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Sample records for anodized aluminum alloy

  1. Fabrication of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by anodizing and polymeric coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenyong; Luo, Yuting; Sun, Linyu; Wu, Ruomei; Jiang, Haiyun; Liu, Yuejun

    2013-01-01

    We reported the preparation of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy via anodizing and polymeric coating. Both the different anodizing processes and different polymeric coatings of aluminum alloy were investigated. The effects of different anodizing conditions, such as electrolyte concentration, anodization time and current on the superhydrophobic surface were discussed. The results showed that a good superhydrophobic surface was facilely fabricated by polypropylene (PP) coating after anodizing. The optimum conditions for anodizing were determined by orthogonal experiments. When the concentration of oxalic acid was 10 g/L, the concentration of NaCl was 1.25 g/L, anodization time was 40 min, and anodization current was 0.4 A, the best superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy with the contact angle (CA) of 162° and the sliding angle of 2° was obtained. On the other hand, the different polymeric coatings, such as polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP) and polypropylene grafting maleic anhydride (PP-g-MAH) were used to coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the superhydrophobicity was most excellent by coating PP, while the duration of the hydrophobic surface was poor. By modifying the surface with the silane coupling agent before PP coating, the duration of the superhydrophobic surface was improved. The morphologies of the superhydrophobic surface were further confirmed by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Combined with the material of PP with the low surface free energy, the micro/nano-structures of the surface resulted in the superhydrophobicity of the aluminum alloy surface.

  2. Mechanical properties of anodized coatings over molten aluminum alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Grillet, Anne M.; Gorby, Allen D.; Trujillo, Steven M.; ...

    2007-10-22

    A method to measure interfacial mechanical properties at high temperatures and in a controlled atmosphere has been developed to study anodized aluminum surface coatings at temperatures where the interior aluminum alloy is molten. This is the first time that the coating strength has been studied under these conditions. In this study, we have investigated the effects of ambient atmosphere, temperature, and surface finish on coating strength for samples of aluminum alloy 7075. Surprisingly, the effective Young's modulus or strength of the coating when tested in air was twice as high as when samples were tested in an inert nitrogen ormore » argon atmosphere. Additionally, the effective Young's modulus of the anodized coating increased with temperature in an air atmosphere but was independent of temperature in an inert atmosphere. The effect of surface finish was also examined. Sandblasting the surface prior to anodization was found to increase the strength of the anodized coating with the greatest enhancement noted for a nitrogen atmosphere. Lastly, machining marks were not found to significantly affect the strength.« less

  3. Electrically conductive anodized aluminum coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alwitt, Robert S. (Inventor); Liu, Yanming (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing anodized aluminum with enhanced electrical conductivity, comprising anodic oxidation of aluminum alloy substrate, electrolytic deposition of a small amount of metal into the pores of the anodized aluminum, and electrolytic anodic deposition of an electrically conductive oxide, including manganese dioxide, into the pores containing the metal deposit; and the product produced by the process.

  4. Fabrication of the micro/nano-structure superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by sulfuric acid anodizing and polypropylene coating.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ruomei; Liang, Shuquan; Liu, Jun; Pan, Anqiang; Yu, Y; Tang, Yan

    2013-03-01

    The preparation of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by anodizing and polypropylene (PP) coating was reported. Both the different anodizing process and different PP coatings of aluminum alloy were investigated. The effects of different anodizing conditions, such as electrolyte concentration, anodization time and current on the superhydrophobic surface were discussed. By PP coating after anodizing, a good superhydrophobic surface was facilely fabricated. The optimum conditions for anodizing were determined by orthogonal experiments. After the aluminium-alloy was grinded with 600# sandpaper, pretreated by 73 g/L hydrochloric acid solution at 1 min, when the concentration of sulfuric acid was 180 g/L, the concentration of oxalic acid was 5 g/L, the concentration of potassium dichromate was 10 g/L, the concentration of chloride sodium was 50 g/L and 63 g/L of glycerol, anodization time was 20 min, and anodization current was 1.2 A/dm2, anodization temperature was 30-35 degrees C, the best micro-nanostructure aluminum alloy films was obtained. On the other hand, the PP with different concentrations was used to the PP with different concentrations was used to coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the best superhydrophobicity was achieved by coating PP, and the duration of the superhydrophobic surface was improved by modifying the coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the best superhydrophobicity was surface with high concentration PP. The morphologies of micro/nano-structure superhydrophobic surface were further confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The material of PP with the low surface free energy combined with the micro/nano-structures of the surface resulted in the superhydrophobicity of the aluminum alloy surface.

  5. Advances in aluminum anodizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dale, K. H.

    1969-01-01

    White anodize is applied to aluminum alloy surfaces by specific surface preparation, anodizing, pigmentation, and sealing techniques. The development techniques resulted in alloys, which are used in space vehicles, with good reflectance values and excellent corrosive resistance.

  6. Copper-nickel superalloys as inert alloy anodes for aluminum electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhongning; Xu, Junli; Qiu, Zhuxian; Wang, Zhaowen; Gao, Bingliang

    2003-11-01

    The superalloys Cu-Ni-Al, Cu-Ni-Fe, and Cu-Ni-Cr were studied as anodes for aluminum electrolysis. The alloys were tested for corrosion in acidic electrolyte molten salt and for oxidation in both air and oxygen. The results showed that the Cu-Ni-Al anodes possess excellent resistance to oxidation and corrosion, and the oxidation rates of Cu-Ni-Fe and Cu-Ni-Al anodes were slower than those of pure copper or nickel. During electrolysis, the cell voltage of the Cu-Ni-Al anode was affected most by the concentration of alumina in cryolite molten salt. The Cu-Ni-Fe anode exhibited corrosion resistance in electrolyte molten salt. Comparatively, the Cu-Ni-Cr anode showed poor resistance to oxidation and corrosion. The testing found that further study is warranted on the use of Cu-Ni-Al and Cu-Ni-Fe as inert alloy anodes.

  7. The corrosion protection of several aluminum alloys by chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    The corrosion protection afforded 7075-T6, 7075-T3, 6061-T6, and 2024-T3 aluminum alloys by chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing was examined using electrochemical techniques. From these studies, it is concluded that sulfuric acid anodizing provides superior corrosion protection compared to chromic acid anodizing.

  8. The effect of zinc on the aluminum anode of the aluminum-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yougen; Lu, Lingbin; Roesky, Herbert W.; Wang, Laiwen; Huang, Baiyun

    Aluminum is an ideal material for batteries, due to its excellent electrochemical performance. Herein, the effect of zinc on the aluminum anode of the aluminum-air battery, as an additive for aluminum alloy and electrolytes, has been studied. The results show that zinc can decrease the anodic polarization, restrain the hydrogen evolution and increase the anodic utilization rate.

  9. Effect of temperature on the anodizing process of aluminum alloy AA 5052

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theohari, S.; Kontogeorgou, Ch.

    2013-11-01

    The effect of temperature (10-40 °C) during the anodizing process of AA 5052 for 40 min in 175 g/L sulfuric acid solution at constant voltage (15 V) was studied in comparison with pure aluminum. The incorporated magnesium species in the barrier layer result in the further increase of the minimum current density passed during anodizing, as the temperature increases, by about 42% up to 30 °C and then by 12% up to 40 °C. Then during the anodizing process for 40 min a blocking effect on oxide film growth was gradually observed as the temperature increased until 30 °C. The results of EDAX analysis on thick films reveal that the mean amount of the magnesium species inside the film is about 50-70% less than that in the bulk alloy, while it is higher at certain locations adjacent to the film surface at 30 °C. The increase of anodizing temperature does not influence the porosity of thin films (formed for short times) on pure aluminum, while it reduces it on the alloy. At 40 °C the above mentioned blocking effects disappear. It means that the presence of magnesium species causes an impediment to the effect of temperature on iss, on the film thickness and on the porosity of thin films, only under conditions where film growth takes place without significant loss of the anodizing charge to side reactions.

  10. Study of Shell Zone Formation in Lithographic and Anodizing Quality Aluminum Alloys: Experimental and Numerical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brochu, Christine; Larouche, André; Hark, Robert

    Shell thickness is an important quality factor for lithographic and anodizing quality aluminum alloys. Increasing pressure is placed on casting plants to produce a thinner shell zone for these alloys. This study, based on plant trials and mathematical modelling highlights the most significant parameters influencing shell zone formation. Results obtained show the importance of metal temperature and distribution and mould metal level on shell zone formation. As an answer to specific plant problems, this study led to the development of improved metal distribution systems for DC casting of litho and anodizing quality alloys.

  11. Aluminum battery alloys

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, David S.; Scott, Darwin H.

    1985-01-01

    Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cs are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

  12. Aluminum battery alloys

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, D.S.; Scott, D.H.

    1984-09-28

    Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cells are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

  13. Anodizing And Sealing Aluminum In Nonchromated Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmons, John R.; Kallenborn, Kelli J.

    1995-01-01

    Improved process for anodizing and sealing aluminum involves use of 5 volume percent sulfuric acid in water as anodizing solution, and 1.5 to 2.0 volume percent nickel acetate in water as sealing solution. Replaces process in which sulfuric acid used at concentrations of 10 to 20 percent. Improved process yields thinner coats offering resistance to corrosion, fatigue life, and alloy-to-alloy consistency equal to or superior to those of anodized coats produced with chromated solutions.

  14. Water and oil wettability of anodized 6016 aluminum alloy surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, S. P.; Alves, C. F. Almeida; Cavaleiro, A.; Carvalho, S.

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports on the control of wettability behaviour of a 6000 series aluminum (Al) alloy surface (Al6016-T4), which is widely used in the automotive and aerospace industries. In order to induce the surface micro-nanostructuring of the surface, a combination of prior mechanical polishing steps followed by anodization process with different conditions was used. The surface polishing with sandpaper grit size 1000 promoted aligned grooves on the surface leading to static water contact angle (WCA) of 91° and oil (α-bromonaphthalene) contact angle (OCA) of 32°, indicating a slightly hydrophobic and oleophilic character. H2SO4 and H3PO4 acid electrolytes were used to grow aluminum oxide layers (Al2O3) by anodization, working at 15 V/18° C and 100 V/0 °C, respectively, in one or two-steps configuration. Overall, the anodization results showed that the structured Al surfaces were hydrophilic and oleophilic-like with both WCA and OCA below 90°. The one-step configuration led to a dimple-shaped Al alloy surface with small diameter of around 31 nm, in case of H2SO4, and with larger diameters of around 223 nm in case of H3PO4. The larger dimples achieved with H3PO4 electrolyte allowed to reach a slight hydrophobic surface. The thicker porous Al oxide layers, produced by anodization in two-step configuration, revealed that the liquids can penetrate easily inside the non-ordered porous structures and, thus, the surface wettability tended to superhydrophilic and superoleophilic character (CA < 10°). These results indicate that the capillary-pressure balance model, described for wettability mechanisms of porous structures, was broken. Moreover, thicker oxide layers with narrow pores of about 29 nm diameter allowed to achieve WCA < OCA. This inversion in favour of the hydrophilic-oleophobic surface behaviour is of great interest either for lubrication of mechanical components or in water-oil separation process.

  15. Aluminum alloy anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Z. H.; Chen, Z. F.; Fu, Q. W.; Jiang, X. Y.

    2017-03-01

    Aluminum has larger theoretical capacity of 2235 mAh/g than that of graphite (372 mAh/g), but it has big disadvantages including shorter cycle life and higher irreversible capacity loss. Improving cycle performance can be obtained via alloying of aluminum. In this paper, two ternary aluminum alloy, Al7Cu2Fe and Al73Cu5Fe22 were prepared. The main phase of Al7Cu2Fe alloy was Al7Cu2Fe. The heat treatment increased the proportion of Al7Cu2Fe. The main phase of Al73Cu5Fe22 alloy was Al60Cu30Fe10. The heat treatment reduced the proportion of Al60Cu30Fe10. For two alloys, the heat treatment could increase discharge capacity compared with cast alloy. The discharge capacity was improved by 50%. The content of aluminum in alloys has little effect on improving cycle performance, and it has obvious influence on the phase structure of alloy with heat treatment.

  16. Etching Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Extrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hanliang

    2014-11-01

    The etching treatment is an important process step in influencing the surface quality of anodized aluminum alloy extrusions. The aim of etching is to produce a homogeneously matte surface. However, in the etching process, further surface imperfections can be generated on the extrusion surface due to uneven materials loss from different microstructural components. These surface imperfections formed prior to anodizing can significantly influence the surface quality of the final anodized extrusion products. In this article, various factors that influence the materials loss during alkaline etching of aluminum alloy extrusions are investigated. The influencing variables considered include etching process parameters, Fe-rich particles, Mg-Si precipitates, and extrusion profiles. This study provides a basis for improving the surface quality in industrial extrusion products by optimizing various process parameters.

  17. Aluminum as anode for energy storage and conversion: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingfeng; Bjerrum, Niels J.

    Aluminum has long attracted attention as a potential battery anode because of its high theoretical voltage and specific energy. The protective oxide layer on the aluminum surface is however detrimental to the battery performance, contributing to failure to achieve the reversible potential and causing the delayed activation of the anode. By developing aluminum alloys as anodes and solution additives to electrolytes, a variety of aluminum batteries have been extensively investigated for various applications. From molten salt and other non-aqueous electrolytes, aluminum can be electrodeposited and therefore be suitable for developing rechargable batteries. Considerable efforts have been made to develop secondary aluminum batteries of high power density. In the present paper, these research activities are reviewed, including aqueous electrolyte primary batteries, aluminum-air batteries and molten salt secondary batteries.

  18. Effect of Copper and Silicon on Al-5%Zn Alloy as a Candidate Low Voltage Sacrificial Anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratesa, Yudha; Ferdian, Deni; Togina, Inez

    2017-05-01

    One common method used for corrosion protection is a sacrificial anode. Sacrificial anodes that usually employed in the marine environment are an aluminum alloy sacrificial anode, especially Al-Zn-In. However, the electronegativity of these alloys can cause corrosion overprotection and stress cracking (SCC) on a high-strength steel. Therefore, there is a development of the sacrificial anode aluminum low voltage to reduce the risk of overprotection. The addition of alloying elements such as Cu, Si, and Ge will minimize the possibility of overprotection. This study was conducted to analyze the effect of silicon and copper addition in Al-5Zn. The experiment started from casting the sacrificial anode aluminum uses electrical resistance furnace in a graphite crucible in 800°C. The results alloy was analyzed using Optical emission spectroscopy (OES), Differential scanning calorimetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and metallography. Aluminum alloy with the addition of a copper alloy is the most suitable and efficient to serve as a low-voltage sacrificial anode aluminum. Charge transfer resistivity of copper is smaller than silicon which indicates that the charge transfer between the metal and the electrolyte is easier t to occur. Also, the current potential values in coupling with steel are also in the criteria range of low-voltage aluminum sacrificial anodes.

  19. Effect of intermetallic phases on the anodic oxidation and corrosion of 5A06 aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Song-mei; Li, Ying-dong; Zhang, You; Liu, Jian-hua; Yu, Mei

    2015-02-01

    Intermetallic phases were found to influence the anodic oxidation and corrosion behavior of 5A06 aluminum alloy. Scattered intermetallic particles were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) after pretreatment. The anodic film was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and its corrosion resistance was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization in NaCl solution. The results show that the size of Al-Fe-Mg-Mn particles gradually decreases with the iron content. During anodizing, these intermetallic particles are gradually dissolved, leading to the complex porosity in the anodic film beneath the particles. After anodizing, the residual particles are mainly silicon-containing phases, which are embedded in the anodic film. Electrochemical measurements indicate that the porous anodic film layer is easily penetrated, and the barrier plays a dominant role in the overall protection. Meanwhile, self-healing behavior is observed during the long immersion time.

  20. A new, bright and hard aluminum surface produced by anodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Fengyan; Hu, Bo; Tay, See Leng; Wang, Yuxin; Xiong, Chao; Gao, Wei

    2017-07-01

    Anodized aluminum (Al) and Al alloys have a wide range of applications. However, certain anodized finishings have relatively low hardness, dull appearance and/or poor corrosion resistance, which limited their applications. In this research, Al was first electropolished in a phosphoric acid-based solution, then anodized in a sulfuric acid-based solution under controlled processing parameters. The anodized specimen was then sealed by two-step sealing method. A systematic study including microstructure, surface morphology, hardness and corrosion resistance of these anodized films has been conducted. Results show that the hardness of this new anodized film was increased by a factor of 10 compared with the pure Al metal. Salt spray corrosion testing also demonstrated the greatly improved corrosion resistance. Unlike the traditional hard anodized Al which presents a dull-colored surface, this newly developed anodized Al alloy possesses a very bright and shiny surface with good hardness and corrosion resistance.

  1. A dynamic inert metal anode.

    SciTech Connect

    Hryn, J. N.

    1998-11-09

    A new concept for a stable anode for aluminum electrowinning is described. The anode consists of a cup-shaped metal alloy container filled with a molten salt that contains dissolved aluminum. The metal alloy can be any of a number of alloys, but it must contain aluminum as a secondary alloying metal. A possible alloy composition is copper with 5 to 15 weight percent aluminum. In the presence of oxygen, aluminum on the metal anode's exterior surface forms a continuous alumina film that is thick enough to protect the anode from chemical attack by cryolite during electrolysis and thin enough tomore » maintain electrical conductivity. However, the alumina film is soluble in cryolite, so it must be regenerated in situ. Film regeneration is achieved by the transport of aluminum metal from the anode's molten salt interior through the metal wall to the anode's exterior surface, where the transported aluminum oxidizes to alumina in the presence of evolving oxygen to maintain the protective alumina film. Periodic addition of aluminum metal to the anode's interior keeps the aluminum activity in the molten salt at the desired level. This concept for an inert anode is viable as long as the amount of aluminum produced at the cathode greatly exceeds the amount of aluminum required to maintain the anode's protective film.« less

  2. Evolution of insoluble eutectic Si particles in anodic oxidation films during adipic-sulfuric acid anodizing processes of ZL114A aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Lei; Liu, Jian-hua; Li, Song-mei; Yu, Mei; Wang, Lei; Cui, Yong-xin

    2015-03-01

    The effects of insoluble eutectic Si particles on the growth of anodic oxide films on ZL114A aluminum alloy substrates were investigated by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The anodic oxidation was performed at 25°C and a constant voltage of 15 V in a solution containing 50 g/L sulfuric acid and 10 g/L adipic acid. The thickness of the formed anodic oxidation film was approximately 7.13 μm. The interpore distance and the diameters of the major pores in the porous layer of the film were within the approximate ranges of 10-20 nm and 5-10 nm, respectively. Insoluble eutectic Si particles strongly influenced the morphology of the anodic oxidation films. The anodic oxidation films exhibited minimal defects and a uniform thickness on the ZL114A substrates; in contrast, when the front of the oxide oxidation films encountered eutectic Si particles, defects such as pits and non-uniform thickness were observed, and pits were observed in the films.

  3. Study of localized corrosion in aluminum alloys by the scanning reference electrode technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1995-01-01

    Localized corrosion in 2219-T87 aluminum (Al) alloy, 2195 aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy, and welded 2195 Al-Li alloy (4043 filler) have been investigated using the relatively new scanning reference electrode technique (SRET). Anodic sites are more frequent and of greater strength in the 2195 Al-Li alloy than in the 2219-T87 Al alloy, indicating a greater tendency toward pitting for the latter. However, the overall corrosion rates are about the same for these two alloys, as determined using the polarization resistance technique. In the welded 2195 Al-Li alloy, the weld bean is entirely cathodic, with rather strongly anodic heat affected zones (HAZ) bordering both sides, indicating a high probability of corrosion in the HAZ parallel to the weld bead.

  4. Stress-Corrosion Cracking in High Strength Steels and in Titanium and Aluminum Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-01-01

    EFFECTS 01: STRESS) 155 Table 2. Mechanical, Fracture, and Stress Corrosion Properties for Plates of Several Aluminum Alloys --Continued 4f’l14...One of the most effective SCC preventives for high strength aluminum alloys is surface working by shot peening, particularl) when used in combination...Aluminaut uses aluminum alloy anodes to supplement the protection of the pressure hull offered by several layers of polyurethane coating 175). 100 A

  5. Anodizing Aluminum with Frills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeltz, Anne E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    "Anodizing Aluminum" (previously reported in this journal) describes a vivid/relevant laboratory experience for general chemistry students explaining the anodizing of aluminum in sulfuric acid and constrasting it to electroplating. Additions to this procedure and the experiment in which they are used are discussed. Reactions involved are…

  6. Corrosion protection of aluminum alloys in contact with other metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuster, C. A.

    1969-01-01

    Study establishes the quality of chemical and galvanized protection afforded by anodized and aldozided coatings applied to test panels of various aluminum alloys. The test panels, placed in firm contact with panels of titanium alloys, were subjected to salt spray tests and visually examined for corrosion effect.

  7. Anodized aluminum on LDEF: A current status of measurements on chromic acid anodized aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Johnny L.

    1992-01-01

    Chromic acid anodize was used as the exterior coating for aluminum surfaces on LDEF to provide passive thermal control. Chromic acid anodized aluminum was also used as test specimens in thermal control coatings experiments. The following is a compilation and analysis of the data obtained thus far.

  8. Corrosion Fatigue of Anodized Aluminum 7075-T73 in Salt Ladened Humid Air.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    relative humidity and coating thickness on the fatigue of anodized 2024-T351 aluminum in reversed torsion . They also found no effect of coating ... fatigue resistance. Most of the previous corrosion fatigue work has been on the effect of relative humidity on the fatigue life of coated aluminum ...alloys. Eeles and 1hurston Iwere some of the early investigators

  9. Stress corrosion cracking of an aluminum alloy used in external fixation devices.

    PubMed

    Cartner, Jacob L; Haggard, Warren O; Ong, Joo L; Bumgardner, Joel D

    2008-08-01

    Treatment for compound and/or comminuted fractures is frequently accomplished via external fixation. To achieve stability, the compositions of external fixators generally include aluminum alloy components due to their high strength-to-weight ratios. These alloys are particularly susceptible to corrosion in chloride environments. There have been several clinical cases of fixator failure in which corrosion was cited as a potential mechanism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of physiological environments on the corrosion susceptibility of aluminum 7075-T6, since it is used in orthopedic external fixation devices. Electrochemical corrosion curves and alternate immersion stress corrosion cracking tests indicated aluminum 7075-T6 is susceptible to corrosive attack when placed in physiological environments. Pit initiated stress corrosion cracking was the primary form of alloy corrosion, and subsequent fracture, in this study. Anodization of the alloy provided a protective layer, but also caused a decrease in passivity ranges. These data suggest that once the anodization layer is disrupted, accelerated corrosion processes occur. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effect of Aluminum Coating on the Surface Properties of Ti-(~49 at. pct) Ni Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Arijit; Khan, Gobinda Gopal; Mondal, Bholanath; Majumdar, Jyotsna Dutta; Chattopadhyay, Partha Protim

    2015-08-01

    Stable porous layer of mixed Al2O3 and TiO2 has been formed on the Ti-(~49 at. pct) Ni alloy surface with an aim to suppress leaching of Ni from the alloy surface in contact with bio-fluid and to enhance the process of osseointegration. Aluminum coating on the Ni-Ti alloy surface prior to the anodization treatment has resulted in enhancement of depth and uniformity of pores. Thermal oxidation of the anodized aluminum-coated Ni-Ti samples has exhibited the formation of Al2O3 and TiO2 phases with dense porous structure. The nanoindentation and nanoscratch measurements have indicated a remarkable improvement in the hardness, wear resistance, and adhesiveness of the porous aluminum-coated Ni-Ti sample after thermal oxidation.

  11. Adhesion enhancement of titanium nitride coating on aluminum casting alloy by intrinsic microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Chuong L.; Preston, Andrew; Tran, Anh T. T.; Dickinson, Michelle; Metson, James B.

    2016-07-01

    Aluminum casting alloys have excellent castability, high strength and good corrosion resistance. However, the presence of silicon in these alloys prevents surface finishing with conventional methods such as anodizing. Hard coating with titanium nitride can provide wear and corrosion resistances, as well as the aesthetic finish. A critical factor for a durable hard coating is its bonding with the underlying substrate. In this study, a titanium nitride layer was coated on LM25 casting alloy and a reference high purity aluminum substrate using Ion Assisted Deposition. Characterization of the coating and the critical interface was carried out by a range of complementing techniques, including SIMS, XPS, TEM, SEM/EDS and nano-indentation. It was observed that the coating on the aluminum alloy is stronger compared to that on the pure aluminum counterpart. Silicon particles in the alloy offers the reinforcement though mechanical interlocking at microscopic level, even with nano-scale height difference. This reinforcement overcomes the adverse effect caused by surface segregation of magnesium in aluminum casting alloys.

  12. An Analysis of Mechanical Properties of Anodized Aluminum Film at High Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xixi; Wei, Guoying; Yu, Yundan; Guo, Yuemei; Zhang, Ao

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a new environmental-friendly electrolyte containing sulfuric acid and tartaric acid has been used as the substitute of chromic acid for anodization. The work discussed the influence of anodizing voltages on the fatigue life of anodized Al 2024-T3 by performing fatigue tests with 0.1 stress ratio (R) at 320 MPa. Meanwhile the fatigue cycles to failure, yield strength, tensile strength and fracture surface of anodic films at different conditions were investigated. The results showed that the fatigue life of anodized and sealed specimens reduced a lot compared to aluminum alloy, which can be attributed to the crack sites initiated at the oxide layer. The fracture surface analyses also revealed that the number of crack initiation sites enlarged with the increase of anodizing voltage.

  13. Auger electron spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering studies of copper in 2024-T3 aluminum following electrochemical anodization in phosphoric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, J. S.

    1981-05-01

    The effects of the electrochemical anodization of dioxidized 2024-T3 aluminum on copper were characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering. Anodization was performed in phosphoric acid at constant potential. Data is presented which shows that constant potential anodization of 2024-T3 is more efficient than aluminum in terms of oxide growth rates for short anodization times. However the maximum anodic oxide thickness achievable on the alloy is less than the pure metal. Copper is shown to be enriched at the oxide metal interface because of its diffusion from the bulk during anodization. The presence of copper at the oxide-metal interface is shown to affect oxide morphology.

  14. Use of low-cost aluminum in electric energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuk, Andrey Z.; Sheindlin, Alexander E.; Kleymenov, Boris V.; Shkolnikov, Eugene I.; Lopatin, Marat Yu.

    Suppression of the parasitic corrosion while maintaining the electrochemical activity of the anode metal is one of the serious problems that affects the energy efficiency of aluminum-air batteries. The need to use high-purity aluminum or special aluminum-based alloys results in a significant increase in the cost of the anode, and thus an increase in the total cost of energy generated by the aluminum-air battery, which narrows the range of possible applications for this type of power source. This study considers the process of parasitic corrosion as a method for hydrogen production. Hydrogen produced in an aluminum-air battery by this way may be further employed in a hydrogen-air fuel cell (Hy-air FC) or in a heat engine, or it may be burnt to generate heat. Therefore, anode materials may be provided by commercially pure aluminum, commercially produced aluminum alloys, and secondary aluminum. These materials are much cheaper and more readily available than special anode alloys of aluminum and high-purity aluminum. The aim of present study is to obtain experimental data for comparison of energy and cost parameters of some commercially produced aluminum alloys, of high-purity aluminum, and of a special Al-ln anode alloy in the context of using these materials as anodes for an Al-air battery and for combined production of electrical power and hydrogen.

  15. Anodization process produces opaque, reflective coatings on aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Opaque, reflective coatings are produced on aluminum articles by an anodizing process wherein the anodizing bath contains an aqueous dispersion of finely divided insoluble inorganic compounds. These particles appear as uniformly distributed occlusions in the anodic deposit on the aluminum.

  16. Electrically Conductive Anodized Aluminum Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Trung Hung

    2006-01-01

    Anodized aluminum components can be treated to make them sufficiently electrically conductive to suppress discharges of static electricity. The treatment was conceived as a means of preventing static electric discharges on exterior satin-anodized aluminum (SAA) surfaces of spacecraft without adversely affecting the thermal-control/optical properties of the SAA and without need to apply electrically conductive paints, which eventually peel off in the harsh environment of outer space. The treatment can also be used to impart electrical conductivity to anodized housings of computers, medical electronic instruments, telephoneexchange equipment, and other terrestrial electronic equipment vulnerable to electrostatic discharge. The electrical resistivity of a typical anodized aluminum surface layer lies between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 13) Omega-cm. To suppress electrostatic discharge, it is necessary to reduce the electrical resistivity significantly - preferably to < or = 10(exp 9) Omega-cm. The present treatment does this. The treatment is a direct electrodeposition process in which the outer anodized surface becomes covered and the pores in the surface filled with a transparent, electrically conductive metal oxide nanocomposite. Filling the pores with the nanocomposite reduces the transverse electrical resistivity and, in the original intended outer-space application, the exterior covering portion of the nanocomposite would afford the requisite electrical contact with the outer-space plasma. The electrical resistivity of the nanocomposite can be tailored to a value between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 12) Omega-cm. Unlike electrically conductive paint, the nanocomposite becomes an integral part of the anodized aluminum substrate, without need for adhesive bonding material and without risk of subsequent peeling. The electrodeposition process is compatible with commercial anodizing production lines. At present, the electronics industry uses expensive, exotic

  17. Cadmium plated steel caps seal anodized aluminum fittings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padden, J.

    1971-01-01

    Cadmium prevents fracturing of hard anodic coating under torquing to system specification requirements, prevents galvanic coupling, and eliminates need for crush washers, which, though commonly used in industry, do not correct leakage problem experienced when anodized aluminum fittings and anodized aluminum cap assemblies are joined.

  18. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOEpatents

    Donado, R.A.; Hrdina, K.E.; Remick, R.J.

    1993-04-27

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process is described for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  19. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOEpatents

    Donado, Rafael A.; Hrdina, Kenneth E.; Remick, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  20. Influence of the heat treatment condition of alloy AlCu4Mg1 on the microstructure and properties of anodic oxide layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, R.; Dietrich, D.; Sieber, M.; Lampke, T.

    2017-03-01

    Due to their outstanding specific mechanical properties, high-strength, age-hardenable aluminum alloys offer a high potential for lightweight security-related applications. However, the use of copper-alloyed aluminum is limited because of their susceptibility to selective corrosion and their low wear resistance. These restrictions can be overcome and new applications can be opened up by the generation of protective anodic aluminum oxide layers. In contrast to the anodic oxidation of unalloyed aluminum, oxide layers produced on copper-rich alloys exhibit a significantly more complex pore structure. It is the aim of the investigation to identify the influence of microstructural parameters such as size and distribution of the strengthening precipitations on the coating microstructure. The aluminum alloy EN AW-2024 (AlCu4Mg1) in different heat treatment conditions serves as substrate material. The influence of the strengthening precipitations’ size and distribution on the development of the pore structure is investigated by the use of high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. Integral coating properties are characterized by non-destructive and light-microscopic thickness measurements and instrumented indentation tests.

  1. Anodized aluminum on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Johnny L.

    1993-01-01

    A compilation of reported analyses and results obtained for anodized aluminum flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was prepared. Chromic acid, sulfuric acid, and dyed sulfuric acid anodized surfaces were exposed to the space environment. The vast majority of the anodized surface on LDEF was chromic acid anodize because of its selection as a thermal control coating for use on the spacecraft primary structure, trays, tray clamps, and space end thermal covers. Reports indicate that the chromic acid anodize was stable in solar absorptance and thermal emittance, but that contamination effects caused increases in absorptance on surfaces exposed to low atomic oxygen fluences. There were some discrepancies, however, in that some chromic acid anodized specimens exhibited significant increases in absorptance. Sulfuric acid anodized surfaces also appeared stable, although very little surface area was available for evaluation. One type of dyed sulfuric acid anodize was assessed as an optical baffle coating and was observed to have improved infrared absorptance characteristics with exposure on LDEF.

  2. Advanced Cast Aluminum Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    This production route has demonstrated that aluminum alloys with yield strengths in excess of 690 MPa with good elongation (reportedly 8%) are...series of aluminum alloys have poor-to-fair general corrosion resistance and poor-to-good stress corrosion cracking resistance. Wrought 2519...aluminum alloy has good strength, good ballistic performance, good stress corrosion cracking resistance but only fair general corrosion resistance

  3. PREPARATION OF URANIUM-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    A process is given for preparing uranium--aluminum alloys from a solution of uranium halide in an about equimolar molten alkali metal halide-- aluminum halide mixture and excess aluminum. The uranium halide is reduced and the uranium is alloyed with the excess aluminum. The alloy and salt are separated from each other. (AEC)

  4. Chromic acid anodizing of aluminum foil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dursch, H.

    1988-01-01

    The success of the Space Station graphite/epoxy truss structure depends on its ability to endure long-term exposure to the LEO environment, primarily the effects of atomic oxygen and the temperture cycling resulting from the 94 minute orbit. This report describes the development and evaluation of chromic acid anodized (CAA) aluminum foil as protective coatings for these composite tubes. Included are: development of solar absorptance and thermal emittance properties required of Al foil and development of CAA parameters to achieve these optical properties; developing techniques to CAA 25 ft lengths of Al foil; developing bonding processes for wrapping the Al foil to graphite/epoxy tubes; and atomic oxygen testing of the CAA Al foil. Two specifications were developed and are included in the report: Chromic Acid Anodizing of Aluminum Foil Process Specification and Bonding of Anodized Aluminum Foil to Graphite/Epoxy Tubes. Results show that CAA Al foil provides and excellent protective and thermal control coating for the Space Station truss structure.

  5. Power ultrasound irradiation during the alkaline etching process of the 2024 aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moutarlier, V.; Viennet, R.; Rolet, J.; Gigandet, M. P.; Hihn, J. Y.

    2015-11-01

    Prior to any surface treatment on an aluminum alloy, a surface preparation is necessary. This commonly consists in performing an alkaline etching followed by acid deoxidizing. In this work, the use of power ultrasound irradiation during the etching step on the 2024 aluminum alloy was studied. The etching rate was estimated by weight loss, and the alkaline film formed during the etching step was characterized by glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The benefit of power ultrasound during the etching step was confirmed by pitting potential measurement in NaCl solution after a post-treatment (anodizing).

  6. Growth behavior of anodic oxide formed by aluminum anodizing in glutaric and its derivative acid electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Daiki; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Natsui, Shungo; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2014-12-01

    The growth behavior of anodic oxide films formed via anodizing in glutaric and its derivative acid solutions was investigated based on the acid dissociation constants of electrolytes. High-purity aluminum foils were anodized in glutaric, ketoglutaric, and acetonedicarboxylic acid solutions under various electrochemical conditions. A thin barrier anodic oxide film grew uniformly on the aluminum substrate by glutaric acid anodizing, and further anodizing caused the film to breakdown due to a high electric field. In contrast, an anodic porous alumina film with a submicrometer-scale cell diameter was successfully formed by ketoglutaric acid anodizing at 293 K. However, the increase and decrease in the temperature of the ketoglutaric acid resulted in non-uniform oxide growth and localized pitting corrosion of the aluminum substrate. An anodic porous alumina film could also be fabricated by acetonedicarboxylic acid anodizing due to the relatively low dissociation constants associated with the acid. Acid dissociation constants are an important factor for the fabrication of anodic porous alumina films.

  7. Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum Employing Planar Anodes.

    DOEpatents

    Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.; Bradford, Donald R

    2004-10-05

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising providing a molten salt electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell. A plurality of anodes and cathodes having planar surfaces are disposed in a generally vertical orientation in the electrolyte, the anodes and cathodes arranged in alternating or interleaving relationship to provide anode planar surfaces disposed opposite cathode planar surfaces, the anode comprised of carbon. Electric current is passed through anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes depositing aluminum at the cathodes and forming carbon containing gas at the anodes.

  8. Air-Impregnated Nanoporous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Layers for Enhancing the Corrosion Resistance of Aluminum.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chanyoung; Lee, Junghoon; Sheppard, Keith; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2015-10-13

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layers were fabricated on aluminum substrates with systematically varied pore diameters (20-80 nm) and oxide thicknesses (150-500 nm) by controlling the anodizing voltage and time and subsequent pore-widening process conditions. The porous nanostructures were then coated with a thin (only a couple of nanometers thick) Teflon film to make the surface hydrophobic and trap air in the pores. The corrosion resistance of the aluminum substrate was evaluated by a potentiodynamic polarization measurement in 3.5 wt % NaCl solution (saltwater). Results showed that the hydrophobic nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer significantly enhanced the corrosion resistance of the aluminum substrate compared to a hydrophilic oxide layer of the same nanostructures, to bare (nonanodized) aluminum with only a natural oxide layer on top, and to the latter coated with a thin Teflon film. The hydrophobic nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer with the largest pore diameter and the thickest oxide layer (i.e., the maximized air fraction) resulted in the best corrosion resistance with a corrosion inhibition efficiency of up to 99% for up to 7 days. The results demonstrate that the air impregnating the hydrophobic nanopores can effectively inhibit the penetration of corrosive media into the pores, leading to a significant improvement in corrosion resistance.

  9. The Effect of Surface Coatings on the Fatigue Strength of Aluminum Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    Satec Models SF-2U-144 and -145 fatigue testing machines. The abrasion (wear) resistance, the thickness, and the corrosion resistance of the specimens...former coupons; therefore, sharp ed-, es should be finished or rounded by shot peening or sandblasting in order to diminish the possibility of crack...propagation. "Anodic Coatings for Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys%" Military Specification MIL-A-8625C. 6 Satec Systems, Inc.;Grove City, PA 16127. 3 41: I! ,I

  10. Aluminum anode for aluminum-air battery - Part II: Influence of In addition on the electrochemical characteristics of Al-Zn alloy in alkaline solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, In-Jun; Choi, Seok-Ryul; Kim, Jung-Gu

    2017-07-01

    Effects of Zn and In additions on the aluminum anode for Al-air battery in alkaline solution are examined by the self-corrosion rate, cell voltage, current-voltage characteristics, anodic polarization, discharge performance and AC impedance measurements. The passivation behavior of Zn-added anode during anodic polarization decreases the discharge performance of Al-air battery. The addition of In to Al-Zn anode reduces the formation of Zn passivation film by repeated adsorption and desorption behavior of In ion onto anode surface. The attenuated Zn passive layer by In ion attack leads to the improvement of discharge performance of Al-air battery.

  11. PREPARATION OF ACTINIDE-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    BS>A process is given for preparing alloys of aluminum with plutonium, uranium, and/or thorium by chlorinating actinide oxide dissolved in molten alkali metal chloride with hydrochloric acid, chlorine, and/or phosgene, adding aluminum metal, and passing air and/or water vapor through the mass. Actinide metal is formed and alloyed with the aluminum. After cooling to solidification, the alloy is separated from the salt. (AEC)

  12. PEO of pre-anodized Al-Si alloys: Corrosion properties and influence of sealings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohedano, M.; Matykina, E.; Arrabal, R.; Mingo, B.; Pardo, A.

    2015-08-01

    Voltage-controlled PEO coatings were developed on A356 aluminum alloys (gravity-cast and rheocast) with a pre-anodized layer. The influence of the alloy manufacturing process and the effect of Si-rich phase on the structure and composition of the oxide layers were evaluated using SEM, EDS and XRD. The pre-anodized oxide layer preserves the microstructure of the substrate due to the presence of secondary phases that have a different behavior relative to the matrix during anodizing. PEO coatings consisted of a mixture of α-Al2O3, γ-Al2O3 and mullite. The corrosion behavior and the effectiveness of different sealing techniques based on salts of nickel, cobalt, cerium and phosphonic acid were also studied. Post-treatments improved the hydrophobic properties of the coatings and showed a beneficial effect, significantly increasing the coating impedance and thereby reducing the susceptibility to corrosion.

  13. Electrolytic production of high purity aluminum using inert anodes

    DOEpatents

    Ray, Siba P.; Liu, Xinghua; Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A.

    2001-01-01

    A method of producing commercial purity aluminum in an electrolytic reduction cell comprising inert anodes is disclosed. The method produces aluminum having acceptable levels of Fe, Cu and Ni impurities. The inert anodes used in the process preferably comprise a cermet material comprising ceramic oxide phase portions and metal phase portions.

  14. Corrosion fatigue of 2219-T87 aluminum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillan, V. C.

    1986-01-01

    Corrosion fatigue studies were conducted on bare, chemical conversion coated, and anodized 2219-T87 aluminum alloy. These tests were performed using a rotating beam machine running at a velocity of 2500 rpm. The corrosive environments tested were distilled water, 100 ppm NaCl, and 3.5 percent NaCl. Results were compared to the endurance limit in air. An evaluation of the effect of protective coatings on corrosion fatigue was made by comparing the fatigue properties of specimens with coatings to those without.

  15. Laser-Ultrasonic Measurement of Elastic Properties of Anodized Aluminum Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, F.

    Anodized aluminum oxide plays a great role in many industrial applications, e.g. in order to achieve greater wear resistance. Since the hardness of the anodized films strongly depends on its processing parameters, it is important to characterize the influence of the processing parameters on the film properties. In this work the elastic material parameters of anodized aluminum were investigated using a laser-based ultrasound system. The anodized films were characterized analyzing the dispersion of Rayleigh waves with a one-layer model. It was shown that anodizing time and temperature strongly influence Rayleigh wave propagation.

  16. The influence of electrolyte additives on the anodic dissolution of aluminum in alkaline solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnstedt, W.

    1980-09-01

    The paper describes the effect of electrolyte additives on the anodic dissolution of aluminum in alkaline solutions. The dissolution is accelerated by the addition of small quantities of gallium or indium ions to the electrolyte indicated by the shift of the zero current potential by about 250 mV on the current-potential curve. Scanning electron microscope studies showed that gallium ions produce many small cracks in the aluminum electrode and collect at the grain boundary areas, increasing the electrode surface; this enlargement, in combination with increased electrolyte agitation due to greater hydrogen evolution, provides higher current densities at the same potential. It is concluded that this process will widen the possibilities of using aluminum and its alloys in high-rate batteries.

  17. Casting Characteristics of High Cerium Content Aluminum Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, D; Rios, O R; Sims, Z C

    This paper compares the castability of the near eutectic aluminum-cerium alloy system to the aluminum-silicon and aluminum-copper systems. The alloys are compared based on die filling capability, feeding characteristics and tendency to hot tear in both sand cast and permanent mold applications. The castability ranking of the binary Al–Ce systems is as good as the aluminum-silicon system with some deterioration as additional alloying elements are added. In alloy systems that use cerium in combination with common aluminum alloying elements such as silicon, magnesium and/or copper, the casting characteristics are generally better than the aluminum-copper system. In general, production systems formore » melting, de-gassing and other processing of aluminum-silicon or aluminum-copper alloys can be used without modification for conventional casting of aluminum-cerium alloys.« less

  18. The corrosion protection of 2219-T87 aluminum by anodizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1991-01-01

    Various types of anodizing coatings were studied for 2219-T87 aluminum. These include both type II and type III anodized coats which were water sealed and a newly developed and proprietary Magnaplate HCR (TM) coat. Results indicate that type II anodizing is not much superior to type II anodizing as far as corrosion protection for 2219-T87 aluminum is concerned. Magnaplate HCR (TM) coatings should provide superior corrosion protection over an extended period of time using a coating thickness of 51 microns (2.0 mils).

  19. A Study on Sealing Process of Anodized Al Alloy Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujita, Takeshi; Sato, Hiroshi; Tsukahara, Sonoko; Ishikawa, Yuuichi

    Since sealing is an important process to improve the corrosion resistance in practical application of anodized aluminum, we prepared anodic oxide films on A5052 alloy in an oxalic acid bath and a sulfuric acid bath, sealed them at various conditions, and analyzed them by scanning electron microscopy, acid-dissolution examination, admittance measurements and infrared spectroscopy. The pore radius of the oxalic acid anodized film was about 5 times larger than that of sulfuric acid anodized film, while the corrosion resistance of the former showed about 2 times higher value than the latter with the same sealed state and amount of hydroxide formed by sealing process of the former was 6 times larger than the latter, respectively. Steam sealing formed dense hydroxide and boiling water sealing formed big coral-like hydroxide, whereas the corrosion resistance of the film sealed by the former showed about 1.5 times higher value than that sealed by the latter, respectively. Thus microstructure of anodic oxide films and their surface morphology after sealing process clearly depended on their anodizing solution and the sealing condition and showed obvious relation to electric and corrosive properties.

  20. Determination of sulfuric acid concentration for anti-cavitation characteristics of Al alloy by two step anodizing process to forming nano porous.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Kim, Seong-Kweon; Jeong, Jae-Yong; Kim, Seong-Jong

    2014-12-01

    Al alloy is a highly active metal but forms a protective oxide film having high corrosion resistance in atmosphere environment. However, the oxide film is not suitable for practical use, since the thickness of the film is not uniform and it is severly altered with formation conditions. This study focused on developing an aluminum anodizing layer having hardness, corrosion resistance and abrasion resistance equivalent to a commercial grade protective layer. Aluminum anodizing layer was produced by two-step aluminum anodizing oxide (AAO) process with different sulfuric acid concentrations, and the cavitation characteristics of the anodized coating layer was investigated. In hardness measurement, the anodized coating layer produced with 15 vol.% of sulfuric acid condition had the highest value of hardness but exhibited poor cavitation resistance due to being more brittle than those with other conditions. The 10 vol.% of sulfuric acid condition was thus considered to be the optimum condition as it had the lowest weight loss and damage depth.

  1. Superhydrophilicity of a nanofiber-covered aluminum surface fabricated via pyrophosphoric acid anodizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Daiki; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Natsui, Shungo; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2016-12-01

    A superhydrophilic aluminum surface covered by numerous alumina nanofibers was fabricated via pyrophosphoric acid anodizing. High-density anodic alumina nanofibers grow on the bottom of a honeycomb oxide via anodizing in concentrated pyrophosphoric acid. The water contact angle on the nanofiber-covered aluminum surface decreased with time after a 4 μL droplet was placed on the surface, and a superhydrophilic behavior with a contact angle measuring 2.2° was observed within 2 s; this contact angle is considerably lower than those observed for electropolished and porous alumina-covered aluminum surfaces. There was no dependence of the superhydrophilicity on the density of alumina nanofibers fabricated via different constant voltage anodizing conditions. The superhydrophilic property of the surface covered by anodic alumina nanofibers was maintained during an exposure test for 359 h. The quick-drying and snow-sliding behaviors of the superhydrophilic aluminum covered with anodic alumina nanofibers were demonstrated.

  2. Fatigue Crack-Growth Resistance of Aluminum Alloys Under Spectrum Loading. Volume 2. Aluminum Lithium Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    Effects on Fatigue Crack Propagation in 2024 -T3 Aluminum Alloy ," Eng. Frac. Mech, * Vol. 8, 1976, p. 657...Retardation Behavior of 7075 * and 2024 Aluminum Alloys ," ASTNI STP 631, 1977. 89 hill". .A•, - . 34. Chanani, G.R., "Investigation of Effects of Saltwater...1.0 9,අ &M Ma ki-L6 &Ŗ &- La 06 lin "Ll Ull 1.25 "A Lm Wit Rtlc()FIV WtklLl’-"- ll*A FATIGUE CRACK-GROWTH RESISTANCE OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS

  3. Hybrid pulse anodization for the fabrication of porous anodic alumina films from commercial purity (99%) aluminum at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Chung, C K; Zhou, R X; Liu, T Y; Chang, W T

    2009-02-04

    Most porous anodic alumina (PAA) or anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) films are fabricated using the potentiostatic method from high-purity (99.999%) aluminum films at a low temperature of approximately 0-10 degrees C to avoid dissolution effects at room temperature (RT). In this study, we have demonstrated the fabrication of PAA film from commercial purity (99%) aluminum at RT using a hybrid pulse technique which combines pulse reverse and pulse voltages for the two-step anodization. The reaction mechanism is investigated by the real-time monitoring of current. A possible mechanism of hybrid pulse anodization is proposed for the formation of pronounced nanoporous film at RT. The structure and morphology of the anodic films were greatly influenced by the duration of anodization and the type of voltage. The best result was obtained by first applying pulse reverse voltage and then pulse voltage. The first pulse reverse anodization step was used to form new small cells and pre-texture concave aluminum as a self-assembled mask while the second pulse anodization step was for the resulting PAA film. The diameter of the nanopores in the arrays could reach 30-60 nm.

  4. Mirror-finished superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces modified by anodic alumina nanofibers and self-assembled monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Daiki; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Natsui, Shungo; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate mirror-finished superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces fabricated via the formation of anodic alumina nanofibers and subsequent modification with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). High-density anodic alumina nanofibers were formed on the aluminum surface via anodizing in a pyrophosphoric acid solution. The alumina nanofibers became tangled and bundled by further anodizing at low temperature because of their own weight, and the aluminum surface was completely covered by the long falling nanofibers. The nanofiber-covered aluminum surface exhibited superhydrophilic behavior, with a contact angle measuring less than 10°. As the nanofiber-covered aluminum surface was modified with n-alkylphosphonic acid SAMs, the water contact angle drastically shifted to superhydrophobicity, measuring more than 150°. The contact angle increased with the applied voltage during pyrophosphoric acid anodizing, the anodizing time, and the number of carbon atoms contained in the SAM molecules modified on the alumina nanofibers. By optimizing the anodizing and SAM-modification conditions, superhydrophobic behavior could be achieved with only a brief pyrophosphoric acid anodizing period of 3 min and subsequent simple immersion in SAM solutions. The superhydrophobic aluminum surface exhibited a high reflectance, measuring approximately 99% across most of the visible spectrum, similar to that of an electropolished aluminum surface. Therefore, our mirror-finished superhydrophobic aluminum surface based on anodic alumina nanofibers and SAMs can be used as a reflective mirror in various optical applications such as concentrated solar power systems.

  5. Effect of Processing Parameters on Pore Structure and Thickness of Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) Tubular Membranes.

    PubMed

    Belwalkar, A; Grasing, E; Van Geertruyden, W; Huang, Z; Misiolek, W Z

    2008-07-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) tubular membranes were fabricated from aluminum alloy tubes in sulfuric and oxalic acid electrolytes using a two-step anodization process. The membranes were investigated for characteristics such as pore size, interpore distance and thickness by varying applied voltage and electrolyte concentration. Morphology of the membranes was examined using light optical and scanning electron microscopy and characterized using ImageJ software. Results showed that membranes having narrow pore size and uniform pore distribution with parallel channel arrays were obtained. The pore sizes were ranging from 14 to 24 nm and the wall thicknesses as high as 76 microm. It was found that the pore size increased in direct proportion with the applied voltage and inversely with the electrolyte concentration while the interpore distance increased linearly with the applied voltage. It was also observed that increase in acid concentration increased tubular membrane wall thickness that improved mechanical handling. By using anodic alumina technology, robust ceramic tubes with uniformly distributed pore-structure and parallel nano-channels of lengths and sizes practical for industrial applications were reliably produced in quantity.

  6. Effect of Processing Parameters on Pore Structure and Thickness of Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) Tubular Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Belwalkar, A.; Grasing, E.; Huang, Z.; Misiolek, W.Z.

    2008-01-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) tubular membranes were fabricated from aluminum alloy tubes in sulfuric and oxalic acid electrolytes using a two-step anodization process. The membranes were investigated for characteristics such as pore size, interpore distance and thickness by varying applied voltage and electrolyte concentration. Morphology of the membranes was examined using light optical and scanning electron microscopy and characterized using ImageJ software. Results showed that membranes having narrow pore size and uniform pore distribution with parallel channel arrays were obtained. The pore sizes were ranging from 14 to 24 nm and the wall thicknesses as high as 76 µm. It was found that the pore size increased in direct proportion with the applied voltage and inversely with the electrolyte concentration while the interpore distance increased linearly with the applied voltage. It was also observed that increase in acid concentration increased tubular membrane wall thickness that improved mechanical handling. By using anodic alumina technology, robust ceramic tubes with uniformly distributed pore-structure and parallel nano-channels of lengths and sizes practical for industrial applications were reliably produced in quantity. PMID:19578471

  7. Masking of aluminum surface against anodizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, G. B.; Thompson, R. E.

    1969-01-01

    Masking material and a thickening agent preserve limited unanodized areas when aluminum surfaces are anodized with chromic acid. For protection of large areas it combines well with a certain self-adhesive plastic tape.

  8. Electrolytic production of high purity aluminum using ceramic inert anodes

    DOEpatents

    Ray, Siba P.; Liu, Xinghua; Weirauch, Douglas A.; DiMilia, Robert A.; Dynys, Joseph M.; Phelps, Frankie E.; LaCamera, Alfred F.

    2002-01-01

    A method of producing commercial purity aluminum in an electrolytic reduction cell comprising ceramic inert anodes is disclosed. The method produces aluminum having acceptable levels of Fe, Cu and Ni impurities. The ceramic inert anodes used in the process may comprise oxides containing Fe and Ni, as well as other oxides, metals and/or dopants.

  9. Cu-Ni-Fe anodes having improved microstructure

    DOEpatents

    Bergsma, S. Craig; Brown, Craig W.

    2004-04-20

    A method of producing aluminum in a low temperature electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell containing the electrolyte. A non-consumable anode and cathode is disposed in the electrolyte, the anode comprised of Cu--Ni--Fe alloys having single metallurgical phase. Electric current is passed from the anode, through the electrolyte to the cathode thereby depositing aluminum on the cathode, and molten aluminum is collected from the cathode.

  10. Nanopatterning of Crystalline Silicon Using Anodized Aluminum Oxide Templates for Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tsu-An

    A novel thin film anodized aluminum oxide templating process was developed and applied to make nanopatterns on crystalline silicon to enhance the optical properties of silicon. The thin film anodized aluminum oxide was created to improve the conventional thick aluminum templating method with the aim for potential large scale fabrication. A unique two-step anodizing method was introduced to create high quality nanopatterns and it was demonstrated that this process is superior over the original one-step approach. Optical characterization of the nanopatterned silicon showed up to 10% reduction in reflection in the short wavelength range. Scanning electron microscopy was also used to analyze the nanopatterned surface structure and it was found that interpore spacing and pore density can be tuned by changing the anodizing potential.

  11. Aluminum anode for aluminum-air battery - Part I: Influence of aluminum purity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young-Joo; Park, In-Jun; Lee, Hyeok-Jae; Kim, Jung-Gu

    2015-03-01

    2N5 commercial grade aluminum (99.5% purity) leads to the lower aluminum-air battery performances than 4N high pure grade aluminum (99.99% purity) due to impurities itself and formed impurity complex layer which contained Fe, Si, Cu and others. The impurity complex layer of 2N5 grade Al declines the battery voltage on standby status. It also depletes discharge current and battery efficiency at 1.0 V which is general operating voltage of aluminum-air battery. However, the impurity complex layer of 2N5 grade Al is dissolved with decreasing discharge voltage to 0.8 V. This phenomenon leads to improvement of discharge current density and battery efficiency by reducing self-corrosion reaction. This study demonstrates the possibility of use of 2N5 grade Al which is cheaper than 4N grade Al as the anode for aluminum-air battery.

  12. Preparation of Aluminum Nanomesh Thin Films from an Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template as Transparent Conductive Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yiwen; Chen, Yulong; Qiu, Mingxia; Yu, Hongyu; Zhang, Xinhai; Sun, Xiao Wei; Chen, Rui

    2016-02-01

    We have employed anodic aluminum oxide as a template to prepare ultrathin, transparent, and conducting Al films with a unique nanomesh structure for transparent conductive electrodes. The anodic aluminum oxide template is obtained through direct anodization of a sputtered Al layer on a glass substrate, and subsequent wet etching creates the nanomesh metallic film. The optical and conductive properties are greatly influenced by experimental conditions. By tuning the anodizing time, transparent electrodes with appropriate optical transmittance and sheet resistance have been obtained. The results demonstrate that our proposed strategy can serve as a potential method to fabricate low-cost TCEs to replace conventional indium tin oxide materials.

  13. Preparation of Aluminum Nanomesh Thin Films from an Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template as Transparent Conductive Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yiwen; Chen, Yulong; Qiu, Mingxia; Yu, Hongyu; Zhang, Xinhai; Sun, Xiao Wei; Chen, Rui

    2016-01-01

    We have employed anodic aluminum oxide as a template to prepare ultrathin, transparent, and conducting Al films with a unique nanomesh structure for transparent conductive electrodes. The anodic aluminum oxide template is obtained through direct anodization of a sputtered Al layer on a glass substrate, and subsequent wet etching creates the nanomesh metallic film. The optical and conductive properties are greatly influenced by experimental conditions. By tuning the anodizing time, transparent electrodes with appropriate optical transmittance and sheet resistance have been obtained. The results demonstrate that our proposed strategy can serve as a potential method to fabricate low-cost TCEs to replace conventional indium tin oxide materials. PMID:26831759

  14. Preparation of Aluminum Nanomesh Thin Films from an Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template as Transparent Conductive Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiwen; Chen, Yulong; Qiu, Mingxia; Yu, Hongyu; Zhang, Xinhai; Sun, Xiao Wei; Chen, Rui

    2016-02-02

    We have employed anodic aluminum oxide as a template to prepare ultrathin, transparent, and conducting Al films with a unique nanomesh structure for transparent conductive electrodes. The anodic aluminum oxide template is obtained through direct anodization of a sputtered Al layer on a glass substrate, and subsequent wet etching creates the nanomesh metallic film. The optical and conductive properties are greatly influenced by experimental conditions. By tuning the anodizing time, transparent electrodes with appropriate optical transmittance and sheet resistance have been obtained. The results demonstrate that our proposed strategy can serve as a potential method to fabricate low-cost TCEs to replace conventional indium tin oxide materials.

