286303

  17. Performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of beef affected by lupine seed, rapeseed meal and soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Sami, A S; Schuster, M; Schwarz, F J

    2010-08-01

    To test the effects of different protein sources and levels on performance, carcass characteristics and beef chemical composition, concentrates with three protein sources [Lupine seed (L), Rapeseed meal (R) and Soybean meal (S)] and two protein levels ['normal protein' (NP) or 'high protein' (HP)] were fed to 36 Simmental calves. Calves initially weighed 276 +/- 3.9 kg and averaged 6 months of age and were randomly allocated to the six treatments. Maize silage was offered ad libitum and supplemented with increasing amounts of concentrates (wheat, maize grain, protein sources, vitamin-mineral mix). Normal protein and HP diets were formulated to contain 12.4% and 14.0% crude protein (CP) dry matter (DM) respectively. At the end of the fattening period of 278 days, the final live weight averaged 683 +/- 14.7 kg. Neither level of protein nor its interaction with protein sources had any effects on most of the traits studied. Feeding the R diet significantly increased final weight, average daily gain (ADG), DM intake and CP intake in relation to the L diet; no differences were observed between the L and S diets for these measures. No differences were observed between the R and S groups in final weight or ADG, but the calves fed the R diet consumed more DM and CP than the calves fed the S diet. Bulls fed R diet had higher carcass weight and dressing percentage than the L groups, and no significant differences were detected between the S and L groups. Chemical composition of the Musculus longissimus dorsi was not significantly affected by source of protein. Also, the major saturated fatty acid (SFA) (C16:0 and C18:0) did not significantly differ among the three treatments. Samples from R group had significantly higher proportions of C16:1 t9, C18:1 c11, C18:2 c9 t11, C18:3 c9, 12, 15 and SigmaC18:1 t fatty acids in relation to L and S groups. Although polyunsaturated fatty acid/SFA ratio was similar for the three dietary groups, n-6/n-3 ratio and Sigman-3 fatty acids

  18. Performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of beef affected by lupine seed, rapeseed meal and soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Sami, A S; Schuster, M; Schwarz, F J

    2010-08-01

    To test the effects of different protein sources and levels on performance, carcass characteristics and beef chemical composition, concentrates with three protein sources [Lupine seed (L), Rapeseed meal (R) and Soybean meal (S)] and two protein levels ['normal protein' (NP) or 'high protein' (HP)] were fed to 36 Simmental calves. Calves initially weighed 276 +/- 3.9 kg and averaged 6 months of age and were randomly allocated to the six treatments. Maize silage was offered ad libitum and supplemented with increasing amounts of concentrates (wheat, maize grain, protein sources, vitamin-mineral mix). Normal protein and HP diets were formulated to contain 12.4% and 14.0% crude protein (CP) dry matter (DM) respectively. At the end of the fattening period of 278 days, the final live weight averaged 683 +/- 14.7 kg. Neither level of protein nor its interaction with protein sources had any effects on most of the traits studied. Feeding the R diet significantly increased final weight, average daily gain (ADG), DM intake and CP intake in relation to the L diet; no differences were observed between the L and S diets for these measures. No differences were observed between the R and S groups in final weight or ADG, but the calves fed the R diet consumed more DM and CP than the calves fed the S diet. Bulls fed R diet had higher carcass weight and dressing percentage than the L groups, and no significant differences were detected between the S and L groups. Chemical composition of the Musculus longissimus dorsi was not significantly affected by source of protein. Also, the major saturated fatty acid (SFA) (C16:0 and C18:0) did not significantly differ among the three treatments. Samples from R group had significantly higher proportions of C16:1 t9, C18:1 c11, C18:2 c9 t11, C18:3 c9, 12, 15 and SigmaC18:1 t fatty acids in relation to L and S groups. Although polyunsaturated fatty acid/SFA ratio was similar for the three dietary groups, n-6/n-3 ratio and Sigman-3 fatty acids

  19. How Do Galaxies Grow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-08-01

    Astronomers have caught multiple massive galaxies in the act of merging about 4 billion years ago. This discovery, made possible by combining the power of the best ground- and space-based telescopes, uniquely supports the favoured theory of how galaxies form. ESO PR Photo 24/08 ESO PR Photo 24/08 Merging Galaxies in Groups How do galaxies form? The most widely accepted answer to this fundamental question is the model of 'hierarchical formation', a step-wise process in which small galaxies merge to build larger ones. One can think of the galaxies forming in a similar way to how streams merge to form rivers, and how these rivers, in turn, merge to form an even larger river. This theoretical model predicts that massive galaxies grow through many merging events in their lifetime. But when did their cosmological growth spurts finish? When did the most massive galaxies get most of their mass? To answer these questions, astronomers study massive galaxies in clusters, the cosmological equivalent of cities filled with galaxies. "Whether the brightest galaxies in clusters grew substantially in the last few billion years is intensely debated. Our observations show that in this time, these galaxies have increased their mass by 50%," says Kim-Vy Tran from the University of Zürich, Switzerland, who led the research. The astronomers made use of a large ensemble of telescopes and instruments, including ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the Hubble Space Telescope, to study in great detail galaxies located 4 billion light-years away. These galaxies lie in an extraordinary system made of four galaxy groups that will assemble into a cluster. In particular, the team took images with VIMOS and spectra with FORS2, both instruments on the VLT. From these and other observations, the astronomers could identify a total of 198 galaxies belonging to these four groups. The brightest galaxies in each group contain between 100 and 1000 billion of stars, a property that makes them comparable

  20. Growing Galaxies Gently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  1. The formation of short-chain fatty acids is positively associated with the blood lipid-lowering effect of lupin kernel fiber in moderately hypercholesterolemic adults.

    PubMed

    Fechner, Anita; Kiehntopf, Michael; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    Lupin kernel fiber beneficially modifies blood lipids because of its bile acid-binding capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effects of a lupin kernel fiber preparation on cardiovascular diseases and to clarify possible mechanisms. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled crossover trial, 60 moderately hypercholesterolemic adults (plasma total cholesterol: >5.2 mmol/L) passed 3 intervention periods in different orders with a 2-wk washout phase between each. Participants consumed either a high-fiber diet containing 25-g/d lupin kernel fiber (LF) or citrus fiber (CF), or a low-fiber control diet (CD) for 4 wk each. Anthropometric, plasma, and fecal variables were assessed at baseline and after the interventions. Contrary to the CF period, total (9%) and LDL (12%) cholesterol as well as triacylglycerols (10%) were lower after the LF period when compared with the CD period [P ≤ 0.02, adjusted for baseline, age, gender, and body mass index (BMI)]. HDL cholesterol remained unchanged. Moreover, the LF period reduced high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P = 0.02) and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.01) when compared with baseline. Bile acid binding could not be shown because the excretion of total bile acids remained constant after the high-fiber diets. However, the LF period resulted in an enhanced formation of the main short-chain fatty acids in comparison with the CD period. During the CF period, only acetate increased significantly. Both high-fiber diets led to higher satiety and modified nutritional behavior, resulting in significantly lower body weight, BMI, and waist circumference compared with the CD period. The blood lipid-lowering effects of LF are apparently not a result of bile acid binding. Rather, we hypothesize for the first time, to our knowledge, that the blood lipid-lowering effects of LF may be mainly attributed to the formation of short-chain fatty acids, specifically propionate and acetate. This trial was registered at

  2. Identifying Stable Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Normalisation in Gene Expression Studies of Narrow-Leafed Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.)

    PubMed Central

    Erskine, William; Nelson, Matthew N.

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is currently one of the most popular, high-throughput and sensitive technologies available for quantifying gene expression. Its accurate application depends heavily upon normalisation of gene-of-interest data with reference genes that are uniformly expressed under experimental conditions. The aim of this study was to provide the first validation of reference genes for Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin, a significant grain legume crop) using a selection of seven genes previously trialed as reference genes for the model legume, Medicago truncatula. In a preliminary evaluation, the seven candidate reference genes were assessed on the basis of primer specificity for their respective targeted region, PCR amplification efficiency, and ability to discriminate between cDNA and gDNA. Following this assessment, expression of the three most promising candidates [Ubiquitin C (UBC), Helicase (HEL), and Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB)] was evaluated using the NormFinder and RefFinder statistical algorithms in two narrow-leafed lupin lines, both with and without vernalisation treatment, and across seven organ types (cotyledons, stem, leaves, shoot apical meristem, flowers, pods and roots) encompassing three developmental stages. UBC was consistently identified as the most stable candidate and has sufficiently uniform expression that it may be used as a sole reference gene under the experimental conditions tested here. However, as organ type and developmental stage were associated with greater variability in relative expression, it is recommended using UBC and HEL as a pair to achieve optimal normalisation. These results highlight the importance of rigorously assessing candidate reference genes for each species across a diverse range of organs and developmental stages. With emerging technologies, such as RNAseq, and the completion of valuable transcriptome data sets, it is possible that other potentially more

  3. Identifying Stable Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Normalisation in Gene Expression Studies of Narrow-Leafed Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Candy M; Jost, Ricarda; Erskine, William; Nelson, Matthew N

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is currently one of the most popular, high-throughput and sensitive technologies available for quantifying gene expression. Its accurate application depends heavily upon normalisation of gene-of-interest data with reference genes that are uniformly expressed under experimental conditions. The aim of this study was to provide the first validation of reference genes for Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin, a significant grain legume crop) using a selection of seven genes previously trialed as reference genes for the model legume, Medicago truncatula. In a preliminary evaluation, the seven candidate reference genes were assessed on the basis of primer specificity for their respective targeted region, PCR amplification efficiency, and ability to discriminate between cDNA and gDNA. Following this assessment, expression of the three most promising candidates [Ubiquitin C (UBC), Helicase (HEL), and Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB)] was evaluated using the NormFinder and RefFinder statistical algorithms in two narrow-leafed lupin lines, both with and without vernalisation treatment, and across seven organ types (cotyledons, stem, leaves, shoot apical meristem, flowers, pods and roots) encompassing three developmental stages. UBC was consistently identified as the most stable candidate and has sufficiently uniform expression that it may be used as a sole reference gene under the experimental conditions tested here. However, as organ type and developmental stage were associated with greater variability in relative expression, it is recommended using UBC and HEL as a pair to achieve optimal normalisation. These results highlight the importance of rigorously assessing candidate reference genes for each species across a diverse range of organs and developmental stages. With emerging technologies, such as RNAseq, and the completion of valuable transcriptome data sets, it is possible that other potentially more

  4. Activation of phenylpropanoid pathway in legume plants exposed to heavy metals. Part II. Profiling of isoflavonoids and their glycoconjugates induced in roots of lupine (Lupinus luteus) seedlings treated with cadmium and lead.

    PubMed

    Pawlak-Sprada, Sylwia; Stobiecki, Maciej; Deckert, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    We examined changes in profiles of isoflavonoids in roots of lupine (Lupinus luteus L. cv. Juno) seedlings in response to treatment with two heavy metals: cadmium (at 10 mg/l) and lead (at 150 mg/l). Overall, 21 flavonoid conjugates were identified in root extracts, some of them with up to six positional isomers. The total amount of all isoflavonoids increased by about 15 % in cadmium-treated plants and by 46 % in lead-treated ones. Heavy metals markedly increased the content of two compounds: 2'-hydroxygenistein glucoside and 2'-hydroxygenistein 7-O-glucoside malonylated. Possible functions of the identified isoflavonoids in yellow lupine exposed to heavy metal stress are discussed.

  5. Growing Your Own versus Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Greg K.

    2005-01-01

    With the current scarcity of qualified administrative candidates, the author hears many districts talking of "growing their own" administrators. The current practice of "growing your own" appears to be largely driven by specific district needs and finding someone who can best fill those needs in a timely fashion. Minor grooming and limited…

  6. Identification of a Low Digestibility δ-Conglutin in Yellow Lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) Seed Meal for Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) by Coupling 2D-PAGE and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Takahiro; Hernández, Adrián; Aizawa, Tomoko; Ogihara, Jun; Sunairi, Michio; Alcaino, Javier; Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo; Maureira-Butler, Iván J.

    2013-01-01

    The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase feed efficiency, but also reduce water pollution. Little is known about specific digestible protein profiles and/or molecular identification of more bioavailable plant proteins in fish diets. In this study, we identified low digestibility L. luteus seed proteins using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) crude digestive enzymes in an in vitro assay. Low digestibility proteins were identified by comparing SDS-PAGE banding profiles of digested and non-digested lupin seed proteins. Gel image analysis detected a major 12 kDa protein band in both lupin meal and protein isolate digested products. The 12 kDa was confirmed by 2D-PAGE gels and the extracted protein was analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in tandem mass mode. The MS/MS data showed that the 12 kDa low digestibility protein was a large chain δconglutin, a common seed storage protein of yellow lupin. Comparison of the protein band profiles between lupin meal and protein isolates showed that the isolatation process did not affect the low digestibility of the 12 kDa protein. PMID:24278278

  7. Identification of a low digestibility δ-Conglutin in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) seed meal for atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) by coupling 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Takahiro; Hernández, Adrián; Aizawa, Tomoko; Ogihara, Jun; Sunairi, Michio; Alcaino, Javier; Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo; Maureira-Butler, Iván J

    2013-01-01

    The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase feed efficiency, but also reduce water pollution. Little is known about specific digestible protein profiles and/or molecular identification of more bioavailable plant proteins in fish diets. In this study, we identified low digestibility L. luteus seed proteins using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) crude digestive enzymes in an in vitro assay. Low digestibility proteins were identified by comparing SDS-PAGE banding profiles of digested and non-digested lupin seed proteins. Gel image analysis detected a major 12 kDa protein band in both lupin meal and protein isolate digested products. The 12 kDa was confirmed by 2D-PAGE gels and the extracted protein was analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in tandem mass mode. The MS/MS data showed that the 12 kDa low digestibility protein was a large chain δconglutin, a common seed storage protein of yellow lupin. Comparison of the protein band profiles between lupin meal and protein isolates showed that the isolatation process did not affect the low digestibility of the 12 kDa protein. PMID:24278278

  8. Effects of different forms of white lupin (Lupinus albus) grain supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, growth performance and carcass characteristics of Washera sheep fed Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Tefera, Gebru; Tegegne, Firew; Mekuriaw, Yeshambel; Melaku, Solomon; Tsunekawa, Atsushi

    2015-12-01

    Protein is the major limiting nutrient in feeding ruminants especially in dryland areas. Thus, looking for locally available protein sources such as white lupin (Lupinus albus) grain is commendable. The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of supplementation of different forms of white lupin grain (WLG) on feed and nutrient intake, digestibility, growth and carcass characteristics. Twenty-five yearling male Washera sheep with initial body weight (BW) of 16.26 ± 1.41 kg (mean ± SD) were used. Animals were blocked into five based on their initial BW and were randomly assigned to one of the following five dietary treatments: Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay (RGH) alone (T1) or supplemented with 300 g (on dry matter (DM) basis) raw WLG (T2) or raw soaked and dehulled WLG (T3) or roasted WLG (T4) or raw soaked WLG (T5). Supplementation with WLG significantly improved total DM and nutrient intake (P < 0.001), nutrient digestibility (P < 0.01), and average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) (P < 0.001). Carcass quality parameters were significantly (P < 0.001) higher for supplemented sheep. However, the difference in carcass quality parameters among supplemented groups was not significant (P > 0.05). It is concluded that roasting white lupin grain can lead to a better feed and nutrient intake and consequently better carcass quality. White lupin grain can be recommended not only for maintenance but also for optimum performance of ruminants.

  9. Hypocholesterolaemic Activity of Lupin Peptides: Investigation on the Crosstalk between Human Enterocytes and Hepatocytes Using a Co-Culture System Including Caco-2 and HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Lammi, Carmen; Zanoni, Chiara; Ferruzza, Simonetta; Ranaldi, Giulia; Sambuy, Yula; Arnoldi, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Literature indicates that peptic and tryptic peptides derived from the enzymatic hydrolysis of lupin protein are able to modulate cholesterol metabolism in human hepatic HepG2 cells and that part of these peptides are absorbed in a small intestine model based on differentiated human Caco-2 cells. In this paper, a co-culture system, including Caco-2 and HepG2 cells, was investigated with two objectives: (a) to verify whether cholesterol metabolism in HepG2 cells was modified by the peptides absorption through Caco-2 cells; (b) to investigate how lupin peptides influence cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells. The experiments showed that the absorbed peptides, not only maintained their bioactivity on HepG2 cells, but that this activity was improved by the crosstalk of the two cells systems in co-culture. In addition, lupin peptides showed a positive influence on cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells, decreasing the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) secretion. PMID:27455315

  10. Hypocholesterolaemic Activity of Lupin Peptides: Investigation on the Crosstalk between Human Enterocytes and Hepatocytes Using a Co-Culture System Including Caco-2 and HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lammi, Carmen; Zanoni, Chiara; Ferruzza, Simonetta; Ranaldi, Giulia; Sambuy, Yula; Arnoldi, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Literature indicates that peptic and tryptic peptides derived from the enzymatic hydrolysis of lupin protein are able to modulate cholesterol metabolism in human hepatic HepG2 cells and that part of these peptides are absorbed in a small intestine model based on differentiated human Caco-2 cells. In this paper, a co-culture system, including Caco-2 and HepG2 cells, was investigated with two objectives: (a) to verify whether cholesterol metabolism in HepG2 cells was modified by the peptides absorption through Caco-2 cells; (b) to investigate how lupin peptides influence cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells. The experiments showed that the absorbed peptides, not only maintained their bioactivity on HepG2 cells, but that this activity was improved by the crosstalk of the two cells systems in co-culture. In addition, lupin peptides showed a positive influence on cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells, decreasing the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) secretion. PMID:27455315

  11. Birth of space plant growing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mashinskiy, A.; Nechitaylo, G.

    1983-01-01

    The attempts, and successes, to grow plants in space, and get them to fully develop, bloom and produce seeds using orchids are presented. The psychological advantages of the presence of plants onboard space vehicles and space stations is indicated.

  12. Langmuir circulations beneath growing waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, W. R. C.

    2000-11-01

    The instability of a weakly sheared density stratified two dimensional wavy flow to longitudinal vortices is considered. The instability mechanism is Craik-Leibovich type 2, or CL2, and the problem is posited in the context of Langmuir circulations beneath irrotational wind driven surface waves. Of interest is the influence to the instability of growing or decaying waves according to linear theory. The basis for the study is an initial value problem posed by Leibovich & Paolucci (1981) in which the liquid substrate is of semi-infinite extent and the wind driven current is permitted to grow. At zero Richardson number, relative to the solution for neutral waves, it is found that growing waves act to stabilize the instability while decaying waves are destablizing. Furthemore while growing waves act to increase the spanwise wavenumber at onset, decaying waves act to decrease it. The influence of Prandtl and Richardson numbers is also discussed.

  13. Sociology: The growing climate divide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Andrew J.

    2011-07-01

    Climate change has reached the level of a 'scientific consensus', but is not yet a 'social consensus'. New analysis highlights that a growing divide between liberals and conservatives in the American public is a major obstacle to achieving this end.

  14. Method for growing plants aeroponically.

    PubMed

    Zobel, R W; Del Tredici, P; Torrey, J G

    1976-03-01

    A simple, inexpensive system for growing plants with their roots bathed in nutrient mist is described. The aeroponics system uses a spinner from a home humidifier to propel nutrient solution into a polyethylene-lined plywood box atop which plants are supported on plastic light-fixture "egg crating." Success in growing a number of herbaceous and woody species, including nodulated legumes and nonlegumes, is reported. PMID:16659479

  15. Growing self-reconstruction maps.

    PubMed

    do Rêgo, Renata Lúcia Mendonça Ernesto; Araújo, Aluizio Fausto Ribeiro; de Lima Neto, Fernando Buarque

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for surface reconstruction based on growing self-organizing maps (SOMs), called growing self-reconstruction maps (GSRMs). GSRM is an extension of growing neural gas (GNG) that includes the concept of triangular faces in the learning algorithm and additional conditions in order to include and remove connections, so that it can produce a triangular two-manifold mesh representation of a target object given an unstructured point cloud of its surface. The main modifications concern competitive Hebbian learning (CHL), the vertex insertion operation, and the edge removal mechanism. The method proposed is able to learn the geometry and topology of the surface represented in the point cloud and to generate meshes with different resolutions. Experimental results show that the proposed method can produce models that approximate the shape of an object, including its concave regions, boundaries, and holes, if any. PMID:20007030

  16. Management of growing vestibular schwannomas.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Gian Gaetano; Pirodda, Antonio; Ceroni, Alberto Rinaldi; Fioravanti, Antonio; Calbucci, Fabio; Modugno, Giovanni Carlo

    2013-07-01

    Conservative management of small vestibular schwannomas is frequently proposed as most tumours do not grow. Anyway, tumour growth is reported in 30-40 % of the cases, so that surgery is consequently generally proposed. We primarily observed 161 patients affected by unilateral vestibular schwannomas. All patients were examined by means of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging scans. Tumour growth was recorded in 58 cases (35.8 %) and these subjects set up the group of study. Twenty-two (37.9 %) patients were surgically treated; tumour was always completely removed, all patients had normal facial function after surgery and only one patient suffered from a major complication (cerebellar haematoma). Fourteen patients (24.1 %) were submitted to radiotherapy, while one patient was lost at follow-up and another one died because of other medical reasons. Finally, 20 (34.5 %) subjects continued to be observed for different reasons. The mean follow-up period after identification of growth was 6.1 years. Nine tumours continued to grow, nine tumours stopped growing, one tumour grew and then regressed in size and one tumour decreased. Sixty percent of patients with useful hearing at diagnosis preserved it during the entire observation period. In conclusion, most of VS do not grow; in case of tumour growth, a surgical procedure may be suggested and the outcomes are not negatively influenced by the delay of the procedure. But in some cases, patients can still follow the "wait and scan" policy. In fact, only less than half of the growing tumours continued to grow. Moreover, most of the patients continued to retain a useful hearing. PMID:23135237

  17. Lupin Peptides Modulate the Protein-Protein Interaction of PCSK9 with the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor in HepG2 Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammi, Carmen; Zanoni, Chiara; Aiello, Gilda; Arnoldi, Anna; Grazioso, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) has been recently identified as a new useful target for hypercholesterolemia treatment. This work demonstrates that natural peptides, deriving from the hydrolysis of lupin protein and absorbable at intestinal level, are able to inhibit the protein-protein interaction between PCSK9 and the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). In order to sort out the best potential inhibitors among these peptides, a refined in silico model of the PCSK9/LDLR interaction was developed. Docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and peptide binding energy estimations, by MM-GBSA approach, permitted to select the two best candidates among tested peptides that were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activity. The most active was P5 that induced a concentration dependent inhibition of the PCSK9-LDLR binding, with an IC50 value equal to 1.6 ± 0.33 μM. Tested at a 10 μM concentration, this peptide increased by 66 ± 21.4% the ability of HepG2 cells to take up LDL from the extracellular environment.

  18. Effects of using thermally treated lupins instead of soybean meal and rapeseed meal in total mixed rations on in vitro microbial yield and performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Boguhn, J; Kluth, H; Bulang, M; Engelhard, T; Spilke, J; Rodehutscord, M

    2008-12-01

    The objective was to study whether thermally treated lupins (TTL) can replace solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) in dairy cow rations. Three total mixed rations (TMR) were used. They differed in the inclusion of the main protein feeds (TTL alone, TTL + RSM and RSM + SBM) but were equal in organic matter digestibility and metabolizable energy content. In vitro organic matter fermentation was not significantly different between the TMR. Efficiency of microbial crude protein (MCP) synthesis was significantly higher for TMR RSM + SBM than for TTL. In vitro gas production potential was similar for the three TMR. The maximal rate of gas production was achieved later in TMR TTL than in RSM + SBM. Feed intake of dairy cows was significantly lower when TMR TTL was fed than when TMR TTL + RSM or RSM + SBM were fed. Milk yield was significantly lower with the high inclusion rate of TTL in comparison with the other TMR. The contents of milk protein and milk fat were significantly lower when the two TTL containing TMR were fed in comparison with the RSM + SBM ration. Effects of TTL inclusion on MCP synthesis may affect the amino acid supply to the duodenum of cows to a greater extent than differences in the degradability of feed proteins.

  19. Pasta supplemented with isolated lupin protein fractions reduces body weight gain and food intake of rats and decreases plasma glucose concentration upon glucose overload trial.

    PubMed

    Capraro, Jessica; Magni, Chiara; Scarafoni, Alessio; Caramanico, Rosita; Rossi, Filippo; Morlacchini, Mauro; Duranti, Marcello

    2014-02-01

    The supplementation of foods with biologically active compounds can be a powerful approach for improving diet and well being. In this study we separately included in pasta matrices a concentrate of γ-conglutin, a glucose-lowering protein from Lupinus albus seeds, an isolate of the other main lupin storage proteins and ovalbumin, at a ratio corresponding to 125 mg of pure protein in 100 g of pasta. With these products we fed rats made hyperglycaemic, for 3 weeks. Among the most relevant changes measured in body and blood parameters were: (i) a significant reduction in food intake of rats fed γ-conglutin concentrate supplemented pasta and a significant limitation in the body weight increase in rats fed α, β and δ-conglutin isolate supplemented pasta, while the food conversion indices were unchanged; (ii) a reduction in glycaemia upon glucose overload trial, especially in the γ-conglutin concentrate supplemented pasta fed animals, at a dose of 45 mg per kg body weight. The correlations among the measured parameters are discussed. Overall, the results evidence the potentiality of supplementing traditional foods with exogenous nutraceutical seed proteins to control body weight gain and glycaemia.

  20. Effects of endogenous signals and Fusarium oxysporum on the mechanism regulating genistein synthesis and accumulation in yellow lupine and their impact on plant cell cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Formela, Magda; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Marczak, Łukasz; Nowak, Witold; Narożna, Dorota; Bednarski, Waldemar; Kasprowicz-Maluśki, Anna; Morkunas, Iwona

    2014-08-29

    The aim of the study was to examine cross-talk interactions of soluble sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) and infection caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lupini on the synthesis of genistein in embryo axes of Lupinus luteus L.cv. Juno. Genistein is a free aglycone, highly reactive and with the potential to inhibit fungal infection and development of plant diseases. As signal molecules, sugars strongly stimulated accumulation of isoflavones, including genistein, and the expression of the isoflavonoid biosynthetic genes. Infection significantly enhanced the synthesis of genistein and other isoflavone aglycones in cells of embryo axes of yellow lupine with high endogenous sugar levels. The activity of β-glucosidase, the enzyme that releases free aglycones from their glucoside bindings, was higher in the infected tissues than in the control ones. At the same time, a very strong generation of the superoxide anion radical was observed in tissues with high sugar contents already in the initial stage of infection. During later stages after inoculation, a strong generation of semiquinone radicals was observed, which level was relatively higher in tissues deficient in sugars than in those with high sugar levels. Observations of actin and tubulin cytoskeletons in cells of infected embryo axes cultured on the medium with sucrose, as well as the medium without sugar, showed significant differences in their organization.

  1. Effect of a short-term hypoxic treatment followed by re-aeration on free radicals level and antioxidative enzymes in lupine roots.

    PubMed

    Garnczarska, Małgorzata; Bednarski, Waldemar

    2004-03-01

    To investigate whether re-aeration after a short-term hypoxic pre-treatment (for 2, 12 or 24 h) induces oxidative stress, the temporal sequence of physiological reactions, including the level of free radicals, hydrogen peroxide production, and changes in antioxidative enzymes, was characterized in roots of hydroponically grown lupine (Lupinus luteus L., cv. Juno) seedlings. By using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), we found that the exposure of hypoxically grown roots (hypoxic pre-treatment for 12 and 24 h) to air caused an increase in the level of free radicals. The amount of hydrogen peroxide also tended to increase when hypoxically pre-treated roots were re-aerated, which attests to a higher production of reactive oxygen species. Re-aeration caused a higher activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), whereas the activity of peroxidase (POX, EC 1.11.1.7) was only slightly influenced. The roots were less tolerant to longer hypoxic pre-treatments, with a significant decrease in viability, associated with death of root tips immediately after hypoxic stress. Roots exposed to hypoxia for 2 h showed less pronounced responses and their viability was not affected by hypoxic stress and re-aeration. These results indicate that re-aeration following short-term hypoxia imposes a mild oxidative stress. This led us to conclude that re-oxygenation stress per se was not the key factor for cell death in root tips.

  2. Effect of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid on organic acid exudation by the roots of white lupin plants grown under phosphorus-deficient conditions.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Diego A; Carpena, Ramón O

    2014-09-15

    The effect of NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid) on organic acid exudation in white lupin plants grown under phosphorus deficiency was investigated. Plants were sampled periodically for collecting of organic acids (citrate, malate, succinate), and also were used to study the effect on proton extrusion and release of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). The tissues were later processed to quantify the organic acids in tissues, the phosphorus content and the effects on plant biomass. The exogenous addition of NAA led to an increase in organic acid exudation, but this response was not proportional to the concentration of the dose applied, noticing the largest increments with NAA 10(-8)M. In contrast the increase in root weight was proportional to the dose applied, which shows that with higher doses the roots produced are not of proteoid type. Proton extrusion and the release of cations were related to the NAA dose, the first was proportional to the dose applied and the second inversely proportional. Regarding the analysis of tissues, the results of citrate and phosphorus content in shoots show that the overall status of these parts are the main responsible of the organic acids exuded. NAA served as an enhancer of the organic acid exudation that occurs under phosphorus deficient conditions, with a response that depends on the dose applied, not only in its magnitude, but also in the mechanism of action of the plant hormone. PMID:25046756

  3. Recovering Root System Traits Using Image Analysis Exemplified by Two-Dimensional Neutron Radiography Images of Lupine1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Daniel; Felderer, Bernd; Vontobel, Peter; Schnepf, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Root system traits are important in view of current challenges such as sustainable crop production with reduced fertilizer input or in resource-limited environments. We present a novel approach for recovering root architectural parameters based on image-analysis techniques. It is based on a graph representation of the segmented and skeletonized image of the root system, where individual roots are tracked in a fully automated way. Using a dynamic root architecture model for deciding whether a specific path in the graph is likely to represent a root helps to distinguish root overlaps from branches and favors the analysis of root development over a sequence of images. After the root tracking step, global traits such as topological characteristics as well as root architectural parameters are computed. Analysis of neutron radiographic root system images of lupine (Lupinus albus) grown in mesocosms filled with sandy soil results in a set of root architectural parameters. They are used to simulate the dynamic development of the root system and to compute the corresponding root length densities in the mesocosm. The graph representation of the root system provides global information about connectivity inside the graph. The underlying root growth model helps to determine which path inside the graph is most likely for a given root. This facilitates the systematic investigation of root architectural traits, in particular with respect to the parameterization of dynamic root architecture models. PMID:24218493

  4. Lupin Peptides Modulate the Protein-Protein Interaction of PCSK9 with the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lammi, Carmen; Zanoni, Chiara; Aiello, Gilda; Arnoldi, Anna; Grazioso, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) has been recently identified as a new useful target for hypercholesterolemia treatment. This work demonstrates that natural peptides, deriving from the hydrolysis of lupin protein and absorbable at intestinal level, are able to inhibit the protein-protein interaction between PCSK9 and the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). In order to sort out the best potential inhibitors among these peptides, a refined in silico model of the PCSK9/LDLR interaction was developed. Docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and peptide binding energy estimations, by MM-GBSA approach, permitted to select the two best candidates among tested peptides that were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activity. The most active was P5 that induced a concentration dependent inhibition of the PCSK9-LDLR binding, with an IC50 value equal to 1.6 ± 0.33 μM. Tested at a 10 μM concentration, this peptide increased by 66 ± 21.4% the ability of HepG2 cells to take up LDL from the extracellular environment. PMID:27424515

  5. Linking development and determinacy with organic acid efflux from proteoid roots of white lupin grown with low phosphorus and ambient or elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Watt, M.; Evans, J.R.

