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Sample records for annular dark-field images

  1. Experimental quantification of annular dark-field images in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lebeau, James M; Stemmer, Susanne

    2008-11-01

    This paper reports on a method to obtain atomic resolution Z-contrast (high-angle annular dark-field) images with intensities normalized to the incident beam. The procedure bypasses the built-in signal processing hardware of the microscope to obtain the large dynamic range necessary for consecutive measurements of the incident beam and the intensities in the Z-contrast image. The method is also used to characterize the response of the annular dark-field detector output, including conditions that avoid saturation and result in a linear relationship between the electron flux reaching the detector and its output. We also characterize the uniformity of the detector response across its entire area and determine its size and shape, which are needed as input for image simulations. We present normalized intensity images of a SrTiO(3) single crystal as a function of thickness. Averaged, normalized atom column intensities and the background intensity are extracted from these images. The results from the approach developed here can be used for direct, quantitative comparisons with image simulations without any need for scaling.

  2. Influence of spatial and temporal coherences on atomic resolution high angle annular dark field imaging.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Andreas; Belz, Jürgen; Knaub, Nikolai; Jandieri, Kakhaber; Volz, Kerstin

    2016-10-01

    Aberration-corrected (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM) has become a widely used technique when information on the chemical composition is sought on an atomic scale. To extract the desired information, complementary simulations of the scattering process are inevitable. Often the partial spatial and temporal coherences are neglected in the simulations, although they can have a huge influence on the high resolution images. With the example of binary gallium phosphide (GaP) we elucidate the influence of the source size and shape as well as the chromatic aberration on the high angle annular dark field (HAADF) intensity. We achieve a very good quantitative agreement between the frozen phonon simulation and experiment for different sample thicknesses when a Lorentzian source distribution is assumed and the effect of the chromatic aberration is considered. Additionally the influence of amorphous layers introduced by the preparation of the TEM samples is discussed. Taking into account these parameters, the intensity in the whole unit cell of GaP, i.e. at the positions of the different atomic columns and in the region between them, is described correctly. With the knowledge of the decisive parameters, the determination of the chemical composition of more complex, multinary materials becomes feasible.

  3. Detection of large thermal vibration for Cu atoms in tetrahedrite by high-angle annular dark-field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad Mishra, Tara; Koyano, Mikio; Oshima, Yoshifumi

    2017-04-01

    Tetrahedrite (Cu12Sb4S13) is a new type of thermoelectric material with an extremely low thermal conductivity attributed to the anomalous large thermal vibration of specific Cu sites. The tetrahedrite crystal was observed from the [111] direction by high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) imaging and the image intensity was found to be 64% lower at specific sites. This could be explained by the blurring of the intensity distribution owing to a large atomic displacement, suggesting that anomalous large thermal vibrations at specific sites in the crystal can be distinguished in HAADF images.

  4. Direct imaging of light elements by annular dark-field aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lotnyk, Andriy Poppitz, David; Gerlach, Jürgen W.; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2014-02-17

    In this report, we show that an annular dark-field detector in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope allows the direct observation of light element columns in crystalline lattices. At specific imaging conditions, an enhancement of the intensities of light element columns in the presence of heavy element columns is observed. Experimental results are presented for imaging the nitrogen and carbon atomic columns at the GaN-SiC interface and within the GaN and SiC compounds. The crystal polarity of GaN at the interface is identified. The obtained findings are discussed and are well supported by image simulations.

  5. Quantitative annular dark-field imaging of single-layer graphene-II: atomic-resolution image contrast.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shunsuke; Koshiya, Shogo; Nagai, Takuro; Kikkawa, Jun; Ishizuka, Kazuo; Kimoto, Koji

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated how accurately atomic-resolution annular dark-field (ADF) images match between experiments and simulations to conduct more reliable crystal structure analyses. Quantitative ADF imaging, in which the ADF intensity at each pixel represents the fraction of the incident probe current, allows us to perform direct comparisons with simulations without the use of fitting parameters. Although the conventional comparison suffers from experimental uncertainties such as an amorphous surface layer and specimen thickness, in this study we eliminated such uncertainties by using a single-layer graphene as a specimen. Furthermore, to reduce image distortion and shot noises in experimental images, multiple acquisitions with drift correction were performed, and the atomic ADF contrast was quantitatively acquired. To reproduce the experimental ADF contrast, we used three distribution functions as the effective source distribution in simulations. The optimum distribution function and its full-width at half-maximum were evaluated by measuring the residuals between the experimental and simulated images. It was found that the experimental images could be explained well by a linear combination of a Gaussian function and a Lorentzian function with a longer tail than the Gaussian function.

  6. Modelling of AlAs/GaAs interfacial structures using high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) image simulations.

    PubMed

    Robb, Paul D; Finnie, Michael; Craven, Alan J

    2012-07-01

    High angle annular dark field (HAADF) image simulations were performed on a series of AlAs/GaAs interfacial models using the frozen-phonon multislice method. Three general types of models were considered-perfect, vicinal/sawtooth and diffusion. These were chosen to demonstrate how HAADF image measurements are influenced by different interfacial structures in the technologically important III-V semiconductor system. For each model, interfacial sharpness was calculated as a function of depth and compared to aberration-corrected HAADF experiments of two types of AlAs/GaAs interfaces. The results show that the sharpness measured from HAADF imaging changes in a complicated manner with thickness for complex interfacial structures. For vicinal structures, it was revealed that the type of material that the probe projects through first of all has a significant effect on the measured sharpness. An increase in the vicinal angle was also shown to generate a wider interface in the random step model. The Moison diffusion model produced an increase in the interface width with depth which closely matched the experimental results of the AlAs-on-GaAs interface. In contrast, the interface width decreased as a function of depth in the linear diffusion model. Only in the case of the perfect model was it possible to ascertain the underlying structure directly from HAADF image analysis.

  7. Oxidation-state sensitive imaging of cerium dioxide by atomic-resolution low-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Johnston-Peck, Aaron C.; Winterstein, Jonathan P.; Roberts, Alan D.; DuChene, Joseph S.; Qian, Kun; Sweeny, Brendan C.; Wei, Wei David; Sharma, Renu; Stach, Eric A.; Herzing, Andrew A.

    2016-01-01

    Low-angle annular dark field (LAADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging is presented as a method that is sensitive to the oxidation state of cerium ions in CeO2 nanoparticles. This relationship was validated through electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), in situ measurements, as well as multislice image simulations. Static displacements caused by the increased ionic radius of Ce3+ influence the electron channeling process and increase electron scattering to low angles while reducing scatter to high angles. This process manifests itself by reducing the high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) signal intensity while increasing the LAADF signal intensity in close proximity to Ce3+ ions. This technique can supplement STEM-EELS and in so doing, relax the experimental challenges associated with acquiring oxidation state information at high spatial resolutions. PMID:26744830

  8. Oxidation-state sensitive imaging of cerium dioxide by atomic-resolution low-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Johnston-Peck, Aaron C; Winterstein, Jonathan P; Roberts, Alan D; DuChene, Joseph S; Qian, Kun; Sweeny, Brendan C; Wei, Wei David; Sharma, Renu; Stach, Eric A; Herzing, Andrew A

    2016-03-01

    Low-angle annular dark field (LAADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging is presented as a method that is sensitive to the oxidation state of cerium ions in CeO2 nanoparticles. This relationship was validated through electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), in situ measurements, as well as multislice image simulations. Static displacements caused by the increased ionic radius of Ce(3+) influence the electron channeling process and increase electron scattering to low angles while reducing scatter to high angles. This process manifests itself by reducing the high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) signal intensity while increasing the LAADF signal intensity in close proximity to Ce(3+) ions. This technique can supplement STEM-EELS and in so doing, relax the experimental challenges associated with acquiring oxidation state information at high spatial resolutions. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Quantitative annular dark field electron microscopy using single electron signals.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Ryo; Lupini, Andrew R; Findlay, Scott D; Pennycook, Stephen J

    2014-02-01

    One of the difficulties in analyzing atomic resolution electron microscope images is that the sample thickness is usually unknown or has to be fitted from parameters that are not precisely known. An accurate measure of thickness, ideally on a column-by-column basis, parameter free, and with single atom accuracy, would be of great value for many applications, such as matching to simulations. Here we propose such a quantification method for annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy by using the single electron intensity level of the detector. This method has the advantage that we can routinely quantify annular dark field images operating at both low and high beam currents, and under high dynamic range conditions, which is useful for the quantification of ultra-thin or light-element materials. To facilitate atom counting at the atomic scale we use the mean intensity in an annular dark field image averaged over a primitive cell, with no free parameters to be fitted. To illustrate the potential of our method, we demonstrate counting the number of Al (or N) atoms in a wurtzite-type aluminum nitride single crystal at each primitive cell over the range of 3-99 atoms.

  10. Annular dark field transmission electron microscopy for protein structure determination.

    PubMed

    Koeck, Philip J B

    2016-02-01

    Recently annular dark field (ADF) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been advocated as a means of recording images of biological specimens with better signal to noise ratio (SNR) than regular bright field images. I investigate whether and how such images could be used to determine the three-dimensional structure of proteins given that an ADF aperture with a suitable pass-band can be manufactured and used in practice. I develop an approximate theory of ADF-TEM image formation for weak amplitude and phase objects and test this theory using computer simulations. I also test whether these simulated images can be used to calculate a three-dimensional model of the protein using standard software and discuss problems and possible ways to overcome these.

  11. The effect of probe inaccuracies on the quantitative model-based analysis of high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Martinez, G T; De Backer, A; Rosenauer, A; Verbeeck, J; Van Aert, S

    2014-08-01

    Quantitative structural and chemical information can be obtained from high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF STEM) images when using statistical parameter estimation theory. In this approach, we assume an empirical parameterized imaging model for which the total scattered intensities of the atomic columns are estimated. These intensities can be related to the material structure or composition. Since the experimental probe profile is assumed to be known in the description of the imaging model, we will explore how the uncertainties in the probe profile affect the estimation of the total scattered intensities. Using multislice image simulations, we analyze this effect for Cs corrected and non-Cs corrected microscopes as a function of inaccuracies in cylindrically symmetric aberrations, such as defocus and spherical aberration of third and fifth order, and non-cylindrically symmetric aberrations, such as 2-fold and 3-fold astigmatism and coma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Measurement of indium concentration profiles and segregation efficiencies from high-angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Mehrtens, Thorsten; Müller, Knut; Schowalter, Marco; Hu, Dongzhi; Schaadt, Daniel M; Rosenauer, Andreas

    2013-08-01

    We investigated segregation of indium in an InxGa1-xAs/GaAs heterostructure via high-angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), where contrast strongly depends on the nuclear charges of the scattering atoms (Z-contrast). Indium concentration maps have been deduced from HAADF-STEM images by comparing normalized measured intensities with multislice simulations in the frozen lattice approach. Segregation coefficients were derived following the segregation model of Muraki et al.. This is demonstrated for HAADF-STEM images recorded in [100] and [110] zone-axes. Determined indium concentrations and segregation coefficients are compared with results from composition analysis by lattice fringe analysis (CELFA) measurements and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX).

  13. Extraction of structural and chemical information from high angle annular dark-field image by an improved peaks finding method.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wenhao; Huang, Rong; Qi, Ruijuan; Duan, Chungang

    2016-09-01

    With the development of spherical aberration (Cs) corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), high angle annular dark filed (HAADF) imaging technique has been widely applied in the microstructure characterization of various advanced materials with atomic resolution. However, current qualitative interpretation of the HAADF image is not enough to extract all the useful information. Here a modified peaks finding method was proposed to quantify the HAADF-STEM image to extract structural and chemical information. Firstly, an automatic segmentation technique including numerical filters and watershed algorithm was used to define the sub-areas for each atomic column. Then a 2D Gaussian fitting was carried out to determine the atomic column positions precisely, which provides the geometric information at the unit-cell scale. Furthermore, a self-adaptive integration based on the column position and the covariance of statistical Gaussian distribution were performed. The integrated intensities show very high sensitivity on the mean atomic number with improved signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Consequently, the polarization map and strain distributions were rebuilt from a HAADF-STEM image of the rhombohedral and tetragonal BiFeO3 interface and a MnO2 monolayer in LaAlO3 /SrMnO3 /SrTiO3 heterostructure was discerned from its neighbor TiO2 layers. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:820-826, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Microstructure study of a severely plastically deformed Mg-Zn-Y alloy by application of low angle annular dark field diffraction contrast imaging

    PubMed Central

    Basha, Dudekula Althaf; Rosalie, Julian M.; Somekawa, Hidetoshi; Miyawaki, Takashi; Singh, Alok; Tsuchiya, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Microstructural investigation of extremely strained samples, such as severely plastically deformed (SPD) materials, by using conventional transmission electron microscopy techniques is very challenging due to strong image contrast resulting from the high defect density. In this study, low angle annular dark field (LAADF) imaging mode of scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) has been applied to study the microstructure of a Mg-3Zn-0.5Y (at%) alloy processed by high pressure torsion (HPT). LAADF imaging advantages for observation of twinning, grain fragmentation, nucleation of recrystallized grains and precipitation on second phase particles in the alloy processed by HPT are highlighted. By using STEM-LAADF imaging with a range of incident angles, various microstructural features have been imaged, such as nanoscale subgrain structure and recrystallization nucleation even from the thicker region of the highly strained matrix. It is shown that nucleation of recrystallized grains starts at a strain level of revolution N=1/4 (earlier than detected by conventional bright field imaging). Occurrence of recrystallization of grains by nucleating heterogeneously on quasicrystalline particles is also confirmed. Minimizing all strain effects by LAADF imaging facilitated grain size measurement of 150±25 nm in fully recrystallized HPT specimen after N=5. PMID:27877863

  15. Three-dimensional imaging of individual point defects using selective detection angles in annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jared M; Im, Soohyun; Windl, Wolfgang; Hwang, Jinwoo

    2017-01-01

    We propose a new scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) technique that can realize the three-dimensional (3D) characterization of vacancies, lighter and heavier dopants with high precision. Using multislice STEM imaging and diffraction simulations of β-Ga2O3 and SrTiO3, we show that selecting a small range of low scattering angles can make the contrast of the defect-containing atomic columns substantially more depth-dependent. The origin of the depth-dependence is the de-channeling of electrons due to the existence of a point defect in the atomic column, which creates extra "ripples" at low scattering angles. The highest contrast of the point defect can be achieved when the de-channeling signal is captured using the 20-40mrad detection angle range. The effect of sample thickness, crystal orientation, local strain, probe convergence angle, and experimental uncertainty to the depth-dependent contrast of the point defect will also be discussed. The proposed technique therefore opens new possibilities for highly precise 3D structural characterization of individual point defects in functional materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Atomic bonding effects in annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy. II. Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Odlyzko, Michael L.; Held, Jacob T.; Mkhoyan, K. Andre

    2016-07-15

    Quantitatively calibrated annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF-STEM) imaging experiments were compared to frozen phonon multislice simulations adapted to include chemical bonding effects. Having carefully matched simulation parameters to experimental conditions, a depth-dependent bonding effect was observed for high-angle ADF-STEM imaging of aluminum nitride. This result is explained by computational predictions, systematically examined in the preceding portion of this study, showing the propagation of the converged STEM beam to be highly sensitive to net interatomic charge transfer. Thus, although uncertainties in experimental conditions and simulation accuracy remain, the computationally predicted experimental bonding effect withstands the experimental testing reported here.

  17. Atomic bonding effects in annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy. I. Computational predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Odlyzko, Michael L.; Mkhoyan, K. Andre; Himmetoglu, Burak; Cococcioni, Matteo

    2016-07-15

    Annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF-STEM) image simulations were performed for zone-axis-oriented light-element single crystals, using a multislice method adapted to include charge redistribution due to chemical bonding. Examination of these image simulations alongside calculations of the propagation of the focused electron probe reveal that the evolution of the probe intensity with thickness exhibits significant sensitivity to interatomic charge transfer, accounting for observed thickness-dependent bonding sensitivity of contrast in all ADF-STEM imaging conditions. Because changes in image contrast relative to conventional neutral atom simulations scale directly with the net interatomic charge transfer, the strongest effects are seen in crystals with highly polar bonding, while no effects are seen for nonpolar bonding. Although the bonding dependence of ADF-STEM image contrast varies with detector geometry, imaging parameters, and material temperature, these simulations predict the bonding effects to be experimentally measureable.

  18. Annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF-STEM) tomography of polymer systems.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kangbo; Sourty, Erwan; Loos, Joachim

    2010-08-01

    We have utilized bright-field conventional transmission electron microscopy tomography and annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF-STEM) tomography to characterize a well-defined carbon black (CB)-filled polymer nanocomposite with known CB volume concentration. For both imaging methods, contrast can be generated between the CB and the surrounding polymer matrix. The involved contrast mechanisms, in particular for ADF-STEM, will be discussed in detail. The obtained volume reconstructions were analysed and the CB volume concentrations were carefully determined from the reconstructed data. For both imaging modes, the measured CB volume concentrations are substantially different and only quantification based on the ADF-STEM data revealed about the same value as the known CB loading. Moreover, when applying low-convergence angles for imaging ADF-STEM tomography, data can be obtained of micrometre-thick samples.

  19. Dark Field Imaging of Plasmonic Resonator Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydinli, Atilla; Balci, Sinan; Karademir, Ertugrul; Kocabas, Coskun

    2012-02-01

    We present critical coupling of electromagnetic waves to plasmonic cavity arrays fabricated on Moir'e surfaces. The critical coupling condition depends on the superperiod of Moir'e surface, which also defines the coupling between the cavities. Complete transfer of the incident power can be achieved for traveling wave plasmonic resonators, which have relatively short superperiod. When the superperiod of the resonators increases, the coupled resonators become isolated standing wave resonators in which complete transfer of the incident power is not possible. Dark field plasmon microscopy imaging and polarization dependent spectroscopic reflection measurements reveal the critical coupling conditions of the cavities. We image the light scattered from SPPs in the plasmonic cavities excited by a tunable light source. Tuning the excitation wavelength, we measure the localization and dispersion of the plasmonic cavity mode. Dark field imaging has been achieved in the Kretschmann configuration using a supercontinuum white light laser equipped with an acoustooptic tunable filter. Polarization dependent spectroscopic reflection and dark field imaging measurements are correlated and found to be in agreement with FDTD simulations.

  20. Unscrambling Mixed Elements using High Angle Annular Dark Field Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Bos, Karel H. W.; De Backer, Annick; Martinez, Gerardo T.; Winckelmans, Naomi; Bals, Sara; Nellist, Peter D.; Van Aert, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    The development of new nanocrystals with outstanding physicochemical properties requires a full three-dimensional (3D) characterization at the atomic scale. For homogeneous nanocrystals, counting the number of atoms in each atomic column from high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy images has been shown to be a successful technique to get access to this 3D information. However, technologically important nanostructures often consist of more than one chemical element. In order to extend atom counting to heterogeneous materials, a new atomic lensing model is presented. This model takes dynamical electron diffraction into account and opens up new possibilities for unraveling the 3D composition at the atomic scale. Here, the method is applied to determine the 3D structure of Au@Ag core-shell nanorods, but it is applicable to a wide range of heterogeneous complex nanostructures.

  1. Unscrambling Mixed Elements using High Angle Annular Dark Field Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    van den Bos, Karel H W; De Backer, Annick; Martinez, Gerardo T; Winckelmans, Naomi; Bals, Sara; Nellist, Peter D; Van Aert, Sandra

    2016-06-17

    The development of new nanocrystals with outstanding physicochemical properties requires a full three-dimensional (3D) characterization at the atomic scale. For homogeneous nanocrystals, counting the number of atoms in each atomic column from high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy images has been shown to be a successful technique to get access to this 3D information. However, technologically important nanostructures often consist of more than one chemical element. In order to extend atom counting to heterogeneous materials, a new atomic lensing model is presented. This model takes dynamical electron diffraction into account and opens up new possibilities for unraveling the 3D composition at the atomic scale. Here, the method is applied to determine the 3D structure of Au@Ag core-shell nanorods, but it is applicable to a wide range of heterogeneous complex nanostructures.

  2. Dark-field third-harmonic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doronina-Amitonova, L. V.; Lanin, A. A.; Fedotov, I. V.; Ivashkina, O. I.; Zots, M. A.; Fedotov, A. B.; Anokhin, K. V.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2013-08-01

    Coherent cancellation of third-harmonic generation (THG) in a tightly focused laser beam is shown to enable a label-free imaging of individual neurons in representative brain tissues. The intrinsic coherence of third-harmonic buildup and cancellation combined with the nonlinear nature of the process enhances the locality of the dark signal in THG, translating into a remarkable sharpness of dark-field THG images. Unique advantages of this technique for high-contrast subcellular-resolution neuroimaging are demonstrated by comparing THG images of hippocampus and somatosensory cortex in a mouse brain with images visualizing fluorescent protein biomarkers.

  3. Mapping of valence energy losses via energy-filtered annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gu, Lin; Sigle, Wilfried; Koch, Christoph T; Nelayah, Jaysen; Srot, Vesna; van Aken, Peter A

    2009-08-01

    The advent of electron monochromators has opened new perspectives on electron energy-loss spectroscopy at low energy losses, including phenomena such as surface plasmon resonances or electron transitions from the valence to the conduction band. In this paper, we report first results making use of the combination of an energy filter and a post-filter annular dark-field detector. This instrumental design allows us to obtain energy-filtered (i.e. inelastic) annular dark-field images in scanning transmission electron microscopy of the 2-dimensional semiconductor band-gap distribution of a GaN/Al(45)Ga(55)N structure and of surface plasmon resonances of silver nanoprisms. In comparison to other approaches, the technique is less prone to inelastic delocalization and relativistic artefacts. The mixed contribution of elastic and inelastic contrast is discussed.

  4. Quantitative atomic resolution mapping using high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Van Aert, S; Verbeeck, J; Erni, R; Bals, S; Luysberg, M; Van Dyck, D; Van Tendeloo, G

    2009-09-01

    A model-based method is proposed to relatively quantify the chemical composition of atomic columns using high angle annular dark field (HAADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images. The method is based on a quantification of the total intensity of the scattered electrons for the individual atomic columns using statistical parameter estimation theory. In order to apply this theory, a model is required describing the image contrast of the HAADF STEM images. Therefore, a simple, effective incoherent model has been assumed which takes the probe intensity profile into account. The scattered intensities can then be estimated by fitting this model to an experimental HAADF STEM image. These estimates are used as a performance measure to distinguish between different atomic column types and to identify the nature of unknown columns with good accuracy and precision using statistical hypothesis testing. The reliability of the method is supported by means of simulated HAADF STEM images as well as a combination of experimental images and electron energy-loss spectra. It is experimentally shown that statistically meaningful information on the composition of individual columns can be obtained even if the difference in averaged atomic number Z is only 3. Using this method, quantitative mapping at atomic resolution using HAADF STEM images only has become possible without the need of simultaneously recorded electron energy loss spectra.

  5. Terahertz dark-field imaging of biomedical tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löffler, Torsten; Bauer, T.; Siebert, Karsten; Roskos, Hartmut G.; Fitzgerald, A.; Czasch, S.

    2001-12-01

    We investigate dark-field imaging in the terahertz (THz) fre-quency regime with the intention to enhance image contrast through the analysis of scattering and diffraction signatures. A gold-on-TPX test structure and an archived biomedical tissue sample are examined in conventional and dark-field transmission geometry. In particular, the capability of the technique for tumor detection is addressed.

  6. High-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy on carbon-based functional polymer systems.

    PubMed

    Sourty, Erwan; van Bavel, Svetlana; Lu, Kangbo; Guerra, Ralph; Bar, Georg; Loos, Joachim

    2009-06-01

    Two purely carbon-based functional polymer systems were investigated by bright-field conventional transmission electron microscopy (CTEM) and high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). For a carbon black (CB) filled polymer system, HAADF-STEM provides high contrast between the CB agglomerates and the polymer matrix so that details of the interface organization easily can be revealed and assignment of the CB phase is straightforward. For a second system, the functional polymer blend representing the photoactive layer of a polymer solar cell, details of its nanoscale organization could be observed that were not accessible with CTEM. By varying the camera length in HAADF-STEM imaging, the contrast can be enhanced between crystalline and amorphous compounds due to diffraction contrast so that nanoscale interconnections between domains are identified. In general, due to its incoherent imaging characteristics HAADF-STEM allows for reliable interpretation of the data obtained.

  7. Dose limited reliability of quantitative annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy for nano-particle atom-counting.

    PubMed

    De Backer, A; Martinez, G T; MacArthur, K E; Jones, L; Béché, A; Nellist, P D; Van Aert, S

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF STEM) has become a powerful technique to characterise nano-particles on an atomic scale. Because of their limited size and beam sensitivity, the atomic structure of such particles may become extremely challenging to determine. Therefore keeping the incoming electron dose to a minimum is important. However, this may reduce the reliability of quantitative ADF STEM which will here be demonstrated for nano-particle atom-counting. Based on experimental ADF STEM images of a real industrial catalyst, we discuss the limits for counting the number of atoms in a projected atomic column with single atom sensitivity. We diagnose these limits by combining a thorough statistical method and detailed image simulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy weighted x-ray dark-field imaging.

    PubMed

    Pelzer, Georg; Zang, Andrea; Anton, Gisela; Bayer, Florian; Horn, Florian; Kraus, Manuel; Rieger, Jens; Ritter, Andre; Wandner, Johannes; Weber, Thomas; Fauler, Alex; Fiederle, Michael; Wong, Winnie S; Campbell, Michael; Meiser, Jan; Meyer, Pascal; Mohr, Jürgen; Michel, Thilo

    2014-10-06

    The dark-field image obtained in grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging can provide information about the objects' microstructures on a scale smaller than the pixel size even with low geometric magnification. In this publication we demonstrate that the dark-field image quality can be enhanced with an energy-resolving pixel detector. Energy-resolved x-ray dark-field images were acquired with a 16-energy-channel photon-counting pixel detector with a 1 mm thick CdTe sensor in a Talbot-Lau x-ray interferometer. A method for contrast-noise-ratio (CNR) enhancement is proposed and validated experimentally. In measurements, a CNR improvement by a factor of 1.14 was obtained. This is equivalent to a possible radiation dose reduction of 23%.

  9. Atomic scale dynamics of a solid state chemical reaction directly determined by annular dark-field electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pennycook, Timothy J.; Jones, Lewys; Pettersson, Henrik; Coelho, João; Canavan, Megan; Mendoza-Sanchez, Beatriz; Nicolosi, Valeria; Nellist, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic processes, such as solid-state chemical reactions and phase changes, are ubiquitous in materials science, and developing a capability to observe the mechanisms of such processes on the atomic scale can offer new insights across a wide range of materials systems. Aberration correction in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has enabled atomic resolution imaging at significantly reduced beam energies and electron doses. It has also made possible the quantitative determination of the composition and occupancy of atomic columns using the atomic number (Z)-contrast annular dark-field (ADF) imaging available in STEM. Here we combine these benefits to record the motions and quantitative changes in the occupancy of individual atomic columns during a solid-state chemical reaction in manganese oxides. These oxides are of great interest for energy-storage applications such as for electrode materials in pseudocapacitors. We employ rapid scanning in STEM to both drive and directly observe the atomic scale dynamics behind the transformation of Mn3O4 into MnO. The results demonstrate we now have the experimental capability to understand the complex atomic mechanisms involved in phase changes and solid state chemical reactions. PMID:25532123

  10. Atomic scale dynamics of a solid state chemical reaction directly determined by annular dark-field electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pennycook, Timothy J; Jones, Lewys; Pettersson, Henrik; Coelho, João; Canavan, Megan; Mendoza-Sanchez, Beatriz; Nicolosi, Valeria; Nellist, Peter D

    2014-12-22

    Dynamic processes, such as solid-state chemical reactions and phase changes, are ubiquitous in materials science, and developing a capability to observe the mechanisms of such processes on the atomic scale can offer new insights across a wide range of materials systems. Aberration correction in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has enabled atomic resolution imaging at significantly reduced beam energies and electron doses. It has also made possible the quantitative determination of the composition and occupancy of atomic columns using the atomic number (Z)-contrast annular dark-field (ADF) imaging available in STEM. Here we combine these benefits to record the motions and quantitative changes in the occupancy of individual atomic columns during a solid-state chemical reaction in manganese oxides. These oxides are of great interest for energy-storage applications such as for electrode materials in pseudocapacitors. We employ rapid scanning in STEM to both drive and directly observe the atomic scale dynamics behind the transformation of Mn3O4 into MnO. The results demonstrate we now have the experimental capability to understand the complex atomic mechanisms involved in phase changes and solid state chemical reactions.

  11. Quantitative composition determination at the atomic level using model-based high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Martinez, G T; Rosenauer, A; De Backer, A; Verbeeck, J; Van Aert, S

    2014-02-01

    High angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF STEM) images provide sample information which is sensitive to the chemical composition. The image intensities indeed scale with the mean atomic number Z. To some extent, chemically different atomic column types can therefore be visually distinguished. However, in order to quantify the atomic column composition with high accuracy and precision, model-based methods are necessary. Therefore, an empirical incoherent parametric imaging model can be used of which the unknown parameters are determined using statistical parameter estimation theory (Van Aert et al., 2009, [1]). In this paper, it will be shown how this method can be combined with frozen lattice multislice simulations in order to evolve from a relative toward an absolute quantification of the composition of single atomic columns with mixed atom types. Furthermore, the validity of the model assumptions are explored and discussed.

  12. Directional x-ray dark-field imaging of strongly ordered systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Torben Haugaard; Feidenhans'l, Robert; Bech, Martin; Pfeiffer, Franz; Zanette, Irene; Weitkamp, Timm; David, Christian; Rutishauser, Simon; Deyhle, Hans; Reznikova, Elena; Mohr, Juergen

    2010-12-01

    Recently a novel grating based x-ray imaging approach called directional x-ray dark-field imaging was introduced. Directional x-ray dark-field imaging yields information about the local texture of structures smaller than the pixel size of the imaging system. In this work we extend the theoretical description and data processing schemes for directional dark-field imaging to strongly scattering systems, which could not be described previously. We develop a simple scattering model to account for these recent observations and subsequently demonstrate the model using experimental data. The experimental data includes directional dark-field images of polypropylene fibers and a human tooth slice.

  13. Dark field imaging of biological macromolecules with the scanning transmission electron microscope

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsuki, Mitsuo; Isaacson, Michael S.; Crewe, A. V.

    1979-01-01

    A scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) equipped with a field emission gun has been employed for the examination of biological macromolecules at high resolution. The quality of micrographs obtained with the STEM is dependent upon the quality of the substrate used to support biological objects because the image contrast in dark field is proportional to the mass density of the specimen. In order to reduce deleterious effects of the substrates on the image quality, we have developed a method of fabricating substrates consisting of very thin, very clean carbon films supported on very clean fenestrated plastic films. These films are approximately 15 Å thick. Well-known biological macromolecules such as glutamine synthetase and tobacco mosaic virus (both stained) and low-density lipoprotein and ferritin (both unstained were placed on these substrates and examined with the STEM by using various modes of contrast. The micrographs obtained by using the dark field mode of contrast employing an annular detector were free from phase contrast, as expected. Using this contrast mode, we have been able to directly observe (in-focus) 2.5- to 4.4-Å lattice spacings in the ferritin core. The effect of electron radiation damage on the helical structure of tobacco mosaic virus was also examined. Micrographs as well as corresponding optical diffraction patterns obtained with moderately low doses showed very clear helical structure from both sides of the virus. In addition, the (11.5 Å)-1 layer lines indicated the effective resolution attained on these particles. Images PMID:35788

  14. Quantitative Chemical Mapping of InGaN Quantum Wells from Calibrated High-Angle Annular Dark Field Micrographs.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Daniel; Morales, Francisco M; Ben, Teresa; García, Rafael; Redondo-Cubero, Andrés; Alves, Eduardo; Lorenz, Katharina; Edwards, Paul R; O'Donnell, Kevin P; Wetzel, Christian

    2015-08-01

    We present a simple and robust method to acquire quantitative maps of compositional fluctuations in nanostructures from low magnification high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) micrographs calibrated by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) mode. We show that a nonuniform background in HAADF-STEM micrographs can be eliminated, to a first approximation, by use of a suitable analytic function. The uncertainty in probe position when collecting an EDX spectrum renders the calibration of HAADF-STEM micrographs indirect, and a statistical approach has been developed to determine the position with confidence. Our analysis procedure, presented in a flowchart to facilitate the successful implementation of the method by users, was applied to discontinuous InGaN/GaN quantum wells in order to obtain quantitative determinations of compositional fluctuations on the nanoscale.

  15. Estimation of mass thickness response of embedded aggregated silica nanospheres from high angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron micrographs.

    PubMed

    Nordin, M; Abrahamsson, C; Blomqvist, C H; Häbel, H; Röding, M; Olsson, E; Nydén, M; Rudemo, M

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we investigate the functional behaviour of the intensity in high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron micrograph images. The model material is a silica particle (20 nm) gel at 5 wt%. By assuming that the intensity response is monotonically increasing with increasing mass thickness of silica, an estimate of the functional form is calculated using a maximum likelihood approach. We conclude that a linear functional form of the intensity provides a fair estimate but that a power function is significantly better for estimating the amount of silica in the z-direction. The work adds to the development of quantifying material properties from electron micrographs, especially in the field of tomography methods and three-dimensional quantitative structural characterization from a scanning transmission electron micrograph. It also provides means for direct three-dimensional quantitative structural characterization from a scanning transmission electron micrograph.

  16. First experience with x-ray dark-field radiography for human chest imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, Peter B.; Willer, Konstantin; Fingerle, Alexander A.; Gromann, Lukas B.; De Marco, Fabio; Scherer, Kai H.; Herzen, Julia; Achterhold, Klaus; Gleich, Bernhard; Münzel, Daniela; Renz, Martin; Renger, Bernhard C.; Fischer, Florian; Braun, Christian; Auweter, Sigrid; Hellbach, Katharina; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Schröter, Tobias; Mohr, Jürgen; Yaroshenko, Andre; Maack, Hanns-Ingo; Pralow, Thomas; van der Heijden, Hendrik; Proksa, Roland; Köhler, Thomas; Wieberneit, Nataly; Rindt, Karsten; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2017-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of an experimental X-ray dark-field radiography system for chest imaging in humans and to compare with conventional diagnostic imaging. Materials and Methods: The study was institutional review board (IRB) approved. A single human cadaver (52 years, female, height: 173 cm, weight: 84 kg, chest circumference: 97 cm) was imaged within 24 hours post mortem on the experimental x-ray dark-field system. In addition, the cadaver was imaged on a clinical CT system to obtain a reference scan. The grating-based dark-field radiography setup was equipped with a set of three gratings to enable grating-based dark-field contrast x-ray imaging. The prototype operates at an acceleration voltage of up to 70 kVp and with a field-of-view large enough for clinical chest x-ray (>35 x 35 cm2). Results: It was feasible to extract x-ray dark-field signal of the whole human thorax, clearly demonstrating that human x-ray dark-field chest radiography is feasible. Lung tissue produced strong scattering, reflected in a pronounced x-ray dark-field signal. The ribcage and the backbone are less prominent than the lung but are also distinguishable. Finally, the soft tissue is not present in the dark-field radiography. The regions of the lungs affected by edema, as verified by CT, showed less dark-field signal compared to healthy lung tissue. Conclusion: Our results reveal the current status of translating dark-field imaging from a micro (small animal) scale to a macro (patient) scale. The performance of the experimental x-ray dark-field radiography setup offers, for the first time, obtaining multi-contrast chest x-ray images (attenuation and dark-field signal) from a human cadaver.

  17. Structured dark-field imaging for single nano-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Gao, Kun; Wang, Zhi-Li; Yun, Wen-Bing; Wu, Zi-Yu

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we extensively describe and demonstrate the structured dark-field imaging (SDFI). SDFI is a newly proposed x-ray microscopy designed for revealing the fine features below Rayleigh resolution, in which different orders of scattered x-ray photons are collected by changing the numerical aperture of the condenser. Here, the samples of single particles are discussed to extend the scope of the SDFI technique reported in a previous work (Chen J, Gao K, Ge X, et al. 2013 Opt. Lett. 38 2068). In addition, the details of the newly invented algorithm are explained, which is able to calculate the intensity of any pixel on the image plane rapidly and reliably. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB825800), the Science Fund for Creative Research Groups, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11321503), the Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. KJCX2-YW-N42), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11475170, 11205157, and 11305173).

  18. Hard-X-ray directional dark-field imaging using the speckle scanning technique.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongchang; Kashyap, Yogesh; Sawhney, Kawal

    2015-03-13

    X-ray dark-field imaging can provide inaccessible and complementary information compared to conventional absorption contrast imaging. However, extraction of the dark-field signal is difficult, and sophisticated optics are often required. In this Letter, we report a novel approach to generate high-quality dark-field images using a simple membrane. The dark-field image is extracted from the maximum correlation coefficient by applying a cross-correlation algorithm to a stack of speckle images collected by scanning a membrane in a transverse direction to the incident x-ray beam. The new method can also provide directional dark-field information, which is extremely useful for the study of strongly ordered systems. The potential of the proposed technique for nondestructive x-ray imaging is demonstrated by imaging representative samples.

  19. Cutaneous microcirculation in preterm neonates: comparison between sidestream dark field (SDF) and incident dark field (IDF) imaging.

    PubMed

    van Elteren, H A; Ince, C; Tibboel, D; Reiss, I K M; de Jonge, R C J

    2015-10-01

    Incident dark field imaging (IDF) is a new generation handheld microscope for bedside visualization and quantification of microcirculatory alterations. IDF is the technical successor of sidestream dark field imaging (SDF), currently the most used device for microcirculatory measurements. In (pre)term neonates the reduced thickness of the skin allows non-invasive transcutaneous measurements. The goal of this study was to compare the existing device (SDF) and its technical successor (IDF) in preterm neonates. We hypothesized that IDF imaging produces higher quality images resulting in a higher vessel density. After written informed consent was given by the parents, skin microcirculation was consecutively measured on the inner upper arm with de SDF and IDF device. Images were exported and analyzed offline using existing software (AVA 3.0). Vessel density and perfusion were calculated using the total vessel density (TVD) proportion of perfused vessels (PPV) and perfused vessel density. The microcirculation images quality score was used to evaluate the quality of the video images. In a heterogeneous group of twenty preterm neonates (median GA 27.6 weeks, range 24-33.4) IDF imaging visualized 19.9% more vessels resulting in a significantly higher vessel density (TVD 16.9 vs. 14.1/mm, p value < 0.001). The perfusion of vessels could be determined more accurately in the IDF images, resulting in a significant lower PPV (88.7 vs. 93.9%, p value 0.002). The IDF video images scored optimal in a higher percentage compared to the SDF video images. IDF imaging of the cutaneous microcirculation in preterm neonates resulted in a higher vessel density and lower perfusion compared to the existing SDF device.

  20. Dark field imaging system for size characterization of magnetic micromarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malec, A.; Haiden, C.; Kokkinis, G.; Keplinger, F.; Giouroudi, I.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a dark field video imaging system for the detection and size characterization of individual magnetic micromarkers suspended in liquid and the detection of pathogens utilizing magnetically labelled E.coli. The system follows dynamic processes and interactions of moving micro/nano objects close to or below the optical resolution limit, and is especially suitable for small sample volumes ( 10 μl). The developed detection method can be used to obtain clinical information about liquid contents when an additional biological protocol is provided, i.e., binding of microorganisms (e.g. E.coli) to specific magnetic markers. Some of the major advantages of our method are the increased sizing precision in the micro- and nano-range as well as the setup's simplicity making it a perfect candidate for miniaturized devices. Measurements can thus be carried out in a quick, inexpensive, and compact manner. A minor limitation is that the concentration range of micromarkers in a liquid sample needs to be adjusted in such a manner that the number of individual particles in the microscope's field of view is sufficient.

  1. A comparison of the quality of image acquisition between the incident dark field and sidestream dark field video-microscopes.

    PubMed

    Gilbert-Kawai, Edward; Coppel, Jonny; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Ince, Can; Martin, Daniel

    2016-01-21

    The 'Cytocam' is a third generation video-microscope, which enables real time visualisation of the in vivo microcirculation. Based upon the principle of incident dark field (IDF) illumination, this hand held computer-controlled device was designed to address the technical limitations of its predecessors, orthogonal polarization spectroscopy and sidestream dark field (SDF) imaging. In this manuscript, we aimed to compare the quality of sublingual microcirculatory image acquisition between the IDF and SDF devices. Using the microcirculatory image quality scoring (MIQS) system, (six categories scored as either 0 = optimal, 1 = acceptable, or 10 = unacceptable), two independent raters compared 30 films acquired using the Cytocam IDF video-microscope, to an equal number obtained with an SDF device. Blinded to the origin of the films, the raters were therefore able to score between 0 and 60 for each film analysed. The scores' distributions between the two techniques were compared. The median MIQS (95% CI) given to the SDF camera was 7 (1.5-12), as compared to 1 (0.5-1.0) for the IDF device (p < 0.0001). Of the six categories assessed by the MIQS, nearly one fifth of the SDF videos were scored as unacceptable for pressure (20%), content (20%), and stability (17%), with focus scoring deficiently 13% of the time. High agreement between the two raters scoring values was evident, with an intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.96 (95% CI: 0.94, 0.98). These results demonstrate that the quality of sublingual microcirculatory image acquisition is superior in the Cytocam IDF video-microscope, as compared to the SDF video-microscope.

  2. Complex dark-field contrast in grating-based x-ray phase contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yi; Tang, Xiangyang

    2015-03-01

    Without assuming that the sub-pixel microstructures of an object to be imaged distribute in space randomly, we investigate the influence of the object's microstructures on grating-based x-ray phase contrast imaging. Our theoretical analysis and 3D computer simulation study based on the paraxial Fresnel-Kirchhoff theory show that the existing dark-field contrast can be generalized into a complex dark-field contrast in a way such that its imaginary part quantifies the effect of the object's sub-pixel microstructures on the phase of intensity oscillations. A method based on the phase-attenuation duality that holds for soft tissues to be imaged at high x-ray energies is proposed to retrieve the imaginary part of the complex dark-field contrast for imaging. In comparison to the existing dark-field contrast, the imaginary part of complex dark-field contrast exhibits significantly stronger selectivity on the shape of the object's sub-pixel microstructures. Thus the x-ray imaging corresponding to the imaginary part of complex dark-field contrast can provide additional and complementary information to that corresponding to the attenuation contrast, phase contrast and the existing dark-field contrast.

  3. Quantification of the sensitivity range in neutron dark-field imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Betz, B.; Harti, R. P.; Hovind, J.; Kaestner, A.; Lehmann, E.; Grünzweig, C.; Strobl, M.; Van Swygenhoven, H.

    2015-12-15

    In neutron grating interferometry, the dark-field image visualizes the scattering properties of samples in the small-angle and ultra-small-angle scattering range. These angles correspond to correlation lengths from several hundred nanometers up to several tens of micrometers. In this article, we present an experimental study that demonstrates the potential of quantitative neutron dark-field imaging. The dark-field signal for scattering from different particle sizes and concentrations of mono-dispersive polystyrene particles in aqueous solution is compared to theoretical predictions and the good agreement between measurements and calculations underlines the quantitative nature of the measured values and reliability of the technique with neutrons.

  4. Phosphorus detection in vitrified bacteria by cryo-STEM annular dark-field analysis.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Sharon Grayer; Rez, Peter; Elbaum, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Bacterial cells often contain dense granules. Among these, polyphosphate bodies (PPBs) store inorganic phosphate for a variety of essential functions. Identification of PPBs has until now been accomplished by analytical methods that required drying or chemically fixing the cells. These methods entail large electron doses that are incompatible with low-dose imaging of cryogenic specimens. We show here that Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) of fully hydrated, intact, vitrified bacteria provides a simple means for mapping of phosphorus-containing dense granules based on quantitative sensitivity of the electron scattering to atomic number. A coarse resolution of the scattering angles distinguishes phosphorus from the abundant lighter atoms: carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. The theoretical basis is similar to Z contrast of materials science. EDX provides a positive identification of phosphorus, but importantly, the method need not involve a more severe electron dose than that required for imaging. The approach should prove useful in general for mapping of heavy elements in cryopreserved specimens when the element identity is known from the biological context. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  5. Annular pancreas (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Annular pancreas is an abnormal ring or collar of pancreatic tissue that encircles the duodenum (the part of the ... intestine that connects to stomach). This portion of pancreas can constrict the duodenum and block or impair ...

  6. A model based iterative reconstruction algorithm for high angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscope (HAADF-STEM) tomography.

    PubMed

    Venkatakrishnan, S V; Drummy, Lawrence F; Jackson, Michael A; De Graef, Marc; Simmons, Jeff; Bouman, Charles A

    2013-11-01

    High angle annular dark field (HAADF)-scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) data is increasingly being used in the physical sciences to research materials in 3D because it reduces the effects of Bragg diffraction seen in bright field TEM data. Typically, tomographic reconstructions are performed by directly applying either filtered back projection (FBP) or the simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT) to the data. Since HAADF-STEM tomography is a limited angle tomography modality with low signal to noise ratio, these methods can result in significant artifacts in the reconstructed volume. In this paper, we develop a model based iterative reconstruction algorithm for HAADF-STEM tomography. We combine a model for image formation in HAADF-STEM tomography along with a prior model to formulate the tomographic reconstruction as a maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) estimation problem. Our formulation also accounts for certain missing measurements by treating them as nuisance parameters in the MAP estimation framework. We adapt the iterative coordinate descent algorithm to develop an efficient method to minimize the corresponding MAP cost function. Reconstructions of simulated as well as experimental data sets show results that are superior to FBP and SIRT reconstructions, significantly suppressing artifacts and enhancing contrast.

  7. Frozen lattice and absorptive model for high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy: A comparison study in terms of integrated intensity and atomic column position measurement.

    PubMed

    Alania, M; Lobato, I; Van Aert, S

    2017-09-12

    In this paper, both the frozen lattice (FL) and the absorptive potential (AP) approximation models are compared in terms of the integrated intensity and the precision with which atomic columns can be located from an image acquired using high angle annular dark field (HAADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The comparison is made for atoms of Cu, Ag, and Au. The integrated intensity is computed for both an isolated atomic column and an atomic column inside an FCC structure. The precision has been computed using the so-called Cramér-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB), which provides a theoretical lower bound on the variance with which parameters can be estimated. It is shown that the AP model results into accurate measurements for the integrated intensity only for small detector ranges under relatively low angles and for small thicknesses. In terms of the attainable precision, both methods show similar results indicating picometer range precision under realistic experimental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Signal-to-noise ratio in x ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Chabior, Michael; Schuster, Manfred; Donath, Tilman; David, Christian; Schroer, Christian; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2011-09-01

    In this work, we report an analytical and experimental investigation of the signal-to-noise ratio for a recently developed method called x ray dark-field imaging. Our approach is based on the propagation of signal and noise through the reconstruction algorithm. We find that the statistical nature of the dark-field images can be understood by a Rician distribution. The analysis shows that, for high flux, the noise in the dark-field images is proportional to the noise in the raw data. In the limit of low flux and, thus, low signal-to-noise ratio, the dark-field signal exhibits a breakdown of the signal transmission, which can be described by an asymptotic behavior of the underlying noise distribution. In this limit, the dark-field signal is no longer connected to the coherence degradation, but rather to the attenuation in the sample. The model is verified in exemplary test measurements using a compact laboratory setup with a polychromatic source and a photon counting detector.

  9. Boron concentration profiling by high angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy in homoepitaxial δ-doped diamond layers

    SciTech Connect

    Araújo, D.; Alegre, M. P.; Piñero, J. C.; Fiori, A.; Bustarret, E.; Jomard, F.

    2013-07-22

    To develop further diamond related devices, the concentration and spatial location of dopants should be controlled down to the nanometer scale. Scanning transmission electron microscopy using the high angle annular dark field mode is shown to be sensitive to boron doping in diamond epilayers. An analytical procedure is described, whereby local boron concentrations above 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} were quantitatively derived down to nanometer resolution from the signal dependence on thickness and boron content. Experimental boron local doping profiles measured on diamond p{sup −}/p{sup ++}/p{sup −} multilayers are compared to macroscopic profiles obtained by secondary ion mass spectrometry, avoiding reported artefacts.

  10. Refraction-contrast tomosynthesis imaging using dark-field imaging optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunaguchi, Naoki; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Huo, Qingkai; Ichihara, Shu; Ando, Masami

    2011-09-01

    A soft tissue tomosynthesis imaging system using Laue-case analyzer for dark-field imaging (DFI) optics is described. Two images from which refraction component is deduced are obtained in a single exposure of DFI, while two exposures are required in diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI). The measurement time and radiation dose are thus reduced to half those from DEI. Additionally, the proposed reconstruction algorithm, using only one tenth the number of projections required in computed tomography (CT) imaging, produced images in no way inferior to refraction-contrast CT images. We ex vivo imaged an excised human lung tissue using the system constructed at the KEK vertical wiggler beamline PF-BL14C to demonstrate the proposed imaging protocol efficacy.

  11. Dark-field hyperspectral X-ray imaging

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Christopher K.; Jacques, Simon D. M.; Connolley, Thomas; Wilson, Matthew D.; Veale, Matthew C.; Seller, Paul; Cernik, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    In recent times, there has been a drive to develop non-destructive X-ray imaging techniques that provide chemical or physical insight. To date, these methods have generally been limited; either requiring raster scanning of pencil beams, using narrow bandwidth radiation and/or limited to small samples. We have developed a novel full-field radiographic imaging technique that enables the entire physio-chemical state of an object to be imaged in a single snapshot. The method is sensitive to emitted and scattered radiation, using a spectral imaging detector and polychromatic hard X-radiation, making it particularly useful for studying large dense samples for materials science and engineering applications. The method and its extension to three-dimensional imaging is validated with a series of test objects and demonstrated to directly image the crystallographic preferred orientation and formed precipitates across an aluminium alloy friction stir weld section. PMID:24808753

  12. Enzyme catalysis enhanced dark-field imaging as a novel immunohistochemical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Lin; Tian, Yanyan; Yin, Rong; Lou, Doudou; Zhang, Xizhi; Wang, Meng; Ma, Ming; Luo, Shouhua; Li, Suyi; Gu, Ning; Zhang, Yu

    2016-04-01

    Conventional immunohistochemistry is limited to subjective judgment based on human experience and thus it is clinically required to develop a quantitative immunohistochemical detection. 3,3'-Diaminobenzidin (DAB) aggregates, a type of staining product formed by conventional immunohistochemistry, were found to have a special optical property of dark-field imaging for the first time, and the mechanism was explored. On this basis, a novel immunohistochemical method based on dark-field imaging for detecting HER2 overexpressed in breast cancer was established, and the quantitative analysis standard and relevant software for measuring the scattering intensity was developed. In order to achieve a more sensitive detection, the HRP (horseradish peroxidase)-labeled secondary antibodies conjugated gold nanoparticles were constructed as nanoprobes to load more HRP enzymes, resulting in an enhanced DAB deposition as a dark-field label. Simultaneously, gold nanoparticles also act as a synergistically enhanced agent due to their mimicry of enzyme catalysis and dark-field scattering properties.Conventional immunohistochemistry is limited to subjective judgment based on human experience and thus it is clinically required to develop a quantitative immunohistochemical detection. 3,3'-Diaminobenzidin (DAB) aggregates, a type of staining product formed by conventional immunohistochemistry, were found to have a special optical property of dark-field imaging for the first time, and the mechanism was explored. On this basis, a novel immunohistochemical method based on dark-field imaging for detecting HER2 overexpressed in breast cancer was established, and the quantitative analysis standard and relevant software for measuring the scattering intensity was developed. In order to achieve a more sensitive detection, the HRP (horseradish peroxidase)-labeled secondary antibodies conjugated gold nanoparticles were constructed as nanoprobes to load more HRP enzymes, resulting in an enhanced DAB

  13. Label-free hyperspectral dark-field microscopy for quantitative scatter imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheney, Philip; McClatchy, David; Kanick, Stephen; Lemaillet, Paul; Allen, David; Samarov, Daniel; Pogue, Brian; Hwang, Jeeseong

    2017-03-01

    A hyperspectral dark-field microscope has been developed for imaging spatially distributed diffuse reflectance spectra from light-scattering samples. In this report, quantitative scatter spectroscopy is demonstrated with a uniform scattering phantom, namely a solution of polystyrene microspheres. A Monte Carlo-based inverse model was used to calculate the reduced scattering coefficients of samples of different microsphere concentrations from wavelength-dependent backscattered signal measured by the dark-field microscope. The results are compared to the measurement results from a NIST double-integrating sphere system for validation. Ongoing efforts involve quantitative mapping of scattering and absorption coefficients in samples with spatially heterogeneous optical properties.

  14. Dark-field X-ray imaging of unsaturated water transport in porous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, F. E-mail: michele.griffa@empa.ch; Di Bella, C.; Lura, P.; Prade, F.; Herzen, J.; Sarapata, A.; Pfeiffer, F.; Griffa, M. E-mail: michele.griffa@empa.ch; Jerjen, I.

    2014-10-13

    We introduce in this Letter an approach to X-ray imaging of unsaturated water transport in porous materials based upon the intrinsic X-ray scattering produced by the material microstructural heterogeneity at a length scale below the imaging system spatial resolution. The basic principle for image contrast creation consists in a reduction of such scattering by permeation of the porosity by water. The implementation of the approach is based upon X-ray dark-field imaging via Talbot-Lau interferometry. The proof-of-concept is provided by performing laboratory-scale dark-field X-ray radiography of mortar samples during a water capillary uptake experiment. The results suggest that the proposed approach to visualizing unsaturated water transport in porous materials is complementary to neutron and magnetic resonance imaging and alternative to standard X-ray imaging, the latter requiring the use of contrast agents because based upon X-ray attenuation only.

  15. Preclinical x-ray dark-field imaging: foreign body detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braig, Eva-Maria; Muenzel, Daniela; Fingerle, Alexander; Herzen, Julia; Rummeny, Ernst; Pfeiffer, Franz; Noel, Peter

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of X-ray dark-field imaging for detection of retained foreign bodies in ex-vivo hands and feet. X-ray dark-field imaging, acquired with a three-grating Talbot-Lau interferometer, has proven to provide access to sub-resolution structures due to small-angle scattering. The study was institutional review board (IRB) approved. Foreign body parts included pieces of wood and metal which were placed in a formalin fixated human ex-vivo hand. The samples were imaged with a grating-based interferometer consisting of a standard microfocus X-ray tube (60 kVp, 100 W) and a Varian 2520-DX detector (pixel size: 127 μm). The attenuation and the dark-field signals provide complementary diagnostic information for this clinical task. With regard to detecting of wooden objects, which are clinically the most relevant, only the dark-field image revealed the locations. The signal is especially strong for dry wood which in comparison is poorly to non-visible in computed tomography. The detection of high atomic-number or dense material and wood-like or porous materials in a single X-ray scan is enabled by the simultaneous acquisition of the conventional attenuation and dark-field signal. Our results reveal that with this approach one can reach a significantly improved sensitivity for detection of foreign bodies, while an easy implementation into the clinical arena is becoming feasible.

  16. Coherent superposition in grating-based directional dark-field imaging.

    PubMed

    Malecki, Andreas; Potdevin, Guillaume; Biernath, Thomas; Eggl, Elena; Grande Garcia, Eduardo; Baum, Thomas; Noël, Peter B; Bauer, Jan S; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2013-01-01

    X-ray dark-field scatter imaging allows to gain information on the average local direction and anisotropy of micro-structural features in a sample well below the actual detector resolution. For thin samples the morphological interpretation of the signal is straight forward, provided that only one average orientation of sub-pixel features is present in the specimen. For thick samples, however, where the x-ray beam may pass structures of many different orientations and dimensions, this simple assumption in general does not hold and a quantitative description of the resulting directional dark-field signal is required to draw deductions on the morphology. Here we present a description of the signal formation for thick samples with many overlying structures and show its validity in experiment. In contrast to existing experimental work this description follows from theoretical predictions of a numerical study using a Fourier optics approach. One can easily extend this description and perform a quantitative structural analysis of clinical or materials science samples with directional dark-field imaging or even direction-dependent dark-field CT.

  17. Hyperspectral enhanced dark field microscopy for imaging blood cells.

    PubMed

    Verebes, Giulia Sacco; Melchiorre, Michele; Garcia-Leis, Adianez; Ferreri, Carla; Marzetti, Carla; Torreggiani, Armida

    2013-12-01

    In this work, a novel methodology based on hyperspectral imagery with enhanced Darkfield microscopy for probing and characterizing changes in blood cell components was tested. Two main categories of blood cells were analyzed, red and white blood cells. Unique spectral signatures of ordinary and most common deformed morphologies of red blood cells were identified. Moreover, examination of white blood cells allowed to characterize and differentiate active from inactive cells. The findings indicate the ability of this technique to detect changes in light scattering property of blood cells due to their morphological properties Since pathological states can alterate the discocyte shape, this preliminary, but promising application of the hyperspectral analysis to blood cells can be useful to evaluate significant correlations of blood cell spectral features in healthy and pathological conditions. The combination of the quali- and quantitative spectral signatures of hyperspectral imaging microscopy with the information of the subject health conditions may provide a new tool for clinical applications. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. On Detailed Contrast of Biomedical Object in X-ray Dark-Field Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Shimao, Daisuke; Mori, Koichi; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Kunisada, Toshiyuki; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Ando, Masami

    2007-01-19

    Over the past 10 years, refraction-based X-ray imaging has been studied together with a perspective view to clinical application. X-ray Dark-Field Imaging that utilizes a Laue geometry analyzer has recently been proposed and has the proven ability to depict articular cartilage in an intact human finger. In the current study, we researched detailed image contrast using X-ray Dark-Field Imaging by observing the edge contrast of an acrylic rod as a simple case, and found differences in image contrast between the right and left edges of the rod. This effect could cause undesirable contrast in the thin articular cartilage on the head of the phalanx. To avoid overlapping with this contrast at the articular cartilage, which would lead to a wrong diagnosis, we suggest that a joint surface on which articular cartilage is located should be aligned in the same sense as the scattering vector of the Laue case analyzer crystal. Defects of articular cartilage were successfully detected under this condition. When utilized under appropriate imaging conditions, X-ray Dark-Field Imaging will be a powerful tool for the diagnosis of arthropathy, as minute changes in articular cartilage may be early-stage features of this disease.

  19. X-ray refraction-contrast computed tomography images using dark-field imaging optics

    SciTech Connect

    Sunaguchi, Naoki; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Huo, Qingkai; Ichihara, Shu; Ando, Masami

    2010-10-11

    If an x-ray beam containing internal information derived from sample soft tissue is incident upon a Laue-case analyzer, the beam will subsequently split into a forwardly diffracted beam and a separate diffracted beam. Using these beams acquired simultaneously, a refraction-contrast computed tomography (CT) imaging system for biomedical use with lower radiation dose can be easily realized, and has a high depicting capability on the soft tissues compared with conventional x-ray CT based on absorption contrast principles. In this paper, we propose an imaging system using dark-field imaging for CT measurement based on a tandem system of Bragg- and Laue-case crystals with two two-dimensional detectors, along with a data-processing method to extract information on refraction from the measured entangled intensities by use of rocking curve fitting with polynomial functions. Reconstructed images of soft tissues are presented and described.

  20. X-ray refraction-contrast computed tomography images using dark-field imaging optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunaguchi, Naoki; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Huo, Qingkai; Ichihara, Shu; Ando, Masami

    2010-10-01

    If an x-ray beam containing internal information derived from sample soft tissue is incident upon a Laue-case analyzer, the beam will subsequently split into a forwardly diffracted beam and a separate diffracted beam. Using these beams acquired simultaneously, a refraction-contrast computed tomography (CT) imaging system for biomedical use with lower radiation dose can be easily realized, and has a high depicting capability on the soft tissues compared with conventional x-ray CT based on absorption contrast principles. In this paper, we propose an imaging system using dark-field imaging for CT measurement based on a tandem system of Bragg- and Laue-case crystals with two two-dimensional detectors, along with a data-processing method to extract information on refraction from the measured entangled intensities by use of rocking curve fitting with polynomial functions. Reconstructed images of soft tissues are presented and described.

  1. The effect of Sb-surfactant on GaInP CuPtB type ordering: assessment through dark field TEM and aberration corrected HAADF imaging.

    PubMed

    Coll, C; Barrigón, E; López-Conesa, L; Rebled, J; Barrutia, L; Rey-Stolle, I; Estradé, S; Algora, C; Peiró, F

    2017-04-03

    We report on the effect of Sb on the microstructure of GaInP layers grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). These layers exhibit a CuPtB single variant ordering due to the intentional misorientation of the substrate (Ge(001) substrates with 6° misorientation towards the nearest [111] axis). The use of Sb as a surfactant during the GaInP growth does not modify the type of ordering, but it is found that the order parameter (η) decreases with increasing Sb flux. Dark field microscopy reveals a variation of the angle of the antiphase boundaries (APBs) with Sb amount. The microstructure is assessed through high angle annular dark field (HAADF) experiments and image simulation revealing Z-contrast loss in APBs due to the superposition of ordered domains.