  15. Effect of alloying elements Al and Ca on corrosion resistance of plasma anodized Mg alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anawati, Asoh, Hidetaka; Ono, Sachiko

    2016-04-01

    Plasma anodizing is a surface treatment used to form a ceramic-type oxide film on Mg alloys by the application of a high anodic voltage to create intense plasma near the metal surface. With proper selection of the process parameters, the technique can produce high quality oxide with superior adhesion, corrosion resistance, micro-hardness, wear resistance and strength. The effect of alloying element Al on plasma anodizing process of Mg alloys was studied by comparing the anodizing curves of pure Mg, AZ31, and AZ61 alloys while the effect of Ca were studied on AZ61 alloys containing 0, 1, and 2 wt% Ca. Anodizing was performed in 0.5 M Na3PO4 solution at a constant current density of 200 Am-2 at 25°C. Anodic oxide films with lava-like structure having mix composition of amorphous and crystal were formed on all of the alloys. The main crystal form of the oxide was Mg3(PO4)2 as analyzed by XRD. Alloying elements Al and Ca played role in modifying the plasma lifetime during anodization. Al tended to extend the strong plasma lifetime and therefore accelerated the film thickening. The effect of Ca on anodizing process was still unclear. The anodic film thickness and chemical composition were altered by the presence of Ca in the alloys. Electrochemical corrosion test in 0.9% NaCl solution showed that the corrosion behavior of the anodized specimens depend on the behavior of the substrate. Increasing Al and Ca content in the alloys tended to increase the corrosion resistance of the specimens. The corrosion resistance of the anodized specimens improved significantly about two orders of magnitude relative to the bare substrate.

  16. Fabrication of electrodeposited Co-Pt nano-arrays embedded in an anodic aluminum oxide/Ti/Si substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, S. K.; Jeong, G. H.; Park, I. S.; Na, S. M.; Suh, S. J.

    An anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template, which is filled with the Co-Pt alloys, is a promising material for high-density magnetic recording media due to its high magnetic anisotropy and high coercivity. The porous AAO templates were fabricated by the two-step anodizing of 1-μm-thick Al thin film evaporated on top of the titanium layer with the thickness of 250 nm. The AAO template with pore size of approximately 60 nm and aspect ratio of 10 was obtained at voltage of 40 V, temperature of 5 °C, oxalic acid of 0.3 M and widening time of 55 min. Then the thickness of barrier is less than 20 nm. The Co-Pt alloy electrodeposited at pulsed current density, pH of 4 and room temperature was successfully filled in the AAO template with pore size of 80 nm and aspect ratio of 3. Then the Co-Pt alloy with Pt concentration of 45 at% was uniformly filled in the template and the coercivity of 1100 Oe was observed by VSM.

  17. Beryllium-aluminum alloys for investment castings

    SciTech Connect

    Nachtrab, W.T.; Levoy, N.

    1997-05-01

    Beryllium-aluminum alloys containing greater than 60 wt % beryllium are very favorable materials for applications requiring light weight and high stiffness. However, when produced by traditional powder metallurgical methods, these alloys are expensive and have limited applications. To reduce the cost of making beryllium-aluminum components, Nuclear Metals Inc. (NMI) and Lockheed Martin Electronics and Missiles have recently developed a family of patented beryllium-aluminum alloys that can be investment cast. Designated Beralcast, the alloys can achieve substantial weight savings because of their high specific strength and stiffness. In some cases, weight has been reduced by up to 50% over aluminum investmentmore » casting. Beralcast is now being used to make thin wall precision investment castings for several advanced aerospace applications, such as the RAH-66 Comanche helicopter and F-22 jet fighter. This article discusses alloy compositions, properties, casting method, and the effects of cobalt additions on strength.« less

  18. Reduced-Pressure Foaming of Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinod Kumar, G. S.; Mukherjee, M.; Garcia-Moreno, F.; Banhart, J.

    2013-01-01

    We developed a novel process for foaming aluminum and its alloys without using a blowing agent. The process involves a designated apparatus in which molten aluminum and its alloys are first foamed under reduced pressure and then solidified quickly. Foaming was done for pure aluminum (99.99 pct) and AlMg5 alloy not containing stabilizing particles and AlMg5 and AlSi9Mg5 alloys containing 5 vol pct SiO2 particles. We discuss the foaming mechanism and develop a model for estimating the porosity that can be achieved in this process. The nucleation of pores in foams is also discussed.

  19. Precision forging technology for aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Lei; Wang, Xinyun; Jin, Junsong; Xia, Juchen

    2018-03-01

    Aluminum alloy is a preferred metal material for lightweight part manufacturing in aerospace, automobile, and weapon industries due to its good physical properties, such as low density, high specific strength, and good corrosion resistance. However, during forging processes, underfilling, folding, broken streamline, crack, coarse grain, and other macro- or microdefects are easily generated because of the deformation characteristics of aluminum alloys, including narrow forgeable temperature region, fast heat dissipation to dies, strong adhesion, high strain rate sensitivity, and large flow resistance. Thus, it is seriously restricted for the forged part to obtain precision shape and enhanced property. In this paper, progresses in precision forging technologies of aluminum alloy parts were reviewed. Several advanced precision forging technologies have been developed, including closed die forging, isothermal die forging, local loading forging, metal flow forging with relief cavity, auxiliary force or vibration loading, casting-forging hybrid forming, and stamping-forging hybrid forming. High-precision aluminum alloy parts can be realized by controlling the forging processes and parameters or combining precision forging technologies with other forming technologies. The development of these technologies is beneficial to promote the application of aluminum alloys in manufacturing of lightweight parts.

  20. Advantages of Oxide Films as Bases for Aluminum Pigmented Surface Coatings for Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzard, R W; Mutchler, W H

    1931-01-01

    Both laboratory and weather-exposure corrosion tests showed conclusively that the protection afforded by aluminum pigmented spar varnish coatings applied to previously anodized aluminum surfaces was greatly superior to that afforded by the same coatings applied to surfaces which had simply been cleaned free from grease and not anodized.

  1. Optimization of Aluminum Anodization Conditions for the Fabrication of Nanowires by Electrodeposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fucsko, Viola

    2005-01-01

    Anodized alumina nanotemplates have a variety of potential applications in the development of nanotechnology. Alumina nanotemplates are formed by oxidizing aluminum film in an electrolyte solution.During anodization, aluminum oxidizes, and, under the proper conditions, nanometer-sized pores develop. A series of experiments was conducted to determine the optimal conditions for anodization. Three-micrometer thick aluminum films on silicon and silicon oxide substrates were anodized using constant voltages of 13-25 V. 0.1-0.3M oxalic acid was used as the electrolyte. The anodization time was found to increase and the overshooting current decreased as both the voltage and the electrolyte concentrations were decreased. The samples were observed under a scanning electron microscope. Anodizing with 25V in 0.3M oxalic acid appears to be the best process conditions. The alumina nanotemplates are being used to fabricate nanowires by electrodeposition. The current-voltage characteristics of copper nanowires have also been studied.

  2. NASA-427: A New Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nabors, Sammy A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center researchers have developed a new, stronger aluminum alloy, ideal for cast aluminum products that have powder or paint-baked thermal coatings. With advanced mechanical properties, the NASA-427 alloy shows greater tensile strength and increased ductility, providing substantial improvement in impact toughness. In addition, this alloy improves the thermal coating process by decreasing the time required for heat treatment. With improvements in both strength and processing time, use of the alloy provides reduced materials and production costs, lower product weight, and better product performance. The superior properties of NASA-427 can benefit many industries, including automotive, where it is particularly well-suited for use in aluminum wheels.

  3. [Microbiological corrosion of aluminum alloys].

    PubMed

    Smirnov, V F; Belov, D V; Sokolova, T N; Kuzina, O V; Kartashov, V R

    2008-01-01

    Biological corrosion of ADO quality aluminum and aluminum-based construction materials (alloys V65, D16, and D16T) was studied. Thirteen microscopic fungus species and six bacterial species proved to be able to attack aluminum and its alloys. It was found that biocorrosion of metals by microscopic fungi and bacteria was mediated by certain exometabolites. Experiments on biocorrosion of the materials by the microscopic fungus Alternaria alternata, the most active biodegrader, demonstrated that the micromycete attack started with the appearance of exudate with pH 8-9 on end faces of the samples.

  4. The effect of grain size on aluminum anodes for Al-air batteries in alkaline electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Liang; Lu, Huimin

    2015-06-01

    Aluminum is an ideal material for metallic fuel cells. In this research, different grain sizes of aluminum anodes are prepared by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) at room temperature. Microstructure of the anodes is examined by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in scanning electron microscope (SEM). Hydrogen corrosion rates of the Al anodes in 4 mol L-1 NaOH are determined by hydrogen collection method. The electrochemical properties of the aluminum anodes are investigated in the same electrolyte using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization curves. Battery performance is also tested by constant current discharge at different current densities. Results confirm that the electrochemical properties of the aluminum anodes are related to grain size. Finer grain size anode restrains hydrogen evolution, improves electrochemical activity and increases anodic utilization rate. The proposed method is shown to effectively improve the performance of Al-air batteries.

  5. Synthesizing Aluminum alloys by double mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froyen, L.; Delaey, L.; Niu, X. P.; Le Brun, P.; Peytour, C.

    1995-03-01

    A new synthesis technique, namely double mechanical alloying (dMA), has been developed to fabricate aluminum alloys containing the finely distributed intermetallic compounds and inert dispersoids Al4C3 and Al2O3 The technique consists mainly of three steps: a primary milling stage of elemental powders (MAI) followed by a heat treatment to promote the formation of intermetallic phases, a secondary milling stage (MA2) to refine the microstructure, and consolidation of the produced powders. The results of mechanical and tribological properties of the resulting materials indicate that the dMA is a promising technique for the fabrication of aluminum alloys for applications requiring wear resistance and high-temperature performance.

  6. Polymer nanoimprinting using an anodized aluminum mold for structural coloration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Nishinaga, Osamu; Natsui, Shungo; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2015-06-01

    Polymer nanoimprinting of submicrometer-scale dimple arrays with structural coloration was demonstrated. Highly ordered aluminum dimple arrays measuring 530-670 nm in diameter were formed on an aluminum substrate via etidronic acid anodizing at 210-270 V and subsequent anodic oxide dissolution. The nanostructured aluminum surface led to bright structural coloration with a rainbow spectrum, and the reflected wavelength strongly depends on the angle of the specimen and the period of the dimple array. The reflection peak shifts gradually with the dimple diameter toward longer wavelength, reaching 800 nm in wavelength at 670 nm in diameter. The shape of the aluminum dimple arrays were successfully transferred to a mercapto-ester ultra-violet curable polymer via self-assembled monolayer coating and polymer replications using a nanoimprinting technique. The nanostructured polymer surfaces with positively and negatively shaped dimple arrays also exhibited structural coloration based on the periodic nanostructure, and reflected light mostly in the visible region, 400-800 nm. This nanostructuring with structural coloration can be easily realized by simple techniques such as anodizing, SAM coating, and nanoimprinting.

  7. Cast B2-phase iron-aluminum alloys with improved fluidity

    DOEpatents

    Maziasz, Philip J.; Paris, Alan M.; Vought, Joseph D.

    2002-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for iron aluminum alloys. A composition includes iron, aluminum and manganese. A method includes providing an alloy including iron, aluminum and manganese; and processing the alloy. The systems and methods provide advantages because additions of manganese to iron aluminum alloys dramatically increase the fluidity of the alloys prior to solidification during casting.

  8. Gas-tungsten arc welding of aluminum alloys

    DOEpatents

    Frye, Lowell D.

    1984-01-01

    A gas-tungsten arc welding method for joining together structures formed of aluminum alloy with these structures disposed contiguously to a heat-damagable substrate of a metal dissimilar to the aluminum alloy. The method of the present invention is practiced by diamond machining the fay surfaces of the aluminum alloy structures to provide a mirror finish thereon having a surface roughness in the order of about one microinch. The fay surfaces are aligned and heated sufficiently by the tungsten electrode to fuse the aluminum alloy contiguous to the fay surfaces to effect the weld joint. The heat input used to provide an oxide-free weld is significantly less than that required if the fay surfaces were prepared by using conventional chemical and mechanical practices.

  9. Synthetic sea water - An improved stress corrosion test medium for aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    A major problem in evaluating the stress corrosion cracking resistance of aluminum alloys by alternate immersion in 3.5 percent salt (NaCl) water is excessive pitting corrosion. Several methods were examined to eliminate this problem and to find an improved accelerated test medium. These included the addition of chromate inhibitors, surface treatment of specimens, and immersion in synthetic sea water. The results indicate that alternate immersion in synthetic sea water is a very promising stress corrosion test medium. Neither chromate inhibitors nor surface treatment (anodize and alodine) of the aluminum specimens improved the performance of alternate immersion in 3.5 percent salt water sufficiently to be classified as an effective stress corrosion test method.

  10. Porous aluminum room temperature anodizing process in a fluorinated-oxalic acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhahri, S.; Fazio, E.; Barreca, F.; Neri, F.; Ezzaouia, H.

    2016-08-01

    Anodizing of aluminum is used for producing porous insulating films suitable for different applications in electronics and microelectronics. Porous-type aluminum films are most simply realized by galvanostatic anodizing in aqueous acidic solutions. The improvement in application of anodizing technique is associated with a substantial reduction of the anodizing voltage at appropriate current densities as well as to the possibility to carry out the synthesis process at room temperature in order to obtain a self-planarizing dielectric material incorporated in array of super-narrow metal lines. In this work, the anodizing of aluminum to obtain porous oxide was carried out, at room temperature, on three different substrates (glass, stainless steel and aluminum), using an oxalic acid-based electrolyte with the addition of a relatively low amount of 0.4 % of HF. Different surface morphologies, from nearly spherical to larger porous nanostructures with smooth edges, were observed by means of scanning electron microscopy. These evidences are explained by considering the formation, transport and adsorption of the fluorine species which react with the Al3+ ions. The behavior is also influenced by the nature of the original substrate.

  11. System integration and demonstration of adhesive bonded high temperature aluminum alloys for aerospace structure, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falcone, Anthony; Laakso, John H.

    1993-01-01

    Adhesive bonding materials and processes were evaluated for assembly of future high-temperature aluminum alloy structural components such as may be used in high-speed civil transport aircraft and space launch vehicles. A number of candidate high-temperature adhesives were selected and screening tests were conducted using single lap shear specimens. The selected adhesives were then used to bond sandwich (titanium core) test specimens, adhesive toughness test specimens, and isothermally aged lap shear specimens. Moderate-to-high lap shear strengths were obtained from bonded high-temperature aluminum and silicon carbide particulate-reinforced (SiC(sub p)) aluminum specimens. Shear strengths typically exceeded 3500 to 4000 lb/in(sup 2) and flatwise tensile strengths exceeded 750 lb/in(sup 2) even at elevated temperatures (300 F) using a bismaleimide adhesive. All faceskin-to-core bonds displayed excellent tear strength. The existing production phosphoric acid anodize surface preparation process developed at Boeing was used, and gave good performance with all of the aluminum and silicon carbide particulate-reinforced aluminum alloys investigated. The results of this program support using bonded assemblies of high-temperature aluminum components in applications where bonding is often used (e.g., secondary structures and tear stoppers).

  12. A comparison of chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    Because of federal and state mandates restricting the use of hexavalent chromium, it was deemed worthwhile to compare the corrosion protection afforded 2219-T87 aluminum alloy by both Type I chromic acid and Type II sulfuric acid anodizing per MIL-A-8625. Corrosion measurements were made on large, flat 2219-T87 aluminum alloy sheet material with an area of 1 cm(exp 2) exposed to a corrosive medium of 3.5-percent sodium chloride at pH 5.5. Both ac electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the dc polarization resistance techniques were employed. The results clearly indicate that the corrosion protection obtained by Type II sulfuric acid anodizing is superior, and no problems should result by substituting Type II sulfuric acid anodizing for Type I chromic acid anodizing.

  13. Progress in Nano-Engineered Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membrane Development.

    PubMed

    Poinern, Gerrard Eddy Jai; Ali, Nurshahidah; Fawcett, Derek

    2011-02-25

    The anodization of aluminum is an electro-chemical process that changes the surface chemistry of the metal, via oxidation, to produce an anodic oxide layer. During this process a self organized, highly ordered array of cylindrical shaped pores can be produced with controllable pore diameters, periodicity and density distribution. This enables anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes to be used as templates in a variety of nanotechnology applications without the need for expensive lithographical techniques. This review article is an overview of the current state of research on AAO membranes and the various applications of nanotechnology that use them in the manufacture of nano-materials and devices or incorporate them into specific applications such as biological/chemical sensors, nano-electronic devices, filter membranes and medical scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  14. Progress in Nano-Engineered Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membrane Development

    PubMed Central

    Poinern, Gerrard Eddy Jai; Ali, Nurshahidah; Fawcett, Derek

    2011-01-01

    The anodization of aluminum is an electro-chemical process that changes the surface chemistry of the metal, via oxidation, to produce an anodic oxide layer. During this process a self organized, highly ordered array of cylindrical shaped pores can be produced with controllable pore diameters, periodicity and density distribution. This enables anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes to be used as templates in a variety of nanotechnology applications without the need for expensive lithographical techniques. This review article is an overview of the current state of research on AAO membranes and the various applications of nanotechnology that use them in the manufacture of nano-materials and devices or incorporate them into specific applications such as biological/chemical sensors, nano-electronic devices, filter membranes and medical scaffolds for tissue engineering. PMID:28880002

  15. Gas-tungsten arc welding of aluminum alloys

    DOEpatents

    Frye, L.D.

    1982-03-25

    The present invention is directed to a gas-tungsten arc welding method for joining together structures formed of aluminum alloy with these structures disposed contiguously to a heat-damagable substrate of a metal dissimilar to the aluminum alloy. The method of the present invention is practiced by diamond machining the fay surfaces of the aluminum alloy structures to profice a mirror finish thereon having a surface roughness in the order of about one microinch. The fay surface are aligned and heated sufficiently by the tungsten electrode to fuse the aluminum alloy continguous to the fay surfaces to effect the weld joint. The heat input used to provide an oxide-free weld is significantly less than that required if the fay surfaces were prepared by using conventional chemical and mechanical practices.

  16. Cu--Ni--Fe anode for use in aluminum producing electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Bergsma, S. Craig; Brown, Craig W.; Bradford, Donald R; Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.

    2006-07-18

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising the steps of providing a molten salt electrolyte at a temperature of less than 900.degree. C. having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell having a liner for containing the electrolyte, the liner having a bottom and walls extending upwardly from said bottom. A plurality of non-consumable Cu--Ni--Fe anodes and cathodes are disposed in a vertical direction in the electrolyte, the cathodes having a plate configuration and the anodes having a flat configuration to compliment the cathodes. The anodes contain apertures therethrough to permit flow of electrolyte through the apertures to provide alumina-enriched electrolyte between the anodes and the cathodes. Electrical current is passed through the anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes, depositing aluminum at the cathodes and producing gas at the anodes.

  17. Modelling the growth process of porous aluminum oxide film during anodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryslanova, E. M.; Alfimov, A. V.; Chivilikhin, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    Currently it has become important for the development of metamaterials and nanotechnology to obtain regular self-assembled structures. One such structure is porous anodic alumina film that consists of hexagonally packed cylindrical pores. In this work we consider the anodization process, our model takes into account the influence of layers of aluminum and electrolyte on the rate of growth of aluminum oxide, as well as the effect of surface diffusion. In present work we consider those effects. And as a result of our model we obtain the minimum distance between centers of alumina pores in the beginning of anodizing process.

  18. Manufacturing and characterization of magnesium alloy foils for use as anode materials in rechargeable magnesium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schloffer, Daniel; Bozorgi, Salar; Sherstnev, Pavel; Lenardt, Christian; Gollas, Bernhard

    2017-11-01

    The fabrication of thin foils of magnesium for use as anode material in rechargeable magnesium ion batteries is described. In order to improve its workability, the magnesium was alloyed by melting metallurgy with zinc and/or gadolinium, producing saturated solid solutions. The material was extruded to thin foils and rolled to a thickness of approximately 100 μm. The electrochemical behavior of Mg-1.63 wt% Zn, Mg-1.55 wt% Gd and Mg-1.02 wt% Zn-1.01 wt% Gd was studied in (PhMgCl)2-AlCl3/THF electrolyte by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling in symmetrical cells. Analysis of the current-potential curves in the Tafel region and the linear region close to the equilibrium potential show almost no effect of the alloying elements on the exchange current densities (5-45 μA/cm2) and the transfer coefficients. Chemical analyses of the alloy surfaces and the electrolyte demonstrate that the alloying elements not only dissolve with the magnesium during the anodic half-cycles, but also re-deposit during the cathodic half-cycles together with the magnesium and aluminum from the electrolyte. Given the negligible corrosion rate in aprotic electrolytes under such conditions, no adverse effects of alloying elements are expected for the performance of magnesium anodes in secondary batteries.

  19. Fatigue crack propagation in aluminum-lithium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, K. T. V.; Ritchie, R. O.; Piascik, R. S.; Gangloff, R. P.

    1989-01-01

    The principal mechanisms which govern the fatigue crack propagation resistance of aluminum-lithium alloys are investigated, with emphasis on their behavior in controlled gaseous and aqueous environments. Extensive data describe the growth kinetics of fatigue cracks in ingot metallurgy Al-Li alloys 2090, 2091, 8090, and 8091 and in powder metallurgy alloys exposed to moist air. Results are compared with data for traditional aluminum alloys 2024, 2124, 2618, 7075, and 7150. Crack growth is found to be dominated by shielding from tortuous crack paths and resultant asperity wedging. Beneficial shielding is minimized for small cracks, for high stress ratios, and for certain loading spectra. While water vapor and aqueous chloride environments enhance crack propagation, Al-Li-Cu alloys behave similarly to 2000-series aluminum alloys. Cracking in water vapor is controlled by hydrogen embrittlement, with surface films having little influence on cyclic plasticity.

  20. Aluminum-lithium alloys in helicopters

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.F.

    1997-10-01

    Aluminium-lithium alloys are widely applied on the EH101 helicopter, designed and built jointly by GKN Westland Helicopters of England and Agusta S.p.A. of Italy. With the exception of the powder metallurgy alloy AA 5091, all the current commercially available aluminum-lithium alloys are produced by direct-chill casting, and require a precipitation-aging heat treatment to achieve the required properties. In aluminum-lithium alloys containing greater than 1.3% (by weight) of lithium, the intermetallic phase {delta}{prime}-Al{sub 3}Li precipitates upon natural or artificial aging, but the associated strengthening effect is insufficient to meet the medium or high strength levels usually required (the damage tolerant tempermore » in AA 8090 is an exception).« less

  1. The anodizing behavior of aluminum in malonic acid solution and morphology of the anodic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jianjun; Zuo, Yu

    2012-11-01

    The anodizing behavior of aluminum in malonic acid solution and morphology of the anodic films were studied. The voltage-time response for galvanostatic anodization of aluminum in malonic acid solution exhibits a conventional three-stage feature but the formation voltage is much higher. With the increase of electrolyte concentration, the electrolyte viscosity increases simultaneously and the high viscosity decreases the film growth rate. With the concentration increase of the malonic acid electrolyte, the critical current density that initiates local "burning" on the sample surface decreases. For malonic acid anodization, the field-assisted dissolution on the oxide surface is relatively weak and the nucleation of pores is more difficult, which results in greater barrier layer thickness and larger cell dimension. The embryo of the porous structure of anodic film has been created within the linear region of the first transient stage, and the definite porous structure has been established before the end of the first transient stage. The self-ordering behavior of the porous film is influenced by the electrolyte concentration, film thickness and the applied current density. Great current density not only improves the cell arrangement order but also brings about larger cell dimension.

  2. Anodized aluminum pressure sensitive paint for unsteady aerodynamic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaue, Hirotaka

    2003-06-01

    A comprehensive study of anodized aluminum pressure sensitive paint (AA-PSP) is documented. The study consisted of the development of AA-PSP and its application to unsteady aerodynamic fields at atmospheric conditions. Luminophore application mechanism and two-component application on anodized aluminum was studied for the development. Two-component application includes hydrophobic-coated AA-PSP and bi-luminophore system. It was found that the polarity of solvents and the surface charge of anodized aluminum determine the optimized luminophore application. As a result, a wide variation of luminophore can be applied on anodized aluminum. To apply both components on anodized aluminum, optimum solvent polarities for each component should match. AA-PSP performances, such as pressure sensitivity, temperature dependency, signal level, and aging were improved by the luminophore application mechanism and two-component application. AA-PSPs demonstrate the capability of measuring surface pressures on unsteady aerodynamic fields. For an application to the Purdue Mach 4 Quiet Flow Ludwieg Tube, surface pressures on the order of a hundred Pascals were measured for approximately 200ms. The measurement uncertainty of the pressure was on the order of 5%. The main uncertainty source comes from fitting the adsorption control model to calibration points. The results compared qualitatively well to CFD calculations. A miniature fluidic oscillator was used to demonstrate the capability of measuring oscillating unsteady aerodynamic fields with 6.4kHz primary frequency. Flow oscillation images as well as pressure maps of various phases were captured by AA-PSP with PtTFPP as a luminophore (AA-PSPPtTFPP ). Main uncertainty source comes from fitting the adsorption control model to calibration points and from the pulse width of illumination. The measurement uncertainty of the pressure was 4.68%. AA-PSPPtTFPP was applied to a high-amplified acoustic fielding in a standing wave tube. The maximum

  3. Microstructural characterization and mechanical property of active soldering anodized 6061 Al alloy using Sn-3.5Ag-xTi active solders

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei-Lin, E-mail: wangwl77@gmail.com; Tsai, Yi-Chia, E-mail: tij@itri.org.tw

    2012-06-15

    Active solders Sn-3.5Ag-xTi varied from x = 0 to 6 wt.% Ti addition were prepared by vacuum arc re-melting and the resultant phase formation and variation of microstructure with titanium concentration were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The Sn-3.5Ag-xTi active solders are used as metallic filler to join with anodized 6061 Al alloy for potential applications of providing a higher heat conduction path. Their joints and mechanical properties were characterized and evaluated in terms of titanium content. The mechanical property of joints was measured by shear testing. The joint strength was very dependent on themore » titanium content. Solder with a 0.5 wt.% Ti addition can successfully wet and bond to the anodized aluminum oxide layers of Al alloy and posses a shear strength of 16.28 {+-} 0.64 MPa. The maximum bonding strength reached 22.24 {+-} 0.70 MPa at a 3 wt.% Ti addition. Interfacial reaction phase and chemical composition were identified by a transmission electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer. Results showed that the Ti element reacts with anodized aluminum oxide to form Al{sub 3}Ti-rich and Al{sub 3}Ti phases at the joint interfaces. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Active solder joining of anodized Al alloy needs 0.5 wt.% Ti addition for Sn-3.5Ag. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The maximum bonding strength occurs at 3 wt.% Ti addition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ti reacts with anodized Al oxide to form Al{sub 3}Ti-rich and Al{sub 3}Ti at joint interface.« less

  4. Effect of processing on structural features of anodic aluminum oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogan, Pembe; Birol, Yucel

    2012-09-01

    Morphological features of the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates fabricated by electrochemical oxidation under different processing conditions were investigated. The selection of the polishing parameters does not appear to be critical as long as the aluminum substrate is polished adequately prior to the anodization process. AAO layers with a highly ordered pore distribution are obtained after anodizing in 0.6 M oxalic acid at 20 °C under 40 V for 5 minutes suggesting that the desired pore features are attained once an oxide layer develops on the surface. While the pore features are not affected much, the thickness of the AAO template increases with increasing anodization treatment time. Pore features are better and the AAO growth rate is higher at 20 °C than at 5 °C; higher under 45 V than under 40 V; higher with 0.6 M than with 0.3 M oxalic acid.

  5. Aluminum Alloy and Article Cast Therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Chen, Po-Shou (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A cast article from an aluminum alloy, which has improved mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, has the following composition in weight percent: Silicon 14 - 25.0, Copper 5.5 - 8.0, Iron 0.05 - 1.2, Magnesium 0.5 - 1.5, Nickel 0.05 - 0.9, Manganese 0.05 - 1.0, Titanium 0.05 - 1.2, Zirconium 0.05 - 1.2, Vanadium 0.05 - 1.2, Zinc 0.05 - 0.9, Phosphorus 0.001 - 0.1, and the balance is Aluminum, wherein the silicon-to-magnesium ratio is 10 - 25, and the copper-to-magnesium ratio is 4 - 15. The aluminum alloy contains a simultaneous dispersion of three types of Al3X compound particles (X=Ti, V, Zr) having a LI2, crystal structure, and their lattice parameters are coherent to the aluminum matrix lattice. A process for producing this cast article is also disclosed, as well as a metal matrix composite, which includes the aluminum alloy serving as a matrix and containing up to about 60% by volume of a secondary filler material.

  6. Fabrication of Well-Ordered, Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membrane Using Hybrid Anodization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungyoon; Ganorkar, Shraddha; Choi, Jinnil; Kim, Young-Hwan; Kim, Seong-II

    2017-01-01

    Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) is one of the most favorable candidates for fabrication of nano-meshed membrane for various applications due to its controllable pore size and self-ordered structure. The mechanism of AAO membrane is a simple and has been studied by many research groups, however the actual fabrication of membrane has several difficulties owing to its sensitivity of ordering, long anodizing time and unclearness of the pore. In this work, we have demonstrated enhanced process of fabrication symmetric AAO membrane by using “hybrid anodizing” (Hyb-A) method which include mild anodization (MA) followed by hard anodization (HA). This Hyb-A process can give highly ordered membrane with more vivid pore than two-step anodizing process. HA was implemented on the Al plate which has been already textured by MA for more ordered structure and HA plays a key role for formation of more obvious pore in Hyb-A. Our experimental results indicate that Hyb-A with proper process sequence would be one of the fast and useful fabrication methods for the AAO membrane.

  7. Charge-density-shear-moduli relationships in aluminum-lithium alloys.

    PubMed

    Eberhart, M

    2001-11-12

    Using the first principles full-potential linear-augmented-Slater-type orbital technique, the energies and charge densities of aluminum and aluminum-lithium supercells have been computed. The experimentally observed increase in aluminum's shear moduli upon alloying with lithium is argued to be the result of predictable changes to aluminum's total charge density, suggesting that simple rules may allow the alloy designer to predict the effects of dilute substitutional elements on alloy elastic response.

  8. Effect of Localized Corrosion on Fatigue-Crack Growth in 2524-T3 and 2198-T851 Aluminum Alloys Used as Aircraft Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreto, J. A.; Broday, E. E.; Rossino, L. S.; Fernandes, J. C. S.; Bose Filho, W. W.

    2018-03-01

    Corrosion and fatigue of aluminum alloys are major issues for the in-service life assessment of aircraft structures and for the management of aging air fleets. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of localized corrosion on fatigue crack growth (FCG) resistance of the AA2198-T851 Al-Li alloy (Solution Heat Treated, Cold Worked, and Artificially Aged), comparing it with the FCG resistance of AA2524-T3 (Solution Heat Treated and Cold Worked), considering the effect of seawater fog environment. Before fatigue tests, the corrosion behavior of 2198-T851 and 2524-T3 aluminum alloys was verified using open circuit potential and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. Fatigue in air and corrosion fatigue tests were performed applying a stress ratio (R) of 0.1, 15 Hz (air) and 0.1 Hz (seawater fog) frequencies, using a sinusoidal waveform in all cases. The results showed that the localized characteristics of the 2198-T851 and 2524-T3 aluminum alloys are essentially related to the existence of intermetallic compounds, which, due to their different nature, may be cathodic or anodic in relation to the aluminum matrix. The corrosive medium has affected the FCG rate of both aluminum alloys, in a quite similar way.

  9. Effect of Slotted Anode on Gas Bubble Behaviors in Aluminum Reduction Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Meijia; Li, Baokuan; Li, Linmin; Wang, Qiang; Peng, Jianping; Wang, Yaowu; Cheung, Sherman C. P.

    2017-12-01

    In the aluminum reduction cells, gas bubbles are generated at the bottom of the anode which eventually reduces the effective current contact area and the system efficiency. To encourage the removal of gas bubbles, slotted anode has been proposed and increasingly adopted by some industrial aluminum reduction cells. Nonetheless, the exact gas bubble removal mechanisms are yet to be fully understood. A three-dimensional (3D) transient, multiphase flow mathematical model coupled with magnetohydrodynamics has been developed to investigate the effect of slotted anode on the gas bubble movement. The Eulerian volume of fluid approach is applied to track the electrolyte (bath)-molten aluminum (metal) interface. Meanwhile, the Lagrangian discrete particle model is employed to handle the dynamics of gas bubbles with considerations of the buoyancy force, drag force, virtual mass force, and pressure gradient force. The gas bubble coalescence process is also taken into account based on the O'Rourke's algorithm. The two-way coupling between discrete bubbles and fluids is achieved by the inter-phase momentum exchange. Numerical predictions are validated against the anode current variation in an industrial test. Comparing the results using slotted anode with the traditional one, the time-averaged gas bubble removal rate increases from 36 to 63 pct; confirming that the slotted anode provides more escaping ways and shortens the trajectories for gas bubbles. Furthermore, the slotted anode also reduces gas bubble's residence time and the probability of coalescence. Moreover, the bubble layer thickness in aluminum cell with slotted anode is reduced about 3.5 mm (17.4 pct), so the resistance can be cut down for the sake of energy saving and the metal surface fluctuation amplitude is significantly reduced for the stable operation due to the slighter perturbation with smaller bubbles.

  10. The effect of crystal orientation on the aluminum anodes of the aluminum-air batteries in alkaline electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Liang; Lu, Huimin; Leng, Jing; Sun, Zegao; Chen, Chunbo

    2015-12-01

    Recently, aluminum-air (Al-air) batteries have received attention from researchers as an exciting option for safe and efficient batteries. The electrochemical performance of Aluminum anode remains an active area of investigation. In this paper, the electrochemical properties of polycrystalline Al, Al (001), (110) and (111) single crystals are investigated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 4 M NaOH and KOH. Hydrogen corrosion rates of the Al anodes are determined by hydrogen collection. Battery performance using the anodes is tested by constant current discharge at 10 mA cm-2. This is the first report showing that the electrochemical properties of Al are closely related to the crystallographic orientation in alkaline electrolytes. The (001) crystallographic plane has good corrosion resistance but (110) is more sensitive. Al (001) single crystals display higher anode efficiency and capacity density. Controlling the crystallographic orientation of the Al anode is another way to improve the performance of Al-air batteries in alkaline electrolytes.

  11. Effects of Alloy Chemistry Changes on Sacrificial Aluminum Anode Performance, Tri-Service Committee on Corrosion Proceedings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    Notes 14. Abstract 15. Subject Terms Tri-Service Conference on Corrosion A • PON ... i 19. Limitation 20. # of 21. Responsible Person...review of the text. REFERENCES 1. Reding , J.’ J.J. Newport III and J.R. Minderhout; US Patent 3,321,306, "Galvanic Anode Alloy and Products Produced

  12. Reinforcing aluminum alloys with high strength fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolpashnikov, A. I.; Manuylov, V. F.; Chukhin, B. D.; Shiryayev, Y. V.; Shurygin, A. S.

    1982-01-01

    A study is made of the possibility of reinforcing aluminum and aluminum based alloys with fibers made of high strength steel wire. The method of introducing the fibers is described in detail. Additional strengthening by reinforcement of the high alloy system Al - An - Mg was investigated.

  13. 46 CFR 35.01-25 - Sacrificial anode installations-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... installation of magnesium sacrificial anodes in cargo tanks utilized for the carriage of flammable or... analysis of the alloy composition shall be submitted for approval. The anode should be magnesium free and... consideration. (c) Sacrificial anodes using materials other than those having aluminum and/or magnesium in whole...

  14. 46 CFR 35.01-25 - Sacrificial anode installations-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... installation of magnesium sacrificial anodes in cargo tanks utilized for the carriage of flammable or... analysis of the alloy composition shall be submitted for approval. The anode should be magnesium free and... consideration. (c) Sacrificial anodes using materials other than those having aluminum and/or magnesium in whole...

  15. Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Anton

    1988-01-01

    Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/aluminum alloys having varying selected compositions.

  16. Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, A.

    1988-01-21

    Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/aluminum alloys having varying selected compositions.

  17. Self-Ordered Nanoporous Alumina Templates Formed by Anodization of Aluminum in Oxalic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vida-Simiti, Ioan; Nemes, Dorel; Jumate, Nicolaie; Thalmaier, Gyorgy; Sechel, Niculina

    2012-10-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes with highly ordered nanopores serve as ideal templates for the formation of various nanostructured materials. The procedure of the template preparation is based on a two-step self-organized anodization of aluminum. In the current study, AAO templates were fabricated in 0.3 M oxalic acid under the anodizing potential range of 30-60 V at an electrolyte temperature of ~5°C. The AAO templates were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential thermal analysis. The as obtained layers are amorphous; the mean pore size is between 40 nm and 75 nm and increases with the increase of the anodization potential. Well-defined pores across the whole aluminum template, a pore density of ~1010 pores/cm2, and a tendency to form a porous structure with hexagonal symmetry were observed.

  18. Microstructures and properties of aluminum die casting alloys

    SciTech Connect

    M. M. Makhlouf; D. Apelian; L. Wang

    1998-10-01

    This document provides descriptions of the microstructure of different aluminum die casting alloys and to relate the various microstructures to the alloy chemistry. It relates the microstructures of the alloys to their main engineering properties such as ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, fatigue life, impact resistance, wear resistance, hardness, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. Finally, it serves as a reference source for aluminum die casting alloys.

  19. Systems study of transport aircraft incorporating advanced aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.

    1982-01-01

    A study was performed to quantify the potential benefits of utilizing advanced aluminum alloys in commercial transport aircraft and to define the effort necessary to develop fully the alloys to a viable commercial production capability. The comprehensive investigation (1) established realistic advanced aluminum alloy property goals to maximize aircraft systems effectiveness (2) identified performance and economic benefits of incorporating the advanced alloy in future advanced technology commercial aircraft designs (3) provided a recommended plan for development and integration of the alloys into commercial aircraft production (4) provided an indication of the timing and investigation required by the metal producing industry to support the projected market and (5) evaluate application of advanced aluminum alloys to other aerospace and transit systems as a secondary objective. The results of the investigation provided a roadmap and identified key issues requiring attention in an advanced aluminum alloy and applications technology development program.

  20. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys and composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisagor, W. B.; Stein, B. A.

    1982-01-01

    The differences between powder and ingot metallurgy processing of aluminum alloys are outlined. The potential payoff in the use of advanced powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloys in future transport aircraft is indicated. The national program to bring this technology to commercial fruition and the NASA Langley Research Center role in this program are briefly outlined. Some initial results of research in 2000-series PM alloys and composites that highlight the property improvements possible are given.

  1. Particulate and gaseous emissions when welding aluminum alloys.

    PubMed

    Cole, Homer; Epstein, Seymour; Peace, Jon

    2007-09-01

    Fabrication and repair of aluminum components and structures commonly involves the use of electric arc welding. The interaction of the arc and the metal being welded generates ultraviolet radiation, metallic oxides, fumes, and gases. Aluminum is seldom used as the pure metal but is often alloyed with other metals to improve strength and other physical properties. Therefore, the exact composition of any emissions will depend on the welding process and the particular aluminum alloy being welded. To quantify such emissions, The Aluminum Association sponsored several studies to characterize arc welding emissions by the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) processes for various combinations of base and filler alloys. In all cases, the tests were conducted under conditions that could be found in a production weld shop without forced ventilation. The concentrations of each analyte that a welder could be exposed to were greatly affected by the welding process, the composition of the base and filler alloys, the position of the welder, and the welding helmet. The results obtained can be used by employers to identify and control potential hazards associated with the welding of aluminum alloys and can provide the basis for hazard communication to employees involved in the welding of these alloys.

  2. Anodization Mechanism on SiC Nanoparticle Reinforced Al Matrix Composites Produced by Power Metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sonia C; Conde, Ana; Arenas, María A; Rocha, Luis A; Velhinho, Alexandre

    2014-12-19

    Specimens of aluminum-based composites reinforced by silicon carbide nanoparticles (Al/SiC np ) produced by powder metallurgy (PM) were anodized under voltage control in tartaric-sulfuric acid (TSA). In this work, the influence of the amount of SiC np on the film growth during anodizing was investigated. The current density versus time response and the morphology of the porous alumina film formed at the composite surface are compared to those concerning a commercial aluminum alloy (AA1050) anodized under the same conditions. The processing method of the aluminum alloys influences the efficiency of the anodizing process, leading to a lower thicknesses for the unreinforced Al-PM alloy regarding the AA1050. The current density versus time response is strongly dependent on the amount of SiC np . The current peaks and the steady-state current density recorded at each voltage step increases with the SiC np volume fraction due to the oxidation of the SiC np . The formation mechanism of the anodic film on Al/SiC np composites is different from that occurring in AA1050, partly due the heterogeneous distribution of the reinforcement particles in the metallic matrix, but also to the entrapment of SiC np in the anodic film.

  3. Anodization Mechanism on SiC Nanoparticle Reinforced Al Matrix Composites Produced by Power Metallurgy

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Sonia C.; Conde, Ana; Arenas, María A.; Rocha, Luis A.; Velhinho, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Specimens of aluminum-based composites reinforced by silicon carbide nanoparticles (Al/SiCnp) produced by powder metallurgy (PM) were anodized under voltage control in tartaric-sulfuric acid (TSA). In this work, the influence of the amount of SiCnp on the film growth during anodizing was investigated. The current density versus time response and the morphology of the porous alumina film formed at the composite surface are compared to those concerning a commercial aluminum alloy (AA1050) anodized under the same conditions. The processing method of the aluminum alloys influences the efficiency of the anodizing process, leading to a lower thicknesses for the unreinforced Al-PM alloy regarding the AA1050. The current density versus time response is strongly dependent on the amount of SiCnp. The current peaks and the steady-state current density recorded at each voltage step increases with the SiCnp volume fraction due to the oxidation of the SiCnp. The formation mechanism of the anodic film on Al/SiCnp composites is different from that occurring in AA1050, partly due the heterogeneous distribution of the reinforcement particles in the metallic matrix, but also to the entrapment of SiCnp in the anodic film. PMID:28788295

  4. Melt-Spun Fe-Sb Intermetallic Alloy Anode for Performance Enhanced Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Edison, Eldho; Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Madhavi, Srinivasan

    2017-11-15

    Owing to the high theoretical sodiation capacities, intermetallic alloy anodes have attracted considerable interest as electrodes for next-generation sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of intermetallic Fe-Sb alloy anode for SIBs via a high-throughput and industrially viable melt-spinning process. The earth-abundant and low-cost Fe-Sb-based alloy anode exhibits excellent cycling stability with nearly 466 mAh g -1 sodiation capacity at a specific current of 50 mA g -1 with 95% capacity retention after 80 cycles. Moreover, the alloy anode displayed outstanding rate performance with ∼300 mAh g -1 sodiation capacity at 1 A g -1 . The crystalline features of the melt-spun fibers aid in the exceptional electrochemical performance of the alloy anode. Further, the feasibility of the alloy anode for real-life applications was demonstrated in a sodium-ion full-cell configuration which could deliver a sodiation capacity of over 300 mAh g -1 (based on anode) at 50 mA g -1 with more than 99% Coulombic efficiency. The results further exhort the prospects of melt-spun alloy anodes to realize fully functional sodium-ion batteries.

  5. Hierarchically ordered self-lubricating superhydrophobic anodized aluminum surfaces with enhanced corrosion resistance.

    PubMed

    Vengatesh, Panneerselvam; Kulandainathan, Manickam Anbu

    2015-01-28

    Herein, we report a facile method for the fabrication of self-lubricating superhydrophobic hierarchical anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) surfaces with improved corrosion protection, which is greatly anticipated to have a high impact in catalysis, aerospace, and the shipping industries. This method involves chemical grafting of as-formed AAO using low surface free energy molecules like long chain saturated fatty acids, perfluorinated fatty acid (perfluorooctadecanoic acid, PFODA), and perfluorosulfonicacid-polytetrafluoroethylene copolymer. The pre and post treatment processes in the anodization of aluminum (Al) play a vital role in the grafting of fatty acids. Wettability and surface free energy were analyzed using a contact angle meter and achieved 161.5° for PFODA grafted anodized aluminum (PFODA-Al). This study was also aimed at evaluating the surface for corrosion resistance by Tafel polarization and self-lubricating properties by tribological studies using a pin-on-disc tribometer. The collective results showed that chemically grafted AAO nanostructures exhibit high corrosion resistance toward seawater and low frictional coefficient due to low surface energy and self-lubricating property of fatty acids covalently linked to anodized Al surfaces.

  6. Development of Titanium-Sputtered Anodized Aluminum Substrates for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Côté, Marie-Pier; Parsi Benehkohal, Nima; Alpay, Neslihan; Demopoulos, George P.; Brochu, Mathieu

    2014-12-01

    In this study, anodized aluminum coupons are sputtered with titanium and successfully demonstrated as dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) electrode substrates in both anode [back-illumination (BI)] and cathode [front-illumination (FI)] configurations. The FI DSCs were found to be significantly more efficient than the BI devices registering an average efficiency of 5.7 vs 2.6 pct. By comparison, the efficiency of benchmark cells built with fluorine-tin oxide-glass was 6.7 and 4.6 pct, respectively. The thickness of the titanium-sputtered film was varied from 0.85 to 1.1 μm with the latter providing a better average efficiency when used as a counter electrode. According to preliminary stability testing, the Ti-sputtered anodized aluminum-based DSC devices exhibited a significant reduction of their efficiency over a period of 10 days that was partly attributed to triiodide redox electrolyte reaction with the aluminum substrate. This points to the need for optimization of the sputtered-titanium coating microstructure in order to completely isolate the aluminum substrate from the liquid electrolyte.

  7. High-strength laser welding of aluminum-lithium scandium-doped alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malikov, A. G.; Ivanova, M. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    The work presents the experimental investigation of laser welding of an aluminum alloy (system Al-Mg-Li) and aluminum alloy (system Al-Cu-Li) doped with Sc. The influence of nano-structuring of the surface layer welded joint by cold plastic deformation on the strength properties of the welded joint is determined. It is founded that, regarding the deformation degree over the thickness, the varying value of the welded joint strength is different for these aluminum alloys. The strength of the plastically deformed welded joint, aluminum alloys of the Al-Mg-Li and Al-Cu-Li systems reached 0.95 and 0.6 of the base alloy strength, respectively.

  8. Fabrication of a novel aluminum surface covered by numerous high-aspect-ratio anodic alumina nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Daiki; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Natsui, Shungo; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2015-11-01

    The formation behavior of anodic alumina nanofibers via anodizing in a concentrated pyrophosphoric acid under various conditions was investigated using electrochemical measurements and SEM/TEM observations. Pyrophosphoric acid anodizing at 293 K resulted in the formation of numerous anodic alumina nanofibers on an aluminum substrate through a thin barrier oxide and honeycomb oxide with narrow walls. However, long-term anodizing led to the chemical dissolution of the alumina nanofibers. The density of the anodic alumina nanofibers decreased as the applied voltage increased in the 10-75 V range. However, active electrochemical dissolution of the aluminum substrate occurred at a higher voltage of 90 V. Low temperature anodizing at 273 K resulted in the formation of long alumina nanofibers measuring several micrometers in length, even though a long processing time was required due to the low current density during the low temperature anodizing. In contrast, high temperature anodizing easily resulted in the formation and chemical dissolution of alumina nanofibers. The structural nanofeatures of the anodic alumina nanofibers were controlled by choosing of the appropriate electrochemical conditions, and numerous high-aspect-ratio alumina nanofibers (>100) can be successfully fabricated. The anodic alumina nanofibers consisted of a pure amorphous aluminum oxide without anions from the employed electrolyte.

  9. Corrosion of aluminum alloys by chlorinated hydrocarbon/methanol mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Forest, W. S.

    1967-01-01

    Laboratory investigations show that water-free mixtures of Freon MF /trichlorofluoromethane/ and methanol vigorously attack aluminum alloys which contain significant amounts of copper. Freon MF alone did not attack the aluminum alloys at room temperature. Pure methanol had only a slight corrosive effect on the alloy.

  10. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Certain Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasse, K. R.; Dorward, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    SC resistance of new high-strength alloys tested. Research report describes progress in continuing investigation of stress corrosion (SC) cracking of some aluminum alloys. Objective of program is comparing SC behavior of newer high-strength alloys with established SC-resistant alloy.

  11. Aluminum and its light alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merica, Paul D

    1920-01-01

    Report is a summary of research work which has been done here and abroad on the constitution and mechanical properties of the various alloy systems with aluminum. The mechanical properties and compositions of commercial light alloys for casting, forging, or rolling, obtainable in this country are described.

  12. Electrotransfer in Liquid Binary Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekuchev, V. V.; Kalinkin, D. P.; Ivanova, I. V.

    2018-07-01

    The mobility of ions in a liquid binary metal system based on aluminum is calculated for the first time in a wide range of concentrations, based on studies of its resistivity and self-diffusion coefficient. It is established that in an Al-Cu system, the ions of aluminum move to the anode, while Al-Mg, Al-Sn, and Al-Sb move to the cathode; i.e., there is inversion of the electrotransfer of aluminum ions. When the concentration of a component is reduced, the mobility of its ions is increased by the module.

  13. Environment assisted degradation mechanisms in aluminum-lithium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Swanson, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Section 1 of this report records the progress achieved on NASA-LaRC Grant NAG-1-745 (Environment Assisted Degradation Mechanisms in Al-Li Alloys), and is based on research conducted during the period April 1 to November 30, 1987. A discussion of work proposed for the project's second year is included. Section 2 provides an overview of the need for research on the mechanisms of environmental-mechanical degradation of advanced aerospace alloys based on aluminum and lithium. This research is to provide NASA with the basis necessary to permit metallurgical optimization of alloy performance and engineering design with respect to damage tolerance, long term durability and reliability. Section 3 reports on damage localization mechanisms in aqueous chloride corrosion fatigue of aluminum-lithium alloys. Section 4 reports on progress made on measurements and mechanisms of localized aqueous corrosion in aluminum-lithium alloys. Section 5 provides a detailed technical proposal for research on environmental degradation of Al-Li alloys, and the effect of hydrogen in this.

  14. Preparation and analysis of anodic aluminum oxide films with continuously tunable interpore distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xiufang; Zhang, Jinqiong; Meng, Xiaojuan; Deng, Chenhua; Zhang, Lifang; Ding, Guqiao; Zeng, Hao; Xu, Xiaohong

    2015-02-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxides are often used as templates for preparation of nanostructures such as nanodot, nanowire and nanotube arrays. The interpore distance of anodic aluminum oxide is the most important parameter in controlling the periodicity of these nanostructures. Herein we demonstrate a simple and yet powerful method to fabricate ordered anodic aluminum oxides with continuously tunable interpore distances. By using mixed solution of citric and oxalic acids with different molar ratio, the range of anodizing voltages within which self-ordered films can be formed were extended to between 40 and 300 V, resulting in the interpore distances change from 100 to 750 nm. Our work realized very broad range of interpore distances in a continuously tunable fashion and the experiment processes are easily controllable and reproducible. The dependence of the interpore distances on acid ratios in mixed solutions was discussed through analysis of anodizing current and it was found that the effective dissociation constant of the mixed acids is of great importance. The interpore distances achieved are comparable to wavelengths ranging from UV to near IR, and may have potential applications in optical meta-materials for photovoltaics and optical sensing.

  15. Seacoast stress corrosion cracking of aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking resistance of high strength, wrought aluminum alloys in a seacoast atmosphere was investigated and the results were compared with those obtained in laboratory tests. Round tensile specimens taken from the short transverse grain direction of aluminum plate and stressed up to 100 percent of their yield strengths were exposed to the seacoast and to alternate immersion in salt water and synthetic seawater. Maximum exposure periods of one year at the seacoast, 0.3 or 0.7 of a month for alternate immersion in salt water, and three months for synthetic seawater were indicated for aluminum alloys to avoid false indications of stress corrosion cracking failure resulting from pitting. Correlation of the results was very good among the three test media using the selected exposure periods. It is concluded that either of the laboratory test media is suitable for evaluating the stress corrosion cracking performance of aluminum alloys in seacoast atmosphere.

  16. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PHOTOTROPIC ANODIZED ALUMINUM FINISH RESPONSIVE TO GAMMA RADIATION.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The present investigation was conducted to establish a phototropic anodized aluminum finish sensitive to gamma radiation. A comprehensive literature...search revealed a number of candidate phototropic materials but very little information about gamma radiation response. Because early trials...indicated that each candidate phototropic system possessed different dyeing characteristics for an anodic film, time-consuming trials with dyed anodic films

  17. Reduced temperature aluminum production in an electrolytic cell having an inert anode

    DOEpatents

    Dawless, Robert K.; Ray, Siba P.; Hosler, Robert B.; Kozarek, Robert L.; LaCamera, Alfred F.

    2000-01-01

    Aluminum is produced by electrolytic reduction of alumina in a cell having a cathode, an inert anode and a molten salt bath containing metal fluorides and alumina. The inert anode preferably contains copper, silver and oxides of iron and nickel. Reducing the molten salt bath temperature to about 900-950.degree. C. lowers corrosion on the inert anode constituents.

  18. Microhardness of anodic aluminum oxide formed in an alkaline electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanygina, O. N.; Filyak, M. M.

    2017-04-01

    The microhardness of anodic aluminum oxide formed by anodizing of aluminum sheet in electrolyte on the basis of sodium hydroxide has been determined experimentally. The microhardness of the hard film/soft substrate system has been estimated by three approaches: indentation geometry (length of diagonals) in film surfaces, the sum of the hardnesses of the film and the surface with allowance for the indentation surface area and geometry, and with allowance for the indentation depth. It is demonstrated that the approach accounting for the indentation depth makes it possible to eliminate the influence of the substrate. It is established that the microhardness of the films formed in alkaline electrolytes is comparable with that formed in acid electrolytes.

  19. Modification of Sr on 4004 Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Erjun; Cao, Guojian; Feng, Yicheng; Wang, Liping; Wang, Guojun; Lv, Xinyu

    2013-05-01

    As a brazing foil, 4004 Al alloy has good welding performance. However, the high Si content decreases the plasticity of the alloy. To improve the plasticity of 4004 Al alloy and subsequently improve the productivity of 4004 Al foil or 434 composite foil, 4004 Al alloy was modified by Al-10%Sr master alloy. Modification effects of an additional amount of Sr, modification temperature, and holding time on 4004 aluminum alloy were studied by orthogonal design. The results showed that the greatest impact parameter of 4004 aluminum alloy modification was the additional amount of Sr, followed by holding time and modification temperature. The optimum modification parameters obtained by orthogonal design were as follows: Sr addition of 0.04%, holding time of 60 min, and modification temperature of 760°C. The effect of Sr addition on modification was analyzed in detail based on orthogonal results. With increasing of Sr addition, elongation of 4004 alloy increased at first, and decreased after reaching the maximum value.

  20. Roll Casting of Aluminum Alloy Clad Strip

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, R.; Tsuge, H.; Haga, T.

    2011-01-17

    Casting of aluminum alloy three layers of clad strip was tried using the two sets of twin roll casters, and effects of the casting parameters on the cladding conditions were investigated. One twin roll caster was mounted on the other twin roll caster. Base strip was 8079 aluminum alloy and overlay strips were 6022 aluminum alloy. Effects of roll-load of upper and lower casters and melt temperature of the lower caster were investigated. When the roll-load of the upper and lower caster was large enough, the overlay strip could be solidified and be connected. The overlay strip could be connectedmore » when the melt of the overlay strip cast by the lower caster was low enough. Sound three layers of clad strip could be cast by proper conditions.« less

  1. Properties of a new type Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy composite anode for zinc electrowinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hai-tao; Liu, Huan-rong; Zhang, Yong-chun; Chen, Bu-ming; Guo, Zhong-cheng; Xu, Rui-dong

    2013-10-01

    An Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy composite anode was produced via composite casting. Its electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen evolution reaction and corrosion resistance was evaluated by anodic polarization curves and accelerated corrosion test, respectively. The microscopic morphologies of the anode section and anodic oxidation layer during accelerated corrosion test were obtained by scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the composite anode (hard anodizing) displays a more compact interfacial combination and a better adhesive strength than plating tin. Compared with industrial Pb-0.3%Ag anodes, the oxygen evolution overpotentials of Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (hard anodizing) and Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (plating tin) at 500 A·m-2 were lower by 57 and 14 mV, respectively. Furthermore, the corrosion rates of Pb-0.3%Ag alloy, Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (hard anodizing), and Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (plating tin) were 13.977, 9.487, and 11.824 g·m-2·h-1, respectively, in accelerated corrosion test for 8 h at 2000 A·m-2. The anodic oxidation layer of Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (hard anodizing) is more compact than Pb-0.3%Ag alloy and Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (plating tin) after the test.

  2. Thermodynamics of Titanium-Aluminum-Oxygen Alloys Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan H.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2001-01-01

    Titanium-aluminum alloys are promising intermediate-temperature alloys for possible compressor applications in gas-turbine engines. These materials are based on the a2-Ti3Al + g-TiAl phases. The major issue with these materials is high oxygen solubility in a2-Ti3Al, and oxidation of unsaturated alloys generally leads to mixed non-protective TiO2+Al2O3 scales. From phase diagram studies, oxygen saturated a2-Ti3Al(O) is in equilibrium with Al2O3; however, oxygen dissolution has a detrimental effect on mechanical properties and cannot be accepted. To better understand the effect of oxygen dissolution, we examined the thermodynamics of titanium-aluminum-oxygen alloys.

  3. Metallography of Aluminum and Its Alloys : Use of Electrolytic Polishing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacquet, Pierre A

    1955-01-01

    Recent methods are described for electropolishing aluminum and aluminum alloys. Numerous references are included of electrolytic micrographic investigations carried out during the period 1948 to 1952. A detailed description of a commercial electrolytic polishing unit, suitable for micrographic examination of aluminum and its alloys, is included.

  4. Non-consumable anode and lining for aluminum electrolytic reduction cell

    DOEpatents

    Beck, Theodore R.; Brooks, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    An oxidation resistant, non-consumable anode, for use in the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum, has a composition comprising copper, nickel and iron. The anode is part of an electrolytic reduction cell comprising a vessel having an interior lined with metal which has the same composition as the anode. The electrolyte is preferably composed of a eutectic of AlF.sub.3 and either (a) NaF or (b) primarily NaF with some of the NaF replaced by an equivalent molar amount of KF or KF and LiF.