    1999-07-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) was grown in hydroponic culture with 1 {micro}M phosphorus to enable the development of proteoid roots to be observed in conjunction with organic acid exudation. Discrete regions of closely spaced, determinate secondary laterals emerged in near synchrony on the same plant. One day after reaching their final length, citrate exudation occurred over a 3-d pulse. The rate of exudation varied diurnally, with maximal rates during the photoperiod. At the onset of citrate efflux, rootlets had exhausted their apical meristems and had differentiated root hairs and vascular tissues along their lengths. Neither in vitro phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase nor citrate synthase activity was correlated with the rate of citrate exudation. The authors suggest that an unidentified transport process, presumably at the plasma membrane, regulates citrate efflux. Growth with elevated atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] promoted earlier onset of rootlet determinacy by 1 d, resulting in shorter rootlets and citrate export beginning 1 d earlier as a 2-d diurnal pulse. Citrate was the dominant organic acid exported, and neither the rate of exudation per unit length of root nor the composition of exudate was altered by atmospheric [CO{sub 2}].

  6. Effect of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid on organic acid exudation by the roots of white lupin plants grown under phosphorus-deficient conditions.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Diego A; Carpena, Ramón O

    2014-09-15

    The effect of NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid) on organic acid exudation in white lupin plants grown under phosphorus deficiency was investigated. Plants were sampled periodically for collecting of organic acids (citrate, malate, succinate), and also were used to study the effect on proton extrusion and release of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). The tissues were later processed to quantify the organic acids in tissues, the phosphorus content and the effects on plant biomass. The exogenous addition of NAA led to an increase in organic acid exudation, but this response was not proportional to the concentration of the dose applied, noticing the largest increments with NAA 10(-8)M. In contrast the increase in root weight was proportional to the dose applied, which shows that with higher doses the roots produced are not of proteoid type. Proton extrusion and the release of cations were related to the NAA dose, the first was proportional to the dose applied and the second inversely proportional. Regarding the analysis of tissues, the results of citrate and phosphorus content in shoots show that the overall status of these parts are the main responsible of the organic acids exuded. NAA served as an enhancer of the organic acid exudation that occurs under phosphorus deficient conditions, with a response that depends on the dose applied, not only in its magnitude, but also in the mechanism of action of the plant hormone.

  7. Effect of ensiling moist field bean (Vicia faba), pea (Pisum sativum) and lupine (Lupinus spp.) grains on the contents of alkaloids, oligosaccharides and tannins.

    PubMed

    Gefrom, A; Ott, E M; Hoedtke, S; Zeyner, A

    2013-12-01

    Ensiling legume grain may be an inexpensive and ecologically interesting method to produce a high-protein feed of local origin. The typically patchy maturation recommends harvesting and ensiling the seeds in moist condition. Developing a method for preserving legume grains harvested before maturation by lactic acid fermentation would have several advantages. Under laboratory conditions, crushed legume seeds of beans, peas and lupines with high moisture content of 35 % were ensiled with different additives (molasses and lactic acid bacteria). To characterize the final silages, contents of proximate nutrients and antinutritional factors (alkaloids, oligosaccharides, tannins) were analysed. The addition of lactic acid bacteria ensured a fast and pronounced lactic acid production and decreased contents of undesired fermentation products like ethanol. An additional use of molasses for ensilage did not provide a remarkable additional benefit. Excluding sugar and starch, the contents of proximate nutrients were not remarkably altered after ensiling. As an overall effect, lactic acid fermentation reduced tannins and oligosaccharides. It can be supposed that the oligosaccharides after breakdown of the complex molecules acted as a source of fermentable carbohydrates. A relevant reduction of alkaloids did not occur. The lactic acid fermentation of legume grains can be recommended as an appropriate method for conservation. With respect to the economic advantages and compared with methods of chemical preservation, the lactic acid fermentation of legume grains under anaerobic conditions is an environmentally compliant procedure and therefore also an option for organic farming.

  8. Transcriptome sequencing of different narrow-leafed lupin tissue types provides a comprehensive uni-gene assembly and extensive gene-based molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, Lars G; Hane, James K; Nelson, Matthew N; Gao, Lingling; Atkins, Craig A; Singh, Karam B

    2015-01-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (NLL; Lupinus angustifolius L.) is an important grain legume crop that is valuable for sustainable farming and is becoming recognized as a human health food. NLL breeding is directed at improving grain production, disease resistance, drought tolerance and health benefits. However, genetic and genomic studies have been hindered by a lack of extensive genomic resources for the species. Here, the generation, de novo assembly and annotation of transcriptome datasets derived from five different NLL tissue types of the reference accession cv. Tanjil are described. The Tanjil transcriptome was compared to transcriptomes of an early domesticated cv. Unicrop, a wild accession P27255, as well as accession 83A:476, together being the founding parents of two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. In silico predictions for transcriptome-derived gene-based length and SNP polymorphic markers were conducted and corroborated using a survey assembly sequence for NLL cv. Tanjil. This yielded extensive indel and SNP polymorphic markers for the two RIL populations. A total of 335 transcriptome-derived markers and 66 BAC-end sequence-derived markers were evaluated, and 275 polymorphic markers were selected to genotype the reference NLL 83A:476 × P27255 RIL population. This significantly improved the completeness, marker density and quality of the reference NLL genetic map.

  9. How Does Your Garlic Grow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimabukuro, Mary A.; Fearing, Vickie

    1993-01-01

    Garlic is an ideal plant for the elementary classroom. It grows rapidly in water without aeration for several weeks and remains relatively free of microbial contamination. Simple experiments with garlic purchased at grocery stores can illustrate various aspects of plant growth. (PR)

  10. Extreme Mechanics of Growing Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhl, Ellen

    2013-03-01

    Growth is a distinguishing feature of all living things. Unlike standard materials, living matter can autonomously respond to alterations in its environment. As a result of a continuous ultrastructural turnover and renewal of cells and extracellular matrix, living matter can undergo extreme changes in composition, size, and shape within the order of months, weeks, or days. While hard matter typically adapts by increasing its density to grow strong, soft matter adapts by increasing its volume to grow large. Here we provide a state-of-the-art review of growing matter, and compare existing mathematical models for growth and remodeling of living systems. Applications are plentiful ranging from plant growth to tumor growth, from asthma in the lungs to restenosis in the vasculature, from plastic to reconstructive surgery, and from skeletal muscle adaptation to heart failure. Using these examples, we discuss current challenges and potential future directions. We hope to initiate critical discussions around the biophysical modeling of growing matter as a powerful tool to better understand biological systems in health and disease. This research has been supported by the NSF CAREER award CMMI 0952021.

  11. How the pilidium larva grows

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background For animal cells, ciliation and mitosis appear to be mutually exclusive. While uniciliated cells can resorb their cilium to undergo mitosis, multiciliated cells apparently can never divide again. Nevertheless, many multiciliated epithelia in animals must grow or undergo renewal. The larval epidermis in a number of marine invertebrate larvae, such as those of annelids, mollusks and nemerteans, consists wholly or in part of multiciliated epithelial cells, generally organized into a swimming and feeding apparatus. Many of these larvae must grow substantially to reach metamorphosis. Do individual epithelial cells simply expand to accommodate an increase in body size, or are there dividing cells amongst them? If some cells divide, where are they located? Results We show that the nemertean pilidium larva, which is almost entirely composed of multiciliated cells, retains pockets of proliferative cells in certain regions of the body. Most of these are found near the larval ciliated band in the recesses between the larval lobes and lappets, which we refer to as axils. Cells in the axils contribute both to the growing larval body and to the imaginal discs that form the juvenile worm inside the pilidium. Conclusions Our findings not only explain how the almost-entirely multiciliated pilidium can grow, but also demonstrate direct coupling of larval and juvenile growth in a maximally-indirect life history. PMID:24690541

  12. Growing an Emerging Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birx, Donald L.; Anderson-Fletcher, Elizabeth; Whitney, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The emerging research college or university is one of the most formidable resources a region has to reinvent and grow its economy. This paper is the first of two that outlines a process of building research universities that enhance regional technology development and facilitate flexible networks of collaboration and resource sharing. Although the…

  13. Exploring Classroom Hydroponics. Growing Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Gardening Association, Burlington, VT.

    Growing Ideas, the National Gardening Association's series for elementary, middle, and junior high school educators, helps teachers engage students in using plants and gardens as contexts for developing a deeper, richer understanding of the world around them. This volume's focus is on hydroponics. It presents basic hydroponics information along…

  14. Colleges' Earmarks Grow, Amid Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Jeffrey; Hermes, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    A record-breaking number of Congressional pork-barrel projects this year has loaded college and university plates with more earmarks than ever before, despite growing worries that the noncompetitive grants undermine the American scientific enterprise, and in spite of promises by some lawmakers to cut back. An analysis by "The Chronicle" shows that…

  15. Growing Crystals on the Ceiling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christman, Robert A.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a method of studying growing crystals in a classroom utilizing a carrousel projector standing vertically. A saturated salt solution is placed on a slide on the lens of the projector and the heat from the projector causes the water to evaporate and salt to crystalize. (Author/DS)

  16. Growing Crystals for Infrared Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehoczky, S. L.; Szofran, F. R.

    1984-01-01

    Unidirectional solidification yields bulk crystals with compositional homogeneity. Unidirectionaly crystal-growth furnace assembly travels vertically so crystal grows upward from bottom tapered end of ampoule. Separately controlled furnaces used for hot (upper) and cold (lower) zones. New process produces ingots with radial compositional homogeneity suitable for fabricating infrared detectors.

  17. Consequences of Growing Up Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Ed.

    The consequences and correlates of growing up poor as well as the mechanisms through which poverty influences children are explored. This book is organized with a primary focus on research findings and a secondary concern with policy implications. The chapters are: (1) "Poor Families, Poor Outcomes: The Well-Being of Children and Youth" (Jeanne…

  18. Growing Patterns: Seeing beyond Counting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markworth, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, mathematical patterns have been acknowledged as important early components of children's development of algebraic reasoning (NCTM 2000). In particular, growing patterns have attracted significant attention as a context that helps students develop an understanding of functional relationships (Lee and Freiman 2006; Moss et…

  19. Growing Ideas, 1990-1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pranis, Eve, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This series of journals includes volumes 1-4 of "Growing Ideas," a journal of garden-based learning. Each issue provides instructional ideas, horticultural information and a forum for exchange among teachers using classroom gardening to stimulate learning. Ideas in each issue are separated into three sections. The "Green Tips" section presents…

  20. Organization of growing random networks

    SciTech Connect

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    2001-06-01

    The organizational development of growing random networks is investigated. These growing networks are built by adding nodes successively, and linking each to an earlier node of degree k with an attachment probability A{sub k}. When A{sub k} grows more slowly than linearly with k, the number of nodes with k links, N{sub k}(t), decays faster than a power law in k, while for A{sub k} growing faster than linearly in k, a single node emerges which connects to nearly all other nodes. When A{sub k} is asymptotically linear, N{sub k}(t){similar_to}tk{sup {minus}{nu}}, with {nu} dependent on details of the attachment probability, but in the range 2{lt}{nu}{lt}{infinity}. The combined age and degree distribution of nodes shows that old nodes typically have a large degree. There is also a significant correlation in the degrees of neighboring nodes, so that nodes of similar degree are more likely to be connected. The size distributions of the in and out components of the network with respect to a given node{emdash}namely, its {open_quotes}descendants{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}ancestors{close_quotes}{emdash}are also determined. The in component exhibits a robust s{sup {minus}2} power-law tail, where s is the component size. The out component has a typical size of order lnt, and it provides basic insights into the genealogy of the network.

  1. Elevated CO2 further lengthens growing season under warming conditions.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Fox, Melissa; Steltzer, Heidi; Trlica, M J; McMaster, Gregory S; Andales, Allan A; LeCain, Dan R; Morgan, Jack A

    2014-06-12

    Observations of a longer growing season through earlier plant growth in temperate to polar regions have been thought to be a response to climate warming. However, data from experimental warming studies indicate that many species that initiate leaf growth and flowering earlier also reach seed maturation and senesce earlier, shortening their active and reproductive periods. A conceptual model to explain this apparent contradiction, and an analysis of the effect of elevated CO2--which can delay annual life cycle events--on changing season length, have not been tested. Here we show that experimental warming in a temperate grassland led to a longer growing season through earlier leaf emergence by the first species to leaf, often a grass, and constant or delayed senescence by other species that were the last to senesce, supporting the conceptual model. Elevated CO2 further extended growing, but not reproductive, season length in the warmed grassland by conserving water, which enabled most species to remain active longer. Our results suggest that a longer growing season, especially in years or biomes where water is a limiting factor, is not due to warming alone, but also to higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations that extend the active period of plant annual life cycles.

  2. Silicone Granulomas, a Growing Problem?

    PubMed Central

    Curreri, Alexis T.; Taylor, Gina A.; Burris, Katy

    2016-01-01

    The formation of granulomas is known to be a possible adverse effect of liquid silicone administration, used for soft tissue augmentation. Its plumping effects provide enhancement of certain body parts, such as the lips, hips, and buttocks. The desire for enhancement, perhaps influenced by popular culture and an unrealistic standard of beauty, leads individuals to seek silicone injections. There is a growing population of women and men receiving injections by unlicensed, unskilled “practitioners” not related to the healthcare profession. Complications under such circumstances are not uncommon, particularly the emergence of silicone granulomas, and the authors’ medical center has seen an increase in such cases. In this case report, the authors illustrate a young patient with significant complications from her silicone injections, review current therapies for silicone granulomas, and discuss this growing medical problem. PMID:27386046

  3. Silicone Granulomas, a Growing Problem?

    PubMed

    Park, Michelle E; Curreri, Alexis T; Taylor, Gina A; Burris, Katy

    2016-05-01

    The formation of granulomas is known to be a possible adverse effect of liquid silicone administration, used for soft tissue augmentation. Its plumping effects provide enhancement of certain body parts, such as the lips, hips, and buttocks. The desire for enhancement, perhaps influenced by popular culture and an unrealistic standard of beauty, leads individuals to seek silicone injections. There is a growing population of women and men receiving injections by unlicensed, unskilled "practitioners" not related to the healthcare profession. Complications under such circumstances are not uncommon, particularly the emergence of silicone granulomas, and the authors' medical center has seen an increase in such cases. In this case report, the authors illustrate a young patient with significant complications from her silicone injections, review current therapies for silicone granulomas, and discuss this growing medical problem. PMID:27386046

  4. Growing a miracle in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Farruggia, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    A Kenyan woman, a retired nurse, and a nurse executive in America are miraculously led together to start a library in Kima, Kenya. Small beginnings grow into the Heather May-MashoodAbiola Children's Resource Centre (HEMAMA). Named after two infant children lost by the Kenyan woman and the nurse executive, HEMAMA is making a difference in the lives of children in the Kima, Kenya community.

  5. Growing yeast into cylindrical colonies.

    PubMed

    Vulin, Clément; Di Meglio, Jean-Marc; Lindner, Ariel B; Daerr, Adrian; Murray, Andrew; Hersen, Pascal

    2014-05-20

    Microorganisms often form complex multicellular assemblies such as biofilms and colonies. Understanding the interplay between assembly expansion, metabolic yield, and nutrient diffusion within a freely growing colony remains a challenge. Most available data on microorganisms are from planktonic cultures, due to the lack of experimental tools to control the growth of multicellular assemblies. Here, we propose a method to constrain the growth of yeast colonies into simple geometric shapes such as cylinders. To this end, we designed a simple, versatile culture system to control the location of nutrient delivery below a growing colony. Under such culture conditions, yeast colonies grow vertically and only at the locations where nutrients are delivered. Colonies increase in height at a steady growth rate that is inversely proportional to the cylinder radius. We show that the vertical growth rate of cylindrical colonies is not defined by the single-cell division rate, but rather by the colony metabolic yield. This contrasts with cells in liquid culture, in which the single-cell division rate is the only parameter that defines the population growth rate. This method also provides a direct, simple method to estimate the metabolic yield of a colony. Our study further demonstrates the importance of the shape of colonies on setting their expansion. We anticipate that our approach will be a starting point for elaborate studies of the population dynamics, evolution, and ecology of microbial colonies in complex landscapes. PMID:24853750

  6. Carbonaceous Matter in Growing Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, M. V.; Stangl, C. M.; Horan, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric nanoparticles constitute the greatest portion of ambient aerosol loading by number. A major source of atmospheric nanoparticles is new particle formation (NPF), a gas to particle conversion process whereby clusters nucleate from gas phase precursors to form clusters on the order of one or a few nanometers and then grow rapidly to climatically relevant sizes. A substantial fraction of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are thought to arise from NPF. In order to better predict the frequency, growth rates, and climatic impacts of NPF, knowledge of the chemical mechanisms by which nucleated nanoparticles grow is needed. The two main contributors to particle growth are (neutralized) sulfate and carbonaceous matter. Particle growth by sulfuric acid condensation is generally well understood, though uncertainty remains about the extent of base neutralization and the relative roles of ammonia and amines. Much less is known about carbonaceous matter, and field measurements suggest that nitrogen-containing species are important. In this presentation, recent work by our group will be described that uses a combination of ambient measurements, laboratory experiments and computational work to study carbonaceous matter in growing nanoparticles. These studies span a range of particle sizes from the initial adsorption of molecules onto a nanometer-size ammonium bisulfate seed cluster to reactions in particles that are large enough to support condensed-phase chemistry.

  7. European concern about acid rain is growing

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, D.A.

    1985-01-28

    The growing concern about acid rain in Europe with particular reference to West Germany, the UK and Scandinavia is discussed. Damage has occurred not only to trees but also to many historic buildings throughout Europe. The mechanism of acid deposition is outlined; monitoring systems have established correlations between transport of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from the UK and central Europe and increased acidity in lakes and rivers in Scandinavia. In November 1979 thirty four countries and the European Economic Community signed a convention on longrange transboundary air pollution; in 1983 Finland, Norway, and Sweden proposed that member countries of the so-called 30% Club should cut annual sulfur emissions 30% from their 1980 base emission levels, by 1993 at the latest. The UK and the US are conspicuous by their absence from the 30% Club. In the UK in particular it is argued that firm proof is lacking that sulfur dioxide is the prime factor in forest decline; nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and ozone may be more critical factors.

  8. [Physical activity among growing children].

    PubMed

    Tammelin, Tuija; Iljukov, Sergei; Parkkari, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Lack of physical activity poses a risk to the health and well-being of growing children, and should also be considered at a medical consultation. According to recommendations, those of 7 to 18 years of age should carry out at least one hour of physical activity daily. Of the Finnish school-aged children, 50% of the elementary school children but only 17% of the secondary school children follow the physical activity recommendations. Some children exercise and play sports in abundance, and in their case it should be especially made sure that the prevention and, when necessary, treatment of exercise-related injuries, overexertion and eating disorders are taken care of.

  9. Synchronization in growing heterogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W.; Cheng, S. C.; Avalos, E.; Drugova, O.; Osipov, G.; Lai, Pik-Yin; Chan, C. K.

    2009-04-01

    Synchronization of heterogeneous systems that consist of oscillatory and passive elements are studied in cardiac myocytes/fibroblasts co-cultures. It is found that beating clusters of cardiac myocytes surrounded by fibroblasts will be formed. The beatings of the cardiac myocyte clusters are not correlated at early times, but get synchronized as the cultures mature. This synchronization can be understood by a Kuramoto model with a time-increasing coupling strength. Our findings show that the growth of the coupling strength between clusters is linear, while the overall wave dynamics of the system is controlled by the passive fibroblast in the system which presumably is growing exponentially.

  10. What makes active regions grow.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weart, S.

    1972-01-01

    A study of magnetic flux growth or growth failure in over 100 active regions is shown to indicate that most growth is connected with the emergence of a large batch of flux in the shape of a new arch filament system (AFS). During the recent sunspot maximum, new AFSs appeared at a rate of nearly one per day over the entire sun. Evidence is presented for two proposed hypotheses, namely: (1) a twist in the flux tubes of new AFSs is a key factor in determining which new AFSs will grow; and (2) this twist is related to the well-known asymmetry of sunspot groups.

  11. Metal bioremediation through growing cells.

    PubMed

    Malik, Anushree

    2004-04-01

    Heavy-metal pollution represents an important environmental problem due to the toxic effects of metals, and their accumulation throughout the food chain leads to serious ecological and health problems. Metal remediation through common physico-chemical techniques is expensive and unsuitable in case of voluminous effluents containing complexing organic matter and low metal contamination. Biotechnological approaches that are designed to cover such niches have, therefore, received great deal of attention in the recent years. Biosorption studies involving low-cost and often dead/pretreated biomass have dominated the literature and, subsequently, extensive reviews focusing on equilibrium and kinetics of metal biosorption have also come up. However, the low binding capacity of biomass for certain recalcitrant metals such as Ni and failure to effectively remove metals from real industrial effluents due to presence of organic or inorganic ligands limit this approach. At times, when pure biosorptive metal removal is not feasible, application of a judicious consortium of growing metal-resistant cells can ensure better removal through a combination of bioprecipitation, biosorption and continuous metabolic uptake of metals after physical adsorption. Such approach may lead to simultaneous removal of toxic metals, organic loads and other inorganic impurities, as well as allow optimization through development of resistant species. However, sensitivity of living cells to extremes of pH or high metal concentration and need to furnish metabolic energy are some of the major constraints of employing growing cells for bioremediation. The efforts to meet such challenges via isolation of metal-resistant bacterial/fungal strains and exploitation of organic wastes as carbon substrates have began. Recent studies show that the strains (bacteria, yeast and fungi) isolated from contaminated sites possess excellent capability of metal scavenging. Some bacterial strains possess high tolerance to

  12. What a Pain! Kids and Growing Pains

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What a Pain! Kids and Growing Pains KidsHealth > For Kids > What a Pain! Kids and ... something doctors call growing pains . What Are Growing Pains? Growing pains aren't a disease. You probably ...

  13. Effects of dehulling, steam-cooking and microwave-irradiation on digestive value of white lupin (Lupinus albus) seed meal for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Saez, Patricio; Borquez, Aliro; Dantagnan, Patricio; Hernández, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    A digestibility trial was conducted to assess the effect of dehulling, steam-cooking and microwave-irradiation on the apparent digestibility of nutrients in white lupin (Lupinus albus) seed meal when fed to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Six ingredients, whole lupin seed meal (LSM), dehulled LSM, dehulled LSM steam-cooked for 15 or 45 min (SC15 and SC45, respectively) and LSM microwave-irradiated at 375 or 750 W (MW375 and MW750, respectively), were evaluated for digestibility of dry matter, crude protein (CP), lipids, nitrogen-free extractives (NFE) and gross energy (GE). The diet-substitution approach was used (70% reference diet + 30% test ingredient). Faeces from each tank were collected using a settlement column. Dehulled LSM showed higher levels of proximate components (except for NFE and crude fibre), GE and phosphorus in comparison to whole LSM. Furthermore, SC15, SC45, MW375 and MW750 showed slight variations of chemical composition in comparison to dehulled LSM. Results from the digestibility trial indicated that dehulled LSM, SC15, SC45 and MW375 are suitable processing methods for the improvement of nutrients' apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) in whole LSM. MW750 showed a lower ADC of nutrients (except for CP and lipids for rainbow trout) in comparison with MW350 for rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon, suggesting a heat damage of the ingredient when microwave-irradiation exceeded 350 W.

  14. Degree distributions of growing networks.

    PubMed

    Krapivsky, P L; Rodgers, G J; Redner, S

    2001-06-01

    The in-degree and out-degree distributions of a growing network model are determined. The in-degree is the number of incoming links to a given node (and vice versa for out-degree). The network is built by (i) creation of new nodes which each immediately attach to a preexisting node, and (ii) creation of new links between preexisting nodes. This process naturally generates correlated in-degree and out-degree distributions. When the node and link creation rates are linear functions of node degree, these distributions exhibit distinct power-law forms. By tuning the parameters in these rates to reasonable values, exponents which agree with those of the web graph are obtained.

  15. How to grow great leaders.

    PubMed

    Ready, Douglas A

    2004-12-01

    Few leaders excel at both the unit and enterprise levels. More than ever, though, corporations need people capable of running business units, functions, or regions and focusing on broader company goals. It's up to organizations to develop leaders who can manage the inherent tensions between unit and enterprise priorities. Take the example of RBC Financial Group, one of the largest, most profitable companies in Canada. In the mid-1990's, RBC revamped its competitive strategy in a couple of ways. After the government announced that the Big Six banks in Canada could neither merge with nor acquire one another, RBC decided to grow through cross-border acquisitions. Additionally, because customers were starting to seek bundled products and services, RBC reached across its traditional stand-alone businesses to offer integrated solutions. These changes in strategy didn't elicit immediate companywide support. Instinctively, employees reacted against what would amount to a delicate balancing act: They would have to lift their focus out of their silos while continuing to meet unit goals. However, by communicating extensively with staff members, cross-fertilizing talent across unit boundaries, and targeting rewards to shape performance, RBC was able to cultivate rising leaders with the unit expertise and the enterprise vision to help the company fulfill its new aims. Growing such well-rounded leaders takes sustained effort because unit-enterprise tensions are quite real. Three common conditions reinforce these tensions. First, most organizational structures foster silo thinking and unimaginative career paths. Second, most companies lack venues for airing and resolving conflicts that arise when there are competing priorities. Third, many have misguided reward systems that pit unit performance against enterprise considerations. Such long-established patterns of organizational behavior are tough to break. Fortunately, as RBC discovered, people can be trained to think and work

  16. SOLINET Annual report 1975-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeastern Library Network, Inc., Atlanta, GA.

    The third annual report of the Southeastern Library Network (SOLINET) notes the year's progress in membership installation, training, installation of new terminals, increased utilization of the system, growing concern for users' needs, development of the technical program, and improved fiscal position. The year was marked by setbacks, however, due…

  17. Third Annual Survey of the Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugger, William E., Jr.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reports results of "School Shop's" annual survey of teachers of technology and vocational education. Questions centered on (1) information about respondents, (2) data on schools and programs, and (3) opinions about strengths, weaknesses, and problems. Results indicate that robotics and computers are among the fastest growing programs. (CH)

  18. How do normal faults grow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Christopher; Bell, Rebecca; Rotevatn, Atle; Tvedt, Anette

    2016-04-01

    Normal faulting accommodates stretching of the Earth's crust, and it is arguably the most fundamental tectonic process leading to continent rupture and oceanic crust emplacement. Furthermore, the incremental and finite geometries associated with normal faulting dictate landscape evolution, sediment dispersal and hydrocarbon systems development in rifts. Displacement-length scaling relationships compiled from global datasets suggest normal faults grow via a sympathetic increase in these two parameters (the 'isolated fault model'). This model has dominated the structural geology literature for >20 years and underpins the structural and tectono-stratigraphic models developed for active rifts. However, relatively recent analysis of high-quality 3D seismic reflection data suggests faults may grow by rapid establishment of their near-final length prior to significant displacement accumulation (the 'coherent fault model'). The isolated and coherent fault models make very different predictions regarding the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of rift basin, thus assessing their applicability is important. To-date, however, very few studies have explicitly set out to critically test the coherent fault model thus, it may be argued, it has yet to be widely accepted in the structural geology community. Displacement backstripping is a simple graphical technique typically used to determine how faults lengthen and accumulate displacement; this technique should therefore allow us to test the competing fault models. However, in this talk we use several subsurface case studies to show that the most commonly used backstripping methods (the 'original' and 'modified' methods) are, however, of limited value, because application of one over the other requires an a priori assumption of the model most applicable to any given fault; we argue this is illogical given that the style of growth is exactly what the analysis is attempting to determine. We then revisit our case studies and demonstrate

  19. [Growing old differently: Transdisciplinary perspective].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, H-P

    2015-04-01

    Growing old differently: the phrase is intended to call something other to mind than merely the fact that images and forms of old age and aging have multiplied and diversified to an enormous extent. The suggestion put forward here is that otherness (as opposed to mere differences) should be positively reinforced. In other words, it is not just a matter of noting different forms of old age and aging but more than this, of seeking out opportunities for aging differently. In order to explore this, the article follows an older strand of theory, which has recently come to be frequently quoted in gerontology: the phenomenology of difference as reasoned analytically by Lévinas and Sartre and applied to gerontology by Améry and de Beauvoir. Here, opportunities for aging crucially depend on the way we look at it, how we observe and describe it and not least, how gerontology frames it. A distinction is made between two perspectives and their associated consequences for old age: alienation and alterity. Alienation means looking at old age above all as a disconcerting "other", as a perplexing, problematic deviation from the norm of vitality. Alterity, by contrast, refers to different options for living life in old age: options to be explored and opened up in contradistinction to cultural or academic alienation. Not least, the article appeals for diversity in scholarly approaches and for cross-disciplinary perspectives.

  20. Growing plants on atoll soils

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, E L; Migvar, L; Robison, W L

    2000-02-16

    Many years ago people living on atolls depended entirely on foods gathered from the sea and reefs and grown on land. Only a few plants, such as coconut (ni), Pandanus (bob), and arrowroot (mok-mok), could be grown on the lower rainfall atolls, although adequate groundwater conditions also allowed taro (iaraj, kotak, wot) to be cultivated. On higher rainfall atolls, breadfruit (ma) was a major food source, and banana (binana, kepran), lime (laim), and taros (iaraj, kotak, wot) could be grown. The early atoll populations were experts in growing plants that were vital to sustaining their nutrition requirements and to providing materials for thatch, basketry, cordage, canoe construction, flowers, and medicine. They knew which varieties of food plants grew well or poorly on their atolls, how to propagate them, and where on their atoll they grew best. They knew the uses of most native plants and what the various woods were well suited for. Many varieties of Pandanus (bob) and breadfruit (ma) grew well with high rainfall, but only a few produced well on drier atolls. Such information had been passed down through the generations although some of it has been lost in the last century. Today there are new plants and new varieties of existing plants that can be grown on atolls. There are also new materials and information on how to grow both the old and new plants more effectively. However, there are also introduced weeds and pests to control. Today, there is also an acute need to grow more of the useful plants adapted to atolls. Increasing numbers of people living on an atoll without an equal increase in income or food production stretches the available food supplies. Much has been written about the poor conditions for plant growth on atolls. As compared with many places in the world where crops are grown, however, atolls can provide some highly favorable conditions. For instance, the driving force for plant growth is sunlight, and on atolls light is abundant throughout the

  1. RNA-Seq Analysis of the Expression of Genes Encoding Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes during Infection of Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) by Phytophthora parasitica.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Leila M; Cullerne, Darren P; Torreña, Pernelyn; Taylor, Jen; Hardham, Adrienne R

    2015-01-01

    RNA-Seq analysis has shown that over 60% (12,962) of the predicted transcripts in the Phytophthora parasitica genome are expressed during the first 60 h of lupin root infection. The infection transcriptomes included 278 of the 431 genes encoding P. parasitica cell wall degrading enzymes. The transcriptome data provide strong evidence of global transcriptional cascades of genes whose encoded proteins target the main categories of plant cell wall components. A major cohort of pectinases is predominantly expressed early but as infection progresses, the transcriptome becomes increasingly dominated by transcripts encoding cellulases, hemicellulases, β-1,3-glucanases and glycoproteins. The most highly expressed P. parasitica carbohydrate active enzyme gene contains two CBM1 cellulose binding modules and no catalytic domains. The top 200 differentially expressed genes include β-1,4-glucosidases, β-1,4-glucanases, β-1,4-galactanases, a β-1,3-glucanase, an α-1,4-polygalacturonase, a pectin deacetylase and a pectin methylesterase. Detailed analysis of gene expression profiles provides clues as to the order in which linkages within the complex carbohydrates may come under attack. The gene expression profiles suggest that (i) demethylation of pectic homogalacturonan occurs before its deacetylation; (ii) cleavage of the backbone of pectic rhamnogalacturonan I precedes digestion of its side chains; (iii) early attack on cellulose microfibrils by non-catalytic cellulose-binding proteins and enzymes with auxiliary activities may facilitate subsequent attack by glycosyl hydrolases and enzymes containing CBM1 cellulose-binding modules; (iv) terminal hemicellulose backbone residues are targeted after extensive internal backbone cleavage has occurred; and (v) the carbohydrate chains on glycoproteins are degraded late in infection. A notable feature of the P. parasitica infection transcriptome is the high level of transcription of genes encoding enzymes that degrade β-1

  2. RNA-Seq Analysis of the Expression of Genes Encoding Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes during Infection of Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) by Phytophthora parasitica

    PubMed Central

    Blackman, Leila M.; Cullerne, Darren P.; Torreña, Pernelyn; Taylor, Jen; Hardham, Adrienne R.