  2. Intergrowth structure of α-phase in β-type TmAlB{sub 4} compound studied by high-angle annular detector dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yubuta, Kunio; Mori, Takao; Leithe-Jasper, Andreas; Borrmann, Horst; Grin, Yuri; Okada, Shigeru; Shishido, Toetsu

    2014-11-15

    Nanostructure of a ThMoB{sub 4}-type (β-type) TmAlB{sub 4} compound, in which YCrB{sub 4}-type (α-type) domains are locally intergrown, is studied by high-angle annular detector dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). Z-contrast images by HAADF-STEM directly represent the arrangements of Tm atoms located at centers of heptagonal atomic columns of B atoms as bright dots, and give us detailed information of intergrowth of type domains in the matrix of the β-type phase, which coherently occurs. Structural and bonding analyses for β-TmAlB{sub 4} point out the closeness in atomic interactions and energy of the α- and β-type structures which support the easy formation of such nanostructure intergrowths. From combination between HAADF-STEM and electronic structure calculation, a detailed local crystal structure with intrinsic building defects is effectively revealed. - Graphical abstract: Nanostructure of a ThMoB{sub 4}-type (β-type) TmAlB{sub 4} compound, in which YCrB{sub 4}-type (α-type) domains are locally intergrown, is studied by high-angle annular detector dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). Z-contrast images by HAADF-STEM directly represent arrangements of Tm atoms located at centers of heptagonal atomic columns of B atoms as bright dots, and give us detailed information of the characteristic intergrowth structure of type domains in the matrix of the β-type phase. - Highlights: • HAADF-STEM images directly represent arrangements of Tm atoms as bright dots. • The α-type planar domains coherently intergrown in the β-type matrix. • Bright strips appear at overlapped regions of Tm hexagons along interfaces between α- and β-type domains.

  3. Tissue Visualization Using X-Ray Dark-Field Imaging towards Pathological Goal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Masami; Chikaura, Yoshinori; Endo, Tokiko; Gupta, Rajiv; Huo, Qingkai; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Ichihara, Shu; Mori, Kensaku; Nakao, Yuki; Ohura, Norihiko; Sunaguchi, Naoki; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Yoshifumi; Wu, Yanlin; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Xiaowei, Zhang

    2013-03-01

    In XDFI (x-ray dark-field imaging) LAA (Laue-case angle analyzer) simultaneously provides two x-ray images; one corresponds to a FD forward diffracted beam and a separate D diffracted beam. When this is applied to biomedical specimens x-ray images are very high contrast and very high spatial resolution. We constructed XDFI system at the vertical wiggler beamline BL-14C in KEK Photon Factory and performed imaging experiment of breast tissues and an excised human femoral artery. In this paper, we discuss a tissue visualization and pathological goal using 2D, 3D-CT and 2.5D image (tomosynthesis) with XDFI.

  4. Study of the interfacial reactions between a bioactive apatite-mullite glass-ceramic coating and titanium substrates using high angle annular dark field transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Kenneth T; O'Flynn, Kevin P; Nakahara, Shohei; Vanhumbeeck, Jean-François; Delucca, John M; Hooghan, Bobby

    2009-04-01

    Glass of generic composition SiO(2) . Al(2)O(3) . P(2)O(5) . CaO . CaF(2) will crystallise predominantly to apatite and mullite upon heat-treatment. Such ceramics are bioactive, osseoconductive, and have a high resistance to fracture. As a result, they are under investigation for use as biomedical device coatings, and in particular for orthopaedic implants. Previous work has shown that the material can be successfully enamelled to titanium with an interfacial reaction zone produced during heat treatment. The present study uses high angle annular dark field transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-TEM) to conduct a detailed examination of this region. Results show evidence of complex interfacial reactions following the diffusion of titanium into an intermediate layer and the production of titanium silicides and titanium phosphides. These results confirm previously hypothesised mechanisms for the bonding of silicate bioceramics with titanium alloys.

  5. Sub-pixel porosity revealed by x-ray scatter dark field imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Revol, V.; Jerjen, I.; Schuetz, P.; Luethi, T.; Sennhauser, U.; Kottler, C.; Kaufmann, R.; Urban, C.; Straumann, U.

    2011-08-15

    X-ray scatter dark field imaging based on the Talbot-Lau interferometer allows for the measurement of ultra-small angle x-ray scattering. The latter is related to the variations in the electron density in the sample at the sub- and micron-scale. Therefore, information on features of the object below the detector resolution can be revealed.In this article, it is demonstrated that scatter dark field imaging is particularly adapted to the study of a material's porosity. An interferometer, optimized for x-ray energies around 50 keV, enables the investigation of aluminum welding with conventional laboratory x-ray tubes. The results show an unprecedented contrast between the pool and the aluminum workpiece. Our conclusions are confirmed due to micro-tomographic three-dimensional reconstructions of the same object with a microscopic resolution.

  6. Advanced contrast modalities for X-ray radiology: Phase-contrast and dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer.

    PubMed

    Bech, Martin; Jensen, Torben H; Bunk, Oliver; Donath, Tilman; David, Christian; Weitkamp, Timm; Le Duc, Geraldine; Bravin, Alberto; Cloetens, Peter; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Here we review our recent progress in the field of X-ray dark-field and phase-contrast imaging using a grating interferometer. We describe the basic imaging principles of grating-based phase-contrast and dark-field radiography and present some exemplary results obtained for simple test objects and biological specimens. Furthermore, we discuss how phase-contrast and dark-field radiography can be combined with the concept of computed tomography, and yield highly detailed three-dimensional insights into biomedical sample. Exemplary results obtained with standard X-ray tube sources and highly brilliant synchrotron sources are presented.

  7. Quantitative Neutron Dark-field Imaging through Spin-Echo Interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Strobl, Markus; Sales, Morten; Plomp, Jeroen; Bouwman, Wim G.; Tremsin, Anton S.; Kaestner, Anders; Pappas, Catherine; Habicht, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Neutron dark-field imaging constitutes a seminal progress in the field of neutron imaging as it combines real space resolution capability with information provided by one of the most significant neutron scattering techniques, namely small angle scattering. The success of structural characterizations bridging the gap between macroscopic and microscopic features has been enabled by the introduction of grating interferometers so far. The induced interference pattern, a spatial beam modulation, allows for mapping of small-angle scattering signals and hence addressing microstructures beyond direct spatial resolution of the imaging system with high efficiency. However, to date the quantification in the small angle scattering regime is severely limited by the monochromatic approach. To overcome such drawback we here introduce an alternative and more flexible method of interferometric beam modulation utilizing a spin-echo technique. This novel method facilitates straightforward quantitative dark-field neutron imaging, i.e. the required quantitative microstructural characterization combined with real space image resolution. For the first time quantitative microstructural reciprocal space information from small angle neutron scattering becomes available together with macroscopic image information creating the potential to quantify several orders of magnitude in structure sizes simultaneously. PMID:26560644

  8. Coherent total internal reflection dark-field microscopy: label-free imaging beyond the diffraction limit.

    PubMed

    von Olshausen, Philipp; Rohrbach, Alexander

    2013-10-15

    Coherent imaging is barely applicable in life-science microscopy due to multiple interference artifacts. Here, we show how these interferences can be used to improve image resolution and contrast. We present a dark-field microscopy technique with evanescent illumination via total internal reflection that delivers high-contrast images of coherently scattering samples. By incoherent averaging of multiple coherent images illuminated from different directions we can resolve image structures that remain unresolved by conventional (incoherent) fluorescence microscopy. We provide images of 190 nm beads revealing resolution beyond the diffraction limit and slightly increased object distances. An analytical model is introduced that accounts for the observed effects and which is confirmed by numerical simulations. Our approach may be a route to fast, label-free, super-resolution imaging in live-cell microscopy.

  9. Noninvasive assessment of the iridial microcirculation in rats using sidestream dark field imaging.

    PubMed

    Cerny, V; Zhou, J; Kelly, M; Alotibi, I; Turek, Z; Whynot, S; Saleh, I Abdo; Lehmann, C

    2013-02-01

    Sidestream dark field imaging represents a novel, noninvasive method to study the microcirculation in humans and animals. To-date, it has been used extensively in various peripheral tissues (e.g. sublingual area, intestinal mucosa), however no data for the ocular vasculature, including the iridial microcirculation, are currently available. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the reliability and reproducibility of sidestream dark field imaging within the iridial microcirculation in experimental animals. Male Lewis rats were anaesthetized and the iris microvasculature was observed using an sidestream dark field probe gently placed against a cover slip covering the right eye. All video sequences recorded were analysed off-line by using AVA 3.0 software (MicroVision Medical, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). Results are expressed as mean (±SE) or median (interquartile range). Clear images were recorded from each animal and the total number of analysable video sequences was 50. All raw data for selected vessel density parameters passed normality test. The total all and small vessel density (in mm mm(-2) ) were 22,6 (±0,58) and 19,6 (±0,68), respectively. The perfused all and small vessel density were 20,9 (±0,61) and 19,1 (±0,65), respectively. The mean values of all iris vessel density parameters are shown in Figure 4. The DeBacker Score (n/mm) was 15,2 (±0,45), the proportion of perfused vessel was 94,5% (89,8-99,1%), and the MFI was 3 points (3-3). Taken together, these results indicate that SDF imaging provides a reliable and noninvasive method to examine the iridial microvascular bed in vivo and, thus, may provide unique opportunities for the study of the iridial vascular network in various experimental and clinical settings and disease models.

  10. High energy X-ray phase and dark-field imaging using a random absorption mask.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongchang; Kashyap, Yogesh; Cai, Biao; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-07-28

    High energy X-ray imaging has unique advantage over conventional X-ray imaging, since it enables higher penetration into materials with significantly reduced radiation damage. However, the absorption contrast in high energy region is considerably low due to the reduced X-ray absorption cross section for most materials. Even though the X-ray phase and dark-field imaging techniques can provide substantially increased contrast and complementary information, fabricating dedicated optics for high energies still remain a challenge. To address this issue, we present an alternative X-ray imaging approach to produce transmission, phase and scattering signals at high X-ray energies by using a random absorption mask. Importantly, in addition to the synchrotron radiation source, this approach has been demonstrated for practical imaging application with a laboratory-based microfocus X-ray source. This new imaging method could be potentially useful for studying thick samples or heavy materials for advanced research in materials science.

  11. First experiences with in-vivo x-ray dark-field imaging of lung cancer in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromann, Lukas B.; Scherer, Kai; Yaroshenko, Andre; Bölükbas, Deniz A.; Hellbach, Katharina; Meinel, Felix G.; Braunagel, Margarita; Eickelberg, Oliver; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Meiners, Silke; Herzen, Julia

    2017-03-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate if x-ray dark-field imaging can help to visualize lung cancer in mice. Materials and Methods: The experiments were performed using mutant mice with high-grade adenocarcinomas. Eight animals with pulmonary carcinoma and eight control animals were imaged in radiography mode using a prototype small-animal x-ray dark-field scanner and three of the cancerous ones additionally in CT mode. After imaging, the lungs were harvested for histological analysis. To determine their diagnostic value, x-ray dark-field and conventional attenuation images were analyzed by three experienced readers in a blind assessment. Results radiographic imaging: The lung nodules were much clearer visualized on the dark-field radiographs compared to conventional radiographs. The loss of air-tissue interfaces in the tumor leads to a significant loss of x-ray scattering, reflected in a strong dark-field signal change. The difference between tumor and healthy tissue in terms of x-ray attenuation is significantly less pronounced. Furthermore, the signal from the overlaying structures on conventional radiographs complicates the detection of pulmonary carcinoma. Results CT imaging: The very first in-vivo CT-imaging results are quite promising as smaller tumors are often better visible in the dark-field images. However the imaging quality is still quite low, especially in the attenuation images due to un-optimized scanning parameters. Conclusion: We found a superior diagnostic performance of dark-field imaging compared to conventional attenuation based imaging, especially when it comes to the detection of small lung nodules. These results support the motivation to further develop this technique and translate it towards a clinical environment.

  12. Dark-field image contrast in transmission scanning electron microscopy: Effects of substrate thickness and detector collection angle.

    PubMed

    Woehl, Taylor; Keller, Robert

    2016-12-01

    An annular dark field (ADF) detector was placed beneath a specimen in a field emission scanning electron microscope operated at 30kV to calibrate detector response to incident beam current, and to create transmission images of gold nanoparticles on silicon nitride (SiN) substrates of various thicknesses. Based on the linear response of the ADF detector diodes to beam current, we developed a method that allowed for direct determination of the percentage of that beam current forward scattered to the ADF detector from the sample, i.e. the transmitted electron (TE) yield. Collection angles for the ADF detector region were defined using a masking aperture above the detector and were systematically varied by changing the sample to detector distance. We found the contrast of the nanoparticles, relative to the SiN substrate, decreased monotonically with decreasing inner exclusion angle and increasing substrate thickness. We also performed Monte Carlo electron scattering simulations, which showed quantitative agreement with experimental contrast associated with the nanoparticles. Together, the experiments and Monte Carlo simulations revealed that the decrease in contrast with decreasing inner exclusion angle was due to a rapid increase in the TE yield of the low atomic number substrate. Nanoparticles imaged at low inner exclusion angles (<150mrad) and on thick substrates (>50nm) showed low image contrast in their centers surrounded by a bright high-contrast halo on their edges. This complex image contrast was predicted by Monte Carlo simulations, which we interpreted in terms of mixing of the nominally bright field (BF) and ADF electron signals. Our systematic investigation of inner exclusion angle and substrate thickness effects on ADF t-SEM imaging provides fundamental understanding of the contrast mechanisms for image formation, which in turn suggest practical limitations and optimal imaging conditions for different substrate thicknesses.

  13. Improvement of sidestream dark field imaging with an image acquisition stabilizer.

    PubMed

    Balestra, Gianmarco M; Bezemer, Rick; Boerma, E Christiaan; Yong, Ze-Yie; Sjauw, Krishan D; Engstrom, Annemarie E; Koopmans, Matty; Ince, Can

    2010-07-13

    In the present study we developed, evaluated in volunteers, and clinically validated an image acquisition stabilizer (IAS) for Sidestream Dark Field (SDF) imaging. The IAS is a stainless steel sterilizable ring which fits around the SDF probe tip. The IAS creates adhesion to the imaged tissue by application of negative pressure. The effects of the IAS on the sublingual microcirculatory flow velocities, the force required to induce pressure artifacts (PA), the time to acquire a stable image, and the duration of stable imaging were assessed in healthy volunteers. To demonstrate the clinical applicability of the SDF setup in combination with the IAS, simultaneous bilateral sublingual imaging of the microcirculation were performed during a lung recruitment maneuver (LRM) in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients. One SDF device was operated handheld; the second was fitted with the IAS and held in position by a mechanic arm. Lateral drift, number of losses of image stability and duration of stable imaging of the two methods were compared. Five healthy volunteers were studied. The IAS did not affect microcirculatory flow velocities. A significantly greater force had to applied onto the tissue to induced PA with compared to without IAS (0.25 +/- 0.15 N without vs. 0.62 +/- 0.05 N with the IAS, p < 0.001). The IAS ensured an increased duration of a stable image sequence (8 +/- 2 s without vs. 42 +/- 8 s with the IAS, p < 0.001). The time required to obtain a stable image sequence was similar with and without the IAS. In eight mechanically ventilated patients undergoing a LRM the use of the IAS resulted in a significantly reduced image drifting and enabled the acquisition of significantly longer stable image sequences (24 +/- 5 s without vs. 67 +/- 14 s with the IAS, p = 0.006). The present study has validated the use of an IAS for improvement of SDF imaging by demonstrating that the IAS did not affect microcirculatory perfusion in the microscopic field of view

  14. Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source

    PubMed Central

    Schleede, Simone; Meinel, Felix G.; Bech, Martin; Herzen, Julia; Achterhold, Klaus; Potdevin, Guillaume; Malecki, Andreas; Adam-Neumair, Silvia; Thieme, Sven F.; Bamberg, Fabian; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Bohla, Alexander; Yildirim, Ali Ö.; Loewen, Roderick; Gifford, Martin; Ruth, Ronald; Eickelberg, Oliver; Reiser, Maximilian; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2012-01-01

    In early stages of various pulmonary diseases, such as emphysema and fibrosis, the change in X-ray attenuation is not detectable with absorption-based radiography. To monitor the morphological changes that the alveoli network undergoes in the progression of these diseases, we propose using the dark-field signal, which is related to small-angle scattering in the sample. Combined with the absorption-based image, the dark-field signal enables better discrimination between healthy and emphysematous lung tissue in a mouse model. All measurements have been performed at 36 keV using a monochromatic laser-driven miniature synchrotron X-ray source (Compact Light Source). In this paper we present grating-based dark-field images of emphysematous vs. healthy lung tissue, where the strong dependence of the dark-field signal on mean alveolar size leads to improved diagnosis of emphysema in lung radiographs. PMID:23074250

  15. A dark-field scanning spectroscopy platform for localized scatter and fluorescence imaging of tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnaswamy, Venkataramanan; Laughney, Ashley M.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2011-03-01

    Tissue ultra-structure and molecular composition provide native contrast mechanisms for discriminating across pathologically distinct tissue-types. Multi-modality optical probe designs combined with spatially confined sampling techniques have been shown to be sensitive to this type of contrast but their extension to imaging has only been realized recently. A modular scanning spectroscopy platform has been developed to allow imaging localized morphology and molecular contrast measures in breast cancer surgical specimens. A custom designed dark-field telecentric scanning spectroscopy system forms the core of this imaging platform. The system allows imaging localized elastic scatter and fluorescence measures over fields of up to 15 mm x 15 mm at 100 microns resolution in tissue. Results from intralipid and blood phantom measurements demonstrate the ability of the system to quantify localized scatter parameters despite significant changes in local absorption. A co-registered fluorescence spectroscopy mode is also demonstrated in a protophorphyrin-IX phantom.

  16. A Dark-field Scanning In Situ Spectroscopy Platform for Broadband Imaging of Resected Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaswamy, Venkataramanan; Laughney, Ashley M.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    A dark-field geometry spectral imaging system is presented to raster-scan thick tissue samples in situ in 1.5cm square sections, recovering full spectra from each 100 microns diameter pixel. This spot size provides adequate resolution for wide field scanning, while also facilitating scatter imaging without requiring sophisticated light-tissue transport modeling. The system is demonstrated showing accurate estimation of localized scatter parameters and the potential to recover absorption-based contrast from broadband reflectance data measured from 480nm up to 750nm in tissue phantoms. Results obtained from xenograft pancreas tumors show the ability to quantitatively image changes in localized scatter response in this fast imaging geometry. The polychromatic raster scan design allows the rapid scanning necessary for use in surgical/clinical applications where timely decisions are required about tissue pathology. PMID:21593932

  17. Dark-field spectral imaging microscope for localized surface plasmon resonance-based biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Sang-Youp; Park, Jin-Ho; Kim, Min-Gon

    2015-07-01

    Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of metal nanoparticles makes red-shift of extinction wavelength with an increase in the refractive index at the surface of the metal nanoparticles. Since biomolecules bound to the metal nanoparticle's surface induce refractive index change, biosensing based on LSPR effect can be possible by monitoring scattering or absorption spectrum changes. Generally, however, conventional method detects ensemble averaged LSPR signal of a huge number of metal nanoparticles. Here, we have constructed a dark-field spectral imaging microscope in order to monitor the scattering spectra of individual metal nanoparticles, simultaneously. Gold nanorod (GNR) and aptamer are employed to detect ochratoxin A (OTA) related to a carcinogenic illness. An aptamer-target binding mechanism promotes wavelength shift of extinction spectra due to refractive index change within sensing volume of GNR by structural change of aptamer. A number of GNRs can be identified in a dark-field LSPR image, simultaneously. A typical spectrum of a GNR exhibits red-shift after target binding of molecules and OTA detection is extended to the very low concentration of 1 pM level.

  18. Three-dimensional shapes and distribution of FePd nanoparticles observed by electron tomography using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kazuhisa; Aoyagi, Kenta; Konno, Toyohiko J.

    2010-01-01

    We have studied three-dimensional shapes and distribution of FePd nanoparticles, prepared by electron beam deposition and postdeposition annealing, by means of single-axis tilt tomography using atomic number contrasts obtained by high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy. Particle size, shape, and locations were reconstructed by weighted backprojection (WBP), as well as by simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT). We have also estimated the particle size by simple extrapolation of tilt-series original data sets, which proved to be quite powerful. The results of the two algorithms for reconstruction have been compared quantitatively with those obtained by the extrapolation method and those independently reported by electron holography. It was found that the reconstructed intensity map by WBP contains a small amount of dotlike artifacts, which do not exist in the results by SIRT, and that the particle surface obtained by WBP is rougher than that by SIRT. We demonstrate, on the other hand, that WBP yields a better estimation of the particle size in the z direction than SIRT does, most likely due to the presence of a "missing wedge" in the original data set.

  19. General solution for quantitative dark-field contrast imaging with grating interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobl, M.

    2014-11-01

    Grating interferometer based imaging with X-rays and neutrons has proven to hold huge potential for applications in key research fields conveying biology and medicine as well as engineering and magnetism, respectively. The thereby amenable dark-field imaging modality implied the promise to access structural information beyond reach of direct spatial resolution. However, only here a yet missing approach is reported that finally allows exploiting this outstanding potential for non-destructive materials characterizations. It enables to obtain quantitative structural small angle scattering information combined with up to 3-dimensional spatial image resolution even at lab based x-ray or at neutron sources. The implied two orders of magnitude efficiency gain as compared to currently available techniques in this regime paves the way for unprecedented structural investigations of complex sample systems of interest for material science in a vast range of fields.

  20. Contrast enhancement of microsphere-assisted super-resolution imaging in dark-field microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yi; Tang, Yan; Deng, Qinyuan; Zhao, Lixin; Hu, Song

    2017-08-01

    We report a method of boosting the imaging contrast of microsphere-assisted super-resolution visualization by utilizing dark-field illumination (DFI). We conducted experiments on both 10-µm-diameter silica (SiO2) microspheres with refractive index n ∼ 1.46 under no and partial immersion in ethyl alcohol (n ∼ 1.36) and 20-µm-diameter barium titanate glass (BTG, n ∼ 1.9) microspheres with full immersion to show the super-resolution capability. We experimentally demonstrated that the imaging contrast and uniformity were extraordinarily improved in the DFI mode. The intensity profiles in the visualization also numerically confirm the enhanced sharpness for a better imaging quality when applying DFI.

  1. Refractive-index based tomosynthesis using dark-field imaging optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunaguchi, N.; Yuasa, T.; Ichihara, S.; Huo, Q.; Sakai, M.; Wu, Y.; Shimao, D.; Ando, M.

    2013-03-01

    Tomosynthesis (TS) is a pseudo-3-dimensional image reconstruction method to recover depth-resolved information using restricted number of projections. In this research, refraction index based TS imaging using dark-field imaging (DFI) optics is proposed and biomedical soft tissues were imaged in low dose exposure. By a single exposure of an object, two projected images are obtained from a Laue-case analyzer of DFI. Calculating the both images refraction component is deduced, while two exposures are needed in DEI (diffraction enhanced imaging). Thus the measurement time and the radiation dose in DFI are half of DEI. In addition, the proposed reconstruction algorithm, derived from the quantitative relationship in measurement process, allows high contrast tomographic imaging in spite of one order smaller number of projections for CT (computed tomography). To demonstrate the proposed imaging protocol efficacy, an ex-vivo excised tissue of human lung were imaged using a system constructed at the vertical wiggler beamline at PF-BL14C at KEK. TS image is successfully delineated high quality soft tissue structures comparable to CT.

  2. A New Optics for Dark-Field Imaging in X-Ray Region ‘Owl’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Masami; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Maksimenko, Anton; Pattanasiriwisawa, Wanwisa; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2001-08-01

    An X-ray optics for X-ray dark-field imaging named ‘Owl’ is proposed. It involves an asymmetric monochromator and a monolithic X-ray optics comprising a collimator C and an analyzer A@. The C and A have 4,4,0 diffraction and thickness of 1.08 mm± 10 μm. The X-ray energy used was 35 keV@. These diffractions have an angular width of approximately 0.3 μrad. The analyzer A accepts only the refracted component from a sample S which is located between C and A, while eliminating the straight component without reacting with it. Two samples, one Al matrix containing boron fibers of 300 μm diameter and the other a wax block containing a nylon fiber simulating breast cancer, show very clear fiber imaging usually not visible by the conventional X-ray technique.

  3. High Quality Image Formation by Nonlocal Means Applied to High-Angle Annular Darkfield Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HAADF-STEM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-31

    sample enables certain electron imaging and spectroscopic techniques such as mapping by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy , electron energy...loss spectroscopy (EELS) and annular dark-field imaging (ADF). These signals can be obtained simultane- ously, allowing direct correlation of image and...spectroscopic data. By using a STEM and a high-angle annular detector, it is possible to obtain atomic resolution images where the contrast is

  4. High-contrast multilayer imaging of biological organisms through dark-field digital refocusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faridian, Ahmad; Pedrini, Giancarlo; Osten, Wolfgang

    2013-08-01

    We have developed an imaging system to extract high contrast images from different layers of biological organisms. Utilizing a digital holographic approach, the system works without scanning through layers of the specimen. In dark-field illumination, scattered light has the main contribution in image formation, but in the case of coherent illumination, this creates a strong speckle noise that reduces the image quality. To remove this restriction, the specimen has been illuminated with various speckle-fields and a hologram has been recorded for each speckle-field. Each hologram has been analyzed separately and the corresponding intensity image has been reconstructed. The final image has been derived by averaging over the reconstructed images. A correlation approach has been utilized to determine the number of speckle-fields required to achieve a desired contrast and image quality. The reconstructed intensity images in different object layers are shown for different sea urchin larvae. Two multimedia files are attached to illustrate the process of digital focusing.

  5. Projection angle dependence in grating-based X-ray dark-field imaging of ordered structures.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Florian; Zabler, Simon; Brendel, Christian; Pelzer, Georg; Rieger, Jens; Ritter, André; Weber, Thomas; Michel, Thilo; Anton, Gisela

    2013-08-26

    Over the recent years X-ray differential phase-contrast imaging was developed for the hard X-ray regime as produced from laboratory X-ray sources. The technique uses a grating-based Talbot-Lau interferometer and was shown to yield image contrast gain, which makes it very interesting to the fields of medical imaging and non-destructive testing, respectively. In addition to X-ray attenuation contrast, the differential phase-contrast and dark-field images provide different structural information about a specimen. For the dark-field even at length scales much smaller than the spatial resolution of the imaging system. Physical interpretation of the dark-field information as present in radiographic and tomographic (CT) images requires a detailed look onto the geometric orientation between specimen and the setup. During phase-stepping the drop in intensity modulation, due to local scattering effects within the specimen is reproduced in the dark-field signal. This signal shows strong dependencies on micro-porosity and micro-fibers if these are numerous enough in the object. Since a grating-interferometer using a common unidirectional line grating is sensitive to X-ray scattering in one plane only, the dark-field image is influenced by the fiber orientations with respect to the grating bars, which can be exploited to obtain anisotropic structural information. With this contribution, we attempt to extend existing models for 2D projections to 3D data by analyzing dark-field contrast tomography of anisotropically structured materials such as carbon fiber reinforced carbon (CFRC).

  6. Four-wave dark-field electron holography for imaging strain fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denneulin, T.; Hÿtch, M.

    2016-06-01

    Strain characterization by transmission electron microscopy is an active area of research especially for microelectronics applications. Two-wave dark-field electron holography (DFEH) was previously introduced as a reliable strain mapping technique. Here, DFEH with four electron waves was investigated in order to image equi-displacement lines as amplitude modulations of the holographic fringes. Two perpendicular electrostatic biprisms are used to interfere three reference waves diffracted by a substrate and one object wave diffracted by an epitaxially strained region. This technique provides a different way to represent the displacement field. It might be helpful to obtain information about the strain state during in situ experiments. A dummy p-MOSFET device with embedded SiGe source and drain is used for experimental demonstration.

  7. Orientation-selective X-ray dark field imaging of ordered systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revol, V.; Kottler, C.; Kaufmann, R.; Neels, A.; Dommann, A.

    2012-12-01

    X-ray scatter dark field imaging with a grating interferometer is becoming a standard tool for the characterization of microscopic texture of samples. Recently, it was shown that directional information could also be recovered when the sample displays an anisotropic ordering such as, for instance, a bundle of microscopic fibers. Here, we demonstrate that previously suggested approaches are ambiguous when multiple anisotropic orientations coexist in the sample. Therefore, we developed a new orientation-selective approach which allows for separating the contributions of individual orientations provided that these orientations are known a-priori. The method, demonstrated experimentally using a well-defined wood sample, is envisioned to be of high interest for the non-destructive inspection of composite materials.

  8. Attempt at Visualizing Breast Cancer with X-ray Dark Field Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Masami; Yamasaki, Katsuhito; Toyofuku, Fukai; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Ohbayashi, Chiho; Li, Gang; Pan, Lin; Jiang, Xiaoming; Pattanasiriwisawa, Wanwisa; Shimao, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Eiko; Kimura, Tatsuro; Tsuneyoshi, Masazumi; Ueno, Ei; Tokumori, Kenji; Maksimenko, Anton; Higashida, Yoshiharu; Hirano, Masatsugu

    2005-04-01

    X-ray dark-field imaging (DFI) can clearly visualize breast cancer phantoms and cancer cell nests, stroma, fat tissue, ductus lactiferi, muscle, collagen fibers at stroma and calcification in a 2.8-mm-thick breast cancer pathological specimen. The system comprises a Bragg asymmetric-cut monochro-collimator and a 2.124-mm-thick Si 440 Laue diffraction analyzer at 35 keV. Both optical elements are Floating Zone made silicon crystals. The view size of 33 mm (H) × 19.5 mm (V) and the spatial resolution of 10 μm or better are obtainable at the vertical wiggler beamline BL14B at the Photon Factory.

  9. Quantification of the neutron dark-field imaging signal in grating interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünzweig, C.; Kopecek, J.; Betz, B.; Kaestner, A.; Jefimovs, K.; Kohlbrecher, J.; Gasser, U.; Bunk, O.; David, C.; Lehmann, E.; Donath, T.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2013-09-01

    Here we report on a mathematical description for the neutron dark-field image (DFI) contrast based on the influence of the thickness-dependent beam broadening caused by scattering interactions and multiple refraction in the sample. We conduct radiography experiments to verify that the DFI signal exponentially decays as a function of thickness for both magnetic and nonmagnetic materials. Here we introduce a material-dependent parameter, the so-called linear diffusion coefficient Ω. This allows us to perform a quantitative DFI-computed tomography. Additionally, we conduct correlative small-angle neutron-scattering experiments and validate the mathematical assumption that the angular broadening of the direct beam is proportional to the square root of the number of discrete layers.

  10. High energy X-ray phase and dark-field imaging using a random absorption mask

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongchang; Kashyap, Yogesh; Cai, Biao; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-01-01

    High energy X-ray imaging has unique advantage over conventional X-ray imaging, since it enables higher penetration into materials with significantly reduced radiation damage. However, the absorption contrast in high energy region is considerably low due to the reduced X-ray absorption cross section for most materials. Even though the X-ray phase and dark-field imaging techniques can provide substantially increased contrast and complementary information, fabricating dedicated optics for high energies still remain a challenge. To address this issue, we present an alternative X-ray imaging approach to produce transmission, phase and scattering signals at high X-ray energies by using a random absorption mask. Importantly, in addition to the synchrotron radiation source, this approach has been demonstrated for practical imaging application with a laboratory-based microfocus X-ray source. This new imaging method could be potentially useful for studying thick samples or heavy materials for advanced research in materials science. PMID:27466217

  11. Refraction-based X-ray Computed Tomography for Biomedical Purpose Using Dark Field Imaging Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunaguchi, Naoki; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Huo, Qingkai; Ichihara, Shu; Ando, Masami

    We have proposed a tomographic x-ray imaging system using DFI (dark field imaging) optics along with a data-processing method to extract information on refraction from the measured intensities, and a reconstruction algorithm to reconstruct a refractive-index field from the projections generated from the extracted refraction information. The DFI imaging system consists of a tandem optical system of Bragg- and Laue-case crystals, a positioning device system for a sample, and two CCD (charge coupled device) cameras. Then, we developed a software code to simulate the data-acquisition, data-processing, and reconstruction methods to investigate the feasibility of the proposed methods. Finally, in order to demonstrate its efficacy, we imaged a sample with DCIS (ductal carcinoma in situ) excised from a breast cancer patient using a system constructed at the vertical wiggler beamline BL-14C in KEK-PF. Its CT images depicted a variety of fine histological structures, such as milk ducts, duct walls, secretions, adipose and fibrous tissue. They correlate well with histological sections.

  12. Microbubbles as a scattering contrast agent for grating-based x-ray dark-field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velroyen, A.; Bech, M.; Malecki, A.; Tapfer, A.; Yaroshenko, A.; Ingrisch, M.; Cyran, C. C.; Auweter, S. D.; Nikolaou, K.; Reiser, M.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2013-02-01

    In clinically established—absorption-based—biomedical x-ray imaging, contrast agents with high atomic numbers (e.g. iodine) are commonly used for contrast enhancement. The development of novel x-ray contrast modalities such as phase contrast and dark-field contrast opens up the possible use of alternative contrast media in x-ray imaging. We investigate using ultrasound contrast agents, which unlike iodine-based contrast agents can also be administered to patients with renal impairment and thyroid dysfunction, for application with a recently developed novel x-ray dark-field imaging modality. To produce contrast from these microbubble-based contrast agents, our method exploits ultra-small-angle coherent x-ray scattering. Such scattering dark-field x-ray images can be obtained with a grating-based x-ray imaging setup, together with refraction-based differential phase-contrast and the conventional attenuation contrast images. In this work we specifically show that ultrasound contrast agents based on microbubbles can be used to produce strongly enhanced dark-field contrast, with superior contrast-to-noise ratio compared to the attenuation signal. We also demonstrate that this method works well with an x-ray tube-based setup and that the relative contrast gain even increases when the pixel size is increased from tenths of microns to clinically compatible detector resolutions about up to a millimetre.

  13. Microbubbles as a scattering contrast agent for grating-based x-ray dark-field imaging.

    PubMed

    Velroyen, A; Bech, M; Malecki, A; Tapfer, A; Yaroshenko, A; Ingrisch, M; Cyran, C C; Auweter, S D; Nikolaou, K; Reiser, M; Pfeiffer, F

    2013-02-21

    In clinically established-absorption-based-biomedical x-ray imaging, contrast agents with high atomic numbers (e.g. iodine) are commonly used for contrast enhancement. The development of novel x-ray contrast modalities such as phase contrast and dark-field contrast opens up the possible use of alternative contrast media in x-ray imaging. We investigate using ultrasound contrast agents, which unlike iodine-based contrast agents can also be administered to patients with renal impairment and thyroid dysfunction, for application with a recently developed novel x-ray dark-field imaging modality. To produce contrast from these microbubble-based contrast agents, our method exploits ultra-small-angle coherent x-ray scattering. Such scattering dark-field x-ray images can be obtained with a grating-based x-ray imaging setup, together with refraction-based differential phase-contrast and the conventional attenuation contrast images. In this work we specifically show that ultrasound contrast agents based on microbubbles can be used to produce strongly enhanced dark-field contrast, with superior contrast-to-noise ratio compared to the attenuation signal. We also demonstrate that this method works well with an x-ray tube-based setup and that the relative contrast gain even increases when the pixel size is increased from tenths of microns to clinically compatible detector resolutions about up to a millimetre.

  14. Dark field optical imaging reveals vascular changes in an inducible hamster cheek pouch model during carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Fangyao; Morhard, Robert; Murphy, Helen A.; Zhu, Caigang; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we propose a low-cost cross-polarized dark field microscopy system for in vivo vascular imaging to detect head and neck cancer. A simple-to-use Gabor-filter-based image processing technique was developed to objectively and automatically quantify several important vascular features, including tortuosity, length, diameter and area fraction, from vascular images. Simulations were performed to evaluate the accuracies of vessel segmentation and feature extraction for our algorithm. Sensitivity and specificity for vessel segmentation of the Gabor masks both remained above 80% at all contrast levels when compared to gold-standard masks. Errors for vascular feature extraction were under 5%. Moreover, vascular contrast and vessel diameter were identified to be the two primary factors which affected the segmentation accuracies. After our algorithm was validated, we monitored the blood vessels in an inducible hamster cheek pouch carcinogen model over 17 weeks and quantified vascular features during carcinogenesis. A significant increase in vascular tortuosity and a significant decrease in vessel length were observed during carcinogenesis. PMID:27699096

  15. Determination of Bulk Magnetic Volume Properties by Neutron Dark-Field Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünzweig, Christian; Siebert, René; Betz, Benedikt; Rauscher, Peter; Schäfer, Rudolf; Lehmann, Eberhard

    For the production of high-class electrical steel grades a deeper understanding of the magnetic domain interaction with induced mechanical stresses is strongly required. This holds for non-oriented (NO) as well as grain-oriented (GO) steels. In the case of non-oriented steels the magnetic property degeneration after punching or laser cutting is essential for selecting correct obstructing material grades and designing efficient electrical machines. Until now these effects stay undiscovered due to the lack of adequate investigation methods that reveal local bulk information on processed laminations. Here we show how the use of a non-destructive testing method based on a neutron grating interferometry providing the dark-field image contrast delivers spatially-resolved transmission information about the local bulk domain arrangement and domain wall density. With the help of this technique it is possible to visualize magnetization processes within the NO laminations. Different representative manufacturing techniques are compared in terms of magnetic flux density deterioration such as punching, mechanically cutting by guillotine as well as laser fusion cutting using industrial high power laser beam sources. For GO steel laminations the method is applicable on the one hand to visualize the internal domain structure without being hindered by the coating layer. On the other hand, we can show the influence of the coating layer onto the underlying domain structure.

  16. Frequency-Induced Bulk Magnetic Domain-Wall Freezing Visualized by Neutron Dark-Field Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, B.; Rauscher, P.; Harti, R. P.; Schäfer, R.; Van Swygenhoven, H.; Kaestner, A.; Hovind, J.; Lehmann, E.; Grünzweig, C.

    2016-08-01

    We use neutron dark-field imaging to visualize and interpret the response of bulk magnetic domain walls to static and dynamic magnetic excitations in (110)-Goss textured iron silicon high-permeability steel alloy. We investigate the domain-wall motion under the influence of an external alternating sinusoidal magnetic field. In particular, we perform scans combining varying levels of dcoffset (0 - 30 A /m ) , oscillation amplitude Aac (0 - 1500 A /m ) , and frequency fac ((0 - 200 Hz ) . By increasing amplitude Aac while maintaining constant values of dcoffset and fac , we record the transition from a frozen domain-wall structure to a mobile one. Vice versa, increasing fac while keeping Aac and dcoffset constant led to the reverse transition from a mobile domain-wall structure into a frozen one. We show that varying both Aac and fac shifts the position of the transition region. Furthermore, we demonstrate that higher frequencies require higher oscillation amplitudes to overcome the freezing phenomena. The fundamental determination and understanding of the frequency-induced freezing process in high-permeability steel alloys is of high interest to the further development of descriptive models for bulk macromagnetic phenomena. Likewise, the efficiency of transformers can be improved based on our results, since these alloys are used as transformer core material.

  17. Speckle-Based X-Ray Phase-Contrast and Dark-Field Imaging with a Laboratory Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanette, I.; Zhou, T.; Burvall, A.; Lundström, U.; Larsson, D. H.; Zdora, M.; Thibault, P.; Pfeiffer, F.; Hertz, H. M.

    2014-06-01

    We report on the observation and application of near-field speckles with a laboratory x-ray source. The detection of speckles is possible thanks to the enhanced brilliance properties of the used liquid-metal-jet source, and opens the way to a range of new applications in laboratory-based coherent x-ray imaging. Here, we use the speckle pattern for multimodal imaging of demonstrator objects. Moreover, we introduce algorithms for phase and dark-field imaging using speckle tracking, and we show that they yield superior results with respect to existing methods.

  18. Simulation of dark-field imaging of micro-calcifications in human breast tissue with X-ray Talbot-Lau interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, A.; Anton, G.; Bayer, F.; Gödel, K.; Pelzer, G.; Rieger, J.; Weber, T.; Zang, A.; Michel, T.

    2014-05-01

    A simulation of dark-field imaging of sub-resolution structures with X-ray Talbot-Lau interferometry is presented. Data obtained from the simulation shows good agreement to a signal found in the dark-field image of a surgically removed sample of human breast tissue containing micro calcifications. A measure for the type of micro calcifications is introduced which can be calculated from dark-field signals. In a further analysis of the simulated data, it can be shown that the measure can be used to discriminate between different calcifications types.

  19. Granuloma annulare - close-up (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Granuloma annulare is usually a self-limiting disorder characterized by raised lesions arranged in an annular shape. ... This picture shows a close-up of a granuloma annulare that is subcutaneous (deeper). It demonstrates the ...

  20. Ex Vivo Perfusion-Simulation Measurements of Microbubbles as a Scattering Contrast Agent for Grating-Based X-Ray Dark-Field Imaging.

    PubMed

    Velroyen, Astrid; Bech, Martin; Tapfer, Arne; Yaroshenko, Andre; Müller, Mark; Paprottka, Philipp; Ingrisch, Michael; Cyran, Clemens C; Auweter, Sigrid D; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Reiser, Maximilian F; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-01-01

    The investigation of dedicated contrast agents for x-ray dark-field imaging, which exploits small-angle scattering at microstructures for contrast generation, is of strong interest in analogy to the common clinical use of high-atomic number contrast media in conventional attenuation-based imaging, since dark-field imaging has proven to provide complementary information. Therefore, agents consisting of gas bubbles, as used in ultrasound imaging for example, are of particular interest. In this work, we investigate an experimental contrast agent based on microbubbles consisting of a polyvinyl-alcohol shell with an iron oxide coating, which was originally developed for multimodal imaging and drug delivery. Its performance as a possible contrast medium for small-animal angiography was examined using a mouse carcass to realistically consider attenuating and scattering background signal. Subtraction images of dark field, phase contrast and attenuation were acquired for a concentration series of 100%, 10% and 1.3% to mimic different stages of dilution in the contrast agent in the blood vessel system. The images were compared to the gold-standard iodine-based contrast agent Solutrast, showing a good contrast improvement by microbubbles in dark-field imaging. This study proves the feasibility of microbubble-based dark-field contrast-enhancement in presence of scattering and attenuating mouse body structures like bone and fur. Therefore, it suggests a strong potential of the use of polymer-based microbubbles for small-animal dark-field angiography.

  1. Real-time scattered light dark-field microscopic imaging of the dynamic degradation process of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Gang; Gao, Peng Fei; Liu, Hui; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Single nanoparticle analysis (SNA) technique with the aid of a dark-field microscopic imaging (iDFM) technique has attracted wide attention owing to its high sensitivity. Considering that the degradation of pesticides can bring about serious problems in food and the environment, and that the real-time monitoring of the dynamic degradation process of pesticides can help understand and define their degradation mechanisms, herein we real-time monitored the decomposition dynamics of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate (NaDDC) under neutral and alkaline conditions by imaging single silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under a dark-field microscope (DFM); the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) scattering signals were measured at a single nanoparticle level. As a result, the chemical mechanism of the degradation of NaDDC under neutral and alkaline conditions was proposed, and the inhibition effects of metal ions including Zn(ii) and Cu(ii) were investigated in order to understand the decomposition process in different environments. It was found that Cu(ii) forms the most stable complex with NaDDC with a stoichiometric ratio of 1 : 2, which greatly reduces the toxicity.Single nanoparticle analysis (SNA) technique with the aid of a dark-field microscopic imaging (iDFM) technique has attracted wide attention owing to its high sensitivity. Considering that the degradation of pesticides can bring about serious problems in food and the environment, and that the real-time monitoring of the dynamic degradation process of pesticides can help understand and define their degradation mechanisms, herein we real-time monitored the decomposition dynamics of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate (NaDDC) under neutral and alkaline conditions by imaging single silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under a dark-field microscope (DFM); the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) scattering signals were measured at a single nanoparticle level. As a result, the chemical mechanism of the degradation of Na

  2. Dark-field light scattering imaging of living cancer cell component from birth through division using bioconjugated gold nanoprobes.

    PubMed

    Qian, Wei; Huang, Xiaohua; Kang, Bin; El-Sayed, Mostafa A

    2010-01-01

    Novel methods and technologies that could extend and complement the capabilities of the prevailing fluorescence microscope in following the cell cycle under different perturbations are highly desirable in the area of biological and biomedical imaging. We report a newly designed instrument for long-term light scattering live cell imaging based on integrating a homebuilt environmental cell incubation minichamber and an angled dark-field illumination system into a conventional inverted light microscope. Peptide-conjugated gold nanoparticles that are selectively delivered to either the cytoplasmic or nuclear region of the cell are used as light scattering contrast agents. The new system enables us to carry out continuous and intermittence-free dark-field live cell imaging over several tens of hours. A variety of applications of this imaging system are demonstrated, such as monitoring the nuclear uptake of peptide-conjugated gold nanoparticles, tracking the full cycle of cancer cells from birth to division, following the chromosome dynamics during cell mitosis, and observing the intracellular distribution of gold nanoparticles after cell division. We also discuss the overall effect of nuclear targeting gold nanoparticles on the cell viability of parent and daughter cells.

  3. Dark-field light scattering imaging of living cancer cell component from birth through division using bioconjugated gold nanoprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Wei; Huang, Xiaohua; Kang, Bin; El-Sayed, Mostafa A.

    2010-07-01

    Novel methods and technologies that could extend and complement the capabilities of the prevailing fluorescence microscope in following the cell cycle under different perturbations are highly desirable in the area of biological and biomedical imaging. We report a newly designed instrument for long-term light scattering live cell imaging based on integrating a homebuilt environmental cell incubation minichamber and an angled dark-field illumination system into a conventional inverted light microscope. Peptide-conjugated gold nanoparticles that are selectively delivered to either the cytoplasmic or nuclear region of the cell are used as light scattering contrast agents. The new system enables us to carry out continuous and intermittence-free dark-field live cell imaging over several tens of hours. A variety of applications of this imaging system are demonstrated, such as monitoring the nuclear uptake of peptide-conjugated gold nanoparticles, tracking the full cycle of cancer cells from birth to division, following the chromosome dynamics during cell mitosis, and observing the intracellular distribution of gold nanoparticles after cell division. We also discuss the overall effect of nuclear targeting gold nanoparticles on the cell viability of parent and daughter cells.

  4. Convolution reconstruction algorithm for refraction-contrast computed tomography using a Laue-case analyzer for dark-field imaging.

    PubMed

    Sunaguchi, Naoki; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Huo, Qingkai; Ando, Masami

    2011-02-01

    We derive a reconstruction algorithm for refraction-contrast computed tomography (CT) using dark-field imaging (DFI) optics, which can extract refraction information by a single shot, from the ray equation in geometrical optics. The proposed algorithm is similar to the convolution reconstruction technique widely used in conventional CT. Thus, this algorithm can be implemented simply while also being fast and stable. To demonstrate its validity, we constructed the imaging system based on DFI optics composed of a transmission Laue-type angular analyzer at the vertical wiggler beamline BL-14C in KEK and performed a preliminary imaging experiment using a physical phantom to successfully obtain the DFI-CT image using the proposed algorithm.

  5. Simulations of x-ray speckle-based dark-field and phase-contrast imaging with a polychromatic beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdora, Marie-Christine; Thibault, Pierre; Pfeiffer, Franz; Zanette, Irene

    2015-09-01

    Following the first experimental demonstration of x-ray speckle-based multimodal imaging using a polychromatic beam [I. Zanette et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(25), 253903 (2014)], we present a simulation study on the effects of a polychromatic x-ray spectrum on the performance of this technique. We observe that the contrast of the near-field speckles is only mildly influenced by the bandwidth of the energy spectrum. Moreover, using a homogeneous object with simple geometry, we characterize the beam hardening artifacts in the reconstructed transmission and refraction angle images, and we describe how the beam hardening also affects the dark-field signal provided by speckle tracking. This study is particularly important for further implementations and developments of coherent speckle-based techniques at laboratory x-ray sources.

  6. Simulations of x-ray speckle-based dark-field and phase-contrast imaging with a polychromatic beam

    SciTech Connect

    Zdora, Marie-Christine; Thibault, Pierre; Pfeiffer, Franz; Zanette, Irene

    2015-09-21

    Following the first experimental demonstration of x-ray speckle-based multimodal imaging using a polychromatic beam [I. Zanette et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(25), 253903 (2014)], we present a simulation study on the effects of a polychromatic x-ray spectrum on the performance of this technique. We observe that the contrast of the near-field speckles is only mildly influenced by the bandwidth of the energy spectrum. Moreover, using a homogeneous object with simple geometry, we characterize the beam hardening artifacts in the reconstructed transmission and refraction angle images, and we describe how the beam hardening also affects the dark-field signal provided by speckle tracking. This study is particularly important for further implementations and developments of coherent speckle-based techniques at laboratory x-ray sources.

  7. A noise reduction method for quantifying nanoparticle light scattering in low magnification dark-field microscope far-field images

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dali

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles have become a powerful tool for cell imaging, biomolecule and cell and protein interaction studies, but are difficult to rapidly and accurately measure in most assays. Dark-field microscope (DFM) image analysis approaches used to quantify nanoparticles require high-magnification near-field (HN) images that are labor intensive due to a requirement for manual image selection and focal adjustments needed when identifying and capturing new regions of interest. Low-magnification far-field (LF) DFM imagery is technically simpler to perform but cannot be used as an alternate to HN-DFM quantification, since it is highly sensitive to surface artifacts and debris that can easily mask nanoparticle signal. We now describe a new noise reduction approach that markedly reduces LF-DFM image artifacts to allow sensitive and accurate nanoparticle signal quantification from LF-DFM images. We have used this approach to develop a “Dark Scatter Master” (DSM) algorithm for the popular NIH image analysis program ImageJ, which can be readily adapted for use with automated high-throughput assay analyses. This method demonstrated robust performance quantifying nanoparticles in different assay formats, including a novel method that quantified extracellular vesicles in patient blood sample to detect pancreatic cancer cases. Based on these results, we believe our LF-DFM quantification method can markedly decrease the analysis time of most nanoparticle-based assays to impact both basic research and clinical analyses. PMID:28177210

  8. Diagnosing and Mapping Pulmonary Emphysema on X-Ray Projection Images: Incremental Value of Grating-Based X-Ray Dark-Field Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Meinel, Felix G.; Schwab, Felix; Schleede, Simone; Bech, Martin; Herzen, Julia; Achterhold, Klaus; Auweter, Sigrid; Bamberg, Fabian; Yildirim, Ali Ö.; Bohla, Alexander; Eickelberg, Oliver; Loewen, Rod; Gifford, Martin; Ruth, Ronald; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Nikolaou, Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess whether grating-based X-ray dark-field imaging can increase the sensitivity of X-ray projection images in the diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema and allow for a more accurate assessment of emphysema distribution. Materials and Methods Lungs from three mice with pulmonary emphysema and three healthy mice were imaged ex vivo using a laser-driven compact synchrotron X-ray source. Median signal intensities of transmission (T), dark-field (V) and a combined parameter (normalized scatter) were compared between emphysema and control group. To determine the diagnostic value of each parameter in differentiating between healthy and emphysematous lung tissue, a receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed both on a per-pixel and a per-individual basis. Parametric maps of emphysema distribution were generated using transmission, dark-field and normalized scatter signal and correlated with histopathology. Results Transmission values relative to water were higher for emphysematous lungs than for control lungs (1.11 vs. 1.06, p<0.001). There was no difference in median dark-field signal intensities between both groups (0.66 vs. 0.66). Median normalized scatter was significantly lower in the emphysematous lungs compared to controls (4.9 vs. 10.8, p<0.001), and was the best parameter for differentiation of healthy vs. emphysematous lung tissue. In a per-pixel analysis, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) for the normalized scatter value was significantly higher than for transmission (0.86 vs. 0.78, p<0.001) and dark-field value (0.86 vs. 0.52, p<0.001) alone. Normalized scatter showed very high sensitivity for a wide range of specificity values (94% sensitivity at 75% specificity). Using the normalized scatter signal to display the regional distribution of emphysema provides color-coded parametric maps, which show the best correlation with histopathology. Conclusion In a murine model, the complementary information provided by X

  9. Diagnosing and mapping pulmonary emphysema on X-ray projection images: incremental value of grating-based X-ray dark-field imaging.

    PubMed

    Meinel, Felix G; Schwab, Felix; Schleede, Simone; Bech, Martin; Herzen, Julia; Achterhold, Klaus; Auweter, Sigrid; Bamberg, Fabian; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Bohla, Alexander; Eickelberg, Oliver; Loewen, Rod; Gifford, Martin; Ruth, Ronald; Reiser, Maximilian F; Pfeiffer, Franz; Nikolaou, Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether grating-based X-ray dark-field imaging can increase the sensitivity of X-ray projection images in the diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema and allow for a more accurate assessment of emphysema distribution. Lungs from three mice with pulmonary emphysema and three healthy mice were imaged ex vivo using a laser-driven compact synchrotron X-ray source. Median signal intensities of transmission (T), dark-field (V) and a combined parameter (normalized scatter) were compared between emphysema and control group. To determine the diagnostic value of each parameter in differentiating between healthy and emphysematous lung tissue, a receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed both on a per-pixel and a per-individual basis. Parametric maps of emphysema distribution were generated using transmission, dark-field and normalized scatter signal and correlated with histopathology. Transmission values relative to water were higher for emphysematous lungs than for control lungs (1.11 vs. 1.06, p<0.001). There was no difference in median dark-field signal intensities between both groups (0.66 vs. 0.66). Median normalized scatter was significantly lower in the emphysematous lungs compared to controls (4.9 vs. 10.8, p<0.001), and was the best parameter for differentiation of healthy vs. emphysematous lung tissue. In a per-pixel analysis, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) for the normalized scatter value was significantly higher than for transmission (0.86 vs. 0.78, p<0.001) and dark-field value (0.86 vs. 0.52, p<0.001) alone. Normalized scatter showed very high sensitivity for a wide range of specificity values (94% sensitivity at 75% specificity). Using the normalized scatter signal to display the regional distribution of emphysema provides color-coded parametric maps, which show the best correlation with histopathology. In a murine model, the complementary information provided by X-ray transmission and dark-field images adds incremental

  10. On the analysis of time-of-flight spin-echo modulated dark-field imaging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sales, Morten; Plomp, Jeroen; Bouwman, Wim G.; Tremsin, Anton S.; Habicht, Klaus; Strobl, Markus

    2017-06-01

    Spin-Echo Modulated Small Angle Neutron Scattering with spatial resolution, i.e. quantitative Spin-Echo Dark Field Imaging, is an emerging technique coupling neutron imaging with spatially resolved quantitative small angle scattering information. However, the currently achieved relatively large modulation periods of the order of millimeters are superimposed to the images of the samples. So far this required an independent reduction and analyses of the image and scattering information encoded in the measured data and is involving extensive curve fitting routines. Apart from requiring a priori decisions potentially limiting the information content that is extractable also a straightforward judgment of the data quality and information content is hindered. In contrast we propose a significantly simplified routine directly applied to the measured data, which does not only allow an immediate first assessment of data quality and delaying decisions on potentially information content limiting further reduction steps to a later and better informed state, but also, as results suggest, generally better analyses. In addition the method enables to drop the spatial resolution detector requirement for non-spatially resolved Spin-Echo Modulated Small Angle Neutron Scattering.

  11. Quantitative evaluation of blood flow obstruction in microcirculation with sidestream dark-field images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, M.; Kurata, T.; Ohnishi, T.; Haneishi, H.

    2017-02-01

    Septic shock induces organ dysfunction by microcirculatory disturbance. Observation and quantification of microcirculation are expected to be effective for the diagnosis of septic shock. Sidestream dark-filed (SDF) imaging is a suitable technique for observation of microcirculation. It can noninvasively visualize red blood cells (RBCs) of microcirculation. We are developing early diagnostic criteria for septic shock from microcirculation SDF images. As an initial study, we use the blood flow velocity estimated from the images as a diagnostic criteria. However, low contrast quality and subject's movement disturb the blood flow velocity estimation. In this paper, we present a procedure of image processing for a stable estimation of the blood flow velocity. In the procedure, we first perform a robust principal component analysis (RPCA) as a preprocessing. RPCA decomposes a motion picture into a low-rank (L) component and a sparse (S) component. The S component images clearly expresses RBCs flow and is used for the velocity estimation. The temporal change of the intensity profile along the vessel was analyzed by Hough transform to estimate the blood flow velocity is. The proposed procedure was examined with dorsal microcirculation of septic model rats and a sham rat. As a result, the decrease in blood flow velocity of the septic rats after 17 hours was greater than that of the sham. It was also suggested that blood flow velocity might be faster index of septic shock reaction earlier than lactic acid value. These results suggest that the velocity estimation is reasonable for diagnosis of septic shock.

  12. In-vivo dark-field and phase-contrast x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, M.; Tapfer, A.; Velroyen, A.; Yaroshenko, A.; Pauwels, B.; Hostens, J.; Bruyndonckx, P.; Sasov, A.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2013-11-01

    Novel radiography approaches based on the wave nature of x-rays when propagating through matter have a great potential for improved future x-ray diagnostics in the clinics. Here, we present a significant milestone in this imaging method: in-vivo multi-contrast x-ray imaging of a mouse using a compact scanner. Of particular interest is the enhanced contrast in regions related to the respiratory system, indicating a possible application in diagnosis of lung diseases (e.g. emphysema).

  13. In-vivo dark-field and phase-contrast x-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Bech, M; Tapfer, A; Velroyen, A; Yaroshenko, A; Pauwels, B; Hostens, J; Bruyndonckx, P; Sasov, A; Pfeiffer, F

    2013-11-13

    Novel radiography approaches based on the wave nature of x-rays when propagating through matter have a great potential for improved future x-ray diagnostics in the clinics. Here, we present a significant milestone in this imaging method: in-vivo multi-contrast x-ray imaging of a mouse using a compact scanner. Of particular interest is the enhanced contrast in regions related to the respiratory system, indicating a possible application in diagnosis of lung diseases (e.g. emphysema).

  14. In situ assessment of the renal microcirculation in mechanically ventilated rats using sidestream dark-field imaging.

    PubMed

    Astapenko, D; Jor, O; Lehmann, C; Cerny, V

    2015-02-01

    For microcirculation research there is a need for baseline data and feasibility protocols describing microcirculation of various organs. The aim of our study was to examine the reliability and reproducibility of sidestream dark-field (SDF) imaging within the renal cortical microcirculation in rats. Renal microcirculation was observed using SDF probe placed on the exposed renal surface via the upper midline laparotomy. Video sequences recorded intermittently in short apneic pauses were analyzed off-line by using AVA 3.0 software (MicroVision Medical, Amsterdam, the Netherlands). Results are expressed as mean (SD) or median (25-75% percentiles). We obtained 60 clear sequences from all recorded analyzable videos from all the animals. The total small vessel and all vessel density (in mm.mm(-2) ) were (28.79 ± 0.40) and (28.95 ± 0.40), respectively. The perfused small and all vessel density were (28.79 ± 0.40) and (28.95 ± 0.40), respectively. The DeBacker Score was (19.14 ± 0.43), the proportion of perfused vessels was 100% (100-100%) and the microvascular flow index was 3.49 (3-3.75). We conclude SDF imaging provides a reliable method to examine the renal microvascular bed in vivo and thus can be used for the study of the renal cortical vascular network in various experimental diseases models and clinical settings.

  15. A first investigation of accuracy, precision and sensitivity of phase-based x-ray dark-field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astolfo, Alberto; Endrizzi, Marco; Kallon, Gibril; Millard, Thomas P.; Vittoria, Fabio A.; Olivo, Alessandro

    2016-12-01

    In the last two decades, x-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) has attracted attention as a potentially significant improvement over widespread and established x-ray imaging. The key is its capability to access a new physical quantity (the ‘phase shift’), which can be complementary to x-ray absorption. One additional advantage of XPCI is its sensitivity to micro structural details through the refraction induced dark-field (DF). While DF is extensively mentioned and used for several applications, predicting the capability of an XPCI system to retrieve DF quantitatively is not straightforward. In this article, we evaluate the impact of different design options and algorithms on DF retrieval for the edge-illumination (EI) XPCI technique. Monte Carlo simulations, supported by experimental data, are used to measure the accuracy, precision and sensitivity of DF retrieval performed with several EI systems based on conventional x-ray sources. The introduced tools are easy to implement, and general enough to assess the DF performance of systems based on alternative (i.e. non-EI) XPCI approaches.

  16. Dark-field phase retrieval under the constraint of the Friedel symmetry in coherent X-ray diffraction imaging.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Amane; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Takayama, Yuki; Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Nakasako, Masayoshi

    2014-11-17

    Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) is a lensless imaging technique that is suitable for visualizing the structures of non-crystalline particles with micrometer to sub-micrometer dimensions from material science and biology. One of the difficulties inherent to CXDI structural analyses is the reconstruction of electron density maps of specimen particles from diffraction patterns because saturated detector pixels and a beam stopper result in missing data in small-angle regions. To overcome this difficulty, the dark-field phase-retrieval (DFPR) method has been proposed. The DFPR method reconstructs electron density maps from diffraction data, which are modified by multiplying Gaussian masks with an observed diffraction pattern in the high-angle regions. In this paper, we incorporated Friedel centrosymmetry for diffraction patterns into the DFPR method to provide a constraint for the phase-retrieval calculation. A set of model simulations demonstrated that this constraint dramatically improved the probability of reconstructing correct electron density maps from diffraction patterns that were missing data in the small-angle region. In addition, the DFPR method with the constraint was applied successfully to experimentally obtained diffraction patterns with significant quantities of missing data. We also discuss this method's limitations with respect to the level of Poisson noise in X-ray detection.