  5. FABRICATION OF URANIUM-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Saller, H.A.

    1959-12-15

    A process is presented for producing a workable article of a uranium- aluminum alloy in which the uranium content is between 14 and 70% by weight; aluminum powder and powdered UAl/sub 2/, UAl/sub 3/, UAl/sub 5/, or UBe/sub 9/ are mixed, and the mixture is compressed into the shape desired and sintered at between 450 and 600 deg C.

  6. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of biospecies on anodized aluminum oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Smirnov, A. I.; Hahn, D.; Grebel, H.

    2007-06-01

    Traditionally, aluminum and anodized aluminum oxide films (AAO) are not the platforms of choice for surface-enhanced raman scattering (SERS) experiments despite of the aluminum's large negative permittivity value. Here we examine the usefulness of aluminum and nanoporous alumina platforms for detecting soft biospecies ranging from bacterial spores to protein markers. We used these flat platforms to examine SERS of a model protein (cytochrome c from bovine heart tissue) and bacterial cells (spores of Bacillus subtilis ATCC13933 used as Anthrax simulant) and demonstrated clear Raman amplification.

  7. Characterization of Nanocrystalline Aluminum Alloy 5083 Powders Produced by Cryogenic Attrition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Characterization of Nanocrystalline Aluminum Alloy 5083 Powders Produced by Cryogenic Attrition by Tiffany Ngo ARL-TN-0643...November 2014 Characterization of Nanocrystalline Aluminum Alloy 5083 Powders Produced by Cryogenic Attrition Tiffany Ngo Weapons and...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) August 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Characterization of Nanocrystalline Aluminum Alloy 5083 Powders Produced by

  8. Fundamental Investigation of Fatigue Crack Growth Retardation in Aluminum Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    Fatigue Crack Propagation in 2024 -T3 Aluminum Alloy , " ASTM STP 536, p. 115, 1973. 9. J. Schijve, " Effect of Load Sequences...Hertzberg, " Effect of Multiple Over- loads on Fatigue Crack Propagation in 2024 -T3 Aluminum Alloy , " ASTM STP-536, p. 115, 1973. 9. J. Schijve... Effect of Thickness on Retardation Behavior of 7075 and 2024 Aluminum Alloys .......... 185 vi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS FIGURE PAGE 1 SEN

  9. Fabrication of polymeric nano-batteries array using anodic aluminum oxide templates.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiang; Cui, Xiaoli; Chen, Ling; Liu, Ling; Sun, Zhenkun; Jiang, Zhiyu

    2009-02-01

    Rechargeable nano-batteries were fabricated in the array pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template, combining template method and electrochemical method. The battery consisted of electropolymerized PPy electrode, porous TiO2 separator, and chemically polymerized PAn electrode was fabricated in the array pores of two-step anodizing aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane, based on three-step assembling method. It performs typical electrochemical battery behavior with good charge-discharge ability, and presents a capacity of 25 nAs. AFM results show the hexagonal array of nano-batteries' top side. The nano-battery may be a promising device for the development of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), and Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems (NEMS).

  10. Lattice mismatch modeling of aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Dongwon; Roy, Shibayan; Watkins, Thomas R.

    We present a theoretical framework to accurately predict the lattice mismatch between the fcc matrix and precipitates in the multi-component aluminum alloys as a function of temperature and composition. We use a computational thermodynamic approach to model the lattice parameters of the multi-component fcc solid solution and θ'-Al2Cu precipitate phase. Better agreement between the predicted lattice parameters of fcc aluminum in five commercial alloys (206, 319, 356, A356, and A356 + 0.5Cu) and experimental data from the synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXD) has been obtained when simulating supersaturated rather than equilibrium solid solutions. We use the thermal expansion coefficient of thermodynamicallymore » stable θ-Al2Cu to describe temperature-dependent lattice parameters of meta-stable θ' and to show good agreement with the SXD data. Both coherent and semi-coherent interface mismatches between the fcc aluminum matrix and θ' in Al-Cu alloys are presented as a function of temperature. Our calculation results show that the concentration of solute atoms, particularly Cu, in the matrix greatly affects the lattice mismatch« less

  11. An investigation of plastic fracture in aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, J. R., Jr.; Vanstone, R. H.; Merchant, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    The brittle fracture of many high strength alloys such as steel, titanium, and aluminum was shown to occur by a process called plastic fracture. According to this process microscopic voids form at impurity particles, then grow and coalesce to cause the final rupture. To further understand the role of impurities, four aluminum alloys were investigated: 2024-T851, 2124-T851, 7075-T7351 and 7079-T651. Fractography, quantitative metallography, and microprobe studies assessed the roles of various impurity particles relative to these alloys.

  12. Fume generation rates for stainless steel, nickel and aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Castner, H.R.

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes a study of the effects of pulsed welding current on fume produced during gas metal arc welding (GMAW) of stainless steel, nickel, and aluminum alloys. This is an extension of earlier studies of mild steel electrode wire. Reduction of welding fume is important because steady current GMAW of stainless steels and nickel alloys may produce fume that exceeds recommended worker exposure limits for some of the fume constituents. Fume generation from aluminum alloy ER5356 was studied because steady current welding with this alloy produces much higher fume generation rates than ER4043 alloy electrode wire. This work showsmore » that pulsed current can reduce GMAW fume generation rates for Er308L, ER310, and ER312 stainless steel, ERNiCr-3 nickel alloy, and ER5356 aluminum-magnesium alloy electrode wires.« less

  13. Materials data handbook: Aluminum alloy 6061

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muraca, R. F.; Whittick, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    A summary of the materials property information for aluminum alloy 6061 is presented. The scope of the information includes physical and mechanical properties of the alloy at cryogenic, ambient, and elevated temperatures. Information on material procurement, metallurgy, corrosion, environmental effects, fabrication, and joining techniques is developed.

  14. Materials data handbook: Aluminum alloy 2219

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muraca, R. F.; Whittick, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    A summary of the materials property information for aluminum 2219 alloy is presented. The scope of the information includes physical and mechanical properties at cryogenic, ambient, and elevated temperatures. Information on material procurement, metallurgy of the alloy, corrosion, environmental effects, fabrication, and joining techniques is developed.

  15. Materials data handbook: Aluminum alloy 7075

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muraca, R. F.; Whittick, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    A summary of the materials property information on aluminum alloy 7075 is presented. The scope of the information includes physical and mechanical properties of the alloy at cryogenic, ambient, and elevated temperatures. Information on material procurement, metallurgy, corrosion, environmental effects, fabrication, and joining techniques is developed.

  16. Materials data handbook: Aluminum alloy 5456

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muraca, R. F.; Whittick, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    A summary of the materials property information for aluminum alloy 5456 is presented. The scope of the information includes physical and mechanical property data at cryogenic, ambient, and elevated temperatures. Information on material procurement, metallurgy of the alloy, corrosion, environmental effects, fabrication, and joining techniques is developed.

  17. Oxidation of nickel-aluminum and iron-aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Cathcart, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    The high-temperature oxidation behavior of several ordered alloys in the Ni-Al and Fe-Al systems is reviewed with special emphasis on Ni/sub 3/Al and NiAl. Ordering influences oxidation through its effect on the activities of the alloy components and by changing the point defect concentration in an alloy. Three categories of Ni-Al alloys are distinguished based on Al content and oxidation behavior. A characteristic feature of the oxidation of high-aluminum Ni-Al and Fe-Al alloys is the formation of voids in the substrate at the oxide-metal interface. The mechanism of void formation and its suppression by minor additions of oxygen-active elements aremore » discussed. A brief description of the effect of pre-oxidation on the reactions of Ni/sub 3/Al-base alloys in SO/sub 2//O/sub 2/ environments is also included.« less

  18. Improved Osteoblast and Chondrocyte Adhesion and Viability by Surface-Modified Ti6Al4V Alloy with Anodized TiO₂ Nanotubes Using a Super-Oxidative Solution.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Partida, Ernesto; Moreno-Ulloa, Aldo; Valdez-Salas, Benjamín; Velasquillo, Cristina; Carrillo, Monica; Escamilla, Alan; Valdez, Ernesto; Villarreal, Francisco

    2015-03-02

    Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are amongst the most commonly-used biomaterials in orthopedic and dental applications. The Ti-aluminum-vanadium alloy (Ti6Al4V) is widely used as a biomaterial for these applications by virtue of its favorable properties, such as high tensile strength, good biocompatibility and excellent corrosion resistance. TiO₂ nanotube (NTs) layers formed by anodization on Ti6Al4V alloy have been shown to improve osteoblast adhesion and function when compared to non-anodized material. In his study, NTs were grown on a Ti6Al4V alloy by anodic oxidation for 5 min using a super-oxidative aqueous solution, and their in vitro biocompatibility was investigated in pig periosteal osteoblasts and cartilage chondrocytes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion X-ray analysis (EDX) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the materials. Cell morphology was analyzed by SEM and AFM. Cell viability was examined by fluorescence microscopy. Cell adhesion was evaluated by nuclei staining and cell number quantification by fluorescence microscopy. The average diameter of the NTs was 80 nm. The results demonstrate improved cell adhesion and viability at Day 1 and Day 3 of cell growth on the nanostructured material as compared to the non-anodized alloy. In conclusion, this study evidences the suitability of NTs grown on Ti6Al4V alloy using a super-oxidative water and a short anodization process to enhance the adhesion and viability of osteoblasts and chondrocytes. The results warrant further investigation for its use as medical implant materials.

  19. Laser surface alloying on aluminum and its alloys: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Yiming; Gu, Guochao; Yu, Huijun; Chen, Chuanzhong

    2018-01-01

    Aluminum and its alloys have been widely used in aerospace, automotive and transportation industries owing to their excellent properties such as high specific strength, good ductility and light weight. Surface modification is of crucial importance to the surface properties of aluminum and its alloys since high coefficient of friction, wear characteristics and low hardness have limited their long term performance. Laser surface alloying is one of the most effective methods of producing proper microstructure by means of non-equilibrium solidification which results from rapid heating and cooling. In this paper, the influence of different processing parameters, such as laser power and scanning velocity is discussed. The developments of various material systems including ceramics, metals or alloys, and metal matrix composites (MMCs) are reviewed. The microstructure, hardness, wear properties and other behaviors of laser treated layer are analyzed. Besides, the existing problems during laser surface treatment and the corresponding solutions are elucidated and the future developments are predicted.

  20. Acoustic emission from a solidifying aluminum-lithium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henkel, D. P.; Wood, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    Physical phenomena associated with the solidification of an AA2090 Al-Li alloy have been characterized by AE methods. Repeatable patterns of AE activity as a function of solidification time are recorded and explained for ultrahigh-purity (UHP) aluminum and an Al-4.7 wt pct Cu binary alloy, in addition to the AA2090 Al-Li alloy, by the complementary utilization of thermal, AE, and metallographic methods. One result shows that the solidification of UHP aluminum produces one discrete period of high AE activity as the last 10 percent of solid forms.

  1. Synthesis of aluminum-based scandium-yttrium master alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazhin, V. Yu.; Kosov, Ya. I.; Lobacheva, O. L.; Dzhevaga, N. V.

    2015-07-01

    The preparation technology for an Al-2% Sc-0.5% Y master alloy using aluminum-manganese alloys has been developed and tested. The microstructure of the prepared master alloy is studied and the compositions of intermetallics is determined. The efficient technological parameters of the synthesis are determined. It is shown that varying the compositions of starting reagents and alloying additions and optimizing the process conditions (temperature, mixing, etc.) allow us to forecast the manufacturing and operating characteristics of aluminum-based master alloys. Joint additions of scandium and yttrium oxides to a charge favor a substantial decrease in the grain size of the formed intermetallics; this effect appears to the utmost in the case of microallying with yttrium up to 0.5 wt %.

  2. A Highly Controllable Electrochemical Anodization Process to Fabricate Porous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuanjing; Lin, Qingfeng; Liu, Xue; Gao, Yuan; He, Jin; Wang, Wenli; Fan, Zhiyong

    2015-12-01

    Due to the broad applications of porous alumina nanostructures, research on fabrication of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) with nanoporous structure has triggered enormous attention. While fabrication of highly ordered nanoporous AAO with tunable geometric features has been widely reported, it is known that its growth rate can be easily affected by the fluctuation of process conditions such as acid concentration and temperature during electrochemical anodization process. To fabricate AAO with various geometric parameters, particularly, to realize precise control over pore depth for scientific research and commercial applications, a controllable fabrication process is essential. In this work, we revealed a linear correlation between the integrated electric charge flow throughout the circuit in the stable anodization process and the growth thickness of AAO membranes. With this understanding, we developed a facile approach to precisely control the growth process of the membranes. It was found that this approach is applicable in a large voltage range, and it may be extended to anodization of other metal materials such as Ti as well.

  3. A Highly Controllable Electrochemical Anodization Process to Fabricate Porous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membranes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuanjing; Lin, Qingfeng; Liu, Xue; Gao, Yuan; He, Jin; Wang, Wenli; Fan, Zhiyong

    2015-12-01

    Due to the broad applications of porous alumina nanostructures, research on fabrication of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) with nanoporous structure has triggered enormous attention. While fabrication of highly ordered nanoporous AAO with tunable geometric features has been widely reported, it is known that its growth rate can be easily affected by the fluctuation of process conditions such as acid concentration and temperature during electrochemical anodization process. To fabricate AAO with various geometric parameters, particularly, to realize precise control over pore depth for scientific research and commercial applications, a controllable fabrication process is essential. In this work, we revealed a linear correlation between the integrated electric charge flow throughout the circuit in the stable anodization process and the growth thickness of AAO membranes. With this understanding, we developed a facile approach to precisely control the growth process of the membranes. It was found that this approach is applicable in a large voltage range, and it may be extended to anodization of other metal materials such as Ti as well.

  4. Chemically activated nanodiamonds for aluminum alloy corrosion protection and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannstein, Inga; Adler, Anne-Katrin; Lapina, Victoria; Osipov, Vladimir; Opitz, Jörg; Schreiber, Jürgen; Meyendorf, Norbert

    2009-03-01

    In the present study, a smart coating for light metal alloys was developed and investigated. Chemically activated nanodiamonds (CANDiT) were electrophoretically deposited onto anodized aluminum alloy AA2024 substrates in order to increase corrosion resistance, enhance bonding properties and establish a means of corrosion monitoring based on the fluorescence behavior of the particles. In order to create stable aqueous CANDiT dispersions suitable for electrophoretic deposition, mechanical milling had to be implemented under specific chemical conditions. The influence of the CANDiT volume fraction and pH of the dispersion on the electrochemical properties of the coated samples was investigated. Linear voltammetry measurements reveal that the chemical characteristics of the CANDiT dispersion have a distinct influence on the quality of the coating. The fluorescence spectra as well as fluorescence excitation spectra of the samples show that corrosion can be easily detected by optical means. Furthermore, an optimization on the basis of "smart" - algorithms for the data processing of a surface analysis by the laser-speckle-method is presented.

  5. Interdigitated Eutectic Alloy Foil Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Kreder, III, Karl J.; Heligman, Brian T.; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2017-09-19

    An interdigitated eutectic alloy (IdEA) foil is presented as a framework for the development of alloy anodes with a capacity that is significantly higher than that of the traditional graphite/copper assembly. In conclusion, it is a simple, low-cost approach that can be applied to a broad range of alloy systems with various working ions such as Li, Na, or Mg.

  6. Oxidation of nickel-aluminum and iron-aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Cathcart, J.V.

    1985-01-01

    The high-temperature oxidation behavior of several ordered alloys in the Ni-Al and Fe-Al systems is reviewed with special emphasis on Ni/sub 3/Al and NiAl. Ordering influences oxidation through its effect on the activities of the alloy components and by changing the point defect concentration in an alloy. Three categories of Ni-Al alloys are distinguished based on Al content and oxidation behavior. A characteristic feature of the oxidation of high-aluminum Ni-Al and Fe-Al alloys is the formation of voids in the substrate at the oxidate-metal interface. The mechanism of void formation and its suppression by minor additions of oxygen-active elements ismore » discussed. A brief description of the effect of preoxidation on the reactions of Ni/sub 3/Al-base alloys in SO/sub 2//O/sub 2/ environments is also included. 51 references, 14 figures, 1 table.« less

  7. Anodic Oxidation in Aluminum Electrode by Using Hydrated Amorphous Aluminum Oxide Film as Solid Electrolyte under High Electric Field.

    PubMed

    Yao, Manwen; Chen, Jianwen; Su, Zhen; Peng, Yong; Zou, Pei; Yao, Xi

    2016-05-04

    Dense and nonporous amorphous aluminum oxide (AmAO) film was deposited onto platinized silicon substrate by sol-gel and spin coating technology. The evaporated aluminum film was deposited onto the AmAO film as top electrode. The hydrated AmAO film was utilized as a solid electrolyte for anodic oxidation of the aluminum electrode (Al) film under high electric field. The hydrated AmAO film was a high efficiency electrolyte, where a 45 nm thick Al film was anodized completely on a 210 nm thick hydrated AmAO film. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and breakdown phenomena of a dry and hydrated 210 nm thick AmAO film with a 150 nm thick Al electrode pad were studied in this work. Breakdown voltage of the dry and hydrated 210 nm thick AmAO film were 85 ± 3 V (405 ± 14 MV m(-1)) and 160 ± 5 V (762 ± 24 MV m(-1)), respectively. The breakdown voltage of the hydrated AmAO film increased about twice, owing to the self-healing behavior (anodic oxidation reaction). As an intuitive phenomenon of the self-healing behavior, priority anodic oxidation phenomena was observed in a 210 nm thick hydrated AmAO film with a 65 nm thick Al electrode pad. The results suggested that self-healing behavior (anodic oxidation reaction) was occurring nearby the defect regions of the films during I-V test. It was an effective electrical self-healing method, which would be able to extend to many other simple and complex oxide dielectrics and various composite structures.

  8. Alloy-Based Anode Materials toward Advanced Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Lao, Mengmeng; Zhang, Yu; Luo, Wenbin; Yan, Qingyu; Sun, Wenping; Dou, Shi Xue

    2017-12-01

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are considered as promising alternatives to lithium-ion batteries owing to the abundant sodium resources. However, the limited energy density, moderate cycling life, and immature manufacture technology of SIBs are the major challenges hindering their practical application. Recently, numerous efforts are devoted to developing novel electrode materials with high specific capacities and long durability. In comparison with carbonaceous materials (e.g., hard carbon), partial Group IVA and VA elements, such as Sn, Sb, and P, possess high theoretical specific capacities for sodium storage based on the alloying reaction mechanism, demonstrating great potential for high-energy SIBs. In this review, the recent research progress of alloy-type anodes and their compounds for sodium storage is summarized. Specific efforts to enhance the electrochemical performance of the alloy-based anode materials are discussed, and the challenges and perspectives regarding these anode materials are proposed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Ultrasonic Welding of Thin Alumina and Aluminum Using Inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikuro, Tomoaki; Matsuoka, Shin-Ichi

    This paper describes an experimental study of ultrasonic welding of thin ceramics and metals using inserts. Ultrasonic welding has enable the joining of various thick ceramics, such as Al2O3 and ZrO2, to aluminum at room temperature quickly and easily as compared to other welding methods. However, for thin ceramics, which are brittle, welding is difficult to perform without causing damage. In this study, aluminum anodized oxide with different anodizing time was used as thin alumina ceramic. Vapor deposition of aluminum alloys was used to create an effective binder layer for welding at a low pressure and within a short duration in order to prevent damage to the anodic oxide film formed with a short anodizing time. For example, ultrasonic welding of thin Al2O3/Al was accomplished under the following conditions: ultrasonic horn tip amplitude of 30µm, welding pressure of 5MPa, and required duration of 0.1s. However, since the vapor deposition film tends to exfoliate as observed in the anodic oxide film formed with a long anodizing time, welding was difficult.

  10. Improved Osteoblast and Chondrocyte Adhesion and Viability by Surface-Modified Ti6Al4V Alloy with Anodized TiO2 Nanotubes Using a Super-Oxidative Solution

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Partida, Ernesto; Moreno-Ulloa, Aldo; Valdez-Salas, Benjamín; Velasquillo, Cristina; Carrillo, Monica; Escamilla, Alan; Valdez, Ernesto; Villarreal, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are amongst the most commonly-used biomaterials in orthopedic and dental applications. The Ti-aluminum-vanadium alloy (Ti6Al4V) is widely used as a biomaterial for these applications by virtue of its favorable properties, such as high tensile strength, good biocompatibility and excellent corrosion resistance. TiO2 nanotube (NTs) layers formed by anodization on Ti6Al4V alloy have been shown to improve osteoblast adhesion and function when compared to non-anodized material. In his study, NTs were grown on a Ti6Al4V alloy by anodic oxidation for 5 min using a super-oxidative aqueous solution, and their in vitro biocompatibility was investigated in pig periosteal osteoblasts and cartilage chondrocytes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion X-ray analysis (EDX) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the materials. Cell morphology was analyzed by SEM and AFM. Cell viability was examined by fluorescence microscopy. Cell adhesion was evaluated by nuclei staining and cell number quantification by fluorescence microscopy. The average diameter of the NTs was 80 nm. The results demonstrate improved cell adhesion and viability at Day 1 and Day 3 of cell growth on the nanostructured material as compared to the non-anodized alloy. In conclusion, this study evidences the suitability of NTs grown on Ti6Al4V alloy using a super-oxidative water and a short anodization process to enhance the adhesion and viability of osteoblasts and chondrocytes. The results warrant further investigation for its use as medical implant materials. PMID:28787976

  11. Filler wire for aluminum alloys and method of welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkman, Jr., Gerald W. O. (Inventor); Cho, Alex (Inventor); Russell, Carolyn K. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A weld filler wire chemistry has been developed for fusion welding 2195 aluminum-lithium. The weld filler wire chemistry is an aluminum-copper based alloy containing high additions of titanium and zirconium. The additions of titanium and zirconium reduce the crack susceptibility of aluminum alloy welds while producing good weld mechanical properties. The addition of silver further improves the weld properties of the weld filler wire. The reduced weld crack susceptibility enhances the repair weldability, including when planishing is required.

  12. Machinability of hypereutectic silicon-aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, T.; Akasawa, T.

    1999-08-01

    The machinability of high-silicon aluminum alloys made by a P/M process and by casting was compared. The cutting test was conducted by turning on lathes with the use of cemented carbide tools. The tool wear by machining the P/M alloy was far smaller than the tool wear by machining the cast alloy. The roughness of the machined surface of the P/M alloy is far better than that of the cast alloy, and the turning speed did not affect it greatly at higher speeds. The P/M alloy produced long chips, so the disposal can cause trouble. The size effect of silicon grains on the machinability is discussed.

  13. One-step fabrication of nanostructure-covered microstructures using selective aluminum anodization based on non-uniform electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yong Min; Kim, Byeong Hee; Seo, Young Ho

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a selective aluminum anodization technique for the fabrication of microstructures covered by nanoscale dome structures. It is possible to fabricate bulging microstructures, utilizing the different growth rates of anodic aluminum oxide in non-uniform electric fields, because the growth rate of anodic aluminum oxide depends on the intensity of electric field, or current density. After anodizing under a non-uniform electric field, bulging microstructures covered by nanostructures were fabricated by removing the residual aluminum layer. The non-uniform electric field induced by insulative micropatterns was estimated by computational simulations and verified experimentally. Utilizing computational simulations, the intensity profile of the electric field was calculated according to the ratio of height and width of the insulative micropatterns. To compare computational simulation results and experimental results, insulative micropatterns were fabricated using SU-8 photoresist. The results verified that the shape of the bottom topology of anodic alumina was strongly dependent on the intensity profile of the applied electric field, or current density. The one-step fabrication of nanostructure-covered microstructures can be applied to various fields, such as nano-biochip and nano-optics, owing to its simplicity and cost effectiveness.

  14. Dendrite-Free Potassium–Oxygen Battery Based on a Liquid Alloy Anode

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Wei; Lau, Kah Chun; Lei, Yu

    The safety issue caused by the dendrite growth is not only a key research problem in lithium-ion batteries but also a critical concern in alkali metal (i.e., Li, Na, and K) oxygen batteries where a solid metal is usually used as the anode. Herein, we demonstrate the first dendrite-free K-O-2 battery at ambient temperature based on a liquid Na K alloy anode. The unique liquid liquid connection between the liquid alloy and the electrolyte in our alloy anode-based battery provides a homogeneous and robust anode electrolyte interface. Meanwhile, we manage to show that the Na K alloy is only compatiblemore » in K-O-2 batteries but not in Na-O-2 batteries, which is mainly attributed to the stronger reducibility of potassium and relatively more favorable thermodynamic formation of KO, over NaO2 during the discharge process. It is observed that our K-O-2 battery based on a liquid alloy anode shows a long cycle life (over 620 h) and a low discharge charge overpotential (about 0.05 V at initial cycles). Moreover, the mechanism investigation into the K-O-2 cell degradation shows that the 02 crossover effect and the ether electrolyte instability are the critical problems for K-O-2 batteries. In a word, this study provides a new route to solve the problems caused by the dendrite growth in alkali metal oxygen batteries.« less

  15. Biaxial Testing of 2195 Aluminum Lithium Alloy Using Cruciform Specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, W. M.; Pollock, W. D.; Dawicke, D. S.; Wagner, John A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A cruciform biaxial test specimen was used to test the effect of biaxial load on the yield of aluminum-lithium alloy 2195. Fifteen cruciform specimens were tested from 2 thicknesses of 2195-T8 plate, 0.45 in. and 1.75 in. These results were compared to the results from uniaxial tensile tests of the same alloy, and cruciform biaxial tests of aluminum alloy 2219-T87.

  16. High Strength and Wear Resistant Aluminum Alloy for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a new high strength and wear resistant aluminum cast alloy invented by NASA-MSFC for high temperature applications will be presented. Developed to meet U.S. automotive legislation requiring low-exhaust emission, the novel NASA 398 aluminum-silicon alloy offers dramatic improvement in tensile and fatigue strengths at elevated temperatures (500 F-800 F), enabling new pistons to utilize less material, which can lead to reducing part weight and cost as well as improving performance. NASA 398 alloy also offers greater wear resistance, surface hardness, dimensional stability, and lower thermal expansion compared to conventional aluminum alloys for several commercial and automotive applications. The new alloy can be produced economically using permanent steel molds from conventional gravity casting or sand casting. The technology was developed to stimulate the development of commercial aluminum casting products from NASA-developed technology by offering companies the opportunity to license this technology.

  17. Fabrication of Aluminum-Based Thermal Radiation Plate for Thermoelectric Module Using Aluminum Anodic Oxidization and Copper Electroplating.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yi Taek; Bae, Sung Hwa; Son, Injoon; Sohn, Ho Sang; Kim, Kyung Tae; Ju, Young-Wan

    2018-09-01

    In this study, electrolytic etching, anodic oxidation, and copper electroplating were applied to aluminum to produce a plate on which a copper circuit for a thermoelectric module was formed. An oxide film insulating layer was formed on the aluminum through anodic oxidation, and platinum was coated by sputtering to produce conductivity. Finally, copper electroplating was performed directly on the substrate. In this structure, the copper plating layer on the insulating layer served as a conductive layer in the circuit. The adhesion of the copper plating layer was improved by electrolytic etching. As a result, the thermoelectric module fabricated in this study showed excellent adhesion and good insulation characteristics. It is expected that our findings can contribute to the manufacture of plates applicable to thermoelectric modules with high dissipation performance.

  18. The corrosion protection of aluminum by various anodizing treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, Merlin D.

    1989-01-01

    Corrosion protection to 6061-T6 aluminum, afforded by both teflon-impregnated anodized coats (Polylube and Tufram) and hard-anodized coats (water sealed and dichromate sealed), was studied at both pH 5.5 and pH 9.5, with an exposure period of 28 days in 3.5 percent NaCl solution (25 C) for each specimen. In general, corrosion protection for all specimens was better at pH 9.5 than at pH 5.5. Protection by a Tufram coat proved superior to that afforded by Polylube at each pH, with corrosion protection by the hard-anodized, water-sealed coat at pH 9.5 providing the best protection. Electrochemical work in each case was corroborated by microscopic examination of the coats after exposure. Corrosion protection by Tufram at pH 9.5 was most comparable to that of the hard-anodized samples, although pitting and some cracking of the coat did occur.

  19. Evaluation and control of environmental corrosion for aluminum and steel alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, D. B.

    1977-01-01

    Corrosion protection systems for aerospace application and the effects of surface treatments and methods of controlling stress corrosion are evaluated. Chromate pigmented systems were found to be most effective for aluminum alloys; zinc-rich coatings gave the greatest protection to steel alloys. Various steel and aluminum alloys are rated for stress corrosion resistance.

  20. Electrochemical Performance Estimation of Anodized AZ31B Magnesium Alloy as Function of Change in the Current Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girón, L.; Aperador, W.; Tirado, L.; Franco, F.; Caicedo, J. C.

    2017-08-01

    The anodized AZ31B magnesium alloys were synthesized via electrodeposition processes. The aim of this work was to determine the electrochemical behavior of magnesium alloys by using anodized alloys as a protective coating. The anodized alloys were characterized by x-ray diffraction, exhibiting the crystallography orientation for Mg and MgO phases. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine the chemical composition of anodized magnesium alloys. By using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel curves, it was possible to estimate the electrochemical behavior of anodized AZ31B magnesium alloys in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS). Scanning electron microscopy was performed to analyze chemical changes and morphological surface changes on anodized Mg alloys due to the reaction in HBSS/anodized magnesium surface interface. Electrochemical behavior in HBSS indicates that the coatings may be a promising material for biomedical industry.

  1. Effects of aluminum-copper alloy filtration on photon spectra, air kerma rate and image contrast.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Andréa; Rollo, João Manuel Domingos de Almeida; Gonçalves, Marcelo; Haiter Neto, Francisco; Bóscolo, Frab Norberto

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of aluminum-copper alloy filtration, without the original aluminum filter, for dental radiography in terms of x-ray energy spectrum, air kerma rate and image quality. Comparisons of various thicknesses of aluminum-copper alloy in three different percentages were made with aluminum filtration. Tests were conducted on an intra-oral dental x-ray machine and were made on mandible phantom and on step-wedge. Depending on the thickness of aluminum-copper alloy filtration, the beam could be hardened and filtrated. The use of the aluminum-copper alloy filter resulted in reductions in air kerma rate from 8.40% to 47.33%, and indicated the same image contrast when compared to aluminum filtration. Aluminum-copper alloy filtration may be considered a good alternative to aluminum filtration.

  2. In situ detection of porosity initiation during aluminum thin film anodizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Overmeere, Quentin; Nysten, Bernard; Proost, Joris

    2009-02-01

    High-resolution curvature measurements have been performed in situ during aluminum thin film anodizing in sulfuric acid. A well-defined transition in the rate of internal stress-induced curvature change is shown to allow for the accurate, real-time detection of porosity initiation. The validity of this in situ diagnostic tool was confirmed by a quantitative analysis of the spectral density distributions of the anodized surfaces. These were obtained by analyzing ex situ atomic force microscopy images of surfaces anodized for different times, and allowed to correlate the in situ detected transition in the rate of curvature change with the appearance of porosity.

  3. Portable Fiber Laser System and Method to Remove Pits and Cracks on Sensitized Surfaces of Aluminum Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    resistant 5083- H116 aluminum, sheet, 1/4" thick, 2" x 24", 2 pieces 71.60 5 Reagent VWR & Fisher Nitric acid and sodium hydroxide for mass loss...Temperature stability ±0.1oC @37oC Temperature uniformity ±0.2oC @37oC 693.55 4 5083-H116 Al-Mg alloy materials McMaster Carr Strengthened corrosion ...test, other acids for etching, electrochemical polishing, and anodizing 700.28 6 Containers VWR Beakers, petri dishes, bottles, graduated cylinders

  4. Warm Temperature Deformation Behavior and Processing Maps of 5182 and 7075 Aluminum Alloy Sheets with Fine Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, D. H.; Kim, W. J.

    2018-05-01

    The tensile deformation behavior and processing maps of commercial 5182 and 7075 aluminum alloy sheets with similarly fine grain sizes (about 8 μm) were examined and compared over the temperature range of 423-723 K. The 5182 aluminum alloy with equiaxed grains exhibited larger strain rate sensitivity exponent ( m) values than the 7075 aluminum alloy with elongated grains under most of the testing conditions. The fracture strain behaviors of the two alloys as a function of strain rate and temperature followed the trend in their m values. In the processing maps, the power dissipation parameter values of the 5182 aluminum alloy were larger than those of the 7075 aluminum alloy and the instability domains of the 5182 aluminum alloy were smaller compared to that of the 7075 aluminum alloy, implying that the 5182 aluminum alloy had a better hot workability than the 7075 aluminum alloy.

  5. Ultrafine nanoporous palladium-aluminum film fabricated by citric acid-assisted hot-water-treatment of aluminum-palladium alloy film

    SciTech Connect

    Harumoto, Takashi; Tamura, Yohei; Ishiguro, Takashi, E-mail: ishiguro@rs.noda.tus.ac.jp

    Hot-water-treatment has been adapted to fabricate ultrafine nanoporous palladium-aluminum film from aluminum-palladium alloy film. Using citric acid as a chelating agent, a precipitation of boehmite (aluminum oxide hydroxide, AlOOH) on the nanoporous palladium-aluminum film was suppressed. According to cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy observations, the ligament/pore sizes of the prepared nanoporous film were considerably small (on the order of 10 nm). Since this fabrication method only requires aluminum alloy film and hot-water with chelating agent, the ultrafine nanoporous film can be prepared simply and environmentally friendly.

  6. Long-term strategies for increased recycling of automotive aluminum and its alloying elements.

    PubMed

    Løvik, Amund N; Modaresi, Roja; Müller, Daniel B

    2014-04-15

    Aluminum recycling currently occurs in a cascading fashion, where some alloys, used in a limited number of applications, absorb most of the end-of-life scrap. An expected increase in scrap supply in coming decades necessitates restructuring of the aluminum cycle to open up new recycling paths for alloys and avoid a potential scrap surplus. This paper explores various interventions in end-of-life management and recycling of automotive aluminum, using a dynamic substance flow analysis model of aluminum and its alloying elements with resolution on component and alloy level (vehicle-component-alloy-element model). It was found that increased component dismantling before vehicle shredding can be an effective, so far underestimated, intervention in the medium term, especially if combined with development of safety-relevant components such as wheels from secondary material. In the long term, automatic alloy sorting technologies are most likely required, but could at the same time reduce the need for magnesium removal in refining. Cooperation between the primary and secondary aluminum industries, the automotive industry, and end-of-life vehicle dismantlers is therefore essential to ensure continued recycling of automotive aluminum and its alloying elements.

  7. Study of Plastic Deformation in Binary Aluminum Alloys by Internal-Friction Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, E. C.; Maringer, R. E.; Marsh, L. L.; Manning, G. K.

    1959-01-01

    The damping capacity of several aluminum-copper alloys has been investigated during tensile elongation. This damping is shown to depend on strain rate, strain, temperature, alloy content, and heat treatment. A tentative hypothesis, based on the acceleration of solute atom diffusion by deformation-produced vacancies, is proposed to account for the observed behavior. Internal-friction maxima are observed in deformed aluminum and aluminum-copper alloys at -70 deg and -50 deg C. The peaks appear to be relatively insensitive to frequency and alloy content, but they disappear after annealing at temperatures nearing the recrystallization temperature.

  8. Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide with a long-range order and tunable cell sizes by phosphoric acid anodization on pre-patterned substrates

    PubMed Central

    Surawathanawises, Krissada; Cheng, Xuanhong

    2014-01-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) has been explored for various applications due to its regular cell arrangement and relatively easy fabrication processes. However, conventional two-step anodization based on self-organization only allows the fabrication of a few discrete cell sizes and formation of small domains of hexagonally packed pores. Recent efforts to pre-pattern aluminum followed with anodization significantly improve the regularity and available pore geometries in AAO, while systematic study of the anodization condition, especially the impact of acid composition on pore formation guided by nanoindentation is still lacking. In this work, we pre-patterned aluminium thin films using ordered monolayers of silica beads and formed porous AAO in a single-step anodization in phosphoric acid. Controllable cell sizes ranging from 280 nm to 760 nm were obtained, matching the diameters of the silica nanobead molds used. This range of cell size is significantly greater than what has been reported for AAO formed in phosphoric acid in the literature. In addition, the relationships between the acid concentration, cell size, pore size, anodization voltage and film growth rate were studied quantitatively. The results are consistent with the theory of oxide formation through an electrochemical reaction. Not only does this study provide useful operational conditions of nanoindentation induced anodization in phosphoric acid, it also generates significant information for fundamental understanding of AAO formation. PMID:24535886

  9. A Positron Annihilation Study of Corrosion of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloy by NaOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y. C.; Zhai, T.; Coleman, P. G.

    2012-08-01

    Corrosion of fully-annealed pure aluminum and a continuous-cast AA2037 aluminum alloy (solutionized and water quenched) in a 1M NaOH solution for various periods of time were analyzed with positron beam-based Doppler broadening spectroscopy. By varying the energy of the incident positron beam, corrosion-induced defects at different depths from the surface were detected. It was found that the Doppler-broadened annihilation line-width parameter was significantly increased near the surface of pure aluminum after corrosion, probably due to the interaction between positrons and nanometer-sized voids formed near the aluminum surface during corrosion. Examination by atomic force microscopy indicated that many pits were formed on the aluminum surface after corrosion. In contrast, a significant decrease in the line-width parameter was observed in AA2037 alloy after corrosion and interpreted as being caused by copper enrichment at the metal-oxide interface during corrosion; such enrichment at large cavity sites was confirmed by energy dispersion spectrometry.

  10. Photoluminescence emission of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide films prepared in phosphoric acid

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The photoluminescence emission of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide films formed in phosphoric acid is studied in order to explore their defect-based subband electronic structure. Different excitation wavelengths are used to identify most of the details of the subband states. The films are produced under different anodizing conditions to optimize their emission in the visible range. Scanning electron microscopy investigations confirm pore formation in the produced layers. Gaussian analysis of the emission data indicates that subband states change with anodizing parameters, and various point defects can be formed both in the bulk and on the surface of these nanoporous layers during anodizing. PMID:23272786

  11. Thermal coatings for titanium-aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnington, George R.; Clark, Ronald K.; Robinson, John C.

    1993-01-01

    Titanium aluminides and titanium alloys are candidate materials for use in hot structure and heat-shield components of hypersonic vehicles because of their good strength-to-weight characteristics at elevated temperature. However, in order to utilize their maximum temperature capability, they must be coated to resist oxidation and to have a high total remittance. Also, surface catalysis for recombination of dissociated species in the aerodynamic boundary layer must be minimized. Very thin chemical vapor deposition (CVD) coatings are attractive candidates for this application because of durability and very light weight. To demonstrate this concept, coatings of boron-silicon and aluminum-boron-silicon compositions were applied to the titanium-aluminides alpha2 (Ti-14Al-21Nb), super-alpha2 (Ti-14Al-23-Nb-2V), and gamma (Ti-33Al-6Nb-1Ta) and to the titanium alloy beta-21S (Ti-15Mo-3Al-3Nb-0.2Si). Coated specimens of each alloy were subjected to a set of simulated hypersonic vehicle environmental tests to determine their properties of oxidation resistance, surface catalysis, radiative emittance, and thermal shock resistance. Surface catalysis results should be viewed as relative performance only of the several coating-alloy combinations tested under the specific environmental conditions of the LaRC Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System (HYMETS) arc-plasma-heated hypersonic wind tunnel. Tests were also conducted to evaluate the hydrogen transport properties of the coatings and any effects of the coating processing itself on fatigue life of the base alloys. Results are presented for three types of coatings, which are as follows: (1) a single layer boron silicon coating, (2) a single layer aluminum-boron-silicon coating, and (3) a multilayer coating consisting of an aluminum-boron-silicon sublayer with a boron-silicon outer layer.

  12. Method to increase the toughness of aluminum-lithium alloys at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankaran, Krishnan K. (Inventor); Sova, Brian J. (Inventor); Babel, Henry W. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A method to increase the toughness of the aluminum-lithium alloy C458 and similar alloys at cryogenic temperatures above their room temperature toughness is provided. Increasing the cryogenic toughness of the aluminum-lithium alloy C458 allows the use of alloy C458 for cryogenic tanks, for example for launch vehicles in the aerospace industry. A two-step aging treatment for alloy C458 is provided. A specific set of times and temperatures to age the aluminum-lithium alloy C458 to T8 temper is disclosed that results in a higher toughness at cryogenic temperatures compared to room temperature. The disclosed two-step aging treatment for alloy 458 can be easily practiced in the manufacturing process, does not involve impractical heating rates or durations, and does not degrade other material properties.

  13. Aluminum alloy material structure impact localization by using FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiubin

    2014-12-01

    The aluminum alloy structure impact localization system by using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors and impact localization algorithm was investigated. A four-FBG sensing network was established. And the power intensity demodulation method was initialized employing the narrow-band tunable laser. The wavelet transform was used to weaken the impact signal noise. And the impact signal time difference was extracted to build the time difference localization algorithm. At last, a fiber Bragg grating impact localization system was established and experimentally verified. The experimental results showed that in the aluminum alloy plate with the 500 mm*500 mm*2 mm test area, the maximum and average impact abscissa localization errors were 11 mm and 6.25 mm, and the maximum and average impact ordinate localization errors were 9 mm and 4.25 mm, respectively. The fiber Bragg grating sensors and demodulation system are feasible to realize the aviation aluminum alloy material structure impact localization. The research results provide a reliable method for the aluminum alloy material structure impact localization.

  14. The Cryogenic Tensile Properties of an Extruded Aluminum-Beryllium Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamwell, W. R.

    2002-01-01

    Basic mechanical properties; i.e., ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, percent elongation, and elastic modulus, were obtained for the aluminum-beryllium alloy, AlBeMet162, at cryogenic (-195.5 C (-320 F) and -252.8 C (-423 F)) temperatures. The material evaluated was purchased to the requirements of SAE-AMS7912, "Aluminum-Beryllium Alloy, Extrusions."

  15. Violent oxidation of lithium-containing aluminum alloys in liquid oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalins, Ilmars; Karimi, Majid; Ila, Daryush

    1991-06-01

    A strong exothermic and quite well known thermite reaction involving aluminum, oxygen and transition metals (Fe, Cr, Ni, etc.) has apparently been initiated during impact testing of Alcoa aluminum alloy #2090 in liquid oxygen at NASA-MSFC. In some instances, this reaction, essentially an oxidation process, has been so intense that the Inconel 718 cup containing the aluminum alloy disk and associated impacter has melted raising certain safety concerns in the use of this alloy. Reaction products as well as the test specimen surfaces have been studied with surface science techniques like XPS/ESCA, SIMS and AES. Typically, in order to initiate the thermite reaction a temperature of approximately 1000°C is necessary. The mechanism responsible for this oxidation is of great interest. The analysis of the reaction products together with a theoretical analysis, including digital modeling has been pursued. There is strong evidence that the large relaxation energy of the aluminum oxide coating, formed during the aluminum alloy cleaning process, is causing a highly localized energy release during fracture or lattice deformation which is enhancing the oxidation process to a runaway condition. The presence of alkali atoms (Li) enhances the likelihood and intensity of the oxidation reaction. The details of the surface studies will be discussed.

  16. Effects of Complex Structured Anodic Oxide Dielectric Layer Grown in Pore Matrix for Aluminum Capacitor.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin-Ha; Yun, Sook Young; Lee, Chang Hyoung; Park, Hwa-Sun; Suh, Su-Jeong

    2015-11-01

    Anodization of aluminum is generally divided up into two types of anodic aluminum oxide structures depending on electrolyte type. In this study, an anodization process was carried out in two steps to obtain high dielectric strength and break down voltage. In the first step, evaporated high purity Al on Si wafer was anodized in oxalic acidic aqueous solution at various times at a constant temperature of 5 degrees C. In the second step, citric acidic aqueous solution was used to obtain a thickly grown sub-barrier layer. During the second anodization process, the anodizing potential of various ranges was applied at room temperature. An increased thickness of the sub-barrier layer in the porous matrix was obtained according to the increment of the applied anodizing potential. The microstructures and the growth of the sub-barrier layer were then observed with an increasing anodizing potential of 40 to 300 V by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). An impedance analyzer was used to observe the change of electrical properties, including the capacitance, dissipation factor, impedance, and equivalent series resistance (ESR) depending on the thickness increase of the sub-barrier layer. In addition, the breakdown voltage was measured. The results revealed that dielectric strength was improved with the increase of sub-barrier layer thickness.

  17. Environmental fatigue in aluminum-lithium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.

    1992-01-01

    Aluminum-lithium alloys exhibit similar environmental fatigue crack growth characteristics compared to conventional 2000 series alloys and are more resistant to environmental fatigue compared to 7000 series alloys. The superior fatigue crack growth behavior of Al-Li alloys 2090, 2091, 8090, and 8091 is due to crack closure caused by tortuous crack path morphology and crack surface corrosion products. At high R and reduced closure, chemical environment effects are pronounced resulting in accelerated near threshold da/dN. The beneficial effects of crack closure are minimized for small cracks resulting in rapid growth rates. Limited data suggest that the 'chemically small crack' effect, observed in other alloy system, is not pronounced in Al-Li alloys. Modeling of environmental fatigue in Al-Li-Cu alloys related accelerated fatigue crack growth in moist air and salt water to hydrogen embrittlement.

  18. Properties of welded joints in laser welding of aeronautic aluminum-lithium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malikov, A. G.; Orishich, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    The work presents the experimental investigation of the laser welding of the aluminum-lithium alloys (system Al-Mg-Li) and aluminum alloy (system Al-Cu-Li) doped with Sc. The influence of the nano-structuring of the surface layer welded joint by the cold plastic deformation method on the strength properties of the welded joint is determined. It is founded that, regarding the deformation degree over the thickness, the varying value of the welded joint strength is different for these aluminum alloys.

  19. Carbothermic reduction and prereduced charge for producing aluminum-silicon alloys

    DOEpatents

    Stevenson, David T.; Troup, Robert L.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for the carbothermic reduction of aluminum oxide to form an aluminum alloy including producing silicon carbide by heating a first mix of carbon and silicon oxide in a combustion reactor to an elevated temperature sufficient to produce silicon carbide at an accelerated rate, the heating being provided by an in situ combustion with oxygen gas, and then admixing the silicon carbide with carbon and aluminum oxide to form a second mix and heating the second mix in a second reactor to an elevated metal-forming temperature sufficient to produce aluminum-silicon alloy. The prereduction step includes holding aluminum oxide substantially absent from the combustion reactor. The metal-forming step includes feeding silicon oxide in a preferred ratio with silicon carbide.

  20. Carbothermic reduction and prereduced charge for producing aluminum-silicon alloys

    DOEpatents

    Stevenson, D.T.; Troup, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for the carbothermic reduction of aluminum oxide to form an aluminum alloy including producing silicon carbide by heating a first mix of carbon and silicon oxide in a combustion reactor to an elevated temperature sufficient to produce silicon carbide at an accelerated rate, the heating being provided by an in situ combustion with oxygen gas, and then admixing the silicon carbide with carbon and aluminum oxide to form a second mix and heating the second mix in a second reactor to an elevated metal-forming temperature sufficient to produce aluminum-silicon alloy. The prereduction step includes holding aluminum oxide substantially absent from the combustion reactor. The metal-forming step includes feeding silicon oxide in a preferred ratio with silicon carbide. 1 fig.

  1. Applications of high-temperature powder metal aluminum alloys to small gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millan, P. P., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A program aimed at the development of advanced powder-metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloys for high-temperature applications up to 650 F using the concepts of rapid solidification and mechanical alloying is discussed. In particular, application of rapidly solidified PM aluminum alloys to centrifugal compressor impellers, currently used in auxiliary power units for both military and commercial aircraft and potentially for advanced automotive gas turbine engines, is examined. It is shown that substitution of high-temperature aluminum for titanium alloy impellers operating in the 360-650 F range provides significant savings in material and machining costs and results in reduced component weight, and consequently, reduced rotating group inertia requirements.

  2. Ultrasonic irradiation and its application for improving the corrosion resistance of phosphate coatings on aluminum alloys.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Minqi; Wang, Chao; Zhong, Qingdong; Wei, Yinyin; Wang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, ultrasonic irradiation was utilized for improving the corrosion resistance of phosphate coatings on aluminum alloys. The chemical composition and morphology of the coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of ultrasonic irradiation on the corrosion resistance of phosphate coatings was investigated by polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Various effects of the addition of Nd(2)O(3) in phosphating bath on the performance of the coatings were also investigated. Results show that the composition of phosphate coating were Zn(3)(PO(4))(2).4H(2)O(hopeite) and Zn crystals. The phosphate coatings became denser with fewer microscopic holes by utilizing ultrasonic irradiation treatment. The addition of Nd(2)O(3) reduced the crystallinity of the coatings, with the additional result that the crystallites were increasingly nubby and spherical. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was also significantly improved by ultrasonic irradiation treatment; both the anodic and cathodic processes of corrosion taking place on the aluminum alloy substrate were suppressed consequently. In addition, the electrochemical impedance of the coatings was also increased by utilizing ultrasonic irradiation treatment compared with traditional treatment.

  3. Experimental breakdown of selected anodized aluminum samples in dilute plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grier, Norman T.; Domitz, Stanley

    1992-01-01

    Anodized aluminum samples representative of Space Station Freedom structural material were tested for electrical breakdown under space plasma conditions. In space, this potential arises across the insulating anodized coating when the spacecraft structure is driven to a negative bias relative to the external plasma potential due to plasma-surface interaction phenomena. For anodized materials used in the tests, it was found that breakdown voltage varied from 100 to 2000 volts depending on the sample. The current in the arcs depended on the sample, the capacitor, and the voltage. The level of the arc currents varied from 60 to 1000 amperes. The plasma number density varied from 3 x 10 exp 6 to 10 exp 3 ions per cc. The time between arcs increased as the number density was lowered. Corona testing of anodized samples revealed that samples with higher corona inception voltage had higher arcing inception voltages. From this it is concluded that corona testing may provide a method of screening the samples.

  4. Acceptable aluminum additions for minimal environmental effect in iron-aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Viswanathan, S.; Vyas, S.

    A systematic study of iron-aluminum alloys has shown that Fe-16 at. % Al alloys are not very sensitive to environmental embrittlement. The Fe-22 and -28 at. % Al alloys are sensitive to environmental embrittlement, and the effect can be reduced by the addition of chromium and through the control of grain size by additions of zirconium and carbon. The Fe-16 at. % Al binary, and alloys based on it, yielded over 20% room-temperature (RT) elongation even after high-temperature annealing treatments at 1100[degree]C. The best values for the Fe-22 and -28 at. % Al-base alloys after similar annealing treatments were 5more » and 10%, respectively. A multicomponent alloy, FAP, based on Fe- 16 at. % Al was designed, which gave an RT ductility of over 25%.« less

  5. Acceptable aluminum additions for minimal environmental effect in iron-aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Viswanathan, S.; Vyas, S.

    A systematic study of iron-aluminum alloys has shown that Fe-16 at. % Al alloys are not very sensitive to environmental embrittlement. The Fe-22 and -28 at. % Al alloys are sensitive to environmental embrittlement, and the effect can be reduced by the addition of chromium and through the control of grain size by additions of zirconium and carbon. The Fe-16 at. % Al binary, and alloys based on it, yielded over 20% room-temperature (RT) elongation even after high-temperature annealing treatments at 1100{degree}C. The best values for the Fe-22 and -28 at. % Al-base alloys after similar annealing treatments were 5more » and 10%, respectively. A multicomponent alloy, FAP, based on Fe- 16 at. % Al was designed, which gave an RT ductility of over 25%.« less

  6. First-principles surface interaction studies of aluminum-copper and aluminum-copper-magnesium secondary phases in aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Thiago H.; Nelson, Eric B.; Williamson, Izaak; Efaw, Corey M.; Sapper, Erik; Hurley, Michael F.; Li, Lan

    2018-05-01

    First-principles density functional theory-based calculations were performed to study θ-phase Al2Cu, S-phase Al2CuMg surface stability, as well as their interactions with water molecules and chloride (Cl-) ions. These secondary phases are commonly found in aluminum-based alloys and are initiation points for localized corrosion. Density functional theory (DFT)-based simulations provide insight into the origins of localized (pitting) corrosion processes of aluminum-based alloys. For both phases studied, Cl- ions cause atomic distortions on the surface layers. The nature of the distortions could be a factor to weaken the interlayer bonds in the Al2Cu and Al2CuMg secondary phases, facilitating the corrosion process. Electronic structure calculations revealed not only electron charge transfer from Cl- ions to alloy surface but also electron sharing, suggesting ionic and covalent bonding features, respectively. The S-phase Al2CuMg structure has a more active surface than the θ-phase Al2Cu. We also found a higher tendency of formation of new species, such as Al3+, Al(OH)2+, HCl, AlCl2+, Al(OH)Cl+, and Cl2 on the S-phase Al2CuMg surface. Surface chemical reactions and resultant species present contribute to establishment of local surface chemistry that influences the corrosion behavior of aluminum alloys.

  7. Optical property degradation of anodic coatings in the Space Station low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    David, Kaia E.; Babel, Hank W.

    1992-01-01

    The anodic coatings and optical properties to be used for passive thermal control of the SSF are studied. Particular attention is given to the beginning-of-life optical properties for aluminum alloys suitable for structural and radiator applications, the statistical variation in the beginning-of-life properties, and estimates of the end-of-life properties of the alloys based on ultraviolet radiation testing and flight test results. It is concluded that anodic coatings can be used for thermal control of long life, low earth orbit spacecraft. Some use restrictions are defined for specific cases. Anodic coatings have been selected as baseline thermal control coating for large portions of the SSF.

  8. The Delayed Fracture of Aluminum Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    Cracking of a Maraging Steel ," Corrosion NACE, 1971, vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 429-433. 42. H.R. Smith and D.E. Piper: "Stress- Corrosion Testing with Pre...Sivaramakrishman, and R. Kumar: "Influence of Processing Variables on the Stress Corrosion Characteristics of Weldable Al-Zn-Mg Alloys," Light Met. Age , 1979...if necessary and Identify by block number) aluminum alloys, stress- corrosion cracking, oxide film, Auger electron spectroscopy, Auger depth profiling

  9. Study on the fabrication of back surface reflectors in nano-crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells by using random texturing aluminum anodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Kang Sik; Jang, Eunseok; Cho, Jun-Sik; Yoo, Jinsu; Park, Joo Hyung; Byungsung, O.

    2015-09-01

    In recent decades, researchers have improved the efficiency of amorphous silicon solar cells in many ways. One of the easiest and most practical methods to improve solar-cell efficiency is adopting a back surface reflector (BSR) as the bottom layer or as the substrate. The BSR reflects the incident light back to the absorber layer in a solar cell, thus elongating the light path and causing the so-called "light trapping effect". The elongation of the light path in certain wavelength ranges can be enhanced with the proper scale of BSR surface structure or morphology. An aluminum substrate with a surface modified by aluminum anodizing is used to improve the optical properties for applications in amorphous silicon solar cells as a BSR in this research due to the high reflectivity and the low material cost. The solar cells with a BSR were formed and analyzed by using the following procedures: First, the surface of the aluminum substrate was degreased by using acetone, ethanol and distilled water, and it was chemically polished in a dilute alkali solution. After the cleaning process, the aluminum surface's morphology was modified by using a controlled anodization in a dilute acid solution to form oxide on the surface. The oxidized film was etched off by using an alkali solution to leave an aluminum surface with randomly-ordered dimple-patterns of approximately one micrometer in size. The anodizing conditions and the anodized aluminum surfaces after the oxide layer had been removed were systematically investigated according to the applied voltage. Finally, amorphous silicon solar cells were deposited on a modified aluminum plate by using dc magnetron sputtering. The surfaces of the anodized aluminum were observed by using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The total and the diffuse reflectances of the surface-modified aluminum sheets were measured by using UV spectroscopy. We observed that the diffuse reflectances increased with increasing anodizing voltage. The

  10. The effect of hydrogen embrittlement on the localized plastic deformation of aluminum alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Bochkareva, Anna, E-mail: avb@ispms.tsc.ru; Lunev, Aleksey, E-mail: agl@ispms.tsc.ru; National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050

    2015-10-27

    The effect of hydrogen embrittlement on the localized plastic deformation of aluminum alloy D1 was investigated. The studies were performed for the test samples of aluminum alloy subjected to electrolytic hydrogenation. It is found that the mechanical properties and localized plastic deformation parameters of aluminum alloy are affected adversely by hydrogen embrittlement. The hydrogenated counterpart of alloy has a lower degree of ductility relative to the original alloy; however, the plastic flow behavior of material remains virtually unaffected. Using scanning electron and atomic force microscopy methods, the changes in the fracture surface were investigated. The deformation diagrams were examined formore » the deformed samples of aluminum alloy. These are found to show all the plastic flow stages: the linear, parabolic and pre-failure stages would occur for the respective values of the exponent n from the Ludwik-Holomon equation. Using digital speckle image technique, the local strain patterns were being registered for the original alloy D1 and the counterpart subjected to electrolytic hydrogenation for 100 h.« less

  11. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys via rapid solidification technology, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Ranjan; Jha, Sunil C.

    1987-01-01

    Marko's rapid solidification technology was applied to processing high strength aluminum alloys. Four classes of alloys, namely, Al-Li based (class 1), 2124 type (class 2), high temperature Al-Fe-Mo (class 3), and PM X7091 type (class 4) alloy, were produced as melt-spun ribbons. The ribbons were pulverized, cold compacted, hot-degassed, and consolidated through single or double stage extrusion. The mechanical properties of all four classes of alloys were measured at room and elevated temperatures and their microstructures were investigated optically and through electron microscopy. The microstructure of class 1 Al-Li-Mg alloy was predominantly unrecrystallized due to Zr addition. Yield strengths to the order of 50 Ksi were obtained, but tensile elongation in most cases remained below 2 percent. The class 2 alloys were modified composition of 2124 aluminum alloy, through addition of 0.6 weight percent Zr and 1 weight percent Ni. Nickel addition gave rise to a fine dispersion of intermetallic particles resisting coarsening during elevated temperature exposure. The class 2 alloy showed good combination of tensile strength and ductility and retained high strength after 1000 hour exposure at 177 C. The class 3 Al-Fe-Mo alloy showed high strength and good ductility both at room and high temperatures. The yield and tensile strength of class 4 alloy exceeded those of the commercial 7075 aluminum alloy.