    2015-01-01

    RNA-Seq analysis has shown that over 60% (12,962) of the predicted transcripts in the Phytophthora parasitica genome are expressed during the first 60 h of lupin root infection. The infection transcriptomes included 278 of the 431 genes encoding P. parasitica cell wall degrading enzymes. The transcriptome data provide strong evidence of global transcriptional cascades of genes whose encoded proteins target the main categories of plant cell wall components. A major cohort of pectinases is predominantly expressed early but as infection progresses, the transcriptome becomes increasingly dominated by transcripts encoding cellulases, hemicellulases, β-1,3-glucanases and glycoproteins. The most highly expressed P. parasitica carbohydrate active enzyme gene contains two CBM1 cellulose binding modules and no catalytic domains. The top 200 differentially expressed genes include β-1,4-glucosidases, β-1,4-glucanases, β-1,4-galactanases, a β-1,3-glucanase, an α-1,4-polygalacturonase, a pectin deacetylase and a pectin methylesterase. Detailed analysis of gene expression profiles provides clues as to the order in which linkages within the complex carbohydrates may come under attack. The gene expression profiles suggest that (i) demethylation of pectic homogalacturonan occurs before its deacetylation; (ii) cleavage of the backbone of pectic rhamnogalacturonan I precedes digestion of its side chains; (iii) early attack on cellulose microfibrils by non-catalytic cellulose-binding proteins and enzymes with auxiliary activities may facilitate subsequent attack by glycosyl hydrolases and enzymes containing CBM1 cellulose-binding modules; (iv) terminal hemicellulose backbone residues are targeted after extensive internal backbone cleavage has occurred; and (v) the carbohydrate chains on glycoproteins are degraded late in infection. A notable feature of the P. parasitica infection transcriptome is the high level of transcription of genes encoding enzymes that degrade β-1

  3. How High Do Sandbars Grow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, J. S.; McElroy, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Bar forms in wide sandy rivers store sediment, control channel hydraulics, and are fundamental units of riverine ecosystems. Bar form height is often used as a measure of channel depth in ancient fluvial deposits and is also a crucially important measure of habitat quality in modern rivers. In the Great Plains of North America, priority bird species use emergent bars to nest, and sandbar heights are a direct predictor of flood hazard for bird nests. Our current understanding of controls on bar height are limited to few datasets and ad hoc observations from specific settings. We here examine a new dataset of bar heights and explore models of bar growth. We present bar a height dataset from the Platte and Niobrara Rivers in Nebraska, and an unchannelized reach of the Missouri River along the Nebraska-South Dakota border. Bar height data are normalized by flow frequency, and we examine parsimonious statistical models between expected controls (depth, stage, discharge, flow duration, work etc.) and maximum bar heights. From this we generate empirical-statistical models of maximum bar height for wide, sand-bedded rivers in the Great Plains of the United States and rivers of similar morphology elsewhere. Migration of bar forms is driven by downstream slip-face additions of sediment sourced from their stoss sides, but bars also sequester sediment and grow vertically and longitudinally. We explore our empirical data with a geometric-kinematic model of bar growth driven by sediment transport from smaller-scale bedforms. Our goal is to understand physical limitations on bar growth and geometry, with implications for interpreting the rock record and predicting physically-driven riverine habitat variables.

  4. Conflicting Paths: Growing Up in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Harvey J.

    This history of growing up is based on more than 500 first-person accounts relating to growing up from the middle of the 18th through the early 20th centuries. Major focus is on the formation, experience, and transformation of the principal paths of growing up. It considers transitions or turning points, particularly as they surround entries and…

  5. Impacts of climate change on the growing season in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markstrom, Steven L.; Hay, Lauren E.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the effects of climate change on the vegetative growing season is key to quantifying future hydrologic water budget conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey modeled changes in future growing season length at 14 basins across 11 states. Simulations for each basin were generated using five general circulation models with three emission scenarios as inputs to the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS). PRMS is a deterministic, distributed-parameter, watershed model developed to simulate the effects of various combinations of precipitation, climate, and land use on watershed response. PRMS was modified to include a growing season calculation in this study. The growing season was examined for trends in the total length (annual), as well as changes in the timing of onset (spring) and the end (fall) of the growing season. The results showed an increase in the annual growing season length in all 14 basins, averaging 27–47 days for the three emission scenarios. The change in the spring and fall growing season onset and end varied across the 14 basins, with larger increases in the total length of the growing season occurring in the mountainous regions and smaller increases occurring in the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast regions. The Clear Creek basin, 1 of the 14 basins in this study, was evaluated to examine the growing season length determined by emission scenario, as compared to a growing season length fixed baseline condition. The Clear Creek basin showed substantial variation in hydrologic responses, including streamflow, as a result of growing season length determined by emission scenario.

  6. El Nino Continues to Grow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The latest image from NASA's Jason oceanography satellite, taken during a 10-day collection cycle ending December 2, 2002, shows the Pacific dominated by two significant areas of higher-than-normal sealevel (warmer ocean temperatures). In the central equatorial Pacific, the large area of higher than normal sea surface heights(warmer than normal sea surface temperatures) associated with growing El Nino conditions has recently migrated eastward toward the coast of South America. Meanwhile, the influence of the 20- to 30-year larger than El Nino/La Nina pattern called the Pacific Decadal Oscillation continues to create warm, higher-than-normal sea-surface heights in the north Pacific that are connected in a warm horseshoe pattern with the western and southern Pacific. Sea-surface heights are a measure of how much heat is stored in the ocean below. This heat influences both present weather and future planetary climate events.

    The image shows red areas in the north Pacific and at the equator that are about 10 centimeters (4 inches) above normal; white areas indicate sea surface heights between 14 and 32 centimeters (6 to 13 inches) above normal. These regions contrast with the western tropical Pacific, where lower-than-normal sea levels (blue areas) have developed that are between 5 and 13 centimeters (2 and 5 inches) below normal, while purple areas range from 14 to 18 centimeters (6 to 7 inches) below normal. Along the equator, the red sea surface heights equate to sea surface temperature departures greater than one degree Celsius (two degrees Fahrenheit) and the white sea surface heights are sea surface temperatures 1.5 to 2.5 degrees Celsius(three to five degrees Fahrenheit) above normal.

    The U.S. portion of the Jason mission is managed by JPL for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C. Research on Earth's oceans using Jason and other space-based capabilities is conducted by NASA's Earth Science Enterprise to better understand and protect our

  7. Comparative calorimetric studies on the dynamic conformation of plant 5S rRNA. I. Thermal unfolding pattern of lupin seeds and wheat germ 5S rRNAs, also in the presence of magnesium and sperminium cations.

    PubMed Central

    Barciszewski, J; Bratek-Wiewiórowska, M D; Górnicki, P; Naskret-Barciszewska, M; Wiewiórowski, M; Zielenkiewicz, A; Zielenkiewicz, W

    1988-01-01

    An attempt has been made to correlate differential scanning calorimetry melting profiles of 5S rRNAs from lupin seeds (L.s.) and wheat germ (W.g.) with their structure. It is suggested that the observed differences in thermal unfolding are due to differences in RNA nucleotide sequence and as a consequence in higher order structures. Interesting effects induced by magnesium cation, perprotonated and permethylated sperminium tetracations are discussed. It is suggested that the difference in the stabilizing effect of the three cations results from different mode of their interactions with RNA. "Pure" electrostatic interactions expected for permethylated tetracations are rather weak due to the steric hindrance around each positively charged nitrogen atom. Electrostatic interactions of the other two cations are significantly enhanced by coordination bonding for magnesium and by hydrogen bonding for protonated sperminium cation. PMID:3340550

  8. Consumption of diets containing raw soya beans (Glycine max), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) or lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius) by rats for up to 700 days: effects on body composition and organ weights.

    PubMed

    Grant, G; Dorward, P M; Buchan, W C; Armour, J C; Pusztai, A

    1995-01-01

    Feeding trials have been done with rats to assess the effects of long-term (700 d) consumption of diets based on raw cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata; moderate Bowman-Birk inhibitor content, low lectin content), lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius; low lectin and protease inhibitor content) or soya beans (Glycine max; high Kunitz inhibitor content, moderate Bowman-Birk inhibitor content, moderate lectin content) or diets containing low levels of raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris; high lectin content, low Bowman-Birk inhibitor content) on body weight and composition and organ weights. All the legume-based diets reduced feed conversion efficiency and growth rates during the initial 250 d. However, after 250 d the weight gains by rats given legume-based diets were similar to those of controls given the same daily feed intake. Long-term consumption of diets containing low levels of kidney bean significantly altered body composition of rats. The levels of lipid in the body were significantly reduced. As a result, carcasses of these rats contained a higher proportion of muscle/protein than did controls. Small-intestine relative weight was increased by short- and long-term consumption of the kidney-bean-based diet. However, the increase in relative pancreatic weight observed at 30 d did not persist long term. None of the other legume-based diets caused any significant changes in body composition. However, long-term exposure to a soya-bean- or cowpea-based diet induced an extensive increase in the relative and absolute weights of the pancreas and caused an increase in the incidence of macroscopic pancreatic nodules and possibly pancreatic neoplasia. Long-term consumption of the cowpea-, kidney-bean-, lupin-seed- or soya-bean-based diets by rats resulted in a significant increase in the relative weight of the caecum and colon.

  9. Consumption of diets containing raw soya beans (Glycine max), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) or lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius) by rats for up to 700 days: effects on body composition and organ weights.

    PubMed

    Grant, G; Dorward, P M; Buchan, W C; Armour, J C; Pusztai, A

    1995-01-01

    Feeding trials have been done with rats to assess the effects of long-term (700 d) consumption of diets based on raw cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata; moderate Bowman-Birk inhibitor content, low lectin content), lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius; low lectin and protease inhibitor content) or soya beans (Glycine max; high Kunitz inhibitor content, moderate Bowman-Birk inhibitor content, moderate lectin content) or diets containing low levels of raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris; high lectin content, low Bowman-Birk inhibitor content) on body weight and composition and organ weights. All the legume-based diets reduced feed conversion efficiency and growth rates during the initial 250 d. However, after 250 d the weight gains by rats given legume-based diets were similar to those of controls given the same daily feed intake. Long-term consumption of diets containing low levels of kidney bean significantly altered body composition of rats. The levels of lipid in the body were significantly reduced. As a result, carcasses of these rats contained a higher proportion of muscle/protein than did controls. Small-intestine relative weight was increased by short- and long-term consumption of the kidney-bean-based diet. However, the increase in relative pancreatic weight observed at 30 d did not persist long term. None of the other legume-based diets caused any significant changes in body composition. However, long-term exposure to a soya-bean- or cowpea-based diet induced an extensive increase in the relative and absolute weights of the pancreas and caused an increase in the incidence of macroscopic pancreatic nodules and possibly pancreatic neoplasia. Long-term consumption of the cowpea-, kidney-bean-, lupin-seed- or soya-bean-based diets by rats resulted in a significant increase in the relative weight of the caecum and colon. PMID:7857911

  10. Numerical simulation of fluorescent annual layer in stalagmites: implication for extracting sub-annual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, Yuri; Sasaki, Hana; Ishihara, Yoshiro; Yoshimura, Kazuhisa

    2016-04-01

    Fluorescent annual layers are frequently reported from stalagmites in various caves of the world. In recent years, fluorescent asymmetrical patterns in annual layers, such as fluorescent intensity growing upward and interrupting at uppermost part in a layer, have also been reported. Since the formation of annual layers in stalagmites is probably influenced by the accumulation rates of calcite and fulvic acids in dripwaters, the parameters controlling the fluorescent asymmetrical patterns of annual layers are not clarified. In this study, we reviewed various types of fluorescence patterns in annual layers reported from Japan, and simulated them considering the accumulation conditions of stalagmite and the amount of fulvic acids in dripwaters. Hence, it is suggested that formation of various types of fluorescent annual layer is influenced by (1) seasonal fluctuations in the accumulation rate of stalagmites and the amounts of fulvic acids in dripwaters, (2) seasonal time lags between favorable conditions for stalagmite accumulation and the predominant season for accumulation of fulvic acids in dripwaters, and (3) durations of the lags. The time lags are caused by seasonal gaps between variations in the amounts of fulvic acids in dripwaters and the accumulation rates of stalagmite influenced by dripwater intervals and cave air conditions. The results of this study will provide new insight into the seasonal signature in annual layers and suggest that the geochemical information bias from stalagmites can be evaluated from analyses of the annual layer patterns.

  11. Formation of massive stars by growing accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeder, André

    We calculate pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks with accretion rates growing with the actual stellar masses. We show that accretion rates growing at least as M1.5 are necessary to fit the constraints on the lifetimes and HR diagram. Most interestingly, such accretion rates growing with the stellar mass well correspond to those derived from observations of mass outflows (Churchwell 2000; Henning et al. 2000). These rates also lie in the permitted region of the dynamical models.

  12. Effect of diets containing whole white lupin seeds on rabbit doe milk yield and milk fatty acid composition as well as the growth and health of their litters.

    PubMed

    Volek, Z; Marounek, M; Volková, L; Kudrnová, E

    2014-05-01

    The effect of dietary inclusion of white lupin seed (WLS) on the milk composition and yield of rabbit does as well as the performance of their litters was studied. Two lactation diets having identical digestible protein (DP):DE ratio and two weaning diets having identical DP:DE ratio were formulated. The first lactation diet (SL) contained soybean meal (SBM; 13.0%) and sunflower meal (5.0%) as the main CP sources, whereas the second lactation diet (LL) was based on WLS (25.0%). As a result, the LL diet had a greater ether extract (EE) content than did the SL diet. The first weaning diet (SW) included SBM (7.0%) as the main CP source, whereas the second weaning diet (LW) diet was based on WLS (12.0%). No additional fat was added to any of the diets. A total of 32 (16 per treatment) Hyplus PS 19 does (4,225 ± 607 g BW, at the second parturition) were fed 1 of the 2 lactation diets. The litters were standardized to 9 kits (564 ± 81 g BW) on the day of birth and were fed 1 of the 2 weaning diets from d 17 to 69 of age. At d 30 of age (weaning), 66 rabbits on each weaning diet (689 ± 71 g BW; 3 per cage) were used to evaluate performance. Feed intake and doe BW were not affected by the dietary treatments. Milk yield tended to be higher between d 1 and 30 of lactation in does fed the LL diet (P = 0.094), a finding that is related to the higher dietary EE content and intake in the LL diet. When expressed per kilogram of metabolic weight, milk output (P < 0.05) and fat output (P < 0.05) were greater in these does. Improved G:F (P < 0.05) between d 1 and 21 of lactation and greater ADG (P = 0.072) and milk efficiency (P < 0.05) of litters was observed in does fed the LL diet. The milk of does fed the LL diet contained less linoleic acid (P < 0.05) and arachidonic acid (C 20:4n-6; P < 0.05) and more oleic acid (P < 0.05), α-linolenic acid (P < 0.05), and eicosapentaenic acid (P < 0.05), with a corresponding increase in the total PUFA n-3:C 20:4n-6 ratio (P < 0.05). The

  13. Effect of diets containing whole white lupin seeds on rabbit doe milk yield and milk fatty acid composition as well as the growth and health of their litters.

    PubMed

    Volek, Z; Marounek, M; Volková, L; Kudrnová, E

    2014-05-01

    The effect of dietary inclusion of white lupin seed (WLS) on the milk composition and yield of rabbit does as well as the performance of their litters was studied. Two lactation diets having identical digestible protein (DP):DE ratio and two weaning diets having identical DP:DE ratio were formulated. The first lactation diet (SL) contained soybean meal (SBM; 13.0%) and sunflower meal (5.0%) as the main CP sources, whereas the second lactation diet (LL) was based on WLS (25.0%). As a result, the LL diet had a greater ether extract (EE) content than did the SL diet. The first weaning diet (SW) included SBM (7.0%) as the main CP source, whereas the second weaning diet (LW) diet was based on WLS (12.0%). No additional fat was added to any of the diets. A total of 32 (16 per treatment) Hyplus PS 19 does (4,225 ± 607 g BW, at the second parturition) were fed 1 of the 2 lactation diets. The litters were standardized to 9 kits (564 ± 81 g BW) on the day of birth and were fed 1 of the 2 weaning diets from d 17 to 69 of age. At d 30 of age (weaning), 66 rabbits on each weaning diet (689 ± 71 g BW; 3 per cage) were used to evaluate performance. Feed intake and doe BW were not affected by the dietary treatments. Milk yield tended to be higher between d 1 and 30 of lactation in does fed the LL diet (P = 0.094), a finding that is related to the higher dietary EE content and intake in the LL diet. When expressed per kilogram of metabolic weight, milk output (P < 0.05) and fat output (P < 0.05) were greater in these does. Improved G:F (P < 0.05) between d 1 and 21 of lactation and greater ADG (P = 0.072) and milk efficiency (P < 0.05) of litters was observed in does fed the LL diet. The milk of does fed the LL diet contained less linoleic acid (P < 0.05) and arachidonic acid (C 20:4n-6; P < 0.05) and more oleic acid (P < 0.05), α-linolenic acid (P < 0.05), and eicosapentaenic acid (P < 0.05), with a corresponding increase in the total PUFA n-3:C 20:4n-6 ratio (P < 0.05). The

  14. Annual Fund. Estate Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuhr, Robert L.; Jarc, Jerry A.

    The first of a series, this publication consists of two symposium presentations. The first paper, "Annual Fund: Cornerstone of Development," by Robert L. Stuhr, defines the annual fund concept in the context of institutional development and provides five requisites for a successful annual fund: it must (1) be part of an ongoing development…

  15. Growing Organic Crystals By The Czochralski Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Angela; Frazier, Donald O.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Aggarwal, M. D.; Wang, W. S.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus grows high-quality single crystals of organic compounds by Czochralski method. In Czochralski process, growing crystal lifted from middle of molten material without touching walls. Because of low melting temperatures of organic crystals, glass vessels usable. Traditional method for inorganic semiconductors adapted to optically nonlinear organic materials.

  16. Growing Vegetables. People on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes farm operations and some activities in the lives of six vegetable farmers throughout the United States. The booklet visits the tomato growing of Carl Schneider and his partners and the lettuce growing farm of Norman Martella, both in California. It then includes brief accounts of…

  17. Using Inorganic Crystals To Grow Protein Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlichta, Paul J.; Mcpherson, Alexander A.

    1989-01-01

    Solid materials serve as nucleating agents. Protein crystals induced by heterogeneous nucleation and in some cases by epitaxy to grow at lower supersaturations than needed for spontaneous nucleation. Heterogeneous nucleation makes possible to grow large, defect-free single crystals of protein more readily. Such protein crystals benefits research in biochemistry and pharmacology.

  18. The growing HIV epidemic in Central Europe: a neglected issue?

    PubMed

    Gökengin, Deniz; Oprea, Cristiana; Uysal, Serhat; Begovac, Josip

    2016-01-01

    The number of new cases of HIV infection has been decreasing in some parts of the world (e.g. sub-Saharan Africa) with the highest burden of disease in recent years. However, other regions are showing a different trend, such as Eastern Europe, the Middle East, North Africa and Central Asia. This trend seems also to apply to the Central European region. This article analyses HIV data for Central Europe derived from annual surveillance reports of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and gives an overview of the recent status of the epidemic in this specific region. We show that, although still at a low level, the HIV epidemic in Central Europe continues to grow and requires more resources and interventions to curtail the ongoing epidemic. PMID:27482455

  19. Growing Hyperbranched Polymers Using Natural Sunlight

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jun-Jie; Sun, Jiao-Tong; You, Ye-Zi; Wu, De-Cheng; Hong, Chun-Yan

    2013-01-01

    In nature, a sapling can grow into a big tree under irradiation of sunlight. In chemistry, a similar concept that a small molecule only exposing to sunlight grows into a hyperbranched macromolecule has not been realized by now. The achievement of the concept will be fascinating and valuable for polymer synthesis wherein sunlight is inexpensive, abundant, renewable, and nonpolluting. Herein, we report a new strategy in which small monomers can directly grow into big hyperbranched macromolecule under irradiation of sunlight without any catalyst. PMID:24100948

  20. Growing single crystals in silica gel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, B.

    1970-01-01

    Two types of chemical reactions for crystal growing are discussed. The first is a metathetical reaction to produce calcium tartrate tetrahydrate crystals, the second is a decomplexation reaction to produce cuprous chloride crystals.

  1. Plants growing in Apollo 15 lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A close view of germ free plants - lettuce (left), tomato (right center and left center) and citrus (right). This type of testing is an effort at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) to grow germ-free plants.

  2. Only tough choices in Meeting growing demand

    SciTech Connect

    2007-12-15

    U.S. electricity demand is not growing very fast by international or historical standards. Yet meeting this relatively modest growth is proving difficult because investment in new capacity is expected to grow at an even slower pace. What is more worrisome is that a confluence of factors has added considerable uncertainties, making the investment community less willing to make the long-term commitments that will be needed during the coming decade.

  3. Method for Growing Plants Aeroponically 1

    PubMed Central

    Zobel, Richard W.; Del Tredici, Peter; Torrey, John G.

    1976-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive system for growing plants with their roots bathed in nutrient mist is described. The aeroponics system uses a spinner from a home humidifier to propel nutrient solution into a polyethylene-lined plywood box atop which plants are supported on plastic light-fixture “egg crating.” Success in growing a number of herbaceous and woody species, including nodulated legumes and nonlegumes, is reported. Images PMID:16659479

  4. Why we cannot grow a human arm.

    PubMed

    Ricci, John L

    2013-11-01

    There are several significant issues that prevent us from growing a human arm now, or within the next 10-20 years. From a tissue engineering perspective, while we can grow many of the components necessary for construction of a human arm, we can only grow them in relatively small volumes, and when scaled up to large volumes we lack the ability to develop adequate blood/nerve supply. From a genetic engineering perspective, we will probably never be able to turn on the specific genes necessary to "grow an arm" unless it is attached to a fetus and this presents enormous ethical issues related to farming of human organs and structures. Perhaps the most daunting problem facing the transplantation of a tissue engineered or transplanted arm is that of re-innervation of the structure. Since the sensory and motor nerve cells of the arm are located outside of the structure, re-innervation requires those nerves to regenerate over relatively large distances to repopulate the nervous system of the arm. This is something with which we have had little success. We can grow repair parts, but "growing an arm" presents too many insurmountable problems. The best we could possibly do with tissue engineering or genetic engineering would be the equivalent of a fetal arm and the technical problems, costs, and ethical hurdles are enormous. A more likely solution is a functional, permanent, neuroelectronically-controlled prosthesis. These are nearly a reality today.

  5. A "carbonizing dragon": China's fast growing CO2 emissions revisited.

    PubMed

    Minx, Jan C; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Peters, Glen P; Weber, Christopher L; Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus

    2011-11-01

    China's annual CO(2) emissions grew by around 4 billion tonnes between 1992 and 2007. More than 70% of this increase occurred between 2002 and 2007. While growing export demand contributed more than 50% to the CO(2) emission growth between 2002 and 2005, capital investments have been responsible for 61% of emission growth in China between 2005 and 2007. We use structural decomposition analysis to identify the drivers for China's emission growth between 1992 and 2007, with special focus on the period 2002 to 2007 when growth was most rapid. In contrast to previous analysis, we find that efficiency improvements have largely offset additional CO(2) emissions from increased final consumption between 2002 and 2007. The strong increases in emissions growth between 2002 and 2007 are instead explained by structural change in China's economy, which has newly emerged as the third major emission driver. This structural change is mainly the result of capital investments, in particular, the growing prominence of construction services and their carbon intensive supply chain. By closing the model for capital investment, we can now show that the majority of emissions embodied in capital investment are utilized for domestic household and government consumption (35-49% and 19-36%, respectively) with smaller amounts for the production of exports (21-31%). Urbanization and the associated changes in lifestyle are shown to be more important than other socio-demographic drivers like the decreasing household size or growing population. We argue that mitigation efforts will depend on the future development of these key drivers, particularly capital investments which dictate future mitigation costs. PMID:21888374

  6. Annual Enrollment Report: Growth in Number of Students Studying Journalism and Mass Communication Slows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Lee B.; Vlad, Tudor; Huh, Jisu; Daniels, George L.

    2002-01-01

    Provides the key findings of the 2001 Annual Survey of Journalism and Mass Communication Enrollments. Shows that undergraduate enrollments continued to grow while graduate enrollments declined. Discusses degrees granted and race, ethnicity, and gender factors. (PM)

  7. Growing local likelihood network: Emergence of communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Small, M.

    2015-10-01

    In many real situations, networks grow only via local interactions. New nodes are added to the growing network with information only pertaining to a small subset of existing nodes. Multilevel marketing, social networks, and disease models can all be depicted as growing networks based on local (network path-length) distance information. In these examples, all nodes whose distance from a chosen center is less than d form a subgraph. Hence, we grow networks with information only from these subgraphs. Moreover, we use a likelihood-based method, where at each step we modify the networks by changing their likelihood to be closer to the expected degree distribution. Combining the local information and the likelihood method, we grow networks that exhibit novel features. We discover that the likelihood method, over certain parameter ranges, can generate networks with highly modulated communities, even when global information is not available. Communities and clusters are abundant in real-life networks, and the method proposed here provides a natural mechanism for the emergence of communities in scale-free networks. In addition, the algorithmic implementation of network growth via local information is substantially faster than global methods and allows for the exploration of much larger networks.

  8. Growing season surface water loading of fecal indicator organisms within a rural watershed.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, A; Hebb, D; Jamieson, R; Gordon, R; Benedict, K; Fuller, K; Stratton, G W; Madani, A

    2009-03-01

    The loading of microbial contaminants was examined within the Thomas Brook watershed, a 784 ha mixed land-use catchment located in the headwaters of the Cornwallis River drainage basin (Nova Scotia, Canada). The objectives were to: (i) examine spatial and temporal characteristics of fecal bacteria loading during the growing season from five subwatersheds, and (ii) develop areal fecal indicator organism export coefficients for rural landscapes. Fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations and stream flow were monitored at five locations in the watershed over six consecutive growing seasons (May-Oct, 2001-2006). A nested watershed monitoring approach was used to determine bacterial loading from distinct source types (residential vs. agricultural) during both baseflow and stormflow periods. Areal bacterial loading rates increased in each nested watershed moving downstream through the watershed and were highest in the three subcatchments dominated by agricultural activities. Upper watershed bacterial loading throughout the growing season from an agricultural subcatchment (Growing Season Avg 8.92 x 10(10) CFU ha(-1)) was consistently higher than a residential subcatchment (Growing Season Avg 8.43 x 10(9) CFU ha(-1)). As expected, annual average stormflow bacterial loads were higher than baseflow loads, however baseflow loads still comprised between 14 and 35% of the growing season bacterial loads in the five subwatersheds. Fecal bacteria loads were greater during years with higher annual precipitation. A positive linear relationship was observed between E. coli and TSS loading during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons when both parameters were monitored, indicating that the processes of sediment transport and bacterial transport are linked. It is anticipated that computed areal microbial loading coefficients will be useful in developing watershed management plans. More intensive sampling during stormflow events is recommended for

  9. Gravity sensing in tip-growing cells.

    PubMed

    Sievers, A; Buchen, B; Hodick, D

    1996-08-01

    In addition to the statocytes of roots and shoots, a number of tip-growing cells also sense gravity, which influences the cells' growth and development. Since these tip-growing cells are highly suitable for observations in vivo, the movement and sedimentation of their statoliths can be studied in detail. Experimental manipulation by centrifugation, drug application, optical tweezers or microgravity can be monitored by light microscopy. The statoliths are localized in distinct cytoplasmic areas by interactions with actin filaments or microtubules, and their sedimentation seems to be narrowly confined. Since gravisensing and the graviresponse take place within the same cell, the gravitropic signal transduction chain is not complicated by signal transmission between sensing and responding cells. Studies on tip-growing cells have now enabled the formulation of models explaining positive and negative gravitropism.

  10. Annual Energy Review, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    2009-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions.

  11. Projected changes in Malawi's growing season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizy, Edward K.; Cook, Kerry H.; Chimphamba, James; McCusker, Brent

    2015-09-01

    Regional climate model projections at 30-km resolution are used to predict future mid-century and late-century growing season changes over Malawi due to global warming under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 business-as-usual emissions forcing scenario. Three different methods for estimating growing season characteristics are applied and evaluated. All three methods yield reasonable growing season length, onset, and demise date estimates over Malawi given the wide range of uncertainty of the observations. The projections indicate the likelihood for a shorter growing season in the future over Malawi south of 13.5°S. At mid-century the growing season length is predicted to be 20-40 % (20-55 days) shorter over the southernmost districts and 5-20 % (5-30 days) shorter over the central districts. By late-century the length is predicted to be 25-55 % (20-70 days) shorter with significant differences extending into northern Malawi. The shorter growing season is primarily associated with an earlier demise date, as no significant change in the onset date is predicted. Analysis of the regional circulation and horizontal moisture flux transport indicates that the earlier demise is associated with an intensification of the thermal low over the Kalahari Desert to the south and west of Malawi and an expansion of the mid-tropospheric Kalahari anticyclone over southern Africa. The stronger thermal low/anticyclone enhances the moisture flux divergence over Malawi suppressing the convective activity at the end of the wet season.

  12. Growing estates role in theatre arena.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2010-02-01

    NHS Trust boards' growing demands for major capital purchases to offer both short-term "added value", and sound longer-term ROI, coupled with estates and facilities teams' growing involvement in specifying, installing, and subsequently maintaining, the sophisticated equipment and control systems found in modern-day operating theatres, have meant a radical re-think in approach to winning new business for Trumpf Medical Systems. MD Oliver Law explained the background and thinking to the change in strategy, and discussed the company's ambitious future plans, with HEJ's Jonathan Baillie. PMID:20198957

  13. Post liposuction infections by rapidly growing mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Zosso, Caroline; Lienhard, Reto; Siegrist, Hans H; Malinverni, Raffaele; Clerc, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are recognized agents of surgical site infections. Recently, RGM skin and soft tissue infections have been increasingly reported. As symptoms, clinical signs and disease latency remain non-specific and microbiological detection requires targeted growth media, RGM diagnosis remains challenging for clinicians. Appropriate management is often delayed due to lack of awareness of these infections. RGM infections after plastic surgery have also been described in the setting of interventions performed in developing countries, a growing phenomenon commonly known as medical tourism. We describe a case of Mycobacterium chelonae/abscessus infection following liposuction and liposculpture procedures performed in the Dominican Republic and review the literature on this subject.

  14. Segmentation of elastic organs using region growing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widita, R.; Kurniadi, R.; Darma, Y.; Perkasa, Y. S.; Trianti, N.

    2012-06-01

    We have been successfully developed a new software for image segmentation This software is addressed to do segmentation of elastic organs. The segmentation components used in this software is region growing algorithms which have proven to be an effective approach for image segmentation. The implementations of region growing developed here are connected threshold and neighborhood connected. The results show that the neighborhood algorithm affects the smoothness of the segmented object borders, the size of the segmented region, and reduces computing time. Our method is designed to perform with clinically acceptable speed, using accelerated techniques.

  15. Libraries and Learning: Helping People Grow. Colorado State Library & Adult Education Office 1988 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    The Colorado State Library and Adult Education Office describe the activities and accomplishments of various library programs and services throughout the state in 1988. One-page profiles highlight each program and list contact persons and telephone numbers. Some of the profiles are accompanied by a brief feature story that takes a closer look at…

  16. Community for Data Integration 2013 Annual Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chang, Michelle Y.; Carlino, Jennifer; Barnes, Christopher; Blodgett, David L.; Bock, Andrew R.; Everette, Anthony L.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Gordon, Janice M.; Govoni, David L.; Hay, Lauren E.; Henkel, Heather S.; Hines, Megan K.; Holl, Sally L.; Homer, Collin G.; Hutchison, Vivian B.; Ignizio, Drew A.; Kern, Tim J.; Lightsom, Frances L.; Markstrom, Steven L.; O'Donnell, Michael S.; Schei, Jacquelyn L.; Schmid, Lorna A.; Schoephoester, Kathryn M.; Schweitzer, Peter N.; Skagen, Susan K.; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Talbert, Colin; Warren, Meredith Pavlick

    2015-01-01

    grow overall USGS capabilities with data and information by increasing visibility of the work of many people throughout the USGS and the CDI community. To achieve these goals, the CDI operates within four applied areas: monthly forums, annual workshop/webinar series, working groups, and projects. The monthly forums, also known as the Opportunity/Challenge of the Month, provide an open dialogue to share and learn about data integration efforts or to present problems that invite the Community to offer solutions, advice, and support. Since 2010, the CDI has also sponsored annual workshops/webinar series to encourage the exchange of ideas, sharing of activities, presentations of current projects, and networking among members. Stemming from common interests, the working groups are focused on efforts to address data management and technical 2 challenges, including the development of standards and tools, improving interoperability and information infrastructure, and data preservation within USGS and its partners. The growing support for the activities of the working groups led to the CDI’s first formal request for proposals (RFP) process in 2013 to fund projects that produced tangible products. Today the CDI continues to hold an annual RFP that create data management tools and practices, collaboration tools, and training in support of data integration and delivery.