  17. A laboratory 8 keV transmission full-field x-ray microscope with a polycapillary as condenser for bright and dark field imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Baumbach, S. Wilhein, T.; Kanngießer, B.; Malzer, W.; Stiel, H.

    2015-08-15

    This article introduces a laboratory setup of a transmission full-field x-ray microscope at 8 keV photon energy. The microscope operates in bright and dark field imaging mode with a maximum field of view of 50 μm. Since the illumination geometry determines whether the sample is illuminated homogeneously and moreover, if different imaging methods can be applied, the condenser optic is one of the most significant parts. With a new type of x-ray condenser, a polycapillary optic, we realized bright field imaging and for the first time dark field imaging at 8 keV photon energy in a laboratory setup. A detector limited spatial resolution of 210 nm is measured on x-ray images of Siemens star test patterns.

  18. A laboratory 8 keV transmission full-field x-ray microscope with a polycapillary as condenser for bright and dark field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumbach, S.; Kanngießer, B.; Malzer, W.; Stiel, H.; Wilhein, T.

    2015-08-01

    This article introduces a laboratory setup of a transmission full-field x-ray microscope at 8 keV photon energy. The microscope operates in bright and dark field imaging mode with a maximum field of view of 50 μm. Since the illumination geometry determines whether the sample is illuminated homogeneously and moreover, if different imaging methods can be applied, the condenser optic is one of the most significant parts. With a new type of x-ray condenser, a polycapillary optic, we realized bright field imaging and for the first time dark field imaging at 8 keV photon energy in a laboratory setup. A detector limited spatial resolution of 210 nm is measured on x-ray images of Siemens star test patterns.

  19. Grain size determination in nano-scale polycrystalline aggregates by precession illumination-hollow cone dark field imaging in the transmission electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Kulovits, A.K. Facco, G.; Wiezorek, J.M.K.

    2012-01-15

    Precession illumination hollow cone dark field (PI-HCDF) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) provides high contrast multi-beam dark field images, which are suitable for effective and robust grain size measurements in nano-scale polycrystalline aggregates. Precession illumination with slightly converged electron beam probes and precession angles up to 3 Degree-Sign has been produced using a computer-controlled system using a JEOL JEM 2000FX TEM instrument. Theoretical and practical aspects of the experimental technique are discussed using example precession illumination hollow cone diffraction patterns from single crystalline NiAl and the importance of selecting the appropriate precession angle for PI-HCDF image formation and interpretation is described. Results obtained for precession illumination are compared with those of conventional parallel beam illumination experiments. Nanocrystalline Al has been used to evaluate the influence of the precession angle on PI-HCDF image contrast with a focus on grain size analysis. PI-HCDF imaging has been applied for grain size measurements in regions of a nanocrystalline Al thin film adjacent to the edge of a pulsed laser melted and rapidly solidified region and determined the dimensions of a heat-affected zone. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New TEM method for grain size measurements combines TEM resolution with obtainability of statistically significant data sets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use precession illumination to produce time precession illumination hollow cone diffraction patterns PI-HCDP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contrast in dark field images (PI-HCDF) formed from PI-HCDP is easy to interpret as dynamical effects are reduced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PI-HCDFs use several time-averaged g-rings simultaneously and contain more information than conventional DF-images. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Easy contrast interpretation and less dark field images required, allows fast, robust and

  20. The influence of laser scribing on magnetic domain formation in grain oriented electrical steel visualized by directional neutron dark-field imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rauscher, P.; Betz, B.; Hauptmann, J.; Wetzig, A.; Beyer, E.; Grünzweig, C.

    2016-01-01

    The performance and degree of efficiency of transformers are directly determined by the bulk magnetic properties of grain oriented electrical steel laminations. The core losses can be improved by post manufacturing methods, so-called domain refinement techniques. All these methods induce mechanical or thermal stress that refines the domain structure. The most commonly used technique is laser scribing due to the no-contact nature and the ease of integration in existing production systems. Here we show how directional neutron dark-field imaging allows visualizing the impact of laser scribing on the bulk and supplementary domain structure. In particular, we investigate the domain formation during magnetization of samples depending on laser treatment parameters such as laser energy and line distances. The directional dark-field imaging findings were quantitatively interpreted in the context with global magnetic hysteresis measurements. Especially we exploit the orientation sensitivity in the dark-field images to distinguish between different domain structures alignment and their relation to the laser scribing process. PMID:27910922

  1. The influence of laser scribing on magnetic domain formation in grain oriented electrical steel visualized by directional neutron dark-field imaging.

    PubMed

    Rauscher, P; Betz, B; Hauptmann, J; Wetzig, A; Beyer, E; Grünzweig, C

    2016-12-02

    The performance and degree of efficiency of transformers are directly determined by the bulk magnetic properties of grain oriented electrical steel laminations. The core losses can be improved by post manufacturing methods, so-called domain refinement techniques. All these methods induce mechanical or thermal stress that refines the domain structure. The most commonly used technique is laser scribing due to the no-contact nature and the ease of integration in existing production systems. Here we show how directional neutron dark-field imaging allows visualizing the impact of laser scribing on the bulk and supplementary domain structure. In particular, we investigate the domain formation during magnetization of samples depending on laser treatment parameters such as laser energy and line distances. The directional dark-field imaging findings were quantitatively interpreted in the context with global magnetic hysteresis measurements. Especially we exploit the orientation sensitivity in the dark-field images to distinguish between different domain structures alignment and their relation to the laser scribing process.

  2. The influence of laser scribing on magnetic domain formation in grain oriented electrical steel visualized by directional neutron dark-field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauscher, P.; Betz, B.; Hauptmann, J.; Wetzig, A.; Beyer, E.; Grünzweig, C.

    2016-12-01

    The performance and degree of efficiency of transformers are directly determined by the bulk magnetic properties of grain oriented electrical steel laminations. The core losses can be improved by post manufacturing methods, so-called domain refinement techniques. All these methods induce mechanical or thermal stress that refines the domain structure. The most commonly used technique is laser scribing due to the no-contact nature and the ease of integration in existing production systems. Here we show how directional neutron dark-field imaging allows visualizing the impact of laser scribing on the bulk and supplementary domain structure. In particular, we investigate the domain formation during magnetization of samples depending on laser treatment parameters such as laser energy and line distances. The directional dark-field imaging findings were quantitatively interpreted in the context with global magnetic hysteresis measurements. Especially we exploit the orientation sensitivity in the dark-field images to distinguish between different domain structures alignment and their relation to the laser scribing process.

  3. Imaging performance of annular apertures. II - Line spread functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tschunko, H. F. A.

    1978-01-01

    Line images formed by aberration-free optical systems with annular apertures are investigated in the whole range of central obstruction ratios. Annular apertures form lines images with central and side line groups. The number of lines in each line group is given by the ratio of the outer diameter of the annular aperture divided by the width of the annulus. The theoretical energy fraction of 0.889 in the central line of the image formed by an unobstructed aperture increases for centrally obstructed apertures to 0.932 for the central line group. Energy fractions for the central and side line groups are practically constant for all obstruction ratios and for each line group. The illumination of rectangular secondary apertures of various length/width ratios by apertures of various obstruction ratios is discussed.

  4. Dark-field competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumbach, Christoph; mcissbc

    2014-04-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com news story “Dark field illuminates X-ray imaging” (25 February, http://ow.ly/ulJnl), which concerns new research by Robert Cernik and colleagues (Proc. R. Soc. A 10.1098/rspa.2013.0629).

  5. Piezoelectric annular array for large depth of field photoacoustic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Passler, K.; Nuster, R.; Gratt, S.; Burgholzer, P.; Paltauf, G.

    2011-01-01

    A piezoelectric detection system consisting of an annular array is investigated for large depth of field photoacoustic imaging. In comparison to a single ring detection system, X-shaped imaging artifacts are suppressed. Sensitivity and image resolution studies are performed in simulations and in experiments and compared to a simulated spherical detector. In experiment an eight ring detection systems offers an extended depth of field over a range of 16 mm with almost constant lateral resolution. PMID:21991555

  6. Simulation framework for coherent and incoherent X-ray imaging and its application in Talbot-Lau dark-field imaging.

    PubMed

    Ritter, André; Bartl, Peter; Bayer, Florian; Gödel, Karl C; Haas, Wilhelm; Michel, Thilo; Pelzer, Georg; Rieger, Jens; Weber, Thomas; Zang, Andrea; Anton, Gisela

    2014-09-22

    A simulation framework for coherent X-ray imaging, based on scalar diffraction theory, is presented. It contains a core C++ library and an additional Python interface. A workflow is presented to include contributions of inelastic scattering obtained with Monte-Carlo methods. X-ray Talbot-Lau interferometry is the primary focus of the framework. Simulations are in agreement with measurements obtained with such an interferometer. Especially, the dark-field signal of densely packed PMMA microspheres is predicted. A realistic modeling of the microsphere distribution, which is necessary for correct results, is presented. The framework can be used for both setup design and optimization but also to test and improve reconstruction methods.

  7. Linearization of an annular image by using a diffractive optic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthys, Donald R.

    1996-01-01

    The goal for this project is to develop the algorithms for fracturing the zones defined by the mapping transformation, and to actually produce the binary optic in an appropriate setup. In 1984 a side-viewing panoramic viewing system was patented, consisting of a single piece of glass with spherical surfaces which produces a 360 degree view of the region surrounding the lens which extends about 25 degrees in front of and 20 degrees behind the lens. The system not only produces images of good quality, it is also afocal, i.e., images stay in focus for objects located right next to the lens as well as those located far from the lens. The lens produced a panoramic view in an annular shaped image, and so the lens was called a PAL (panoramic annular lens). When applying traditional measurements to PAL images, it is found advantageous to linearize the annular image. This can easily be done with a computer and such a linearized image can be produced within about 40 seconds on current microcomputers. However, this process requires a frame-grabber and a computer, and is not real-time. Therefore, it was decided to try to perform this linearization optically by using a diffractive optic.

  8. Dark-field X-ray ptychography: Towards high-resolution imaging of thick and unstained biological specimens

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Akihiro; Shimomura, Kei; Hirose, Makoto; Burdet, Nicolas; Takahashi, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    The phase shift of light or electrons in objects is now necessary for probing weak-phase objects such as unstained biological specimens. Optical microscopy (OM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used to observe weak-phase objects. However, conventional OM has low spatial resolution and TEM is limited to thin specimens. Here, we report on the development of dark-field X-ray ptychography, which combines X-ray ptychography and X-ray in-line holography, to observe weak-phase objects with a phase resolution better than 0.01 rad, a spatial resolution better than 15 nm, and a field of view larger than 5 μm. We apply this method to the observation of both the outline and magnetosomes of the magnetotactic bacteria MO-1. Observation of thick samples with high resolution is expected to find broad applications in not only biology but also materials science. PMID:27734961

  9. Dark-field X-ray ptychography: Towards high-resolution imaging of thick and unstained biological specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Akihiro; Shimomura, Kei; Hirose, Makoto; Burdet, Nicolas; Takahashi, Yukio

    2016-10-01

    The phase shift of light or electrons in objects is now necessary for probing weak-phase objects such as unstained biological specimens. Optical microscopy (OM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used to observe weak-phase objects. However, conventional OM has low spatial resolution and TEM is limited to thin specimens. Here, we report on the development of dark-field X-ray ptychography, which combines X-ray ptychography and X-ray in-line holography, to observe weak-phase objects with a phase resolution better than 0.01 rad, a spatial resolution better than 15 nm, and a field of view larger than 5 μm. We apply this method to the observation of both the outline and magnetosomes of the magnetotactic bacteria MO-1. Observation of thick samples with high resolution is expected to find broad applications in not only biology but also materials science.

  10. Direct imaging of hydrogen-atom columns in a crystal by annular bright-field electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Ryo; Okunishi, Eiji; Sawada, Hidetaka; Kondo, Yukihito; Hosokawa, Fumio; Abe, Eiji

    2011-04-01

    Enhancing the imaging power of microscopy to identify all chemical types of atom, from low- to high-atomic-number elements,would significantly contribute for a direct determination of material structures. Electron microscopes have successfully provided images of heavy-atom positions, particularly by the annular dark-field method, but detection of light atoms was difficult owing to their weak scattering power. Recent developments of aberration-correction electron optics have significantly advanced the microscope performance, enabling identification of individual light atoms such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, boron and lithium. However, the lightest hydrogen atom has not yet been observed directly, except in the specific condition of hydrogen adatoms on a graphene membrane. Here we show the first direct imaging of the hydrogen atom in a crystalline solid YH(2), based on a classic 'hollow-cone' illumination theory combined with state-of-the-art scanning transmission electronmicroscopy. The optimized hollow-cone condition derived from the aberration-corrected microscope parameters confirms that the information transfer can be extended to 22.5 nm(-1), which corresponds to a spatial resolution of about 44.4 pm. These experimental conditions can be readily realized with the annular bright-field imaging in scanning transmission electron microscopy according to reciprocity, revealing successfully the hydrogen-atom columns as dark dots, as anticipated from phase contrast of a weak-phase object.

  11. Dark-Field Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy via Detection of Forward-Scattered Helium Ions with a Microchannel Plate.

    PubMed

    Woehl, Taylor J; White, Ryan M; Keller, Robert R

    2016-06-01

    A microchannel plate was used as an ion sensitive detector in a commercial helium ion microscope (HIM) for dark-field transmission imaging of nanomaterials, i.e. scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM). In contrast to previous transmission HIM approaches that used secondary electron conversion holders, our new approach detects forward-scattered helium ions on a dedicated annular shaped ion sensitive detector. Minimum collection angles between 125 mrad and 325 mrad were obtained by varying the distance of the sample from the microchannel plate detector during imaging. Monte Carlo simulations were used to predict detector angular ranges at which dark-field images with atomic number contrast could be obtained. We demonstrate atomic number contrast imaging via scanning transmission ion imaging of silica-coated gold nanoparticles and magnetite nanoparticles. Although the resolution of STIM is known to be degraded by beam broadening in the substrate, we imaged magnetite nanoparticles with high contrast on a relatively thick silicon nitride substrate. We expect this new approach to annular dark-field STIM will open avenues for more quantitative ion imaging techniques and advance fundamental understanding of underlying ion scattering mechanisms leading to image formation.

  12. Applicability of quantitative optical imaging techniques for intraoperative perfusion diagnostics: a comparison of laser speckle contrast imaging, sidestream dark-field microscopy, and optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Sanne M; de Bruin, Daniel M; Faber, Dirk J; Dobbe, Iwan J G G; Heeg, Erik; Milstein, Dan M J; Strackee, Simon D; van Leeuwen, Ton G

    2017-08-01

    Patient morbidity and mortality due to hemodynamic complications are a major problem in surgery. Optical techniques can image blood flow in real-time and high-resolution, thereby enabling perfusion monitoring intraoperatively. We tested the feasibility and validity of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and sidestream dark-field microscopy (SDF) for perfusion diagnostics in a phantom model using whole blood. Microvessels with diameters of 50, 100, and 400  μm were constructed in a scattering phantom. Perfusion was simulated by pumping heparinized human whole blood at five velocities (0 to 20  mm/s). Vessel diameter and blood flow velocity were assessed with LSCI, OCT, and SDF. Quantification of vessel diameter was feasible with OCT and SDF. LSCI could only visualize the 400-μm vessel, perfusion units scaled nonlinearly with blood velocity. OCT could assess blood flow velocity in terms of inverse OCT speckle decorrelation time. SDF was not feasible to measure blood flow; however, for diluted blood the measurements were linear with the input velocity up to 1  mm/s. LSCI, OCT, and SDF were feasible to visualize blood flow. Validated blood flow velocity measurements intraoperatively in the desired parameter (mL·min-1·g-1) remain challenging. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  13. Applicability of quantitative optical imaging techniques for intraoperative perfusion diagnostics: a comparison of laser speckle contrast imaging, sidestream dark-field microscopy, and optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Sanne M.; de Bruin, Daniel M.; Faber, Dirk J.; Dobbe, Iwan J. G. G.; Heeg, Erik; Milstein, Dan M. J.; Strackee, Simon D.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2017-08-01

    Patient morbidity and mortality due to hemodynamic complications are a major problem in surgery. Optical techniques can image blood flow in real-time and high-resolution, thereby enabling perfusion monitoring intraoperatively. We tested the feasibility and validity of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and sidestream dark-field microscopy (SDF) for perfusion diagnostics in a phantom model using whole blood. Microvessels with diameters of 50, 100, and 400 μm were constructed in a scattering phantom. Perfusion was simulated by pumping heparinized human whole blood at five velocities (0 to 20 mm/s). Vessel diameter and blood flow velocity were assessed with LSCI, OCT, and SDF. Quantification of vessel diameter was feasible with OCT and SDF. LSCI could only visualize the 400-μm vessel, perfusion units scaled nonlinearly with blood velocity. OCT could assess blood flow velocity in terms of inverse OCT speckle decorrelation time. SDF was not feasible to measure blood flow; however, for diluted blood the measurements were linear with the input velocity up to 1 mm/s. LSCI, OCT, and SDF were feasible to visualize blood flow. Validated blood flow velocity measurements intraoperatively in the desired parameter (mL·g-1) remain challenging.

  14. Optical Dark-Field and Electron Energy Loss Imaging and Spectroscopy of Symmetry-Forbidden Modes in Loaded Nanogap Antennas.

    PubMed

    Brintlinger, Todd; Herzing, Andrew A; Long, James P; Vurgaftman, Igor; Stroud, Rhonda; Simpkins, B S

    2015-06-23

    We have produced large numbers of hybrid metal-semiconductor nanogap antennas using a scalable electrochemical approach and systematically characterized the spectral and spatial character of their plasmonic modes with optical dark-field scattering, electron energy loss spectroscopy with principal component analysis, and full wave simulations. The coordination of these techniques reveal that these nanostructures support degenerate transverse modes which split due to substrate interactions, a longitudinal mode which scales with antenna length, and a symmetry-forbidden gap-localized transverse mode. This gap-localized transverse mode arises from mode splitting of transverse resonances supported on both antenna arms and is confined to the gap load enabling (i) delivery of substantial energy to the gap material and (ii) the possibility of tuning the antenna resonance via active modulation of the gap material's optical properties. The resonant position of this symmetry-forbidden mode is sensitive to gap size, dielectric strength of the gap material, and is highly suppressed in air-gapped structures which may explain its absence from the literature to date. Understanding the complex modal structure supported on hybrid nanosystems is necessary to enable the multifunctional components many seek.

  15. Dark-field imaging based on post-processed electron backscatter diffraction patterns of bulk crystalline materials in a scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Brodusch, Nicolas; Demers, Hendrix; Gauvin, Raynald

    2015-01-01

    Dark-field (DF) images were acquired in the scanning electron microscope with an offline procedure based on electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) patterns (EBSPs). These EBSD-DF images were generated by selecting a particular reflection on the electron backscatter diffraction pattern and by reporting the intensity of one or several pixels around this point at each pixel of the EBSD-DF image. Unlike previous studies, the diffraction information of the sample is the basis of the final image contrast with a pixel scale resolution at the EBSP providing DF imaging in the scanning electron microscope. The offline facility of this technique permits the selection of any diffraction condition available in the diffraction pattern and displaying the corresponding image. The high number of diffraction-based images available allows a better monitoring of deformation structures compared to electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI) which is generally limited to a few images of the same area. This technique was applied to steel and iron specimens and showed its high capability in describing more rigorously the deformation structures around micro-hardness indents. Due to the offline relation between the reference EBSP and the EBSD-DF images, this new technique will undoubtedly greatly improve our knowledge of deformation mechanism and help to improve our understanding of the ECCI contrast mechanisms.

  16. Guided Wave Annular Array Sensor Design for Improved Tomographic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koduru, Jaya Prakash; Rose, Joseph L.

    2009-03-01

    Guided wave tomography for structural health monitoring is fast emerging as a reliable tool for the detection and monitoring of hotspots in a structure, for any defects arising from corrosion, crack growth etc. To date guided wave tomography has been successfully tested on aircraft wings, pipes, pipe elbows, and weld joints. Structures practically deployed are subjected to harsh environments like exposure to rain, changes in temperature and humidity. A reliable tomography system should take into account these environmental factors to avoid false alarms. The lack of mode control with piezoceramic disk sensors makes it very sensitive to traces of water leading to false alarms. In this study we explore the design of annular array sensors to provide mode control for improved structural tomography, in particular, addressing the false alarm potential of water loading. Clearly defined actuation lines in the phase velocity dispersion curve space are calculated. A dominant in-plane displacement point is found to provide a solution to the water loading problem. The improvement in the tomographic images with the annular array sensors in the presence of water traces is clearly illustrated with a series of experiments. An annular array design philosophy for other problems in NDE/SHM is also discussed.

  17. Visualization of lithium ions by annular bright field imaging.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Yoshifumi; Lee, Soyeon; Takayanagi, Kunio

    2016-10-14

    The detection of lithium ions is required for characterization of lithium ion batteries, since the movement of lithium ions in the battery is one of the key ways to improve the performance. Annular bright field (ABF) imaging enables us to visualize individual lithium atomic columns simultaneously with heavy elements. Furthermore, it has been found that the number of lithium ions at the column is countable when the specimen is thin. These results suggest that movement of lithium ions in the material can be observed by taking consecutive ABF images during operation or in situ ABF observation. Actually, the spinel structure of L2V4O crystals was directly observed to be transformed into the defective NaCl structure at the moment when lithium ions were extracted from the original position during electron beam irradiation. We clarify the features of ABF imaging by comparing it with HAADF imaging in order to understand what information can be obtained by ABF imaging directly.

  18. An inexpensive approach for bright-field and dark-field imaging by scanning transmission electron microscopy in scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Binay; Watanabe, Masashi

    2014-02-01

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy in scanning electron microscopy (STEM-in-SEM) is a convenient technique for soft materials characterization. Various specimen-holder geometries and detector arrangements have been used for bright-field (BF) STEM-in-SEM imaging. In this study, to further the characterization potential of STEM-IN-SEM, a new specimen holder has been developed to facilitate direct detection of BF signals and indirect detection of dark-field (DF) signals without the need for substantial instrument modification. DF imaging is conducted with the use of a gold (Au)-coated copper (Cu) plate attached to the specimen holder which directs highly scattered transmitted electrons to an off-axis yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) detector. A hole in the copper plate allows for BF imaging with a transmission electron (TE) detector. The inclusion of an Au-coated Cu plate enhanced DF signal intensity. Experiments validating the acquisition of true DF signals revealed that atomic number (Z) contrast may be achieved for materials with large lattice spacing. However, materials with small lattice spacing still exhibit diffraction contrast effects in this approach. The calculated theoretical fine probe size is 1.8 nm. At 30 kV, in this indirect approach, DF spatial resolution is limited to 3.2 nm as confirmed experimentally.

  19. On the visibility of "heavy" atoms in dark-field STEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, M. D.; Nellist, P. D.; Nicolosi, V.; Shannon, G. B.; Shmeliov, A.

    2012-07-01

    One of the most useful and apparently straightforward attributes of annular dark-field (ADF) STEM imaging is the ability to image heavy atoms on relatively light substrates using Z-contrast (High-Angle ADF) imaging. From multislice calculations, however, some isolated heavy atoms, e.g. Re, can go undetected in a thin Co matrix in standard aberration-corrected HAADF-STEM imaging of catalyst nanoparticles oriented accurately on a zone-axis [2]. More recently simultaneous Medium-Angle and High-Angle ADF imaging of a few layers of BN has shown experimentally that some adatoms are invisible in MAADF whilst exhibiting very strong contrast in HAADF. Simulations confirm that this can occur for atoms such as sodium. In both situations HOLZ ring imaging can be used to extract additional information.

  20. Clinical step onward with X-ray dark-field imaging and perspective view of medical applications of synchrotron radiation in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, M.; Hashimoto, E.; Hashizume, H.; Hyodo, K.; Inoue, H.; Kunisada, T.; Maksimenko, A.; Mori, K.; Rubenstein, E.; Roberson, J.; Shimao, D.; Sugiyama, H.; Takeda, K.; Toyofuku, F.; Ueno, E.; Umetani, K.; Wada, H.; Pattanasiriwisawa, W.

    2005-08-01

    This paper reports, the application of synchrotron radiation to basic medicine at SPring-8 involving instrumentation and medical application of imaging and scattering. Emphasis should be laid on X-ray dark-field imaging (DFI) whose goal is clinical diagnosis of organs that have been invisible by ordinary techniques. Development of this technique is under way both at SPring-8 and KEK. The X-ray optics of DFI comprises a Bragg asymmetric monochro-collimator and a Laue case analyzer with a diffraction index of 4 4 0 using the X-ray energy of 35 keV ( λ=0.0354 nm) in a parallel position. This analyzer that can provide with 80 mm×80 mm view size has 2.15 mm thickness. At present the spatial resolution is around 5-10 μm. Visibility of some organs such as soft bone tissue at excised human femoral head and breast cancer tissue is under test. This preliminary test shows that the DFI seems feasible in clinical diagnosis. Furthermore, a perspective view of application of synchrotron radiation to clinical medicine in Japan will be given.

  1. Three dimensional design of silver nanoparticle assemblies embedded in dielectrics for Raman spectroscopy enhancement and dark-field imaging.

    PubMed

    Carles, Robert; Farcau, Cosmin; Bonafos, Caroline; Benassayag, Gérard; Bayle, Maxime; Benzo, Patrizio; Groenen, Jesse; Zwick, Antoine

    2011-11-22

    A strategy to design and fabricate hybrid metallic-dielectric substrates for optical spectroscopy and imaging is proposed. Different architectures consisting of three-dimensional patterns of metallic nanoparticles embedded in dielectric layers are conceived to simultaneously exploit the optical interference phenomenon in stratified media and localized surface plasmon resonances on metal nanoparticles. These structures are based on a simultaneous control of opto-electronic properties at three scales (3S) (~2/20/200 nm) and along three directions (3D). By ultralow energy ion implantation through a microfabricated stencil we precisely control the size, density, and location of silver nanoparticles embedded in silica/silicon thin films. Elastic (Rayleigh) and inelastic (Raman) scattering imaging assisted by simulations were used to analyze the optical response of these "3S-3D" patterned layers. The reflectance contrast is strongly enhanced when resonance conditions between the stationary electromagnetic field in the dielectric matrix and the localized plasmon resonance in the silver nanoparticles are realized. The potential of these 3S-3D metal-dielectric structures as surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates is demonstrated. These novel kinds of plasmonic-photonic architectures are reproducible and stable; they preserve flat and chemically uniform surfaces, offering opportunities for the development of efficient and reusable substrates for optical spectroscopy and imaging enhancement.

  2. Real-time dark-field light scattering imaging to monitor the coupling reaction with gold nanorods as an optical probe.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong Zhi; Li, Rong Sheng; Gao, Peng Fei; Wang, Ni; Lei, Gang; Huang, Cheng Zhi; Wang, Jian

    2017-03-09

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) have opened up promising applications based on their reshaping, due to the fact that a tiny change in shape or size could directly lead to optical changes. Herein, we report chemical reshaping of GNRs induced by the coupling reaction between Au, ferric chloride and thiourea. In the coupling reaction, Fe(3+) oxidizes the GNRs to yield Au(i), which complexes with the thiourea ligand, lowering the Gibbs free energy of the gold species and promoting the reaction equilibrium to enable the chemical reshaping of the GNRs. This coupling reaction process was monitored using a light-scattering dark-field microscopy (DFM) imaging technique and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The light scattering underwent a colour change from bright red to yellow and finally to green, and the GNRs underwent a morphological change from rod-shaped to fusiform and finally to spherical, which is somewhat different from the results of other chemical etching processes of GNRs. It is believed that the coupling reaction induced chemical reshaping of GNRs not only provides an alternative way to monitor the coupling reaction, but also offers a facile way to obtain a desirable GNR morphology, which is important for the preparation of fusiform nanostructures.

  3. Magnetization Response of the Bulk and Supplementary Magnetic Domain Structure in High-Permeability Steel Laminations Visualized In Situ by Neutron Dark-Field Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, B.; Rauscher, P.; Harti, R. P.; Schäfer, R.; Irastorza-Landa, A.; Van Swygenhoven, H.; Kaestner, A.; Hovind, J.; Pomjakushina, E.; Lehmann, E.; Grünzweig, C.

    2016-08-01

    Industrial transformer cores are composed of stacked high-permeability steel laminations (HPSLs). The performance and degree of efficiency of transformers are directly determined by the magnetic properties of each HPSL. In this article, we show how the neutron dark-field image (DFI) allows for the in situ visualization of the locally resolved response of the bulk and supplementary magnetic domain structures in HPSLs under the influence of externally applied magnetic fields. In particular, we investigate the domain formation and growth along the initial magnetization curve up to the saturated state. For decreasing field, we visualize the recurrence of the hysteretic domain structure down to the remanent state. Additionally, the DFI allows us to derive a correlation between the grain orientation and the corresponding volume and supplementary domain structure. Furthermore, we visualize the influence of the insulation coating, introducing desired tensile stresses on the domain structures. To compare our DFI findings to traditional methods, we perform complementary surface-sensitive magneto-optical Kerr-microscopy investigations.

  4. Dark Field Microscopy for Analytical Laboratory Courses

    SciTech Connect

    Augspurger, Ashley E; Stender, Anthony S; Marchuk, Kyle; Greenbowe, Thomas J; Fang, Ning

    2014-06-10

    An innovative and inexpensive optical microscopy experiment for a quantitative analysis or an instrumental analysis chemistry course is described. The students have hands-on experience with a dark field microscope and investigate the wavelength dependence of localized surface plasmon resonance in gold and silver nanoparticles. Students also observe and measure individual crystal growth during a replacement reaction between copper and silver nitrate. The experiment allows for quantitative, qualitative, and image data analyses for undergraduate students.

  5. Dark-field illuminated reflectance fiber bundle endoscopic microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuan; Huang, Yong; Kang, Jin U.

    2011-04-01

    We propose a reflectance fiber bundle microscope using a dark-field illumination configuration for applications in endoscopic medical imaging and diagnostics. Our experiment results show that dark-field illumination can effectively suppress strong specular reflection from the proximal end of the fiber bundle. We realized a lateral resolution of 4.4 μm using the dark-field illuminated fiber bundle configuration. To demonstrate the feasibility of using the system to study cell morphology, we obtained still and video images of two thyroid cancer cell lines. Our results clearly allow differentiation of different cancer cell types.

  6. Simple Technique for Dark-Field Photography of Immunodiffusion Bands

    PubMed Central

    Jensh, Ronald P.; Brent, Robert L.

    1969-01-01

    A simple dark-field photographic technique was developed which enables laboratory personnel with minimal photographic training to easily record antigen-antibody patterns on immunodiffusion plates. Images PMID:4979944

  7. High-frequency ultrasound annular array imaging. Part II: digital beamformer design and imaging.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chang-Hong; Snook, Kevin A; Cao, Pei-Jie; Shung, K Kirk

    2006-02-01

    This is the second part of a two-paper series reporting a recent effort in the development of a high-frequency annular array ultrasound imaging system. In this paper an imaging system composed of a six-element, 43 MHz annular array transducer, a six-channel analog front-end, a field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based beamformer, and a digital signal processor (DSP) microprocessor-based scan converter will be described. A computer is used as the interface for image display. The beamformer that applies delays to the echoes for each channel is implemented with the strategy of combining the coarse and fine delays. The coarse delays that are integer multiples of the clock periods are achieved by using a first-in-first-out (FIFO) structure, and the fine delays are obtained with a fractional delay (FD) filter. Using this principle, dynamic receiving focusing is achieved. The image from a wire phantom obtained with the imaging system was compared to that from a prototype ultrasonic backscatter microscope with a 45 MHz single-element transducer. The improved lateral resolution and depth of field from the wire phantom image were observed. Images from an excised rabbit eye sample also were obtained, and fine anatomical structures were discerned.

  8. On the visibility of very thin specimens in annular bright field scanning transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, P. J.; Klie, R. F.

    2013-07-15

    Annular bright field (ABF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is emerging as an important observation mode for its ability to simultaneously image both heavy and light elements. However, recent results have demonstrated that in the limit of a very thin specimen (a few atomic layers), the ABF and high angle annular dark field (HAADF) signals cease to be intuitively related: a phenomenon which is generally irrelevant when imaging 'normal' specimens. ABF/HAADF STEM observations and multislice image simulations of two catalyst samples of differing atomic weights are presented; it is shown that the nature of the ABF signal is specimen dependent.

  9. Hyperspectral dark-field microscopy of gold nanodisks.

    PubMed

    Grasseschi, Daniel; Lima, Filipe S; Nakamura, Marcelo; Toma, Henrique E

    2015-02-01

    The light scattering properties of hexagonal and triangular gold nanodisks were investigated by means of Cytoviva hyperspectral dark-field microscopy, exploring the huge enhancement of the scattered waves associated with the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect. Thanks to the high resolution capability of the dark-field microscope, the SPR effect turned it possible to probe the individual nanoparticles directly from their hyperspectral images, extrapolating the classical optical resolution limit, and providing their corresponding extinction spectra. Blue spectral shifts involving the in-plane dipolar modes were observed for the hexagonal gold nanodisks in relation to the triangular ones, allowing their spectroscopic differentiation in the dark-field images. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Stroke volume and mitral annular velocities. Insights from tissue Doppler imaging.

    PubMed

    Bruch, C; Stypmann, J; Gradaus, R; Breithardt, G; Wichter, T

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of stroke volume (SV) on mitral annular velocities derived from tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). To this end, conventional echocardiographic variables and TDI derived mitral annular velocities (S', E', A') were obtained in 14 patients (pts) with increased SV (due to primary mitral (n=12) (ISV group)), in 41 pts with reduced SV (due to ischemic (n=27) or dilated cardiomyopathy (n=9) or hypertensive heart disease (n=5) (RSV group)) and 29 asymptomatic controls with normal SV (CON group). Systolic (S') and early diastolic (E') mitral annular velocities were elevated in the ISV group in the comparison to the CON group, but were significantly reduced in the RSV group. Late diastolic annular velocities (A') did not differ between the ISV and the CON group, but were lowest in the RSV group. On simple linear regression analysis, SV was significantly related to S' (r=0.74, p<0.001), to E' (r=0.74, p<0.001) and to A' (r=0.43, p<0.01). On multiple regression analysis, SV was a stronger independent predictor of S' and E' than conventional systolic or diastolic echocardiographic variables. Thus, stroke volume has a significant impact on TDI derived systolic (S') and early diastolic (E') mitral annular velocities. This should be considered, when TDI is used in the evaluation of LV performance or in the estimation of filling pressures.

  11. An in situ probe for on-line monitoring of cell density and viability on the basis of dark field microscopy in conjunction with image processing and supervised machine learning.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ning; You, Jia; Friehs, Karl; Flaschel, Erwin; Nattkemper, Tim Wilhelm

    2007-08-15

    Fermentation industries would benefit from on-line monitoring of important parameters describing cell growth such as cell density and viability during fermentation processes. For this purpose, an in situ probe has been developed, which utilizes a dark field illumination unit to obtain high contrast images with an integrated CCD camera. To test the probe, brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is chosen as the target microorganism. Images of the yeast cells in the bioreactors are captured, processed, and analyzed automatically by means of mechatronics, image processing, and machine learning. Two support vector machine based classifiers are used for separating cells from background, and for distinguishing live from dead cells afterwards. The evaluation of the in situ experiments showed strong correlation between results obtained by the probe and those by widely accepted standard methods. Thus, the in situ probe has been proved to be a feasible device for on-line monitoring of both cell density and viability with high accuracy and stability.

  12. Interpretation of dark-field contrast and particle-size selectivity in grating interferometers

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Susanna K.; Pai, Vinay; Auxier, Julie; Stein, Ashley F.; Bennett, Eric E.; Kemble, Camille K.; Xiao, Xianghui; Lee, Wah-Keat; Morgan, Nicole Y.; Wen, Han Harold

    2012-01-01

    In grating-based x-ray phase sensitive imaging, dark-field contrast refers to the extinction of the interference fringes due to small-angle scattering. For configurations where the sample is placed before the beamsplitter grating, the dark-field contrast has been quantified with theoretical wave propagation models. Yet when the grating is placed before the sample, the dark-field contrast has only been modeled in the geometric optics regime. Here we attempt to quantify the dark-field effect in the grating-before-sample geometry with first-principle wave calculations and understand the associated particle-size selectivity. We obtain an expression for the dark-field effect in terms of the sample material’s complex refractive index, which can be verified experimentally without fitting parameters. A dark-field computed tomography experiment shows that the particle-size selectivity can be used to differentiate materials of identical x-ray absorption. PMID:21833104

  13. Analyzing Microchips With Dark-Field Negative Photomicrography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suszko, S. F.

    1985-01-01

    Inverse development process yields fine details. Photomicrographic technique produces images of integrated-circuit chips. Technique based on dark-field illumination: (chip lit with bright central spot of light and photographed by light scattered or diffracted from spot. Reveals more about microstructure patterns related to photoresist masking than more conventional bright-field method.

  14. Analyzing Microchips With Dark-Field Negative Photomicrography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suszko, S. F.

    1985-01-01

    Inverse development process yields fine details. Photomicrographic technique produces images of integrated-circuit chips. Technique based on dark-field illumination: (chip lit with bright central spot of light and photographed by light scattered or diffracted from spot. Reveals more about microstructure patterns related to photoresist masking than more conventional bright-field method.

  15. Evaluation of Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion Measured with Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Pediatric Patients with Tetralogy of Fallot

    PubMed Central

    Soslow, Jonathan H.; Usoro, Emem; Wang, Li; Parra, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aneurysmal dilation of the right ventricular outflow tract complicates assessment of right ventricular function in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion is commonly used to estimate ejection fraction. We hypothesized that tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging approximates global and segmental right ventricular function, specifically right ventricular sinus ejection fraction, in pediatric patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Methods Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion was measured retrospectively on cardiac magnetic resonance images in 54 patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Values were compared with right ventricular global, sinus, and infundibular ejection fractions. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion was: 1) indexed to body surface area, 2) converted into a fractional value, and 3) converted into published pediatric Z-scores. Results Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion measurements had good agreement between observers. Right ventricular ejection fraction did not correlate with the absolute or indexed tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and correlated weakly with fractional tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (r=0.41 and p=0.002). Segmental right ventricular function did not appreciably improve correlation with any of the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion measures. Pediatric Z-scores were unable to differentiate patients with normal and abnormal right ventricular function. Conclusions Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion measured on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging correlates poorly with global and segmental right ventricular ejection fraction in pediatric patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion is an unreliable approximation of right ventricular function in this patient population. PMID:26279488

  16. Selective color imaging using weighted interleaved multiple annular linear diffractive axicons.

    PubMed

    Bialic, Emilie; Petiton, Valéry; de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, Jean-Louis

    2012-07-10

    Annular linear diffractive axicons are optical devices providing chromatic imaging over an extended depth of focus when illuminated by a white light. To improve their low radiometric performance, multiple annular linear diffractive axicons (MALDAs) have been introduced. Their chromatic properties are well known and constrained by dispersion laws. A first attempt to freely combine colors or wavelength bands has been obtained with interleaved MALDAs (I_MALDAs). However, such optics do not provide a full decoupling between wavelength combination and brightness control required in the CIE color space to address any colors. We present here a new category of I_MALDA providing this capability when illuminated by a white source containing tristimulus (red/green/blue) values. We assess both theoretically and experimentally imaging qualities of such optics with respect to two different interleaving techniques and suggest some potential applications, in particular in the field of anticounterfeit and authentication techniques.

  17. A Flexible Annular-Array Imaging Platform for Micro-Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Weibao; Yu, Yanyan; Chabok, Hamid Reza; Liu, Cheng; Tsang, Fu Keung; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Zheng, Hairong; Sun, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Micro-ultrasound is an invaluable imaging tool for many clinical and preclinical applications requiring high resolution (approximately several tens of micrometers). Imaging systems for micro-ultrasound, including single-element imaging systems and linear-array imaging systems, have been developed extensively in recent years. Single-element systems are cheaper, but linear-array systems give much better image quality at a higher expense. Annular-array-based systems provide a third alternative, striking a balance between image quality and expense. This paper presents the development of a novel programmable and real-time annular-array imaging platform for micro-ultrasound. It supports multi-channel dynamic beamforming techniques for large-depth-of-field imaging. The major image processing algorithms were achieved by a novel field-programmable gate array technology for high speed and flexibility. Real-time imaging was achieved by fast processing algorithms and high-speed data transfer interface. The platform utilizes a printed circuit board scheme incorporating state-of-the-art electronics for compactness and cost effectiveness. Extensive tests including hardware, algorithms, wire phantom, and tissue mimicking phantom measurements were conducted to demonstrate good performance of the platform. The calculated contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the tissue phantom measurements were higher than 1.2 in the range of 3.8 to 8.7 mm imaging depth. The platform supported more than 25 images per second for real-time image acquisition. The depth-of-field had about 2.5-fold improvement compared to single-element transducer imaging. PMID:23287923

  18. A flexible annular-array imaging platform for micro-ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Weibao; Yu, Yanyan; Chabok, Hamid Reza; Liu, Cheng; Tsang, Fu Keung; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K Kirk; Zheng, Hairong; Sun, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Micro-ultrasound is an invaluable imaging tool for many clinical and preclinical applications requiring high resolution (approximately several tens of micrometers). Imaging systems for micro-ultrasound, including single-element imaging systems and linear-array imaging systems, have been developed extensively in recent years. Single-element systems are cheaper, but linear-array systems give much better image quality at a higher expense. Annular-array-based systems provide a third alternative, striking a balance between image quality and expense. This paper presents the development of a novel programmable and real-time annular-array imaging platform for micro-ultrasound. It supports multi-channel dynamic beamforming techniques for large-depth-of-field imaging. The major image processing algorithms were achieved by a novel field-programmable gate array technology for high speed and flexibility. Real-time imaging was achieved by fast processing algorithms and high-speed data transfer interface. The platform utilizes a printed circuit board scheme incorporating state-of-the-art electronics for compactness and cost effectiveness. Extensive tests including hardware, algorithms, wire phantom, and tissue mimicking phantom measurements were conducted to demonstrate good performance of the platform. The calculated contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the tissue phantom measurements were higher than 1.2 in the range of 3.8 to 8.7 mm imaging depth. The platform supported more than 25 images per second for real-time image acquisition. The depth-of-field had about 2.5-fold improvement compared to single-element transducer imaging.

  19. Dual Frequency Band Annular Probe for Volumetric Pulse-echo Optoacoustic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkhoran, Mohammad Azizian; Varray, François; Vray, Didier

    Optoacoustic (OA) pulse echo (PE) imaging is a hybridized modality that is capable of providing physiological information on the basis of anatomical structure. In this work, we propose a dual frequency band annular probe for backward mode volumetric PE/OA imaging. The performance of this design is evaluated based on the spatio-temporal impulse response, three dimensional steerability of the transducer and point spread function. Optimum settings for number of elements in each ring and maximum steering are suggested. The transducer design and synthetic array beamforming simulation are presented. The resolution performance and reconstruction capabilities are shown with the in-silico measurements.

  20. X-ray dark-field radiography facilitates the diagnosis of pulmonary fibrosis in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Hellbach, Katharina; Yaroshenko, Andre; Willer, Konstantin; Conlon, Thomas M; Braunagel, Margarita B; Auweter, Sigrid; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Eickelberg, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Franz; Reiser, Maximilian F; Meinel, Felix G

    2017-03-23

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether diagnosing pulmonary fibrosis with projection radiography can be improved by using X-ray dark-field radiograms. Pulmonary X-ray transmission and dark-field images of C57Bl/6N mice, either treated with bleomycin to induce pulmonary fibrosis or PBS to serve as controls, were acquired with a prototype grating-based small-animal scanner. Two blinded readers, both experienced radiologists and familiar with dark-field imaging, had to assess dark-field and transmission images for the absence or presence of fibrosis. Furthermore readers were asked to grade their stage of diagnostic confidence. Histological evaluation of the lungs served as the standard of reference in this study. Both readers showed a notably higher diagnostic confidence when analyzing the dark-field radiographs (p < 0.001). Diagnostic accuracy improved significantly when evaluating the lungs in dark-field images alone (p = 0.02) or in combination with transmission images (p = 0.01) compared to sole analysis of absorption images. Interreader agreement improved from good when assessing only transmission images to excellent when analyzing dark-field images alone or in combination with transmission images. Adding dark-field images to conventional transmission images in a murine model of pulmonary fibrosis leads to an improved diagnosis of this disease on chest radiographs.

  1. Chirp-coded excitation imaging with a high-frequency ultrasound annular array.

    PubMed

    Mamou, Jonathan; Ketterling, Jeffrey A; Silverman, Ronald H

    2008-02-01

    High-frequency ultrasound (HFU, > 15 MHz) is an effective means of obtaining fine-resolution images of biological tissues for applications such as opthalmologic, dermatologic, and small animal imaging. HFU has two inherent drawbacks. First, HFU images have a limited depth of field (DOF) because of the short wavelength and the low fixed F-number of conventional HFU transducers. Second, HFU can be used to image only a few millimeters deep into a tissue because attenuation increases with frequency. In this study, a five-element annular array was used in conjunction with a synthetic-focusing algorithm to extend the DOF. The annular array had an aperture of 10 mm, a focal length of 31 mm, and a center frequency of 17 MHz. To increase penetration depth, 8-micros, chirp-coded signals were designed, input into an arbitrary waveform generator, and used to excite each array element. After data acquisition, the received signals were linearly filtered to restore axial resolution and increase the SNR. To compare the chirpcoded imaging method with conventional impulse imaging in terms of resolution, a 25-microm diameter wire was scanned and the -6-dB axial and lateral resolutions were computed at depths ranging from 20.5 to 40.5 mm. The results demonstrated that chirp-coded excitation did not degrade axial or lateral resolution. A tissue-mimicking phantom containing 10-microm glass beads was scanned, and backscattered signals were analyzed to evaluate SNR and penetration depth. Finally, ex vivo ophthalmic images were formed and chirpcoded images showed features that were not visible in conventional impulse images.

  2. Reconstruction of scalar and vectorial components in X-ray dark-field tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Florian L.; Hu, Shiyang; Maier, Andreas; Weber, Thomas; Anton, Gisela; Michel, Thilo; Riess, Christian P.

    2014-01-01

    Grating-based X-ray dark-field imaging is a novel technique for obtaining image contrast for object structures at size scales below setup resolution. Such an approach appears particularly beneficial for medical imaging and nondestructive testing. It has already been shown that the dark-field signal depends on the direction of observation. However, up to now, algorithms for fully recovering the orientation dependence in a tomographic volume are still unexplored. In this publication, we propose a reconstruction method for grating-based X-ray dark-field tomography, which models the orientation-dependent signal as an additional observable from a standard tomographic scan. In detail, we extend the tomographic volume to a tensorial set of voxel data, containing the local orientation and contributions to dark-field scattering. In our experiments, we present the first results of several test specimens exhibiting a heterogeneous composition in microstructure, which demonstrates the diagnostic potential of the method. PMID:25136091

  3. Observing the setting and hardening of cementitious materials by X-ray dark-field radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Prade, F.; Chabior, M.; Malm, F.; Grosse, C.U.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2015-08-15

    Novel X-ray imaging methods expand conventional attenuation-based X-ray radiography by the phase- and the dark-field contrasts. While weakly absorbing structures in the specimen can be better visualized in phase contrast, the dark-field contrast provides information about morphological sub-pixel microstructures. Here we report an application of dark-field X-ray radiography for imaging the time-resolved setting process in fresh cement. Our results demonstrate that the microstructural changes within the cement result in a decreasing dark-field signal. We quantify this imaging signal with a time-dependent dark-field scatter coefficient and show its good correlation with the compressional wave velocity. We further present images based on a pixel-wise analysis of the scattering signal and a corresponding logistic fit. These images emphasize the benefit of dark-field imaging of cementitious materials as it provides two dimensional spatial information on the processes within the sample while other established testing techniques only provide information on the bulk average.

  4. Three-dimensional particle imaging by defocusing method with an annular aperture.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dejiao; Angarita-Jaimes, Natalia C; Chen, Siyu; Greenaway, Alan H; Towers, Catherine E; Towers, David P

    2008-05-01

    We propose an annular-aperture-based defocusing technique for three-dimensional (3D) particle metrology from a single camera view. This simple configuration has high optical efficiency and the ability to deal with overlapped defocused images. Initial results show that an uncertainty in depth of 23 microm can be achieved over a range of 10 mm for macroscopic systems. This method can also be applied in microscopy for the measurement of fluorescently doped microparticles, thus providing a promising solution for 3D flow metrology at both macroscales and microscales.

  5. Facilitated Diagnosis of Pneumothoraces in Newborn Mice Using X-ray Dark-Field Radiography.

    PubMed

    Hellbach, Katharina; Yaroshenko, Andre; Willer, Konstantin; Pritzke, Tina; Baumann, Alena; Hesse, Nina; Auweter, Sigrid; Reiser, Maximilian F; Eickelberg, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Franz; Hilgendorff, Anne; Meinel, Felix G

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of x-ray dark-field imaging in projection radiography-based depiction of pneumothoraces in the neonatal murine lung, a potentially life-threatening medical condition that requires a timely and correct diagnosis. By the use of a unique preclinical model, 7-day-old C57Bl/6N mice received mechanical ventilation for 2 or 8 hours with oxygen-rich gas (FIO2 = 0.4; n = 24). Unventilated mice either spontaneously breathed oxygen-rich gas (FIO2 = 0.4) for 2 or 8 hours or room air (n = 22). At the end of the experiment, lungs were inflated with a standardized volume of air after a lethal dose of pentobarbital was administered to the pups. All lungs were imaged with a prototype grating-based small-animal scanner to acquire x-ray transmission and dark-field radiographs. Image contrast between the air-filled pleural space and lung tissue was quantified for both transmission and dark-field radiograms. After the independent expert's assessment, 2 blinded readers evaluated all dark-field and transmission images for the presence or absence of pneumothoraces. Contrast ratios, diagnostic accuracy, as well as reader's confidence and interreader agreement were recorded for both imaging modalities. Evaluation of both x-ray transmission and dark-field radiographs by independent experts revealed the development of a total of 10 pneumothoraces in 8 mice. Here, the contrast ratio between the air-filled pleural space of the pneumothoraces and the lung tissue was significantly higher in the dark field (8.4 ± 3.5) when compared with the transmission images (5.1 ± 2.8; P < 0.05). Accordingly, the readers' diagnostic confidence for the diagnosis of pneumothoraces was significantly higher for dark-field compared with transmission images (P = 0.001). Interreader agreement improved from moderate for the analysis of transmission images alone (κ = 0.41) to very good when analyzing dark-field images alone (κ = 0.90) or in combination with

  6. Dark Field Microscopy for Analytical Laboratory Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augspurger, Ashley E.; Stender, Anthony S.; Marchuk, Kyle; Greenbowe, Thomas J.; Fang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    An innovative and inexpensive optical microscopy experiment for a quantitative analysis or an instrumental analysis chemistry course is described. The students have hands-on experience with a dark field microscope and investigate the wavelength dependence of localized surface plasmon resonance in gold and silver nanoparticles. Students also…

  7. Dark Field Microscopy for Analytical Laboratory Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augspurger, Ashley E.; Stender, Anthony S.; Marchuk, Kyle; Greenbowe, Thomas J.; Fang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    An innovative and inexpensive optical microscopy experiment for a quantitative analysis or an instrumental analysis chemistry course is described. The students have hands-on experience with a dark field microscope and investigate the wavelength dependence of localized surface plasmon resonance in gold and silver nanoparticles. Students also…

  8. Dark-field circular depolarization optical coherence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Kalpesh; Zhang, Pengfei; Yeo, Eugenia Li Ling; Kah, James Chen Yong; Chen, Nanguang

    2013-01-01

    Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is a widely used structural imaging modality. To extend its application in molecular imaging, gold nanorods are widely used as contrast agents for OCM. However, they very often offer limited sensitivity as a result of poor signal to background ratio. Here we experimentally demonstrate that a novel OCM implementation based on dark-field circular depolarization detection can efficiently detect circularly depolarized signal from gold nanorods and at the same time efficiently suppress the background signals. This results into a significant improvement in signal to background ratio. PMID:24049689

  9. In Vivo Dark-Field Radiography for Early Diagnosis and Staging of Pulmonary Emphysema.

    PubMed

    Hellbach, Katharina; Yaroshenko, Andre; Meinel, Felix G; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Conlon, Thomas M; Bech, Martin; Mueller, Mark; Velroyen, Astrid; Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Bamberg, Fabian; Auweter, Sigrid; Reiser, Maximilian; Eickelberg, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of in vivo x-ray dark-field radiography for early-stage diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema in mice. Furthermore, we aimed to analyze how the dark-field signal correlates with morphological changes of lung architecture at distinct stages of emphysema. Female 8- to 10-week-old C57Bl/6N mice were used throughout all experiments. Pulmonary emphysema was induced by orotracheal injection of porcine pancreatic elastase (80-U/kg body weight) (n = 30). Control mice (n = 11) received orotracheal injection of phosphate-buffered saline. To monitor the temporal patterns of emphysema development over time, the mice were imaged 7, 14, or 21 days after the application of elastase or phosphate-buffered saline. X-ray transmission and dark-field images were acquired with a prototype grating-based small-animal scanner. In vivo pulmonary function tests were performed before killing the animals. In addition, lungs were obtained for detailed histopathological analysis, including mean cord length (MCL) quantification as a parameter for the assessment of emphysema. Three blinded readers, all of them experienced radiologists and familiar with dark-field imaging, were asked to grade the severity of emphysema for both dark-field and transmission images. Histopathology and MCL quantification confirmed the introduction of different stages of emphysema, which could be clearly visualized and differentiated on the dark-field radiograms, whereas early stages were not detected on transmission images. The correlation between MCL and dark-field signal intensities (r = 0.85) was significantly higher than the correlation between MCL and transmission signal intensities (r = 0.37). The readers' visual ratings for dark-field images correlated significantly better with MCL (r = 0.85) than visual ratings for transmission images (r = 0.36). Interreader agreement and the diagnostic accuracy of both quantitative and visual assessment were significantly higher

  10. Characterization of the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) Neutron Radiography System Imaging Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Krista; Chantel Nowlen, K.; DePriest, K. Russell

    2016-02-01

    The Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is an epithermal pool-type research reactor licensed up to a thermal power of 2.4 MW. The ACRR facility has a neutron radiography facility that is used for imaging a wide range of items including reactor fuel and neutron generators. The ACRR neutron radiography system has four apertures (65:1, 125:1, 250:1, and 500:1) available to experimenters. The neutron flux and spectrum as well as the gamma dose rate were characterized at the imaging plane for the ACRR's neutron radiography system for the 65:1, 125:1 and 250:1 apertures.

  11. Synthetic-Focusing Strategies for Real-Time Annular-Array Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ketterling, Jeffrey A.; Filoux, Erwan

    2012-01-01

    Annular arrays provide a means to achieve enhanced image quality with a limited number of elements. Synthetic-focusing (SF) strategies that rely on beamforming data from individual transmit-to-receive (TR) element pairs provide a means to improve image quality without specialized TR delay electronics. Here, SF strategies are examined in the context of high-frequency ultrasound (>15 MHz) annular arrays composed of five elements, operating at 18 and 38 MHz. Acoustic field simulations are compared with experimental data acquired from wire and anechoic-sphere phantoms, and the values of lateral beamwidth, SNR, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and depth of field (DOF) are compared as a function of depth. In each case, data were acquired for all TR combinations (25 in total) and processed with SF using all 25 TR pairs and SF with the outer receive channels removed one by one. The results show that removing the outer receive channels led to an overall degradation of lateral resolution, an overall decrease in SNR, and did not reduce the DOF, although the DOF profile decreased in amplitude. The CNR was >1 and remained fairly constant as a function of depth, with a slight decrease in CNR for the case with just the central element receiving. The relative changes between the calculated and measured quantities were nearly identical for the 18- and 38-MHz arrays. B-mode images of the anechoic phantom and an in vivo mouse embryo using full SF with 25 TR pairs or reduced TR-pair approaches showed minimal qualitative difference. PMID:22899130

  12. High-frequency chirp ultrasound imaging with an annular array for ophthalmologic and small-animal imaging.

    PubMed

    Mamou, Jonathan; Aristizábal, Orlando; Silverman, Ronald H; Ketterling, Jeffrey A; Turnbull, Daniel H

    2009-07-01

    High-frequency ultrasound (HFU, >20 MHz) is an attractive means of obtaining fine-resolution images of biological tissues for ophthalmologic, dermatological and small-animal imaging applications. Even with current improvements in circuit designs and high-frequency equipment, HFU has two inherent limitations. First, HFU images have a limited depth-of-field (DOF) because of the short wavelength and the low fixed F-number of conventional HFU transducers. Second, HFU is usually limited to shallow imaging because of the significant attenuation in most tissues. In a previous study, a five-element annular array with a 17-MHz center frequency was excited using chirp-coded signals, and a synthetic-focusing algorithm was used to extend the DOF and increase penetration depth. In the present study, a similar approach with two different five-element annular arrays operating near a center frequency of 35 MHz is implemented and validated. Following validation studies, the chirp-imaging methods were applied to imaging vitreous-hemorrhage-mimicking phantoms and mouse embryos. Images of the vitreous phantom showed increased sensitivity using the chirp method compared with a standard monocycle imaging method, and blood droplets could be visualized 4mm deeper into the phantom. Three-dimensional datasets of 12.5-day-old mouse embryo heads were acquired in utero using chirp and conventional excitations. Images were formed and brain ventricles were segmented and reconstructed in three dimensions. The brain ventricle volumes for the monocycle excitation exhibited artifacts that were not apparent on the chirp-based dataset reconstruction.

  13. Improved diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema using in vivo dark-field radiography.

    PubMed

    Meinel, Felix G; Yaroshenko, Andre; Hellbach, Katharina; Bech, Martin; Müller, Mark; Velroyen, Astrid; Bamberg, Fabian; Eickelberg, Oliver; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Reiser, Maximilian F; Pfeiffer, Franz; Yildirim, Ali Ö

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether the recently developed method of grating-based x-ray dark-field radiography can improve the diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema in vivo. Pulmonary emphysema was induced in female C57BL/6N mice using endotracheal instillation of porcine pancreatic elastase and confirmed by in vivo pulmonary function tests, histopathology, and quantitative morphometry. The mice were anesthetized but breathing freely during imaging. Experiments were performed using a prototype small-animal x-ray dark-field scanner that was operated at 35 kilovolt (peak) with an exposure time of 5 seconds for each of the 10 grating steps. Images were compared visually. For quantitative comparison of signal characteristics, regions of interest were placed in the upper, middle, and lower zones of each lung. Receiver-operating-characteristic statistics were performed to compare the effectiveness of transmission and dark-field signal intensities and the combined parameter "normalized scatter" to differentiate between healthy and emphysematous lungs. A clear visual difference between healthy and emphysematous mice was found for the dark-field images. Quantitative measurements of x-ray dark-field signal and normalized scatter were significantly different between the mice with pulmonary emphysema and the control mice and showed good agreement with pulmonary function tests and quantitative histology. The normalized scatter showed a significantly higher discriminatory power (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve [AUC], 0.99) than dark-field (AUC, 0.90; P = 0.01) or transmission signal (AUC, 0.69; P < 0.001) alone did, allowing for an excellent discrimination of healthy and emphysematous lung regions. In a murine model, x-ray dark-field radiography is technically feasible in vivo and represents a substantial improvement over conventional transmission-based x-ray imaging for the diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema.

  14. Annular pancreas

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001142.htm Annular pancreas To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An annular pancreas is a ring of pancreatic tissue that encircles ...

  15. Small-animal dark-field radiography for pulmonary emphysema evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroshenko, Andre; Meinel, Felix G.; Hellbach, Katharina; Bech, Martin; Velroyen, Astrid; Müller, Mark; Bamberg, Fabian; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Yildirim, Ali Ã.-.; Eickelberg, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2014-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and emphysema is one of its main components. The disorder is characterized by irreversible destruction of the alveolar walls and enlargement of distal airspaces. Despite the severe changes in the lung tissue morphology, conventional chest radiographs have only a limited sensitivity for the detection of mild to moderate emphysema. X-ray dark-field is an imaging modality that can significantly increase the visibility of lung tissue on radiographic images. The dark-field signal is generated by coherent, small-angle scattering of x-rays on the air-tissue interfaces in the lung. Therefore, morphological changes in the lung can be clearly visualized on dark-field images. This is demonstrated by a preclinical study with a small-animal emphysema model. To generate a murine model of pulmonary emphysema, a female C57BL/6N mouse was treated with a single orotracheal application of porcine pancreatic elastase (80 U/kg body weight) dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Control mouse received PBS. The mice were imaged using a small-animal dark-field scanner. While conventional x-ray transmission radiography images revealed only subtle indirect signs of the pulmonary disorder, the difference between healthy and emphysematous lungs could be clearly directly visualized on the dark-field images. The dose applied to the animals is compatible with longitudinal studies. The imaging results correlate well with histology. The results of this study reveal the high potential of dark-field radiography for clinical lung imaging.