  12. The Effect of Sensitization on the Stress Corrosion Cracking of Aluminum Alloy 5456

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    ship movement in the form of hogging and sagging, machinery vibration, or payload; or residual, caused by welds , bolts, or rivets. A material’s...tensile stress results in crack formation. Common surface flaws found on ships are weld joints, surface scratches, and sharp fillets. In addition...with the crack. The anodic reaction for the anodic oxidation of aluminum to form trivalent aluminum cations is described by Equation (4). Al  Al3

  13. Controlled porous pattern of anodic aluminum oxide by foils laminate approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gou-Jen; Peng, Chi-Sheng

    2006-04-01

    A novel, much simpler, and low-cost method to fabricate the porous pattern of the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) based on the aluminum foils laminate approach was carried out. During our experiments, it was found that the pores of the AAO on the upper foil grew bi-directionally from both the top and the bottom surfaces. Experimental results further indicate that the upward porous pattern of the upper foil is determined by the surface structure of the bottom surface of the upper foil. The porous pattern of AAO can be controlled by a pre-made pattern on the bottom surface. Furthermore, no Aluminum (Al) layer removing process is required in this novel laminate method.

  14. Fabrication and characterization of lithographically patterned and optically transparent anodic aluminum Oxide (AAO) nanostructure thin film.

    PubMed

    He, Yuan; Li, Xiang; Que, Long

    2012-10-01

    Optically transparent anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanostructure thin film has been successfully fabricated from lithographically patterned aluminum on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates for the first time, indicating the feasibility to integrate the AAO nanostructures with microdevices or microfluidics for a variety of applications. Both one-step and two-step anodization processes using sulfuric acid and oxalic acid have been utilized for fabricating the AAO nanostructure thin film. The optical properties of the fabricated AAO nanostructure thin film have been evaluated and analyzed.

  15. Corrosion behavior of austenitic alloy 690 under anodic and cathodic potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, R. S.; Dey, G. K.; Lobo, A.; Purandare, R.; Kulkarni, S. K.

    2002-05-01

    The corrosion behavior of austenitic alloy 690 in a solution-annealed condition has been evaluated with the application of anodic as well as cathodic potentials in an acidic chloride solution at room temperature (RT). In a 0.5M H2SO4 + 0.5M NaCl solution, the alloy displayed active-passive pitting behavior with the application of an anodic potential. Surface films, formed at the onset and later stage of the passive region, were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS revealed that the surface film formed at the onset of passivity (+ 100 mV SCE) consisted of Cr(OH)3, without any Fe+3/Fe+2. The presence of nickel in the film was found in a transition state of Ni+2 and Ni0. The passive film formed at the higher anodic potential (+ 700 mV SCE) consisted of Cr2O3 without any Fe+3/Fe+2 or even Ni+2/Ni0. Microscopic studies of alloy 690 after anodic polarization in an acidic chloride solution revealed pitting, which was found to be initiated at large, faceted TiN-type inclusions. The susceptibility of the alloy to hydrogen embrittlement has been investigated by conducting cathodic charging of the tensile samples in a 0.5M H2SO4 solution at RT and by subsequent tensile testing of the charged samples in air at a strain rate of 1.3 × 10-4 s-1 up to fracture. An indication toward hydrogen-induced ductility loss was noticed for the samples of the alloy, which is believed to be attributable to a hydrogen-enhanced microvoid growth process. Since the microvoid growth process occurs at the last stage of fracture, the effect of hydrogen on the ductility of the alloy is little.

  16. Materials Design for Joinable, High Performance Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glamm, Ryan James

    An aluminum alloy compatible with friction stir welding is designed for automotive and aerospace structural applications. Current weldable automotive aluminum alloys do not possess the necessary strength to meet safety standards and therefore are not able to replace steel in the automotive body. Significant weight savings could be achieved if steel components are replaced with aluminum. Current aerospace alloys are not weldable, requiring machining of large pieces that are then riveted together. If an aerospace alloy could be friction stir welded, smaller pieces could be welded, reducing material waste. Using a systems approach for materials design, property goals are set from performance objectives. From previous research and computational predictions, a structure is designed for a prototype alloy containing dynamic precipitates to readily dissolve and re-precipitate and high stability precipitates to resist dissolution and coarsening in the weld region. It is found that a Ag modified Al-3.9Mg-0.04Cu (at. %) alloy enhanced the rate and magnitude of hardening during ageing, both beneficial effects for dynamic precipitation. In the same alloy, ageing at 350°C results in hardening from Al 3(Sc,Zr) precipitates. Efforts to effectively precipitate both populations simultaneously are unsuccessful. The Al3(Sc,Zr) precipitation hardened prototype is friction stir processed and no weak zones are found in the weld hardness profile. An aerospace alloy design is proposed, utilizing the dual precipitate structure shown in the prototype. The automotive alloy is designed using a basic strength model with parameters determined from the initial prototype alloy analysis. After ageing to different conditions, the alloy is put through a simulated heat affected zone thermal cycle with a computer controlled induction heater. The aged samples lose hardness from the weld cycle but recover hardness from a post weld heat treatment. Atom probe tomography and transmission electron

  17. The hydrogen diffusion in liquid aluminum alloys from ab initio molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakse, N.; Pasturel, A.

    2014-09-01

    We study the hydrogen diffusion in liquid aluminum alloys through extensive ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. At the microscopic scale, we show that the hydrogen motion is characterized by a broad distribution of spatial jumps that does not correspond to a Brownian motion. To determine the self-diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in liquid aluminum alloys, we use a generalized continuous time random walk model recently developed to describe the hydrogen diffusion in pure aluminum. In particular, we show that the model successfully accounts the effects of alloying elements on the hydrogen diffusion in agreement with experimental features.

  18. Molecular Contamination on Anodized Aluminum Components of the Genesis Science Canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, D. S.; McNamara, K. M.; Jurewicz, A.; Woolum, D.

    2005-01-01

    Inspection of the interior of the Genesis science canister after recovery in Utah, and subsequently at JSC, revealed a darkening on the aluminum canister shield and other canister components. There has been no such observation of film contamination on the collector surfaces, and preliminary spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements support the theory that the films observed on the anodized aluminum components do not appear on the collectors to any significant extent. The Genesis Science Team has made an effort to characterize the thickness and composition of the brown stain and to determine if it is associated with molecular outgassing.Detailed examination of the surfaces within the Genesis science canister reveals that the brown contamination is observed to varying degrees, but only on surfaces exposed in space to the Sun and solar wind hydrogen. In addition, the materials affected are primarily composed of anodized aluminum. A sharp line separating the sun and shaded portion of the thermal closeout panel is shown. This piece was removed from a location near the gold foil collector within the canister. Future plans include a reassembly of the canister components to look for large-scale patterns of contamination within the canister to aid in revealing the root cause.

  19. Influence of anodization parameters on the volume expansion of anodic aluminum oxide formed in mixed solution of phosphoric and oxalic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Tzung-Ta; Chang, Yao-Chung

    2014-01-01

    The growth of anodic alumina oxide was conducted in the mixed solution of phosphoric and oxalic acids. The influence of anodizing voltage, electrolyte temperature, and concentration of phosphoric and oxalic acids on the volume expansion of anodic aluminum oxide has been investigated. Either anodizing parameter is chosen to its full extent of range that allows the anodization process to be conducted without electric breakdown and to explore the highest possible volume expansion factor. The volume expansion factors were found to vary between 1.25 and 1.9 depending on the anodizing parameters. The variation is explained in connection with electric field, ion transport number, temperature effect, concentration, and activity of acids. The formation of anodic porous alumina at anodizing voltage 160 V in 1.1 M phosphoric acid mixed with 0.14 M oxalic acid at 2 °C showed the peak volume expansion factor of 1.9 and the corresponding moderate growth rate of 168 nm/min.

  20. Development and Processing Improvement of Aerospace Aluminum Alloys-Development of AL-Cu-Mg-Ag Alloy (2139)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Alex; Lisagor, W. Barry; Bales, Thomas T.

    2007-01-01

    This final report supplement in presentation format describes a comprehensive multi-tasked contract study to continue the development of the silver bearing alloy now registered as aluminum alloy 2139 by the Aluminum Association. Two commercial scale ingots were processed into nominal plate gauges of two, four and six inches, and were extensively characterized in terms of metallurgical and crystallographic structure, and resulting mechanical properties. This report includes comparisons of the property combinations for this alloy and 2XXX and 7XXX alloys more widely used in high performance applications. Alloy 2139 shows dramatic improvement in all combinations of properties, moreover, the properties of this alloy are retained in all gauge thicknesses, contrary to typical reductions observed in thicker gauges of the other alloys in the comparison. The advancements achieved in this study are expected to result in rapid, widespread use of this alloy in a broad range of ground based, aircraft, and spacecraft applications.

  1. Recrystallization and Grain Growth Kinetics in Binary Alpha Titanium-Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trump, Anna Marie

    Titanium alloys are used in a variety of important naval and aerospace applications and often undergo thermomechanical processing which leads to recrystallization and grain growth. Both of these processes have a significant impact on the mechanical properties of the material. Therefore, understanding the kinetics of these processes is crucial to being able to predict the final properties. Three alloys are studied with varying concentrations of aluminum which allows for the direct quantification of the effect of aluminum content on the kinetics of recrystallization and grain growth. Aluminum is the most common alpha stabilizing alloying element used in titanium alloys, however the effect of aluminum on these processes has not been previously studied. This work is also part of a larger Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) effort whose goal is to combine both computational and experimental efforts to develop computationally efficient models that predict materials microstructure and properties based on processing history. The static recrystallization kinetics are measured using an electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique and a significant retardation in the kinetics is observed with increasing aluminum concentration. An analytical model is then used to capture these results and is able to successfully predict the effect of solute concentration on the time to 50% recrystallization. The model reveals that this solute effect is due to a combination of a decrease in grain boundary mobility and a decrease in driving force with increasing aluminum concentration. The effect of microstructural inhomogeneities is also experimentally quantified and the results are validated with a phase field model for recrystallization. These microstructural inhomogeneities explain the experimentally measured Avrami exponent, which is lower than the theoretical value calculated by the JMAK model. Similar to the effect seen in recrystallization, the addition of aluminum

  2. Two-Step Cycle for Producing Multiple Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) Films with Increasing Long-Range Order

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes are being used for an increasing number of applications. However, the original two-step anodization method in which the first anodization is sacrificial to pre-pattern the second is still widely used to produce them. This method provides relatively low throughput and material utilization as half of the films are discarded. An alternative scheme that relies on alternating anodization and cathodic delamination is demonstrated that allows for the fabrication of several AAO films with only one sacrificial layer thus greatly improving total aluminum to alumina yield. The thickness for which the cathodic delamination performs best to yield full, unbroken AAO sheets is around 85 μm. Additionally, an image analysis method is used to quantify the degree of long-range ordering of the unit cells in the AAO films which was found to increase with each successive iteration of the fabrication cycle. PMID:28630684

  3. Two-Step Cycle for Producing Multiple Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) Films with Increasing Long-Range Order.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Eric; Szalai, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes are being used for an increasing number of applications. However, the original two-step anodization method in which the first anodization is sacrificial to pre-pattern the second is still widely used to produce them. This method provides relatively low throughput and material utilization as half of the films are discarded. An alternative scheme that relies on alternating anodization and cathodic delamination is demonstrated that allows for the fabrication of several AAO films with only one sacrificial layer thus greatly improving total aluminum to alumina yield. The thickness for which the cathodic delamination performs best to yield full, unbroken AAO sheets is around 85 μm. Additionally, an image analysis method is used to quantify the degree of long-range ordering of the unit cells in the AAO films which was found to increase with each successive iteration of the fabrication cycle.

  4. Technology of welding aluminum alloys-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Step-by-step procedures were developed for high integrity manual and machine welding of aluminum alloys. Detailed instructions are given for each step with tables and graphs to specify materials and dimensions. Throughout work sequence, processing procedure designates manufacturing verification points and inspection points.

  5. Stress-corrosion characteristics of aluminum casting alloy M-45

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovoy, C. V.

    1968-01-01

    Evaluation of the stress-corrosion characteristics of aluminum alloy M-45 shows that the most favorable artificial aging cycle for this alloy, with regard to optimum strength and stress-corrosion resistance, appears to be 400 degrees F for 12 hours.

  6. Optimal condition for fabricating superhydrophobic Aluminum surfaces with controlled anodizing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saffari, Hamid; Sohrabi, Beheshteh; Noori, Mohammad Reza; Bahrami, Hamid Reza Talesh

    2018-03-01

    A single step anodizing process is used to produce micro-nano structures on Aluminum (1050) substrates with sulfuric acid as electrolyte. Therefore, surface energy of the anodized layer is reduced using stearic acid modification. Undoubtedly, effects of different parameters including anodizing time, electrical current, and type and concentration of electrolyte on the final contact angle are systemically studied and optimized. Results show that anodizing current of 0.41 A, electrolyte (sulfuric acid) concentration of 15 wt.% and anodizing time of 90 min are optimal conditions which give contact angle as high as 159.2° and sliding angle lower than 5°. Moreover, the study reveals that adding oxalic acid to the sulfuric acid cannot enhance superhydrophobicity of the samples. Also, scanning electron microscopy images of samples show that irregular (bird's nest) structures present on the surface instead of high-ordered honeycomb structures expecting from normal anodizing process. Additionally, X-ray diffraction analysis of the samples shows that only amorphous structures present on the surface. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area of the anodized layer is 2.55 m2 g-1 in optimal condition. Ultimately, the surface keeps its hydrophobicity in air and deionized water (DIW) after one week and 12 weeks, respectively.

  7. Superhydrophobic aluminum alloy surfaces by a novel one-step process.

    PubMed

    Saleema, N; Sarkar, D K; Paynter, R W; Chen, X-G

    2010-09-01

    A simple one-step process has been developed to render aluminum alloy surfaces superhydrophobic by immersing the aluminum alloy substrates in a solution containing NaOH and fluoroalkyl-silane (FAS-17) molecules. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurements have been performed to characterize the morphological features, chemical composition and superhydrophobicity of the surfaces. The resulting surfaces provided a water contact angle as high as ∼162° and a contact angle hysteresis as low as ∼4°. The study indicates that it is possible to fabricate superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces easily and effectively without involving the traditional two-step processes.

  8. A Fatigue Model for Discontinuous Particulate-Reinforced Aluminum Alloy Composite: Influence of Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCullough, R. R.; Jordon, J. B.; Brammer, A. T.; Manigandan, K.; Srivatsan, T. S.; Allison, P. G.; Rushing, T. W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the use of a microstructure-sensitive fatigue model is put forth for the analysis of discontinuously reinforced aluminum alloy metal matrix composite. The fatigue model was used for a ceramic particle-reinforced aluminum alloy deformed under conditions of fully reversed strain control. Experimental results revealed the aluminum alloy to be strongly influenced by volume fraction of the particulate reinforcement phase under conditions of strain-controlled fatigue. The model safely characterizes the evolution of fatigue damage in this aluminum alloy composite into the distinct stages of crack initiation and crack growth culminating in failure. The model is able to capture the specific influence of particle volume fraction, particle size, and nearest neighbor distance in quantifying fatigue life. The model yields good results for correlation of the predicted results with the experimental test results on the fatigue behavior of the chosen aluminum alloy for two different percentages of the ceramic particle reinforcement. Further, the model illustrates that both particle size and volume fraction are key factors that govern fatigue lifetime. This conclusion is well supported by fractographic observations of the cyclically deformed and failed specimens.

  9. Fretting of Nickel-Chromium-Aluminum Alloys at Temperatures to 816 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    A series of four nickel-based alloys containing 10 percent and 20 percent chromium in combination with 2 percent and 5 percent aluminum were fretted in dry air at temperatures to 816 C. At all temperatures, the alloys showed far less fretting wear than did high-purity nickel. This was attributed to the formation of protective oxide films on the alloys, the result of the selective oxidation of the alloy constituents. Increasing the aluminum concentration reduced fretting wear at all temperatures. Increasing the chromium concentration from 10 percent to 20 percent resulted in decreased fretting wear at 23 and 540 C, but increased fretting wear at 650 and 816 C.

  10. Evaluation of Sc-Bearing Aluminum Alloy C557 for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domack, Marcia S.; Dicus, Dennis L.

    2002-01-01

    The performance of the Al-Mg-Sc alloy C557 was evaluated to assess its potential for a broad range of aerospace applications, including airframe and launch vehicle structures. Of specific interest were mechanical properties at anticipated service temperatures and thermal stability of the alloy. Performance was compared with conventional airframe aluminum alloys and with other emerging aluminum alloys developed for specific service environments. Mechanical properties and metallurgical structure were evaluated for commercially rolled sheet in the as-received H116 condition and after thermal exposures at 107 C. Metallurgical analyses were performed to de.ne grain morphology and texture, strengthening precipitates, and to assess the effect of thermal exposure.

  11. Anti-icing/frosting and self-cleaning performance of superhydrophobic aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Libang; Yan, Zhongna; Shi, Xueting; Sultonzoda, Firdavs

    2018-02-01

    Ice formation and frost deposition on cryogenic equipment and systems can result in serious problems and huge economic loss. Hence, it is quite necessary to develop new materials to prevent icing and frosting on cold surfaces in engineering fields. Here, a superhydrophobic aluminum alloy with enhanced anti-frosting, anti-icing, and self-cleaning performance has been developed by a facile one-step method. The anti-frosting/icing performance of superhydrophobic aluminum alloys is confirmed by frosting/icing time delay, consolidating and freezing temperature reduction, and lower amount of frost/ice adhesion. Meanwhile, the excellent self-cleaning performance is authenticated by the fact that simulated pollution particles can be cleaned out by rolling water droplets completely. Finally, based on the classical nucleation theory, anti-icing and anti-frosting mechanisms of the superhydrophobic aluminum alloys are deduced. Results show that grounded on "air cushion" and "heat insulation" effect, a larger nucleation barrier and a lower crystal growth rate can be observed, which, hence, inhibit ice formation and frost deposition. It can be concluded that preparing superhydrophobic surfaces would be an effective strategy for improving anti-icing, anti-frosting, and self-cleaning performance of aluminum alloys.

  12. Removal of heavy metals from aluminum anodic oxidation wastewaters by membrane filtration.

    PubMed

    Ates, Nuray; Uzal, Nigmet

    2018-05-27

    Aluminum manufacturing has been reported as one of the largest industries and wastewater produced from the aluminum industry may cause significant environmental problems due to variable pH, high heavy metal concentration, conductivity, and organic load. The management of this wastewater with a high pollution load is of great importance for practitioners in the aluminum sector. There are hardly any studies available on membrane treatment of wastewater originated from anodic oxidation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the best treatment and reuse alternative for aluminum industry wastewater using membrane filtration. Additionally, the performance of chemical precipitation, which is the existing treatment used in the aluminum facility, was also compared with membrane filtration. Wastewater originated from anodic oxidation coating process of an aluminum profile manufacturing facility in Kayseri (Turkey) was used in the experiments. The characterization of raw wastewater was in very low pH (e.g., 3) with high aluminum concentration and conductivity values. Membrane experiments were carried out with ultrafiltration (PTUF), nanofiltration (NF270), and reverse osmosis (SW30) membranes with MWCO 5000, 200-400, and 100 Da, respectively. For the chemical precipitation experiments, FeCl 3 and FeSO 4 chemicals presented lower removal performances for aluminum and chromium, which were below 35% at ambient wastewater pH ~ 3. The membrane filtration experimental results show that, both NF and RO membranes tested could effectively remove aluminum, total chromium and nickel (>90%) from the aluminum production wastewater. The RO (SW30) membrane showed a slightly higher performance at 20 bar operating pressure in terms of conductivity removal values (90%) than the NF 270 membrane (87%). Although similar removal performances were observed for heavy metals and conductivity by NF270 and SW30, significantly higher fluxes were obtained in NF270 membrane filtration at any pressure

  13. Bearing Strengths of Some Wrought-aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R L; Wescoat, C

    1943-01-01

    Although a number of investigations of the bearing strength of aluminum alloys have been made, the problem remains one of considerable interest to the aircraft industry. For this reason it has seemed advisable to make additional tests of the commonly used aircraft alloys in an effort to establish a better basis for the selection of allowable bearing values. Current design practice does not recognize the effect of edge distance upon bearing strengths, and for this reason edge distance was one of the principal variables considered in this investigation. The increasing emphasis being placed upon permanent set limitations makes it essential that more information on bearing yield phenomena be obtained. The object of this investigation was to determine bearing yield and ultimate strengths of the following aluminum alloy products: 17S-T, 24S-T, Alclad 24S-T, 24S-RT, 52S-0, 52S-1/2H, 52S-H, 53S-T, and 61S-T extrusions. Ratios of these bearing properties to tensile properties were also determined.

  14. Corrosion Behavior of Aluminum Alloys in Acidic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Rosliza; Seoh, S. Y.; Nik, W. B. Wan; Senin, H. B.

    2007-05-01

    The corrosion inhibition of Al and its alloys are the subject of tremendous technological importance due to the increased industrial applications of these materials. This study will report the results of weight loss, polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) measurements on the corrosion inhibition of AA6061 and AA6063 aluminum alloys in acidic media using sodium benzoate as an inhibitor. The results showed that addition of sodium benzoate retards the rate of dissolution and hence inhibits the corrosion of the aluminum alloy in acidic media. The inhibition efficiency increases with the increase of immersion time in acetic acid however it displays a different behavior in sulfuric acid. Langmuir adsorption isotherm fits well with the experimental data. EIS studies showed that there was a significant increase in overall resistance after addition of sodium benzoate, when compared to the case without inhibitor. Langmuir adsorption isotherm fits well with the experimental data.

  15. Solid state thin film battery having a high temperature lithium alloy anode

    DOEpatents

    Hobson, David O.

    1998-01-01

    An improved rechargeable thin-film lithium battery involves the provision of a higher melting temperature lithium anode. Lithium is alloyed with a suitable solute element to elevate the melting point of the anode to withstand moderately elevated temperatures.

  16. Laser Surface Alloying of Aluminum for Improving Acid Corrosion Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiru, Woldetinsay Gutu; Sankar, Mamilla Ravi; Dixit, Uday Shanker

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, laser surface alloying of aluminum with magnesium, manganese, titanium and zinc, respectively, was carried out to improve acid corrosion resistance. Laser surface alloying was conducted using 1600 and 1800 W power source using CO2 laser. Acid corrosion resistance was tested by dipping the samples in a solution of 2.5% H2SO4 for 200 h. The weight loss due to acid corrosion was reduced by 55% for AlTi, 41% for AlMg alloy, 36% for AlZn and 22% for AlMn alloy. Laser surface alloyed samples offered greater corrosion resistance than the aluminum substrate. It was observed that localized pitting corrosion was the major factor to damage the surface when exposed for a long time. The hardness after laser surface alloying was increased by a factor of 8.7, 3.4, 2.7 and 2 by alloying with Mn, Mg, Ti and Zn, respectively. After corrosion test, hardness was reduced by 51% for AlTi sample, 40% for AlMg sample, 41.4% for AlMn sample and 33% for AlZn sample.

  17. Commercialization of NASA's High Strength Cast Aluminum Alloy for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the commercialization of a new high strength cast aluminum alloy, invented by NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, for high temperature applications will be presented. Originally developed to meet U.S. automotive legislation requiring low- exhaust emission, the novel NASA aluminum alloy offers dramatic improvement in tensile and fatigue strengths at elevated temperatures (450 F-750 F), which can lead to reducing part weight and cost as well as improving performance for automotive engine applications. It is an ideal low cost material for cast components such as pistons, cylinder heads, cylinder liners, connecting rods, turbo chargers, impellers, actuators, brake calipers and rotors. NASA alloy also offers greater wear resistance, dimensional stability, and lower thermal expansion compared to conventional aluminum alloys, and the new alloy can be produced economically from sand, permanent mold and investment casting. Since 2001, this technology was licensed to several companies for automotive and marine internal combustion engines applications.

  18. Effect of Intensive Plastic Deformation on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhadilov, Bauyrzhan; Uazyrkhanova, Gulzhaz; Myakinin, Alexandr; Uazyrkhanova, Zhuldyz

    2016-08-01

    In work it was studied the influence of intensive plastic deformation on structure and mechanical properties of aluminum alloys. Intensive plastic deformation was carried out by using equal-channel angular extrusion. It is shown that the most efficient angle of intersection of the channels is the angle of Φ=120°, which ensures defect-free parts at the highest possible level of accumulated strain (e=8). It is established that the intensive milling grain structures in aluminum alloys AMG6 and AMC occurs at ECAE-12 passes, while the intersection angle of the channels of 120°. After ECAE-12 in aluminum alloys the grain refinement reaches to the size of ∼⃒1.0-1.5 gm. It is determined that as a result of equal channel angular pressing, the microhardness of alloy AMG6 increases almost 4 times in comparison with the initial state, the microhardness of alloy AMC increases by almost 4.5 times in comparison with the initial state. It is shown that ECAE-12 mass loss is reduced to 5.4 and 5.6 mg, which shows an increase in wear-resistance of aluminum alloys AMG6 and AMC 13-14 %.

  19. Solid state thin film battery having a high temperature lithium alloy anode

    DOEpatents

    Hobson, D.O.

    1998-01-06

    An improved rechargeable thin-film lithium battery involves the provision of a higher melting temperature lithium anode. Lithium is alloyed with a suitable solute element to elevate the melting point of the anode to withstand moderately elevated temperatures. 2 figs.

  20. Facile Fabrication of Ordered Anodized Aluminum Oxide Membranes with Controlled Pore Size by Improved Hard Anodization.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jiangxia; Zhu, Xinxin; Wang, Kunzhou; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Xinqing; Yan, Minhao; Ren, Yong

    2018-05-01

    We have fabricated highly ordered anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes with different diameter through improved hard anodization (HA) at high temperature. This process can generate thick AAO membranes (30 μm) in a short anodizing time with high growth rate 20-60 μm h-1 which is much faster than that in traditional mild two-step anodization. We enlarged the AAO pore diameter by adjusting the voltage rise rate at the same time, which has a great influence on current density and temperature. The AAO pore diameter varies from 60-110 nm to 160-190 nm. The pore diameter (Dp) of the AAO prepared by this improved process is much larger than that prepared by HA (40-60 nm) when H2C2O4 as electrolyte. It can expand potential use of the AAO membranes such as for the template-based synthesis of nanowires or nanotubes with modulated diameters and also for practical separation technology. We also has used the AAO with different diameters prepared by this improved HA to fabricate Co nanowires and γ-Fe2O3 superparamagnetic nanorods.

  1. Failure Analysis of Alumina Reinforced Aluminum Microtruss and Tube Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Hsueh Fen (Karen)

    The energy absorption capacity of cellular materials can be dramatically increased by applying a structural coating. This thesis examined the failure mechanisms of alumina reinforced 3003 aluminum alloy microtrusses and tubes. Alumina coatings were produced by hard anodizing and by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). The relatively thin and discontinuous oxide coating at the hinge acted as a localized weak spot which triggered a chain reaction of failure, including oxide fracture, oxide spallation, oxide penetration to the aluminum core and severe local plastic deformation of the core. For the PEO microtrusses, delamination occurred within the oxide coating resulting in a global strut buckling failure mode. A new failure mode for the anodized tubes was observed: (i) axisymmetric folding of the aluminum core, (ii) longitudinal fracture, and (iii) alumina pulverization. Overall, the alumina coating enhanced the buckling resistance of the composites, while the aluminum core supported the oxide during the damage propagation.

  2. Friction stir welding process to repair voids in aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Charles D. (Inventor); Litwinski, Edward (Inventor); Valdez, Juan M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides an in-process method to repair voids in an aluminum alloy, particularly a friction stir weld in an aluminum alloy. For repairing a circular void or an in-process exit hole in a weld, the method includes the steps of fabricating filler material of the same composition or compatible with the parent material into a plug form to be fitted into the void, positioning the plug in the void, and friction stir welding over and through the plug. For repairing a longitudinal void (30), the method includes machining the void area to provide a trough (34) that subsumes the void, fabricating filler metal into a strip form (36) to be fitted into the trough, positioning the strip in the trough, and rewelding the void area by traversing a friction stir welding tool longitudinally through the strip. The method is also applicable for repairing welds made by a fusing welding process or voids in aluminum alloy workpieces themselves.

  3. Studies of localized corrosion in welded aluminum alloys by the scanning reference electrode technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.; Nunes, A. C.

    1995-01-01

    Localized corrosion in welded samples of 2219-T87 Al alloy (2319 filler), 2090 Al-Li alloy (4043 and 2319 fillers), and 2195 Al-Li alloy (4043 and 2319 fillers) has been investigated using the relatively new scanning reference electrode technique. The weld beads are cathodic in all cases, leading to reduced anode/cathode ratios. A reduction in anode/cathode ratio leads to an increase in the corrosion rates of the welded metals, in agreement with results obtained in previous electrochemical and stress corrosion studies involving the overall corrosion rates of welded samples. The cathodic weld beads are bordered on both sides by strong anodic regions, with high propensity for corrosion.

  4. Direct-soldering 6061 aluminum alloys with ultrasonic coating.

    PubMed

    Ding, Min; Zhang, Pei-lei; Zhang, Zhen-yu; Yao, Shun

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the authors applied furnace soldering with ultrasonic coating method to solder 6061 aluminum alloy and investigated the effects of both coating time and soldering temperature on its properties. The following results were obtained: firstly, the solder region mainly composed of four kinds of microstructure zones: rich Sn zone, rich-Pb zone, Sn-Pb eutectic phase and rich Al zone. Meanwhile, the microanalysis identified a continuous reaction product at the alumina-solder interface as a rich-Pb zone. Therefore, the joint strength changed with soldering time and soldering temperature. Secondly, the tensile data had significantly greater variability, with values ranging from 13.99MPa to 24.74MPa. The highest value was obtained for the samples coated with Sn-Pb-Zn alloy for 45s. Fractures occurred along the solder-alumina interface for the 6061 aluminum alloy with its surface including hybrid tough fracture of dimple and tear ridge. The interface could initially strip at the rich Bi zone with the effect of shear stress.

  5. New water-soluble metal working fluids additives from phosphonic acid derivatives for aluminum alloy materials.

    PubMed

    Kohara, Ichitaro; Tomoda, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Shoji

    2007-01-01

    Water-soluble metal working fluids are used for processing of aluminum alloy materials. This short paper describes properties of new additives for water-soluble cutting fluids for aluminum alloy materials. Some alkyldiphosphonic acids were prepared with known method. Amine salts of these phosphonic acids showed anti-corrosion property for aluminum alloy materials. However, they have no hard water tolerance. Monoesters of octylphosphonic acid were prepared by the reaction of octylphosphonic acid dichloride with various alcohols in the presence of triethylamine. Amine salts of monoester of octylphosphonic acid with diethyleneglycol monomethyl ether, ethyleneglycol monomethyl ether and triethyleneglycol monomethyl ether showed both of a good anti-corrosion property for aluminum alloy materials and hard water tolerance.

  6. An improved stress corrosion test medium for aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.; Coston, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    A laboratory test method that is only mildly corrosive to aluminum and discriminating for use in classifying the stress corrosion cracking resistance of aluminum alloys is presented along with the method used in evaluating the media selected for testing. The proposed medium is easier to prepare and less expensive than substitute ocean water.

  7. Method of preparing an electrode material of lithium-aluminum alloy

    DOEpatents

    Settle, Jack L.; Myles, Kevin M.; Battles, James E.

    1976-01-01

    A solid compact having a uniform alloy composition of lithium and aluminum is prepared as a negative electrode for an electrochemical cell. Lithium losses during preparation are minimized by dissolving aluminum within a lithium-rich melt at temperatures near the liquidus temperatures. The desired alloy composition is then solidified and fragmented. The fragments are homogenized to a uniform composition by annealing at a temperature near the solidus temperature. After comminuting to fine particles, the alloy material can be blended with powdered electrolyte and pressed into a solid compact having the desired electrode shape. In the preparation of some electrodes, an electrically conductive metal mesh is embedded into the compact as a current collector.

  8. First wall design of aluminum alloy R-tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Y.; Matsuoka, K.; Ogawa, Y.; Kitagawa, S.; Toi, K.; Yamazaki, K.; Abe, Y.; Amano, T.; Fujita, J.; Kaneko, O.; Kawahata, K.; Kuroda, T.; Matsuura, K.; Midzuno, Y.; Naitou, H.; Noda, N.; Ohkubo, K.; Oka, Y.; Sakurai, K.; Tanahashi, S.; Watari, T.

    1984-05-01

    A design study of a low-activation D-T tokamak Reacting Plasma Project In Nagoya has been finished. The study emphasizes the vacuum vessel and the bumper limiter. Our choice of materials (aluminum vacuum vessel, copper conductors, aluminum TF coil case and lead shield) results in a radiation level of about 1 × 10 -3 times that of a TFTR type design, and 1 × 10 -4 times that of JET type design, at 2 weeks after one D-T shot. Thick graphite tiles will be fixed directly on the aluminum vacuum vessel using aluminum spring washers and bolts. With this simplified structure of the bumper limiter, the inner surface temperature of the thick aluminum vacuum vessel will be less than 120°C which is required to reduce the overaging effect of the aluminum alloy.

  9. Nitrate reduction in water by aluminum alloys particles.

    PubMed

    Bao, Zunsheng; Hu, Qing; Qi, Weikang; Tang, Yang; Wang, Wei; Wan, Pingyu; Chao, Jingbo; Yang, Xiao Jin

    2017-07-01

    Nano zero-valent iron (NZVI) particles have been extensively investigated for nitrate reduction in water. However, the reduction by NZVI requires acidic pH conditions and the final product is exclusively ammonium, leading to secondary contamination. In addition, nanomaterials have potential threats to environment and the transport and storage of nanomaterials are of safety concerns. Aluminum, the most abundant metal element in the earth's crust, is able to reduce nitrate, but the passivation of aluminum limits its application. Here we report Al alloys (85% Al) with Fe, Cu or Si for aqueous nitrate reduction. The Al alloys particles of 0.85-0.08 mm were inactivate under ambient conditions and a simple treatment with warm water (45 °C) quickly activated the alloy particles for rapid reduction of nitrate. The Al-Fe alloy particles at a dosage of 5 g/L rapidly reduced 50 mg-N/L nitrate at a reaction rate constant (k) of 3.2 ± 0.1 (mg-N/L) 1.5 /min between pH 5-6 and at 4.0 ± 0.1 (mg-N/L) 1.5 /min between pH 9-11. Dopping Cu in the Al-Fe alloy enhanced the rates of reduction whereas dopping Si reduced the reactivity of the Al-Fe alloy. The Al alloys converted nitrate to 20% nitrogen and 80% ammonium. Al in the alloy particles provided electrons for the reduction and the intermetallic compounds in the alloys were likely to catalyze nitrate reduction to nitrogen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Corrosion Inhibition of Sodium Benzoate on Aluminum Alloys in Tropical Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosliza, R.; Senin, H. B.

    2008-05-01

    The corrosion inhibition of aluminum and its alloys is the subject of remarkable technological importance due to their increased industrial applications. This paper reports the results of the corrosion inhibition properties of AA6061 and AA6063 aluminum alloys in tropical seawater using sodium benzoate as an inhibitor. It was found that the corrosion inhibition occurred through the adsorption on the surfactant on the metal surface without modifying the mechanism of corrosion processes.

  11. Effect of Preexisting Corrosion on Fatigue Cracking of Aluminum Alloys 2024-T3 and 7075-T6

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-08-01

    alloys 2024 -T3 and 7075-T6. It was determined that preexisting corrosion has a detrimental effect on the fatigue life of aluminum alloys 2024 -T3 and...following conclusions were drawn: 1. Preexisting corrosion has a detrimental effect on the fatigue life of aluminum alloys 2024 -T3 and 7075-T6. The...corrosion has a detrimental effect on the fatigue life of aluminum alloys

  12. Thermomechanical processing of aluminum micro-alloyed with Sc, Zr, Ti, B, and C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Cameron T.

    Critical exploration of the minimalistic high strength low alloy aluminum (HSLA-Al) paradigm is necessary for the continued development of advanced aluminum alloys. In this study, scandium (Sc) and zirconium (Zr) are examined as the main precipitation strengthening additions, while magnesium (Mg) is added to probe the synergistic effects of solution and precipitation hardening, as well as the grain refinement during solidification afforded by a moderate growth restriction factor. Further, pathways of recrystallization are explored in several potential HSLA-Al syste =ms sans Sc. Aluminum-titanium-boron (Al-Ti-B) and aluminum-titanium-carbon (Al-Ti-C) grain refining master alloys are added to a series of Al-Zr alloys to examine both the reported Zr poisoning effect on grain size reduction and the impact on recrystallization resistance through the use of electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) imaging. Results include an analysis of active strengthening mechanisms and advisement for both constitution and thermomechanical processing of HSLA-Al alloys for wrought or near-net shape cast components. The mechanisms of recrystallization are discussed for alloys which contain a bimodal distribution of particles, some of which act as nucleation sites for grain formation during annealing and others which restrict the growth of the newly formed grains.

  13. The Effect of Impurities on the Processing of Aluminum Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zi-Kui Liu; Shengjun Zhang; Qingyou Han

    2007-04-23

    For this Aluminum Industry of the Future (IOF) project, the effect of impurities on the processing of aluminum alloys was systematically investigated. The work was carried out as a collaborative effort between the Pennsylvania State University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Industrial support was provided by ALCOA and ThermoCalc, Inc. The achievements described below were made. A method that combines first-principles calculation and calculation of phase diagrams (CALPHAD) was used to develop the multicomponent database Al-Ca-K-Li-Mg-Na. This method was extensively used in this project for the development of a thermodynamic database. The first-principles approach provided some thermodynamic property data thatmore » are not available in the open literature. These calculated results were used in the thermodynamic modeling as experimental data. Some of the thermodynamic property data are difficult, if not impossible, to measure. The method developed and used in this project allows the estimation of these data for thermodynamic database development. The multicomponent database Al-Ca-K-Li-Mg-Na was developed. Elements such as Ca, Li, Na, and K are impurities that strongly affect the formability and corrosion behavior of aluminum alloys. However, these impurity elements are not included in the commercial aluminum alloy database. The process of thermodynamic modeling began from Al-Na, Ca-Li, Li-Na, K-Na, and Li-K sub-binary systems. Then ternary and higher systems were extrapolated because of the lack of experimental information. Databases for five binary alloy systems and two ternary systems were developed. Along with other existing binary and ternary databases, the full database of the multicomponent Al-Ca-K-Li-Mg-Na system was completed in this project. The methodology in integrating with commercial or other aluminum alloy databases can be developed. The mechanism of sodium-induced high-temperature embrittlement (HTE) of Al-Mg is now understood. Using the

  14. Stabilization of tannery sludge by co-treatment with aluminum anodizing sludge and phytotoxicity of end-products.

    PubMed

    Pantazopoulou, E; Zebiliadou, O; Mitrakas, M; Zouboulis, A

    2017-03-01

    A global demand for efficient re-utilization of produced solid wastes, which is based on the principles of re-use and recycling, results to a circular economy, where one industry's waste becomes another's raw material and it can be used in a more efficient and sustainable way. In this study, the influence of a by-product addition, such as aluminum anodizing sludge, on tannery waste (air-dried sludge) stabilization was examined. The chemical characterization of tannery waste leachate, using the EN 12457-2 standard leaching test, reveals that tannery waste cannot be accepted even in landfills for hazardous wastes, according to the EU Decision 2003/33/EC. The stabilization of tannery waste was studied applying different ratios of tannery waste and aluminum anodizing sludge, i.e. 50:50, 60:40, 70:30 and 80:20 ratios respectively. Subsequently, the stabilization rate of the qualified as optimum homogenized mixture of 50:50 ratio was also tested during time (7, 15 and 30days). Moreover, this stabilized product was subjected to phytotoxicity tests using the Lepidium sativum, Sinapis alba and Sorghum saccharatum seeds. The experimental results showed that aluminum anodizing sludge managed to stabilize effectively chromium and organic content of tannery waste, which are the most problematic parameters influencing its subsequent disposal. As a result, tannery waste stabilized with the addition of aluminum anodizing sludge at 50:50 ratio can be accepted in non-hazardous waste landfills, as chromium and dissolved organic carbon concentrations in the respective leachate are below the relevant regulation limits, while the stabilized waste shows decreased phytotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Column Strength of Two Extruded Aluminum-Alloy H-Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osgood, William R; Holt, Marshall

    1939-01-01

    Extruded aluminum-alloy members of various cross sections are used in aircraft as compression members either singly or as stiffeners for aluminum-alloy sheet. In order to design such members, it is necessary to know their column strength or, in the case of stiffeners, the value of the double modulus, which is best obtained for practical purposes from column tests. Column tests made on two extruded h-sections are described, and column formulas and formulas for the ratio of the double modulus to Young's modulus, based on the tests, are given.

  16. Niobium-aluminum base alloys having improved, high temperature oxidation resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G. (Inventor); Stephens, Joseph R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A niobium-aluminum base alloy having improved oxidation resistance at high temperatures and consisting essentially of 48%-52% niobium, 36%-42% aluminum, 4%-10% chromium, 0%-2%, more preferably 1%-2%, silicon and/or tungsten with tungsten being preferred, and 0.1%-2.0% of a rare earth selected from the group consisting of yttrium, ytterbium and erbium. Parabolic oxidation rates, k.sub.p, at 1200.degree. C. range from about 0.006 to 0.032 (mg/cm.sup.2).sup.2 /hr. The new alloys also exhibit excellent cyclic oxidation resistance.

  17. All-aluminum-alloy UHV chamber for molecular beam epitaxy, 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suemitsu, M.; Miyamoto, N.

    1984-03-01

    The first all aluminum alloy (ex. JIS.6263-t6,2219-t87 etc) MBE chamber is constructed and described. After exposure to atmosphere, the chamber is drown to 10(-9) torr in 24 hours, and reaches an ultrahigh vacuum of 1.6x10(-10) torr by a 115 C, 24 bakeout process. The light weight and low cost as well as the short pump-down time and the law outgassing rate of the all aluminum alloy vacuum system seems to have a considerable applicative potentiality for equipment used in semiconductor ultrahigh vacuum processes.

  18. Cleavage crystallography of liquid metal embrittled aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, A. P.; Stoner, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    The crystallography of liquid metal-induced transgranular cleavage in six aluminum alloys having a variety of microstructures has been determined via Laue X-ray back reflection. The cleavage crystallography was independent of alloy microstructure, and the cleavage plane was 100-plane oriented in all cases. It was further determined that the cleavage crystallography was not influenced by alloy texture. Examination of the fracture surface indicated that there was not a unique direction of crack propagation. In addition, the existence of 100-plane cleavage on alloy 2024 fracture surfaces was inferred by comparison of secondary cleavage crack intersection geometry on the 2024 surfaces with the geometry of secondary cleavage crack intersections on the test alloys.

  19. Effects of Zn-In-Sn elements on the electric properties of magnesium alloy anode materials.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhan; Ju, Dongying; Zhao, Hongyang; Hu, Xiaodong

    2011-06-01

    A new magnesium alloy anode is based on an environmentally friendly electrode that contains none of mercury, lead and chromate, but it can enhance the electric properties of alloy significantly. Magnesium alloy adding eco-friendly elements Zn-In-Sn which was developed by orthogonal design were obtained by two casting methods. The effect of additive elements on performance of electrode material was studied. The effects of elements addition and casting method on electric properties and corrosive properties of Mg-Zn-In-Sn alloys were investigated by using electrochemical measurements, corrosive tests and observation of surface structure. The results show that Mg-Zn-In-Sn alloy anode has higher electromotive force and more stable work potential than that commercial magnesium alloy AZ91. It is suitable for anode material of magnesium battery for its small hydrogen evolution, less self-corrosion rate and easy to shed corrosive offspring off. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Structure-composition-property relationships in 5xxx series aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unocic, Kinga A.

    Al-Mg alloys are well suited for marine applications due to their low density, ease of fabrication, structural durability, and most notably resistance to corrosion. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of alloying additions, mechanical processing and heat treatments on the development of grain boundary phases that have an effect on intergranular corrosion (IGC). Cu, Zn, and Si modified compositions of AA5083 were produced that were subjected to a low and high degree of cold work and various heat treatments. ASTM G67 (NAMLT) intergranular corrosion testing and detailed microstructural characterization for various alloys was carried out. An optimal composition and processing condition that yielded the best intergranular corrosion resistant material was identified based on the ASTM G67 test screening. Further, the outstanding modified AA5083 was selected for further microstructural analysis. This particular alloy with has a magnesium level high enough to make it susceptible to intergranular corrosion is very resistant to IGC. It was found that development of the appropriate sub-structure with some Cu, Si and Zn resulted in a material very resistant to IGC. Formation of many sinks, provided by sub-boundaries, within microstructure is very beneficial since it produces a relatively uniform distribution of Mg in the grain interiors, and this can suppress sensitization of this alloy very successfully. This is a very promising rote for the production of high-strength, and corrosion resistant aluminum alloys. Additionally in this study, TEM sample preparation become very crucial step in grain boundary phase investigation. Focus Ion Beam (FIB) milling was used as a primary TEM sample preparation technique because it enables to extract the samples from desired and very specific locations without dissolving grain boundary phases as it was in conventional electropolishing method. However, other issues specifically relevant to FIB milling of aluminum alloys

  1. Friction stir welding of T joints of dissimilar aluminum alloy: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakare, Shrikant B.; Kalyankar, Vivek D.

    2018-04-01

    Aluminum alloys are preferred in the mechanical design due to their advantages like high strength, good corrosion resistance, low density and good weldability. In various industrial applications T joints configuration of aluminum alloys are used. In different fields, T joints having skin (horizontal sheet) strengthen by stringers (vertical sheets) were used to increase the strength of structure without increasing the weight. T joints are usually carried out by fusion welding which has limitations in joining of aluminum alloy due to significant distortion and metallurgical defects. Some aluminum alloys are even non weldable by fusion welding. The friction stir welding (FSW) has an excellent replacement of conventional fusion welding for T joints. In this article, FSW of T joints is reviewed by considering aluminum alloy and various joint geometries for defect analysis. The previous experiments carried out on T joints shows the factors such as tool geometry, fixturing device and joint configurations plays significant role in defect free joints. It is essential to investigate the material flow during FSW to know joining mechanism and the formation of joint. In this study the defect occurred in the FSW are studied for various joint configurations and parameters. Also the effect of the parameters and defects occurs on the tensile strength are studied. It is concluded that the T-joints of different joint configurations can be pretended successfully. Comparing to base metal some loss in tensile strength was observed in the weldments as well as overall reduction of the hardness in the thermos mechanically affected zone also observed.

  2. Replacement of steel parts with extruded aluminum alloys in an automobile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daggula, Manikantha Reddy

    Over the past years, vehicle emissions have shown a negative impact on environment and human health. A new strategy has been used by automakers to reduce a vehicle's weight which significantly reduce fuel consumption and C02 emissions. A very light car consumes very less fuel as it needs to overcome less inertia, decreasing the required power to movie the vehicle. Reducing weight is the easiest way to increase fuel economy and making it by just 10% can increase its efficiency 6 to 8 percent. For a normal scale 80% of vehicles weight is shared among chassis, power train and other exterior components. Almost 60% of the vehicles weight is comprised of steel and the remaining is with cast and extruded aluminum and magnesium alloys. Our main aim is to look for the parts like Fuel tank holder, Fuel filler neck, Turbo inlet assembly, and Brake lines, Dash board frame which are made from steel and replace them with extruded aluminum alloys, to analyze a conventional rear wheel aluminum drive shaft and replace it with a new design and with a new aluminum alloy. The current project involves dismantling an automobile and looking for feasible steel parts and making samples, analyzing the hardness of the samples. These parts are optimally analyzed using Ansys Finite element analysis tool, these parts are subjected to the constraints such as three-point bending, tensile testing, hydrostatic pressure and also torsional stress action on the drive shaft, the deformation and stress are observed in these parts. The results show the current steel parts can be replaced with 3000 series aluminum alloy and the drive shaft can be replaced with new design with 6061-T6 Al-alloy which decreases 25% of the shaft weight.

  3. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Aluminum Alloy/Stainless Steel Lap Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogura, Tomo; Nishida, Taichi; Nishida, Hidehito; Yoshikawa, Syuhei; Yoshida, Takumi; Omichi, Noriko; Fujimoto, Mitsuo; Hirose, Akio

    The mechanical properties and interfacial microstructure of an aluminum alloy/stainless steel dissimilar lap joint using friction stir welding (FSW) were characterized. In an FSWed A3003 aluminum alloy-SUS304 steel lap joint, the strength on the advancing side was larger than that at the retreating side. TEM observation indicated that a sound joint can be obtained from the stage of the formation of the amorphous layer owing to the mechanical alloying effects before the formation of intermetallic compounds. This lap joining technique was also successfully applied to A6061-T6 aluminum alloy-grooved SUS304 plates. The maximum tensile strength of the lap joint was approximately the same as that of the base alloy, however, the proof stress of the joint decreased with the dissolution of the β″ phase in the A6061 aluminium alloy, which is caused by the generation of heat during friction stir welding.

  4. Materials data handbook: Aluminum alloy 2014, 2nd edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muraca, R. F.; Whittick, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    A revised edition of the materials data handbook on the aluminum alloy 2014 is presented. The scope of the information presented includes physical and mechanical property data at cryogenic, ambient and elevated temperatures, supplemented with useful information in such areas as material procurement, metallurgy of the alloy, corrosion, environmental effects, fabrication and joining techniques. Design data are presented, as available, and these data are complemented with information on the typical behavior of the alloy.

  5. Inert anode containing base metal and noble metal useful for the electrolytic production of aluminum

    DOEpatents

    Ray, Siba P.; Liu, Xinghua

    2000-01-01

    An inert anode for production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode comprises a base metal selected from Cu and Ag, and at least one noble metal selected from Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and Os. The inert anode may optionally be formed of sintered particles having interior portions containing more base metal than noble metal and exterior portions containing more noble metal than base metal. In a preferred embodiment, the base metal comprises Cu, and the noble metal comprises Ag, Pd or a combination thereof.

  6. Alloying effect of copper concentration on the localized corrosion of aluminum alloy for heat exchanger tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Min-Sung; Park, In-Jun; Kim, Jung-Gu

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the alloying effect of Cu content on the localized corrosion properties of Al alloy in synthetic acid rain containing 200 ppm of Cl- ion. In aluminum alloy tubes, a small amount of Cu is contained as the additive to improve the mechanical strength or as the impurity. The Cu-containing intermetallic compound, Al2Cu can cause galvanic corrosion because it has more noble potential than Al matrix. Therefore aluminum tube could be penetrated by localized corrosion attack. The results were obtained from electrochemical test, scanning electron microscopy, and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) mapping. Severe localized corrosion was occurred on the Al-0.03 wt% Cu alloy. The negative effect of Cu on the pitting corrosion was attributed to the presence of the Al2Cu precipitates.

  7. Effect of oxide layer formation on deformation of aluminum alloys under fire conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Yilmaz, Nadir; Vigil, Francisco M.; Tolendino, Greg; ...

    2015-05-14

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the structural behavior of aluminum alloys used in the aerospace industry when exposed to conditions similar to those of an accident scenario, such as a fuel fire. This study focuses on the role that the aluminum oxide layer plays in the deformation and the strength of the alloy above melting temperature. To replicate some of the thermal and atmospheric conditions that the alloys might experience in an accident scenario, aluminum rod specimens were subjected to temperatures near to or above their melting temperature in air, nitrogen, and vacuum environments. The characteristics ofmore » their deformation, such as geometry and rate of deformation, were observed. Tests were conducted by suspending aluminum rods vertically from an enclosure. This type of experiment was performed in two different environments: air and nitrogen. The change in environments allowed the effects of the oxide layer on the material strength to be analyzed by inhibiting the growth of the oxide layer. Observations were reported from imaging taken during the experiment showing creep behavior of aluminum alloys at elevated temperatures and time to failure. In addition, an example of tensile load–displacement data obtained in air and vacuum was reported to understand the effect of oxide layer on aluminum deformation and strength.« less

  8. Measurement of the surface charge accumulation using anodic aluminum oxide(AAO) structure in an inductively coupled plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji-Hwan; Oh, Seung-Ju; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kim, Yu-Sin; Kim, Young-Cheol; Kim, June Young; Ha, Chang-Seoung; Kwon, Soon-Ho; Lee, Jung-Joong; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2014-10-01

    As the critical dimension of the nano-device shrinks, an undesired etch profile occurs during plasma etch process. One of the reasons is the local electric field due to the surface charge accumulation. To demonstrate the surface charge accumulation, an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane which has high aspect ratio is used. The potential difference between top electrode and bottom electrode in an anodic aluminum oxide contact structure is measured during inductively coupled plasma exposure. The voltage difference is changed with external discharge conditions, such as gas pressure, input power, and gas species and the result is analyzed with the measured plasma parameters.

  9. Laser Surface Alloying of Copper, Manganese, and Magnesium with Pure Aluminum Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiru, Woldetinsay G.; Sankar, M. Ravi; Dixit, Uday S.

    2016-03-01

    Laser surface alloying is one of the recent technologies used in the manufacturing sector for improving the surface properties of the metals. Light weight materials like aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, and magnesium alloys are used in the locomotive, aerospace, and structural applications. In the present work, an experimental study was conducted to improve the surface hardness of commercially pure aluminum plate. CO2 laser is used to melt pre-placed powders of pure copper, manganese, and magnesium. Microstructure of alloyed surface was analyzed using optical microscope. The best surface alloying was obtained at the optimum values of laser parameters, viz., laser power, scan speed, and laser beam diameter. In the alloyed region, microhardness increased from 30 HV0.5 to 430 HV0.5, while it was 60 HV0.5 in the heat-affected region. Tensile tests revealed some reduction in the strength and total elongation due to alloying. On the other hand, corrosion resistance improved.

  10. Evaluation of lithium alloy anode materials for Li-TiS2 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C.-K.; Subbarao, S.; Shen, D. H.; Deligiannis, F.; Attia, A.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    A study was performed to select candidate lithium alloy anode materials and establish selection criteria. Some of the selected alloy materials were evaluated for their electrochemical properties and performance. This paper describes the criteria for the selection of alloys and the findings of the studies. Li-Si and Li-Cd alloys have been found to be unstable in the EC+2-MeTHF-based electrolyte. The Li-Al alloy system was found to be promising among the alloy systems studied in view of its stability and reversibility. Unfortunately, the large volume changes of LiAl alloys during charge/discharge cycling cause considerable 'exfoliation' of its active mass. This paper also describes ways how to address this problem. The rate of disintegration of this anode would probably be surpressed by the presence of an inert solid solution or a uniform distribution of precipitates within the grains of the active mass. It was discovered that the addition of a small quantity of Mn may improve the mechanical properties of LiAl. In an attempt to reduce the Li-Al alloy vs. Li voltage, it was observed that LiAlPb(0.1)Cd(0.3) material can be cycled at 1.5 mA/sq cm without exfoliation of the active mass.

  11. Fatigue Strength Estimation Based on Local Mechanical Properties for Aluminum Alloy FSW Joints

    PubMed Central

    Sillapasa, Kittima; Mutoh, Yoshiharu; Miyashita, Yukio; Seo, Nobushiro

    2017-01-01

    Overall fatigue strengths and hardness distributions of the aluminum alloy similar and dissimilar friction stir welding (FSW) joints were determined. The local fatigue strengths as well as local tensile strengths were also obtained by using small round bar specimens extracted from specific locations, such as the stir zone, heat affected zone, and base metal. It was found from the results that fatigue fracture of the FSW joint plate specimen occurred at the location of the lowest local fatigue strength as well as the lowest hardness, regardless of microstructural evolution. To estimate the fatigue strengths of aluminum alloy FSW joints from the hardness measurements, the relationship between fatigue strength and hardness for aluminum alloys was investigated based on the present experimental results and the available wide range of data from the references. It was found as: σa (R = −1) = 1.68 HV (σa is in MPa and HV has no unit). It was also confirmed that the estimated fatigue strengths were in good agreement with the experimental results for aluminum alloy FSW joints. PMID:28772543

  12. Perforation of Thin Aluminum Alloy Plates by Blunt Projectiles - Experimental and Numerical Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Gang; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Xinke; Guo, Zitao

    2011-06-01

    Reducing the armor weight has become a research focus in terms of armored material with the increasing requirement of the mobility and flexibility of tanks and armored vehicles in modern local wars. Due to high strength-to-density ratio, aluminum alloy has become a potential light armored material. In this study, both lab-scale ballistic test and finite element simulation were adopted to examine the ballistic resistance of aluminum alloy targets. Blunt high strength steel projectiles with 12.7 mm diameter were launched by light gas gun against 3.3 mm thick aluminum alloy plates at velocity of 90 ~170 m/s. The ballistic limit velocity was obtained. Plugging failure and obvious structure deformation of targets were observed, and with the impact velocity increasing, the target structure deformation decrease gradually. Corresponding 2D finite element simulations were conducted by ABAQUS/EXPLICIT combined with material performance testing. Good agreement between the numerical simulations and the experimental results was found. Detailed computational results were provided to understand the deformation and failure mechanisms of the aluminum alloy plates.

  13. Fatigue Strength Estimation Based on Local Mechanical Properties for Aluminum Alloy FSW Joints.

    PubMed

    Sillapasa, Kittima; Mutoh, Yoshiharu; Miyashita, Yukio; Seo, Nobushiro

    2017-02-15

    Overall fatigue strengths and hardness distributions of the aluminum alloy similar and dissimilar friction stir welding (FSW) joints were determined. The local fatigue strengths as well as local tensile strengths were also obtained by using small round bar specimens extracted from specific locations, such as the stir zone, heat affected zone, and base metal. It was found from the results that fatigue fracture of the FSW joint plate specimen occurred at the location of the lowest local fatigue strength as well as the lowest hardness, regardless of microstructural evolution. To estimate the fatigue strengths of aluminum alloy FSW joints from the hardness measurements, the relationship between fatigue strength and hardness for aluminum alloys was investigated based on the present experimental results and the available wide range of data from the references. It was found as: σ a ( R = -1) = 1.68 HV ( σ a is in MPa and HV has no unit). It was also confirmed that the estimated fatigue strengths were in good agreement with the experimental results for aluminum alloy FSW joints.