  17. Growing Up Different (Adult Student ESL Journals).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Jane, Ed.

    Participants in an adult education grade 11 English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) writing class, all immigrants to Canada with varying cultural backgrounds, wrote journal entries in response to the theme "growing up different." The project involved individual writing, word processing, peer editing, computer graphics, audiotape recording of completed…

  18. Growing and Sustaining Communities with Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Havill, Alice; Schultz, Donny; Falcon, Nigel; Reetz, Harold; Rowden, Jack; Van Horn, Ruth; Nordling, Debbie; Naig, Mike

    2015-10-21

    From Vero Beach, Florida, to Hugoton, Kansas, to Emmetsburg, Iowa, cellulosic ethanol biorefineries have had major impacts on communities and their residents. In other areas, bioenergy has significant potential to transform current and establish new industry. This short video illustrates how biorefineries and other bioenergy developments can benefit citizens, businesses, and whole communities, helping America’s rural economies grow and thrive.

  19. Growing a New Generation of Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrack, Frederick

    2009-01-01

    In many parts of the United States, there is a growing shortage of music teachers to take the place of the retiring teachers. This is most evident in rural areas. If music teachers are not available to fill openings, music positions are sometimes combined, spreading music teachers too thin and requiring them to possess multiple music…

  20. Body Talk for Boys Growing Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Margaret L.

    This pamphlet, targeted to boys, discusses issues surrounding puberty. The introduction describes the reaction of parents' to their children's process of growing up, as well as the reaction of other boys and girls to the physical changes of puberty. Physical changes that happen during puberty for girls and boys are listed. Books for boys on…

  1. Body Talk for Girls Growing Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Margaret L.

    This pamphlet, targeted to girls, discusses issues surrounding puberty. The introduction describes the reaction of parents' to their children's process of growing up, as well as the reaction of other boys and girls to the physical changes of puberty. Physical changes that happen during puberty for girls and boys are listed. Books for girls on…

  2. Prealloyed catalyst for growing silicon carbide whiskers

    DOEpatents

    Shalek, Peter D.; Katz, Joel D.; Hurley, George F.

    1988-01-01

    A prealloyed metal catalyst is used to grow silicon carbide whiskers, especially in the .beta. form. Pretreating the metal particles to increase the weight percentages of carbon or silicon or both carbon and silicon allows whisker growth to begin immediately upon reaching growth temperature.

  3. Growing Up Chicana/o: An Anthology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Tiffany Ana

    This is a collection of 20 stories that focus specifically on the experience of growing up Chicana/o. A foreword by Rudolfo Anaya provides background on the development of Chicano literature. The stories are presented in four sections that explore the themes of heritage and actual and metaphorical boundaries, the importance of grandparents and…

  4. Pueblo Girls: Growing Up in Two Worlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keegan, Marcia

    This book portrays San Ildefonso Pueblo on the east bank of the Rio Grande river in New Mexico through the lives of Sonja, age 10, and her sister Desiree, age 8. Growing up in San Ildefonso Pueblo, the girls enjoy the same activities as other American girls, such as basketball, cheerleading, playing video games, and sending e-mail. But they also…

  5. Growing up as a Young Artist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2012-01-01

    "Growing Up as a Young Artist" is an illustrated book assignment that involves researching family scrapbooks, photo albums and films, and inquiring about family anecdotes for clues to one's artistic roots. Students creatively reflect on their early memories of imaginative events, as each page is filled with memories of creative activities they…

  6. Growing Great Minds: Seizing the Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Carl A.

    2015-01-01

    Teachers must seize the opportunity to grow great minds. Contextualizing the argument in the writing of renowned poets, noted educators, and distinguished moral heroes whose life's work was dedicated to the principles of democracy, this article reminds practicing teachers in this challenging moment that "You are braver than you believe,…

  7. The need for growing crystals in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, E. L.

    1981-01-01

    Payoffs of crystal growth in space in the areas of understanding growth and melt flow mechanisms, the growth of more uniform crystals with fewer defects, and the growth of crystals difficult or impossible to grow on Earth are summarized. The advantages of various heating methods are summarized. Critical devices requiring the uniformity and lower defect density of crystals grown in space are listed.

  8. Explosive percolation transitions in growing networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, S. M.; Son, S.-W.; Kahng, B.

    2016-03-01

    Recent extensive studies of the explosive percolation (EP) model revealed that the EP transition is second order with an extremely small value of the critical exponent β associated with the order parameter. This result was obtained from static networks, in which the number of nodes in the system remains constant during the evolution of the network. However, explosive percolating behavior of the order parameter can be observed in social networks, which are often growing networks, where the number of nodes in the system increases as dynamics proceeds. However, extensive studies of the EP transition in such growing networks are still missing. Here we study the nature of the EP transition in growing networks by extending an existing growing network model to a general case in which m node candidates are picked up in the Achiloptas process. When m =2 , this model reduces to the existing model, which undergoes an infinite-order transition. We show that when m ≥3 , the transition becomes second order due to the suppression effect against the growth of large clusters. Using the rate-equation approach and performing numerical simulations, we also show that the exponent β decreases algebraically with increasing m , whereas it does exponentially in a corresponding static random network model. Finally, we find that the hyperscaling relations hold but in different forms.

  9. Growing a Forest for the Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Growing Ideas, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes a tree studies program in a fourth-grade classroom. Students collected local tree seeds and seeds from supermarket fruits, researched growing conditions, and grew seeds under various conditions. Students kept journals on local trees, observing seed dispersal mechanisms and examining rings on trunk slices. Inquiry-based tree studies…

  10. Twenty Tips for Growing a Baby's Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    This paper asserts that the more enriching the interactions and experiences that parents and child caregivers provide to very young children, the more chances they are providing for growing neural connections and pathways in the brain to support language, reasoning, and planning skills; mental health and emotional well-being; and motor…

  11. Growing Income Inequality Threatens American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Murnane, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The first of two articles in consecutive months describes the origins and nature of growing income inequality, and some of its consequences for American children. It documents the increased family income inequality that's occurred over the past 40 years and shows that the increased income disparity has been more than matched by an expanding…

  12. Growing Greener Cities: Environmental Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Forestry Association, Washington, DC.

    This environmental education guide, developed by American Forests, includes five lessons created to help teachers use "Growing Greener Cities," a tree-planting handbook. The lessons are designed to teach students the role trees and forests play in cities. Lesson one begins with an introduction, several preparatory exercises to orient students to…

  13. Is the Antarctic ice sheet growing?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, S. S.

    1992-01-01

    A brief review is presented of recent observations of surface accumulation on Antarctica. It is concluded that it is as yet too early to say with confidence whether the ice sheet has recently been growing or shrinking, given the variability in accumulation pattern and the larger uncertainties in melting and calving.

  14. Growing Up in an Alcoholic Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Stephanie

    1993-01-01

    Discusses problems faced by children growing up in an alcoholic family. Reviews four survivor roles of children of alcoholics (COAs): super-coper, scapegoat, lost child, and family mascot. Describes alcoholism as a disease of denial. Reviews the Children of Alcoholics movement begun by adult COAs to become advocates for COAs. (NB)

  15. And This Is How It Grows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; Sewall, Valerie

    1983-01-01

    Discusses activities related to the Elementary Science Study (ESS) unit "Growing Seeds." The unit teaches students to manipulate, observe, and record the growth of seeds. Activities foster classifying, hypothesizing, and predicting skills. Enrichment activities and a culminating activity for the unit are suggested. (JN)

  16. Multidimensional neural growing networks and computer intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Yashchenko, V.A.

    1995-03-01

    This paper examines information-computation processes in time and in space and some aspects of computer intelligence using multidimensional matrix neural growing networks. In particular, issues of object-oriented {open_quotes}thinking{close_quotes} of computers are considered.

  17. Asymmetric Die Grows Purer Silicon Ribbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalejs, J. P.; Chalmers, B.; Surek, T.

    1983-01-01

    Concentration of carbide impurities in silicon ribbon is reduced by growing crystalline ribbon with die one wall higher than other. Height difference controls shape of meniscus at liquid/crystal interface and concentrates silicon carbide impurity near one of broad faces. Opposite face is left with above-average purity. Significantly improves efficiency of solar cells made from ribbon.

  18. Teaching the Growing Population of Nontraditional Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, June G.

    2002-01-01

    This document contains three articles on teaching the growing population of nontraditional students. "The Changing Demographics of the Classroom" defines "nontraditional students"; reviews the characteristics, risk factors, and special needs of nontraditional students; and identifies the following services as particularly important to…

  19. A Little Salesmanship "Grows" a Long Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montas, Leah

    2012-01-01

    Goshen Elementary PTA's membership shrank the first year the author was PTA president. In the back of her mind, she was bothered by the fact that their membership numbers had dropped. So, after she attended a regional session with her vice president on growing membership, she got the courage to propose something different. They discussed with…

  20. Explosive percolation transitions in growing networks.

    PubMed

    Oh, S M; Son, S-W; Kahng, B

    2016-03-01

    Recent extensive studies of the explosive percolation (EP) model revealed that the EP transition is second order with an extremely small value of the critical exponent β associated with the order parameter. This result was obtained from static networks, in which the number of nodes in the system remains constant during the evolution of the network. However, explosive percolating behavior of the order parameter can be observed in social networks, which are often growing networks, where the number of nodes in the system increases as dynamics proceeds. However, extensive studies of the EP transition in such growing networks are still missing. Here we study the nature of the EP transition in growing networks by extending an existing growing network model to a general case in which m node candidates are picked up in the Achiloptas process. When m = 2, this model reduces to the existing model, which undergoes an infinite-order transition. We show that when m ≥ 3, the transition becomes second order due to the suppression effect against the growth of large clusters. Using the rate-equation approach and performing numerical simulations, we also show that the exponent β decreases algebraically with increasing m, whereas it does exponentially in a corresponding static random network model. Finally, we find that the hyperscaling relations hold but in different forms. PMID:27078375

  1. Guide to School Greenhouses: Growing Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beliveau, Victoria

    This booklet is part of the Growing Ideas series for educators which supports teachers by enabling them to expand their own skills as they help students use plants and gardens as contexts for developing a deeper, richer understanding of the world around them. This booklet, on school greenhouses, gives an overview of key issues relevant to…

  2. Rotating Vessels for Growing Protein Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cottingham, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Rotating vessels have been proposed as means of growing larger, more nearly uniform protein crystals than would otherwise be possible in the presence of normal Earth gravitation. Heretofore, nonrotating vessels have been used. It is difficult to grow high-quality protein crystals in the terrestrial gravitational field because of convection plumes created by the interaction between gravitation and density gradients in protein-solution depletion layers around growing crystals. The density gradients and the associated convection plumes cause the surfaces of growing crystals to be exposed to nonuniform solution densities, thereby causing the crystals to form in irregular shapes. The microgravitational environment of outer space has been utilized to eliminate gravitation-induced convection, but this approach is generally not favorable because of the high cost and limited availability of space flight. The use of a rotating vessel according to the proposal is intended to ameliorate the effects of gravitation and the resultant convection, relative to the corresponding effects in a non-rotating vessel. The rotation would exert an averaging effect over time, distributing the convective force on the depletion layer. Therefore, the depletion layer would be more nearly uniform and, as a result, the growing crystal would be more nearly perfect. The proposal admits of variations (see figure), including the following: The growing crystal could be rotated about its own central axis or an external axis. The crystal-growth vessel could be of any of various shapes, including cylindrical, hemispherical, conical, and combinations thereof. The crystal-growth vessel could be suspended in a viscous fluid in an outer vessel to isolate the growing crystal from both ambient vibrations and vibrations induced by a mechanism that drives the rotation. The rotation could be coupled to the crystal-growth vessel by viscous or magnetic means. The crystal-growth vessel could be supported within the

  3. To Grow or Not to Grow: Questions about Economic Development. Small Town Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppedge, Robert O.

    Part of the Small Town Strategy series, this publication is designed to help communities decide whether further local economic growth is possible and desirable. The publication provides a discussion outline to be used to study the costs and benefits of growing or not growing. Questions are listed which should be raised by the community when…

  4. Excess growing-season water limits lowland black spruce productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymond, S.; Kolka, R. K.; Bolstad, P. V.; Gill, K.; Curzon, M.; D'Amato, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    The annual growth of many tree species is limited by water availability, with growth increasing as water becomes less scarce. In lowland bogs of northern Minnesota, however, black spruce (Picea mariana) is often exposed to excess water via high water table elevations. These trees grow in thick deposits of organic mucky peat and often have shallow rooting systems to avoid the complete submersion of roots in water. While it is generally believed that black spruce decrease growth rates with rising water table elevations, this hypothesis has not been tested in situ. We used a unique, 50-year record of daily bog water table elevations at the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF) in northern Minnesota to investigate the relationship between climate and black spruce productivity. Nine 1/20th ha circular plots were established in five different bogs and tree height, diameter-at-breast-height (DBH), and crown class were recorded. Additionally, two perpendicular cores were collected on all trees greater than 10 cm diameter-at-breast-height. Tree cores were sanded, mounted, cross-dated, and de-trended according to standard dendrochronological procedures. Ring width measurements were correlated with precipitation, temperature, and water table elevation using package BootRes in R to determine the climatic variables most associated with stand level productivity. Across the different plots, we found that early growing season water table elevation (May and June) was negatively correlated with both individual and stand-level black spruce growth (p < 0.01), while growth was positively correlated with March temperatures (p < 0.01). No significant relationships existed between black spruce growth and monthly precipitation. If summer water table elevations in these peatland ecosystems rise as is anticipated with more extreme precipitation events due to climate change, we could see an overall decrease in the stand level productivity of black spruce.

  5. 2010 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    This annual report includes: an overview of Western; approaches for future hydropower and transmission service; major achievements in FY 2010; FY 2010 customer Integrated Resource Planning, or IRP, survey; and financial data.

  6. Morphological instability of a thermophoretically growing deposit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castillo, Jose L.; Garcia-Ybarra, Pedro L.; Rosner, Daniel E.

    1992-01-01

    The stability of the planar interface of a structureless solid growing from a depositing component dilute in a carrier fluid is studied when the main solute transport mechanism is thermal (Soret) diffusion. A linear stability analysis, carried out in the limit of low growth Peclet number, leads to a dispersion relation which shows that the planar front is unstable either when the thermal diffusion factor of the condensing component is positive and the latent heat release is small or when the thermal diffusion factor is negative and the solid grows over a thermally-insulating substrate. Furthermore, the influence of interfacial energy effects and constitutional supersaturation in the vicinity of the moving interface is analyzed in the limit of very small Schmidt numbers (small solute Fickian diffusion). The analysis is relevant to physical vapor deposition of very massive species on cold surfaces, as in recent experiments of organic solid film growth under microgravity conditions.

  7. Formation of massive stars by growing accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeder, Andre

    There are at present three scenarios for the formation of massive star. 1) The classical scenario of constant mass pre-Main Sequence (MS) evolution on the Kelvin-Helmholtz timescale. 2) The coalescence scenario, with merging of intermediate mass protostars. 3) The accretion scenario. The various arguments for and against these scenarios are briefly reviewed. We examine the pre-MS evolution of accreting stars for constant accretion rates and for accretion rates which are growing with the stellar masses. The location of the birthlines in the HRD and the lifetimes support accretion rates growing fastly with the stellar masses. Remarkably the dependence found is similar to that of the mass outflows from UC HII regions observed by Churchwell (1999) and Henning et al. (2000). The accretion scenario also leads to a new concept for the maximum stellar mass.

  8. Modeling wealth distribution in growing markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Urna; Mohanty, P. K.

    2008-10-01

    We introduce an auto-regressive model which captures the growing nature of realistic markets. In our model agents do not trade with other agents, they interact indirectly only through a market. Change of their wealth depends, linearly on how much they invest, and stochastically on how much they gain from the noisy market. The average wealth of the market could be fixed or growing. We show that in a market where investment capacity of agents differ, average wealth of agents generically follow the Pareto-law. In few cases, the individual distribution of wealth of every agentcould also be obtained exactly. We also show that the underlying dynamics of other well studied kinetic models of markets can be mapped to the dynamics of our auto-regressive model.

  9. Locally weighted interpolating growing neural gas.

    PubMed

    Flentge, Felix

    2006-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a new approach to function approximation based on a growing neural gas (GNG), a self-organizing map (SOM) which is able to adapt to the local dimension of a possible high-dimensional input distribution. Local models are built interpolating between values associated with the map's neurons. These models are combined using a weighted sum to yield the final approximation value. The values, the positions, and the "local ranges" of the neurons are adapted to improve the approximation quality. The method is able to adapt to changing target functions and to follow nonstationary input distributions. The new approach is compared to the radial basis function (RBF) extension of the growing neural gas and to locally weighted projection regression (LWPR), a state-of-the-art algorithm for incremental nonlinear function approximation. PMID:17131655

  10. Learning Topologies with the Growing Neural Forest.

    PubMed

    Palomo, Esteban José; López-Rubio, Ezequiel

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a novel self-organizing model called growing neural forest (GNF) is presented. It is based on the growing neural gas (GNG), which learns a general graph with no special provisions for datasets with separated clusters. On the contrary, the proposed GNF learns a set of trees so that each tree represents a connected cluster of data. High dimensional datasets often contain large empty regions among clusters, so this proposal is better suited to them than other self-organizing models because it represents these separated clusters as connected components made of neurons. Experimental results are reported which show the self-organization capabilities of the model. Moreover, its suitability for unsupervised clustering and foreground detection applications is demonstrated. In particular, the GNF is shown to correctly discover the connected component structure of some datasets. Moreover, it outperforms some well-known foreground detectors both in quantitative and qualitative terms. PMID:27121995

  11. Method for horizontally growing ribbon crystal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudo, B.

    1980-01-01

    A high speed method for forming ribbon crystal of desired width and thickness is characterized by drawing out the ribbon through a space whose distance is 5.7 times that of the thickness of the grown ribbon. The ribbon is drawn out between the molten body of the lower surface and the tip of the upper surface of the seed crystal and growing crystal. The ribbon growing at the tip of the seed crystal is drawn out horizontally and centrifugally by controlling the amount of cooling and heating. The temperature is maintained about equal to the upper surface of the outlets from which the molten substance is drawn, at least in certain portions of the crucible rim, the rim is elevated to prevent dropping of the molten raw material.

  12. Growing of sugar cane for energy

    SciTech Connect

    Humbert, R.P.

    1980-06-01

    The Brazilian alcohol program is reviewed and research into ways of increasing sugar cane yields discussed. Sugar cane varieties are being selected for their ''total sugars'' production. The effects of supplimentary applications of fertilizers and irrigations are being investigated. Time up to several months can be saved because in the growing of sugar cane for alcohol and cellulose it is not necessary to ripen the cane to convert most of the sugars to sucrose. The author feels that growing sugar cane for alcohol has a lot of potential for petroleum importing contries in the tropics. Smaller sugar mills, no longer economic for sugar production, can be economic for alcohol production as the energy requirements are far less.

  13. Learning Topologies with the Growing Neural Forest.

    PubMed

    Palomo, Esteban José; López-Rubio, Ezequiel

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a novel self-organizing model called growing neural forest (GNF) is presented. It is based on the growing neural gas (GNG), which learns a general graph with no special provisions for datasets with separated clusters. On the contrary, the proposed GNF learns a set of trees so that each tree represents a connected cluster of data. High dimensional datasets often contain large empty regions among clusters, so this proposal is better suited to them than other self-organizing models because it represents these separated clusters as connected components made of neurons. Experimental results are reported which show the self-organization capabilities of the model. Moreover, its suitability for unsupervised clustering and foreground detection applications is demonstrated. In particular, the GNF is shown to correctly discover the connected component structure of some datasets. Moreover, it outperforms some well-known foreground detectors both in quantitative and qualitative terms.

  14. Impact of Growing Business on Software Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitina, Natalja; Kajko-Mattsson, Mira

    When growing their businesses, software organizations should not only put effort into developing and executing their business strategies, but also into managing and improving their internal software development processes and aligning them with business growth strategies. It is only in this way they may confirm that their businesses grow in a healthy and sustainable way. In this paper, we map out one software company's business growth on the course of its historical events and identify its impact on the company's software production processes and capabilities. The impact concerns benefits, challenges, problems and lessons learned. The most important lesson learned is that although business growth has become a stimulus for starting thinking and improving software processes, the organization lacked guidelines aiding it in and aligning it to business growth. Finally, the paper generates research questions providing a platform for future research.

  15. Growing American midwifery: the certified midwife credential.

    PubMed

    Farley, Cindy L; Tringali, Tanya; O'Connor, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the CM pathway to midwifery education is widely distributed across the US and not just tied to states in which the CM credential is legally recognized. The challenges to gain widespread legal recognition should not prevent us from losing sight of the potential for national growth in the midwifery workforce through advocacy for this credential. Midwifery leaders, practitioners and new graduates, CNMs, CMs and CPMs together, must work concurrently in education and health policy to bring about such change. Innovative solutions to expand midwifery that are firmly situated in the philosophical tenets and hallmarks of midwifery care are important to explore. Growing educational pathways leading to the CM credential is an example of an innovation that will strengthen and grow the American midwifery workforce, for the betterment of the women we serve.

  16. Natural gas annual 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-17

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  17. Natural gas annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  18. Simplified Bioreactor For Growing Mammalian Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F.

    1995-01-01

    Improved bioreactor for growing mammalian cell cultures developed. Designed to support growth of dense volumes of mammalian cells by providing ample, well-distributed flows of nutrient solution with minimal turbulence. Cells relatively delicate and, unlike bacteria, cannot withstand shear forces present in turbulent flows. Bioreactor vessel readily made in larger sizes to accommodate greater cell production quantities. Molding equipment presently used makes cylinders up to 30 centimeters long. Alternative sintered plastic techniques used to vary pore size and quantity, as necessary.

  19. Epiphyseal injuries in the growing athlete.

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    The epiphyses and epiphyseal plates are vital structures in the bone development of the growing athlete. The epiphyseal plate is two to five times weaker than the surrounding fibrous tissue in children and adolescents; consequently a force causing a ligamentous tear in adults is likely to cause an epiphyseal plate injury in growing children. Two types of epiphyseal injury that are common in the growing athlete are (a) separation across the epiphyseal plate, which is usually produced by a direct blow to the joint area or by a strong muscular contraction, and (b) traumatic epiphysitis, the more common of the two, which is usually caused by strong, repetitive contraction of a muscle attached to a traction epiphysis. Each epiphyseal site has specific anatomic features and the forces causing injury differ slightly at each site. An improperly treated separation of an intra-articular pressure epiphysis can have a disastrous effect on the proper functioning of the normally well-fitted articulation of bone ends in the joint. Consequently, proper diagnosis and treatment are essential. Traumatic epiphysitis can result in chronic inflammation or fragmentation, or both, if the condition is not arrested. Therefore the athlete must discontinue the activities that are causing the trauma until the inflammation is completely arrested. Absolute rest may even be required. PMID:902208

  20. How big can a black hole grow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    I show that there is a physical limit to the mass of a black hole, above which it cannot grow through luminous accretion of gas, and so cannot appear as a quasar or active galactic nucleus (AGN). The limit is Mmax ≃ 5 × 1010 M⊙ for typical parameters, but can reach Mmax ≃ 2.7 × 1011 M⊙ in extreme cases (e.g. maximal prograde spin). The largest black hole masses so far found are close to but below the limit. The Eddington luminosity ≃6.5 × 1048 erg s-1 corresponding to Mmax is remarkably close to the largest AGN bolometric luminosity so far observed. The mass and luminosity limits both rely on a reasonable but currently untestable hypothesis about AGN disc formation, so future observations of extreme supermassive black hole masses can therefore probe fundamental disc physics. Black holes can in principle grow their masses above Mmax by non-luminous means such as mergers with other holes, but cannot become luminous accretors again. They might nevertheless be detectable in other ways, for example through gravitational lensing. I show further that black holes with masses ˜Mmax can probably grow above the values specified by the black-hole-host-galaxy scaling relations, in agreement with observation.

  1. The effect of canopy cover and seasonal change on host plant quality for the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grundel, Ralph; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Sulzman, Christina L.

    1998-01-01

    Larvae of the Karner blue butterfly, Lycaeides melissa samuelis, feed solely on wild lupine, Lupinus perennis, from the emergence to summer senescence of the plant. Wild lupine is most abundant in open areas but Karner blue females oviposit more frequently on lupines growing in moderate shade. Can differences in lupine quality between open and shaded areas help explain this disparity in resource use? Furthermore, many lupines are senescent before the second larval brood completes development. How does lupine senescence affect larval growth? We addressed these questions by measuring growth rates of larvae fed lupines of different phenological stages and lupines growing under different shade conditions. The habitat conditions under which lupines grew and plant phenological stage did not generally affect final larval or pupal weight but did significantly affect duration of the larval period. Duration was shortest for larvae fed leaves from flowering lupines and was negatively correlated with leaf nitrogen concentration. Ovipositing in areas of moderate shade should increase second-brood larval exposure to flowering lupines. In addition, larval growth was significantly faster on shade-grown lupines that were in seed than on similar sun-grown lupines. These are possible advantages of the higher-than-expected oviposition rate on shade-grown lupines. Given the canopy-related trade-off between lupine abundance and quality, maintenance of canopy heterogeneity is an important conservation management goal. Larvae were also fed leaves growing in poor soil conditions and leaves with mildew infection. These and other feeding treatments that we anticipated would inhibit larval growth often did not. In particular, ant-tended larvae exhibited the highest weight gain per amount of lupine eaten and a relatively fast growth rate. This represents an advantage of ant tending to Karner blue larvae.

  2. Growing media constituents determine the microbial nitrogen conversions in organic growing media for horticulture.

    PubMed

    Grunert, Oliver; Reheul, Dirk; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Perneel, Maaike; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Boon, Nico

    2016-05-01

    Vegetables and fruits are an important part of a healthy food diet, however, the eco-sustainability of the production of these can still be significantly improved. European farmers and consumers spend an estimated €15.5 billion per year on inorganic fertilizers and the production of N-fertilizers results in a high carbon footprint. We investigated if fertilizer type and medium constituents determine microbial nitrogen conversions in organic growing media and can be used as a next step towards a more sustainable horticulture. We demonstrated that growing media constituents showed differences in urea hydrolysis, ammonia and nitrite oxidation and in carbon dioxide respiration rate. Interestingly, mixing of the growing media constituents resulted in a stimulation of the function of the microorganisms. The use of organic fertilizer resulted in an increase in amoA gene copy number by factor 100 compared to inorganic fertilizers. Our results support our hypothesis that the activity of the functional microbial community with respect to nitrogen turnover in an organic growing medium can be improved by selecting and mixing the appropriate growing media components with each other. These findings contribute to the understanding of the functional microbial community in growing media and its potential role towards a more responsible horticulture. PMID:27005434

  3. Sunset Specialty Turf: Growing the heap

    SciTech Connect

    Heumann, J.M.

    1998-07-01

    Almost a quarter of the municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in the US is compostable. As composting as an industry is growing in the US, entrepreneurs are going where the markets are to expand their facilities and, hopefully, their revenues by making turf and groundcovers from recovered materials. In fact, over the past 20 years, the composting business has grown from a nascent backyard project to a full-fledged industry in the US. According to the US EPA`s recent waste characterization report, food and yard waste generated in the US in 1996 came to almost 53 million tons, or almost a quarter of the total 209 million tons of MSW generated in the US. Of the 28 million tons of yard waste generated in the US in 1996 alone, 38.6% was recycled. Yard trimmings made up about 13.4% of all the materials discarded as MSW. With its warm climate and abundance of foliage that create yard waste year round, the South is a region where composting facilities are thriving. And a Midwestern composting company is looking to reap the benefits of the current growing market for compostable materials in the Southeast while providing an environmentally beneficial end product. Sunset Turf Nursery, Inc. is a company that manufacturers turf products from compost materials. The company already runs a 51-acre facility in St. Louis, where it composts municipal materials and, using its patented process, grows turf grass to make a specialty groundcover which can be used for landscaping applications. Sunset officials plan to expand the company`s composting and turf manufacturing operations to more than 350 acres over the next three years, starting with the St. Louis facility. The company, specifically its division Sunset Specialty Turf, currently has a research and development testing site in Jacksonville, Florida, which it would like to use additional funding to expand to a full fledged manufacturing site similar to the St. Louis site.

  4. Features and heterogeneities in growing network models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, Luca; Cortelezzi, Michele; Yang, Bin; Marmorini, Giacomo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2012-06-01

    Many complex networks from the World Wide Web to biological networks grow taking into account the heterogeneous features of the nodes. The feature of a node might be a discrete quantity such as a classification of a URL document such as personal page, thematic website, news, blog, search engine, social network, etc., or the classification of a gene in a functional module. Moreover the feature of a node can be a continuous variable such as the position of a node in the embedding space. In order to account for these properties, in this paper we provide a generalization of growing network models with preferential attachment that includes the effect of heterogeneous features of the nodes. The main effect of heterogeneity is the emergence of an “effective fitness” for each class of nodes, determining the rate at which nodes acquire new links. The degree distribution exhibits a multiscaling behavior analogous to the the fitness model. This property is robust with respect to variations in the model, as long as links are assigned through effective preferential attachment. Beyond the degree distribution, in this paper we give a full characterization of the other relevant properties of the model. We evaluate the clustering coefficient and show that it disappears for large network size, a property shared with the Barabási-Albert model. Negative degree correlations are also present in this class of models, along with nontrivial mixing patterns among features. We therefore conclude that both small clustering coefficients and disassortative mixing are outcomes of the preferential attachment mechanism in general growing networks.

  5. Features and heterogeneities in growing network models.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Luca; Cortelezzi, Michele; Yang, Bin; Marmorini, Giacomo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2012-06-01

    Many complex networks from the World Wide Web to biological networks grow taking into account the heterogeneous features of the nodes. The feature of a node might be a discrete quantity such as a classification of a URL document such as personal page, thematic website, news, blog, search engine, social network, etc., or the classification of a gene in a functional module. Moreover the feature of a node can be a continuous variable such as the position of a node in the embedding space. In order to account for these properties, in this paper we provide a generalization of growing network models with preferential attachment that includes the effect of heterogeneous features of the nodes. The main effect of heterogeneity is the emergence of an "effective fitness" for each class of nodes, determining the rate at which nodes acquire new links. The degree distribution exhibits a multiscaling behavior analogous to the the fitness model. This property is robust with respect to variations in the model, as long as links are assigned through effective preferential attachment. Beyond the degree distribution, in this paper we give a full characterization of the other relevant properties of the model. We evaluate the clustering coefficient and show that it disappears for large network size, a property shared with the Barabási-Albert model. Negative degree correlations are also present in this class of models, along with nontrivial mixing patterns among features. We therefore conclude that both small clustering coefficients and disassortative mixing are outcomes of the preferential attachment mechanism in general growing networks.