  16. High-frequency annular array with coaxial illumination for dual-modality ultrasonic and photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filoux, Erwan; Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Chitnis, Parag V.; Aristizábal, Orlando; Ketterling, Jeffrey A.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a combined ultrasound and photoacoustic (PA) imaging (PAI) system used to obtain high-quality, co-registered images of mouse-embryo anatomy and vasculature. High-frequency ultrasound (HFU, >20 MHz) is utilized to obtain high-resolution anatomical images of small animals while PAI provides high-contrast images of the vascular network. The imaging system is based on a 40 MHz, 5-element, 6 mm aperture annular-array transducer with a 800 μm diameter hole through its central element. The transducer was integrated in a cage-plate assembly allowing for a collimated laser beam to pass through the hole so that the optical and acoustic beams were collinear. The assembly was mounted on a two-axis, motorized stage to enable the simultaneous acquisition of co-registered HFU and PA volumetric data. Data were collected from all five elements in receive and a synthetic-focusing algorithm was applied in post-processing to beamform the data and increase the spatial resolution and depth-of-field (DOF) of the HFU and PA images. Phantom measurements showed that the system could achieve high-resolution images (down to 90 μm for HFU and 150 μm for PAI) and a large DOF of >8 mm. Volume renderings of a mouse embryo showed that the scanner allowed for visualizing morphologically precise anatomy of the entire embryo along with corresponding co-registered vasculature. Major head vessels, such as the superior sagittal sinus or rostral vein, were clearly identified as well as limb bud vasculature.

  17. Analysis of the imaging performance of panoramic annular lens with conic conformal dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiao; Bai, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Panoramic annular lens (PAL) is a kind of the specific wide angle lenses which is widely applied in panoramic imaging especially in aerospace field. As we known, to improve the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft, conformal dome, which notably reduces the drag of an aircraft, is also functioning as an optical window for the inbuilt optical system. However, there is still no report of the specific analysis of the imaging performance of PAL with conformal dome, which is imperative in its aerospace-related applications. In this paper, we propose an analysis of the imaging performance of a certain PAL with various conic conformal domes. Working in visible wavelength, the PAL in our work observes 360° surroundings with a large field of view (FOV) ranging from 30° ~105° . Meanwhile, various thicknesses, half-vertex angles, materials of the conic dome and the central distances between the dome and PAL are considered. The imaging performances, mainly indicated by modulation transfer function (MTF) as well as RMS radius of the spot diagram, are systematically compared. It is proved that, on the contrary to the general cases, the dome partly contributes to the imaging performance of the inbuilt PAL. In particular, with a conic conformal dome in material of K9 glass with a half-vertex angle of 25° and a thickness of 6mm, the maximum MTF at 100lp/mm could be improved by 6.68% with nearly no degeneration of the minimum MTF, and the RMS radius could be improved by 14.76% to 19.46% in different FOV. It is worth to note that the PAL is adaptive to panoramic aerospace applications with conic or quasi-conic conformal dome and the co-design of both PAL and the dome is very important.

  18. Dark Field Technology - A Practical Approach To Local Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, David R.; Hellebrekers, Paul P.

    1987-01-01

    A fully automated direct reticle reference alignment system for use in step and repeat camera systems is described. The technique, first outlined by Janus S. Wilczynski, ("Optical Step and Repeat Camera with Dark Field Alignment", J. Vac. Technol., 16(6), Nov./Dec. 1979), has been implemented on GCA Corporation's DSW Wafer Stepper. Results from various process levels covering the typical CMOS process have shown that better than ±0.2μm alignment accuracy can be obtained with minimal process sensitivity. The technique employs fixed illumination and microscope optics to achieve excellent registration stability and maintenance-free operation. Latent image techniques can be exploited for intra-field, grid and focus characterization.

  19. Galectin-3 Reflects Mitral Annular Plane Systolic Excursion Being Assessed by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Natale, Michele; Hoffmann, Julia; Reckord, Nadine; Hoffmann, Ursula; Budjan, Johannes; Henzler, Thomas; Papavassiliu, Theano; Borggrefe, Martin; Bertsch, Thomas; Akin, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study investigates whether serum levels of galectin-3 may reflect impaired mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE) in patients undergoing cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI). Methods. Patients undergoing cMRI during routine clinical care were included prospectively within an all-comers design. Blood samples for biomarker measurements were collected within 24 hours following cMRI. Statistical analyses were performed in all patients and in three subgroups according to MAPSE (MAPSE I: ≥11 mm, MAPSE II: ≥8 mm–<11 mm, and MAPSE III: <8 mm). Patients with right ventricular dysfunction (<50%) were excluded. Results. 84 patients were included in the study. Median LVEF was 59% (IQR 51–64%). Galectin-3 correlated significantly with NT-proBNP (r = 0.42, p = 0.0001). Galectin-3 increased significantly according to the different stages of impaired MAPSE (p = 0.006) and was able to discriminate both patients with impaired MAPSE <11 mm (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.645, p = 0.024) and <8 mm (AUC = 0.733, p = 0.003). Combining galectin-3 with NT-proBNP improved discrimination of MAPSE <8 mm (AUC 0.803, p = 0.0001). In multivariable logistic regression models galectin-3 was still associated with impaired MAPSE (MAPSE < 11 mm: odds ratio (OR) = 3.53, p = 0.018; MAPSE < 8 mm: OR = 3.18, p = 0.06). Conclusions. Galectin-3 reflects MAPSE being assessed by cardiac MRI. PMID:28044067

  20. Anatomical background noise power spectrum in differential phase contrast and dark field contrast mammograms.

    PubMed

    Garrett, John; Ge, Yongshuai; Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2014-12-01

    In x-ray absorption mammography, it has been found that the anatomical background noise can be characterized by a power law dependence on the spatial frequency, NPSa(f) ≈ αf(-β). In this letter, the authors present the first experimental results of the corresponding exponents, β, for differential phase contrast (βDPC) and dark field contrast (βDF) mammography. A grating-based x-ray multicontrast imaging acquisition benchtop system was used to simultaneously acquire mammograms with three different contrast mechanisms from 15 cadaver breasts under the same x-ray data acquisition conditions. The cadaver breasts were imaged in the coronal plane. The authors' experimental implementation of the well documented method [Burgess, Jacobson, and Judy, Med. Phys. 28, 419-437 (2001)] to extract the exponent β was first validated using anonymized clinical mammograms. Experiments were then used to determine β for the three types of mammograms for each cadaver breast acquired with our multicontrast imaging system: absorption contrast mammogram (βAbs.), differential phase contrast mammogram (βDPC), and dark-field contrast mammogram (βDF). The measured β values, acquired in the coronal plane with the benchtop multicontrast imaging system are βAbs. = 3.61 ± 0.49, βDPC = 2.54 ± 0.75, and βDF = 1.44 ± 0.49 for absorption, differential phase, and dark field mammogram, respectively. The β values for differential phase contrast and dark field mammography are significantly lower than the measured value of β for the corresponding absorption contrast mammograms. The greatly reduced β value of the anatomical background noise in differential phase contrast and dark field mammograms may suggest potentially improved diagnostic performance for certain types of breast cancer imaging tasks.

  1. On a dark-field signal generated by micrometer-sized calcifications in phase-contrast mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Thilo; Rieger, Jens; Anton, Gisela; Bayer, Florian; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Durst, Jürgen; Fasching, Peter A.; Haas, Wilhelm; Hartmann, Arndt; Pelzer, Georg; Radicke, Marcus; Rauh, Claudia; Ritter, André; Sievers, Peter; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Uder, Michael; Wachter, David L.; Weber, Thomas; Wenkel, Evelyn; Zang, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    We show that a distribution of micrometer-sized calcifications in the human breast which are not visible in clinical x-ray mammography at diagnostic dose levels can produce a significant dark-field signal in a grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging setup with a tungsten anode x-ray tube operated at 40 kVp. A breast specimen with invasive ductal carcinoma was investigated immediately after surgery by Talbot-Lau x-ray interferometry with a design energy of 25 keV. The sample contained two tumors which were visible in ultrasound and contrast-agent enhanced MRI but invisible in clinical x-ray mammography, in specimen radiography and in the attenuation images obtained with the Talbot-Lau interferometer. One of the tumors produced significant dark-field contrast with an exposure of 0.85 mGy air-kerma. Staining of histological slices revealed sparsely distributed grains of calcium phosphate with sizes varying between 1 and 40 μm in the region of this tumor. By combining the histological investigations with an x-ray wave-field simulation we demonstrate that a corresponding distribution of grains of calcium phosphate in the form of hydroxylapatite has the ability to produce a dark-field signal which would—to a substantial degree—explain the measured dark-field image. Thus we have found the appearance of new information (compared to attenuation and differential phase images) in the dark-field image. The second tumor in the same sample did not contain a significant fraction of these very fine calcification grains and was invisible in the dark-field image. We conclude that some tumors which are invisible in x-ray absorption mammography might be detected in the x-ray dark-field image at tolerable dose levels.

  2. On a dark-field signal generated by micrometer-sized calcifications in phase-contrast mammography.

    PubMed

    Michel, Thilo; Rieger, Jens; Anton, Gisela; Bayer, Florian; Beckmann, Matthias W; Durst, Jürgen; Fasching, Peter A; Haas, Wilhelm; Hartmann, Arndt; Pelzer, Georg; Radicke, Marcus; Rauh, Claudia; Ritter, André; Sievers, Peter; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Uder, Michael; Wachter, David L; Weber, Thomas; Wenkel, Evelyn; Zang, Andrea

    2013-04-21

    We show that a distribution of micrometer-sized calcifications in the human breast which are not visible in clinical x-ray mammography at diagnostic dose levels can produce a significant dark-field signal in a grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging setup with a tungsten anode x-ray tube operated at 40 kVp. A breast specimen with invasive ductal carcinoma was investigated immediately after surgery by Talbot-Lau x-ray interferometry with a design energy of 25 keV. The sample contained two tumors which were visible in ultrasound and contrast-agent enhanced MRI but invisible in clinical x-ray mammography, in specimen radiography and in the attenuation images obtained with the Talbot-Lau interferometer. One of the tumors produced significant dark-field contrast with an exposure of 0.85 mGy air-kerma. Staining of histological slices revealed sparsely distributed grains of calcium phosphate with sizes varying between 1 and 40 μm in the region of this tumor. By combining the histological investigations with an x-ray wave-field simulation we demonstrate that a corresponding distribution of grains of calcium phosphate in the form of hydroxylapatite has the ability to produce a dark-field signal which would-to a substantial degree-explain the measured dark-field image. Thus we have found the appearance of new information (compared to attenuation and differential phase images) in the dark-field image. The second tumor in the same sample did not contain a significant fraction of these very fine calcification grains and was invisible in the dark-field image. We conclude that some tumors which are invisible in x-ray absorption mammography might be detected in the x-ray dark-field image at tolerable dose levels.

  3. A generalized quantitative interpretation of dark-field contrast for highly concentrated microsphere suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkoumas, Spyridon; Villanueva-Perez, Pablo; Wang, Zhentian; Romano, Lucia; Abis, Matteo; Stampanoni, Marco

    2016-10-01

    In X-ray grating interferometry, dark-field contrast arises due to partial extinction of the detected interference fringes. This is also called visibility reduction and is attributed to small-angle scattering from unresolved structures in the imaged object. In recent years, analytical quantitative frameworks of dark-field contrast have been developed for highly diluted monodisperse microsphere suspensions with maximum 6% volume fraction. These frameworks assume that scattering particles are separated by large enough distances, which make any interparticle scattering interference negligible. In this paper, we start from the small-angle scattering intensity equation and, by linking Fourier and real-space, we introduce the structure factor and thus extend the analytical and experimental quantitative interpretation of dark-field contrast, for a range of suspensions with volume fractions reaching 40%. The structure factor accounts for interparticle scattering interference. Without introducing any additional fitting parameters, we successfully predict the experimental values measured at the TOMCAT beamline, Swiss Light Source. Finally, we apply this theoretical framework to an experiment probing a range of system correlation lengths by acquiring dark-field images at different energies. This proposed method has the potential to be applied in single-shot-mode using a polychromatic X-ray tube setup and a single-photon-counting energy-resolving detector.

  4. A generalized quantitative interpretation of dark-field contrast for highly concentrated microsphere suspensions

    PubMed Central

    Gkoumas, Spyridon; Villanueva-Perez, Pablo; Wang, Zhentian; Romano, Lucia; Abis, Matteo; Stampanoni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In X-ray grating interferometry, dark-field contrast arises due to partial extinction of the detected interference fringes. This is also called visibility reduction and is attributed to small-angle scattering from unresolved structures in the imaged object. In recent years, analytical quantitative frameworks of dark-field contrast have been developed for highly diluted monodisperse microsphere suspensions with maximum 6% volume fraction. These frameworks assume that scattering particles are separated by large enough distances, which make any interparticle scattering interference negligible. In this paper, we start from the small-angle scattering intensity equation and, by linking Fourier and real-space, we introduce the structure factor and thus extend the analytical and experimental quantitative interpretation of dark-field contrast, for a range of suspensions with volume fractions reaching 40%. The structure factor accounts for interparticle scattering interference. Without introducing any additional fitting parameters, we successfully predict the experimental values measured at the TOMCAT beamline, Swiss Light Source. Finally, we apply this theoretical framework to an experiment probing a range of system correlation lengths by acquiring dark-field images at different energies. This proposed method has the potential to be applied in single-shot-mode using a polychromatic X-ray tube setup and a single-photon-counting energy-resolving detector. PMID:27734931

  5. Non-invasive differentiation of kidney stone types using X-ray dark-field radiography.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Kai; Braig, Eva; Willer, Konstantin; Willner, Marian; Fingerle, Alexander A; Chabior, Michael; Herzen, Julia; Eiber, Matthias; Haller, Bernhard; Straub, Michael; Schneider, Heike; Rummeny, Ernst J; Noël, Peter B; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-04-15

    Treatment of renal calculi is highly dependent on the chemical composition of the stone in question, which is difficult to determine using standard imaging techniques. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential of scatter-sensitive X-ray dark-field radiography to differentiate between the most common types of kidney stones in clinical practice. Here, we examine the absorption-to-scattering ratio of 118 extracted kidney stones with a laboratory Talbot-Lau Interferometer. Depending on their chemical composition, microscopic growth structure and morphology the various types of kidney stones show strongly varying, partially opposite contrasts in absorption and dark-field imaging. By assessing the microscopic calculi morphology with high resolution micro-computed tomography measurements, we illustrate the dependence of dark-field signal strength on the respective stone type. Finally, we utilize X-ray dark-field radiography as a non-invasive, highly sensitive (100%) and specific (97%) tool for the differentiation of calcium oxalate, uric acid and mixed types of stones, while additionally improving the detectability of radio-lucent calculi. We prove clinical feasibility of the here proposed method by accurately classifying renal stones, embedded within a fresh pig kidney, using dose-compatible measurements and a quick and simple visual inspection.

  6. Imaging performance of annular apertures. IV - Apodization and point spread functions. V - Total and partial energy integral functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tschunko, H. F. A.

    1983-01-01

    Reference is made to a study by Tschunko (1979) in which it was discussed how apodization modifies the modulation transfer function for various central obstruction ratios. It is shown here how apodization, together with the central obstruction ratio, modifies the point spread function, which is the basic element for the comparison of imaging performance and for the derivation of energy integrals and other functions. At high apodization levels and lower central obstruction (less than 0.1), new extended radial zones are formed in the outer part of the central ring groups. These transmutation of the image functions are of more than theoretical interest, especially if the irradiance levels in the outer ring zones are to be compared to the background irradiance levels. Attention is then given to the energy distribution in point images generated by annular apertures apodized by various transmission functions. The total energy functions are derived; partial energy integrals are determined; and background irradiance functions are discussed.

  7. Imaging performance of annular apertures. IV - Apodization and point spread functions. V - Total and partial energy integral functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tschunko, H. F. A.

    1983-01-01

    Reference is made to a study by Tschunko (1979) in which it was discussed how apodization modifies the modulation transfer function for various central obstruction ratios. It is shown here how apodization, together with the central obstruction ratio, modifies the point spread function, which is the basic element for the comparison of imaging performance and for the derivation of energy integrals and other functions. At high apodization levels and lower central obstruction (less than 0.1), new extended radial zones are formed in the outer part of the central ring groups. These transmutation of the image functions are of more than theoretical interest, especially if the irradiance levels in the outer ring zones are to be compared to the background irradiance levels. Attention is then given to the energy distribution in point images generated by annular apertures apodized by various transmission functions. The total energy functions are derived; partial energy integrals are determined; and background irradiance functions are discussed.

  8. Correlation of right ventricular ejection fraction and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion in tetralogy of Fallot by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Morcos, Peter; Vick, G Wesley; Sahn, David J; Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Shurman, Alan; Sheehan, Florence H

    2009-03-01

    The correlation between right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) by two-dimensional (2-D) echo has been repeatedly validated, but not by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) nor in patients with congenital heart disease. We tested whether TAPSE measurements by MRI correlate with RVEF in surgically repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) patients. TAPSE was measured from systolic displacement of the RV-freewall/tricuspid annular plane junction in the apical 4-chamber view in 7 normal subjects and 14 TOF patients. The RV was reconstructed in 3-D from manually traced borders on MR images to compute true EF. Because we previously observed discrepancy between TAPSE and RVEF in the presence of regional dysfunction, we also analyzed RV wall motion in terms of regional stroke volume at 20 short axis slices from apex to tricuspid annulus. RVEF was 52 +/- 3% in normal subjects and 41 +/- 9% in TOF (P < 0.01). TAPSE correlated weakly (r = 0.50, P < 0.05) with RVEF. TOF patients exhibited increased regional stroke volume from apical portions of the RV and decreased regional stroke volume at the base compared to normal (P < 0.05 at 15 of 20 slices). Regional stroke volume in apical slices correlated inversely with RVEF such that patients with higher apical stroke volume had lower RVEF (P < 0.05). TAPSE is not a reliable measure of RVEF in TOF by MRI. TAPSE may be of limited use in conditions that exhibit abnormal regional contraction.

  9. Multiple annular linear diffractive axicons.

    PubMed

    Bialic, Emilie; de la Tocnaye, Jean-Louis de Bougrenet

    2011-04-01

    We propose a chromatic analysis of multiple annular linear diffractive axicons. Large aperture axicons are optical devices providing achromatic nondiffracting beams, with an extended depth of focus, when illuminated by a white light source, due to chromatic foci superimposition. Annular apertures introduce chromatic foci separation, and because chromatic aberrations result in focal segment axial shifts, polychromatic imaging properties are partially lost. We investigate here various design parameters that can be used to achieve color splitting, filtering, and combining using these properties. In order to improve the low-power efficiency of a single annular axicon, we suggest a spatial multiplexing of concentric annular axicons with different sizes and periods we call multiple annular aperture diffractive axicons (MALDAs). These are chosen to maintain focal depths while enabling color imaging with sufficient diffraction efficiency. Illustrations are given for binary phase diffractive axicons, considering technical aspects such as grating design wavelength and phase dependence due to the grating thickness.

  10. Annular wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, H. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An annular wing particularly suited for use in supporting in flight an aircraft characterized by the absence of directional stabilizing surfaces is described. The wing comprises a rigid annular body of a substantially uniformly symmetrical configuration characterized by an annular positive lifting surface and cord line coincident with the segment of a line radiating along the surface of an inverted truncated cone. A decalage is established for the leading and trailing semicircular portions of the body, relative to instantaneous line of flight, and a dihedral for the laterally opposed semicircular portions of the body, relative to the line of flight. The direction of flight and climb angle or glide slope angle are established by selectively positioning the center of gravity of the wing ahead of the aerodynamic center along the radius coincident with an axis for a selected line of flight.

  11. Quantitative comparison of bright field and annular bright field imaging modes for characterization of oxygen octahedral tilts

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Young-Min; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Borisevich, Albina Y.

    2017-04-29

    Octahedral tilt behavior is increasingly recognized as an important contributing factor to the physical behavior of perovskite oxide materials and especially their interfaces, necessitating the development of high-resolution methods of tilt mapping. There are currently two major approaches for quantitative imaging of tilts in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), bright field (BF) and annular bright field (ABF). In this study, we show that BF STEM can be reliably used for measurements of oxygen octahedral tilts. While optimal conditions for BF imaging are more restricted with respect to sample thickness and defocus, we find that BF imaging with an aberration-corrected microscopemore » with the accelerating voltage of 300 kV gives us the most accurate quantitative measurement of the oxygen column positions. Using the tilted perovskite structure of BiFeO3 (BFO) as our test sample, we simulate BF and ABF images in a wide range of conditions, identifying the optimal imaging conditions for each mode. Finally, we show that unlike ABF imaging, BF imaging remains directly quantitatively interpretable for a wide range of the specimen mistilt, suggesting that it should be preferable to the ABF STEM imaging for quantitative structure determination.« less

  12. Quantitative comparison of bright field and annular bright field imaging modes for characterization of oxygen octahedral tilts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Min; Pennycook, Stephen J; Borisevich, Albina Y

    2017-10-01

    Octahedral tilt behavior is increasingly recognized as an important contributing factor to the physical behavior of perovskite oxide materials and especially their interfaces, necessitating the development of high-resolution methods of tilt mapping. There are currently two major approaches for quantitative imaging of tilts in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), bright field (BF) and annular bright field (ABF). In this paper, we show that BF STEM can be reliably used for measurements of oxygen octahedral tilts. While optimal conditions for BF imaging are more restricted with respect to sample thickness and defocus, we find that BF imaging with an aberration-corrected microscope with the accelerating voltage of 300kV gives us the most accurate quantitative measurement of the oxygen column positions. Using the tilted perovskite structure of BiFeO3 (BFO) as our test sample, we simulate BF and ABF images in a wide range of conditions, identifying the optimal imaging conditions for each mode. We show that unlike ABF imaging, BF imaging remains directly quantitatively interpretable for a wide range of the specimen mistilt, suggesting that it should be preferable to the ABF STEM imaging for quantitative structure determination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hyperspectral Dark Field Optical Microscopy of Single Silver Nanospheres

    SciTech Connect

    El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Joly, Alan G.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2016-04-07

    We record spectrally (400 nm ≤ λ ≤ 675 nm, Δλ < 4.69 nm) and spatially (diffraction-limited, sampled at 85 nm2/pixel) resolved dark field (DF) scattering from single silver nanospheres of 100 nm in diameter. Hyperspectral DF optical microscopy is achieved by coupling a hyperspectral detector to an optical microscope, whereby spectrally resolved diffraction-limited images of hundreds of silver nanoparticles can be recorded in ~30 seconds. We demonstrate how the centers and edges of individual particles can be localized in 2D to within a single pixel (85 nm2), using a statistical method for examining texture based on a co-occurrence matrix. Subsequently, spatial averaging of the spectral response in a 3x3 pixel area around the particle centers affords ample signal-to-noise to resolve the plasmon resonance of a single silver nanosphere. A close inspection of the scattering spectra of 31 different nanospheres reveals that each particle has its unique (i) relative scattering efficiency, and (ii) plasmon resonance maximum and dephasing time. These observations are suggestive of nanometric structural variations over length scales much finer than the spatial resolution attainable using the all-optical technique described herein.

  14. A design of panoramic lens system to realize the projection from the local annular object field to rectangular image field by using freeform surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Xuqi; Ma, Tao; Zhang, Jun

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays, panoramic annular lens (PAL) applies in aerospace, robotics vision, industrial pipeline endoscope and corporate video conferencing. A cylinder-to-plane projection which called the Flat Cylinder Perspective (FCP) is adopted in PAL. The FCP projected the three-dimensional cylindrical field object onto a two-dimensional annular image plane. The optical system has fade zone in the center of detector. Based on the structure of the PAL system, this paper shows that a panoramic lens is designed with free-form surfaces. In the designed optical system, the local annular object field of view is projected onto a rectangular image plane. The free-form panoramic lens has a wide field of view of 140°in horizontal direction and a field of view of 40°in vertical direction. The design of the panoramic lens can maximize the use of area and have no fade zone in rectangular detector.

  15. Development of hard X-ray dark-field microscope using full-field optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Hidekazu; Azuma, Hiroaki; Shimomura, Sho; Tsuji, Takuya; Tsusaka, Yoshiyuki; Kagoshima, Yasushi

    2016-10-01

    We develop a dark-field X-ray microscope using full-field optics based on a synchrotron beamline. Our setup consists of a condenser system and a microscope objective with an angular acceptance larger than that of the condenser. The condenser system is moved downstream from its regular position such that the focus of the condenser is behind the objective. The dark-field microscope optics are configured by excluding the converging beam from the condenser at the focal point. The image properties of the system are evaluated by observing and calculating a Siemens star test chart with 10 keV X-rays. Our setup allows easy switching to bright-field imaging.

  16. Photoacoustics and speed-of-sound dual mode imaging with a long depth-of-field by using annular ultrasound array.

    PubMed

    Ding, Qiuning; Tao, Chao; Liu, Xiaojun

    2017-03-20

    Speed-of-sound and optical absorption reflect the structure and function of tissues from different aspects. A dual-mode microscopy system based on a concentric annular ultrasound array is proposed to simultaneously acquire the long depth-of-field images of speed-of-sound and optical absorption of inhomogeneous samples. First, speed-of-sound is decoded from the signal delay between each element of the annular array. The measured speed-of-sound could not only be used as an image contrast, but also improve the resolution and accuracy of spatial location of photoacoustic image in inhomogeneous acoustic media. Secondly, benefitting from dynamic focusing of annular array and the measured speed-of-sound, it is achieved an advanced acoustic-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with a precise position and a long depth-of-field. The performance of the dual-mode imaging system has been experimentally examined by using a custom-made annular array. The proposed dual-mode microscopy might have the significances in monitoring the biological physiological and pathological processes.

  17. Visualization of neonatal lung injury associated with mechanical ventilation using x-ray dark-field radiography

    PubMed Central

    Yaroshenko, Andre; Pritzke, Tina; Koschlig, Markus; Kamgari, Nona; Willer, Konstantin; Gromann, Lukas; Auweter, Sigrid; Hellbach, Katharina; Reiser, Maximilian; Eickelberg, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Franz; Hilgendorff, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) and supplementation of oxygen-enriched gas, often needed in postnatal resuscitation procedures, are known to be main risk factors for impaired pulmonary development in the preterm and term neonates. Unfortunately, current imaging modalities lack in sensitivity for the detection of early stage lung injury. The present study reports a new imaging approach for diagnosis and staging of early lung injury induced by MV and hyperoxia in neonatal mice. The imaging method is based on the Talbot-Lau x-ray grating interferometry that makes it possible to quantify the x-ray small-angle scattering on the air-tissue interfaces. This so-called dark-field signal revealed increasing loss of x-ray small-angle scattering when comparing images of neonatal mice undergoing hyperoxia and MV-O2 with animals kept at room air. The changes in the dark field correlated well with histologic findings and provided superior differentiation than conventional x-ray imaging and lung function testing. The results suggest that x-ray dark-field radiography is a sensitive tool for assessing structural changes in the developing lung. In the future, with further technical developments x-ray dark-field imaging could be an important tool for earlier diagnosis and sensitive monitoring of lung injury in neonates requiring postnatal oxygen or ventilator therapy. PMID:27072871

  18. Visualization of neonatal lung injury associated with mechanical ventilation using x-ray dark-field radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroshenko, Andre; Pritzke, Tina; Koschlig, Markus; Kamgari, Nona; Willer, Konstantin; Gromann, Lukas; Auweter, Sigrid; Hellbach, Katharina; Reiser, Maximilian; Eickelberg, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Franz; Hilgendorff, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) and supplementation of oxygen-enriched gas, often needed in postnatal resuscitation procedures, are known to be main risk factors for impaired pulmonary development in the preterm and term neonates. Unfortunately, current imaging modalities lack in sensitivity for the detection of early stage lung injury. The present study reports a new imaging approach for diagnosis and staging of early lung injury induced by MV and hyperoxia in neonatal mice. The imaging method is based on the Talbot-Lau x-ray grating interferometry that makes it possible to quantify the x-ray small-angle scattering on the air-tissue interfaces. This so-called dark-field signal revealed increasing loss of x-ray small-angle scattering when comparing images of neonatal mice undergoing hyperoxia and MV-O2 with animals kept at room air. The changes in the dark field correlated well with histologic findings and provided superior differentiation than conventional x-ray imaging and lung function testing. The results suggest that x-ray dark-field radiography is a sensitive tool for assessing structural changes in the developing lung. In the future, with further technical developments x-ray dark-field imaging could be an important tool for earlier diagnosis and sensitive monitoring of lung injury in neonates requiring postnatal oxygen or ventilator therapy.

  19. Effect of particle-size selectivity on quantitative X-ray dark-field computed tomography using a grating interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yuan; Shao, Qigang; Hu, Renfang; Wang, Shengxiang; Gao, Kun; Wang, Yan; Tian, Yangchao; Zhu, Peiping

    2017-08-01

    According to the conclusion of Khelashvili et al. [Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 221 (2006)], the minus logarithm of the visibility ratio fulfills the line integral condition; consequently the scattering information can be reconstructed quantitatively by conventional computed tomography (CT) algorithms. Based on Fresnel diffraction theory, we analyzed the influence of particle-size selectivity on the performance of an X-ray grating interferometer (GI) applied for dark-field CT. The results state the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of dark-field imaging is sensitive to the particle size, which demonstrate that the X-ray dark-field CT using a GI can efficiently differentiate materials of identical X-ray absorption and help to choose optimal X-ray energy for known particle size, thus extending the application range of grating interferometer.

  20. Design of Acquisition Schemes and Setup Geometry for Anisotropic X-ray Dark-Field Tomography (AXDT).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Y; Schaff, F; Wieczorek, M; Pfeiffer, F; Lasser, T

    2017-06-09

    Anisotropic X-ray Dark-field Tomography (AXDT) is a new imaging technique for reconstructing the three-dimensional scattering profile within a sample using the dark-field signal measured in an X-ray grating interferometry setup. As in any tomographic measurement, the acquisition geometry plays a key role in the accurate reconstruction of the scattering information. More- over, the anisotropic nature of the dark-field signal poses additional challenges for designing the acquisition protocols. In this work, we present an efficient approach to measure scattering orientations spread over the unit sphere and prove its efficacy using the knowledge from conventional tomography. In addition, we conclude (using analytical and experimental results) that placing the gratings such that the grating bars make an angle of 45 degrees with respect to the vertical direction is the optimal setup configuration for AXDT.

  1. Quantitative laser speckle flowmetry of the in vivo microcirculation using sidestream dark field microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nadort, Annemarie; Woolthuis, Rutger G.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Faber, Dirk J.

    2013-01-01

    We present integrated Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI) and Sidestream Dark Field (SDF) flowmetry to provide real-time, non-invasive and quantitative measurements of speckle decorrelation times related to microcirculatory flow. Using a multi exposure acquisition scheme, precise speckle decorrelation times were obtained. Applying SDF-LSCI in vitro and in vivo allows direct comparison between speckle contrast decorrelation and flow velocities, while imaging the phantom and microcirculation architecture. This resulted in a novel analysis approach that distinguishes decorrelation due to flow from other additive decorrelation sources. PMID:24298399

  2. Effects of first myocardial infarction on left ventricular systolic and diastolic function with the use of mitral annular velocity determined by pulsed wave doppler tissue imaging.

    PubMed

    Alam, M; Wardell, J; Andersson, E; Samad, B A; Nordlander, R

    2000-05-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effect of a first myocardial infarction (MI) on the systolic and diastolic velocity profiles of the mitral annulus determined by pulsed wave Doppler tissue imaging and thereby evaluate left ventricular (LV) function after MI. Seventy-eight patients with a first MI were examined before discharge. Peak systolic, peak early diastolic, and peak late diastolic velocities were recorded at 4 different sites on the mitral annulus corresponding to the septum, anterior, lateral, and inferior sites of the left ventricle. In addition, the amplitude of mitral annular motion at the 4 above LV sites, the ejection fraction, and conventional Doppler diastolic parameters were recorded. Nineteen age-matched healthy subjects served as controls. Compared with healthy subjects, the MI patients had a significantly reduced peak systolic velocity at the mitral annulus, especially at the infarction sites. A relatively good linear correlation was found between the ejection fraction and the mean systolic velocity from the 4 LV sites (r = 0.74, P <.001). The correlation was also good when the mean peak systolic mitral annular velocity was tested against the magnitude of the mean mitral annular motion (r = 0.77, P <.001). When the patients were divided into 2 different groups with respect to an ejection fraction > or =0.50 or <0.50, a cutoff point of mean systolic mitral annular velocity of > or =7.5 cm/s had a sensitivity of 79% and a specificity of 88% in predicting a preserved global LV systolic function. Similar to systolic velocities, the early diastolic velocity was also reduced, especially at the infarction sites. The peak mitral annular early diastolic velocity correlated well with both LV ejection fraction (r =.66, P <.001) and mean systolic mitral annular motion (r = 0.68, P <.001). However, no correlation existed between the early diastolic velocity and conventional diastolic Doppler parameters. The reduced peak systolic mitral annular velocity

  3. Laser-produced annular plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Veloso, F.; Chuaqui, H.; Aliaga-Rossel, R.; Favre, M.; Mitchell, I. H.; Wyndham, E.

    2006-06-15

    A new technique is presented for the formation of annular plasmas on a metal surface with a high-power laser using a combination of axicon and converging lenses. The annular plasma formed on a titanium target in a chamber of hydrogen gas was investigated using schlieren imaging and Mach Zehnder interferometry. Expansion of the plasma was shown to be anisotropic with velocities of {approx}10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} m/s. Electron densities of 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} were measured with radial profiles that confirm the presence of a hollow structure. The interferometric observations also show the presence of an inward shock wave traveling to the center of the annular plasma, which compresses the background neutrals, reaching a density around 18 times initial gas density, at 95 ns after the initial annular plasma is produced.

  4. Large Area and Depth-Profiling Dislocation Imaging and Strain Analysis in Si/SiGe/Si Heterostructures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    angle annular dark- field (HAADF) STEM mode using 123 200 keV electrons. 124 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 125 Depth-Profiling Dislocation Imaging Using EBIC...of the defect trapping state ( Higgs & Kittler, 2441994), the temperature dependence of c is determined by the 245temperature dependence of lifetime...Lett 65(22), 2804–2806. 397KITTLER, M., ULHAQBOUILLET, C. & HIGGS , V. (1995). Influence of 398copper contamination on recombination activity of misfit

  5. Characterization of the effective performance of a high-frequency annular-array based imaging system using anechoic-pipe phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Filoux, Erwan; Mamou, Jonathan; Moran, Carmel M.; Pye, Stephen D.; Ketterling, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    A resolution integral (RI) method based on anechoic-pipe, tissue-mimicking phantoms was used to compare the detection capabilities of high-frequency imaging systems based on a single-element transducer, a state-of-the-art, 256-element linear array or a 5-element annular array. All transducers had a central frequency of 40 MHz with similar conventionally measured axial and lateral resolutions (about 50 and 85 μm, respectively). Using the RI metric, the annular array achieved the highest performance (RI = 60), followed by the linear array (47) and the single-element transducer (24). Results showed that the RI metric could be used to efficiently quantify the effective transducer performance and compare the image quality of different systems. PMID:23221233

  6. Correspondence - Characterization of the effective performance of a high-frequency annular-array-based imaging system using anechoic-pipe phantoms.

    PubMed

    Filoux, Erwan; Mamou, Jonathan; Moran, Carmel M; Pye, Stephen D; Ketterling, Jeffrey A

    2012-12-01

    A resolution integral (RI) method based on anechoic- pipe, tissue-mimicking phantoms was used to compare the detection capabilities of high-frequency imaging systems based on a single-element transducer, a state-of-the-art 256-element linear array, or a 5-element annular array. All transducers had a central frequency of 40 MHz with similar conventionally measured axial and lateral resolutions (about 50 and 85 μm, respectively). Using the RI metric, the annular array achieved the highest performance (RI = 60), followed by the linear array (RI = 47), and the single-element transducer (RI = 24). Results showed that the RI metric could be used to efficiently quantify the effective transducer performance and compare the image quality of different systems.

  7. Time resolved X-ray Dark-Field Tomography Revealing Water Transport in a Fresh Cement Sample.

    PubMed

    Prade, Friedrich; Fischer, Kai; Heinz, Detlef; Meyer, Pascal; Mohr, Jürgen; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2016-06-30

    Grating-based X-ray dark-field tomography is a promising technique for biomedical and materials research. Even if the resolution of conventional X-ray tomography does not suffice to resolve relevant structures, the dark-field signal provides valuable information about the sub-pixel microstructural properties of the sample. Here, we report on the potential of X-ray dark-field imaging to be used for time-resolved three-dimensional studies. By repeating consecutive tomography scans on a fresh cement sample, we were able to study the hardening dynamics of the cement paste in three dimensions over time. The hardening of the cement was accompanied by a strong decrease in the dark-field signal pointing to microstructural changes within the cement paste. Furthermore our results hint at the transport of water from certain limestone grains, which were embedded in the sample, to the cement paste during the process of hardening. This is indicated by an increasing scattering signal which was observed for two of the six tested limestone grains. Electron microscopy images revealed a distinct porous structure only for those two grains which supports the following interpretation of our results. When the water filled pores of the limestone grains empty during the experiment the scattering signal of the grains increases.

  8. Time resolved X-ray Dark-Field Tomography Revealing Water Transport in a Fresh Cement Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prade, Friedrich; Fischer, Kai; Heinz, Detlef; Meyer, Pascal; Mohr, Jürgen; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2016-06-01

    Grating-based X-ray dark-field tomography is a promising technique for biomedical and materials research. Even if the resolution of conventional X-ray tomography does not suffice to resolve relevant structures, the dark-field signal provides valuable information about the sub-pixel microstructural properties of the sample. Here, we report on the potential of X-ray dark-field imaging to be used for time-resolved three-dimensional studies. By repeating consecutive tomography scans on a fresh cement sample, we were able to study the hardening dynamics of the cement paste in three dimensions over time. The hardening of the cement was accompanied by a strong decrease in the dark-field signal pointing to microstructural changes within the cement paste. Furthermore our results hint at the transport of water from certain limestone grains, which were embedded in the sample, to the cement paste during the process of hardening. This is indicated by an increasing scattering signal which was observed for two of the six tested limestone grains. Electron microscopy images revealed a distinct porous structure only for those two grains which supports the following interpretation of our results. When the water filled pores of the limestone grains empty during the experiment the scattering signal of the grains increases.

  9. Time resolved X-ray Dark-Field Tomography Revealing Water Transport in a Fresh Cement Sample

    PubMed Central

    Prade, Friedrich; Fischer, Kai; Heinz, Detlef; Meyer, Pascal; Mohr, Jürgen; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Grating-based X-ray dark-field tomography is a promising technique for biomedical and materials research. Even if the resolution of conventional X-ray tomography does not suffice to resolve relevant structures, the dark-field signal provides valuable information about the sub-pixel microstructural properties of the sample. Here, we report on the potential of X-ray dark-field imaging to be used for time-resolved three-dimensional studies. By repeating consecutive tomography scans on a fresh cement sample, we were able to study the hardening dynamics of the cement paste in three dimensions over time. The hardening of the cement was accompanied by a strong decrease in the dark-field signal pointing to microstructural changes within the cement paste. Furthermore our results hint at the transport of water from certain limestone grains, which were embedded in the sample, to the cement paste during the process of hardening. This is indicated by an increasing scattering signal which was observed for two of the six tested limestone grains. Electron microscopy images revealed a distinct porous structure only for those two grains which supports the following interpretation of our results. When the water filled pores of the limestone grains empty during the experiment the scattering signal of the grains increases. PMID:27357449

  10. Quantitative evaluation of annular bright-field phase images in STEM.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Takafumi; Kawasaki, Tadahiro; Tanji, Takayoshi; Ikuta, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    A phase reconstruction method based on multiple scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) images was evaluated quantitatively using image simulations. The simulation results indicated that the phase shift caused by a single atom was proportional to the 0.6th power of the atomic number Z. For a thin SrTiO3 [001] crystal, the reconstructed phase at each atomic column increased according to the specimen thickness. The STEM phase images can quantify the oxygen vacancy concentration if the thickness is less than several nanometers.

  11. Improved visualization of breast cancer features in multifocal carcinoma using phase-contrast and dark-field mammography: an ex vivo study.

    PubMed

    Grandl, Susanne; Scherer, Kai; Sztrókay-Gaul, Anikó; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Willer, Konstantin; Chabior, Michael; Herzen, Julia; Mayr, Doris; Auweter, Sigrid D; Pfeiffer, Franz; Bamberg, Fabian; Hellerhoff, Karin

    2015-12-01

    Conventional X-ray attenuation-based contrast is inherently low for the soft-tissue components of the female breast. To overcome this limitation, we investigate the diagnostic merits arising from dark-field mammography by means of certain tumour structures enclosed within freshly dissected mastectomy samples. We performed grating-based absorption, absolute phase and dark-field mammography of three freshly dissected mastectomy samples containing bi- and multifocal carcinoma using a compact, laboratory Talbot-Lau interferometer. Preoperative in vivo imaging (digital mammography, ultrasound, MRI), postoperative histopathological analysis and ex vivo digital mammograms of all samples were acquired for the diagnostic verification of our results. In the diagnosis of multifocal tumour growth, dark-field mammography seems superior to standard breast imaging modalities, providing a better resolution of small, calcified tumour nodules, demarcation of tumour boundaries with desmoplastic stromal response and spiculated soft-tissue strands extending from an invasive ductal breast cancer. On the basis of selected cases, we demonstrate that dark-field mammography is capable of outperforming conventional mammographic imaging of tumour features in both calcified and non-calcified tumours. Presuming dose optimization, our results encourage further studies on larger patient cohorts to identify those patients that will benefit the most from this promising additional imaging modality. • X-ray dark-field mammography provides significantly improved visualization of tumour features • X-ray dark-field mammography is capable of outperforming conventional mammographic imaging • X-ray dark-field mammography provides imaging sensitivity towards highly dispersed calcium grains.

  12. Laser Doppler velocimeter measurements and laser sheet imaging in an annular combustor model. M.S. Thesis, Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwenger, Richard Dale

    1995-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted in annular combustor model to provide a better understanding of the flowfield. Combustor model configurations consisting of primary jets only, annular jets only, and a combination of annular and primary jets were investigated. The purpose of this research was to provide a better understanding of combustor flows and to provide a data base for comparison with computational models. The first part of this research used a laser Doppler velocimeter to measure mean velocity and statistically calculate root-mean-square velocity in two coordinate directions. From this data, one Reynolds shear stress component and a two-dimensional turbulent kinetic energy term was determined. Major features of the flowfield included recirculating flow, primary and annular jet interaction, and high turbulence. The most pronounced result from this data was the effect the primary jets had on the flowfield. The primary jets were seen to reduce flow asymmetries, create larger recirculation zones, and higher turbulence levels. The second part of this research used a technique called marker nephelometry to provide mean concentration values in the combustor. Results showed the flow to be very turbulent and unsteady. All configurations investigated were highly sensitive to alignment of the primary and annular jets in the model and inlet conditions. Any imbalance between primary jets or misalignment of the annular jets caused severe flow asymmetries.

  13. Imaging performance of annular apertures. III - Apodization and modulation transfer functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tschunko, H. F. A.

    1979-01-01

    Apodization functions with decreasing transmission and their opposite, functions with increasing transmission, are investigated for various central obstruction ratios. The resultant modulation transfer functions are presented for various transmission functions and central obstruction ratios. Conclusions applicable to the improvement of imaging performance are discussed.

  14. Identification of the Position and Thickness of the First Annular Pulley in Sonographic Images.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tai-Hua; Lin, Yi-Hsun; Chuang, Bo-I; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Lin, Wei-Jr; Yang, Dee-Shan; Wang, Shyh-Hau; Sun, Yung-Nien; Jou, I-Ming; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Su, Fong-Chin

    2016-05-01

    The purpose was to identify the A1 pulley's exact location and thickness by comparing measurements from a clinical high-frequency ultrasound scanner system (CHUS), a customized high-frequency ultrasound imaging research system (HURS) and a digital caliper. Ten cadaveric hands were used. We explored the pulley by layers, inserted guide pins and scanned it with the CHUS. After identifying the pulley, we measured each long finger's thickness using the CHUS and excised the pulley to measure its thickness with a digital caliper and the HURS. The thin hypo-echoic layer was revealed to be the synovial fluid space, and the pulley appears hyper-echoic regardless of scan direction. We also defined the pulley's boundaries. Moreover, the CHUS provided a significantly lower measurement of the pulley's thickness than the digital caliper and HURS. Likewise, based on the digital caliper's measurement, the HURS had significantly lower mean absolute and relative errors than the CHUS.

  15. EUV Dark-Field Microscopy for Defect Inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Juschkin, L.; Maryasov, A.; Herbert, S.; Aretz, A.; Bergmann, K.; Lebert, R.

    2011-09-09

    An actinic EUV microscope for defect detection on mask blanks for operation in dark field using a table-top discharge-produced plasma source has been developed. Several test structures (pits and bumps) on multilayer mirrors were investigated by our Schwarzschild objective-based EUV microscope at 13.5-nm wavelength and then characterized with an atomic force microscope. Possible defect-detection limits with large field of view and moderate magnification are discussed in terms of required irradiation dose and system performance.

  16. Grating-based X-ray Dark-field Computed Tomography of Living Mice

    PubMed Central

    Velroyen, A.; Yaroshenko, A.; Hahn, D.; Fehringer, A.; Tapfer, A.; Müller, M.; Noël, P.B.; Pauwels, B.; Sasov, A.; Yildirim, A.Ö.; Eickelberg, O.; Hellbach, K.; Auweter, S.D.; Meinel, F.G.; Reiser, M.F.; Bech, M.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in x-ray attenuating tissue caused by lung disorders like emphysema or fibrosis are subtle and thus only resolved by high-resolution computed tomography (CT). The structural reorganization, however, is of strong influence for lung function. Dark-field CT (DFCT), based on small-angle scattering of x-rays, reveals such structural changes even at resolutions coarser than the pulmonary network and thus provides access to their anatomical distribution. In this proof-of-concept study we present x-ray in vivo DFCTs of lungs of a healthy, an emphysematous and a fibrotic mouse. The tomographies show excellent depiction of the distribution of structural – and thus indirectly functional – changes in lung parenchyma, on single-modality slices in dark field as well as on multimodal fusion images. Therefore, we anticipate numerous applications of DFCT in diagnostic lung imaging. We introduce a scatter-based Hounsfield Unit (sHU) scale to facilitate comparability of scans. In this newly defined sHU scale, the pathophysiological changes by emphysema and fibrosis cause a shift towards lower numbers, compared to healthy lung tissue. PMID:26629545

  17. On the origin and nature of the grating interferometric dark-field contrast obtained with low-brilliance x-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Thomas; Zuber, Marcus; Trimborn, Barbara; Farago, Tomas; Meyer, Pascal; Kunka, Danays; Albrecht, Frederic; Kreuer, Sascha; Volk, Thomas; Fiederle, Michael; Baumbach, Tilo

    2016-05-01

    The x-ray dark-field contrast accessible via grating interferometry is sensitive to features at length scales well below what is resolvable by a detector system. It is commonly explained as arising from small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), and can be implemented both at synchrotron beamlines and with low-brilliance sources such as x-ray tubes. Here, we demonstrate that for tube based setups the underlying process of image formation can be fundamentally different. For focal spots or detector pixels that comprise multiple grating periods, we show that dark-field images contain a strong artificial and system-specific component not arising from SAXS. Based on experiments carried out with a nanofocus x-ray tube and the example of an excised rat lung, we demonstrate that the dark-field contrast observed for porous media transforms into a differential phase contrast for large geometric magnifications. Using a photon counting detector with an adjustable point spread function, we confirm that a dark-field image can indeed be formed by an intra-pixel differential phase contrast that cannot be resolved as such due to a dephasing between the periodicities of the absorption grating and the Talbot carpet. Our findings are further corroborated by a link between the strength of this pseudo-dark-field contrast and our x-ray tube’s focal spot size in a three-grating setup. These results must not be ignored when measurements are intended to be reproducible across systems.

  18. Spatially multiplexed dark-field microspectrophotometry for nanoplasmonics

    PubMed Central

    Pini, V.; Kosaka, P. M.; Ruz, J. J.; Malvar, O.; Encinar, M.; Tamayo, J.; Calleja, M.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring the effect of the substrate on the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of metallic nanoparticles is key for deepening our understanding of light-matter interactions at the nanoscale. This coupling gives rise to shifts of the LSPR as well as changes in the scattering pattern shape. The problem requires of high-throughput techniques that present both high spatial and spectral resolution. We present here a technique, referred to as Spatially Multiplexed Micro-Spectrophotometry (SMMS), able to perform polarization-resolved spectral and spatial analysis of the scattered light over large surface areas. The SMMS technique provides three orders of magnitude faster spectroscopic analysis than conventional dark-field microspectrophotometry, with the capability for mapping the spatial distribution of the scattered light intensity with lateral resolution of 40 nm over surface areas of 0.02 mm2. We show polarization-resolved dark-field spectral analysis of hundreds of gold nanoparticles deposited on a silicon surface. The technique allows determining the effect of the substrate on the LSPR of single nanoparticles and dimers and their scattering patterns. This is applied for rapid discrimination and counting of monomers and dimers of nanoparticles. In addition, the diameter of individual nanoparticles can be rapidly assessed with 1 nm accuracy. PMID:26953042

  19. A new microscope optics for laser dark-field illumination applied to high precision two dimensional measurement of specimen displacement.

    PubMed

    Noda, Naoki; Kamimura, Shinji

    2008-02-01

    With conventional light microscopy, precision in the measurement of the displacement of a specimen depends on the signal-to-noise ratio when we measure the light intensity of magnified images. This implies that, for the improvement of precision, getting brighter images and reducing background light noise are both inevitably required. For this purpose, we developed a new optics for laser dark-field illumination. For the microscopy, we used a laser beam and a pair of axicons (conical lenses) to get an optimal condition for dark-field observations. The optics was applied to measuring two dimensional microbead displacements with subnanometer precision. The bandwidth of our detection system overall was 10 kHz. Over most of this bandwidth, the observed noise level was as small as 0.1 nm/radicalHz.

  20. Valence EELS below the limit of inelastic delocalization using conical dark field EFTEM or Bessel beams.

    PubMed

    Stöger-Pollach, Michael; Schachinger, Thomas; Biedermann, Kati; Beyer, Volkhard

    2017-02-01

    In this experimental work we present novel methods to increase the spatial resolution of valence electron energy loss spectrometry (VEELS) investigations below the limit given by the inelastic delocalization. For this purpose we analyse a layer stack consisting of silicon/silicon-oxide/silicon-nitride/silicon-oxide/silicon (SONOS) with varying layer thickness down to the 2nm level. Using a combination of a conical illumination and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy we are able to identify the layers by using low energy losses. Employing Bessel beams we demonstrate that VEELS can be performed in dark-field conditions while simultaneously the Bessel beam increases the spatial resolution of the elastic image due to less sensitivity to the spherical aberration of the condenser lens system. The dark-field conditions also guarantee that only electrons are collected that have neither undergone an energy loss being due to the Cˇerenkov effect, nor due to the excitation of transition radiation or light guiding modes. We consequently are able to measure the optical properties of a 2.5nm thin oxide being sandwiched by the silicon substrate and a silicon-nitride layer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. THE INFRARED ARRAY CAMERA DARK FIELD: FAR-INFRARED TO X-RAY DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Krick, J. E.; Surace, J. A.; Yan, L.; Lacy, M.; Thompson, D.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Hora, J.; Gorjian, V.; Frayer, D. T.; Egami, E.

    2009-11-01

    We present 20 band photometry from the far-IR to X-ray in the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) dark field. The bias for the near-IR camera on Spitzer is calibrated by observing a {approx}20' diameter 'dark' field near the north ecliptic pole roughly every two-to-three weeks throughout the mission duration of Spitzer. The field is unique for its extreme depth, low background, high quality imaging, time-series information, and accompanying photometry including data taken with Akari, Palomar, MMT, KPNO, Hubble, and Chandra. This serendipitous survey contains the deepest mid-IR data taken to date. This data set is well suited for studies of intermediate-redshift galaxy clusters, high-redshift galaxies, the first generation of stars, and the lowest mass brown dwarfs, among others. This paper provides a summary of the data characteristics and catalog generation from all bands collected to date as well as a discussion of photometric redshifts and initial and expected science results and goals. To illustrate the scientific potential of this unique data set, we also present here IRAC color-color diagrams.

  2. Visualization of oxygen transportation in microcirculation by sidestream dark-field oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurata, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Minori; Oda, Shigeto; Kawahira, Hiroshi; Ohnishi, Takashi; Haneishi, Hideaki

    2017-02-01

    The sidestream dark-field (SDF) imaging allows direct visualization of red blood cells in microvessels near tissue surfaces. We have developed an image-based oximetry method using two-band images obtained by SDF imaging (SDF oximetry) and a trial SDF device with light-emitting diodes to obtain band images. In this study, we propose a technique of producing oxygen saturation (SO2) maps from SDF images and perform animal experiments in vivo. To produce SO2 maps, we use spectral analysis using two band images obtained with our SDF device. As an image processing, the combination of both the Hessian-based and pixel value-based techniques as blood vessel extraction from an SDF image is used. From the experiment with the surface of rat small intestines, we can produce SO2 maps and find that the map represents arterioles and venules those were determined based on the blood ow from SDF images. Moreover, we find the variation of SO2 along a blood vessel running direction.

  3. Pulmonary emphysema diagnosis with a preclinical small-animal X-ray dark-field scatter-contrast scanner.

    PubMed

    Yaroshenko, Andre; Meinel, Felix G; Bech, Martin; Tapfer, Arne; Velroyen, Astrid; Schleede, Simone; Auweter, Sigrid; Bohla, Alexander; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Bamberg, Fabian; Eickelberg, Oliver; Reiser, Maximilian F; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2013-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that the joint distribution of x-ray transmission and dark-field signals obtained with a compact cone-beam preclinical scanner with a polychromatic source can be used to diagnose pulmonary emphysema in ex vivo murine lungs. The animal care committee approved this study. Three excised murine lungs with pulmonary emphysema and three excised murine control lungs were imaged ex vivo by using a grating-based micro-computed tomographic (CT) scanner. To evaluate the diagnostic value, the natural logarithm of relative transmission and the natural logarithm of dark-field scatter signal were plotted on a per-pixel basis on a scatterplot. Probability density function was fit to the joint distribution by using principle component analysis. An emphysema map was calculated based on the fitted probability density function. The two-dimensional scatterplot showed a characteristic difference between control and emphysematous lungs. Control lungs had lower average median logarithmic transmission (-0.29 vs -0.18, P = .1) and lower average dark-field signal (-0.54 vs -0.37, P = .1) than emphysematous lungs. The angle to the vertical axis of the fitted regions also varied significantly (7.8° for control lungs vs 15.9° for emphysematous lungs). The calculated emphysema distribution map showed good agreement with histologic findings. X-ray dark-field scatter images of murine lungs obtained with a preclinical scanner can be used in the diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema. http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.13122413/-/DC1. RSNA, 2013

  4. The Cytocam video microscope. A new method for visualising the microcirculation using Incident Dark Field technology.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, Sam; Watts, Sarah; Kirkman, Emrys

    2016-01-01

    We report a new microcirculatory assessment device, the Braedius Cytocam, an Incident Dark Field (IDF) video microscope, and compare it with a precursor device utilising side stream dark field (SDF) imaging. Time matched measurements were made with both devices from the sublingual microcirculation of pigs subjected to traumatic injury and hemorrhagic shock at baseline and during a shock phase. Images were analysed for vessel density, microcirculatory flow and image quality. There were no differences in density or flow data recorded from the two devices at baseline [TVD IDF 14.2 ± 2.4/TVD SDF 13.2 ± 2.0, p 0.17] [MFI IDF 3 (2.8-3.0)/MFI SDF 3 (2.9-3.0), p 0.36] or during the shock state [TVD IDF 11.64 ± 3.3/TVD SDF 11.4 ± 4.0 p = 0.98] [MFI IDF 1.9 (0.6-2.7)/MFI SDF 1.7 (0.3-2.6) p 0.55]. Bland and Altman analysis showed no evidence of significant bias. Vessel contrast was significantly better with the IDF device for both capillaries [17.1 ± 3.9 (IDF) v 3.4 ± 3.6 (SDF), p = 0.0006] and venules [36.1 ± 11.4 (IDF) v 26.4 ± 7.1 (SDF) p 0.014] The Braedius Cytocam showed comparable vessel detection to a precursor device during both baseline and low flow (shock) states.

  5. Dislocation tomography made easy: a reconstruction from ADF STEM images obtained using automated image shift correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, J. H.; Barnard, J. S.; Kaneko, K.; Higashida, K.; Midgley, P. A.

    2008-08-01

    After previous work producing a successful 3D tomographic reconstruction of dislocations in GaN from conventional weak-beam dark-field (WBDF) images, we have reconstructed a cascade of dislocations in deformed and annealed silicon to a comparable standard using the more experimentally straightforward technique of STEM annular dark-field imaging (STEM ADF). In this mode, image contrast was much more consistent over the specimen tilt range than in conventional weak-beam dark-field imaging. Automatic acquisition software could thus restore the correct dislocation array to the field of view at each tilt angle, though manual focusing was still required. Reconstruction was carried out by sequential iterative reconstruction technique using FEI's Inspect3D software. Dislocations were distributed non-uniformly along cascades, with sparse areas between denser clumps in which individual dislocations of in-plane image width 24 nm could be distinguished in images and reconstruction. Denser areas showed more complicated stacking-fault contrast, hampering tomographic reconstruction. The general three-dimensional form of the denser areas was reproduced well, showing the dislocation array to be planar and not parallel to the foil surfaces.

  6. Strain measurement in ferromagnetic crystals using dark-field electron holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Yasukazu; Niitsu, Kodai; Kaneko, Syuhei; Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Sasaki, Taisuke; Akase, Zentaro; Shindo, Daisuke; Ohkubo, Tadakatsu; Hono, Kazuhiro

    2016-11-01

    This study proposes a method to separate the geometric phase shift due to lattice strain from the undesired phase information, resulting from magnetic fields that are superposed in the dark-field electron holography (DFEH) observations. Choosing a distinct wave vector for the Bragg reflection reversed the sense of the geometric phase shift, while the sense of the magnetic information remained unchanged. In the case of an Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet, once the unwanted signal was removed by data processing, the residual phase image revealed a strain map. Even though the applications of DFEH have thus far been limited to non-magnetic systems, the method proposed in this work is also applicable to strain measurements in various ferromagnetic systems.

  7. Correction method for influence of tissue scattering for sidestream dark-field oximetry using multicolor LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurata, Tomohiro; Oda, Shigeto; Kawahira, Hiroshi; Haneishi, Hideaki

    2016-12-01

    We have previously proposed an estimation method of intravascular oxygen saturation (SO_2) from the images obtained by sidestream dark-field (SDF) imaging (we call it SDF oximetry) and we investigated its fundamental characteristics by Monte Carlo simulation. In this paper, we propose a correction method for scattering by the tissue and performed experiments with turbid phantoms as well as Monte Carlo simulation experiments to investigate the influence of the tissue scattering in the SDF imaging. In the estimation method, we used modified extinction coefficients of hemoglobin called average extinction coefficients (AECs) to correct the influence from the bandwidth of the illumination sources, the imaging camera characteristics, and the tissue scattering. We estimate the scattering coefficient of the tissue from the maximum slope of pixel value profile along a line perpendicular to the blood vessel running direction in an SDF image and correct AECs using the scattering coefficient. To evaluate the proposed method, we developed a trial SDF probe to obtain three-band images by switching multicolor light-emitting diodes and obtained the image of turbid phantoms comprised of agar powder, fat emulsion, and bovine blood-filled glass tubes. As a result, we found that the increase of scattering by the phantom body brought about the decrease of the AECs. The experimental results showed that the use of suitable values for AECs led to more accurate SO_2 estimation. We also confirmed the validity of the proposed correction method to improve the accuracy of the SO_2 estimation.

  8. Adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscopy with annular pupils.

    PubMed

    Sulai, Yusufu N; Dubra, Alfredo

    2012-07-01

    Annular apodization of the illumination and/or imaging pupils of an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) for improving transverse resolution was evaluated using three different normalized inner radii (0.26, 0.39 and 0.52). In vivo imaging of the human photoreceptor mosaic at 0.5 and 10° from fixation indicates that the use of an annular illumination pupil and a circular imaging pupil provides the most benefit of all configurations when using a one Airy disk diameter pinhole, in agreement with the paraxial confocal microscopy theory. Annular illumination pupils with 0.26 and 0.39 normalized inner radii performed best in terms of the narrowing of the autocorrelation central lobe (between 7 and 12%), and the increase in manual and automated photoreceptor counts (8 to 20% more cones and 11 to 29% more rods). It was observed that the use of annular pupils with large inner radii can result in multi-modal cone photoreceptor intensity profiles. The effect of the annular masks on the average photoreceptor intensity is consistent with the Stiles-Crawford effect (SCE). This indicates that combinations of images of the same photoreceptors with different apodization configurations and/or annular masks can be used to distinguish cones from rods, even when the former have complex multi-modal intensity profiles. In addition to narrowing the point spread function transversally, the use of annular apodizing masks also elongates it axially, a fact that can be used for extending the depth of focus of techniques such as adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AOOCT). Finally, the positive results from this work suggest that annular pupil apodization could be used in refractive or catadioptric adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes to mitigate undesired back-reflections.