  14. Flexible anodized aluminum oxide membranes with customizable back contact materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadimpally, B.; Jarro, C. A.; Mangu, R.; Rajaputra, S.; Singh, V. P.

    2016-12-01

    Anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes were fabricated using flexible substrate/carrier material. This method facilitates the use of AAO templates with many different materials as substrates that are otherwise incompatible with most anodization techniques. Thin titanium (Ti) and tungsten (W) layers were employed as interlayer materials. Titanium enhances adhesion. Tungsten not only helps eliminate the barrier layer but also plays a critical role in enabling the use of flexible substrates. The resulting flexible templates provide new, exciting opportunities in photovoltaic and other device applications. CuInSe2 nanowires were electrochemically deposited into porous AAO templates with molybdenum (Mo) as the back contact material. The feasibility of using any material to form a contact with semiconductor nanowires has been demonstrated for the first time enabling new avenues in photovoltaic applications.

  15. Iron-aluminum alloys having high room-temperature and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Sikka, V.K.; McKamey, C.G.

    1993-08-24

    A wrought and annealed iron-aluminum alloy is described consisting essentially of 8 to 9.5% aluminum, an effective amount of chromium sufficient to promote resistance to aqueous corrosion of the alloy, and an alloying constituent selected from the group of elements consisting of an effective amount of molybdenum sufficient to promote solution hardening of the alloy and resistance of the alloy to pitting when exposed to solutions containing chloride, up to about 0.05% carbon with up to about 0.5% of a carbide former which combines with the carbon to form carbides for controlling grain growth at elevated temperatures, and mixtures thereof, and the balance iron, wherein said alloy has a single disordered [alpha] phase crystal structure, is substantially non-susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement, and has a room-temperature ductility of greater than 20%.

  16. Biaxial Testing of 2219-T87 Aluminum Alloy Using Cruciform Specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawicke, D. S.; Pollock, W. D.

    1997-01-01

    A cruciform biaxial test specimen was designed and seven biaxial tensile tests were conducted on 2219-T87 aluminum alloy. An elastic-plastic finite element analysis was used to simulate each tests and predict the yield stresses. The elastic-plastic finite analysis accurately simulated the measured load-strain behavior for each test. The yield stresses predicted by the finite element analyses indicated that the yield behavior of the 2219-T87 aluminum alloy agrees with the von Mises yield criterion.

  17. Electrochemical corrosion and modeling studies of types 7075 and 2219 aluminum alloys in a nitric acid + ferric sulfate deoxidizer solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savas, Terence P.

    The corrosion behavior of types 7075-T73 and 2219-T852 high strength aluminum alloys have been investigated in a HNO3 + Fe2(SO 4)3 solution. The materials are characterized in the time domain using the electrochemical noise resistance parameter (Rn) and in the frequency-domain using the spectral noise impedance parameter ( Rsn). The Rsn parameter is derived from an equivalent electrical circuit model that represents the corrosion test cell schematic used in the present study. These calculated parameters are correlated to each other, and to corresponding scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examinations of the corroded surfaces. In addition, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) spectra are used in conjunction with SEM exams for particle mapping and identification. These constituent particles are characterized with respect to their size and composition and their effect on the localized corrosion mechanisms taking place. Pitting mechanisms are identified as 'circumferential' where the particles appeared noble with respect to the aluminum matrix and by 'selective dissolution' where they are anodic to the aluminum matrix. The electrochemical data are found to be in good agreement with the surface examinations. Specifically, the electrochemical parameters Rn and Rsn were consistent in predicting the corrosion resistance of 7075-T73 to be lower than for the 2219-T852 alloy. Other characteristic features used in understanding the corrosion mechanisms include the open circuit potential (OCP) and coupling-current time records.

  18. Mechanical evaluation of aluminum alloy ring fixator.

    PubMed

    Tosborvorn, Somboon; Cheechareon, Sukrom; Ruttanuchun, Kittiput; Sirivedin, Suparerk; Rhienumporn, Chaitawat

    2006-11-01

    To test the homemade ring fixator as a tool for correction of bony deformity. The authors developed an aluminum alloy ring fixator and tested it to find out the accuracy of manufacturing and strength of the ring systems under axial load with the Roundness Testing Machine and Lloyd Universal Testing Machine. The mean diameter of the twenty five-drill holes was 6.5843872 +/- 0.0521594 mm (mean +/- SD). Distance between particular drill holes, which reflected the precision of drilling, had a high accuracy with standard deviation from 0.1138 to 0.1870 mm. The roundness of the rings was 0.2421376 +/- 0.12437977 mm (mean +/- SD). The system structure had minimal permanent deformity at breaking point, mean yield strength of the system was 4786.9 +/- 14.353 N (mean +/- SD). This was caused by the failure of the wire. Mean stiffness of the system was 127 N./mm. The aluminum alloy ring fixator was strong enough and well tolerated for clinical usage

  19. Iron-aluminum alloys having high room-temperature and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Sikka, Vinod K.; McKamey, Claudette G.

    1993-01-01

    Iron-aluminum alloys having selectable room-temperature ductilities of greater than 20%, high resistance to oxidation and sulfidation, resistant pitting and corrosion in aqueous solutions, and possessing relatively high yield and ultimate tensile strengths are described. These alloys comprise 8 to 9.5% aluminum, up to 7% chromium, up to 4% molybdenum, up to 0.05% carbon, up to 0.5% of a carbide former such as zirconium, up to 0.1 yttrium, and the balance iron. These alloys in wrought form are annealed at a selected temperature in the range of 700.degree. C. to about 1100.degree. C. for providing the alloys with selected room-temperature ductilities in the range of 20 to about 29%.

  20. Coating of 6028 Aluminum Alloy Using Aluminum Piston Alloy and Al-Si Alloy-Based Nanocomposites Produced by the Addition of Al-Ti5-B1 to the Matrix Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Labban, Hashem F.; Abdelaziz, M.; Mahmoud, Essam R. I.

    2014-10-01

    The Al-12 pctSi alloy and aluminum-based composites reinforced with TiB2 and Al3Ti intermetallics exhibit good wear resistance, strength-to-weight ratio, and strength-to-cost ratio when compared to equivalent other commercial Al alloys, which make them good candidates as coating materials. In this study, structural AA 6028 alloy is used as the base material. Four different coating materials were used. The first one is Al-Si alloy that has Si content near eutectic composition. The second, third, and fourth ones are Al-6 pctSi-based reinforced with TiB2 and Al3Ti nano-particles produced by addition of Al-Ti5-B1 master alloy with different weight percentages (1, 2, and 3 pct). The coating treatment was carried out with the aid of GTAW process. The microstructures of the base and coated materials were investigated using optical microscope and scanning electron microscope equipped with EDX analyzer. Microhardness of the base material and the coated layer were evaluated using a microhardness tester. GTAW process results in almost sound coated layer on 6028 aluminum alloy with the used four coating materials. The coating materials of Al-12 pct Si alloy resulted in very fine dendritic Al-Si eutectic structure. The interface between the coated layer and the base metal was very clean. The coated layer was almost free from porosities or other defects. The coating materials of Al-6 pct Si-based mixed with Al-Ti5-B1 master alloy with different percentages (1, 2, and 3 pct), results in coated layer consisted of matrix of fine dendrite eutectic morphology structure inside α-Al grains. Many fine in situ TiAl3 and TiB2 intermetallics were precipitated almost at the grain boundary of α-Al grains. The amounts of these precipitates are increased by increasing the addition of Al-Ti5-B1 master alloy. The surface hardness of the 6028 aluminum alloy base metal was improved with the entire four used surface coating materials. The improvement reached to about 85 pct by the first type of

  1. Corrosion resistance of sodium sulfate coated cobalt-chromium-aluminum alloys at 900 C, 1000 C, and 1100 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, G. J.

    1979-01-01

    The corrosion of sodium sulfate coated cobalt alloys was measured and the results compared to the cyclic oxidation of alloys with the same composition, and to the hot corrosion of compositionally equivalent nickel-base alloys. Cobalt alloys with sufficient aluminum content to form aluminum containing scales corrode less than their nickel-base counterparts. The cobalt alloys with lower aluminum levels form CoO scales and corrode more than their nickel-base counterparts which form NiO scales.

  2. Template synthesis of indium nanowires using anodic aluminum oxide membranes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Kitai, Adrian H

    2008-09-01

    Indium nanowires with diameters approximately 300 nm have been synthesized by a hydraulic pressure technique using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. The indium melt is injected into the AAO template and solidified to form nanostructures. The nanowires are dense, continuous and uniformly run through the entire approximately 60 microm thickness of the AAO template. X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals that the nanowires are polycrystalline with a preferred orientation. SEM is performed to characterize the morphology of the nanowires.

  3. [Comparison of texture distribution of cold rolled DC and CC AA 5052 aluminum alloy at different positions through thickness direction by XRD].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-biao; Ma, Min; Yang, Qing-xiang; Wang, Shan; Liu, Wen-chang; Zhao, Ying-mei

    2013-09-01

    To provide gist of DC AA 5052 and CC AA 5052 aluminum alloy to industry production and application, the texture variation of cold rolled sheets through thickness direction was studied by X-ray diffraction method, and the difference in texture at surface, quarter and center layer was analyzed. The hot plates of direct chill cast (DC) AA 5052 and continuous cast (CC) AA 5052 aluminum alloy were annealed at 454 degrees C for 4 hours and then cold rolled to different reductions. The strength and volume fraction of the fiber in CC AA 5052 aluminum alloy is larger than in DC AA 5052 aluminum alloy after same rolling reduction The volume fraction of the recrystallization texture cube in the CC AA 5052 aluminum alloy is less than in the DC AA 5052 aluminum alloy, which result in that CC AA 5052 aluminum alloy needs less cold rolling reduction than DC AA 5052 aluminum alloy for generating the texture with same intensity and volume fraction at surface layer, quarter layer and center layer. The manufacturability and performance of CC AA 5052 aluminum alloy is superior to DC AA 5052 aluminum alloy for use in stamping.

  4. Ultrasonic semi-solid coating soldering 6061 aluminum alloys with Sn-Pb-Zn alloys.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xin-ye; Xing, Wen-qing; Ding, Min

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, 6061 aluminum alloys were soldered without a flux by the ultrasonic semi-solid coating soldering at a low temperature. According to the analyses, it could be obtained that the following results. The effect of ultrasound on the coating which promoted processes of metallurgical reaction between the components of the solder and 6061 aluminum alloys due to the thermal effect. Al2Zn3 was obtained near the interface. When the solder was in semi-solid state, the connection was completed. Ultimately, the interlayer mainly composed of three kinds of microstructure zones: α-Pb solid solution phases, β-Sn phases and Sn-Pb eutectic phases. The strength of the joints was improved significantly with the minimum shear strength approaching 101MPa. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Influence of Composition on the Environmental Impact of a Cast Aluminum Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Patricia; Elduque, Daniel; Sarasa, Judith; Pina, Carmelo; Javierre, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The influence of alloy composition on the environmental impact of the production of six aluminum casting alloys (Al Si12Cu1(Fe), Al Si5Mg, Al Si9Cu3Zn3Fe, Al Si10Mg(Fe), Al Si9Cu3(Fe)(Zn) and Al Si9) has been analyzed. In order to perform a more precise environmental impact calculation, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) with ReCiPe Endpoint methodology has been used, with the EcoInvent v3 AlMg3 aluminum alloy dataset as a reference. This dataset has been updated with the material composition ranges of the mentioned alloys. The balanced, maximum and minimum environmental impact values have been obtained. In general, the overall impact of the studied aluminum alloys varies from 5.98 × 10−1 pts to 1.09 pts per kg, depending on the alloy composition. In the analysis of maximum and minimum environmental impact, the alloy that has the highest uncertainty is AlSi9Cu3(Fe)(Zn), with a range of ±9%. The elements that contribute the most to increase its impact are Copper and Tin. The environmental impact of a specific case, an LED luminaire housing made out of an Al Si12Cu1(Fe) cast alloy, has been studied, showing the importance of considering the composition. Significant differences with the standard datasets that are currently available in EcoInvent v3 have been found. PMID:28773536

  6. Influence of Composition on the Environmental Impact of a Cast Aluminum Alloy.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Patricia; Elduque, Daniel; Sarasa, Judith; Pina, Carmelo; Javierre, Carlos

    2016-05-25

    The influence of alloy composition on the environmental impact of the production of six aluminum casting alloys (Al Si12Cu1(Fe), Al Si5Mg, Al Si9Cu3Zn3Fe, Al Si10Mg(Fe), Al Si9Cu3(Fe)(Zn) and Al Si9) has been analyzed. In order to perform a more precise environmental impact calculation, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) with ReCiPe Endpoint methodology has been used, with the EcoInvent v3 AlMg3 aluminum alloy dataset as a reference. This dataset has been updated with the material composition ranges of the mentioned alloys. The balanced, maximum and minimum environmental impact values have been obtained. In general, the overall impact of the studied aluminum alloys varies from 5.98 × 10 -1 pts to 1.09 pts per kg, depending on the alloy composition. In the analysis of maximum and minimum environmental impact, the alloy that has the highest uncertainty is AlSi9Cu3(Fe)(Zn), with a range of ±9%. The elements that contribute the most to increase its impact are Copper and Tin. The environmental impact of a specific case, an LED luminaire housing made out of an Al Si12Cu1(Fe) cast alloy, has been studied, showing the importance of considering the composition. Significant differences with the standard datasets that are currently available in EcoInvent v3 have been found.

  7. The corrosion protection of 6061-T6 aluminum by a polyurethane-sealed anodized coat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    The corrosion protection of 6061-T6 anodized aluminum afforded by a newly patented polyurethane seal was studied using the ac impedance technique. Values of the average corrosion rates over a 27-day exposure period in 3.5 percent NaCl solutions at pH 5.2 and pH 9.5 compared very favorably for Lockheed-prepared polyurethane-sealed and dichromate-sealed coats of the same thickness. Average corrosion rates for both specimens over the first 7 days of exposure compared well with those for a hard anodized, dichromate-sealed coat, but rose well above those for the hard anodized coat over the entire 27-day period. This is attributed both to the greater thickness of the hard anodized coat, and possibly to its inherently better corrosion protective capability.

  8. High-temperature, low-cycle fatigue behavior of an Al-Mg-Si based heat-resistant aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyu-Sik; Sung, Si-Young; Han, Bum-Suck; Park, Joong-Cheol; Lee, Kee-Ahn

    2015-11-01

    High-temperature, low-cycle fatigue behavior of the new heat-resistant aluminum alloy was investigated in this study. The aluminum alloy consists of aluminum matrix and small amount of precipitated Mg2Si and (Co, Ni)3Al4 strengthening particles. At room temperature and 523 K, the yield and tensile strengths of Al-Mg-Si-(Co, Ni) the aluminum alloy were maintained with no significant decrease, and elongation increased slightly. Low-cycle fatigue tests controlled by total strain were performed with strain ratio (R) = -1, strain rate = 2×10-3 s-1 at 523 K. The fatigue limit of the low-cycle fatigue of this alloy showed plastic strain amplitude (Δ ɛ pa) of 0.22% at 103 cycles. This value was superior to that of conventional aluminum alloy such as A319. The results of the fractographical observation showed that second phases, especially (Co, Ni)3Al4 particles, affected fatigue behavior. This study also attempted to clarify the mechanism of high-temperature, low-cycle fatigue deformation of Al-Mg-Si-(Co, Ni) alloy in relation to its microstructure and energy dissipation analysis.

  9. Research progress in formation mechanism of anodizing aluminum oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yudong

    2017-12-01

    The self-ordering porous anodizing aluminum oxide (AAO) has attracted much attention because of its potential value of application. Valve metals (Al, Ti, Zr etc.) anodic studies have been conducted for more than 80 years, but the mechanism of the formation of hexagonal prismatic cell structure has so far been different. In this paper, the research results of AAO film formation mechanism are reviewed, and the growth models of several AAO films are summarized, including the field-assisted dissolution (FAD), the viscous flow model, the critical current density effect model, the bulk expansion stress model and the steady-state pore growth model and so on. It analyzed the principle of each model and its rationality. This paper will be of great help to reveal the nature of pore formation and self-ordering, and with the hope that through the study of AAO film formation mechanism, the specific effects of various oxidation parameters on AAO film morphology can be obtained.

  10. New weldable high strength aluminum alloy developed for cryogenic service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Wrought aluminum alloy has improved low temperature notch toughness and weldability. This alloy can be mill-fabricated to plate and sheet without difficulty. Post-weld aging improves weld ductility and strength properties. A typical treatment is 8 hours at 225 deg F plus 16 hours at 300 deg F.

  11. Measurements of degree of sensitization (DoS) in aluminum alloys using EMAT ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Xiang, Dan; Qin, Yexian; Pond, Robert B; Slusarski, Kyle

    2011-07-01

    Sensitization in 5XXX aluminum alloys is an insidious problem characterized by the gradual formation and growth of beta phase (Mg(2)Al(3)) at grain boundaries, which increases the susceptibility of alloys to intergranular corrosion (IGC) and intergranular stress-corrosion cracking (IGSCC). The degree of sensitization (DoS) is currently quantified by the ASTM G67 Nitric Acid Mass Loss Test, which is destructive and time consuming. A fast, reliable, and non-destructive method for rapid detection and the assessment of the condition of DoS in AA5XXX aluminum alloys in the field is highly desirable. In this paper, we describe a non-destructive method for measurements of DoS in aluminum alloys with an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT). AA5083 aluminum alloy samples were sensitized at 100°C with processing times varying from 7days to 30days. The DoS of sensitized samples was first quantified with the ASTM 67 test in the laboratory. Both ultrasonic velocity and attenuation in sensitized specimens were then measured using EMAT and the results were correlated with the DoS data. We found that the longitudinal wave velocity was almost a constant, independent of the sensitization, which suggests that the longitudinal wave can be used to determine the sample thickness. The shear wave velocity and especially the shear wave attenuation are sensitive to DoS. Relationships between DoS and the shear velocity, as well as the shear attenuation have been established. Finally, we performed the data mining to evaluate and improve the accuracy in the measurements of DoS in aluminum alloys with EMAT. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effect of Alloying Elements on Thermal Conductivity and Casting Characteristic in High Pressure Die Casting of Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Cheol-Woo; Cho, Jae-Ik; Choi, Se-Weon; Kim, Young-Chan; Kang, Chang-Seog

    Recently, demand of aluminum alloys for use in high thermal conductivity application is increases but the most aluminum die casting alloys exhibit very lower thermal properties because of their high concentrations of alloying elements. However, those alloying elements are essential to obtain sufficient fluidity and mechanical strength. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of alloying elements in die casting alloys, Si, Cu, Mg, Fe and Mn, in thermal conductivity, die casting characteristics and mechanical properties and find out the appropriate amount of each alloying element for development of heat sink component. The results showed that Mn had the most deleterious effect in thermal conductivity and Si and Fe contents were important to improve strength and limit casting defects, such as hot tearing and die soldering. The alloy with 0.2 1.0wt%Cu, 0.3 0.6wt%Fe and 1.0 2.0wt%Si showed very good combination of high thermal conductivity and good casting characteristics.

  13. Review and Study of Physics Driven Pitting Corrosion Modeling in 2024-T3 Aluminum Alloys (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2015-0218 REVIEW AND STUDY OF PHYSICS DRIVEN PITTING CORROSION MODELING IN 2024-T3 ALUMINUM ALLOYS (POSTPRINT) Lingyu...2014 – 1 April 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE REVIEW AND STUDY OF PHYSICS DRIVEN PITTING CORROSION MODELING IN 2024-T3 ALUMINUM ALLOYS (POSTPRINT) 5a...18 Review and Study of Physics Driven Pitting Corrosion Modeling in 2024-T3 Aluminum Alloys Lingyu Yu 1*, Kumar V. Jata2 1Mechanical Engineering

  14. Aluminum low temperature smelting cell metal collection

    DOEpatents

    Beck, Theodore R.; Brown, Craig W.

    2002-07-16

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten salt electrolyte in an electrolytic cell having an anodic liner for containing the electrolyte, the liner having an anodic bottom and walls including at least one end wall extending upwardly from the anodic bottom, the anodic liner being substantially inert with respect to the molten electrolyte. A plurality of non-consumable anodes is provided and disposed vertically in the electrolyte. A plurality of cathodes is disposed vertically in the electrolyte in alternating relationship with the anodes. The anodes are electrically connected to the anodic liner. An electric current is passed through the anodic liner to the anodes, through the electrolyte to the cathodes, and aluminum is deposited on said cathodes. Oxygen bubbles are generated at the anodes and the anodic liner, the bubbles stirring the electrolyte. Molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes into a tubular member positioned underneath the cathodes. The tubular member is in liquid communication with each cathode to collect the molten aluminum therefrom while excluding electrolyte. Molten aluminum is delivered through the tubular member to a molten aluminum reservoir located substantially opposite the anodes and cathodes. The molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes and delivered to the reservoir while avoiding contact of the molten aluminum with the anodic bottom.

  15. Thermomechanical treatment of welded joints of aluminum-lithium alloys modified by scandium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malikov, A. G.

    2017-12-01

    At present, the aeronautical equipment manufacture involves up-to-date high-strength aluminum alloys of decreased density resulting from the lithium admixture. Various technologies of fusible welding of these alloys are being developed. The paper presents experimental investigations of the optimization of the laser welding of aluminum alloys with the scandium-modified welded joint after thermomechanical treatment. The effect of scandium on the micro- and macrostructure is studied along with strength characteristics of the welded joint. It is found that thermomechanical treatment allows us to obtain the strength of the welded joint 0.89 for the Al-Mg-Li system and 0.99 for the Al-Cu-Li system with the welded joint modified by scandium in comparison with the base alloy after treatment.

  16. Benign joining of ultrafine grained aerospace aluminum alloys using nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Longtin, Rémi; Hack, Erwin; Neuenschwander, Jürg; Janczak-Rusch, Jolanta

    2011-12-22

    Ultrafine grained aluminum alloys have restricted applicability due to their limited thermal stability. Metalized 7475 alloys can be soldered and brazed at room temperature using nanotechnology. Reactive foils are used to release heat for milliseconds directly at the interface between two components leading to a metallurgical joint without significantly heating the bulk alloy, thus preserving its mechanical properties. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The Mechanical Behavior of Friction-Stir Spot Welded Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güler, Hande

    2014-10-01

    Aluminum and alloys are widely used in the automotive industry due to the light weight, good formability, and malleability. Spot welding is the most commonly used joining method of these materials, but the high current requirements and the inconsistent quality of the final welds make this process unsuitable. An alternative welding technique, the friction-stir spot welding process, can also be successfully used in joining of aluminum and alloys. In this study, 1-mm-thick AA5754 Al-alloy plates in the H-111 temper conditions were joined by friction-stir spot welding using two different weld parameters such as tool rotational speed and dwell time. Mechanical properties of the joints were obtained with extensive hardness measurements and tensile shear tests. The effect of these parameters on the failure modes of welded joints was also determined.

  18. Hot hardness of nickel-rich nickel-chromium-aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, S. R.

    1976-01-01

    Rockwell A hardness of cast nickel-chromium-aluminum (NiCrAl) alloys was examined from ambient to 1150 K and compared to cast NiAl and IN-100. Alloy constitution was either gamma, gamma prime + gamma or gamma + beta + alpha + gamma prime. Below 1000 K beta containing NiCrAl alloys have hardnesses comparable to IN-100; above 1000 K they soften faster than IN-100. At 1150 K the hardness of beta-containing NiCrAl alloys decreases with increasing beta-content. The beta-containing NiCrAl alloys were harder than beta-NiAl. The ultimate tensile strengths of the NiCrAl alloys were estimated. The effects of NiCrAl coatings on strength and fatigue life of cooled turbine components were deduced.

  19. Iron-niobium-aluminum alloy having high-temperature corrosion resistance

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Huey S.

    1988-04-14

    An alloy for use in high temperature sulfur and oxygen containing environments, having aluminum for oxygen resistance, niobium for sulfur resistance and the balance iron, is discussed. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Aluminum-Alloy-Matrix/Alumina-Reinforcement Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashalikar, Uday; Rozenoyer, Boris

    2004-01-01

    Isotropic composites of aluminum-alloy matrices reinforced with particulate alumina have been developed as lightweight, high-specific-strength, less-expensive alternatives to nickel-base and ferrous superalloys. These composites feature a specific gravity of about 3.45 grams per cubic centimeter and specific strengths of about 200 MPa/(grams per cubic centimeter). The room-temperature tensile strength is 100 ksi (689 MPa) and stiffness is 30 Msi (206 GPa). At 500 F (260 C), these composites have shown 80 percent retention in strength and 95 percent retention in stiffness. These materials also have excellent fatigue tolerance and tribological properties. They can be fabricated in net (or nearly net) sizes and shapes to make housings, pistons, valves, and ducts in turbomachinery, and to make structural components of such diverse systems as diesel engines, automotive brake systems, and power-generation, mining, and oil-drilling equipment. Separately, incorporation of these metal matrix composites within aluminum gravity castings for localized reinforcement has been demonstrated. A composite part of this type can be fabricated in a pressure infiltration casting process. The process begins with the placement of a mold with alumina particulate preform of net or nearly net size and shape in a crucible in a vacuum furnace. A charge of the alloy is placed in the crucible with the preform. The interior of the furnace is evacuated, then the furnace heaters are turned on to heat the alloy above its liquidus temperature. Next, the interior of the furnace is filled with argon gas at a pressure about 900 psi (approximately equal to 6.2 MPa) to force the molten alloy to infiltrate the preform. Once infiltrated, the entire contents of the crucible can be allowed to cool in place, and the composite part recovered from the mold.

  1. Effect of aluminum anodizing in phosphoric acid electrolyte on adhesion strength and thermal performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sulki; Kim, Donghyun; Kim, Yonghwan; Jung, Uoochang; Chung, Wonsub

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the adhesive bond strength and thermal performance of the anodized aluminum 6061 in phosphoric acid electrolyte to improve the adhesive bond strength and thermal performance for use in metal core printed circuit boards (MCPCB). The electrolyte temperature and applied voltage were altered to generate varied pore structures. The thickness, porosity and pore diameter of the anodized layer were measured. The pore morphologies were affected most by temperature, which was the driving force for ion transportation. The mechanism of adhesive bond was penetration of the epoxy into the pores. The optimal anodization conditions for maximum adhesive bond strength, 27 MPa, were 293 K and 100V. The maximum thermal conductivity of the epoxy-treated anodized layer was 1.6 W/m·K at 273 K. Compared with the epoxy-treated Al layer used for conventional MCPCBs, the epoxy-treated anodized layer showed advanced thermal performance due to a low difference of thermal resistance and high heat dissipation.

  2. Macrosegregation in aluminum alloy ingot cast by the semicontinuous direct chill method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, H.; Granger, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical model of the semicontinuous DC casting method is developed to predict the positive segregation observed at the subsurface and the negative segregation commonly found at the center of large commercial-size aluminum alloy ingot. Qualitative analysis of commercial-size aluminum alloy semicontinuous cast direct chill (DC) ingot is carried out. In the analysis, both positive segregation in the ingot subsurface and negative segregation at the center of the ingot are examined. Ingot subsurface macrosegregation is investigated by considering steady state casting of a circular cross-section binary alloy ingot. Nonequilibrium solidification is assumed with no solid diffusion, constant equilibrium partition ratio, and constant solid density.

  3. Mechanical Properties of Titanium and Aluminum Alloys at Cryogenic Temperatures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1962-03-01

    aluminum alloys. Table I is a tabulation of the chemical composition of the tita - nium alloys. The bar was 5/8 inch in diameter and the sheet 0.060 inch...Ti-6AI-4V Tensile azid yield strength data for both bar and sheet of this tita - nium alloy are shown in Figure A-3. Bar and sheet data show approxi...not recommended for low temperature applications. The remainder of the tita - nium alloys were tested from room temperature to -452 F. In general, Ti

  4. Constant amplitude and post-overload fatigue crack growth behavior in PM aluminum alloy AA 8009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, A. P.

    1992-01-01

    A recently developed, rapidly solidified, powder metallurgy, dispersion strengthened aluminum alloy, AA 8009, was fatigue tested at room temperature in lab air. Constant amplitude/constant delta kappa and single spike overload conditions were examined. High fatigue crack growth rates and low crack closure levels compared to typical ingot metallurgy aluminum alloys were observed. It was proposed that minimal crack roughness, crack path delection, and limited slip reversibility, resulting from ultra-fine microstructure, were responsible for the relatively poor da/dN-delta kappa performance of AA 8009 as compared to that of typical IM aluminum alloys.

  5. Constant amplitude and post-overload fatigue crack growth behavior in PM aluminum alloy AA 8009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, A. P.

    1991-01-01

    A recently developed, rapidly solidified, powder metallurgy, dispersion strengthened aluminum alloy, AA 8009, was fatigue tested at room temperature in lab air. Constant amplitude/constant delta kappa and single spike overload conditions were examined. High fatigue crack growth rates and low crack closure levels compared to typical ingot metallurgy aluminum alloys were observed. It was proposed that minimal crack roughness, crack path deflection, and limited slip reversibility, resulting from ultra-fine microstructure, were responsible for the relatively poor da/dN-delta kappa performance of AA 8009 as compared to that of typical IM aluminum alloys.

  6. Improved Interfacial Bonding in Magnesium/Aluminum Overcasting Systems by Aluminum Surface Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Chen, Yiqing; Luo, Alan A.

    2014-12-01

    "Overcasting" technique is used to produce bimetallic magnesium/aluminum (Mg/Al) structures where lightweight Mg can be cast onto solid Al substrates. An inherent difficulty in creating strong Mg/Al interfacial bonding is the natural oxide film on the solid Al surfaces, which reduces the wettability between molten Mg and Al substrates during the casting process. In the paper, an "electropolishing + anodizing" surface treatment has been developed to disrupt the oxide film on a dilute Al-0.08 wt pct Ga alloy, improving the metallurgical bonding between molten Mg and Al substrates in the bimetallic experiments carried out in a high-vacuum test apparatus. The test results provided valuable information of the interfacial phenomena of the Mg/Al bimetallic samples. The results show significantly improved metallurgical bonding in the bimetallic samples with "electropolishing + anodizing" surface treatment and Ga alloying. It is recommended to adjust the pre-heating temperature and time of the Al substrates and the Mg melt temperature to control the interfacial reactions for optimum interfacial properties in the actual overcasting processes.

  7. Fabrication, structural characterization and sensing properties of polydiacetylene nanofibers templated from anodized aluminum oxide

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polydiacetylene (PDA), a unique conjugated polymer, has shown its potential in the application of chem/bio-sensors and optoelectronics. In this work, we first infiltrated PDA monomer (10, 12-pentacosadiynoic acid, PCDA) melted into the anodized aluminum oxide template, and then illuminated the infil...

  8. Fusion boundary microstructure evolution in aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrivas, Anastasios Dimitrios

    2000-10-01

    A melting technique was developed to simulate the fusion boundary of aluminum alloys using the GleebleRTM thermal simulator. Using a steel sleeve to contain the aluminum, samples were heated to incremental temperatures above the solidus temperature of a number of alloys. In alloy 2195, a 4wt%Cu-1wt%Li alloy, an equiaxed non-dendritic zone (EQZ) could be formed by heating in the temperature range from approximately 630 to 640°C. At temperatures above 640°C, solidification occurred by the normal epitaxial nucleation and growth mechanism. Fusion boundary behavior was also studied in alloys 5454-H34, 6061-T6, and 2219-T8. Additionally, experimental alloy compositions were produced by making bead on plate welds using an alloy 5454-H32 base metal and 5025 or 5087 filler metals. These filler metals contain zirconium and scandium additions, respectively, and were expected to influence nucleation and growth behavior. Both as-welded and welded/heat treated (540°C and 300°C) substrates were tested by melting simulation, resulting in dendritic and EQZ structures depending on composition and substrate condition. Orientation imaging microscopy (OIM(TM)) was employed to study the crystallographic character of the microstructures produced and to verify the mechanism responsible for EQZ formation. OIM(TM) proved that grains within the EQZ have random orientation. In all other cases, where the simulated microstructures were dendritic in nature, it was shown that epitaxy was the dominant mode of nucleation. The lack of any preferred crystallographic orientation relationship in the EQZ supports a theory proposed by Lippold et al that the EQZ is the result of heterogeneous nucleation within the weld unmixed zone. EDS analysis of the 2195 on STEM revealed particles with ternary composition consisted of Zr, Cu and Al and a tetragonal type crystallographic lattice. Microdiffraction line scans on EQZ grains in the alloy 2195 showed very good agreement between the measured Cu

  9. A detailed investigation of the strain hardening response of aluminum alloyed Hadfield steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canadinc, Demircan

    The unusual strain hardening response exhibited by Hadfield steel single and polycrystals under tensile loading was investigated. Hadfield steel, which deforms plastically through the competing mechanisms slip and twinning, was alloyed with aluminum in order to suppress twinning and study the role of slip only. To avoid complications due to a grained structure, only single crystals of the aluminum alloyed Hadfield steel were considered at the initial stage of the current study. As a result of alloying with aluminum, twinning was suppressed; however a significant increase in the strain hardening response was also present. A detailed microstructural analysis showed the presence of high-density dislocation walls that evolve in volume fraction due to plastic deformation and interaction with slip systems. The very high strain hardening rates exhibited by the aluminum alloyed Hadfield steel single crystals was attributed to the blockage of glide dislocations by the high-density dislocation walls. A crystal plasticity model was proposed, that accounts for the volume fraction evolution and rotation of the dense dislocation walls, as well as their interaction with the active slip systems. The novelty of the model lies in the simplicity of the constitutive equations that define the strain hardening, and the fact that it is based on experimental data regarding the microstructure. The success of the model was tested by its application to different crystallographic orientations, and finally the polycrystals of the aluminum alloyed Hadfield steel. Meanwhile, the capability of the model to predict texture was also observed through the rotation of the loading axis in single crystals. The ability of the model to capture the polycrystalline deformation response provides a venue for its utilization in other alloys that exhibit dislocation sheet structures.

  10. In vitro and in vivo corrosion evaluation of nickel-chromium- and copper-aluminum-based alloys.

    PubMed

    Benatti, O F; Miranda, W G; Muench, A

    2000-09-01

    The low resistance to corrosion is the major problem related to the use of copper-aluminum alloys. This in vitro and in vivo study evaluated the corrosion of 2 copper-aluminum alloys (Cu-Al and Cu-Al-Zn) compared with a nickel-chromium alloy. For the in vitro test, specimens were immersed in the following 3 corrosion solutions: artificial saliva, 0.9% sodium chloride, and 1.0% sodium sulfide. For the in vivo test, specimens were embedded in complete dentures, so that one surface was left exposed. The 3 testing sites were (1) close to the oral mucosa (partial self-cleaning site), (2) surface exposed to the oral cavity (self-cleaning site), and (3) specimen bottom surface exposed to the saliva by means of a tunnel-shaped perforation (non-self-cleaning site). Almost no corrosion occurred with the nickel-chromium alloy, for either the in vitro or in vivo test. On the other hand, the 2 copper-aluminum-based alloys exhibited high corrosion in the sulfide solution. These same alloys also underwent high corrosion in non-self-cleaning sites for the in vivo test, although minimal attack was observed in self-cleaning sites. The nickel-chromium alloy presented high resistance to corrosion. Both copper-aluminum alloys showed considerable corrosion in the sulfide solution and clinically in the non-self-cleaning site. However, in self-cleaning sites these 2 alloys did not show substantial corrosion.

  11. Oxidation resistant, thoria-dispersed nickel-chromium-aluminum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baranow, S.; Klingler, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    Modified thoria-dispersed nickel-chromium alloy has been developed that exhibits greatly improved resistance to high-temperature oxidation. Additions of aluminum have been made to change nature of protective oxide scale entirely and to essentially inhibit oxidation at temperatures up to 1260 C.

  12. Hot corrosion resistance of nickel-chromium-aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, G. J.; Barret, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    The hot corrosion resistance of nickel-chromium-aluminum alloys was examined by cyclically oxidizing sodium sulfate-coated specimens in still air at 900, 1000, and 1100 C. The compositions tested were within the ternary region: Ni, Ni-50 at.% Cr, and Ni-50 at.% Al. At each temperature the corrosion data were statistically fitted to a third order regression equation as a function of chromium and aluminum contents. From these equations corrosion isopleths were prepared. Compositional regions with the best hot corrosion resistance were identified.

  13. Hot corrosion resistance of nickel-chromium-aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, G. J.; Barrett, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    The hot corrosion resistance of nickel-chromium-aluminum alloy was examined by cyclically oxidizing sodium sulfate coated specimens in still air at 900, 1000 and 1100 C. The compositions tested were within the ternary region: Ni; Ni-50 at.% Cr; and Ni-50 at.% Al. At each temperature the corrosion data were statistically fitted to a third order regression equation as a function of chromium and aluminum contents. Corrosion isopleths were prepared from these equations. Compositional regions with the best hot corrosion resistance were identified.

  14. Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior of LD10 Aluminum Alloy in UDMH and N2O4 propellant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Youhong; Chang, Xinlong; Liu, Wanlei

    2018-03-01

    The LD10 aluminum alloy double cantilever beam specimens were corroded under the conditions of Unsymmetric Uimethyl Hydrazine (UDMH), Dinitrogen Tetroxide (N2O4), and 3.5% NaCl environment. The crack propagation behavior of the aluminum alloy in different corrosion environment was analyzed. The stress corrosion cracking behavior of aluminum alloy in N2O4 is relatively slight and there are not evident stress corrosion phenomenons founded in UDMH.

  15. Superhydrophobic surface prepared by micro-milling and WEDM on aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanling, Wan; Jian, Yang; Huadong, Yu

    2018-06-01

    To simulate the hydrophobic microstructure of rice leaf surface, high-speed precision micro-milling machine was used to fabricate micro groove array structure on the surface of aluminum alloy. The micro-and nanostructure was constructed on the surface of the grooved convex platform by Wire Cut Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM). The surface morphology and hydrophobic properties of the aluminum alloy microstructures fabricated by two processing methods were observed respectively, and the hydrophobic mechanism was analyzed. The results show that the contact angle was effectively improved from 49° up to 158.4° in the vertical direction, and 146.7° in the parallel direction. The change of surface wettability from hydrophilic to hydrophobic was realized. By comparison, the micro-and nanostructure fabricated by WEDM had improved the hydrophobic stability of the aluminum alloy surface while enlarging the contact Angle, and the micro-milling groove structure further amplified the contact angle and greatly reduced the contact area of the water droplet, it was also observed that the drop took longer to completely spread on the sample after WEDM.

  16. The stress-corrosion cracking behavior of high-strength aluminum powder metallurgy alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickens, J. R.; Christodoulou, L.

    1987-01-01

    The susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of rapidly solidified (RS) aluminum powder metallurgy (P/M) alloys 7090 and 7091, mechanically alloyed aluminum P/M alloy IN* 9052, and ingot metallurgy (I/M) alloys of similar compositions was compared using bolt-loaded double cantilever beam specimens. In addition, the effects of aging, grain size, grain boundary segregation, pre-exposure embrittlement, and loading mode on the SCC of 7091 were independently assessed. Finally, the data generated were used to elucidate the mechanisms of SCC in the three P/M alloys. The IN 9052 had the lowest SCC susceptibility of all alloys tested in the peak-strength condition, although no SCC was observed in the two RS alloys in the overaged condition. The susceptibility of the RS alloys was greater in the underaged than the peak-aged temper. We detected no significant differences in susceptibility of 7091 with grain sizes varying from 2 to 300 μm. Most of the crack advance during SCC of 7091 was by hydrogen embrittlement (HE). Furthermore, both RS alloys were found to be susceptible to preexposure embrittlement—also indicative of HE. The P/M alloys were less susceptible to SCC than the I/M alloys in all but one test.

  17. Characterization of B4C-composite-reinforced aluminum alloy composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ram; Rai, R. N.

    2018-04-01

    Dry sliding wear tests conducted on Pin-on-disk wear test machine. The rotational speed of disc is ranging from (400-600rpm) and under loads ranging from (30-70 N) the contact time between the disc and pin is constant for each pin specimen of composites is 15 minute. In all manufacturing industries the uses of composite materials has been increasing globally, In the present study, an aluminum 5083 alloy is used as the matrix and 5% of weight percentage of Boron Carbide (B4C) as the reinforcing material. The composite is produced using stir casting technique. This is cost effective method. The aluminum 5083 matrix can be strengthened by reinforcing with hard ceramic particles like silicon carbide and boron carbide. In this experiment, aluminum 5083 alloy is selected as one of main material for making parts of the ship it has good mechanical properties, good corrosion resistance and it is can welded very easily and does have good strength. The samples are tested for hardness and tensile strength. The mechanical properties like Hardness can be increased by reinforcing aluminum 5083alloy 5% boron carbide (B4C) particles and tensile strength. Finally the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis and EDS is done, which helps to study topography of composites and it produces images of a sample by scanning it with a focused beam of electrons and the presence of composition found in the matrix.

  18. Microstructure-sensitive plasticity and fatigue modeling of extruded 6061 aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCullough, Robert Ross

    In this study, the development of fatigue failure and stress anisotropy in light weight ductile metal alloys, specifically Al-Mg-Si aluminum alloys, was investigated. The experiments were carried out on an extruded 6061 aluminum alloy. Reverse loading experiments were performed up to a prestrain of 5% in both tension-followed-by-compression and compression-followed-by-tension. The development of isotropic and kinematic hardening and subsequent anisotropy was indicated by the observation of the Bauschinger effect phenomenon. Experimental results show that 6061 aluminum alloy exhibited a slight increase in the kinematic hardening versus applied prestrain. However, the ratio of kinematic-to-isotropic hardening remained near unity. An internal state variable (ISV) plasticity and damage model was used to capture the evolution of the anisotropy for the as-received T6 and partially annealed conditions. Following the stress anisotropy experiments, the same extruded 6061 aluminum alloy was tested under fully reversing, strain-controlled low cycle fatigue at up to 2.5% strain amplitudes and two heat treatment conditions. Observations were made of the development of striation fields up to the point of nucleation at cracked and clustered precipitants and free surfaces through localized precipitant slip band development. A finite element enabled micro-mechanics study of fatigue damage development of local strain field in the presence of hard phases was conducted. Both the FEA and experimental data sets were utilized in the implementation of a multi-stage fatigue model in order to predict the microstructure response, including fatigue nucleation and propagation contributions on the total fatigue life in AA6061. Good correlation between experimental and predicted results in the number of cycles to final failure was observed. The AA6061 material maintained relatively consistent low cycle fatigue performance despite two different heat treatments.

  19. Membrane Purification Cell for Aluminum Recycling

    SciTech Connect

    David DeYoung; James Wiswall; Cong Wang

    2011-11-29

    Recycling mixed aluminum scrap usually requires adding primary aluminum to the scrap stream as a diluent to reduce the concentration of non-aluminum constituents used in aluminum alloys. Since primary aluminum production requires approximately 10 times more energy than melting scrap, the bulk of the energy and carbon dioxide emissions for recycling are associated with using primary aluminum as a diluent. Eliminating the need for using primary aluminum as a diluent would dramatically reduce energy requirements, decrease carbon dioxide emissions, and increase scrap utilization in recycling. Electrorefining can be used to extract pure aluminum from mixed scrap. Some example applications includemore » producing primary grade aluminum from specific scrap streams such as consumer packaging and mixed alloy saw chips, and recycling multi-alloy products such as brazing sheet. Electrorefining can also be used to extract valuable alloying elements such as Li from Al-Li mixed scrap. This project was aimed at developing an electrorefining process for purifying aluminum to reduce energy consumption and emissions by 75% compared to conventional technology. An electrolytic molten aluminum purification process, utilizing a horizontal membrane cell anode, was designed, constructed, operated and validated. The electrorefining technology could also be used to produce ultra-high purity aluminum for advanced materials applications. The technical objectives for this project were to: - Validate the membrane cell concept with a lab-scale electrorefining cell; - Determine if previously identified voltage increase issue for chloride electrolytes holds for a fluoride-based electrolyte system; - Assess the probability that voltage change issues can be solved; and - Conduct a market and economic analysis to assess commercial feasibility. The process was tested using three different binary alloy compositions (Al-2.0 wt.% Cu, Al-4.7 wt.% Si, Al-0.6 wt.% Fe) and a brazing sheet scrap composition

  20. Fabrication of superhydrophobic surface with improved corrosion inhibition on 6061 aluminum alloy substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuewu; Zhang, Qiaoxin; Guo, Zheng; Shi, Tian; Yu, Jingui; Tang, Mingkai; Huang, Xingjiu

    2015-07-01

    This work has developed a simple and low-cost method to render 6061 aluminum alloy surface superhydrophobicity and excellent corrosion inhibition. The superhydrophobic aluminum alloy surface has been fabricated by hydrochloric acid etching, potassium permanganate passivation and fluoroalkyl-silane modification. Meanwhile, the effect of the etching and passivation time on the wettability and corrosion inhibition of the fabricated surface has also been investigated. Results show that with the etching time of 6 min and passivation time of 180 min the fabricated micro/nano-scale terrace-like hierarchical structures accompanying with the nanoscale coral-like network bulge structures after being modified can result in superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle (CA) of 155.7°. Moreover, an extremely weak adhesive force to droplets as well as an outstanding self-cleaning behavior of the superhydrophobic surface has also been proved. Finally, corrosion inhibition in seawater of the as-prepared aluminum alloy surface is characterized by potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Evidently, the fabricated superhydrophobic surface attained an improved corrosion inhibition efficiency of 83.37% compared with the traditional two-step processing consisting of etching and modification, which will extend the further applications of aluminum alloy especially in marine engineering fields.

  1. Characterization of Localized Corrosion in an Al-Cu-Li Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chen; Zhang, Xinxin; Zhou, Xiaorong; Sun, Zhihua; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Tang, Zhihui; Lu, Feng; Thompson, George E.

    2016-05-01

    Corrosion behaviors of recently developed 2A97-T6 aluminum-copper-lithium alloy in sodium chloride solution are investigated using scanning electron and transmission electron microscopies in conjunction with electron backscatter diffraction. It has been found that corrosion product rings were established on the alloy surface as early as 5 min during immersion in sodium chloride solution. Meanwhile, hydrogen continuously evolved from within the rings. Pitting corrosion is evident with crystallographic dependant corrosion channel facets mainly parallel to {100} planes. Non-uniform distribution of misorientation in the 2A97 aluminum alloy results in a portion of grains of relatively high stored energy. Such grains were preferentially attacked, serving as local anodes, during the development of crystallographic pitting.

  2. Nanoscale microstructure effects on hydrogen behavior in rapidly solidified aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Tashlykova-Bushkevich, Iya I.

    2015-12-31

    The present work summarizes recent progress in the investigation of nanoscale microstructure effects on hydrogen behavior in rapidly solidified aluminum alloys foils produced at exceptionally high cooling rates. We focus here on the potential of modification of hydrogen desorption kinetics in respect to weak and strong trapping sites that could serve as hydrogen sinks in Al materials. It is shown that it is important to elucidate the surface microstructure of the Al alloy foils at the submicrometer scale because rapidly solidified microstructural features affect hydrogen trapping at nanostructured defects. We discuss the profound influence of solute atoms on hydrogen−lattice defectmore » interactions in the alloys. with emphasis on role of vacancies in hydrogen evolution; both rapidly solidified pure Al and conventionally processed aluminum samples are considered.« less

  3. Mapping the Galvanic Corrosion of Three Coupled Metal Alloys Using Coupled Multielectrode Array: Influence of Chloride Ion Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Duan, JinZhuo; Cao, Ning

    2018-01-01

    The galvanic corrosion behavior of three metal alloys commonly used in water desalination plants was investigated using coupled multielectrode arrays consisting of aluminum-brass (HAl77-2), titanium alloy (TA2), and 316L stainless steel (316L SS). The three electrode types were coupled galvanically and arranged in different geometric configurations. Their corrosion behavior was characterized as a function of the chloride concentration. The potential and current distributions of the three-electrode coupling systems display electrochemical inhomogeneity. Generally, the aluminum-brass wires are anodic versus the titanium alloy and stainless steel. The titanium alloy acts as a primary cathode, and the 316L SS acts as a secondary cathode. The corrosion rate of aluminum-brass depends on the concentration of chloride ion, with a maximum corrosion rate at a chloride concentration of 2.3 wt %. In terms of geometrical arrangements, when the anodic HAl77-2 wires are located on the edge and are connected to the 316L SS wires in the coupling system, the main anodic area enlarges, especially in the area adjacent to the 316L SS wires. When the HAl77-2 wires are located between (in the middle of) the two other types of wires, the corrosion rates are higher than the corrosion rates observed from the other two geometrical arrangements. PMID:29677150

  4. Mapping the Galvanic Corrosion of Three Coupled Metal Alloys Using Coupled Multielectrode Array: Influence of Chloride Ion Concentration.

    PubMed

    Ju, Hong; Duan, JinZhuo; Yang, Yuanfeng; Cao, Ning; Li, Yan

    2018-04-20

    The galvanic corrosion behavior of three metal alloys commonly used in water desalination plants was investigated using coupled multielectrode arrays consisting of aluminum-brass (HAl77-2), titanium alloy (TA2), and 316L stainless steel (316L SS). The three electrode types were coupled galvanically and arranged in different geometric configurations. Their corrosion behavior was characterized as a function of the chloride concentration. The potential and current distributions of the three-electrode coupling systems display electrochemical inhomogeneity. Generally, the aluminum-brass wires are anodic versus the titanium alloy and stainless steel. The titanium alloy acts as a primary cathode, and the 316L SS acts as a secondary cathode. The corrosion rate of aluminum-brass depends on the concentration of chloride ion, with a maximum corrosion rate at a chloride concentration of 2.3 wt %. In terms of geometrical arrangements, when the anodic HAl77-2 wires are located on the edge and are connected to the 316L SS wires in the coupling system, the main anodic area enlarges, especially in the area adjacent to the 316L SS wires. When the HAl77-2 wires are located between (in the middle of) the two other types of wires, the corrosion rates are higher than the corrosion rates observed from the other two geometrical arrangements.

  5. Maco/Micro Studies of Hydrogen Embrittlement Mechanisms in Titanium and Aluminum Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (.frhe .,bstf-f: - te-.J ’ h/’ 4 J .0 d lfr n, /5,po IS. SUPPLEMENTARY N3TES a Hydrogen Embrittlement, Titanium Alloys, Aluminum...AD-A116 025 MINNESOTA U4IV MINNEAPOLIS F/ 6 11/ 6 NACO/MICRO STUD~IES OF HYDRO6EN ENORITTLEMENT MECHANISMS IN TITA--CYCCUD APR 81 W W GERBERICH AFOSR77...HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT MECHANSIMS IN TITANIUM AND ALUMINUM ALLOYS FINAL REPORT for Period October 1975 to October 1981 4M University of Minnesota Minneapolis

  6. Aging Optimization of Aluminum-Lithium Alloy L277 for Application to Cryotank Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sova, B. J.; Sankaran, K. K.; Babel, H.; Farahmand, B.; Cho, A.

    2003-01-01

    Compared with aluminum alloys such as 2219, which is widely used in space vehicle for cryogenic tanks and unpressurized structures, aluminum-lithium alloys possess attractive combinations of lower density and higher modulus along with comparable mechanical properties and improved damage tolerance. These characteristics have resulted in the successful use of the aluminum-lithium alloy 2195 for the Space Shuttle External Tank, and the consideration of newer U.S. aluminum-lithium alloys such as L277 and C458 for future space vehicles. A design of experiments aging study was conducted for plate and a limited study on extrusions. To achieve the T8 temper, Alloy L277 is typically aged at 290 F for 40 hours. In the study for plate, a two-step aging treatment was developed through a design of experiments study and the one step aging used as a control. Based on the earlier NASA studies on 2195, the first step aging temperature was varied between 220 F and 260 F. The second step aging temperatures was varied between 290 F and 310 F, which is in the range of the single-step aging temperature. For extrusions, two, single-step, and one two-step aging condition were evaluated. The results of the design of experiments used for the T8 temper as well as a smaller set of experiments for the T6 temper for plate and the results for extrusions will be presented.

  7. A comparison of corrosion inhibition of magnesium aluminum and zinc aluminum vanadate intercalated layered double hydroxides on magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lian; Zhang, Fen; Lu, Jun-Cai; Zeng, Rong-Chang; Li, Shuo-Qi; Song, Liang; Zeng, Jian-Min

    2018-04-01

    The magnesium aluminum and zinc aluminum layered double hydroxides intercalated with NO3 -(MgAl-NO3-LDH and ZnAl-NO3-LDH) were prepared by the coprecipitation method, and the magnesium aluminum and the zinc aluminum layered double hydroxides intercalated with VO x -(MgAl-VO x -LDH and ZnAl-VO x -LDH) were prepared by the anion-exchange method. Morphologies, microstructures and chemical compositions of LDHs were investigated by SEM, EDS, XRD, FTIR, Raman and TG analyses. The immersion tests were carried to determine the corrosion inhibition properties of MgAl-VO x -LDH and ZnAl-VO x -LDH on AZ31 Mg alloys. The results showed that ZnAl-VO x -LDH possesses the best anion-exchange and inhibition abilities. The influence of treatment parameters on microstructures of LDHs were discussed. Additionally, an inhibition mechanism for ZnAl-VO x -LDH on the AZ31 magnesium alloy was proposed and discussed.

  8. Intergranular corrosion in AA5XXX aluminum alloys with discontinuous precipitation at the grain boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumiller, Elissa

    The US Navy currently uses AA5xxx aluminum alloys for structures exposed to a marine environment. These alloys demonstrate excellent corrosion resistance over other aluminum alloys (e.g., AA2xxx or AA7xxx) in this environment, filling a niche in the marine structures market when requiring a light-weight alternative to steel. However, these alloys are susceptible to localized corrosion; more specifically, intergranular corrosion (IGC) is of concern. IGC of AA5xxx alloys due to the precipitation of beta phase on the grain boundaries is a well-established phenomenon referred to as sensitization. At high degrees of sensitization, the IGC path is a continuous anodic path of beta phase particles. At lower degrees of sensitization, the beta phase coverage at the grain boundaries is not continuous. The traditional ranges of susceptibility to IGC as defined by ASTM B928 are in question due to recent studies. These studies showed that even at mid range degrees of sensitization where the beta phase is no longer continuous, IGC may still occur. Previous thoughts on IGC of these alloy systems were founded on the idea that once the grain boundary precipitate became discontinuous the susceptibility to IGC was greatly reduced. Additionally, IGC susceptibility has been defined metallurgically by compositional gradients at the grain boundaries. However, AA5xxx alloys show no compositional gradients at the grain boundaries, yet are still susceptible to IGC. The goal of this work is to establish criteria necessary for IGC to occur given no continuous beta phase path and no compositional gradient at the grain boundaries. IGC performance of the bulk alloy system AA5083 has been studied along with the primary phases present in the IGC system: alpha and beta phases using electrochemistry and modeling as the primary tools. Numerical modeling supports that at steady-state the fissure tip is likely saturated with Mg in excess of the 4% dissolved in the matrix. By combining these results

  9. Phase III Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Utilized in Energy Efficient Aluminum Production Cells

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Christini; R.K. Dawless; S.P. Ray

    2001-11-05

    During Phase I of the present program, Alcoa developed a commercial cell concept that has been estimated to save 30% of the energy required for aluminum smelting. Phase ii involved the construction of a pilot facility and operation of two pilots. Phase iii of the Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Program was aimed at bench experiments to permit the resolution of certain questions to be followed by three pilot cells. All of the milestones related to materials, in particular metal purity, were attained with distinct improvements over work in previous phases of the program. NiO additions to the ceramic phase andmore » Ag additions to the Cu metal phase of the cermet improved corrosion resistance sufficiently that the bench scale pencil anodes met the purity milestones. Some excellent metal purity results have been obtained with anodes of the following composition: Further improvements in anode material composition appear to be dependent on a better understanding of oxide solubilities in molten cryolite. For that reason, work was commissioned with an outside consultant to model the MeO - cryolite systems. That work has led to a better understanding of which oxides can be used to substitute into the NiO-Fe2O3 ceramic phase to stabilize the ferrites and reduce their solubility in molten cryolite. An extensive number of vertical plate bench electrolysis cells were run to try to find conditions where high current efficiencies could be attained. TiB2-G plates were very inconsistent and led to poor wetting and drainage. Pure TiB2 did produce good current efficiencies at small overlaps (shadowing) between the anodes and cathodes. This bench work with vertical plate anodes and cathodes reinforced the importance of good cathode wetting to attain high current efficiencies. Because of those conclusions, new wetting work was commissioned and became a major component of the research during the third year of Phase III. While significant progress was made in several areas, much work

  10. Finite element modelling of aluminum alloy 2024-T3 under transverse impact loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Ahmad Sufian; Kuntjoro, Wahyu; Yamin, A. F. M.

    2017-12-01

    Fiber metal laminate named GLARE is a new aerospace material which has great potential to be widely used in future lightweight aircraft. It consists of aluminum alloy 2024-T3 and glass-fiber reinforced laminate. In order to produce reliable finite element model of impact response or crashworthiness of structure made of GLARE, one can initially model and validate the finite element model of the impact response of its constituents separately. The objective of this study was to develop a reliable finite element model of aluminum alloy 2024-T3 under low velocity transverse impact loading using commercial software ABAQUS. Johnson-Cook plasticity and damage models were used to predict the alloy's material properties and impact behavior. The results of the finite element analysis were compared to the experiment that has similar material and impact conditions. Results showed good correlations in terms of impact forces, deformation and failure progressions which concluded that the finite element model of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy under low velocity transverse impact condition using Johnson-Cook plastic and damage models was reliable.