  6. Nonlinear matter spectra in growing neutrino quintessence

    SciTech Connect

    Brouzakis, N.; Tetradis, N.; Pettorino, V.; Wetterich, C. E-mail: pettorin@sissa.it E-mail: c.wetterich@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de

    2011-03-01

    We investigate the nonlinear power spectra of density perturbations and acoustic oscillations in growing neutrino quintessence. In this scenario, the neutrino mass has a strong dependence on the quintessence field. The induced coupling stops the evolution of the field when the neutrinos become nonrelativistic, and triggers the transition to the accelerating phase of the cosmological expansion. For the calculation of the nonlinear spectra we employ the time renormalization group, which resums subsets of diagrams of arbitrarily high order in cosmological perturbation theory. At redshifts around five, the neutrino fluctuations are still linear and acoustic oscillations are present in the neutrino power spectrum, induced by the acoustic oscillations in the baryonic and dark-matter sectors. The neutrino perturbations become nonlinear at redshifts around three. The mode coupling generated by the nonlinearities erases the oscillations in the neutrino spectrum at some redshift above two. There is a potential danger that at later times the influence of the gravitational potentials induced by the neutrino inhomogeneities could erase the oscillations from the baryonic and dark-matter spectra, making the scenario incompatible with observations. For the scenario to be viable, the neutrino-induced gravitational potentials in the range of baryon acoustic oscillations should not grow to average values much larger than 10{sup −4}. The magnitude of the expected potentials is still not known reliably, as the process of structure formation is poorly understood in growing neutrino quintessence. The time renormalization group cannot describe the effects of nonlinear clustering. Alternative methods, such as hydrodynamic simulations, must be empoloyed for the calculation of the spectra at low redshifts.

  7. Parallelized Seeded Region Growing Using CUDA

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seongjin; Lee, Hyunna; Seo, Jinwook; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Shin, Yeong-Gil; Kim, Bohyoung

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for parallelizing the seeded region growing (SRG) algorithm using Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) technology, with intention to overcome the theoretical weakness of SRG algorithm of its computation time being directly proportional to the size of a segmented region. The segmentation performance of the proposed CUDA-based SRG is compared with SRG implementations on single-core CPUs, quad-core CPUs, and shader language programming, using synthetic datasets and 20 body CT scans. Based on the experimental results, the CUDA-based SRG outperforms the other three implementations, advocating that it can substantially assist the segmentation during massive CT screening tests. PMID:25309619

  8. Mapping Nutrients Crucial to a Growing Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarnowski, J. R.; Cassidy, E. S.; Gerber, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    Over two billion people worldwide suffer from inadequate levels of micronutrients, mainly in the form of iodine, iron, and vitamin A deficiencies. With a growing population, producing crops that contain high amounts of these micronutrients is of increased importance. Addressing these deficiencies sustainably requires a detailed examination of the agricultural production of the micronutrients. The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not enough of these important nutrients are produced to meet the nutritional needs of the global population, and to determine where nutrients are most deficient. We used area specific crop production data to map where and how much iron and vitamin A are produced from major crops.

  9. Growing Networks with Positive and Negative Links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dech, Corynne; Antwi, Shadrack; Shaw, Leah

    Scale-free networks grown via preferential attachment have been used to model real-world networks such as the Internet, citation networks, and social networks. Here we investigate signed scale-free networks where an edge represents a positive or negative connection. We present analytic results and simulation for a growing signed network model. We compare the signed network to an unsigned scale-free network. We discuss several options for preferential attachment in a signed network that could be further adapted to model the accumulation of links over time in real-world signed networks.

  10. Parallelized seeded region growing using CUDA.

    PubMed

    Park, Seongjin; Lee, Jeongjin; Lee, Hyunna; Shin, Juneseuk; Seo, Jinwook; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Shin, Yeong-Gil; Kim, Bohyoung

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for parallelizing the seeded region growing (SRG) algorithm using Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) technology, with intention to overcome the theoretical weakness of SRG algorithm of its computation time being directly proportional to the size of a segmented region. The segmentation performance of the proposed CUDA-based SRG is compared with SRG implementations on single-core CPUs, quad-core CPUs, and shader language programming, using synthetic datasets and 20 body CT scans. Based on the experimental results, the CUDA-based SRG outperforms the other three implementations, advocating that it can substantially assist the segmentation during massive CT screening tests.

  11. Cultural systems for growing potatoes in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T.; Bula, R.; Corey, R.; Morrow, R.

    1988-01-01

    Higher plants are being evaluated for life support to provide needed food, oxygen and water as well as removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The successful utilization of plants in space will require the development of not only highly productive growing systems but also highly efficient bioregenerative systems. It will be necessary to recycle all inedible plant parts and all human wastes so that the entire complement of elemental compounds can be reused. Potatoes have been proposed as one of the desirable crops because they are 1) extremely productive, yielding more than 100 metric tons per hectare from field plantings, 2) the edible tubers are high in digestible starch (70%) and protein (10%) on a dry weight basis, 3) up to 80% of the total plant production is in tubers and thus edible, 4) the plants are easily propagated either from tubers or from tissue culture plantlets, 5) the tubers can be utilized with a minimum of processing, and 6) potatoes can be prepared in a variety of different forms for the human diet (Tibbitts et al., 1982). However potatoes have a growth pattern that complicates the development of growing the plants in controlled systems. Tubers are borne on underground stems that are botanically termed 'rhizomes', but in common usage termed 'stolons'. The stolons must be maintained in a dark, moist area with sufficient provision for enlargement of tubers. Stems rapidly terminate in flowers forcing extensive branching and spreading of plants so that individual plants will cover 0.2 m2 or more area. Thus the growing system must be developed to provide an area that is darkened for tuber and root growth and of sufficient size for plant spread. A system developed for growing potatoes, or any plants, in space will have certain requirements that must be met to make them a useful part of a life support system. The system must 1) be constructed of materials, and involve media, that can be reused for many successive cycles of plant growth, 2

  12. System Grows Single-Crystal Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westfall, Leonard; Sayir, Ali; Penn, Wayne

    1994-01-01

    Award-winning Melt Modulation(TM) system produces single or multiple fibers of any variety of single-crystal materials in continuous or discrete lengths. Developed specifically to produce research quantities of fibers for strong, lightweight composite materials that withstand high temperatures in aerospace applications. Also used to grow such single-crystal materials as high-temperature superconductors and fiber-optic materials. Modifications enable system to apply conformal coats to fibers as they are being grown, producing fibers for greater number of composites in which coatings provide thermal and chemical compatibility between fiber and matrix materials.

  13. Integral momentum balance on a growing bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siedel, S.; Cioulachtjian, S.; Robinson, A. J.; Bonjour, J.

    2013-12-01

    The integral momentum balance on a growing boiling bubble is investigated. All forces acting on the bubble are detailed, and the methods and assumptions used to calculate their integral resultants are discussed. The momentum balance computation is then performed using experimental data of bubbles growing on an artificial nucleation site in a controlled environment. The relative magnitude of each force component is compared, showing negligible dynamic forces, upwards forces composed mainly of the buoyancy and contact pressure components, and downwards forces being exclusively due to surface tension and adhesion. The difficulty encountered in measuring the apparent contact angle due to mirage effects has been highlighted; a new method, fitting numerically simulated bubble profile to the contour measurements has been proposed and used to correct the effects of refraction on the bubble profile determination. As all forces acting on the bubble were measured, it was possible to estimate the residuals of the momentum balance. Their small value validated both the expressions used for the forces and the methodology to evaluate their value.

  14. Online semi-supervised growing neural gas.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Oliver; Cimiano, Philipp

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we introduce online semi-supervised growing neural gas (OSSGNG), a novel online semi-supervised classification approach based on growing neural gas (GNG). Existing semi-supervised classification approaches based on GNG require that the training data is explicitly stored as the labeling is performed a posteriori after the training phase. As main contribution, we present an approach that relies on online labeling and prediction functions to process labeled and unlabeled data uniformly and in an online fashion, without the need to store any of the training examples explicitly. We show that using on-the-fly labeling strategies does not significantly deteriorate the performance of classifiers based on GNG, while circumventing the need to explicitly store training examples. Armed with this result, we then present a semi-supervised extension of GNG (OSSGNG) that relies on the above mentioned online labeling functions to label unlabeled examples and incorporate them into the model on-the-fly. As an important result, we show that OSSGNG performs as good as previous semi-supervised extensions of GNG which rely on offline labeling strategies. We also show that OSSGNG compares favorably to other state-of-the-art semi-supervised learning approaches on standard benchmarking datasets. PMID:22992211

  15. Optimum folding pathways for growing protein chains.

    PubMed

    Senturk, Serife; Baday, Sefer; Arkun, Yaman; Erman, Burak

    2007-11-26

    The folding of a protein is studied as it grows residue by residue from the N-terminus and enters an environment that stabilizes the folded state. This mode of folding of a growing chain is different from refolding where the full chain folds from a disordered initial configuration to the native state. We propose a sequential dynamic optimization method that computes the evolution of optimum folding pathways as amino acid residues are added to the peptide chain one by one. The dynamic optimization formulation is deterministic and uses Newton's equations of motion and a Go-type potential that establishes the native contacts and excluded volume effects. The method predicts the optimal energy-minimizing path among all the alternative feasible pathways. As two examples, the folding of the chicken villin headpiece, a 36-residue protein, and chymotrypsin inhibitor 2 (CI2), a 64-residue protein, are studied. Results on the villin headpiece show significant differences from the refolding of the same chain studied previously. Results on CI2 mostly agree with the results of refolding experiments and computational work.

  16. Cosmological scalar field perturbations can grow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcubierre, Miguel; de la Macorra, Axel; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Torres, José M.

    2015-09-01

    It has been argued that the small perturbations to the homogeneous and isotropic configurations of a canonical scalar field in an expanding universe do not grow. We show that this is not true in general, and clarify the root of the misunderstanding. We revisit a simple model in which the zero mode of a free scalar field oscillates with high frequency around the minimum of the potential. Under this assumption the linear perturbations grow like those in the standard cold dark matter scenario, but with a Jeans length at the scale of the Compton wavelength of the scalar particle. Contrary to previous analyses in the literature our results do not rely on time averages and/or fluid identifications, and instead we solve both analytically (in terms of a well-defined series expansion) and numerically the linearized Einstein-Klein-Gordon system. Also, we use gauge-invariant fields, which makes the physical analysis more transparent and simplifies the comparison with previous works carried out in different gauges. As a byproduct of this study we identify a time-dependent modulation of the different physical quantities associated to the background as well as the perturbations with potential observational consequences in dark matter models.

  17. Growing Season Length as a Key Factor of Cumulative Net Ecosystem Exchange Over the Pine Forest Ecosystems in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielewska, Alina; Urbaniak, Marek; Olejnik, Janusz

    2015-04-01

    The Scots pine is one of the most important species in European and Asian forests. Due to a widespread occurrence of pine forests, their significance in the energy and mass exchange between the Earth surface and the atmosphere is also important, particularly in the context of climate change and greenhouse gases balance. The aim of this work is to present the relationship between the average annual net ecosystem productivity and growing season length, latitude and air temperature (tay) over Europe. Therefore, CO2 flux measurement data from eight European pine dominated forests were used. The observations suggest that there is a correlation between the intensity of CO2 uptake or emission by a forest stand and the above mentioned parameters. Based on the obtained results, all of the selected pine forest stands were CO2 sinks, except a site in northern Finland. The carbon dioxide uptake increased proportionally with the increase of growing season length (9.212 g C m-2 y-1 per day of growing season, R2 = 0.53, p = 0.0399). This dependency showed stronger correlation and higher statistical significance than both relationships between annual net ecosystem productivity and air temperature (R2 = 0.39, p = 0.096) and annual net ecosystem productivity and latitude (R2 = 0.47, p = 0.058). The CO2 emission surpassed assimilation in winter, early spring and late autumn. Moreover, the appearance of late, cold spring and early winter, reduced annual net ecosystem productivity. Therefore, the growing season length can be considered as one of the main factor affecting the annual carbon budget of pine forests.

  18. Natural gas annual 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  19. International energy annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  20. Annual Energy Outlook

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The projections in the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Annual Energy Outlook 2015 (AEO2015) focus on the factors that shape the U.S. energy system over the long term. For the first time, the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) is presented as a shorter edition under a newly adopted two-year release cycle. With this approach, full editions and shorter editions of the AEO will be produced in alternating years. This approach will allow EIA to focus more resources on rapidly changing energy markets both in the United States and internationally, and to consider how they might evolve over the next few years.

  1. Growing degree hours - a simple, accurate, and precise protocol to approximate growing heat summation for grapevines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, S.

    2016-08-01

    Despite its low accuracy and consistency, growing degree days (GDD) has been widely used to approximate growing heat summation (GHS) for regional classification and phenological prediction. GDD is usually calculated from the mean of daily minimum and maximum temperatures (GDDmm) above a growing base temperature ( T gb). To determine approximation errors and accuracy, daily and cumulative GDDmm was compared to GDD based on daily average temperature (GDDavg), growing degree hours (GDH) based on hourly temperatures, and growing degree minutes (GDM) based on minute-by-minute temperatures. Finite error, due to the difference between measured and true temperatures above T gb is large in GDDmm but is negligible in GDDavg, GDH, and GDM, depending only upon the number of measured temperatures used for daily approximation. Hidden negative error, due to the temperatures below T gb when being averaged for approximation intervals larger than measuring interval, is large in GDDmm and GDDavg but is negligible in GDH and GDM. Both GDH and GDM improve GHS approximation accuracy over GDDmm or GDDavg by summation of multiple integration rectangles to reduce both finite and hidden negative errors. GDH is proposed as the standardized GHS approximation protocol, providing adequate accuracy and high precision independent upon T gb while requiring simple data recording and processing.

  2. NASA's Growing Commitment: The Space Garden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Astronauts cannot live on dehydrated ice cream alone. Like everyone else, they need their vegetables. Enter VEGGIE, the Deployable Vegetable System, currently under development by Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC). VEGGIE is the latest in a long line of vegetable production units ORBITEC is currently working on, with NASA assistance, to grow salad crops to supplement prepackaged foods during long stays in space. The primary goal of the VEGGIE project is to provide flight crews with palatable, nutritious, and safe sources of fresh food with minimal volume and operational resources. In addition, ORBITEC recognizes the age-old adage that gardening is good for the soul, and it acknowledges that gardens are beneficial for relaxation and recreation. As evidence, astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS), who often stay for periods of 6 months, have been enjoying plant experiments, which provide them with much missed greenery and can occupy valuable free time with an enjoyable task. VEGGIE is a project that grew out of technology developed by ORBITEC for the Biomass Production System (BPS). The BPS is equivalent in size to a Space Shuttle middeck locker, and provides four plant growth chambers. Each chamber has independent control of temperature, humidity, nutrient and water delivery, lighting, and atmospheric composition. The BPS flew to the ISS in 2002, and astronaut Dan Bursch had positive comments about his interaction with the plants while in orbit. Astronaut Peggy Whitson had similarly positive remarks during the following expedition while she was growing soybeans for another experiment. Whitson reflects on her time in space with the plantings on Expedition 5, "Although it doesn t sound like much, it was really exciting to see something green. I assumed that this was just because I really enjoy plants, but it surprised me that both of my crewmates were just as excited. They wanted photos of themselves with the plants and asked if they could eat

  3. Impact of precipitation patterns on biomass and species richness of annuals in a dry steppe.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong; Liang, Cunzhu; Li, Zhiyong; Liu, Zhongling; Miao, Bailing; He, Chunguang; Sheng, Lianxi

    2015-01-01

    Annuals are an important component part of plant communities in arid and semiarid grassland ecosystems. Although it is well known that precipitation has a significant impact on productivity and species richness of community or perennials, nevertheless, due to lack of measurements, especially long-term experiment data, there is little information on how quantity and patterns of precipitation affect similar attributes of annuals. This study addresses this knowledge gap by analyzing how quantity and temporal patterns of precipitation affect aboveground biomass, interannual variation aboveground biomass, relative aboveground biomass, and species richness of annuals using a 29-year dataset from a dry steppe site at the Inner Mongolia Grassland Ecosystem Research Station. Results showed that aboveground biomass and relative aboveground biomass of annuals increased with increasing precipitation. The coefficient of variation in aboveground biomass of annuals decreased significantly with increasing annual and growing-season precipitation. Species richness of annuals increased significantly with increasing annual precipitation and growing-season precipitation. Overall, this study highlights the importance of precipitation for aboveground biomass and species richness of annuals.

  4. Growing duckweed for biofuel production: a review.

    PubMed

    Cui, W; Cheng, J J

    2015-01-01

    Duckweed can be utilised to produce ethanol, butanol and biogas, which are promising alternative energy sources to minimise dependence on limited crude oil and natural gas. The advantages of this aquatic plant include high rate of nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) uptake, high biomass yield and great potential as an alternative feedstock for the production of fuel ethanol, butanol and biogas. The objective of this article is to review the published research on growing duckweed for the production of the biofuels, especially starch enrichment in duckweed plants. There are mainly two processes affecting the accumulation of starch in duckweed biomass: photosynthesis for starch generation and metabolism-related starch consumption. The cost of stimulating photosynthesis is relatively high based on current technologies. Considerable research efforts have been made to inhibit starch degradation. Future research need in this area includes duckweed selection, optimisation of duckweed biomass production, enhancement of starch accumulation in duckweeds and use of duckweeds for production of various biofuels.

  5. How faceted liquid droplets grow tails

    PubMed Central

    Guttman, Shani; Sapir, Zvi; Schultz, Moty; Butenko, Alexander V.; Ocko, Benjamin M.; Deutsch, Moshe; Sloutskin, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Liquid droplets, widely encountered in everyday life, have no flat facets. Here we show that water-dispersed oil droplets can be reversibly temperature-tuned to icosahedral and other faceted shapes, hitherto unreported for liquid droplets. These shape changes are shown to originate in the interplay between interfacial tension and the elasticity of the droplet’s 2-nm-thick interfacial monolayer, which crystallizes at some T = Ts above the oil’s melting point, with the droplet’s bulk remaining liquid. Strikingly, at still-lower temperatures, this interfacial freezing (IF) effect also causes droplets to deform, split, and grow tails. Our findings provide deep insights into molecular-scale elasticity and allow formation of emulsions of tunable stability for directed self-assembly of complex-shaped particles and other future technologies. PMID:26733673

  6. Childhood Obesity: Review of a growing Problem

    PubMed Central

    Shivpuri, Abhay; Sharma, Sunil

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The consequences of obesity in adulthood are well known. Obesity has a direct influence on mortality and acts as a risk factor for various diseases and health problems. It is associated with nonfatal but debilitating illnesses, such as respiratory difficulties, musculoskeletal disorders, skin problems and infertility. The association with fatal chronic diseases includes cardiovascular diseases, conditions related to insulin resistance and noninsulin-dependent diabetes. There has been a marked increase in the number of obese children coming for treatment to dentists, thus it is the moral responsibility of the dentists to educate both the patient and the parents of the problems of obesity and its control. A dentist may actually be the first person to inform the patient about this problem thus, a basic knowledge about it is important. How to cite this article: Shivpuri A, Shivpuri A, Sharma S. Childhood Obesity: Review of a growing Problem. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):237-241. PMID:25206177

  7. How faceted liquid droplets grow tails.

    PubMed

    Guttman, Shani; Sapir, Zvi; Schultz, Moty; Butenko, Alexander V; Ocko, Benjamin M; Deutsch, Moshe; Sloutskin, Eli

    2016-01-19

    Liquid droplets, widely encountered in everyday life, have no flat facets. Here we show that water-dispersed oil droplets can be reversibly temperature-tuned to icosahedral and other faceted shapes, hitherto unreported for liquid droplets. These shape changes are shown to originate in the interplay between interfacial tension and the elasticity of the droplet's 2-nm-thick interfacial monolayer, which crystallizes at some T = Ts above the oil's melting point, with the droplet's bulk remaining liquid. Strikingly, at still-lower temperatures, this interfacial freezing (IF) effect also causes droplets to deform, split, and grow tails. Our findings provide deep insights into molecular-scale elasticity and allow formation of emulsions of tunable stability for directed self-assembly of complex-shaped particles and other future technologies. PMID:26733673

  8. Growing the Nuclear Workforce Through Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilburn, Micha

    2015-10-01

    Many students don't encounter physics in the classroom until college or the end of high school. Most college students never encounter nuclear physics in the classroom. In order to grow the nuclear science workforce, students need to be aware of the field much earlier in the education. However, teaching teens about nuclear science can be a daunting task at the outset. I will present and describe successful outreach curricula and programs that can be duplicated by any college, university or laboratory. These include workshops for boy scouts and girl scouts as well as teaching nuclear science with magnetic marbles. I will also present some results from assessments of JINA-CEE's more intensive programs aimed at recruiting youth to the field. JINA-CEE

  9. Personal stories of growing up sexually.

    PubMed

    Beausang, C C

    2000-01-01

    Prevention of problems related to sexuality during adolescence continues to be a major public health challenge. Describing childhood perceptions of sexuality is an important step in understanding sexual issues during adolescence. However, there is a paucity of information about sexuality in early life. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe recurrent themes in personal stories of growing up sexually. A thematic analysis with a narrative perspective was applied using the method described by Miles and Huberman (1994). Four interrelated themes pervaded the stories: parents as teachers, sex is secret, learning by experience, and first intercourse as a turning point. These findings have major implications for sexual health education and counseling in addition to further research.

  10. AA amyloidosis in vaccinated growing chickens.

    PubMed

    Murakami, T; Inoshima, Y; Sakamoto, E; Fukushi, H; Sakai, H; Yanai, T; Ishiguro, N

    2013-01-01

    Systemic amyloid-A (AA) amyloidosis in birds occurs most frequently in waterfowl such as Pekin ducks. In chickens, AA amyloidosis is observed as amyloid arthropathy. Outbreaks of systemic amyloidosis in flocks of layers are known to be induced by repeated inflammatory stimulation, such as those resulting from multiple vaccinations with oil-emulsified bacterins. Outbreaks of fatal AA amyloidosis were observed in growing chickens in a large scale poultry farm within 3 weeks of vaccination with multiple co-administered vaccines. This study documents the histopathological changes in tissues from these birds. Amyloid deposits were also observed at a high rate in the tissues of apparently healthy chickens. Vaccination should therefore be considered as a potential risk factor for the development of AA amyloidosis in poultry.

  11. The growing significance of hot intelligences.

    PubMed

    Mayer, John D; Caruso, David R; Panter, A T; Salovey, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Comments on the original article, "Intelligence: New findings and theoretical developments," by R. E. Nisbett, J. Aronson, C. Blair, W. Dickens, J. Flynn, D. F. Halpern, and E. Turkheimer (see record 2011-30298-001). The present authors note that Nisbett et al's review focuses on intelligences that have been topics of research through the 20th century. Since then, however, attention to a new group of intelligences that the present authors refer to as "hot intelligences" has been growing (Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2004). Although Nisbett et al (2012) mentioned potential newcomers to the group of intelligences, such as practical intelligence, the present authors feel that future reviews should consider the burgeoning research in new conceptions of intelligence. Here the authors express a rationale for including a consideration of these newly described intelligences.

  12. Fast-growing willow shrub named `Canastota`

    DOEpatents

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2007-05-15

    A distinct male cultivar of Salix sachalinensis.times.S. miyabeana named `Canastota`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing greater than 2.7-fold more woody biomass than its female parent (Salix sachalinensis `SX61`), 28% greater woody biomass yield than its male parent (Salix miyabeana `SX64`), and 20% greater woody biomass yield than a standard production cultivar, Salix dasyclados `SV1` when grown in the same field for the same length of time (two growing seasons after coppice) in Tully, N.Y. `Canastota` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice, and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested after two to four years of growth. This harvest cycle can be repeated several times. `Canastota` displays a low incidence of rust disease or damage by willow sawfly.

  13. Offshore oil - growing optimism with gas

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, S.S.

    1994-01-01

    The gas-rich Gulf of Mexico is on the rebound and there's growing optimism business conditions will continue to improve in 1994. Environmental regulations, such as the Clean Air Act and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, are having a significant impact on oil an gas drilling and production. The Clean Air Act has increased the use of natural gas, which is helping bolster gas consumption from the Gulf of Mexico's reserves. In late December 1993, the Clinton administration unveiled its long-awaited gas and oil initiative aimed at boosting markets for domestic natural gas and oil while developing a long-term strategy to reduce the nation's dependence on imported energy. This article examines the political and economic issues of concern to the oil and gas industry, and how international competition affects development in the Gulf.

  14. Drivers for Growing Plants in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Peter; Kuebler, Ulrich

    A literature review shows that most of the proposed facility concepts for plant growth in space look like derivatives of terrestrial greenhouses. The design concepts are primarily driven by technical requirements and terrestrial operational approaches. We think that there are good arguments that this approach is not optimal. Our paper will present concept alternatives which are driven by the requirements of plants, considering aspects as: • What is required to grow healthy plant? • How to solve the plant related questions prior the set-up of first technology demonstrators? Other aspects are: • Is ISRU really a good source to supply plant growth? • Can the astronaut be the gardener, or should we use simple, ruggedized and operational robust automation. The proposed incremental development steps will be described by a roadmap.

  15. Shape and dynamics of tip growing cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevan, L.

    2010-03-01

    Walled cells have the ability to remodel their shape while sustaining an internal turgor pressure that can reach many atmospheres. I will describe how we may treat a tip growing cell as an osmotic engine which elongates via the assembly and expansion of cell wall in the apical region of the cell. A simple model that couples transport to growth allows us to determine the radius of the pollen tube and its growth velocity in terms of the turgor pressure and the secretion rate and rheology of the cell wall material, and results in simple scaling laws for the geometry and dynamics of the cell. We find that a single dimensionless parameter, which characterizes the relative roles of cell wall assembly and expansion, is sufficient to explain the observed variability in pollen tube shapes and also provides a framework for the comparative study of pollen tubes and fungal hyphae in an evolutionary context.

  16. Exposure to captan in fruit growing.

    PubMed

    de Cock, J; Heederik, D; Kromhout, H; Boleij, J S; Hoek, F; Wegh, H; Tjoe Ny, E

    1998-03-01

    This study characterized occupational exposure to pesticides in fruit growing in The Netherlands to assess determinants of exposure. Large-scale exposure surveys were carried out during application of pesticides and during reentry activities. Data on contamination inside the fruit growers' homes were obtained, and total potential exposure for the fruit grower and his family during the growing and harvesting season was estimated. Repeated measurements on the same subject were collected to study components of exposure variability. Relative contribution of the respiratory route and different skin sites to total exposure were assessed. Captan was used as a marker for exposure. Inhalable dust exposure was measured with a personal monitor and potential dermal exposure with skin pads and hand rinsing. Dislodgeable foliar residue was measured by taking leaf punches. For respiratory exposure and potential dermal exposure, differences were observed between several tasks. Workers were categorized according to tasks performed depending on the exposure measure(s) (e.g., hands, forehead, inhalable dust) considered relevant for a specific study purpose. In general, within-worker variability of all exposure measurements was larger than between-worker variability. Variability in dermal exposure on the same body location was small relative to variability between different body locations. Differences in total exposure, including exposure inside the home, between the fruit grower and the son were small. Exposure of the wife was two to three times lower than for the fruit grower and the son. As exposure per unit of time was in the same order of magnitude for different tasks, individual time spent on these tasks is crucial for estimating total potential exposure. Repeated measurements are necessary to estimate individual exposure accurately because of the large within-worker variability.

  17. Ion Frequency Landscape in Growing Plants

    PubMed Central

    Pietruszka, Mariusz; Haduch-Sendecka, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    It has been interesting that nearly all of the ion activities that have been analysed thus far have exhibited oscillations that are tightly coupled to growth. Here, we present discrete Fourier transform (DFT) spectra with a finite sampling of tip-growing cells and organs that were obtained from voltage measurements of the elongating coleoptiles of maize in situ. The electromotive force (EMF) oscillations (~ 0.1 μV) were measured in a simple but highly sensitive resistor–inductor circuit (RL circuit), in which the solenoid was initially placed at the tip of the specimen and then was moved thus changing its position in relation to growth (EMF can be measured first at the tip, then at the sub-apical part and finally at the shank). The influx- and efflux-induced oscillations of Ca2+, along with H+, K+ and Cl- were densely sampled (preserving the Nyquist theorem in order to ‘grasp the structure’ of the pulse), the logarithmic amplitude of pulse spectrum was calculated, and the detected frequencies, which displayed a periodic sequence of pulses, were compared with the literature data. A band of life vital individual pulses was obtained in a single run of the experiment, which not only allowed the fundamental frequencies (and intensities of the processes) to be determined but also permitted the phase relations of the various transport processes in the plasma membrane and tonoplast to be established. A discrete (quantised) frequency spectrum was achieved for a growing plant for the first time, while all of the metabolic and enzymatic functions of the life cell cycle were preserved using this totally non-invasive treatment. PMID:26445131

  18. Ion Frequency Landscape in Growing Plants.

    PubMed

    Pietruszka, Mariusz; Haduch-Sendecka, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    It has been interesting that nearly all of the ion activities that have been analysed thus far have exhibited oscillations that are tightly coupled to growth. Here, we present discrete Fourier transform (DFT) spectra with a finite sampling of tip-growing cells and organs that were obtained from voltage measurements of the elongating coleoptiles of maize in situ. The electromotive force (EMF) oscillations (~ 0.1 μV) were measured in a simple but highly sensitive resistor-inductor circuit (RL circuit), in which the solenoid was initially placed at the tip of the specimen and then was moved thus changing its position in relation to growth (EMF can be measured first at the tip, then at the sub-apical part and finally at the shank). The influx- and efflux-induced oscillations of Ca2+, along with H+, K+ and Cl- were densely sampled (preserving the Nyquist theorem in order to 'grasp the structure' of the pulse), the logarithmic amplitude of pulse spectrum was calculated, and the detected frequencies, which displayed a periodic sequence of pulses, were compared with the literature data. A band of life vital individual pulses was obtained in a single run of the experiment, which not only allowed the fundamental frequencies (and intensities of the processes) to be determined but also permitted the phase relations of the various transport processes in the plasma membrane and tonoplast to be established. A discrete (quantised) frequency spectrum was achieved for a growing plant for the first time, while all of the metabolic and enzymatic functions of the life cell cycle were preserved using this totally non-invasive treatment. PMID:26445131

  19. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents the abstracts of 158 papers presented at the American Society for Engineering Education's annual conference at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 14-17, 1976. Included are engineering topics covering education, aerospace, agriculture, biomedicine, chemistry, computers, electricity, acoustics, environment, mechanics, and women. (SL)

  20. Carolinas Communication Annual, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLennan, David B.

    1998-01-01

    This 1998 issue of "Carolinas Communication Annual" contains the following articles: "Give Me That Old Time Religion?: A Study of Religious Themes in the Rhetoric of the Ku Klux Klan" (John S. Seiter); "The Three Stooges versus the Third Reich" (Roy Schwartzman); "Interdisciplinary Team Teaching: Implementing Collaborative Instruction in an…

  1. UNICEF Annual Report, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    At this time, the United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF) is commemorating its 50th anniversary, under the slogan "children first." This annual UNICEF report reviews the organization's activities during 1995. An introduction by the executive director states that the report will give readers a sense of what UNICEF is doing with partners to rise to…

  2. NERSC Annual Report 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Hules, John; Bashor, Jon; Yarris, Lynn; McCullough, Julie; Preuss, Paul; Bethel, Wes

    2005-04-15

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the premier computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report includes summaries of recent significant and representative computational science projects conducted on NERSC systems as well as information about NERSC's current and planned systems and services.

  3. 2010 AAUW Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of University Women, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report highlights some of the outstanding accomplishments of AAUW (American Association of University Women) for fiscal year 2010. This year's annual report also features stories of remarkable women who are leading the charge to break through barriers and ensure that all women have a fair chance. Sharon is working to reduce the pay gap…

  4. Magnetic Resonance Annual, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Kressel, H.Y.

    1985-01-01

    The inaugural volume of Magnetic Resonance Annual includes reviews of MRI of the posterior fossa, cerebral neoplasms, and the cardiovascular and genitourinary systems. A chapter on contrast materials outlines the mechanisms of paramagnetic contrast enhancement and highlights several promising contrast agents.

  5. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  6. UNICEF Annual Report, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, N.Y.

    This annual report for the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) details the programs and services provided by this organization in 1994. Following an overview of the year and a remembrance of former UNICEF Executive Director James P. Grant, the report describes developments in seven world regions and in specific emergency countries. The report…

  7. Annual research briefs, 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Briefs of the 1994 annual progress reports of the Research Fellows and students of the Center for Turbulence Research are presented. Subjects covered include turbulence combustion, large eddy simulation, Reynolds-averaged turbulence modeling, turbulence control, postprocessing, sound generation, and turbulence physics.