  9. Adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscopy with annular pupils

    PubMed Central

    Sulai, Yusufu N.; Dubra, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    Annular apodization of the illumination and/or imaging pupils of an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) for improving transverse resolution was evaluated using three different normalized inner radii (0.26, 0.39 and 0.52). In vivo imaging of the human photoreceptor mosaic at 0.5 and 10° from fixation indicates that the use of an annular illumination pupil and a circular imaging pupil provides the most benefit of all configurations when using a one Airy disk diameter pinhole, in agreement with the paraxial confocal microscopy theory. Annular illumination pupils with 0.26 and 0.39 normalized inner radii performed best in terms of the narrowing of the autocorrelation central lobe (between 7 and 12%), and the increase in manual and automated photoreceptor counts (8 to 20% more cones and 11 to 29% more rods). It was observed that the use of annular pupils with large inner radii can result in multi-modal cone photoreceptor intensity profiles. The effect of the annular masks on the average photoreceptor intensity is consistent with the Stiles-Crawford effect (SCE). This indicates that combinations of images of the same photoreceptors with different apodization configurations and/or annular masks can be used to distinguish cones from rods, even when the former have complex multi-modal intensity profiles. In addition to narrowing the point spread function transversally, the use of annular apodizing masks also elongates it axially, a fact that can be used for extending the depth of focus of techniques such as adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AOOCT). Finally, the positive results from this work suggest that annular pupil apodization could be used in refractive or catadioptric adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes to mitigate undesired back-reflections. PMID:22808435

  10. Three-dimensional characteristics of alveolar macrophages in vitro observed by dark field microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarat, Dominic; Wiemann, Martin; Lipinski, Hans-Gerd

    2014-05-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AM) are cells from immune defense inside the lung. They engulf particles in vacuoles from the outer membrane. Volume and surface are important parameters to characterize the particle uptake. AM change their shape within a few seconds, therefore it is hard to obtain by confocal laser scanning microscopy, which is commonly used to generate 3D-images. So we used an intensified dark field microscopy (DFM) as an alternative method to generate contrast rich AM gray tone image slices used for 3D-reconstructions of AM cells by VTK software applications. From these 3D-reconstructions approximate volume and surface data of the AM were obtained and compared to values found in the literature. Finally, simple geometrical 3D-models of the AM were created and compared to real data. Averaged volume and surface data from the DFM images are close to values found in the literature. Furthermore, calculation of volume and surface data from DFM images could be done faster if simplified geometrical 3D-models of the cells were used.

  11. Efficient elastic imaging of single atoms on ultrathin supports in a scanning transmission electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Hovden, Robert; Muller, David A

    2012-12-01

    Mono-atomic-layer membranes such as graphene offer new opportunities for imaging and detecting individual light atoms in transmission electron microscopes (TEM). For such applications where multiple scattering and diffraction effects are weak, we evaluate the detection efficiency and interpretability of single atom images for the most common detector geometries using quantitative quantum mechanical simulations. For well-resolved and atomically-thin specimens, the low angle annular dark field (LAADF) detector can provide a significant increase in signal-to-noise over other common detector geometries including annular bright field and incoherent bright field. This dramatically improves the visibility of organic specimens on atomic-layer membranes. Simulations of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) imaged under ideal conditions indicate the minimal dose requirements for elastic imaging by STEM or conventional TEM still exceed previously reported dose limits.

  12. Quantitative STEM Imaging of Order-Disorder Phenomena in Double Perovskite Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Esser, B D; Hauser, A J; Williams, R E A; Allen, L J; Woodward, P M; Yang, F Y; McComb, D W

    2016-10-21

    Using aberration-corrected high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), we investigate ordering phenomena in epitaxial thin films of the double perovskite Sr_{2}CrReO_{6}. Experimental and simulated imaging and diffraction are used to identify antiphase domains in the films. Image simulation provides insight into the effects of atomic-scale ordering along the beam direction on HAADF-STEM intensity. We show that probe channeling results in ±20% variation in intensity for a given composition, allowing 3D ordering information to be probed using quantitative STEM.

  13. Quantitative STEM Imaging of Order-Disorder Phenomena in Double Perovskite Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esser, B. D.; Hauser, A. J.; Williams, R. E. A.; Allen, L. J.; Woodward, P. M.; Yang, F. Y.; McComb, D. W.

    2016-10-01

    Using aberration-corrected high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), we investigate ordering phenomena in epitaxial thin films of the double perovskite Sr2 CrReO6 . Experimental and simulated imaging and diffraction are used to identify antiphase domains in the films. Image simulation provides insight into the effects of atomic-scale ordering along the beam direction on HAADF-STEM intensity. We show that probe channeling results in ±20 % variation in intensity for a given composition, allowing 3D ordering information to be probed using quantitative STEM.

  14. Eosinophilic annular erythema.

    PubMed

    Sempau, Leticia; Larralde, Margarita; Luna, Paula Carolina; Casas, Jose; Staiger, Hernan

    2012-03-15

    Eosinophilic annular erythema is a rare benign recurrent disease, originally described in children, characterized by the recurrent appearance of persistent non-pruritic, urticarial annular lesions. Histologically a perivascular infiltrate composed of lymphocytes and abundant eosinophils in the dermis is exhibited. We report the case of a 15-year-old boy who presented with a 4-year history of recurrent flares of erythematous annular plaques on the trunk and extremities. The lesions resolved spontaneously after 3-5 weeks with no accompanying signs. A biopsy showed a mainly perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate with numerous eosinophils in the dermis.

  15. Mechanically expandable annular seal

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, R.F.

    1983-07-19

    A mechanically expandable annular reusable seal assembly to form an annular hermetic barrier between two stationary, parallel, and planar containment surfaces is described. A rotatable ring, attached to the first surface, has ring wedges resembling the saw-tooth array of a hole saw. Matching seal wedges are slidably attached to the ring wedges and have their motion restricted to be perpendicular to the second surface. Each seal wedge has a face parallel to the second surface. An annular elastomer seal has a central annular region attached to the seal wedges' parallel faces and has its inner and outer circumferences attached to the first surface. A rotation of the ring extends the elastomer seal's central region perpendicularly towards the second surface to create the fluid tight barrier. A counter rotation removes the barrier. 6 figs.

  16. Mechanically expandable annular seal

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Richard F.

    1983-01-01

    A mechanically expandable annular reusable seal assembly to form an annular hermetic barrier between two stationary, parallel, and planar containment surfaces. A rotatable ring, attached to the first surface, has ring wedges resembling the saw-tooth array of a hole saw. Matching seal wedges are slidably attached to the ring wedges and have their motion restricted to be perpendicular to the second surface. Each seal wedge has a face parallel to the second surface. An annular elastomer seal has a central annular region attached to the seal wedges' parallel faces and has its inner and outer circumferences attached to the first surface. A rotation of the ring extends the elastomer seal's central region perpendicularly towards the second surface to create the fluidtight barrier. A counterrotation removes the barrier.

  17. Annular nozzle engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, AL

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include: (1) driver rocket subsystem; (2) annular nozzle engine technology; (3) expansion-deflection nozzle; (4) aerospike-nozzled engine background; (5) aerospike testing; (6) linear aerospike; and (7) the combined cycle engine.

  18. Partial annular pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Gunjan; Mittal, Amit; Singal, Rikki; Singal, Samita

    2016-01-01

    Annular pancreas is a developmental anomaly that can be associated with other conditions such as Down syndrome, duodenal atresia, and Hirschsprung disease. A band of pancreatic tissue, in continuity with the pancreatic head, completely or incompletely encircles the descending duodenum, sometimes assuming a “crocodile jaw” configuration. We present the case of an adult who presented with epigastric pain and vomiting and was found to have annular pancreas. PMID:27695176

  19. CellViCAM--Cell viability classification for animal cell cultures using dark field micrographs.

    PubMed

    Burgemeister, S; Nattkemper, T W; Noll, T; Hoffrogge, R; Flaschel, E

    2010-09-15

    Online monitoring of cell density and cell viability is a challenging but essential task to control and optimize biotechnical processes and is of particular interest for the growing field of animal cell cultures. For this purpose, we introduce an optical approach for automated cell detection and viability classification of suspended mammalian cells. Our proposed system CellViCAM is capable of evaluating dark field micrographs by means of several image processing and supervised machine learning techniques without the use of any dyes or fluorescent labeling. Using a human cell line as the reference culture, an efficient cell detection procedure has been established also enabling a cell density estimation. Furthermore, a comprehensive but reagent-free viability analysis, based on a semi-automatic training data generation, has been developed. By means of an extensive validation dataset we can show that the CellViCAM approach can be considered as an equivalent to staining-based methods and moreover, how it provides a technical platform for a more differentiated cell state classification into living, necrotic, early and late apoptosis.

  20. Simulating realistic imaging conditions for in situ liquid microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, David A.; Faller, Roland; Evans, James E.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2013-12-01

    In situ transmission electron microscopy enables the imaging of biological cells, macromolecular protein complexes, nanoparticles, and other systems in a near-native environment. In order to improve interpretation of image contrast features and also predict ideal imaging conditions ahead of time, new virtual electron microscopic techniques are needed. A technique for virtual fluid-stage high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy with the multislice method is presented that enables the virtual imaging of model fluid-stage systems composed of millions of atoms. The virtual technique is exemplified by simulating images of PbS nanoparticles under different imaging conditions and the results agree with previous experimental findings. General insight is obtained on the influence of the effects of fluid path length, membrane thickness, nanoparticle position, defocus and other microscope parameters on attainable image quality.

  1. Improved Diagnostics by Assessing the Micromorphology of Breast Calcifications via X-Ray Dark-Field Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, Kai; Braig, Eva; Ehn, Sebastian; Schock, Jonathan; Wolf, Johannes; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Chabior, Michael; Herzen, Julia; Mayr, Doris; Grandl, Susanne; Sztrókay-Gaul, Anikó; Hellerhoff, Karin; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2016-11-01

    Breast microcalcifications play an essential role in the detection and evaluation of early breast cancer in clinical diagnostics. However, in digital mammography, microcalcifications are merely graded with respect to their global appearance within the mammogram, while their interior microstructure remains spatially unresolved and therefore not considered in cancer risk stratification. In this article, we exploit the sub-pixel resolution sensitivity of X-ray dark-field contrast for clinical microcalcification assessment. We demonstrate that the micromorphology, rather than chemical composition of microcalcification clusters (as hypothesised by recent literature), determines their absorption and small-angle scattering characteristics. We show that a quantitative classification of the inherent microstructure as ultra-fine, fine, pleomorphic and coarse textured is possible. Insights underlying the micromorphological nature of breast calcifications are verified by comprehensive high-resolution micro-CT measurements. We test the determined microtexture of microcalcifications as an indicator for malignancy and demonstrate its potential to improve breast cancer diagnosis, by providing a non-invasive tool for sub-resolution microcalcification assessment. Our results indicate that dark-field imaging of microcalcifications may enhance the diagnostic validity of current microcalcification analysis and reduce the number of invasive procedures.

  2. Comparative morphology analysis of live blood platelets using scanning ion conductance and robotic dark-field microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Max-Joseph; Seifert, Jan; Strasser, Erwin F; Gawaz, Meinrad; Schäffer, Tilman E; Rheinlaender, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Many conventional microscopy techniques for investigating platelet morphology such as electron or fluorescence microscopy require highly invasive treatment of the platelets such as fixation, drying and metal coating or staining. Here, we present two unique but entirely different microscopy techniques for direct morphology analysis of live, unstained platelets: scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) and robotic dark-field microscopy (RDM). We demonstrate that both techniques allow for a quantitative evaluation of the morphological features of live adherent platelets. We show that their morphology can be quantified by both techniques using the same geometric parameters and therefore can be directly compared. By imaging the same identical platelets subsequently with SICM and RDM, we found that area, perimeter and circularity of the platelets are directly correlated between SICM and dark-field microscopy (DM), while the fractal dimension (FD) differed between the two microscopy techniques. We show that SICM and RDM are both valuable tools for the ex vivo investigation of the morphology of live platelets, which might contribute to new insights into the physiological and pathophysiological role of platelet spreading.

  3. Improved Diagnostics by Assessing the Micromorphology of Breast Calcifications via X-Ray Dark-Field Radiography

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Kai; Braig, Eva; Ehn, Sebastian; Schock, Jonathan; Wolf, Johannes; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Chabior, Michael; Herzen, Julia; Mayr, Doris; Grandl, Susanne; Sztrókay-Gaul, Anikó; Hellerhoff, Karin; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Breast microcalcifications play an essential role in the detection and evaluation of early breast cancer in clinical diagnostics. However, in digital mammography, microcalcifications are merely graded with respect to their global appearance within the mammogram, while their interior microstructure remains spatially unresolved and therefore not considered in cancer risk stratification. In this article, we exploit the sub-pixel resolution sensitivity of X-ray dark-field contrast for clinical microcalcification assessment. We demonstrate that the micromorphology, rather than chemical composition of microcalcification clusters (as hypothesised by recent literature), determines their absorption and small-angle scattering characteristics. We show that a quantitative classification of the inherent microstructure as ultra-fine, fine, pleomorphic and coarse textured is possible. Insights underlying the micromorphological nature of breast calcifications are verified by comprehensive high-resolution micro-CT measurements. We test the determined microtexture of microcalcifications as an indicator for malignancy and demonstrate its potential to improve breast cancer diagnosis, by providing a non-invasive tool for sub-resolution microcalcification assessment. Our results indicate that dark-field imaging of microcalcifications may enhance the diagnostic validity of current microcalcification analysis and reduce the number of invasive procedures. PMID:27841341

  4. Diffraction contrast imaging using virtual apertures.

    PubMed

    Gammer, Christoph; Burak Ozdol, V; Liebscher, Christian H; Minor, Andrew M

    2015-08-01

    Two methods on how to obtain the full diffraction information from a sample region and the associated reconstruction of images or diffraction patterns using virtual apertures are demonstrated. In a STEM-based approach, diffraction patterns are recorded for each beam position using a small probe convergence angle. Similarly, a tilt series of TEM dark-field images is acquired. The resulting datasets allow the reconstruction of either electron diffraction patterns, or bright-, dark- or annular dark-field images using virtual apertures. The experimental procedures of both methods are presented in the paper and are applied to a precipitation strengthened and creep deformed ferritic alloy with a complex microstructure. The reconstructed virtual images are compared with conventional TEM images. The major advantage is that arbitrarily shaped virtual apertures generated with image processing software can be designed without facing any physical limitations. In addition, any virtual detector that is specifically designed according to the underlying crystal structure can be created to optimize image contrast.

  5. Classification of the micromorphology of breast calcifications in x-ray dark-field mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willer, Konstantin; Scherer, Kai; Braig, Eva; Ehn, Sebastian; Schock, Jonathan; Wolf, Johannes; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Chabior, Michael; Mayr, Doris; Grandl, Susanne; Sztrókay-Gaul, Aniko; Hellerhof, Karin; Reiser, Maximilian; Pfeiffer, Franz; Herzen, Julia

    2017-03-01

    The distant goal of this investigation is to reduce the number of invasive procedures associated with breast micro calcification biopsies, by improving and refining conventional BIRADS micro calcification assessments with x-ray dark-field mammography. The study was institutional review board (IRB) approved. A dedicated grating-based radiography setup (Mo-target, 40 keV, 70 mA) was used to investigate one breast mastectomy and 31 biopsies with dark-field mammography. Comparing the absorption and scattering properties of micro calcifications clusters enables accessing information on the interior morphology on the micron-scale retrieved in a non-invasive manner. Insights underlying the micro morphological nature of breast calcifications were verified by comprehensive high-resolution micro-CT measurements. It was found that Dark-field mammography allows a micro-structural classification of breast micro calcification as ultra-fine, fine, pleomorphic and coarse textured using conventional detectors. Dark-field mammography is thereby highly sensitive to minor structural deviations. Finally, the determined micro-texture of the investigated micro calcifications was correlated with findings obtained from histopathological work up. The presented results demonstrate that dark-field mammography yields the potential to enhance diagnostic validity of current micro calcification analysis - which is yet limited to the exterior appearance of micro calcification clusters - and thereby reduce the number of invasive procedures.

  6. GALAXY CLUSTERS IN THE IRAC DARK FIELD. II. MID-INFRARED SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Krick, J. E.; Surace, J. A.; Yan, L.; Thompson, D.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Hora, J. L.; Gorjian, V.

    2009-07-20

    We present infrared (IR) luminosities, star formation rates (SFR), colors, morphologies, locations, and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) properties of 24 {mu}m detected sources in photometrically detected high-redshift clusters in order to understand the impact of environment on star formation (SF) and AGN evolution in cluster galaxies. We use three newly identified z = 1 clusters selected from the IRAC dark field; the deepest ever mid-IR survey with accompanying, 14 band multiwavelength data including deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging and deep wide-area Spitzer MIPS 24 {mu}m imaging. We find 90 cluster members with MIPS detections within two virial radii of the cluster centers, of which 17 appear to have spectral energy distributions dominated by AGNs and the rest dominated by SF. We find that 43% of the star-forming sample have IR luminosities L{sub IR} > 10{sup 11} L{sub sun} (luminous IR galaxies). The majority of sources (81%) are spirals or irregulars. A large fraction (at least 25%) show obvious signs of interactions. The MIPS-detected member galaxies have varied spatial distributions as compared to the MIPS-undetected members with one of the three clusters showing SF galaxies being preferentially located on the cluster outskirts, while the other two clusters show no such trend. Both the AGN fraction and the summed SFR of cluster galaxies increase from redshift zero to one, at a rate that is a few times faster in clusters than over the same redshift range in the field. Cluster environment does have an effect on the evolution of both AGN fraction and SFR from redshift one to the present, but does not affect the IR luminosities or morphologies of the MIPS sample. SF happens in the same way regardless of environment making MIPS sources look the same in the cluster and field, however the cluster environment does encourage a more rapid evolution with time as compared to the field.

  7. Assessment of microcirculatory changes by use of sidestream dark field microscopy during hemorrhagic shock in dogs.

    PubMed

    Peruski, Ann M; Cooper, Edward S

    2011-04-01

    To directly assess microcirculatory changes associated with induced hemorrhagic shock by use of sidestream dark field microscopy (SDM) and correlate those values with concurrently measured macrovascular and blood gas variables in healthy anesthetized dogs. 12 adult dogs. Dogs were anesthetized and splenectomized. Instrumentation and catheterization were performed for determination of macrohemodynamic and blood gas variables. Hemorrhagic shock was induced via controlled hemorrhage to a mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) of 40 mm Hg. Dogs were maintained in the shock state (MAP, 35 to 45 mm Hg) for 60 minutes. An SDM device was used to image microcirculation of buccal mucosa, and vascular analysis software was used to determine microcirculatory variables. These values were compared with other cardiovascular and blood gas variables to determine correlations. Following hemorrhage, there was a significant decrease in microvascular variables (mean ± SD), including proportion of perfused vessels (82.77 ± 8.32% vs 57.21 ± 28.83%), perfused vessel density (14.86 ± 2.64 mm/m(2) vs 6.66 ± 4.75 mm/m(2)), and microvascular flow index (2.54 ± 0.52 vs 1.59 ± 0.85). Perfused vessel density individually correlated well with macrovascular variables, with heart rate (zero order, partial correlation, and part correlation coefficients = -0.762, -0.884, and -0.793, respectively) and oxygen extraction ratio (-0.734, -0.832, and -0.746, respectively) being the most important predictors. SDM allowed real-time imaging of the microvasculature and has potential as an effective tool in experimental and clinical applications for monitoring microcirculatory changes associated with hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in dogs.

  8. Subtleties in ADF imaging and spatially resolved EELS: A case study of low-angle twist boundaries in SrTiO3.

    PubMed

    Fitting, L; Thiel, S; Schmehl, A; Mannhart, J; Muller, D A

    2006-01-01

    A screw dislocation network at the low-angle SrTiO3/Nb:SrTiO3 twist grain boundary has been analyzed by annular dark field (ADF) imaging and spatially resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The cores of one set of dislocations running parallel to the beam direction appear dark in the ADF STEM images. EELS on the dislocation core reveals a reduced Sr/Ti ratio compared to the bulk suggesting Sr-deficient cores. The second set of dislocations, orthogonal to the latter, is imaged by its strain field using low-angle annular dark field (LAADF) imaging. Multislice image simulations suggest channeling of the electron probe on the atomic columns for small tilts, theta < 1 degree, where the Sr columns act as beam guides. Only for larger tilts is the channeling effect strongly reduced and the fringe contrast approaches the value predicted by a purely incoherent imaging model. Ti-L(2,3) EELS across the dislocation core shows an asymmetry between the EELS and the ADF signal which cannot be explained by the geometry or beam broadening. This asymmetry might be explained by an effective nonlocal potential representing inelastic scattering in EELS.

  9. Wellhead annular seal

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.D.; Szymczak, E.J.

    1988-08-30

    An annular seal is described for sealing across the annular space between a wellhead housing and a hanger positioned within the housing comprising: an annular seal ring having a central ring with upper inner and outer rims and lower inner and outer rims, the upper inner and outer rims being spaced apart and the lower inner and outer rims being spaced apart, an upper wedge ring having a portion thereof projecting into the space between the upper rims and being wider than such space so that when moved fully into the space between the rims it wedges the rims outwardly for sealing engagement with inner and outer surfaces, a lower wedge ring having a portion thereof projecting into the space between the lower rims and being wider than such space so that when moved fully into the space between the rims it wedges the rims outwardly for sealing engagement with inner and outer surfaces, the free outer diameter of the sealing portions of the outer rims having a diameter less than the outer diameter of the lower wedge rings, means coacting with the seal ring and the wedge rings to retain the rings in assembled position, an actuating ring interengaged with the upper wedge ring and movable to provide a relative movement between the wedge rings and the seal ring and also to provide movement of the wedge rings and the seal ring into their ultimate sealing positions, and means for releasably securing the annular seal to the hanger until the rims are in their sealing position and then to release to allow movement of the annular seal on the hanger to position the rims against their respective sealing surfaces on the hanger and the wellhead housing.

  10. Specimen illumination apparatus with optical cavity for dark field illumination

    DOEpatents

    Pinkel, Daniel; Sudar, Damir; Albertson, Donna

    1999-01-01

    An illumination apparatus with a specimen slide holder, an illumination source, an optical cavity producing multiple reflection of illumination light to a specimen comprising a first and a second reflective surface arranged to achieve multiple reflections of light to a specimen is provided. The apparatus can further include additional reflective surfaces to achieve the optical cavity, a slide for mounting the specimen, a coverslip which is a reflective component of the optical cavity, one or more prisms for directing light within the optical cavity, antifading solutions for improving the viewing properties of the specimen, an array of materials for analysis, fluorescent components, curved reflective surfaces as components of the optical cavity, specimen detection apparatus, optical detection equipment, computers for analysis of optical images, a plane polarizer, fiberoptics, light transmission apertures, microscopic components, lenses for viewing the specimen, and upper and lower mirrors above and below the specimen slide as components of the optical cavity. Methods of using the apparatus are also provided.

  11. Improved In vivo Assessment of Pulmonary Fibrosis in Mice using X-Ray Dark-Field Radiography

    PubMed Central

    Yaroshenko, Andre; Hellbach, Katharina; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Conlon, Thomas M.; Fernandez, Isis Enlil; Bech, Martin; Velroyen, Astrid; Meinel, Felix G.; Auweter, Sigrid; Reiser, Maximilian; Eickelberg, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive lung disease with a median life expectancy of 4–5 years after initial diagnosis. Early diagnosis and accurate monitoring of IPF are limited by a lack of sensitive imaging techniques that are able to visualize early fibrotic changes at the epithelial-mesenchymal interface. Here, we report a new x-ray imaging approach that directly visualizes the air-tissue interfaces in mice in vivo. This imaging method is based on the detection of small-angle x-ray scattering that occurs at the air-tissue interfaces in the lung. Small-angle scattering is detected with a Talbot-Lau interferometer, which provides the so-called x-ray dark-field signal. Using this imaging modality, we demonstrate-for the first time-the quantification of early pathogenic changes and their correlation with histological changes, as assessed by stereological morphometry. The presented radiography method is significantly more sensitive in detecting morphological changes compared with conventional x-ray imaging, and exhibits a significantly lower radiation dose than conventional x-ray CT. As a result of the improved imaging sensitivity, this new imaging modality could be used in future to reduce the number of animals required for pulmonary research studies. PMID:26619958

  12. Improved In vivo Assessment of Pulmonary Fibrosis in Mice using X-Ray Dark-Field Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroshenko, Andre; Hellbach, Katharina; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Conlon, Thomas M.; Fernandez, Isis Enlil; Bech, Martin; Velroyen, Astrid; Meinel, Felix G.; Auweter, Sigrid; Reiser, Maximilian; Eickelberg, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-12-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive lung disease with a median life expectancy of 4-5 years after initial diagnosis. Early diagnosis and accurate monitoring of IPF are limited by a lack of sensitive imaging techniques that are able to visualize early fibrotic changes at the epithelial-mesenchymal interface. Here, we report a new x-ray imaging approach that directly visualizes the air-tissue interfaces in mice in vivo. This imaging method is based on the detection of small-angle x-ray scattering that occurs at the air-tissue interfaces in the lung. Small-angle scattering is detected with a Talbot-Lau interferometer, which provides the so-called x-ray dark-field signal. Using this imaging modality, we demonstrate-for the first time-the quantification of early pathogenic changes and their correlation with histological changes, as assessed by stereological morphometry. The presented radiography method is significantly more sensitive in detecting morphological changes compared with conventional x-ray imaging, and exhibits a significantly lower radiation dose than conventional x-ray CT. As a result of the improved imaging sensitivity, this new imaging modality could be used in future to reduce the number of animals required for pulmonary research studies.

  13. Segmented annular combustor

    DOEpatents

    Reider, Samuel B.

    1979-01-01

    An industrial gas turbine engine includes an inclined annular combustor made up of a plurality of support segments each including inner and outer walls of trapezoidally configured planar configuration extents and including side flanges thereon interconnected by means of air cooled connector bolt assemblies to form a continuous annular combustion chamber therebetween and wherein an air fuel mixing chamber is formed at one end of the support segments including means for directing and mixing fuel within a plenum and a perforated header plate for directing streams of air and fuel mixture into the combustion chamber; each of the outer and inner walls of each of the support segments having a ribbed lattice with tracks slidably supporting porous laminated replaceable panels and including pores therein for distributing combustion air into the combustion chamber while cooling the inner surface of each of the panels by transpiration cooling thereof.

  14. STEM Image Post-processing for Instability and Aberration Correction for Transfer Function Extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Lewys; Nellist, Peter D.

    2012-07-01

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images can be limited by either aberrations or, because of the technique's serial acquisition, by the effects of environmental instabilities. MatLab image-processing code was written which performs a two stage process to restore degraded high-resolution high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) STEM images. Firstly, individual images were analysed to identify and correct for high-frequency scan noise; image resolution and signal-noise ratio (SNR) are used as performance metrics and were improved by up to 11.8% and 49% respectively. Secondly, a focal series was used to identify variations in information transfer as a function of defocus (aberrations) whereafter a single image was reconstructed yielding an increase in resolution and SNR of 9.88% and 205% respectively.

  15. Annular Lesions and Catenary Forms in Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Dansingani, Kunal K; Balaratnasingam, Chandrakumar; Mrejen, Sarah; Inoue, Maiko; Freund, K Bailey; Klancnik, James M; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A

    2016-06-01

    To describe a series of patients exhibiting annular retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) lesions in the context of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy. Retrospective comparative case series. Consecutive patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy were identified from the clinical practices of 3 retina specialists. A subset of patients exhibiting annular RPE lesions on fundus autofluorescence was included for chart review and examination of multimodal imaging (study group). Patients with alternative etiologies for neurosensory detachment or pigment epitheliopathy were excluded. A second consecutive cohort of patients, with acute central serous chorioretinopathy, was also examined for the presence of annular lesions (comparative group). Sixty-seven patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy were identified. Fourteen eyes of 12 patients exhibited annular lesions (study eyes). Mean visual acuity of study eyes was 20/27 (logMAR 0.13, SD 0.11). Annular lesions were composed of hyperautofluorescent stellate lesions arranged in an open or closed ring with intervening foci of punctate hypoautofluorescence. Optical coherence tomography showed RPE hyperplasia at the perimeters of annular lesions with loss of ellipsoid reflectivity and preserved RPE at the lesion center. Annular lesions were confined to the posterior poles and appeared to have developed at the margins of chronic neurosensory detachment. Forty-three eyes of 30 patients with acute central serous chorioretinopathy comprised the comparative group and none of these eyes exhibited annular lesions. Annular lesions occur in up to a fifth of patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy but carry a relatively good visual prognosis. Curvilinear RPE figures and demarcation lines are seen in various retinal conditions but the characteristics of annular lesions described here suggest that they are specific to chronic central serous chorioretinopathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All

  16. Annular beam with segmented phase gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Shubo; Wu, Liang; Tao, Shaohua

    2016-08-15

    An annular beam with a single uniform-intensity ring and multiple segments of phase gradients is proposed in this paper. Different from the conventional superposed vortices, such as the modulated optical vortices and the collinear superposition of multiple orbital angular momentum modes, the designed annular beam has a doughnut intensity distribution whose radius is independent of the phase distribution of the beam in the imaging plane. The phase distribution along the circumference of the doughnut beam can be segmented with different phase gradients. Similar to a vortex beam, the annular beam can also exert torques and rotate a trapped particle owing to the orbital angular momentum of the beam. As the beam possesses different phase gradients, the rotation velocity of the trapped particle can be varied along the circumference. The simulation and experimental results show that an annular beam with three segments of different phase gradients can rotate particles with controlled velocities. The beam has potential applications in optical trapping and optical information processing.

  17. Super-resolution of fluorescence-free plasmonic nanoparticles using enhanced dark-field illumination based on wavelength-modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Peng; Lee, Seungah; Yu, Hyunung; Fang, Ning; Ho Kang, Seong

    2015-06-15

    Super-resolution imaging of fluorescence-free plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) was achieved using enhanced dark-field (EDF) illumination based on wavelength-modulation. Indistinguishable adjacent EDF images of 103-nm gold nanoparticles (GNPs), 40-nm gold nanorods (GNRs), and 80-nm silver nanoparticles (SNPs) were modulated at their wavelengths of specific localized surface plasmon scattering. The coordinates (x, y) of each NP were resolved by fitting their point spread functions with a two-dimensional Gaussian. The measured localization precisions of GNPs, GNRs, and SNPs were 2.5 nm, 5.0 nm, and 2.9 nm, respectively. From the resolved coordinates of NPs and the corresponding localization precisions, super-resolution images were reconstructed. Depending on the spontaneous polarization of GNR scattering, the orientation angle of GNRs in two-dimensions was resolved and provided more elaborate localization information. This novel fluorescence-free super-resolution method was applied to live HeLa cells to resolve NPs and provided remarkable subdiffraction limit images.

  18. Super-resolution of fluorescence-free plasmonic nanoparticles using enhanced dark-field illumination based on wavelength-modulation

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Peng; Lee, Seungah; Yu, Hyunung; ...

    2015-06-15

    Super-resolution imaging of fluorescence-free plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) was achieved using enhanced dark-field (EDF) illumination based on wavelength-modulation. Indistinguishable adjacent EDF images of 103-nm gold nanoparticles (GNPs), 40-nm gold nanorods (GNRs), and 80-nm silver nanoparticles (SNPs) were modulated at their wavelengths of specific localized surface plasmon scattering. The coordinates (x, y) of each NP were resolved by fitting their point spread functions with a two-dimensional Gaussian. The measured localization precisions of GNPs, GNRs, and SNPs were 2.5 nm, 5.0 nm, and 2.9 nm, respectively. From the resolved coordinates of NPs and the corresponding localization precisions, super-resolution images were reconstructed. Depending onmore » the spontaneous polarization of GNR scattering, the orientation angle of GNRs in two-dimensions was resolved and provided more elaborate localization information. This novel fluorescence-free super-resolution method was applied to live HeLa cells to resolve NPs and provided remarkable subdiffraction limit images.« less

  19. Dark-field spectroscopy of plasmon resonance in metal nanoislands: effect of shape and light polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babich, E. S.; Scherbak, S. A.; Heisler, F.; Chervinskii, S. D.; Samusev, A. K.; Lipovskii, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    We present the experimental dark-field scattering studies and the simulation of plasmonic properties of isolated silver nanoislands. The nanoislands were fabricated on a soda- lime glass substrate using silver-sodium ion exchange, subsequent thermal poling and annealing of the processed glass substrate in hydrogen. The morphology of the nanoislands was characterized with atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy; the dimensions were 100-180 nm in base and 80-160 nm in height. We measured and modeled dark-field scattering spectra of the silver hemiellipsoidal nanoparticles differing in size and shape. The SPR position varied from 450 nm to 730 nm depending on the particle shape and dimensions. Both experiments and simulation showed a red shift of the SPR for bigger nanoislands of the same shape. Losing the axial symmetry in nanoislands resulted in the resonance splitting, while their elongation led to an increase in the scattering of p-polarized light.

  20. Dark-field Spectroscopy of Plasmonic Nanodevices with Nanometer Scale Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, David; Bauman, Stephen; Debu, Desalegn; Saylor, Cameron; Herzog, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    Plasmonic nanodevices are metallic structures that exhibit plasmonic effects when exposed to light, causing scattering and enhancement of that light. These plasmons makes it possible for light to be focused below the diffraction limit. Dark-field spectroscopy has been used to capture scattering spectra of these structures in order to examine the scattering and resonant frequencies of the plasmons provided by the devices. Dark-field spectroscopy is particularly well suited to this task because it is inexpensive to set up and it functions well with low signals. This paper examines the relation between the geometries of the devices and the spectral intensity of the scattered light. We study geometric parameters including device thickness and adhesion layer effects. Additionally we plan to investigate nanostructures fabricated with novel fabrication technique with device dimensions that are below 10 nm, both gap width and structure width. These devices are modeled computationally as well as manufactured and characterized experimentally.

  1. Endoscopic measurements using a panoramic annular lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, John A.; Matthys, Donald R.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project was to design, build, demonstrate, and deliver a prototype system for making measurements within cavities. The system was to utilize structured lighting as the means for making measurements and was to rely on a stationary probe, equipped with a unique panoramic annular lens, to capture a cylindrical view of the illuminated cavity. Panoramic images, acquired with a digitizing camera and stored in a desk top computer, were to be linearized and analyzed by mouse-driven interactive software.

  2. Performance and Image Analysis of the Aberration Corrected Hitachi HD-2700C Stem

    SciTech Connect

    Inada, H.; Zhu, Y.; Wu, L.; Wall, J.; Su, D.

    2009-03-01

    We report the performance of the first aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) manufactured by Hitachi. We describe its unique features and versatile capabilities in atomic-scale characterization and its applications in materials research. We also discuss contrast variation of the STEM images obtained from different annular dark-field (ADF) detectors of the instrument, and the increased complexity in contrast interpretation and quantification due to the increased convergent angles of the electron probe associated with the aberration corrector. We demonstrate that the intensity of atomic columns in an ADF image depends strongly on a variety of imaging parameters, sample thickness, as well as the nuclear charge and the deviation from their periodic position of the atoms we are probing. Image simulations are often required to correctly interpret the atomic structure of an ADF-STEM image.

  3. Atomic resolution ADF-STEM imaging of organic molecular crystal of halogenated copper phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Haruta, Mitsutaka; Yoshida, Kaname; Kurata, Hiroki; Isoda, Seiji

    2008-05-01

    Annular dark-field (ADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) measurements are demonstrated for the first time to be applicable for acquiring Z-contrast images of organic molecules at atomic resolution. High-angle ADF imaging by STEM is a new technique that provides incoherent high-resolution Z-contrast images for organic molecules. In the present study, low-angle ADF-STEM is successfully employed to image the molecular crystal structure of hexadecachloro-Cu-phthalocyanine (Cl16-CuPc), an organic molecule. The structures of CuPc derivatives (polyhalogenated CuPc with Br and Cl) are determined quantitatively using the same technique to determine the occupancy of halogens at each chemical site. By comparing the image contrasts of atomic columns, the occupancy of Br is found to be ca. 56% at the inner position, slightly higher than that for random substitution and in good agreement with previous TEM results.

  4. [Disseminated granuloma annulare].

    PubMed

    Kansky, A

    1975-09-01

    A case of generalized granuloma annulare in a 55 year old man is reported. The disease appeared five years before the first admission to the hospital. A large number of bluish-red or skin-colour papules were scattered mainly around the earlobes, buttocks and on the extremities. Some of the lesions were lined up in rings or plaques. Small depigmented and brownish scars were present. Two biopsies revealed characteristic foci of complete collagen degeneration accompanied by a palisading infiltrate in the upper dermis. Treatment with tuberculostatics and antimalarics was without improvement. The lesions cleared after a course of prednison, but reappeared when the drug was discontinued.

  5. Annular recuperator design

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Yungmo

    2005-10-04

    An annular heat recuperator is formed with alternating hot and cold cells to separate counter-flowing hot and cold fluid streams. Each cold cell has a fluid inlet formed in the inner diameter of the recuperator near one axial end, and a fluid outlet formed in the outer diameter of the recuperator near the other axial end to evenly distribute fluid mass flow throughout the cell. Cold cells may be joined with the outlet of one cell fluidly connected to the inlet of an adjacent downstream cell to form multi-stage cells.

  6. Non-rigid registration and non-local principle component analysis to improve electron microscopy spectrum images.

    PubMed

    Yankovich, Andrew B; Zhang, Chenyu; Oh, Albert; Slater, Thomas J A; Azough, Feridoon; Freer, Robert; Haigh, Sarah J; Willett, Rebecca; Voyles, Paul M

    2016-09-09

    Image registration and non-local Poisson principal component analysis (PCA) denoising improve the quality of characteristic x-ray (EDS) spectrum imaging of Ca-stabilized Nd2/3TiO3 acquired at atomic resolution in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Image registration based on the simultaneously acquired high angle annular dark field image significantly outperforms acquisition with a long pixel dwell time or drift correction using a reference image. Non-local Poisson PCA denoising reduces noise more strongly than conventional weighted PCA while preserving atomic structure more faithfully. The reliability of and optimal internal parameters for non-local Poisson PCA denoising of EDS spectrum images is assessed using tests on phantom data.

  7. Non-rigid registration and non-local principle component analysis to improve electron microscopy spectrum images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankovich, Andrew B.; Zhang, Chenyu; Oh, Albert; Slater, Thomas J. A.; Azough, Feridoon; Freer, Robert; Haigh, Sarah J.; Willett, Rebecca; Voyles, Paul M.

    2016-09-01

    Image registration and non-local Poisson principal component analysis (PCA) denoising improve the quality of characteristic x-ray (EDS) spectrum imaging of Ca-stabilized Nd2/3TiO3 acquired at atomic resolution in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Image registration based on the simultaneously acquired high angle annular dark field image significantly outperforms acquisition with a long pixel dwell time or drift correction using a reference image. Non-local Poisson PCA denoising reduces noise more strongly than conventional weighted PCA while preserving atomic structure more faithfully. The reliability of and optimal internal parameters for non-local Poisson PCA denoising of EDS spectrum images is assessed using tests on phantom data.

  8. Beam tracking approach for single–shot retrieval of absorption, refraction, and dark-field signals with laboratory  x-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Vittoria, Fabio A. Diemoz, Paul C.; Olivo, Alessandro; Kallon, Gibril K. N.; Basta, Dario; Endrizzi, Marco; Robinson, Ian K.

    2015-06-01

    We present the translation of the beam tracking approach for x-ray phase-contrast and dark-field imaging, recently demonstrated using synchrotron radiation, to a laboratory setup. A single absorbing mask is used before the sample, and a local Gaussian interpolation of the beam at the detector is used to extract absorption, refraction, and dark–field signals from a single exposure of the sample. Multiple exposures can be acquired when high resolution is needed, as shown here. A theoretical analysis of the effect of polychromaticity on the retrieved signals, and of the artifacts this might cause when existing retrieval methods are used, is also discussed.

  9. Portal Annular Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Harnoss, Jonathan M.; Harnoss, Julian C.; Diener, Markus K.; Contin, Pietro; Ulrich, Alexis B.; Büchler, Markus W.; Schmitz-Winnenthal, Friedrich H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Portal annular pancreas (PAP) is an asymptomatic congenital pancreas anomaly, in which portal and/or mesenteric veins are encased by pancreas tissue. The aim of the study was to determine the role of PAP in pancreatic surgery as well as its management and potential complication, specifically, postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF). On the basis of a case report, the MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science databases were systematically reviewed up to September 2012. All articles describing a case of PAP were considered. In summary, 21 studies with 59 cases were included. The overall prevalence of PAP was 2.4% and the patients' mean (SD) age was 55.9 (16.2) years. The POPF rate in patients with PAP (12 pancreaticoduodenectomies and 3 distal pancreatectomies) was 46.7% (in accordance with the definition of the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery). Portal annular pancreas is a quite unattended pancreatic variant with high prevalence and therefore still remains a clinical challenge to avoid postoperative complications. To decrease the risk for POPF, attentive preoperative diagnostics should also focus on PAP. In pancreaticoduodenectomy, a shift of the resection plane to the pancreas tail should be considered; in extensive pancreatectomy, coverage of the pancreatic remnant by the falciform ligament could be a treatment option. PMID:25207658

  10. Minerals and aligned collagen fibrils in tilapia fish scales: structural analysis using dark-field and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy and electron tomography.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Mitsuhiro; Ogawa, Nobuhiro; Takeguchi, Masaki; Hashimoto, Ayako; Tagaya, Motohiro; Chen, Song; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Ikoma, Toshiyuki

    2011-10-01

    The mineralized structure of aligned collagen fibrils in a tilapia fish scale was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques after a thin sample was prepared using aqueous techniques. Electron diffraction and electron energy loss spectroscopy data indicated that a mineralized internal layer consisting of aligned collagen fibrils contains hydroxyapatite crystals. Bright-field imaging, dark-field imaging, and energy-filtered TEM showed that the hydroxyapatite was mainly distributed in the hole zones of the aligned collagen fibrils structure, while needle-like materials composed of calcium compounds including hydroxyapatite existed in the mineralized internal layer. Dark-field imaging and three-dimensional observation using electron tomography revealed that hydroxyapatite and needle-like materials were mainly found in the matrix between the collagen fibrils. It was observed that hydroxyapatite and needle-like materials were preferentially distributed on the surface of the hole zones in the aligned collagen fibrils structure and in the matrix between the collagen fibrils in the mineralized internal layer of the scale.

  11. Hybrid statistics-simulations based method for atom-counting from ADF STEM images.

    PubMed

    De Wael, Annelies; De Backer, Annick; Jones, Lewys; Nellist, Peter D; Van Aert, Sandra

    2017-01-25

    A hybrid statistics-simulations based method for atom-counting from annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF STEM) images of monotype crystalline nanostructures is presented. Different atom-counting methods already exist for model-like systems. However, the increasing relevance of radiation damage in the study of nanostructures demands a method that allows atom-counting from low dose images with a low signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, the hybrid method directly includes prior knowledge from image simulations into the existing statistics-based method for atom-counting, and accounts in this manner for possible discrepancies between actual and simulated experimental conditions. It is shown by means of simulations and experiments that this hybrid method outperforms the statistics-based method, especially for low electron doses and small nanoparticles. The analysis of a simulated low dose image of a small nanoparticle suggests that this method allows for far more reliable quantitative analysis of beam-sensitive materials.

  12. Effect of chromatic aberration on atomic-resolved spherical aberration corrected STEM images.

    PubMed

    Kuramochi, Koji; Yamazaki, Takashi; Kotaka, Yasutoshi; Ohtsuka, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Iwao; Watanabe, Kazuto

    2009-12-01

    The effect of the chromatic aberration (C(c)) coefficient in a spherical aberration (C(s))- corrected electromagnetic lens on high-resolution high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) images is explored in detail. A new method for precise determination of the C(c) coefficient is demonstrated, requiring measurement of an atomic-resolution one-frame through-focal HAADF STEM image. This method is robust with respect to instrumental drift, sample thickness, all lens parameters except C(c), and experimental noise. It is also demonstrated that semi-quantitative structural analysis on the nanometer scale can be achieved by comparing experimental C(s)- corrected HAADF STEM images with their corresponding simulated images when the effects of the C(c) coefficient and spatial incoherence are included.

  13. Axisymmetric annular curtain stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Zahir U.; Khayat, Roger E.; Maissa, Philippe; Mathis, Christian

    2012-06-01

    A temporal stability analysis was carried out to investigate the stability of an axially moving viscous annular liquid jet subject to axisymmetric disturbances in surrounding co-flowing viscous gas media. We investigated in this study the effects of inertia, surface tension, the gas-to-liquid density ratio, the inner-to-outer radius ratio and the gas-to-liquid viscosity ratio on the stability of the jet. With an increase in inertia, the growth rate of the unstable disturbances is found to increase. The dominant (or most unstable) wavenumber decreases with increasing Reynolds number for larger values of the gas-to-liquid viscosity ratio. However, an opposite tendency for the most unstable wavenumber is predicted for small viscosity ratio in the same inertia range. The surrounding gas density, in the presence of viscosity, always reduces the growth rate, hence stabilizing the flow. There exists a critical value of the density ratio above which the flow becomes stable for very small viscosity ratio, whereas for large viscosity ratio, no stable flow appears in the same range of the density ratio. The curvature has a significant destabilizing effect on the thin annular jet, whereas for a relatively thick jet, the maximum growth rate decreases as the inner radius increases, irrespective of the surrounding gas viscosity. The degree of instability increases with Weber number for a relatively large viscosity ratio. In contrast, for small viscosity ratio, the growth rate exhibits a dramatic dependence on the surface tension. There is a small Weber number range, which depends on the viscosity ratio, where the flow is stable. The viscosity ratio always stabilizes the flow. However, the dominant wavenumber increases with increasing viscosity ratio. The range of unstable wavenumbers is affected only by the curvature effect.

  14. Endoscopic inspection using a panoramic annular lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, John A.; Matthys, Donald R.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this one year study was to design, build, and demonstrate a prototype system for cavity inspection. A cylindrical view of the cavity interior was captured in real time through a compound lens system consisting of a unique panoramic annular lens and a collector lens. Images, acquired with a digitizing camera and stored in a desktop computer, were manipulated using image processing software to aid in visual inspection and qualitative analysis. A detailed description of the lens and its applications is given.

  15. Ultrafast dark-field surface inspection with hybrid-dispersion laser scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Yazaki, Akio; Kim, Chanju; Chan, Jacky; Mahjoubfar, Ata; Goda, Keisuke; Watanabe, Masahiro; Jalali, Bahram

    2014-06-23

    High-speed surface inspection plays an important role in industrial manufacturing, safety monitoring, and quality control. It is desirable to go beyond the speed limitation of current technologies for reducing manufacturing costs and opening a new window onto a class of applications that require high-throughput sensing. Here, we report a high-speed dark-field surface inspector for detection of micrometer-sized surface defects that can travel at a record high speed as high as a few kilometers per second. This method is based on a modified time-stretch microscope that illuminates temporally and spatially dispersed laser pulses on the surface of a fast-moving object and detects scattered light from defects on the surface with a sensitive photodetector in a dark-field configuration. The inspector's ability to perform ultrafast dark-field surface inspection enables real-time identification of difficult-to-detect features on weakly reflecting surfaces and hence renders the method much more practical than in the previously demonstrated bright-field configuration. Consequently, our inspector provides nearly 1000 times higher scanning speed than conventional inspectors. To show our method's broad utility, we demonstrate real-time inspection of the surface of various objects (a non-reflective black film, transparent flexible film, and reflective hard disk) for detection of 10 μm or smaller defects on a moving target at 20 m/s within a scan width of 25 mm at a scan rate of 90.9 MHz. Our method holds promise for improving the cost and performance of organic light-emitting diode displays for next-generation smart phones, lithium-ion batteries for green electronics, and high-efficiency solar cells.

  16. Ultrafast dark-field surface inspection with hybrid-dispersion laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazaki, Akio; Kim, Chanju; Chan, Jacky; Mahjoubfar, Ata; Goda, Keisuke; Watanabe, Masahiro; Jalali, Bahram

    2014-06-01

    High-speed surface inspection plays an important role in industrial manufacturing, safety monitoring, and quality control. It is desirable to go beyond the speed limitation of current technologies for reducing manufacturing costs and opening a new window onto a class of applications that require high-throughput sensing. Here, we report a high-speed dark-field surface inspector for detection of micrometer-sized surface defects that can travel at a record high speed as high as a few kilometers per second. This method is based on a modified time-stretch microscope that illuminates temporally and spatially dispersed laser pulses on the surface of a fast-moving object and detects scattered light from defects on the surface with a sensitive photodetector in a dark-field configuration. The inspector's ability to perform ultrafast dark-field surface inspection enables real-time identification of difficult-to-detect features on weakly reflecting surfaces and hence renders the method much more practical than in the previously demonstrated bright-field configuration. Consequently, our inspector provides nearly 1000 times higher scanning speed than conventional inspectors. To show our method's broad utility, we demonstrate real-time inspection of the surface of various objects (a non-reflective black film, transparent flexible film, and reflective hard disk) for detection of 10 μm or smaller defects on a moving target at 20 m/s within a scan width of 25 mm at a scan rate of 90.9 MHz. Our method holds promise for improving the cost and performance of organic light-emitting diode displays for next-generation smart phones, lithium-ion batteries for green electronics, and high-efficiency solar cells.

  17. Icosahedral stereographic projections in three dimensions for use in dark field TEM.

    PubMed

    Bourdillon, Antony J

    2013-08-01

    Thermodynamics require that rapidly cooled crystals and quasicrystals are relatively defective. Yet, without convenient 3-dimensional indexation both at crystal poles and in diffraction planes, or Kikuchi maps, it is difficult to identify the defects by dark field transmission electron microscopy. For two phase Al6Mn, these maps are derived. They relate i-Al6Mn to the standard face centered cubic, matrix crystals. An example of their usefulness in determining interfacial characteristics is described. Indices are integral powers on an irrational number.

  18. Direct observation of nanometer-scale strain field around CoSi{sub 2}/Si interface using scanning moiré fringe imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Suhyun; Jung, Younheum; Jung Kim, Joong; Byun, Gwangseon; Lee, Sunyoung; Lee, Heabum

    2014-04-21

    We report the use of scanning moiré fringe (SMF) imaging through high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to measure the strain field around a CoSi{sub 2} contact embedded in the source and drain (S/D) region of a transistor. The atomic arrangement of the CoSi{sub 2}/Si (111) interface was determined from the high-resolution (HR)-STEM images, and the strain field formed around the S/D region was revealed by nanometer-scale SMFs appearing in the STEM image. In addition, we showed that the strain field in the S/D region measured by SMF imaging agreed with results obtained via peak-pairs analysis of HR-STEM images.

  19. The Langley Annular Transonic Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habel, Louis W; Henderson, James H; Miller, Mason F

    1952-01-01

    Report describes the development of the Langley annular transonic tunnel, a facility in which test Mach numbers from 0.6 to slightly over 1.0 are achieved by rotating the test model in an annular passage between two concentric cylinders. Data obtained for two-dimensional airfoil models in the Langley annular transonic tunnel at subsonic and sonic speeds are shown to be in reasonable agreement with experimental data from other sources and with theory when comparisons are made for nonlifting conditions or for equal normal-force coefficients rather than for equal angles of attack. The trends of pressure distributions obtained from measurements in the Langley annular transonic tunnel are consistent with distributions calculated for Prandtl-Meyer flow.

  20. Enhanced dark field microscopy for rapid artifact-free detection of nanoparticle binding to Candida albicans cells and hyphae.

    PubMed

    Weinkauf, Heidi; Brehm-Stecher, Byron F

    2009-06-01

    We surveyed a panel of 13 metal nanoparticle (NP) catalysts for their antifungal activities against Candida albicans ATCC 90028. Initial characterization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested that our ability to detect NP binding to Candida surfaces with this method was impeded by preparation artifacts. As an alternative method for visualizing NP binding, we used an enhanced dark field illumination system (CytoViva) attached to a standard light microscope. When viewed using this system, all NP produced intense optical signals due to resonant light scattering. To assay binding, NP were allowed to interact with C. albicans hyphae and cells in spent RPMI broth for 15 min with gentle inversion, followed by viewing with the CytoViva system. The antifungal efficacy of NP preparations was determined separately using a 24-h broth microdilution test. For single-metal NP, observations of binding at 15 min made via CytoViva corresponded to antifungal efficacy at 24 h, with the most antifungal NP yielding complete coverage of hyphal surfaces. Our work suggests the utility of visual screening using the CytoViva system for rapid, simple and artifact-free viewing of NP-cell interactions in support of antimicrobial screening efforts. This approach provides a quick and accessible alternative to SEM for imaging of NP-cell interactions.

  1. Scanning moiré fringe imaging by scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Su, Dong; Zhu, Yimei

    2010-02-01

    A type of artificial contrast found in annular dark-field imaging is generated by spatial interference between the scanning grating of the electron beam and the specimen atomic lattice. The contrast is analogous to moiré fringes observed in conventional transmission electron microscopy. We propose using this scanning interference for retrieving information about the atomic lattice structure at medium magnifications. Compared with the STEM atomic imaging at high magnifications, this approach might have several advantages including easy observation of lattice discontinuities and reduction of image degradation from carbon contamination and beam damage. Application of the technique to reveal the Burgers vector of misfit dislocations at the interface of epitaxial films is demonstrated and its potential for studying strain fields is discussed.

  2. An annular pancreas associated with carcinoma of the papilla of Vater: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Yazawa, Naoki; Imaizumi, Toshihide; Furukawa, Daisuke; Matsuyama, Masahiro; Gunji, Hisashi; Kato, Kenichiro; Tobita, Kosuke; Nakagohri, Toshio; Makuuchi, Hiroyasu; Hirabayashi, Kenichi; Ogoshi, Kyoji

    2012-05-01

    An annular pancreas is an uncommon congenital anomaly that usually presents early in childhood. Malignancy in the setting of an annular pancreas is unusual. We herein report a case of annular pancreas with carcinoma of the papilla of Vater. A 59-year-old man presented with epigastric discomfort and was referred to us after gastroduodenal endoscopy showed a tumor of the papilla of Vater. Preoperative imaging showed the pancreatic parenchyma encircling the descending duodenum and a tumor at the papilla of Vater. A pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed for the annular pancreas and the ampullary tumor. Histological examination confirmed a complete annular pancreas and carcinoma in situ of the papilla of Vater. We also provide a review of the reported cases of an annular pancreas with periampullary neoplasms and discuss the clinical characteristics of this anomaly.

  3. Dark-field X-ray microscopy for multiscale structural characterization

    PubMed Central

    Simons, H.; King, A.; Ludwig, W.; Detlefs, C.; Pantleon, W.; Schmidt, S.; Snigireva, I.; Snigirev, A.; Poulsen, H. F.

    2015-01-01

    Many physical and mechanical properties of crystalline materials depend strongly on their internal structure, which is typically organized into grains and domains on several length scales. Here we present dark-field X-ray microscopy; a non-destructive microscopy technique for the three-dimensional mapping of orientations and stresses on lengths scales from 100 nm to 1 mm within embedded sampling volumes. The technique, which allows ‘zooming’ in and out in both direct and angular space, is demonstrated by an annealing study of plastically deformed aluminium. Facilitating the direct study of the interactions between crystalline elements is a key step towards the formulation and validation of multiscale models that account for the entire heterogeneity of a material. Furthermore, dark-field X-ray microscopy is well suited to applied topics, where the structural evolution of internal nanoscale elements (for example, positioned at interfaces) is crucial to the performance and lifetime of macro-scale devices and components thereof. PMID:25586429

  4. 1-to 10-keV x-ray backlighting of annular wire arrays on the Sandia Z-machine using bent-crystal imaging techniques.

    SciTech Connect

    Rambo, Patrick K.; Wenger, David Franklin; Bennett, Guy R.; Sinars, Daniel Brian; Smith, Ian Craig; Porter, John Larry, Jr.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Rovang, Dean Curtis; Anderson, Jessica E.

    2003-07-01

    Annular wire array implosions on the Sandia Z-machine can produce >200 TW and 1-2 MJ of soft x rays in the 0.1-10 keV range. The x-ray flux and debris in this environment present significant challenges for radiographic diagnostics. X-ray backlighting diagnostics at 1865 and 6181 eV using spherically-bent crystals have been fielded on the Z-machine, each with a {approx}0.6 eVspectral bandpass, 10 {micro}m spatial resolution, and a 4 mm by 20mm field of view. The Z-Beamlet laser, a 2-TW, 2-kJ Nd:glass laser({lambda} = 527 nm), is used to produce 0.1-1 J x-ray sources for radiography. The design, calibration, and performance of these diagnostics is presented.

  5. Portal Annular Pancreas: A Rare and Overlooked Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Puneet; Gupta, Ranjana; Mittal, Amit; Ahmed, Arshad

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Portal annular pancreas is a rare pancreatic developmental anomaly which is often overlooked at imaging, and often diagnosed retrospectively when it is detected incidentally at the time of surgery. Although the anomaly itself is asymptomatic, it becomes important in cases where pancreatic resection/anastomosis is planned, because of varying ductal anatomy, risk of ductal injury and increased risk of postoperative pancreatic fistula formation. Case Report We present imaging findings in a case of portal annular pancreas in a 45-year-old male patient. Conclusions Portal annular pancreas is a rare and often neglected pancreatic anomaly due to a lack of awareness of this entity. With the advent of MDCT and MRI, accurate preoperative diagnosis of this condition is possible. PMID:28203311

  6. An auto-tuning method for focusing and astigmatism correction in HAADF-STEM, based on the image contrast transfer function.

    PubMed

    Baba, N; Terayama, K; Yoshimizu, T; Ichise, N; Tanaka, N

    2001-01-01

    An auto-tuning method for high-angle annular detector dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) is proposed which corrects the defocus to the optimum Scherzer focus and compensates the astigmatism. Because the method is based on the image contrast transfer function formulated for the HAADF-STEM, the defocus and the astigmatism are accurately measured from input of two different defocus images. The method is designed to work independent of object function in the linear imaging model by analysing the spectral ratio between two Fourier spectra of their images, which is useful for cases where the spectrum of object function is not uniformly spread out over the reciprocal space. The method was preliminarily tested in a Hitachi HD-2000 STEM, and successful results of the auto-tunings from the viewpoint of verification of the algorithm were obtained using general specimens of Au fine particles and a thin section of a semiconductor device.

  7. Statistical distribution of single atoms and clusters of supported Au catalyst analyzed by global high-resolution HAADF-STEM observation with morphological image-processing operation.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yuta; Arai, Shigeo; Esaki, Akihiko; Ohyama, Junya; Satsuma, Atsushi; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2014-06-01

    We have developed a quantitative particle size analytical method at the single atomic level employing electron microscopy and image processing for the investigation of supported metal catalysts. In the present study, a supported gold (Au) catalyst containing sub-nano clusters and individual atoms was globally observed by high-resolution high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) using spherical aberration (Cs)-corrected TEM. To fully extract structural information of the Au clusters and individual atoms from the HAADF-STEM images, a morphological image-processing operation was applied. The resulting mean particle size was in good agreement with particle sizes estimated from average information provided by X-ray absorption fine structure analysis. It is demonstrated that the present HAADF-STEM image analysis gives a quantitative particle size distribution measurement of supported Au clusters and individual atoms.

  8. Dynamic-Receive Focusing with High-Frequency Annular Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketterling, J. A.; Mamou, J.; Silverman, R. H.

    High-frequency ultrasound is commonly employed for ophthalmic and small-animal imaging because of the fine-resolution images it affords. Annular arrays allow improved depth of field and lateral resolution versus commonly used single-element, focused transducers. The best image quality from an annular array is achieved by using synthetic transmit-to-receive focusing while utilizing data from all transmit-to-receive element combinations. However, annular arrays must be laterally scanned to form an image and this requires one pass for each of the array elements when implementing full synthetic transmit-to-receive focusing. A dynamic-receive focusing approach permits a single pass, although at a sacrifice of depth of field and lateral resolution. A five-element, 20-MHz annular array is examined to determine the acoustic beam properties for synthetic and dynamic-receive focusing. A spatial impulse response model is used to simulate the acoustic beam properties for each focusing case and then data acquired from a human eye-bank eye are processed to demonstrate the effect of each approach on image quality.

  9. Dark field microscopic analysis of discrete Au nanostructures: Understanding the correlation of scattering with stoichiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guoqing; Bu, Tong; Zako, Tamotsu; Watanabe-Tamaki, Ryoko; Tanaka, Takuo; Maeda, Mizuo

    2017-09-01

    Due to the potential of gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-based trace analysis, the discrimination of small AuNP clusters with different assembling stoichiometry is a subject of fundamental and technological importance. Here we prepare oligomerized AuNPs with controlled stoichiometry through DNA-directed assembly, and demonstrate that AuNP monomers, dimers and trimers can be clearly distinguished using dark field microscopy (DFM). The scattering intensity for of AuNP structures with stoichiometry ranging from 1 to 3 agrees well with our theoretical calculations. This study demonstrates the potential of utilizing the DFM approach in ultra-sensitive detection as well as the use of DNA-directed assembly for plasmonic nano-architectures.

  10. Dark-field microspectroscopic analysis of gold nanorods in spiral Ganglion neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, J.; Brown, W. G. A.; Needham, K.; Nayagam, B. A.; Yu, A.; McArthur, S. L.; Stoddart, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    Heterogeneous samples of spiral ganglion neuron primary cells were incubated with gold nanorods in order to investigate the photothermal processes induced by exposure to 780 nm laser light. Dark-field microspectroscopy was used to analyze the distribution and spectrum of nanorods in the neurons. The scattering data showed a typical gold nanorod spectrum, while a shift in the peak position suggested changes in the refractive index of the nanorod environment. The relationship between gold nanorods distribution and local temperature has also been examined with an open pipette microelectrode placed in the surrounding bath of the neurons. These temperature measurements confirm that the gold nanorods provide efficient localized heating under 780 nm laser exposure.