  11. Bone Cell–materials Interactions and Ni Ion Release of Anodized Equiatomic NiTi Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Sheldon A.; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Davies, Neal M.; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Laser processed NiTi alloy was anodized for different durations in H2SO4 electrolyte with varying pH to create biocompatible surfaces with low Ni ion release as well as bioactive surfaces to enhance biocompatibility and bone cell-materials interactions. The anodized surfaces were assessed for their in vitro cell-materials interactions using human fetal osteoblast (hFOB) cells for 3, 7 and 11 days, and Ni ion release up to 8 weeks in simulated body fluids. The results were correlated with surface morphologies of anodized surfaces characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results show that the anodization creates a surface with nano/micro roughness depending on anodization conditions. The hydrophilicity of NiTi surface was found to improve after anodization due to lower contact angles in cell media, which dropped from 32° to < 5°. The improved wettability of anodized surfaces is further corroborated by their high surface energy comparable to that of cp Ti. Relatively high surface energy, especially polar component, and nano/micro surface features of anodized surfaces significantly increased the number of living cells and their adherence and growth on these surfaces. Finally, a significant drop in Ni ion release from 268 ± 11 to 136 ± 15 ppb was observed for NiTi surfaces after anodization. This work indicates that anodization of NiTi alloy has a positive influence on the surface energy and surface morphology, which in turn improve bone cell-materials interactions and reduce Ni ion release in vitro. PMID:21232641

  12. Effects of Stress Relaxation Aging with Electrical Pulses on Microstructures and Properties of 2219 Aluminum Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jingsheng; Zhan, Lihua; Zhang, Jiao; Yang, Zhan; Ma, Ziyao

    2016-01-01

    To realize the high-efficiency and high-performance manufacture of complex high-web panels, this paper introduced electric pulse current (EPC) into the stress relaxation aging forming process of 2219 aluminum alloy and systematically studied the effects of EPC, stress, and aging time upon the microstructure and properties of 2219 aluminum alloy. It is discovered that: (a) EPC greatly enhanced the mechanical properties after stress relaxation aging and reduced the sensitivity of the yield strength for the initial stress under the aging system of 165 °C/11 h; (b) compared with general aging, stress relaxation aging instead delayed the aging process of 2219 aluminum alloy and greatly increased the peak strength value; (c) EPC accelerated the aging precipitation behavior of 2219 aluminum alloy and reduced transgranular and grain-boundary energy difference, thus leading to a more diffused distribution of the transgranular precipitated phase and the absence of a significant precipitation-free zone (PFZ) and grain-boundary stable phase in the grain boundary, further improving the mechanical properties of the alloy. PMID:28773660

  13. On the Formation of Lightweight Nanocrystalline Aluminum Alloys by Electrodeposition

    DOE PAGES

    Hilty, Robert D.; Masur, Lawrence J.

    2017-08-08

    New nanocrystalline aluminum alloys have been fabricated by electrodeposition. These are thermodynamically stable alloys of Al-Mn and Al-Zr with grain sizes < 100nm. Al-Mn and Al-Zr alloys are characterized here showing high strength (up to 1350 MPa) and hardness (up to 450 HVN) while maintaining the specific gravity of Al. Smooth and dense deposits plated from ionic liquids, such as EMIM:Cl (1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride), can develop to thicknesses of 1mm or more.

  14. Aging Optimization of Aluminum-Lithium Alloy C458 for Application to Cryotank Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sova, B. J.; Sankaran, K. K.; Babel, H.; Farahmand, B.; Rioja, R.

    2003-01-01

    Compared with aluminum alloys such as 2219, which is widely used in space vehicle for cryogenic tanks and unpressurized structures, aluminum-lithium alloys possess attractive combinations of lower density and higher modulus along with comparable mechanical properties. These characteristics have resulted in the successful use of the aluminum-lithium alloy 2195 (Al-1.0 Li-4.0 Cu-0.4 Mg-0.4 Ag-0.12 Zr) for the Space Shuttle External Tank, and the consideration of newer U.S. aluminum-lithium alloys such as L277 and C458 for future space vehicles. These newer alloys generally have lithium content less than 2 wt. % and their composition and processing have been carefully tailored to increase the toughness and reduce the mechanical property anisotropy of the earlier generation alloys such 2090 and 8090. Alloy processing, particularly the aging treatment, has a significant influence on the strength-toughness combinations and their dependence on service environments for aluminum-lithium alloys. Work at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center on alloy 2195 has shown that the cryogenic toughness can be improved by employing a two-step aging process. This is accomplished by aging at a lower temperature in the first step to suppress nucleation of the strengthening precipitate at sub-grain boundaries while promoting nucleation in the interior of the grains. Second step aging at the normal aging temperature results in precipitate growth to the optimum size. A design of experiments aging study was conducted for plate. To achieve the T8 temper, Alloy C458 (Al-1.8 Li-2.7 Cu-0.3 Mg-0.08 Zr-0.3 Mn-0.6 Zn) is typically aged at 300F for 24hours. In this study, a two-step aging treatment was developed through a comprehensive 2(exp 4) full factorial design of experiments study and the typical one-step aging used as a reference. Based on the higher lithium content of C458 compared with 2195, the first step aging temperature was varied between 175F and 250F. The second step aging temperatures was

  15. Aging Optimization of Aluminum-Lithium Alloy C458 for Application to Cryotank Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sova, B. J.; Sankaran, K. K.; Babel, H.; Farahmand, B.; Rioja, R.

    2003-01-01

    Compared with aluminum alloys such as 2219, which is widely used in space vehicle for cryogenic tanks and unpressurized structures, aluminum-lithium alloys possess attractive combinations of lower density and higher modulus along with comparable mechanical properties. These characteristics have resulted in the successful use of the aluminum-lithium alloy 2195 (Al-1.0 Li-4.0 Cu-0.4 Mg-0.4 Ag-0.12 Zr) for the Space Shuttle External Tank, and the consideration of newer U.S. aluminum-lithium alloys such as L277 and C458 for future space vehicles. These newer alloys generally have lithium content less than 2 wt. % and their composition and processing have been carefully tailored to increase the toughness and reduce the mechanical property anisotropy of the earlier generation alloys such 2090 and 8090. Alloy processing, particularly the aging treatment, has a significant influence on the strength-toughness combinations and their dependence on service environments for aluminum-lithium alloys. Work at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center on alloy 2195 has shown that the cryogenic toughness can be improved by employing a two-step aging process. This is accomplished by aging at a lower temperature in the first step to suppress nucleation of the strengthening precipitate at sub-grain boundaries while promoting nucleation in the interior of the grains. Second step aging at the normal aging temperature results in precipitate growth to the optimum size. A design of experiments aging study was conducted for plate. To achieve the T8 temper, Alloy C458 (Al-1.8 Li-2.7 Cu-0.3 Mg- 0.08 Zr-0.3 Mn-0.6 Zn) is typically aged at 300 F for 24 hours. In this study, a two-step aging treatment was developed through a comprehensive 24 full factorial design of experiments study and the typical one-step aging used as a reference. Based on the higher lithium content of C458 compared with 2195, the first step aging temperature was varied between 175 F and 250 F. The second step aging temperatures was

  16. Numerical investigation for formability of aluminum 6016 alloy under non-isothermal warm forming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, P.; Dai, M. H.; Ying, L.; Shi, D. Y.; Zhao, K. M.; Lu, J. D.

    2013-05-01

    The warm forming technology of aluminum alloy has attracted attention from worldwide automotive engineering sector in recent years, with which the complex geometry parts can be realized at elevated temperature. A non-isothermal warm forming process for the heat treatable aluminum can quickly carry out its application on traditional production line by adding a furnace to heat up the aluminum alloy sheet. The 6000 aluminum alloy was investigated by numerical simulation and experiment using the Nakajima test model in this paper. A modified Fields-Backofen model was introduced into numerical simulation process to describe the thermo-mechanical flow behavior of a 6000 series aluminum alloy. The experimental data was obtained by conducting thermal-mechanical uniaxial tensile experiment in temperatures range of 25˜400°C to guarantee the numerical simulation more accurate. The numerical simulation was implemented with LS_DYNA software in terms of coupled dynamic explicit method for investigating the effect of initial forming temperature and the Binder Holder Force (BHF), which are critical process parameters in non-isothermal warm forming. The results showed that the optimal initial forming temperature range was 300°C˜350°C. By means of conducting numerical simulation in deep drawing box model, the forming window of BHF and temperature around the optimal initial forming temperature (275°, 300° and 325°) are investigated, which can provide guidance to actual experiment.

  17. The role of hydrogen in hot-salt stress corrosion cracking of titanium-aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ondrejcin, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    Additional support is presented for the previously proposed role of hydrogen as an embrittling agent in hot-salt stress corrosion cracking of titanium-aluminum alloys. The main source of hydrogen formed during the reactions of titanium alloys with hot salt was identified as water associated with the salt. Hydrogen is produced by the reaction of an intermediate (hydrogen halide) with the alloy rather than from metal-water reactions. The fracture mode of precracked tensile specimens was ductile when the specimens were tested in air, and brittle when tests were made in high-pressure hydrogen. Stressed titanium-aluminum alloys also were cracked by bombardment with hydrogen ions produced in a proton accelerator. The approximate concentrations of the hydrogen ions in the alloys were calculated.

  18. A study of aluminum-lithium alloy solidification using acoustic emission techniques. Ph.D. Thesis, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henkel, Daniel P.

    1992-01-01

    Physical phenomena associated with the solidification of an aluminum lithium alloy was characterized using acoustic emission (AE) techniques. It is shown that repeatable patterns of AE activity may be correlated to microstructural changes that occur during solidification. The influence of the experimental system on generated signals was examined in the time and frequency domains. The analysis was used to show how an AE signal from solidifying aluminum is changed by each component in the detection system to produce a complex waveform. Conventional AE analysis has shown that a period of high AE activity occurs in pure aluminum, an Al-Cu alloy, and the Al-Li alloy, as the last fraction of solid forms. A model attributes this to the internal stresses of grain boundary formation. An additional period of activity occurs as the last fraction of solid forms, but only in the two alloys. A model attributes this to the formation of interdendritic porosity which was not present in the pure aluminum. The AE waveforms were dominated by resonant effects of the waveguide and the transducer.

  19. PFC Emissions from Detected Versus Nondetected Anode Effects in the Aluminum Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, David S.; Fraser, Paul; Lavoie, Pascal; Kim, Jooil

    2015-02-01

    Perfluorinated carbon compounds (PFCs) CF4 and C2F6 are potent greenhouse gases that are generated in aluminum reduction cells during events known as anode effects (AEs). Since the 1990s, the aluminum industry has made considerable progress in reducing PFCs from conventionally defined and detected AEs. However in recent years, the industry has noted the presence of unaccounted PFCs that are generated outside the conventional AE definition. Two additional AE categories have been proposed, namely low-voltage, propagating AEs (LVP-AEs) and nonpropagating AEs (NP-AEs) that relate to continuous, background levels of PFC emissions. These unaccounted PFC phenomena may help explain the recent discrepancy between industry accounting and atmospheric measurements of global PFC emissions. Estimates from AGAGE, a global network of atmospheric observatories, suggest as much as 50% underaccounting of PFCs by the aluminum industry in the 2006-2010 period. The following work reviews this discrepancy and the potential role played by LVP-AEs and NP-AEs.

  20. METHOD OF ALLOYING REACTIVE METALS WITH ALUMINUM OR BERYLLIUM

    DOEpatents

    Runnalls, O.J.C.

    1957-10-15

    A halide of one or more of the reactive metals, neptunium, cerium and americium, is mixed with aluminum or beryllium. The mass is heated at 700 to 1200 deg C, while maintaining a substantial vacuum of above 10/sup -3/ mm of mercury or better, until the halide of the reactive metal is reduced and the metal itself alloys with the reducing metal. The reaction proceeds efficiently due to the volatilization of the halides of the reducing metal, aluminum or beryllium.

  1. Influence of scandium on the microstructure and strength properties of the welded joint at the laser welding of aluminum-lithium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malikov, A. G.; Golyshev, A. A.; Ivanova, M. Yu.

    2017-10-01

    Today, aeronautical equipment manufacture involves up-to-date high-strength aluminum alloys of decreased density resulting from lithium admixture. Various technologies of fusible welding of these alloys are being developed. Serious demands are imposed to the welded joints of aluminum alloys in respect to their strength characteristics. The paper presents experimental investigations of the optimization of the laser welding of aluminum alloys with the scandium-modified welded joint. The effect of scandium on the micro-and macro-structure has been studied as well as the strength characteristics of the welded joint. It has been found that scandium under in the laser welding process increases the welded joint elasticity for the system Al-Mg-Li, aluminum alloy 1420 by 20 %, and almost doubles the same for the system Al-Cu-Li, aluminum alloy 1441.

  2. An Economic Model and Experiments to Understand Aluminum-Cerium Alloy Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Ananth V.; Lim, Heejong; Rios, Orlando; Sims, Zachary; Weiss, David

    2018-04-01

    We provide an economic model to understand the impact of adoption, sorting and pricing of scrap on the recycling of a new aluminum-cerium (AlCe) alloy for use in engine blocks in the automobile industry. The goal of the laboratory portion of this study is to investigate possible effects of cerium contamination on well-established aluminum recycling streams. Our methodology includes three components: (1) focused data gathering from industry supply chain participants, (2) experimental data through laboratory experiments to understand the impact of cerium on existing alloys and (3) an economic model to understand pricing incentives on a recycler's separation of AlCe engine blocks.

  3. Hot forging of roll-cast high aluminum content magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishi, Tomohiro; Watari, Hisaki; Suzuki, Mayumi; Haga, Toshio

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports on hot forging of high aluminum content magnesium alloy sheets manufactured using horizontal twin-roll casting. AZ111 and AZ131 were applied for twin-roll casting, and a hot-forging test was performed to manufacture high-strength magnesium alloy components economically. For twin-roll casting, the casting conditions of a thick sheet for hot forging were investigated. It was found that twin-roll casting of a 10mm-thick magnesium alloy sheet was possible at a roll speed of 2.5m/min. The grain size of the cast strip was 50 to 70µm. In the hot-forging test, blank material was obtained from as-cast strip. A servo press machine with a servo die cushion was used to investigate appropriate forging conditions (e.g., temperature, forging load, and back pressure) for twin-roll casts (TRCs) AZ111 and AZ131. It was determined that high aluminum content magnesium alloy sheets manufactured using twin-roll casting could be forged with a forging load of 150t and a back pressure of 3t at 420 to 430°C. Applying back pressure during hot forging effectively forged a pin-shaped product.

  4. Mechanical behavior of monocrystalline aluminum-lithium alloy at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.G.; Liu, W.; Xu, Y.B.

    1994-12-01

    Investigations have indicated that at low temperature aluminum- lithium alloys display improved toughness and an improved strength-toughness relationship. The yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, elongation and the fracture toughness increase with decreasing temperatures. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this most striking feature. Webster claimed that low melting point impurities, such as sodium and potassium, are responsible for the improvement of mechanical properties in Al-Li alloys at low temperatures. However, Venkateswara Rao et al. indicated that the increased delamination at low temperatures can increase the degree of in-plane crack deflection, resulting in toughening of the alloys. On the basismore » of their own results, Xu and coworker pointed out that the improvement of tensile and fatigue properties at liquid nitrogen temperatures is also presumably attributable to the delamination. Therefore, the mechanisms responsible for the variation in mechanical properties with temperature are not currently well-understood. In order to elucidate the real situation, single crystals of a binary aluminum-lithium alloy were adopted in the present study. This paper is devoted to the description of the behavior of the load-displacement curves and the associated slip traces on the sample surfaces.« less

  5. Microstructure dependence of dynamic fracture and yielding in aluminum and an aluminum alloy at strain rates of 2 × 106 s-1 and faster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, D. A.; Worthington, D. L.; Sherek, P. A.; Pedrazas, N. A.; Quevedo, H. J.; Bernstein, A. C.; Rambo, P.; Schwarz, J.; Edens, A.; Geissel, M.; Smith, I. C.; Taleff, E. M.; Ditmire, T.

    2011-11-01

    Experiments investigating fracture and resistance to plastic deformation at fast strain rates (>106 s-1) were performed via laser ablation on thin sheets of aluminum and aluminum alloys. Single crystal high purity aluminum (Al-HP) and a single crystal 1100 series aluminum alloy (AA1100) were prepared to investigate the role of impurity particles. Specimens of aluminum alloy +3 wt. % Mg (Al+3Mg) at three different grain sizes were also studied to determine the effect of grain size. In the present experiments, high purity aluminum (Al-HP) exhibited the highest spall strength over 1100 series aluminum alloy (AA1100) and Al+3Mg. Fracture characterization and particle analysis revealed that fracture was initiated in the presence of particles associated with impurity content in the AA1100 and at both grain boundaries and particles in Al+3Mg. The Al+3Mg specimens exhibited the greatest resistance to plastic deformation likely resulting from the presence of magnesium atoms. The Al-HP and AA1100, both lacking a strengthening element such as Mg, were found to have the same Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) stress. Within the single crystal specimens, orientation effects on spall strength and HEL stress appear to be negligible. Although the fracture character shows a trend with grain size, no clear dependence of spall strength and HEL stress on grain size was measured for the Al+3Mg. Hydrodynamic simulations show how various strength and fracture models are insufficient to predict material behavior at fast strain rates, and a revised set of Tuler-Butcher coefficients for spall are proposed.

  6. Experimental Investigation on the Joining of Aluminum Alloy Sheets Using Improved Clinching Process

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chao; Zhao, Shengdun; Han, Xiaolan; Zhao, Xuzhe; Ishida, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    Aluminum alloy sheets have been widely used to build the thin-walled structures by mechanical clinching technology in recent years. However, there is an exterior protrusion located on the lower sheet and a pit on the upper sheet, which may restrict the application of the clinching technology in visible areas. In the present study, an improved clinched joint used to join aluminum alloy sheets was investigated by experimental method. The improved clinching process used for joining aluminum alloy evolves through four phases: (a) localized deformation; (b) drawing; (c) backward extrusion; and (d) mechanical interlock forming. A flat surface can be produced using the improved clinching process. Shearing strength, tensile strength, material flow, main geometrical parameters, and failure mode of the improved clinched joint were investigated. The sheet material was compressed to flow radially and upward using a punch, which generated a mechanical interlock by producing severe localized plastic deformation. The neck thickness and interlock of the improved clinched joint were increased by increasing the forming force, which also contributed to increase the strength of the clinched joint. The improved clinched joint can get high shearing strength and tensile strength. Three main failure modes were observed in the failure process, which were neck fracture mode, button separation mode, and mixed failure mode. The improved clinched joint has better joining quality to join aluminum alloy sheets on the thin-walled structures. PMID:28763027

  7. Experimental Investigation on the Joining of Aluminum Alloy Sheets Using Improved Clinching Process.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Zhao, Shengdun; Han, Xiaolan; Zhao, Xuzhe; Ishida, Tohru

    2017-08-01

    Aluminum alloy sheets have been widely used to build the thin-walled structures by mechanical clinching technology in recent years. However, there is an exterior protrusion located on the lower sheet and a pit on the upper sheet, which may restrict the application of the clinching technology in visible areas. In the present study, an improved clinched joint used to join aluminum alloy sheets was investigated by experimental method. The improved clinching process used for joining aluminum alloy evolves through four phases: (a) localized deformation; (b) drawing; (c) backward extrusion; and (d) mechanical interlock forming. A flat surface can be produced using the improved clinching process. Shearing strength, tensile strength, material flow, main geometrical parameters, and failure mode of the improved clinched joint were investigated. The sheet material was compressed to flow radially and upward using a punch, which generated a mechanical interlock by producing severe localized plastic deformation. The neck thickness and interlock of the improved clinched joint were increased by increasing the forming force, which also contributed to increase the strength of the clinched joint. The improved clinched joint can get high shearing strength and tensile strength. Three main failure modes were observed in the failure process, which were neck fracture mode, button separation mode, and mixed failure mode. The improved clinched joint has better joining quality to join aluminum alloy sheets on the thin-walled structures.

  8. Fracture characteristics of structural aerospace alloys containing deep surface flaws. [aluminum-titanium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, J. N.; Bixler, W. D.; Finger, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    Conditions controlling the growth and fracture of deep surface flaws in aerospace alloys were investigated. Static fracture tests were performed on 7075-T651 and 2219-T87 aluminum, and 6Ai-4V STA titanium . Cyclic flaw growth tests were performed on the two latter alloys, and sustain load tests were performed on the titanium alloy. Both the cyclic and the sustain load tests were performed with and without a prior proof overload cycle to investigate possible growth retardation effects. Variables included in all test series were thickness, flaw depth-to-thickness ratio, and flaw shape. Results were analyzed and compared with previously developed data to determine the limits of applicability of available modified linear elastic fracture solutions.

  9. A high performance hybrid battery based on aluminum anode and LiFePO4 cathode.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Bi, Zhonghe; Liu, Hansan; Fang, Youxing; Bridges, Craig A; Paranthaman, M Parans; Dai, Sheng; Brown, Gilbert M

    2016-01-28

    A novel hybrid battery utilizing an aluminum anode, a LiFePO4 cathode and an acidic ionic liquid electrolyte based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMImCl) and aluminum trichloride (AlCl3) (EMImCl-AlCl3, 1-1.1 in molar ratio) with or without LiAlCl4 is proposed. The hybrid ion battery delivers an initial high capacity of 160 mA h g(-1) at a current rate of C/5. It also shows good rate capability and cycling performance.

  10. A high performance hybrid battery based on aluminum anode and LiFePO 4 cathode

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Bi, Zhonghe; Liu, Hansan; ...

    2015-12-07

    A unique battery hybrid utilizes an aluminum anode, a LiFePO 4 cathode and an acidic ionic liquid electrolyte based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMImCl) and aluminum trichloride (AlCl 3) (EMImCl-AlCl 3, 1-1.1 in molar ratio) with or without LiAlCl 4 is proposed. This hybrid ion battery delivers an initial high capacity of 160 mAh g -1 at a current rate of C/5. It also shows good rate capability and cycling performance.

  11. Design, fabrication, and evaluation of charge-coupled devices with aluminum-anodized-aluminum gates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gassaway, J. D.; Causey, W. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A 4-phase, 49 1/2 bit CCD shift register was designed and fabricated using two levels of aluminum metallization with anodic Al2O3 insulation separating the layers. Test circuitry was also designed and constructed. A numerical analysis of an MOS-RC transmission line was made and results are given to characterize performance for various conductivities. The electrical design of the CCD included a low-noise dual-gate input and a balanced floating diffusion output circuit. Metallization was accomplished both by low voltage DC sputtering and thermal evaporation. The audization was according to published procedures using a buffered tartaric acid bath. Approximately 20 wafers were processed with 50 complete chips per wafer. All devices failed by shorting between the metal levels at some point. Experimental procedures eliminated temperature effects from sintering and drying, anodic oxide thickness, edge effects, photoresist stripping procedures, and metallization techniques as the primary causes of failure. It was believed from a study of SEM images that protuberances (hillocks) grow up from the first level metal through the oxide either causing a direct short or producing a weak, highly stressed insulation point which fails at low voltage. The cause of these hillocks is unknown; however, they have been observed to grow during temperature excursions to 470 C.

  12. Evaluation of Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility Using Fracture Mechanics Techniques, Part 1. [environmental tests of aluminum alloys, stainless steels, and titanium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprowls, D. O.; Shumaker, M. B.; Walsh, J. D.; Coursen, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SSC) tests were performed on 13 aluminum alloys, 13 precipitation hardening stainless steels, and two titanium 6Al-4V alloy forgings to compare fracture mechanics techniques with the conventional smooth specimen procedures. Commercially fabricated plate and rolled or forged bars 2 to 2.5-in. thick were tested. Exposures were conducted outdoors in a seacoast atmosphere and in an inland industrial atmosphere to relate the accelerated tests with service type environments. With the fracture mechanics technique tests were made chiefly on bolt loaded fatigue precracked compact tension specimens of the type used for plane-strain fracture toughness tests. Additional tests of the aluminum alloy were performed on ring loaded compact tension specimens and on bolt loaded double cantilever beams. For the smooth specimen procedure 0.125-in. dia. tensile specimens were loaded axially in constant deformation type frames. For both aluminum and steel alloys comparative SCC growth rates obtained from tests of precracked specimens provide an additional useful characterization of the SCC behavior of an alloy.

  13. Microstructural Characterization of Aluminum-Lithium Alloys 1460 and 2195

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Z. M.; Shenoy, R. N.

    1998-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were employed to characterize the precipitate distributions in lithium-containing aluminum alloys 1460 and 2195 in the T8 condition. TEM examinations revealed delta prime and T1 as the primary strengthening precipitates in alloys 1460 and 2195 respectively. TEM results showed a close similarity of the Russian alloy 1460 to the U.S. alloy 2090, which has a similar composition and heat treatment schedule. DSC analyses also indicate a comparable delta prime volume fraction. TEM study of a fractured tensile sample of alloy 1460 showed that delta prime precipitates are sheared by dislocations during plastic deformation and that intense stress fields arise at grain boundaries due to planar slip. Differences in fracture toughness of alloys 1460 and 2195 are rationalized on the basis of a literature review and observations from the present study.

  14. Multi-electrolyte-step anodic aluminum oxide method for the fabrication of self-organized nanochannel arrays

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Nanochannel arrays were fabricated by the self-organized multi-electrolyte-step anodic aluminum oxide [AAO] method in this study. The anodization conditions used in the multi-electrolyte-step AAO method included a phosphoric acid solution as the electrolyte and an applied high voltage. There was a change in the phosphoric acid by the oxalic acid solution as the electrolyte and the applied low voltage. This method was used to produce self-organized nanochannel arrays with good regularity and circularity, meaning less power loss and processing time than with the multi-step AAO method. PMID:22333268

  15. Bone cell-materials interactions and Ni ion release of anodized equiatomic NiTi alloy.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Sheldon A; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Davies, Neal M; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-04-01

    A laser processed NiTi alloy was anodized for different times in H(2)SO(4) electrolyte with varying pH to create biocompatible surfaces with low Ni ion release as well as bioactive surfaces to enhance biocompatibility and bone cell-material interactions. The anodized surfaces were assessed for their in vitro cell-material interactions using human fetal osteoblast (hFOB) cells for 3, 7 and 11 days, and Ni ion release up to 8 weeks in simulated body fluids. The results were correlated with the surface morphologies of anodized surfaces characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results show that anodization creates a surface with nano/micro-roughness depending on the anodization conditions. The hydrophilicity of the NiTi surface was found to improve after anodization, as shown by the lower contact angles in cell medium, which dropped from 32° to <5°. The improved wettability of anodized surfaces is further corroborated by their high surface energy, comparable with that of commercially pure Ti. Relatively high surface energies, especially the polar component, and nano/micro surface features of anodized surfaces significantly increased the number of living cells and their adherence and growth on these surfaces. Finally, a significant drop in Ni ion release from 268±11 to 136±15 ppb was observed for NiTi surfaces after anodization. This work indicates that anodization of a NiTi alloy has a positive influence on the surface energy and surface morphology, which in turn improves bone cell-material interactions and reduces Ni ion release in vitro. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characteristics of the aluminum alloy sheets for forming and application examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uema, Naoyuki; Asano, Mineo

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, the characteristics and application examples of aluminum alloy sheets developed for automotive parts by Sumitomo Light Metal are described. For the automotive closure panels (ex., hood, back-door), an Al-Mg-Si alloy sheet having an excellent hemming performance was developed. The cause of the occurrence and the propagation of cracks by bending were considered to be the combined effect of the shear bands formed across several crystal grains and the micro-voids formed around the second phase particles. By reducing the shear band formation during bending by controlling the crystallographic texture, the Al-Mg-Si alloy sheets showed an excellent hemming performance. For the automotive outer panels (ex., roof, fender, trunk-lid), an Al-Mg alloy sheet, which has both a good hot blow formability and excellent surface appearance after hot blow forming was developed, and hot blow forming technology was put to practical use using this developed Al-Mg alloy sheet. For automotive heat insulators, a high ductile Al-Fe alloy sheet was developed. The heat insulator, which integrated several panels, was put into practical use using this developed Al-Fe alloy sheet. The textured sheet was often used as a heat insulator in order to reduce the thickness of the aluminum alloy sheet and obtain good press formability. The new textured sheet, which has both high rigidity and good press formability for heat insulators, was developed by FE analysis.

  17. Analysis of the flow property of aluminum alloy AA6016 based on the fracture morphology using the hydroforming technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Lihui; Zhang, Quanda; Sun, Zhiying; Wang, Yao

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the hydraulic bulging experiments were respectively carried out using AA6016-T4 aluminum alloy and AA6016-O aluminum alloy, and the deformation properties and fracture mechanism of aluminum alloy under the conditions of thermal and hydraulic were analyzed. Firstly, the aluminum alloy AA6016 was dealt with two kinds of heat treatment systems such as solid solution heat treatment adding natural ageing and full annealing, then the aluminum alloy such as AA6016-T4 and AA6016-O were obtained. In the same working environment, the two kinds of materials were used in the process of hydraulic bulging experiments, according to the observation and measurement of the deformation sizes of grid circles and material thicknesses near the fracture region, the flow properties and development trend of fracture defect of the materials were analyzed comprehensively from the perspective of qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis; Secondly, the two kinds of materials were sampled in different regions of the fracture area and the microstructure morphology of the fracture was observed by the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The influence laws of the heat treatment systems on the fracture defect of the aluminum alloy under the condition of the liquid pressure were studied preliminarily by observing the distribution characteristics of the fracture microstructure morphology of dimple. At the same time, the experimental research on the ordinary stamping forming process of AA6016-O was carried out and the influence law of different forming process on the fracture defect of the aluminum alloy material was studied by observing the distribution of the fracture microstructure morphology; Finally, the development process of the fracture defect of aluminum alloy sheet was described theoretically from the view of the stress state.

  18. Spray-coating of superhydrophobic aluminum alloys with enhanced mechanical robustness.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youfa; Ge, Dengteng; Yang, Shu

    2014-06-01

    A superhydrophobic aluminum alloy was prepared by one-step spray coating of an alcohol solution consisting of hydrophobic silica nanoparticles (15-40 nm) and methyl silicate precursor on etched aluminum alloy with pitted morphology. The as-sprayed metal surface showed a water contact angle of 155° and a roll-off angle of 4°. The coating was subjected to repeated mechanical tests, including high-pressure water jetting, sand particles impacting, and sandpaper shear abrasion. It remained superhydrophobic with a roll-off angle <10° up to three cycles of water jetting (25 kPa for 10 min) and sand particle impinging. After five cycles, the roll-off angle increased, but no more than 19° while the water contact angle remained greater than 150°. The superhydrophobic state was also maintained after three cycles of sandpaper abrasion. It was found that the micro-protrusion structures on the etched aluminum alloy played an important role to enhance the coating mechanical robustness, where the nanoparticles could grab on the rough surface, specifically in the groove structures, in comparison with the smooth glass substrates spray coated with the same materials. Further, we showed that the superhydrophobicity could be restored by spray a new cycle of the nanocomposite solution on the damaged surface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Perforation of Thin Aluminum Alloy Plates by Blunt Projectiles - Experimental and Numerical Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Gang; Zhang, Wei

    2013-06-01

    Reducing the armor weight has become a research focus in terms of armored material with the increasing requirement of the mobility and flexibility of tanks and armored vehicles in modern local wars. Due to high strength-to-density ratio, aluminum alloy has become a potential light armored material. In this study, both lab-scale ballistic test and finite element simulation were adopted to examine the ballistic resistance of aluminum alloy targets. Blunt high strength steel projectiles with 12.7 mm diameter were launched by light gas gun against 3.3 mm thick aluminum alloy plates at velocity of 90 ~ 170 m/s. The ballistic limit velocity was obtained. Plugging failure and obvious structure deformation of targets were observed, and with the impact velocity increasing, the target structure deformation decrease gradually. Corresponding 2D finite element simulations were conducted by ABAQUS/EXPLICIT combined with material performance testing. Good agreement between the numerical simulations and the experimental results was found. National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.: 11072072).

  20. Research on the Treatment of Aluminum Alloy Chemical Milling Wastewater with Fenton Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong-liang, Huang; Ru, Li; Peng, Luo; Jun-li, Gu

    2018-03-01

    The aluminum alloy chemical milling wastewater was treated by Fenton method. The effect of pH value, reaction time, rotational speed, H2O2 dosage, Fe2+ dosage and the molar ratio between H2O2 and Fe2+ on the COD removal rate of aluminum alloy chemical milling wastewater were investigated by single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment. The results showed that the optimum operating conditions for Fenton oxidation were as follows: the initial pH value was 3, the rotational speed was 250r/min, the molar ratio of H2O2 and Fe2+ was 8, the reaction time was 90 min. Under the optimum conditions, the removal rate of the wastewater’s COD is about 72.36%. In the reaction kinetics that aluminum alloy chemical milling wastewater was oxidized and degraded by Fenton method under the optimum conditions, the reaction sequence of the initial COD was 0.8204.

  1. Remediation of phosphate-contaminated water by electrocoagulation with aluminium, aluminium alloy and mild steel anodes.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Subramanyan; Lakshmi, Jothinathan; Jayaraj, Jeganathan; Sozhan, Ganapathy

    2009-05-30

    The present study provides an electrocoagulation process for the remediation of phosphate-contaminated water using aluminium, aluminium alloy and mild steel as the anodes and stainless steel as the cathode. The various parameters like effect of anode materials, effect of pH, concentration of phosphate, current density, temperature and co-existing ions, and so forth, and the adsorption capacity was evaluated using both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The adsorption of phosphate preferably fitting the Langmuir adsorption isotherm suggests monolayer coverage of adsorbed molecules. The results showed that the maximum removal efficiency of 99% was achieved with aluminium alloy anode at a current density of 0.2 A dm(-2), at a pH of 7.0. The adsorption process follows second-order kinetics.

  2. Formation of the structure of thin-sheet rolled product from a high-strength sparingly alloyed aluminum alloy ``nikalin''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shurkin, P. K.; Belov, N. A.; Akopyan, T. K.; Alabin, A. N.; Aleshchenko, A. S.; Avxentieva, N. N.

    2017-09-01

    The regime of thermomechanical treatment of flat ingots of a high-strength sparingly alloyed alloy based on the Al-Zn-Mg-Ni-Fe system upon the production of thin-sheet rolled products with a reduction of more than 97% has been substantiated. Using experimental and calculated methods, the structure and phase composition of the experimental alloy in the as cast and deformed state and after heat treatment including quenching with subsequent aging have been studied. It has been found that the structure of the wrought semi-finished products after aging according to T and T1 regimes consists of the precipitation-hardened aluminum matrix and uniformly distributed isolated particles of Al9FeNi with a size of 1-2 μm, which provides a combination of high strength and satisfactory plasticity at the level of standard high-strength aluminum alloys of the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu system. The fractographic analysis confirmed that the tested samples underwent a ductile fracture.

  3. Several braze filler metals for joining an oxide-dispersion-strengthened nickel-chromium-aluminum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyorgak, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    An evaluation was made of five braze filler metals for joining an aluminum-containing oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloy, TD-NiCrAl. All five braze filler metals evaluated are considered suitable for joining TD-NiCrAl in terms of wettability and flow. Also, the braze alloys appear to be tolerant of slight variations in brazing procedures since joints prepared by three sources using three of the braze filler metals exhibited similar brazing characteristics and essentially equivalent 1100 C stress-rupture properties in a brazed butt-joint configuration. Recommendations are provided for brazing the aluminum-containing ODS alloys.

  4. Maintenance and testing of anodized aluminum mirrors on the Whipple 10 m Whipple Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badran, H. M.; Weekes, T. C.

    2001-08-01

    Threshold energy sensitivity depends not only on the high reflectivity of the mirrors used in atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes but also on the maintenance of this reflectivity over months/years. The successful application of a mirror maintenance technique depends on the type of mirror coating and the contamination that must be removed. The uncovered mirrors in use on the 10-m Whipple gamma-ray telescope are anodized aluminum mirrors. A standard cleaning technique for such mirrors is not available. With the aim of extending the life of the aluminum coating exposed to the Mt ˙Hopkins environment, several cleaning procedures were tested on mirrors that had been exposed for three years. Evaluation of the most effective cleaners is presented. Preliminary results are also presented from a long-term experiment using newly coated mirrors at the proposed VERITAS site and at the current 10 m site. This experiment is designed to reveal the rates at which the reflectance degrades as a function of time, depth of anodization, storage direction, degree of covering, and maintenance procedures.

  5. Solid-state Bonding of Superplastic Aluminum Alloy 7475 Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byun, T. D. S.; Vastava, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental works were carried out to study the feasibility of solid state bonding of superplastic aluminum 7475 sheet. Amount of deformation, bonding time, surface cleaning method and intermediate layer were the process parameters investigated. Other parameters, held constant by the superplastic forming condition which is required to obtain a concurrent solid state bonding, are bonding temperature, bonding pressure and atmosphere. Bond integrity was evaluated through metallographic examination, X-ray line scan analysis, SEM fractographic analysis and lap shear tests. The early results of the development program indicated that sound solid state bonding was accomplished for this high strength 7475 alloy with significant amounts of deformation. A thin intermediate layer of the soft 5052 aluminum alloy aided in achieving a solid state bonding by reducing the required amount of plastic deformation at the interface. Bond strength was substantially increased by a post bond heat treatment.

  6. Evaluation of AA5052 alloy anode in alkaline electrolyte with organic rare-earth complex additives for aluminium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dapeng; Li, Heshun; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Daquan; Gao, Lixin; Tong, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Behaviours of the AA5052 aluminium alloy anode of the alkaline aluminium-air battery are studied by the hydrogen evolution test, the electrochemical measurements and the surface analysis method. The combination of amino-acid and rare earth as electrolyte additives effectively retards the self-corrosion of AA5052 aluminium alloy in 4 M NaOH solution. It shows that the combination of L-cysteine and cerium nitrate has a synergistic effect owing to the formation of a complex film on AA5052 alloy surface. The organic rare-earth complex can decrease the anodic polarisation, suppress the hydrogen evolution and increase the anodic utilization rate.

  7. Cerium-based, intermetallic-strengthened aluminum casting alloy: High-volume co-product development

    DOE PAGES

    Sims, Zachary C.; Weiss, David; McCall, S. K.; ...

    2016-05-23

    Here, several rare earth elements are considered by-products to rare earth mining efforts. By using one of these by-product elements in a high-volume application such as aluminum casting alloys, the supply of more valuable rare earths can be globally stabilized. Stabilizing the global rare earth market will decrease the long-term criticality of other rare earth elements. The low demand for Ce, the most abundant rare earth, contributes to the instability of rare earth extraction. In this article, we discuss a series of intermetallic-strengthened Al alloys that exhibit the potential for new high-volume use of Ce. The castability, structure, and mechanicalmore » properties of binary, ternary, and quaternary Al-Ce based alloys are discussed. We have determined Al-Ce based alloys to be highly castable across a broad range of compositions. Nanoscale intermetallics dominate the microstructure and are the theorized source of the high ductility. In addition, room-temperature physical properties appear to be competitive with existing aluminum alloys with extended high-temperature stability of the nanostructured intermetallic.« less

  8. Bacterial adherence to anodized titanium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Jorge Peremarch, C.; Pérez Tanoira, R.; Arenas, M. A.; Matykina, E.; Conde, A.; De Damborenea, J. J.; Gómez Barrena, E.; Esteban, J.

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Staphylococcus sp adhesion to modified surfaces of anodized titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). Surface modification involved generation of fluoride-containing titanium oxide nanotube films. Specimens of Ti-6Al-4V alloy 6-4 ELI-grade 23- meets the requirements of ASTM F136 2002A (AMS 2631B class A1) were anodized in a mixture of sulphuric/hydrofluoric acid at 20 V for 5 and 60 min to form a 100 nm-thick porous film of 20 nm pore diameter and 230 nm-thick nanotube films of 100 nm in diameter. The amount of fluorine in the oxide films was of 6% and of 4%, respectively. Collection strains and six clinical strains each of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis were studied. The adherence study was performed using a previously published protocol by Kinnari et al. The experiments were performed in triplicates. As a result, lower adherence was detected for collection strains in modified materials than in unmodified controls. Differences between clinical strains were detected for both species (p<0.0001, Kruskal-Wallis test), although global data showed similar results to that of collection strains (p<0.0001, Kruskal-Wallis test). Adherence of bacteria to modified surfaces was decreased for both species. The results also reflect a difference in the adherence between S. aureus and S. epidermidis to the modified material. As a conclusion, not only we were able to confirm the decrease of adherence in the modified surface, but also the need to test multiple clinical strains to obtain more realistic microbiological results due to intraspecies differences.

  9. Properties of micro-arc oxidation coatings on aluminum alloy at different negative peak current densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xin; Jiang, Bailing; Li, Hongtao; Liu, Cancan; Shao, Lianlian

    2018-05-01

    Micro-arc oxidation coatings were fabricated on 6061 aluminum alloy using whereby bipolar pulse mode in the case of different negative peak current densities. The phase composition, microstructures and wear properties were studied using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and ball-on-disk wear tester, respectively. As results indicate, by virtue of negative peak current density, the oxygen can be expelled by produced hydrogen on anode in the case of negative pulse width and via the opened discharge channel. The results of x-ray diffraction, surface and cross-sectional morphology indicated that the coating was structured compactly taking on less small-diameter micro-pores and defects with negative peak current density of 75 A dm‑2. Additionally, as the results of wear tracks and weight loss bespeak, by virtue of appropriate negative peak current density, coatings resisted the abrasive wear and showed excellent wear resistance.

  10. Self-Reacting Friction Stir Welding for Aluminum Alloy Circumferential Weld Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkman, Gerry; Cantrell, Mark; Carter, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Friction stir welding is an innovative weld process that continues to grow in use, in the commercial, defense, and space sectors. It produces high quality and high strength welds in aluminum alloys. The process consists of a rotating weld pin tool that plasticizes material through friction. The plasticized material is welded by applying a high weld forge force through the weld pin tool against the material during pin tool rotation. The high weld forge force is reacted against an anvil and a stout tool structure. A variation of friction stir welding currently being evaluated is self-reacting friction stir welding. Self-reacting friction stir welding incorporates two opposing shoulders on the crown and root sides of the weld joint. In self-reacting friction stir welding, the weld forge force is reacted against the crown shoulder portion of the weld pin tool by the root shoulder. This eliminates the need for a stout tooling structure to react the high weld forge force required in the typical friction stir weld process. Therefore, the self-reacting feature reduces tooling requirements and, therefore, process implementation costs. This makes the process attractive for aluminum alloy circumferential weld applications. To evaluate the application of self-reacting friction stir welding for aluminum alloy circumferential welding, a feasibility study was performed. The study consisted of performing a fourteen-foot diameter aluminum alloy circumferential demonstration weld using typical fusion weld tooling. To accomplish the demonstration weld, weld and tack weld development were performed and fourteen-foot diameter rings were fabricated. Weld development consisted of weld pin tool selection and the generation of a process map and envelope. Tack weld development evaluated gas tungsten arc welding and friction stir welding for tack welding rings together for circumferential welding. As a result of the study, a successful circumferential demonstration weld was produced leading

  11. Predicting Microstructure and Microsegregation in Multicomponent Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xinyan; Ding, Ling; Chen, ShuangLin; Xie, Fanyou; Chu, M.; Chang, Y. Austin

    Accurate predictions of microstructure and microsegregation in metallic alloys are highly important for applications such as alloy design and process optimization. Restricted assumptions concerning the phase diagram could easily lead to erroneous predictions. The best approach is to couple microsegregation modeling with phase diagram computations. A newly developed numerical model for the prediction of microstructure and microsegregation in multicomponent alloys during dendritic solidification was introduced. The micromodel is directly coupled with phase diagram calculations using a user-friendly and robust phase diagram calculation engine-PANDAT. Solid state back diffusion, undercooling and coarsening effects are included in this model, and the experimentally measured cooling curves are used as the inputs to carry out the calculations. This model has been used to predict the microstructure and microsegregation in two multicomponent aluminum alloys, 2219 and 7050. The calculated values were confirmed using results obtained from directional solidification.

  12. Laser-initiated combustion studies of selected aluminum, copper, iron, and nickel alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bransford, J. W.; Clark, A. F.

    1981-01-01

    The results of combustion studies at atmospheric pressure on ten metal alloys are presented. The alloys studied were aluminum alloys 1100, 2219, 6061, and tensile-50; 304, 347 and 21-6-9 stainless steel; inconel 600; beryllium copper and a bronze. It was found that once ignition was achieved all alloys would generally burn to completion. The overall combustion process appears to obey a first order rate process. Preliminary conclusions are presented along with recommendations for future work.

  13. Expanding the Availability of Lightweight Aluminum Alloy Armor Plate Procured from Detailed Military Specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Kevin; Squillacioti, Richard; Cheeseman, Bryan; Placzankis, Brian; Gallardy, Denver

    For many years, the range of aluminum alloys for armor plate applications obtainable in accordance with detailed military specifications was very limited. However, the development of improved aluminum alloys for aerospace and other applications has provided an opportunity to modernize the Army portfolio for ground vehicle armor applications. While the benefits of offering additional alloy choices to vehicle designers is obvious, the process of creating detailed military specifications for armor plate applications is not trivial. A significant amount of material and testing is required to develop the details required by an armor plate specification. Due to the vast number of material programs that require standardization and with a limited amount of manpower and funds as a result of Standardization Reform in 1995, one typically requires a need statement from a vehicle program office to justify and sponsor the work. This presentation will focus on recent aluminum alloy armor plate specifications that have added capability to vehicle designers' selection of armor materials that offer possible benefits such as lower cost, higher strength, better ballistic and corrosion resistance, improved weldability, etc.

  14. Effect of Fe- and Si-Enriched Secondary Precipitates and Surface Roughness on Pore Formation on Aluminum Plate Surfaces During Anodizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yuanzhi; Wang, Shizhi; Yang, Qingda; Zhou, Feng

    2014-09-01

    Two twin roll casts (TRCs) and one hot rolled (HR) AA 1235 aluminum alloy plates with different microstructures are prepared. The plates were electrolyzed in a 1.2 wt% HCl solution with a voltage of 21 V and a current of 1.9 mA. The shape, size, and number of pores formed on the surfaces of these plates were analyzed and correlated with the microstructures of the plates. It is found that pores are easier to form on the alloy plates containing subgrains with a lower dislocation density inside the subgrains, rather than along the grain boundaries. Furthermore, Fe- and Si-enriched particles in the AA1235 aluminum alloys lead to the formation of pores on the surface during electrolyzing; the average precipitate sizes of 4, 3.5, and 2 μm in Alloy 1#, Alloy 2# and Alloy 3# result in the average pore sizes of 3.78, 2.76, and 1.9 μm on the surfaces of the three alloys, respectively; The G.P zone in the alloy also facilitates the surface pore formation. High-surface roughness enhances the possibility of entrapping more lubricants into the plate surface, which eventually blocks the formation of the pores on the surface of the aluminum plates in the following electrolyzing process.

  15. Warm Forming of Aluminum Alloys using a Coupled Thermo-Mechanical Anisotropic Material Model

    SciTech Connect

    Abedrabbo, Nader; Pourboghrat, Farhang; Carsley, John E.

    Temperature-dependant anisotropic material models for two types of automotive aluminum alloys (5754-O and 5182-O) were developed and implemented in LS-Dyna as a user material subroutine (UMAT) for coupled thermo-mechanical finite element analysis (FEA) of warm forming of aluminum alloys. The anisotropy coefficients of the Barlat YLD2000 plane stress yield function for both materials were calculated for the range of temperatures 25 deg. C-260 deg. C. Curve fitting was used to calculate the anisotropy coefficients of YLD2000 and the flow stress as a function of temperature. This temperature-dependent material model was successfully applied to the coupled thermo-mechanical analysis of stretching ofmore » aluminum sheets and results were compared with experiments.« less

  16. Secondary Heating Under Quenching Cooling of Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukrov, S. L.; Ber, L. B.

    2017-07-01

    Variants of secondary heating of aluminum alloys are considered, i.e., under quenching of plates in a water tank or on a horizontal quenching unit with water jet cooling, under continuous quenching of strips, and under quenching of tubes in vertical furnaces. Recommendation are given for removal or substantial reduction of the intensity of secondary heating under industrial conditions.

  17. Ultra-High Density Single Nanometer-Scale Anodic Alumina Nanofibers Fabricated by Pyrophosphoric Acid Anodizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Nishinaga, Osamu; Nakajima, Daiki; Kawashima, Jun; Natsui, Shungo; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2014-12-01

    Anodic oxide fabricated by anodizing has been widely used for nanostructural engineering, but the nanomorphology is limited to only two oxides: anodic barrier and porous oxides. Therefore, the discovery of an additional anodic oxide with a unique nanofeature would expand the applicability of anodizing. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a third-generation anodic oxide, specifically, anodic alumina nanofibers, by anodizing in a new electrolyte, pyrophosphoric acid. Ultra-high density single nanometer-scale anodic alumina nanofibers (1010 nanofibers/cm2) consisting of an amorphous, pure aluminum oxide were successfully fabricated via pyrophosphoric acid anodizing. The nanomorphologies of the anodic nanofibers can be controlled by the electrochemical conditions. Anodic tungsten oxide nanofibers can also be fabricated by pyrophosphoric acid anodizing. The aluminum surface covered by the anodic alumina nanofibers exhibited ultra-fast superhydrophilic behavior, with a contact angle of less than 1°, within 1 second. Such ultra-narrow nanofibers can be used for various nanoapplications including catalysts, wettability control, and electronic devices.

  18. Ultra-High Density Single Nanometer-Scale Anodic Alumina Nanofibers Fabricated by Pyrophosphoric Acid Anodizing

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Nishinaga, Osamu; Nakajima, Daiki; Kawashima, Jun; Natsui, Shungo; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2014-01-01

    Anodic oxide fabricated by anodizing has been widely used for nanostructural engineering, but the nanomorphology is limited to only two oxides: anodic barrier and porous oxides. Therefore, the discovery of an additional anodic oxide with a unique nanofeature would expand the applicability of anodizing. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a third-generation anodic oxide, specifically, anodic alumina nanofibers, by anodizing in a new electrolyte, pyrophosphoric acid. Ultra-high density single nanometer-scale anodic alumina nanofibers (1010 nanofibers/cm2) consisting of an amorphous, pure aluminum oxide were successfully fabricated via pyrophosphoric acid anodizing. The nanomorphologies of the anodic nanofibers can be controlled by the electrochemical conditions. Anodic tungsten oxide nanofibers can also be fabricated by pyrophosphoric acid anodizing. The aluminum surface covered by the anodic alumina nanofibers exhibited ultra-fast superhydrophilic behavior, with a contact angle of less than 1°, within 1 second. Such ultra-narrow nanofibers can be used for various nanoapplications including catalysts, wettability control, and electronic devices. PMID:25491282

  19. The Delayed Fracture of Aluminum Alloys, End of Year Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    Corrosion Cracking of Maraging Steel ," Corrosion NACE, 1971, vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 429-433. 17. J.C.M. Li, R.A. Oriani, and L.S. Darken: "The...Park, OH, 1974, p. 274. 32. M.V. Hyatt and M.O. Speidel: Chapter 4 of Stress- Corrosion Cracking in High Strength Steels and in Titanium and Aluminum...reverse side it necessary and identify by block number) Aluminum alloys, stress corrosion cracking, oxide film, Auger electron spectroscopy, Mode I

  20. Grain-scale investigations of deformation heterogeneities in aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güler, Baran; Şimşek, Ülke; Yalçınkaya, Tuncay; Efe, Mert

    2018-05-01

    The anisotropic deformation of Aluminum alloys at micron scale exhibits localized deformation, which has negative implications on the macroscale mechanical and forming behavior. The scope of this work is twofold. Firstly, micro-scale deformation heterogeneities affecting forming behavior of aluminum alloys is investigated through experimental microstructure analysis at large strains and various strain paths. The effects of initial texture, local grain misorientation, and strain paths on the strain localizations are established. In addition to uniaxial tension condition, deformation heterogeneities are also investigated under equibiaxial tension condition to determine the strain path effects on the localization behavior. Secondly, the morphology and the crystallographic data obtained from the experiments is transferred to Abaqus software, in order to predict both macroscopic response and the microstructure evolution though crystal plasticity finite element simulations. The model parameters are identified through the comparison with experiments and the capability of the model to capture real material response is discussed as well.

  1. Stuy on Fatigue Life of Aluminum Alloy Considering Fretting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Maosheng; Zhao, Hongqiang; Wang, Yunxiang; Chen, Xiaofei; Fan, Jiali

    2018-01-01

    To study the influence of fretting on Aluminum Alloy, a global finite element model considering fretting was performed using the commercial code ABAQUS. With which a new model for predicting fretting fatigue life has been presented based on friction work. The rationality and effectiveness of the model were validated according to the contrast of experiment life and predicting life. At last influence factor on fretting fatigue life of aerial aluminum alloy was investigated with the model. The results revealed that fretting fatigue life decreased monotonously with the increasing of normal load and then became constant at higher pressures. At low normal load, fretting fatigue life was found to increase with increase in the pad radius. At high normal load, however, the fretting fatigue life remained almost unchanged with changes in the fretting pad radius. The bulk stress amplitude had the dominant effect on fretting fatigue life. The fretting fatigue life diminished as the bulk stress amplitude increased.

  2. [Research of the surface oxide film on anodizing Ni-Cr porcelain alloy].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Song; Sun, Hong-Chen; Zhang, Jing-Wei; Li, Zong-Hui

    2006-08-01

    To study the shape, thickness and oxide percentage of major metal element of oxide film on Ni-Cr porcelain alloy after anodizing pretreatment. 10 samples were made and divided into 2 groups at random. Then after surface pretreatment, the oxide films of two samples of each group were analyzed using electronic scanning microscope. The rest 3 samples were measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Lightly selective solution appeared because the different component parts of the alloy have dissimilar electrode, whose dissolve velocity were quite unlike. The sample's metal surface expanded, so the mechanical interlocking of porcelain and metal increased bond strength. The thickness of oxide film was 1.72 times of the control samples. The oxide percentage of major metal elements such as Cr, Ni and Mo were higher, especially Cr. It initially involved the formation of a thin oxide bound to the alloy and second, the ability of the formed oxide to saturate the porcelain, completing the chemical bond of porcelain to metal. The method of anodizing Ni-Cr porcelain alloy can easily control the forming of oxide film which was thin and its surface pattern was uniform. It is repeated and a good method of surface pretreatment before firing cycle.

  3. Glassy Metal Alloy Nanofiber Anodes Employing Graphene Wrapping Layer: Toward Ultralong-Cycle-Life Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji-Won; Ryu, Won-Hee; Shin, Jungwoo; Park, Kyusung; Kim, Il-Doo

    2015-07-28

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si) has been intensively explored as one of the most attractive candidates for high-capacity and long-cycle-life anode in Li-ion batteries (LIBs) primarily because of its reduced volume expansion characteristic (∼280%) compared to crystalline Si anodes (∼400%) after full Li(+) insertion. Here, we report one-dimensional (1-D) electrospun Si-based metallic glass alloy nanofibers (NFs) with an optimized composition of Si60Sn12Ce18Fe5Al3Ti2. On the basis of careful compositional tailoring of Si alloy NFs, we found that Ce plays the most important role as a glass former in the formation of the metallic glass alloy. Moreover, Si-based metallic glass alloy NFs were wrapped by reduced graphene oxide sheets (specifically Si60Sn12Ce18Fe5Al3Ti2 NFs@rGO), which can prevent the direct exposure of a-Si alloy NFs to the liquid electrolyte and stabilize the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layers on the surfaces of rGO sheets while facilitating electron transport. The metallic glass nanofibers exhibited superior electrochemical cell performance as an anode: (i) Si60Sn12Ce18Fe5Al3Ti2 NFs show a high specific capacity of 1017 mAh g(-1) up to 400 cycles at 0.05C with negligible capacity loss as well as superior cycling performance (nearly 99.9% capacity retention even after 2000 cycles at 0.5C); (ii) Si60Sn12Ce18Fe5Al3Ti2 NFs@rGO reveals outstanding rate behavior (569.77 mAh g(-1) after 2000 cycles at 0.5C and a reversible capacity of around 370 mAh g(-1) at 4C). We demonstrate the potential suitability of multicomponent a-Si alloy NFs as a long-cycling anode material.

  4. Process for producing a high emittance coating and resulting article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Huong G. (Inventor); O'Brien, Dudley L. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Process for anodizing aluminum or its alloys to obtain a surface particularly having high infrared emittance by anodizing an aluminum or aluminum alloy substrate surface in an aqueous sulfuric acid solution at elevated temperature and by a step-wise current density procedure, followed by sealing the resulting anodized surface. In a preferred embodiment the aluminum or aluminum alloy substrate is first alkaline cleaned and then chemically brightened in an acid bath The resulting cleaned substrate is anodized in a 15% by weight sulfuric acid bath maintained at a temperature of 30.degree. C. Anodizing is carried out by a step-wise current density procedure at 19 amperes per square ft. (ASF) for 20 minutes, 15 ASF for 20 minutes and 10 ASF for 20 minutes. After anodizing the sample is sealed by immersion in water at 200.degree. F. and then air dried. The resulting coating has a high infrared emissivity of about 0.92 and a solar absorptivity of about 0.2, for a 5657 aluminum alloy, and a relatively thick anodic coating of about 1 mil.

  5. Antimicrobial properties of ternary eutectic aluminum alloys.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Claudia; Hans, Michael; Hein, Christina; Dennstedt, Anne; Mücklich, Frank; Rettberg, Petra; Hellweg, Christine Elisabeth; Leichert, Lars Ingo; Rensing, Christopher; Moeller, Ralf

    2018-06-27

    Several Escherichia coli deletion mutants of the Keio collection were selected for analysis to better understand which genes may play a key role in copper or silver homeostasis. Each of the selected E. coli mutants had a deletion of a single gene predicted to encode proteins for homologous recombination or contained functions directly linked to copper or silver transport or transformation. The survival of these strains on pure copper surfaces, stainless steel, and alloys of aluminum, copper and/or silver was investigated. When exposed to pure copper surfaces, E. coli ΔcueO was the most sensitive, whereas E. coli ΔcopA was the most resistant amongst the different strains tested. However, we observed a different trend in sensitivities in E. coli strains upon exposure to alloys of the system Al-Ag-Cu. While minor antimicrobial effects were detected after exposure of E. coli ΔcopA and E. coli ΔrecA to Al-Ag alloys, no effect was detected after exposure to Al-Cu alloys. The release of copper ions and cell-associated copper ion concentrations were determined for E. coli ΔcopA and the wild-type E. coli after exposure to pure copper surfaces. Altogether, compared to binary alloys, ternary eutectic alloys (Al-Ag-Cu) had the highest antimicrobial effect and thus, warrant further investigation.