  8. Annual Review 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard Van Leer Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The report provides an annual report and financial review for 1994 of the Bernard van Leer Foundation, a private institution that was created for broad humanitarian purposes in 1949, and shows the varied aspects of the foundation's activities in the project field. In addition, it includes a number of feature articles which highlight specific…

  9. TACSCE Research Annual 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesko, Silvia Jo

    1991-01-01

    This annual contains the paper that won the 1991 President's Award of the Texas Association for Community Service and Continuing Education (TACSCE) as well as the runner-up paper and other articles. An editorial, "Learning to Crawl" (Silvia Lesko), focuses on the editor's "discovery" of the adult learner. "Ethics and Continuing Education" (Janet…

  10. NRCC annual report, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This annual report of the National Research for Computation in Chemistry (NRCC) Division describes the program of research workshops, software development, and scientific research of the Division in 1979. This year marked the first full calendar year of activity of the Division. Initial staffing in the core scientific areas was completed by the addition of a crystallographer.

  11. NERSC Annual Report 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Hules, John

    2003-01-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2002 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects), and information about NERSC's current and planned systems and service

  12. International Energy Annual, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-14

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules.

  13. NERSC Annual Report 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Hules , John

    2006-07-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the premier computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report includes summaries of recent significant and representative computational science projects conducted on NERSC systems as well as information about NERSC's current and planned systems and services.

  14. Annual Research Briefs - 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the 1996 annual progress reports of the research fellows and students supported by the Center for Turbulence Research. Last year, CTR hosted twelve resident Postdoctoral Fellows, three Research Associates, four Senior Research Fellows, and supported one doctoral student and ten short term visitors.

  15. UNICEF Annual Report. 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This annual report reviews the work UNICEF has been doing to help transform the "Child Survival Revolution" from a dream into a reality. Discussion focuses primarily on child health and nutrition and other basic services for children. Throughout, the review is supplemented with profiles of program initiatives made to improve the conditions of the…

  16. Carolinas Communication Annual, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLennan, David B.

    1999-01-01

    This 1999 issue of the "Carolinas Communication Annual" contains the following articles: "The Unmade Analogy: Alcohol and Abortion" (Richard W. Leeman); "Say, You Want a Revolution" (Roy Schwartzman and Constance Y. Green); "Exploring the Relationship between Perceived Narrativity and Persuasiveness" (Richard Olsen and Rodney A. Reynolds); "In…

  17. Annual Coal Distribution

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The Annual Coal Distribution Report (ACDR) provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing state. All data for the report year are final and this report supersedes all data in the quarterly distribution reports.

  18. UNICEF Annual Report 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    In introducing this annual report, the executive director of UNICEF delineates the four techniques for primary health care and basic services reported in the publication "State of the World's Children, 1982-1983." The ensuing review of UNICEF's activities illustrates highlights of the year's program cooperation, including trends and key events, by…

  19. ASE Annual Conference 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Roger

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the ASE Annual Conference 2010 which was held at Nottingham after a gap of 22 years. As always, the main conference was preceded by International Day, an important event for science educators from across the world. There were two strands to the programme: (1) "What works for me?"--sharing new ideas and tried…

  20. UNICEF Annual Report, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This annual report for the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) describes the programs and services provided by this organization in 1993. Following an introduction by UNICEF's executive director, the report reviews regional developments in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, East Asia and the Pacific, South Asia, Latin…

  1. Uranium industry annual 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-22

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  2. Annual Income Tax Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1988

    1988-01-01

    The annual income tax guide is designed to familiarize parents with the tax laws that specifically affect persons with disabilities and their families. Summarized are the changes for 1988 as well as guidelines for itemized deductions, tax credits, and the deduction for dependents. (DB)

  3. Marketing the Annual Fund.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cover, Nelson, Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Colleges and universities must develop complete and coherent marketing strategies that aim at communicating a solid, identifiable, and structured image and purpose to alumni and friends, and to their regional and national communities. Some examples of how a particular institution should structure its annual fund are provided. (MLW)

  4. UNICEF Annual Report, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This annual report for the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) details the programs and services provided by this organization in 1992-93. Following an introduction by UNICEF's executive director, the report briefly reviews UNICEF activities for 1992, then describes specific projects in the following areas: (1) child survival and development;…

  5. Annual HR Salary Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffer, Patricia

    2000-01-01

    A trainers' salary survey collected data on 1,091 companies, 31,615 employees, and 97 human resource jobs. Results show pay for human resource professionals is continuing to rise. The survey contains information on base salaries, annual bonuses and incentives, and long-term eligibility incentives. (JOW)

  6. Ultrasound Annual, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.C.; Hill, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The 1984 edition of Ultrasound Annual explores new applications of ultrasound in speech and swallowing and offers guidelines on the use of ultrasound and nuclear medicine in thyroid and biliary tract disease. Other areas covered include Doppler sonography of the abdomen, intraoperative abdominal ultrasound, sonography of the placenta, ultrasound of the neonatal head and abdomen, and sonographic echo patterns created by fat.

  7. Quantum grow--A quantum dynamics sampling approach for growing potential energy surfaces and nonadiabatic couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Godsi, Oded; Peskin, Uri; Collins, Michael A.

    2010-03-28

    A quantum sampling algorithm for the interpolation of diabatic potential energy matrices by the Grow method is introduced. The new procedure benefits from penetration of the wave packet into classically forbidden regions, and the accurate quantum mechanical description of nonadiabatic transitions. The increased complexity associated with running quantum dynamics is reduced by using approximate low order expansions of the nuclear wave function within a Multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree scheme during the Grow process. The sampling algorithm is formulated and applied for three representative test cases, demonstrating the recovery of analytic potentials by the interpolated ones, and the convergence of a dynamic observable.

  8. Community for Data Integration 2014 annual report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langseth, Madison L.; Chang, Michelle Y.; Carlino, Jennifer; Birch, Daniella D.; Bradley, Joshua; Bristol, R. Sky; Conzelmann, Craig; Diehl, Robert H.; Earle, Paul; Ellison, Laura E.; Everette, Anthony L.; Fuller, Pam L.; Gordon, Janice M.; Govoni, David L.; Guy, Michelle R.; Henkel, Heather S.; Hutchison, Vivian B.; Kern, Tim; Lightsom, Frances L.; Long, Joseph W.; Longhenry, Ryan; Preston, Todd M.; Smith, Stan W.; Viger, Roland J.; Wesenberg, Katherine; Wood, Eric C.

    2015-10-02

    To achieve these goals, the CDI operates within four applied areas: monthly forums, annual workshop/webinar series, working groups, and projects. The monthly forums, also known as the Opportunity/Challenge of the Month, provide an open dialogue to share and learn about data integration efforts or to present problems that invite the community to offer solutions, advice, and support. Since 2010, the CDI has also sponsored annual workshops/webinar series to encourage the exchange of ideas, sharing of activities, presentations of current projects, and networking among members. Stemming from common interests, the working groups are focused on efforts to address data management and technical challenges including the development of standards and tools, improving interoperability and information infrastructure, and data preservation within USGS and its partners. The growing support for the activities of the working groups led to the CDI’s first formal request for proposals (RFP) process in 2013 to fund projects that produced tangible products. As of 2014, the CDI continues to hold an annual RFP that creates data management tools and practices, collaboration tools, and training in support of data integration and delivery.

  9. Community for Data Integration 2014 annual report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langseth, Madison L.; Chang, Michelle Y.; Carlino, Jennifer; Birch, Daniella D.; Bradley, Joshua; Bristol, R. Sky; Conzelmann, Craig; Diehl, Robert H.; Earle, Paul; Ellison, Laura E.; Everette, Anthony L.; Fuller, Pam L.; Gordon, Janice M.; Govoni, David L.; Guy, Michelle R.; Henkel, Heather S.; Hutchison, Vivian B.; Kern, Tim; Lightsom, Frances L.; Long, Joseph W.; Longhenry, Ryan; Preston, Todd M.; Smith, Stan; Viger, Roland J.; Wesenberg, Katherine; Wood, Eric C.

    2015-01-01

    To achieve these goals, the CDI operates within four applied areas: monthly forums, annual workshop/webinar series, working groups, and projects. The monthly forums, also known as the Opportunity/Challenge of the Month, provide an open dialogue to share and learn about data integration efforts or to present problems that invite the community to offer solutions, advice, and support. Since 2010, the CDI has also sponsored annual workshops/webinar series to encourage the exchange of ideas, sharing of activities, presentations of current projects, and networking among members. Stemming from common interests, the working groups are focused on efforts to address data management and technical challenges including the development of standards and tools, improving interoperability and information infrastructure, and data preservation within USGS and its partners. The growing support for the activities of the working groups led to the CDI’s first formal request for proposals (RFP) process in 2013 to fund projects that produced tangible products. As of 2014, the CDI continues to hold an annual RFP that creates data management tools and practices, collaboration tools, and training in support of data integration and delivery.

  10. Ecophysiological function of leaf 'windows' in Lithops species - 'Living Stones' that grow underground.

    PubMed

    Martin, C E; Brandmeyer, E A; Ross, R D

    2013-01-01

    Leaf temperatures were lower when light entry at the leaf tip window was prevented through covering the window with reflective tape, relative to leaf temperatures of plants with leaf tip windows covered with transparent tape. This was true when leaf temperatures were measured with an infrared thermometer, but not with a fine-wire thermocouple. Leaf tip windows of Lithops growing in high-rainfall regions of southern Africa were larger than the windows of plants (numerous individuals of 17 species) growing in areas with less rainfall and, thus, more annual insolation. The results of this study indicate that leaf tip windows of desert plants with an underground growth habit can allow entry of supra-optimal levels of radiant energy, thus most likely inhibiting photosynthetic activity. Consequently, the size of the leaf tip windows correlates inversely with habitat solar irradiance, minimising the probability of photoinhibition, while maximising the absorption of irradiance in cloudy, high-rainfall regions.

  11. Temperature and geographic attribution of change in the Taraxacum mongolicum growing season from 1990 to 2009 in eastern China's temperate zone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoqiu; Tian, Youhua; Xu, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Using leaf unfolding and leaf coloration data of a widely distributed herbaceous species, Taraxacum mongolicum, we detected linear trend and temperature response of the growing season at 52 stations from 1990 to 2009. Across the research region, the mean growing season beginning date marginal significantly advanced at a rate of -2.1 days per decade, while the mean growing season end date was significantly delayed at a rate of 3.1 days per decade. The mean growing season length was significantly prolonged at a rate of 5.1 days per decade. Over the 52 stations, linear trends of the beginning date correlate negatively with linear trends of spring temperature, whereas linear trends of the end date and length correlate positively with linear trends of autumn temperature and annual mean temperature. Moreover, the growing season linear trends are also closely related to the growing season responses to temperature and geographic coordinates plus elevation. Regarding growing season responses to temperature, a 1 °C increase in regional mean spring temperature results in an advancement of 2.1 days in regional mean growing season beginning date, and a 1 °C increase in regional mean autumn temperature causes a delay of 2.3 days in regional mean growing season end date. A 1 °C increase in regional annual mean temperature induces an extension of 8.7 days in regional mean growing season length. Over the 52 stations, response of the beginning date to spring temperature depends mainly on local annual mean temperature and geographic coordinates plus elevation. Namely, a 1 °C increase in spring temperature induces a larger advancement of the beginning date at warmer locations with lower latitudes and further west longitudes than at colder locations with higher latitudes and further east longitudes, while a 1 °C increase in spring temperature causes a larger advancement of the beginning date at higher than at lower elevations. PMID:25627826

  12. Temperature and geographic attribution of change in the Taraxacum mongolicum growing season from 1990 to 2009 in eastern China's temperate zone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoqiu; Tian, Youhua; Xu, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Using leaf unfolding and leaf coloration data of a widely distributed herbaceous species, Taraxacum mongolicum, we detected linear trend and temperature response of the growing season at 52 stations from 1990 to 2009. Across the research region, the mean growing season beginning date marginal significantly advanced at a rate of -2.1 days per decade, while the mean growing season end date was significantly delayed at a rate of 3.1 days per decade. The mean growing season length was significantly prolonged at a rate of 5.1 days per decade. Over the 52 stations, linear trends of the beginning date correlate negatively with linear trends of spring temperature, whereas linear trends of the end date and length correlate positively with linear trends of autumn temperature and annual mean temperature. Moreover, the growing season linear trends are also closely related to the growing season responses to temperature and geographic coordinates plus elevation. Regarding growing season responses to temperature, a 1 °C increase in regional mean spring temperature results in an advancement of 2.1 days in regional mean growing season beginning date, and a 1 °C increase in regional mean autumn temperature causes a delay of 2.3 days in regional mean growing season end date. A 1 °C increase in regional annual mean temperature induces an extension of 8.7 days in regional mean growing season length. Over the 52 stations, response of the beginning date to spring temperature depends mainly on local annual mean temperature and geographic coordinates plus elevation. Namely, a 1 °C increase in spring temperature induces a larger advancement of the beginning date at warmer locations with lower latitudes and further west longitudes than at colder locations with higher latitudes and further east longitudes, while a 1 °C increase in spring temperature causes a larger advancement of the beginning date at higher than at lower elevations.

  13. Temperature and geographic attribution of change in the Taraxacum mongolicum growing season from 1990 to 2009 in eastern China's temperate zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoqiu; Tian, Youhua; Xu, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Using leaf unfolding and leaf coloration data of a widely distributed herbaceous species, Taraxacum mongolicum, we detected linear trend and temperature response of the growing season at 52 stations from 1990 to 2009. Across the research region, the mean growing season beginning date marginal significantly advanced at a rate of -2.1 days per decade, while the mean growing season end date was significantly delayed at a rate of 3.1 days per decade. The mean growing season length was significantly prolonged at a rate of 5.1 days per decade. Over the 52 stations, linear trends of the beginning date correlate negatively with linear trends of spring temperature, whereas linear trends of the end date and length correlate positively with linear trends of autumn temperature and annual mean temperature. Moreover, the growing season linear trends are also closely related to the growing season responses to temperature and geographic coordinates plus elevation. Regarding growing season responses to temperature, a 1 °C increase in regional mean spring temperature results in an advancement of 2.1 days in regional mean growing season beginning date, and a 1 °C increase in regional mean autumn temperature causes a delay of 2.3 days in regional mean growing season end date. A 1 °C increase in regional annual mean temperature induces an extension of 8.7 days in regional mean growing season length. Over the 52 stations, response of the beginning date to spring temperature depends mainly on local annual mean temperature and geographic coordinates plus elevation. Namely, a 1 °C increase in spring temperature induces a larger advancement of the beginning date at warmer locations with lower latitudes and further west longitudes than at colder locations with higher latitudes and further east longitudes, while a 1 °C increase in spring temperature causes a larger advancement of the beginning date at higher than at lower elevations.

  14. Growing Youth Growing Food: How Vegetable Gardening Influences Young People's Food Consciousness and Eating Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libman, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Much attention is currently being paid to rising rates of obesity, especially among youth. In this context, garden-based education can have a role in improving public health. A qualitative study conducted at the Brooklyn Botanic Garden (BBG) Children's Garden provides supporting evidence for the claim that growing vegetables can improve the…

  15. Wartime diet for growing bobwhite quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.; Llewellyn, L.; Benner, M.

    1944-01-01

    Two experiments, using 784 bobwhite quail chicks, were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, to find a growing diet that would meet wartime restrictions. In 1941 a diet containing 14 per cent sardine fish meal was formulated and gave satisfactory results from the standpoints of survival and growth. Since fish meal now is scarce, search was made for a diet without war-restricted commodities yet equal to the above-mentioned diet in feeding value. Ten diets were compared.....In the present experiments, quail fed this same diet modified by the substitution of 0.12 per cent of D-activated sterol for vitamin A and D feeding oil fortified showed the highest survival and the best live weights at the end of both the sixth and tenth weeks. They also were among the top three groups in requiring the least quantity of feed per unit of gain in weight; however, they consumed the greatest quantity of feed.....Of the other nine diets, that which seemed most promising, considering survival, live weight, and efficiency of feed utilization, was as follows (parts by weight) : Yellow corn, ground 26.08...Millet, ground 10.00...Alfalfa leaf meal, dehydrated 7.50...Soybean oil meal, solvent-processed 50.00...Dried whey 3.00...Special steamed bonemeal 1.50...Limestone, ground 0.80...Salt mixture 1.OO...D-activated animal sterol 0.12....100.00.....At the end of ten weeks the results on this diet (Diet l l ) , as compared with that containing sardine meal (Diet 23), were as follows: Diet No. 11 Percentage survival 71, Average live weight per bird, grams 144,....Growing mash consumed, per bird-day, grams 6.8 Feed consumed per gram of gain in weight (grams) 3.8......Diet 23....Percentage survival, 80,...Avg live weight per bird, grams....145,....Growing mash consumed , per bird-day, grams...7.4...Feed consumed per gram of gain in weight (grams)....3.9. Results were unsatisfactory when expeller-processed soybean oil meal was used in this diet to replace solvent

  16. Cells preferentially grow on rough substrates.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Francesco; Tirinato, Luca; Battista, Edmondo; Causa, Filippo; Liberale, Carlo; di Fabrizio, Enzo M; Decuzzi, Paolo

    2010-10-01

    Substrate nanotopography affects cell adhesion and proliferation and is fundamental to the rational design of bio-adhesives, to tissue engineering and to the development of assays for in-vitro screening. Cell behavior on rough substrates is still elusive, and the results presented in the open literature remain controversial. Here, the proliferation of cells on electrochemically etched silicon substrates with different roughness and nearly similar surface energy was studied over three days with confocal and atomic force microscopy. The surface profile of the substrates is a self-affine fractal with a roughness R(a) growing with the etching time from approximately 2 to 100 nm and a fractal dimension D ranging between about 2 (nominally flat surface) and 2.6. For four cell types, the number of adhering cells and their proliferation rates exhibited a maximum on moderately rough (R(a) approximately 10-45 nm) nearly Brownian (D approximately 2.5) substrates. The observed cell behavior was satisfactorily interpreted within the theory of adhesion to randomly rough solids. These findings demonstrated the importance of nanogeometry in cell stable adhesion and growth, suggesting that moderately rough substrates with large fractal dimension could selectively boost cell proliferation. PMID:20637503

  17. Growing Your Career through Volunteering and Leadership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Riordan, C. A.; Meth, C.

    2007-12-01

    From giving your first paper at a scientific meeting to chairing committees that make multi-million dollar decisions, scientific organizations provide critical opportunities for growing your career. Many organizations support student activities by providing travel grants and fellowships - an important first step towards joining the larger scientific community. Beyond these standard opportunities, organizations also provide opportunities for students interested in gaining leadership experience, a skill not typically acquired in graduate science programs. For example, the Consortium for Leadership's Schlanger Ocean Drilling Fellowship provides research funds to graduate students, but also introduces the fellows to the communication skills needed to become successful members of their scientific community. Beyond student opportunities, volunteering provides mid-career and established scientists further experience in leadership. Opportunities exist in advising government science policy, guiding large-scale research programs, organizing large scientific meetings, and serving on non-profit boards. The variety of volunteer and leadership opportunities that are available give scientists at all stages of their career a chance to expand and diversify their experience, leading to new successes.

  18. Spatially embedded growing small-world networks

    PubMed Central

    Zitin, Ari; Gorowara, Alexander; Squires, Shane; Herrera, Mark; Antonsen, Thomas M.; Girvan, Michelle; Ott, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Networks in nature are often formed within a spatial domain in a dynamical manner, gaining links and nodes as they develop over time. Motivated by the growth and development of neuronal networks, we propose a class of spatially-based growing network models and investigate the resulting statistical network properties as a function of the dimension and topology of the space in which the networks are embedded. In particular, we consider two models in which nodes are placed one by one in random locations in space, with each such placement followed by configuration relaxation toward uniform node density, and connection of the new node with spatially nearby nodes. We find that such growth processes naturally result in networks with small-world features, including a short characteristic path length and nonzero clustering. We find no qualitative differences in these properties for two different topologies, and we suggest that results for these properties may not depend strongly on the topology of the embedding space. The results do depend strongly on dimension, and higher-dimensional spaces result in shorter path lengths but less clustering. PMID:25395180

  19. Bioaugmentation in growing plants for lunar bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaets, I.; Burlak, O.; Rogutskyy, I.; Vasilenko, A.; Mytrokhyn, O.; Lukashov, D.; Foing, B.; Kozyrovska, N.

    2011-03-01

    Microorganisms may be a key element in a precursory scenario of growing pioneer plants for extraterrestrial exploration. They can be used for plant inoculation to leach nutritional elements from regolith, to alleviate lunar stressors, as well as to decompose both lunar rocks and the plant straw in order to form a protosoil. Bioleaching capacities of both French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) and the associated bacteria in contact with a lunar rock simulant (terrestrial anorthosite) were examined using the model plant-bacteria microcosms under controlled conditions. Marigold accumulated K, Na, Fe, Zn, Ni, and Cr at higher concentrations in anorthosite compared to the podzol soil. Plants inoculated with the consortium of well-defined species of bacteria accumulated higher levels of K, Mg, and Mn, but lower levels of Ni, Cr, Zn, Na, Ca, Fe, which exist at higher levels in anorthosite. Bacteria also affected the Са/Mg and Fe/Mn ratios in the biomass of marigold grown on anorthosite. Despite their growth retardation, the inoculated plants had 15% higher weight on anorthosite than noninoculated plants. The data suggest that the bacteria supplied basic macro-and microelements to the model plant.

  20. Autoethnography in Health Research: Growing Pains?

    PubMed

    Chang, Heewon

    2016-03-01

    Autoethnography is gaining acceptance as a legitimate research method in health science research. The growing volume of published autoethnographies is indicative of this trend. After discussing the methodological tenents of this qualitative research method and its compatibility with health-related research, the author illustrates this trend with examples of published autoethnogrpahic books, theses, and journal articles. While celebrating the potential of autoethnography as a suitable health research method, the author critiques dominatly descriptive and evocative illness self-narratives that may evoke emontionally compelling responses from readers but offer insufficient sociocultural insights about the illness phenomenon. To identify a "desirable" autoethnography that provides not only a "thick description" of personal experiences but also a sociocultural interpration of such experiences, the author recommends both creators and consumers of autoethnography to ask five evaluative questions: (1) Does the autoethnography use authentic and trustworthy data?; (2) Does the autoethnography follow a reliable research process and show the process clearly?; (3) Does the autoethnography follow ethical steps to protect the rights of self and others presented and implicated in the autoethnography?; (4) Does the autoethnography analyze and interpret the sociocultural meaning of the author's personal experiences?; and (5) Does the autoethnography attempt to make a scholarly contribution with its conclusion and engagement of the existing literature? PMID:26880757

  1. Chamber for Growing and Observing Fungi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Molina, Thomas C.

    2005-01-01

    A chamber has been designed to enable growth and observation of microcolonies of fungi in isolation from the external environment. Unlike prior fungus-growing apparatuses, this chamber makes it possible to examine a fungus culture without disrupting it. Partly resembling a small picture frame, the chamber includes a metal plate having a rectangular through-thethickness opening with recesses for a top and a bottom cover glass, an inlet for air, and an inlet for water. The bottom cover glass is put in place and held there by clips, then a block of nutrient medium and a moisture pad are placed in the opening. The block is inoculated, then the top cover glass is put in place and held there by clips. Once growth is evident, the chamber can be sealed with tape. Little (if any) water evaporates past the edges of the cover glasses, and, hence there is little (if any) need to add water. A microscope can be used to observe the culture through either cover glass. Because the culture is sealed in the chamber, it is safe to examine the culture without risking contamination. The chamber can be sterilized and reused.

  2. Histomorphometric study on growing condyle of rat.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to carry out the histomorphometric assay on the mandibular condylar tissue of the growing rats. Male rats of the Wistar strain at the age of 3, 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks were used. All rats were injected intravenously with tetracycline and calcein, respectively. They were killed 12 hours after calcein injection. Before embedding in acrylic resin, 3 reference points were marked directly on each condyle to establish the reference plane for the histomorphometry on the ground section. After preparing the ground section, the growth rate of the condyle was obtained by measuring the distance of the two different fluorescent labeling lines. Furthermore, the age-related changes of the relative distribution of the bone, calcified cartilage and prebone (uncalcified bone matrix) were measured under a light microscope by using a grid on the eyepiece reticle. The number of osteoblasts and osteoclasts were also calculated in the same specimen. The following results were obtained: The thickness of the cartilaginous layer and the growth rate of the endochondral bone formation decreased with age. The relative ratio of the bone area in the subchondral tissue increased constantly with age. PMID:3457644

  3. Acoustic properties of low growing plants.

    PubMed

    Horoshenkov, Kirill V; Khan, Amir; Benkreira, Hadj

    2013-05-01

    The plane wave normal incidence acoustic absorption coefficient of five types of low growing plants is measured in the presence and absence of soil. These plants are generally used in green living walls and flower beds. Two types of soil are considered in this work: a light-density, man-made soil and a heavy-density natural clay base soil. The absorption coefficient data are obtained in the frequency range of 50-1600 Hz using a standard impedance tube of diameter 100 mm. The equivalent fluid model for sound propagation in rigid frame porous media proposed by Miki [J. Acoust. Soc. Jpn. (E) 11, 25-28 (1990)] is used to predict the experimentally observed behavior of the absorption coefficient spectra of soils, plants, and their combinations. Optimization analysis is employed to deduce the effective flow resistivity and tortuosity of plants which are assumed to behave acoustically as an equivalent fluid in a rigid frame porous medium. It is shown that the leaf area density and dominant angle of leaf orientation are two key morphological characteristics which can be used to predict accurately the effective flow resistivity and tortuosity of plants.

  4. Gravitropism in tip-growing cells.

    PubMed

    Braun, M

    1997-09-01

    Unicellular tip-growing cells are excellent experimental systems in which to study gravitropism because cell extension, gravity sensing and the gravity response are all confined to the apical dome. Thus various approaches can be used to determine the distinct steps of the short gravitropic signal-transduction chain, which lacks a signal-transmission phase between the gravity-sensing cells and the competent responding target cells. Single-cell systems readily allow in-vivo observation of cellular processes during gravistimulation at 1 g, centrifugation, clinostatting and in microgravity, as well as permitting fluorescence labeling. Such diverse studies have revealed fascinating information on the mechanism of gravitropic tip growth, especially on the important role of the cytoskeleton in the positioning of the statoliths and in organizing and adjusting the Spitzenkorper. A hypothesis explaining the negative and positive gravitropism of Chara rhizoids and Chara protonemata has been put forward, which emphasizes the role of the actin cytoskeleton in the process of gravitropic tip-growth. Differences in the gravitropic responses of single-cell systems, however, reflect a diversity of gravitropic mechanisms, and represent an example of parallel evolution.

  5. Oscillating lamp fixture for growing areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiatt, Harvey

    1994-01-01

    The Oscillating Parabolic Mirror of 'Beamflicker' was designed by Dr. Richard W. Tinus, Supervisory Plant Physiologist, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experimental Station, Flagstaff, Arizona. With his idea, an economic greenhouse lighting system was developed and patented, U.S. Patent #5095414. The Beamflicker uses a stationary 400 watt high pressure sodium arc bulb. The parabolic mirror rotates 180 degrees around the bulb to produce intermittent lighting every minute throughout the night. This one bulb can replace up to 88 incandescent bulbs in a 40 x 100 foot greenhouse over different sections of a growing area. The lighting intensity of the Beamflicker varies greatly depending on the distance from the bulb. The light intensity varies from 1.3 (mu)mol m(exp 2)/s feet from the bulb to 52.5 (mu)mol m(exp 2)/s directly beneath the bulb. A year long study involving light intensity and many species will be concluded in July 1994. These research results should be published within the next year.

  6. [Healthcare: a growing role in international politics].

    PubMed

    Dixneuf, M; Rey, J L

    2004-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war the tone of international relations has clearly changed. Whereas relations were once defined strictly in terms of more or less armed confrontation, economic and social issues now play a growing role. Healthcare policies in Africa have long been influenced by the policies of countries sponsoring bilateral and even multilateral foreign aid programs. However the last ten years have witnessed an increasing interaction between international policy and healthcare policy. The two main reasons for this trend involve 1) access to drug treatment and the WTO and 2) the extension and impact of the AIDS epidemic. The problem of access to drug treatment for poor populations (fundamental right) has led to the emergence of an increasingly strong and effective civil society. Because of its social and economic effects as well as its geopolitical and security implications, AIDS has become a major factor in international relations. With regard to both these issues the place and role of the USA is demonstrative of the interaction between healthcare and international relations. PMID:15816131

  7. Oscillating lamp fixture for growing areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiatt, Harvey

    1994-03-01

    The Oscillating Parabolic Mirror of 'Beamflicker' was designed by Dr. Richard W. Tinus, Supervisory Plant Physiologist, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experimental Station, Flagstaff, Arizona. With his idea, an economic greenhouse lighting system was developed and patented, U.S. Patent #5095414. The Beamflicker uses a stationary 400 watt high pressure sodium arc bulb. The parabolic mirror rotates 180 degrees around the bulb to produce intermittent lighting every minute throughout the night. This one bulb can replace up to 88 incandescent bulbs in a 40 x 100 foot greenhouse over different sections of a growing area. The lighting intensity of the Beamflicker varies greatly depending on the distance from the bulb. The light intensity varies from 1.3 (mu)mol m(exp 2)/s feet from the bulb to 52.5 (mu)mol m(exp 2)/s directly beneath the bulb. A year long study involving light intensity and many species will be concluded in July 1994. These research results should be published within the next year.

  8. Turkey opens electricity markets as demand grows

    SciTech Connect

    McKeigue, J.; Da Cunha, A.; Severino, D.

    2009-06-15

    Turkey's growing power market has attracted investors and project developers for over a decade, yet their plans have been dashed by unexpected political or financial crises or, worse, obstructed by a lengthy bureaucratic approval process. Now, with a more transparent retail electricity market, government regulators and investors are bullish on Turkey. Is Turkey ready to turn the power on? This report closely examine Turkey's plans to create a power infrastructure capable of providing the reliable electricity supplies necessary for sustained economic growth. It was compiled with on-the-ground research and extensive interview with key industrial and political figures. Today, hard coal and lignite account for 21% of Turkey's electricity generation and gas-fired plants account for 50%. The Alfin Elbistan-B lignite-fired plant has attracted criticism for its lack of desulfurization units and ash dam facilities that have tarnished the industry's image. A 1,100 MW hard-coal fired plant using supercritical technology is under construction. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Autoethnography in Health Research: Growing Pains?

    PubMed

    Chang, Heewon

    2016-03-01

    Autoethnography is gaining acceptance as a legitimate research method in health science research. The growing volume of published autoethnographies is indicative of this trend. After discussing the methodological tenents of this qualitative research method and its compatibility with health-related research, the author illustrates this trend with examples of published autoethnogrpahic books, theses, and journal articles. While celebrating the potential of autoethnography as a suitable health research method, the author critiques dominatly descriptive and evocative illness self-narratives that may evoke emontionally compelling responses from readers but offer insufficient sociocultural insights about the illness phenomenon. To identify a "desirable" autoethnography that provides not only a "thick description" of personal experiences but also a sociocultural interpration of such experiences, the author recommends both creators and consumers of autoethnography to ask five evaluative questions: (1) Does the autoethnography use authentic and trustworthy data?; (2) Does the autoethnography follow a reliable research process and show the process clearly?; (3) Does the autoethnography follow ethical steps to protect the rights of self and others presented and implicated in the autoethnography?; (4) Does the autoethnography analyze and interpret the sociocultural meaning of the author's personal experiences?; and (5) Does the autoethnography attempt to make a scholarly contribution with its conclusion and engagement of the existing literature?

  10. Rwandan self-help group grows apace.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Donald de Gagne' is a Canadian who was diagnosed with AIDS in January 1988. He was interviewed in a previous issue of global AIDSnews for his role in helping to launch a self-support group for people with AIDS in Kigali, Rwanda. The publication has now published excerpts of a correspondence sent from the managing committee of the group in response to the interview. The group was formed in January 1992 with the primary goal of fighting against the psychosocial alienation felt by HIV-infected people in Rwanda. The group became known as the Rwandan Mirror of Health Association (ARMS) on March 21, 1992. The initial group membership expanded rapidly to include 120 members by April 1993. Membership consists of individuals from a variety of socioeconomic backgrounds even though most members are low-income residents of Kigali. ARMS has not yet finished the paperwork necessary to become legally recognized by the government, but has nonetheless initiated training and information activities by its members. The population of Rwanda is beginning is destigmatize people with AIDS. ARMS representatives have attended international forums and conferences, while the organization has hosted journalists and other interested professionals. The group exists upon funds from the Norwegian Red Cross in Rwanda through Info-SIDA even though it would like to bring in 1000 Rwanda francs annually per member; microeconomic constraints will make this latter objective difficult to realize. ARMS' wish list includes a multipurpose facility in which to hold meetings and accommodate the office of a permanent secretariat along with a small store of drugs to treat minor AIDS-related infections. The group also needs operating funds for the permanent secretariat and funds for a study to determine the cost of meeting these needs. ARMS thanks all in advance who may render tangible assistance.