  11. Does ovarian sex cord tumour with annular tubules produce progesterone?

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, J; Al-Timimi, A H; Richards, S M; Jeffs, J B; Mason, G C; Smith, D B; Hasleton, P S

    1986-01-01

    Probable progesterone production was identified by an immunoperoxidase assay in a case of an ovarian sex cord tumour with annular tubules. The tumour was associated with a serous cystadenofibroma in the opposite ovary and with adenoma malignum (adenocarcinoma) of the cervix. Images PMID:3512608

  12. Analysis of annular microstrip antennas for hyperthermic applicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alanen, E.

    1988-01-01

    An annular microstrip antenna in contact with the skin is analyzed by using the exact image principle. The antenna is designed primarily for measurements of temperature profiles in the breast and hence to detect cancer. The current distribution on the strip is solved from the electric field integral equation. The Galerkin's method is applied with continuous trigonometrical basis functions and the consequent nearfield distributions for different antennas are plotted. The dependence of the focus size on the radius of the antenna is calculated. Also, it is shown that the focus can be reduced by using two annular rings together.

  13. Epidermal activity in annular dermatophytosis.

    PubMed

    Berk, S H; Penneys, N S; Weinstein, G D

    1976-04-01

    In five patients with annular tinea corporis, the tritated thymidine labeling indexes were determined in the rim, center, and intermediate areas of the lesion and compared with normal skin. Labeling indexes at the rim were much higher than those of normal skin (mean, 4.2 times). Labeling indexes elsewhere in the lesion were not significantly different from those of normal skin. Histologic examination showed epidermal thickening in all areas of the lesion as compared with normal skin. This study suggests that there is an increased epidermal turnover at the rim of annular dermatophytosis that may be important in the pathophysiology and morphogenesis of such lesions.

  14. Annular Eclipse as Seen by Hinode

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This timelapse shows an annular eclipse as seen by JAXA's Hinode satellite on Jan. 4, 2011. An annular eclipse occurs when the moon, slightly more distant from Earth than on average, moves directly...

  15. Design of wavefront coding optical system with annular aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xinhua; Zhou, Jiankang; Shen, Weimin

    2016-10-01

    Wavefront coding can extend the depth of field of traditional optical system by inserting a phase mask into the pupil plane. In this paper, the point spread function (PSF) of wavefront coding system with annular aperture are analyzed. Stationary phase method and fast Fourier transform (FFT) method are used to compute the diffraction integral respectively. The OTF invariance is analyzed for the annular aperture with cubic phase mask under different obscuration ratio. With these analysis results, a wavefront coding system using Maksutov-Cassegrain configuration is designed finally. It is an F/8.21 catadioptric system with annular aperture, and its focal length is 821mm. The strength of the cubic phase mask is optimized with user-defined operand in Zemax. The Wiener filtering algorithm is used to restore the images and the numerical simulation proves the validity of the design.

  16. Reproducible strain measurement in electronic devices by applying integer multiple to scanning grating in scanning moiré fringe imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Suhyun Jung, Younheum; Kim, Joong Jung; Lee, Sunyoung; Lee, Haebum; Kondo, Yukihito

    2014-10-15

    Scanning moiré fringe (SMF) imaging by high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy was used to measure the strain field in the channel of a transistor with a CoSi{sub 2} source and drain. Nanometer-scale SMFs were formed with a scanning grating size of d{sub s} at integer multiples of the Si crystal lattice spacing d{sub l} (d{sub s} ∼ nd{sub l}, n = 2, 3, 4, 5). The moiré fringe formula was modified to establish a method for quantifying strain measurement. We showed that strain fields in a transistor measured by SMF images were reproducible with an accuracy of 0.02%.

  17. Automated layout and phase assignment techniques for dark-field alternating PSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahng, Andrew B.; Wang, Huijuan; Zelikovsky, Alexander

    1998-12-01

    We describe new, efficient algorithms for layout modification and phase assignment for dark field alternating-type phase- shifting masks in the single-exposure regime. We make the following contributions. First, we give optimal and fast algorithms to minimize the number of phase conflicts that must be removed to ensure 2-colorability of the conflict graph. These methods can potentially reduce runtime and/or improve solution quality, compared to previous approaches of Moniwa et al. and Ooi et al. Second, we suggest a new iterative 2- coloring and compaction approach that simultaneously optimizes layout and phase assignment. The approach iteratively performs the following steps: (1) compact the layout and find the conflict graph; (2) find the minimum set of edges whose deletion makes the conflict graph bipartite; and (3) add a new compaction constraint for each edge in this minimum set, such that the corresponding pair of features will no longer conflict. Third, we describe additional approaches to co- optimization of layout and phase assignment for alternating PSM. Preliminary computational experience appears promising.

  18. The qualitative f-ratio method applied to electron channelling-induced x-ray imaging with an annular silicon drift detector in a scanning electron microscope in the transmission mode.

    PubMed

    Brodusch, Nicolas; Gauvin, Raynald

    2017-09-01

    Electron channelling is known to affect the x-ray production when an accelerated electron beam is applied to a crystalline material and is highly dependent on the local crystal orientation. This effect, unless very long counting time are used, is barely noticeable on x-ray energy spectra recorded with conventional silicon drift detectors (SDD) located at a small elevation angle. However, the very high count rates provided by the new commercially available annular SDDs permit now to observe this effect routinely and may, in some circumstances, hide the true elemental x-ray variations due to the local true specimen composition. To circumvent this issue, the recently developed f-ratio method was applied to display qualitatively the true net intensity x-ray variations in a thin specimen of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy in a scanning electron microscope in transmission mode. The diffraction contrast observed in the x-ray images was successfully cancelled through the use of f-ratios and the true composition variations at the grain boundaries could be observed in relation to the dislocation alignment prior to the β-phase nucleation. The qualitative effectiveness in removing channelling effects demonstrated in this work makes the f-ratio, in its quantitative form, a possible alternative to the ZAF method in channelling conditions. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  19. IMAGE-WARP: a real-space restoration method for high-resolution STEM images using quantitative HRTEM analysis.

    PubMed

    Recnik, Aleksander; Möbus, Günter; Sturm, Saso

    2005-07-01

    We have developed a new method for processing distorted high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images. The method is based on finding the displaced vertices in the experimental STEM image and warping to geometrically correct reference grid of the object. As a reference grid for warping a structural model obtained using a high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis of the area of interest is utilised. Combined with quantitative HRTEM analysis the IMAGE-WARP method provides a real-space restoration of high-resolution high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) STEM images without affecting the original Z-contrast information. The method can be applied to extract valuable compositional atomic-column data from any HAADF-STEM image of any kind of bulk crystals with local occupancy or chemistry fluctuations, stacking faults, special grain boundaries or interfaces, for which we have an available structural model. After the warping, distortion-corrected images can be further enhanced using conventional image-filtering techniques, and finally quantified with HAADF-STEM image simulations. The applicability of the IMAGE-WARP method was illustrated using experimental HAADF-STEM images of a strontium titanate crystal disrupted with a Ruddlesden-Popper-type antiphase boundary.

  20. Quantitative Z-contrast imaging in the scanning transmission electron microscope with size-selected clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. W.; Li, Z. Y.; Park, S. J.; Abdela, A.; Tang, D.; Palmer, R. E.

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes a new approach of quantification of annular-dark-field or Z-contrast image intensity as a function of inner acceptance angle of the detector in a scanning transmission electron microscope. By using size-selected nanoclusters of Pd (Z = 46) and Au (Z = 79), it is shown experimentally that the exponent in the power law I ˜ Zα varies strongly between 1.2 and 1.8 as the collection angle changes from 14 to 103 mrad. The result is discussed in line with existing theoretical models. Factors, such as cluster size, structure, and orientation as well as the detector geometry, are also discussed for potential use of the work.

  1. HAADF imaging of the omega (ω) phase in a gum metal-related alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaran, R. P.; Ophus, C.; Ozdol, B.; Radmilovic, V. R.; Minor, A. M.; Morris, J. W.

    2014-09-01

    Nanosized precipitates have been observed in a Nb-lean gum metal-related alloy, Ti-20.0Nb-0.6Ta-1.7Zr-1.1O at.% (Ti-31.9Nb-2.0Ta-2.7Zr-0.3O wt.%) using probe-corrected high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy with a high-angle annular dark-field detector (HAADF). This characterization yields three distinct atomic motifs and STEM multislice simulations are semi-quantitatively used to verify that each motif can be attributed to the widely observed "athermal" omega phase. However, the presence of chemical ordering cannot be unambiguously ruled out in this system. Data presented here, demonstrate the complexity of interpreting HAADF images of multiphase, multicomponent alloys when complementary experimental data are unavailable.

  2. Annular arc accelerator shock tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibowitz, L. P. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An annular arc accelerator shock tube employs a cold gas driver to flow a stream of gas from an expansion section through a high voltage electrode section to a test section, thus driving a shock wave in front of it. A glow discharge detects the shock wave and actuates a trigger generator which in turn fires spark-gap switches to discharge a bank of capacitors across a centered cathode and an annular anode in tandem electrode sections. The initial shock wave passes through the anode section from the cathode section thereby depositing energy into the flow gas without the necessity of any diaphragm opening in the gas flow from the expansion section through the electrode sections.

  3. How precise can atoms of a nanocluster be located in 3D using a tilt series of scanning transmission electron microscopy images?

    PubMed

    Alania, M; De Backer, A; Lobato, I; Krause, F F; Van Dyck, D; Rosenauer, A; Van Aert, S

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate how precise atoms of a small nanocluster can ultimately be located in three dimensions (3D) from a tilt series of images acquired using annular dark field (ADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Therefore, we derive an expression for the statistical precision with which the 3D atomic position coordinates can be estimated in a quantitative analysis. Evaluating this statistical precision as a function of the microscope settings also allows us to derive the optimal experimental design. In this manner, the optimal angular tilt range, required electron dose, optimal detector angles, and number of projection images can be determined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. STEM Electron Diffraction and High Resolution Images Used in the Determination of the Crystal Structure of Au144(SR)60 Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Bahena, Daniel; Bhattarai, Nabraj; Santiago, Ulises; Tlahuice, Alfredo; Ponce, Arturo; Bach, Stephan B. H.; Yoon, Bokwon; Whetten, Robert L.; Landman, Uzi; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Determination of the total structure of molecular nanocrystals is an outstanding experimental challenge that has been met, in only a few cases, by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Described here is an alternative approach that is of most general applicability and does not require the fabrication of a single crystal. The method is based on rapid, time-resolved nanobeam electron diffraction (NBD) combined with high-angle annular dark field scanning/transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) images in a probe corrected STEM microscope, operated at reduced voltages. The results are compared with theoretical simulations of images and diffraction patterns obtained from atomistic structural models derived through first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The method is demonstrated by application to determination of the structure of the Au144(SCH2CH2Ph)60 cluster. PMID:23687562

  5. Classification of annular bed flow patterns and investigation on their influence on the bottom spray fluid bed coating process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li Kun; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Liew, Celine Valeria

    2010-05-01

    This study aims to classify annular bed flow patterns in the bottom spray fluid bed coating process, study their influence on coat uniformity and investigate the feasibility of developing real-time annular bed flow pattern detection as a PAT tool. High-speed imaging and particle image velocimetry were used to visualize annular bed flow. Color coating and subsequent tristimulus colorimetry were employed to determine influence of annular bed flow pattern on coat uniformity. Feasibility of monitoring annular bed flow pattern through an observation window was tested using miniaturized particle velocity field and time series particle velocity orientation information. Three types of annular bed flow patterns were identified. Plug flow gave the best coat uniformity followed by global and localized fluidization. Plug flow may be advantageous for high spray-rate conditions, large-scale coating and prevention of particle segregation. Plug flow could be differentiated from the other flow patterns through a simulated observation window. Annular bed flow patterns were classified and found to influence particle coat uniformity noticeably. Availability of annular bed flow information for large-scale coaters would enable adjustments for process optimization. This study highlights the potential of monitoring annular bed flow pattern as a PAT tool.

  6. The persistence length of double stranded DNA determined using dark field tethered particle motion.

    PubMed

    Brinkers, Sanneke; Dietrich, Heidelinde R C; de Groote, Frederik H; Young, Ian T; Rieger, Bernd

    2009-06-07

    The wormlike chain model describes the micromechanics of semiflexible polymers by introducing the persistence length. We propose a method of measuring the persistence length of DNA in a controllable near-native environment. Using a dark field microscope, the projected positions of a gold nanoparticle undergoing constrained Brownian motion are captured. The nanoparticle is tethered to a substrate using a single double stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecule and immersed in buffer. No force is exerted on the DNA. We carried out Monte Carlo simulations of the experiment, which give insight into the micromechanics of the DNA and can be used to interpret the motion of the nanoparticle. Our simulations and experiments demonstrate that, unlike other similar experiments, the use of nanometer instead of micrometer sized particles causes particle-substrate and particle-DNA interactions to be of negligible effect on the position distribution of the particle. We also show that the persistence length of the tethering DNA can be estimated with a statistical error of 2 nm, by comparing the statistics of the projected position distribution of the nanoparticle to the Monte Carlo simulations. The persistence lengths of 45 single molecules of four different lengths of dsDNA were measured under the same environmental conditions at high salt concentration. The persistence lengths we found had a mean value of 35 nm (standard error of 2.8 nm), which compares well to previously found values using similar salt concentrations. Our method can be used to directly study the effect of the environmental conditions (e.g., buffer and temperature) on the persistence length.

  7. Preliminary Assessment of Tricuspid Valve Annular Velocity Parameters by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Adults with a Volume-Overloaded Right Ventricle: Comparison of Unrepaired Atrial Septal Defect and Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot.

    PubMed

    Ito, Seiji; McElhinney, Doff B; Adams, Robert; Bhatla, Puneet; Chung, Sohae; Axel, Leon

    2015-08-01

    The aim is to compare tricuspid valve (TV) atrioventricular junction (AVJ) annular motion parameters in unrepaired atrial septal defect (ASD) and repaired Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. We retrospectively reviewed CMR studies performed between November 2007 and November 2013 in patients 16-45 years of age with unrepaired ASD (with or without partial anomalous pulmonary venous return) and with repaired TOF, who had previous infundibulotomy, but have not undergone pulmonary valve replacement. Longitudinal motion of lateral TV in four-chamber view cine image was tracked through the cardiac cycle with custom software. Twenty TOF patients and 12 ASD patients were included, and values were compared with 80 controls. Right ventricular end-diastolic volume index and right ventricular end-systolic volume index were similar in the ASD and TOF groups and were significantly higher in both groups than in controls. Maximum displacement of the TV in systole, velocity at half-maximal displacement during systole, and velocity at half-maximal displacement during early diastole were all significantly lower in the TOF group than the ASD group [1.39 ± 0.47 vs. 2.21 ± 0.46 (cm, p < 0.01), 5.9 ± 2.1 vs. 10.1 ± 2.3 (cm/s, p < 0.01), and 7.7 ± 2.6 vs. 10.9 ± 3.1 (cm/s, p < 0.05)]. TOF patients have diminished early diastolic TV AVJ velocity compared to patients with an unrepaired ASD, despite similar RV volumes. This observation could suggest diastolic dysfunction or cardiac mechanics unique to the postoperative, volume-overloaded right ventricle in patients with repaired TOF.

  8. Design and simulation of double annular illumination mode for microlithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qiang; Zhu, Jing; Yang, Baoxi; Liu, Lei; Wang, Jun; Huang, Huijie

    2013-08-01

    Methods of generating various illumination patterns remain as an attractive and important micro-optics research area for the development of resolution enhancement in advanced lithography system. In the current illumination system of lithography machine, off-axis illumination is widely used as an effective approach to enhance the resolution and increase the depth of focus (DOF). This paper proposes a novel illumination mode generation unit, which transform conventional mode to double annular shaped radial polarized (DARP) mode for improving the resolution of micro-lithography. Through LightToolsTM software simulation, double annular shaped mode is obtained from the proposed generation unit. The mathematical expressions of the radius variation of inner and outer rings are deduced. The impacts of conventional and dual concentric annular illumination pattern on critical dimension uniformity were simulated on an isolated line, square hole and corner. Lithography performance was compared between DARP illumination mode and corresponding single annular modes under critical dimension of 45nm. As a result, DARP illumination mode can improve the uniformity of aerial image at 45nm node through pitch varied in 300-500 nm to a certain extent.

  9. Annular injuries following the insertion of heart valve prostheses 1

    PubMed Central

    Bowes, Vernon F.; Datta, Bhoopendra N.; Silver, Malcolm D.; Minielly, John A.

    1974-01-01

    Bowes, V. F., Datta, B. N., Silver, M. D. and Minielly, J. A. (1974).Thorax, 29, 530-533. Annular injuries following the insertion of heart valve prostheses. The clinical presentation and morphological findings in eight cases of annular injury associated with the insertion of prosthetic heart valves are discussed. The lesions presented as a separation of the left atrium and ventricle at the mitral annulus (one patient), a sinus or false aneurysm in the left posterior atrioventricular groove (two patients), or as a separation of the aortic root from the base of the heart (five patients). The pathogenesis of the lesions is similar. Annular tissue was weakened either by the removal of excess tissue or by an abnormal stress placed on normal tissue or by a slight stress placed on tissue altered by disease, and, as a result, it separated or tore. The resultant haemorrhage either caused the patient's death or, with time, produced the other morphological findings. Factors predisposing patients to the injuries are discussed and a differential diagnosis of annular pseudoaneurysms is provided. Images PMID:4279466

  10. Annular Solar Eclipse of 10 May 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    1993-01-01

    An annular eclipse of the Sun will be widely visible from the Western Hemisphere on 10 May 1994. The path of the Moon's shadow passes through Mexico, the United States of America, maritime Canada, the North Atlantic, the Azores and Morocco. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include tables of geographic coordinates of the annular path, local circumstances for hundreds of cities, maps of the path of annular and partial eclipse, weather prospects, and the lunar limb profile.

  11. Atomic-scale imaging of cation ordering in inverse spinel Zn2SnO4 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lihong; Zang, Jianfeng; Wang, Guofeng; Li, Xiaodong

    2014-11-12

    By using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) coupled with density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we demonstrate the atomic-level imaging of cation ordering in inverse spinel Zn2SnO4 nanowires. This cation ordering was identified as 1:1 ordering of Zn(2+) and Sn(4+) at the octahedral sites of the inverse spinel crystal with microscopic symmetry transition from original cubic Fd3̅m to orthorhombic Imma group. This ordering generated a 67.8% increase in the elastic modulus and 1-2 order of magnitude lower in the electric conductivity and electron mobility compared to their bulk counterpart.

  12. Probe and object function reconstruction in incoherent stem imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Nellist, P.D.; Pennycook, S.J.

    1996-09-01

    Using the phase-object approximation it is shown how an annular dark- field (ADF) detector in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) leads to an image which can be described by an incoherent model. The point spread function is found to be simply the illuminating probe intensity. An important consequence of this is that there is no phase problem in the imaging process, which allows various image processing methods to be applied directly to the image intensity data. Using an image of a GaAs<110>, the probe intensity profile is reconstructed, confirming the existence of a 1.3 {Angstrom} probe in a 300kV STEM. It is shown that simply deconvolving this reconstructed probe from the image data does not improve its interpretability because the dominant effects of the imaging process arise simply from the restricted resolution of the microscope. However, use of the reconstructed probe in a maximum entropy reconstruction is demonstrated, which allows information beyond the resolution limit to be restored and does allow improved image interpretation.

  13. Direct imaging of boron segregation at dislocations in B:diamond heteroepitaxial films.

    PubMed

    Turner, S; Idrissi, H; Sartori, A F; Korneychuck, S; Lu, Y-G; Verbeeck, J; Schreck, M; Van Tendeloo, G

    2016-01-28

    A thin film of heavily B-doped diamond has been grown epitaxially by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition on an undoped diamond layer, on top of a Ir/YSZ/Si(001) substrate stack, to study the boron segregation and boron environment at the dislocations present in the film. The density and nature of the dislocations were investigated by conventional and weak-beam dark-field transmission electron microscopy techniques, revealing the presence of two types of dislocations: edge and mixed-type 45° dislocations. The presence and distribution of B in the sample was studied using annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy. Using these techniques, a segregation of B at the dislocations in the film is evidenced, which is shown to be intermittent along the dislocation. A single edge-type dislocation was selected to study the distribution of the boron surrounding the dislocation core. By imaging this defect at atomic resolution, the boron is revealed to segregate towards the tensile strain field surrounding the edge-type dislocations. An investigation of the fine structure of the B-K edge at the dislocation core shows that the boron is partially substitutionally incorporated into the diamond lattice and partially present in a lower coordination (sp(2)-like hybridization).

  14. Simultaneous Maximum-Likelihood Reconstruction of Absorption Coefficient, Refractive Index and Dark-Field Scattering Coefficient in X-Ray Talbot-Lau Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, André; Anton, Gisela; Weber, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A maximum-likelihood reconstruction technique for X-ray Talbot-Lau tomography is presented. This technique allows the iterative simultaneous reconstruction of discrete distributions of absorption coefficient, refractive index and a dark-field scattering coefficient. This technique avoids prior phase retrieval in the tomographic projection images and thus in principle allows reconstruction from tomographic data with less than three phase steps per projection. A numerical phantom is defined which is used to evaluate convergence of the technique with regard to photon statistics and with regard to the number of projection angles and phase steps used. It is shown that the use of a random phase sampling pattern allows the reconstruction even for the extreme case of only one single phase step per projection. The technique is successfully applied to measured tomographic data of a mouse. In future, this reconstruction technique might also be used to implement enhanced imaging models for X-ray Talbot-Lau tomography. These enhancements might be suited to correct for example beam hardening and dispersion artifacts and improve overall image quality of X-ray Talbot-Lau tomography. PMID:27695126

  15. Simultaneous Maximum-Likelihood Reconstruction of Absorption Coefficient, Refractive Index and Dark-Field Scattering Coefficient in X-Ray Talbot-Lau Tomography.

    PubMed

    Ritter, André; Anton, Gisela; Weber, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A maximum-likelihood reconstruction technique for X-ray Talbot-Lau tomography is presented. This technique allows the iterative simultaneous reconstruction of discrete distributions of absorption coefficient, refractive index and a dark-field scattering coefficient. This technique avoids prior phase retrieval in the tomographic projection images and thus in principle allows reconstruction from tomographic data with less than three phase steps per projection. A numerical phantom is defined which is used to evaluate convergence of the technique with regard to photon statistics and with regard to the number of projection angles and phase steps used. It is shown that the use of a random phase sampling pattern allows the reconstruction even for the extreme case of only one single phase step per projection. The technique is successfully applied to measured tomographic data of a mouse. In future, this reconstruction technique might also be used to implement enhanced imaging models for X-ray Talbot-Lau tomography. These enhancements might be suited to correct for example beam hardening and dispersion artifacts and improve overall image quality of X-ray Talbot-Lau tomography.

  16. Direct imaging of localized surface plasmon polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balci, Sinan; Karademir, Ertugrul; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla

    2011-09-01

    In this Letter, we report on dark field imaging of localized surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in plasmonic waveguiding bands formed by plasmonic coupled cavities. We image the light scattered from SPPs in the plasmonic cavities excited by a tunable light source. Tuning the excitation wavelength, we measure the localization and dispersion of the plasmonic cavity mode. Dark field imaging has been achieved in the Kretschmann configuration using a supercontinuum white-light laser equipped with an acoustooptic tunable filter. Polarization dependent spectroscopic reflection and dark field imaging measurements are correlated and found to be in agreement with finite-difference time-domain calculations.

  17. Distinct Annular Oligomers Captured along the Assembly and Disassembly Pathways of Transthyretin Amyloid Protofibrils

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Ricardo H.; Karsai, Árpád; Saraiva, Maria J.; Damas, Ana M.; Kellermayer, Miklós S. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Background Defects in protein folding may lead to severe degenerative diseases characterized by the appearance of amyloid fibril deposits. Cytotoxicity in amyloidoses has been linked to poration of the cell membrane that may involve interactions with amyloid intermediates of annular shape. Although annular oligomers have been detected in many amyloidogenic systems, their universality, function and molecular mechanisms of appearance are debated. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated with high-resolution in situ atomic force microscopy the assembly and disassembly of transthyretin (TTR) amyloid protofibrils formed of the native protein by pH shift. Annular oligomers were the first morphologically distinct intermediates observed in the TTR aggregation pathway. Morphological analysis suggests that they can assemble into a double-stack of octameric rings with a 16±2 nm diameter, and displaying the tendency to form linear structures. According to light scattering data coupled to AFM imaging, annular oligomers appeared to undergo a collapse type of structural transition into spheroid oligomers containing 8–16 monomers. Disassembly of TTR amyloid protofibrils also resulted in the rapid appearance of annular oligomers but with a morphology quite distinct from that observed in the assembly pathway. Conclusions/Significance Our observations indicate that annular oligomers are key dynamic intermediates not only in the assembly but also in the disassembly of TTR protofibrils. The balance between annular and more compact forms of aggregation could be relevant for cytotoxicity in amyloidogenic disorders. PMID:22984597

  18. Entrainment measurements in annular flow

    SciTech Connect

    Assad, A.; Jan, C.; Bertodano, M. de; Beus, S.G.

    1997-07-01

    Air/water and vapor/freon were utilized to scale and simulate annular two-phase flow for high pressure steam/water conditions. A unique vapor/liquid Freon loop was built to obtain the high pressure data. The results were compared with two correlations available in the open literature. The Ishii and Mishima dimensionless group was able to scale the data remarkably well even for vapor/liquid Freon. However, the correlation needs to be adjusted for high Weber numbers of the gas phase.

  19. Annular hymenotomy for imperforate hymen.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Cihan; Soysal, Cenk; Khatib, Ghanim; Urunsak, Ibrahim Ferhat; Cetin, Turan

    2016-08-01

    Imperforate hymen is the most common obstructive anomaly of the female genital tract. Conventional surgical treatment for this condition is the cruciate incision made on the hymen. The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel technique that preserves virginity after hymenotomy using electrocautery. Patients diagnosed with imperforate hymen and treated with annular hymenotomy between 2009 and 2013 were included in this retrospective cohort study. Annular incision was done using electrocautery on the hymen whilst sparing the intact hymenal tissue circumferentially at least 5 mm from the base. Fifteen patients were included in the study. Mean age of patients was 14.2 ± 2.2 years. The median operation time was 5 min (3-9 min). No complications occurred. During the follow-up examinations, none of the patients had hymenal closure and all had regular menstrual bleeding. This novel technique showed complete success without any observed complication. This technique might be a good alternative for patients seeking to preserve virginity after surgery. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Granuloma annulare mimicking dorsal knuckle pads.

    PubMed

    Myeroff, Chad M; Stern, Peter J

    2011-06-01

    A 37-year-old man underwent excision of what was presumed to be knuckle pads associated with Dupuytren disease. The histology revealed granuloma annulare, which is typically treated nonsurgically. This report includes a discussion of granuloma annulare and its differentiation from knuckle pads. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Three-dimensional imaging of dislocations in a nanoparticle at atomic resolution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Chun; Zhu, Chun; White, Edward R; Chiu, Chin-Yi; Scott, M C; Regan, B C; Marks, Laurence D; Huang, Yu; Miao, Jianwei

    2013-04-04

    Dislocations and their interactions strongly influence many material properties, ranging from the strength of metals and alloys to the efficiency of light-emitting diodes and laser diodes. Several experimental methods can be used to visualize dislocations. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has long been used to image dislocations in materials, and high-resolution electron microscopy can reveal dislocation core structures in high detail, particularly in annular dark-field mode. A TEM image, however, represents a two-dimensional projection of a three-dimensional (3D) object (although stereo TEM provides limited information about 3D dislocations). X-ray topography can image dislocations in three dimensions, but with reduced resolution. Using weak-beam dark-field TEM and scanning TEM, electron tomography has been used to image 3D dislocations at a resolution of about five nanometres (refs 15, 16). Atom probe tomography can offer higher-resolution 3D characterization of dislocations, but requires needle-shaped samples and can detect only about 60 per cent of the atoms in a sample. Here we report 3D imaging of dislocations in materials at atomic resolution by electron tomography. By applying 3D Fourier filtering together with equal-slope tomographic reconstruction, we observe nearly all the atoms in a multiply twinned platinum nanoparticle. We observed atomic steps at 3D twin boundaries and imaged the 3D core structure of edge and screw dislocations at atomic resolution. These dislocations and the atomic steps at the twin boundaries, which appear to be stress-relief mechanisms, are not visible in conventional two-dimensional projections. The ability to image 3D disordered structures such as dislocations at atomic resolution is expected to find applications in materials science, nanoscience, solid-state physics and chemistry.

  2. Spectroscopic imaging in electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pennycook, Stephen J; Colliex, C.

    2012-01-01

    In the scanning transmission electron microscope, multiple signals can be simultaneously collected, including the transmitted and scattered electron signals (bright field and annular dark field or Z-contrast images), along with spectroscopic signals such as inelastically scattered electrons and emitted photons. In the last few years, the successful development of aberration correctors for the electron microscope has transformed the field of electron microscopy, opening up new possibilities for correlating structure to functionality. Aberration correction not only allows for enhanced structural resolution with incident probes into the sub-angstrom range, but can also provide greater probe currents to facilitate mapping of intrinsically weak spectroscopic signals at the nanoscale or even the atomic level. In this issue of MRS Bulletin, we illustrate the power of the new generation of electron microscopes with a combination of imaging and spectroscopy. We show the mapping of elemental distributions at atomic resolution and also the mapping of electronic and optical properties at unprecedented spatial resolution, with applications ranging from graphene to plasmonic nanostructures, and oxide interfaces to biology.

  3. Annular Laser Beam Cladding Process Feasibility Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Alexander; Jeromen, Andrej; Levy, Gideon; Fujishima, Makoto; Govekar, Edvard

    In the paper a novel annular - ring shaped - laser beam cladding head and related cladding process are presented. In the cladding head a laser beam is shaped into an annular ring and guided coaxially with the powder tube disposing the powder jet in the centre of the focused annular laser beam ring. An experimental process feasibility analysis was performed using a Nd:YAG pulsed laser system with a maximal average power 250 W. Beside the known influencing parameters of laser cladding process including the powder mass flow, workpiece feeding velocity, and laser beam intensity, the important parameters related to the annular laser beam caustics were defined. The process feasibility and influence of the process parameters on powder catchment efficiency was analysed based on the cladding experiments of SS 316L powder on SS 304 workpiece material. The potential benefits related to the annular laser beam melt pool geometry and related powder catchment efficiency are discussed.

  4. Free transverse vibration of a wrinkled annular thin film by using finite difference method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. G.; Liu, Y. P.; Lan, L.; Tan, H. F.

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates the free transverse vibration of a wrinkled annular thin film. The non-dimensional Hamilton motion equation of the wrinkled annular thin film is established, which is solved by using the finite difference method to acquire the vibration frequency and mode. The predicted vibration characteristics are verified by the experimental measurements based on the digital image correlation (DIC) technique. The results show that wrinkles have great effects on the vibration of the annular thin film. Especially for the heavily wrinkled cases, the local-global interactive mode dominates the vibration of the annular thin film. The frequency increases as the wrinkling level increases which is mainly due to the increased nonlinear geometric stiffness. The results provide favorable supports for understanding the role of nonlinear wrinkling on the vibration of thin films.

  5. Design and characterization of the annular cathode high current pulsed electron beam source for circular components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wei; Wang, Langping; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2016-08-01

    In order to irradiate circular components with high current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB), an annular cathode based on carbon fiber bunches was designed and fabricated. Using an acceleration voltage of 25 kV, the maximum pulsed irradiation current and energy of this annular cathode can reach 7.9 kA and 300 J, respectively. The irradiation current density distribution of the annular cathode HCPEB source measured along the circumferential direction shows that the annular cathode has good emission uniformity. In addition, four 9310 steel substrates fixed uniformly along the circumferential direction of a metal ring substrate were irradiated by this annular cathode HCPEB source. The surface and cross-section morphologies of the irradiated samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images of the surface reveal that crater and surface undulation have been formed, which hints that the irradiation energy of the HCPEB process is large enough for surface modification of 9310 steel. Meanwhile, SEM cross-section images exhibit that remelted layers with a thickness of about 5.4 μm have been obtained in all samples, which proves that a good practical irradiation uniformity can be achieved by this annular cathode HCPEB source.

  6. Characterization of Lumbar Spine Annular Disruption in PMHS Using MRI, Cryomicrotomy and Histology Techniques.

    PubMed

    Curry, William H; Stemper, Brian D; Pryzbylo, Jason; Trueden, Justine; Wilkins, Natasha; Paskoff, Glenn R; Shender, Barry S

    2015-01-01

    Internal intervertebral disc disruption is involved in the onset of a wide range of spinal dysfunction, ultimately affecting not only the disc itself but the surrounding osseous and neural structures as well. The ability of disc to withstand and effectively distribute axial load is dependent upon whether peripherally located annular fibers provide the support necessary to contain and corral the pressure sensitive nucleus. Any alteration in the structures immediate to the nucleus jeopardize this ability. While annular tears and fissures have been thoroughly investigated, one form of internal disc disruption is less well-understood. A network of elastin cross-bridges provides resistance to delamination of the collagenous sheets that comprise the annulus. The current investigation utilized a Nitrogen gas-induced pressure mechanism to disrupt elastin cross links that exist between annular lamellae. Twenty five cadaveric lumbar spine motion segments (mean age: 52±12 yr.) were subjected to the annular disruption protocol. Damage to the annulus was assessed using MRI, cryomicrotome and histological staining procedures. MRI images were compared to cryomicrotome images to determine the ability of standard clinical MRI scans to determine annular damage. In many cases MRI was moderately revealing in terms of damage. Future studies will quantify biomechanical consequences of these low level annular disruptions relative to segmental stability.

  7. Phase reconstruction in annular bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Takafumi; Kawasaki, Tadahiro; Tanji, Takayoshi; Kodama, Tetsuji; Matsutani, Takaomi; Ogai, Keiko; Ikuta, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    A novel technique for reconstructing the phase shifts of electron waves was applied to Cs-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). To realize this method, a new STEM system equipped with an annular aperture, annularly arrayed detectors and an arrayed image processor has been developed and evaluated in experiments. We show a reconstructed phase image of graphite particles and demonstrate that this new method works effectively for high-resolution phase imaging. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Means of manufacturing annular arrays

    DOEpatents

    Day, R.A.

    1985-10-10

    A method is described for manufacturing an annular acoustic transducer array from a plate of transducer material, which enables production of precision aligned arrays at low cost. The circular plate is sawed along at least two lines that are radial to the axis of the plate. At steps along each radial cut, the plate is rotated first in one direction and then in an opposite direction by a predetermined angle such as slightly less than 90/sup 0/. The cuts result in the forming of several largely ring-shaped lands, each largely ring-shaped land being joined to the other rings of different radii by thin portions of the plate, and each ring being cut into segments. The bridges that join different rings hold the transducer together until it can be mounted on a lens.

  9. Annular solar receiver thermal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratzel, A. C.; Sisson, C. E.

    1980-10-01

    Results from thermal studies performed for an annular solar receiver assembly to be used with the 2 m, 90 deg parabolic collector trough are presented. The receiver configuration modeled consists of a 2.54 cm o.d. steel tube with a black chrome selective surface and an enclosing concentric Pyrex glass envelope. Previous thermal work conducted on the parabolic cylindrical collector design established the geometry and solar noon absorbed flux distribution used. One and two dimensional thermal models were developed to provide receiver assembly temperatures, heat losses, and working fluid energy extraction data with the Therminol-66 (T-66) bulk temperature maintained at 315 C. Parameters varied in the work include wind velocity, ambient air temperature, annulus gas pressure, and T-66 flow condition (Reynolds number). Heat loss and energy extraction results are tabulated and temperature distributions from two dimensional thermal modeling are graphically presented.

  10. Development of high frequency annular array ultrasound transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottlieb, Emanuel John

    The advantage of ultrasonic annular arrays over conventional single element transducers has been in the ability to transmit focus at multiple points throughout the depth of field, as well as receive dynamic focus. Today, annular, linear and multidimensional array imaging systems are not commercially available at frequencies greater than 20 MHz. The fabrication technology used to develop a high frequency (>50 MHz) annular array transducer is presented. A 9 mum P(VDF-TrFE) film was bonded to gold annuli electrodes on the top layer of a two sided polyimide flexible circuit. Each annulus was separated by a 30 mum kerf and had several electroplated micro vias that connected to electrode traces on the bottom side of the polyimide flexible circuit. The array's performance was evaluated by measuring the electrical impedance, pulse echo response and crosstalk measurement for each element in the array. In order to improve device sensitivity each element was electrically matched to an impedance magnitude of 50 O and 0° phase at resonance. The average round trip insertion loss measured for the array and compensated for diffraction effects was -33.5 dB. The measured average center frequency and bandwidth of an element was 55 MHz and 47 respectively. The measured crosstalk between adjacent elements remained below -29 dB at the center frequency in water. A vertical wire phantom was imaged using a single focus transmit beamformer and dynamic focusing receive beamformer. This image showed a significant improvement in lateral resolution over a range of 9 mm after the dynamic focusing receive algorithm was applied. These results correlated well with predictions from a Field II simulation. After beamforming the minimum lateral resolution (-6 dB) was 108 mum at the focus. Preliminary ultrasound B-mode images of the rabbit eye using this transducer were shown in conjunction with a multi-channel digital beamformer. A feasibility study of designing and fabricating tunable copolymer

  11. Augmented 3D super-resolution of fluorescence-free nanoparticles using enhanced dark-field illumination based on wavelength-modulation and a least-cubic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Kim, Kyungsoo; Lee, Seungah; Chakkarapani, Suresh Kumar; Fang, Ning; Kang, Seong Ho

    2016-09-01

    Augmented three-dimensional (3D) subdiffraction-limited resolution of fluorescence-free single-nanoparticles was achieved with wavelength-dependent enhanced dark-field (EDF) illumination and a least-cubic algorithm. Various plasmonic nanoparticles on a glass slide (i.e., gold nanoparticles, GNPs; silver nanoparticles, SNPs; and gold nanorods, GNRs) were imaged and sliced in the z-direction to a thickness of 10 nm. Single-particle images were then compared with simulation data. The 3D coordinates of individual GNP, SNP, and GNR nanoparticles (x, y, z) were resolved by fitting the data with 3D point spread functions using a least-cubic algorithm and collation. Final, 3D super-resolution microscopy (SRM) images were obtained by resolving 3D coordinates and their Cramér-Rao lower bound-based localization precisions in an image space (530 nm × 530 nm × 300 nm) with a specific voxel size (2.5 nm × 2.5 nm × 5 nm). Compared with the commonly used least-square method, the least-cubic method was more useful for finding the center in asymmetric cases (i.e., nanorods) with high precision and accuracy. This novel 3D fluorescence-free SRM technique was successfully applied to resolve the positions of various nanoparticles on glass and gold nanospots (in vitro) as well as in a living single cell (in vivo) with subdiffraction limited resolution in 3D.

  12. Augmented 3D super-resolution of fluorescence-free nanoparticles using enhanced dark-field illumination based on wavelength-modulation and a least-cubic algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Kim, Kyungsoo; Lee, Seungah; Chakkarapani, Suresh Kumar; Fang, Ning; Kang, Seong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Augmented three-dimensional (3D) subdiffraction-limited resolution of fluorescence-free single-nanoparticles was achieved with wavelength-dependent enhanced dark-field (EDF) illumination and a least-cubic algorithm. Various plasmonic nanoparticles on a glass slide (i.e., gold nanoparticles, GNPs; silver nanoparticles, SNPs; and gold nanorods, GNRs) were imaged and sliced in the z-direction to a thickness of 10 nm. Single-particle images were then compared with simulation data. The 3D coordinates of individual GNP, SNP, and GNR nanoparticles (x, y, z) were resolved by fitting the data with 3D point spread functions using a least-cubic algorithm and collation. Final, 3D super-resolution microscopy (SRM) images were obtained by resolving 3D coordinates and their Cramér-Rao lower bound-based localization precisions in an image space (530 nm × 530 nm × 300 nm) with a specific voxel size (2.5 nm × 2.5 nm × 5 nm). Compared with the commonly used least-square method, the least-cubic method was more useful for finding the center in asymmetric cases (i.e., nanorods) with high precision and accuracy. This novel 3D fluorescence-free SRM technique was successfully applied to resolve the positions of various nanoparticles on glass and gold nanospots (in vitro) as well as in a living single cell (in vivo) with subdiffraction limited resolution in 3D. PMID:27619347

  13. Illumination pupil optimization in 0.33NA EUVL by intensity balancing for semi-iso dark field two-bar M1 building blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Last, T.; de Winter, L.; van Adrichem, P.; Finders, J.

    2016-10-01

    We will shed light on the optimization of lithographic metrics for the semi-isolated dark field two-bar logic building block. Under standard D90Y illumination this building block suffers from large mask 3D induced relative focus dependent CD asymmetries. Such behavior limits its overlapping process window and gives rise to untenable full wafer CDU and intra-field pattern shifts. We have found that besides a Ta absorber thickness reduction an illumination pupil optimization is necessary to fully remove these CD asymmetries. The pupil optimization is achieved by relating the aerial image decomposition (here: symmetrization and balancing of intensities across the diffracted orders) with lithographic metrics per pupil plane location. The resulting pupil allows us (i) to lift the focus-dependent CD asymmetries and (ii) to co-optimize a number of lithographic metrics such as overlapping process window, contrast, non-telecentricity and pattern shift. The importance of subsidiary conditions (e.g. symmetry of the pupil, required DOF) will be discussed.

  14. Granuloma annulare on the eyelid (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... it is usually found in children or young adults. The disorder can range from mild to severe and localized to generalized. The raised lesions are usually flesh colored to a red-purple. This picture shows a small granuloma on the eyelid.

  15. Sealing arrangement with annular flexible disc

    DOEpatents

    Pennell, William E.; Honigsberg, Charles A.

    1983-01-01

    Fluid sealing arrangements including an annular shaped flexible disc having enlarged edges disposed within channel-shaped annular receptacles which are spaced from one another. The receptacles form an annular region for contacting and containing the enlarged edges of the disc, and the disc is preloaded to a conical configuration. The disc is flexibly and movably supported within the receptacles so that unevenly distributed relative motion between the components containing the receptacles is accommodated without loss of sealing contact between the edges of the disc and the walls of the receptacles.

  16. Unexpected bismuth concentration profiles in metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy-grown Ga(As{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x})/GaAs superlattices revealed by Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, A. W.; Babcock, S. E.; Guan, Y.; Forghani, K.; Anand, A.; Kuech, T. F.

    2015-03-01

    A set of GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x}/GaAs multilayer quantum-well structures was deposited by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy at 390 °C and 420 °C. The precursor fluxes were introduced with the intent of growing discrete and compositionally uniform GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} well and GaAs barrier layers in the epitaxial films. High-resolution high-angle annular-dark-field (or “Z-contrast”) scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging revealed concentration profiles that were periodic in the growth direction, but far more complicated in shape than the intended square wave. The observed composition profiles could explain various reports of physical properties measurements that suggest compositional inhomogeneity in GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} alloys as they currently are grown.

  17. Atomic imaging using secondary electrons in a scanning transmission electron microscope: experimental observations and possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Inada, H; Su, D; Egerton, R F; Konno, M; Wu, L; Ciston, J; Wall, J; Zhu, Y

    2011-06-01

    We report detailed investigation of high-resolution imaging using secondary electrons (SE) with a sub-nanometer probe in an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope, Hitachi HD2700C. This instrument also allows us to acquire the corresponding annular dark-field (ADF) images both simultaneously and separately. We demonstrate that atomic SE imaging is achievable for a wide range of elements, from uranium to carbon. Using the ADF images as a reference, we studied the SE image intensity and contrast as functions of applied bias, atomic number, crystal tilt, and thickness to shed light on the origin of the unexpected ultrahigh resolution in SE imaging. We have also demonstrated that the SE signal is sensitive to the terminating species at a crystal surface. A possible mechanism for atomic-scale SE imaging is proposed. The ability to image both the surface and bulk of a sample at atomic-scale is unprecedented, and can have important applications in the field of electron microscopy and materials characterization.

  18. Higher modes in the coupling cells of coaxial and annular-ring coupled linac structures

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffswell, R.A.; Laszewski, R.M.

    1983-08-01

    Dipole- and quadrupole-like modes in the coupling cells of coaxial and annular-ring coupled structures have been examined up to a frequency of 4 GHz. The quadrupole mode frequencies appear to lie high enough above the frequency of the accelerating mode to make coupling between the two unlikely. In the annular-ring case, however, a dipole mode was found very near the accelerating mode frequency. Evidence is presented which suggests that some power may couple between these two modes in a real cavity.

  19. Method and apparatus for continuous annular electrochromatography

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.

    1987-01-01

    Separation of complex mixtures and solutions can be carried out using a method and apparatus for continuous annular electrochromatography. Solutes are diverted radially by an imposed electrical field as they move downward in a rotating chromatographic column.

  20. Multiple Granuloma Annulare in a 2-year-old Child

    PubMed Central

    Siddalingappa, Karjigi; Murthy, Sambasiviah Chidambara; Herakal, Kallappa; Kusuma, Marganahalli Ramachandra

    2015-01-01

    Granuloma annulare is a benign, self-limiting, inflammatory and granulomatous disease of unknown etiology occurring in both adults and children. An 18-month-old male child had multiple progressive annular plaques over the lower extremities. Clinical and histopathological features were consistent with granuloma annulare. Localized granuloma annulare is the most common form in children. We report a young child with multiple, progressive granuloma annulare over the lower extremities. PMID:26677301

  1. Annular gel reactor for chemical pattern formation

    DOEpatents

    Nosticzius, Zoltan; Horsthemke, Werner; McCormick, William D.; Swinney, Harry L.; Tam, Wing Y.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an annular gel reactor suitable for the production and observation of spatiotemporal patterns created during a chemical reaction. The apparatus comprises a vessel having at least a first and second chamber separated one from the other by an annular polymer gel layer (or other fine porous medium) which is inert to the materials to be reacted but capable of allowing diffusion of the chemicals into it.

  2. Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

  3. Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

  4. A 50 cm diameter annular ion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, Graeme; Brophy, John R.

    1989-01-01

    An ion engine design is presented which uses an annular geometry as a means of achieving large engine diameters and hence, high thrust levels. Preliminary results are discussed for discharge-only operation of a 50-cm-diameter annular ion engine. Measured operating parameters presented include discharge current and voltage characteristics, discharge chamber ion current distribution, engine body temperatures, plasma flatness parameter effects and total integrated grid ion current.

  5. Packing loops into annular cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobral, T. A.; Gomes, M. A. F.

    2017-02-01

    The continuous packing of a flexible rod in two-dimensional cavities yields a countable set of interacting domains that resembles nonequilibrium cellular systems and belongs to a new class of lightweight material. However, the link between the length of the rod and the number of domains requires investigation, especially in the case of non-simply connected cavities, where the number of avoided regions emulates an effective topological temperature. In the present article we report the results of an experiment of injection of a single flexible rod into annular cavities in order to find the total length needed to insert a given number of loops (domains of one vertex). Using an exponential model to describe the experimental data we quite minutely analyze the initial conditions, the intermediary behavior, and the tight packing limit. This method allows the observation of a new fluctuation phenomenon associated with instabilities in the dynamic evolution of the packing process. Furthermore, the fractal dimension of the global pattern enters the discussion under a novel point of view. A comparison with the classical problems of the random close packing of disks and jammed disk packings is made.

  6. Real-time optical detection of single human and bacterial viruses based on dark-field interferometry.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Anirban; Ignatovich, Filipp; Novotny, Lukas

    2012-01-15

    The rapid and sensitive detection and characterization of human viruses and bacteriophage is extremely important in a variety of fields, such as medical diagnostics, immunology and vaccine research, and environmental contamination and quality control. We introduce an optical detection scheme for real-time and label-free detection of human viruses and bacteriophage as small as ~24 nm in radius. Combining the advantages of heterodyne interferometry and dark-field microscopy, this label-free method enables us to detect and characterize various biological nanoparticles with unsurpassed sensitivity and selectivity. We demonstrate the high sensitivity and precision of the method by analyzing a mixture containing HIV virus and bacteriophage. The method also resolves the distribution of small nano-impurities (~20-30 nm) in clinically relevant virus samples.

  7. Monitoring adsorption of gold nanoparticles on gold nanodisk array using dark-field hyperspectral microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fusheng; Zenasni, Oussama; Li, Jingting; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2017-02-01

    Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) arises from the interaction of light with noble metal nanoparticles, which induces a collective oscillation in the free electrons. The size and shape of the metallic nanostructure significantly impact LSPR frequency and strength. Nanoplasmonic sensor has become a recent research focus due to its significant signal enhancement and robust signal transduction measured by extinction spectroscopy, fluorescence, Raman scattering, and absorption spectroscopy. Dark-field microscopy, in contrast, reports the scattered photons after light-matter interactions. In this case, the nanoparticles can be understood as dipole radiators whose free electrons oscillate in concert. Coupled with spectroscopy, this platform allows the collection of plasmonically scattered spectra from gold nanoparticles. Plasmonic coupling between electron-beam lithography patterned gold nanodisks (AuND) and colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNP) can change the plasmonic resonance of the original entities, and can be effectively studied by dark-field hyperspectral microscopy. Typically, a pronounced redshift can be observed when plasmonic coupling occurs. When these nano-entities are functionalized with interactive surface moieties, biochemistry and molecular processes can be studied. In this paper, we will present the capability of assessing the process of immobilizing streptavidin-functionalized AuNPs on an array of biotin-terminated AuNDs. By monitoring changes in the LSPR band of AuNDs, we are able to evaluate similar processes in other molecular systems. In addition, plasmon coupling induced scattering intensity variations can be measured by an electron-multiplied charge-coupled device camera for rapid in situ monitoring. This method can potentially be useful in studying dynamic biophysical and biochemical processes in situ.

  8. Generation and control of Bessel beams based on annular reflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongdong; Qu, Weijuan; Jiao, Lishi; Zhang, Yilei

    2015-05-01

    A straightforward but powerful method to generate Bessel beams with continuous control of spot size, intensity and non-diffraction zone length has been successfully developed and verified based on annular reflections using a digital micromirror device (DMD). Reflective circular ring patterns were loaded in a DMD placed in the focal point of a converging lens to generate Bessel beams with tremendous flexibility and control. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer method was applied to reconstruct the wavefront of the generated beam to prove the successful generation of the Bessel beam. This simple but powerful method has great potential in many applications, such as imaging and particle manipulation.

  9. Beamforming using spatial matched filtering with annular arrays (L).

    PubMed

    Kim, Kang-Sik; Liu, Jie; Insana, Michael F

    2007-04-01

    A linear array beamforming method for ultrasonic B-mode imaging using spatial matched filtering (SMF) and a rectangular aperture geometry was recently proposed Kim et al., [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120, 852-861 (2006)]. This letter extends those results to include circularly symmetric apertures. SMF applied to annular arrays can improve the lateral resolution and echo signal-to-noise ratio as compared with conventional dynamic-receive delay-sum beamforming. At high frequencies, where delay and sum beamforming is problematic, SMF showed greatly improved target contrast over an extended field of view.

  10. Design and application of three-zone annular filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ximin; Liu, Liren; Liu, De'an; Bai, Lihua

    2006-10-01

    We design three-zone annular filters to be applied to optical storage system. The designed filters extend the depth of focus and realize transverse superresolution simultaneously, which will improve the performance of optical storage system greatly. And we propose two feasible schemes to improve imaging resolution of three-dimensional imaging system. One scheme depends on a complex filter formed by cascading of a three-zone phase filter and a three-zone amplitude filter. The complex filter converge the optimized transverse superresolution and the optimized axial superresolution of two different filters onto a single filter. It can improve the three-dimensional imaging performances greatly. Another scheme depends on a single three-zone complex filter. We propose a three-zone complex filter with phase shift 0.8[pi], which presents bigger design margin, better imaging quality and stronger three-dimensional superresolution capability.

  11. Panoramic optical annular staring inspection system for evaluating the inner surface of a pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liefeng; Feng, Huajun; Bai, Jian; Jin, Hao

    2008-01-01

    There should be flaws and defects on the inner surface during the producing period of a pipe, as well as contaminations and corrosions during the using period of it. A corresponding panoramic optical annular staring inspection system has been developed. It requires no rotating mechanism to exam the whole circumference of a cross section of the inner pipe surface at once, which results high speed inspection. There are two main subsystems in this inspection system, the panoramic optical annular staring imaging subsystem and driving robot subsystem. The Flat Cylinder Perspective (FCP) is the principle to image a panoramic annular view to a flat imagery, i.e. a cylinder of vision imaged is flat. Our imaging subsystem includes a panoramic annular lens (PAL), which is critical and used to implement the FCP, a series of image rotation lenses, a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, and an illuminating light-emitting diode (LED) ring. The CCD camera sending the signal to a personal computer (PC) via VGA signal results a real time inspection. The driving robot subsystem is a fine designed complicated mechanism including a subassembly of stepper motor. It can drive the inspection system forward and backward continuously in the pipe along the axial direction. The experimental system reported in this paper has the following specifications: average detection resolution of 0.5 mm at the circumference direction and 1.0 mm at the axial direction of a pipe, and inspection speed of 15 mm/s.

  12. Stability of Mars' annular polar vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seviour, W.; Waugh, D.; Scott, R.

    2016-12-01

    In common with the Earth and several other planetary bodies, the martian atmosphere exhibits regions of high potential vorticity (PV) near the winter pole, known as polar vortices. On Earth, PV increases monotonically from the equator to pole, however, on Mars there is a local minimum at the pole, with an annulus of high PV encircling it. Recently produced reanalyses of the martian atmospheric circulation have confirmed that this annular vortex is a persistent feature, forming in autumn and lasting until spring. This finding is surprising since an isolated band of PV is barotropically unstable, a result going back to Rayleigh. Here we investigate the stability of an annular vortex using numerical integrations of the rotating shallow water equations. We show that the mode of instability and its growth rate strongly depends upon the latitude and width of the annulus. By introducing thermal relaxation with a time scale similar to that of the instability we are able to simulate a persistent annular vortex with similar characteristics as that observed in the martian atmosphere. This time scale, typically 1-2 sols, is similar to thermal relaxation timescales which have been estimated for the martian atmosphere. We also demonstrate that the persistence of an annular vortex is robust to topographic forcing, as long as it is below a certain amplitude. We hence propose that the persistence of this barotropically unstable annular vortex is permitted due to the combination of short radiative relaxation time scales and relatively weak topographic forcing in the martian polar atmosphere.

  13. The role of gas in determining image quality and resolution during in situ scanning transmission electron microscopy experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Yuanyuan; Browning, Nigel D.

    2017-05-24

    As gas-solid heterogeneous catalytic reactions are molecular in nature, a full mechanistic understanding of the process requires atomic scale characterization under realistic operating conditions. While atomic resolution imaging has become a routine in modern high-vacuum (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM), both image quality and resolution nominally degrade when reaction gases are introduced. In this work, we systematically assess the effects of different gases at various pressures on the quality and resolution of images obtained at room temperature in the annular dark field STEM imaging mode using a differentially pumped (DP) gas cell. This imaging mode is largely free from inelasticmore » scattering effects induced by the presence of gases and retains good imaging properties over a wide range of gas mass/pressures. Furthermore, we demonstrate the application of the ESTEM with atomic resolution images of a complex oxide alkane oxidation catalyst MoVNbTeOx (M1) immersed in light and heavy gas environments.« less

  14. Annular feed air breathing fuel cell stack

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    1996-01-01

    A stack of polymer electrolyte fuel cells is formed from a plurality of unit cells where each unit cell includes fuel cell components defining a periphery and distributed along a common axis, where the fuel cell components include a polymer electrolyte membrane, an anode and a cathode contacting opposite sides of the membrane, and fuel and oxygen flow fields contacting the anode and the cathode, respectively, wherein the components define an annular region therethrough along the axis. A fuel distribution manifold within the annular region is connected to deliver fuel to the fuel flow field in each of the unit cells. In a particular embodiment, a single bolt through the annular region clamps the unit cells together. In another embodiment, separator plates between individual unit cells have an extended radial dimension to function as cooling fins for maintaining the operating temperature of the fuel cell stack.

  15. What causes Mars' annular polar vortices?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toigo, A. D.; Waugh, D. W.; Guzewich, S. D.

    2017-01-01

    A distinctive feature of the Martian atmosphere is that the winter polar vortices exhibit annuli of high potential vorticity (PV) with a local minimum near the pole. These annuli are seen in observations, reanalyses, and free-running general circulation model simulations of Mars, but are not generally a feature of Earth's polar vortices, where there is a monotonic increase in magnitude of PV with latitude. The creation and maintenance of the annular polar vortices on Mars are not well understood. Here we use simulations with a Martian general circulation model to the show that annular vortices are related to another distinctive, and possibly unique in the solar system, feature of the Martian atmosphere: the condensation of the predominant atmospheric gas species (CO2) in polar winter regions. The latent heat associated with CO2 condensation leads to destruction of PV in the polar lower atmosphere, inducing the formation of an annular PV structure.

  16. Duodenal Atresia In Utero in Association With Down's Syndrome and Annular Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Clark, John F.J.; Hales, Earle; Ma, Peter; Rosser, Samuel B.

    1984-01-01

    A 28-weeks' gestational trisomic-21 male, with duodenal atresia due to annular pancreas, is presented. The atresia was diagnosed in utero by sonographic techniques. A review of the pertinent literature and discussion of management are presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:6231382

  17. Generation of annular, high-charge electron beams at the Argonne wakefield accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisniewski, E. E.; Li, C.; Gai, W.; Power, J.

    2012-12-01

    We present and discuss the results from the experimental generation of high-charge annular(ring-shaped)electron beams at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA). These beams were produced by using laser masks to project annular laser profiles of various inner and outer diameters onto the photocathode of an RF gun. The ring beam is accelerated to 15 MeV, then it is imaged by means of solenoid lenses. Transverse profiles are compared for different solenoid settings. Discussion includes a comparison with Parmela simulations, some applications of high-charge ring beams,and an outline of a planned extension of this study.

  18. Generation of annular, high-charge electron beams at the Argonne wakefield accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisniewski, E. E.; Li, C.; Gai, W.; Power, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present and discuss the results from the experimental generation of high-charge annular(ring-shaped)electron beams at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA). These beams were produced by using laser masks to project annular laser profiles of various inner and outer diameters onto the photocathode of an RF gun. The ring beam is accelerated to 15 MeV, then it is imaged by means of solenoid lenses. Transverse profiles are compared for different solenoid settings. Discussion includes a comparison with Parmela simulations, some applications of high-charge ring beams,and an outline of a planned extension of this study.

  19. Subaperture stitching tolerancing for annular ring geometry.

    PubMed

    Smith, Greg A; Burge, James H

    2015-09-20

    Subaperture stitching is an economical way to extend small-region, high-resolution interferometric metrology to cover large-aperture optics. Starting from system geometry and measurement noise knowledge, this work derives an analytical expression for how noise in an annular ring of subapertures leads to large-scale errors in the computed stitched surface. These errors scale as sin(πp/M)(-2) where p is the number of sine periods around the annular full-aperture and M is the number of subaperture measurements. Understanding how low-spatial-frequency surface errors arise from subaperture noise is necessary for tolerancing systems which use subaperture stitching.

  20. Direct Imaging of Carboxymethyl Cellulose-mediated Aggregation of Lactic Acid Bacteria Using Dark-field Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Hidenobu; Saito, Katsuichi; Tomita, Satoru; Magariyama, Yukio; Kaizuka, Yoshihisa; Takeda, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    The ecological functions of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been utilized in human life for food processing and probiotic therapy. Understanding the interaction mechanisms between LAB and food ingredients may help to clarify the fermentation process and physiological functions of LAB in the production of fermented foods made from plant materials and dairy products. However, the interaction mechanisms have yet to be fully clarified. Although laser diffraction was used for measuring the size changes of aggregates caused by the interaction between LAB and food ingredients, aggregate sizes could not be determined because of the precipitation of aggregates and its disruption from stirring. Therefore, a microscopy-based method for directly visualizing their interactions is required. We directly observed aggregation processes of LAB cells mediated by water-soluble polysaccharides, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), by dark-filed microscopy (DFM). DFM could visualize CMC-mediated cell aggregation with high contrast in real time, and revealed that the aggregates were formed by repeated collisions of LAB cells in a suspension. This suggests that our method can be used as a useful assay to directly visualize grain formation caused by interactions between LAB cells and various polysaccharides in food ingredients.

  1. Geometry optimization of linear and annular plasma synthetic jet actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neretti, G.; Seri, P.; Taglioli, M.; Shaw, A.; Iza, F.; Borghi, C. A.