  6. The Cryogenic Properties of Several Aluminum-Beryllium Alloys and a Beryllium Oxide Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamwell, Wayne R.; McGill, Preston B.

    2003-01-01

    Performance related mechanical properties for two aluminum-beryllium (Al-Be) alloys and one beryllium-oxide (BeO) material were developed at cryogenic temperatures. Basic mechanical properties (Le., ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, percent elongation, and elastic modulus were obtained for the aluminum-beryllium alloy, AlBeMetl62 at cryogenic [-195.5"C (-320 F) and -252.8"C (-423"F)I temperatures. Basic mechanical properties for the Be0 material were obtained at cyrogenic [- 252.8"C (-423"F)] temperatures. Fracture properties were obtained for the investment cast alloy Beralcast 363 at cryogenic [-252.8"C (-423"F)] temperatures. The AlBeMetl62 material was extruded, the Be0 material was hot isostatic pressing (HIP) consolidated, and the Beralcast 363 material was investment cast.

  7. Effect of Holding Pressure on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of A356 Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Huarui; Ma, Zhen; Jia, Lina; Zhang, Hu

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the effect of holding pressure on microstructure and mechanical properties of low-pressure die cast A356 aluminum alloy was investigated. The results showed that the application of high holding pressure (300 kPa) generated castings with denser structure and superior mechanical properties. By increasing the holding pressure up to 300 kPa, the size of secondary dendrite arm spacing greatly reduced by 22.7% at the cooling rate of 1°C/s and decreased by 12.8% at 10°C/s. The Feret's diameter and aspect ratio of eutectic silicon particles decreased by 8.4 and 5.1% at the cooling rate of 1°C/s and decreased by 9.3 and 6.4% at 10°C/s, respectively. Meanwhile, the density of A356 aluminum alloy increased to 2.678 g/cm3 and the area fraction of porosity decreased to 0.035%. Thus, tensile properties of A356 aluminum alloy obtained at high holding pressure were enhanced, especially the ductility. All these could be associated with the better filling capability and faster cooling rate caused by high holding pressure. In the analytical range of experimental conditions, the correlation of mechanical properties with process parameters was established by statistical models to predict the ultimate tensile strength and elongation of low-pressure die cast A356 aluminum alloy.

  8. The application of the barrier-type anodic oxidation method to thickness testing of aluminum films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianwen; Yao, Manwen; Xiao, Ruihua; Yang, Pengfei; Hu, Baofu; Yao, Xi

    2014-09-01

    The thickness of the active metal oxide film formed from a barrier-type anodizing process is directly proportional to its formation voltage. The thickness of the consumed portion of the metal film is also corresponding to the formation voltage. This principle can be applied to the thickness test of the metal films. If the metal film is growing on a dielectric substrate, when the metal film is exhausted in an anodizing process, because of the high electrical resistance of the formed oxide film, a sudden increase of the recorded voltage during the anodizing process would occur. Then, the thickness of the metal film can be determined from this voltage. As an example, aluminum films are tested and discussed in this work. This method is quite simple and is easy to perform with high precision.

  9. The thermomechanical stability of micro-solid oxide fuel cells fabricated on anodized aluminum oxide membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Chang-Woo; Lee, Jae-Il; Kim, Ki-Bum; Lee, Hae-Weon; Lee, Jong-Ho; Son, Ji-Won

    2012-07-01

    The thermomechanical stability of micro-solid oxide fuel cells (micro-SOFCs) fabricated on an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane template is investigated. The full structure consists of the following layers: AAO membrane (600 nm)/Pt anode/YSZ electrolyte (900 nm)/porous Pt cathode. The utilization of a 600-nm-thick AAO membrane significantly improves the thermomechanical stability due to its well-known honeycomb-shaped nanopore structure. Moreover, the Pt anode layer deposited in between the AAO membrane and the YSZ electrolyte preserves its integrity in terms of maintaining the triple-phase boundary (TPB) and electrical conductivity during high-temperature operation. Both of these results guarantee thermomechanical stability of the micro-SOFC and extend the cell lifetime, which is one of the most critical issues in the fabrication of freestanding membrane-type micro-SOFCs.

  10. Characterization of Molybdate Conversion Coatings for Aluminum Alloys by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina

    2000-01-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate the corrosion inhibiting properties of newly developed proprietary molybdate conversion coatings on aluminum alloy 2024-T3 under immersion in aerated 5% (w/w) NaCl. Corrosion potential and EIS measurements were gathered for six formulations of the coating at several immersion times for two weeks. Nyquist as well as Bode plots of the data were obtained. The conversion-coated alloy panels showed an increase in the corrosion potential during the first 24 hours of immersion that later subsided and approached a steady value. Corrosion potential measurements indicated that formulations A, D, and F exhibit a protective effect on aluminum 2024-T3. The EIS spectra of the conversion-coated alloy were characterized by an impedance that is higher than the impedance of the bare alloy at all the immersion times. The low frequency impedance, Z(sub lf) (determined from the value at 0.05 Hz) for the conversion-coated alloy was higher at all the immersion times than that of the bare panel. This indicates improvement of corrosion resistance with addition of the molybdate conversion coating. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the presence of cracks in the coating and the presence of cubic crystals believed to be calcium carbonate. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) of the test panels revealed the presence of high levels of aluminum, oxygen, and calcium but did not detect the presence of molybdenum on the test panels. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated the presence of less than 0.01 atomic percent molybdenum on the surface of the coating.

  11. Aluminum-Silicon Alloy Having Improved Properties at Elevated Temperatures and Articles Cast Therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Chen, Po-Shou (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An aluminum alloy suitable for high temperature applications, such as heavy duty pistons and other internal combustion applications. having the following composition, by weight percent (wt %): Silicon: 11.0-14.0; Copper: 5.6-8.0; Iron: 0-0.8; Magnesium: 0.5-1.5; Nickel: 0.05-0.9; Manganese: 0.5-1.5; Titanium: 0.05-1.2; Zirconium: 0.12-1.2; Vanadium: 0.05-1.2; Zinc: 0.005-0.9; Strontium: 0.001-0.1; Aluminum: balance. In this alloy the ratio of silicon:magnesium is 10-25, and the ratio of copper:magnesium is 4-15. After an article is cast from this alloy, the article is treated in a solutionizing step which dissolves unwanted precipitates and reduces any segregation present in the original alloy. After this solutionizing step, the article is quenched, and is then aged at an elevated temperature for maximum strength.

  12. Characterization of the corrosion resistance of biologically active solutions: The effects of anodizing and welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Daniel W.

    1991-01-01

    An understanding of fabrication processes, metallurgy, electrochemistry, and microbiology is crucial to the resolution of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) problems. The object of this effort was to use AC impedance spectroscopy to characterize the corrosion resistance of Type II anodized aluminum alloy 2219-T87 in sterile and biologically active media and to examine the corrosion resistance of 316L, alloy 2219-T87, and titanium alloy 6-4 in the welded and unwelded conditions. The latter materials were immersed in sterile and biologically active media and corrosion currents were measured using the polarization resistance (DC) technique.

  13. Air-stable and freestanding lithium alloy/graphene foil as an alternative to lithium metal anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jie; Zhou, Guangmin; Yan, Kai; Xie, Jin; Li, Yuzhang; Liao, Lei; Jin, Yang; Liu, Kai; Hsu, Po-Chun; Wang, Jiangyan; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Cui, Yi

    2017-10-01

    Developing high-capacity anodes is a must to improve the energy density of lithium batteries for electric vehicle applications. Alloy anodes are one promising option, but without pre-stored lithium, the overall energy density is limited by the low-capacity lithium metal oxide cathodes. Recently, lithium metal has been revived as a high-capacity anode, but faces several challenges owing to its high reactivity and uncontrolled dendrite growth. Here, we show a series of Li-containing foils inheriting the desirable properties of alloy anodes and pure metal anodes. They consist of densely packed LixM (M = Si, Sn, or Al) nanoparticles encapsulated by large graphene sheets. With the protection of graphene sheets, the large and freestanding LixM/graphene foils are stable in different air conditions. With fully expanded LixSi confined in the highly conductive and chemically stable graphene matrix, this LixSi/graphene foil maintains a stable structure and cyclability in half cells (400 cycles with 98% capacity retention). This foil is also paired with high-capacity Li-free V2O5 and sulfur cathodes to achieve stable full-cell cycling.

  14. Air-stable and freestanding lithium alloy/graphene foil as an alternative to lithium metal anodes

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Jie; Zhou, Guangmin; Yan, Kai; ...

    2017-07-10

    Developing high-capacity anodes is a must to improve the energy density of lithium batteries for electric vehicle applications. Alloy anodes are one promising option, but without pre-stored lithium, the overall energy density is limited by the low-capacity lithium metal oxide cathodes. Recently, lithium metal has been revived as a high-capacity anode, but faces several challenges owing to its high reactivity and uncontrolled dendrite growth. Here, we show a series of Li-containing foils inheriting the desirable properties of alloy anodes and pure metal anodes. They consist of densely packed Li xM (M = Si, Sn, or Al) nanoparticles encapsulated by largemore » graphene sheets. With the protection of graphene sheets, the large and freestanding Li xM/graphene foils are stable in different air conditions. With fully expanded Li xSi confined in the highly conductive and chemically stable graphene matrix, this LixSi/graphene foil maintains a stable structure and cyclability in half cells (400 cycles with 98% capacity retention). As a result, this foil is also paired with high-capacity Li-free V 2O 5 and sulfur cathodes to achieve stable full-cell cycling.« less

  15. Air-stable and freestanding lithium alloy/graphene foil as an alternative to lithium metal anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jie; Zhou, Guangmin; Yan, Kai

    Developing high-capacity anodes is a must to improve the energy density of lithium batteries for electric vehicle applications. Alloy anodes are one promising option, but without pre-stored lithium, the overall energy density is limited by the low-capacity lithium metal oxide cathodes. Recently, lithium metal has been revived as a high-capacity anode, but faces several challenges owing to its high reactivity and uncontrolled dendrite growth. Here, we show a series of Li-containing foils inheriting the desirable properties of alloy anodes and pure metal anodes. They consist of densely packed Li xM (M = Si, Sn, or Al) nanoparticles encapsulated by largemore » graphene sheets. With the protection of graphene sheets, the large and freestanding Li xM/graphene foils are stable in different air conditions. With fully expanded Li xSi confined in the highly conductive and chemically stable graphene matrix, this LixSi/graphene foil maintains a stable structure and cyclability in half cells (400 cycles with 98% capacity retention). As a result, this foil is also paired with high-capacity Li-free V 2O 5 and sulfur cathodes to achieve stable full-cell cycling.« less

  16. High energy density aluminum battery

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  17. Finite element analysis of the upsetting of a 5056 aluminum alloy sample with consideration of its microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, S. V.; Chaplygin, K. K.

    2017-12-01

    Computer simulation of upsetting the finite element models (FEMs) of an isotropic 5056 aluminum alloy sample and a 5056 aluminum alloy sample with consideration of microstructure is carried out. The stress and strain distribution patterns at different process stages are obtained. The strain required for the deformation of the FEMs of 5056 alloy samples is determined. The influence of the material microstructure on the stress-strain behavior and technological parameters are demonstrated.

  18. Characterization of Localized Filament Corrosion Products at the Anodic Head on a Model Mg-Zn-Zr Alloy Surface

    DOE PAGES

    Rossouw, David; Fu, Dong; Leonard, Donovan N.; ...

    2017-02-15

    In this study, localized filament corrosion products at the anodic head on a model Mg-1%Zn-0.4%Zr alloy surface were characterized by electron microscopy techniques of site-specific lamella prepared by focused ion beam milling. It is revealed that the anodic head propagates underneath a largely intact thin and dense MgO surface film and comprises dense aggregates of nano-crystalline MgO within a nano-porous Mg(OH) 2 network. In conclusion, the findings contribute new supportive direct imaging insight into the source of the enhanced H 2 evolution that accompanies anodic dissolution of Mg and its alloys.

  19. Characterization of Localized Filament Corrosion Products at the Anodic Head on a Model Mg-Zn-Zr Alloy Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Rossouw, David; Fu, Dong; Leonard, Donovan N.

    In this study, localized filament corrosion products at the anodic head on a model Mg-1%Zn-0.4%Zr alloy surface were characterized by electron microscopy techniques of site-specific lamella prepared by focused ion beam milling. It is revealed that the anodic head propagates underneath a largely intact thin and dense MgO surface film and comprises dense aggregates of nano-crystalline MgO within a nano-porous Mg(OH) 2 network. In conclusion, the findings contribute new supportive direct imaging insight into the source of the enhanced H 2 evolution that accompanies anodic dissolution of Mg and its alloys.

  20. Fabrication of porous anodic alumina using normal anodization and pulse anodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, I. K.; Yam, F. K.; Hassan, Z.

    2015-05-01

    This article reports on the fabrication of porous anodic alumina (PAA) by two-step anodizing the low purity commercial aluminum sheets at room temperature. Different variations of the second-step anodization were conducted: normal anodization (NA) with direct current potential difference; pulse anodization (PA) alternate between potential differences of 10 V and 0 V; hybrid pulse anodization (HPA) alternate between potential differences of 10 V and -2 V. The method influenced the film homogeneity of the PAA and the most homogeneous structure was obtained via PA. The morphological properties are further elucidated using measured current-transient profiles. The absent of current rise profile in PA indicates the anodization temperature and dissolution of the PAA structure were greatly reduced by alternating potential differences.

  1. Surface analysis of anodized aluminum clamps from NASA-LDEF satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grammer, H. L.; Wightman, J. P.; Young, Philip R.

    1992-01-01

    Surface analysis results of selected anodized aluminum clamps containing black (Z306) and white (A276) paints which received nearly six years of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) exposure on the Long Duration Exposure Facility are reported. Surface analytical techniques, including x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive analysis by x-ray (SEM/EDAX), showed significant differences in the surface composition of these materials depending upon the position on the LDEF. Differences in the surface composition are attributed to varying amounts of atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet radiation (VUV). Silicon containing compounds were the primary contaminant detected on the materials.

  2. Perforation of thin aluminum alloy plates by blunt projectiles: An experimental and numerical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, G.; Zhang, W.

    2014-04-01

    Reducing the armor weight has become a research focus in terms of armored material. Due to high strength-to-density ratio, aluminum alloy has become a potential light armored material. In this study, both lab-scale ballistic test and finite element simulation were adopted to examine the ballistic resistance of aluminum alloy targets. Blunt high strength steel projectiles with 12.7 mm diameter were launched by light gas gun against 3.3 mm thickness 7A04 aluminum alloy plates at a velocity of 90~170 m/s. The ballistic limit velocity was obtained. Plugging failure and obvious structure deformation of targets were observed. Corresponding 2D finite element simulations were conducted by ABAQUS/EXPLICIT combined with material performance testing. The validity of numerical simulations was verified by comparing with the experimental results. Detailed analysis of the failure modes and characters of the targets were carried out to reveal the target damage mechanism combined with the numerical simulation.

  3. THE ACCURATE DETERMINATION OF MICROGRAM AMOUNTS OF BORON IN ALUMINUM AND ALUMINUM-URANIUM ALLOYS BY THE METHYL BORATE-CURCUMIN-OXALIC ACID METHOD

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, I.H.

    1958-10-01

    A method was developed for the deternninntion of boron in aluminum and aluminum--uranium alloys in which the boron concentration is 30 ppm or more. Boron is separated by distillation as methyl borate from a hydrochloric acid solution of the alloy and is determined spectrophotometrically by the boric acid-- curcumin-oxalic acid color reaction. A precision of plus or minus 2% is attain able when the determination is penformed with the utmost care. The accuracy is such that no bias need be given when a calibration curve is used. (auth)

  4. Lasing of a Solid-State Active Element Based on Anodized Aluminum Oxide Film Doped with Rhodamine 6G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelkovnikov, V. V.; Lyubas, G. A.; Korotaev, S. V.; Kopylova, T. N.; Tel'minov, E. N.; Gadirov, R. M.; Nikonova, E. N.; Nikonov, S. Yu.; Solodova, T. A.; Novikov, V. A.

    2017-04-01

    Spectral-luminescent and lasing characteristics of rhodamine 6G in porous aluminum oxide films anodized under various conditions are investigated. Lasing is obtained without external resonator in the longitudinal scheme under excitation by the second harmonic of Nd3+:YAG-laser radiation. The threshold pump power densities are in the range 3.5-15 MW/cm2 depending on the anodizing conditions. Wherein, the lasing line narrows down from 12 to 5 nm.

  5. Effect of atomic layer deposition coatings on the surface structure of anodic aluminum oxide membranes.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Guang; Elam, Jeffrey W; Feng, Hao; Han, Catherine Y; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Iton, Lennox E; Curtiss, Larry A; Pellin, Michael J; Kung, Mayfair; Kung, Harold; Stair, Peter C

    2005-07-28

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes were characterized by UV Raman and FT-IR spectroscopies before and after coating the entire surface (including the interior pore walls) of the AAO membranes by atomic layer deposition (ALD). UV Raman reveals the presence of aluminum oxalate in bulk AAO, both before and after ALD coating with Al2O3, because of acid anion incorporation during the anodization process used to produce AAO membranes. The aluminum oxalate in AAO exhibits remarkable thermal stability, not totally decomposing in air until exposed to a temperature >900 degrees C. ALD was used to cover the surface of AAO with either Al2O3 or TiO2. Uncoated AAO have FT-IR spectra with two separate types of OH stretches that can be assigned to isolated OH groups and hydrogen-bonded surface OH groups, respectively. In contrast, AAO surfaces coated by ALD with Al2O3 display a single, broad band of hydrogen-bonded OH groups. AAO substrates coated with TiO2 show a more complicated behavior. UV Raman results show that very thin TiO2 coatings (1 nm) are not stable upon annealing to 500 degrees C. In contrast, thicker coatings can totally cover the contaminated alumina surface and are stable at temperatures in excess of 500 degrees C.

  6. Aluminum alloy/alumina-based ceramic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lebeau, T.; Strom-Olsen, J.O.; Gruzleski, J.E.

    1995-07-01

    Wetting experiments were performed on eutectic ZrO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (ZA), ZrO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} (ZAT), and ZrO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2} (ZAS) ceramic substrates with different Al alloys. Four major variables were tested to study the wetting behavior of the different ceramic-metal systems. Variable include holding time, melt temperature, ally, and ceramic compositions. An experimental setup was designed to measure in situ contact angles using the sessile drop method. For any ceramic substrate, a temperature over 950 C was necessary to observe an equilibrium wetting angle of less than 90{degree} with pure Al; by alloying the aluminum, wettingmore » could be observed at lower temperatures ({theta} = 76--86{degree} at 900 C for Al-10 wt. % Si, {theta} {approximately}72{degree} at 850 C for Al-2.4 wt. % Mg) forming clean interfaces. Finally, ZAS specimens reacted with molten Al alloys over 900 C to produce Zr-Al based intermetallics at the metal-ceramic interface.« less

  7. A facile and efficient approach for pore-opening detection of anodic aluminum oxide membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jiewu; Wu, Yucheng; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Hongmei; Xu, Guangqing; Zhang, Xinyi

    2012-05-01

    The well aligned porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane is fabricated by a two-step anodization method. The oxide barrier layer of AAO membrane must be removed to get through-hole membrane for synthesizing nanowires and nanotubes of metals, semiconductors and conducting polymers. Removal of the barrier layer of oxide and pore-extending is of significant importance for the preparation of AAO membrane with through-hole pore morphology and desired pore diameter. The conventional method for pore opening is that AAO membrane after removing of aluminum substrate is immersed in chemical etching solution, which is completely empirical and results in catastrophic damage for AAO membrane frequently. A very simple and efficient approach based on capillary action for detecting pore opening of AAO membrane is introduced in this paper, this method can achieve the detection for pore opening visually and control the pore diameter precisely to get desired morphology and the pore diameter of AAO membrane. Two kinds of AAO membranes with different pore shape were obtained by different pore opening methods. In addition, one-dimensional gradient gold nanowires are also fabricated by electrodeposition based on AAO membranes.

  8. Chemical interactions and thermodynamic studies in aluminum alloy/molten salt systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Ramesh

    The recycling of aluminum and aluminum alloys such as Used Beverage Container (UBC) is done under a cover of molten salt flux based on (NaCl-KCl+fluorides). The reactions of aluminum alloys with molten salt fluxes have been investigated. Thermodynamic calculations are performed in the alloy/salt flux systems which allow quantitative predictions of the equilibrium compositions. There is preferential reaction of Mg in Al-Mg alloy with molten salt fluxes, especially those containing fluorides like NaF. An exchange reaction between Al-Mg alloy and molten salt flux has been demonstrated. Mg from the Al-Mg alloy transfers into the salt flux while Na from the salt flux transfers into the metal. Thermodynamic calculations indicated that the amount of Na in metal increases as the Mg content in alloy and/or NaF content in the reacting flux increases. This is an important point because small amounts of Na have a detrimental effect on the mechanical properties of the Al-Mg alloy. The reactions of Al alloys with molten salt fluxes result in the formation of bluish purple colored "streamers". It was established that the streamer is liquid alkali metal (Na and K in the case of NaCl-KCl-NaF systems) dissipating into the melt. The melts in which such streamers were observed are identified. The metal losses occurring due to reactions have been quantified, both by thermodynamic calculations and experimentally. A computer program has been developed to calculate ternary phase diagrams in molten salt systems from the constituting binary phase diagrams, based on a regular solution model. The extent of deviation of the binary systems from regular solution has been quantified. The systems investigated in which good agreement was found between the calculated and experimental phase diagrams included NaF-KF-LiF, NaCl-NaF-NaI and KNOsb3-TINOsb3-LiNOsb3. Furthermore, an insight has been provided on the interrelationship between the regular solution parameters and the topology of the phase

  9. Growth behavior of anodic porous alumina formed in malic acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2013-11-01

    The growth behavior of anodic porous alumina formed on aluminum by anodizing in malic acid solutions was investigated. High-purity aluminum plates were electropolished in CH3COOH/HClO4 solutions and then anodized in 0.5 M malic acid solutions at 293 K and constant cell voltages of 200-350 V. The anodic porous alumina grew on the aluminum substrate at voltages of 200-250 V, and a black, burned oxide film was formed at higher voltages. The nanopores of the anodic oxide were only formed at grain boundaries of the aluminum substrate during the initial stage of anodizing, and then the growth region extended to the entire aluminum surface as the anodizing time increased. The anodic porous alumina with several defects was formed by anodizing in malic acid solution at 250 V, and oxide cells were approximately 300-800 nm in diameter.

  10. Growth control of carbon nanotubes using by anodic aluminum oxide nano templates.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong Seob; Choi, Won Seek; Yi, Junsin; Lee, Jaehyeong

    2014-05-01

    Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) template prepared in acid electrolyte possess regular and highly anisotropic porous structure with pore diameter range from five to several hundred nanometers, and with a density of pores ranging from 10(9) to 10(11) cm(-2). AAO can be used as microfilters and templates for the growth of CNTs and metal or semiconductor nanowires. Varying anodizing conditions such as temperature, electrolyte, applied voltage, anodizing and widening time, one can control the diameter, the length, and the density of pores. In this work, we deposited Al thin film by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method to fabricate AAO nano template and synthesized multi-well carbon nanotubes on a glass substrate by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD). AAO nano-porous templates with various pore sizes and depths were introduced to control the dimension and density of CNT arrays. The AAO nano template was synthesize on glass by two-step anodization technique. The average diameter and interpore distance of AAO nano template are about 65 nm and 82 nm. The pore density and AAO nano template thickness are about 2.1 x 10(10) pores/cm2 and 1 microm, respectively. Aligned CNTs on the AAO nano template were synthesized by MPECVD at 650 degrees C with the Ni catalyst layer. The length and diameter of CNTs were grown 2 microm and 50 nm, respectively.

  11. Numerical Investigation on the Impact of Anode Change on Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Aluminum Smelting Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang; Gosselin, Louis; Fafard, Mario; Peng, Jianping; Li, Baokuan

    2016-04-01

    In order to understand the impact of anode change on heat transfer and magnetohydrodynamic flow in aluminum smelting cells, a transient three-dimensional (3D) coupled mathematical model has been developed. The solutions of the mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations were simultaneously implemented by the finite volume method with full coupling of the Joule heating and Lorentz force through solving the electrical potential equation. The volume of fluid approach was employed to describe the two-phase flow. The phase change of molten electrolyte (bath) as well as molten aluminum (metal) was modeled by an enthalpy-based technique, where the mushy zone is treated as a porous medium with a porosity equal to the liquid fraction. The effect of the new anode temperature on recovery time was also analyzed. A reasonable agreement between the test data and simulated results is obtained. The results indicate that the temperature of the bath under cold anodes first decreases reaching the minimal value and rises under the effect of increasing Joule heating, and finally returns to steady state. The colder bath decays the velocity, and the around ledge becomes thicker. The lowest temperature of the bath below new anodes increases from 1118 K to 1143 K (845 °C to 870 °C) with the new anode temperature ranging from 298 K to 498 K (25°C to 225°C), and the recovery time reduces from 22.5 to 20 hours.

  12. NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structure technology program supplement: Aluminum-based materials for high speed aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starke, E. A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This report on the NASA-UVa Light Aerospace Alloy and Structure Technology Program Supplement: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft covers the period from January 1, 1992 to June 30, 1992. The objective of the research is to develop aluminum alloys and aluminum matrix composites for the airframe which can efficiently perform in the HSCT environment for periods as long as 60,000 hours (certification for 120,000 hours) and, at the same time, meet the cost and weight requirements for an economically viable aircraft. Current industry baselines focus on flight at Mach 2.4. The research covers four major materials systems: (1) ingot metallurgy 2XXX, 6XXX, and 8XXX alloys, (2) powder metallurgy 2XXX alloys, (3) rapidly solidified, dispersion strengthened Al-Fe-X alloys, and (4) discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites. There are ten major tasks in the program which also include evaluation and trade-off studies by Boeing and Douglas aircraft companies.

  13. NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structures technology program supplement: Aluminum-based materials for high speed aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starke, E. A., Jr. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This report on the NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structure technology program supplement: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft covers the period from July 1, 1992. The objective of the research is to develop aluminum alloys and aluminum matrix composites for the airframe which can efficiently perform in the HSCT environment for periods as long as 60,000 hours (certification for 120,000 hours) and, at the same time, meet the cost and weight requirements for an economically viable aircraft. Current industry baselines focus on flight at Mach 2.4. The research covers four major materials systems: (1) Ingot metallurgy 2XXX, 6XXX, and 8XXX alloys, (2) Powder metallurgy 2XXX alloys, (3) Rapidly solidified, dispersion strengthened Al-Fe-X alloys, and (4) Discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites. There are ten major tasks in the program which also include evaluation and trade-off studies by Boeing and Douglas aircraft companies.

  14. Apatite Formation and Biocompatibility of a Low Young’s Modulus Ti-Nb-Sn Alloy Treated with Anodic Oxidation and Hot Water

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hidetatsu; Mori, Yu; Noro, Atsushi; Kogure, Atsushi; Kamimura, Masayuki; Yamada, Norikazu; Hanada, Shuji; Masahashi, Naoya; Itoi, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Ti-6Al-4V alloy is widely prevalent as a material for orthopaedic implants because of its good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. However, the discrepancy in Young’s modulus between metal prosthesis and human cortical bone sometimes induces clinical problems, thigh pain and bone atrophy due to stress shielding. We designed a Ti-Nb-Sn alloy with a low Young’s modulus to address problems of stress disproportion. In this study, we assessed effects of anodic oxidation with or without hot water treatment on the bone-bonding characteristics of a Ti-Nb-Sn alloy. We examined surface analyses and apatite formation by SEM micrographs, XPS and XRD analyses. We also evaluated biocompatibility in experimental animal models by measuring failure loads with a pull-out test and by quantitative histomorphometric analyses. By SEM, abundant apatite formation was observed on the surface of Ti-Nb-Sn alloy discs treated with anodic oxidation and hot water after incubation in Hank’s solution. A strong peak of apatite formation was detected on the surface using XRD analyses. XPS analysis revealed an increase of the H2O fraction in O 1s XPS. Results of the pull-out test showed that the failure loads of Ti-Nb-Sn alloy rods treated with anodic oxidation and hot water was greater than those of untreated rods. Quantitative histomorphometric analyses indicated that anodic oxidation and hot water treatment induced higher new bone formation around the rods. Our findings indicate that Ti-Nb-Sn alloy treated with anodic oxidation and hot water showed greater capacity for apatite formation, stronger bone bonding and higher biocompatibility for osteosynthesis. Ti-Nb-Sn alloy treated with anodic oxidation and hot water treatment is a promising material for orthopaedic implants enabling higher osteosynthesis and lower stress disproportion. PMID:26914329

  15. Liquid oxygen LOX compatibility evaluations of aluminum lithium (Al-Li) alloys: Investigation of the Alcoa 2090 and MMC weldalite 049 alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diwan, Ravinder M.

    1989-01-01

    The behavior of liquid oxygen (LOX) compatibility of aluminum lithium (Al-Li) alloys is investigated. Alloy systems of Alcoa 2090, vintages 1 to 3, and of Martin Marietta Corporation (MMC) Weldalite 049 were evaluated for their behavior related to the LOX compatibility employing liquid oxygen impact test conditions under ambient pressures and up to 1000 psi. The developments of these aluminum lithium alloys are of critical and significant interest because of their lower densities and higher specific strengths and improved mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures. Of the different LOX impact tests carried out at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), it is seen that in certain test conditions at higher pressures, not all Al-Li alloys are LOX compatible. In case of any reactivity, it appears that lithium makes the material more sensitive at grain boundaries due to microstructural inhomogeneities and associated precipitate free zones (PFZ). The objectives were to identify and rationalize the microstructural mechanisms that could be relaxed to LOX compatibility behavior of the alloy system in consideration. The LOX compatibility behavior of Al-Li 2090 and Weldalite 049 is analyzed in detail using microstructural characterization techniques with light optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron microprobe analysis, and surface studies using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), electron spectroscopy in chemical analysis (ESCA) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Differences in the behavior of these aluminum lithium alloys are assessed and related to their chemistry, heat treatment conditions, and microstructural effects.

  16. Demonstration of the Impact of Thermomagnetic Processing on Cast Aluminum Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ludtka, Gerard Michael; Murphy, Bart L.; Rios, Orlando

    2017-10-01

    This project builds on an earlier Manufacturing Demonstration Facility Technical Collaboration phase 1 project to investigate application of high magnetic fields during solution heat treating and aging of three different cast aluminum alloys.

  17. Laser shocking of 2024 and 7075 aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauer, A. H.; Fairand, B. P.; Slater, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of laser generated stress waves on the microstructure, hardness, strength and stress corrosion resistance of 2024 and 7075 aluminum alloys was investigated. Pulsed CO2 and neodymium-glass lasers were used to determine the effect of wavelength and pulse duration on pressure generation and material property changes. No changes in material properties were observed with CO2 laser. The strength and hardness of 2024-T351 and the strength of 7075-T73 aluminum alloys were substantially improved by the stress wave environments generated with the neodymium-glass laser. The mechanical properties of 2024-T851 and 7075-T651 were unchanged by the laser treatment. The correlation of the laser shock data with published results of flyer plate experiments demonstrated that a threshold pressure needed to be exceeded before strengthening and hardening could occur. Peak pressures generated by the pulsed laser source were less than 7.0 GPa which was below the threshold pressure required to change the mechanical properties of 2024-T851 and 7075-T651. Corrosion studies indicated that laser shocking increased the resistance to local attack in 2024-T351 and 7075-T651.

  18. Effects of high frequency current in welding aluminum alloy 6061

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, R. E.

    1968-01-01

    Uncontrolled high frequency current causes cracking in the heat-affected zone of aluminum alloy 6061 weldments during tungsten inert gas ac welding. Cracking developed when an improperly adjusted superimposed high frequency current was agitating the semimolten metal in the areas of grain boundary.

  19. The Special Features of the Deformation Behavior of an Ultrafine-Grained Aluminum Alloy of the Al-Mg-Li System at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naydenkin, E. V.; Mishin, I. P.; Ivanov, K. V.

    2015-04-01

    The special features of the deformation behavior of an ultrafine-grained aluminum alloy produced by severe plastic deformation are investigated. Unlike ultrafine-grained pure aluminum, the second-phase particles precipitated in the bulk and at the grain boundaries of the alloy are shown to hinder the development of grain boundary sliding and plastic strain localization. This increases the length of the strain hardening stage and uniformity of elongation of a heterogeneous aluminum alloy specimen as compared to pure aluminum.

  20. Torsional Stability of Aluminum Alloy Seamless Tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R L; Paul, D A

    1939-01-01

    Torsion tests were made on 51ST aluminum-alloy seamless tubes having diameter-to-thickness ratios of from 77 to 139 and length-to-diameter ratios of from 1 to 60. The torsional strengths developed in the tubes which failed elastically (all tubes having lengths greater than 2 to 6 times the diameter) were in most cases within 10 percent of the value indicated by the theories of Donnel, Timoshenko, and Sturm, assuming a condition of simply supported ends.

  1. Laser Overlap Welding of Zinc-coated Steel on Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashani, Hamed Tasalloti; Kah, Paul; Martikainen, Jukka

    Local reinforcement of aluminum with laser welded patches of zinc-coated steel can effectively contribute to crashworthiness, durability and weight reduction of car body. However, the weld between Zn-coated steel and aluminum is commonly susceptible to defects such as spatter, cavity and crack. The vaporization of Zn is commonly known as the main source of instability in the weld pool and cavity formation, especially in a lap joint configuration. Cracks are mainly due to the brittle intermetallic compounds growing at the weld interface of aluminum and steel. This study provides a review on the main metallurgical and mechanical concerns regarding laser overlap welding of Zn-coated steel on Al-alloy and the methods used by researchers to avoid the weld defects related to the vaporization of Zn and the poor metallurgical compatibility between steel and aluminum.

  2. Investigation of Fatigue Crack-Growth Resistance of Aluminum Alloys under Spectrum Loading.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    Effects on Fatigue Crack Progation in 2024 -T3 Aluminum Alloy ," Eng. Frac. Mech, Vol...results ("a" from 6 to 13 mm) can be made (Figure 20a): 1. The 2XXX alloys 2020-T651, 2324-T39, and 2024 - T351 had longer spectrum fatigue lives than the...strength and spectrum life exists at all three maximum peak stress levels for the 2024 alloy , with the lower yield strength T351 condition having

  3. Simulation of 7050 Wrought Aluminum Alloy Wheel Die Forging and its Defects Analysis based on DEFORM

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Shiquan; Yi Youping; Zhang Yuxun

    2010-06-15

    Defects such as folding, intercrystalline cracking and flow lines outcrop are very likely to occur in the forging of aluminum alloy. Moreover, it is difficult to achieve the optimal set of process parameters just by trial and error within an industrial environment. In producing 7050 wrought aluminum alloy wheel, a rigid-plastic finite element method (FEM) analysis has been performed to optimize die forging process. Processing parameters were analyzed, focusing on the effects of punch speed, friction factor and temperature. Meanwhile, mechanism as well as the evolution with respect to the defects of the wrought wheel was studied in details. Frommore » an analysis of the results, isothermal die forging was proposed for producing 7050 aluminum alloy wheel with good mechanical properties. Finally, verification experiment was carried out on hydropress.« less

  4. High strength cast aluminum alloy development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druschitz, Edward A.

    The goal of this research was to understand how chemistry and processing affect the resulting microstructure and mechanical properties of high strength cast aluminum alloys. Two alloy systems were investigated including the Al-Cu-Ag and the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu systems. Processing variables included solidification under pressure (SUP) and heat treatment. This research determined the range in properties that can be achieved in BAC 100(TM) (Al-Cu micro-alloyed with Ag, Mn, Zr, and V) and generated sufficient property data for design purposes. Tensile, stress corrosion cracking, and fatigue testing were performed. CuAl2 and Al-Cu-Fe-Mn intermetallics were identified as the ductility limiting flaws. A solution treatment of 75 hours or longer was needed to dissolve most of the intermetallic CuAl 2. The Al-Cu-Fe-Mn intermetallic was unaffected by heat treatment. These results indicate that faster cooling rates, a reduction in copper concentration and a reduction in iron concentration might increase the ductility of the alloy by decreasing the size and amount of the intermetallics that form during solidification. Six experimental Al-Zn-Mg-Cu series alloys were produced. Zinc concentrations of 8 and 12wt% and Zn/Mg ratios of 1.5 to 5.5 were tested. Copper was held constant at 0.9%. Heat treating of the alloys was optimized for maximum hardness. Al-Zn-Mg-Cu samples were solution treated at 441°C (826°F) for 4 hours before ramping to 460°C (860°F) for 75 hours and then aged at 120°C (248°F) for 75 hours. X-ray diffraction showed that the age hardening precipitates in most of these alloys was the T phase (Mg32Zn 31.9Al17.1). Tensile testing of the alloys showed that the best mechanical properties were obtained in the lowest alloy condition. Chilled Al-8.2Zn-1.4Mg-0.9Cu solidified under pressure resulted in an alloy with a yield strength of 468MPa (68ksi), tensile strength of 525MPa (76ksi) and an elongation of 9%.

  5. Anodized aluminum coatings for thermal control. I - Coating process and stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alwitt, R. S.; Mcclung, R. C.; Jacobs, S.

    1992-01-01

    Anodized aluminum is a candidate material for use as a thermal radiator surface on Space Station Freedom. Here, results of measurements of coating stress at room temperature are presented. The effects of coating process conditions and also subsequent exposure to different humidities, from above ambient to vacuum, are reported. The most important observation with regard to space applications is that the coating stress is very dependent on humidity, changing from compressive at ambient humidity to strongly tensile in 10 exp -6 torr vacuum. The increase in stress is accompanied by loss of water from the coating, and the process is reversible.

  6. Attachment of Porphyromonas gingivalis to corroded commercially pure titanium and titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy.

    PubMed

    Barão, Valentim A R; Yoon, Cheon Joo; Mathew, Mathew T; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Wu, Christine D; Sukotjo, Cortino

    2014-09-01

    Titanium dental material can become corroded because of electrochemical interaction in the oral environment. The corrosion process may result in surface modification. It was hypothesized that a titanium surface modified by corrosion may enhance the attachment of periodontal pathogens. This study evaluates the effects of corroded titanium surfaces on the attachment of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) and titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) disks were used. Disks were anodically polarized in a standard three-electrode setting in a simulated oral environment with artificial saliva at pH levels of 3.0, 6.5, or 9.0. Non-corroded disks were used as controls. Surface roughness was measured before and after corrosion. Disks were inoculated with P. gingivalis and incubated anaerobically at 37°C. After 6 hours, the disks with attached P. gingivalis were stained with crystal violet, and attachment was expressed based on dye absorption at optical density of 550 nm. All assays were performed independently three times in triplicate. Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance, the Tukey honestly significant difference test, t test, and Pearson's correlation test (α = 0.05). Both cp-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloy-corroded disks promoted significantly more bacterial attachment (11.02% and 41.78%, respectively; P <0.0001) than did the non-corroded controls. Significantly more (11.8%) P. gingivalis attached to the cp-Ti disks than to the Ti-6Al-4V alloy disks (P <0.05). No significant difference in P. gingivalis attachment was noted among the corroded groups for both cp-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloy (P >0.05). There was no significant correlation between surface roughness and P. gingivalis attachment. A higher degree of corrosion on the titanium surface may promote increased bacterial attachment by oral pathogens.

  7. Aluminothermic Reduction-Molten Salt Electrolysis Using Inert Anode for Oxygen and Al-Base Alloy Extraction from Lunar Soil Simulant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Kaiyu; Shi, Zhongning; Xu, Junli; Hu, Xianwei; Gao, Bingliang; Wang, Zhaowen

    2017-10-01

    Aluminothermic reduction-electrolysis using an inert anode process is proposed to extract oxygen and metals from Minnesota Lunar Simulant-1 (MLS-1). Effective aluminothermic reduction between dissolved MLS-1 and dissolved metal aluminum was achieved in cryolite salt media. The product phases obtained by aluminothermic reduction at 980°C for 4 h were Al, Si, and Al5FeSi, while the chemical components were 79.71 mass% aluminum, 12.03 mass% silicon, 5.91 mass% iron, and 2.35 mass% titanium. The cryolite salt containing Al2O3 was subsequently electrolyzed with Fe0.58-Ni0.42 inert anode at 960°C for 4 h. Oxygen was evolved at the anode with an anodic current efficiency of 78.28%. The results demonstrate that this two-step process is remarkably feasible for the extraterrestrial extraction of oxygen and metals. This process will help expand the existing in situ resource utilization methods.

  8. A XANES Study of Sulfur Speciation and Reactivity in Cokes for Anodes Used in Aluminum Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahrsengene, Gøril; Wells, Hannah C.; Rørvik, Stein; Ratvik, Arne Petter; Haverkamp, Richard G.; Svensson, Ann Mari

    2018-03-01

    Availability of anode raw materials in the growing aluminum industry results in a wider range of petroleum cokes being used to produce carbon anodes. The boundary between anode grade cokes and what previously was considered non-anode grades are no longer as distinct as before, leading to introduction of cokes with higher sulfur and higher trace metal impurity content in anode manufacturing. In this work, the chemical nature of sulfur in five industrial cokes, ranging from 1.42 to 5.54 wt pct S, was investigated with K-edge XANES, while the reactivity of the cokes towards CO2 was measured by a standard mass loss test. XANES identified most of the sulfur as organic sulfur compounds. In addition, a significant amount is identified (16 to 53 pct) as S-S bound sulfur. A strong inverse correlation is observed between CO2-reactivity and S-S bound sulfur in the cokes, indicating that the reduction in reactivity is more dependent on the amount of this type of sulfur compound rather than the total amount of sulfur or the amount of organic sulfur.

  9. A XANES Study of Sulfur Speciation and Reactivity in Cokes for Anodes Used in Aluminum Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahrsengene, Gøril; Wells, Hannah C.; Rørvik, Stein; Ratvik, Arne Petter; Haverkamp, Richard G.; Svensson, Ann Mari

    2018-06-01

    Availability of anode raw materials in the growing aluminum industry results in a wider range of petroleum cokes being used to produce carbon anodes. The boundary between anode grade cokes and what previously was considered non-anode grades are no longer as distinct as before, leading to introduction of cokes with higher sulfur and higher trace metal impurity content in anode manufacturing. In this work, the chemical nature of sulfur in five industrial cokes, ranging from 1.42 to 5.54 wt pct S, was investigated with K-edge XANES, while the reactivity of the cokes towards CO2 was measured by a standard mass loss test. XANES identified most of the sulfur as organic sulfur compounds. In addition, a significant amount is identified (16 to 53 pct) as S-S bound sulfur. A strong inverse correlation is observed between CO2-reactivity and S-S bound sulfur in the cokes, indicating that the reduction in reactivity is more dependent on the amount of this type of sulfur compound rather than the total amount of sulfur or the amount of organic sulfur.

  10. High energy density aluminum-oxygen cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudd, E. J.; Gibbons, D. W.

    1993-01-01

    An alternative to a secondary battery as the power source for vehicle propulsion is a fuel cell. An example of this is the metal-air fuel cell using metals such as aluminum, zinc, or iron. Aluminum is a particularly attractive candidate, having high energy and power densities, being environmentally acceptable, and having a large, established industrial base for production and distribution. An aluminum-oxygen system is currently under development for a UUV test vehicle, and recent work has focussed upon low corrosion aluminum alloys and an electrolyte management system for processing the by-products of the energy-producing reactions. This paper summarizes the progress made in both areas. Anode materials capable of providing high utilization factors over current densities ranging from S to 150 mA/sq cm have been identified. These materials are essential to realizing an acceptable mission life for the UUV. With respect to the electrolyte management system, a filter/precipitator unit has been successfully operated for over 250 hours in a large scale, half-cell system.

  11. Strengthening Aluminum Alloys for High Temperature Applications Using Nanoparticles of Al203 and Al3-X Compounds (X= Ti, V, Zr)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the effect of nanoparticles A12O3 and A13-X compounds (X= Ti, V, Zr) on the improvement of mechanical properties of aluminum alloys for elevated temperature applications is presented. These nanoparticles were selected based on their chemical stability and low diffusions rates in aluminum matrix at high temperatures. The strengthening mechanism for aluminum alloy is based on the mechanical blocking of dislocation movements by these nanoparticles. Samples were prepared from A12O3 nanoparticle preforms, which were produced using ceramic injection molding process and pressure infiltrated by molten aluminum. A12O3 nanoparticles can also be homogeneously mixed with aluminum powder and consolidated into samples through hot pressing and sintering. On the other hand, the Al3-X nanoparticles are produced as precipitates via in situ reactions with molten aluminum alloys using conventional casting techniques. The degree of alloy strengthening using nanoparticles will depend on the materials, particle size, shape, volume fraction, and mean inter-particle spacing.

  12. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys via rapid solidification technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, R.

    1984-01-01

    Aluminum alloys containing 10 to 11.5 wt. pct. of iron and 1.5 to 3 wt. pct. of chromium using the technique of rapid solidification powder metallurgy were studied. Alloys were prepared as thin ribbons (.002 inch thick) rapidly solidified at uniform rate of 10(6) C/second by the melt spinning process. The melt spun ribbons were pulverized into powders (-60 to 400 mesh) by a rotating hammer mill. The powders were consolidated by hot extrusion at a high reduction ratio of 50:1. The powder extrusion temperature was varied to determine the range of desirable processing conditions necessary to yield useful properties. Powders and consolidated alloys were characterized by SEM and optical metallography. The consolidated alloys were evaluated for (1) thermal stability, (2) tensile properties in the range, room temperature to 450 F, and (3) notch toughness in the range, room temperature to 450 F.

  13. Methodology for Evaluation of Fatigue Crack-Growth Resistance of Aluminum Alloys under Spectrum Loading.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    fatigue life , except for the 2024 - T351 alloy which had a significantly longer spectrum fatigue life than the other alloys and 2) for...OF FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS UNDER SPECTRUM LOADING MATERIALS PRESENT EFFORT FUTURE EFFORT 2024 - T351 2020-T651 2024 -T851 TMT2020-T6X51...the same spectrum fatigue life . The 2024 - T351 alloy had a significantly longer spectrum

  14. Fatigue Resistance of Liquid-assisted Self-repairing Aluminum Alloys Reinforced with Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, M. Clara; Manuel, Michele; Wallace, Terryl

    2013-01-01

    A self-repairing aluminum-based composite system has been developed using a liquid-assisted healing theory in conjunction with the shape memory effect of wire reinforcements. The metal-metal composite was thermodynamically designed to have a matrix with a relatively even dispersion of a low-melting eutectic phase, allowing for repair of cracks at a predetermined temperature. Additionally, shape memory alloy (SMA) wire reinforcements were used within the composite to provide crack closure. Investigators focused the research on fatigue cracks propagating through the matrix in order to show a proof-of-concept Shape Memory Alloy Self-Healing (SMASH) technology for aeronautical applications.

  15. High-Strength Aluminum Casting Alloy for High-Temperature Applications (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund Final Project No. 97-10)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    A new aluminum-silicon alloy has been successfully developed at Marshall Space Flight Center that has a significant improvement in tensile strength at elevated temperatures (550 to 700 F). For instance, the new alloy shows in average tensile strength of at least 90 percent higher than the current 390 aluminum piston alloy tested at 500 F. Compared to conventional aluminum alloys, automotive engines using the new piston alloy will have improved gas mileage, and may produce less air pollution in order to meet the future U.S. automotive legislative requirements for low hydrocarbon emissions. The projected cost for this alloy is less than $0.95/lb, and it readily allows the automotive components to be cast at a high production volume with a low, fully accounted cost. It is economically produced by pouring molten metal directly into conventional permanent steel molds or die casting.

  16. Thermodynamic investigation of the effect of alkali metal impuries on the processing of aluminum and magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shengjun

    2006-12-01

    Aluminum and magnesium alloys are widely used in the automobile and aerospace industries as structural materials due to their light weight, high specific strength and good formability. However, they suffer from the poor hot rolling characteristics due to undesired impurities like calcium, potassium, lithium and sodium. They increase the hydrogen solubility in the melt and promote the formation of porosity in aluminum castings. During fabrication of aluminum alloys, they cause the hot-shortness and embrittlement due to cracking. They also led to "blue haze" corrosion which promotes the discoloration of aluminum under humid condition. The removal of these elements increases overall melt loss of aluminum alloys when aluminum products are remelted and recast. Na is one of the common impurities in the Al and Mg alloys. In industry, primary Al is produced by the Hall-Heroult process, through the electrolysis of the mixture of molten alumina and cryolite (Al2O3+Na 3AlF6), the latter being added to lower the melting point. Therefore, Al inevitably contains some Na (>0.002%) without further treatment. The Na content in Al is influenced by the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrolysis. Similarly, in the electrolytic production and subsequent processing of Mg, Mg is commonly in contact with molten salt mixtures of NaCl and MgCl 2. Consequently, 2--20 wt. ppm Na is often found in Mg alloys. Besides originating from the industrial production process, Na can be introduced in laboratory experiments from alumina crucibles by the reaction between the molten Al-Mg alloys and the Na2O impurity in the alumina crucible. The trace element K plays a similar role in Al alloys although it is seldom discussed. No systematic theoretic research has been carried out to investigate the behavior of these impurities during the processing of aluminum alloys. The thermodynamic description of the Al-Ca-K-Li-Mg-Na system is needed to understand the effects of Ca, K, Li and Na on phase stability

  17. Forming a Highly Active, Homogeneously Alloyed AuPt Co-catalyst Decoration on TiO2 Nanotubes Directly During Anodic Growth.

    PubMed

    Bian, Haidong; Nguyen, Nhat Truong; Yoo, JeongEun; Hejazi, Seyedsina; Mohajernia, Shiva; Müller, Julian; Spiecker, Erdmann; Tsuchiya, Hiroaki; Tomanec, Ondrej; Sanabria-Arenas, Beatriz E; Zboril, Radek; Li, Yang Yang; Schmuki, Patrik

    2018-05-30

    Au and Pt do not form homogeneous bulk alloys as they are thermodynamically not miscible. However, we show that anodic TiO 2 nanotubes (NTs) can in situ be uniformly decorated with homogeneous AuPt alloy nanoparticles (NPs) during their anodic growth. For this, a metallic Ti substrate containing low amounts of dissolved Au (0.1 atom %) and Pt (0.1 atom %) is used for anodizing. The matrix metal (Ti) is converted to oxide, whereas at the oxide/metal interface direct noble metal particle formation and alloying of Au and Pt takes place; continuously these particles are then picked up by the growing nanotube wall. In our experiments, the AuPt alloy NPs have an average size of 4.2 nm, and at the end of the anodic process, these are regularly dispersed over the TiO 2 nanotubes. These alloyed AuPt particles act as excellent co-catalyst in photocatalytic H 2 generation, with a H 2 production rate of 12.04 μL h -1 under solar light. This represents a strongly enhanced activity as compared to TiO 2 NTs decorated with monometallic particles of Au (7 μL h -1 ) or Pt (9.96 μL h -1 ).

  18. Evaluation of Aluminum Alloy 2050-T84 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties at Ambient and Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hafley, Robert A.; Domack, Marcia S.; Hales, Stephen J.; Shenoy, Ravi N.

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum alloy 2050 is being considered for the fabrication of cryogenic propellant tanks to reduce the mass of future heavy-lift launch vehicles. The alloy is available in section thicknesses greater than that of the incumbent aluminum alloy, 2195, which will enable designs with greater structural efficiency. While ambient temperature design allowable properties are available for alloy 2050, cryogenic properties are not available. To determine its suitability for use in cryogenic propellant tanks, tensile, compression and fracture tests were conducted on 4 inch thick 2050-T84 plate at ambient temperature and at -320degF. Various metallurgical analyses were also performed in order to provide an understanding of the compositional homogeneity and microstructure of 2050.

  19. Effects of Heat Treatment on the Discharge Behavior of Mg-6wt.%Al-1wt.%Sn Alloy as Anode For Magnesium-Air Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hanqing; Zhu, Hualong; Luo, Jie; Yu, Kun; Shi, Chunli; Fang, Hongjie; Zhang, Yu

    2017-05-01

    Mg-6wt.%Al-1wt.%Sn alloys under different conditions are prepared. Primary magnesium-air batteries are assembled using such experimental Mg-Al-Sn alloys as anodes. The discharge behaviors of different alloys are investigated in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The results show that the solution treatment can facilitate the homogeneous distribution of alloy elements and reduce the accumulation of discharge products. The magnesium-air battery based on the solution-treated Mg-Al-Sn anode presents higher operating voltage and more stable discharge process than those on the as-cast and the aged ones. Although the solution treatment cannot effectively improve the capacity density and the anodic efficiency of the experimental Mg-Al-Sn alloy, it is an effective approach to increasing the power and the energy density during discharge process. Especially at the applied current density of 30 mA cm-2 for 5 h, the solution-treated anode supplies 1.212 V average operating voltage, the anode energy density reaches 1527.2 mWhg-1, while the cast one is 1481.3 mWhg-1 and the aged one is 1478.8 mWhg-1.

  20. Spectro-photometric determinations of Mn, Fe and Cu in aluminum master alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehan; Naveed, A.; Shan, A.; Afzal, M.; Saleem, J.; Noshad, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Highly reliable, fast and cost effective Spectro-photometric methods have been developed for the determination of Mn, Fe & Cu in aluminum master alloys, based on the development of calibration curves being prepared via laboratory standards. The calibration curves are designed so as to induce maximum sensitivity and minimum instrumental error (Mn 1mg/100ml-2mg/100ml, Fe 0.01mg/100ml-0.2mg/100ml and Cu 2mg/100ml-10mg/ 100ml). The developed Spectro-photometric methods produce accurate results while analyzing Mn, Fe and Cu in certified reference materials. Particularly, these methods are suitable for all types of Al-Mn, Al-Fe and Al-Cu master alloys (5%, 10%, 50% etc. master alloys).Moreover, the sampling practices suggested herein include a reasonable amount of analytical sample, which truly represent the whole lot of a particular master alloy. Successive dilution technique was utilized to meet the calibration curve range. Furthermore, the workout methods were also found suitable for the analysis of said elements in ordinary aluminum alloys. However, it was observed that Cush owed a considerable interference with Fe, the later one may not be accurately measured in the presence of Cu greater than 0.01 %.

  1. Theoretical studies of aluminum and aluminide alloys using CALPHAD and first-principles approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chao

    Heat-treatable aluminum alloys have been widely used in the automobile and aerospace industries as structural materials due to their light weight and high strength. To study the age-hardening process in heat-treatable aluminum alloys, the Gibbs energies of the strengthening metastable phases, e.g. theta ' and theta″, are critical. However, those data are not included in the existing thermodynamic databases for aluminum alloys due to the semi-empirical nature of the CALPHAD approach. In the present study, the thermodynamics of the Al-Cu system, the pivotal age-hardening system, is remodeled using a combined CALPHAD and first-principles approach. The formation enthalpies and vibrational formation entropies of the stable and metastable phases in the Al-Cu system are provided by first-principles calculations. Special Quasirandom Structures (SQS's) are applied to model the substitutionally random fee and bee alloys. SQS's for binary bee alloys are developed and tested in the present study. Finally, a self-consistent thermodynamic description of the Al-Cu system including the two metastable theta″ and theta' phases is obtained. During welding of heat-treatable aluminum alloys, a detrimental phenomenon called constitutional liquation, i.e. the local eutectic melting of second-phase particles in a matrix at temperatures above the eutectic temperature but below the solidus of the alloy, may occur in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). In the present study, diffusion code DICTRA coupled with realistic thermodynamic and kinetic databases is used to simulate the constitutional liquation in the model Al-Cu system. The simulated results are in quantitative agreement with experiments. The critical heating rate to avoid constitutional liquation is also determined through computer simulations. Besides the heat-treatable aluminum alloys, intermetallic compounds based on transition metal aluminides, e.g. NiAl and FeAl, are also promising candidates for the next-generation of high

  2. High-temperature corrosion of iron-aluminum and iron-aluminum-yttrium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insoo, Kim

    The high-temperature corrosion behavior of Fe3Al alloy has been investigated by conducting two studies: (1) corrosion of Fe 3Al and Fe3Al-Y alloys in oxidizing atmosphere and (2) corrosion of Fe3Al in mixed chlorine/oxygen environments. In the first study, oxidation of the two alloys, Fe-14.3 wt% Al and Fe-14.1 wt% Al-0.3 wt% Y, was carried out in the temperature range of 800 to 1100°C to investigate the general oxidation behavior of Fe3Al and the effect of yttrium on the oxidation of Fe3Al in terms of oxidation kinetics, oxide scale adhesion and microstructure. At lower temperatures (<1000°C), the oxidation rate of the two alloys was nearly identical, and the parabolic rate constant obtained as a function of temperature was Kp = 5128 exp[--39500 (cal/mol)/RT] mg2/cm4 h. At higher temperatures, however, yttrium-added Fe3Al alloy exhibited lower oxidation rate and much more improved oxide adhesion. The lower oxidation rate observed in Fe3Al-Y alloy seems to be due to the followings: (1) a decrease in aluminum diffusion through alumina scale and (2) modification of the scale growth mechanism from simultaneous countercurrent diffusion of aluminum and oxygen to predominant inward diffusion of oxygen, which generates less growth stress and thus prevents the formation of fast diffusion paths such as microcracks. The adhesion improvement of alumina scale formed on the Fe3Al-Y was attributed to the modification of alumina growth mechanism by the addition of Y to the Fe3Al alloy. The change of growth mechanism leads to the formation of pegs, decrease of the oxide growth stress, and decrease of voids formation, which enhances the adhesion of alumina scale to the Fe3Al alloy. The second study has focused on the corrosion of Fe3Al in the temperature range of 600--800°C in Cl2-Ar gas mixtures containing traces of oxygen as an impurity. Weight gain was observed during the corrosion of Fe3Al at 600°C in 0.25% Cl2-Ar, which is due to the formation of Fe2O3, while continuous

  3. Characterization of Cracking Mechanisms of Carbon Anodes Used in Aluminum Industry by Optical Microscopy and Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amrani, Salah; Kocaefe, Duygu; Kocaefe, Yasar; Bhattacharyay, Dipankar; Bouazara, Mohamed; Morais, Brigitte

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this work is to understand the different mechanisms of crack formation in dense anodes used in the aluminum industry. The first approach used is based on the qualitative characterization of the surface cracks and the depth of these cracks. The second approach, which constitutes a quantitative characterization, is carried out by determining the distribution of the crack width along its length as well as the percentage of the surface containing cracks. A qualitative analysis of crack formation was also carried out using 3D tomography. It was observed that mixing and forming conditions have a significant effect on crack formation in green anodes. The devolatilization of pitch during baking causes the formation and propagation of cracks in baked anodes in which large particles control the direction of crack propagation.