  11. Annual Energy Review 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Seiferlein, Katherine E.

    2008-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....”

  12. International energy annual 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power and geothermal, solar, and wind electric power. Also included are biomass electric power for Brazil and the US, and biomass, geothermal, and solar energy produced in the US and not used for electricity generation. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed of primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values (Appendices E and F) familiar to the American public. 93 tabs.

  13. Renewable energy annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  14. Coal industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  15. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-24

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date.

  16. NERSC 2001 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hules, John

    2001-12-12

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2001 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects); information about NERSC's current systems and services; descriptions of Berkeley Lab's current research and development projects in applied mathematics, computer science, and computational science; and a brief summary of NERSC's Strategic Plan for 2002-2005.

  17. NERSC 1998 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Hules, John

    1999-03-01

    This 1998 annual report from the National Scientific Energy Research Computing Center (NERSC) presents the year in review of the following categories: Computational Science; Computer Science and Applied Mathematics; and Systems and Services. Also presented are science highlights in the following categories: Basic Energy Sciences; Biological and Environmental Research; Fusion Energy Sciences; High Energy and Nuclear Physics; and Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Other Projects.

  18. NSLS annual report 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Klaffky, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1984-01-01

    The first comprehensive Annual Report of the National Synchrotron Light Source comes at a time of great activity and forward motion for the facility. In the following pages we outline the management changes that have taken place in the past year, the progress that has been made in the commissioning of the x-ray ring and in the enhanced utilization of the uv ring, together with an extensive discussion of the interesting scientific experiments that have been carried out.

  19. 2008 annual merit review

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The 2008 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review was held February 25-28, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland. The review encompassed all of the work done by the Vehicle Technologies Program: a total of 280 individual activities were reviewed, by a total of just over 100 reviewers. A total of 1,908 individual review responses were received for the technical reviews, and an additional 29 individual review responses were received for the plenary session review.

  20. Annual Energy Outlook

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Projections in the Annual Energy Outlook 2016 (AEO2016) focus on the factors expected to shape U.S. energy markets through 2040. The projections provide a basis for examination and discussion of energy market trends and serve as a starting point for analysis of potential changes in U.S. energy policies, rules, and regulations, as well as the potential role of advanced technologies.

  1. Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine Annual, l986 features state-of-the-art reports on the technical aspects and clinical applications of single-photon emission computed tomography, as well as on monoclonal antibodies for radioimmunoimaging and on receptorbinding radiopharmaceuticals. Also included is a review of magnetic resonance imaging of congenital cardiac abnormalities. Other contributions cover bone mineral measurements; skeletal scintigraphy of the hands and wrists; and radionuclide blood-pool imaging in the diagnosis of deep-vein thrombosis of the leg.

  2. Root Water Uptake and Tracer Transport in a Lupin Root System: Integration of Magnetic Resonance Images and the Numerical Model RSWMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohlmeier, Andreas; Vanderborght, Jan; Haber-Pohlmeier, Sabina; Wienke, Sandra; Vereecken, Harry; Javaux, Mathieu

    2010-05-01

    Combination of experimental studies with detailed deterministic models help understand root water uptake processes. Recently, Javaux et al. developed the RSWMS model by integration of Doussańs root model into the well established SWMS code[1], which simulates water and solute transport in unsaturated soil [2, 3]. In order to confront RSWMS modeling results to experimental data, we used Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technique to monitor root water uptake in situ. Non-invasive 3-D imaging of root system architecture, water content distributions and tracer transport by MR were performed and compared with numerical model calculations. Two MRI experiments were performed and modeled: i) water uptake during drought stress and ii) transport of a locally injected tracer (Gd-DTPA) to the soil-root system driven by root water uptake. Firstly, the high resolution MRI image (0.23x0.23x0.5mm) of the root system was transferred into a continuous root system skeleton by a combination of thresholding, region-growing filtering and final manual 3D redrawing of the root strands. Secondly, the two experimental scenarios were simulated by RSWMS with a resolution of about 3mm. For scenario i) the numerical simulations could reproduce the general trend that is the strong water depletion from the top layer of the soil. However, the creation of depletion zones in the vicinity of the roots could not be simulated, due to a poor initial evaluation of the soil hydraulic properties, which equilibrates instantaneously larger differences in water content. The determination of unsaturated conductivities at low water content was needed to improve the model calculations. For scenario ii) simulations confirmed the solute transport towards the roots by advection. 1. Simunek, J., T. Vogel, and M.T. van Genuchten, The SWMS_2D Code for Simulating Water Flow and Solute Transport in Two-Dimensional Variably Saturated Media. Version 1.21. 1994, U.S. Salinity Laboratory, USDA, ARS: Riverside, California

  3. Cultivation of fast-growing hardwoods

    SciTech Connect

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P. . Coll. of Environmental Science and Forestry)

    1991-10-01

    The intensive culture of hybrid poplar has received in-depth study as part of the Fast-Growing Hardwood Program. Research has concentrated on short-rotation intensive culture systems. Specific studies and operations included establishing and maintaining a nursery/cutting orchard, installing clone-site trials in central and southern New York State and initiating studies of no-till site preparation, nutrient utilization efficiency, wood quality and soil solution chemistry. The nursery/cutting orchard was used to provide material for various research plantings and as a genotype repository. Clone- site trials results showed that hybrid poplar growth potential was affected by clone type and was related to inherent soil-site conditions. No-till techniques were shown to be successful in establishing hybrid poplar in terms of survival and growth when compared to conventional clean tillage and/or no competition control, and can be considered for use on sites that are particularly prone to erosion. Nutrient use efficiency was significantly affected by clone type, and should be a consideration when selecting clones for operational planting if fertilization is to be effectively and efficiently used. Wood quality differed among clones with site condition and tree age inferred as important factors. Soil solution chemistry was minimally affected by intensive cultural practices with no measured adverse effect on soil water quality. Generally, results of these studies showed that appropriate hybrid poplar clones grown in short-rotation intensively cultured systems can be used successfully in New York State if proper site conditions exist and appropriate establishment and maintenance techniques are used. 37 refs., 4 figs., 22 tabs.

  4. On carbon footprints and growing energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-06-01

    Could fractional reductions in the carbon footprint of a growing organization lead to a corresponding real reduction in atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions in the next ten years? Curtis M. Oldenburg, head of the Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program of LBNL’s Earth Sciences Division, considers his own organization's carbon footprint and answers this critical question? In addressing the problem of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change, it is essential that we understand which activities are producing GHGs and the scale of emission for each activity, so that reduction efforts can be efficiently targeted. The GHG emissions to the atmosphere of an individual or group are referred to as the ‘carbon footprint’. This terminology is entirely appropriate, because 85% of the global marketed energy supply comes from carbon-rich fossil fuel sources whose combustion produces CO{sub 2}, the main GHG causing global climate change. Furthermore, the direct relation between CO2 emissions and fossil fuels as they are used today makes energy consumption a useful proxy for carbon footprint. It would seem to be a simple matter to reduce energy consumption across the board, both individually and collectively, to help reduce our carbon footprints and therefore solve the energyclimate crisis. But just how much can we reduce carbon footprints when broader forces, such as growth in energy use, cause the total footprint to simultaneously expand? In this feature, I present a calculation of the carbon footprint of the Earth Sciences Division (ESD), the division in which I work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and discuss the potential for reducing this carbon footprint. It will be apparent that in terms of potential future carbon footprint reductions under projections of expected growth, ESD may be thought of as a microcosm of the situation of the world as a whole, in which alternatives to the business-as-usual use of fossil fuels are needed if

  5. Geometry and mechanics of growing bacterial colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Zhihong; Pearce, Daniel; Sengupta, Anupam; Giomi, Luca

    Bacterial colonies are abundant on living and non-living surfaces, and are known to mediate a broad range of processes in ecology, medicine and industry. Although extensively researched - from single cells up to the population levels - a comprehensive biophysical picture, highlighting the cell-to-colony dynamics, is still lacking. Here, using numerical and analytical models, we study the mechanics of self-organization leading to the colony morphology of cells growing on a substrate with free boundary. We consider hard rods to mimic the growth of rod-shaped non-motile cells, and show that the colony, as a whole, does not form an ordered nematic phase, nor does it result in a purely disordered (isotropic) phase. Instead, different sizes of domains, in which cells are highly aligned at specific orientations, are found. The distribution of the domain sizes follows an exponential relation - indicating the existence of a characteristic length scale that determines the domain size relative to that of the colony. A continuum theory, based on the hydrodynamics of liquid crystals, is built to account for these phenomena, and is applied to describe the buckling transition from a planar to three-dimensional (3D) colony. The theory supports preliminary experiments conducted with different strains of rod shaped bacterial cells, and reveals that the buckling transition can be regulated by varying the cell stiffness and aspect ratio. This work proposes that, in addition to biochemical pathways, the spatio-temporal organization in microbial colonies is significantly tuned by the biomechanical and geometric properties of the microbes in consideration.

  6. Honey oil burns: a growing problem.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Guy; Bertelotti, Robert; Greenhalgh, David; Palmieri, Tina; Maguina, Pirko

    2015-01-01

    There is an emerging mechanism of burn injury as a result of the ignition of butane, during the manufacture of a tetrahydrocannabinol concentrate known as butane honey oil. The authors report of a series of patients who presented with this mechanism of injury and a description of the process that causes these burns. Patient data were gathered from the medical records of eight patients treated at the University of California Davis Medical Center and Shriners Hospital of Northern California. Information on the manufacturing process of butane honey oil was gathered from Internet searches and published literature on the topic. The burns witnessed at the abovementioned institutions ranged from 16 to 95% TBSA, with an average of 49.9%. The average length of stay for the patients was 118.3 hospital days and 114.4 intensive care unit days, with an average of 43.8 days spent on mechanical ventilation. The average age of patients was 22 years, with only one patient above the age of 30 years. Accidents during honey oil production have resulted in a surge of burn injuries in our community during the past year. The manufacture of this product, which involves the use of volatile butane gas, is gaining in popularity. Although considered to be safer than previous methods, multiple casualties with extensive burn injuries have resulted from this process. Associated injuries from blast trauma or chemical burns are not likely to occur in these types of explosions and have not been observed in the series reported in this article. In light of the increasing popularity of honey oil, it is important for burn care providers to gain awareness and understanding of this problem and its growing presence in the community.

  7. Flight Safety Aircraft Risk: A Growing Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haber, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing awareness of the need to have appropriate criteria for protection of aircraft from debris resulting from the flight termination of a malfunctioning space booster. There have been several sequences of events that have interacted to bring us to the current risk management problem. With the advent of the US initiative to have common flight safety analysis processes and criteria, it was recognized that the traditional aircraft protection approach was inadequate. It did not consider the added public concern for catastrophic events. While the probability may have been small for downing a large commercial passenger plane, the public outrage if it happened would not be adequately measured by the individual risk to passengers nor the collective (societal risk) presented by a single airplane. Over a period of a number of years the US has developed and evolved a criterion to address catastrophic risk protection. Beginning in the same time period, it was recognized the assertion that all debris with masses greater than one gram were lethal to aircraft was unduly conservative. Over this same period initiatives have been developed to refine aircraft vulnerability models. There were, however, two significant unconservative assumptions that were made in the early years. It was presumed that significant risk to aircraft could only occur in the launch area. In addition, aircraft risk assessments, when they were made were based on debris lists designed to protect people on the ground (typically debris with an impact kinetic energy greater than 11 ft-lb). Good debris lists for aircraft protection do not yet exist. However, it has become increasingly clear that even with partial breakup lists large regions were required from which aircraft flight would be restricted using the normal exclusion approaches. We provide a review of these events and an indication of the way forward.

  8. Non-Selective Evolution of Growing Populations

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Heinrich; Frey, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    Non-selective effects, like genetic drift, are an important factor in modern conceptions of evolution, and have been extensively studied for constant population sizes (Kimura, 1955; Otto and Whitlock, 1997). Here, we consider non-selective evolution in the case of growing populations that are of small size and have varying trait compositions (e.g. after a population bottleneck). We find that, in these conditions, populations never fixate to a trait, but tend to a random limit composition, and that the distribution of compositions “freezes” to a steady state. This final state is crucially influenced by the initial conditions. We obtain these findings from a combined theoretical and experimental approach, using multiple mixed subpopulations of two Pseudomonas putida strains in non-selective growth conditions (Matthijs et al, 2009) as model system. The experimental results for the population dynamics match the theoretical predictions based on the Pólya urn model (Eggenberger and Pólya, 1923) for all analyzed parameter regimes. In summary, we show that exponential growth stops genetic drift. This result contrasts with previous theoretical analyses of non-selective evolution (e.g. genetic drift), which investigated how traits spread and eventually take over populations (fixate) (Kimura, 1955; Otto and Whitlock, 1997). Moreover, our work highlights how deeply growth influences non-selective evolution, and how it plays a key role in maintaining genetic variability. Consequently, it is of particular importance in life-cycles models (Melbinger et al, 2010; Cremer et al, 2011; Cremer et al, 2012) of periodically shrinking and expanding populations. PMID:26274606

  9. Honey oil burns: a growing problem.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Guy; Bertelotti, Robert; Greenhalgh, David; Palmieri, Tina; Maguina, Pirko

    2015-01-01

    There is an emerging mechanism of burn injury as a result of the ignition of butane, during the manufacture of a tetrahydrocannabinol concentrate known as butane honey oil. The authors report of a series of patients who presented with this mechanism of injury and a description of the process that causes these burns. Patient data were gathered from the medical records of eight patients treated at the University of California Davis Medical Center and Shriners Hospital of Northern California. Information on the manufacturing process of butane honey oil was gathered from Internet searches and published literature on the topic. The burns witnessed at the abovementioned institutions ranged from 16 to 95% TBSA, with an average of 49.9%. The average length of stay for the patients was 118.3 hospital days and 114.4 intensive care unit days, with an average of 43.8 days spent on mechanical ventilation. The average age of patients was 22 years, with only one patient above the age of 30 years. Accidents during honey oil production have resulted in a surge of burn injuries in our community during the past year. The manufacture of this product, which involves the use of volatile butane gas, is gaining in popularity. Although considered to be safer than previous methods, multiple casualties with extensive burn injuries have resulted from this process. Associated injuries from blast trauma or chemical burns are not likely to occur in these types of explosions and have not been observed in the series reported in this article. In light of the increasing popularity of honey oil, it is important for burn care providers to gain awareness and understanding of this problem and its growing presence in the community. PMID:24823328

  10. Comparing neural networks: a benchmark on growing neural gas, growing cell structures, and fuzzy ARTMAP.

    PubMed

    Heinke, D; Hamker, F H

    1998-01-01

    This article compares the performance of some recently developed incremental neural networks with the wellknown multilayer perceptron (MLP) on real-world data. The incremental networks are fuzzy ARTMAP (FAM), growing neural gas (GNG) and growing cell structures (GCS). The real-world datasets consist of four different datasets posing different challenges to the networks in terms of complexity of decision boundaries, overlapping between classes, and size of the datasets. The performance of the networks on the datasets is reported with respect to measure classification error, number of training epochs, and sensitivity toward variation of parameters. Statistical evaluations are applied to examine the significance of the results. The overall performance ranks in the following descending order: GNG, GCS, MLP, FAM. PMID:18255809

  11. Segregation of chromosome arms in growing and non-growing Escherichia coli cells

    PubMed Central

    Woldringh, Conrad L.; Hansen, Flemming G.; Vischer, Norbert O. E.; Atlung, Tove

    2015-01-01

    In slow-growing Escherichia coli cells the chromosome is organized with its left (L) and right (R) arms lying separated in opposite halves of the nucleoid and with the origin (O) in-between, giving the pattern L-O-R. During replication one of the arms has to pass the other to obtain the same organization in the daughter cells: L-O-R L-O-R. To determine the movement of arms during segregation six strains were constructed carrying three colored loci: the left and right arms were labeled with red and cyan fluorescent-proteins, respectively, on loci symmetrically positioned at different distances from the central origin, which was labeled with green-fluorescent protein. In non-replicating cells with the predominant spot pattern L-O-R, initiation of replication first resulted in a L-O-O-R pattern, soon changing to O-L-R-O. After replication of the arms the predominant spot patterns were, L-O-R L-O-R, O-R-L R-O-L or O-L-R L-O-R indicating that one or both arms passed an origin and the other arm. To study the driving force for these movements cell growth was inhibited with rifampicin allowing run-off DNA synthesis. Similar spot patterns were obtained in growing and non-growing cells, indicating that the movement of arms is not a growth-sustained process, but may result from DNA synthesis itself. The distances between loci on different arms (LR-distances) and between duplicated loci (LL- or RR-distances) as a function of their distance from the origin, indicate that in slow-growing cells DNA is organized according to the so-called sausage model and not according to the doughnut model. PMID:26029188

  12. Fast-growing species and sustainability (productivity and site dynamics of three fast-growing species)

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, A.N.; Sugur, G.V.

    1992-12-31

    Growth of three fast-growing species, raised in a high rainfall zone (2000-2500 mm per annum) has been compared, and the associated site dynamics studies in the Western Ghat area of Karnataka State. Two fast-growing exotics, Acacia auriculiformis and Castuarina equisitifolia, were planted on degraded, open sites at high planting densities (5000 plants ha{sup {minus}1}), and one native fast-growing species. Dendrocalamus strictus, was planted on a good site under seasonal irrigation and wider spacing (500 plants ha{sup {minus}1}). These were studies at the age of 5 years for their comparative productivity, quantity of litter fall and changes in nutrient and microbial status. Among these species, A. auriculiformis recorded the highest total productivity closely followed by D. strictus. However, the MAI after 5 years indicated a higher productivity for D. strictus, when culm production attained harvestable size. C. equisitifolia was a close third. It was also found that D. strictus produced higher biomass at lower planting densities, under better sites and management. The litter fall and changes in nutrient status indicated the highest efficiency in A. auriculiformis, followed by C. equisitifolia. It was concluded that the higher planting density was the major contributing factor; the values were comparatively low for D. strictus mainly owing to a lower stocking density of plants.

  13. Efficiency of lysine utilization by growing steers.

    PubMed

    Batista, E D; Hussein, A H; Detmann, E; Miesner, M D; Titgemeyer, E C

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the efficiency of Lys utilization by growing steers. Five ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (165 ± 8 kg) housed in metabolism crates were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design; data from a sixth steer was excluded due to erratic feed intake. All steers were limit fed (2.46 kg DM/d), twice daily, diets low in RUP (81% soybean hulls, 8% wheat straw, 6% cane molasses, and 5% vitamins and minerals). Treatments were 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 g/d of Lys continuously abomasally infused. To prevent AA other than Lys from limiting performance, a mixture providing all essential AA to excess was continuously abomasally infused. Additional continuous infusions included 10 g urea/d, 200 g acetic acid/d, 200 g propionic acid/d, and 50 g butyric acid/d to the rumen and 300 g glucose/d to the abomasum. These infusions provided adequate ruminal ammonia and increased energy supply without increasing microbial protein supply. Each 6-d period included 2 d for adaptation and 4 d for total fecal and urinary collections for measuring N balance. Blood was collected on d 6 (10 h after feeding). Diet OM digestibility was not altered ( ≥ 0.66) by treatment and averaged 73.7%. Urinary N excretion was decreased from 32.3 to 24.3 g/d by increasing Lys supplementation to 9 g/d, with no further reduction when more than 9 g/d of Lys was supplied (linear and quadratic, < 0.01). Changes in total urinary N excretion predominantly were due to changes in urinary urea N. Increasing Lys supply from 0 to 9 g/d increased N retention from 21.4 to 30.7 g/d, with no further increase beyond 9 g/d of Lys (linear and quadratic, < 0.01). Break-point analysis estimated maximal N retention at 9 g/d supplemental Lys. Over the linear response surface of 0 to 9 g/d Lys, the efficiency of Lys utilization for protein deposition was 40%. Plasma urea N tended to be linearly decreased ( = 0.06) by Lys supplementation in agreement with the reduction in urinary urea N excretion. Plasma concentrations

  14. Pan-Arctic linkages between snow accumulation and growing season air temperature, soil moisture and vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luus, K. A.; Gel, Y.; Lin, J. C.; Kelly, R. E. J.; Duguay, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    Arctic field studies have indicated that the air temperature, soil moisture and vegetation at a site influence the quantity of snow accumulated, and that snow accumulation can alter growing season soil moisture and vegetation. Climate change is predicted to bring about warmer air temperatures, greater snow accumulation and northward movements of the shrub and tree lines. Understanding the response of northern environments to changes in snow and growing season land surface characteristics requires: (1) insights into the present-day linkages between snow and growing season land surface characteristics; and (2) the ability to continue to monitor these associations over time across the vast pan-Arctic. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the pan-Arctic (north of 60° N) linkages between two temporally distinct data products created from AMSR-E satellite passive microwave observations: GlobSnow snow water equivalent, and NTSG (growing season air temperature, soil moisture and vegetation transmissivity). Due to the complex and interconnected nature of processes determining snow and growing season land surface characteristics, these associations were analyzed using the modern non-parametric technique of Alternating Conditional Expectations (ACE), as this approach does not impose a predefined analytic form. Findings indicate that regions with lower vegetation transmissivity (more biomass) at the start and end of the growing season tend to accumulate less snow at the start and end of the snow season, possibly due to interception and shading. Warmer air temperatures at the start and end of the growing season were associated with diminished snow accumulation at the start and end of the snow season. High latitude sites with warmer mean annual growing season temperatures tended to accumulate more snow, probably due to the greater availability of water vapor for snow season precipitation at warmer locations. Regions with drier soils preceding snow onset tended

  15. Verification of satellite radar remote sensing based estimates of boreal and subalpine growing seasons using an ecosystem process model and surface biophysical measurement network information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, K. C.; Kimball, J. S.; Zimmerman, R.

    2002-01-01

    We employ daily surface Radar backscatter data from the SeaWinds Ku-band Scatterometer onboard Quikscat to estimate landscape freeze-thaw state and associated length of the seasonal non-frozen period as a surrogate for determining the annual growing season across boreal and subalpine regions of North America for 2000 and 2001.

  16. Annual Energy Review 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Seiferlein, Katherine E.

    2002-11-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is a statistical history of energy activities in the United States. It documents trends and milestones in U.S. energy production, trade, storage, pricing, and consumption. Each new year of data that is added to the time series—which now reach into 7 decades—extends the story of how Americans have acquired and used energy. It is a story of continual change as the Nation's economy grew, energy requirements expanded, resource availability shifted, and interdependencies developed among nations.

  17. Annual research briefs, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinks, Debra (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    This report contains the 1989 annual progress reports of the Research Fellows of the Center for Turbulence Research. It is intended as a year end report to NASA, Ames Research Center which supports this group through core funding and by making available physical and intellectual resources. The Center for Turbulence Research is devoted to the fundamental study of turbulent flows; its objectives are to simulate advances in the physical understanding of turbulence, in turbulence modeling and simulation, and in turbulence control. The reports appearing in the following pages are grouped in the general areas of modeling, experimental research, theory, simulation and numerical methods, and compressible and reacting flows.

  18. Ultrasound Annual, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.C.; Hill, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    The 1983 edition of Ultrasound Annual features a state-of-the-art assessment of real-time ultrasound technology and a look at improvements in real-time equipment. Chapters discuss important new obstetric applications of ultrasound in measuring fetal umbilical vein blood flow and monitoring ovarian follicular development in vivo and in vitro fertilization. Other topics covered include transrectal prostate ultrasound using a linear array system; ultrasound of the common bile duct; ultrasound in tropical diseases; prenatal diagnosis of craniospinal anomalies; scrotal ultrasonography; opthalmic ultrasonography; and sonography of the upper abdominal venous system.

  19. Annual Research Briefs, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The 1990 annual progress reports of the Research Fellows and students of the Center for Turbulent Research (CTR) are included. It is intended primarily as a contractor report to NASA, Ames Research Center. In addition, numerous CTR Manuscript Reports were published last year. The purpose of the CTR Manuscript Series is to expedite the dissemination of research results by the CTR staff. The CTR is devoted to the fundamental study of turbulent flow; its objectives are to produce advances in physical understanding of turbulence, in turbulence modeling and simulation, and in turbulence control.

  20. International energy annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The International Energy Annual presents information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu). Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Data are provided on crude oil refining capacity and electricity installed capacity by type. Prices are included for selected crude oils and for refined petroleum products in selected countries. Population and Gross Domestic Product data are also provided.

  1. Renewable energy annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

  2. Annual Energy Review 2010

    SciTech Connect

    2011-10-01

    This twenty-ninth edition of the Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) most comprehensive look at integrated energy statistics. The summary statistics on the Nation’s energy production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices cover all major energy commodities and all energy-consuming sectors of the U.S. economy from 1949 through 2010. The AER is EIA’s historical record of energy statistics and, because the coverage spans six decades, the statistics in this report are well-suited to long-term trend analysis.

  3. Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    Among the highlights of Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989 are a status report on the thyroid scan in clinical practice, a review of functional and structural brain imaging in dementia, an update on radionuclide renal imaging in children, and an article outlining a quality assurance program for SPECT instrumentation. Also included are discussions on current concepts in osseous sports and stress injury scintigraphy and on correlative magnetic resonance and radionuclide imaging of bone. Other contributors assess the role of nuclear medicine in clinical decision making and examine medicolegal and regulatory aspects of nuclear medicine.

  4. NPL 1999 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 NPL 1999 Annual Report. The Nuclear Physics Laboratory at the University of Washington in Seattle pursues a broad program of nuclear physics research. Research activities are conducted locally and at remote sites. The current program includes ''in-house'' research on nuclear collisions using the local tandem Van de Graaff and superconducting linac accelerators as well as local and remote non-accelerator research on fundamental symmetries and weak interactions and user-mode research on relativistic heavy ions at large accelerator facilities around the world.

  5. Growing season temperature and precipitation variability and extremes in the U.S. Corn Belt from 1981 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, S.; Shulski, M.

    2013-12-01

    ,35, growth range limits for corn), and the sum of growing degree days between 20°C and 22°C (GDD20,22, optimal growth range for corn). And the precipitation-based indices include: cumulative precipitation, consecutive dry days, and number of extreme precipitation events in June. As to the decadal trend analysis in climatic factors, Sen's Nonparametric Estimator of Slope and the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test are used. In the U.S. Corn Belt, annual mean Tavg ranges from 5.7°C to 14.7°C, and annual cumulative precipitation ranges from 396 mm to 1,203 mm. According to the decadal trend of annual mean Tavg and annual cumulative precipitation, 30 stations (45%) demonstrate a warm and dry trend, and 28 stations demonstrate a warm and wet trend. In monthly scale, Jun mean Tmin presents the most significantly increasing trend, and no significant decreasing or zero trend is detected from 1981 to 2012. During the climatological corn growing season, BD ranges from 76 to 128 DOY, ED ranges from 276 to 316 DOY, and GSL ranges from 150 to 242 days. From 1981 to 2012, BD is significantly advanced at the rate of 1 to 8 DOY per decade, ED is significantly delayed at the rate of 1 to 5 per decade, and GSL is significantly prolonged at the rate of 1 to 11 days per decade.

  6. A Growing Anticline in Tainan City, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.; Lee, C.; Cheng, C.; Liao, C.; Wen, S.

    2001-12-01

    Tainan City has been known as an earthquake prone town since the early immigration of the ¡§Han¡" people from Mainland China about four hundred years ago. For the purpose of clarifying tectonic activity and paleo-earthquakes in the Tainan City area, we have finished the excavation of three trenches and the drilling of four holes at the so-called Houchiali Fault on the eastern margin of the Tainan tableland. We carefully observed the cores and exposures in the trenches, performed a detailed mapping, and took samples for C-14 dating and other types of analysis. The results show the trench sites are located at a flexure scarp without direct evidence of faulting. But, from the fact of tilting of Holocene sediments to about 50 degrees and the development of a fracture system in the sediments, one may realize that this is without doubt an active structure. We have tested many different models to interpret the observed geologic evidence in the trenches and outcrops, finally determined a growing fault-propagation fold model to be the best interpretation for the Tainan Anticline, while the Houchiali fault is a back-kink or a blind back-thrust type. A diapiric fold had been discussed as possible for a long time by many researchers, but a fault-propagation fold in origin does not contradict with a mud diapiric feature, which was formed during the folding. Field evidence shows that the main active phase of the Houchiali Fault and the Tainan Anticline would have been after the deposition of the Tainan Formation about two to three thousand years ago. During the active deformation phase, the Tawan Formation onlaped the Tainan Formation, as well as tilted during the folding, thus, beds on higher stratigraphic horizon show lower dip-angle. Estimated from a detailed geologic profile, the horizontal shortening of the anticline is estimated to be 30 meters. The vertical uplift of the Tainan Formation is also about 30 meters. This indicates that the deformation rate has been about 1

  7. Electric power annual 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-06

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. ``The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance`` section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; retail sales; revenue; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms.

  8. CMS Annual Report 2004

    SciTech Connect

    de la Rubia, T D; Shang, S P; Rennie, G; Fluss, M; Westbrook, C

    2005-07-29

    Glance at the articles in this report, and you will sense the transformation that is reshaping the landscape of materials science and chemistry. This transformation is bridging the gaps among chemistry, materials science, and biology--ushering in a wealth of innovative technologies with broad scientific impact. The emergence of this intersection is reinvigorating our strategic investment into areas that build on our strength of interdisciplinary science. It is at the intersection that we position our strategic vision into a future where we will provide radical materials innovations and solutions to our national-security programs and other sponsors. Our 2004 Annual Report describes how our successes and breakthroughs follow a path set forward by our strategic plan and four organizing research themes, each with key scientific accomplishments by our staff and collaborators. We have organized this report into two major sections: research themes and our dynamic teams. The research-theme sections focus on achievements arising from earlier investments while addressing future challenges. The dynamic teams section illustrates the directorate's organizational structure of divisions, centers, and institutes that support a team environment across disciplinary and institutional boundaries. The research presented in this annual report gives substantive examples of how we are proceeding in each of these four theme areas and how they are aligned with our national-security mission. By maintaining an organizational structure that offers an environment of collaborative problem-solving opportunities, we are able to nurture the discoveries and breakthroughs required for future successes.

  9. Annual Energy Review 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-14

    This twelfth edition of the Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration`s historical energy statistics. For most series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1993. Because coverage spans four and a half decades, the statistics in this report are well-suited to long-term trend analyses. The AER is comprehensive. It covers all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels and electricity. The AER also presents Energy Information Administration (EIA) statistics on some renewable energy sources. EIA estimates that its consumption series include about half of the renewable energy used in the United States. For a more complete discussion of EIA`s renewables data, see p. xix, ``Introducing Expanded Coverage of Renewable Energy Data Into the Historical Consumption Series.`` Copies of the 1993 edition of the Annual Energy Review may be obtained by using the order form in the back of this publication. Most of the data in the 1993 edition also are available on personal computer diskette. For more information about the diskettes, see the back of this publication. In addition, the data are available as part of the National Economic, Social, and Environmental Data Bank on a CD-ROM. For more information about the data bank, contact the US Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration, on 202-482-1986.

  10. Annual Energy Review 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Seiferlein, Katherine E.

    2007-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  11. Annual Energy Review 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Seiferlein, Katherine E.

    2006-07-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  12. Annual Energy Review 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Seiferlein, Katherine E.

    2005-08-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  13. Annual Energy Review 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Fichman, Barbara T.

    2010-08-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding the content of the AER and other EIA publications.

  14. Annual Energy Review 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Fichman, Barbara T.

    2012-09-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, and renewable energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding the content of the AER and other EIA publications.