    2017-01-01

    The electrohydrodynamic (EHD) interaction induced in atmospheric air pressure by a surface dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuator has been experimentally investigated. Plasma synthetic jet actuators (PSJAs) are DBD actuators able to induce an air stream perpendicular to the actuator surface. These devices can be used in the field of aerodynamics to prevent or induce flow separation, modify the laminar to turbulent transition inside the boundary layer, and stabilize or mix air flows. They can also be used to enhance indirect plasma treatment effects, increasing the reactive species delivery rate onto surfaces and liquids. This can play a major role in plasma processing and chemical kinetics modelling, where often only diffusive mechanisms are considered. This paper reports on the importance that different electrode geometries can have on the performance of different PSJAs. A series of DBD aerodynamic actuators designed to produce perpendicular jets has been fabricated on two-layer printed circuit boards (PCBs). Both linear and annular geometries were considered, testing different upper electrode distances in the linear case and different diameters in the annular one. An AC voltage supplied at a peak of 11.5 kV and a frequency of 5 kHz was used. Lower electrodes were connected to the ground and buried in epoxy resin to avoid undesired plasma generation on the lower actuator surface. Voltage and current measurements were carried out to evaluate the active power delivered to the discharges. Schlieren imaging allowed the induced jets to be visualized and gave an estimate of their evolution and geometry. Pitot tube measurements were performed to obtain the velocity profiles of the PSJAs and to estimate the mechanical power delivered to the fluid. The optimal values of the inter-electrode distance and diameter were found in order to maximize jet velocity, mechanical power or efficiency. Annular geometries were found to achieve the best performance.

  2. Turbulent domain stabilization in annular flows

    SciTech Connect

    Hayot, F.; Pomeau, Y. Physique Statistique, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24, rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris )

    1994-09-01

    We point out a mechanism for stabilizing expanding turbulent domains in annular flows. This nonlocal mechanism is explained within the context of a Ginzburg-Landau equation for a real amplitude. The expression for the nonlocal term can be derived by analogy with existing calculations in Taylor-Couette flow for Taylor vortices. Numerical results are compared with experiment.

  3. Annular lichenoid syphilis: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Ananta; Singal, Archana; Gupta, Seema

    2014-01-01

    Syphilis is a disease known for centuries, but still continues to be a diagnostic challenge as the myriad manifestations of secondary syphilis can mimic a lot many dermatological disorders. Lichenoid syphilis is an uncommon entity, reported only occasionally in the penicillin era. We present the case of a 32-year-old woman presenting with localized annular lichenoid lesions on the neck.

  4. Annular lichenoid syphilis: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Ananta; Singal, Archana; Gupta, Seema

    2014-01-01

    Syphilis is a disease known for centuries, but still continues to be a diagnostic challenge as the myriad manifestations of secondary syphilis can mimic a lot many dermatological disorders. Lichenoid syphilis is an uncommon entity, reported only occasionally in the penicillin era. We present the case of a 32-year-old woman presenting with localized annular lichenoid lesions on the neck. PMID:26396452

  5. Complete polarization characterization of single plasmonic nanoparticle enabled by a novel Dark-field Mueller matrix spectroscopy system

    PubMed Central

    Chandel, Shubham; Soni, Jalpa; Ray, Subir kumar; Das, Anwesh; Ghosh, Anirudha; Raj, Satyabrata; Ghosh, Nirmalya

    2016-01-01

    Information on the polarization properties of scattered light from plasmonic systems are of paramount importance due to fundamental interest and potential applications. However, such studies are severely compromised due to the experimental difficulties in recording full polarization response of plasmonic nanostructures. Here, we report on a novel Mueller matrix spectroscopic system capable of acquiring complete polarization information from single isolated plasmonic nanoparticle/nanostructure. The outstanding issues pertaining to reliable measurements of full 4 × 4 spectroscopic scattering Mueller matrices from single nanoparticle/nanostructures are overcome by integrating an efficient Mueller matrix measurement scheme and a robust eigenvalue calibration method with a dark-field microscopic spectroscopy arrangement. Feasibility of quantitative Mueller matrix polarimetry and its potential utility is illustrated on a simple plasmonic system, that of gold nanorods. The demonstrated ability to record full polarization information over a broad wavelength range and to quantify the intrinsic plasmon polarimetry characteristics via Mueller matrix inverse analysis should lead to a novel route towards quantitative understanding, analysis/interpretation of a number of intricate plasmonic effects and may also prove useful towards development of polarization-controlled novel sensing schemes. PMID:27212687

  6. Advanced electron crystallography through model-based imaging

    PubMed Central

    Van Aert, Sandra; De Backer, Annick; Martinez, Gerardo T.; den Dekker, Arnold J.; Van Dyck, Dirk; Bals, Sara; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2016-01-01

    The increasing need for precise determination of the atomic arrangement of non-periodic structures in materials design and the control of nanostructures explains the growing interest in quantitative transmission electron microscopy. The aim is to extract precise and accurate numbers for unknown structure parameters including atomic positions, chemical concentrations and atomic numbers. For this purpose, statistical parameter estimation theory has been shown to provide reliable results. In this theory, observations are considered purely as data planes, from which structure parameters have to be determined using a parametric model describing the images. As such, the positions of atom columns can be measured with a precision of the order of a few picometres, even though the resolution of the electron microscope is still one or two orders of magnitude larger. Moreover, small differences in average atomic number, which cannot be distinguished visually, can be quantified using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy images. In addition, this theory allows one to measure compositional changes at interfaces, to count atoms with single-atom sensitivity, and to reconstruct atomic structures in three dimensions. This feature article brings the reader up to date, summarizing the underlying theory and highlighting some of the recent applications of quantitative model-based transmisson electron microscopy. PMID:26870383

  7. Aberration-corrected STEM/TEM imaging at 15kV.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Takeo; Sawada, Hidetaka; Hosokawa, Fumio; Sato, Yuta; Suenaga, Kazu

    2014-10-01

    The performance of aberration-corrected (scanning) transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) at an accelerating voltage of 15kV was evaluated in a low-voltage microscope equipped with a cold-field emission gun and a higher-order aberration corrector. Aberrations up to the fifth order were corrected by the aberration measurement and auto-correction system using the diffractogram tableau method in TEM and Ronchigram analysis in STEM. TEM observation of nanometer-sized particles demonstrated that aberrations up to an angle of 50mrad were compensated. A TEM image of Si[110] exhibited lattice fringes with a spacing of 0.192nm, and the power spectrum of the image showed spots corresponding to distances of 0.111nm. An annular dark-field STEM image of Si[110] showed lattice fringes of (111) and (22¯0) planes corresponding to lattice distances of 0.314nm and 0.192nm, respectively. At an accelerating voltage of 15kV, the developed low-voltage microscope achieved atomic-resolution imaging with a small chromatic aberration and a large uniform phase.

  8. [Anatomoclinical study of annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma].

    PubMed

    Margerin, F; Cribier, B

    2017-10-01

    Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma (AEGCG), a rare entity first described in 1979, is very similar to O'Brien actinic granuloma (AG), first described in 1975. Since then, many cases have been published under one or other of the two names. We performed a single-centre histopathology study to identify the distinguishing features and determine whether there was any objective difference between AEGCG and AG. Cases classed as AEGCG or AG at the dermatopathology laboratory in Strasbourg were included and analysed using haematoxylin-eosin, orcein and Alcian blue staining. The diagnosis was made in the event of granuloma rich in multi-nucleated giant cells and reduction or disappearance of elastic tissue. Clinical data were collected from the analysis requests and clinical files. We identified 73 cases: 12 classed as AEGCG and 61 classed as AG. Mean age was 60.5 years with a sex ratio of 0.55. The duration of the disease ranged from 8 days to 17 years. A single lesion was seen in 52% of cases with multiple lesions in the remaining cases. Lesions measured between 0.3 and 10cm and exhibited a predilection for photo-exposed areas, chiefly on the head, neck and upper limbs. In most cases, an annular erythematous edge was seen together with a light centre, and slow centrifugal spread. The diagnosis was made by a clinician in only 5.5% of cases. These granulomas were chiefly in the superficial and mid dermis and only rarely deep, and contained numerous giant cells with a constant contingent of lymphocytes, but plasma cells were also seen in half of the cases. Orcein staining revealed marked decrease or total disappearance of elastic tissue within the granulomatous area together with elastophagocytosis in practically all images. More rarely, there was evidence of necrobiosis, palisading granuloma, vascular involvement or orcein-stained asteroid bodies. There were no notable clinical or histological differences between the cases initially classed as AEGCG or AG. AEGCG

  9. Swirling Annular Flow Experiments with Application to Plasma Torches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, L. E.; Settles, G. S.; Miller, J. D.

    2001-11-01

    Swirling flows have many applications such as combustors and cyclone separators. Here, a turbulent swirling annular cold-flow experiment is conducted in order to gain insight into conditions within a plasma cutting torch. Compressed air is forced through six circumferentially-spaced holes that impart tangential velocity to the flow at the annulus inlet. The flow subsequently traverses an annulus of L/D1 =1.8 before exiting through a sonic nozzle. The annulus (created by a cylindrical cathode in the center of the actual plasma torch) is viewable through an outer plexiglass cylinder in our 11:1 scaled-up cold-flow apparatus. Surface oil-flow visualization and laser sheet imaging are employed to investigate the annular flowfield at a Reynolds number of about 1000 based on gap width D2-D1. Results of these experiments, leading to a physical model of the flowfield, are shown. These results are helpful in understanding and improving the fluid-dynamic behavior of actual plasma torches, widely used to cut sheet metal in manufacturing. Supported by Hypertherm Inc.

  10. Effects of Gravity on Bubble Formation in an Annular Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koepp, R. A.; Parthasarathy, R. N.; Gollahalli, S. R.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of gravity on the bubble formation in an annular jet were studied. The experiments were conducted in the 2.2-second drop tower at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Terrestrial gravity experiments were conducted at the Fluid Dynamics Research Laboratory at the University of Oklahoma. Stainless steel tubing with inner diameters of 1/8" (gas inner annulus) and 5/16" (liquid outer annulus) served as the injector. A rectangular test section, 6" x 6" x 14" tall, made out of half-inch thick Lexan was used. Images of the annular jet were acquired using a high-speed camera. The effects of gravity and varying liquid and gas flow rates on bubble size, wavelength, and breakup length were documented. In general, the bubble diameter was found to be larger in terrestrial gravity than in microgravity for varying Weber numbers (0.05 - 0.16 and 5 - 11) and liquid flow rates (1.5 ft/s - 3.0 ft/s). The wavelength was found to be larger in terrestrial gravity than in microgravity, but remained constant for varying Weber numbers. For low Weber numbers (0.05 - 0.16), the breakup length in microgravity was significantly higher than in terrestrial gravity. Comparison with linear stability analysis showed estimated bubble sizes within 9% of experimental bubble sizes. Bubble size compared to other terrestrial gravity experiments with same flow conditions showed distinct differences in bubble size, which displayed the importance of injector geometry on bubble formation.

  11. The Growth of Instabilities in Annular Liquid Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Duke, Daniel J.; Honnery, Damon R; Soria, Julio

    2015-11-01

    An annular liquid sheet surrounded by parallel co-flowing gas is an effective atomiser. However, the initial instabilities which determine the primary break-up of the liquid sheet are not well understood. Lack of agreement on the influence of the boundary conditions and the non-dimension scaling of the initial instability persists between theoretical stability analyses and experiments. To address this matter, we have undertaken an experimental parametric study of an aerodynamically-driven, non-swirling annular water sheet. The effects of sheet thickness, inner and outer gas-liquid momentum ratio were investigated over an order of magnitude variation in Reynolds and Weber number. From high-speed image correlation measurements in the near-nozzle region, we propose new empirical correlations for the frequency of the instability as a function of the total gas-liquid momentum ratio, with good non-dimensional collapse. From analysis of the instability velocity probability densities, we find two persistent and distinct superimposed instabilities with different growth rates. The first is a short-lived, rapidly saturating sawtooth-like instability. The second is a slower-growing stochastic instability which persists through the break-up of the sheet. The presence of multiple instabilities whose growth rates do not strongly correlate with the shear velocities may explain some of the discrepancies between experiments and stability analyses.

  12. Management of Periocular Granuloma Annulare Using Topical Dapsone

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mayha; Shitabata, Paul; Horowitz, David

    2015-01-01

    Granuloma annulare is a disease characterized by granulomatous inflammation of the dermis. Localized granuloma annulare may resolve spontaneously, while generalized granuloma annulare may persist for decades. The authors present the case of a 41-year-old Hispanic man with a two-week history of periocular granuloma annulare. Due to previously reported success in the use of systemic dapsone for the treatment of granuloma annulare, and the periocular proximity of the patient’s lesion, topical dapsone was used for treatment. Various additional therapies for the management of granuloma annulare have been reported, such as topical and systemic steroids, isotretinoin, pentoxifylline, cyclosporine, Interferon gamma, potassium iodide, nicotinamide, niacinamide, salicylic acid, fumaric acid ester, etanercept, infliximab, and hydroxychloroquine. Additional clinical trials are necessary to further evaluate the effectiveness of topical dapsone in the management of granuloma annulare. PMID:26203321

  13. Direct imaging of boron segregation at dislocations in B:diamond heteroepitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, S.; Idrissi, H.; Sartori, A. F.; Korneychuck, S.; Lu, Y.-G.; Verbeeck, J.; Schreck, M.; van Tendeloo, G.

    2016-01-01

    A thin film of heavily B-doped diamond has been grown epitaxially by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition on an undoped diamond layer, on top of a Ir/YSZ/Si(001) substrate stack, to study the boron segregation and boron environment at the dislocations present in the film. The density and nature of the dislocations were investigated by conventional and weak-beam dark-field transmission electron microscopy techniques, revealing the presence of two types of dislocations: edge and mixed-type 45° dislocations. The presence and distribution of B in the sample was studied using annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy. Using these techniques, a segregation of B at the dislocations in the film is evidenced, which is shown to be intermittent along the dislocation. A single edge-type dislocation was selected to study the distribution of the boron surrounding the dislocation core. By imaging this defect at atomic resolution, the boron is revealed to segregate towards the tensile strain field surrounding the edge-type dislocations. An investigation of the fine structure of the B-K edge at the dislocation core shows that the boron is partially substitutionally incorporated into the diamond lattice and partially present in a lower coordination (sp2-like hybridization).A thin film of heavily B-doped diamond has been grown epitaxially by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition on an undoped diamond layer, on top of a Ir/YSZ/Si(001) substrate stack, to study the boron segregation and boron environment at the dislocations present in the film. The density and nature of the dislocations were investigated by conventional and weak-beam dark-field transmission electron microscopy techniques, revealing the presence of two types of dislocations: edge and mixed-type 45° dislocations. The presence and distribution of B in the sample was studied using annular dark-field scanning transmission electron

  14. Dynamics of annular two-phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, Pravin Hanamantrao

    A basic understanding of various hydrodynamic phenomena in annular two-phase is essential to develop mechanistic model for the prediction dryout. The major objective of this investigation was to perform experimental and theoretical analysis of the important hydrodynamic phenomena such as droplet entrainment, droplet deposition, and liquid film interfacial waves in vertical annular two-phase flow. Towards this end, adiabatic air-water and organic fluid (Freon-113) annular flow experiments have been conducted in 1 cm diameter test sections at pressures up to 6 and 8.5 bar, respectively. The organic fluid experiments simulated high pressure steam-water conditions representative of dryout in the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). A liquid film extraction method was applied for the measurement of entrainment fraction, droplet entrainment rate, and droplet deposition rate. Instantaneous liquid film thickness was measured in the air-water experiments using ring shaped conductance probes and properties of interfacial waves were estimated from the statistical analysis of the film thickness measurement. Detailed analysis of the experimental data revealed several inadequacies of the existing annular flow correlations available for the predictions of entrainment fraction, droplet entrainment rate, and droplet deposition rate including their inability to predict the limiting conditions observed under high gas phase velocity. Based on the detailed analysis of the air-water data, a new, non-dimensional and explicit correlation was developed for the prediction of entrainment fraction. The new correlation accounted for the existence of an upper limit on entrainment fraction as well as for the existence of critical liquid and gas velocities below which no entrainment is possible. Additionally, an improved correlation was proposed for the estimation of minimum liquid film flow rate at the maximum entrainment fraction. The newly developed entrainment fraction correlation

  15. Continuous separation of proteins by annular chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomingburg, G.F.; Bauer, J.S.; Carta, G. ); Byers, C.H. )

    1991-05-01

    In this paper, the separation of protein mixtures by continuous annular chromatography (CAC) is studied in a preparative-scale apparatus. S-Sepharose, a strong-acid porous cation-exchange resin is used as the separation medium, and mixtures of albumin, hemoglobin and cytochrome c are used as model separation system. Equilibrium and mass-transfer parameters are developed for this system on the basis of fixed-bed chromatograph experiments. A mathematical model is then successfully used in conjunction with these parameters to simulate the performance of the CAC separations. The continuous separation performance of the annular apparatus is found to be essentially the same as the batchwise performance of an equivalent conventional chromatograph, making the unit attractive for preparative and process-scale applications where continuous throughput is desirable.

  16. LDV Measurements in an Annular Combustor Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barron, Dean A.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis covers the design and setup of a laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) system used to take velocity measurements in an annular combustor model. The annular combustor model is of contemporary design using 60 degree flat vane swirlers, producing a strong recirculation zone. Detailed measurements are taken of the swirler inlet air flow and of the downstream enclosed swirling flow. The laser system used is a two color, two component system set up in forward scatter. Detailed are some of the special considerations needed for LDV use in the confined turbulent flow of the combustor model. LDV measurements in a single swirler rig indicated that the flow changes radically in the first duct height. After this, a flow profile is set up and remains constant in shape. The magnitude of the velocities gradually decays due to viscous damping.

  17. Development of an Advanced Annular Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rusnak, J. P.; Shadowen, J. H.

    1969-01-01

    The objective of the effort described in this report was to determine the structural durability of a full-scale advanced annular turbojet combustor using ASTM A-1 type fuel and operating at conditions typical of advanced supersonic aircraft. A full-scale annular combustor of the ram-induction type was fabricated and subjected to a 325-hour cyclic endurance test at conditions representative of operation in a Mach 3.0 aircraft. The combustor exhibited extensive cracking and scoop burning at the end of the test program. But these defects had no appreciable effect on combustor performance, as performance remained at a high level throughout the endurance program. Most performance goals were achieved with pressure loss values near 6% and 8%, and temperature rise variation ratio (deltaTVR) values near 1.25 and l.22 at takeoff and cruise conditions, respectively. Combustion efficiencies approached l004 and the exit radial temperature profiles were approximately as desired.

  18. Nanoscale strain distributions in embedded SiGe semiconductor devices revealed by precession electron diffraction and dual lens dark field electron holography

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y. Y.; Cooper, D.; Bernier, N.; Rouviere, J.; Murray, C. E.; Bruley, J.

    2015-01-26

    The detailed strain distributions produced by embedded SiGe stressor structures are measured at high spatial resolution with high precision, with dual lens dark field electron holography and precession electron diffraction. Shear strain and lattice rotation within the crystalline lattice are observed at the boundaries between the SiGe and Si regions. The experimental results are compared to micromechanical modeling simulations to understand the mechanisms of elastic relaxation on all the modes of deformation at a sub-micron length scale.

  19. Acoustic streaming measurements in annular thermoacoustic engines.

    PubMed

    Joba, Stéphane; Gusev, Vitalyi; Lotton, Pierrick; Bruneau, Michel

    2003-04-01

    Experiments with an annular thermoacoustic engine employing quasiadiabatic interaction between traveling acoustic waves and an inhomogeneously heated porous material indicate the presence of a closed-loop mass flux. A qualitative modeling of the enthalpy flux in the thermoacoustic core provides an opportunity to estimate the thermal convection associated with this mass flux, by using temperature measurement at different positions in the system. The estimated acoustically induced mass flux is in accordance with recent theoretical results.

  20. Annular flow film characteristics in variable gravity.

    PubMed

    MacGillivray, Ryan M; Gabriel, Kamiel S

    2002-10-01

    Annular flow is a frequently occurring flow regime in many industrial applications. The need for a better understanding of this flow regime is driven by the desire to improve the design of many terrestrial and space systems. Annular two-phase flow occurs in the mining and transportation of oil and natural gas, petrochemical processes, and boilers and condensers in heating and refrigeration systems. The flow regime is also anticipated during the refueling of space vehicles, and thermal management systems for space use. Annular flow is mainly inertia driven with little effect of buoyancy. However, the study of this flow regime is still desirable in a microgravity environment. The influence of gravity can create an unstable, chaotic film. The absence of gravity, therefore, allows for a more stable and axisymmetric film. Such conditions allow for the film characteristics to be easily studied at low gas flow rates. Previous studies conducted by the Microgravity Research Group dealt with varying the gas or liquid mass fluxes at a reduced gravitational acceleration.(1,2) The study described here continues this work by examining the effect of changing the gravitational acceleration (hypergravity) on the film characteristics. In particular, the film thickness and the associated pressure drops are examined. The film thickness was measured using a pair of two-wire conductance probes. Experimental data was collected over a range of annular flow set points by changing the liquid and gas mass flow rates, the liquid-to-gas density ratio and the gravitational acceleration. The liquid-to-gas density ratio was varied by collecting data with helium-water and air-water at the same flow rates. The gravitational effect was examined by collecting data during the microgravity and pull-up (hypergravity) portions of the parabolic flights.

  1. The Annular Suspension and Pointing System /ASPS/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. W.; Woolley, C. T.

    1978-01-01

    The Annular Suspension and Pointing System (ASPS) may be attached to a carrier vehicle for orientation, mechanical isolation, and fine pointing purposes applicable to space experiments. It has subassemblies for both coarse and vernier pointing. A fourteen-degree-of-freedom simulation of the ASPS mounted on a Space Shuttle has yielded initial performance data. The simulation describes: the magnetic actuators, payload sensors, coarse gimbal assemblies, control algorithms, rigid body dynamic models of the payload and Shuttle, and a control system firing model.

  2. Annular and Total Solar Eclipses of 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    2002-01-01

    On Saturday, 2003 May 31, an annular eclipse of the Sun will be visible from a broad corridor that traverses the North Atlantic. The path of the Moon's antumbral shadow begins in northern Scotland, crosses Iceland and central Greenland, and ends at sunrise in Baffin Bay (Canada). A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes most of Europe, the Middle East, central and northern Asia, and northwestern North America. The trajectory of the Moon's shadow is quite unusual during this event. The shadow axis passes to the far north where it barely grazes Earth's surface. In fact, the northern edge of the antumbra actually misses Earth so that one path limit is defined by the day/night terminator rather than by the shadow's upper edge. As a result, the track of annularity has a peculiar "D" shape that is nearly 1200 kilometers wide. Since the eclipse occurs just three weeks prior to the northern summer solstice, Earth's northern axis is pointed sunwards by 22.8 deg. As seen from the Sun, the antumbral shadow actually passes between the North Pole and the terminator. As a consequence of this extraordinary geometry, the path of annularity runs from east to west rather than the more typical west to east. The event transpires near the Moon's ascending node in Taurus five degrees north of Aldebaran. Since apogee occurs three days earlier (May 28 at 13 UT), the Moon's apparent diameter (29.6 arc-minutes) is still too small to completely cover the Sun (31.6 arc-minutes) resulting in an annular eclipse.

  3. Annually recurring erythema annulare centrifugum: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Victor Desmond; Ferrari, Barbara; Manfredini, Marco; Giusti, Francesca; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2015-10-22

    Erythema annulare centrifugum is a rare cutaneous disease characterized by erythematous and violaceous annular plaques that usually involved the thighs and the legs. The eruption may be associated with an underlying disease and its accompanying characteristic symptoms. For these reasons, a full physical examination should be conducted to exclude underlying disorders. Annually recurring erythema annulare centrifugum is a rare and peculiar variant of erythema annulare centrifugum with the same clinical and histopathological characteristics. The lesions of annually recurring erythema annulare centrifugum tend to regress spontaneously after a variable period of days to months with yearly recurrence for many years. We present the case of a 46-year-old caucasian woman affected by annually recurring erythema annulare centrifugum, which is a peculiar form of superficial erythema annulare centrifugum. The lesions have the same clinical and histopathological characteristics of the classical superficial form of erythema annulare centrifugum and tend to regress spontaneously after a variable period of days to months. In our case, no precipitating factors were identified and no underlying diseases were found. Every year for the last 12 years the lesions started to appear in the summer months and regressed spontaneously in autumn. Cases of annually recurring erythema annulare centrifugum are rarely reported in the literature and generally no causative agent can be detected. The main feature of annually recurring erythema annulare centrifugum is the constant annual and seasonal recurrence of the lesions for many years.

  4. StatSTEM: An efficient approach for accurate and precise model-based quantification of atomic resolution electron microscopy images.

    PubMed

    De Backer, A; van den Bos, K H W; Van den Broek, W; Sijbers, J; Van Aert, S

    2016-12-01

    An efficient model-based estimation algorithm is introduced to quantify the atomic column positions and intensities from atomic resolution (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM) images. This algorithm uses the least squares estimator on image segments containing individual columns fully accounting for overlap between neighbouring columns, enabling the analysis of a large field of view. For this algorithm, the accuracy and precision with which measurements for the atomic column positions and scattering cross-sections from annular dark field (ADF) STEM images can be estimated, has been investigated. The highest attainable precision is reached even for low dose images. Furthermore, the advantages of the model-based approach taking into account overlap between neighbouring columns are highlighted. This is done for the estimation of the distance between two neighbouring columns as a function of their distance and for the estimation of the scattering cross-section which is compared to the integrated intensity from a Voronoi cell. To provide end-users this well-established quantification method, a user friendly program, StatSTEM, is developed which is freely available under a GNU public license.

  5. Annular feed air breathing fuel cell stack

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Neutzler, Jay K.

    1997-01-01

    A stack of polymer electrolyte fuel cells is formed from a plurality of unit cells where each unit cell includes fuel cell components defining a periphery and distributed along a common axis, where the fuel cell components include a polymer electrolyte membrane, an anode and a cathode contacting opposite sides of the membrane, and fuel and oxygen flow fields contacting the anode and the cathode, respectively, wherein the components define an annular region therethrough along the axis. A fuel distribution manifold within the annular region is connected to deliver fuel to the fuel flow field in each of the unit cells. The fuel distribution manifold is formed from a hydrophilic-like material to redistribute water produced by fuel and oxygen reacting at the cathode. In a particular embodiment, a single bolt through the annular region clamps the unit cells together. In another embodiment, separator plates between individual unit cells have an extended radial dimension to function as cooling fins for maintaining the operating temperature of the fuel cell stack.

  6. 3D morphology of the human hepatic ferritin mineral core: New evidence for a subunit structure revealed by single particle analysis of HAADF-STEM images

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ying-Hsi; Sader, Kasim; Powell, Jonathan J.; Bleloch, Andrew; Gass, Mhairi; Trinick, John; Warley, Alice; Li, Andy; Brydson, Rik; Brown, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Ferritin, the major iron storage protein, has dual functions; it sequesters redox activity of intracellular iron and facilitates iron turn-over. Here we present high angle annular dark field (HAADF) images from individual hepatic ferritin cores within tissue sections, these images were obtained using spherical aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) under controlled electron fluence. HAADF images of the cores suggest a cubic morphology and a polycrystalline (ferrihydrite) subunit structure that is not evident in equivalent bright field images. By calibrating contrast levels in the HAADF images using quantitative electron energy loss spectroscopy, we have estimated the absolute iron content in any one core, and produced a three dimensional reconstruction of the average core morphology. The core is composed of up to eight subunits, consistent with the eight channels in the protein shell that deliver iron to the central cavity. We find no evidence of a crystallographic orientation relationship between core subunits. Our results confirm that the ferritin protein shell acts as a template for core morphology and within the core, small (∼2 nm), surface-disordered ferrihydrite subunits connect to leave a low density centre and a high surface area that would allow rapid turn-over of iron in biological systems. PMID:19116170

  7. Stability of Three-Layered Annular Plate with Composite Facings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlus, D.

    2017-02-01

    Paper presents the behaviour of three-layered annular plates subjected to loads acting in plate plane. Plates are composed of laminated fibre-reinforced composite facings and foam core. The static and dynamic parameters of plate critical state were evaluated. The sensitivity of composite structure of plate to the acting of quickly increasing in time loads is shown. The problem has been solved numerically using the finite element method. Results have been compared with ones obtained for plate models with isotropic layers. These plate models have also been calculated solving formulated task analytically and numerically by means of the finite difference method. Solutions to the problem concern the axisymmetrical and asymmetrical plate buckling modes. Numerous presented tables and figures create the image of the stability behaviour of examined composite plates.

  8. An in-house developed annular bright field detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lari, Leonardo; Wright, Ian; Pingstone, Daniel; Steward, Jonathan; Gilks, Daniel; Lazarov, Vlado K.

    2014-06-01

    Annular bright field (ABF) detectors have been developed in the last few years allowing the direct imaging of low-Z atoms from oxygen down to hydrogen. These types of detectors are now available as standard attachments for the latest generation of top-end electron microscopes. However these systems cannot always be installed in previous generation microscopes. In this paper we report the preliminary results of an in-house implementation of a ABF detection system on a CEOS aberration corrected JEOL 2200FS STEM. This has been obtained by exploiting the standard BF detector coupled with a high vacuum compatible, X-ray tight and retractable shadowing mechanism. This results in the acquisition of near zero-angle scattered electrons with inner collection semi-angle from 2.0 mrad to 23 mrad and outer semi-angle in the range from 3.0 mrad to 35 mrad. The characteristics and performances of this ABF detection system are discussed.

  9. Stability of Three-Layered Annular Plate with Composite Facings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlus, D.

    2016-10-01

    Paper presents the behaviour of three-layered annular plates subjected to loads acting in plate plane. Plates are composed of laminated fibre-reinforced composite facings and foam core. The static and dynamic parameters of plate critical state were evaluated. The sensitivity of composite structure of plate to the acting of quickly increasing in time loads is shown. The problem has been solved numerically using the finite element method. Results have been compared with ones obtained for plate models with isotropic layers. These plate models have also been calculated solving formulated task analytically and numerically by means of the finite difference method. Solutions to the problem concern the axisymmetrical and asymmetrical plate buckling modes. Numerous presented tables and figures create the image of the stability behaviour of examined composite plates.

  10. Fabric defect detection based on annular Gaussian band-pass filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Runping; Su, Jianxia

    2013-07-01

    A new method for fabric defect detection is proposed. It is based on the filter group containing four annular Gaussian band-pass filters and aimed at detecting defects in fabrics with plain and twill structures. A fabric sample image is processed by using this filter group and the filtered images are obtained. These filtered images are binarized and fused in order to reconstruct the defect binary image that distinguishes defects from texture background. In the performance evaluation and comparison experiments, this method is applied to a variety of fabrics with various defects. Experiment results have confirmed this method has good real time performance and is effective in fabric defect detection.

  11. Direct visualization of lithium via annular bright field scanning transmission electron microscopy: a review.

    PubMed

    Findlay, Scott David; Huang, Rong; Ishikawa, Ryo; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2017-02-08

    Annular bright field (ABF) scanning transmission electron microscopy has proven able to directly image lithium columns within crystalline environments, offering much insight into the structure and properties of lithium-ion battery materials. We summarize the image formation mechanisms underpinning ABF imaging, review the experimental application of this technique to imaging lithium in materials and overview the conditions that help maximize the visibility of lithium columns. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Image simulation for biological microscopy: microlith

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Shalin B.; Oldenbourg, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Image simulation remains under-exploited for the most widely used biological phase microscopy methods, because of difficulties in simulating partially coherent illumination. We describe an open-source toolbox, microlith (https://code.google.com/p/microlith), which accurately predicts three-dimensional images of a thin specimen observed with any partially coherent imaging system, as well as images of coherently illuminated and self-luminous incoherent specimens. Its accuracy is demonstrated by comparing simulated and experimental bright-field and dark-field images of well-characterized amplitude and phase targets, respectively. The comparison provides new insights about the sensitivity of the dark-field microscope to mass distributions in isolated or periodic specimens at the length-scale of 10nm. Based on predictions using microlith, we propose a novel approach for detecting nanoscale structural changes in a beating axoneme using a dark-field microscope. PMID:24940543

  13. Annular-slot arrays as far-infrared bandpass filters.

    PubMed

    Krug, P A; Dawes, D H; McPhedran, R C; Wright, W; Macfarlane, J C; Whitbourn, L B

    1989-09-01

    Arrays of both annular and square annular slots in a conducting sheet on a dielectric substrate have been fabricated photolithographically. The structures are shown to behave as bandpass filters in the far infrared, with a resonant wavelength slightly larger than the average circumference or perimeter of the slot. The measured far-infrared transmittance of the annular array is approximately 76% of that predicted by theory, while its resonant frequency agrees with theory to within 5%.

  14. A deployable, annular, 30m telescope, space-based observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Justin J.; Wirth, Allan; Jankevics, Andrew; Landers, Franklin; Rohweller, David; Chen, C. Bill; Bronowicki, Allen

    2014-08-01

    High resolution imaging from space requires very large apertures, such as NASA's current mission the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) which uses a deployable 6.5m segmented primary. Future missions requiring even larger apertures (>>10m) will present a great challenge relative to the size, weight and power constraints of launch vehicles as well as the cost and schedule required to fabricate the full aperture. Alternatively, a highly obscured annular primary can be considered. For example, a 93.3% obscured 30m aperture having the same total mirror area (91m2) as a 10.7m unobscured telescope, can achieve ~3X higher limiting resolution performance. Substantial cost and schedule savings can be realized with this approach compared to fully filled apertures of equivalent resolution. A conceptual design for a ring-shaped 30m telescope is presented and the engineering challenges of its various subsystems analyzed. The optical design consists of a 20X annular Mersenne form beam compactor feeding a classical 1.5m TMA telescope. Ray trace analysis indicates the design can achieve near diffraction limited images over a 200μrad FOV. The primary mirror consists of 70 identical rectangular 1.34x1.0m segments with a prescription well within the demonstrated capabilities of the replicated nanolaminate on SiC substrate technology developed by AOA Xinetics. A concept is presented for the deployable structure that supports the primary mirror segments. A wavefront control architecture consisting of an optical metrology subsystem for coarse alignment and an image based fine alignment and phasing subsystem is presented. The metrology subsystem is image based, using the background starfields for distortion and pointing calibration and fiducials on the segments for measurement. The fine wavefront control employs a hill climbing algorithm operating on images from the science camera. The final key technology required is the image restoration algorithm that will compensate for the highly

  15. Functional specifications of the annular suspension pointing system, appendix A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, B.

    1980-01-01

    The Annular Suspension Pointing System is described. The Design Realization, Evaluation and Modelling (DREAM) system, and its design description technique, the DREAM Design Notation (DDN) is employed.

  16. Arcuate, annular, and polycyclic inflammatory and infectious lesions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Amit; Lambert, Phelps J; Maghari, Amin; Lambert, W Clark

    2011-01-01

    Common shapes encountered in dermatologic diseases include linear, nummular, annular, polycyclic, and arciform. The last three have a relatively restricted differential, which must be entirely explored. It is not uncommon for a single disease to present in annular, arciform or polycyclic configurations; moreover, the lesions may evolve from being arciform to annular and then become polycyclic. Regardless, recognizing the arrangement of the defect will undoubtedly help in making a diagnosis and guiding subsequent management. We explore diseases that often present in annular, arciform, and/or polycyclic forms.

  17. Radio frequency eddy current losses for an annular conductor in MRI: theory and applications.

    PubMed

    McRobbie, D W

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical derivation of the equivalent loading resistance of an annular volume conductor within a magnetic resonance imaging radio frequency (RF) coil is presented. Theoretical predictions of the magnitude of the load resistance agree well with measurement over a range of frequencies. The loading resistance is proportional to the sample conductivity, the frequency and coil sensitivity squared, and depends strongly upon the sample dimensions. The orientation of the magnetic vector potential for the specific coil geometry is also important. An experimental comparison of loading by annular and cylindrical objects with the human head over the imaging frequency range is made. Cylindrical test objects are adversely affected by the skin effect. The optimum means of simulating RF induced losses for quality assurance and performance evaluation is discussed in the light of these results.

  18. Resolution enhancement of pump-probe microscopy with an inverse-annular spatial filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Kawasumi, K.; Miyazaki, J.; Nakata, K.

    2016-12-01

    We have introduced a pupil filter, an inverse-annular pupil filter in a pump-probe photothermal microscope, which provides resolution enhancement in three dimensions. The resolution is probed to be improved in lateral and axial resolution by imaging experiment using 20 nm gold nanoparticles. The improvement in X (perpendicular to the common pump and probe polarization direction), Y (parallel to the polarization direction), and Z (axial direction) are by 15±6, 8±8, and 21±2 % from the resolution without a pupil filter. The resolution enhancement is even better than the calculation using vector field, which predicts the corresponding enhancement of 11, 8, and 6 %. The discussion is made to explain the unexpected results. We also demonstrate the photothermal imaging of thick biological samples (cells from rabbit intestine and kidney) stained with hematoxylin and eosin dye with the inverse-annular filter.

  19. TEM Lattice Imaging of the Nanostructure of Early-Growth Sputter- Deposited MoS2 Solid Lubricant Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-30

    REFERENCES ....................................................... 45 3 FIGURES 1. The MoS2 crystal structure ................................... 8...contains anisotropic islands ........... 16 4. Diffraction pattern of an HT MoS2 film ....................... 17 5. Diffraction pattern of an AT MoS2 film...18 6. (A) Bright-field (BF) image of an HT MoS2 film, (B) a corresponding (002) dark-field image, (C) a (100) dark-field image

  20. Application of HAADF STEM image analysis to structure determination in rotationally disordered and amorphous multilayered films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchson, Gavin; Ditto, Jeffrey; Woods, Keenan N.; Westover, Richard; Page, Catherine J.; Johnson, David C.

    2016-08-01

    We report results from high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF STEM) image analysis of complex semi-crystalline and amorphous materials, and apply the insights gained from local structure information towards global structure determination. Variations in HAADF STEM intensities for a rotationally disordered heterostructure and an amorphous oxide film are statistically analyzed to extract information regarding the inhomogeneity of the films perpendicular to the substrate. By assuming chemical homogeneity in the film axis parallel to the substrate, the signal intensity variation parallel to the substrate is used to estimate the signal noise level, allowing evaluation of the significance of intensity differences in the substrate normal direction. The positions of HAADF STEM intensity peaks in the perpendicular direction, averaged from multiple images, provide a valuable initial model for a Rietveld refinement of the global c-axis structure of the heterostructure. For an amorphous multi-coat solution-cast oxide sample, the analysis reveals statistically significant variations in the HAADF STEM intensity profile perpendicular to the substrate. These variations indicate an inhomogeneous density profile, presumably related to the spin-casting of individual layers and have implications for understanding the chemical interactions that occur between layers when preparing multilayer amorphous oxide films from solution.

  1. Tunable extended depth of field using a liquid crystal annular spatial filter.

    PubMed

    Klapp, Iftach; Solodar, Asi; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim

    2014-03-15

    A tunable extended depth of field (EDOF) imaging is presented using temporal multiplexing and a low-cost eight-ring, annular liquid crystal spatial light modulator. By changing between different phase profiles in the pupil plane of a lens we perform several levels of EDOF. Using these levels as a "database" it is shown by temporal multiplexing how to decompose tunable levels of EDOF.

  2. Full field frequency domain common path optical coherence tomography with annular aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulhalim, I.; Friedman, Ron; Liraz, Lior; Dadon, Ronen

    2007-07-01

    Theoretical and experimental results are presented using the common path Mirau interference microscope and using the Linnik microscope with annular masks to increase the depth of field. The competence between the spatial and temporal coherence was investigated theoretically and confirmed experimentally. Phase imaging of onion epidermis cells was presented showing the possibility of obtaining profiles of the cells. Frequency domain OCT was shown to be possible using full field setup.

  3. Annular lipoatrophic panniculitis of the ankles.

    PubMed

    Corredera, Cristina; Iglesias, Maribel; Hernández-Martín, Angela; Colmenero, Isabel; Dilme, Elisabet; Torrelo, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    We report a girl with lipophagic lobular panniculitis of unknown origin located on her ankles leading to circumferential fat atrophy of the ankles, a condition usually referred to as "annular lipoatrophy of the ankles." According to our patient's features and five additional cases reported so far, we conclude that this condition is actually an end-stage manifestation of an idiopathic lobular panniculitis of children localized to the lower part of the lower limbs. An association with some autoimmune manifestations is highlighted. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Duration test of an annular colloid thruster.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perel, J.; Mahoney, J. F.; Daley, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    An annular colloid thruster was continuously operated for 1023 hours. Performance was stable with no sparking and negligible drain currents observed. An average thrust of 25.1 micropounds and an average specific impulse of 1160 seconds were obtained at an accelerating voltage of 15 k he thruster exhaust beam was continuously neutralized using electrons and electrostatic vectoring was demonstrated periodically. The only clear trend with time was an increase in specific impulse during the last third of the test period. From these results the thruster lifetime was estimated to be over an order of magnitude greater than the test duration.

  5. Finite stretching of an annular plate.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biricikoglu, V.; Kalnins, A.

    1971-01-01

    The problem of the finite stretching of an annular plate which is bonded to a rigid inclusion at its inner edge is considered. The material is assumed to be isotropic and incompressible with a Mooney-type constitutive law. It is shown that the inclusion of the effect of the transverse normal strain leads to a rapid variation in thickness which is confined to a narrow edge zone. The explicit solutions to the boundary layer equations, which govern the behavior of the plate near the edges, are presented.

  6. Wave turbulence in annular wave tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onorato, Miguel; Stramignoni, Ettore

    2014-05-01

    We perform experiments in an annular wind wave tank at the Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita' di Torino. The external diameter of the tank is 5 meters while the internal one is 1 meter. The tank is equipped by two air fans which can lead to a wind of maximum 5 m/s. The present set up is capable of studying the generation of waves and the development of wind wave spectra for large duration. We have performed different tests including different wind speeds. For large wind speed we observe the formation of spectra consistent with Kolmogorv-Zakharov predictions.

  7. Duration test of an annular colloid thruster.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perel, J.; Mahoney, J. F.; Daley, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    An annular colloid thruster was continuously operated for 1023 hours. Performance was stable with no sparking and negligible drain currents observed. An average thrust of 25.1 micropounds and an average specific impulse of 1160 seconds were obtained at an accelerating voltage of 15 k he thruster exhaust beam was continuously neutralized using electrons and electrostatic vectoring was demonstrated periodically. The only clear trend with time was an increase in specific impulse during the last third of the test period. From these results the thruster lifetime was estimated to be over an order of magnitude greater than the test duration.

  8. Annular Lupus Vulgaris Mimicking Tinea Cruris

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Young Soo; Shin, Won Woong; Kim, Yong Ju; Song, Hae Jun

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous tuberculosis is an infrequent form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. It is often clinically and histopathologically confused with various cutaneous disorders. A 36-year-old man attended our clinic with slowly progressive, asymptomatic, annular skin lesions on both the thighs and buttocks for 10 years. He consulted with many physicians and was improperly treated with an oral antifungal agent for several months under the diagnosis of tinea cruris, but no resolution of his condition was observed. A diagnosis of lupus vulgaris was made based on the histopathologic examination and the polymerase chain reaction assay. Anti-tuberculosis therapy was administered and the lesions started to regress. PMID:20548922

  9. Annular pancreas associated with duodenal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Brönnimann, Enrico; Potthast, Silke; Vlajnic, Tatjana; Oertli, Daniel; Heizmann, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    Annular pancreas (AP) is a rare congenital anomaly. Coexisting malignancy has been reported only in a few cases. We report what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case in the English literature of duodenal adenocarcinoma in a patient with AP. In a 55-year old woman with duodenal outlet stenosis magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed an aberrant pancreatic duct encircling the duodenum. Duodenojejunostomy was performed. Eight weeks later she presented with painless jaundice. Duodenopancreatectomy revealed a duodenal adenocarcinoma, surrounded by an incomplete AP. Thus, co-existent malignancy with AP can be present without obstructive jaundice and without being visible through preoperative diagnostics. PMID:20593508

  10. Tank evaluation system shielded annular tank application

    SciTech Connect

    Freier, D.A.

    1988-10-04

    TEST (Tank Evaluation SysTem) is a research project utilizing neutron interrogation techniques to analyze the content of nuclear poisons and moderators in tank shielding. TEST experiments were performed on an experimental SAT (Shielded Annular Tank) at the Rocky Flats Plant. The purpose of these experiments was threefold: (1) to assess TEST application to SATs, (2) to determine if Nuclear Safety inspection criteria could be met, and (3) to perform a preliminary calibration of TEST for SATs. Several experiments were performed, including measurements of 11 tank shielding configurations, source-simulated holdup experiments, analysis of three detector modes, resolution studies, and TEST scanner geometry experiments. 1 ref., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. The Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. W.; Groom, N. J.

    1975-01-01

    An annular momentum control device consisting principally of a spinning rim, a set of noncontacting magnetic bearings for supporting the rim, a noncontacting electric motor for driving the rim, and, for some applications, one or more gimbals is described. The device is intended for applications where requirements for control torque and momentum storage exist. Hardware requirements and potential unit configurations are discussed. Theoretical considerations for the passive use of the device are discussed. Potential applications of the device in other than passive configurations for the attitude control, stabilization, and maneuvering of spacecraft are reported.

  12. Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    minimal effect on the entrance pressure into the seal. Pressures vs shaft speed 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Rotor Speed (RPM...speed 3600 rpm water seal, L/D=0.50, c=0.190 mm, D=152 mm L/D=0.50 Pressures vs shaft speed 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Rotor...surface speed. Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings 11 - 12 RTO-EN-AVT-143 Leakage vs shaft speed 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 0 1000 2000

  13. Seeing double: annular diaper rash in twins.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Lacy L; Manders, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of dichorionic, diamniotic twins who developed similar erythematous, annular, erosive plaques in the inguinal folds in the first few weeks of life that were refractory to topical antifungals and oral antibiotics. The twins were found to have high transaminase levels, antinuclear antibody positivity, and anti-SSS/Ro) and anti-SSB/La autoantibodies. The rash resolved without scarring by 7 months of age with the use of low-potency topical corticosteroids. We suggest that physicians consider neonatal lupus erythematosus in neonates with atypical eruptions occurring in sun-protected skin.

  14. Displacement separations by continuous annular chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    DeCarli, J.P. II; Carta, G. ); Byers, C.H. . Chemical Technology Div.)

    1988-01-01

    Continuous annular chromatography (CAC) has been introduced as an effective means of carrying out chromatographic separations in a truly continuous manner. Process applications have been demonstrated. In this work the authors demonstrate how CAC can be operated for displacement development separations. In this mode of operation of the apparatus separation and concentration of multicomponent mixtures can be obtained simultaneously and continuously. Experimental results and model simulations for this novel separation device are presented along with a comparison of different modes of operation and a discussion of industrial applications.

  15. Nonlinear features of Northern Annular Mode variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zuntao; Shi, Liu; Xie, Fenghua; Piao, Lin

    2016-05-01

    Nonlinear features of daily Northern Annular Mode (NAM) variability at 17 pressure levels are quantified by two different measures. One is nonlinear correlation, and the other is time-irreversible symmetry. Both measures show that there are no significant nonlinear features in NAM variability at the higher pressure levels, however as the pressure level decreases, the strength of nonlinear features in NAM variability becomes predominant. This indicates that in order to reach better prediction of NAM variability in the lower pressure levels, nonlinear features must be taken into consideration to build suitable models.

  16. Effects of small specimen tilt and probe convergence angle on ADF-STEM image contrast of Si(0.8)Ge(0.2) epitaxial strained layers on (100) Si.

    PubMed

    Wu, X; Robertson, M D; Kawasaki, M; Baribeau, J M

    2012-03-01

    The effects of specimen tilt and probe convergence angle on annular dark field (ADF) image contrast of Si(0.8)Ge(0.2) heteroepitaxial strained layers on (100) Si were investigated in a 200 kV scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) for a TEM specimen thickness of 195 nm. With 0.5 degrees of specimen tilt away from the exact <011> zone-axis orientation, the signal-to-noise level of atomic columns was significantly reduced for both Si(0.8)Ge(0.2) and Si in high resolution ADF-STEM lattice images. When the specimen was tilted 0.5 degrees around the <011> axis, or the STEM probe convergence semiangle was reduced from 14.3 to 3.6 mrad, the ADF-STEM image intensity profiles across the Si(0.8)Ge(0.2) and Si layers changed significantly as compared to those obtained at the exact <011> zone axis orientation, and no longer reflected the composition changes occurring across the layer structure. Multislice image simulation results revealed that the misfit strain between the Si(0.8)Ge(0.2) and Si layers, and strain relaxation near the surface of the TEM specimen, were responsible for the observed changes in image intensity. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Concentration Measurements in a Cold Flow Model Annular Combustor Using Laser Induced Fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Douglas C.

    1996-01-01

    A nonintrusive concentration measurement method is developed for determining the concentration distribution in a complex flow field. The measurement method consists of marking a liquid flow with a water soluble fluorescent dye. The dye is excited by a two dimensional sheet of laser light. The fluorescent intensity is shown to be proportional to the relative concentration level. The fluorescent field is recorded on a video cassette recorder through a video camera. The recorded images are analyzed with image processing hardware and software to obtain intensity levels. Mean and root mean square (rms) values are calculated from these intensity levels. The method is tested on a single round turbulent jet because previous concentration measurements have been made on this configuration by other investigators. The previous results were used to comparison to qualify the current method. These comparisons showed that this method provides satisfactory results. 'Me concentration measurement system was used to measure the concentrations in the complex flow field of a model gas turbine annular combustor. The model annular combustor consists of opposing primary jets and an annular jet which discharges perpendicular to the primary jets. The mixing between the different jet flows can be visualized from the calculated mean and rms profiles. Concentration field visualization images obtained from the processing provide further qualitative information about the flow field.

  18. Annular and Total Solar Eclipses of 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, J.

    2008-01-01

    While most NASA eclipse bulletins cover a single eclipse, this publication presents predictions for two solar eclipses during 2010. This has required a different organization of the material into the following sections. Section 1 -- Eclipse Predictions: The section consists of a general discussion about the eclipse path maps, Besselian elements, shadow contacts, eclipse path tables, local circumstances tables, and the lunar limb profile. Section 2 -- Annular Solar Eclipse of 2010 Ja n 15: The section covers predictions and weather prospects for the annular eclipse. Section 3 -- Total Solar Eclipse of 2010 Jul 11: The se ction covers predictions and weather prospects for the total eclipse. Section 4 -- Observing Eclipses: The section provides information on eye safety, solar filters, eclipse photography, and making contact timings from the path limits. Section 5 -- Eclipse Resources: The final section contains a number of resources including information on the IAU Working Group on Eclipses, the Solar Eclipse Mailing List, the NASA eclipse bulletins on the Internet, Web sites for the two 2010 eclipses, and a summary identifying the algorithms, ephemerides, and paramete rs used in the eclipse predictions.

  19. Multicomponent separations using a continuous annular chromatograph

    SciTech Connect

    Begovich, J.M.

    1982-12-01

    Multicomponent liquid chromatographic separations have been achieved by using a slowly rotating annular bed of sorbent material. By continuously introducing the feed material to be separated at a stationary point at the top of the bed and eluent everywhere else around the annulus, elution chromatography occurs. The rotation rate of the sorbent bed causes the separated components to appear as helical bands, each of which has a characteristic, stationary exit point; hence, the separation process is truly continuous. The continuous separation of copper, nickel, and cobalt from an ammoniacal leach liquor has been used to evaluate the behavior and capabilities of a variety of continuous annular chromatographs (CACs). The experimental units ranged in diameter from 89 to 445 mm and in annulus width from 6 to 51 mm. The effects of feed rate, feed concentration, rotation rate, eluent and eluent velocity, and column size were experimentally determined and modeled to show how they affect the performance of a CAC system. Use of the described models should allow confident design of new CAC units for performing continuous separations on a preparative scale. With its capability for continuously separating many components using one or a number of eluents, the CAC should make chromatography a competitive process in many industrial applications. 21 tables, 105 figures.

  20. Signatures of an annular Fermi sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Insun; Liu, Yang; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.; Baldwin, K. W.; Shayegan, M.; Winkler, R.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of a Fermi surface, the constant-energy surface containing all the occupied electron states in momentum, or wave-vector (k ) , space plays a key role in determining electronic properties of conductors. In two-dimensional (2D) carrier systems, the Fermi surface becomes a contour which, in the simplest case, encircles the occupied states. In this case, the area enclosed by the contour, which we refer to as the Fermi sea (FS), is a simple disk. Here we report the observation of an FS with a new topology, namely, an FS in the shape of an annulus. Such an FS is expected in a variety of 2D systems where the energy band dispersion supports a ring of extrema at finite k , but its experimental observation has been elusive. Our study provides (1) theoretical evidence for the presence of an annular FS in 2D hole systems confined to wide GaAs quantum wells and (2) experimental signatures of the onset of its occupation as an abrupt rise in the sample resistance, accompanied by a sudden appearance of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations at an unexpectedly high frequency whose value does not simply correspond to the (negligible) density of holes contained within the annular FS.

  1. Controlling the pressure within an annular volume of a wellbore

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, Robert E.; Gonzalez, Manuel E.; Llewellyn, Brian C.; Bloys, James B.

    2010-06-29

    A process is described for replacing at least a portion of the liquid within the annular volume of a casing system within a wellbore with a second liquid. The second liquid is preselected to provide a measure of control of the pressure within the annular volume as the fluid within the volume is being heated.

  2. Controlling the pressure within an annular volume of a wellbore

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, Robert E.; Gonzalez, Manuel E.; Llewellyn, Brian C.; Bloys, James B.

    2011-01-18

    A process is described for replacing at least a portion of the liquid within the annular volume of a casing system within a wellbore with a second liquid. The second liquid is preselected to provide a measure of control of the pressure within the annular volume as the fluid within the volume is being heated.

  3. Controlling the pressure within an annular volume of a wellbore

    SciTech Connect

    Hermes, Robert E.; Gonzalez, Manuel E.; Llewellyn, Brian C.; Bloys, James B.; Coates, Don M.

    2011-06-21

    A process is described for replacing at least a portion of the liquid within the annular volume of a casing system within a wellbore with a second liquid. The second liquid is preselected to provide a measure of control of the pressure within the annular volume as the fluid within the volume is being heated.

  4. Controlling the pressure within an annular volume of a wellbore

    SciTech Connect

    Hermes, Robert E.; Gonzalez, Manuel E.; Llewellyn, Brian C.; Bloys, James B.; Coates, Don M.

    2011-05-31

    A process is described for replacing at least a portion of the liquid within the annular volume of a casing system within a wellbore with a second liquid. The second liquid is preselected to provide a measure of control of the pressure within the annular volume as the fluid within the volume is being heated.

  5. Localized interstitial granuloma annulare induced by subcutaneous injections for desensitization.

    PubMed

    Spring, Philipp; Vernez, Maxime; Maniu, Christa-Maria; Hohl, Daniel

    2013-06-15

    We describe a patient with interstitial granuloma annulare associated with subcutaneous injection therapy (SIT) for desensitization to a type I allergy. Asymptomatic, erythematous, violaceous annular patches were located at the injection sites on both her arms. Medical history revealed perennial rhinoconjonctivitis treated with SIT (Phostal Stallergen® cat 100% and D. pteronyssinus/D.farinae 50%:50%).

  6. Annular beam shaping and optical trepanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Danyong

    Percussion drilling and trepanning are two laser drilling methods. Percussion drilling is accomplished by focusing the laser beam to approximately the required diameter of the hole, exposing the material to one or a series of laser pulses at the same spot to melt and vaporize the material. Drilling by trepanning involves cutting a hole by rotating a laser beam with an optical element or an x-y galvo-scanner. Optical trepanning is a new laser drilling method using an annular beam. The annular beams allow numerous irradiance profiles to supply laser energy to the workpiece and thus provide more flexibility in affecting the hole quality than a traditional circular laser beam. Heating depth is important for drilling application. Since there are no good ways to measure the temperature inside substrate during the drilling process, an analytical model for optical trepanning has been developed by considering an axisymmetric, transient heat conduction equation, and the evolutions of the melting temperature isotherm, which is referred to as the melt boundary in this study, are calculated to investigate the influences of the laser pulse shapes and intensity profiles on the hole geometry. This mathematical model provides a means of understanding the thermal effect of laser irradiation with different annular beam shapes. To take account of conduction in the solid, vaporization and convection due to the melt flow caused by an assist gas, an analytical two-dimensional model is developed for optical trepanning. The influences of pulse duration, laser pulse length, pulse repetition rate, intensity profiles and beam radius are investigated to examine their effects on the recast layer thickness, hole depth and taper. The ray tracing technique of geometrical optics is employed to design the necessary optics to transform a Gaussian laser beam into an annular beam of different intensity profiles. Such profiles include half Gaussian with maximum intensities at the inner and outer

  7. Vaginal delivery through annular placenta – case report

    PubMed Central

    Živković, Nikica; Krezo, Stipe; Matijević, Ratko; Živković, Krešimir

    2013-01-01

    Annular placenta is an extremely rare morphological type of human placenta. It is commonly related to placental vessel abnormalities frequently causing antenatal and postnatal hemorrhage and operative delivery. Gravida 4 para 1 had an uneventful course of pregnancy and normal vaginal delivery followed by moderate postpartum hemorrhage. Hemorrhage was found to be local in origin but the placenta was annular in shape and the newborn was delivered through one of the openings. Annular placenta was not recognized before delivery. Its implantation site was in the lower uterine segment but high enough to allow the passage of the fetus through its annular defect and vaginal birth. To our knowledge, this is a first report of annular placenta ending in normal vaginal delivery. PMID:23630149

  8. Vortex beam based more stable annular laser guide star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ruiyao; Cui, Wenda; Li, Lei; Sun, Quan; He, Yulong; Wang, Hongyan; Ning, Yu; Xu, Xiaojun

    2016-11-01

    We present an annular laser guide star (LGS) concept for large ground-based telescopes in this paper. The more stable annular LGS is generated by turbulence-resisted vortex beam. In the uplink, a vortex beam tends to wander more slightly than a Gaussian beam does in atmospheric turbulence. This may enable an annular LGS to wander more slightly than a traditional Gaussian beam generated LGS does, which would ease the burden of uplink tip-tilt mirror and benefit a dynamical closed-loop adaptive optics system. We conducted numerical simulation to validate the feasibility of this concept. And we have gotten 31% reduced variance of spot wandering of annular LGS. Besides, we set up a spatial light modulator based laser guide star simulator for beam propagation in turbulent atmosphere to experimentally test the annular LGS concept. Preliminary experimental results are given. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time this concept is formulated.

  9. Research of annular polishing asymmetric ZnS plane window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Weijin; Tong, Yi; Jin, Yuzhu; Lin, Nana

    2016-10-01

    Due the annular polishing technology for planar optical components do not have the sharp selectivity, annular polishing technology is a very import process to fabricate irregular planar elements which with high precision surface shape and low surface roughness. According to the characteristics of annular polishing, the zns asymmetric plane window annular polishing process and key technical parameters control was researched. In this paper, one pair of asymmetric planar ZnS window parts were machined which diagonal length is 147mm, through technology experiments, obtained process test samples. The surface figures of the plane zns window are measured by a Zygo interferometer and the reflect wavefront P-V value is better than 1.5λ, the reflect wavefront local error rms value is better than 0.05λ (λ=632.8nm). Experiments results demonstrate the effectiveness of annular processing technology was used to manufacture zinc sulfide asymmetric shape plane window.

  10. Atomic-level imaging of Mo-V-O complex oxide phase intergrowth, grain boundaries, and defects using HAADF-STEM

    PubMed Central

    Pyrz, William D.; Blom, Douglas A.; Sadakane, Masahiro; Kodato, Katsunori; Ueda, Wataru; Vogt, Thomas; Buttrey, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we structurally characterize defects, grain boundaries, and intergrowth phases observed in various Mo-V-O materials using aberration-corrected high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) imaging within a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Atomic-level imaging of these preparations clearly shows domains of the orthorhombic M1-type phase intergrown with the trigonal phase. Idealized models based on HAADF imaging indicate that atomic-scale registry at the domain boundaries can be seamless with several possible trigonal and M1-type unit cell orientation relationships. The alignment of two trigonal domains separated by an M1-type domain or vice versa can be predicted by identifying the number of rows/columns of parallel symmetry operators. Intergrowths of the M1 catalyst with the M2 phase or with the Mo5O14-type phase have not been observed. The resolution enhancements provided by aberration-correction have provided new insights to the understanding of phase equilibria of complex Mo-V-O materials. This study exemplifies the utility of STEM for the characterization of local structure at crystalline phase boundaries. PMID:20308579

  11. Mitral Annular Systolic Velocities Predict Left Ventricular Wall Motion Abnormality During Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Dawod; Sharif-Rasslan, Amal; Shahla, Camilia

    2011-01-01

    Background Longitudinal systolic left ventricular contraction is complementary to the radial performance and can be assessed using tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). This study was performed to evaluate the contribution of mitral annular systolic velocities using TDI after dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). Methods and Results Fifty subjects with suspected coronary artery disease and chest pain were examined, using DSE as usual, as well as TDI imaging of the mitral annulus at the septal, lateral, inferior, anterior, posterior regions and the proximal anteroseptal region from the apical views, before and immediately after DSE. In 24 subjects the study was normal, while wall motion abnormality was seen in 26, 9 of them only after DSE. Mitral annular systolic velocity at the 6 locations increased significantly after DSE both in normal subjects and in those with wall motion abnormality (WMA). After DSE mitral annular septal systolic velocity in normals, 19.2 ± 3.8 cm/sec, was higher than in those with WMA, 14.6 ± 2.5 cm/sec, P < 0.0003. Post-DSE mitral systolic velocity was senstive and accurate in predicting WMA. Conclusions Systolic mitral TDI velocities increase after DSE, however to a lesser extent in those with wall motion abnormality, and can differentiate them from normal subjects.