  4. Growth of aluminum-free porous oxide layers on titanium and its alloys Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb by micro-arc oxidation.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Laís T; Bolfarini, Claudemiro; Biaggio, Sonia R; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C; Nascente, Pedro A P

    2014-08-01

    The growth of oxides on the surfaces of pure Ti and two of its ternary alloys, Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb, by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in a pH 5 phosphate buffer was investigated. The primary aim was to form thick, porous, and aluminum-free oxide layers, because these characteristics favor bonding between bone and metal when the latter is implanted in the human body. On Ti, Ti-6Al-4 V, and Ti-6Al-7Nb, the oxides exhibited breakdown potentials of about 200 V, 130 V, and 140 V, respectively, indicating that the oxide formed on the pure metal is the most stable. The use of the MAO procedure led to the formation of highly porous oxides, with a uniform distribution of pores; the pores varied in size, depending on the anodizing applied voltage and time. Irrespective of the material being anodized, Raman analyses allowed us to determine that the oxide films consisted mainly of the anatase phase of TiO2, and XPS results indicated that this oxide is free of Al and any other alloying element. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Crack Repair in Aerospace Aluminum Alloy Panels by Cold Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaliere, P.; Silvello, A.

    2017-04-01

    The cold-spray process has recently been recognized as a very useful tool for repairing metallic sheets, achieving desired adhesion strengths when employing optimal combinations of material process parameters. We present herein the possibility of repairing cracks in aluminum sheets by cold spray. A 2099 aluminum alloy panel with a surface 30° V notch was repaired by cold spraying of 2198 and 7075 aluminum alloy powders. The crack behavior of V-notched sheets subjected to bending loading was studied by finite-element modeling (FEM) and mechanical experiments. The simulations and mechanical results showed good agreement, revealing a remarkable K factor reduction, and a consequent reduction in crack nucleation and growth velocity. The results enable prediction of the failure initiation locus in the case of repaired panels subjected to bending loading and deformation. The stress concentration was quantified to show how the residual stress field and failure are affected by the mechanical properties of the sprayed materials and by the geometrical and mechanical properties of the interface. It was demonstrated that the crack resistance increases more than sevenfold in the case of repair using AA2198 and that cold-spray repair can contribute to increased global fatigue life of cracked structures.

  6. Preparation of thin hexagonal highly-ordered anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template onto silicon substrate and growth ZnO nanorod arrays by electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahrour, Khaled M.; Ahmed, Naser M.; Hashim, M. R.; Elfadill, Nezar G.; Qaeed, M. A.; Bououdina, M.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates of Aluminum thin films onto Ti-coated silicon substrates were prepared for growth of nanostructure materials. Hexagonally highly ordered thin AAO templates were fabricated under controllable conditions by using a two-step anodization. The obtained thin AAO templates were approximately 70 nm in pore diameter and 250 nm in length with 110 nm interpore distances within an area of 3 cm2. The difference between first and second anodization was investigated in details by in situ monitoring of current-time curve. A bottom barrier layer of the AAO templates was removed during dropping the voltage in the last period of the anodization process followed by a wet etching using phosphoric acid (5 wt%) for several minutes at ambient temperature. As an application, Zn nanorod arrays embedded in anodic alumina (AAO) template were fabricated by electrodeposition. Oxygen was used to oxidize the electrodeposited Zn nanorods in the AAO template at 700 °C. The morphology, structure and photoluminescence properties of ZnO/AAO assembly were analyzed using Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL).

  7. Measurements and mechanisms of localized aqueous corrosion in aluminum-lithium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchheit, Rudolph G., Jr.; Stoner, Glenn E.

    1990-01-01

    Like most heat treatable aluminum alloys, localized corrosion and stress corrosion of Al-Li-Cu alloys is strongly dependent on the nature and distribution of second phase particles. To develop a mechanistic understanding of the role of localized corrosion in the stress corrosion process, bulk samples of T(sub 1) (Al2CuLi) and a range of Al-Cu-Fe impurity phases were prepared for electrochemical experiments. Potentiodynamic polarization and galvanic couple experiments were performed in standard 0.6 M NaCl and in simulated crevice solutions to assess corrosion behavior of these particles with respect to the alpha-Al matrix. A comparison of time to failure versus applied potential using a constant load, smooth bar SCC test technique in Cl(-), Cl(-)/CrO4(2-), and Cl(-)/CO3(2-) environments shows that rapid failures are to be expected when applied potentials are more positive than the breakaway potential (E sub br) of T(sub 1) (crack tip) but less than E(sub br) of alpha-Al (crack walls). It is shown that this criterion is not satisfied in aerated Cl(-) solutions. Accordingly, SCC resistance is good. This criterion is satisfied, however, in an alkaline isolated fissure exposed to a CO2 containing atmosphere. Rapid failure induced by these fissures was recently termed preexposure embrittlement. Anodic polarization shows that the corrosion behavior of T(sub 1) is relatively unaffected in alkaline CO3(2-) environments but the alpha-Al phase is rapidly passivated. X ray diffraction of crevice walls from artificial crevices suggests that passivation of alpha-Al occurs as hydrotalcite-type compound (LiAl2(OH)6)2(+) - CO3(2-) - nH2O.

  8. High energy density aluminum battery

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Dai, Sheng

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density lithium-aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a lithium metal oxide. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of lithium at the cathode.

  9. Blue-Light Hazard From Gas Metal Arc Welding of Aluminum Alloys.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Jyunya; Fujii, Nobuyuki; Okuno, Tsutomu

    2017-10-01

    The objective was to quantify the blue-light hazard from gas metal arc welding (GMAW) of aluminum alloys. The exposure level is expected to depend on the welding conditions. Therefore, it is important to identify the blue-light hazard under various welding conditions. We experimentally conducted GMAW of aluminum alloys under various welding conditions and measured the spectral radiance of the arcs. The effective blue-light radiance, which the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists has defined to quantify the exposure level of blue light, was calculated from the measured spectral radiance. The maximum acceptable exposure duration per 10000 s for this effective blue-light radiance was calculated. The effective blue-light radiance measured in this study was in the range of 2.9-20.0 W cm-2·sr. The corresponding maximum acceptable exposure duration per 10000 s was only 5.0-34 s, so it is hazardous to view the welding arc. The effective blue-light radiance was higher at higher welding currents than at lower welding currents, when pulsed welding currents were used rather than steady welding currents, and when magnesium was included in the welding materials. It is very hazardous to view the arcs in GMAW of aluminum alloys. Welders and their helpers should use appropriate eye protection in arc-welding operations. They should also avoid direct light exposure when starting an arc-welding operation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  10. Long-term thermal degradation and alloying constituent effects on five boron/aluminum composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, G. C.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal exposure effects on the properties of five boron/aluminum composite systems were experimentally investigated. The composite systems were 49 volume percent boron fibers (203 micron diameter) in aluminum-alloy matrices 1100 Al, 2024 Al, 3003 Al, 5052 Al, and 6061 Al. Specimens were thermally exposed up to 10,000 hours at 500 K and 590 K, up to 500 hours at 730 K, and up to 10,000 hours at 500 K and 590 K, up to 500 hours at 730 K, and up to 2000 thermal cycles between 200 K and 590 K. Composite longitudinal and transverse tensile strengths, longitudinal compression strength, and in-plane shear strength were determined. None of the systems was severely degraded by exposure at 590 K. The best performing system was B-2024 Al. Effects of matrix alloys on degradation mechanisms were experimentally investigated. Composite specimens and individual fibers were metallurgically analyzed with a scanning electron microscope and an electron microprobe to determine failure characteristics, chemical element distribution, and reaction layer morphology. Alloying constituents were found to be affect the composite degradation mechanisms as follows: alloys containing iron, but without manganese as a stabilizer, caused increased low-temperature degradation; alloys containing magnesium, iron, or manganese caused increased degradation; and alloys containing copper caused increased fiber strength.

  11. Effect of Iron Impurity on the Phase Composition, Structure and Properties of Magnesium Alloys Containing Manganese and Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkova, E. F.

    2017-07-01

    Results of a study of the interaction between iron impurity and manganese and aluminum alloying elements during formation of phase composition in alloys of the Mg - Mn, Mg - Al, Mg - Al - Mn, and Mg - Al - Zn - Mn systems are presented. It is proved that this interaction results in introduction of Fe into the intermetallic phase. The phase compositions of model magnesium alloys and commercial alloys MA2-1 and MA5 are studied. It is shown that both manganese and aluminum may bind the iron impurity into phases. Composite Fe-containing intermetallic phases of different compositions influence differently the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys.

  12. Electrodeposition and characterization of NiCr alloy nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleki, K.; Alemipour, Z.

    2017-06-01

    The NiCr alloy nanowires were electrodeposited from an acidic sulphate baths into nanoporous anodized aluminume oxide (AAO). This template was fabricated by two-step anodization. The NiCr alloy nanowires were synthesized for Cr content up to 0.32% without any significant improvement in magnetic properties. Above this threshold, Cr clusters were formed and magnetic properties were decreased significantly. For Cr content of higher than 2.1% the wires were formed so short and incomplete which were like the nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed changing in the FCC crystal structure of Ni nanowires to an amorphous phase by increasing the Cr content. This leads to a significant decline in the magnetic properties like coercivity and squareness. The effect of thermal annealing on the magnetic properties of the NiCr alloy nanowires, showed that the squareness and the coercivity were improved by enhancing the amount of the temperature to 300 °C and were decreased by enhancing that to 500 °C.

  13. Mussel-Inspired Conductive Polymer Binder for Si-Alloy Anode in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Hui; Wei, Yang; Wang, Cheng; ...

    2018-01-15

    The excessive volume changes during cell cycling of Si-based anode in lithium ion batteries impeded its application. One major reason for the cell failure is particle isolation during volume shrinkage in delithiation process, which makes strong adhesion between polymer binder and anode active material particles a highly desirable property. Here, a biomimetic side-chain conductive polymer incorporating catechol, a key adhesive component of the mussel holdfast protein, was synthesized. Atomic force microscopy-based single-molecule force measurements of mussel-inspired conductive polymer binder contacting a silica surface revealed a similar adhesion toward substrate when compared with an effective Si anode binder, homo-poly(acrylic acid), withmore » the added benefit of being electronically conductive. Electrochemical experiments showed a very stable cycling of Si-alloy anodes realized via this biomimetic conducting polymer binder, leading to a high loading Si anode with a good rate performance. We attribute the ability of the Si-based anode to tolerate the volume changes during cycling to the excellent mechanical integrity afforded by the strong interfacial adhesion of the biomimetic conducting polymer.« less

  14. Proceedings of the USAF Structural Integrity Program Conference Held in 11-13 December 1990 in San Antonio, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    mill 3 dp Chromic Anodizing plus Polyurethane Fuel Coating 2 ep Sulfuric Acid Anodizing 1 Alloys other than aluminums require independent evaluation...generators for recircula- aluminum . During manufactur- tion. After peening, the ing, the iron is removed anodic coating and paint were prior to the...Growth Retardation in Aluminum Alloys . . 310 Quality Nondestructive Evaluation, and the ". .. IP’ Process

  15. Effects of Alloying Element Ca on the Corrosion Behavior and Bioactivity of Anodic Films Formed on AM60 Mg Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Anawati, Anawati; Asoh, Hidetaka; Ono, Sachiko

    2016-01-01

    Effects of alloying element Ca on the corrosion behavior and bioactivity of films formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) on AM60 alloys were investigated. The corrosion behavior was studied by conducting electrochemical tests in 0.9% NaCl solution while the bioactivity was evaluated by soaking the specimens in simulated body fluid (SBF). Under identical anodization conditions, the PEO film thicknesses increased with increasing Ca content in the alloys, which enhanced the corrosion resistance in NaCl solution. Thicker apatite layers grew on the PEO films of Ca-containing alloys because Ca was incorporated into the PEO film and because Ca was present in the alloys. Improvement of corrosion resistance and bioactivity of the PEO-coated AM60 by alloying with Ca may be beneficial for biodegradable implant applications. PMID:28772371

  16. Effect of CrO3 Sealing Time on Anodized A12024-T3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korda, Akhmad A.; Hidayat, R. Z.

    2016-08-01

    The effect of CrO3 sealing time on anodized aluminum alloy has been investigated. A1 2024-T3 were used as substrate. Anodizing was carried out using chromic acid. CrO3 sealing was conducted in CrO3 solution for 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes. As comparison, other specimens were also prepared as anodized and boiled water sealing. Thickness of the coating was observed by optical microscope. Anodized and sealing layer was analyzed by X- ray diffraction. The hardness of as anodized, boiled water sealing and CrO3 sealing were compared. The highest hardness is achieved by CrO3 sealed specimen and followed by boiled water sealing and as anodized specimens. The longer the processes of CrO3 sealing the higher layer thickness and therefore the higher hardness of the oxide layer. The best resistance to electrolyte penetration is achieved by the CrO3 sealed specimen followed by boiled water sealed and as anodized specimens. The higher thickness of oxide layer, the higher the resistance against electrolyte penetration.

  17. Carbon treated commercial aluminium alloys as anodes for aluminium-air batteries in sodium chloride electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pino, M.; Herranz, D.; Chacón, J.; Fatás, E.; Ocón, P.

    2016-09-01

    An easy treatment based in carbon layer deposition into aluminium alloys is presented to enhance the performance of Al-air primary batteries with neutral pH electrolyte. The jellification of aluminate in the anode surface is described and avoided by the carbon covering. Treated commercial Al alloys namely Al1085 and Al7475 are tested as anodes achieving specific capacities above 1.2 Ah g-1vs 0.5 Ah g-1 without carbon covering. The influence of the binder proportion in the treatment as well as different carbonaceous materials, Carbon Black, Graphene and Pyrolytic Graphite are evaluated as candidates for the covering. Current densities of 1-10 mA cm-2 are measured and the influence of the alloy explored. A final battery design of 4 cells in series is presented for discharges with a voltage plateau of 2 V and 1 Wh g-1 energy density.

  18. Mechanical Performance of Cold-Sprayed A357 Aluminum Alloy Coatings for Repair and Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petráčková, K.; Kondás, J.; Guagliano, M.

    2017-12-01

    Cold-sprayed coatings made of A357 aluminum alloy, a casting alloy widely used in aerospace, underwent set of standard tests as well as newly developed fatigue test to gain an information about potential of cold spray for repair and additive manufacturing of loaded parts. With optimal spray parameters, coating deposition on substrate with smooth surface resulted in relatively good bonding, which can be further improved by application of grit blasting on substrate's surface. However, no enhancement of adhesion was obtained for shot-peened surface. Process temperature, which was set either to 450 or 550 °C, was shown to have an effect on adhesion and cohesion strength, but it does not influence residual stress in the coating. To assess cold spray perspectives for additive manufacturing, flat tensile specimens were machined from coating and tested in as-sprayed and heat-treated (solution treatment and aging) condition. Tensile properties of the coating after the treatment correspond to properties of the cast A357-T61 aluminum alloy. Finally, fatigue specimen was proposed to test overall performance of the coating and coating's fatigue limit is compared to the results obtained on cast A357-T61 aluminum alloy.

  19. Using sewage sludge pyrolytic gas to modify titanium alloy to obtain high-performance anodes in bio-electrochemical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yuan; Ying, Kang; Shen, Dongsheng; Huang, Lijie; Ying, Xianbin; Huang, Haoqian; Cheng, Kun; Chen, Jiazheng; Zhou, Yuyang; Chen, Ting; Feng, Huajun

    2017-12-01

    Titanium is under consideration as a potential stable bio-anode because of its high conductivity, suitable mechanical properties, and electrochemical inertness in the operating potential window of bio-electrochemical systems; however, its application is limited by its poor electron-transfer capacity with electroactive bacteria and weak ability to form biofilms on its hydrophobic surface. This study reports an effective and low-cost way to convert a hydrophobic titanium alloy surface into a hydrophilic surface that can be used as a bio-electrode with higher electron-transfer rates. Pyrolytic gas of sewage sludge is used to modify the titanium alloy. The current generation, anodic biofilm formation surface, and hydrophobicity are systematically investigated by comparing bare electrodes with three modified electrodes. Maximum current density (15.80 A/m2), achieved using a modified electrode, is 316-fold higher than that of the bare titanium alloy electrode (0.05 A/m2) and that achieved by titanium alloy electrodes modified by other methods (12.70 A/m2). The pyrolytic gas-modified titanium alloy electrode can be used as a high-performance and scalable bio-anode for bio-electrochemical systems because of its high electron-transfer rates, hydrophilic nature, and ability to achieve high current density.

  20. ENVIRONMENTALLY COMPLIANT CORROSION-ACTIVATED INHIBITOR SYSTEM FOR ALUMINUM ALLOYS - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The federal government is estimated to spend $1 billion on painting/repainting aircraft annually. Aircraft have surfaces composed of aluminum alloys that are highly susceptible to corrosion and must be protected with corrosion-preventative treatments that typically conta...

  1. Effect of Anode Change on Heat Transfer and Magneto-hydrodynamic Flow in Aluminum Reduction Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang; Li, Baokuan; Fafard, Mario

    2016-02-01

    In order to explore the impact of anode replacement on heat transfer and magneto-hydrodynamic flow in aluminum smelting cells, a transient three-dimensional coupled mathematical model has been developed. With a steady state magnetic field, an electrical potential approach was used to obtain electromagnetic fields. Joule heating and Lorentz force, which were the source terms in the energy and momentum equations, were updated at each iteration. The phase change of molten electrolyte (bath) was modeled by an enthalpy-based technique in which the mushy zone was treated as a porous medium with porosity equal to the liquid fraction. A reasonable agreement between the test data and simulated results was achieved. Under normal conditions, the bath at the middle of the cell is hotter, while becoming colder at the four corners. Due to the heat extracted from the bath, the temperature of the new cold anode increases over time. The temperature of the bath under the new cold anode therefore quickly drops, resulting in a decrease of the electrical conductivity. More Joule effect is created. In addition, the bath under the new cold anode gradually freezes and flows more slowly. The temperature of the new anode located at the middle of the cell rises faster because of the warmer bath. It is easier to eliminate the effect of anode change when it occurs in the middle of the cell.

  2. Micromechanical models of delamination in aluminum-lithium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messner, Mark Christian

    Aluminum lithium (Al-Li) alloys are lighter, stiffer, and tougher than conventional aerospace aluminum alloys. Replacing conventional aluminums with Al-Li could substantially decrease the weight and cost of aerospace structures. However, Al-Li alloys often fracture intergranularly via a mechanism called delamination cracking. While secondary delamination cracks can improve the effective toughness of a component, no current model accurately predicts the initiation and growth of intergranular cracks. Since simulations cannot incorporate delamination into a structural model, designers cannot quantify the effect of delamination cracking on a particular component. This uncertainty limits the application of Al-Li alloys. Previous experiments identify microstructural features linked to delamination. Fractography of failed surfaces indicates plastic void growth triggers intergranular failure. Furthermore, certain types of soft/stiff grain boundaries tend to localize void growth and nucleate delamination cracks. This dissertation develops a mechanism for the initiation of delamination on the microscale that accounts for these experimental observations. Microscale simulations of grain boundaries near a long primary crack explore the delamination mechanism on the mesoscale. In these simulations, a physically-based crystal plasticity (CP) model represents the constitutive response of individual grains. This CP model incorporates plastic voriticity correction terms into a standard objective stress rate integration, to accurately account for the kinematics of lattice deformation. The CP model implements slip system hardening with a modular approach to facilitate quick testing and calibration of different theories of hardening. The microscale models reveal soft/stiff grain boundaries develop elevated mean stress and plastic strain as a consequence of the mechanics of the interface. These elevated stresses and strain drive plastic void growth. The results indicate plastic void

  3. Micro and Nano Laser Pulses for Melting and Surface Alloying of Aluminum with Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamoudi, Walid K.; Ismail, Raid A.; Sultan, Fatima I.; Jaleel, Summayah

    2017-03-01

    In the present work, the use of microsecond and nanosecond laser pulses to alloy copper in aluminum is presented. In the first run, high purity (99.999%) copper thin film was thermally evaporated over (99.9%) purity, 300 μm aluminum sheet. Thereafter, surface alloying was performed using (1-3) 500 μs, (0.1-1.5) Joule Nd: YAG laser pulses; operating at 1060 nm wavelength. Hard homogeneous alloyed zone was obtained at depths between 60 and 110 μm below the surface. In the second run, 9 ns laser pulses from Q-switched Nd: YAG laser operating at 1060 nm was employed to melt/alloy Al-Cu sheets. The resulted alloyed depth, after using 20 laser pulses, was 199.22 μm for Al over Cu samples and 419.61 μm for Cu over Al samples. X-ray diffraction and fluorescence analysis revealed the formation of Cu2Al2, CuAl2 and δ- Al4Cu9 phases with percentage depended on laser energy and copper layer thicknesses.

  4. Characterization of acoustic cavitation in water and molten aluminum alloy.

    PubMed

    Komarov, Sergey; Oda, Kazuhiro; Ishiwata, Yasuo; Dezhkunov, Nikolay

    2013-03-01

    High-intensive ultrasonic vibrations have been recognized as an attractive tool for refining the grain structure of metals in casting technology. However, the practical application of ultrasonics in this area remains rather limited. One of the reasons is a lack of data needed to optimize the ultrasonic treatment conditions, particularly those concerning characteristics of cavitation zone in molten aluminum. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the intensity and spectral characteristics of cavitation noise generated during radiation of ultrasonic waves into water and molten aluminum alloys, and to establish a measure for evaluating the cavitation intensity. The measurements were performed by using a high temperature cavitometer capable of measuring the level of cavitation noise within five frequency bands from 0.01 to 10MHz. The effect of cavitation treatment was verified by applying high-intense ultrasonic vibrations to a DC caster to refine the primary silicon grains of a model Al-17Si alloy. It was found that the level of high frequency noise components is the most adequate parameter for evaluating the cavitation intensity. Based on this finding, it was concluded that implosions of cavitation bubbles play a decisive role in refinement of the alloy structure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Electrochemical Behavior and Surface Chemistry of Aluminum Alloys: Solute-Rich Interphase Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-31

    physical vapor deposition ( PVD ). Several different mechanisms have been proposed to explain the passivity of stainless aluminum alloys, including...flat-cell model K0235), which simplified the mounting of the specimens since no lead wire attachment or coating of the specimens were required. The...reasons. First, depending on when the particles were ejected and whether they were subsequently coated with the alloy, their presence could establish

  6. Electrical characterization of anodic alumina substrate with via-in-pad structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Moonjung

    2013-10-01

    An anodic alumina substrate has been developed as a package substrate for dynamic random access memory devices. Unlike the conventional package substrates commonly made by laminating an epoxy-based core and cladding with copper, this substrate is fabricated using aluminum anodization technology. The anodization process produces a thick aluminum oxide layer on the aluminum substrate to be used as a dielectric layer. Placing copper patterns on the anodic aluminum oxide layer forms a new substrate structure that consists of a layered structure of aluminum, anodic aluminum oxide, and copper. Using selective anodization in the fabrication process, a via structure connecting the top copper layer and bottom aluminum layer is demonstrated. Additionally, by putting vias directly in the bond and ball pads in the substrate design, the via-in-pad structure is applied in this work. These two-layer metal structures and via-in-pad arrangements make routing easier and thus provide more design flexibility. Additionally, this new package substrate has improved the power distribution network impedance given the characteristics of these structures.

  7. Analysis and Thermodynamic Prediction of Hydrogen Solution in Solid and Liquid Multicomponent Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anyalebechi, P. N.

    Reported experimentally determined values of hydrogen solubility in liquid and solid Al-H and Al-H-X (where X = Cu, Si, Zn, Mg, Li, Fe or Ti) systems have been critically reviewed and analyzed in terms of Wagner's interaction parameter. An attempt has been made to use Wagner's interaction parameter and statistic linear regression models derived from reported hydrogen solubility limits for binary aluminum alloys to predict the hydrogen solubility limits in liquid and solid (commercial) multicomponent aluminum alloys. Reasons for the observed poor agreement between the predicted and experimentally determined hydrogen solubility limits are discussed.

  8. Improvements to the strength and corrosion resistance of aluminum-magnesium-manganese alloys of near-AA5083 chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Mark Christopher

    Aluminum alloys of the 5000 series (AI-Mg-Mn) are extremely popular in a wide range of applications that call for a balance of moderately high strength, good corrosion resistance, and light weight, all at a moderate cost. One of the most popular 5000 series alloys is designated A1-5083, containing, in addition to aluminum, approximately 4 wt% magnesium and 0.7 wt% manganese. In order to increase the range of versatility of this particular alloy, a number of modifications have been examined that will potentially improve the strength and corrosion resistance characteristics while maintaining a chemical composition that is very close to the proven 5083 alloy. The strength of the 5083-based alloys under study are investigated with two goals in mind---to maximize the potential strength characteristics in a "standard" 5083 form through changes in minor processing parameters or through minor alloying additions. Increasing the standard alloy's potential is possible through improved efficiency of "preprocessing" heat treatments that maximize the homogeneous dispersion of secondary manganese-based particles. For the modified alloy study, additions of scandium and zirconium are shown to improve strength not only by forming secondary particles in the alloy, but also through substitutional solid solution strengthening, even when added at very small levels. Corrosion resistance of these 5083-based alloys is investigated once again through minor alloying additions; specifically zinc, copper, and silver. Zinc is particularly effective in that it changes the corrosion-susceptible binary aluminum-magnesium phase that would otherwise form on grain boundaries following exposure to moderately elevated temperatures for extended periods of time to a ternary aluminum-magnesium-zinc phase. This chemical composition of this ternary phase that forms following zinc additions can be further altered through minor additions of copper and silver. By determining threshold levels for these

  9. Method of Heat Treating Aluminum-Lithium Alloy to Improve Formability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Carolyn Kurgan (Inventor); Chen, Po-Shou (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method is provided for heat treating aluminum-lithium alloys to improve their formability. The alloy is heated to a first temperature, maintained at the first temperature for a first time period, heated at the conclusion of the first time period to a second temperature, maintained at the second temperature for a second time period, actively cooled at the conclusion of the second time period to a third temperature, maintained at the third temperature for a third time period, and then passively cooled at the conclusion of the third time period to room temperature.

  10. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structure Technology Program Supplement: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starke, E. A., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of the study "Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft" which had the objectives (1) to identify the most promising aluminum-based materials with respect to major structural use on the HSCT and to further develop those materials and (2) to assess the materials through detailed trade and evaluation studies with respect to their structural efficiency on the HSCT. The research team consisted of ALCOA, Allied-Signal, Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, Reynolds Metals and the University of Virginia. Four classes of aluminum alloys were investigated: (1) I/M 2XXX containing Li and I/M 2XXX without Li, (2) I/M 6XXX, (3) two P/M 2XXX alloys, and (4) two different aluminum-based metal matrix composites (MMC). The I/M alloys were targeted for a Mach 2.0 aircraft and the P/M and MMC alloys were targeted for a Mach 2.4 aircraft. Design studies were conducted using several different concepts including skin/stiffener (baseline), honeycomb sandwich, integrally stiffened and hybrid adaptations (conventionally stiffened thin-sandwich skins). Alloy development included fundamental studies of coarsening behavior, the effect of stress on nucleation and growth of precipitates, and fracture toughness as a function of temperature were an integral part of this program. The details of all phases of the research are described in this final report.

  11. Cast Aluminum Alloys for High Temperature Applications Using Nanoparticles Al2O3 and Al3-X Compounds (X = Ti, V, Zr)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of nanoparticles Al2O3 and Al3-X compounds (X = Ti, V, Zr) on the improvement of mechanical properties of aluminum alloys for elevated temperature applications is presented. These nanoparticles were selected based on their low cost, chemical stability and low diffusions rates in aluminum at high temperatures. The strengthening mechanism at high temperature for aluminum alloy is based on the mechanical blocking of dislocation movements by these nanoparticles. For Al2O3 nanoparticles, the test samples were prepared from special Al2O3 preforms, which were produced using ceramic injection molding process and then pressure infiltrated by molten aluminum. In another method, Al2O3 nanoparticles can also be homogeneously mixed with fine aluminum powder and consolidated into test samples through hot pressing and sintering. With the Al3-X nanoparticles, the test samples are produced as precipitates from in-situ reactions with molten aluminum using conventional permanent mold or die casting techniques. It is found that cast aluminum alloy using nanoparticles Al3-X is the most cost effective method to produce high strength aluminum alloys for high temperature applications in comparison to nanoparticles Al2O3. Furthermore, significant mechanical properties retention in high temperature environment could be achieved with Al3-X nanoparticles, resulting in tensile strength of nearly 3 times higher than most 300- series conventional cast aluminum alloys tested at 600 F.

  12. Development of Weldable Superplastic Forming Aluminum Alloy Sheet Final Report CRADA No. TC-1086-95

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.; Sun, T. C.

    Numerous applications could exist for superplastic formable, weldable aluminum alloys in the automotive, aerospace, architectural, and construction industries. In this project, LLNL and Kaiser worked with the Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems to develop and evaluate weldable superplastic alloys.

  13. Aging Optimization of Aluminum-Lithium Alloy C458 for Application to Cryotank Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sova, B. J.; Sankaran, K. K.; Babel, H. W.; Farahmand, B.; Rioja, R.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph report presents an examination of the fracture toughness of aluminum-lithium alloy C458 for use in cryotank structures. Topics cover include: cryogenics, alloy composition, strengthing precipitates in C458, cryogenic fracture toughness improvements, design of experiments for measuring aging optimization of C458 plate and effects of aging of properties of C458 plate.

  14. Determination of Stress-Corrosion Cracking in Aluminum-Lithium Alloy ML377

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valek, Bryan C.

    1995-01-01

    The use of aluminum-lithium alloys for aerospace applications is currently being studied at NASA Langley Research Center's Metallic Materials Branch. The alloys in question will operate under stress in a corrosive environment. These conditions are ideal for the phenomena of Stress-Corrosion Cracking (SCC) to occur. The test procedure for SCC calls for alternate immersion and breaking load tests. These tests were optimized for the lab equipment and materials available in the Light Alloy lab. Al-Li alloy ML377 specimens were then subjected to alternate immersion and breaking load tests to determine residual strength and resistance to SCC. Corrosion morphology and microstructure were examined under magnification. Data shows that ML377 is highly resistant to stress-corrosion cracking.

  15. Optimization of Anodic Porous Alumina Fabricated from Commercial Aluminum Food Foils: A Statistical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Riccomagno, Eva; Shayganpour, Amirreza; Salerno, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Anodic porous alumina is a known material based on an old industry, yet with emerging applications in nanoscience and nanotechnology. This is promising, but the nanostructured alumina should be fabricated from inexpensive raw material. We fabricated porous alumina from commercial aluminum food plate in 0.4 M aqueous phosphoric acid, aiming to design an effective manufacturing protocol for the material used as nanoporous filler in dental restorative composites, an application demonstrated previously by our group. We identified the critical input parameters of anodization voltage, bath temperature and anodization time, and the main output parameters of pore diameter, pore spacing and oxide thickness. Scanning electron microscopy and grain analysis allowed us to assess the nanostructured material, and the statistical design of experiments was used to optimize its fabrication. We analyzed a preliminary dataset, designed a second dataset aimed at clarifying the correlations between input and output parameters, and ran a confirmation dataset. Anodization conditions close to 125 V, 20 °C, and 7 h were identified as the best for obtaining, in the shortest possible time, pore diameters and spacing of 100–150 nm and 150–275 nm respectively, and thickness of 6–8 µm, which are desirable for the selected application according to previously published results. Our analysis confirmed the linear dependence of pore size on anodization voltage and of thickness on anodization time. The importance of proper control on the experiment was highlighted, since batch effects emerge when the experimental conditions are not exactly reproduced. PMID:28772776

  16. Transparent nanotubular capacitors based on transplanted anodic aluminum oxide templates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guozhen; Wu, Hao; Chen, Chao; Wang, Ti; Wu, Wenhui; Yue, Jin; Liu, Chang

    2015-03-11

    Transparent AlZnO/Al2O3/AlZnO nanocapacitor arrays have been fabricated by atomic layer deposition in anodic aluminum oxide templates transplanted on the AlZnO/glass substrates. A high capacitance density of 37 fF/μm(2) is obtained, which is nearly 5.8 times bigger than that of planar capacitors. The capacitance density almost remains the same in a broad frequency range from 1 kHz to 200 kHz. Moreover, a low leakage current density of 1.7 × 10(-7) A/cm(2) at 1 V has been achieved. The nanocapacitors exhibit an average optical transmittance of more than 80% in the visible range, and thus open the door to practical applications in transparent integrated circuits.

  17. Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) Membranes for Cellular Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Anthony P.

    Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) membranes can be fabricated with a highly tunable pore structure making them a suitable candidate for cellular hybrid devices with single-molecule selectivity. The objective of this study was to characterize the cellular response of AAO membranes with varying pore sizes to serve as a proof-of-concept for an artificial material/cell synapse system. AAO membranes with pore diameters ranging from 34-117 nm were achieved via anodization at a temperature of -1°C in a 2.7% oxalic acid electrolyte. An operating window was established for this setup to create membranes with through-pore and disordered pore morphologies. C17.2 neural stem cells were seeded onto the membranes and differentiated via serum withdrawal. The data suggests a highly tunable correlation between AAO pore diameter and differentiated cell populations. Analysis of membranes before and after cell culture indicated no breakdown of the through-pore structure. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) showed that AAO membranes had increased neurite outgrowth when compared to tissue culture treated (TCT) glass, and neurite outgrowth varied with pore diameter. Additionally, lower neuronal percentages were found on AAO as compared to TCT glass; however, neuronal population was also found to vary with pore diameter. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ICC images suggested the presence of a tissue-like layer with a mixed-phenotype population. AAO membranes appear to be an excellent candidate for cellular devices, but more work must be completed to understand the surface chemistry of the AAO membranes as it relates to cellular response.

  18. Investigation of Flat Clinching Process Combined with Material Forming Technology for Aluminum Alloy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Zhao, Shengdun; Han, Xiaolan; Wang, Yongfei; Zhao, Xuzhe

    2017-12-15

    In recent years, the use of aluminum alloy has tended to increase for building lightweight automobiles to reduce their automotive weight, which is helpful to save energy and protect the environment. In order to join aluminum alloy, a flat-clinching process combined with material forming technology was investigated to join aluminum alloy sheets using an experimental and a numerical method. Al1060 was chosen as the material of the sheet, and DEFORM-2D software was used to build the numerical model. After the numerical model was validated by the experimental results, the influences of punch diameter and holder force on the materials deforming behavior of the clinched joint were analyzed using the numerical model. Then, the material flow, joining ability, and joining quality were investigated to assess the clinched joint. The results showed that an increase in punch diameter could give rise to an increase in neck thickness and interlocking length, while an increase in blank holder force induced a decrease in interlocking length and an increase in neck thickness. The joining quality could be increased by increasing the forming force. It can be concluded that a clinched joint has better joining quality for joining light-weight sheets onto automotive structures.

  19. Optimization of the 3-Point Bending Failure of Anodized Aluminum Formed in Tartaric/Sulphuric Acid Using Doehlert Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensalah, W.; Feki, M.; De-Petris Wery, M.; Ayedi, H. F.

    2015-02-01

    The bending failure of anodized aluminum in tartaric/sulphuric acid bath was modeled using Doehlert design. Bath temperature, anodic current density, sulphuric acid, and tartaric acid concentrations were retained as variables. Thickness measurements and 3-point bending experiments were conducted. The deflection at failure ( D f) and the maximum load ( F m) of each sample were, then, deducted from the corresponding flexural responses. The treatment of experimental results has established mathematical models of second degree reflecting the relation of cause and effect between the factors and the studied properties. The optimum path study of thickness, deflection at failure, and maximum load, showed that the three optima were opposite. Multicriteria optimization using the desirability function was achieved in order to maximize simultaneously the three responses. The optimum conditions were: C tar = 18.2 g L-1, T = 17.3 °C, J = 2.37 A dm-2, C sul = 191 g L-1, while the estimated response values were e = 57.7 µm, D f = 5.6 mm, and F m = 835 N. Using the established models, a mathematical correlation was found between deflection at failure and thickness of the anodic oxide layer. Before bending tests, aluminum oxide layer was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy. After tests, the morphology and the composition of the anodic oxide layer were inspected by SEM, optical microscopy, and glow-discharge optical emission spectroscopy.

  20. Water-soluble metal working fluids additives derived from the esters of acid anhydrides with higher alcohols for aluminum alloy materials.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Syutaro; Tomoda, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Shoji

    2007-01-01

    Water-soluble metal working fluids are used for processing of aluminum alloy materials. This short article describes properties of new additives in water-soluble metal working fluids for aluminum alloy materials. Many half esters or diesters were prepared from the reactions of higher alcohols with acid anhydrides. Interestingly, diesters of PTMG (tetrahydrofuran oligomer, MW = 650 and 1000) and polybutylene oxide (MW = 650) with maleic anhydride and succinic anhydride showed both of an excellent anti-corrosion property for aluminum alloy and a good hard water tolerance. The industrial soluble type processing oils including these additives also showed anti-corrosion property and hard water tolerance.

  1. The effect of aluminum alloying on strength properties and deformation mechanisms of the <123> Hadfield steel single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafurova, E. G.; Tukeev, M. S.; Chumlyakov, Yu. I.

    2007-10-01

    The role of aluminum alloying on strength properties and deformation mechanisms (slip, twinning) of <123> single crystals of Hadfield steel under tensile loading at T = 300 K is demonstrated. It is found out that aluminum alloying suppresses twinning deformation in the <123> single crystals and, during slip, results in a dislocation structure change from a uniform dislocation distribution to a planar dislocation structure.

  2. Adhesive Bonding Experiments for Titanium 6 Aluminum 4 Vanadium (Ti6Al4V). Part I. Anodization Treatments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    Identification of Surface Treat- 4 ments of Ti 6-4 II Effect of Increasing Oxide Porosity on H20 Contact Angle on Titanium 6 Aluminum 4 Vanadium 26 viii SECTIONI...and a high SIMS yield. The lithium does not appear in the oxide formed on titanium by this mixture. Similarly porosity may be induced by anodization at...Porous Oxide (B). 25 TABLE II EFFECT OF INCREASING OXIDE POROSITY ON H2 0 CONTACT ANGLE ON TITANIUM 6 ALUMINUM 4 VANADIUM - I H 2 0Sample Electrolyte

  3. Calibration curves for commercial copper and aluminum alloys using handheld laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Bennett, B. N.; Martin, M. Z.; Leonard, D. N.; ...

    2018-02-13

    Handheld laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (HH LIBS) was used to study the elemental composition of four copper alloys and four aluminum alloys to produce calibration curves. The HH LIBS instrument used is a SciAps Z-500, commercially available, that contains a class-1 solid-state laser with an output wavelength of 1532 nm, a laser energy of 5 mJ/pulse, and a pulse duration of 5 ns. Test samples were solid specimens comprising of copper and aluminum alloys and data were collected from the samples’ surface at three different locations, employing a 12-point-grid pattern for each data set. All three data sets of the spectramore » were averaged, and the intensity, corrected by subtraction of background, was used to produce the elemental calibration curves. Calibration curves are presented for the matrix elements, copper and aluminum, as well as several minor elements. The surface damage produced by the laser was examined by microscopy. The alloys were tested in air and in a glovebox to evaluate the instrument’s ability to identify the constituents within materials under different environmental conditions. The main objective of using this HH LIBS technology is to determine its capability to fingerprint the presence of certain elements related to subpercent level within materials in real time and in-situ, as a starting point for undertaking future complex material characterization work.« less

  4. Calibration curves for commercial copper and aluminum alloys using handheld laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, B. N.; Martin, M. Z.; Leonard, D. N.; Garlea, E.

    2018-03-01

    Handheld laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (HH LIBS) was used to study the elemental composition of four copper alloys and four aluminum alloys to produce calibration curves. The HH LIBS instrument used is a SciAps Z-500, commercially available, that contains a class-1 solid-state laser with an output wavelength of 1532 nm, laser energy of 5 mJ/pulse, and a pulse duration of 5 ns. Test samples were solid specimens comprising copper and aluminum alloys and data were collected from the samples' surface at three different locations, employing a 12-point-grid pattern for each data set. All three data sets of the spectra were averaged, and the intensity, corrected by subtraction of background, was used to produce the elemental calibration curves. Calibration curves are presented for the matrix elements, copper and aluminum, as well as several minor elements. The surface damage produced by the laser was examined by microscopy. The alloys were tested in air and in a glovebox to evaluate the instrument's ability to identify the constituents within materials under different environmental conditions. The main objective of using this HH LIBS technology is to determine its capability to fingerprint the presence of certain elements related to subpercent level within materials in real time and in situ, as a starting point for undertaking future complex material characterization work.

  5. Calibration curves for commercial copper and aluminum alloys using handheld laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, B. N.; Martin, M. Z.; Leonard, D. N.

    Handheld laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (HH LIBS) was used to study the elemental composition of four copper alloys and four aluminum alloys to produce calibration curves. The HH LIBS instrument used is a SciAps Z-500, commercially available, that contains a class-1 solid-state laser with an output wavelength of 1532 nm, a laser energy of 5 mJ/pulse, and a pulse duration of 5 ns. Test samples were solid specimens comprising of copper and aluminum alloys and data were collected from the samples’ surface at three different locations, employing a 12-point-grid pattern for each data set. All three data sets of the spectramore » were averaged, and the intensity, corrected by subtraction of background, was used to produce the elemental calibration curves. Calibration curves are presented for the matrix elements, copper and aluminum, as well as several minor elements. The surface damage produced by the laser was examined by microscopy. The alloys were tested in air and in a glovebox to evaluate the instrument’s ability to identify the constituents within materials under different environmental conditions. The main objective of using this HH LIBS technology is to determine its capability to fingerprint the presence of certain elements related to subpercent level within materials in real time and in-situ, as a starting point for undertaking future complex material characterization work.« less

  6. Influence of surface pretreatments on the quality of trivalent chromium process coatings on aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viroulaud, Rémi; Światowska, Jolanta; Seyeux, Antoine; Zanna, Sandrine; Tardelli, Joffrey; Marcus, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    The effects of surface pretreatments (degreasing and pickling) on the characteristics of the Trivalent Chromium Process (TCP) coating on pure aluminum and on AA2024-T351 aluminum alloy were investigated here by means of surface sensitive techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The XPS and ToF-SIMS results evidence that the TCP coating homogeneity is strongly dependent on the pretreatment process used. The TCP coverage factor, calculated from XPS results, is significantly lower, on both pure aluminum and AA2024-T351 alloy surface, when a pickling step is applied. One of the main effects of pickling pretreatment is strong metallic copper enrichment at the surface of the 2024 alloy, associated with chemical dissolution of Al-Cu intermetallic particles. However, it is evidenced here, that the copper enrichment is not detrimental for the quality of the TCP coating. The coating failure, observed when the pickling step is applied, can be assigned to a faster kinetics of the coating growth leading to formation of thicker conversion coating more susceptible to cracking or to the localized presence of aluminum fluoride species leading to the appearance of coating defects or detachment.

  7. A hot-cracking mitigation technique for welding high-strength aluminum alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.P.; Dong, P.; Zhang, J.

    2000-01-01

    A hot-cracking mitigation technique for gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) of high-strength aluminum alloy 2024 is presented. The proposed welding technique incorporates a trailing heat sink (an intense cooling source) with respect to the welding torch. The development of the mitigation technique was based on both detailed welding process simulation using advanced finite element techniques and systematic laboratory experiments. The finite element methods were used to investigate the detailed thermomechanical behavior of the weld metal that undergoes the brittle temperature range (BTR) during welding. As expected, a tensile deformation zone within the material BTR region was identified behind the weldmore » pool under conventional GTA welding process conventional GTA welding process conditions for the aluminum alloy studied. To mitigate hot cracking, the tensile zone behind the weld pool must be eliminated or reduce to a satisfactory level if the weld metal hot ductility cannot be further improved. With detailed computational modeling, it was found that by the introduction of a trailing heat sink at some distance behind the welding arc, the tensile strain rate with respect to temperature in the zone encompassing the BTR region can be significantly reduced. A series of parametric studies were also conducted to derive optimal process parameters for the trailing heat sink. The experimental results confirmed the effectiveness of the trailing heat sink technique. With a proper implementation of the trailing heat sink method, hot cracking can be completely eliminated in welding aluminum alloy 2024 (AA 2024).« less

  8. Cathode for aluminum producing electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Craig W.

    2004-04-13

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell comprising the steps of providing an anode in a cell, preferably a non-reactive anode, and also providing a cathode in the cell, the cathode comprised of a base material having low electrical conductivity reactive with molten aluminum to provide a highly electrically conductive layer on the base material. Electric current is passed from the anode to the cathode and alumina is reduced and aluminum is deposited at the cathode. The cathode base material is selected from boron carbide, and zirconium oxide.

  9. A Review of Dissimilar Welding Techniques for Magnesium Alloys to Aluminum Alloys.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liming; Ren, Daxin; Liu, Fei

    2014-05-08

    Welding of dissimilar magnesium alloys and aluminum alloys is an important issue because of their increasing applications in industries. In this document, the research and progress of a variety of welding techniques for joining dissimilar Mg alloys and Al alloys are reviewed from different perspectives. Welding of dissimilar Mg and Al is challenging due to the formation of brittle intermetallic compound (IMC) such as Mg 17 Al 12 and Mg₂Al₃. In order to increase the joint strength, three main research approaches were used to eliminate or reduce the Mg-Al intermetallic reaction layer. First, solid state welding techniques which have a low welding temperature were used to reduce the IMCs. Second, IMC variety and distribution were controlled to avoid the degradation of the joining strength in fusion welding. Third, techniques which have relatively controllable reaction time and energy were used to eliminate the IMCs. Some important processing parameters and their effects on weld quality are discussed, and the microstructure and metallurgical reaction are described. Mechanical properties of welds such as hardness, tensile, shear and fatigue strength are discussed. The aim of the report is to review the recent progress in the welding of dissimilar Mg and Al to provide a basis for follow-up research.

  10. A Review of Dissimilar Welding Techniques for Magnesium Alloys to Aluminum Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liming; Ren, Daxin; Liu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Welding of dissimilar magnesium alloys and aluminum alloys is an important issue because of their increasing applications in industries. In this document, the research and progress of a variety of welding techniques for joining dissimilar Mg alloys and Al alloys are reviewed from different perspectives. Welding of dissimilar Mg and Al is challenging due to the formation of brittle intermetallic compound (IMC) such as Mg17Al12 and Mg2Al3. In order to increase the joint strength, three main research approaches were used to eliminate or reduce the Mg-Al intermetallic reaction layer. First, solid state welding techniques which have a low welding temperature were used to reduce the IMCs. Second, IMC variety and distribution were controlled to avoid the degradation of the joining strength in fusion welding. Third, techniques which have relatively controllable reaction time and energy were used to eliminate the IMCs. Some important processing parameters and their effects on weld quality are discussed, and the microstructure and metallurgical reaction are described. Mechanical properties of welds such as hardness, tensile, shear and fatigue strength are discussed. The aim of the report is to review the recent progress in the welding of dissimilar Mg and Al to provide a basis for follow-up research. PMID:28788646

  11. Further studies of the anodic dissolution in sodium chloride electrolyte of aluminium alloys containing tin and gallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestoridi, Maria; Pletcher, Derek; Wharton, Julian A.; Wood, Robert J. K.

    As part of a programme to develop a high power density, Al/air battery with a NaCl brine electrolyte, the high rate dissolution of an aluminium alloy containing tin and gallium was investigated in a small volume cell. The objective was to define the factors that limit aluminium dissolution in condition that mimic a high power density battery. In a cell with a large ratio of aluminium alloy to electrolyte, over a range of current densities the extent of dissolution was limited to ∼1000 C cm -2 of anode surface by a thick layer of loosely bound, crystalline deposit on the Al alloy anode formed by precipitation from solution. This leads to a large increase in impedance and acts as a barrier to transport of ions.

  12. Single-step direct fabrication of pillar-on-pore hybrid nanostructures in anodizing aluminum for superior superhydrophobic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chanyoung; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2012-02-01

    Conventional electrochemical anodizing processes of metals such as aluminum typically produce planar and homogeneous nanopore structures. If hydrophobically treated, such 2D planar and interconnected pore structures typically result in lower contact angle and larger contact angle hysteresis than 3D disconnected pillar structures and, hence, exhibit inferior superhydrophobic efficiency. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that the anodizing parameters can be engineered to design novel pillar-on-pore (POP) hybrid nanostructures directly in a simple one-step fabrication process so that superior surface superhydrophobicity can also be realized effectively from the electrochemical anodization process. On the basis of the characteristic of forming a self-ordered porous morphology in a hexagonal array, the modulation of anodizing voltage and duration enabled the formulation of the hybrid-type nanostructures having controlled pillar morphology on top of a porous layer in both mild and hard anodization modes. The hybrid nanostructures of the anodized metal oxide layer initially enhanced the surface hydrophilicity significantly (i.e., superhydrophilic). However, after a hydrophobic monolayer coating, such hybrid nanostructures then showed superior superhydrophobic nonwetting properties not attainable by the plain nanoporous surfaces produced by conventional anodization conditions. The well-regulated anodization process suggests that electrochemical anodizing can expand its usefulness and efficacy to render various metallic substrates with great superhydrophilicity or -hydrophobicity by directly realizing pillar-like structures on top of a self-ordered nanoporous array through a simple one-step fabrication procedure.

  13. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of High-Speed Friction Stir Welded Aluminum Alloy Thin Plate Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fenjun; Fu, Li; Chen, Haiyan

    2018-06-01

    Sound friction stir welded (FSW) joints of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy sheets with an 0.8 mm thickness were obtained at conventional speed (2000 rpm, 300 mm/min) and high speed (11,000 rpm, 1500 mm/min). The recrystallization mechanism, precipitate evolution, mechanical properties and fracture behavior were investigated in detail. Microstructure analyses revealed that the grain structure evolution in the nugget zone (NZ) was dominated by continuous dynamic recrystallization. In the process of FSW, high speed facilitates the formation of finer equiaxed recrystallized grains, higher density of dislocations and substructures, and a larger number of precipitates in the NZ compared to the conventional speed, which further significantly improves the hardness and tensile strength of the joints. The maximum tensile strength was obtained with 292.6 MPa, 83.2% for the 6061-T6 aluminum alloy and 122.6% for the conventional-speed FSW joints. This work provides an effective method for preparing FSW aluminum alloy thin plate joints with excellent mechanical properties.

  14. Growth and characterization of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanostructures using anodized aluminum as the growth mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, C. P.; Chen, Z.; Lam, H.; Surya, C.

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we report the growth and characterization of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanostructures by co-electrodeposition technique using CuCl2, SnCl2 and ZnCl2 as sources and choline-based ionic liquid (IL) as the electrolyte. X-ray diffraction analysis of CZTS thin films grown by this technique indicated that the films have a kesterite structure with preferred grain orientation along (112). It is found that the energy bandgap of the material is about 1.49eV and the optical absorption coefficient is in the order of 104cm-1. Anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanostructures. Anodization of the aluminum foil was carried out in phosphoric acid solution at 1°C and a potential of 40 to 100V was applied. Sulfurization of the rods was performed in elemental sulfur vapor at 450°C for four hours using N2 as the ambient gas. Experimental results show that nanotubes were formed using the technique and the diameter can be well controlled by varying the applied potential in the anodization process. Electron diffraction experiments show that a mixture of single- and poly-crystalline nanostructures was found.

  15. Preparations and properties of anti-corrosion additives of water-soluble metal working fluids for aluminum alloy materials.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    This short review describes various types of anti-corrosion additives of water-soluble metal working fluids for aluminum alloy materials. It is concerned with synthetic additives classified according to their functional groups; silicone compounds, carboxylic acids and dibasic acids, esters, Diels-Alder adducts, various polymers, nitrogen compounds, phosphoric esters, phosphonic acids, and others. Testing methods for water-soluble metal working fluids for aluminum alloy materials are described for a practical application in a laboratory.

  16. Conversion Coatings for Aluminum Alloys by Chemical Vapor Deposition Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reye, John T.; McFadden, Lisa S.; Gatica, Jorge E.; Morales, Wilfredo

    2004-01-01

    With the rise of environmental awareness and the renewed importance of environmentally friendly processes, the United States Environmental Protection Agency has targeted surface pre-treatment processes based on chromates. Indeed, this process has been subject to regulations under the Clean Water Act as well as other environmental initiatives, and there is today a marked movement to phase the process out in the near future. Therefore, there is a clear need for new advances in coating technology that could provide practical options for replacing present industrial practices. Depending on the final application, such coatings might be required to be resistant to corrosion, act as chemically resistant coatings, or both. This research examined a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) mechanism to deposit uniform conversion coatings onto aluminum alloy substrates. Robust protocols based on solutions of aryl phosphate ester and multi-oxide conversion coating (submicron) films were successfully grown onto the aluminum alloy samples. These films were characterized by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Preliminary results indicate the potential of this technology to replace aqueous-based chromate processes.

  17. Preparation of aluminum-magnesium alloy from magnesium oxide in RECl3-KCl-MgCl2 electrolyte by molten salts electrolysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shaohua; Wu, Lin; Yang, Fengli; Li, Mingzhou; Hu, Xianwei; Wang, Zhaowen; Shi, Zhongning; Gao, Bingliang

    Aluminum-magnesium alloys were prepared from magnesium oxide by molten salt electrolysis method. 10w%RECl3-63.5w%KCl-23.5w%MgCl2-3w%MgO was taken as electrolyte. The results showed that RE could be attained in aluminum-magnesium alloy, and it was proved that the RE was reduced directly by aluminum. Magnesium in the alloy was produced by electrolysis on cathode. The content of RE in the alloy was about 0.8wt %-1.2wt%, and the content of Mg in the alloy was lwt%˜6wt% with electrolytic times. The highest current efficiency was 81.3% with 0.8A/cm2 current density. The process of electrolysis was controlled together by electrochemical polarization and concentration polarization.

  18. Interfacial Reaction During Dissimilar Joining of Aluminum Alloy to Magnesium and Titanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson, J. D.; Panteli, A.; Zhang, C. Q.; Baptiste, D.; Cai, E.; Prangnell, P. B.

    Ultrasonic welding (USW), a solid state joining process, has been used to produce welds between AA6111 aluminum alloy and AZ31 magnesium alloys or titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. The mechanical properties of the welds have been assessed and it has been shown that it is the nature and thickness of the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at the joint line that are critical in determining joint strength and particularly fracture energy. Al-Mg welds suffer from a very low fracture energy, even when strength is comparable with that of similar metal Mg-Mg welds, due to a thick IMC layer always being formed. It is demonstrated that in USW of Al-Ti alloy the slow interdiffusion kinetics means that an IMC layer does not form during welding, and fracture energy is greater. A model has been developed to predict IMC formation during welding and provide an understanding of the critical factors that determine the IMC thickness. It is predicted that in Al-Mg welds, most of the lMC thickening occurs whilst the IMC regions grow as separate islands, prior to the formation of a continuous layer.

  19. Porous Anodic Aluminum Oxide with Serrated Nanochannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongdong; Zhao, Liang; Lu, Jia G.

    2010-03-01

    Self-assembled nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane with straight channels has long been an important tool in synthesizing highly ordered and vertically aligned quasi-1D nanostructures for various applications. Recently shape-selective nanomaterials have been achieved using AAO as a template. It is envisioned that nanowires with multi-branches will significantly increase the active functional sites for applications as sensors, catalysts, chemical cells, etc. Here AAO membranes with serrated nanochannels have been successfully fabricated via a two-step annodization method. The serrated channels with periodic intervals are aligned at an angle of ˜25^circ along the stem channels. The formation of the serrated channels is attributed to the evolution of oxygen gas bubbles and the resulted plastic deformation in oxide membrane. In order to reveal the inside channel structure, Platinum are electrodeposited into the AAO template. The as-synthesized serrated Pt nanowires demonstrate a superior electrocatalytic activity. This is attributed to the enhanced electric field strength around serrated tips as shown in the electric field simulation by COMOSL. Moreover, hierarchical serrated/straight hybrid structures can be constructed using this simple and novel self assembly technique.

  20. Copper Antimonide Nanowire Array Lithium Ion Anodes Stabilized by Electrolyte Additives.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Everett D; Prieto, Amy L

    2016-11-09

    Nanowires of electrochemically active electrode materials for lithium ion batteries represent a unique system that allows for intensive investigations of surface phenomena. In particular, highly ordered nanowire arrays produced by electrodeposition into anodic aluminum oxide templates can lead to new insights into a material's electrochemical performance by providing a high-surface-area electrode with negligible volume expansion induced pulverization. Here we show that for the Li-Cu x Sb ternary system, stabilizing the surface chemistry is the most critical factor for promoting long electrode life. The resulting solid electrolyte interphase is analyzed using a mix of electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and lithium ion battery half-cell testing to provide a better understanding of the importance of electrolyte composition on this multicomponent alloy anode material.