  15. 2006 Annual Merit Review Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-18

    Each year hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Hydrogen Program are reviewed for their merit during an Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting. The 2006 Annual Merit Review, held May 16-19, 2006 in Arlington, Va., showcased approximately 250 projects. Principal investigators presented their project status and results in oral and poster presentations, which are available in the 2006 Annual Merit Review Proceedings. A panel of more than 150 community experts peer reviewed two-t

  16. Development of an effective and potentially scalable weather generator for temperature and growing degree days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Elham; Friederichs, Petra; Keller, Jan; Hense, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop an easy-to-use weather generator (WG) for the downscaling of gridded data to point measurements at regional scale. The WG is applied to daily averaged temperatures and annual growing degree days (GDD) of wheat. This particular choice of variables is motivated by future investigations on temperature impacts as the most important climate variable for wheat cultivation under irrigation in Iran. The proposed statistical downscaling relates large-scale ERA-40 reanalysis to local daily temperature and annual GDD. Long-term local observations in Iran are used at 16 synoptic stations from 1961 to 2001, which is the common period with ERA-40 data. We perform downscaling using two approaches: the first is a linear regression model that uses the ERA-40 fingerprints (FP) defined by the squared correlation with local variability, and the second employs a linear multiple regression (MR) analysis to relate the large-scale information at the neighboring grid points to the station data. Extending the usual downscaling, we implement a WG providing uncertainty information and realizations of the local temperatures and GDD by adding a Gaussian random noise. ERA-40 reanalysis well represents the local daily temperature as well as the annual GDD variability. For 2-m temperature, the FPs are more localized during the warm compared with the cold season. While MR is slightly superior for daily temperature time series, FP seems to perform best for annual GDD. We further assess the quality of the WGs applying probabilistic verification scores like the continuous ranked probability score (CRPS) and the respective skill score. They clearly demonstrate the superiority of WGs compared with a deterministic downscaling.

  17. Annual Energy Review 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Seiferlein, Katherine E.

    2000-07-01

    A generation ago the Ford Foundation convened a group of experts to explore and assess the Nation’s energy future, and published their conclusions in A Time To Choose: America’s Energy Future (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1974). The Energy Policy Project developed scenarios of U.S. potential energy use in 1985 and 2000. Now, with 1985 well behind us and 2000 nearly on the record books, it may be of interest to take a look back to see what actually happened and consider what it means for our future. The study group sketched three primary scenarios with differing assumptions about the growth of energy use. The Historical Growth scenario assumed that U.S. energy consumption would continue to expand by 3.4 percent per year, the average rate from 1950 to 1970. This scenario assumed no intentional efforts to change the pattern of consumption, only efforts to encourage development of our energy supply. The Technical Fix scenario anticipated a “conscious national effort to use energy more efficiently through engineering know-how." The Zero Energy Growth scenario, while not clamping down on the economy or calling for austerity, incorporated the Technical Fix efficiencies plus additional efficiencies. This third path anticipated that economic growth would depend less on energy-intensive industries and more on those that require less energy, i.e., the service sector. In 2000, total energy consumption was projected to be 187 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in the Historical Growth case, 124 quadrillion Btu in the Technical Fix case, and 100 quadrillion Btu in the Zero Energy Growth case. The Annual Energy Review 1999 reports a preliminary total consumption for 1999 of 97 quadrillion Btu (see Table 1.1), and the Energy Information Administration’s Short-Term Energy Outlook (April 2000) forecasts total energy consumption of 98 quadrillion Btu in 2000. What energy consumption path did the United States actually travel to get from 1974, when the scenarios were drawn

  18. Air pollution and meteorological processes in the growing dryland city of Urumqi (Xinjiang, China).

    PubMed

    Mamtimin, Buhalqem; Meixner, Franz X

    2011-03-01

    Seven years (2000-2006) of monthly PM₁₀ (particulate matter, d ≤ 10 μm), SO₂, and NO₂ concentrations are reported for Urumqi, the capital of Xinjiang in NW China. Considerably high mean annual concentrations have been observed, which ranged between 150 and 240 μg m⁻³ (PM₁₀, 31 and 50 μg m⁻³ (NO₂), and 49 and 160 μg m⁻³ (SO₂). The shapes of seasonal variation of all pollutants were remarkably similar; however, winter/summer ratios of concentrations were quite different for PM₁₀ (2-3) and NO₂ (≈4) compared to SO₂ (up to 30). Very high consumption rates of fossil fuels for energy generation and domestic heating are mainly responsible for high annual pollution levels, as well as the (very) high winter/summer ratios. Detailed analysis of the 2000-2006 records of Urumqi's meteorological data resulted in inter-annual and seasonal frequency distributions of (a) (surface) inversion events, (b) heights of surface inversions, (c) stability classes of Urumqi's boundary layer, and (d) the "Air Stagnation Index (ASI)". Urumqi's boundary layer is shown to be characterized by high mean annual and seasonal frequencies of (surface) inversions and by the dominance of stable dispersion classes. A further outcome of the meteorological analysis is the proof of Urumqi's strong diurnal wind system, which might have particularly contributed to the stabilization of the nocturnal boundary layer. Annual and seasonal variations of pollutant's concentrations are discussed in the context of occurrences of inversions, boundary layer, stability classes, and ASI. The trend of Urumqi's air pollution indicates a strong increase of mean annual concentrations 2000-2003, followed by a slight increase during 2003-2006. These are in strong contrast to (a) the growth of Urumqi's fleet of motor vehicles and (b) to the growing number of stable regimes of Urumqi's boundary layer climate during same period. It is concluded that the (regional and) local administrative

  19. Air pollution and meteorological processes in the growing dryland city of Urumqi (Xinjiang, China).

    PubMed

    Mamtimin, Buhalqem; Meixner, Franz X

    2011-03-01

    Seven years (2000-2006) of monthly PM₁₀ (particulate matter, d ≤ 10 μm), SO₂, and NO₂ concentrations are reported for Urumqi, the capital of Xinjiang in NW China. Considerably high mean annual concentrations have been observed, which ranged between 150 and 240 μg m⁻³ (PM₁₀, 31 and 50 μg m⁻³ (NO₂), and 49 and 160 μg m⁻³ (SO₂). The shapes of seasonal variation of all pollutants were remarkably similar; however, winter/summer ratios of concentrations were quite different for PM₁₀ (2-3) and NO₂ (≈4) compared to SO₂ (up to 30). Very high consumption rates of fossil fuels for energy generation and domestic heating are mainly responsible for high annual pollution levels, as well as the (very) high winter/summer ratios. Detailed analysis of the 2000-2006 records of Urumqi's meteorological data resulted in inter-annual and seasonal frequency distributions of (a) (surface) inversion events, (b) heights of surface inversions, (c) stability classes of Urumqi's boundary layer, and (d) the "Air Stagnation Index (ASI)". Urumqi's boundary layer is shown to be characterized by high mean annual and seasonal frequencies of (surface) inversions and by the dominance of stable dispersion classes. A further outcome of the meteorological analysis is the proof of Urumqi's strong diurnal wind system, which might have particularly contributed to the stabilization of the nocturnal boundary layer. Annual and seasonal variations of pollutant's concentrations are discussed in the context of occurrences of inversions, boundary layer, stability classes, and ASI. The trend of Urumqi's air pollution indicates a strong increase of mean annual concentrations 2000-2003, followed by a slight increase during 2003-2006. These are in strong contrast to (a) the growth of Urumqi's fleet of motor vehicles and (b) to the growing number of stable regimes of Urumqi's boundary layer climate during same period. It is concluded that the (regional and) local administrative

  20. Incorporating Edge Information into Best Merge Region-Growing Segmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; Pasolli, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    We have previously developed a best merge region-growing approach that integrates nonadjacent region object aggregation with the neighboring region merge process usually employed in region growing segmentation approaches. This approach has been named HSeg, because it provides a hierarchical set of image segmentation results. Up to this point, HSeg considered only global region feature information in the region growing decision process. We present here three new versions of HSeg that include local edge information into the region growing decision process at different levels of rigor. We then compare the effectiveness and processing times of these new versions HSeg with each other and with the original version of HSeg.

  1. Annual energy review 1994

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-07-01

    This 13th edition presents the Energy Information Administration's historical energy statistics. For most series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1994; thus, this report is well-suited to long-term trend analyses. It covers all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels and electricity. Statistics on renewable energy sources are also included: this year, for the first time, usage of renewables by other consumers as well as by electric utilities is included. Also new is a two-part, comprehensive presentation of data on petroleum products supplied by sector for 1949 through 1994. Data from electric utilities and nonutilities are integrated as 'electric power industry' data; nonutility power gross generation are presented for the first time. One section presents international statistics (for more detail see EIA's International Energy Annual).

  2. Uranium Industry Annual, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-28

    The Uranium Industry Annual provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry for the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and electric utility industries, and the public. The feature article, ``Decommissioning of US Conventional Uranium Production Centers,`` is included. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2.

  3. Annual energy review 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This 13th edition presents the Energy Information Administration`s historical energy statistics. For most series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1994; thus, this report is well-suited to long-term trend analyses. It covers all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels and electricity. Statistics on renewable energy sources are also included: this year, for the first time, usage of renewables by other consumers as well as by electric utilities is included. Also new is a two-part, comprehensive presentation of data on petroleum products supplied by sector for 1949 through 1994. Data from electric utilities and nonutilities are integrated as ``electric power industry`` data; nonutility power gross generation are presented for the first time. One section presents international statistics (for more detail see EIA`s International Energy Annual).

  4. Annual Research Briefs, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinks, Debra (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains the 1992 annual progress reports of the Research Fellows and students of the Center for Turbulence Research. Considerable effort was focused on the large eddy simulation technique for computing turbulent flows. This increased activity has been inspired by the recent predictive successes of the dynamic subgrid scale modeling procedure which was introduced during the 1990 Summer Program. Several Research Fellows and students are presently engaged in both the development of subgrid scale models and their applications to complex flows. The first group of papers in this report contain the findings of these studies. They are followed by reports grouped in the general areas of modeling, turbulence physics, and turbulent reacting flows. The last contribution in this report outlines the progress made on the development of the CTR post-processing facility.

  5. Coal industry annual 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  6. 1994 MCAP annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Harmony, S.C.; Boyack, B.E.

    1995-04-01

    VELCOR is an integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants. The entire spectrum of severe accident phenomena, including reactor coolant system and containment thermal-hydraulic response, core heatup, degradation and relocation, and fission product release and transport is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework for both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Its current uses include the estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. Independent assessment efforts have been successfully completed by the US and international MELCOR user communities. Most of these independent assessment efforts have been conducted to support the needs and fulfill the requirements of the individual user organizations. The resources required to perform an extensive set of model and integral code assessments are large. A prudent approach to fostering code development and maturation is to coordinate the individual assessment efforts of the MELCOR user community. While retaining individual control over assessment resources, each organization using the MELCOR code could work with the other users to broaden assessment coverage and minimize duplication. In recognition of these considerations, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) has initiated the MELCOR Cooperative Assessment Program (MCAP), a vehicle for coordinating and standardizing the assessment practices of the various MELCOR users. In addition, the user community will have a forum to better communicate lessons learned regarding MELCOR applications, capabilities, and user guidelines and limitations and to provide a user community perspective on code development needs and priorities. This second Annual Report builds on the foundation laid with the first Annual Report.

  7. Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review provides a yearly comparison between realized energy outcomes and the Reference case projections included in previous Annual Energy Outlooks (AEO) beginning with 1982. This edition of the report adds the AEO 2012 projections and updates the historical data to incorporate the latest data revisions.

  8. 2005 Annual Merit Review Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-18

    Each year hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Hydrogen Program are reviewed for their merit during an Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting. The 2005 Annual Merit Review was held May 23-25, 2005 in Arlington, VA

  9. 2004 Annual Merit Review Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-18

    Each year hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Hydrogen Program are reviewed for their merit during an Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting. The 2004 Annual Merit Review was held May 24-27, 2004 in Philadelphia, PA

  10. Energy Program annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, I.Y.

    1988-02-01

    The national economy is particularly dependent on efficient electrical generation and transportation. Electrical demand continues to grow and will increasingly rely on coal and nuclear fuels. The nuclear power industry still has not found a solution to the problem of disposing of the waste produced by nuclear reactors. Although coal is in ample supply and the infrastructure is in place for its utilization, environmental problems and improved conversion processes remain technical challenges. In the case of transportation, the nation depends almost exclusively on liquid fuels with attendant reliance on imported oil. Economic alternates---synfuels from coal, natural gas, and oil shale, or fuel cells and batteries---have yet to be developed or perfected so as to impact the marketplace. Inefficiencies in energy conversion in almost all phases of resource utilization remain. These collective problems are the focus of the Energy Program.

  11. Fast-Growing Churches: What Distinguishes Them from Others?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Deborah; Woolever, Cynthia; Wulff, Keith; Smith-Williams, Ida

    2006-01-01

    The 400 fastest-growing churches (based on the percentage change in average worship attendance in the previous five years) in the Presbyterian Church (USA), a mainline Protestant denomination, were invited to take part in the US Congregational Life Survey. Completed surveys were received from 19,033 worshipers in 93 fast-growing churches. These…

  12. 7 CFR 319.37-8 - Growing media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... growing, storing, and shipping in compliance with 7 CFR 319.37-8(f); and (6) If the accompanying... affecting § 319.37-8, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Growing media. 319.37-8 Section 319.37-8...

  13. 7 CFR 319.37-8 - Growing media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... conditions of growing, storing, and shipping in compliance with 7 CFR 319.37-8(f); and (6) If the... Register citations affecting § 319.37-8, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Growing media. 319.37-8 Section 319.37-8...

  14. 7 CFR 319.37-8 - Growing media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... conditions of growing, storing, and shipping in compliance with 7 CFR 319.37-8(f); and (6) If the... Register citations affecting § 319.37-8, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Growing media. 319.37-8 Section 319.37-8...

  15. 7 CFR 319.37-8 - Growing media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... growing, storing, and shipping in compliance with 7 CFR 319.37-8(f); and (6) If the accompanying... affecting § 319.37-8, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Growing media. 319.37-8 Section 319.37-8...

  16. 7 CFR 319.37-8 - Growing media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... conditions of growing, storing, and shipping in compliance with 7 CFR 319.37-8(f); and (6) If the... Register citations affecting § 319.37-8, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Growing media. 319.37-8 Section 319.37-8...

  17. 24 CFR 203.47 - Eligibility of growing equity mortgages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligibility of growing equity mortgages. 203.47 Section 203.47 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Properties § 203.47 Eligibility of growing equity mortgages. A mortgage containing provisions for...

  18. 24 CFR 203.47 - Eligibility of growing equity mortgages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eligibility of growing equity mortgages. 203.47 Section 203.47 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Properties § 203.47 Eligibility of growing equity mortgages. A mortgage containing provisions for...

  19. Principal Efficacy: Implications for Rural "Grow Your Own" Leadership Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Versland, Tena M.

    2013-01-01

    Although "grow your own" principal preparation programs have become a popular method for recruiting and selecting administrator candidates for hard to fill positions in both urban and rural schools, "grow your own" principal candidates in rural contexts may be more vulnerable to the phenomenon of loss of self-efficacy. This…

  20. Complete Genome Sequences of 17 Rapidly Growing Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Strains.

    PubMed

    Caverly, Lindsay J; Spilker, Theodore; LiPuma, John J

    2016-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequences of 17 rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) strains, including 16 Mycobacterium abscessus complex strains and one M. immunogenum strain. These sequences add value to studies of the genetic diversity of rapidly growing NTM strains recovered from human specimens. PMID:27660787

  1. Evolution of Communicative Competence in Adolescents Growing up in Orphanages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribakova, Laysan A.; Parfilova, Gulfia G.; Karimova, Lilya Sh.; Karimova, Raushan B.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes features of the communicative competence evolution in adolescents growing up in orphanages. The specificity is revealed and definition is given to key concept of the research, namely "communicative competence". Authors emphasize and demonstrate the evaluation peculiarities of the adolescents, growing up in…

  2. Complete Genome Sequences of 17 Rapidly Growing Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Strains

    PubMed Central

    Spilker, Theodore; LiPuma, John J.

    2016-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequences of 17 rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) strains, including 16 Mycobacterium abscessus complex strains and one M. immunogenum strain. These sequences add value to studies of the genetic diversity of rapidly growing NTM strains recovered from human specimens. PMID:27660787

  3. Growing-season length and climatic variation in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Sharratt, B.S.

    1992-03-01

    The growing season has lengthened in the contiguous United States since 1900, coinciding with increasing northern hemispheric air temperatures. Information on growing season trends is needed in arctic regions where projected increases in air temperature are to be more pronounced. The lengths of the growing season at four locations in Alaska were evaluated for characteristic trends between 1917 and 1988. Freeze dates were determined using minimum temperature criteria of O deg and -3 deg C. A shortening of the season was found at Sitka and lengthening of the season at Talkeetna. The growing season shortened at Juneau and Sitka during the period 1940 to 1970, which corresponded with declining northern hemisphere temperature. Change in the growing season length was apparent in the Alaska temperature record, but the regional tendency for shorter or longer season needs further evaluation.

  4. Invasion of Mediterranean Annual Grasses in Western North America Ecosystems: Kids in a Candy Store

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this issue of Plant and Soil, Blank and Sforza (2007) contribute to a growing body of work focused on describing mechanisms by which exotic annual grasses invade ecosystems in the western United States. Their findings, that medusahead wildrye (Taeniatherum caput-medusae [L.] Nevski) was most pro...

  5. To grow or not to grow: a stressful decision for plants.

    PubMed

    Dolferus, Rudy

    2014-12-01

    Progress in improving abiotic stress tolerance of crop plants using classic breeding and selection approaches has been slow. This has generally been blamed on the lack of reliable traits and phenotyping methods for stress tolerance. In crops, abiotic stress tolerance is most often measured in terms of yield-capacity under adverse weather conditions. "Yield" is a complex trait and is determined by growth and developmental processes which are controlled by environmental signals throughout the life cycle of the plant. The use of model systems has allowed us to gradually unravel how plants grow and develop, but our understanding of the flexibility and opportunistic nature of plant development and its capacity to adapt growth to environmental cues is still evolving. There is genetic variability for the capacity to maintain yield and productivity under abiotic stress conditions in crop plants such as cereals. Technological progress in various domains has made it increasingly possible to mine that genetic variability and develop a better understanding about the basic mechanism of plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. The aim of this paper is not to give a detailed account of all current research progress, but instead to highlight some of the current research trends that may ultimately lead to strategies for stress-proofing crop species. The focus will be on abiotic stresses that are most often associated with climate change (drought, heat and cold) and those crops that are most important for human nutrition, the cereals.

  6. Annual Energy Review 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Seiferlein, Katherine E.

    2001-08-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration’s historical energy statistics. For many series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 2000. The statistics, expressed in either physical units or British thermal units, cover all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels, electricity, and renewable energy sources. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the Energy Information Administration under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  7. Annual Energy Review 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Seiferlein, Katherine E.

    2003-10-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration’s historical energy statistics. For many series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 2002. The statistics, expressed in either physical units or British thermal units, cover all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels, electricity, and renewable energy sources. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications. Related Publication: Readers of the AER may also be interested in EIA’s Monthly Energy Review, which presents monthly updates of many of the data in the AER. Contact our National Energy Information Center for more information.

  8. 2007 LDRD ANNUAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    French, T

    2008-12-16

    I am pleased to present the fiscal year 2007 Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) annual report. This represents the first year that SRNL has been eligible for LDRD participation and our results to date demonstrate we are off to an excellent start. SRNL became a National Laboratory in 2004, and was designated the 'Corporate Laboratory' for the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) in 2006. As you will see, we have made great progress since these designations. The LDRD program is one of the tools SRNL is using to enable achievement of our strategic goals for the DOE. The LDRD program allows the laboratory to blend a strong basic science component into our applied technical portfolio. This blending of science with applied technology provides opportunities for our scientists to strengthen our capabilities and delivery. The LDRD program is vital to help SRNL attract and retain leading scientists and engineers who will help build SRNL's future and achieve DOE mission objectives. This program has stimulated our research staff creativity, while realizing benefits from their participation. This investment will yield long term dividends to the DOE in its Environmental Management, Energy, and National Security missions.

  9. Annual Research Briefs: 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This report contains the 1995 annual progress reports of the Research Fellows and students of the Center for Turbulence Research (CTR). In 1995 CTR continued its concentration on the development and application of large-eddy simulation to complex flows, development of novel modeling concepts for engineering computations in the Reynolds averaged framework, and turbulent combustion. In large-eddy simulation, a number of numerical and experimental issues have surfaced which are being addressed. The first group of reports in this volume are on large-eddy simulation. A key finding in this area was the revelation of possibly significant numerical errors that may overwhelm the effects of the subgrid-scale model. We also commissioned a new experiment to support the LES validation studies. The remaining articles in this report are concerned with Reynolds averaged modeling, studies of turbulence physics and flow generated sound, combustion, and simulation techniques. Fundamental studies of turbulent combustion using direct numerical simulations which started at CTR will continue to be emphasized. These studies and their counterparts carried out during the summer programs have had a noticeable impact on combustion research world wide.

  10. Nuclear medicine annual 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Two of the major areas of cutting-edge nuclear medicine research, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) functional brain imaging and monoclonal antibody studies receive attention in this volume. Advances in these areas are critical to the continued growth of our specialty. Fortunately, the current outlook in both areas remains quite optimistic. As has been the policy in the first decade of publication, thorough state-of-the-art reviews on existing procedures are interspersed with chapters dealing with research developments. The editor wishes to express a particular note of appreciation to a very supportive British colleague, Dr. Ignac Fogelman, who is becoming a regular contributor. His exhaustive review of the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of osteoporotic patients is packed with extremely useful information that will prove to be fruitful to all readers. The author would like to thank the readers and colleagues who have taken the time to offer useful and constructive comments over the past ten years. The author continue to welcome suggestions that will help to further improve this Annual.

  11. Annual Energy Review 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Seiferlein, Katherine E.

    1998-07-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration’s historical energy statistics. For many series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1997. The statistics, expressed in either physical units or British thermal units, cover all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels, electricity, and renewable energy sources. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), which states, in part, in Section 205(a)(2) that: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  12. Biochar as growing media additive and peat substitute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, C.; Harttung, T.

    2014-04-01

    Environmental concerns raised the demand for alternative growing media substituting sphagnum peat. However growing media formulations still depend on peat and alternatives are limited. Biochar is carbonized plant material and could be an appropriate additive or even substitute for sphagnum peat. Freshly produced, it is free from pathogens, has a low nutrient content (if produced from nutrient poor feedstock), a very high structural stability and likely other favourable properties such as air capacity and water holding capacity. Preliminary tests were conducted to compare biochar with other growing media and growing media additives. The growth of a miniature sunflower, pH and electrical conductivity (EC) was measured in different growing media such as biochar, perlite, clay granules, sphagnum peat and peat mixed with biochar in the ratios 1 : 4, 1 : 1 and 4 : 1 (25, 50 and 75%, by volume). Fresh biochar has a similar EC than peat which is even lower after rinsing with water. Due to the relatively high pH of biochar, it could be added to peat instead of lime in a concentration of up to 75%. The growth of the sunflower was similar in all growing media. Only the plant weight was slightly higher of plants that grew in perlite or peat. There is a large potential for optimization such as selection of particle size and feedstock for biochar production and growing media formulations for specific plant requirements.

  13. Biochar as a growing media additive and peat substitute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, C.; Harttung, T.

    2014-09-01

    Environmental concerns raised the demand for alternative growing media substituting Sphagnum peat. However growing media formulations still depend on peat and alternatives are limited. Biochar is carbonized plant material and could be an appropriate additive or even substitute for Sphagnum peat. Freshly produced, it is free from pathogens, has a low nutrient content (if produced from nutrient-poor feedstock), a very high structural stability and likely other favourable properties such as air capacity and water-holding capacity. Preliminary tests were conducted to compare biochar with other growing media and growing media additives. The growth of a miniature sunflower, pH and electrical conductivity (EC) was measured in different growing media such as biochar, perlite, clay granules, Sphagnum peat and peat mixed with biochar in the ratios 1 : 4, 1 : 1 and 4 : 1 (25, 50 and 75%, by volume). Fresh biochar has a similar EC to peat which is even lower after rinsing with water. Due to the relatively high pH of biochar, it could be added to peat instead of lime in a concentration of up to 75%. The growth of the sunflower was similar in all growing media. Only the plant weight was slightly higher of plants that grew in perlite or peat. There is a large potential for optimization such as selection of particle size and feedstock for biochar production and growing media formulations for specific plant requirements.

  14. The warming-induced increase of growing-season freezing event and its effect on the survival and growth of treeline seedlings in the Sergyemla Mountains, Southeast Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, W.; Zhang, L.; Liu, X.; Luo, T.

    2013-12-01

    Seedling establishment is important to the formation and dynamics of alpine treeline. How can we understand the limitation to the survival and growth of seedlings at and above treeline under a warmer climate? In this study, we conducted a 4-yr reciprocal transplant experiment of seed-based fir and root-sprouting juniper seedlings on opposite slopes of a valley in the Sergyemla Mountains, where annual mean air-temperature differed by 0.5-2.1 K and annual precipitation was similar. We aim to test the hypotheses that the warmer climate on the south-facing slope generally has more severe growing-season freezing events, and the seed-based fir seedlings are especially vulnerable to the warming-induced increase of freezing days in the early growing season. The frequency, intensity and duration of the growing-season freezing events across site habitats generally increased from north- to south-facing slopes. The freezing days in the early growing season (April-June) were mainly determined by daily minimum net radiation and relative humidity, and positively correlated with annual mean air-temperature across sites and years. The survival rates of transplanted fir seedlings on the south-facing slope greatly decreased by <60% in forested habitat and by <40% in non-forested habitat, while their survival rates on the north-facing slope did not change in forested habitat and slowly decreased by 85% in non-forested habitat. The survival rates of transplanted juniper seedlings decreased by 68%-84% with unclear change trends among different slopes and habitats. In pooled data across sites and years, annual top-shoot growth rates decreased in fir seedlings but varied little in juniper seedlings with increasing freezing days in the early growing season. The data supported our hypotheses. The warming-enhanced difficulty of seedling establishment above treeline can explain why the fir treeline position did not advance with climatic warming in past 200 years.

  15. N2O and CH4 emissions from a Chinese wheat-rice cropping system under different tillage practices during the wheat-growing season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The annual wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-rice (Oryza sativa L.) cropping system is the most important cereal production system in the Yangtze River Valley of China, in which various tillage systems are currently implemented during the wheat-growing season. The emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) from the different tillage systems in this system remain unclear. We conducted a 3-year field experiment in a wheat-rice cropping system in a silt clay loam soil to investigate the effects of the type of tillage employed during the wheat-growing season (no-tillage (NT), reduced tillage (RT) or conventional tillage (CT)) on the emissions of N2O and CH4 using the static chamber method over three annual rotation cycles from the 2008 wheat season to the 2011 rice season. The results revealed that the adoption of an NT system during the wheat-growing season significantly increased CH4 emissions during both the wheat-growing season and the following rice-growing season. Over the three annual rotation cycles studied, the annual N2O emissions from the NT (2.24 kg N2O-N ha-1) and CT (2.01 kg N2O-N ha-1) treatments were similar to each other and significantly higher than those from the RT treatment (1.73 kg N2O-N ha-1); the annual CH4 emissions were significantly higher from the NT (100.1 kg CH4-C ha-1) than the CT (83.7 kg CH4-C ha-1) and RT (73.9 kg CH4-C ha-1) systems. The overall results regarding the net global warming potential associated with annual N2O and CH4 emissions indicate that the conversion of conventional tillage to no-tillage systems during the wheat-growing season would intensify the radiative forcing in wheat-rice cropping systems in China.

  16. Growing self-organizing trees for autonomous hierarchical clustering.

    PubMed

    Doan, Nhat-Quang; Azzag, Hanane; Lebbah, Mustapha

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a new unsupervised learning method based on growing processes and autonomous self-assembly rules. This method, called Growing Self-organizing Trees (GSoT), can grow both network size and tree topology to represent the topological and hierarchical dataset organization, allowing a rapid and interactive visualization. Tree construction rules draw inspiration from elusive properties of biological organization to build hierarchical structures. Experiments conducted on real datasets demonstrate good GSoT performance and provide visual results that are generated during the training process. PMID:23041056

  17. Direct transfer of IL-12 gene into growing Renca tumors.

    PubMed

    Budryk, M; Wilczyńska, U; Szary, J; Szala, S

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the feasibility of transferring naked plasmid DNA containing a therapeutic gene (IL-12) into mice harboring growing Renca tumors. We found that naked DNA transferred into growing Renca and B16(F10) tumors gives higher expression level of reporter gene than complexes of DNA with DDAB/DOPE or DC-Chol/DOPE. Transfer of naked DNA carrying the IL-12 gene into growing Renca tumors causes a distinct therapeutic effect that depends on the time span between inoculation of mice with cancer cells and the beginning of the therapy. Therapy started on day 3 resulted in total cure (100%) of mice. PMID:11051203

  18. Growing Up Or Growing Old? Cellular Aging Linked With Testosterone Reactivity To Stress In Youth

    PubMed Central

    Drury, Stacy S.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Shachet, Andrew; Phan, Jenny; Mabile, Emily; Brett, Zoë H.; Wren, Michael; Esteves, Kyle; Theall, Katherine P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Given the established relation between testosterone and aging in older adults, we tested whether buccal telomere length (TL), an established cellular biomarker of aging, was associated with testosterone levels in youth. Methods Children, mean age 10.2 years, were recruited from the greater New Orleans area and salivary testosterone was measured during both an acute stressor and diurnally. Buccal TL was measured using monochrome multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (MMQ-PCR). Testosterone and telomere length data was available on 77 individuals. The association between buccal TL and testosterone was tested using multivariate Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) to account for clustering of children within families. Results Greater peak testosterone levels (β=-0.87, p < 0.01) and slower recovery (β=-0.56, p < 0.01) and reactivity (β = -1.22, p < 0.01) following a social stressor were significantly associated with shorter buccal TL after controlling for parental age at conception, child age, sex, sociodemographic factors and puberty. No association was initially present between diurnal measurements of testosterone or morning basal testosterone levels and buccal TL. Sex significantly moderated the relation between testosterone reactivity and buccal TL. Conclusions The association between testosterone and buccal TL supports gonadal maturation as a developmentally sensitive biomarker of aging within youth. As stress levels of testosterone were significantly associated with buccal TL, these findings are consistent with the growing literature linking stress exposure and accelerated maturation. The lack of association of diurnal testosterone or morning basal levels with buccal TL bolsters the notion of a shared stress-related maturational mechanism between cellular stress and the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis. These data provide novel evidence supporting the interaction of aging, physiologic stress and cellular processes as an underlying

  19. LLNL NESHAPs 2004 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R; Gallegos, G; Peterson, R; Wilson, K; Harrach, R J; Gallegos, G M; Peterson, S R; Wilson, K R

    2005-06-27

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs; Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61, Subpart H). Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities.

  20. 2005 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chrzanowski, P; Walter, K

    2006-03-31

    As the cover of our ''2005 Annual Report'' highlights, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory joined the international science community in celebrating the World Year of Physics in 2005, with special events and science outreach and education programs. Einstein's remarkable discoveries in 1905 provided an opportunity to reflect on how physics has changed the world during the last century and on the promise of future beneficial discoveries. For half of the past century, Lawrence Livermore, which was established to meet an urgent national security need, has been contributing to the advancement of science and technology in a very special way. Co-founder Ernest O. Lawrence was the leading proponent in his generation of large-scale, multidisciplinary science and technology teams. That's Livermore's distinctive heritage and our continuing approach as a national laboratory managed and operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA). We focus on important problems that affect our nation's security and seek breakthrough advances in science and technology to achieve mission goals. An event in 2005 exemplifies our focus on science and technology advances in support of mission goals. In October, distinguished visitors came to Livermore to celebrate the tenth anniversary of the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (now called the Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, or ASC). ASC was launched in 1995 by DOE/NNSA to achieve a million-fold increase in computing power in a decade. The goal was motivated by the need to simulate the three-dimensional performance of a nuclear weapon in sufficient resolution and with the appropriately detailed physics models included. This mission-driven goal is a key part of fulfilling Livermore's foremost responsibility to ensure that the nuclear weapons in the nation's smaller 21st-century stockpile remain safe, reliable, and secure.