  12. Atomic imaging of the coherent interface between orientedly-attached Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jing-xu; Yuan, Rui; Luo, Rui-chun; Chen, Bin

    2016-07-15

    In this paper, coherent interfaces between orientedly-attached (OA) Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are fully reconstructed based on atomic-scale high angle annular dark field (HAADF) - scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) direct imaging technique. According to the characterization, five characteristics of the oriented attachment between Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} are proposed: (1) [100]{sub Mn3O4} direction sharing; (2) crystallographic plane sharing for every two attached particles; (3) preference for O{sup 2−} close-packed crystallographic planes to form the OA interface; (4) “defect transfers” compensating the deviation between the macroscopic interface and the atomic interface; (5) possible chemical state changes of the interfacial atoms. - Highlights: • Advanced Cs-corrected STEM is applied to obtain atomic-scale images. • The complex interfaces between orientedly-attached Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are fully reconstructed. • “Defect transfer” phenomenon is observed for the first time.

  13. A dark-field microscope for background-free detection of resonance fluorescence from single semiconductor quantum dots operating in a set-and-forget mode

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlmann, Andreas V.; Houel, Julien; Warburton, Richard J.; Brunner, Daniel; Ludwig, Arne; Reuter, Dirk; Wieck, Andreas D.

    2013-07-15

    Optically active quantum dots, for instance self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots, are potentially excellent single photon sources. The fidelity of the single photons is much improved using resonant rather than non-resonant excitation. With resonant excitation, the challenge is to distinguish between resonance fluorescence and scattered laser light. We have met this challenge by creating a polarization-based dark-field microscope to measure the resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot at low temperature. We achieve a suppression of the scattered laser exceeding a factor of 10{sup 7} and background-free detection of resonance fluorescence. The same optical setup operates over the entire quantum dot emission range (920–980 nm) and also in high magnetic fields. The major development is the outstanding long-term stability: once the dark-field point has been established, the microscope operates for days without alignment. The mechanical and optical designs of the microscope are presented, as well as exemplary resonance fluorescence spectroscopy results on individual quantum dots to underline the microscope's excellent performance.

  14. A dark-field microscope for background-free detection of resonance fluorescence from single semiconductor quantum dots operating in a set-and-forget mode.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, Andreas V; Houel, Julien; Brunner, Daniel; Ludwig, Arne; Reuter, Dirk; Wieck, Andreas D; Warburton, Richard J

    2013-07-01

    Optically active quantum dots, for instance self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots, are potentially excellent single photon sources. The fidelity of the single photons is much improved using resonant rather than non-resonant excitation. With resonant excitation, the challenge is to distinguish between resonance fluorescence and scattered laser light. We have met this challenge by creating a polarization-based dark-field microscope to measure the resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot at low temperature. We achieve a suppression of the scattered laser exceeding a factor of 10(7) and background-free detection of resonance fluorescence. The same optical setup operates over the entire quantum dot emission range (920-980 nm) and also in high magnetic fields. The major development is the outstanding long-term stability: once the dark-field point has been established, the microscope operates for days without alignment. The mechanical and optical designs of the microscope are presented, as well as exemplary resonance fluorescence spectroscopy results on individual quantum dots to underline the microscope's excellent performance.

  15. Annular nanoantenna on fibre micro-axicon.

    PubMed

    Grosjean, T; Fahys, A; Suarez, M; Charraut, D; Salut, R; Courjon, D

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we propose to extend the concept of loop antenna to the optical domain. The aim is to develop a new generation of optical nanocollectors that are sensitive to specific electric or magnetic vectorial field components. For validating our approach, a preliminary one-micron-diameter gold nanoring is micromachined on the apex of a cone lens obtained from a tapered optical fibre. It is shown that such a nano-object behaves as a nano-antenna able to detect the longitudinal electric field from a Bessel beam in radial polarization and the longitudinal magnetic component from a Bessel beam in azimuthal polarization. In the latter case, the annular nano-antenna exhibits the properties of an optical inductance.

  16. Annular Ion Engine Concept and Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The Annular Ion Engine (AIE) concept represents an evolutionary development in gridded ion thruster technology with the potential for delivering revolutionary capabilities. It has this potential because the AIE concept: (a) enables scaling of ion thruster technology to high power at specific impulse (Isp) values of interest for near-term mission applications, 5000 sec; and (b) it enables an increase in both thrust density and thrust-to-power (FP) ratio exceeding conventional ion thrusters and other electric propulsion (EP) technology options, thereby yielding the highest performance over a broad range in Isp. The AIE concept represents a natural progression of gridded ion thruster technology beyond the capabilities embodied by NASAs Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) [1]. The AIE would be appropriate for: (a) applications which require power levels exceeding NEXTs capabilities (up to about 14 kW [2]), with scalability potentially to 100s of kW; and/or (b) applications which require FP conditions exceeding NEXTs capabilities.

  17. The Liquid Annular Reactor System (LARS) propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, James; Ludewig, Hans; Horn, Frederick; Lenard, Roger

    1990-01-01

    A concept for very high specific impulse (greater than 2000 seconds) direct nuclear propulsion is described. The concept, termed the liquid annular reactor system (LARS), uses liquid nuclear fuel elements to heat hydrogen propellant to very high temperatures (approximately 6000 K). Operating pressure is moderate (approximately 10 atm), with the result that the outlet hydrogen is virtually 100 percent dissociated to monatomic H. The molten fuel is contained in a solid container of its own material, which is rotated to stabilize the liquid layer by centripetal force. LARS reactor designs are described, together with neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analyses. Power levels are on the order of 200 megawatts. Typically, LARS designs use seven rotating fuel elements, are beryllium moderated, and have critical radii of approximately 100 cm (core L/D approximately equal to 1.5).

  18. Separation of sugars by continuous annular chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, A.J.; Carta, G.; Byers, C.H.

    1987-08-01

    Continuous chromatographic separations of aqueous fructose-glucose-sucrose solutions have been investigated in a laboratory-scale continuous annular chromatograph (CAC) using calcium-exchanged Dowex 50W-X8 resin. Comparative studies have also been conducted using a conventional fixed-bed column packed with the same resin. Complete resolution of fructose-glucose mixtures could be obtained both in a 60-cm-long CAC and in a conventional column of the same length with a sugar feed concentration of up to 200 g/L. Partial resolution of sucrose in three component mixtures was also obtained, and the three sugars were completely separated from added higher-molecular-weight saccharides. Results have been analyzed in terms of approximate linear chromatographic theories and orthogonal collocation of exact mass transfer model equations for fixed and rotating beds. A systematic, comparative evaluation of factors affecting process performance and design procedures is presented.

  19. Separator sub with annular flow passage

    SciTech Connect

    Hayatdavoudi, A.; Adams, L. M.

    1984-12-18

    Apparatus and methods are disclosed for drilling a well. A separator sub includes a cyclone separator which separates a stream of drilling mud into a less dense first portion and more dense second portion. The stream of drilling mud flows downward in an annular stream around the cyclone separator and then flows into a lower end of the cyclone separator. The less dense first portion of the stream of drilling mud is directed from the cyclone separator downward to a drill bit so that the drilling mud adjacent the drill bit has a density less than an initial density of the stream of drilling mud. The more dense second portion of the stream of drilling mud is directed upward from the cyclone separator and is ejected into a well annulus with an upward component of velocity and thereby reduces a hydrostatic drilling mud pressure adjacent the drill bit.

  20. Annular array and method of manufacturing same

    DOEpatents

    Day, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    A method for manufacturing an annular acoustic transducer array from a plate of transducer material, which enables production of precision aligned arrays at low cost. The circular plate is sawed along at least two lines that are radial to the axis of the plate. At steps along each radial cut, the plate is rotated first in one direction and then in an opposite direction by a predetermined angle such as slightly less than 90.degree.. The cuts result in the forming of several largely ring-shaped lands, each largely ring-shaped land being joined to the other rings of different radii by thin portions of the plate, and each ring being cut into segments. The bridges that join different rings, hold the transducer together until it can be mounted on a lens.

  1. Dense annular flows of granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ryck, Alain; Louisnard, Olivier

    2013-06-01

    Dense granular flows constitute an important topic for geophysics and process engineering. To describe them, a rheology based on the coaxiality between the stress and strain tensors with a Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion has been proposed. We propose here an analytic study of flows in an annular cell, with this rheology. This geometry is relevant for a series of powder rheometers or mixing devices, but the discussion is focused on the split-bottom geometry, for which the internal flow has been investigated by NMR technique. In this case, the full resolution of the velocity and stress fields allow to localize the shear deformations. The theoretical results obtained for the latter are compared with the torque measurements by Dijksman et al. [Phys. Rev. E, 82 (2010) 060301].

  2. Simulation of cryogenic turbopump annular seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazzolo, Alan B.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the current work is to develop software that can accurately predict the dynamic coefficients, forces, leakage and horsepower loss for annular seals which have a potential for affecting the rotordynamic behavior of the pumps. The fruit of last year's research was the computer code SEALPAL which included capabilities for linear tapered geometry, Moody friction factor and inlet pre-swirl. This code produced results which in most cases compared very well with check cases presented in the literature. TAMUSEAL Icode, which was written to improve SEALPAL by correcting a bug and by adding more accurate integration algorithms and additional capabilities, was then used to predict dynamic coefficients and leakage for the NASA/Pratt and Whitney Alternate Turbopump Development (ATD) LOX Pump's seal.

  3. Trauma-related papular granuloma annular.

    PubMed

    Hu, Stephanie W; Kaplan, Jennifer; Patel, Rishi R; Kamino, Hideko

    2013-12-16

    Granuloma annulare (GA) is a benign, granulomatous disease with several clinical manifestations, which include localized, generalized, perforating, subcutaneous, patch, papular, and linear forms. We report a case of papular GA of the dorsal aspects of the hands that arose after repeated, direct trauma to the site of subsequent involvement. Although multiple etiologies for GA have been proposed, which include ultraviolet light, arthropod bites, trauma, tuberculin skin tests, viral infections, and PUVA photochemotherapy, the underlying pathogenesis of the disorder remains unclear. However, owing to the key histopathologic findings of focal collagen and elastic fiber degeneration and mucin deosition in GA, it is not surprising that cutaneous trauma may have played a role in connective tissue injury, subsequent degeneration, and the production of a granulomatous response with increased mucin deposition.

  4. Annular MHD Physics for Turbojet Energy Bypass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    The use of annular Hall type MHD generator/accelerator ducts for turbojet energy bypass is evaluated assuming weakly ionized flows obtained from pulsed nanosecond discharges. The equations for a 1-D, axisymmetric MHD generator/accelerator are derived and numerically integrated to determine the generator/accelerator performance characteristics. The concept offers a shockless means of interacting with high speed inlet flows and potentially offers variable inlet geometry performance without the complexity of moving parts simply by varying the generator loading parameter. The cycle analysis conducted iteratively with a spike inlet and turbojet flying at M = 7 at 30 km altitude is estimated to have a positive thrust per unit mass flow of 185 N-s/kg. The turbojet allowable combustor temperature is set at an aggressive 2200 deg K. The annular MHD Hall generator/accelerator is L = 3 m in length with a B(sub r) = 5 Tesla magnetic field and a conductivity of sigma = 5 mho/m for the generator and sigma= 1.0 mho/m for the accelerator. The calculated isentropic efficiency for the generator is eta(sub sg) = 84 percent at an enthalpy extraction ratio, eta(sub Ng) = 0.63. The calculated isentropic efficiency for the accelerator is eta(sub sa) = 81 percent at an enthalpy addition ratio, eta(sub Na) = 0.62. An assessment of the ionization fraction necessary to achieve a conductivity of sigma = 1.0 mho/m is n(sub e)/n = 1.90 X 10(exp -6), and for sigma = 5.0 mho/m is n(sub e)/n = 9.52 X 10(exp -6).

  5. Performance limits of binary annular phase masks codesigned for depth-of-field extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcón, Rafael; Goudail, François; Kulcsár, Caroline; Sauer, Hervé

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the performance limits of hybrid imaging systems including annular binary phase masks optimized for depth-of-field (DoF) extension, as a function of the number of rings and the desired DoF range. The mask parameters are optimized taking into account deconvolution of the acquired raw image in the expression of the global performance of the imaging system. We prove that masks with a limited number of rings are sufficient to obtain near-optimal performance. Moreover, the best achievable image quality decreases as the required DoF range increases, so that for a given required image quality, the DoF extension reachable with binary phase masks is bounded. Finally, these conclusions are shown to be robust against different optical system aberrations and models of scene power spectral density. These results are important in practice to decide if annular binary phase masks are the relevant solution for a given imaging problem and for mask manufacturing, since the number and thickness of the rings reachable at affordable cost by technology are generally limited.

  6. Actinic Granuloma Annulare With Scarring and Open Comedones.

    PubMed

    Gavioli, Cfb; Valente, Nys; Sangueza, M; Nico, M M

    2017-02-14

    Actinic granuloma and annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma are variants of granuloma annulare affecting, respectively, sun-exposed and sun-covered skin sites on where, besides classical findings, abundant elastophagocytosis is observed. Here, we report a case of exuberant actinic granuloma annulare that, in addition to extensive scarring, showed multiple overlying open comedones. Markedly dilated follicular infundibula filled with compact masses of laminated keratinous material were observed in proximity to dermal inflammation composed of many histiocytes and multinucleated giant cells in close association with degenerated elastic fibers and abundant elastophagocytosis.

  7. Annular Plasmas for Intense X-Radiation Sources: Assessment Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-14

    AD-Al29 382 ANNULAR PLASMAS FOR INTENSE X-RADIATION4 SOURCES: f ASSESSMENT REPORT(U) OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH LONDON (ENGLAND) D MOSHER 14 MAR 83...STANDARDS 1963-A CNR LON inPO.T R-4-83 OFFICEIF NAVAL ___ ___ ___ ___ ANNULAR PLASMAS FOR INTENSE X-RADIATION SOURCES: ASSESSMENT REPORT D. MOSHER 14 MARCH...REPORT B PFmoo COVERED Annular Plasmas for Intense X-radiation Sources: Assessment Asses’sment Report I. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMSER 7. AUTHOR(*) S

  8. Principle of radial transport in low temperature annular plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yunchao Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod

    2015-07-15

    Radial transport in low temperature annular plasmas is investigated theoretically in this paper. The electrons are assumed to be in quasi-equilibrium due to their high temperature and light inertial mass. The ions are not in equilibrium and their transport is analyzed in three different situations: a low electric field (LEF) model, an intermediate electric field (IEF) model, and a high electric field (HEF) model. The universal IEF model smoothly connects the LEF and HEF models at their respective electric field strength limits and gives more accurate results of the ion mobility coefficient and effective ion temperature over the entire electric field strength range. Annular modelling is applied to an argon plasma and numerical results of the density peak position, the annular boundary loss coefficient and the electron temperature are given as functions of the annular geometry ratio and Paschen number.

  9. Virtual cathode microwave generator having annular anode slit

    DOEpatents

    Kwan, Thomas J. T.; Snell, Charles M.

    1988-01-01

    A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit therethrough effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators.

  10. Principle of radial transport in low temperature annular plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunchao; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod

    2015-07-01

    Radial transport in low temperature annular plasmas is investigated theoretically in this paper. The electrons are assumed to be in quasi-equilibrium due to their high temperature and light inertial mass. The ions are not in equilibrium and their transport is analyzed in three different situations: a low electric field (LEF) model, an intermediate electric field (IEF) model, and a high electric field (HEF) model. The universal IEF model smoothly connects the LEF and HEF models at their respective electric field strength limits and gives more accurate results of the ion mobility coefficient and effective ion temperature over the entire electric field strength range. Annular modelling is applied to an argon plasma and numerical results of the density peak position, the annular boundary loss coefficient and the electron temperature are given as functions of the annular geometry ratio and Paschen number.

  11. Performance analysis and optimization of eccentric annular disk fins

    SciTech Connect

    Kundu, B.; Das, P.K.

    1999-02-01

    In the first part of the paper, a semi-analytical method has been described for solving the two-dimensional heat conduction equation in an eccentric annular disk fin circumscribing a circular tube, subjected to convective cooling. Analysis has been done considering both convective and insulated conditions at the fin tip. The effects of surface and tip heat transfer coefficients and eccentricity on the performance of the fin have been studied. Comparative studies have also been made between the performance of concentric and eccentric fins with same radius ratio. Next, the optimum dimensions for eccentric annular fins have been determined using Lagrange multiplier technique. In the scheme, either the fin volume or the heat transfer duty can be taken as the constraint. Finally, it has been shown that when space restriction is imposed on one side of the tube, eccentric annular fins can be designed to have lesser volumes compared to concentric annular fins above a certain heat transfer duty.

  12. Ultrasonic annular array system for detecting tissue motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhanna, Hisham; Trummer, Birget; Kargel, Christian M.; Insana, Michael F.

    2002-04-01

    We are developing ultrasonic strain-flow imaging instrumentation specifically to facilitate improved diagnosis of breast tissue disease. An 8-ring, 30-mm-diameter, f/1.5, spherically focused annular array was built to generate broadband, 10 MHz pulses at a rate up to 10 KHz. This transducer uses the synthetic receive aperture technique to record echoes while being mechanically steered by a linear positioner under microprocessor control. Specifically, a 200Vpp signal is applied to all rings simultaneously on transmission. Individual rings are then sequentially multiplexed to a receiver. Echoes are dynamically delayed and coherently summed off-line to adjust the receive focus and extend the depth of focus. The aperture material is a 1-3 composite built by Imasonic SA, Besancon, France. One advantage of the design is that it provides a well-focused axisymmetric beam with an improved depth of focus to acquire images at a high spatial resolution. Pulse-echo simulations of our array using the Field II software package show a -6dB beam width at 0.24 mm and -6dB depth of focus at 2.4 mm that can be extended to 3.2 mm with dynamic focusing. These simulations agree with later measurements performed on the transducer. Our flexible aperture design allows us to drop outer rings significantly increasing the depth of focus (up to 56% increase by dropping 3 rings) with a tolerable decrease in lateral resolution (27% increase in beam width). We expect that our probe will enable us to examine detailed biological processes throughout the malignant growth period of a tumor tissue that exhibits elastic anisotropy, thus providing high resolution ultrasound images over an extended and adjustable depth of field.

  13. The effect of pulmonary hypertension on ovine tricuspid annular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Marcin; Wilton, Penny; Khaghani, Asghar; Langholz, David; Hooker, Victoria; Eberhart, Lenora; Hooker, Robert L; Timek, Tomasz A

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PHT) is associated with tricuspid annular dilatation, but the effect of acute increase of pulmonary pressure on three-dimensional (3D) tricuspid annular dynamics and shape is unknown. Better understanding of tricuspid annular dynamics may lead to improved and more durable surgical reparative techniques. In nine open-chest anaesthetized sheep nine sonomicrometry crystals were implanted on the right ventricle while on cardiopulmonary bypass. Additional nine crystals were implanted around the tricuspid annulus (TA) with one crystal at each commissure defining three separate annular regions: anterior, posterior and septal. Two additional equidistant crystals were implanted between each commissure, creating three segments for every region. Pressure transducers were placed in the left ventricular (LV), right ventricular (RV) and right atrium. PHT was induced by acute pulmonary artery constriction with a pneumatic occluder. Sonomicrometry and echocardiographic data were collected before and after induction of PHT. TA area, regional and total perimeter, and 3D annular geometry were calculated from 3D crystal coordinates. Regional annular contraction was defined as the percentage difference between maximal and minimal region length during the cardiac cycle. PHT increased RV pressure from 31 ± 9 mmHg to 46 ± 13 mmHg (P = 0.001) and decreased left ventricular (LV) pressure from 111 ± 24 mmHg to 78 ± 36 mmHg (P = 0.018). There was no significant tricuspid regurgitation observed with PHT. During PHT, the TA area increased by 12 ± 13% from 641 ± 139 mm(2) to 721 ± 177 mm(2) (P = 0.037). The total perimeter increased from 103 ± 11 mm to 109 ± 13 mm (P = 0.02). All annular regions dilated significantly with PHT with 8 ± 10, 5 ± 5 and 5 ± 5% increase in anterior, posterior and septal annular length, respectively (P < 0.05). PHT reduced regional annular contraction in the anterior region only (17 ± 7 vs 14 ± 8%; P = 0.02). The TA had a complex 3

  14. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Manipulation of Nanoparticles Using Dark-Field-Illumination Optical Tweezers with Compensating Spherical Aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jin-Hua; Tao, Run-Zhe; Hu, Zhi-Bin; Zhong, Min-Cheng; Wang, Zi-Qiang; Cai, Jun; Li, Yin-Mei

    2009-06-01

    Based on our previous investigation of optical tweezers with dark field illumination [Chin. Phys. Lett. 25(2008)329], nanoparticles at large trap depth are better viewed in wide field and real time for a long time, but with poor forces. Here we present the mismatched tube length to compensate for spherical aberration of an oil-immersion objective in a glass-water interface in an optical tweezers system for manipulating nanoparticles. In this way, the critical power of stable trapping particles is measured at different trap depths. It is found that trap depth is enlarged for trapping nanoparticles and trapping forces are enhanced at large trap depth. According to the measurement, 70-nm particles are manipulated in three dimensions and observed clearly at large appropriate depth. This will expand applications of optical tweezers in a nanometre-scale colloidal system.

  15. Dark-field-based observation of single-nanoparticle dynamics on a supported lipid bilayer for in situ analysis of interacting molecules and nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Kwang; Kim, Sungi; Nam, Jwa-Min

    2015-01-12

    Observation of single plasmonic nanoparticles in reconstituted biological systems allows us to obtain snapshots of dynamic processes between molecules and nanoparticles with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution and single-molecule/single-particle-level data acquisition. This Concept is intended to introduce nanoparticle-tethered supported lipid bilayer platforms that allow for the dynamic confinement of nanoparticles on a two-dimensional fluidic surface. The dark-field-based long-term, stable, real-time observation of freely diffusing plasmonic nanoparticles on a lipid bilayer enables one to extract a broad range of information about interparticle and molecular interactions throughout the entire reaction period. Herein, we highlight important developments in this context to provide ideas on how molecular interactions can be interpreted by monitoring dynamic behaviors and optical signals of laterally mobile nanoparticles.

  16. Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma: A report of 10 cases

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Sandeep; Malik, Ajay; Patil, Chetan; Balki, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma initially described by O’Brien in 1975 is a disorder of uncertain etiopathogenesis presenting with annular erythematous plaques predominantly on the sun-exposed areas. Hisptopathologically, it is characterized by elastin degenration, multinucleate giant cells, and elastophagocytosis. The authors came across 10 such cases, which were managed with hydroxychloroquine resulting in complete resolution in 4–6 months. PMID:26904442

  17. Annular Arrays Of Solar Cells For Spinning Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spilker, Thomas R.

    1995-01-01

    Report proposes annular arrays of solar photovoltaic cells installed on spin-stabilized spacecraft. Annular array faces Sun. Typical array consists of two stacked annuli of solar cells: one annulus fixed about spin axis, while other divided into deployable sectors mounted on dual swing arms and stowed by folding them atop fixed annulus. Once released, deployable sectors swing outward under spring or centrifugal force and expose fixed array so it generates additional power.

  18. Experimental Results for an Annular Aerospike with Differential Throttling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Joseph H.; McDaniels, David M.

    2005-01-01

    A) MSFC funded an internal study on Altitude Compensating Nozzles: 1) Develop an ACN design and performance prediction tool. 2) Design, build and test cold flow ACN nozzles. 3) An annular aerospike nozzle was designed and tested. 4) Incorporated differential throttling to assess Thrust Vector Control. B) Objective of the test hardware: 1) Provide design tool verification. 2) Provide benchmark data for CFD calculations. 3) Experimentally measure side force, or TVC, for a differentially throttled annular aerospike.

  19. Description of a laboratory model Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, N. J.

    1984-01-01

    The basic concept of the Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD) is that of a rotating annular rim suspended by noncontacting magnetic bearings and driven by a noncontacting electromagnetic spin motor. The purpose of this paper is to highlight some of the design requirements for AMCD's in general and describe how these requirements were met in the implementation of laboratory test model AMCD. An AMCD background summary is presented.

  20. Elastic-plastic analysis of annular plate problems using NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, P. C. T.

    1983-01-01

    The plate elements of the NASTRAN code are used to analyze two annular plate problems loaded beyond the elastic limit. The first problem is an elastic-plastic annular plate loaded externally by two concentrated forces. The second problem is stressed radially by uniform internal pressure for which an exact analytical solution is available. A comparison of the two approaches together with an assessment of the NASTRAN code is given.

  1. Evaluation of a laboratory test model annular momentum control device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, N. J.; Terray, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    A 4068 Nm Sec laboratory test model annular momentum control device (AMCD) was described and static and dynamic test results were presented. An AMCD is a spinning annular rim suspended by noncontacting magnetic bearings and powered by a noncontacting linear electromagnetic motor. Test results include spin motor torque characteristics and spin motor and magnetic bearing drag losses. Limitations of some of the design approaches taken was also discussed.

  2. CNN-coupled Humanoid Panoramic Annular Lens (PAL)-Optical System for Military Applications (Feasibility Study)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greguss, Pal

    2002-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking OPTOPAL Panoramic Metrology Consulting as follows: This investigation will consist of adaptation of a Hungarian-developed single-piece imaging block, the Panoramic Annular Lens (PAL) and the CNN chip for a few military applications. A polar beam splitter will be placed immediately after the relay lens to obtain two image planes, one will be used by the existing 64X64 CNN-UM focal plane array processor chip. The other image plane will be projected on the space-variant CMOS retina-like digital camera GIOTTO. Using this configuration enables us to compensate for the relatively low pixel number of the CNN-UM array processor; further it will allow a real time switching from log-polar imaging to regular imaging and allow for the design of the humanoid PAL optical system.

  3. New mitral annular force transducer optimized to distinguish annular segments and multi-plane forces.

    PubMed

    Skov, Søren Nielsen; Røpcke, Diana Mathilde; Ilkjær, Christine; Rasmussen, Jonas; Tjørnild, Marcell Juan; Jimenez, Jorge H; Yoganathan, Ajit P; Nygaard, Hans; Nielsen, Sten Lyager; Jensen, Morten Olgaard

    2016-03-21

    Limited knowledge exists about the forces acting on mitral valve annuloplasty repair devices. The aim of this study was to develop a new mitral annular force transducer to measure the forces acting on clinically used mitral valve annuloplasty devices. The design of an X-shaped transducer in the present study was optimized for simultaneous in- and out-of-plane force measurements. Each arm was mounted with strain gauges on four circumferential elements to measure out-of-plane forces, and the central parts of the X-arms were mounted with two strain gauges to measure in-plane forces. A dedicated calibration setup was developed to calibrate isolated forces with tension and compression for in- and out-of-plane measurements. With this setup, it was possible with linear equations to isolate and distinguish measured forces between the two planes and minimize transducer arm crosstalk. An in-vitro test was performed to verify the crosstalk elimination method and the assumptions behind it. The force transducer was implanted and evaluated in an 80kg porcine in-vivo model. Following crosstalk elimination, in-plane systolic force accumulation was found to be in average 4.0±0.1N and the out-of-plane annular segments experienced an average force of 1.4±0.4N. Directions of the systolic out-of-plane forces indicated movements towards a saddle shaped annulus, and the transducer was able to measure independent directional forces in individual annular segments. Further measurements with the new transducer coupled with clinical annuloplasty rings will provide a detailed insight into the biomechanical dynamics of these devices.

  4. Transient Thermal Behavior of Annular Thermoelectric Cooling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, S.; Kaushik, S. C.

    2017-05-01

    The transient thermal behavior of an exoreversible thermodynamic model of an annular thermoelectric cooler has been studied by one-dimensional unsteady-state heat transfer analysis. Unlike the flat plate geometry of thermoelectric coolers, which have equal heat transfer area at their hot and cold sides, an annular thermoelectric cooler has a higher heat transfer area at its hot side than its cold side. The temperature variations with time at the hot and cold sides of an annular thermoelectric cooler have been predicted for different cooling loads, current flow, variable thermocouple length and with different heat transfer coefficients at its hot side. Finally, the transient thermal behavior of an annular thermoelectric cooler has been compared with a flat plate thermoelectric cooler. It was found that, for typical operating conditions with zero cooling load, the annular thermoelectric cooler can maintain a 2.3-K lower temperature than the flat thermoelectric cooler. It was also found that when the cooling load is 0.055 W/cm2 with the hot side heat transfer coefficient of 0.010 W/cm2 K, the coefficient of performance of the annular thermoelectric cooler is 2.32% higher than the flat thermoelectric cooler.

  5. Annular stator structure for a rotary machine

    SciTech Connect

    Chaplin, G.F.; Lucas, A.W. Jr.

    1988-02-02

    In an axial flow turbofan gas turbine engine of the type having an axis Ar and being dividable into four quadrants about the axis Ar, an engine casing extending circumferentially about the axis Ar, a fan casing spaced radially outwardly from the engine casing leaving an annular flow path for working medium gases extending circumferentially therebetween, and struts extending from the engine casing to the fan casing across the working medium flow path, each strut being attached to the fan casing at one end and to the engine casing at the other end, the improvement is described which comprises: an array of guide vanes extending radially across the working medium flow path and disposed about the axis Ar such that each quadrant has at least one of the guide vanes disposed in the quadrant, each of the guide vanes being attached to the engine casing and being attached to the fan casing, each of the guide vanes having a free length and having an installed length at installation and under non-operative conditions which is greater than the free length such that under normal operative conditions the guide vanes are placed in tension, the engine casing is placed in tension, and the fan casing is placed in compression.

  6. Impulsively started, steady and pulsated annular inflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Raouf, Emad; Sharif, Muhammad A. R.; Baker, John

    2017-04-01

    A computational investigation was carried out on low Reynolds number laminar inflow starting annular jets using multiple blocking ratios and atmospheric ambient conditions. The jet exit velocity conditions are imposed as steady, unit pulsed, and sinusoidal pulsed while the jet surroundings and the far-field jet inlet upstream conditions are left atmospheric. The reason is to examine the flow behavior in and around the jet inlet under these conditions. The pulsation mode behavior is analyzed based on the resultant of the momentum and pressure forces at the entry of the annulus, the circulation and vortex formation, and the propulsion efficiency of the inflow jets. The results show that under certain conditions, the net force of inflow jets (sinusoidal pulsed jets in particular) could point opposite to the flow direction due to the adverse pressure drops in the flow. The propulsion efficiency is also found to increase with pulsation frequency and the sinusoidal pulsed inflow jets are more efficient than the unit pulsed inflow jets. In addition, steady inflow jets did not trigger the formation of vortices, while unit and sinusoidal pulsed inflow jets triggered the formation of vortices under a certain range of frequencies.

  7. An annular superposition integral for axisymmetric radiators

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, James F.; McGough, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    A fast integral expression for computing the nearfield pressure is derived for axisymmetric radiators. This method replaces the sum of contributions from concentric annuli with an exact double integral that converges much faster than methods that evaluate the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld integral or the generalized King integral. Expressions are derived for plane circular pistons using both continuous wave and pulsed excitations. Several commonly used apodization schemes for the surface velocity distribution are considered, including polynomial functions and a “smooth piston” function. The effect of different apodization functions on the spectral content of the wave field is explored. Quantitative error and time comparisons between the new method, the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld integral, and the generalized King integral are discussed. At all error levels considered, the annular superposition method achieves a speed-up of at least a factor of 4 relative to the point-source method and a factor of 3 relative to the generalized King integral without increasing the computational complexity. PMID:17348500

  8. Solar cycle modulation of Southern Annular Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Yuhji

    2016-04-01

    Climate is known to be affected by various factors, including oceanic changes and volcanic eruptions. 11-year solar cycle change is one of such important factors. Observational analysis shows that the winter-mean North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and late-winter/spring Southern Annular Mode (SAM) show structural modulation associated with 11-year solar cycle. In fact, these signals tend to extend from surface to upper stratosphere and persistent longer period only in the High Solar (HS) years. In the present study, we used 35-year record of ERA-Interim reanalysis data and performed wave-energy and momentum analysis on the solar-cycle modulation of the SAM to examine key factors to create such solar-SAM relationship. It is found that enhanced wave-mean flow interaction tends to take place in the middle stratosphere in association with enhanced energy input from diabatic heating on September only in HS years. The result suggests atmospheric and solar conditions on September are keys to create solar-SAM relationship.

  9. X-ray diffraction from bone employing annular and semi-annular beams.

    PubMed

    Dicken, A J; Evans, J P O; Rogers, K D; Stone, N; Greenwood, C; Godber, S X; Prokopiou, D; Clement, J G; Lyburn, I D; Martin, R M; Zioupos, P

    2015-08-07

    There is a compelling need for accurate, low cost diagnostics to identify osteo-tissues that are associated with a high risk of fracture within an individual. To satisfy this requirement the quantification of bone characteristics such as 'bone quality' need to exceed that provided currently by densitometry. Bone mineral chemistry and microstructure can be determined from coherent x-ray scatter signatures of bone specimens. Therefore, if these signatures can be measured, in vivo, to an appropriate accuracy it should be possible by extending terms within a fracture risk model to improve fracture risk prediction.In this preliminary study we present an examination of a new x-ray diffraction technique that employs hollow annular and semi-annular beams to measure aspects of 'bone quality'. We present diffractograms obtained with our approach from ex vivo bone specimens at Mo Kα and W Kα energies. Primary data is parameterized to provide estimates of bone characteristics and to indicate the precision with which these can be determined.

  10. X-ray diffraction from bone employing annular and semi-annular beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicken, A. J.; Evans, J. P. O.; Rogers, K. D.; Stone, N.; Greenwood, C.; Godber, S. X.; Prokopiou, D.; Clement, J. G.; Lyburn, I. D.; Martin, R. M.; Zioupos, P.

    2015-08-01

    There is a compelling need for accurate, low cost diagnostics to identify osteo-tissues that are associated with a high risk of fracture within an individual. To satisfy this requirement the quantification of bone characteristics such as ‘bone quality’ need to exceed that provided currently by densitometry. Bone mineral chemistry and microstructure can be determined from coherent x-ray scatter signatures of bone specimens. Therefore, if these signatures can be measured, in vivo, to an appropriate accuracy it should be possible by extending terms within a fracture risk model to improve fracture risk prediction. In this preliminary study we present an examination of a new x-ray diffraction technique that employs hollow annular and semi-annular beams to measure aspects of ‘bone quality’. We present diffractograms obtained with our approach from ex vivo bone specimens at Mo Kα and W Kα energies. Primary data is parameterized to provide estimates of bone characteristics and to indicate the precision with which these can be determined.

  11. Critical heat flux estimation for annular channel geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagh, Richard T.

    Critical Heat Flux (CHF) is an important safety parameter for the design of nuclear reactors. The most commonly used predictive tool for determination of CHF is a look-up table developed using tube data with an average hydraulic test diameter of 8 mm. There exist in the world today nuclear reactors whose geometry is annular, not tubular, and whose hydraulic diameter is significantly smaller than 8 mm. In addition, any sub-channel thermal hydraulic model of fuel assemblies is annular and not tubular. Comparisons were made between this predictive tool and annular correlations developed from test data. These comparisons showed the look-up table over-predicts the CHF values for annular channels, thus questioning its ability to perform correct safety evaluations. Since no better tool exists to predict CHF for annular geometry, an effort was undertaken to produce one. A database of open literature annular CHF values was created as a basis for this new tool. By compiling information from eighteen sources and requiring that the data be inner wall, unilaterally, uniformly heated with no spacers or heat transfer enhancement devices, a database of 1630 experimental values was produced. After a review of the data in the database, a new look-up table was created. A look-up table provides localized control of the prediction to overcome sparseness of data. Using Shepard's Method as the extrapolation technique, a regular mesh look-up table was produced using four main variables: pressure, quality, mass flux, and hydraulic diameter. The root mean square error of this look-up table was found to be 0.8267. However, by fixing the hydraulic diameter locations to the database values, the root mean square error was further reduced to 0.2816. This look-up table can now predict CHF values for annular channels over a wide range of fluid conditions.

  12. On the mixing enhancement in annular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, H. V.; Floryan, J. M.

    2017-02-01

    The potential for mixing enhancement associated with the use of axisymmetric ribs in annular flows has been analyzed. The enhancement relies on the use of streamwise vortices produced by the centrifugal instability. Conditions leading to the formation of such vortices have been established for a wide range of geometric parameters of interest using linear stability theory. It has been demonstrated that vortices can be formed only in the presence of ribs with O(1) wavelengths. Slopes of the bounding walls in the case of the long wavelength ribs are too small to create centrifugal forces sufficient for flow destabilization. In the case of short wavelength ribs, the slopes become excessively large, resulting in the stream moving away from the wall and becoming rectilinear and, thus, reducing the magnitude of the centrifugal force field. It has been shown that decreasing the annulus' radius reduces the critical Reynolds number when ribs are placed at the inner cylinder but increases when the ribs are placed at the outer cylinder. The onset of the shear-driven instability has been investigated as the resulting travelling waves may interfere with the formation of vortices. It has been shown that the axisymmetric waves play the critical role for annuli with large radii while the spiral waves play the critical role for annuli with small radii. The ribs always reduce the critical Reynolds number for the travelling waves when compared with the onset conditions for smooth annuli. The conduit geometries giving preference to the formation of vortices while avoiding creation of the travelling waves have been identified. It is demonstrated that predictions of flow characteristics determined through the analysis of sinusoidal ribs provide a good approximation of the flow response to ribs of arbitrary shape.

  13. Impact of the phase defect structure on an actinic dark-field blank inspection signal and wafer printability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amano, Tsuyoshi; Arisawa, Yukiyasu; Terasawa, Tsuneo

    2013-04-01

    In extreme ultraviolet lithography, reducing the number of phase defects (PDs) on mask blanks is a critical issue because the PDs cause degradation of the printed pattern quality. To minimize the number of printable PDs, covering PDs beneath an absorber pattern is an effective way of addressing the problem. Therefore it becomes necessary to detect the PDs and pinpoint their locations by a blank inspector. In this work, a three-dimensional analysis of PDs has revealed that some PDs can grow and propagate in an angular direction away from the normal to the substrate surface. The impact of the inclination angle on the printing performance was evaluated by calculating printed pattern images using a simulator. A PD with an inclination angle of 1 deg corresponds to a 1-nanometer positional shift compared with a position defined as surface topography of a defect as observed by an atomic force microscope or by some nonactinic defect inspector. However, an actinic blank inspection (ABI) tool with high-magnification optics can pinpoint the actual location of the PDs. Covering a PD under an absorber pattern, by a shifting of the pattern based on the information of the PD's location obtained by the ABI tool, works quite well.

  14. Stratospheric Annular Modes Induced By Stationary Wave Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Körnich, H.; Schmitz, G.

    The variability of the winter stratosphere shows distinguishable features in the north- ern and southern hemisphere. Since these differences are based on the different plan- etary waves of the underlying atmosphere, we explore the mechanism how stationary wave forcing in the troposphere can induce a stratospheric Annular Mode using a simple GCM. The model KMCM (Kühlungsborn Mechanistic Circulation Model) extends from the ground up to 60 km height and produces a reasonable winter climate. It takes into account the different large-scale wave forcings in the troposphere as prescribed pro- cesses. This allows us to examine the stratospheric Annular-Mode generation depend- ing on different wave forcings under perpetual January conditions. Principal com- ponent analysis is applied to identify the variability patterns of the geopotential and of the zonally averaged zonal wind. By this way, it is shown that the amplitude and composition of the orographic and thermal eddy forcing determines the stratospheric Annular Mode and the related downward propagation in the temperature field. Further model simplifications are introduced in order to understand the mechanism of the stratospheric AM-generation. Using a linear model version we illuminate the influence of the different wave forcing processes on the Annular Modes. Addition- ally, a constant-troposphere model is used to clarify the importance of transient and stationary waves. Finally, the Annular Mode is interpreted in terms of the dynamical coupling of the troposphere and stratosphere.

  15. Application of Mitral Annular Systolic Displacements and Velocities for the Evaluation of Left Ventricular Systolic Function and Reserve

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Dawod; Sharif-Rasslan, Amal; Shahla, Camilia; Rosenschein, Uri

    2011-01-01

    Background Mitral annular systolic displacement from M-mode echocardiography and velocity from tissue Doppler imaging reflect subendocardial longitudinal systolic LV performance and may precede radial abnormalities. The aim of this study is to evaluate the utility of mitral annular systolic displacement (D) and velocity (V) during dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) in detecting left ventricular (LV) functional reserve and wall motion abnormality (WMA). Methods and Results Fifty-nine subjects, 15 with resting WMA, underwent DSE and measurement of mitral systolic (D) and (V) before and immediately after DSE. Annular septal (D) was lower in those with WMA than in those without, at rest 10.5 ± 4 cm versus 13.2 ± 2 cm, p = 0.015, and after DSE, 11.7 ± 3.8 cm versus 14 ± 2.25 cm, p = 0.036, but without significant change after stress. Annular systolic (V) at rest with WMA was 9.7 ± 1.8 cm/sec and similar to those without, 11.25 ± 2.7 cm/sec. In both groups the velocity increased after DSE, 14.5 ± 4.5 cm/sec, p = 0.025 with WMA and 17.8 ± 3.2 cm/sec, p = 1.99 x 10-10 in those without WMA. Velocities after DSE were lower in those with WMA, p = 2.25 x 10-6. Conclusions To evaluate LV systolic performance mitral annular systolic longitudinal displacement is valuable at rest, but for assessment of LV functional reserve after stress velocities are better.

  16. A microscopy method for scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging of the antibacterial activity of polymeric nanoparticles on a biofilm with an ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Chisato; Muto, Shunsuke; Yamamoto, Hiromitsu

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we developed a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) method for imaging the antibacterial activity of organic polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) toward biofilms formed by Staphylococcus epidermidis bacterial cells, for optimizing NPs to treat biofilm infections. The combination of sample preparation method using a hydrophilic ionic liquid (IL) and STEM observation using the cooling holder eliminates the need for specialized equipment and techniques for biological sample preparation. The annular dark-field STEM results indicated that the two types of biodegradable poly-(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) NPs: PLGA modified with chitosan (CS), and clarithromycin (CAM)-loaded + CS-modified PLGA, prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion exhibited different antibacterial activities in nanoscale. To confirm damage to the sample during STEM observation, we observed the PLGA NPs and the biofilm treated with PLGA NPs by both the conventional method and the newly developed method. The optimized method allows microstructure of the biofilm treated with PLGA NPs to be maintained for 25 min at a current flow of 40 pA. The developed simple sample preparation method would be helpful to understand the interaction of drugs with target materials. In addition, this technique could contribute to the visualization of other deformable composite materials at the nanoscale level. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1432-1437, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Multimodal imaging of micron-sized iron oxide particles following in vitro and in vivo uptake by stem cells: down to the nanometer scale.

    PubMed

    Roose, Dimitri; Leroux, Frederic; De Vocht, Nathalie; Guglielmetti, Caroline; Pintelon, Isabel; Adriaensen, Dirk; Ponsaerts, Peter; Van der Linden, Annemie; Bals, Sara

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the interaction between cells and micron-sized paramagnetic iron oxide (MPIO) particles was investigated by characterizing MPIO in their original state, and after cellular uptake in vitro as well as in vivo. Moreover, MPIO in the olfactory bulb were studied 9 months after injection. Using various imaging techniques, cell-MPIO interactions were investigated with increasing spatial resolution. Live cell confocal microscopy demonstrated that MPIO co-localize with lysosomes after in vitro cellular uptake. In more detail, a membrane surrounding the MPIO was observed by high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). Following MPIO uptake in vivo, the same cell-MPIO interaction was observed by HAADF-STEM in the subventricular zone at 1 week and in the olfactory bulb at 9 months after MPIO injection. These findings provide proof for the current hypothesis that MPIO are internalized by the cell through endocytosis. The results also show MPIO are not biodegradable, even after 9 months in the brain. Moreover, they show the possibility of HAADF-STEM generating information on the labeled cell as well as on the MPIO. In summary, the methodology presented here provides a systematic route to investigate the interaction between cells and nanoparticles from the micrometer level down to the nanometer level and beyond.

  18. Non-axisymmetric annular curtain stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Zahir U.; Khayat, Roger E.; Maissa, Philippe; Mathis, Christian

    2013-08-01

    A stability analysis of non-axisymmetric annular curtain is carried out for an axially moving viscous jet subject in surrounding viscous gas media. The effect of inertia, surface tension, gas-to-liquid density ratio, inner-to-outer radius ratio, and gas-to-liquid viscosity ratio on the stability of the jet is studied. In general, the axisymmetric disturbance is found to be the dominant mode. However, for small wavenumber, the non-axisymmetric mode is the most unstable mode and the one likely observed in reality. Inertia and the viscosity ratio for non-axisymmetric disturbances show a similar stability influence as observed for axisymmetric disturbances. The maximum growth rate in non-axisymmetric flow, interestingly, appears at very small wavenumber for all inertia levels. The dominant wavenumber increases (decreases) with inertia for non-axisymmetric (axisymmetric) flow. Gas-to-liquid density ratio, curvature effect, and surface tension, however, exhibit an opposite influence on growth rate compared to axisymmetric disturbances. Surface tension tends to stabilize the flow with reductions of the unstable wavenumber range and the maximum growth rate as well as the dominant wavenumber. The dominant wavenumber remains independent of viscosity ratio indicating the viscosity ratio increases the breakup length of the sheet with very little influence on the size of the drops. The range of unstable wavenumbers is affected only by curvature in axisymmetric flow, whereas all the stability parameters control the range of unstable wavenumbers in non-axisymmetric flow. Inertia and gas density increase the unstable wavenumber range, whereas the radius ratio, surface tension, and the viscosity ratio decrease the unstable wavenumber range. Neutral curves are plotted to separate the stable and unstable domains. Critical radius ratio decreases linearly and nonlinearly with the wavenumber for axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric disturbances, respectively. At smaller Weber numbers, a

  19. Annular lupus vulgaris: an unusual case undiagnosed for five years.

    PubMed

    Gönül, Müzeyyen; Kiliç, Arzu; Külcü Cakmak, Seray; Gül, Ulker; Koçak, Oğuzhan; Demiriz, Murat

    2007-01-01

    Tuberculosis is still a serious problem in both developing and developed countries. It is often confused with various cutaneous disorders both clinically and histopathologically.A 46-year-old woman attended our clinic with progressive, asymptomatic, annular skin lesions on her right upper extremity for 5 years. She had received many different therapies for these lesions at other institutions previously but these medications were not effective and the lesions deteriorated. On dermatological examination, well-demarcated, irregular bordered, violaceous colored, elevated and crusted annular lesions on her right hand dorsum and forearm were observed. She was diagnosed as having lupus vulgaris clinically and histopathologically. Antituberculosis therapy was administered and regression of the lesions started in the second week of medication.We report a case of long-standing, undiagnosed and uncommon, annular form of lupus vulgaris. We want to stress that clinical and histopathological findings are still important for the diagnosis of cutaneous tuberculosis.

  20. Development of ITER Divertor Vertical Target with Annular Flow Concept - I: Thermal-Hydraulic Characteristics of Annular Swirl Tube

    SciTech Connect

    Ezato, K.; Dairaku, M.; Taniguchi, M.; Sato, K.; Suzuki, S.; Akiba, M.; Ibbott, C.; Tivey, R.

    2004-12-15

    Thermal-hydraulic tests for pressurized water in an annular tube with a twist fin have been performed to examine its applicability to high-heat-flux components of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) divertor. The annular swirl tube consists of two concentric tubes: an outer smooth tube and an inner tube with an external twist fin to enhance heat transfer of the cooling water in the annulus section between the outer and the inner tubes. Critical heat flux (CHF) tests under one-sided-heating conditions show that the annular swirl tube has as high removal limitation as the conventional swirl tube, the dimensions of which are similar to those of the outer tube of the annular swirl tube. A minimum axial velocity of 7.1 m/s is required for 28 MW/m{sup 2}, the ITER design value. Pressure drops in the annulus section and the end return have been measured. The applicability of the existing correlations for heat transfer and CHF to the annular swirl tube has also been examined.

  1. Annular Flow in Rod-Bundle: Effect of Spacer on Disturbance Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Son H.; Kunugi, Tomoaki

    2016-08-01

    A high-speed camera technique is used to study the effect of spacers on the disturbance waves present in annular two-phase flow within a rod-bundle geometry. Images obtained using a backlight configuration to visualize the spacer-wave interactions at the micro-scale resolution (in time and space) are discussed. This paper also presents additional images obtained using a reflected light configuration which provides new observations of the disturbance waves. These images show the separation effect caused by the spacer on the liquid film in which the size of generated liquid droplets can be controlled by the gas superficial velocity. Furthermore, the data confirm that the spacer breaks the circumferential coherent structures of the waves.

  2. Gas turbine annular combustor with radial dilution air injection

    SciTech Connect

    Shekelton, J.R.; Johnson, D.C.

    1991-10-22

    This patent describes a radial flow gas turbine. It comprises: a rotor including turbine blades and a nozzle adjacent the turbine blades, the nozzle being adapted to direct hot gases at the turbine blades to cause rotation of the rotor; an annular combustor about the rotor and having a combustor outlet leading to the nozzle, the annular combustor having spaced inner and outer walls connected by a generally radially extending wall, the annular combustor including a combustion annulus defined by the inner, outer and radially extending walls upstream of the outlet; a dilution air annulus disposed downstream of the combustion annulus and immediately radially outwardly of the nozzle axially adjacent to and immediately downstream of the combustor outlet of the annular combustion; and a housing substantially surrounding the annular combustor in spaced relation to the inner, outer and radially extending walls thereof, the housing and walls together defining at least a portion of a dilution air flow path having a compressed air inlet in communication with a compressor for supplying dilution air at one end thereof, a turbine nozzle shroud and the inner wall defining the remainder of the dilution air flow path, the compressed air outlet injecting dilution air directly across the combustor outlet toward the compressed air inlet, the illusion air being injected into the hot gases at generally a right angle thereto assist hot gases approach the combustor outlet, the compressed air outlet being in communication with the dilution air annulus directly through the combustor outlet of the annular combustor downstream of the combustion annulus.

  3. Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma in association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Rishi; Arunprasath, P.; Padmavathy, L.; Srivenkateswaran, K.

    2016-01-01

    Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma (AEGCG) is a rare granulomatous skin disease characterized clinically by annular plaques with elevated borders and atrophic centers found mainly on sun-exposed skin and histologically by diffuse granulomatous infiltrates composed of multinucleated giant cells, histiocytes and lymphocytes in the dermis along with phagocytosis of elastic fibers by multinucleated giant cells. We report a case of AEGCG in a 50-year-old woman and is highlighted for the classical clinical and histological findings of the disease and its rare co-existence with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. PMID:27057492

  4. Topological suppression of optical tunneling in a twisted annular fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Ornigotti, M.; Valle, G. Della; Gatti, D.; Longhi, S.

    2007-08-15

    A classical wave-optics analog of topological (Aharonov-Bohm) suppression of tunneling in a double-well potential on a ring threaded by a magnetic flux is proposed. The optical system consists of a uniformly twisted optical fiber with a structured annular core, in which the fiber twist mimics the role of the magnetic flux in the corresponding quantum-mechanical problem. Light waves trapped in the annular core of the fiber experience an additional topological (Aharonov-Bohm) phase, which may lead to the destruction of optical tunneling at certain values of the twist rate.

  5. Optimum profiles for asymmetrical longitudinal fins in annular ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Fabbri, G.

    2000-04-01

    In the present work the geometry of annular ducts with asymmetrical longitudinal fins is optimized in order to enhance the heat transfer under laminar coolant flow conditions. The heat transferred is also maximized for a given amount of material or hydraulic resistance. Polynomial profiles are assigned to the two lateral fin surfaces. Velocity and temperature distributions on the annular duct cross section are determined with the help of a finite-element model. A global heat transfer coefficient and an equivalent Nusselt number are then calculated. Lastly, optimum asymmetrical fins obtained by means of a genetic algorithm are shown for different situations and their performance is compared with those of optimum symmetrical fins.

  6. Predictions for the annular solar eclipse of 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, F.

    1984-01-01

    Predictions for the path of the annular solar eclipse of 30 May 1984 are presented. Local circumstances for cities in and along the path are discussed as well as the Saros history of this eclipse. The author investigates the possibility of observing the solar corona during maximum eclipse but concludes that the prospects are remote. Finally, the appearance of the eclipse during annularity, and beading phenomena, are discussed, with the help of a lunar-limb analysis and observations made at previous eclipses of this Saros series.

  7. Flutter Analysis of Annular Cascades in Counter Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Ryohei; Namba, Masanobu

    The paper studies the effect of neighboring blade rows on flutter characteristics of cascading blades. For this purpose the computation program to calculate the unsteady blade loading based on the unsteady lifting surface theory for contra-rotating annular cascades was formulated and coded. Then a computation program to solve the coupled bending-torsion flutter equation for the contra-rotating annular cascades was also developed. Some results of the flutter analysis are presented. The presence of the neighboring blade row gives rise to significant change in the critical flutter condition when the main acoustic duct mode is of cut-on state.

  8. Polarization-independent waveguiding with annular photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Cicek, Ahmet; Ulug, Bulent

    2009-09-28

    A linear waveguide in an annular photonic crystal composed of a square array of annular dielectric rods in air is demonstrated to guide transverse electric and transverse magnetic modes simultaneously. Overlapping of the guided bands in the full band gap of the photonic crystal is shown to be achieved through an appropriate set of geometric parameters. Results of Finite-Difference Time-Domain simulations to demonstrate polarization-independent waveguiding with low loss and wavelength-order confinement are presented. Transmission through a 90 degrees bend is also demonstrated.

  9. Multi-functional annular fairing for coupling launch abort motor to space vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor); Scotti, Stephen J. (Inventor); Buning, Pieter G. (Inventor); Bauer, Steven X. S. (Inventor); Engelund, Walter C. (Inventor); Schuster, David M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An annular fairing having aerodynamic, thermal, structural and acoustic attributes couples a launch abort motor to a space vehicle having a payload of concern mounted on top of a rocket propulsion system. A first end of the annular fairing is fixedly attached to the launch abort motor while a second end of the annular fairing is attached in a releasable fashion to an aft region of the payload. The annular fairing increases in diameter between its first and second ends.

  10. Anatomical background noise power spectrum in differential phase contrast breast images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, John; Ge, Yongshuai; Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2015-03-01

    In x-ray breast imaging, the anatomical noise background of the breast has a significant impact on the detection of lesions and other features of interest. This anatomical noise is typically characterized by a parameter, β, which describes a power law dependence of anatomical noise on spatial frequency (the shape of the anatomical noise power spectrum). Large values of β have been shown to reduce human detection performance, and in conventional mammography typical values of β are around 3.2. Recently, x-ray differential phase contrast (DPC) and the associated dark field imaging methods have received considerable attention as possible supplements to absorption imaging for breast cancer diagnosis. However, the impact of these additional contrast mechanisms on lesion detection is not yet well understood. In order to better understand the utility of these new methods, we measured the β indices for absorption, DPC, and dark field images in 15 cadaver breast specimens using a benchtop DPC imaging system. We found that the measured β value for absorption was consistent with the literature for mammographic acquisitions (β = 3.61±0.49), but that both DPC and dark field images had much lower values of β (β = 2.54±0.75 for DPC and β = 1.44±0.49 for dark field). In addition, visual inspection showed greatly reduced anatomical background in both DPC and dark field images. These promising results suggest that DPC and dark field imaging may help provide improved lesion detection in breast imaging, particularly for those patients with dense breasts, in whom anatomical noise is a major limiting factor in identifying malignancies.

  11. An unusual presentation of subcutaneous granuloma annulare in association with juvenile-onset diabetes: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Anurag K; Kammen, Bamidele F; Guo, Hua; Donthineni, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    Subcutaneous granuloma annulare (SGA) is a rarely reported subtype of granuloma annulare that occurs almost exclusively in children. The etiology of these lesions is unknown, although a possible relationship to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has been proposed in the literature. Here we present an unusual case of SGA on the right forearm in a 3-year-old girl. Unlike the typical lesions noted on the extremities, on magnetic resonance imaging her lesions involved the subcutaneous tissue and adjacent muscles in multiple locations. Histopathologically, the case was consistent with SGA but was unusual in its distribution involving multiple muscles, a finding that has not been previously reported. Weeks after incisional biopsy, she was readmitted with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) secondary to IDDM. After treatment of her DKA and control of her glycemia, the forearm SGA vanished, which supported the pathologic diagnosis and alleviated our concerns secondary to the unusual distribution. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Measurement of annular air-gap using active infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Bagavathiappan, S.; Shunmugasundaram, R.; Philip, John; Jayakumar, T.

    2013-11-01

    The paper discusses an infrared thermography (IRT) based procedure for quantification of annular air-gap in cylindrical geometries. Different annular air-gaps are simulated using aluminum hollow cylinders and solid stainless steel inserts of varying diameters. The specimens are externally heated using a hot air-gun and the temperature of the specimens are monitored during cooling using an infrared camera. The temperature decay during the cooling cycle follows an exponential profile in all the cases where the decay constant is air-gap dependent. The rate of temperature decay is fastest for the empty cases (without inserts) and lower for smaller air-gaps. The system is analyzed using a lumped system model by measuring the temperature over a time scale significantly higher than the transition time of the lumped system. It is observed that the Biot number of the system is less than unity, allowing analysis of the system in terms of a single time constant, neglecting internal temperature transients. It is observed that the time constant of temperature decay increases with decreasing annular air-gap. An empirical relation between the inverse of time constant of temperature decay and annular air-gaps is established. Using this calibration curve, unknown air-gaps up to 20 μm could be measured with good accuracy. Applications of this newly developed technique include detection of misalignment of concentric machineries and determination of fuel-to-clad gap of nuclear reactor fuels.

  13. Digital controller design: Analysis of the annular suspension pointing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The annular suspension and pointing system (ASPS) a payload auxiliary pointing device of the space shuttle is briefly described along with the function of the digital controller. The equations of motion of a simplified plan planar model of the ASPS are derived. Results of computer simulations are discussed.

  14. RESIDENCE TIME DISTRIBUTION OF FLUIDS IN STIRRED ANNULAR PHOTOREACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When gases flow through an annular photoreactor at constant rate, some of the gas spends more or less than the average residence time in the reactor. This spread of residence time can have an important effect on the performance of the reactor. this study tested how the residence...

  15. An experimental investigation of straight and curved annular wall jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodman, L. C.; Wood, N. J.; Roberts, L.

    1987-01-01

    Accurate turbulence measurements taken in wall jet flows are difficult to obtain, due to high intensity turbulence and problems in achieving two-dimensionality. The problem is compounded when streamwise curvature of the flow is introduced, since the jet entrainment and turbulence levels are greatly increased over the equivalent planar values. In this experiment, two-dimensional straight and curved incompressible wall jet flows are simulated by having a jet blow axially over a cylinder. Hot wire measurements and some Laser Doppler Velocimetry measurements are presented for straight and curved wall jet flows. The results for the straight wall showed good agreement between the annular flow data and the rectangular data taken by previous researchers. For the jets with streamwise curvature, there was agreement between the annular and corresponding rectangular jets for the flow region closest to the slot exit. An integral analysis was used as a simple technique to interpret the experimental results. Integral momentum calculations were performed for both straight and curved annular and two dimensional wall jets. The results of the calculation were used to identify transverse curvature parameters and to predict the values of those parameters which would delineate the region where the annular flow can satisfactorily simulate two dimensional flow.

  16. Subsonic annular wing theory with application to flow about nacelles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    A method has recently been developed for calculating the flow over a subsonic nacelle at zero angle of attack. The method makes use of annular wing theory and boundary-layer theory and has shown good agreement with both experimental data and more complex theoretical solutions. The method permits variation of the mass flow by changing the size of a center body.

  17. Design curves for circular and annular duct silencers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Willie R.; Ramakrishnan, R.

    1989-01-01

    Conventional models of sound propagation between porous walls (Scott, 1946) are adapted in order to calculate design curves for the lined circular and annular-duct silencers used in HVAC systems. The derivation of the governing equations is outlined, and results for two typical cases are presented graphically. Good agreement with published experimental data is demonstrated.

  18. [Erythema annulare centrifugum-like psoriasis cum pustulatione].

    PubMed

    Albert, A; Hein, R; Ring, J; Jakob, T

    2007-09-01

    Erythema annulare centrifugum-type psoriasis with pustules represents a subtype of psoriasis pustulosa generalisata von Zumbusch. It presents with a typical morphology characterized by a lack of classical erythematosquamous skin lesions during its acute eruption phase. Diagnosis is usually established on the basis of clinical presentation and dermatopathology, which often shows a substrate typical for psoriasis, sometimes with spongiform pustules.

  19. Annular linear induction pump with an externally supported duct

    DOEpatents

    Craig, Edwin R.; Semken, Robert S.

    1979-01-01

    Several embodiments of an annular linear induction pump for pumping liquid metals are disclosed having the features of generally one pass flow of the liquid metal through the pump and an increased efficiency resulting from the use of thin duct walls to enclose the stator. The stator components of this pump are removable for repair and replacement.

  20. Design curves for circular and annular duct silencers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Willie R.; Ramakrishnan, R.

    1989-01-01

    Conventional models of sound propagation between porous walls (Scott, 1946) are adapted in order to calculate design curves for the lined circular and annular-duct silencers used in HVAC systems. The derivation of the governing equations is outlined, and results for two typical cases are presented graphically. Good agreement with published experimental data is demonstrated.